San Jacinto Concert Hall

Material Information

San Jacinto Concert Hall a cultural facility for Baytown, Texas
Williams, Mark
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
110, [12] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, color photographs, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Designs and plans -- Texas -- Baytown ( lcsh )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Texas -- Baytown ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 111).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Mark Williams.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13774815 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1984 .W445 ( lcc )

Full Text

This program was prepared for thesis design by Mark Williams, graduate student of Architecture.

Considerable assistance and time were given by the following persons in accumulating the data for this program.
Don Wollard, Head of the Department of Architecture, U.C.D.
Davis C. Holder, Structural Engineer and Professor of Architecture, U.C.D.
John J. Wallace, Wallace Associates Architects, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Kenneth R. Dickensheets, Boner-Associates Consultants in Acoustics, Austin, Texas.
Timothy L. Kelly, Manager, Boettcher Concert Hall, Denver, Colorado.
James A. Davis, Davis Associates Architects-Planners, Inc., Baytown, Texas. Dan Sharp, Pacer Development Corporation, Houston, Texas.
Andy Ibsen, Paul Broadhead and Associates, Inc., Dallas, Texas.

Foreword.............................................................. 1
Goals/Objectives...................................................... 2
Feasibility Study..................................................... 3
Site Description...................................................... 7
Vicinity Map.......................................................... 3
Site Plan ........................................................... 9
Site Context ........................................................ 10
Soils Summary ....................................................... 12
Climate Summary ..................................................... 14
Composite Climatic Chart............................................. 15
U.B.C. Summary....................................................... 16
Fixture Requirements B.O.C.A......................................... 28
Space Requirements .................................................. 29
Theater Elements .................................................... 31
Acoustical Elements.................................................. 42
A Soils ........................................................... 48
B Climatic Information ............................................ 61
C Code Information................................................. 91
D Theater Information.............................................. 93
E Acoustical Information........................................... 96


There is the desire of people to witness performances by other people. It is one of the major modes of escape offered to modern civilization, its value being entirely spiritual and cultural. Theaters have been built from the fifth century B.C. to present to provide an atmosphere and staging which enhance the production visually, acoustically and emotionally. In recent years, the technical aspects of designing theaters has become extremely difficult and complex, requiring the aid of many specialists in order to create a workable whole. This report in no way represents the conclusion of all aspects of theater design, but rather, the beginning of a basic understanding in the field.
The San Jacinto Concert Hall will be located on the northwest corner of the intersection of Interstate 10 and Garth Road, in Baytown, Texas. Its primary function will be for use as a symphonic concert hall, with the major secondary function being operatic. Therefore, visuals and acoustics will be of major concern, as well as the design aesthetics and function. It suffices to say that acoustics is still a relatively new field as far as our complete understanding of it and its variables are concerned, and in spite of all the vigorous analysis and mathematical comparisons, no one truly can say for sure that a hall has excellent acoustics before that final "day of reckoning" opening night.

The Great Hall should be designed with some acoustic control to allow its use for functions other than concert, primarily that of opera.
The auditorium should seat 2,250 persons comfortably for concert performances (slightly less for opera performances), with a maximum distance of 150 feet and an optimal maximum of 125 feet from the front of the stage to the most distant patron.
Due to the proximity of Interstate 10, external noise control will be of significant importance. The structure should be isolated from the sound enclosure.
The mechanical equipment should be located as remote as possible from the sound enclosure and isolated from the structure. All air handling ducts should also be isolated and designed for low velocity, high volume to further reduce noise.
Noisy areas and rooms should be isolated from the sound enclosure.
There should be no "poor" seats in the house, either visually or acoustically.
There should be adequate lobby space to which patrons may retire at intermission and move about freely.
A rehearsal space with good lighting and completely adjustable acoustics should be provided, with as much unrestricted space as the entire playing area of the Great Hall stage.
The stage areas should be large enough to allow optimum use by the actors, yet allow enough space for ail necessary equipment and flyloft, gridiron, throat, side stage and backstage spaces.
The building should be designed for low maintenance.
Access to the site should be well defined and capable of handling the large volume of traffic associated with theatrical functions.
Building access should present a well defined sense of progression from the street to the seats.
The form and aesthetic qualities of the building should present a dramatic statement of its function.
The building should provide a focal point for the cultural arts in the surrounding area to be developed.

This feasibility study is based on the 1970 to 1990 Population and Land Use Report, published by the Houston-Galveston Regional Transportation Study Office (H-GRTS) in 1974. This extensive study involved the following eight counties: Brazoria, Chambers, Fort Bend, Galveston, Harris, Liberty,
Montgomery and Waller. Harris County is the most centrally located of the eight counties and includes the sixth largest city in the nation, Houston. The majority of this county is considered urbanized and is experiencing tremendous population growth.
The city of Baytown is located in the eastern portion of Harris County, with a population of approximately 60,834 in 1980 making it the third largest city in Harris County and continues to grow rapidly. Since growth rate is a function of population increase, thus directly related to the need for jobs, it should be noted that Baytown lies in the midst of the entire Houston port complex and involves an unusual pipeline system commonly referred to as the "spaghetti bowl". This facility allows one industrial plant to receive, by pipeline, the liquid products of another and pass on products of its own. This flexibility is ideal for industry and accounts for the huge industrial concentrations along the Houston Ship Channel. The largest employers of Baytown residents include the Exxon Refinery, U.S. Steel, Houston Lighting and Power, Dupont, Gulf Chemical, Rohm and Haas, Diamond Shamrock and Mo Bay Chemical. These employers continue to expand, in spite of the recent economical woes, and predict future growth at approximately 9.8% per year.
Population Study
The proposed San Jacinto Concert Hall is projected to provide cultural entertainment to the following surrounding cities and communities which lie within one hour of travel time distance to the facility. These cities are located in the northeastern and southeastern portions of the counties of Harris, Western Chambers and Southwestern Liberty.* The following population study projects estimated population figures of cities and communities within a one-hour commuting time of the Concert Hall.
*See following page for population examples.

Harris County
CITY 1970 1980* 1990**
Houston SE 410,933 542,107 673,282
Houston NE 327,321 487,778 648,235
Houston CBD 24,049 25,275 26,500
Pasadena 89,277 117,399 145,521
Baytown 43,980 65,530 87,080
Deer Park 12,773 16,796 20,820
South Houston 11,527 15,158 18,789
Galena Park 10,479 15,614 20,748
Jacinto City 9,563 14,249 18,934
LaPort 7,149 9,400 11,653
Seabrook 3,811 5,011 6,212
Humble 3,278 4,884 6,490
Nassau Bay 2,979 3,917 4,856
El Lago 2,637 3,467 4,298
Webster 2,231 2,934 3,637
Shore Acres 1,872 2,462 3,051
Taylor Lake Village 1,100 1,447 1,793
Lomax 894 1,176 1,457
Morgans Point 593 779 967
Total of Cities 966,446 1,335,383 1,704,325
Remainder of Communities 3,000 33,900 68,397
TOTAL 969,446 1,369,283 1,772,723
* Estimate **Projected

Chamber County
CITY 1970 1980 1990
Anahuac 1,881 2,516 3,197
Mont Belvieu 1,144 1,474 1,945
Beach City N/A 300 751
Total of Cities 3,025 4,290 5,893
Remainder of Communities 4,236 4,773 4,861
TOTAL 7,261 9,063 10,754
Liberty County
CITY 1970 1980 1990
Liberty 5,627 7,894 10,043
Dayton 5,591 6,550 8,975
Total of Cities 11,218 14,444 19,018
Remainder of Communities 7,010 9,003 10,947
TOTAL 18,228 23,447 29,965
The TOTAL POPULATION projected to be within the one-hour driving range distance to the San Jacinto Concert Hall by 1990 = 1,813,442.

Study Area Map


The site for the San Jacinto Concert Hall is located in Baytown, Texas, on the northwest corner of the intersection of Interstate 10 and Garth Road, just within the northern boundary of the city limits of Baytown and approximately 23 miles (33 minutes) east of Central Houston via Interstate 10.
The land in this area was originally used for agricultural purposes, primarily for the cultivation of rice. For all practical purposes as is implied by its previous usage the land is absolutely flat and lies at an elevation of 35-36 feet above sea level. Because of the flatness of the site, soils will necessarily have to be brought in to achieve the minimum positive drainage requirement of 1% for the parking area.
The area surrounding the site is presently used primarily for commercial retail purposes. San Jacinto Mall, completed in 1980, has 35 acres of retail space under roof and is the initial phase of a large-scale development by Pacer Development Corporation, located south of Interstate 10 and west of Garth Road and named San Jacinto Place. Over the next 10 years, this development is predicted to cover 508 acres, displaying the extent of foreseen growth in this area. Also in the area are other large residential, professional and commercial projects underway.

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3 n v 3 s
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H l o H

The San Jacinto Mall, seen in the background of the photograph, is the only major facility in the near vicinity of the site at present. The photograph demonstrates the flatness typical of the entire coastal plains region. The following page shows the extent of the proposed development to occur adjacent to the mall on the south side of Interstate 10.
Site Photo
(Photo taken from the northeast corner of the site, looking south.)

Illustrated below is the predicted scope and extent of the ten-year development plan for the 508 acres of San Jacinto Place, south of Interstate 10 at Garth Road.
(Provided courtesy of Dan Sharp, Pacer Development Corporation, Houston, Texas.)
(,artl, Road

Soils Description
The site's soils are generally 2 to 4 feet of soft to medium-stiff grey and dark grey clays at the surface. Beneath this is stiff to very stiff tan and light grey Beaumont clay. Within this stiff clay are pockets and layers of medium clay, and in several borings, there are indications of 2 to 10 foot thick layers of silt and sand between the 10 and 20 foot depths. There is no evidence of active faults on the site; however, it is a well documented fact that the Baytown area has experienced subsidence due to subsurface water drawdown. Published data indicates the site has subsided 5 to 5-1/2 feet in the past 35 years. This type of subsidence covers a very large area and generally does not influence the support of structures.
Free water occurring at the 13 foot level in numerous borings rose to the 8 to 8-1/2 foot level overnight. This 8 to 8-1/2 foot level appears to be representative of the area static ground water table; however, ground water levels can be influenced by seasonal and climatic conditions.
The soil has a moderate swell potential which allows the use of shallow spread footings, recommended by the soils engineer.

Foundation Design
The net allowable bearing pressures for spread footings at the 2 foot depth are:
Long Continuous
Individual Footings
Load Condition Spot Footings L/W = 2 or Greate
Dead Load and Live Load 3,000 psf 2,000 psf
Dead Load 2,000 psf 1,500 psf
Floor Slab Design
The recommended Floor Slab design which is virtually free of risk from the swelling soils involves structural support of the floor slab and grade beams on the foundation system. The floor slab is cast on cardboard void forms or constructed of precast elements with a topping slab. The high cost associated with this method precludes its use except where floor slabs will be exposed, and therefore, should not be subjected to the cracking and shifting potential incurred by the swelling soils.
All other floor slabs may be constructed on the gound, using the usual construction techniques of visquean vapor barriers and gravel or sand capillary barriers. The soil should not be allowed to dry prior to pouring of slabs.
(See Appendix A.)


The information used for this climate analysis is based on local climatological data gathered in Houston, Texas from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). This information is basically accurate for Baytown due to its close priximity. The differences are very minor, due to Baytown's lower elevation of approximately 30 feet as compared with Houston's 96 feet and Baytown's closer proximity to the Gulf Coast and major inlet bays.
Baytown's humidity is generally 2-5% higher than that of Houston, and the minimum winter temperatures are usually 1-3F. warmer. Baytown is located on the flat coastal plains north of Galveston Bay and bordered by inland coastal waters to the south and west. The climate is predominately marine, and the terrain includes numerous small bays, streams and bayous which, together with the nearness to Galveston Bay, favor the development of both ground and advective fogs. Prevailing winds are from the southeast and south, except in January when frequent passages of high pressure areas bring in polar air and prevailing northerly winds.
Temperatures are moderated by the influence of the Gulf of Mexico, which results in mild winters and relatively cool but humid summer nights. The close proximity of the Gulf results in abundant rainfall, except for extended dry periods which generally occur during the summer months. The temperature rarely drops below 32F. (approximately five times per year), and freezing temperatures generally last only a few hours.
Monthly rainfall is evenly distributed through the year and varies from an average of 2.68" to 5.10" during the year. The average annual rainfall during a normal year is 48.19" and can vary as much as 10" without being considered abnormal. About one-fourth of the days per year are recorded as clear and generally occur in October and November. Snow rarely occurs and usually only in traces mixed with rain or hail and melts immediately. Light fog occurs quite often and usually during the morning or evening hours, with heavier fog accumulating in land depressions and being more abundant in rural areas. Destructive windstorms are fairly infrequent and generally occur when tropical storms and occasional hurricanes pass through or by the area.
Due to the type of facility proposed, the inner shell of the auditorium (Great Hall), rehearsal spaces and instrument storage spaces of necessity will be completely protected from the exterior environment, especially humidity and temperatures which can be damaging to both acoustics and instruments, the outer lobby spaces and inner foyer spaces wiil act as a buffer to the exterior environment to assist in maintaining this climatic control.

MEAN NUMBER DAYS Cloudy Ptly. Cloudy Clear
Ext. Max.
Mean Max.
Mean Min.
Ext. Min.
Mean Max.
Mean Min.
Monthly Max. Normal Monthly Min.
(See Appendix B)


The building will be a Group A-l occupancy building with a stage and an occupant load of 1,000 or more in the building, (See p. 59, 82, U,B.C.)
A-l Type I-F.R. or Type II F,R.
Basic Allowable Floor Area for One Story in Height (Table 5-C, 82, U.B.C.)
Type I-F.R.
Type II-F.R.
Note: The total combined floor area for multi-story buildings may be twice that permitted by Table No. 5-C for one-story buildings, and the floor area of any single-story building shall not exceed that permitted for a one-story building 505(b).
Occupancy Type I-F.R. Type II-F.R.
A-l Unlimited 160 ft. or 4 stories
Required Fire Ratings Based on Type of Construction (Ch. 7. 82, U.B.C.)
Building Element
Type I-F.R. Typell-r.R.
(Hours) (Hours)
Ext. Bearing Walls Int. Bearing Walls Ext. Non-Bearing Walls Structural Frame (1) Partitions Permanent Shaft Enclosures Floors Roofs
Ext. Doors & Windows
4 (1803(a))
4 (1803(a)) 3
3/4 (1803(b))
4 (1903(a))
4 (1903(a))
1 (2)
3/4 (1903(b))

Basic Allowable F'ioor Area Increases (Ch. 5, 82, U.B.C.)
Automatic Sprinkler Systems
Areas may be tripled in one-story buildings and doubled in multi-story buildings if provided with a sprinkler system throughout.
Basic Allowable Floor Area may be increased by one of the following:
1. Separation on two sides 1-1/4%/ft. width over 20 ft., to a maxi-
mum of 50%
2. Separation on three sides 2-1/2%/ft. of width over 20 ft. to a
maximum of 100%
3. Separation on all sides 5%/ft. of width over 20 ft., to a
maximum of 100%
Total Allowable Floor Area with Sprinkler*
Occupancy Type I-F.R. Type II-F.R.
A-l Unlimited 59,300
Additional increases may be taken under limitations of 506(a) 1, 2 or 3, as designed.

Special Requirements for Type A Occupancies (Ch. 6, 82, U.B.C.)
The slope of the main assembly room of a division A-l occupancy when provided with fixed seating shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 5 horizontal.
Occupancies located in a basement or above the first story shall not be less than one-hour F.R. construction.
Buildings shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width.
The main entrance to the building shall be located on a public street cr on the access way.
Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be separated from the raest of the building by not less than a one-hour F.R. occupancy separation.
Exit lighting in portions of the building other than the stage shall be on a separate circuit than the stage.
All registers or vents supplying air backstage shall be equipped with automatic closing devices with fusible links.

Live Loads Uniform and Concentrated (Table 23A, 82, U.B.C.)
Uniforrn centrated
Cataqorv Description Load Load
Fixed seating areas 50 0
Assembly areas Movable seating areas
and auditorium and other areas 100 0
and balconies Stage areas and enclosed platforms 125 0
Exit facilities 100 o1
Restrooms 50
Storage*" Light 125
Heav y 250
^ Stair treads shall be designed to support a 300 pound concentrated toad placed in a position which would cause maximum stress.
Heavy storage shall be assumed to be areas for loading/receiving, set storage anc! othar areas where heavy equipment shall be stored. All other areas shall be considered light storage.

Special Loads (Table 238, 82, U.8.C.)
Category Description Vertical Lead Latera Load
Public access Walkway (4406) 150 -
and site Stage Accessories Gridirons and Fly 75
(3902) galleries Loft block well*" 250 250
Head block well'*' 250 250
and sheave beams Over stage 20
Ceiling framing All uses except over 3tage 10 -
Partitions and
interior walls (see Section 2309) - 5
Elevators and (dead and live loads) 2 x
dumb waiters total loads
Mech. and
elect, equip. (dead loads) total loads -
Balcony railings, guard rails and hand rails Exit facilities serving an occupant load of greater than 50 50
Other 20
Pounds per linear foot

Stages and Platforms (Ch. 39, 82, U.B.C.)
Stage Ventilators (3901) one or more constructed of non-combustible material, near the center and above the highest part of the working stage, raised above the stage roof and having a total ventilation area equal to at least 5% of the floor area within the stage walls. The ventilators shall open automatically after the outbreak of a fire.
Gridirons (3902) shall be constructed of non-combustible materials and fire protection of steel and iron may be omitted.
Rooms Accessory to Stage (3903) shall be located on the stage side of the proscenium wall.
Proscenium Walls (3904) shall separate the stage area from the auditorium and be constructed of not less than two-hour non-combustible construction. The proscenium shall extend at least four feet above the roof over the auditorium. The proscenium opening shall be provided with a self-closing fire resistive curtain.
Stage Floor (39 05) all parts of the stage floor shall be Type I construction except the part extending back from 6 beyond the full width of the procenium opening on each side, which may be constructed of steel or heavy timbers covered with a wood floor of not less than 2-inch nominal thickness. No part of the combustible construction except the floor finish shall be carried thru the proscenium opening. All parts of the stage floor shall be designed to support not less than 125 pounds per square foot. Openings through the stage floor shall be equipped with tight fitting trap doors of wood of not less than 2 inches nominal thickness.
Platforms (3906)
1. Enclosed platforms shall be provided with one or more ventilators (conforming to requirements of Section 3901), unless the platform floor area does not exceed 500 square feet.
2. Wails and ceiling of an enclosed platform in an assembly room shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. 3
3. The dressing rooms section, workshops and storeroom shall be separated from each other and the rest of the building by not less than one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation, except that a chair-storage area having a head room of not more than 4 feet need not be so separated.

Stage Exits (3907)
At least one exit not less than 36 inches wide shall be provided from each side of the stage opening directly or by means of a passageway not less than 36" wide to a street or exit court.
An exit stair not less than 2'-6" (30") wide shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery.
Each tier of dressing rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress, each not less than 30" wide.
The stairs required in this section need not be enclosed.
Miscellaneous (3908) A protecting hoed shall be provided over the full length of the stage switchboard.
Exits (Ch. 33, 82, U.B.C.)
Determination of Occupant Load (3302)
1. All portions of the building snail be presumed to be occupied at the same time in determining occupant load.
2. Exception: Accessory use areas which ordinarily are used only by persons who occupy the main areas of an occupancy shall be provided with exits as though they are completely occupied, but their occupant ioad need not be included in computing the total occupant load of the building.
3. For areas having fixed seating and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats.
Exits Required (3303)
1. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant load of 501-1,000 shall have not less than three exits. 2 *
2. Every story or portion thereof having an occupant ioad of more than
1,000 shall have not less than four exits.

3. Total width of exits in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load served, divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided approximately equally among the separate exits.
4. The maximum distance of travel from any point to an exterior door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stairway in a building not equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout shall not exceed 150' or 200' in a building equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout. These distances may be increased 100' when the last 150' is within a corridor, complying with Section 3305.
Doors (3304)
1. This section applies to every door serving an occupant load of ten or more or serving hazardous rooms or areas.
2. Exit doors shall open in the direction of exit travel when serving an area having an occupant load of fifty or more.
3. Double acting doors shall not be used as exits when any of the following conditions exist.
a. The occupant load served by the door is 100 or more.
b. The door is part of a fire assembly or smoke and draft control assembly.
c. Panic hardware is required or provided on door.
Double acting doors shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches.
4. Exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge or effort. 5
5. Every required exit door shall be not less than 3'-0" wide and 6'-8" high. A single leaf of an exit door may not be greater than 4'-0" wide.

Corridors and Ext. Balconies (3305) serving an occupant load of ten or more.
1. Minimum width: 44".
2. Minimum clearance height: 7'-0" from lowest projection.
3. Dead ends may not exceed 20' in length.
Stairways (3306)
1. Minimum width: 44".
2. Maximum rise: 7-1/2"; minimum rise: 4".
3. Minimum run: 10".
4. Landing depth = stair width, but need not exceed 4' when the stair has a
straight run.
5. Maximum distance between landings: 12' vertically.
6. Hand rails on each side and one intermediate hand rail for each 88" in width.
7. Circular stairways may be used as a regular exit, providing the minimum width of tread is 10" and the smaller radius is not less than twice the width of the stairway.
8. The largest tread width or riser height within any flight shall not exceed the smallest by more than 3/8".
Ramps (3307)
1. Minimum width: 44".
2. Maximum slope for egress ramps: 1 vertical : 12 horizontal; for other ramps: 1 vertical : 8 horizontal.
3. Landings required at top and bottom of ramp and one intermediate landing for every 5 feet of rise. 4
4. Minimum depth of landing: 5' at top; 6' at bottom.

Exit Signs (3314)
Required sign at every exit doorway and wherever necessary to clearly indicate direction of egress when exit serves an occupant load of thirty or more.
Aisles (3315)
1. Every aisle shall be not less than 3' wide if serving only one side, and not less than 42" wide if serving both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest from an exit, cross aisle or foyer and shall be increased by 1-1/2" for each 5' in length tov/ard the exit, cross aisle or foyer.
2. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3316, side aisles shall be not less than 44" in width.
3. In areas occupied by seats, the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall be not more than 150'. Such travel distance may be increased to 200' if the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system.
4. With standard seating, as specified in Section 3316(a), aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six intervening seats between any seat and the nearest aisle.
5. With continental seating, as specified in Section 3316(b), the number of intervening seats may be increased.
6. Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer or exit.
7. The width of the cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisle, plus 50% of the total required width of the remaining aisles leading thereto.
8. Aisles shall not provide a dead end greater than 20' in length.
9. The slope portion of aisles shall not exceed one footfall in 8 feet.
10. Steps shall not be used in an aisle when the change in elevation can be
achieved by a conforming slope. No single step or riser shall be used in any aisle.

1. With standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a space of not less than 12" from the back of one seat to the front of the most forward projection of the seat immediately behind it, as measured horizontally between vertical planes.
2. With continental seating, the spacing of rows of seats shall provide a clear width, measured horizontally as follows (automatic or self-rising seats shall be measured in the seat-up position; other seats shall be measured in the seat-down position):
Number of Seats/Row
18 or Less
19 to 35 36 to 45 46 to 59 60 or More
a. Exit doors shall be provided along each side aisle at the rate of one pair of doors for each five rows of seats.
b. Each pair of exit doors shall provide a minimum clear width of 66" discharging into a foyer, lobby or the exterior of the building.
Exit Requirements for Group A Division 1 Occupancies (3317)
1. There shall be a main exit.
2. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one-half of the total occupant load, but shall be not less than the total required width of all aisles, exit passageways and stairways leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading to a public way.
3. Every auditorium shall be provided with exits on each side. The exits on each side of the auditorium shall be of sufficiant width to accommodate one-third of the total occupant load served. 4
4. Side exits shall open directly to a public way or into an exit court, approved stairway, exterior stairway or exit passageway leading to a public way. Side exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.

Every balcony having an occupant load of eleven or more shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Balcony exits shall open directly onto an exterior stairway or into an approved stairway or ramp. Balcony exits shall be accessible from a cross aisle.

The following fixture requirements are minimal and were gathered from B.O.C.A., Table P-1202.1. (See Appendix C.)
Water Closets Urinals Lavatories Drinking Fountains
Men 8 7 7 3
Women 11 - 7 3


Administrative Spaces Subtotal = 2,200 s.f.
Manager 200 s.f.
Assistant Manager 150 s.f.
Secretary/Receptionist 200 s.f.
Marketing 200 s.f.
Publicity ocn x t-JU 4 *
Counting Room 200 s.f.
Ticket Sales 500 s.f.
Box Office 150 s.f.
House Manager 150 s.f.
Theater Spaces Subtotal = 29,450 s.f.
Foyer 1 s.f./seat 2,250 s.f.
Lobby 1.8 s.f./seat 4.050 s.f.
Checkroom 400 s.f.
Restrooms 2,000 s.f.
Bar/Lounge 8 s.f./person (150 people) 1,200 s.f.
Kitchen 800 s.f.
Catering Service Storage 500 s.f.
Ice Machines 250 s.f.
Seating Area 8 s.f ./person (includes isles and
crossovers) 18,000 s.f.
Stage Areas Subtotal = 20,850 s.f,
Stage (based on proscenium width) 15,850 s.f.
Stage width: (3)(65)
Stage depth: (1.25)(65)
Acting area: 2.925 s.f.
Proscenium width: 65'+
(.75X65) depth: 45'+
height: 25'+
Orchestra Pit (12 s.f./musician) 1,800 s.f.
First Platform: 8C0 s.f.
Second Piatform/Seating: 1,GGG s.f.
Pit Storage 2,200 s.f.
Throat 1,000 s.f.
Backstage Areas Subtotal = 27,800 s.f.
Reception Hall i nnn x X -uuu o i
Dressing Rooms
Chorus 2,800 s.f.
Restrooms and Showers 1,200 s.f.
Actors 1,400 s.f.
Restrooms and Showers cOu sf

Backstacie Areas (Continued)
Conductor's Dressing Room 250 s.f.
Soloist's Dressing Rooms 2,000 s.f.
4 primary (a) 200 s.f.
8 secondary (a) 150 s.f.
Costume/Wardrobe Repair 1,000 s.f.
Makeup 400 s.f.
Scenery/Property Repair and Storage 5,200 s.f.
Loading/Receiving 400 s.f.
Support Facilities
Light Booth 500 s.f.
Sound Board Area 50 s.f.
Sound Booth 500 s.f.
Technicians 40-50
Dressing and Shower 500 s.f.
Ushering Staff 8-10 500 s.f.
Crew Lounge 500 s.f.
Rehearsal Areas
Rehearsal Hall 3,500 s.f.
Lobby 1,000 s.f.
Rehearsal Booths 6 (a) 100 600 s.f.
Storage Areas
Library (music) 500 s.f.
Instrument Storaae 100C s.f.
Wardrobe Storage 1,000 s.f.
General Storage 800 s.f.
Buiidinq Supoort Facilities Subtotal = 8,700 s.f.
Stage Manager 150 s.f.
Lighting Engineer 150 s.f.
Technical Director/Draft Office 400 s.f.
Building Engineer 150 s.f.
Buildina Maintenance Shop 800 s.f.
Electrical Equipment Storage 400 s.f.
Elevator Equipment Storage 400 s.f.
Telephone Equipment 200 s.f.
General Storage 2,000 s.f.
Platform Life Areas 4,000 s.f.
Circulation 18,230 s.f.
Mechanical/Duct Room 15,000 s.f.
Electrical Equipment 1,500 s.f.
Elevator Equipment 1,500 s.f.
125,230 s.f.

Audience iransitTime
An audience wili generally travel a maximum of one hour to see most concert or operatic performances. Most of the audience will check their wraps when adequate facilities are provided. The overall transit time from parking location to seat generally varies between 4 to 12 minutes, assuming the patron has already purchased tickets. Only 8% of the audience will purchase their tickets within 20 minutes of curtain time. The time spent in line for purchasing tickets or picking up reserved tickets should vary between 2 and 15 minutes. The time spent in line to the ticket taker should not be in excess of 2 minutes and generally should only be about 1 minute.
(Burris-Meyer Cole, 1975, p. 48.)
Audience Movement
The typical audience flowchart (following page) shows the path traveled by the majority of patrons from auto to seat. The major areas of conjestion occurs at the box office, admission control and major points of entry to or exit from the house. Approximatley 75% of the audience leaves their seats during intermission, generally to visit the lavatory. Lavatories should be designed to accommodate this period of intensive use, and lines should be no more than 1-1/2 minutes.
(Burris-Meyer Cole, 1975, p. 59.)

(Burris-Meyer Cole, 1975, p. 52.)

Site Lines
If the patron is to see satisfactorily, the plan and section of the seating areas must conform to the following limitations:
The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision (no eye movement) is approximately 40 degrees.
The horizontal angle to the center-line of the stage at which objects onstage, upstage of the curtian line, cease to bear the intended relationship to other objects on stage and to the background is approximately 60 degrees.
The horizontal angle to a flat projection surface at which distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerable is 60 degrees, measured to the far side of the projected image.

Audiences will not choose locations beyond a line approximately 100 degrees to the curtain at the side of the proscenium.
Giving the proscenium opening and house capacity, the layout of the audience seating area in the plan becomes a straightforward process. Seats should be oriented toward the stage, which necessitates curving the rows. The radius of curvature should equal the distance from the front of the stage to the back wall of the house. To provide best visibility from any seat, no patron should sit exactly in front of any other patron in the next row back. Staggering is accomplished by the non-uniform placement of seats of varying widths in succeeding rows. (See Appendix D.)
The vertical angle beyond which ability to recognize standard shapes falls off very rapidly is approximately 30 degrees.

The maximum distance from the front of the stage to the furthermost seat should be no more than 150 feet, with 125 feet being more acceptable.
The lowest seat in the orchestra must be located where the patron can just see the stage floor.
The highest seat in the balcony must provide a sight line no more than 30 degrees with the horizontal plane of the stage floor.
Each spectator must see the entire stage over the heads of those in front of him.
The standing patrons at the rear of the orchestra must be able to see the top of the proscenium opening.

These limitations will begin to determine the slope of the orchestra and balconies in sections. The curvature of the floor slope is determined by the method shown below. (See Appendix D.)
5s @
^ACH F'-oUf Akr&PrfAq-(£

S&AT -s^Aqrlq
(Burris-Meyer and Cole, 1975, Ch. 3.)

Proscenium Arch
The width of the opening should be 65 feet in order to accommodate a 110-piece orchestra during symphonic performances. The height should be approximately 30 feet to allow maximum flexibility with scenery related to dramatic performances. The teaser may be raised or lowered to accommodate specific requirements. The proscenium opening should be matte in finish to avoid glare directed toward the audience.
The stage depth should be at least as large as the proscenium opening and need be no larger than 1-1/2 times the width of the proscenium. The width of the stage should be 3 times the width of the proscenium opening to accommodate the moving of an entire set of scenery off the acting area either left or right. The orchestra will require a minimum of 18 s.f. per player for symphonic performances.
Hardwood flooring should be used over the entire stage area for solidity and wear resistance. This flooring should be a nominal 2 inches in depth to allow future refinishing.
Orchestra Pit
The orchestra pit area should be located in front of the proscenium opening and should be adjustable in height from the stage level to the chair storage level, below the audience seating area. The following sketches illustrate the use and function of the orchestra pit area.


Back Stage Circulation
Circulation should be as direct as possible. Level changes should be minimized, particularly involving actors' travel to and from the stage. Avoid sharp corners and equipment near pathways.
Flow Chart for Actors in Theater
I t

Separate storage areas should be provided for scenery, costumes and properties. Easy accessibility to loading area and to stage is extremely important for scenery and property storage. Easy accessibility to dressing room and loading area is important for costume storage. Stage operations require that scenery be transported to the stage, assembled rather than in pieces. Scene storage and all pathways and doors must be able to accommodate the highest flat scenery, usually about 20 feet.
Flow Chart for Scenery

Rehearsal Hall
The Rehearsal Hall should be acoustically separate from the Great Hall and stage areas. It should be completely, acoustically controllable by the use of sound absorptive materials so that the space may be altered to fit the type of production being rehearsed. It must be at least as large as the stage acting area. It should be in close proximity to instrument storage and the music library.
The lounge should be capable of seating 150 people and will provide a space for patrons to sit, wait for friends before a production, go during intermission and meet after a performance. Beverages and hors d'oeuvres could be purchased, therefore the space must be adjacent to the kitchen. The space should also be leasable separately for meetings or private functions.
Administrative Spaces
The offices should be located close to the main entry and foyer/lobby area. The counting room should be adjacent to the offices and not approachable from public areas. Natural light and views are important in all offices.
The security office should be located adjacent to the stage door (actors' and stage bands entry) and the loading door. Security doors should be provided for stage door. Electronic surveilance equipment should be provided for observation of all entry areas.

The acoustics of a hail are of extreme importance. A hall's acoustical performance can either make it economically, or destroy it physically. Many halls throughout the years have been destroyed due to poor acoustical performance. They cannot support themselves because attendance is low and che better performing symphonic and operatic companies refuse to come, both due to poor acoustics.
The sound enclosure, including the Great Hall and the orchestra shell, must be designed for optimum acoustical performance. The performers must be abie to hear each other, as well as themselves.
The optimum reverberation time varies with different performances and is a function of the volume of a hall. The volume of a hall is directly related to the height of the ceiling and the seating capacity. The ceiling should be designed to control the reverberation time, since the first reverberation wave should reach the patrons' ears approximately 20 milliseconds after the direct sound. Since sound travels at 1,130 feet per second, the additional distance traveled by the first reflected sound should be about 22 to 23 feet. The initial reverberation should be more than 30-35 milliseconds after the direct sound. This first reverberant wave will be deflected from either the ceiling or the side walls, depending on the location of the listener. Wide halls should
generally have lower ceilings and narrow hails have higher ceilings. With this in mind, the ceiling should be designed for acoustical performance controlling the initial time delay gap where the wails cannot. The approximate volume of a 2,250 seat hall should be about 240 cubic feet per person.
Reverberation Time
The reverberation time is inversely related to the cubic volume. It should be approximately 1,7 to 2.1 seconds for symphony and slightly less for opera -about 1.5 to 1.8 sec. This may be controlled by varying the amount of absorption in the hall or by varying the volume. The following table shows optimum reverberation times for various types of productions as related to volume.

fZxrio K TIDE Csecohps)
The following chart is used to compute optimum reverberation time as a function of frequency (t^).
*512 = reverberation time from chart above.
(Knudsen and Harris, 1978, pp. 173-174.)

To calculate the total reverberation of a hall (T), the classical reverberation equation, developed by Wallace C. Sabine, is used.
o oc
T = time in seconds required for the sound to decay by 60 decibels.
V = total volume in the hali in cubic feet (includes volume of air in main hail and orchestra enclosure).
S = total surface area of main hall and orchestra enclosure.
= average absorption coefficient, as defined in equation 2.
The average absorption coefficient of the room is calculated as follows:
+ SnOtn + S-T^-T + N 04 + N 04 = 11 Z 2 3 3 oo ee
S = S1 + S2 + S3 . (3)
1, 2, room with S., S?, S-j, etc. being their respective surface areas in square feet;
N is the total number of occupied seats, with a total absorption cf each seat
of ctQ and N0 is the total number of empty seats, with a total absorption of
each seat of e
With additional complexity and taking into account sir absorption at various humidity levels, equation (1) varies. (See Appendix E.)
(Knudsen and Harris, .1.978, pp. 129-133.)

Balcony Overhangs
The following proportions should be observed in the design of balconies overhanging the orchestra seating or other balconies.
H = 2/3D
The rear wall beneath the balcony should be no less than 12 feet high floor to ceiling.

General Hall Design
Gradual elevation of seating provides an unobstructed flow of direct sound to the listeners' ears. Side walls should not be parallel to prevent "flutter echo". Rear wall should be highly absorptive to prevent sound waves from returning to the stage as echos. Concave surfaces should not be used, as they tend to focus sound waves to a particular point. Shapes of surfaces used in the Great Hall should tend to disperse reflections for even sound throughout the hall. The following diagrams demonstrate the reflection patterns of various surfaces.
The concave surface demonstrates the focuing effect, while the convex surface represents the most even distribution of sound. It should be noted that the radius of the convex surface will reflect different frequency sound waves differently. A small radius while dispersing high frequency waves well will have almost no effect on low frequency sound waves. A large radius will disperse low frequency sounds well, but will act almost as a flat surface when encountered by high frequency waves. Therefore, if convex surfaces are used, their radii should vary.
Exterior Noise Control
The isolation of the sound enclosure from the structural elements and exterior spaces will effectively control ground vibrations and airborne noise. The exterior walls facing the source of unwanted noise should be rigid and massive in order to reflect, rather than absorb, the noise. Double-wali construction may be used around the sound enclosure to further isolate it. The staggering of floor and roof joists is an effective means of isolation.

Noise Control
The isolation of the sound enclosure from interior and exterior air-horne and solid-borne sound are considerable different from those of air-borne sound. Care should be taken to effectively reduce both before reaching the sound enclosure.
The mechanical equipment should be isolated from the structure to prevent transmission through the structure.
Ventilation ducts should be suspended with absorptive connections such as springs.
Forced air systems should be capable of large volumes at extremely low velocities to reduce air hissing.
Mechanical equipment should be mounted with vibration mounts, and the slabs on which they sit should be isolated from the structure.
- . Flexible connections should be made to all machinery.
Resilient hangers or staggered joist systems should be used for isolating ceili ngs.
Pipes or ducts should be isolated by rubber, felt or other means where they penetrate partitions.
Mass in exterior walls facing a noise source wiil tend to reflect, rather than absorb, the noise.
Air locks and tight fitting doors effectively reduce the amount of noise entering a hall during performances.
Discontinuous structure techniques should be used throughout the structure.
Mechanical spaces should be located as remote as possible from the sound enclosure.
- Double-wall construction may be used around the sound enclosure.
Duct chases should be partitioned periodically with sound absorptive materials.
(Knudsen and Harris, 1978, Ch. 10-13.)


Soils Report"''.......................................................... 49
Boring Logs"'"........................................................... 52
4 8

LOUIS J. CAPOZZOf.l & ASSOCIATES, INC. Geotechnical Engineers
Dr Louis J C.ipoi:zoli. Jr., PI. Glynn P. Gautrcau. P E.
James M. Aronstein, Jr.. P.E. Char'es W. Hair. Ml. P.E.
3 May 1979
Paul Broadheod & Associates, Inc.
2212 B Street
Meridian, Mississippi 39301
Attention: Mr. James E. Covington
Re: Geotechnical Engineering for Buildings San Jacinto Mall Baytown, Texas
Your Purchase Agreement No. 79-169-30-101 Our File 79-19
Our engineering analyses for the buildings on this project follow. A description of our field and laboratory analyses is in the appendix. Data for roadways and parking lots is in a following report. Allowable bearing pressures for spread footings were given to Datum Engineers by telephone Drior to writing this report. Before starting our work, we made a visit to the site. A memorandum of that site visit is in the appendix.
Forty-five borings were taken on the site at the locations shown bv the plan on sheet I. Soil profiles through the borings ore on that same sheet. The scil is generally 2 to 4 feet of soft to medium gray end dark gray clay at the surface. Beneath this is stiff to very stiff tan and light gray Beaumont clay. Within this stiff clay are pockets end layers of medium clay and in several borings, 2 to 10 foot thick layers of silt and sand between the 10 and 20 foot depths.
We were not able to find evidence of active faults on this site. Our
investigation included research of written publications, discussions with the Texas Highway Department, and a site visit. A well documented fact is the Baytown and Houston areas heve experienced subsidence due to subsurface water drawdown. Published data indicates the site has subsided 5 to Sh feet in the past 35 years from this cause. This type of subsidence covers a very large area and generally does not influence the support of structures. The major problem is its effect on oTf?ite drainage.
The buildings for this mail will be one-story structures with pipe columns and bar joist roofing systems. To support the buildings, we investigated the use of shallow spread footings, bell bottomed footings, and straight sided shaft (drilled pier) foundations. Since the area has a hisiory of swelling soil which could dictcte the
Appendix A
2 9

Paul Brcadhead & Associates, Inc., Page 2
foundation type, this was a major consideration in our analyses. To identify any swelling soils, we performed numerous Atterberg limit determinations, swell pressure tests, and volume swell tests. The results of these tests are on the enclosed tables. A description of our analyses for swelling soil is in the appendix. The results of these swell tests indicate the soil has a low to moderate swell potential which allows the use of shallow foundations.
Shallow Spread Footings. The net allowable bearing pressures for soread footings at the 2 foot depth are:
Load Condition Dead Load + Live Load Dead Load
Individual Spot Footings .3,000 psf 2,000 psf
Long Continuous Footings L/W = 2 or Greater_______
2,000 psf
1 ,500 psf
The bottom of the footing excavations should be inspected to insure firm bearing material. Any isolated soft spots that are encountered should be removed.
The footing can either be lowered to firm bearing material or the excavation backfilled with soil compacted to 92% modified proctor density using the enclosed specifications for compaction of clay soils. The footing can then be placed on this compacted fill using the above allowable bearing pressures.
Column load data was not availaole. We estimate column loadings not in excess of 100 kips total load or 50 kips sustained dead load. A footing sized for these loads using the above bearing pressures will experience settlement of less than h inch.
Deeper Foundations. Since bell bottomed footings are not needed to bypass swelling soil and the borings do not consistently show an increase in bearing capacity at greater depths, bell bottomed footings are not recommended.
Although they are not needed to support the buildings, allowable loads for drilled piers (straight sided shafts) are given on sheets 2 and 3. Where the piers enter the silt or sand described in the soil conditions above, casing or processing the hole with drilling mud and tremieing the concrete will be required. A typical specification for the installation of drilled piers is in the appendix.
Floor Slab. The swell pressure tests inaicate developed pressures are no greaier than the soil overburden pressures. Based on these results, the building floor slab can be constructed on the ground with the usual construction techniques of visqueen vapor barriers and grcvei or sand capillary barriers. Since moistun in the soil will reduce the swell potential, the soil should nor be allowed to dry during
Appendix A

Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc., Page 3
construction, prior to pouring the slabs. If dry spells occur causing cracks in the clay subgrade, the soil should be saturated before pouring the concrete slab.
The buildings for this mall can be supported on shallow spread footings using the bearing pressures given. The floor slab can be supported on the ground surface as described. No special procedures for swelling soil need be used. Care should be used not to allow the soil to dry before floor slabs are poured.
Very truly yours,
Appendix, Field and Laboratory Analyses
Appendix, Memorandum of Site Visit
Appendix, Analyses for Swelling Soils
Appendix, Specifications for Compaction of Clay Soils
Appendix, Specificctions for Straight Sided Shafts (Drilled Piers)
Sheet I, Boring Plan and Soil Profiles
Sheets 2 and 3, Allowable Loads on Drilled Piers
Figures I through 8, Consolidation Test Curves
Tables I through II, Laboratory Data
Logs of Borings, I through 45
Appendix A

San Jacinto Mall
Baytown, Texas
Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc. Meridian, Mississippi
jate 9 Mar. 1979
Soft dark gray very silty clay
Medium tan clay with calcareous nodules and traces of silt Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules Very stiff tan clay with calcareous nodules and ferrous nodules
Medium tan and light gray clay with silt lenses and pockets and calcareous nodules
N Very stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
| Very stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay
Boring Depth 20 Feet
Medium gray silty clay with silt traces 3
y Medium gray clay with sand pockets
5 Mi Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules ;{% t
____p Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and ferrous and
rJ silt traces
~ f:
m Dri tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules and
iu si 11 pockets
15 lli ^an anc^ light gray clay with calcareous nodules
20 .Ed
Stiff tan and light gray clay

project San Jacinto Mall Baytown, Texas BORING -.3 FILE J9-12
FOR; Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc. Meridian, Mississippi hate 9 Mar. 1979 TECHNICIAN BS

- o
m Soft brown silty clay
5 B
- hfj
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty '-lay with silt traces and calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and lignt gray slightly sandy clay with calcareous nodules and silt pockets
Stiff tan and light gray clay with sand streaks
Stiff tan and light gray sandy clay with calcareous and ferrous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay
Bori na
Boring Depth 20 Feet
}M Soft gray slightly silty clay
iij Medium gray clay with silt traces
Stiff tan and light gray clay with ferrous nodules
3 Very stiff tan and light gray silty clay &}
Stiff tan and light gray silty clay with silt pockets
- 15
jo Stiff tan and light gray silty clay with calcareous nodules and silt d streaks
Very stiff tan and light gray clay with silt and calcareous traces

San Jacinto Mall
Baytown, Texas
Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc. Meridian, Mississippi
BORING_____ 5______
F I LE 79-1 9____
date .9..Mar_ 1975
20 Feet
Medium brown clay
Stiff tan and light gray very silty clay with calcareous nodules with sand traces
Stiff tan and light gray sandy clay with calcareous nodules Stiff tan and light gray sandy clay Firm tan very clayey sand
Stiff tan and light gray clay with sand traces and clay nodules on bottom
Stiff tan and light gray clay
Boring Depth 20 Feet
Soft gray silty clay with calcareous nodules and roots
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt traces
£jj Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
| Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules | Very stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules


r 20
Medium tan and gray silty clay with silt pockets, streaks, and 1/4 inch silt layer
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules

project: San Jacinto Mall
Baytown, Texas
FOR Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc. Meridian, Mississippi
PILE _7^1?______
.8 Mar. 1979
- o

i -
j- 5
j -----------
- c?v w
- h
- 15
Medium gray clay with silt traces and pockets Stiff gray clay with silt traces
Stiff tan and gray clay with ferrous nodules and silt traces Stiff tan and light gray clay with ferrous nodules and silt traces Stiff tan and light gray clay with silt traces
Loose tan and light gray slightly clayey silt with clay streaks and calcareous nodules and silty sand pockets
Stiff tan and light gray clay
Bori ng Boring Depth
20 Feet
Medium silty clay
Stiff tan and gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt streaks
Stiff tan and light gray clay with silty clay lenses
Hi Stiff tan and liqht gray clay _________________________'

project: San Jacinto Mall
Baytown, Texas
tor Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc, Meridian, Mississippi
FILE .79-19 date 9 Mar. 1979
- O'
~ 10
Medium brown clay with silt traces and roots Stiff brown and tan clay with silt traces
Soft tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules Stiff.tan and light gray clay with sand traces and calcareous nodules Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay with sand traces, pockets and streaks with calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay
- 20
Boring Depth ____20 Feet
fci Stiff gray clay with traces of silt
H Stiff tan and light gray very sandy silty clay with calcareous nodules
5-Stiff tan and light gray silty clay with calcareous nodules & silt traces-
b Stiff tan and light gray silty clay with calcareous nodules & sand traces
Medium tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt traces and calcareous nodules throughout
Medium tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
Very stiff tan and light gray calcareous with silt streaks and calcareous 20 n nodules and 2 inch silt clay layer
K 1M1 'ib

PROJECT: San Jacinto Mall
Baytown, Texas
for: Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc.
Meridian, Mississippi
FILE 19-A9_______
date JLMar^l97_9
Medium tan and gray silty clay with calcareous nodules and silt pockets
Medium tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
Very stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous and ferrous nodules
Very stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous and ferrous nodules
Stiff tan and gray slightly silty clay with ^inch silt layers and calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay with silt streaks and calcareous nodules
Stiff tan clay with silt streaks
Boring 12 Boring Depth 20 Feet
Soft dark gray slightly silty clay
Medium tan and gray slightly silty clay with traces of silt and roots
Stiff tan and light gray clay with silt pockets and ferrous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules and silt pockets
Medium tan and light gray clay with silt streaks
Stiff tan and light gray clay with trace of sand and h inch silt layers and streaks
Stiff tan and light gray clay with silt traces


project: 5an Jacinto Mall Baytown, Texas BORING .13 file _Z9-19_ .
for: Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc. Meridian, Mississippi date 9. Mar. 1979 TECHNICIAN B.S..
Medium brown and red clay with silt traces
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt pockets and calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt traces and calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay with ferrous nodules Stiff tan and light gray clay with sand traces and pockets
Refusal at 13' to 15'
Very dense tan slightly silty sand
Penetration resistance 30 blows per 6 inches (30/6)
Refusal at 18' to 20'
Medium tan and light gray sand clay with sand pockets on top Penetration resistance 18 blows per foot (5/9/9)
Stiff tan and light gray clay with sand traces and pockets
Boring ____14
Boring Depth 20 Feet
Soft dark gray silty clay
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay
Medium tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and silt traces Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules
Medium tan and light gray very silty clay with silt pockets and lenses
Stiff tan and light gray clay
Ki'lEl 2.r>

PROJECT: San Jacinto Mall
Baytown, Texas
for: Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc.
Meridian, Mississippi
BORING ___ 1 5____
FILE J.9^19_______
ATE -.8- -Mar^.l97_9
20 Feet
Soft dark gray slightly silty clay with roots Medium gray clay with silt traces Medium gray clay
Medium gray slightly silty clay with sand traces Medium tan very sandy clay with sand pockets
Firm tan clayey sand on top with soft tan and light gray very silty clay on bottom
5 -
Stiff tan and light gray clay with silt pockets
Bori ng
Boring Depth ____20 Feet
| Stiff tan and light arav clay with sand traces .
Stiff tan and light gray silty clay with calcareous nodules
Soft tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt lenses
Very stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and silt traces
Very stiff tan and light gray clay with ferrous nodules and calcareous ^ nodules and sand traces
^ Very stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and sand traces 15 -^**1
| Medium tan and light gray slightly silty clay with silt lenses

5 -
10 '
San Jacinto Mall 17
_ _ UOR5NG 1/
Baytown, Texas nLE __79-l9
Paul Broadhead & Associates, Inc. Meridian, Mississippi
date 8.Mar
. 1979 RM____

Medium dark gray slightly silty clay with roots
Stiff tan slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and silt traces
Stiff tan and light gray slightly silty clay with calcareous nodules and silt pockets
Stiff tan and light gray silty clay with calcareous nodules and sand traces
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and silt streaks
Very stiff tan and light gray clay with silt pockets

Boring 18______
Boring Depth 20 Feet
Medium brown silty clay with roots Stiff gray clay with silt traces and roots Medium gray clay with silt traces
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules on bottom Medium tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules and firm tan and light gray clayey silt on bottom
Out of firm tan and light gray slightly clayey silt at 17 feet
Stiff tan and light gray clay with calcareous nodules

Climatological Data, 1981, Houston, Texas'*"
Sun Chart2 ...........................
Climate Analysis......................
Climate of Texas4.....................
"'(N.O.A.A., Houston, 1981.)
2(Mazria, 1979, p. 280.)
^(Computer Program "Climat" furnished by Don Wollard, 1983, UCD.) 4(N.O.A.A. & Ruffner, 1980, p. 719.)

Local Climatological Data
Annual Summary With Comparative Data
Narrative Climatological Summary
Houston, the largest city in Texas, is located in the flat Coastal Plains, about 50 miles from the Gulf of Mexico and about 25 miles from Galveston Bay. The climate is predominantly marine. The terrain includes numerous small streams and bayous which, together with the nearness to Galveston Bay, favor the development of both ground and advective fogs. Prevailing winds are from the southeast and south, except in January, when frequent passages of high pressure areas bring invasions of polar air and prevailing northerly winds.
Temperatures are moderated by the influence of winds from the Gulf, which results in mild winters and, on the whole, relatively cool summer nights. Another effect of the nearness of the Gulf is abundant rainfall, except for rare extended dry periods. Polar air penetrates the area frequently enough to provide stimulating variability in the weather.
The average number of days with minimum temperatures of 32 or lower is only 7 per year at the City Office, about 15 at William P. Hobby Airport located in southeast Houston, and about 23 at Intercontinental Airport located in north Houston. Most freezing temperatures last only a few hours since they are usually accompanied by clear skies. The extreme persistence of freezing temperatures was in January-February 1951, when the temperature remained 32 or below for 123 consecutive hours.
Monthly rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. Annual downtown rainfall has varied from 72.86 inches in 1900 to 17.66 in 1917; 72.86 inches was also recorded at William P. Hobby Airport in 1946. About 75 percent of the years have total precipitation between 30 and 60 inches. Monthly precipitation at the city office has ranged from 17.64 inches to only a trace. Since thundershowers are the main source of rainfall, precipitation may vary substantially in different sections of the City on a day-to-day basis.
Records of sky cover for daylight hours indicate about one-fourth of the days per year as clear, with a maximum of clear days in October and November. Cloudy days are relatively frequent from December to May and partly cloudy days are the more frequent for June through September. Sunshine averaged near 60 percent of the possible amount for the year at the Federal Building for 1938-1960, ranging from 46 percent for the winter months to 69 percent for the summer. Data from the airport locations since 1961 indicate slightly higher percentages of sunshine. Snow rarely occurs; however, on February 14-15, 1895, 20.0 inches of unmelted snow was measured, but 24-hour amounts were not reported. In only one winter season, 1972-73, were as many as three measurable snows recorded.
Heavy fog occurs on an average of 16 days a year and light fog occurs about 62 days a year in the City, but the frequency of heavy fog is considerably higher at William P. Hobby Airport and at Intercontinental Airport.
Destructive windstorms are fairly infrequent, but both thundersaualls and tropical storms occasionally pass through the area.
At the city office, the average date of the last temperature 32* or lower in spring is February 5. The average date of the first 32 temperature in fall is December 11. The average period from the last 32 temperature in spring to the first in fall is 309 days. The latest date of 32 temperature in spring is March 27, 1955, and the earliest data in fall is October 25, 1892.
Appendix B 52

*o CD D Meteorological Data For The Current Year
Q. Station HOI.1 S TO*. Ifs INTCRCONTlHCNTftL *InhOT Standard tun* used CENTRAL latitude 2d 51 n Longitude 95 21' M f levetiori (ground) *6 feat Vea* HU
Normals, Means, And Extremes
Teu)|Mrium F Normal Deqiee dayi Bate 65 *F Precipitation in inches Relative humidity pet. Wind E £ Mean number of days Avei^e station
Noiinei'nei Water equivalent Snow. Ice pellets Fastest mile | i t Temtieraluret F preutue n.ti
J <5 s | - Mam. Mm
" 1 i z i 3 8 2 r ... 11 * l 3 1 w tlev
E 1 \ if I 1 If j > If i > ? I ? j i i z 1 > e e It i > e > if li i > 1 e u 2 £ i > it i! ij Is i > 00 (l 06 oca 12 IlfTM 16 ) l if ?s )I I! 1 | O i >- 5 o £ ire if i If X3 j ll n # il e i 3 £ $ 5 > i j I ii, hs 1 Lii o o i mi,-' m s.l
(at 12 l? 12 12 12 12 12 12 1? 12 lb 12 12 i? i? i? 12 1? i? 1? 12 i? E >E 1? 1 ? -
J 62.6 6J.S 52.1 11 1975 17 1979 H16 16 3.57 ?. 6 e 19 7n 0. 16 1571 2.19 1980 2.0 1973 2.0 1973 89 66 6b 70 8.2 HNv 32 31 19 7b 9? 7.1 7 6 1 s 11 . 2 6 0 o P 1C17.2
f cb. 3 rial 55. 1 1*9 1 9 SO 20 ,198 1 29 9 22 3.5h 5.23 1979 0.38 1 6 1.65 1980 2.o 1971 l.H 1980 89 8 8 59 60 8.7 SSI 35 29 19 79 51 6.1 7 7 19 7 1 9 0 'J 6 inib .b
n n.t *.* fed a 6 90 15 7*. 2? 1980 *9 59 2.68 6.52 197? 1.21 1971 7.97 1972 0.0 c.o 69 bfc 60 bl 9.9 55C 35 JO 19 79 97 6.9 7 6 ie in o 9 9 3 1 1311.9
* 19 9 19.3 6 9.9 92 1981 31 1973 23 155 3.59 10.9? t 97fc 0.5 7 1 9 78 1976 0.0 0.0 85 5 1 60 (,! 9.1 SSE 95 19 1 9 78 5? 6.7 7 7 16 7 0 ** 3 0 P : o 12. (.
H 5.9 bi.t 75.9 95 ! 7 e 9k 1978 0 315 5. IP 19.39 197? C. 79 1977 5.11 1 98 | 0.0 3.0 90 59 60 ' 1.1 5 S£ 37 30 1979 59 6. 1 7 1 1 13 8 r 7 ? 5 -
J 91.1 70. V f 1.1 C3 I 9 8 C 5? 1970 0 961 9.52 13.96 197? C.2C 1970 b.61 1973 0.0 O.C 85 5 J 5 9 | 6 2 7.7 SSf 95 30 3 9 7 3 66 5.9 10 1 1 9 * p 1 ?n 1 1.411.2
J 93.6 72.U 3.3 l OH 19$C 6? 1972 c 567 9.12 6.10 1979 l .92 1971 1.59 197 3 0.0 3.0 88 9 3 b 63 6.6 5 *6 10 l 9 b V 6b 5.7 6 19 9 in r 11 ?6 0 * n 1012.?
t m a ] 72.9 3.e 107 19 80 6? 197(1 n 570 9.15 7.01 198 1 1.90 I960 6.83 190 1 o.d 3.U 90 V 9 60 tb S.9 SS£ 32 16 1973 61 5.7 7 15 9 in n 11 1 25 0 P n ini?.o
5 *0. 1 It.2 79.2 :ro 1 9 8.1 H 1975 c H?6 9.65 11.35 l 976 C.*C 1 97 7.58 1976 J.o 0.0 92 96 69 71 6.8 SSE 15 13 197 J 61 5.8 6 in 1? l 0 7 ? l 3 0 101 1 3
C S1-5 5a. 3 70. V 9H 1991 3 3 19 7 6 29 207 9.0 5 9.31 197 0.05 1978 9.06 1970 0.0 0. J 91 9 3 56 71 6.6 tit 35 32 1 9 7 3 63 5.0 1? 9 10 3 * 3 n o p 1 w 1 9 *
h S.C >9. 1 61.1 89 l 9 7 G 1 5 1976 155 18 9.0 ! 7.9C 19 79 1.59 1 57P 3.6 2 T 1979 7 1979 ee 9 l b 9 79 7.6 sst 3 7 33 1972 55 5.9 11 7 1? 8 r ? 0 0 n : u 15.6
C 65.8 *3.i Stab t! 1979 23 1976 333 1 1 9.C9 7.33 197 1 0.69 19 7 J I 9 3 1971 0.0 0.0 8b H 8 61 72 7.8 5 5 £ 3b 31 15 73 59 6.5 9 5 " 8 n 7 0 0 0 1 Jib. 9
aitu jam -tr UCT IPP £h JH JUL
1 u TV.i 58 ab 6* 1 C 7 199U 17 1979 1939 2889 98.15 19. J9 197* 0.05 1978 e. u 1976 2.6 197; 2.0 197*168 9 1 bb bi> 7.7 SSE 9b :u 1969 57 6. 1 100 10 157 1C5 fc? 37 92 2* 1 ;l ^.3
locality JfoTw^x % t xl.ting and comparable expourAa. Ann...) ext have been exceeded .t other .ires in the
PWlilt.tfon Mn\!l tempera.ere 101 in August 1909, low.,at temperature 9 in January 1940 and earlier, maxi,nun. monthly
in U ^ Let t id-et.pit.tion Trace in October 1952 and May 19)7, maximum precipitation
so? Si-{^;n!rMthhi1Lrw*n 4-4 *n ^ru*ry ***-* *
(a) length of record, year*, through the current year unless otherwise noted, based o-i January data, lb) 70r and above at Alstlen stations.
* Loss than ore half.
T trace.
hOKMAi S Bused on record tor the 1941-1970 per iod.
PATE PE M I XTRLMF The cost recent In cases of multiple
rRlVAILING WIND DIRK.TION Record through !).
UNO UlNfClIi* N-wr-rets indicate tens >f degrees clucknise friji" true north 00 indicates calat.

Average Temperature
Heating Degree Days
Year j Jan 1 Feb i Mar Apr i May June! July Aug i Sept Oct Nov j Dec Annual
ti .*1
8 l.ol
8 3.0|
S2.?i 8*.3| 8 3. ?| 82.!|
82. a 3.6 83.8 63.C
82.8, 82.6; 86. Si 82.0 82.
82.1 8.3| 8S.8 79.6
81 3j 8 2.7 86.6 78. S
83. 9 86.1 82.1 79.6
81.3 86.8 86.5 81.6
79.61 8 3.11 82.8 80.3
80.8 6.J 83.8 80.2
80.Si 8 S * 83.6 76.9
83.6 86.81 86.2 79.7
82.3 12.31 82.3 80.1
62.6 ...7 82.6 79.5
80.6 82.6 82.2 79.7
7*. 8 86.1 15.9 81.3
82.C 86.3 86.3 80.6
80.6 83.7 86.6 79.3
83. Oj 8 S 1 83.5 81.2
80.0! 86.3 12.6- 79.6
2.a 12.1 SI .1 77.6
80.& 82.5 46. C 78.6
to.a 16.6 83.2 78.2
78.9 81.a 83.1 78.9
80. 8 3.9 80.6 78.3
80.81 80.3 60.3 79.6
79.2 83.0 79.5 78.1
79.9 12.8 i. a 79.6
80. C 81 .51 61.1 79.9
18.6 80.5! 81. 76.2
ti .a 82.6 83.1 0.0
0.61 8 1.71 83.1 79.J
79.1 82.a 81.5 75.6
5.1 87.S 86.6 3.2
82.7 86.6 86.6 78. a
0.S 82.9 82.3 78.1
90.7 93.6 92.7 .a
70.2 T2.2 71.8 68.21
80.0 1
T7.3 (,

Season i July; Aug jSaptj Oct Nov; Dm Jan Fab Marl Apr May JunftTotal
oj oi 16 186 287 o 9* 209i 32 o 0 1307
1962-6? 0 0 c 8 157 M3 515 351 881 * 0 0 1639
1963-6* q c 0 o 108 851 613 *66 158! l* 0 0 1695
1966-65 q a ot 116 715 330 786 2501 0 0 1296
0 01 2 2C 23 217 516 336 1**1 .7 C G 1263
1666-6 c m 0. 2 71 96 359 362 298 6#i 0 0 0 11*1
lf 7-66 t 0 3 18 99 312 390 *15 22*! 17 0 0 1683
1668-66' l o C 5 199 ?* 286 23* 281! l c 2 1303
1969-701 a 0 0 29 !06 57* 309 51 7 0 1776
1970-71 c 0 q 77 276 709 298 273 21*1 '7 3 3 1620
u 0 2 6 195 196 315 295 85 17 0 3 110*
1972-7! e 0 2< 50 320 10 560 379 7SI 117 5 0 1898
19 3 76 q 0 c 8 366 330 273 *sf 60 0 0 12J6
1976-75 a c 15 1*6 336 290 270 17. *8 0 0 1336
1975-76 c 0 26 217 3*9 661 178 1551 26 7 3 1669
1 6 T6- 77 c a 173 398 * 687 312 166j 25 0 0 2295
1977-78 J 0 36 150 365 752 555 250| 33 17 0 215*
1978-79 a 0 22 111 391| 666 376 1351 23 2 0 1708
1979-80 c c 27 2*7 !89 308 350 16* *5 0 0 1585
1980-81 o 0 a 67 255 323 616 21 6 1 0 1503
1981-87 1 0 50 2 326 |
Cooling Degree Days
66.1 55.6 70.2 Yaar Fat> Mar Apr May jJonaj July AugjSopt Oct Nov Dm Total

58.5 55.2 68.8 81969 35 13 n 167 378 56 608 5*6 02 222 <8 9 2868
56.* 60.5 *7.1 1970 1 * 3 7 188 238 60* 513 567 23 131 78 76 2611
60.Oi 5*.* 68.9 1971 a 1*1 5* 126 j.j ... 5*6 * 85 60* 229 52 69 2811
56.7 82.0 68.7 1972 51 2Z 71 2CI 275 80 680 682 667 206 17 12 2756
67.3 53.5 67.7 1973 1 91 111 36 556 58 601 2 25 151 2 2655
60.2 56.6 68.9 197* 2 33 15 132 176 561 558 51* 295 196 60 18 2121
5*.7 57.7 68.1 1975 67 61 155 J.J 55 516 505 30 J 176 68 29 2656
51.8 9.2 65.8 1976 5 3 75 no i.a 08 6*0 520 36 1 92 C 2225
61.1 53.7 *7.5 1977 C 5 9 91 302 *87 567 565 56 173 23' 275i
66.7 52.9 66.7 197* 1C 5 19 120< 369 71 586 568 37 150 108 25! 2866
55.7 52.6 66.5 1979 7 13 62 167 261 56 552 519 326 211 26 6 25 77
58.0 55.2) 9.7 1980 31 *! a 38 8 610 705 677 55 3 162 52 26| 3363
66.6 56.5 69.9 1981 1 28 23 295 330 38 06 60* 13 285 71 T 3204
59.6 56.3 *7.9
71.6 65.9 78.8
7.7 62.7 57.0
8 Indicates a station move or relocation of instruaenta See Station Location table.
Kecord mean values above are means through Che current year for the period beginning in June 1969 for temperature, January 1933 for preciplCation, and 1935 for snowfall. Data are from airport locations.
Appendix B

Appendix B
altitude angles

p ft o r: e s s i n i; p l e a s e w a i: t \
JAN 17 cr J .< .-4. 11.7
FEB 1.38 ..... 11 8
MAR 221 9 3 1.22
APR 26.. 3 1.5i. 1 :!. .. 1
MAY 29.. 9 1.3.. 6 11.2
JUN 329 21 6 11.. 3
JUL 34.3 ;> o "> 12.1
AUG 9 4 3 72.. 4 2 .. 9
SEP n > ..} A.. 1. .V.. 20:l. i. 2.. i
OCT 28,6 1. 4 .. 6 14
NOV ;> ;> 7 9.. 5 132
DEC :!. 8.. 7 1.44 4 3
HIGH ~ 94 3 LOU ::u i:r J >.
JAN 88 65 y / :: o .. 4 O n ..} t NW SE
FEB 88 59 7 35 4 3.54 SE NW
MAR 88 60 74 4 2.. 68 SE NW
APR 91 60 y i:r i-* -.J ii -..j 4 3 ..5 4 SE N W
MAY 94 60 77 4 b it i. 2 C
JUN 93 59 76 4 45 2 S NW
JUL 93 58 y i:r / .1 ..} 4 4.12 SE NW
AUG 94 60 ..y ..y 4 4 35 SE NW
SEP 95 64 79.5 4 4 n 6 5 SE NW
OCT 93 56 74.. 5 4 4.05 SE NW
NON 91. 59 7 4 4.03 SE NW
DEC 88 6:1. 7 45 4 4 0 -v SE NW
TOTAL 48. 1. 9 0000 i.
Appendix 8

B A Y > T - NIGHT / SIR! C:
.JAN 17 27 22 5.. 1 21 G c
FEB 18.7 27 9 9 7 21 c c
MAR 22..1 27 9 9 ? 8 21 0 -/
APR 26.2 27 ;> 9 i. 5 1. 21 G c
MAY 7 9 p 9 t " *> >... a:. 18.. 6 21 H 0
JUN 32.9 27 :> 9 21.6 21 H H
JUL 34,. 2 27 ., c. 9 9 9 *> 4 aO .i. H H
AUG 94.3 27 -) > V.. A- 72.4 2.1 H H
SEP t 9 9 ..} V.. a'.. / '~l ."J 20 ,. 1 2:!. H 0
OCT 28.6 27 I -> !. ^ ., 6 9 -J .1. H c
NOU *> '*> -y -/ c. / / 9 9 9 5 21 0 C
DEC 18,.7 27 9 9 14.3 21 c c
HIT R E T U R N T 0 G 0 N TIN U E ,. .
MONTH Hi H2 143 A1 A 2 A3
JAN 0 ( > o 0 0 1
FEB 0 0 0 0 0 1
MAR 0 0 0 0 0
APR 0 0 Q 0 0
MAY 1 0 0 0 0
JUN :!. 0 0 0 0 0
JUL 1. < > 0 0 0 0
AUG :!. 0 0 0 0 0
SEP 1. 0 0 0 0 0
OCT '!. 0 0 i) 0 0
NOU 0 0 0 0 0
DEC 0 0 0 ij 0 1
TOTAL 6 3 0 0 0 J
* n n n # # n n u n n l a r o u t n u n u # x u n # & # a a a a a
Appendix B

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Appendix B

Climate of Texas
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES Texas, from "tejas", an Indian word meaning friendly, has been called "the crossroads of North American geology." Within the State's boundaries four great physiographic subdivisions of the North American Continent come together. These are: the Gulf Coastal Forested Plain, Great Western Lower Plains, Great Western High Plains, and the Rocky Mountain Region. Texas may be described as a vast amphitheater, sloping upward from sea level along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more than 4,000 feet general elevation along the Texas-New Mexico line. While much of the State is relatively flat, there are 90 mountains a mile or more high, all of them in the Trans-Pecos region. Guadalupe Peak, at 8,751 feet, is the State's highest. The most spectacular physical features of Texas are found in the western portion of the State, from the Palo Duro Canyon in the north to the Big Bend in the south, and westward from the Balcones Escarpment and the Hill Country to the Guadalupe Mountains. The State is subdivided into 12 geographic regions; from east to west, these are: Pine Woods Region, Gulf Coast Plain, Post Oak Belt, Blackland Prairie, Grand Prairie, South Texas Plain, Cross Timbers, Llano Basin, Edwards Plateau, Lower Plains, High Plains, and Mountain and Basin Region.
Texas contains 267,339 square miles or 7.4 percent of the Nation's total area. It is large enough to accommodate 15 of the 50 states within its borders. In straight-line distance, Texas extends 801 miles from north to south and 773 miles from east to west. The boundary of Texas extends 4,137 miles. The Rio Grande forms the longest segment of the boundary, 1,569 miles. The second longest segment, 726 miles, is formed by the Red River. The tidewater coastline extends 624 miles. Brewster, in Southwest Texas, is the largest of the State's 254 counties with 6,208 square miles. The smallest county is Rockwall in Northeast Texas with 147 square miles.
Texas ranks second only to Alaska among the 50 states in the volume of its inland water with nearly 6,000 square miles of lakes and streams. Toledo Bend Reservoir, situated on the Sabine River between Texas and Louisiana, is the largest reservoir in Texas, or on its border, with a capacity of 4,477,000 acre-feet, and is one of the largest artifically constructed reservoirs in the United States. Most Texas rivers parallel each other and flow directly into the Gulf, but the Canadian, Red, and Sulphur Rivers are part of the Mississippi River system. The Brazos is the largest river between the Rio Grande and the Red and third in size of all rivers flowing either partly or wholly in Texas. Other principal rivers are the Colorado, Trinity, Sabine, Nueces, Neches, and Guadalupe.
Included in Texas' 26 million acres of woodland are four national forests with 775,265 acres and four state forests with 6,306 acres. The most important forest area of the State, producing nearly all the commercial timber, is the East Texas pine-hardwood belt, known locally as the "Piney Woods." It extends over all or parts of 43 counties.
Appendix B

GENERAL CLIMATIC FEATURES Wedged between the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the high plateaus and mountain ranges of the North American Continent, Texas has diverse meteorological and climatological conditions. Continental, marine, and mountain types of climates are all found in Texas; the continental and mountain types in true form, but the marine climate modified by surges of continental air. The High Plains, separated from the Lower Plains by the Cap Rock Escarpment, lies in a Cool-Temperature climatic zone. Except for some small areas in the Trans-Pecos, the remainder of the State lies in a Warm-Temperature Subtropical Zone. Within these broad zones, six subclasses approximately identify the climates of Texas. The proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, the persistent southerly and southeasterly flow of warm Tropical Maritime air into Texas from around the westward extension of the Bermuda High, and adequate rainfall, combine to produce a humid subtropical climate with hot summers across the eastern third of the State. The Gulf moisture supply gradually decreases westward and is cut off more frequently during the colder months by intrusions of drier polar air from the north and west; as a result, most of Central Texas, as far north as the High Plains has a subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers. This region is semi-arid. As the distance from the Gulf increases westward, the summer moisture supply continues to decrease gradually, producing a subtropical steppe climate across a broad section along the middle Rio Grande Valley that extends as far west as the Pecos Valley, where rainfall is most often inadequate for agriculture without supplemental irrigation. Except for "islands" of cool-temperate, mountain type climates at the higher elevations in the Guadalupe, Davis, and Chisos Mountains, the area west of the Pecos is mostly arid subtropical, and rainfall is inadequate for other than desert or semi-desert types of vegetation. The mountain climates in the Trans-Pecos are cooler throughout the year than those of the adjacent lowlands. Temperatures decrease with altitude and average about 1 F lower for each 300 feet of increased elevation. The rate of change varies with the season, being more rapid in summer and greatest during the warmer hours of the day.
Stretching over the largest level plain of its kind in the United States, the High Plains rise gradually from about 2,700 feet on the east to more than 4,000 feet in spots along the New Mexico border. The combination of high elevation, remoteness from moisture source regions, and frequent intrusions of dry polar airmasses, result in a dry steppe climate with relatively mild winters. This region is semi-arid and rainfall is often inadequate for profitable agricultural production without supplemental irrigation.
While the changes in climate across Texas are considerable, they are nevertheless gradual; no natural boundary separates the moist East from the dry West or the cool North from the warm South.
Appendix B

PRECIPITATION Rainfall in Texas is not evenly distributed over the State and varies greatly from year to year. Average annual rainfall along the Louisiana border exceeds 56 inches, and in the western extremity of the State, is less than 8 inches. In the way of extremes, Clarksville, in Northeast Texas, recorded 109.38 inches in 1873, while Wink, in extreme West Texas, recorded only 1.76 inches in 1956. The number of days with measurable precipitation follows the general trend of rainfall totals so that seasonal frequencies are lowest where amounts are lowest. At a single location amounts for any one month will nearly always vary widely from the mean or normal precipitation. Except along the upper Texas coast, it is possible for one or two thunderstorms to account for the entire months rainfall at a station. Torrential rains of 10 to 20 inches or more may accompany a tropical storm as it moves inland across the Texas coast. These infrequent but excessive amounts are reflected in mean rainfall data and seriously limit the usefulness of this type of statistic in describing rainfall.
Patterns of seasonal precipitation in Texas vary considerably for different areas of the State. Rains occur most frequently in late spring as a result of squall-line thunderstorms; consequently, most areas of the State show a peak in May. This includes most of the High and Low Rolling Plains, the Edwards Plateau, North Central, and South Central Texas. Rainfall in the Pecos Valley, most of southern Texas, the lower Rio Grande Valley, and in the coastal section, shows a peak in September, with a secondary peak in May. On the High Plains, particularly the northern portion, a significant percentage of the total annual precipitation occurs during the summer months (following the May peak). Throughout the central part of the State, July and August are relatively dry months. In the mountainous Trans-Pecos area of West Texas, afternoon thundershowers during July, August, and September account for most of the annual rainfall. Throughout most of East Texas (east of about 95 west longitude) rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. East of about 96 west longitude annual rainfall exceeds average potential evapotranspiration. West of this meridian, average potential evapotranspiration exceeds annual average rainfall.
In most of Texas a large portion of the annual rainfall occurs within short periods of time, resulting in excessive run-off and frequently producing damaging floods. Some 320 Texas cities have flood problems resulting from stream overflow, local drainage, or coastal floods. One hundred of these cities have stream overflow flood problems, 112 have local drainage problems, 20 have coastal flood problems, and another 80 have some combination of these. The greatest rainfall recorded in Texas during 24 consecutive hours was at Thrall in Williamson County where 38.2 inches fell during parts of September 9 and 10, 1921.
SNOWFALL Except for "freak" occurrences, significant amounts of snowfall are confined almost entirely to the mountainous Trans-Pecos region and the
Appendix B

High Plains. Measurable snow falls south of the High Plains but usually melts almost as fast as it falls. Falling snow rarely interferes with outdoor operations more than an hour or two at a time, except when it is associated with an intense extratropical cyclone. Heavy snows of 4 inches or more rarely occur. Vega, elevation 4,000 feet, in the western Panhandle receives an average of 23.3 inches annually, while no measurable snow has fallen at Brownsville during the 73-year period, 1896-1968. Blizzards may occur in extreme West Texas or Northwest Texas during the winter or early spring months, but are rare. Blizzards are characterized by subfreezing temperatures, very strong winds, and considerable blowing or drifting snow. From 1950 through the winter of 1967-1968 there have been only two blizzards worthy of note in Texas: the blizzard of February 1-5, 1956, on the High Plains, which resulted in 20 deaths and dumped a record 33.0 inches of snow at Hale Center; and the late March blizzard of 1957 (March 22-25) which resulted in 10 deaths and 4,000 persons being marooned.
FLOODS Due to the variety of the physiographic features of the State, the types of floods experienced vary in character. In the east, where the average annual rate of rainfall is highest, there are broad flat valleys and large areas of timber and brushland. The natural drainage channels have gentle slopes, limited capacity, and follow meandering courses from their headwater areas to the Gulf. Runoff is comparatively slow. During periods of intense general rainfall, large volumes of water are temporarily stored in the valleys of the basins and then slowly released to the streams. This produces a broad flat crested slow-moving flood which in the lower basin regions results in protracted periods of inundation.
In the west, ground and tree cover is sparse and stream slopes vary in the portions of the basins from steep to moderately steep, and tend to flatten in the coastal strip. During periods of intense general rain the time of concentration of runoff is more rapid in the western portion of the State than in the eastern section. This results in the production of higher peaks and more rapidly moving floods and shorter periods of inundation of flood areas.
The amount of water flowing in Texas streams ranges widely from east to west. The average annual runoff is about 39 million acre-feet, with about three-fourths of this total coming from the eastern one-fourth of the State. The annual amount of runoff varies widely also. For the period 1940-46, the average annual amount was approximately 59 million acre-feet, dropping to about 24 million acre-feet annually for the dry period 1950-56.
Flood stage is reached on some Texas streams nearly every year. The worst general floods of recent years were in 1957 when every major river and tributary in the State flooded during the spring months between
Appendix B

April and June. In late April 1966, intense flooding occurred in northeast Texas where 20 to 26 inches of rain fell in some areas in a relatively short period of time. Flash flooding in the Sanderson area in 1965 cost 23 lives in a period of hours. Severe flooding occurred in South Texas from heavy rainfall accompanying Hurricane Beulah in September 1967.
DROUGHT From the early days of Texas history recorded by Spaniards exploring the Southwest, drought has been a recurring problem. A drought in Central Texas dried up the San Gabriel River in 1756, forcing the abandonment of a settlement of missionaries and Indians. Stephen F. Austin's first colonists also were hurt by drought. Their initial corn crop was snuffed out in 1822, forcing the once ambitious farmers into desperate hunters. Drought means various things to various people. The agriculturist, hydrologist, economist, and the meteorologist each have a different concept because of his specific interest and experiences. In Texas, agricultural drought is probably the most important. Agricultural drought may be defined as a condition in which sufficient soil moisture is not available in the root zone for plant growth and development. Thus, an evaluation of drought on a purely agricultural basis must take into account the kind of crop, its stages of growth and root depths, the characteristics of the soil, and the degree of plant wilting, as well as the various meteorological factors that daily affect moisture supply and demand, the duration of drought, and the size of the affected area. Obviously, such an evaluation becomes rather involved and very unwieldy on a regional scale.
Meteorological drought may be defined as a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. More specifically, a drought period may be defined as an interval of time, generally of the order of months or years in duration, during which the actual moisture supply at a given place rather consistently falls short of the climatically expected or climatically appropriate moisture supply. Thus, drought is a relative rather than an absolute condition. A prescribed set of weather events could provide unusually wet weather in semi-desert regions such as is found in the Trans-Pecos, while the identical set would be regarded as drought in East Texas. Therefore, drought severity depends not only on current weather, but on antecedent weather as well.
The worst drought in recent years, by any classification, agricultural, economic, hydrologic, or meteorological, began in 1950 in the western part of the State and spread until about 96 percent of the counties (24A of 254) were classified as disaster areas by the end of 1956. In terms of financial loss, necessary human adjustments, and deterioration of physical resources, this was the worst drought in recorded Texas history. Also, it was the longest. Other severe droughts occurred in 1909-1910, 1916-1917, and 1933-1934. Departures from normal precipitation, based on the period 1931-1960, show the year 1917 to be the driest on record
Appendix B

in Texas. In 9 out of the 10 climatic divisions within the State, precipitation was less than 60 percent of normal; in 5 climatic divisions precipitation was less than 50 percent of normal. The year 1956 is the second driest year on record. The two wettest years on record are 1919 and 1941.
In most years, some sections of the State receive less than normal rainfall, while other sections receive a greater than normal supply. Severe drought or excessively wet conditions rarely exist over the entire State at the same time. While the Great Plains drought of the early 1930's received considerable publicity as the "dust bowl days", its presence in Texas was confined largely to the western one-third of the State, and to the years 1933-1934.
IRRIGATION Ground water is a significant resource throughout much of the State, supplying about 75 percent of the total water used for municipal, industrial, and irrigation purposes. Many areas now supplied by ground water are depleting the available supply because the rate of pumping grossly exceeds the rate of replenishment.
The level of Texas irrigation 8.36 million acres in 1968, has developed rapidly, mostly since World War II. Nearly 83 percent of all irrigation is supplied with ground water. However, many irrigated areas the High Plains, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Winter Garden, Trans-Pecos, and elsewhere face the prospect of returning to dryland farming as available water supplies are exhausted. By 1985, according to Texas Water Development Board estimates, if a supplemental surface supply of water has not reached the High Plains, this vast area will have begun an area-wide retrogression to dryland farming.
Major water uses in Texas are for domestic and municipal supply, industry, and irrigated agriculture. Other beneficial uses of water include mining and secondary oil recovery, hydroelectric power generation, navigation, and recreation. Demands for recreation, particularly for water oriented recreation, are increasing rapidly in Texas. There is not enough water available in Texas to supply future water needs. By the year 2020, the State's population is expected to exceed 30.5 million. At that time, according to Texas Water Development Board estimates, an import of as much as 12 to 13 million acre-feet of water per year will be necessary to prevent economic loss to the State of major geographic areas where ground water supplies are now being depleted and other sources of supply do not occur.
TEMPERATURE The vast land area of Texas experiences a wide range of temperatures. The High Plains experiences rather low temperatures in winter, while there are several separate areas within the State that experience very high temperatures in summer. The average January
Appendix B

temperature in Amarillo, in the Panhandle, is about 36 F and at Brownsville, in the lower Rio Grande Valley, about 61 F. From November through March, surges of cold air from the north are frequent. These cold fronts, or "northers" as they are called locally, modify rapidly as they reach warmer latitudes. Fast moving cold fronts, followed by rapid warming, result in frequent and pronounced temperature changes from day to day, and sometimes from hour to hour, during the colder months of the year.
Extended periods of subfreezing temperatures are rare, even on the High Plains. Cold spells that seriously interfere with outdoor activities usually do not last more than 48 to 72 hours at the most. In South Texas, subfreezing temperatures associated with arctic airmasses ordinarily are confined to several hours prior to sunrise, and seasons may pass with no subfreezing temperatures at all. Temperatures of 32 F or lower occur only about three years cut of four, on an average, in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Extremely cold spells were experienced in South Texas in 1951 and again, 11 years later, in 1962. Brownsville experienced 65 consecutive hours of subfreezing temperatures January 29-February 1, 1951, and 64 consecutive hours January 9-12, 1962.
In summer, the temperature contrast is much less pronounced from north to south with daily highs generally in the 90's. August is the hottest month. Extremely hot daytime temperatures occur with greatest frequency in the triangle in South Texas bounded by Rio Grande City, Cotulla and Eagle Pass, and in an area along the Upper Rio Grande from about Presidio northward to Candelaria. Almost as hot, is a small area along the Red River bounded by Childress and Chillicotne, Texas, and Hollis and Altus, Oklahoma.
Because of the amazing adaptability of the human body, it is very difficult to evaluate the effect of either extremely low or extremely high temperatures on the productivity or efficiency of outdoor activity.
People in South Texas perform work out-of-doors at temperatures that would seem intolerably high to people accustomed to more moderate climates. As a matter of fact, low temperatures in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in winter are as likely to cause a loss of efficiency among workers as do extremely high temperatures in summer, although these low temperatures would seem mild to people living in the northern United States. It is conceded generally that in most of Texas the number of days of 100 F temperatures or above provides a more useful criterion for evaluating the effects of temperature on outdoor worker activity than does the number of days of a lower value such as 90 F or 95 F.
The highest temperature recorded in Texas was 120 F at Seymour, southwest of Wichita Falls, on August 12, 1936. The lowest temperature ever recorded was 23 F below zero at Seminole, southwest of Lubbock, on February 8, 1933, and at Tulia, north of Lubbock, on February 12, 1899. One of the coldest winters in Texas history was that of 1898-99, according to best available records.
Appendix B

HUMIDITY Relative humidity is highest in the coastal region, and decreases gradually inland as the distance from the Gulf of Mexico increases. Mean annual relative humidity at noon, Central Standard Time, varies from slightly more than 60 percent near the coast to an> Heating engineers and fuel distributors use an index based on the assumption that buildings require heating when the average temperatuie for a day falls below 65 F. The greater the accumulation of heating degree days (difference between the average temperature for a day bel"W 65 and 65) the more heat is required to produce a comfortable indoor temperature, and more fuel will be consumed. In the northern Panhandle an average season will exceed A,000 heating degree days, yet in the southernmost section of the State, an average season has less than I.()00 heating degree days.
The climate of Texas is such that summer air conditioning is desirable in all parts of the State. While it is true that residents of the High Plains area enjoy cool summers occasionally when little air conditioning is needed, more often than not, July and August temperatures rise to ihe point where some cooling adds measurably to human comfort. During summer the temperature and humidity conditions are such as to make the use of evaporative cooling practical for home use west and north of line from Wichita Falls southward to San Antonio and westward to Del Rio. The most satisfactory results from evaporative cooling are obmined when the outside dry bulb temperature during the daytime is 90 F or above and the outside wet bulb temperature is below 75 F. East and south of the above line, refrigerated type air conditioning is recommended for maximum comfort.
SUNSHINE Sunshine is abundant in the extreme southwestern section "I the State, decreasing gradually eastward. On an average, the western Trans Pecos receives 80 percent of the total possible sunshine annually, while the Upper Coast receives only 60 percent.
STORMS Tropical cyclones are a threat to all sections of the Texas coast during the summer and fall. From 1885 to 1968, inclusive, 69 tropical storms of all intensities have affected the Texas coast. Those tropical cyclones with sustained wind speeds over 64 knots (74 mph) or greater are known as hurricanes. Virtually all tropical cyclones th.-il affect the Texas coast originate in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea or the southern part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The season extends from June to October; storms are most frequent in August and September
Appendix B

and rarely affect the Texas coast after the first of October. The average frequency for the entire Texas coast is approximately one per year. Tiopical cyclones were most frequent in 1886 and 1933, with four in each of these years.
Over inland areas with higher elevations, the greatest concern regarding hurricanes is possible damage from winds (including tornadoes) or damage from flooding due to excessive rainfall. Near, and along the immediate coast, the additional hazard of hurricane tides (or storm tides) must be considered. Persons and property along the immediate shoreline, without some type of natural or man-made protective barrier, are exposed to the direct forces of hurricane waves and swells. Although hurricane winds and tornadoes spawned by hurricanes cause a great amount of damage and sometimes loss of life, surveys of past hurricanes indicate that storm tides cause by far the greatest destruction and largest number of deaths.
The Great Galveston Storm of September 8-9, 1900, was the worst natural disaster in United States history. Loss of life at Galveston has been estimated at 6,000 to 8,000 but the exact number has never been definitely ascertained. The island was completely inundated, and not a single structure escaped damage. Most of the loss of life was due to drowning by storm tides that reached 15 feet or more. The anemometer blew away when the wind reached 100 mph at 6:15 p.m. on the 8th. The wind reached an estimated maximum velocity of 120 mph between 7:30 and 8:30 p.m. Property damage has been estimated at 30 to 40 million dollars.
A severe hurricane struck Galveston again on August 16-17, 1915, resulting in at least 275 lives lost and property damage estimated at $50 million. A new sea wall prevented a repetition of the 1900 disaster.
The center of a severe hurricane moved inland south of Corpus Christi on September 14, 1919. Tides were 16.0 feet above normal in that area and 8.8 feet above normal at Galveston. Two hundred eighty-four persons lost their lives in Texas, and property damage was estimated at $20.3 million.
The most severe hurricanes in recent years were Carla, September 8-14, 1961, and Beulah, September 18-23, 1967. Great Hurricane Carla, one of the largest hurricanes of record, moved inland over Port O'Connor on September 11. The highest wind gusts, estimated at 175 mph, occurred at Lavaca. The highest tide, 18.5 feet, was at Port Lavaca also. The most damage was inflicted to coastal counties between Corpus Christi and Port Arthur and to inland counties of Jackson, Harris, and Wharton. In Texas, 34 persons died; seven of these deaths were attributed to a vicious tornado that swept across Galveston Island during the storm.
Four hundred sixty-five persons were injured. Hurricane Carla caused property and crop damage conservatively estimated at $300 million.
Hurricane Beulah moved inland just east of Brownsville, near the mouth of the Rio Grande on September 20, 1967. The SHIRLEY LYKES, in Port Brownsville, reported a 136 mph wind gust during Beulah's passage. More
Appendix B

damaging than the wind or tides was the torrential rainfall which resulted in record-breaking floods on streams and rivers south of San Antonio, and totals exceeded 30 inches in some areas. An unofficial gaging station in Falfurrias, in Brooks County, registered the highest accumulated rainfall, 36 inches. The resultant stream overflow and surface runoff inundated over 1.4 million acres. Beulah spawned 115 tornadoes; all occurred in Texas. This number surpassed the previous high of 26 hurricane-induced tornadoes during Carla in 1961. Tornadoes resulted in five deaths and 34 injuries. Eight deaths, by drowning, and three injuries were attributed to Hurricane Beulah directly, for a storm total of 13 deaths and 37 injuries. Property losses over the State were estimated at $100 million and crop losses at $50 million.
On Sunday, August 17, 1969, one of the most intense hurricanes ever recorded sideswiped the deep delta country of Louisiana and slammed into the Mississippi Gulf Coast, leaving in its wake a montage of devastation. Scourged by wind and water, and deprived of many of its familiar landmarks, the area within Camille's swath took on the appearance of an alien land. Buildings collapsed in place, or were transported, intact or otherwise, to locations remote from their own foundations. Watercraft -even oceangoing ships were lifted by the hurricane's surge, and left perched by its recession on dry land.
Camille's top winds were estimated at an astounding 201.5 miles per hour, and the barometric pressure in her calm eye dropped as low as 26.61 inches of mercury, second lowest of all recorded hurricanes. The hurricane surge at Pass Christian, Mississippi, was recorded at 22.6 feet above the normal level of the Gulf, and fragmentary evidence indicates that it may have risen even higher.
As Camille moved inland, torrential rains swamped the areas along her track through Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia. In a final, almost capricious blow, Camille dumped up to 27 inches of rain on Virginia, causing flash floods and triggering massive landslides.
The total dollar damage in the eight affected states has been estimated at some $1.0 billion. But Camille left behind an even more somber legacy: over 260 persons are known to have died at her hands.
Tornadoes have occurred in Texas during all seasons; however, they have occurred with greatest frequency during April, May, and June. On an average, three-fifths of the total annual number of occurrences fall within this 3-month period. Approximately one-fourth of the total annual number of tornadoes occur in the month of May alone. Because of the record number of tornadoes spawned by Hurricane Beulah, the greatest number of these violent storms ever reported in Texas in a single month was 124, in September 1967; the greatest number in a single year was 232, in 1967. For the period 1953-1976, the average annual number of tornado occurrences in Texas is 116. The worst outbreak of spring tornadoes occurred in April 1957, when 69 were reported. More tornadoes
Appendix B

have occurred in Texas than in any other state a total of 2,775 known occurrences during the period 1953-76. This is due partly to the State's size, whose 262,840 square-mile land area is considerably larger than that of the average state. Actually, in total number of tornadoes per 10,000 square miles, Texas ranks eleventh among the States, with an average of 4.3 occurrences per year, during the period 1953-76. Tornadoes occur with greatest frequency on the Low Rolling Plains and in the northern half of North Central Texas. They are quite rare in the Trans-Pecos and in southwestern Texas.
The greatest outbreak of tornadoes of record was associated with Hurricane Beulah in September 1967. One hundred fifteen tornadoes, all in Texas, are known to have occurred with this great hurricane within a 5-day period, September 19-23. Most likely, the actual total was considerably greater than 115. Sixty-seven of these occurred on September 20, a record number for a single day for the State.
The most disastrous tornadoes to strike in Texas occurred more than 50 years apart. On May 18, 1902, a tornado struck the picturesque little town of Goliad. One hundred fourteen persons were killed, and more than twice this number were injured. On May 11, 1953, a tornado moved through the city of Waco; 114 persons were killed, 597 injured, and property damage exceeded $41 million. On May 11, 1970 a tornado struck Lubbock causing $135 million in damages and left 26 persons dead and 500 injured. It was the costliest tornado in Texas history.
Hailstorms occur in all parts of the State. The most frequent and most damaging of these occur in spring and early summer. From November through March hail occurrences are closely associated with active cold fronts. Areal patterns of maximum hail frequency, determined from long periods of weather records, coincide with the mean position of the polar front. The lowest hail frequency is in January. Hail occurs on one day in 20 years, on an average, throughout the central section of the State in January. The frequency is 2 hail days in 20 years in small areas around El Paso, north of Dallas, and in the Longview-Marshall area of East Texas. The northward shift of the polar front in March in association with higher temperatures, and more frequent intrusions of moist air from the Gulf, result in a general increase in hail frequency. Hail occurs in about 7 out of 10 years at points in the Dallas area, and in about 4 out of 10 years in the Waco-Austin-San Antonio area, and in the vicinity of Childress during March. Hail occurrences in April, May, and June are closely associated with macro-scale weather conditions that are relatively short lived; these are the lines of thunderstorms popularly called "squall lines," that form, move generally eastward, then dissipate, usually within a period of 12 hours. Peak hail frequency is reached in May. Most points on the High Plains, the Low Rolling Plains, and in North Central Texas, average one hail day per year during May. Hail occurrences at points in the Davis Mountains during May average one day per year also. Hail activity decreases in June as the Bermuda Anticyclone begins to establish a southeasterly flow across Texas and
Appendix B

temperatures continue to rise. The occurrences of hail decrease sharply in July as the westward extension of the Bermuda Anticyclone becomes firmly established and temperatures rise. Maximum occurrence is one hail day every four years, on an average, at points on the southern High Plains and in the Davis Mountains. After January, hail occurs with lowest frequenies in August and November.
Thunderstorms, from which most damaging local weather develops (tornadoes, hail, windstorms, and high .intensity showers) occur on about 60 days each year in the extreme eastern section of the State. The mean annual number of thunderstorm days decreases to about 40 in extreme West Texas, and to 30 in the lower Rio Grande Valley.
Blowing dust or sand may occur occasionally in West Texas where strong winds are more frequent and vegetation is sparse. Duststorms are rare; those that reduce the visibility to less than 1 mile are associated only with the strongest pressure gradients, such as those that accompany intense extratropical cyclones. These low centers form generally east of the Rockies, along the western edge of the High Plains in Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, or Texas during winter and early spring. Winds of 50 to 60 mph and higher may persist for several days if these lows become stationary. These winds produce severe duststorms in West Texas when no moist air from the Gulf is carried northward into the system, and blizzards or heavy snow conditions when moisture is available.
While blowing dust or sand may reduce visibility to less than 5 miles over an area of thousands of square miles, restrictions to less than 1 mile are quite localized and depend on soil type, soil condition, cultivation practices and vegetation in the immediate area.
AGRICULTURE Texas growing seasons (freeze-free period) range from 329 days in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to 178 days on the northern High Plains. Normal precipitation ranges from more than 50 inches in southeast Texas to less than 10 inches on the extreme west side of the State. The many combinations of these two climatic variables produce a wide range of season and crop adaptations. An example of this wide range is reflected in the fact that cotton and sorghums are maturing and being harvested in the Lower Rio Grande Valley when planting is still underway on the High Plains. During all 12 months of the year there is cotton in the fields somewhere in Texas. In the Lower Rio Grande Valley, a 32 F freeze will occur before January 1, every other year, on an average; while after January 1, a 32 F freeze will occur in three out of four years, on an average.
Texas farming and ranching changed greatly in the two decades after World TWar II. Prewar Texas farms and ranches were largely self-contained, producing much of the supplies, labor and power they required. The State was predominantly rural and agricultural. In 1940, one out of three Texans lived on farms. In 1960, Texas farm population had declined to 694,482 out of a total population that numbered 9,581,508. By 1966, it was estimated that only 560,000 out of 10,500,000 lived on
Appendix B

farms and ranches. The number and nature of farms changed appreciably also. There were 418,000 farms in the State in 1940. Twenty years later there were only 227,000, and in 1969 there were 191,000. Farms are much larger, however, and average much higher investment in land, buildings, and equipment. Total land in farms, 145,000,000 acres in 1968, has not changed appreciably in recent years while the average size of farm shows a steady increase. The average size of a Texas farm in 1969 was 759 acres compared to the national average of 377 acres.
Wild cotton grew in Texas before Europeans arrived. Indians and Spaniards used it some, but cotton planted by a member of Stephen F. Austin's colony marked the real beginning of commercial production. Cotton has long been Texas' leading crop, although in recent years, reductions in cotton plantings under federal control programs, have allowed sorghum grain to challenge it in total value. Almost all Texas cotton is mechanically harvested. The southern High Plains, with Lubbock as its hub, is the principal cotton-producing area of the State. Cameron and Hidalgo Counties in the Lower Rio Grande Valley are heavy cotton producers also. Principal sorghum grain-producing areas are the High Plains, Blacklands, Coastal Bend, and the Lower Rio Grande Valley.
Rice and winter wheat rank third and fourth, respectively, in importance among Texas' leading crops. Rice acreage is small and concentrated in a few Gulf Coast counties, stretching from about Calhoun and Victoria Counties, eastward to the Louisiana border. Two-thirds of Texas' wheat is produced in the Panhandle, but the crop is grown for grain or grazing over most of the State. Hay, including all kinds, is the State's sixth most important crop.
Other important crops are: corn, oats, peanuts, soybeans, potatoes, pecans, citrus, and vegetables. Produced also, but in smaller quantities are: barley, rye, flaxseed, sv?eet potatoes, broomcorn, sugarbeets, castorbeans, sesame, and peaches. Peanuts is the second most important oilseed, after cottonseed.
Most of Texas' 254 counties grow vegetables for sale, but commercial production is largely concentrated in 112 counties of 11 major areas. Leading vegetable crops in value of production are onions, carrots, potatoes, cantaloups, and cabbage. In acreage harvested, watermelons is the leader. Nationally, Texas ranks third in harvested acreage, production and value of fresh market vegetables. Texas ranks first in the nation in harvested acreage for fresh market for onions, watermelons, spinach, and beets. Other important fresh vegetables produced are: snap beans, broccoli, cauliflower, sweet corn, cucumbers, honeyaew melons, lettuce, green peppers and tomatoes.
Citrus is the principal commercial fruit of Texas, which ranks among the three leading citrus states. Production is concentrated in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (Cameron, Hidalgo, Willacy, and Starr Counties). The value of Texas citrus has varied widely, partly as a result of severe
Appendix B

freezes in the Lower Valley on January 29-31, 1949, January 29-Feb-ruary 3, 1951, and January 9-12, 1962. The freeze of Janaary 29-Febru-ary 3, 1951 was the most disastrous of this century, as far as the Lower Valley is concerned. At Brownsville temperatures were 32 F or below for 93 hours during the cold period; 65 of these were consecutive between January 29-February 1. The severe freeze was preceded by 52 days of mild temperatures. Buds on trees were actively growing; as a result, an estimated 75 percent of Valley citrus trees were killed.
Citrus production, which had not recovered from the 1949 freeze, dropped from 10.2 million boxes in the 1950-51 crop year to only 0.5 million boxes for the 1951-52 year. For the next 10 consecutive years, 1952 through 1961, the Lower Rio Grande Valley did not experience a severe freeze. Most of the Texas citrus is marketed fresh, between September and March, but there is increasing processing for juice and fruit. An estimated 56 percent of the total value of crops grown in Texas is produced through irrigation, although only about 25 percent of the harvested cropland is irrigated. Historically, Texas is the nation's leading livestock state. The State continues to rank first in total cattle numbers, beef cattle, sheep and goats.
INDUSTRY Texas is rapidly becoming one of the nation's most highly industrialized states. Texas leads the other forty-nine states in petroleum refining employment. The Texas lumber and wood products industry includes slightly over 8 percent of our national pulping capacity. Other major industries include: electric and non-electrical supplies, electronic systems and equipment, chemicals and allied products, apparel, primary metals (steel, aluminum and magnesium), stone, clay, glass, and concrete. Texas accounts for about 90 percent of the magnesium manufacturing capacity in the nation, while steel companies produce thirteen of the twenty-five major product categories of the steel industry within the State. The transportation-equipment industry, chiefly the aircraft segment, is one of the major industries. Tonnages and values of commerce through Texas ports have been at peak levels in recent years. Thirteen major ports handle almost all of the total. Houston, Texas' largest city, also is its leading port and usually ranks second or third nationally in tonnage among deepwater ports. Intracoastal commerce is handled by the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, a 12-feet-deep by 125-feet-wide channel that parallels the Texas Coast for 423 miles between Brownsville and Port Arthur. In addition to waterborne commerce, increasing tonnages move to and from Texas by truck, air, and rail.
AIR POLLUTION The increases in urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural activities in Texas have increased air pollution problems also. Many of the atmospheric pollution problems in Texas arise from the fact that industrial plants which once were remote from homes and business institutions now have been surrounded by the sprawling towns
Appendix B

and cities in which most Texans live. Most recently, the recognition of these problems by a concerned citizenry has led to a more concentrated effort toward abatement and control of the contamination of the atmosphere.
The weather is a large-scale creator of air pollution problems. When serious pollution episodes occur they happen not so much because of a great or sudden increase in the output of pollutants as because of adverse weather patterns which trap the pollutants in a mass of stagnant air. One of the most important factors in the dispersion of air pollution is wind. Wind direction determines the part of the city that may be affected by the transport of pollutants from given sources or areas. Wind speed is important since the concentration of pollutants is inversely proportional to wind speed. Horizontal wind speeds of 7 mph or less are generally considered conducive to high air pollution potential; the weakest transport and dilution effects occur at low wind speeds.
A second important meteorological factor in the potential for air pollution is stability, which may be described simply as resistance to change. In the atmosphere it may be measured by the vertical variations (lapse rate) of temperature. Air unsaturated by water vapor is said to have neutral stability if its temperature decreases at the rate of 5.4 F for each 1,000-foot increase in elevation. A stable condition exists when the temperature decreases with height less rapidly than the above rate, which is called the dry-adiabatic lapse rate. A more rapid decrease of temperature with height through a layer of air is an unstable condition. Unstable lapse rates favor vertical motions and atmospheric mixing, and accelerate the diffusion of air pollutants, while stable lapse rates oppose vertical motions and inhibit the diffusion of air pollutants.
The Gulf of Mexico plays an important role in the Texas potential for air pollution. Its 624 miles of coastline are subjected to land and sea breezes which affect the transport of pollutants in coastal areas. The sea breeze is a localized coastal circulation which has the surface winds blowing from sea to land. It alternates with a usually weaker nighttime circulation of the opposite direction which is called a land breeze. The sea breeze circulation extends about 25 miles inland.
Thus, the strength and diurnal variation of the sea breeze is quite important in determining the transport of air pollutants in coastal areas. The Gulf of Mexico, being a warm body of water, contributes to the instability of the air passing over it. This is in direct contrast, for example, to the cold California Current, which stabilizes the offshore circulation along the southern California coast. In the fall and winter the surface-water temperature of the Gulf of Mexico off the Texas coast averages about 3 F warmer than the temperature of the layer of air near the water surface. This results in a decrease in the lapse rate of the layer of air near the warm-water surface and makes it less
Appendix B

stable. This tends to inhibit the formation of temperature inversions over the land at night. Thus, the influence of the Gulf of Mexico decreases the air pollution potential of the adjacent land areas during those seasons when other meteorological factors contribute to a higher potential.
From about the first of May to the end of September, Maritime Tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico and southern North Atlantic source regions largely controls the Tecas weather. Because of its long trajectory across a warm ocean, Maritime Tropical air is warm, humid, and conditionally unstable. This airmass is responsible for almost all of the thundershower activity in Texas, and for most of the State's precipitation. As it moves across the hot land surface during the day the airmass becomes warmer in the lower layer; it becomes unstable and rises to form the cumulus clouds so characteristic of Texas' summer skies.
The vertical motions generated by this dynamic process dilute any concentration of air pollutants present, mixing them into a larger volume of air. The climatic controls imposed on the State by the Gulf of Mexico favor a low air pollution potential, and from this point of view, Texas is fortunate indeed to be so closely associated with this warm body of water.
Three factors which tend to increase air pollution light winds, atmospheric stability, and photochemical reaction are associated with high pressure systems (anticyclones). Major air pollution episodes are related to the incidence of stagnating cells of high atmospheric pressure over urban areas. In such cases the anticyclone lingers over an area for a protracted period of four days or longer. Under these meteorological conditions the air pollution potential of the area reaches its maximum. Most anticyclones that enter Texas are transitory and continue their movement across the State without pausing long enough to meet the criteria prescribed for stagnating anticyclones. These migratory systems provide a change in the airmass over a particular area.
The "dirty" air, contaminated by local pollutant sources, moves eastward or southward out of the area, and a fresh, clean airmass replaces it. Thus, the air pollution potential of the area is determined partially by the frequency and speed at which these migratory anticyclones move across the area.
Since few high pressure systems stagnate over Texas for any length of time, the meteorological situation most favorable for serious air pollution episodes is rarely present. In Texas, stagnation is more.likely to occur over the East Texas Pine Belt than elsewhere. Thus, the "restless" Texas climate, characterized by frequent changes in airmass and by numerous local and regional-scale weather disturbances, does not favor concentrations of air pollutants much of the time. However, the frequency of occurrence of light winds and temperature inversions at night may create pollution problems at some locations during certain periods of the year.
Appendix B

Appendix B
1*m| 56 f Water equivalent Snow, lea neilett 7. Fatten tile i Sun, S Temperature* f pr enure
i X 00 it i X 12 ; i t i * f * i l b 1 1 5 i t a > i 1 a* Man n
I E > I 11 E v 1 11 1 1 a | 81 s c 1 s If a. 9 t > ? 5 1 I I a z | 1 f 1! k " If II f J 5 E 2 > E If II k E r i: is > X 06 oca X 1 1 I 1! fs ii it If 5 ? 6 k s 0 i ft a ? O _ > U E | 1 0. ! 1 2 t-& 2 is £ 1 ;? 12 Ibl ll $1 Si I * 11 0 b Etev 94 lect
(al 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 38 90 60 90 91 106 106 67 106 106 92 107 107 107
99.4 41.9 7, l. 16*6 369 20 9.02 10.99 1844 0.02 1904 9.96 1921 2.9 1979 2.9 1973 64 69 77 60 11.6 93 S 1913 46 10 4 0 2 0
f 41.3 90.9 46.2 1 8 1899 273 27 2.67 6-29 1111 0.09 19 9 4 6.33 1933 13.4 1899 19.4 1899 62 64 74 77 11.6 60 1927 9
* 66.0 99.9 61.0 69 167V 2 7 1943 187 43 2.6o 9.44 1973 0.06 1933 8.10 1973 T 1992 T 1933 4 69 74 79 11.9 90 SE 1931 6 0
A 11.) 69.0 69.2 92 199 38 1934 70 146 2.63 11.04 1404 0.01 1887 9.29 1904 0.0 0.0 6ft 19 80 12.1 97
N 0.0 71.8 79.9 93 1911 SI 199a 0 336 >.14 10.74 1973 7 1669 7.71 1973 0.0 0.0 62 64 73 77 11.3 46 w 1939 6 0
J 89.2 77.4 41.9 99 1918 97 1903 0 469 4.09 15.44 1414 t 1907 12.96 1941 0.0 0.0 0 l 70 79 10.7 *2 SI 1921 4 1
J 87.4 7t.O 81.2 10| 19 31 66 1910 0 344 4.41 16.74 19C0 7 1962 14.39 1900 0.0 0.0 10 61 70 79 9.6 66 NW 1941 73 4 0 3 0 0 0
A 7.6 74.9 43.1 loo 1*74 47 19*6 0 361 4.4 0 19.08 1913 0.00 1902 9.01 1911 0.0 69 9.4 91
s 64.6 79.3 80.0 96 19J7 2 1*43 0 410 3.60 26-01 18*9 0.04 1934 11.61 1961 0.0 0.0 l 61 79 10.1 100
0 78.0 61.1 71.1 94 1*3* 41 1929 12 243 2.63 17.74 1671 7 1932 14.10 1901 o.c 0.0 74 60 49 71 10.1 66 1449 0 0
N aa.l 98.2 61.9 9 t|4 1 9 l 1 60 3.16 W.16 14 SO 0.09 1909 9.01 1940 0.0 0.0 61 12 77 11.2 94 60 0
0 2.7 91.9 97.1 80 1918 ! 14*0 262 17 3.67 10.28 1867 0.29 1869 9.43 1944 0.2 1424 0.2 1924 76 60 U.l 90
f 1 919 AUC JUl Ftl F C1 169 6) 94
VR 74.9 69.0 68. 101 1932 1499 1214 3004 42.20 2ft.01 1889 0.00 1902 16.19 1600 19.4 1693 19.4 1693 61 63 72 76 11.0 100 ME 1400 11
0 IOC m.p.h. recorded at 6:1) p.m. Sept. K
before ant-mo
ter blew away. Maximum velocity estimated 120 from NK between
7:30 and 8:30 p.m.
9 5 21 W
96 FT.
, tC1.!iXrr?7S* *b** *re ,row **ltiny and comparable axposuraa. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the Hi9heV temperature 108 in August 1909; lowest temperature S in January 19*0 and earlier; maximum monthly
in October l*49; minimum monthly precipitation Trace in October 1952 and May 1937; ioxn rc *5 ff in August 1945; maximum monthly snowfall 4.4 in February I960; maximum snowfall in 2 I960; fastest mile of wind 84 from MW in March 1926.
maximum precipitation 24 hours 4.4 in Fabruary
(4) length of record, years, through the current yeer unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE OF AN EXTREME The amst recent In cases of multiple occurrence.
P8EVAIIING WING DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MIlE MIN0 Speed Is fastest observed 1-mlnute value when the direction Is In tens of degrees.

Appendix B
Mean Maximum Temperature (F.), January are drawn through points of approximately equal value. Caution should be used in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.

Appendix B
Mean Minimum Temperature (F.), January

Appendix 3
Mean Maximum Temperature (F.), July
Based on period 1931-52
Isolines are drawn, through points oi approximately equal value. Caution should be used in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.

Appendix B
Mean Minimum Temperature (F.), July
Based on period 1931-52
Isolines are drawn through points of approximately equal value. Caution should be used in interpolating on these maps, particularly in mountainous areas.