Pearl Street Place

Material Information

Pearl Street Place a mixed-use development in Boulder, Colorado
Weincek, Earl J
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
2 volumes : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
General Note:
Contents: Booklet 1. Project research, programming & design -- Booklet 2. Civil/structural engineering and cost analysis.
Statement of Responsibility:
Earl J. Weincek.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11307019 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1984 .W425 ( lcc )

Full Text
- 3
pt. 1

AURA £5 $ $ $ 5
NOTE: See booklet #2 for civil/structural
engineering and cost analysis

PEARL STREET PLACE ^Mixed-Use Development in Boulder, Colorado
An architectural thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Architecture.
Earl J. Weincek
Fall 1983 Spring 1984

To My Wife, Dawn,
For Her Love, Understanding, And Support
Throughout This Project

Robert Kindig
Architect / Professor, University of Colorado at Denver
1100 Fourteenth Street Denver, Colorado 80202 (303) 629-2755
Jere Eggleston Architect
Westland Development Services 5311 Western Avenue Boulder, Colorado 80301 (303) 449-9950
Jerry Gloss Architect
Combs Design and Development Corporation 387 Corona
Denver, Colorado 80218 (303) 777-1669
Susan Stolz
Planner, City of Boulder Planning Department
Park Central Building P.0. Box 791
Boulder, Colorado 80306 (303) 441-3270
Steve Pendergrast
Structural Engineer, Pendergrast and Associates
5311 Western Avenue Boulder, Colorado 80301 (303) 444-7050

The thesis of Earl J. Weincek is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver Fall 1983 Spring 1984

INTRODUCTION ................................... 1-2
PROJECT CONTEXT ................................ 3-15
DESCRIPTION .......................................16-21
ZONING/ LAND USE...................................22-31
SOLAR ACCESS...................................51
BUILDING IMAGE ................................ 64
SPACES AND DESCRIPTIONS .......................... 65-70
SQUARE FOOT ALLOWANCES ........................ 70
ADJACENCY MATRIX .............................. 71
PRELIMINARY COSTS ............................. 72
SCHEMATIC DESIGN DRAWINGS ......................
CONCLUSION .....................................
APPENDIX ...................................
LOCAL DISCUSSION ..............................
ACCESS FOR THE HANDICAPPED ....................
REFERENCES .....................................


"Today, architecture must re-orient itself to people.
It must appeal to their eternal needs to be close to nature, and to have order, variety and spaciousness. It must eliminate, where possible, the necessity for using individual transportation modes to obtain common, everyday services. It must relate to human scale and most of all, it should lift the human spirit."
John Portman, Architect Developer The above quote aptly summarized my general intentions for the design goals of Pearl Street Place.
Pearl Street Place is located on one half of a city block within Boulder, Colorado's Whittier neighborhood. The site is on the southern side of Pearl Street between Nineteenth and Twentieth Streets. This area of Boulder is currently in a transition from a high density residential developing zone to a new higher density zoning classification called Mixed-Use Redeveloping. This new mixed-use zone is being established to encourage the development of interesting and varied shopping areas with the opportunities for urban density housing and offices.
Pearl Street Place will offer a rich mixture of mutually supporting activities that provide the users access to multiple experiences in an exciting environment. The Pearl Street Place complex will be a mixed-use speculative development of approximately 53,000 square feet.
Pearl Street Place will incorporate fifty percent office-commercial/retail space along with fifty percent residential opace. Since there is currently only one other mixed-use complex in Boulder: Willow Springs, which has been a great success, I feel that the need for this type of mixed-use complex has not yet been fulfilled.

I support this for the following reasons: the breakdown of single-use zoning, protection against an oversupply of any one type of real estate, more marketable buildings, and the opportunities for the users to live, work and shop within an exciting urban environment.
Pearl Street is a major access link between the downtown Boulder Mall, Crossroads Mall and the 47th street bypass to Denver. The design of Pearl Street Place will provide a strong connection between the complex and Pearl Street. In turn this design connection will create and strengthen the link between the complex and the surrounding area.
The density of the complex will be higher than the existing surrounding uses. Therefore the design of the complex needs to provide a transition from the existing low density surrounding uses to the high density use of Pearl Street Place, without negatively impacting the neighborhood.
The design of the public/private circulation space is the single most important design consideration in this project. This space must be designed to provide a special and exciting place that will support the scale, mix and integration of the project components.

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The city of Boulder is located along Colorado's front range at the base of the Rocky Mountains. It lies in a three-sided bowl, with the dramatic backdrop of the foothills to the west, Shanahan Ridge to the south and Davidson Mesa to the east. Boulder is located about twenty five miles northwest of Denver. (see map p.3 ) This proximity to Denver enables
its residents to participate in the economic and cultural activities of a large metropolitan region while retaining the advantages of a smaller community. Boulder is the county seat, the center of civic and court administration and the center of the legal, financial and banking professions for the county fo Boulder,
The primary landmarks of Boulder are the overpowering mountain backdrop to the west, the University of Colorado and the downtown mall. With the secondary landmarks being the University Hill area and the redeveloping Crossroads Mall area. (see map p. 5 )

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On October 17, 1858 Boulder, Colorado was born. Seventeen prospectors from Nebraska arrived and settled at the mouth of Boulder Canyon. The next year gold was discovered and Boulder grew from a few people to a population of two thousand. Boulder took advantage of the surrounding mining activities and became a supply town rather than a boom mining town itself. The Boulder city town company was organized on February 10, 1859, with Mr.
A.A. Brookfield as presiding president. He plotted the Boulder valley and began selling the plotted lots for one thousand dollars each.
The city of Boulder finally incorporated on November 4,
1871 and with the addition of the railroad in 1874 and the state university in 1874, Boulder experienced a boom in population. In 1878 Boulder was reincorporated on a larger scale and a mayor and an alderman where added. By 1880 Boulder's population was three thousand. Between 1890 and 1895 seventy-eight subdivisions were plotted and Boulder continued to grow.
In the early 1900's the civic leaders realized Boulder was unique and took control of Boulder's growth, which laid much of the foundation for future development. They resisted the national trend of building university campuses in a collegiate gothic style and used a rural Italian Renaissance style instead, which is a better match for the mountain backdrop. They commissioned Frederick Law Olmstead, architect of New York's Central Park, to develop a master for the city parks.
Olmstead also suggested that for Boulder "nature should appear to be xn full command and one of the essentials is a certain amount of clear, open space not obstructed by trees, buildings, or anything rising much above the surface.
Olmstead's suggestion has almost been followed to the letter.

In 1958 the city adopted "the blue line", which prohibits water service above the 5,750 foot mark on the foothills. This prevented building along Boulder's mountain backdrop. Also, a "green belt" or open space program has been developed which preserves 30% of the Boulder valley as open space for future generations. Another 2% of the Boulder valley has been devoted to public parks. Consequently, open space has become a major planning issue in the city and county of Boulder.
In 1971, Boulder passed a zoning ordinance restricting the height for all new structures to thirty five feet, with fifty-five feet as the absolute maximum by variance only. Then in 1976, the city adopted a "slow growth" plan, that controls residential growth to 2% per year. Both of these ordinances where to prevent Boulder from the "boom town" effect, which the residents felt would destroy the character and style of their town.
Today Boulder is in a state of transition. Large high-tech companies and people throughout the country are finding Boulder a desirable place to live and work. But the city of Boulder's comprehensive plan makes it difficult for the companies to find large tracts of land to build on and it limits residential growth to 2% per year. So how does Boulder grow?
Since growth is limited outwardly by having the mountains to the west and the green belt on the other three sides, growth must happen from within. The city planners, council-members, architects and special interest groups have all suggested ideas on how growth should take place. (see p.73 ) Basically they all agreed that new clean industry must be attracted and the uroan triangle (formed by the downtown mall, the University Hill and Crossroads Mall see p. 5 ) should be developed into a high density urban area. Both the adoption of the performance industrial concept, this year (see p.77 ),

and the proposed change to a mixed-use zoning (see p.76 ) are ways the city of Boulder are currently solving these problems.

RUSTIC CONDOS As land grew more valuable and building costs rose, condominium living was introduced to Boulder. The Mines in South Boulder, designed by McStain Enterprises, play on the towns history as a mining community.
Changing Styles In Boulder Homes
n I

VICTORIAN Mirroring the style of the times, Boulder s early-day homes incorporated the gingerbread trim so popular in the late 1800s. The Arnett-Fullen house on Seventh and Peart was built in 1877.
ENERGY SAVER Luxury in a small, energy efficient space is offered by this passive solar condominium in Wonderland Hill. Most of Boulder s solar housing, including this unit, has been designed by Downing-Leach.

SPACE-AGE FOAM Ultra-modern foam house was built in the early 1970s on Wonderland Hill. Architect Charles Haertling is known for buildings that combine beauty with function.
SUBURBAN TRACT In the 1950s housing for the masses was introduced in the form of tract homes. This ranch was one of about five styles repeated throughout Martin Acres.
NEC CLASSICAL Designed in the late 1930s by James Hunter, this home on Baseline Road was patterned after the classical Georgian home. In typical Bauhaus style brick was painted white to create a sleek, dean-looking surface.

Noteworthy Designs In Public and Commercial Buildings
The bulk of the South Boulder Recreation Center, designed by Bill Bowen of Nixon, Brown, Brokaw and Bowen, is disguised by sloping it away from neighboring houses. Low profile also resists gale force winds typical for Table Mesa.
INTRASTATE INSPIRATION I. M. Pei drew an the diff dwellings of southern Colorado for hfs MQpiration for the design of the National
Center for Atmospheric Research. Finished in 1965, the building, a local architect thinks, 'ranks with the pyramids.'

When Art Everett designed the Geological Society of America headquarters building he thought of making the offices 'a home.' 'The building,' he says, makes a small footprint on the land.'
Its geometric forms are balanced by the sites rolling hills.
Camera Staff Photos By Karen Schulenburg
Charles Haertling's ingeniously designed eye clinic, on Broadway and Maxwell, puts the areas of highest use near the center of the building. Eye charts are mounted at the end of long protrusions away from the central core.
University of Colorado s Engineering Sciences Center, built in the 1960s by William Muchow, is a good example of ultra-new design that rests easy with its classical neighbors. It borrows the slanted red tile roof from older University buildings, then creates the illusion of match ng the high narrow towers while providing large flat laboratory spaces.


The proposed Pearl Street place project is in the Whittier neighborhood, which is located in the heart of Boulder. Whittier is bordered on the north by the north Boulder neighborhood, on the west by Mapleton Hill neighborhood and the downtown core, on the south by the Goss-Grove neighborhood and on the east by the Crossroads commercial area. Boulder's major north/south street, Broadway, runs along Whittier's western boundary, while Canyon Boulevard runs along the southern border.
Whittier neighborhood came into being in the late 1800's. Since it was adjacent to main street and the commercial area of town, Whittier became a desirable palce to live for business people, politicans and University faculty members. By the early 1900's Whittier became a well-established community with many of the fine Victorian style homes still standing today.
Today Whittier has become a mix of older residents, families, students and renters. While the majority of the Whittier population are single (38%) or married (43%) and between the ages of 20-40 (70%); the primary forms of housing are single family (48%) and multi-family (41%) with a 50:50 mix in renters and owners. The average level of education is four years or more of college (55%) with most people being employed in a professional or technical position (40%).
The average annual income for a household in the Whittier neighborhood is $25,000 or above (45%).
The Whittier residents enjoy the advantages of being within walking distance of the downtown mall, the county and city offices, post office, shops, entertainment, public schools, and the University. This pedestrian scale has encouraged the city of Boulder (Improvement Project 1977) to install brick paving on the corners of crosswalks throughout the neighborhood,

which helps define the Whittier neighborhood. Also the placement of mini-parks (see p. 31) contributes to this pedestrian scale. The future plan of the city of Boulder, for this area, is to develop Pearl Street into a major transportation corridor, (see p. 32)

The site for Pearl Street Place is located on the south side of Pearl Street between nineteenth and twentieth streets. (see map p. 22) The half city block consists of five lots, fifty feet by one hundred forty feet, that cover 35,000 square feet of ground area.
The major reasons for choosing this site are:
1. Its location within the new city of Boulder's zoning classification Mixed-Use Redeveloping.
2. The access from the site to both the Boulder Mall and Crossroads Mall.
3. Its one of the only sites left that can incorporate this size and type of project within this mixed-use zone.

I. Street Facade of the South Side of Pearl
1. This photo shows the small commercial buildings located east of the site on Pearl Street.
2. This is a look down Twentieth Street from Pearl, into the residential neighborhood behind the site. Note the five story-apartment complex located roughly in the middle of the photo.
3. This photo is taken at the intersection of Nineteenth and Pearl Street, looking west at the site. It shows the two existing homes, and commercial buildings on the site. You can also see the mountain backdrop beyond.
4. Again the commercial buildings are shown looking east from the intersection of Twentieth Street and Pearl Street.

5. This photo shows the small bungalow buildings located west of the site on Pearl Street.

II. Alley Behind Site
1. In this photo-you're standing in the alley on the east side of the site looking across Twentieth Street into the alley beyond. The single story building to the left is an office with a two story residence to the right.
2. This photo you're standing across Twentieth Street looking west down the alley behind the site. The site is to the right. Note the garages against the alley and the three story condo complex to the left and beyond.
3. In this photo you're standing across Nineteenth Street looking east down the alley behind the site. To the right is the site with the commercial buildings and to the left is a two story apartment complex and a garage beyond.
4. This photo shows the three story apartment complex and garage directly behind the site and across the alley.

III. Street Facade of the North Side of Pearl
1. This photo shows the commercial storefronts located on Pearl, northwest of the site Their uses consist of two restaurants, the Salvation and a small neighborhood food market.
2. This photo is taken at the intersection of Nineteenth and Pearl Street looking northwest at the buildings across Pearl Street from the site. The buildings consist of three bungalows and two commercial buildings. All three bungalows are up for sale.
3. Again this photo is showing the buildings across Pearl from the site. It was taken from the intersection of Twentieth and Pearl Street looking northwest. You can see the two commercial buildings in the foreground.
4. This photo shows the office storefronts located on Pearl northeast of the site.

The existing buildings on the site are a one story commercial structure, a two story commercial structure and two, two story single family homes. It would be impossible to incorporate these buildings into the proposed design, because the existing buildings could not provide below grade access for the proposed parking garage and they can not structurally support the addition of one or two more floors. So the existing building on the site will have to be removed for the development of Pearl Street Place.

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Zoning Code Used:
City of Boulder's Land Use Regulations 10/7/83
Zoning Authority:
City of Boulder's Planning Office
Building Zone:
Mixed-Use Redeveloping (MU-X)
This is a new buidling zone for the city of Boulder which encourages a blend of living, working and shopping areas within the same structure, on the traditional scale of the downtown two-three story buildings, zero setbacks, with a variety of storefronts lining the sidewalk. (see p. 76)
I. Main Zone Objectives
1. To provide a transition to the residential neighborhood abutting the zone without negatively impacting the neighborhood.
2. To encourage both residential and commercial-retail development along selected arterials.
3. To create an indentifiable character and encourage quality development and redevelopment for the area.
Reference #1
II. MU-X Bulk Requirements
The bulk requirements of this zone are designed to allow greater coverage of the lot.
1. Minimum usable open space per dwelling
unit 400 square feet
2. Minimum number parking/residential
1 bedroom, 1 space 2 bedroom, 1.5 spaces
3 bedroom, 2 spaces
4 or more, 3 spaces

3. Minimum number parking/non-residential
.75 per 300 square feet (1 to 400 square feet)
4. No front setback required for first and second story: above second story, 20 foot setback required
5. Minimum rear yard setback 15 feet
6. Height limit* 35 feet
7. No minimum side yard setback from a street
8. Minimum side yard setback for principle
building 12 feet, if any
* In some circumstances the height has been allowed to reach 55 feet at maximum.
Reference #1
III. Usable Open Space
1. Usable open space is landscaped area, including required yards abutting streets which is free of buildings, structures, and other substantial improvements.
2. The following examples are listed by way
of illustration to indicate what may be counted as usable open space within the meaning of this section:
a. Outdoor swimming pools, swimming pool areas, hard surface recreational areas, and other recreational areas, provided these areas are unenclosed, and fences, canopies, bath houses, and accessory structures for recreation use, whether enclosed or unenclosed.
b. Driveways which cross the required yard at approximately right angles and serve less than three parking spaces.
c. Underground facilities, provided the ground surface qualifies as usable open space under the provisions of this section.
d. Pedestrian ways and plazas within a building which are directly oriented to the major pedestrian entrance of the building and are open to view and use by the public.
3. The following examples are listed by way of illustration to indicate what may not be counted
as usable open space within the meaning of this section:

a. Public or private rights-of-way for streets or highways.
b. Open parking areas.
c. Parking garages.
d. Slopes in excess of 15% unless approved as part of a planned unit.
Reference ft 1
4. In addition to the examples above, the (MU-X) zone allows the following to be counted as open space:
a. balconies and decks with a minimum usable width of 6 feet;
b. roofs, when designed to provide passive or active recreational space for the building occupants;
c. internal atriums and plazas.
IV. MU-X Floor Area Ratio Requirement
A maximum by-right floor area ratio of 1:1 is established for the zone regardless of building height. To exceed a 1:1 ratio to a maximum of 2:1, the following density bonuses apply:
1. Site and building design providing sunlight for each residential unit and private outdoor space for each residential unit exceeding, when totaled with other project open space, 10% of the open space requirement: a bonus not to exceed 25%.
2. Site and building design providing private outdoor space for each office unit within a proposed project equal in square feet to 10 percent of the lot area for buildings under 25 feet, 20 percent above 25 feet: a bonus not to exceed 25%.
3. Site and building design providing a street front facade, and an alley facade at a pedestrian scale including such features as awnings and windows, well defined building entrances, and other building details: a bonus not to exceed 25%.
4. Site and building design providing a streetside public open space of at least 500 square feet designed to compliment required right-of-way improvements and to function as a vest-pocket park and exceeding,
when totaled with other project open space, 10% of the open space requirement for the use: a bonus not to exceed 50%.
Reference ft 1

V. Uses Allowed In The MU-X Zone
The uses to be allowed in the zone have been selected for compatibility with the adjacent residential neighborhoods and to create a zone which truly encourages a mix of uses. Recognizing the importance of scale along the corridor, size of the use was also an important consideration.
1. a. Places for the retailing of goods, a*
provided the stores are meant primarily
for the convenience of the residents of the area in which it is located, not the whole community;
b. Same and project no larger than A
2000 square feet in size.
2. Personal service outlets, including, A
but not limited to, barber and beauty
shops, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, travel agencies and photographic studios;
3. a. Places for the retailing of goods, a
including but not limited to, drug, book, stationery, liquor, florist, or specialty
b. Same and project no larger than A
2000 square feet in size.
4. Offices including professional, a
finance, insurance and other services;
5. Medical and dental clinics; a
6. a. Indoor eating and drinking estab- S
lishments which may include meal service
on an outside patio not more that one-third the size of the indoor eating space;
b. Same and no larger than 1000 a
square feet in size.
7. Membership clubs not conducted S
primarily for gain;
8. Single-unit dwellings; A
9. Multi-unit dwellings; A
10. Boarding and rooming houses, frater- S!
nities and sororities and dormitories (including bed and breakfasts)
Reference #1

11. Limited living units:
a. when the number of limited living a
units is less than 50% of the total
number of dwelling units in a project;
b. when the number of limited living S
units is equal to or greater than 50% of
the total number of dwelling units in a project.
12. Group quarters; S
13. Hostels; S
14. Day care home; A
15. Accessory buildings and uses; A
16. Child care centers; S
17. Recreational buildings and uses S
operated by a private, non-profit agency;
18. Automobile parking lots and garages
19. More than one used within an individual building when the uses are meant to be complementary or provide places of residence in conjunction with places of employment; furthermore, the uses are permitted in the individual district either by right or have been approved as a special review use;
20. a. Art and craft studio space and a
associated gallery
b. Same and project no larger than A
2000 square feet in size.
*A: Use allowed by right,
S: Use permitted by special review only,
a: Use allowed by right provided at least 50% of the
floor area is for residential uses
Reference #1
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The Whittier neighborhood is mainly a residential neighborhood with commercial uses concentrated along Pearl Street.
Over the last ten years the neighborhood has seen an increase in density, form primarily single fanily homes to multi-family (apartments, condominiums, duplexs and four plexs) and commercial development. I think this high density trend will continue, since the city of Boulder is encouraging this type of development in this area. Commercial uses will develop along Pearl while more single family homes will be developed into multifamily homes. I feel this high density trend will help the core area of Boulder stay an exciting and lively urban center, even as the city grows, because the high-density housing will continue to provide residents with closeness to the commercial core.
Note: All the land uses on the map are shown as general.

1. Portland Fire Station
2. Church of Christ Scientist
3. Trinity Lutheran Church
4. First Baptist Church of Boulder
5. Sacred Heart of Jesus Church
6. Sacred Heart of Jesus Convent
7. St. John's Episcopal Church
8. First United Methodist Church of Boulder
9. Unity Church
10. Pillar of Fire Church and Day Care
11. Four Square Gospel Church
12. Casey Junior High School
13. Sacred Heart of Jesus School
14. September School
15. Whittier School and Park
16. Alternative Learning School
17. YWCA
18. Spruce Pool
19. Boys Club
20. Boulder Youth Service
21. Boulder Attention Home
22. Eco-cycle and Boulder County Workshop
23. Fitzpatrick Mini-Park
24. 19th Street Mini-Park
25. 22nd Street Mini-Park
26. Canyon Park
27. Calico Corner Day Care School
28. Boulder Day Nursery and Barker Park
29. Childe Care Support Center
30. Post Office
31. Regional Transportation District Transit Center

In the fall of 1982 the city of Boulder transportation department formed a study group composed of city staff, residents and business persons to study the east Pearl corridor. Recommendations from this committee in the area from 18th Street to Folsom consisted of five major topics: future development of the Pearl Street right-of-way; parking; alley improvements; street lighting; and parking reduction policies.
I. Future Development of the Pearl Street Right-of-Way
There are no plans at present to change Pearl Street from the current design of two parking lanes, two travel lanes, and one turning lane.
In considering future development, it was taken as a given that the curblines on Pearl Street will remain unchanged.
The following option was recommended for further study before any changes in Pearl Street are planned:
1. Some form of public transit along Pearl Street such as a mini-bus or trolley. This was the preferred alternative of the committee for moving people along the corridor.
II. Parking
Parking was recognized by the committee as one of Pearl Street's biggest problems. Even without removing parking along Pearl, current space is inadequate. The Whittier South project, which will be completed in 1983, will accomplish the committee's recommendation in this area:
1. Street width will be increased, and angle or head-in parking will be provided on 19th Street.
III. Alleys
Currently the alleys are congested because of inadequate width and loading areas. Additional congestion occurs when new residential development is required to take access from the alleys. Utility poles and dumpsters aggravate the problem. It was recommended that the following improvements be considered:
1. Pave and widen alleys to a full 20 foot width.

2. One-way alleys and provide one full lane for loading. Other loading areas need to be created for businesses without alley access.
3. Underground utilities and remove dumpsters from alley right-of-way.
4. Do not close side streets, forcing additional traffic through the alley.
5. Create a Woonerf on several alleys, making them more attractive to pedestrian activity.
Alleys south of Pearl are already slated for paving as part of the Whittier South project.
IV. Street Lighting
Pedestrian scale lighting should be included in any design plan for the corridor. Lighting along storefronts, special street lights for pedestrians, or use of existing light poles with separate lighting for the sidewalk area should be considered.
V. Parking Reductions
In recent years, several new developments along the Pearl Corridor have been granted parking reductions. The committee makes a strong recommendation to the Planning Board that these reductions not be granted in the future as they have aggravated the problems of an already inadequate parking supply.
Reference #2

1. Major arteries are capable of carrying over 15,000 cars per day.
2. Minor arteries are designed to carry 10 15,000 cars per day.
3. Major collectors can carry 5 10,000 cars per day.
4. Minor collectors are capable of carrying 1 5,000 cars per day.


The transportation element of the Boulder Valley comprehensive plan considers bicycles a mode of transportation along with the auto, public transit and pedestrian. The "existing" routes consist of a reserved lane within the street right-of-way. "Possible" routes are those roadways used regularly by bicycle travelers yet are not equipped with a separate bicycle lane. "Proposed" routes are paths that could be developed at a future date.
The city of Boulder has one of the largest populations of bicyclists in the country. Consequently Boulder has developed quite an extensive network of bicycle paths through the city, which enable the bicycling commuter to get around town very quickly and safely.

The Regional Transportation District (RTD) is the only form of public transportation currently serving the Boulder Valley. The RTD transit center is located at the 15th Street and Walnut Street corner, which is about six blocks from the proposed Pearl Street Place Project. At this transit center you can "catch the ride" (RTD bus) to any of the outlying cities around Boulder, to Denver, and to Stapleton International Airport.
The RTD system in Boulder connects all the major neighborhoods together with the urban triangle (Crossroads Mall, Boulder Mall and University Hill). Also, the RTD connects the urban triangle with the outlying business areas.
In the future Boulder is planning on installing a "trolley system" to connect the downtown mall with Crossroads and the Hill area. Also the possibility of a light rail system to Denver has been talked about.

Building Codes Used:
Uniform Building Code 1979 Edition Uniform Plumbing Code 1979 Edition Uniform Mechanical Code 1979 Edition National Electrical Code 1980 Edition Life Safety Code 1980 Edition
Building Authority:
City of Boulder's Building Department
Building Code Review:
All building code requirements are the "minimum" allowed by law.
I. Requirements Based on Occupancy
1. Mixed Occupancy
a. General When a building is used for more than one occupancy purpose, each part of the building comprising a distinct occupancy shall be separated from any other occupancy.
When a building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein.
2. Occupancy Types
a. A-3 Any building for portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load less than 300 without a stage.
b. B-2 Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking, and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50.
c. B-3 Open parking garages. An open parking garage is a structure which is open on two or more sides totaling not less than 40 percent of the building perimeter. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of ^he exterior
area of the side at each tier. Construction shall be of noncombustible materials only.
d. R-3 Dwellings and lodging houses.

3. Required separations in buildings of mixed occupancy:
Between A-3 and B-2 N/A
U A-3 and B-3 1 hour
H A-3 and R-3 1 hour
i r B-2 and R-3 N/A
it B-2 and B-3 1 hour
B-3 and R-3 N/A
A one hour fire-resistant occupancy separation shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. All openings in such separations shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one-hour fire-protection rating.
4. Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls
A-3 2 hours less than 5 feet and 1 hour
B-2 1 hour less than 20 feet B-3 1 hour less than 20 feet R-3 1 hour less than 5 feet
The above distances are measured at right angles to the property line, with the adjoining street or alley center line being considered the property line.
5. Openings in Exterior Walls
A-3 not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 10 feet
B-2 not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 10 feet
B-3 not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 20 feet
R-3 not permitted less than 3 feet
The above distances are measured at right angles to the property line, with the adjoining street or alley center line being considered the property line.
Note: Buildings on the same property and court
walls of buildings over one story in height shall be assumed to have a property line between them.
6. Allowable Floor Areas
A) 3 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 9,100 13,500 9,100 13,500 10,500 6,000
B) 2-3 Unlimited 39,900 18,000 12,000 18,000 12,000 18,000 14,000 8,000
R-3 Jnlitnited

6. Allowable Floor Areas continued F.R. Fire-resistive
N No requirement for fire resistance H.T. Heavy timber
a. The total area of all floors of multi-story buildings shall not exceed twice the area allowed for one story buildings.
b. Area increases are not needed since all allowable floor areas are more than enough.
c. See zoning page 25.
d. Area Separation Walls:
"Each portion of a building separated by .one or more area separation walls may be considered a separate building, provided the area separation walls meet the following requirements:
1. Area separation walls shall be not less than four-hour fire-resistive construction in Types I, II-F.R., Ill and IV buildings and two-hour fire-resistive construction in Types II One-hour, II-N or V buildings. The total width of all openings in such walls shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall in each story. All openings shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-hour fire-protection rating in four-hour fire-resistive walls and one and one-half-hour fire protection rating in two-hour fire-resistive walls.
2. Area separation walls need not extend to the outer edges of horizontal projecting elements such as balaconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees or architectural projections, provided the exterior wall at the termination of the area separation wall and the projecting elements above are not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction for a width equal to the depth of the projecting elements. Wall openings within such width shall be protected by assemblies having
a three-forths-hour fire-protection rating.
3. Area separation walls shall extend from the foundation to a point at least 30 inches above the roof.
EXCEPTIONS: l.Area separation walls may terminate
at the roof soffit, provided the roof is of at least two-hour fire-resistive construction.
2. Two-hour area separation walls may terminate at the underside of roof sheathing, provided
that the roof has at least one-hour fire-resistive time period for a width of not less than 5 feet on each side of the area separation wall termination.
3. Two-hour area separation walls may terminate
at roofs of entirely non-combustible construction."
Reference #3

"4. Where an area separation wall separates portions of a building having different heights, such wall may terminate at a point 30 inches above the lower roof level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 10 feet above the lower roof is of one-hour fire-resistive construction with openings protected by assemblies having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating.
EXCEPTIONS: The area separation wall may terminate
at the sheating or the lower roof, provided the roof is of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction for a width of 10 feet without openings measured from the wall."
Reference #3
7. Maximum Height of Buildings
II 1 IV 1 v
Unlimited 160 65 I6? 55 65 1 40
A) 3 Unlimited 12 2 i i 1 2 2 1
B) 2-3 Unlimited 12 4 2 4 2 4 3 2
R-3 Unlimited 3 3 Lj_ 3 3 3 3
F.R. Fire-resistive
N No requirement for fire resistance H.T. Heavy timber
Also see zoning page 24.
8. Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
a. A-3, B-2 and B-3 shall be provided with natural and/or artificial light and ventilation.
b. A-3 - there shall be at least one lavatory for
each two water closets for each sex and at least one drinking fountain for each floor level.
c. B-2, B-3 at least one water closet. Separate toilet rooms shall be provided when employees exceed four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet rooms shall be located in close proximity to the space they are serving and within the same build.i ng.
d. R-3 "All habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet."
Reference #3

All bathrooms, water closets compartments, laundry rooms, and similar rooms shall be provided with natural and/or mechanical ventilation. Every dwelling unit shall be provided with one kitchen and one bathroom.
9. Other Occupancy Requirements For R-3
a. Courts not less than three feet in width and six feet with windows opening on both sides. For buildings more than two stories in height the court shall increase one foot in width and two feet in length for each additional story. Courts bound on three or more sides shall not be less than ten feet in length. Access should be provided at the bottom of all courts.
b. Room Dimensions all ceilings shall have a minimum height of 7'6". Except kitchens, halls, and bathrooms may be 7'0". Every dwelling unit must have one room not less than 150 square feet.
All other habitable rooms shall not be less than 70 square feet, except the kitchen. Minimum width of any room can not be less than 7'0".
II. Requirements Based on Types of Construction
Portions of buildings separated with area separation walls may be considered a separate building for classification of types of construction.
1. Toilet Facilities
"Each water closet stool shall be located in a clear space not less than 30 inches in width and have a clear space in front of the water closet stool of not less than 24 inches.
Where toilet facilities are provided on any floor where access by the physically handicapped is required, at least one such facility for each sex shall comply with the requirement of this section.
All doorways leading to such toilet rooms shall have a clear and unobstructed width of not less than 30 inches. Each such toilet room shall have the following:
a. A clear space of not less than 44 inches on each side of doors providing access to toilet rooms. This distance shall be measured at right angles to the face of the door when in the closed position. Not more than one door may encroach into the 44-inch space.
b. Except in dwelling units and guest rooms, a clear space within the toilet room of sufficient size
to inscribe a circle with a diameter not less than 60 inches. Doors in any position may encroach into this space by not more than 12 inches."
Reference #3

c"A clear space not less than 42 inches wide and 48 inches long in front of at least one water closet stool for the use of the handicapped. When such water closet stool is within a compartment, entry to the compartment shall have a clear width of 30 inches when located at the end and a clear width of 34 inches when located at the side. A door, if provided, shall not encroach into the required space in front of the water closet. Except for door swing, a clear unobstructed access not less than 44 inches in width shall be provided to toilet compartments designed for use by the handicapped." Reference #3
2. Guardrails shall not be less than 42 inches in height. Intermediate rails shall be designed so a sphere nine inches in diameter can not
pass through.
Exceptions: R-3 occupancy guardrails may be
36 inches in height.
3. Types of Construction fire-resistive requirements (in hours)
Fir* R>ltllvt Fir* Rfttlstiv* 1-Hr. N 1-Hr. N H.T. 1-Hr. N
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 4 i N 4 4 4 i N
Interior Bearing Walls 3 2 i N 1 N 1 i N
Exterior Nonl>earing Walls 4 4 i N 4 4 4 i N
Structural Frame1 3 2 i N 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Partitions Permanent 1 1 i N 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Shaft Enclosures 2 2 i 1 1 1 i 1
Floors 2 2 i N 1 N H.T. i N
Roofs 2 1 i N 1 N H.T. i N
F.R. Fire-resistive
N No requirement for fire resistance
H. T. Heavy timber
For exterior wall and openings see I. number 4 and
I. number 5 this section.
4. Contruction Types
a. Type I shall be steel, concrete or masonry. Noncombustible construction only. The most restrictive.
b. Type II shall be steel, concrete or masonry. Noncombustible construction only.

c. Type III shall be steel, concrete, masonry or wood. Combustible construction can be used.
d. Type IV shall mainly be heavy timber construction.
e. Type V shall be steel, wood, concrete or masonry. Combustible construction can be used.
This is the least restrictive.
III. Stairs, Exits, and Occupant Loads
1. The occupant load in a building shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that use by the square foot per occupant as set forth in the table shown below.
a. Minimum Egress and Access Requirements
Assembly Areas, Less-concentrated Use Conference Rooms Dining Rooms Drinking Establishments Exhibit Rooms Gymnasiums Lounges Stages
Dwellings Garage, Parking Locker Rooms
Mechanical Equipment Room Nurseries for Children (Day-care)
StoresRetail Sales Rooms Basement Ground Floor Upper Floors
b. Mixed occupancy buildings occupant load shall be determined by adding all the various occupant loads together.
2. Exits Required
a. See III number 1 a. above for number of exits required.
b. In all occupancies, floors above the first floor with a occupant load over ten shall have two exits.
c. "The number of exits required from any story of
a building shall be determined by using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages of the

occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under consideration as follows:
1. 50 percent of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exists through the level under consideration).
2. 25 percent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story."
Reference #3
d. Width "the total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served divided by 50.
Reference #3
e. Arrangement of Exits "if only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length
of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exits."
Reference #3
f. Distance to Exit the maximum distance from any point to an exit shall not exceed 150 feet.
If an automatic sprinkler system is used throuh-out, that distance can be 200 feet. In a open parking garage the distance can be 250 feet.
g. Exit door shall swing in the direction of exit if serving an occupant load of 50 or. more.
h. All exit doors must be a minimum of three feet wide by six feet eight inches high and must opened at least 90.
3. Corridors
a. Every corridor serving an occupant load of ten or more shall be the minimum of 44 inches wide and with a clear height of 7 feet minimum.
b. Dead end corridors cannot exceed 20 feet.
c. Changes in elevation of 12 inches or more along any exit serving an occupant load of 10 or more shall
be by ramps.
4. Stairways a. Width
- serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be 44 inches minimum
- serving occupant load less than 50 shall 36 inches minimum

b. Rise and Run "the rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than four inches nor greater than seven and one-half inches. The run shall not be less than ten inches.
Exception: private stairways serving an occupant
load of less than ten and stairways to unoccupied roofs may be constructed with an eight inch maximum rise and nine inch minimum run."
Reference #3
c. Landings maximum of four feet or no more than seven inches beyond the exit door width when fully open.
d. Handrails shall be 30 inches minimum or 34 inches maximum above the nosing of the treads.
At least one handrail must extend six inches minimum beyond the top and bottom risers.
e. Headroom minimum clearance of six feet six inches from tread nosing vertical to the soffit above.
f. Handicap ramps shall not exceed a slope of 1:12
IV. Design Loads
1. Assembley Areas - 100 lb/SF
2. Cornices, Marquees and Residential Balconies _ 60 lb/SF
3. Exit Facilities - 100 lb/SF
4. Car Garages - 50 lb/SF
5. Offices - 50 lb/SF
6. Residential - 40 lb/SF
7. Sidewalks and Driveways For Public Access _ 250 lb/SF
8. Storage Light - 125 lb/SF
- Heavy - 250 lb/SF
9. Stores Retail - 75 lb/SF
- Wholesale - 100 lb/SF
Plumbing Code Requirements
1. A-3 Occupancy
a. Water Closets:
Male and Female lea. : 1-100
2 ea. : 101-200
b. Urinals: Male 1 : 1-100
2 : 101-200

c. Lavatories;
Male and Female
d. Drinking Fountain
2. R-3 Occupancy
a. Water closets, lavatories and shower: one per dwelling
3. R-2
a. Office or Public Buildings Water Closets Male and Female
Lavatories Male and Female
Drinking Fountains
b. Restaurants, Pubs and Lounges Water Closets Male and Female
Lavatories Male and Female
1 ea. : 1-200 ea. : 201-400
1 ; 75
bathtub or
1 ea. : 1-15
2 ea. : 16-35
3 ea. : 36-55
4 ea. : 56-80
1 ea. : 1-15
2 ea. : 16-35
3 ea. : 36-60
4 ea. : 61-90
1 : 75
1 ea. : 1-50 ea. : 51-150
1 ea. : 1-150
1 ea. : 1-150

The city of Boulder has enacted an ordinance to protect the potential for the use of solar energy. The ordinance guarantees access to sunlight for property owners. This is done by assuring that new buildings will not shade existing buildings. Pearl Street Place is located within Solar Access Area II.
The degree of solar access protection is defined by 25' hypothetical "solar fence" on the property lines of the protected buildings. The ordinance is designed to protect access from 10 A.M. to 2 P.M. on December 21st. Under most circumstances, new structures will not be allowed to shade adjacent lots to a greater extent than the applicable solar fence.
Reference # 4
Solar Shadow Analysis Table for Level Grades
Solar Access Area I Solar Access Area II Bldg Length of Shadow Bldg Length of Shadow
Ht 10 am Noon 2 pm Ht 10 am Noon 2 pm
IT 2.6' 2.7 2.6' 26' ' 2 6' 27 2.6'
14 5.J 4.7 5.T 27 5.7 47 5.7
15' 7.7 6.7 7.7 27 77 6.7 7.7
16' 10.6' 8.7 10 6' 27 106' 87 10.6'
17 13-2* 10.7 13.2* (37/ 137 107 132*
17 15.7 12.7 15.7 31' 15 7 127 157
17 18.5' 147 18.5' 37 185' 14 7 185'
2V 21.2' 16.7 212" 37 217 167 21 7
21' 23.8* 187 23 S' 34' 23 7 18 7 23 8"
22 26.5' 207 26 5' 35' 265' 207 26 5'
23* 29.1' 22.7 29 T 36' 29 T 227 29 r
24' 31.8" 24.7 31 S' 37 31 7 24 7 31.7
25' 34.4' 26.7 34 4' 37 34 4' 267 34 4'
26' 37.0 28.7 37.7 37 377 287 37.7
27 39.7 307 39. T 47 39 T 307 397
27 42.3* 32.7 427 41' 42.7 327 42.7
27 45.0 33.7 45.7 47 457 337 457
30r 47.6' 35.7 47.6' 4T 47 6' 35 9- 47.6'
31' 50.3* 37.7 50.7 44' 50.7 37.7 50.7
32 52.7 397 52.7 45' 52.7 39.7 52.7
33* 55.6' 41.7 55 6' 46' 556' 41.7 55.6'
34' 58.7 43.7 58.2* 47 587 43.7 58 2*
35' 60.7 45.7 60.7 47 607 45.7 60.7
47 63.5' 47.7 63.5'
57 66.7 49.7 667
51' 687 51.7 68.7
57 71.5' 537 71.5'
57 74.1' 55.7 74.1'
54' 76.7 57.7 76.7
55' 79.4' 59.7 79.4'

Location: Longitude: Latitude: Altitude:
Boulder, Colorado 105 16 West 40 North 5,420 Feet
The climate of Boulder, Colorado is mild, sunny and semi-arid; extremely cold or hot weather is of short duration. The features of low relative humidity, abundant sunshine, light rainfall, and moderate to high winds are accompanied by a marked difference between summer and winter temperatures. In winter, cold spells move across the area usually from the north and northwest and can be quite violent. Summer temperatures can reach to over 90F, but these temperatures are accompanied by low humidity and cool nights which allow for comfort.
altitude angles


r MIN.

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4 pi^pt^hh p^MruT^^- m^om.
* HEAplH^ 3^4 co^UHq e>4^

JAN 7 7 -5.9 13.6
FEB 9.1 -4.4 13.5
MAR .1.1.. 3 -2.8 14 1
APR 16.8 1.6 15.1
MAY P2 p 7.6 14.5
JUN 27.7 12 4 15.3
JUL 31 15.7 15.3
AUG 30.. 1 14 8 15.2
SEP 25.6 9.8 15.7
OCT 19.9 4.6 15.2
NOV 12.2 -1.7 13.8
DEC 8.5 -4.9 13.3
HIGH = 31 LOW = -5.9
AMT ~ 12.5 AMR = 36.9
DEG.C = Degree Celsius.
MAX = Maximum.
MIN = Minimum.
AMT = Annual Mean Temperature. AMR = Annual Mean Range.
JAN 62 43 5 2.. J. j 3 .63 NW W
FEB 67 43 55 3 .31 NW w
MAR 69 41 5 5 3 1.34 NW w
APR 69 34 51.5 3 2.11 NW sw
MAY 70 37 535 3 3.21 W sw
JUN 70 37 54.5 y O 2.11 W sw
JUL 71 34 5 2 n 5 3 1.32 W sw
AUG 69 34 51.5 3 1.53 W s w
SEP 71 36 53.5 3 1.66 W sw
OCT 65 36 50.5 3 1.2 NW w
NOV 69 45 57 3 1.04 NW w
DEC 66 45 . j j n \.J 3 .68 NW w
TOTAL 18.19
AVE = Average.
G = Humidity Group. RAIN = Rain-fall.
WP = Prevailing Wind. WS = Secondary Wind.

< -DAY-- > < 1 NIGHT- > STRE .3
JAN 7.6 26 19 -6 19 C C
FEB 9.1. 26 19 -4.5 19 C c
MAR 11 3 26 19 -2.8 19 C c
APE 16.7 26 19 1 6 19 C c
MAY 22.. 2 26 19 7 n b 19 0 c
JUN 27.7 26 19 12.3 19 1-1 0
JUL 31 26 19 15.6 19 H 0
AIJG 30 1 26 19 14.8 .19 H 0
SEP 25.6 26 19 9.8 19 0 c
OCT 19.8 26 19 4 3 19 0 c
NOV 12.1 26 19 -1.8 19 C c
DEC 8.5 26 19 ~*5 19 C c
UP = Upper corn-fort level.
LOW = Lower comfort level.
D = Day stress. C = Cold.
N = Night stress. H = Hot.
JAN 0 0 0 1 0 1
FEB 0 0 0 1 0 1
MAR 0 0 0 1 0 1
APR 0 0 0 1 0 1
MAY 0 0 0 1 0 0
JUN 0 0 0 1 0 0
JUL 0 0 0 1 0 0
AUG 0 0 0 1 0 0
SEP 0 0 0 1 0 0
OCT 0 0 0 1 0 0
NOV 0 0 0 1 0 1
DEC 0 0 0 1 0 1
TOTAL 0 0 0 12 0 6
HI..3 = Humid groupings. A1..3 = Arid groupings.

No soil test was available for Pearl Street Place.
But with discussion with local engineers and the review of soil tests in the area; the soils where figured to be predominately medium stiff clays overlying silty, gravelly sands and sandy gravels. The clays do not possess swell potential and the granular soils are dense and capable of supporting high building loads. The typical soil pressure of 4,000 PSF is used for footing design. The ground water table in this area varies from sixteen feet to twenty feet below grade, which restricts any below grade construction beyond one level.


I. General
This involves the development of an architectural building program on which the design is to be based. The information generated in this program is just a guideline to follow as the design process develops. Because of the interplay between the programming phase and the design phase it is difficult to separate the phases therefore the programming phase is flexible and can change. This program will systematically define the user groups.needs for the project, building image and spatial relationships.
The site I have choosen to analyze for the development of Pearl Street Place is in the heart of Boulder's new zoning classification, Mixed-Use Redeveloping. (see p. 22) The main objectives the city of Boulder has set fourth for this new zone are basically the same ideas that I have envisioned for Pearl Street Place. To provide a transition between the residential neighborhood abuting the zone and to create a project with an identifiable character within the traditional scale of downtown Boulder, are also my objectives. Since there have not been any new projects built in this mixed-use zone, it will provide me with a good opportunity to explore a mixed-use design for this zone.

II. Economy
Boulder county ranks fourth in the state manufacturing and seventh in retail sales.
It is currently in the center of a high growth area in energy and high technology. Attracting major research and "high tech" manufacturing firms in electronics, computers and related products. The University of Colorado, IBM, Storage Technology Corp., Ball Aerospace and several other large firms further stabilize Boulder's economy.
The desirability of Boulder as a place to live and work both with respect fo the Denver Metropolitan area and also with the nation as a whole, proves to be a major force in attracting new business and people.
Boulder's strong and diversified economic base is reflected in the following charts. All the charts show that Boulder's economy is still growing and at quite a strong rate. So the need for commercial/ retail, office and residential uses are still in demand. Since there is currently only one other mixed-use complex in Boulder; Willow Springs, which has been a great success, I feel that the need for this type of mixed-use complex has not yet been fulfilled. I support this for the following reasons: the breakdown of single-use zoning, protection against an oversupply of any one type of real estate, more marketable buildings, and a greater operating efficiency.

DOLLARS (figures In thousands)
Annual average, all urban consumers*
Source: City of Boulder Finance Department

Source: Mlller.T.I, Boulder Housing Market 19731982. City of Boulder, Dlv. of Research and Evaluation, Sept. 1982.
AGE GROUPS 0-14 15-29 30-34 35-44 45-64 65 + TOTAL
N 15,597 27, 785 4,120 6,550 8,530 4,287 66,869
1970 * of Total Population 23.3 41.5 6.2 9.8 12.8 6.4 100X
N 10,329 36,654 7,237 7,774 9,266 5,423 76,683
1980 X of Total Population 13.5 47.8 9.4 10.1 12.1 7.1 100X
1970- 1980 X Change -33.78 +31.92 +75.66 18.69 +8.63 26.50 14.68
Source: 1980 Census as reported in Research Perspectives, January 1983

Table 6
1 ndustry Boulder
Agriculture 1980 and 1970 Mining Change 2,644 1,217 1,327
1980 Construction 1970 Change 6,595 2,923 3,672
1980 Manufacturing 1970 Change 21,653 11,025 10,628
Transportation 1980 Communication 1970 Change 5,136 2,669 2,467
Wholesale 1980 Trade 1970 Change 4,080 1,242 2,838
1980 Reta i 1 Trade 1970 Change 16,503 8,254 8,249
Finance 1980 Insurance and 1970 Real Estate Change 5,351 2,169 3, 182
1980 Services 1970 Change 32,250 19,807 12,443
Public 1980 Administration 1970 Change 4,950 3,076 1,874
Total 1980 1970 99,162 -52,482
Change 1970-80 Number Percent 46,680 88.9

Pearl Street Place will offer a rich mixture of mutually supporting activities that provide the users access to multiple experiences in an exciting environment. Pearl Street Place will also provide a greater diversity of uses and the possibility of higher densities that a single purpose project, therefore higher levels of human activity will take place.
The target market for commercial/retail will be small retail goods shops that will be used primarily by the residents of Pearl Street Place and the surrounding district. The office space will mainly be composed of small professional, insurance finance and computer companies. While the residential units will be designed for the young working single, couple or family. All these uses will fit well with the surrounding neighborhood and the intentions of the mixed-use zoning classification.
I feel mixed-use buildings can provide the users with a sense of community. The users can feel more a part of the environment that includes office, retail, residential and entertainment space than a single-purpose space; because the users will come to know the other users due to the close proximity of the spaces.

Building Image
Pearl Street Place will have a human scale that is colorful, exciting and stimulating. The complex will connect to the existing neighborhood through entries, texture and scale. Even though Pearl Street Place will be a three or four story building it will be developed to scale down to the one to two story existing buildings.
The style of the complex will be that of a high density European street. There will be a central area developed that will support the main pedestrian circulation. The European style will represent commercial/retail uses on the first floor, offices on the middle floors, with the residential units located on the top floors. Roof gardens and decks will be developed for the office and residential units. The parking will be provided by some type of parking garage, that will be screened from view.
The transition area between the proposed Pearl Street Place and the existing residential neighborhood will be developed by designing the alley with connections to the complex and scaling down the building mass.

Spaces and Descriptions
1. Entries
Pearl Street Place will have a number of entries. The primary entry will be provided off of Pearl Street and will connect to a central space that will provide access to the other uses. Storefront entries will be provided along Pearl Street, nineteenth and twentieth streets. The alley will provide entry access for service, loading and automobiles, while also providing entries to shops and the main central space. If service, loading and/or automobile access can not be completely provided by the alley then nineteenth street will be used.
This alley access should be developed to facilitate interaction with adjoining buildings.
The office and residential uses will have access from a vertical circulation core off the central and nineteenth and twentieth streets. The commercial/ retail uses will be located in the most publicly accessable area. The office entries will be located in a semi-public area and the residential entries will be private and secure.
The primary entries to the complex will be well defined architecturally so the public will know where these entries are located. Awnings, storefronts, lighting, facade material, paving and location will all be ways the entries will be defined.
2. Public Space
The design of the public space is the single most important design consideration in this project. This area must be designed to provide a special and exciting place that will support the scale, mix and

integration of project components.
A well conceived circulation system is essential for the proper functioning of the complex. Access and egress points muct be skillfully controlled to guide the pedestrian through an exciting and pleasing retail/office environment, while also providing security.
The central public space will be the heart of the complex. All the uses will have access to this space. This central space will be developed as the area that will bring together all the various building uses. Various degrees of public and private spaces must be provided for the commercial, office and residential area. The Pearl Street, nineteenth street and twentieth street facade, the centrally located area, and the alley will be the most public areas. Public amenities will be provided in this area. They will consist of: retail kiosks, landscaping, trash receptacles, public phone, restrooms, directories, seating, sculpture and art forms, and possibly and exhibit area.
Stretches of the public space will provide narrow passage ways punctuated with moderate-sized open areas. The public space can be enclosed or open, but all the signage and graphics must be visible from this space. I believe by designing a public space such as this that a high level of human interaction will be generated which will contribute to the success of the project.

3. Storefronts
The storefronts of Pearl Street Place will generally be provided around the central public space and on the street and alley fronts. They should be designed to arouse interest that in turn will attract passers by to enter the complex.
This is of particular importance for the survival of the commercial/retail component of Pearl Street Place.
The storefront designs should be treated individually by each commercial/retail and office tenant, but with architect/developer approval.
Each of these individual storefront designs must fit into a strong architectural framework. The design of the exterior facades, signage, awnings, placement, lighting and the pedestrian amenities will all be ways that a strong architectural framework will develop.
4. Alley
The alley will provide the transition between Pearl Street Place and the existing residential neighborhood. This will be done with skillful design that will screen the automobile access loading and service area, while providing direct access off the alley to shops, offices and residential uses. Thus the alley will be developed to provide the immediate, adjacent neighborhood with a small complex in itself. Also, an entry to the main public space of the complex will be provided.
The alley will become its own little pedestrian street with truck and auto access. Pedestrian amenities will be provided to develop the character and provide

a lively environment for activities to take place.
5. Commercial/Retail
This space will mainly be designed for small retail good shops that will be primarily used by the residents of the complex and the surrounding community. This space will be the most people orientated space within the complex. The storefront, window display and signage will be the major form of communication that the tenant will have for his goods or services to the public. So the location and design of the above is of critical importance.
The design of the interior space will allow for flexibility and easy access for deliveries and with as little dead space as possible.
The following is a suggested list of possible uses for the commercial/retail area, which is by no means exclusive:
- florist shop
- copy center
- shoe repair and sales
- mens and womens clothing stores
- restaurant/deli with outdoor eating
- arts and crafts studio or gallery
- book/magazine store
- travel agency
- dance studio/classes (exercise)
- barber and beauty shops
- pet store
- hardware store
- small neighborhood grocery store
- sports specialty shop
- cookie/ice cream parlor
- computer sales/repair
6. Office
The office space will be designed for the small professional, insurance, finance or computer firms.
The space will primarily be located off the major pedestrian areas, with access from a number of locations.

The interior will be designed with a shallow bay-depth that will allow flexibility, views of activities outside and within the complex, the possibility of exposed structure, and some access to private outside balconies or terraces.
7. Residential
The residential units will all be for sale and consist of one (400-600 sq. ft.), two (700-1000 sq. ft.) and three (900-1300 sq. ft.) bedroom units. The residential units will generally have secure access and be located in the most private places within the complex. Some units will have direct access to the ground. The units will have vaulted ceilings, lofts, storage areas, balconies or decks, or access to a roof top garden. They will mainly be of a modern efficient design with open space planning. Some units will have fireplaces, two to three bathrooms and built-ins.
8. Parking
The parking will be provided by an open parking garage that will not be visable from Pearl Street. It will provide for automobile parking only. From the garage there will be direct access to the residential units. The entries to the parking garage will be provided on the alley and/or nineteenth street. The parking garage will provide parking for all the uses within the complex. The different uses will have assigned parking areas, with the residential use not being secure but designed and located so if in the future it needs to be secure it could be converted. Also, some form of storage area for each residential use will be provided in the parking garage.

9. Mechanical
A centrally located interior HVAC unit will will be provided for the commercial/retail tenants.
A centrall located rooftop unit will be provided for the office tenants. The residential units will all have their own individual HVAC unit.
Two janitor closets will be provided, one located in a central location for the commercial/ retail space and office space. Two or three restrooms will be provided with access into the public area. At least one will be handicapped.
Square Foot Allowances
Since the maximum floor area ratio is 2:1 (see p.25 ) the largest possilble floor area that can be built is 70,000 square feet. But, due to the existing scale of the surrounding community,
I feel that a project of this size would be overdeveloped. So I am proposing a maximum floor area ratio of 1.5:1, which would allow 52,500 square feet at a maximum.
! of Total Square Feet
Square Feet
- One bedroom approximately
- Two bedroom approximately
- Three bedroom approximately
34 17,850
10 5,250
50 26,250
9 units 20 5,250
14 units 55 14,437
5 ii n i t.s 25 6,563
1.5 788
4.5 2,462
100 52 ,500
Please see notes on following page for above chart.

1. 50% residential must be provided in order to support various commercial/retail uses (see P.27 )
2. The boxed area above shows percent and square feet of the total residential areas only.
VII. Adjacency Matrix
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Preliminary Costs
The preliminary costs for Pearl Street Place are split into the use catagories. Since this is like pricing separate buildings the costs should be on the high side. But, due to the extra cost of fireproofing between uses, these cost estimates should be within the ball park. All prices have been taken from the 1982 Means Cost Data Handbook and the median price range was used.
Space Area Unit Cost Extension
A. Commercial/Ret ail (14 foot high ceilings) 249,900 C.F. $ 3.30 $ 824,670
B. Office (12 foot high ceilings) 63,000 C.F. 2.45 154,350
C. Residential (10 foot high ceilings) 262,500 C.F. 2.90 761,250
D. Parking ($5,390 per car: approximately 98 cars) 528,220
E. Total Building Cost (A+B+C+D) $2,268,490
F. Pedestrian Amenities (5% of total building cost "E") 113,425
G. Site Development (15% of total building cost "E") 340,274
H. Subtotal (E+F+G) 2,722,189
I . Contingencies (10% of H) 272,219
J. Administrative Costs (1% of H) 27,222
K. Professional Fees (8% of H) 217,775
L. Total Construction Costs (II+I+J+K) $3,239,405
M. Site Acquisition/Demolition 450,000
N. Total Project Cost (L+M) $3,689,405
Note: The square foot cost for this project would be
approximately $70.00 per square foot.





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