Citation
Bridge Crossing

Material Information

Title:
Bridge Crossing
Creator:
Walsh, Susan E
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
68 unnumbered leaves : charts, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Office buildings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Fort Collins ( lcsh )
Office buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Fort Collins ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 66-68).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Susan E. Walsh.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11303829 ( OCLC )
ocm11303829
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .W349 ( lcc )

Full Text


AURARIA LIBRARY
pRIDGE CROSSING
An Architectural. Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Susan E.
Spring 1984
AMVuan r ** t- i, - wiviwvinw
i i | Oats Due i
j i
i j :

( !
i j < f 1
1 \ i S i __ i
i r>
AURAR!*


The Thesis of Susan E. Walsh is approved.
Committee Chairman
Principal Advisor
Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver
May 1984


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction
A. Thesis Statement II. Program
A. Quantitative Information
B. Project Background
1. History of Site
2. The Developer
C. Site Characteristics
D. Energy and Climatic Analysis
E. Planned Unit Development Guidelines
F. Building Codes
G. Process
1. Interviews
2. Spacial Characteristics
3. Site Planning Criteria
H. Conclusion
III.
Bibliography


I.
INTRODUCTION
Thesis Statement
Although suburban speculative office space seems to be flooding the market, much of it is "generic" in the way it looks, functions, and responds to climate and site. Too often, a restricted budget is used as an excuse for inferior design.
I propose that a speculative office/bank complex can and should be an elegant addition to a growing suburban center.
Several issues should be addressed by the design. It must have a strong, positive image (not trendy). It must have a sensitive relationship
between the inside and the outside, responding to the site's natural characteristics. It must be energy efficient and it must promote a complementary mix of uses within an organized scheme.
The challenge is to meet these standards
despite a very difficult site and to go one step
beyond to actually capitalize on the sites problem issues to make a design that is superior in its
uniqueness.


II. PROGRAM
Quantitative Information
The site is 2.6871 acres on the Northwest corner of College Avenue and Horsetooth Road in Fort Collins, Colorado. Its prominent, main-street location dictates a denser development to keep up with rising land values. Based on the recommendations of the developer, I am proposing 70,000 square feet of building. The bulk of it will be speculative office space (58,000 SF), with a financial institution on the main level (7,000 SF) and a restaurant (5,000 SF) to serve it and the surrounding area. City of Fort Collins codes will require around 200 parking spaces on site including flexibility for shared parking between the office-hour demand and the restaurant's evening demand. A covered parking structure will be necessary to meet most of this demand, but front-door, surface parking is desirable for the restaurant and office visitor.


0
B. Project Background
1. History of Site
The main part of the site once contained a popular restaurant/nightclub called the Matterhorn which burned to the ground around twelve years ago. It was the only building in the area at that time. Fort Collins was a "dry" town and many nightclubs and all liquor stores were outside of the city limits. The closest development at that time was a new, enclosed shopping mall a couple of miles into town. Fort Collins experienced accelerated growth in the seventies yet this site sat empty while two regional shopping malls, numerous automobile dealerships and suppliers, and multiple strip shopping centers and restaurants sprung up around it. Most of this new development took greatest advantage of frontage along College Avenue (Highway 287), the town's major arterial. Housing followed this growth and it soon became the most attractive area of the city. Office buildings have now been scattered throughout the area, mostly to the East within a mile of the arterial, and it is a major financial area second only to the downtown.
The owners of the site during this time had saved the foundations with the idea that the Matterhorn would someday be rebuilt, but the location has since gained too much prominence and value to be devoted to only one small nightclub. In the eighties, Mitchell & Company bought it with plans for something much bigger... They hired ZVFK Architects and Planners, the firm I was working


for, to do a study to show them the development options
for the land they owned and for the rest of the block should they purchase it. (See Appendix B.)
2. The Developer
Mitchell & Company, a locally based development firm, has played a vital role in the city's extensive growth South of the original downtown. The firm also
is currently very involved in the revitalization of
"Old Town, North of the downtown, which is slated
to include a convention center and restoration similar
to Larimer Square in Denver. Gene Mitchell and his
associates hold a personal interest in the quality of development throughout Fort Collins as they are long-time residents and prominent members of the community. This company is responsible for much of the major development surrounding my thesis site. Across College Avenue is "The Square," a large shopping mall, cornered with office and banking areas. Further down a canal is Foothills Plaza which incorporates the canal as an aesthetic feature. They control the block East of the mall, which is already cornered with retail, bank, and office areas, with plans for a Marriott hotel/convention center complex in its center. All are superior quality developments, setting a high standard for the community. Mitchell & Company has had clients interested in putting restaurants and a bank on this site but, until they have secured a primary tenant, the site plan will not be designed and processed


through the city's P.U.D. system. They have sufficient
experience with the city's expectations to
minimize
site planning assumptions.




C. Site Characteristics
The site contains most of a city block which is cut short to the North by a brick retail strip and a tire store. A canal winds diagonally across the block, separating the Southwest corner. The ground floor views of the metal "Butler" buildings in this corner are the site's greatest negative feature. It can be assumed that these buildings will be replaced with a more attractive type of retail, but not in the near future. The long dimension of the site faces College Avenue (Highway 287), which is the town's main thoroughfare. An extension of the site was purchased to cross the canal and connect to Mason Street which parallels College Avenue. The other option for street access is Horsetooth Road on the South border. The bridging of the canal at this access and at the one from Mason are the major site planning issues. A large grocery strip center, with a restaurant, fills the block to the South of the site, and a large regional mall is to the East. More small-scale retail/in-dustrial surrounds it to the West. All is single-level development so, at present, views and sun exposure from upper levels are not a problem for the site. Some trees are clustered at the South end of the canal, potentially obstructing South exposure (also the shortest dimension of the site) These trees along the canal are a major amenity, but may be a battle to save, as cottonwoods are not popular locally. Traffic noise from College-Avenue
is a possible problem. The railroad tracks, less than a


block to the West, should also be considered as a potential
sound problem.
The site is primarily flat except for the topography of the canal. Basements should be avoided near the canal because there is high ground water. The foundations of the burned building were preserved because of a complicated water deterrent system it used to protect its basement. Three buildings that exist on the site are to be removed. All utilities can be brought in from the surrounding streets. Canal easements are flexible, and the frontage road easement along College Avenue can be abandoned.


D. Energy and Climatic Analysis
The climate is similar to that of Denver, mild temperatures with winds from the Northwest, and relatively low humidity. The commercial building will be load dominated so design of its perimeter skin will not be governed by climate rejection.
Energy analysis, using the computer program, EWIT, indicates that artificial lighting and the coiling that it requires constitutes the building's major energy loads. This finding reinforced my original design goal to maximize daylighting.
Natural Lighting's Effect on Floor Plan Design. This requirement is an important consideration early on in the building design process. This consideration strongly affects the site plan and the
floor plan and section. A major factor
depth into the building that the natural
light can penetrate. In lighting analysis, a distinction is made between task light and ambient light, terms which refer to variations in lighting levels according to the use of the space. Natural light is a complicated solution for task lighting because there are so many variables.
Work surfaces need to be oriented properly to facilitate side-lighting which is the optimum orientation for its effect on veiling reflections.
Natural light is an uncomplicated source for ambient


or background light. The "open plan," void of parti-
tions, allows light to be reflected into the building and over the panels, eliminating the need for artificial lighting within a greater distance from the window. Examples of this concept are widespread. The Hooker Building in Niagara Falls is completely daylit in its outer 15 feet which constitutes 44 per cent of its usable area. The award-winning Willow Creek Building in Idaho Falls is 75 per cent open plan and natural light furnishes all the ambient light necessary in its perimeter zones, about 30 feet into the building. This building saves even more energy by using high pressure sodium/ambient fixtures that direct light to the ceiling which is reflected to work spaces. The combination of daylight and sodium lamps diminishes the negative effects of the lamp's yellowish light.
Lighting consultant Raymond Green points out "the inseparable relationship between lighting, acoustics and ceiling heights." Both natural light and ambient light are reflected by the ceiling so its height and surface treatment have an effect on the quantity of light reflected. Acoustics are especially important where daylighting is dependent on the open plan. If partitions are built down the line to remedy privacy problems, the natural light will, have to be supplemented. The Anaconda
Tower in Denver found a solution for both acoustic


privacy and natural light in the use of clerestory glass in their partitions between offices. Their floor plan typically devotes the building's corners to secretary/clerical areas or conference rooms which are void of partitions.
Natural Lighting's Effect on Facade and Fenestration Design. Daylighting a building has a major effect on the design of its walls and fenestration, whether they be on its perimeter or enclosing an interior atrium.
If a building program calls for views of the site, it suggests daylighting from the building's perimeter. Where windows must be at eye level to facilitate views, there needs to be control of any unwanted glare and heat gain. On the Willow Creek Building, 40 per cent of exterior walls are strip windows, allowing a good view of the surrounding site. Engineer Max Flatow explains, "To decrease glare and to increase the amount of light entering the office spaces, the windows are slanted at an angle. Brushed stainless steel window sills reflect light to tilted ceiling panels which, in turn, reflect the light into the work stations." The objective is "to reduce direct transmission of solar energy, and thereby decrease the cooling load required during the summer." At the same time glare is reduced. Gwathmey-Siege1s New Jersey office and Holbird & Root's Prudential office both protect interior spaces from' heavy solar gain by shading vertical fenestration with a wide overhang or deep recess.


The Hooker Building takes advantage of views of
the Niagara River in three directions. Its designers sought an alternative to restricted window areas or deep shading devices that would interfere with views. According to Progressive Architecture's John Dixon, 3Assured of unobstructed solar access, they recognized that daylighting interiors offered opportunities for major energy savings, if only heat loss through the glass could be kept low." With this objective, they came up with the double envelope scheme with a four foot void with horizontal louvres manually adjusted to keep out glare or closed to keep heat in at night. The same system could be used on both the cold and warm sides of the buildin because, in the worst conditions, their temperatures only varied by 15 degrees F. Brown and Rost used three dimensional trusses as a substitute for massive mullions in stiffening the three story high reflective glass curtain wall at their Southwest Houston office
facility entrance. The 1.00-foot-long trusses are
visually compe11ing and have little effect on the
admittance of light, , but they had to be located
carefully so as not to interfere with views from
the three levels.
An atrium has a major effect on a floor plan arrangement. It offers potential for solar heating and ventilative cooling and daylighting within its walls and into the building surrounding it. Openings in the atrium's facades allow natural


light and controlled views without the issue of
heat gain and loss because the atrium provides a buffer between the building interior and the outside climate.
Author Donald Watson cites numerous design elements: "wind inclosures, skylight orientation,
shading and ventilation devices, and subtle means of tempering temperature and humidity," incorporated by modern atriums to control their micro-climate. The degree to which this need be controlled varies with use. "If the atrium is used for circulation exclusively, the occupants can more easily tolerate the temperature swings typical of unconditioned spaces in winter." The Willow Creek Building's
atrium functions as a central lobby area and heat gain is controlled by making the south side of its roof skylight opaque. Princeton Professional Park has an unconditioned atrium for circulation and uses white insulated curtains that automatically shade hot summer South sun and prevent heat loss on winter nights. The Central Bank of California uses industrial roof monitors over its "open plan" office atrium to permit ambient light. Another technique to avoid heat gain in atriums is the northfacing sawtooth skylight used in the FAA Technical Center in New Jersey. Atriums can function as a building's ventilation and cooling by opening at the top on cool, summer nights and flushing out excess heat buildup during the day. Night heat loss during


the winter is not usually a concern of commercial
buildings.
Natural Daylighting's Effect on Environmental Quality. A careful daylighting design's potential for energy savings is undisputable, but it is also justified in terms of its superior quality over artificial light. With greater quality, less quantity of light is necessary to perform the same task. Lighting expert J. W. Griffith states that "side lighting and brightness in the field of view are
the major considerations in lighting." He explains, "they are also two of the best reasons for developing daylighting schemes for new buildings." A person's thermal comfort range is narrow, between 60 and 80 degrees F., but a person can read with lighting from 5 to 500 Footcandles, depending on the light's quality. The views possible with perimeter daylightin are also an advantage. Scott Matthews writes in Architectural Record that they, "enhance the occupant's sense of wellbeing by providing a connection to the outdoors...The psychological lift should help
improve the long term productivity of office workers, although such a causal relationship is hard to establish."
A designer can utilize daylight for its effect on architecture. In several examples cited, the designer emphasized the circulation core or
the building entry, by flooding it with natural.
light. Flatow states that in the Willow Creek Build-


ing, "The atrium was conceived as a people space,
a pedestrian p]aza for human interaction..." In Topeka's Federal Building, Building Magazine states that the atrium was used "not only as an impressive entrance to the structure, but it is designed to offset the effects (less natural light) of reduced window area in the basic strategy." Architectural Record describes how the three story atrium' in the Department of Energy's new facility outside of Chicago "angles inward...so that the over-all effect is one of layered and interpenetrating space. The resulting sense of lightness, moreover, is literal, the space owing much of its quality to extensive reliance on daylight."
Conclusion. It is obvious by the numerous examples of successfully daylit buildings that the technique has many benefits. In the design of a modern commercial building, the benefits of daylighting can be reached in many different ways; there is no single, best solution. A designer must study the situation carefully and choose a combination of approaches that best satisfy the requirements of a particular building program.


CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
EADS, CO
1051 1073
30* 20* N
102* 47* W
4213 FT.
TtMfttATUM (*F)
MtCirtTAftON TOTALS (INCKtS)
MEANS EXTREMES MILAN OF kUMIER JAYS SNOW. SLEET MEAN NUMR1R OF DAYS
MONTH MAX. MIN 65 C* as tt 5 O X fc * M
DAILY MAXIMUM \\ \ gfc 81 t X < > a Q |j 3 > > i is h Js is IS bS l l Si l N S 1 it if l £ wC 88 1 > i S 9 2 i 8 a i 8
JAN Tf.l U.) ! T 79 71 70 -19 9) 12 0 S >1 .19 .99 ST .90 90 IT T.l 10.9 99 13.0 90 17 1 0 0
HI 30. J IT, l )T.7 90* 9! 1! -IT TO 21 0 1 17 .1) 1.71 90 .Tf 90 IS T.T T2.0 TO 10.0 90 19 1 0
MAI >.1 n.T 40.0 as* 7! II -19 90 ) 0 l 29 .99 l.)9 7) 1.02 92 11 S.2 II. o 9) 10.0 9) 10 2 0 0
AJ 99.1 )4,t SI.s *) 9T 19 10 9? 1 0 0 n 1.09 1.44 J7 1 7 J 90 II r. 7 17.9 19 19.0 S9 11 1 i
MAY TT.I 41,1 91.9 100 9? 11 IT 97 1 4 0 i I.T9 4.99 97 J.41 99 29 .9 lo.o 71 4.0 14 01 9 a 1
JON 99.0 >).) U.9 110 9) J 14 91 1 19 0 R 1.97 9.41 91 2.49 9T IT .0 > T i 1
JULY **1 90.9 T9. T 107 9) I 4) 92 22 0 0 1.29 9.99 Si 1 9T 99 29 .0 S t 1
AUC T.5 S9.T T4.9 105* 6? T 42 9T 1* 20 0 0 1.92 7.10 99 9.19 99 IT .0 > i 0
UT 1.4 TT.I 99.7 10) 90 1 II* 71 It 0 1 1.20 S.71 9T T.90 9T 09 .0 . 1 i 0
OCT 71.T IT.) 4.4 T9 91 l T 97 29 1 0 . #9 1.21 9T 1.99 99 IT 1.7 10.0 S9 9.0 70 29 t i 0
NOV 91.) IT.! IT.I 90 71 11 -T 2 27 0 1 29 .90 1.09 72 1.2] 71 l> T.9 21.9 71 9.0 72 IT 2 0 0
DEL 6.c 19.9 SI .7 79 99 24 -24* 91 1) 0 4 10 .19 1.T1 90 .91 S 01 T.l 12.9 90 9.0 72 12 1 0 0
VIA* HUJ ,_HUJ LHUJ HUJ JUN Hill HU JAN HUj HUlTHlJl AUS AU0 9.19,99,19 ''l 919 AMR T2.0J90, 14,0(97 LU _2i!

FORT COLLINS, CO
1091 1073
40* 33* N
103* 03* W
3001 FT.
If HTERATL'RI ( *2 )
2R F.CIPITATION TOTALS MEANS IXlREMIS - MEAN -J3.1 DUMBER 3AYJ SNOW. SLUT MIAN NUMOTR OR days
MONTH i if of tf MAX MIN. *5 r* o S * *
\ §5 X 3 > 2 gV n £ ?- ki Q '' 7 < C is is i 1 m $ sl 2 2 1 || l B, < p W K 88 3 2 1 8 i 8 a 1 8
JAN *1.1 11.4 27.9 99 31 12 -12 *2 10 0 7 )0 .42 1.17 92 .99 92 09 7.2 19.7 71 11.0 9] 01 l 0 0
m 44.9 19.2 )l .9 7) 94 9 -41 91 i 0 4 27 .1 .70 92 .41 91 29 9.4 1S.1 19 9.0 99 09 1 0 0
Mar 47.9 22.9 )9,1 79 71 76 -1) 19 12 0 ) 27 1.0) ).)9 91 1.09 91 19 It.O 12.9 70 17.0 SO 14 I 0 0
AIR S7.I 22.2 49.1 l) 91 IT -I 19 12 0 1 IT 1.72 T.42 71 2.19 ST 02 0.2 27.9 S? 19.0 S7 02 4 1 0
MAY *9.9 42.7 99.2 90 97 2 T IS# 42 1 0 0 2 1.70 7.09 01 1.21 91 11. .1 2.0 97 2.0 7| 01 9 l 1
jUN T9.9 11.1 99.) 102 14 2) II 91 2 4 0 0 1.02 1.27 9) 2 71 99 IT .0 4 1 0
JULY 9S.S S4.9 71.0 107 94 U 40 92 1 9 0 0 lT9 T.27 91 t .SO 91 07 .0 4 1 0
AUC 91.7 14.4 99.2 97 9T 19. 44 >0 9 0 0 1.12 7, )9 SI 1.09 SI 0) .0 1 1 0
*i rr 71.0 44.7 99.7 79* 97 9 21 71 l* l 0 t 1.19 T .00 01 1.92 71 17 .9 1S.0 71 10.0 71 17 ) 1 0
OCT 94.7 >4.4 49.7 T 97 ) 97 l* 0 0 11 1.09 9.09 97 1.97 SI OS 2.7 19.7 49 11.0 47 11 1 1 0
NOV 90.9 2).2 >9.9 71* 94 1 -IT 91 2 0 2 29 .92 2.29 71 .90 7) 02 O.S 22.0 7) 12.0 7) 04 2 0 0
DIC 41.1 19.9 >0.0 7) IT 7 -II* 12 10 0 9 10 .40 1.17 T> .92 3* 12 S.7 10.1 47 12.0 SO II 1 0 0
YlAR ' .... LUil HUJ JUl uu HU Ml HlHJ Hil HU 1HUU IT.TO AU9 **!* NAT *'1** l> HHj HAR -HiHLHJ AR JP!i!Zj HJ _U _HL 1
/TV
GRAND LAKE 1 NW, CO 1931 1073
UMURATVftK'E)
40* 1* N
103* 30* W
0000 FT.
I*KiriTATIOM TOTALS(INCHES!
MEANS FXTREMIS MIAN o* 1 VIRI.R >MS F MIAN w. 7 Si t N - ;5 < j a M < > i HHJ SNOW. M 111 MEAN NlM or DAY R>R ki s
MOM II X 9 ?. ~ ** a i If > X § o 5 jg m2 < > < a C t- a JS < > < o MAX MIN z < X §5 if > j! X < > S M 3 3 8 o
Q f ? < k? ii h i§ \>S S S 1 i S
JAN 10.) ,7 IS.9 JO 14 7 -4) 4) t) 0 n St 14 l.ll 1.19 t) .70 9) SI 19.1 01.) ST TO.O 92 19 0 0
to M.l 1.0 IT.O 94 " 40 * 1 c 1) 29 it 1.S9 2.99 09 .99 49 It tt.l TS.S .... 92 9 0 0
MAR )9.a T.S 12.7 )7 9) 29 ) 0 7 11 9 i.SS 2.7| 90 .92 T> IT 12.9 41.1 TO SO.O >2 IT 0 0 0
AIR 47.4 17. S >2.9 47 67 22 0 2 10 1 1.07 S TI ST i 20 It.O SO.O 1 s>.0 92 1 7 1 0
M4Y 99.9 IS.9 42.4 TT 60 11 * i 0 0 19 0 1.91 T 0 IT 1.97 47 7 S.) 22.0 7) IT.O 7) 1 0 0 _ 0
JUN 91.7 11.2 so.o >7 94 2) 17 94 . 0 0 19 0 1.74 0.44 49 .99 97 29 .1 1.0 1.0 01 > 1 0
JCtY >4.9 14.0 9 3#* A? 94 11 97 2 0 0 9 0 i.ii T.*2 7) 1. )9 1) tl .0 0 1 0
AUC i.o IS.O 14.1 7. 71 22* 94 )0 0 0 9 0 2.12 T.U 41 1.49 94 9 .0 7 1 0
sin 99.7 27.9 47.| * 9T 4 7* 41 IS 0 0 IS 0 1.09 0.2# 01 1.99 *1 22 2.0 24.9 01 11.0 01 21 9 l 0
oil 90.4 20.4 >0.0 74 . 9 ) 27 c 0 10 0 1.10 4.97 99 1.S9 47 > o.l 41.0 09 19.0 *9 T 1 0 0
NOV 40.4 10.1 IS.) T7 9) -21 97 a T >0 9 1.19 .94 T1 2 10.0 SO.9 TO 22.0 19 to T 0 0
U ( >1.3 t.l 17.0 >1 ** 1 -29* 72 L* *. 1* 11 14 1.7f 1.00 44 T 2.0 94.1 Si 47.0 V >0 0 1 0
JUL , JAN
ll.ij 4.9| TO |)]|||-*| |OI,l>[ ej 6. >01 j 99J
SI.A
AIM) ON I ARID R DATIS
TO.II|
105
JU*
MAT
"I! *1,
m.i| ..|H| .o|>i|ii **j^ |


NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES
*!AreT* {ram r'a (iMtirN. Annual titrnti hava baan #.reeded at othar altaa In tha local Ur aa foiled*:
=2* asrs&hw s^ftirr
GRAND JUNCTION. CO
WALKER FIELD
MOUNTAIN
3* 07' N
IC8 32' W
4843 FT
l7S
hew-*
KoraM humaArtv art i nanan
1 i 1 i ' 9WI
5 ?! 5 | ' i\ LJU-I f if f Mm. -
1 * I J 6 5 f l * l 8 i (5) Eva.
t J J 1 I* r r ? if If 1 I* i! | H i 01 r " 1 iff 1? il If 1 II 1 l % If fc : a J If f j t 8 I! ll If *1 ll 41)9
* It s l ] if S * J l 1 1 ) j | i | I i* I | j One* cm*: i 1 3 i- j?! IsJ bi M.vL
a: £ * > .
loi 12 2* If I* 2* 2* 12 12 j 12 ..J 15 271 5*l 2*1 2* 2* 2A 2* 27 2* 2* 2* 2* 12 1> 12 12 1
*.* 1A.5 f9.A AO l ATI 1*71 11*0 0 0. A* *. :*it r 1**1 1*1* 91.7 HI* *.l 1*97 77 67| At T, 5.* (Sf s :*5o 5* *1 A 14 7 1 1 0 14 90 5 54. A
t *4.0 21.2 >>.A AA l A 7 1 - 1*7* 7* 0 o. a: 1.5* lAA* T 1*72 0.51 12.A 1 *a A I.A 1**8 AA 51! *4 44 A.i'iSE aI 1 .**7 4.1 11 A 1 2 0 2 2 1 *A 2
* $2.* 7A.A M.l 1 m A 1*71 71* 0 C.7J 1.7A JA7C 8.02 l*7J 0.7* 1 *4 14.A 17*4 A.! 1*4# 1A 1 *1 >2 5C A.*S! as! S[1*34 A.l A A 1* 1 1 * C 1* 0 *47.4
A A*.A M.l $1.7 3 1*A* > 1 7 J * 0 A c *. 7 A I.AJ lAA* 0.0A 1*5* 1.11 1**5 14.1 1 AT* A lii *4 94 1 7| *5 A 7 ( S £ i1*55 10 12 * a C 0 *46.6
n *!. 1.1 42.2 a* 1*6* JA 1*70 HI At 0.A5 1.7* 17 T 1*70 1.1 1*75 1.1 1*7* * 2* 22 *.T ISC *! 1*46 71 5.5 10 n to * a * 2 0 1 0 $47.5
J 1.9 M.l 71. 101 l7l 91 1*7* 20 20* C.M 2.07 l*** . l.*7 1** 0.0 *7 24, 21 9 .* jISE i S|1*51 4.0 0 * * 0 0
M.l A.2 7.7 105 1*71 * ** 9 All f.AA l.* 1 At A 1*72 1.92 1*74 0.0 e.o A* * hi . 34! SI 1*55 77 4.2 14 12 5 5 0 A 0 24 0 3 0 19.1
A *.i Al.A >5.A 103 IA6A A mi 0 >22 1.81 3.** l Alt 0.0A :*ia 1*51 1AJI 1 a*a l.2| 1*59 0.0 0.0 *0 91 29 >* *.0 fit '1*57 4.1 *4 11! A 7 0 0 28 e C 01 651.1
$ 91.1 11.0 at.a a .0 1*71 0 12* 0.1* 2.*2 1 $ T 1.11 1*45 1.1 1 Aa$ 9.1 ! *45 2 l 25 6 A.l 'ESC *: s i;. 5.. 17 * 5 a 5 8 0 a 0 59.7
lJ 1 AT 1 5 1*75 1*75 9 2 7|* U 0 1*72 1A5A 1.24 0.12 1*57 I A A 1*75 1*7* 1*54 1* 0 14 ; l A.: IS! xl *>1*54 1 A 1 c c 0 t!4.:
N JS.9 M.l 71 C.A1 1. A* 0.11 12.11 l**A f. AA:51 47 *9 A.7 S£ 5*. "J1*54 el 1.1 11 1 11 7 1 a 1 0 20 0! 59.A
& >*.A l.A *e AA 1A71 -A l*AI 1101 0 o.li 1 *A 1 All > i.U 19*1 10.7 1 **7 A.C l A*7j77 y* 75 9.* ISE 1 H 1*51 8 10 7 2 1 0 2* 1 *35.2
AtC OCT JA* j VU*I to Tt
rt ... .... 52.7 101 1A71 J-15 1*71 ae UAC .At .* 1*57 .. 1.57 ! 99.7 ul *-l nil * Aljltjll *1 SJ 1*51 5.1 140 . 7 93 *4 25 19* 7 12.>
Mean* and tiCrawi abova ara from existing and cooparabla exposure*. Annual exrrenat have l-can exceeded at othar altaa In tha locality aa follow*: lowit temperature -23 In January IH); aaalaui oonthlv precipitation 3.71 in September 1596; aaiaui precipitation Ln 24 houra 2.SO In October 1924; mulou* acowfall In 24 houra 17.0 ln Hovambar 1919.
(<) len*ts #f record, year*. the
currant jr*#r *>!** othe**l>e aataa. bane* na Joauary data.
15) 70* ana mu at *1*uaji ttaUoni.
* Lett thaa om half.
T Trace
- fated an racer* far tha >7*10770 par lad. part of an n rtf nr tn* *>( **ceat enn of mH KcvrrtiKI.
0£*A!L1*6 M1N8 ClttClJON tecc't thrauaK 1HJ.
190 OlKttlO* Hjwrilt iNflftlt tr*l *f 4rrt*4 ClacfeaUt
f-oa true a*-?*. 00 li( UlTni Hill vieo Speed It fu*t attar>a *a1ua
tha direction 1* ten* of **^'*+i.


E. Planned Unit Development Guidelines
All new developments in Fort Collins must be approved through the City Government's P.U.D. process. The criteria for approval for various development types are described in the publication, Land Development Guidance System for P.U.D.1s. I have obtained the sections which pertain to my siteplan. It falls into Activity "E" under business service uses.
In terms of the City's point system of evaluation, I am fortunate that the site is tied into the neighborhood and regional shopping centers which surround it, that it contains at least two acres, and that its development consists of more than one type of use. The City also gives points for energy conservation and connection to other urban development. The City s design criteria point up issues that I had already planned to address with my thesis, in particular number 28 which recommends a favorable relationship with existing topography and natural water courses, existing trees, exposure to sunlight, wind, and views. All of the design criteria listed are important issues to consider in the planning of the site and subsequent building design.
Of a more technical nature are recommendations for parking numbers and details like the 100' stack-up
lanes required at the parking entry/access.


<*r'-v
W[ ^
U
PEAK
p--'- !-1 -**> **-! A-r* A- f-*%
DEMANDS, PREVAILING STANDARDS RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES for COMMERCIAL and INDUSTRIAL USES

CITY of FORT COLLINS PLANNING DIVISION
. .rA..,..u r. y.i--------------
.... ______________T _ __ ;

% :i .'.i.,r\ .._____________ f ' '' -VTA ". *.*/.' *
r?. .-. ... ............


2
SECTION ONE: Summary
The list below indicates staff recommended guidelines for the provision of off street parking for the general land use categories specified. Information on peak demand and prevailing standards for each land use type are provided herein on the page indicated.
Page
Cjp
9.
10.
12.
13.
14.
23.
24.
25.
26.
28.
29.
30.
_________________Use___________________
Restaurants" 2, 500 + Zi^oo ic/JWt
a. Fast Food
b. Standard
Drinking and Dancing Establishments
Commercial Recreational
a. Indoor
b. Outdoor
c. Bowling Alley
Places of Assembly
a. General
b. Churches
General Retail
Personal Service
Shopping Center
Medical Office
Banks 7,ooO
General Office S3, OOO
Automobile Service
Low Intensity Retail, Repair Service
Public Accomodations
Health and Day Care Facility
a. Hospital
b. Nursing Homes
c. Day Care
Industrial; Employee Parking Other Uses and Mixed Uses References
Staff Recommendation,
spaces/sq. ft. g .f.a. or other
Range Single
10-17/1000 8-11/1000 8-12/1000 15/1000 10/1000 10/1000 2.^y ~h> 1? D
5.0-7.5/1000 .25-.35/person 6/1000 .3/person cap. 5/1000
1/3.5-5.0 seats 1/5-10 seats 1/4 seats'^ 1/8 seats /}ooo
3.5-5.0/1000 4/1000
3.5-4.5/1000 4/1000
3.0-5.5/1000 g.l .a.
3.5-5.5/1000 4.5/1000
c 3.3/1000) 23.1
2.8-3.5/1000/ )3.0/1000) - )73
4.0-6.0/1000 5.0/1000
1.5-3.0/1000 2.0/1000
1/unit
,75-1.2/bed .75-1.0/employee 1.0/bed .33/bed
.6-.8/employee ,75/employee
See discussion
-Hot*/ 2ZZ


continued-
C
that the light source will be sufficiently obscured to prevent excessive glare on public streets and walkways or into any residential area? The installation or erection of any lighting which may be confused with warning signals, emergency signals or traffic signals shall not be permitted.
25. Will all sewage and industrial wastes be treated and disposed of in such a manner as to comply with applicable federal, state, and local standards? Detailed plans for waste disposal may be required before issuance of a building permit.
Site Design
26.
27
the site plan, e.g., buildings, circulation arranged on the site so that activities are organizational schemeof the community and
28.
*
29.
ir
30.
Are the elements of and open space areas integrated with the neighborhood?
Are the elements of the site plan, e.g., buildings, circulation, open space and landscaping, etc., designed and arranged to produce an efficient, functionally organized, and cohesive planned unit development?
Is the design and arrangement of elements of the site plan, e.g., buildings, circulation, open space and landscaping, etc., in favorable relationship to the existing natural topography; natural water bodies and water courses; existing desirable trees; exposure to sunlight and wind; and views?
Does the design and arrangement of elements of the site plan (e.g., building construction, orientation, and placement; selection and placement of landscape materials; and/or use of renewable energy sources, etc.) contribute to the overall reduction_of. energy use by the project?
Are the elements of the site plan, e.g., buildings, circulation, open space and landscaping, etc., designed and arranged to maximize the opportunity for privacy, by the residents of the project? ~
Does the design and arrangement of buildings and open space areas contribute to the overall aesthetic quality of the site configu-rati on?
cortinued
-9-


continued-
If any building or structure height above grade, does the height review criteria?
is to be greater than 40-feet in project comply with the building
33. Does the street and parking system provide for the smooth, safe and convenient movement of vehicles both on and off the site?
34.
X
35.
36.
W/A
37.
38.
K
39.
Is the street and parking system designed to contribute to the overall aesthetic quality of the site configuration?
Does the development satisfy the parking capacity requirement s_ of the City and provide adequate space- suited to the loading and unloading of persons, materials and goods?
Is each active recreational area suitably located and accessible to the residential units it is intended to serve and is adequate screening provided to ensure privacy and quiet for neighboring residential uses?
Does the residential project provide for private outdoor areas.
e. g. private yards, patios, and balconies, etc., for use by the residents of the project which are sufficient in size and have adequate light, sun, ventilation, privacy and convenient access to the household unit they are intended to serve?
Is the jedestrian circulation system designed to assure that pedestrians can move safely and easily both on the site and between properties and activities within the neighborhood and site?
Does the pedestrian circulation system incorporate design features to enhance convenience, safety and amenity across parking lots and streets, including but not limited to paving patterns, grade differences, landscaping and lighting?
40. Does the landscape plan provide for treatment of vehicular use, open space and pedestrian areas which contribute to their usage and visual appearance?
41. Does the landscape plan provide for treatment adjacent to the building(s) which increases the ovfira.IL visual Quality of the building design?
42. Does the landscape plan screen utility boxes, parking areas,, loading areas, trash containers, outside storage areas, blank walls or fences and other areas of low visual interest from roadways, pedestrian areas and public view?
continued
-10-


aHHranBBfl
HHm iHH
ACTIVITY1 Business Service Uses
%&***&. mmemm mm:
DEFINITION1
Those activities which are predominantly retail, office, and service uses which would not qualify as or be a part of a neighborhood or community/regional shopping center. Uses include: retail shops; offices; personal service shops; financial institutions; hotels/ motels; medical clinics; health clubs; membership clubs; standard and fast-food Restaurants; hospitals; mortuaries; indoor theatres; retail laundry and dry cleaning outlets; limited indoor recreation uses; small animal veterinary clinics; printing and newspaper offices; neighborhood convenience center; and, other uses which are of the same general character.
CRITERIA1
Each of the following applicable criteria must be answered "yes" and implemented within the development pi an.
Yes No NA*
1. Does the project gain its primary vehicular access from a street other than South College Avenue?
2. DOES THE PROJECT EARN AT LEAST 50% OF THE MAXIMUM POINTS AS CALCULATED ON "POINT CHART VI FOR THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA:
mn
0D

Is the activity contiguous to an existing transit route (not applicable for uses of less than 25,000 sq. ft. GLA or with less than 25 employees) or located in the Central Business District? yc.^
Is the project located outside of the "South College Avenue Corridor"? no
Is the project contiguous to and functionally a part of a neighborhood or community/regional shopping center, an office or industrial park, located in the Central Business District or in the case of a single user, employ or will employ a total of more than 100 full-time employees during a single 8-hour shift?
Is the project on at least two acres of land or located in the Central Business District?

continued'
-22-


continued--------------------------------------------------------------1
e Does the project contain two or more significant uses (such II
as retail, office, residential, hotel/motel, and recreation)? t
f. Is there direct vehicular and pedestrian access between on-site parking areas and adjacent existing or future off-site parking areas which contain more than ten (10) spaces?
no
g. Does the activity reduce non-renewable energy usage, through the application of alternative energy systems, use of existing buildings, and through committed energy conservation measures beyond that normally required by City Code?
h. Is the project located with at least l/6th of its property boundary contiguous to existing urban development?
icb
i. If the site contains a building or place in which a historic event occurred, which has special public value because of notable architecture, or is of cultural significance, does the project fulfill the following criteria:
i. Prevent creation of influences adverse to its preservation,
ii. Assure that new structures and uses will be in keeping with the character of the building or place. Imitation of period styles should be avoided, and
iii. Propose adaptive use of the building or place that will lead to its continuance, conservation, and improvement in an appropriate manner while respecting the integrity of the neighborhood.


c
1 BUSINESS | SERVICE USES POINT CHART E
rj For All Critera Applicable Criteria Only
[j Criterion Is The Criterion Applicable Yes No 1 II III IV
Circle The Correct Score Yes VW No Multiplier Points Earned 1x11 Maximum Applicable Points
1 a. Transit route X X 2 0 2 2 4-
b. S. College corridor X X X 2 o 1 4 £ 8
c. Part of center X X 2 0 3 <2 6
1 d. Two acres or more X X )2 0 3 3 6
1 e. Mixed-use X X % 0 3 (? 6
f. Joint parking n X 1 2 0 3 0 (2
g. Energy conservation X 1 % 0 4 & 8
| h. Contiguity X X a 0 5 )o 10
1 i. Historic preservation 1 2 0 2 o
| ) 1 2 0
1 ^ 1 2 0
1 L 1 2 0
c
1VW Very Well Done
Totals
3^
V
54r
VI
Percentage Earned of Maximum Applicable Points

VA/I = VII
bshbmsi
-24-


F. Building Codes
This code search was conducted with the direction of a principal thesis advisor, Architect Ron Faleide of ZVFK Architects and Planners in Fort Collins. We referred to the 1979 UBC (Uniform Building Code), approved and amended by the City of Fort Collins. We considered three different code search forms, one from the ZVFK office, one from a design-build office, and the one we primarily used, the A.I.A. form, Exhibit 13-4 code search checklist.
My conclusion is that the site plan design needs to take into consideration both the distance from neighboring structures and the size of the building "footprint," i.e., height of building. The second is the primary factor in determining the construction type. The use type is B2, and the construction type options are: II Fire-Rated, II One-Hour, and II Non-Rated. This is significant because a more restrictive construction type is generally a cause of increased construction costs. It may be worthwhile to keep my building design under four stories in order
to stay in the Type II One-Hour category.


D
CODE SEARCH SUMMARY
7. EXITS-OCCUPANCY LOADS
Office
Bank
Restaurant
Kitchen
SF=Square Feet
Number of
Square Feet SF/Person Persons
58,000 SF* 100 580
7,000 SF 100 70
2.500 SF 15 166
2.500 SF 200 6
TOTAL 822
Number of required exits each floor: two.
Number of required exits total building: two. Required width of exits: 2 feet.
Dead end corridor limit: 20 feet.
Smoke tower required? Not if fewer than 6 floors. Exit lights? Yes.
Exit signs? Yes.
10. OCCUPANCY
Occupancy Type: B2
Construction Type II F-R II 1-Hour II N-R
Basic allowable area 39,900 SF 16,000 SF 12,000 SF
+added stories (x 2) tseparation (2 sides) 79,800 SF 32,000 SF 24,000 SF
(x 50%) +fire extinguisher 159,000 SF 48,000 SF 36,000 SF
system (x 2) NA 96,000 SF 72,000 SF
Total Allowable Areas 159,000 SF 96,000 SF 72,000 SF
Maximum Building Height 12 stories 4 stories 2 stories
Separation between occupancies: B2/B3 (garage) l one-hour
Fire resistive ratings of exterior walls: one hour (less than 20')
Protected openings in exterior walls (rating): protected (less 10'), no protection if less than 5'
Enclosure of vertical openings: one hour


G. Process
The person at Mitchell & Company managing activity surrounding my thesis site is Vice President Chuck Mabry, former Fort Collins City Planner. Mr. Mabry has been very cooperative about working with me. He seems anxious to help in any way he can to supply me with a basis with which to set up a program that is realistic for both my needs and for his. I hope that my thesis solution can be considered as a serious development alternative for this site so that it might be useful to Mitchell and Company.
Mr. Mabry expects that the site will contain a financial institution and they have had restaurants interested in it as well. He cited several types of financial institutions: a new charter bank; a
savings and loan branch; new financial office offerings from E. F. Hutton, American Express, or Prudential Base; or a discount brokerage firm. It was preferable to assume it would be one of the latter types which did not include drive-up facilities in the program. The financial institution should be on the ground level with potential expansion either to the second floor or the basement (with consideration for handicap access). 7,000 square feet seems to be a reasonable
initial size. Mabry cited the importance of front-door parking for bank customers, but believes parking requirements for offices can be met with a parking structure. The value of the site dictates the density
of development which Mabry sees to be in the range
of 70,000 square feet, total site


(gross leasable), with an average development cost of
$13.50 per square foot.
Mabry cited some general recommendations for the design of speculative office space. The building "footprint" should be as large as possible for the greatest flexibility of leasable areas. Each floor should function for one large tenant (maybe 15,000 SF) or for several small tenants. A 2,500 SF tenant is typical for Fort Collins.
Energy conservation is not typically a concern in speculative office development because of triple-net-leasing where the tenant picks up the cost of utilities and maintenance. A low initial construction cost is also the objective of most spec-offices which are built, leased, and then sold. Mabry sees the wave of the future producing a more sophisticated tenant who will consider all costs when comparing office locations. The tenant will be skeptical of anything solar, fearing extra costs, but will want energy conserving means that help keep utility bills down. This implies to me that the building design should employ passive solar techniques such as daylighting, sun control devices, and convective loops, refering to them as energy conservation measures. Mabry feels that this new tenant will be interested in taking part in an energy saving system that requires self-operation, such as movable insulation, manual lighting controls, adjustable shading devices, etc.
Mabry feels that the site arrangement is very important on this site. The canal and restricted access create a


challenge, as well as the relationship to the surrounding
structures. A major objective in the site planning is locating the building to achieve the greatest visibility and prominence from the corner intersection of College Avenue and Horsetooth Road. Mabry would like to maximize facade along the College Avenue right-of-way with an emphasis on the corner, tucking the parking into the middle of the site. After the project was begun, it was decided that the restaurant should be located on the prominent corner site and should function independently. It would be possible to build the restaurant as the first phase with the office building following at a later date. I have elected to approach this part of the program as a building pad and not get into the design of the restaurant
itself.


H. CONCLUSION
The major site problems affecting this design are numerous and interrelated. They begin with the programmed density that this expensive property needs to support, and the subsequent need for covered parking, with the water table five to six feet below grade. Besides containing a large building, the site needs to include clear circulation combined with surface, visitor parking fitting within the triangulated geometry of the property and bridging the canal. Vital to this circulation problem is the restricted access onto the site from the surrounding streets. The building placement and massing in relationship to the surrounding, small-scale retail/service buildings complicates these other problems. The objective to maximize natural light implies a high skin to area ratio and use of a central atrium. It also works best with the East and West elevations minimized to avoid heat gain and glare that is difficult to control. It was initially an obstacle that this site was longest in the North/South direction until it was deemed feasible for the building to bridge the canal.
The site characteristics suggested a design theme that expanded on the idea of the "bridge." The goal of a quality office image relies greatly on the building approach and entry. The traditional facade on the main street was important to this image and prpximity
to visitor surface parking was vital to its function.


This, and a desire for a setback around 100 feet from
the main street, resulted in a building form centered on the block. This centering helped achieve a balance with the surrounding lower scale development. The building grew across the canal to achieve the desired footprint, also working to keep down the number of levels and to better utilize the site area. The stepping back of the East and West facades continued the objective to de-emphasize the building's height and mass.
The covered parking evolved as one level under the office, partially below grade. The approach to the entry had to be graded up to maintain the image of a main floor entry. This rise in level also works to give a sense of importance to the entry.
The structural grid required for a 24-foot traffic lane and 15 to 19-foot parking stalls resulted in three bays totaling 55 feet. This structure was continued to the office space above where 50 to 50-foot lease space with a hall down the center was optimum. The
concrete construction at this subgrade level was continued in the upper structure for continuity. The appearance of the building elevations came out of the goal, to achieve an honest expression of structure and the daylighting scheme's fenestration design.
The emphasis on entry, both for visitors and for tenants, dictated that the atrium be open on both ends to express arrival, and to dramatize it with views through and beyond the space. The atrium was to both express and celebrate entry and circulation. Its
plan design focuses on a "water element
consisting


of a glass block dry river that flows from a pond
in the parking lot, up the entry stairs, through the atrium, and out to a pond culminating in a water wall. Its purpose is to shape a serpentine path of movement and to create places to pause and rest along the way. The stairs and elevator are treated as objects of decoration inside the atrium and the office facades flanking it are connected with truss bridges. The theme of the truss bridge begins on the site, reappears
in the glass canopy that steps down to the entry,
is then used in the atrium circulation, and lastly
in the trusses supporting the Kailwall roof. The
beige neutrality of the concrete building forms is contrasted with the use of a deep red in the elements that bridge between them in the atrium. The color objective is a cheerful disposition even in the absence of sunshine. The glass block pavers of the water element are lit from below to add sparkle to the space
after dark. The glass elevator is for the same effect.


BRIDGE CROSSING
A SPECULATIVE OFFICE
AND RESTAURANT DEVELOPMENT
MASTERS THESIS BY SUSAN E. WALSH MAY 1984
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
SITE PLAN DATA
SITE AREA 2.6*71 ACRES
BUILDING AREA GROSS
OFFICE 68.000 S-F
RESTAURANT PAD 5.000 SF
TOTAL 70.000 S.F
PARKING RECOMMENDED 3/1000 : 195 10/1000 : 230
PARKING PROVIOEO
SURFACE
COVERED
TOTAL
112
84 (INCLUOES 2 HANDICAP) 198 30% COMPACT
COVERED MOTORCYCLE 12
BICYCLE 20


MAJOR STREET


I


EXISTING TREES ARE RETAINED TO SCREEN UNDESIRABLE VIEWS AND TO PROVIDE MATURITY*
BOX CULVERT UNDER THE BLDG
LANDSCAPJNG FEATURE!
MOVE SIDEWALK IN FROM STREET TO BUFFER FROM TRAFFIC
ROW OF TREE (COLUMNS)
USED TO DEFINE THE FRONT PLANE OR FACADE OF BLDG


TO BREAK DOWN BLDG SCALE
STEPPED BACK GEOMETRY


1. LIMITED hCCJtSs oMTo £.|TE
LIMITED Access THROUGH SITE DUE To CANAL
Z.PEOGILAMS DENSITY PEQMY DICTATES A CREATIVE- DS£
OF ODD' SHAPED 3ITE
3. L/ITHIM A STP.ICTE-D &OUT&
OF fiCCESz5> TH^DDG-H S.IT6 TH(E
layout op both covecep parking ANP pEONT-DOOp SH^FA^E PARING IS A MA JofL roM DETERMINANT IKJ THE BUILDING^ SCHEMATIC DESIGN
SITE PLAN PROBLEMS
f-N
RIGHTONLY


CAR OEALERSMP
TTJ

AUTO
SITE PLAN
0
1 fy v 10 LARAU^l v A DOWN (/V. V TVv ; > <**"** . ** /? & FORT COLLINS ^ COLORADO \ DOWNTOWN FORT COLLMS ^cr~' , COLORADO 14 ^O CHE Y ANNE I j j
1 f
<;// V ; &2k' HOSPITAL y<\ PROSPECT 8T
V V* i * ) J | ft £ | ORAKE RO * S r
? i i SITE < * RETAK.I n HORSE TOOTH
i HARMONY RO
TO LOVELAM^ * to DENVER
SITE CONTEXT $=L"
i ~-j i


CL 100-0 OROUNO FLOOR
WEST ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION
*
TO PARAPCT
CL IM'-fl
^ MCCHAMICAL / WOO* CL IM -O ^ TMWO FLOOR CL W-0
^ PC COHO FLOOR CL 116-0
FWST FLOOR CL 100-0
SOUTH ELEVATION ,,,


EAST ELEVATION


~
attium acts m> '&RIP&E' C0NKJEGTIM6
THE-TWD PARALLEL &UILPIM6 FY^MS
INTERLOCKING FORMS
IT C-EEATES A^D PDFIUE9 A FIELD OF SPACE
IHA6E FlR^T APPEALS AT &ITE ENTRIES, TH6N IN CAWOpY Oi/ER E>UILOIN<=> ENTRY THE TKU^S NEXT APPEAR IN THE ATfclUM CUMULATION
FINAU-Y THE I6> PiSRCiEYED IN THE OVERHEAD PLAN REPEATED 4 0.6.70
EUPPDRT THE ICAU-WAL-U ATRJUN
IMAGE-TRUSS BRIDGE AS AESTHETIC


i ne oouiee waiK Bridge on the campus of University of North Dakota at Grand Forks is a 90' x 6' painted span which illustrates the structural simplicity and visual purity of the Viking Model.
LOW PROFILE DESIGNS (open truss)
to 1 V-O" I D.
Continental Offers Various Models For Low Profile Spans All models have the following loading capacities as standard:
Live Load 100 P.S.F. up to 50' span; 60 P.S.F. for spans in excess of 50'. Wind Load 30 P.S.F. on truss height (as if enclosed).
Concentrated Load 2000 lb. vehicle weight on bridge widths of 6 -0'' or less. 10,000 lb. vehicle weight on bridge widths of 8 -0' or more.
Custom loading conditions are available on request.
Standard vertical spacing of 4 on center can be altered as required. Ends of bridge can be square for attachment of approach railings, which Continental will fabricate.
WISCONSIN MODEL




IMAGE
TExruzz-
LIWBLVe.i> AMD WIMPOVJ ^AUETie^
OKJ THE &OUTft ELECTION p.E5>ULT IN EHADc?Wv/3, WHICH TH'5- £>|DE THE ^f^EATebl C£UT&*£>T % TEXTURE
& FORM


a a a a
a a a a b b b b b b
erMM&re:i6Au oomfos-itiow cp parte* are RELAT&P TO ONE- ANOTHER IM A ^ON^IS-TANT >rErpPP-BA^.^ manner
IMAGE & FORM
FORMALITY
aba c
aba
MOPUlaR ORID FJZAM^-WORD |2> major EUILDIN^ Fi-EMERT
IMAGE & FORM
MONE&T EXP REGION cDF STRUCTURAL- ORlP


wHEP£ &J\LD\Nfr \S> L6S£>THAM Io ~fO PROPERTY .LIME coot Pf^EVEMTS
SITE CONSTRAINTS
PE.PTAIKJIM6? 'P l_____
WIM POWS
INDEMTATPN5 Ikl N^PTH FACADE HELP B£EA£ UP IT5> UlKJEAeJTT AMD TMY
DI3TAN£& The WAUU FPOM
THE PftoFEPXV LIME 50 THAT IT £AM have
IMAGE & FORM
£UET£ACTI\/E. volumes



ATRIUM INTERIOR




^MTlMUATiaM op fqVE£ pUEMEUT' EMPHASIZED THE ATKlUPfc STP.OKIG PiEEDTfOWAL G?UAUTT
THE'EIVEE ELEMENT' PERME& AMD DEVIPE3 A 5EPIES OP ZONES W/'M A L-AP/SE SPA^E, WHiL-E DIFFERENTIATING
BETWEEN A OUEV|LlN5A£ PATH OF MCWEMEUT AKJD PLATE'S op P-EST
cSHAMDE- IN LEVEL-INTEPFfcRES W/PLDW Or SPACE, BUT MOT W/FLOW OF toves.'
VIEW IK1 FfcC-M STEEET
ATTENTION TO FLOW AND MOVEMENT


WAKM AIK EXHAUST NW&HT fLUSrtlM^ |M SUMMER
TO7PVI!\KKJ\l^r
pE-ClBCULA7IO|
liECIlAUICAL

21 F^EfclMETEK- HEAT Or P>KlD6eS } ^ W/AP-M AlP KISES
h> ^
QJ , A /
-> ~ ^ ~"P
1 f t o - <-4n
COUPITIOMEP SEMI-^OKJPITIOHEP
PFHC-E. SPACE. cIK.C.U uATION S>pAC£
ATRIUM SECTION


--Hi-
o-o
40 STANOARO 33 COMPACT 2 MA NOCAP
84 TOTAL PARKMG
35 ST ANOARO
GROUND FLOOR
NET GROSS
PARKMG 28,500 27,000
BU8.DMG *B' 5.000 6400
4 COMPACT 8 STANOARO
8 COMPACT

L
R /. Lb) J
pro
5
ax:
4 STANOARO
am
t..-:
B
L
----W


:i.;t
TOTAL
31.500 tf
32.800 SF


1, 000 £>. r. TO I <0,000 £?. f. TVPlLAU 6*lZ.e
LEASE SPACE
l-A^£ reWAKJTS
LEASE SPACE
SMALL T^UAMTS


\ DArU^HT'

^EevidE A f2£A3 ^ENTEAUZ-ED
MAXIMIZED PEIZ-IMETEP- c>f=E|£-&S = Hi6H B>HIUP'N^
5>PU ID AEEA E-ATlO
DAYLIGHTING
VJOULS WITH LOUb, SIAEEOW fOPJM
l
I
I
I
i
l
I
I
I
i
^-7
Option r 25-3D1 ,
1 >
p.ECZ>MMEMDEP orFict. pzrrh FZDV1 rtAU- 0g, £lE£ULAT|OW SHAFT
IUTEPOP- railway
FLOOR PLAN DATA
l^ease s>taca Pgopczzt i om-s ela h


Fl££ £TAI£5
HAU- MAY 6E PAPTITIOKI&P Tc> £UIT TENANT FINISH
VARIATIONS AP.£ K.ECoMMEKiDED To PE-'EMPHASIZE,
EXCESSIVELY LOKI& HAUL
HALL MAY EMITTED INTHE. CASE OF A LA&&£
tekjakjT W/AKl OPSN plan
CIRCULATION
SlMpUGITr / FUEXAEIUTY
VIEW THLOtfCH ATKIUIM TC AX It? AT EUPS
VISUAL
CONNIPTION]
£>EC0KJPApY TENANT ENTPY FROM COVERED PAPK.INS IS BOUALU/ IMPRESSIVE
DOUBLE ENTRY
primary vi&itop.'
ENTRY IS ^lFAR AND STRAISHTF NC? &A^LP



III. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. American Institute of Architects, Exhibit 13.4 Code Search Checklist. 1966. p. 155, 156.
2. Architectural Record, "Low Rise Office Buildings." Vol. 158, September 1980. p. 102-119.
3. Architectural Record, "Building Type Study-Office
Interiors, 1983. p. Corporate 85-101. Images.' " Vol. 187, January
4. Balcomb, J. Douglas; Edward Mazria, Susan Nichols,
Wayne Nichols, Passive Solar Associates Workbook.
coPSA 1980.
5. Buildings, "Owings Corning Fibergglass Energy Award Winners." November 1982. p. 84-89.
6. Darbourn & Darke, A Handbook to an Exhibition at
the R.I.B.A. Heinz Gallery Co. 1977.
7. Flatow, Max; Frank Bridgers, Industrial Development, "Energy Conservation for the '80's, the Willow Creek Building." March/April 1982. p. 14-21.
8. Fort Collins, City of, Land Development Guidance
System for Planned Unit Developments. pp. 9-12, 22-24, 34-46.
9. Fort Collins Planning Division, City of, Off Street Parking Supply. October 1979. pp. 2, 6, 20-22.
10. Interior Design, "Anaconda Tower Lighting." Vol. 51, September 1980. p. 298-303.
11. Interior Design, "Herman Miller's Open Plan Lighting System." Vol. 152, March 1981. p. 196.
12. Mazria, Edward, The Passive Solar Energy Book. Rodale
Press, Emmaus, Pa. co 1979.
13. McGuiness, William J.; Benjamin Stein, John S. Renolds,
Mechanical & Electrical Equipment for Buildings. 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York. co 1980.
14. MEMO, Newsletter of the A.I.A., "Daylighting Can Cut Energy Costs and Strengthen Productivity." August 1981. p. 4.
15. Passive Solar Design Handbook. Vol. 3, July 1982.,
16. Progressive Architecture, "Energy Conservation, Glass Vol. LXIV, April 1983. p. 82.
Under Glass.


Bibliography/2
17. Progressive Architecture, "Atriums, Transfigurer of Geometry." July 1982. p. 54.
18. Progressive Architecture, "Hotsification." Vol.
62, April 1981. p. 114-117.
19. Progressive Architecture, "Tri State Office." Vol. 61, June 1980. p. 88-90.
20. Rubenstein, Harvey M., A Guide to Site & Environmental
Planning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. co 1969.
Bibliography Re: Lighting
1. Architectural Record, "Anaconda Tower," Vol. 168,
pp. 102-19, September 1980.
2. Architectural Record, "Owens-Corning Fiberglass
Energy Conservation Awards, The Norstar Vol. 1.71, p. 70, January 1983. Building,"
3. Architectura1 Record , "Prisms," p. 60, Mid-August
1981.
4. Architectural Record , "Technology Pursues , Catches
Daylight," p. 58, 59, Mid-August 1981.
5. Architectura] Record, "The Sun as a Source of Symbol
and Substance," Vol. 171, pp. 108-111, January 1983.
6. Bedel], Ben, Interiors, "Government Efforts to Conserve," Vol. 140, p. 82-83, April 1981.
7. Buildings, "Owens-Corning Fiberglass, Energy Award Winners, Two Case Histories," pp. 84-89, November 1982.
8. Dixon, John Morris, Progressive Architecture, "Glass Under Glass," Vol. LXIV, p. 82, April 1983.
9. Doubilet, Susan, Progressive Architecture, "The
Decorated Climate-Fiberglass Shed," Vol. LXIV, pp. 94-97, April 1983.
10. Flatow, Max, Industrial Development, "Energy Conservation for the 80's, The Willow Creek Building," Vol. 151, pp. 14-19, March/April 1982.
11. Gordon, Barclay, Architectural Record, "Low-Rise
Office Buildings," Vol. 168, pp. 102-119, September 1980.


12.
Green, Kevin W., Memo, Newsletter of the AIA, "Daylighting Can Cut Energy Costs & Strengthen Productivity," p. 4, August 1981.
13. Interior Design, "Herman Miller's Open Plan Lighting System," Vol. 152, p. 196, March 1981.
14. Interior Design, "Lighting," Vol. 51, pp. 299-303, September 1980.
15. Jacqz, Margot, Interiors, "Energy Conscious Landscape,
Vol. 40, P. 140, March 1981.
16. Mathews, Scott, Architectural Record, "Proving the Benefits of Daylighting," p. 46-51, Mid-August 1981.
17. Morgan, Jim, Interiors, "Cold Climate Energy Efficien-
o *< < o . 140, p. 84-85, April 1981.
18. Vi ladas, Pilar, Progressive Architecture, "Through
a Glass Brightly , Vol. LX11 , p. 138-143, November
1981.
19. Watson, Donald, Van der Ryn, Catthorpe & Partners, Progressive Architecture, "The Energy Within the Space Within," Vol. LXIII, pp. 97-102, July 1982.


TYPICAL END OFFICE PLAN
GROSS
16,500
7,500
24,000 S.F


fi£S=3
,1
1 f ; H I i- 1 (^ssm
Sr-- 1 j i W F ^^g|gsi|
1 IB T L1
JV t A\ 7m 1


V J i
I / J