Citation
Five Points market and Black culture center

Material Information

Title:
Five Points market and Black culture center
Creator:
Wheeler-Niemann, Joanna M
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
108 leaves : illustrations, charts, maps (including 1 folded color in pocket), plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Marketplaces -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Art centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Art centers ( fast )
Marketplaces ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 106-107).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared and submitted by Joanna M. Wheeler-Niemann.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13746624 ( OCLC )
ocm13746624
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .W435 ( lcc )

Full Text
FIVE POINTS MARKET & BLACK CULTURE CENTER


I
FIVE POINTS MARKET
/
AND
BLACK CULTURE CENTER
Prepared and Submitted by JOANNA M WHEELER-NIEMANN in Partial Fulfillment foV the Degree MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
University .of Colorado at Denver College of Design & Planning
June, 1986
\


The thesis of Joanna M. Wheeler-Niemann is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver May, 1986


a million thanks, nemo!


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Project description .................................... 4
Qualitative Characteristics ............................ 5
Thesis Statement ...................................... 22
Site
Vicinity Map ........................................... 31
Site Map, Legal Desription, Utilities .................. 33
Existing Buildings and Uses ............................ 32
Site Photos ............................................ 34
Preliminary Site Proposals ............................. 39
Denver Planning Department Concepts for Five Points ... 40 Analysis
Climate ................................................ 47
Zoning Review and Building Code Analysis ............... 53
Zone
Fire Zone
Occupancy Classification
Occupancy Separation
Construction Type
Allowable Floor Area
Allowable Height
Location on Site
Exterior Wall Openings
Fire Resistance
Minimum Ceiling Heights
Fire Resistive Requirements
Structural Fire Resistive Requirements
Exits
Stairs
Fire Extinguishing System
Required Plumbing Facilities
Fire Alarm
Emergency Lights
Handicapped Requirements
Parking
Signs
Program .................................................... 63
Space Requirements and Descriptions ................... 82
Design Solutions, Drawings and Photos of Models ........... 92
Conclusion ..................................................102
Bibliography
105




PROJECT
A market, Black Culture Center and restaurant at Five Points in Denver, Colorado.
PROGRAM
Market: A single-story building housing
20 stalls, meat, fish and deli counters, a fast food room and support facilities including office, restrooms, loading, storage and enclosed trash dumpsters.
Black Culture Center: A 300 seat auditorium, two-level gallery, three activity rooms (used for instruction, rehearsal, green room, after school clubs, community meetings, workrooms for set-building and costumes, arts and crafts, etc.), two shops (one for Third World imports, the other for arts and crafts done in the center), three artists-in-residence apartments and two studios, a four level entrance facing out to the amphitheater, support facilities including rest rooms, large mechanical room to house mechanical units supporting the entire project, dressing rooms with showers, a two level storage area, trash, loading, coats and phone areas and an office and reception/ticket room.
Restaurant: A large kitchen, take out
counter, 275 seats on two levels, two outside dining areas, dance floor, three bars (two to serve the restaurant and one separate "the corner bar"), support facilities including roof-top mechanical over kitchen and rest rooms.
4


QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS
Architecture is the art of designing buildings, not just to accomodate a speculative commodity within our capitalistic society, but equally important, it is the qualifying art in which urban growth is formed and transformed into an understandable cityscape. The image of the cityscape becomes a legible whole in which every inhabitant of the city identifies and validates his existence through memories and meaning with the (built) environment in which he lives.
Lawrence R. Glasser^
Planning the qualitative characteristics of an architectural project is perhaps the most creative act in the entire process of bringing a building into existence. It requires visualizing the users in the spaces, imagining the moods at any time, day or night, feeling the textures, smelling the odors and hearing the laughter and music. It requires knowing, without a doubt, what it will feel like to walk through the spaces, even before a single line is drawn. It requires knowing the place, the pptential users and the project type. And then it requires a strong decision to be true to the people, the place and the project. Louis Kahn asks the question: "What does the building want to be?" Christian Norberg-Schultz discusses the subject in his book, Genius Loci:
Man dwells when he can orientate himself within and identify himself with an environment, or, in short, when he experiences the environment as meaningful. Dwelling therefore implies something more than "shelter". It implies that the spaces where life occurs are places, in the true sense of the word. A place is a space which has a distinct character. Since ancient times the genius loci, or "spirit of the place", has been recognized as the concrete reality man has to face and come to terms with in his daily life. Architecture means to visualize the genius loci, and the task of the architect is to create meaningful places, whereby he helps man to dwell.2
1 Lawrence R. Glasser, "The 1999 Building: its Architecture Reconsidered", p.l
2 Christian Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci (New York, Rizzoli, 1979 ) p. 5.
5


Boys playing a ball game on the top step of the stairway behind the church of S. Maria Maggiore in Rome (i Q52)
Picture 1
"Man (or boy) dwells when he can orient himself within and identify himself with an environment." Norberg-Schulz
The stance taken to achieve the goal of creating these "meaningful places" is very similar to that discribed by Eliel Saarinen:
During my architectural practice of almost half a century I never have designed and executed any buildings in a preconceived style-form. I simply could not do it. More than that: during all this long period of time, it has been simply impossible for me to regard a building of borrowed and alien style-form no matter how magnificentas belonging to the realm of art of building, but only as a product of the "building trade" enveloped in a jacket of meaningless decoration. This has been by no means conceit on my part. Rather, it has been just as truly an indigenous and intense feeling within me as is that feeling truly indigenous and intense within any child that a strange, cold, and unconcerned damsel, trimmed in pretentious attire, is not one's mother. I have been satisfied with this feeling.3
The site of this thesis project is situated in the midst of the centers of entertainment, business, community services and recreation for the several Five Points neighborhoods. Its
3 Elie] Saarinen in Camillo Sitte, The Art of Building Cities (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1945), p. iii.
6


function is to provide daily sustenence, food and drink, as well as the images, music, dance and rhythms connecting a people to their roots, making is the unquestionable actual and symbolic center for the community.
Every community needs a symbol of its existence. Much of modern community frustration has come into being because a symbol of the visual reason for its life is missing. Because no symbol is found, there is no center on which to focus life.^
Picture 2
"Every community needs a symbol of its existence." Norberg-Schulz
Even though it is the ethnic center for Black Denverites, it is an open place, a place for those who are not Black to go for some good soul food and an evening's entertainment. It is not intended to be exclusive, ghetto-like, or segregated, but rather open to the professionals of all ethnic groups who will be moving into the new condo projects going up in the neighborhoods, as well as all people from near and far. Just as folks will drive a substantial distance for a good German, Greek, Italian or Chinese meal, so would they come to Five Points. Cross-cultural encounters reduce fear and misunderstanding in a shrinking 3
3 Camillo Sitte, The Art of Building Cities (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1945), p. iii.
7


world, and although this is not a primary goal for the project, it is a valuable resultant.
The project is made up of three elements: the market, the square which includes an amphitheater, and the Black Culture Center, all together rather small in scale. For Rob Krier, the street and the square are the ingredients of urban space. Here are some quotes from his book of that title which are indicative of the importance he places on the role of the square in the city:
The two basic elements of urban space are the street and the square. In the catagory of 'interior space' we would be talking about the corridor and the room. The geometrical characteristics of both spatial forms are the same. They are differentiated only by the dimensions of the walls which bound them and by the patterns of function and circulation which characterize them.4 6
The square...was the first way man discovered of using urban space. It is produced by the grouping of houses around an open space. This arrangement afforded a high degree of control of the inner space, as well as facilitating a ready defense against external aggression by minimizing the external surface area liable to attack. This kind of courtyard frequently came to bear a symbolic value and was therefore chosen as the model for the construction of numerous holy places.^
What are the functions which are appropriate to the square? Commercial activities certainly, but above all activities of a cultural nature. The establishment of public administrative offices, community halls, youth centers, libraries, theaters and concert halls, cafes, bars, etc. Where possible in the case of central squares, these should be functions which generate activity twenty-four hours a day.6
This project seeks to restore some of the character squares and plazas embodied in ancient times, as a "theater for the principal scenes of public life".7 This does not mean that the courts of law and or high level political decisions would be made here, but rather that the self-understanding of a people would be
4 Rob Krier, Urban Space ( New York: Rizzoli. 1979) p. 17
^ ibid., p. 18.
6 ibid., p. 19.
7 Camillo Sitte, The Art of Building Cities (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1945) p. 2.
8


rehearsed and acted out here in music, dance, poetry and theater. And certainly political debates affecting the life of the community could and would take place at the center. But the informal encounters provide the most enjoyment to the majority of those coming to the 'center'.
The social function of the open place ... descended directly from the agora; for it is in the open place, with its surrounding cafes and restaurants, that spontaneous and face-to-face meetings, conversations, encounters and flirtations take place, unformalized even when habitual.7 7
Picture 3
"The social function of the open place..." Mumford
7 Lewis Mumford, The City in History (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961), p. 150.
9


The square, a void or an open space, receives its character by having the sense of being enclosed or otherwise defined:
Many things must be done to embellish the area to give it character and importance. For just as there are furnished and unfurnished rooms, we could speak of complete and incomplete squares. The essential thing of both room and square is the quality of enclosed space. The secret: having the streets enter the square at right angles to the visual lines instead of parallel to them. Joiners and carpenters have followed this principle since the Middle Ages when, with subtle art they sought to make joints of wood and stone inconspicuous if not invisible.8
Moving from the square to the market (the back or inside of the market that is,for the front will face the two streets on which it is situated), the activity is no less. As stated before, the scale is small; these writers provide good reason:
The fact that so many of the examples which Sitte uses from the cities of the past are relatively small in scale has for our time many sound psychological meanings, because where the citizen hitherto has been active in the development of urban cultures the scale of his community has been related and comprehensible to him. He, therefore, has been able to receive in return as great a stimulus as he imparts.
It is then in this return to human comprehension and scale that Sitte suggests there will be found not only the needed sanity and repose in contrast to the neurosis inherent in the megalomanian scale of the unplanned modern city, but also those community qualities with which we may develop a more satisfactory urban design in the future.^
Streets and squares on a small scale have for thousands of years proved that they work ideally as zones of communication. By small scale I mean distance easily covered on foot, or (where height is concerned) the number of levels accessible by stair. This all sounds very old-fashioned, but must be seriously taken into account if due respect is to be paid to the fixed unit 8 9
8 Camillo Sitte, The Art of Building Cities (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1945), p. 22.
9 Ralph Walker in the introduction to the English translation: Camillo Sitte, The Art of Building Cities (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1945) p. viii & ix.
10


of 'man'.10
The users provide the best rationale for all design decisions. The transition from a space for one function to a space for a different function needs both to be a smooth transition and to inform the user of the difference between the two spaces.
Architecture is the articulation of space so as to produce in the participator a definite space experience in relation to previous and anticipated space experiences 11
One of the prime purposes of architecture is to heighten the drama of living. Therefore architecture must provide differentiated spaces for different activities, and it must articulate them in such a way that the emotional content of the particular act of living which takes place in them is reinforced.12
Picture 4
"Underlying it all is the modular rhythm of footsteps..." Bacon
1967 )
1 Rob Krier, Urban Space (New York
11 Edmund Bacon, Design of Cities P- 21.
12 ibid., p. 19.
: Rizzoli, (New York:
1979) p Viking
170
Press,
11


Underlying it all is the modular rhythm of footsteps, the unchanging muscular effort to cross a court, for instance, or the exhileration induced by the prospect of ascending or descending a stairway. Only through endless walking can the design absorb into its being the true scale of urban space.13
Lewis Mumford is helpful in helping us to discover what has happened to the dynamic the market once held and which, it is hoped, can be recovered in this project:
Not until the automatism and the impersonality of the supermarket were introduced in the United States in the mid-twentieth century were the functions of the market as a center of personal transactions and social entertainment entirely lost. And even here that social loss has only been partly offset by the development of the larger shopping center where, in the characteristic style of our over-mechanized age, various media of mass communication at least serve as a vicarious substituteunder the sly control of the guardians of the market, the advertisers--for direct fact-to-face (two-way) communications between buyer and seller, neighbor and fellow-marketer.1^
It is intended that the dynamics of genuine interpersonal transactions and social entertainment be the distinguishing characteristic of this market, and that, in combination with the smells and tastes of the good fresh food, people would find it an irresistable place and return again and again. I
ibid., p. 20.
I4 Lewis Mumford, The City in History (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961), p. 149.
12


Markets the world over from ancient times to present
Areopagus
t
Metroon
Stoa Poikile Tholos Bema
The Agora (market-place) at Athens (restored), with Acropolis beyond.
Picture 6
Trajan Market, Rome
The Parthenon
i
Statue of Athena Promachos
Propylaea
4
Bouleuterion
13
Great Hall of the Markets of Trajan, N.E. of the Forum of Trajan (aj>. 98-113).
Picture 9


'fTT3'
^SS*r-
MARKET HALL:LEDBURY:HEREFORD Picture 10
Old Market Hall, Shrewsbury (1595). Picture 11
Picture 12


Rome
Picture 14
Harlem
Picture 16
Naples
Picture 13
Huzum, Fed'1. Rep. of Germany
Picture 15
15


African Market
Picture 17






PAMPERING PECXS OF PEPPERS
Jeff Cook dusts the produce during opening day at the Riverfront Farmers Market in Littleton. The market, which is the centerpiece of the Riverfront Festival Center, offers an array of
* -r4' *£?* .the Derwer Poet / Duane Howell
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more than 400 types of fruits and vegetables, fresh meats and poultry and more than 300 kinds of cheese. The market is located at South Santa Fe Drive and West Bowies Avenue.
Picture 18


Picture 19
Picture 20
Picture 21
18


The Black Culture Center provides a setting for learning by experiencing. It is a center to which kids come expectantly, both in school groups and after school for activities such as learning by doing Afro hair-dos, dancing, learning rhythms on drums or other musical instruments, crafts such as weaving, painting and sculpture. But it is not only for little kids. High schoolers will form musical or dramatic groups and rehearse and perform here. Adults will come for both educational and entertainment offerings. The "unity of the arts" of which Robert Ferris Thompson speaks is to be very apparent in the center.
The famed unity of the arts of African performance suggests a sensible approach in which one meduim is never absolutely emphasized over the others. Sculpture is not the central art, but neither is the dance, for both depend on words and music and even dreams and divination. Music, dance, and visual objects are all important, separate or together; and if motion conveys stature to music and art, sculpture deepens motion by condensation of several actions into one.15
In the arts of Yorubaland, one senses the dignity and grace, almost nobility, conferred on one another through the arts.
Anybody important who holds other important people dear to his heart Will surely be an important person.
The sculpture and the dance of the Yoruba suggest important people, both earthly and celestial, sacred and profane, monarchic and common. The clarity and tranquility of the representation makes the reader realise, by contrast, to what extent human beings the world over err on the side of anger, impatience and jealousy. The artists of the Yoruba have dared to suggest, in a world of discord and displeasure, the presence of ideal divine justice. The world, consequently, is forever richer because of their works.!6
This is the underlying sense or feeling of the center: that everyone who enters is worthy of the dignity bestowed upon him or her at birth, justice as far as humanly possible, patience, knowledge of his or her history taught in a clear and fun and unbiased manner, and the possibility of becoming engaged in any number of exciting activities.
15 Robert Farris Thompson, African Art in Motion (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974), p. xii.
15 Idem, Black Kings and Gods (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1976) p. P/5.
19


In all cultures of the world, architectural form is an expression of the philosophical interaction of the forces of mass and space, which, in turn, reflects the relationship between a man and the universe. The clarity and vigor with which mass and space are resolved set the level of excellence of architectural work at any period of a culture's development.17
The Somolo live in southern Upper Volta. Their multistory houses, with walls of puddled mud and ceilings and roofs of palm fronds supported on posts, can be seen to be a coalescence of several circular buildings. In the center of each house there is a tiny courtyard. The thatched roof covers a granary. Houses sometimes consist of as many as 20 rooms, one for each wife, as well as kitchens, stores, children's rooms, granaries and grinding rooms.
j
Ri$ht The Asante live in the forest areas of southern Ghana. Their houses were traditionally built around one or more courtyards, and around each were four rooms joined at their corners with a short length of wall. Tuddlcd mud was used for the walls, reinforced with a wooden framework. The sides of rooms facing the courtyard were often left open or partly enclosed with pillarsof palm fronds covered with mud plaster. Many of the walls and pillars were ornamented with complex relief patterns. A detail from one such wall is shown here.
"The famed unity of the arts...
Picture 22

|
17 Edmund Bacon, Design of Cities (New York: Viking Press, 1967), p. 16.
20


Below Decorated calabashes from Nigeria. Calabashes or gourds grow on creeping plants over fences and roofs or in between crops. When cut and dried they are used as rafts, food containers or as sound boxes for musical instruments and decorated in a variety of ways as illustrated here.
Above While Hunter in the Pygmies' Jungle, painted in gouache on board, is by Twins Seven-Seven, one of the best-known Nigerian Oshogbo artists who came to prominence in the interpreting traditional legends with new techniques.
Lett This font was carved by Bandele. one of several Yoruba carvers recently encouraged to use their skills to interpret Christian themes. He seems to have conceived it as a large drum.
Picture 23
Above African music is now becoming increasingly available to international audiences and to tourists in the form of public performances and concerts, outside its original social context. This performance by a Ghanaian player of the one-stnng fiddle demonstrates the presence of musical instruments ol Arabic background in West Africa, as a result of the histoncal trans-Sahara trade routes. It is now-found in many parts of the West African savanna belt, for instance among the Wolof of Senegal, the Hausa of Nigeria, the Songhay and Djerma of Niger and the Dagomba of Ghana.
Picture 24
2]


THESIS STATEMENT
Art is solving problems that cannot be formulated before they have been solved. The shaping of the question is part of the answer. Piet Hein^
The task of this statement is to give shape to the question of the role of the Five Points Market and Black Culture Center.
Background Information
The location of the project is Five Points, a predominantly Black neighborhood located in the near northeast quarter of Denver, Colorado. It was, in 1868, the birth place of Denver's park system and in 1914 the residential area of Denver's prominent citizens as well as middle income tradespeople. There are large impressive homes mixed among smaller salt-box houses. The 20's was a transitional decade when many of the white residents moved out and black people moved in. By the 30's Five Points was the center of black residential, economic, cultural and social life. Top notch entertainment, such as the bands of Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, B. B. King, and Esther Phillips, was there for the asking. A strong neighborhood spirit and identity existed during the 40's and 50's.
Deterioration began towards the end of the 50's; upwardly mobile blacks moved to Park Hill, public housing drew large numbers of people into the neighborhood who were on public subsidies, the commercial strip (Welton Street) lost many of its businesses to service areas in the suburbs, and middle income people dispersed. The 60's were turbulent. Any racial confrontations in Denver took place in Five Points, which left it with a tarnished neighborhood image. There remains a small business community which survived the turmoil and maintains hope for the renewal of Five Points to the stature it once enjoyed.
Moving from the socio-historic context to the physical setting of Five Points, we find one of the largest and most diverse neighborhoods in Denver. Boundaries include the South Platte River, 38th Street, Downing, 20th Avenue and 20th Street. There are a wide variety of uses and villages within it. Examples include the Upper Larimer industrial warehouse area along the northeast, a transitional mixed use area bordering and serving the downtown just west of Broadway, the "points", San Rafael, East Village residential areas and the Curtis Park, Glenarm Place and Clements Historic residential Districts. This is the area designated as Five Points by the Denver Planning Office. For this project, however, Five Points will be the area surrounding the intersection from which it gets its name.
Ching, Francis D. K., Architecture: Form, Space and Order, New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, 1979.
22


Ethnic Makeup
The area is ethnically diverse: 63% of the population is Black, 17% is Anglo and 11% is Hispanic.
Setting
The site is bounded by Welton Street, 26th Avenue, and 28th Street. In the few blocks immediately surrounding the site, one finds an area of the city with the whole gamut of activities and buildings. There is a new recreation center which houses a beautiful swimming pool and gym, and there are people within a block of it who hang out all day, sipping out of bottles in brown bags and making the street a fearful place for other would-be pedestrians. There are brand new condominiums built quite obviously for upwardly mobile young business people wishing to live close to the city center, and there are, in the same block, lots filled with trash and neglected, falling apart buildings. New building and redevelopment is inevitable because of the proximity of the neighborhood to downtown.
Propositions of this thesis
With the influx of new money to this area, which has been poor for such a long time, come questions regarding the future of these neighborhoods. Often renewal pushes property values up and taxes increase to a point out of reach for families who may have lived in the area for generations. This is the center of Black living in Denver, and the propositions of this thesis are related to that fact:
1) that Five Points remain the center of Black living,
2) that in so doing, the past, present and future of Five Points remain unbroken for the benefit of the entire metropolitan area.
Planning for the future, strengthening the image of the community, preserving the good old buildings and making certain that new structures relate in scale and texture are key ingredients to the success of the transitions Five Points faces. The Denver Planning Department held a three day charette in March of 1985 to culminate one and a half years of work. Several improvements and plans for many more have occurred as a result of this work.
This thesis proposes a complex of structures which will strengthen the image of the community and contribute to its stability. It includes the Five Points Market and Black Culture Center and will play these three roles in the community:
1) Inviting "A Hub of Activity"
2) Nurturing "A Storehouse of Goods and Images"
3) Repairing "A Fabric of Glorious Motifs"
Urban Design Plan for Five Points, Denver Planning Department, Denver, 1985.
23


Inviting Hub of Activity
The hub the intersection which is Five Points is historically and will continue to be the center of the neighborhood's activity.
Liveable neighborhoods with safe streets, good housing and community- oriented businesses with a focus for community activity, are crucial to any city. These products dont result from chance.
Since the 1930's, Five Points has been the center of Black residential, cultural and social life in Denver, particularly at the Rossonian Hotel and Benny Hoopers Ex-Servicemen's Club.
The Points must continually improve its role as the focus of neighborhood activity. Its preservation and revitalization are at the heart of the plan. The goal is to create the Points as a regional ethnic entertainment area coupled with continued neighborhood services. Revitalization would benefit the city and open up opportunities for Five Points residents. The 2500 2800 blocks should be the primary focus of efforts to improve physical and visual design by upgrading existing structures and providing streetscaping that will reinforce the street as a people place. The Rossonian Hotel as a tie to the history of the area should be revitalized as the focus of "the Points. Additional needs include infill development, facade and right of way improvements and improved off-street parking; pedestrian linkages must be implemented; open spaces increased and a special treatment of the streets at the Points initiated 20
The creation of a market across from the Rossonian, which would house eating places and a bar upstairs, will indeed give "special treatment to the street at the Points", and "provide a focus for community activity."
There already exist Glenarm Recreation Center, Eastside Health Clinic, the Five Points Community Center housing services such as food stamps, a branch library and a child development center. The Black Culture Center will nestle in the space now occupied by a parking lot, between the above mentioned structures and the Market. There it will initiate even more activity to an area already teaming with liveliness people coming and going all day long using the existing community services.
The Center will contribute the missing ingredient a stage on which to present the story of Afro-Americans, i.e. their dance, music, art, and customs. It is meant to serve those who
20 Urban Design Plan for Five Points, op. cit.
24


live in the community, to be a gathering place, inviting, even reaching out to pedestrians and beckoning them in, then capturing their imaginations, engaging their senses, to be a place they can't wait to return to. It is meant to serve the larger metropolitan community, inviting everyone to enjoy the gifts of Black Americans.
As such, it must be experienced as a safe place. Oscar Newman describes in his book, Defensible Space, ways to prevent crime through urban design. Key is
control not by police, but by a community of people sharing a common terrain.... The form of buildings and their arrangement can either discourage or encourage people to take an active part in policing while they go about their daily business.21
Architecture is not just a matter of style, image, and comfort. Architecture can create encounter and prevent it. Certain kinds of space and spacial layout favor the clandestine activities of criminals.22
Nurturing A Storehouse of Goods and Images
This store will provide goods and services which people presently have to travel out of the neighborhood to obtain;
with more people living in Five Points and taking pride in the neighborhood, a greater demand can be expected for goods and services. Today residents are often forced well outside of the neighborhood to fill their basic needs and wants.23
Welton Strip is seriously lacking in the type tenants most frequently found in neighborhood shopping centers. It is missing about half of the top twenty, including a supermarket, a drug store and ladies ready to wear shops (see Appendix A).
To provide for the community's physical needs, a market is proposed. In food stuffs it will offer more than the Safeway located five blocks south of the site. It is conceived of not as a supermarket but as a collection of vendors: people selling fresh fruit, vegetable, fish, meat, bakery and dairy products. These are the wares people frequently want and obtain each day for the day, while canned and paper goods can be stocked up for a month or more. It will also house a drug store and a few other small shops and services.
21 Newman, Oscar, Defensible Space, New York: MacMillan Company, 1972.
22 ibid., p. 12
23 Urban Design Plan for Five Points, op. cit.
25


As a center where nurturing takes place, the storehouse offers more than goods to meet the physical needs of the community. Many of the immaterial needs of the community are already being met by the recreation, community and health centers. The one missing ingredient is the cultural aspect. While there are many active vibrant churches in the area the aspects of historical roots and early and present day Afro-American culture is lacking. These images and this knowledge is important not only for Blacks and their self-understanding, but for those outside the Black community as well. It is in knowing "other" that one gains a better understanding of self. So, the Black Culture Center is a crucial part of the regional ethnic center, a storehouse of images of what it means to be Black Americans today in Denver, Colorado.
Repairing Fabric of Glorious Colors and Motifs
In its role as repairer of the social and urban fabric, the Center will reaffirm the identity and reestablish the stability of the community and in so doing empower both the individual and the society. Five Points' new fabric will be an array of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, textures and colors to delight everyone who comes. It will contribute to the creation of a new image of the community, generating a sense of pride and demonstrating the working together of many people for the common good of all.
The market will provide employment opportunities for dozens of people. The Black Culture Center will provide a stage for scheduled as well as extemporaneous music and dancing, skits, bazaars, and celebrations. Denver Free University will offer courses here and the Cleo Parker Robinson Dancers will entertain. Local Black artists such as Edward White and Bob Raglund will display their sculpture and paintings. And one might at any time, day or night, hear jazz, blues, reggae or soul either live or recorded on the premises. The success of such a center will depend on the enthusiastic participation of many folks.
Thus, in its role as repairer of the torn fabric Five Points has in the last two decades become, the market and center contribute a whole new piece of fabric, its colors are vibrant again, and new patterns are emerging as they as are woven by the gifts of people and their many diverse activities.
The Market and Black Culture Center, in its roles of inviting nurturing and repairing, will certainly become the focus for community activity bringing people of many backgrounds together and generating a great deal of pride in the neighborhood.
26




30


31
vicinity mop


existing buildings and uses
32


Legal Description of Site:
Lots 7 15 and 17 25, Block 78 and BIock 83
Chase and Eberts Addition
UTILITY
LOCATION
13" Water Main Washington Street
16" Water Main 26th Avenue
6" Water Mai n Wei ton Street
Telephone Manho1e intersection, Wei ton
T e1ephone Condui t to property
Electricity in alley
Gas from Wei ton
Sewer 33 in alley


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39


DENVER'S VISION FOR FIVE POINTS
The following six pages contain information pertinent to this project. It is taken from the Design Charette Final Report, written by the Denver Planning Department after conducting a three day design charette in Five Points. They also produced and printed the large poster found in the back of this booklet.
The first section describes access to the area. The Department anticipates several (8) "Gateways" into Five Points as well as improvements to the 23rd Street interchange with 1-25.
The second section identifies the distict neighborhoods in Five Points and the edges or "seams" between them which, at the same time unite, or tie them together.
The third section illustrates some urban design concepts for the business district, "Welton Strip".
I. Access to the Points Gateways
With the proposed imporvements to the 23rd/Fox Street interchange with 1-25, 23d Street will become a major access corridor to Downtown and adjacent area. 23rd Street will act as a major boulevard which will provide direct access to the Five Points area, the nearby hospital area and Colfax Avenue. It will serve as a logical boundary between the neighborhood and downtown. Along 23rd Street there are a series of entrances and gateways to the adjacent neighborhoods. Most notable of these gateways is Welton/23rd Street as it provides the major connection and access between Downtown and" The Points". The Washington/23rd Street gateway will provide a focus for the Safeway development and link it to "The Points". Lighting, landscaping, signage and adjacent development will convey the sense of arrival as well as identification and entry to a new area.
Additional subarea entrances and gateways will occur at key intersections to "The Points" at 25th/Glenarm, 26th/Downing, Washington and Glenarm. These gateways should be specifically treated and provide the introduction and links from the larger area to community focal points. The improved entrances, gateways and connections will enhance the identity and image and provide a focus for development and improve the marketability of the area.
40


41
gateways


II. Neighborhoods and Edges/Seams
Districts: "Villages
There are a variety of residential villages internal to the area, such as Clements and East Village, Glenarm Place and San Rafael. Important features of each, such as buildings, vistas and focal elements must be reinforced to maintain the unique sense of place and community "feel" that presently exists. Villages are basically formed by the meeting of the various street grids. Traffic goes around and not through these areas, thus creating clusters of housing.
Edges
Washington, Downing and 20th Avenue are located along the intersections of the various street grids and function as informal edges and "seams" tying the adjacent residential villages together. Each "seam" reflects the particular needs of its adjacent and connecting villages. The intersections of the various street grids along these "seams" create a unique urban design opportunity to provide identity and entry for each "village" and linkages to important community facilities and spaces. The changes in the grid street patterns also terminates the view along most of the streets thus providing strong visual edges and increased sense of place within each village.


43


III. Urban Design Concepts for the Business District
The commercial area along Welton Street between 23rd Street and Downing was historically the center of activity with the Rosso-nian Hotel as a major regional attraction. The consistant two-story facade along the west side of Welton Street is particularly important and includes a number of interesting buildings. The Rossonian Hotel stands as the visual focus of the area on the east side of Welton. Residential units are also located along Welton Street. The suggested urban design improvements will strongly reflect and reinforce the diversity and unique sense of place and belonging that presently exists:
.Protect the community from the adverse effects of Downtown expansion.
.Provide physical improvements to encourage the revitalization of "The Points" as the mainstreet.
Preserve existing scale and community "feel".
.Develop linkages to improve accessibility.
.Initiate critical mass of development a block at a time.



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BUILDINGS


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urban design concepts
45


Baba Mogba
B'aiye tar e, ko ma tan' rare.
Father of thundergod worshippers. If the world deceives you.
Do not at least deceive yourself.
cf. King, 1961
analysis


DENVER CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Denver is located on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains with an elevation of 5,183 feet. The semi-arid climate is characterized by light precipitation, surprisingly mild temperatures, and light winds punctuated by occasional strong Chinook winds. The average monthly temperature varies from 30.4 degrees Fahrenheit in January to 73*3 degrees Fahrenheit in July. Denver averages more than 62 inches of snow annually, but prolonged snowcover is unusual due to exceptionally clear and sunny skies in the winter. The average annual precipitation is about 15.5 inches, with frequent afternoon thunderstorms occurring in the late spring and summer.
The Market and Black Culture Center are located in a prime location for southern exposure and thus will make good use of the solar access. The winter winds will be somewhat deflected from the market by buildings on the northeast and northwest and from the Center by the market. Summer winds will be welcome in the court and amphitheater of the culture center.
The following data summarizes significant climatic factors and information specific to this area.
The climatic data is from the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer Records.
47


MONTH
80* F 60* F 40* F 20* F
| JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 1



'+****' ^ \
: ^ *>.**'

CLIMATE
TEMPATURE
MEAN MAX.-
MEAN MIN.--
ANNUAL MEAN MAX. 87 9 ANNUAL MEAN MIN. 21.4
2 IN 1 IN

IZl
ANNUAL
RAINFALL
18 39 IN.
co
14 IN. 10 IN. 6 IN 2 IN.



- PTttttj

* r4+ .
.... ...

SNOWFALL
ANNUAL
84 9 IN.
AM X
PM X

HUMIDITY
SW MPH 8 9 9.2 9.9 10 3 9 5 9 0 8.5 8 2 8 1 8 1 8.5 8 8 1

HEATING 992 826 809 482 236 B8 6 0 139 367 690 905
COOLING 0 0 0 _L_j 29 154 282 234 109 26 0 0
WIND
DEGREE DAYS
TOTAL HEATING 5540
TOTAL COOLING 842


JUN 21
SUMMER
MAR/SEP 21 SPRING/FALL
DPC 21
WINTER


Possible Applications for Climatic Data
BUILDING LOCATION
Care must be taken in placing the building on the site. To take advantage of the sun in Denver, where heating is needed during the winter, the building should be placed in the northern portion of the site. This insures that the outdoor areas placed to the south will have adequate winter sun and it will minimize the possibility of shading the building in the future by off-site developments. People enjoy warm sunny spaces.
BUILDING SHAPE AND ORIENTATION
The rough shape of the building will be defined with consideration for admitting sunlight into the building. A building elongated along the east-west axis will expose more surface area to the south during the winter for collection of solar radiation. This is also the most efficient shape for minimizing heating requirements in the winter and cooling in the summer.
The north side of the building is coldest and darkest. The north side of the market will receive westerly afternoon sun. The auditorium, which does not require natural light will be located to the north in the cultural center.
ENTRANCE
An air lock entrance prevents large quantities of warmed or cooled air from leaving the building each time the door is opened, since only the air within the enclosed space can escape. The infiltration of cold air that normally occurs around exterior doors will be virtually eliminated because the entry creates a still-air space between the interior and exterior doors. The entrance should be oriented away from the prevailing winter winds or provide a windbreak to reduce the wind's velocity against the entrance.
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50


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WINDOW LOCATION
Windows are located to the southeast, south and southwest, according to the requirements of the internal spaces. Windows on the north side of the building are kept small. Wherever possible windows are recessed to reduce heat loss. For safety and security reasons, exterior glazing on the first level is plexiglass. Double glazing reduces heat loss.
THERMAL MASS WALLS
Either water or masonry can be used for a thermal mass wall, water being slightly more efficient than masonry. Both require that the predominant architectural expression of the building is south facing glass, which functions as a collecting surface. It admits no natural light, however, windows can be included in the wall to admit heat, natural light and also permit a view. Water tubes accommodate these qualities more readily.
hat_
COLLECT AEJKr
* Vl
' P2 WINDOW/WALL RATIO
Provide between 0.19 and O.38 square feet of south-facing glass for each one square foot of space floor area. This amount of glazing will admit enough sunlight to keep the space at an average temperature of 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit during much of the winter here in Denver. Locating a thermal mass within each space will prevent daytime overheating and large temperature fluctuations as heat will be absorbed during the day and released at night. Splaying the wall will increase heat gain in the winter.
51


CLERESTORIES AND SKYLIGHTS
South-lacing clerestories and skylights distribute sunlight over a space or can be used to direct it to a particular interior surface. The ceiling of the clerestory is finished in a light color and shading devices are used to control summer sun. A fan directs heat downward.
SUMMER COOLING
Because Denver is a hot dry climate in the summer, cooling becomes an important issue. Recommendations include making the roof a light color or reflective material, opening the building up to prevailing summer breezes during the day, and arranging inlets and outlets, making the area of the outlets slightly larger than the inlets, and using shading devices and landscaping. The "time lag" of the exterior skin as well as insulating materials also have an effect on how much cooling is needed.
The information in this section was adapted from Edward Fazria, The Passive Solar Energy Book (Emmaus, PA:Rodale Press 1979),
PP. 73-263-----------------------
52


ZONING AND CODE SURVEY
The Denver Building Code is intended to protect the personal safety, health and well-being of building occupants by establishing limitations based on type of construction and occupancy classification. The following are fundamental restrictions which will govern the design solution for this project.
53


ZONING AND CODE SURVEY
Project Name Five Points Market & Cultural Center Location______Welton Street & 26th Ave., Denver, CO.
Applicable Code Name Denver Building Code, '79-'82
Code Check by__________Jo Wheeler-Niemann 9/27/85____
The site is zoned B-4, General Business District. Uses include general retail, wholesale, service and office activities, and certain industrial uses. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. District regulations contain no bulk, open space or setback requirements.
SECTION
1. Fire Zone 3 1601
2. Occupancy Classification
Principal occupancy: Assembly building with
stage & occupancy of less than 1,000 B-l 1101
Others Dining and Drinking F-l_ 1101
Parking Garage G-3_____________________ 1209
Offices F-2 1101
Occupancy Separation Required (hours) Table 5B
Bl FI F2 G3
Bl 11 1
FI 1 1
F2 1
Construction Type I Table 5C
Maximum Allowable Basic Floor Area Table 5C
Bl 30,000 sq. ft.
FI 24,000
F2 40,000
G3 60,000
54


6. Maximum Allowable Height
Table 5D
Bl 4 stories
PI 6
F2 6
G3 6
7. Location 703
(b) On Property. Buildings shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least 20 feet in width. The access to a public street shall be a minimum width right-of-way maintained solely as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or the access.
8. Openings in Exterior Walls 1707 b
Openings shall not be permitted in exterior walls located less than 5 feet from adjacent property line or centerline of street or alley. Set-back requiring protection of openings in exterior walls = 20 feet for Bl, B2 and PI.
9. Fire Resistance in Exterior Wall Table 17 B
Bl 2 hours less than 10 ft, 1 hour elsewhere
PI, F2, G3 1 hour less than 10 ft.
10. Minimum Ceiling Height in Rooms
No portion less than 5 7* over 50%
1405b
11. Fire Resistive Requirements
Exterior bearing walls 4 hours (1903a) Table 17-A
Interior bearing walls 2 Table 17-A
Structural frame 2 Table 17-A
Permanent partitions 1 Table "17-A
Vertical opening enclosures 2 Table 17-A
Floors 1 Table 17-A
Roof s 1 (1906) Table 17-A
Exterior doors 3/4 if less than 20 setback 1707 c
Exterior windows 3/4 if less that 20' setback 1707 c
Mezzanine floors 1 hour 1715 b
(No mezzanine floor shall cover more than 1/3 area of a room) Roof coverings Class A or B Boiler room enclosure 1 hour 3204 b 1716
55


12. Structural Requirements
Framework Steel, concrete or masonry 3 hours 1802 Stairs Relnf. concrete or strucl. steel lb05
Floors Noncombustible fire-resistive const. 2" TTHJ? Roof s Where every part of roof structure 1" lb06 is 25' above floor, noncombustible material protected by sprinkler or resistive material Partitions Noncombustible, fire-resistive l801
13. Exits
When occupancy load exceeds 50 for these uses 2 exits
rqd: Auditoriums, Dining rooms, Exhibit rooms
Table 33~A
When occupancy loads exceeds 10 for upper floors and 30 for basement and ground floor 2 exits reqd. for stores and retail sales. Table 33~A
Minimum Width of Exits 3 feet 3303 d
Total width of exits in ft^ shall be at least 3302 J the total occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among separate exits, and including a percentage of the occupant loads of adjacent floors.
Exit Separation Arrangement
Exits will be accessible in at least 2 3302 k
different directions. Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25 apart minimum.
Maximum Allowable Travel Distance to Exltl50 3320 c
With sprinklers 20O' 3320 c
Allowable Exit Sequence 3302 m
At least 1/2 of the required exits shall be located to be reached without going through checkout stands.
Exits from a room may open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, provided the adjacent room is accessory to the area served and provides a direct means of egress to an exit.
Exit doors
Minimum width allowed 3 feet 3303 d
Maximum leaf width allowed 4 feet 3303 e
Exit Corridors
Minimum allowable width 44 in. (3~8) 3304 b
Required to have exit at each end of corridor 3304 e Dead end corridors allowed, max length 20* 3304 f
Wall Fire Resistance Required 1 hour 3304 g
Doors & Frames Fire Resistance Required 45 min 3304 f
56


14. Stairs
Minimum width
44 in. (3 f-8) for occ. load of 50+ 3305 b
36 in. (3f-0M) for occ. load of -50 3305 b
Maximum riser allowed 7.5 in. 3305 c
Maximum tread allowed 10 in. 3305 c
Winders are not allowed"?
Landings
Minimum size Dimension measured in direction 3305 g of travel = width of stairway but not exceeding
5' with straight run
Maximum size 5 with straight run 3305 g
Maximum vertical dist. bet. landings 12*-6 3305 g
Required ht. of rails 2,-6" to 2,-10" 30"~34ft 3305 i
above nosing
Handrails
Required at each side 3305 i
Intermediate rails required at stairs 88"wlde 3305 1
Equal spacing between intermediate rails 3305 i
Height above nosing 30"-34" 3305 i
Balusters required 42 high 1714
Intermediate rail required UBC: 6" max. 1714
Handrails return to walls at ends 3305 i
Handrails extend stair at least one handrail 3305 i
6 at both top and bottom
Stair to roof required if building is 4+ stories3305 n one stairway shall extend to roof with hinged door.
Stair to basement provide barrier to 3305 h
prevent persons from going to basement.
Access to roof required to mechanical. 5213 c
Stair enclosure required 2 hour. 336b b
Exceptions Enclosure shall not be required 3368 a for a stairway, ramp or escalator serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors.
Ramps
Maximum slope to use as exit 1:12 3306 c
Handrails required on at least one side, 3366 e
minimum 32" high measured from surface of ramp. Extend 1 ft. beyond top and bottom of ramp.
Exit signs reqd at every required exit door 3312 with occupant load of 30+.
Balcony rails required at all unenclosed 1714
floor and roof openings, open and glazed sides of stairs, ramps and landings, balconies, etc.
Height required: 42" (3T ~ 611) 1714
57


15.
Fire Extinguishing Systems
Sprinklers required when floor area exceed 3803 a 1,500 sq. ft. (See section for details.)
Wet standpipes reqd In buildings 4+ stories 3806 a (100 ft. max. distance to any point in bldg.)
Location: In a public corridor within 10 ft.
of the opening of a required stairway on all floor levels.
Fire extinguishers required at each standpipe location.
16. Minimum Plumbing Facilities Table 5~E
Water Closets Lavatories
F M Urinal F M
Places 1:1-75 1:1-100 1:1-100 1:1-100 1:1-250
of Assembly 2:76-200 2:101-600 2:101-600 2:210-600 2:251-600
Of f ice 1:1-10 1:1-30 0:1-10 1:1-30 1:1-30
Retail 2:11-30 2:31-60 1:11-60 2:31-80 2:31-60
Public 3:31-60 3:61-90 2:61-120 3:81-120 3:61-120
Bldngs For additional occupants:
1 per 20 1 per 30 1 per 60 1 per 40 1 per 40
Drinking Fountains
Places of assembly: One per floor
Of f ice , retail, pubic bldngs: 1 per 75 with 1 per
floor minimum.
17. Fire Alarm 3811 a
All F-2 of four or more stories.
Type: Manual pull stations.
18. Emergency Lights or power required in exit 5310 a
ways which are continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way illuminate to one foot candle
19. Handicapped Requirements
Accessible Route 6403 c
All accessible routes shall connect accessible building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces and elements of the building.
Passing Space 6403 c
If an accessible route has less than 60 in clear width, then passing spaces at least 60 in by 60 in shall be located at reasonable intervals not to exceed 200 ft.
Head Room 6403 d
Walks, halls, corridors, passageways, aisles or other
58


circulation spaces shall have 80 in minimum clear head room.
Ground and Floor Surfaces 6403 e
Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible rooms and spaces including floors, walks, ramps, stairs, and curbramps shall be stable, firm and relatively nonslip under all weather conditions. If carpet is used, then it shall be securely attached, have a level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut texture. The maximum pile height shall be 1/2 in. Exposed edges of carpet should be fastened to the floor and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge.
Changes in level 6304 e
Changes in level up to 1/4 in may be verti cal and without edge treatment. Changes in level between 1/4 and 1/2 in shall be leveled with a slope no greater than 1:2. Changes in level greater than 1/2 in shall be accomplished be means of a ramp.
Gratings 6304 e
If gratings are located in walking surfaces, then they shall have spaces no greater than 1/2 in wide in one direction. If gratings have elongated openings, then they shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel.
Ramps 6304 h
Slope and Rise
The least possible slope shall be used for any ramp. The maximum slope of a ramp in new construction shall be 1:12. The maximum rise for any ramp run shall be 30 in. Clear Width
The minimum clear width of a ramp shall be 36 in. Landings
The landing shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run leading to it. The landing shall be a minimum of 60 in clear. If ramps change in direction at landing, a minimum level run from each ramp of 60 in shall be provided not less than the width of the ramp.
Handrails
If a ramp has a rise greater than 6 in or a horizontal projection greater than 72 in then it shall have handrails on both sides; if less than 6 in rise, one rail is required. The clear space between the handrail and the wall shall be 1-1/2 in. Gripping surfaces shall be uninterrupted by other construction elements or obstructions .
Doors 6304 m
Clear Width
Doorways shall have a minimum clear opening of 32 in with the door open 90 degrees measured between the face of the door and the stop.
59


Entrances
6 304 n
The principal entrance to a building or facility shall be part of an accessible route. Such entrances shall be connected by an accessible route to public transportation stops, to accessible parking and passenger loading zones and to public streets or sidewalks.
Water closets, toilet stalls, urinals, lavatories and mirrors, sinks See Figures 20 23 and Table 64-A.
Assembly Areas 6304 gg
Accessible viewing positions shall comply with:
Capacity of /assemble Number of Viewing Positions
Assembly areas with audio-amplification systems shall have a listening system to assist a reasonable number of people, but no fewer than two, with severe hearing loss in the appreciation of audio presentations.
Each wheelchair location shall accomodate two people in wheelchairs.
Wheelchair areas shall be an integral part of any fixed seating plan and shall be dispersed throughout the seating area. They shall adjoin an accessible route that also serves as a means of egress in case of emergency and shall be located to provide lines of sight comparable to those for all viewing areas. The floor at wheelchair locations shall be level.
An accessible route shall connect wheelchair seating locations with performing areas, including stages, dressing rooms, and other spaces used by performers.
20. Parking Denver Building Code Art. VI 59-583
Class Four (gallery and retail), there shall be one off-street parking space for each two hundred (200) square feet of gross floor area contained in any structure containing a use by right.
Parking for the disabled shall constitute 2% of the total number of spaces, each with a minimum of 12 ft by 19 ft. Off street parking shall be provided with entranced and exits so located as to minimize traffic conoestin. Off-street bicycle parking spaces shall be a minimum of two (2) ft wide and six (6) ft long. Access aisles running perpendicular to the length of the parking spaces shall be a minimum of five (5) ft in width or three (3) ft in width when running parallel to the length of the parking space. Each parking space shall be located within a secured area or shalj include a ir.eta] anchor which will secure the frame and both wheels in conjunction with an integral key, coin operated lock, user supplied lock or similar device.
The proportion of compact car spaces provided shall not exceed fifty (50) percent of the total of all off-street
151 to 200 201 to 300
6
7
60


parking. The width for large cars shall be 8-1/2 ft if contained within an off-street parking structure.
21. Signs Art. IV, Sect. 59-537
Signs in the display window of a business use which are incorporated into a display or merchandise or a display relating to services offered on the same zone lot and limited to: window signs; one sign per five (5) ft of window frontage; not more than four (4) square feet per sign in area; ground level windows only; may be illuminated only from a concealed light source which does not flash, blink, or fluctuate; shall not be animated.
61


p
program


BLACK CULTURE CENTER
SQ. FT. 2,500
Entrance (four levels) 2,500
Auditorium 3,000
Lobby/Gallery 4,000
Ticket Office/Reception 100
Toilets (250 each) 500
Administration office 350
Projection/Lighting booth 100
Stage 1,800
Dressing rooms (600 each) 1,200
Activity rooms (625 each) (one with kitchen) 1,875
Storage (two levels) 2,200
Lounge/bar 900
Janitor/Mechanical 900
SUB TOTAL 19,425
15% Circulation 3,000
TOTAL
22,500


space sq. ft. AUDITORIUM 3,000
function &/or activity Seating for 300 Dance performances Concerts Films Lectures Plays frequency of use 3 or 4 times a week
users Public School groups
adjacency diagr a m

| *
AUPIWUM \
, I ^

special design considerations Artificial lighting Special acoustics Sound system Aisle Lighting *
finishes *to be decided after schematic design fu rnishings Auditorium seats Acoustic tile Screen


space sq. ft.
ENTRANCE 200
function &/or activity frequency of use
Entrance Daily
Air lock users
Staff Public
adjacency diagram

-NfRAMCf. I!
L. i ; M* i
special design considerations
Solar heated Daylight
finishes fu rnishings
Public Telephone
Bench


space FOYER sq. ft. 400
function &/or activity frequency of use
Gathering area before, As often as auditorium
during and after is used
performances users
Public
adjacency diagram
AOtPlTOZl Uti
special design considerations
'Comfortable place for visiting Easy to move in to gallery Must not become a bottleneck Transition from dark to natural light
(nailery) Exits and restrooms ea sily found
finishes fu rnishmgs
A few sitting areas
Drinking fountain
f£Y£K
pALLERY
>
M EMTZAMZ.


space sq. ft. GALLERY 3000
function &/or activity Serves as a lobby for auditorium Display area for sculpture, paintings, fabrics, art objects frequency of use Daily
users Public Staff School groups
adjacency diagram
EBtT iszygjzji'

U>AP(N&1
vcck
ZHvzAm
special design considerations
Adjustable lighting for displays Massive floor areas Daylighting Observed from office
finishes
f u r n j s h i n
g*
Display cases Large wall areas Water tubes
67


space sq. ft.
TICKETS 50
function &/or activity frequency of use
Ticket sales Information Da i ly
users
Management Staff
adjacency diagram
on\c& UK
\r\clt^\
gaBBBHEBg-i
J ENT£AN£E.l
special design considerations
Dayliqh t
Counter space
Display upcoming events
finishes
f u rnishings
Counter
Computerized equipment
68


space sq. ft. TOILETS 250 EACH: 500
function &/or activity frequency of use
users Public Staff
adjacency diagram 1 MR 1

l'12?!LET4 1
1
1 ^ALLC.e'f
special design con siderat i ons Daylioht desirable
finishes fu rnishings Mens : 2 lavatories 2 urinals 2 water closets Womens: 2 lavatories 2 water closets One of each fixture is handicapnod accessible
69


function &/or activity frequency of use
f In nnoomen t of all snacos Oa i 1 y
Coord niation of all
events r< visual arts users
Management
Staff
Visi tine directors
space
OFFICE
sq. ft.
350
adjacency diagram
f

j EH1ZAHCZ.
special design considerations
Ony.l i'?ht
Observe qnlJorv and ticket window
finishes
f u rn i s hi ng s
Dnskn, rhni rr; (3 r:r|:r;' L'i l es
Work counter or tnMo r to rant?
Phones
Safe


space sq. ft.
PROJECTION/LIGHTING BOOTH 150
function &/or activity frequency of use
Bound light control For most events
Projection Video recording users
Staff Technicians Directors
adjacency diagram
AUtPlTog.! UK |
S£ special design considerations
x feet above stage x feet back Glass type
finishes
fu rnishings
Electrical sound control board Audio-visual equipment Lighting controls
71


space sq. ft. REHEARSAL ROOM 750
function &/or activity Individual & group rohearsa1 Backstage receptions Meetings frequency of use Da i 1 y
users Staff Performers Directors
adjacency diagram f V * J


\i^AL ZC0\- 11
\o'r'f\Ct

special design considerations Daylight desirable 3:2 proportion
fini s h es
f u rnishings
Mirrors
Barres
Sink
72


space sq. ft.
STAGE 800 extendable to 1200

function &/or octivity frequency of use
Performance area for All events in
music, dance, theater, and itor ium
lectures, films
users
Actors
Dancers
Performers
Lecturers
adjacency diagram
v jmea.'
1 ,
. //< lI I H V W_v
1 AUt-lToelUK l
special design considerations
Proportion 3:4
Project into audience Many entrances Prosenium moveable panels Extendable for dance
f i m sh es
f u r n j s hi n
gs
Lighting panels
Gridiron r< pulleys
for sc enery, cur
tains, e tc.
73


space
DRESSING ROOMS
sq. ft.
300 each = 600
function &/or activity
Dressing Make-up Rest rooms
frequency of use
For all events
users
Perfornerr
adjacency diagram
If
AMPH1THD____
q v .


^TA£E.
1
special design considerations
Daylight
Closets
finishes
fu rnishings
Each:
5 make-up stations 3 sViewers 3 lavatories 2 water closets mens 2 urinals


space sq. ft.
ACTIVITY ROOM 650
function &/or activity frequency of use
Multi-purpose room 4-5 times a week
Class rooms Dini''q hall Parties & receptions Second rehearsal roorr users Classes Private groups rent
adjacency diagram
l 9 'V
KlTCHE.fl ; lACTNITfROMII - UZCVLXpoH JO ZEMAINEZCF C2.VTE5L
COAT ]? :ssr gpcK
special design considerations
Acoustically separate from auditorium Open to outdoors a balcony or patio Daylight
Patitions for smaller spaces, each with door to circulation
finishes
fu rnishi
ng s
Piano
75


space sq. ft.
KITCHEN 175
function &/or activity frequency of use
Food preparation 4-5 times a week

room users
Staff
Public
adjacency diagram AH
\ Kifc m Tj AP[NlTf JL ROCH
*
special design c o n si d era t i a n s
Attached to activity room
Serving window
finishes fu rnishings
Kitchen appliances
-


space sq. ft. WORKROOM 750
function &/or activity Create and build sets for theater Store props frequency of use Before events requiring scenerv
users Staff
adjacency diagram <
W0KKWI
I J * i ] ^
4TAC~t.
special design considerations Diffused daylight Large open flexible space Ceiling and passage to stane 15 feet
finishes fu rnishings Carpentry tools Worktables Telephone Operable windows & fan Sewing machine ?*. costume area Storage


space
STORAGE
sq. ft.
2 parts = 600
function &/or activity Store sets & costumes frequency of use Constant
Store incoming or out-
going exhibits users
Staff
adjacency diagram
i -*
tJALLEK-'f 13
special design considerations
finishes
I
fu rnishings
Vertical racks for sets
78


space sq. ft.
SMALL BAR 150
function &/or activity frequency of use
Provide refreshments Durincr evenina events
users
Public Bartender
adjacency diagram
II
ZttZScK
I
£>AK
nzu
.^ALLE^Y
special design considerations
Nook to one side of foyer
fi
nisfies
fu rnishings
Flashv inviting colors
79


space sq. ft.
MECHANICAL/JANITOR/MAINTENANCE 250
function &/or activity frequency of use
Store mechanical and janitorial supplies Receiving dock for exhibits Daily
users Janitor Staff
adjacency diagram i PEUVEPf DtWET j 7 "
MAINTENANCE 6emt£M HfcHANldAL \ 1 1
l -f
t S-ALLEE.Y 1
special design considerations
Large garage doors Access to alley
finishes fu rnishings
Floor sink Furnace
Storage cleaning supplies
80


space sq. ft.
AMPHITHEATER
function &/or activity frequency of use
Plant and extemporaneous events outdoors day and night Daily
users
Public Performers
adjacency diagram
special design considerations
Part of the pedestrian area Seen from Cafe above market Seating = stairs to story above market Landscaping = screen behind stage
fi ni sh es fu rnishings
* Portable canvas canopy Lighting Speaker system


MARKET
SQ. FT.
Food Market 6,150
Office 300
Cold Storage 200
Toilets (125 each) 250
Fast Food/Snacks 900
Loading Dock 250
Trash 200
TOTAL 8,250
PARKING
Class Four: one space for every 200 square feet of floor area, 50,000 = 250 places
50% of these may be for compact cars.
Large cars require 9 X 19
Compact cars require 7.5 X 15
Handicapped spaces require 12 X 20 (4 spaces provided; 2%)
AMPHITHEATER 3,600
SHOPS (900 each) 1,800
RESTAURANT 5,400
82




space RESTAURANT and BAR sq. ft. Jo, 400
function &/or activity frequency of use
Seating for 200 Daily
Iju cint] / cjjl lriuiiKj / entertainment users
Public Restaurant personnel
adjacency diagram
special design considerations
Open to outside in good weather (balcony) Accesible from both side of building Elevator to parking below View of skyline Comfortable feel with just enough elegance
finishes f u rn j s hi ng s
Tables Chairs Booths Dance floor Small stage Ki tchen Bar


space sq. ft.
MANAGEMENT OFFICES 375
function &/or activity frequency of use
Offices for: Weekdays
uirccuor or rucii Ker. Receptionist/Secretary Waiting area Conference/Meeting room users Management
adjacency diagram
special design considerations
Natural light
finishes
f
u
rn i shi ngs
Office furniture


space sq. ft. *)00
SHOP #1
function &/or activity frequency of use
Drugstore (such as Walgreens or Osco) Daily
users
Public Store personnel
adjacency diagram
special design considerations
Security Well-lighted day and night Facade in keeping with neighborhood image
finishes fu rnishings
Display shelves Cashiers stands Pharmacists area Alarm system


space sq. ft. ^OO
SHOP #2
function &/or activity frequency of use
Radio, T.V. store Weekdays
\ S U CXl u o 1\tlQ JL O O fluC / users
Public Store personnel
adjacency diagram
special design considerations
Security
Wei1-lighted day and night
Facade in keeping with neighborhood image
f i ni sh es
f
u rnishings
Display shelves Cashiers stands Alarm system
87


space sq. ft.,
MAINTENANCE/MECHANICAL
function &/or activity frequency of use
IlntiRP nipphan i ra 1
Store maint. mat's users
Janitor
adjocency diagram
special design considerations
Floor sink
finishes fu rnishings
Furnace Shelves


space sq. ft.
LOADING DOCK 300
function &/or activity frequency of use
Receive goods Weekdays
users
Merchants
adjacency diagram
special design considerat ions
Convenience for those in market
Do not block traffic
Check necessary height
finishes f u rn i s hi ng s
*


space sq. ft.
TRASH 250
function i/or activity frequency of use
Garbage storage and removal Daily
users
Both market & center personnel
adjacency diagram
special design considerations
Alley adjacency Convenient for both buildings
f i ni sh e s furnishing s


design solution


_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Tive pomts Market c.rui Black Culture Center
Hmy/irsily of >ia4 |}e*:v* i
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CONCLUSION
My goals were to provide Five Points with
1) a "town square" which would be at the same time a social gathering place, a hub of activity including buying food, dancing, music and learning in a variety of ways about Black Culture in its many manifestations,
2) a symbol of the repairing of the urban fabric, and
3) a storehouse of goods and services.
These goals have been accomplished.
The market, which spills out to the boulevard and into the pedestrian link to Welton, provides reasonably priced fresh food and allows the buyer and seller to know one another, no middleman. The intention is for it to become a regional market, a special attraction to Five Points for people from miles around.
The restaurant provides experiences of Black Culture both in its exterior finish of African motifs and in its cuisine. Its outdoor eating spaces afford views of the city skyline or watching the activity on the plaza.
The amphitheater and four-floor entrance to the Center, equipped with speakers for music and a movie screen, allow for all kinds of possibilities for concerts, drama, and the interaction between performers and audience. The church, central to the life of many residents, could conceivably use the amphitheater for festive events such as Easter Sunrise Services.
The artist-in-residence studios and apartments provide not only living and working spaces for artists, but "eyes" on the complex 24 hours a day. They also bring the scale, forms and textures of the neighborhoods to the south and north of the site right through the project, forming a residential "link".
The Center provides a stage, activity, dressing, and work rooms, as well as a two-level gallery. These facilities allow for the learning of and participating in a wide variety of cultural events. Classes (such as dance. Black History, music, crafts, beauty and hair-dos), concerts (Five Points will soon again become the cultural, economic and social center that it once was), and showings of paintings and sculpturre, weavings and crafts by local, national and international artists and craftspeople will keep the Center a very active place.
The outdoor shaded benches will provide a comfortable resting or waiting spot for people who are using the Eastside Health Clinic or Glenarm Recreation Center, or who are tired from shopping Welton Strip and the Market.
103


The parking level replaces lost parking spaces and provides plenty of additional ones for the new activities. The stairway pavilions provide visual "brackets" for the project.
I believe the project functions well, both in its relationship to its context or setting and in its own program and physical arrangement. It is open to the neighborhood to the south and has very adequate links to Welton and 28th Street.
All in all, I am satisfied with the project. If there is anything to regret, it would be that I could not progress farther into the interiors of the spaces and begin to design finishes, choose colors, fabrics, fixtures, lighting, etc. But this was beyond the scope of the semester's work.
104


love, unity
C M M X
hatred, disunity
bibliography


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Brown, Catherine R., Fleissig, Wm. B., Moorish Wm. R. Building for the Arts, a Guidebook for the Planning and Design of Cultural FacilitTes. Santa Fe, to.M.: Western Arts Foundation, 1984.
Ching, Francis D. K. Architecture: Form, Space and Order. New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold Co., 1$79.
Clark, Roger H. Pause, Michael. Precedents in Architecture. New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold Company Inc., 1985.
DiChiara.Joseph and Callender, John Hancock, Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1973
Clarke, R.V.G., ed. and Mayhew, P. Designing Out Crime. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1980.
Denver Planning Department. "Urban Design Plan for Five Points", Denver, 1985.
Fletcher, Sir Bannister. A History of Architecture on the Comparltlve Method. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,1981.
Goldberger, Paul. On the Rise. New York: Penguin Books, 1983*
Halprin, Lawrence, Cities. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1972.
Hoyt, Charles King. Public, Municipal and Community Buildings. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980.
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 19^1.
Krier, Rob. On Architecture. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982. ________. Urban Space. New York: Rozzoli, 1979*
Mumford, Lewis, The City in History. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961.
Newman, Oscar. Defensible Space. New York: MacMillan Co., 1972.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. The Concept of Dwelling. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.
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. Genius Loci. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1980.
Odyssey West
Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. Experiencing Architecture. Cambridge, Mass. The MIT Press, 1959.
Rowe, Colin, and Koetter, Fred. Collage City. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1978.
Rubenstein, Harvey M. Central City Malls. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978.
Sitte, Camillo. The Art of Building Cities. New York: Reinhold. Publishing Corp., 194b
Sternberg, Eugene and Barbara. Community Centers and Student Unions. New York: Van Nostrand Relnhoid Co., 1971.
Thompson, Robert Ferris. African Art in Motion. Los Angeles, Ca.: University of California Press, 197^.
_____. Black Gods and Kings. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana
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________. Flash of the Spirit. New York: Random House, 1983.
Uhlig, Klaus. Die Fussgaengerfreundliche Stadt. Stuttgart: Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1979.
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ILLUSTRATIONS CREDITS
Ferris-Thompson Plate 24
Ferris-Thompson, Black Gods and Kings Plate 3
Rasmussen 16
Norberq-Schulz, Genius Loci 151
Halprin 116
Rasmussen 137
Norberq-Schulz, Genius Loci 162
Fletcher 105
Fletcher 185
Fletcher 185
Fletcher 186
Fletcher 483
Fletcher 897
Fletcher 1104
Norberq-Schulz, Concept of Dwelling 52
Norberq-Schulz, Concept of Dwelling 53
Wheeler-Niemann
Ferris-Thompson Plate 25
Gordon,Rene, Africa, A Continent Revealed 111
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981
Denver Post, Nov. 8, 1985 1
Wheeler-Niemann
Wheeler-Niemann
Wheeler-Niemann
Murray, Jocelyn, Cultural Atlas of Africa 81
New York: Facts on File Publications, 1981
Murray 85
Murray 90
Ferris-Thompson, Flash of the Spirit 266
Denver Post, April 14, 1985, Section B 1
Wheeler-Niemann
Wheeler-Niemann
Wheeler-Niemann
Wheeler-Niemann
Ferris-Thompson, Black Gods & Kings Ch. 20/1
Ferris-Thompson, Black Gods & Kings Plate 3
Murray 79
Murray 89
Ferris-Thompson, Flash of the Spirit 224
108


'Five Voints Market and Black Culture Center
a thesis project
University of Colorado "Denver
Joanna M~ l*Jbeo.ler-Niemann Spring Semester, 1986
enhance existing richness