Citation
The Solstice

Material Information

Title:
The Solstice a restaurant-meeting place
Creator:
Winkelhake, G. N
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
39, [23] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps (some folded), color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Restaurants -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Restaurants ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-62).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
G.N. Winkelhake.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11307182 ( OCLC )
ocm11307182
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .W564 ( lcc )

Full Text
The Solstice
A Restaurant/Meeting Place
ARCHIVES
LD
1190
A72
1981
W5 61
G n Winkelhake May 1984


THE SOLSTICE
so^s:
A RESTAURANT/MEETING PLACE
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for The Degree of Master of Architecture
G. N.
elhake
Spring 1984
AURARIA LiBRARv


auraria LIBRARY
The Thesis of G. N. Winkelhake is approved.
Principal Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver
May 4, 1984


Dedicated to my Grandmother Meyer-Mueller, a German-American, to whom education is a
privilege and freedom is precious.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION 1
HUMAN FACTORS
I. Background 6
PHYSICAL FACTORS
I. Site Analysis 10
a. Park Site Plan 13
b. Site Plan/Topography 14
II. Soil Conditions Summary 15
III. The Existing Building 16
IV. Projected Uses of the Space 18
V. Space Requirements-Break Down 19
VI. Recommended Space Calculations 21
VII. Special Considerations 25
EXTERNAL FACTORS
I. Denver Building Code 27
II. Denver Zoning Ordinance 28
III. Climatological Summary 29
CONCLUSION 33
APPENDIX
Soil Analysis Report Energy Efficiency Sheets THE DESIGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY


INTRODUCTION
The Solstice, a restaurant/meeting place, will be a project that will incorporate an existing building presently owned by the City of Denver, Colorado. It is located in Washington Park and is known to the area as the "Bath House." The site is in the park proper, on the north end of Smith Lake. The proposed square footage for the facility is 10141.
Last spring the City made public its intention of leasing the existing building located on the northwest corner of Washington Park, bounded by Downing Street and Virginia Avenue. It was proposed at the time that the building be renovated and adapted towards restaurant use.
The community response at the time was positive, primarily due to the fact that the Washington Park area has only a minimal number of restaurants, all of which often are too small in size to accommodate the demand.
The area has been in transition from the older population who inhabited the area for many years to the young professionals whose needs and ambitions have been restructuring the area towards a more centralized neighborhood .
There is concern that in having a restaurant in the park there would be a conflict of activities. However, it is also generally felt that the combination of activities could be achieved, given a sensitivity to design and social context to the park and the surrounding residents.
-1-


If the park is to be for the people who live in the area, as well as the city, then it should support their social needs as well as athletic. It is an asset to the neighborhood community, within a metropolitan area, to have a social gathering place such as the park. However it is essential that functions within the park be contiguous, forming an interwoven relationship among the activities.
Further, the Bath House has strong symbolic meaning to the park and the area residents. It is representative of an early Denver; a reminder of the past and a perspective for today. However, it has been only minimally maintained and is falling victim to dilapidation.
My thesis is to bring these factors together, maintaining the social and contextural relationships of the people, the park and the Bath House. In short, the area needs to have a place for its residents to gather and socialize, and, of equal importance, is the need to maintain the Bath House's symbolic expression to the park. The social and psychological needs can be brought together in an area of the community which is a focal point both recreationally and historically. In not fulfilling these needs the area will gradually begin to lose the community continuity so highly valued.
The users must be allowed to experience a continuity of activities. If this is not accomplished the integrity of the park will be at odds and the facility will suffer due to
-2-


non-use. However, if the facility maintains the exchange of exterior to interior, and integrates the design elements there will be a strong tie between the facility and the park. Therefore, the facility must become an integral element of the park and co-exist with the present activities and uses.
The strongest constraint to the project will be the parking required by code. Further, it will have to be handled as off street parking due to residents' objections to congested streets. A large majority of the residents in the area are pedestrian oriented, however, the senior citizens of the area are automobile-oriented and usually drive to the park.
The design for the parking will need to be handled as an integrated element. I propose that it not be close to the facility but, rather, more in proximity to the entrance of the park, in an effort to keep vehicular circulation restricted and contained. In not doing so, conflicts will occur between vehicles and pedestrians, as demonstrated in the past.
It is my intention to relate and interface the restaurant with the park's social and recreational activities, thus, complimenting both.
-3-


Human
Factors


The Washington Park Area


1980 Census Information
TRACT NUMBER 28.02 28.03 29.01 29.02 30.01 30.03 34.00 TOTAL
TOTAL PERSONS 4567 3983 2956 4118 5647 3414 6909 31594
White 3932 3706 2692 3919 5391 3173 6727 29540
Black 154 93 31 29 25 83 28 443
American Indian, Eskimo & Aleut. 78 26 36 24 17 16 17 214
Asian & Pacific Islander 50 38 28 27 46 63 38 290
HOUSING UNITS 3014 2850 1658 2029 2899 1410 3497 17357
% Owner Occupied 15.5 16.9 41.4 63.5 59.6 39.1 77.1 44.72
Median Value Owner Occupied (thou.) $61.1 $63.0 $59.2 $66.3 $56.8 $58.8 $74.9 $62.9
Median Rent/Month $191 $212 $183 $240 $215 $245 $308 $227.7
AGE-5 193 73 137 196 334 78 318 1329
5-9 117 49 126 161 236 52 240 981
10-19 403 197 237 371 434 819 577 3038
20-34 2267 1968 1290 666 1274 1564 2296 11325
35-44 383 375 241 565 412 142 703 2525"
45-54 315 274 199 319 361 133 656 2257
55-64 299 374 253 342 541 239 ' 758 2806
65+ 590 673 473 694 1055 387 1361 5233
Median Age 29.2 31.9 30.8 31.8 31.5 23.6 35.2 30.6
FAMILIES with Children-18 273 138 231 367 504 117 558 2188
Male Head of House-No Wife 7 6 17 27 16 0 17 90
Female Head of House-No Husband 97 40 68 91 105 33 83 517
EDUCATION ATTAINED
0-11 Years 979 498 612 627 1215 292 673 4896
12 1308 1095 696 943 1511 1139 1549 8241
College 1-3 Years 921 1012 539 822 866 1228 1219 6607
College 4 Years 464 558 428 564 691 329 1273 4307
College 5+ 398 608 251 530 458 249 1169 3663
1979 HOUSEHOLD INCOME
Less than $9,999 1298 939 614 414 897 550 676 5388
$10,000-$ 19.999 975 1128 514 703 963 436 915 5634
$20,000-$34,999 321 398 333 686 755 5T5 1030 3536"
$35,000-$49,999 92 143 55 120 130 59 383 982
$50,000+ 28 103 24 51 35 6 309 556
Median Income $10405 $13244 $12901 $17422 $14440 $12810 $20640


BACKGROUND
I .
When the City of Denver made public its intentions of leasing the Bath House in Washington Park, the Denver Parks Department was approached with the proposal of a restaurant on the lake. Mr. P. Galavan, of the department, was definitely interested in serious proposals towards this type of use. He did add, however, that such an unprecedented use of city property would require close consultations with the existing neighborhood groups. Further, the Mayor's Cabinet would have to press judgment on such an arrangement. The City's primary concern is that the building has been falling into dilapidation and could fall victim to vandalism, unoccupied.
The community response has been a positive one, primarily due to the fact that the Washington Park area has only a minimal number of restaurants, all of which are often too small in size to accommodate the demand. The problems which commonly arise from the deficiency of space are: unusually long waiting times for a table; frustrated service people during unmanageable peak hours; and the uncomfortable feelings by the patron of being rushed to eat and leave.
The Washington Park area has been in transition for many years. The older population who inhabited the area and maintained its stability are now selling their homes to young professionals. The restructuring of the area is aiming towards the needs and ambitions of the new residents
-6-


while still maintaining its well established stability. The 1980 U.S. Census indicates that the area's median age is 30, having a median income of $14,552.
In an effort to maintain the given stability, four neighborhood groups were organized to overlook the problems and formulate solutions in conjunction with the City.
However, since May of 1982, the primary concerns for the area have been with the activities in the park. Of these concerns, the neighborhood groups feel that heavy vehicular traffic, particularly "cruising," is hazardous to the pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists. Further, they feel that there is too much congestion on the side streets and have already confronted the city for funds to create a parking lot.
Taking this into account, I feel the only rational way to handle the parking issue will be to provide off-street parking. In addition, it should be handled sensitively in order to respond effectively to the neighborhood groups' desires, as well as to the park's integrity.
Washington Park was acquired in 1898, having 155 acres of land defined by Smith Lake on the north end and Grasmere Lake on the south. The park provides a healthy environment for family activities, sports activities and individual recreation. Unlike many parks in Denver, Washington Park is a heavily used, well kept, and immensely appreciated park. The community recreation center, built by
-7-


the City of Denver in 1975, is located on the east side of the park. The fire station, also built in 1975, defines the northeast corner of the park and Smith Lake is defined with the Bath House to the north and the Pavillion House on the south, both built in 1905-1905.
Structures designed for human activities have always existed in the park and functioned in peaceful accord. Further, it is the organized activities which bring many of the neighborhood residents to the park. In short, it is the park which has become the area's focal point, the center of the neighborhood community.
There are concerns of having a restaurant in the park in respect to the possible conflict of activities. However, it has also been expressed that a restaurant could provide a meeting place for people, a place where small gatherings and informal conferences could occur. Paul Cashman of the Washington Park Profile, a local newspaper, expressed great enthusiasm towards providing the residents with a fresh new concept: "restaurant on the lake." He
generally felt that such a project would be well accepted, as well as being a welcome addition to the area.
It is my belief that it is essential for pre-existing functions not to be infringed upon by new uses but rather to achieve an interwoven relationship between all functions. Further, the Bath House is a structure familiar to everyone in the area, carrying a special symbolism. Therefore,
-8-


designing a restaurant/meeting place in the park incorporating the already existing Bath House would create a new facility which everyone would recognize and feel comfortable with, while providing a place for informal gatherings; a place where people can make new friends, meet old friends or just go to and be in the park.
The architectural context of the surrounding neighborhood is basically brick bungalow style homes, interfaced with some colonial and gothic style residences. Because of the younger residents moving into the area there has been a high degree of renovation and adaptive work occurring. The desire to preserve the old is very strong and prevalent in the area, as well as the integration of passive solar systems and new articulations of the old. In general, the area is an interesting culmination of eclectic influences.
-9-



SjOjDe


SITE ANALYSIS
I .
The site is at the northwest end of Washington Park in Denver, Colorado. It is bounded by Downing Street to the west and Virginia Avenue to the north, with Downing being a major thoroughfare to the greater metropolitan area. The south end of the site is bounded by Smith Lake, which has an elevation of 130.0' at the edge; the remainder of the site has an elevation of approximately 134.6'.
The existing building on the site is located approximately 50'-0" from the lake edge at the shortest distance, and is encircled by mature deciduous trees.
Access to the site is at the intersection of Virginia Avenue and Marion Street, and is a direct access to the park as a whole. The road into the park is 20'-0" wide, and presently is one way. There is a well designed bi-level parking lot adjacent to the existing building with 15 spaces.
The structures which follow the perimeter of the park include high density housing, single family housing and a fire station.
The solar access to the south is excellent and will never be obstructed, due to the lake.
The winds come in from the north and west, both of which are unobstructed on the site.
Recommendations in regards to the site are:
1) maintain the sidewalk around the lake, as this provides a quiet, directional continuity for the park users.
-10-


2) maintain the trees as much as physically possible, not excluding the possibility of integrating them into the structure.
3) use the access approach presently existing, and place the vehicular parking as close in proximity as possible to the access. The existing lot should be used as a prototype element, as well as integrated into the overall design.
4) use energy efficient design, taking advantage of the solar access.
5) maintain the basic spirit and beauty existing in the park.
-11-


14


II. SOIL CONDITIONS SUMMARY
Report by Chen and Associates
The soil analysis I obtained was used for the proposed Park Lane project, now the Marion Towers located at the 400 Block of South Marion. This is across the street from the Park site, and was generally felt by Dave Adams of Chen and Associates to be a very accurate report.
The subsoil conditions are fairly uniform, consisting of approximately 20 feet of sandy clays, stiff clays and weathered claystone, overlaying claystone and sandstone bedrock. The hardness of the subsoils increases with depth. Below the elevation of 100.0', the bedrock is hard and capable of supporting a large structure. The claystone possesses moderate swelling potential and will settle about 5% under a pressure of 50,000 PSI.
The water table is approximately 11.5' 14.0' below the existing ground surface. It is believed that the water table will not rise more than 3'0" above the present measurement under normal conditions.
Refer to the Appendix for the complete report.
-15-


Ill.
THE EXISTING BUILDING
The "Bath House" was built in 1902 by an unknown architect. It is a one story structure having 4,375 gross square feet, and a partial basement having 655 gross square feet, designated as the boiler room.
The facade was originally metal lathe and cement, having the wood detailing painted brown. The green clapboard was applied over the original facade by the City to maintain the structure.
The foundation is concrete spread footing with 3/4 of it back filled with dirt. The other 1/4 is the boiler room, located on the east end of the building. The dimensions are 34'-6" x 191-0" and at one time accommodated coal storage and three boilers. The floor is concrete slab and accessible from both the exterior and interior. There are two staircases which flank each other, being separated by the structure.
The interior has three large spaces divided by two bearing walls. Each bearing wall has a fireplace flanking the major entrance, located on the north facade. There are two southern entrances, as well, facing the lake.
The fenestration is symmetrical on all four facades.
The windows are wood framed, double hung measuring 3'-0" x 5'-0".
The structure is sound, according to the city engineer, however the electrical and mechanical will need to be replaced. There has been no known flooding, due to its
-16-


location to the lake, and is connected to all city infrastructure services.
An addition or reconstruction of this building is feasible, having only minimal restrictions; the more crucial of them being the maintenance of the structure's symbolism. This can be achieved by means of preserving a specific facade and incorporating it into a new structure, or restoring the whole building and designing an addition. Both possibilities will need to be explored.
-17-


IV. THE PROJECTED USES OF THE SPACES
The facility is to project the image of a meeting place where peope can eat, talk or just get together as well as facilitate informal conferences.
The meeting room should be an informal area with access to the park and dining area. It should be a place where people can meet for an indefinite amount of time and be comfortable. There will be a wine/beer bar. It is hoped that it can be reminiscent of a pub.
The two conference rooms should be expandable and have good quality acoustics and lighting. Standard conference room equipment will be provided for both areas. A small coffee counter will be provided. It is hoped that small classes, box lunch conferences and community oriented meetings will be able to convene in the conference areas.
The entry should be able to handle a minimum of ten people gathering and provide casual seating for those waiting .
The facility should maintain a warm and friendly personality, having an intergration of intimate and general spaces.
-18-


V. SPACE REQUIREMENTS; BREAK DOWN
Kitchen
Cook Area (includes short orders)..... 350
Food Prep (includes Pantry)............... 350
Dishwashing and pot/pan area.............. 200
Canned food storage....................... 180
Refrigerated storage (7x12)................ 84
Clean supplies closet (4x8)................ 32
Janitor closet............................. 32
Garbage area............................... 50
Receiving/Delivery......................... 75
Dry storage............................... 100
Circulation 10%........................... 140
TOTAL 1,540
Operational Spaces
Employee dress room....................... 160
Employee restroom......................... 168
Employee lunchroom........................ 180
Office.................................... 144
TOTAL 652
Dining Room
Salad/bread bar........................... 160
Waitress station.......................... 150
Dining area........................... 2,402
TOTAL 2,712
Meeting/Bar Room (60 people)
Wine/beer bar............................ 240
Wine room................................ 144
Seating area........................... 1,200
TOTAL 1,584
-19-


Conference Areas
2 Conference rooms....................... 520
Closet/counter............................ 48
Service Area.............................. 78
TOTAL 646
General Areas
Entry..................................... 350
Restrooms................................. 309
Coats/telephones.......................... 75
Cashier (3.5x5)....................... 32.5
Gallery................................... 400
Patio..................................... 400
Gathering Area............................ 240
TOTAL 1,806.5
SUB TOTAL 8,941.5 ft2
Circulation of Public Spaces (15%) 490
Mechanical/Electrical
(5% Gross area) 600
TOTAL 1090
Total square footage = 10,031.5 ft2
-20-


VI. RECOMMENDED SPACE CALCULATIONS
(Time Saver Standards 2nd edition)
Dining Area
18 ft* 1 2 per x 140 people = 2520 ft2
Booths/Seats: 4'-0" long; 5'-6" wide
Counters: 24" wide; maximum length 16'-0"
Passage between chairs: minimum of 18" including chair area
Table spacing: 4'-0" 5'-0" apart Service Stations
Based on ratios of: central 1:50; Small 1:30.
1 central station (8x12) = 128 ft2 3 small stations (4x5) = 50 ft2
Kitchen
Is based on an estimated maximum number of meals served per hour.
(150 person)(.20 capacity) = 30 Breakfast: 360 (5'0") = 1800ft2
Lunch: 288 (5'0") = 1440 ft2
Dinner: 252 (5'0") = 1260 ft2
1800 + 1440 +1260 3 = 1500
Receiving and Storage
Based on occupancy 140 ; 2 = 70 ft2
Restrooms
Ratio 1:1
1 water closet per 30
2 water closets, 1 lavatory room (women)
2 urinals; 1 lavatory per 2 water closets (men) 1 handicap per sex
-21-


Main Restroom:
Women: 3 WC; 2 Lav 17'0" x 8'8" = 147'7"
Men: 2 WC; 2 Urin; 2 Lav 18'6" x 88" = 160'8"
Employee Restroom:
Women: ll-6" x 7 = 80.5
Men: 12'-6" x 7 = 87.5
Note: The above square footage does not include
plumbing walls.
Handicap grab bars must be on side walls at a distance of 33" 36" A.F.F.
Conference Area Room 1:
19 ft per x 10 people = 190 ft2 Room 2:
19 ft2 per x 15 people = 285 ft2
Because of the informal use intended, expandibility is needed.
-22-


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VII. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Parking
Parking will be a very critical issue in regards to the park. Code will require 50 parking spaces which is a significant number. However, the area has a pedestrian predisposition, therefore bicycle racks will also need to be provided.
Energy Efficiency
This will need to be an important factor to the overall efficiency of the building. The kitchen will generate a tremendous amount of heat, yet the remainder of the building will need to be heated. There may be a way to recycle the already heated air from the kitchen and redistribute it. Equally important will be taking advantage of the south exposure.
Refer to Appendix; Energy Efficieny and How to Calculate.
Acoustics and Lighting
Both should be considered upon the individual functions of the areas. It will be necessary, particularly in the conference areas to consider wall finishes such as "soundsoak," and well planned lighting layouts. Good daylight planning throughout the building should also be addressed.
-25-


Views
The dining area and meeting room should have good views of the park and should attempt to create an exchange between the exterior/interior.
-26-


External
Factors


DENVER BUILDING CODE; 1979
I .
Occupancy Classification: B-3; An assembly building without a stage and an occupant load of less than 300. Special provisions are:
Occupancies located in a basement or above the first story will be at least 1 hour fire resistive construction
Required Occupancy Separation: None.
Construction Type: IV; one hour fire resistive construction. Structural framework includes steel, reinforced concrete or masonry.
Fire Zone Designation: Fire Zone 2 having a setback of 10 feet.
Structural Frame Fire Rating: 1 hour
Protection of Openings: Exterior walls to be 3/4 hour fire
resistive when located less than the set back distances.
Parapets: Not required when
walls which terminate at roofs having a a 2 hour fire resistive construction
walls of buildings 20 feet or less in height walls of buildings where the slope is 4:12 or greater Crawl Space: Access minimum is 30 inches, measured clearance is between the structure and the ground.
Allowable Square Footage Per Floor Based On Occupancy:
10,200 ft2 unsprinkled
Allowable Height Based On Occupancy: 2 stories unsprinkled Exterior Bearing/Non Bearing Walls: 2 hours Interior Partition Fire Rating: 1 hour
-27-


Floor Assembly: 1 hour; noncombustible materials, however
wood flooring may be applied over a concrete slab
Roof Fire Rating: 1 hour
Ceiling Fire Rating: 1 hour
Exit Requirements:
Doors to Exit Enclosures
self closing having 1^ hour fire rating 100 in2 of glazing Doors to Furnace/Boiler Rooms
self closing having 1 hour fire rating no glazing
Stairs and Landings: 1 hour, constructed of noncombustible
material
a minimum width of 44 inches a maximum of 12 feet vertically
handrails having a maximum projection of 3% inches, and a maximum height of 34 inches, minimum of 30 inches.
Ramps: To have a slope no greater than 1:12, and landings
every 5 foot rise (required by law for handicap design)
This is a survey of Chapter 5, 17 and 21. Refer to Chapter 21-33 for further information/confirmation of the final design.
-28-


DENVER ZONING ORDINANCES; 1982
II .
Zoning Classifictions:
Site: OPEN USE DISTRICT: Allows airports, recreational
uses, parks, cemeteries, reservoirs and other open uses including a limited number of public and semi-public activities housed in buildings. Setback requirements apply to the location of buildings. (0-1)
Building: NEIGHBORHOOD BUSINESS DISTRICT: This dis-
trict provides the retailing of commodities classed as "convenience goods," and the furnishing of certain personal services, to satisfy the daily and weekly household or personal needs of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods. The volume of pedestrian traffic in proportion to automobile traffic entering the district is much higher than in other retail business districts. This district is located on collector streets, is characteristically small, is almost always entirely surrounded by residential districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from the surrounding residential districts it is designed to serve. The regulations are designed to permit development of the enumerated functions, limited by standards designed to protect the abutting and surrounding resi-
-29-


dential districts. To these ends, the regulations establish standards comparable to the standards for low-density residential districts, resulting in similar building bulk and retaining the relatively low concentration of vehicular traffic as compared to other retail business districts. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. (B-2)
Minimum Building Square Footage: 15,000 ft2 Minimum Setbacks:
Front setback not less than 10 feet from front lot line Rear setback not less than 20 feet from rear lot line Side setback not less than 10 feet each side line Requirement for Retaining Walls: Not exceeding 48 inches in height
Off Street Parking Requirement: To provide 1 space for each 200 ft2 of gross floor area
Off Street Loading Requirement: To provide 1 loading space for 15,000 ft2 of gross floor area. The loading area minimum is 10 feet wide and 25 feet long.
-30-


III. CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
(NOAA; 1978. Department of Commerce)
Denver enjoys a mild, sunny, semi-arid climate resulting in low relative humidity and low average precipitation. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration. The good climate results from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies.
The temperature means range between 64F to 30F with extreme means of 104F to -30F. Late summer offers the highest temperatures, generally around 90F and midwinter the lowest temperatures, around 14F.
The precipitation norm is 15.5 inches annually.
The seasonal contributions are:
Spring 5.7 inches Summer 4.95 inches Fall 3.1 inches Winter 1.7 inches in fluid measurement.
The wind speed is on the average of 8 mph, however Denver's location in respect to the mountains often entertains chinook wind both in the spring and fall with resultant wind speeds of 50 mph and gusts in excess of 55 mph. The wind design factor required by code for structural design is 80 mph.
-31-


Denver has a latitude of 39.0'N with sun angles of 30 in the winter and 70 in the summer. The heating degree days in Denver average 5673 and cooling days of 631.
-32-


CONCLUSION:
I initially began with three primary objectives as
follows:
1) To provide a place for the neighborhood residents to gather and socialize
2) To maintain the symbolism of the "Bath House" as an expression of the past in the park, and
3) To maintain an interior/exterior exchange in an effort to create a strong tie between both the building and the park.
It was these three objectives which would relate and interface the restaurant with the park's social and recreational activities.
During the design process each specific issue being addressed generated additional objectives.
The site objectives were initially the most critical. They included:
1) maintaining the walk around the lake and providing a continuous directionality
2) utilizing the existing parking and approach, and
3) maintaining the basic spirit and beauty of the park.
To fulfill the site objectives I dealt with the parking issue first, committing myself to the use of the existing lot. The lot had been designed in very wide semicircular patterns and layered back, having the inside semi-
-33-


circle 3'-0" higher than the outside. I reworked the lots by shortening the width from 45'-0" down to 35'-0", an adequate dimension to facilitate two-way traffic and restripped the layers to 9'-0" spaces. In order to provide a pedestrian drop-off, I lost spaces which I regained by adding one space to each end of each semicircle.
In an effort to complete the outside parking edge, I added a 5'-0" wide flagstone walk which extends the entire distance of parking (entrance to entrance).
To maintain the walk around the lake, I carried the pedestrian route across the water 120'-0" by means of a boardwalk. It was to become a quiet expression into the water connecting the park uses with another element which had in the past only been experience from the lake edge.
Towards the middle of the design process the entrance had moved from its traditional north side to the west side where space was tight. This happened in response to still more issues:
1) The north seldom thawed completely during the winter, and
2) There had been difficulty in all the previous concepts of creating a strong connection to the parking and general access approach.
In doing this, two additional issues were addressed as well.
First, the north side which is on view as one enters the park and the one facade which I felt should be saved for
-34-


its symbolism. So as I began working with the space planning I realized I could take the existing dormer and make a modern expression of the element utilizing the front porch. I lowered and widened the roof line of the dormer and then brought it forward 7'-0" (the width of the porch) and extended it down to the ground. This not only gave a new expression to the north facade but also utilized the existing porch as a floor for the back bar. The fenestration on this side would be determined by the existing building and would set the tone for the addition. The existing building has fenestrations which are S'-O'^S'-O", being spaced by a 4'-0" section of wall. This in turn facilitated the use of three windows 3'-0" wide and was continued on the new addition. The height of each window was determined then by the variations of the wall height. Mullions were added to all the windows, adding character and dimension; however, the mullion count was held the same for all windows, allowing varied glass pane sizes.
The second issue addressed in moving the entry was the tightness of space on the west facade (the end of the existing building). In accomodating the entry it became apparent that with the previous cut back of the parking I had created 15'-0" of space from the building edge. So I proceeded to incorporate a traditional 1905 porch area with benches and monumental covered steps. Due to the handicap codes I then realized I need a 37'-0" ramp which had to be more than a "tack on" element. It too had to integrate into the structure's form.
-35-


This was dealt with in a most sensitive way, considering the point of entry. The approach is exactly the same input as the ambulatory individual beginning to the right of the stairs. The upper railing line becomes unaffected, due to the ramping behind the planter box up to the point of entry into the building.
Usually the building steps south towards the lake, creating the weighing of balance for the entry.
The service road was placed tightly along the north facade, running east and west. Place 2'-0" off the brick service road is a 2Jj foot flagstone sitting wall. This is intended to serve, first, as a base to the existing building which sits on a 3'-0" exposed foundation and, second, as a sitting wall towards the open space where activities have always existed.
During the space planning it became evident that I would have to step out and off of the 3'-0" foundation. To achieve this I held the existing floor line true, through the connection arcade 20'-0" where it steps l'-lO" to the pavii-lion dining and again steps l'-10" on each side, unfolding towards the lake and views. Further, the south facade was decided upon early for the addition, being the side which had never originally been completed. A basic objective applied to the space planning was one of flexibility. This was achieved by leaving most of the spaces open, delineating them with varied flooring materials and level changes.
-36-


However, the conference areas required walls. I could still maintain my flexibility with the use of large pocket doors off the gallery as well as off the dining waiting area. In doing so, the entire facility can be opened up for large crowds brought to the park by sports events.
The structural system proposed is glulam, a system which should be congenial to the existing post and beam construction. The mechanical system would be a zone and run under the building. Further, with the use of double hung windows the normal load on an air conditioning system could be cut subtantially. In relation to this concept, the kitchen has been located on the northeast corner, a cooler area. The kitchen also has double hung windows which I anticipate releasing the immediate heat generated by cooking activities and allowing a more efficient use of the air conditioning system.
The hood flues were dealt with in a fairly simple fashion by aligning the hooded equipment together and near the existing outside chimney to the south. Behind the chimney would be a "cut out" to accomodate the flues, which would not be visible on any of the elevations and yet not deliberately hidden. The new foundation would be piers/grade beam due to the soils.
The space planning in summary provides views to all the public spaces. To the north is located the bar area which overlooks an open green space and trees. The confer-
-37-


ence areas look out onto the lake to the south and the moun-
tains to the west. The dining opens up to the lake on the south and mountains to the west. This offered an efficient economic base in relation to the real estate's potential and value.
In conclusion, I realized towards the middle of the process that what I was creating had to be more than a building it had to be an object as well something usually appealing as well as functional. The greatest difficulty was finding a venacular which was new, yet compatible with the existing, if not complimentary. I held on to three distinct elements from the existing building and worked with them.
1) The horizontal element is very strong, being emphasized over and under the windows as well as at the facia line. I continued the horizontal across the top of the windows and at the facia. 2) The fenestration size is 3'x6' and I held on to the width and 3) the roof form was prominent not only on this building but on the boat house it faces across the lake. I held on to the roof form existing, using it over points of entry and on the arcade. The roof form over the pavillion is that of the boat house (hipped). In addition, I played with the negative and positive forms of the boat house in creating the pavillion facade. The boat house columns are out while the windows drop back behind. So I brought the pavillion windows out and dropped the columns back. It was my hope that this could bring visual playfullness and variety
-38-


to the park users when both buildings are viewed simultaneously .
I feel that my design has been successful in its attempt as well as potential feasibility. The initial objectives I began with I fulfilled as well as the new ones I instigated along the way. In general, I was pleased with the end result.
As a wise man told me, "There are many possibilities; yours is but one."
-39-


DESIGN


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SITE PLAN i"*3o
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NORTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION
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ORIGINAL DRAWINGS Wi-oB
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NORTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION
SOUTH ELEVATION
WEST ELEVATION
ELEVATIONS Va'-V-o'
THE SOLSTICE
A lESTAUtANT/MEETMG PLACE THES6 DESIGN MAY 1964 GN WINKELHAKE


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TRANSVERSE SECTION AT EXISTING BUILDINC
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TRANSVERSE SECTION AT NEW ADDITION
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TYPICAL WALL SECTION

BUILDINC SECTIONS W-i'-ef WALL SECTION V2" y-0"
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FOUNDATION PLAN
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Appendix


Chen and Associates
Consulting Engineers Soil and Foundation Engineering 1240 W. Bayaud Avenue 733-5465
Denver, Colorado 80223
July 7, 1966
Subject: Proposed Park Lane Project:
^00 Block South Marion Parkway Denver, Colorado
Job No. 2036
Mr. H. W, Hewson P. 0. Box 12035 El Paso, Texas
Dear Mr. Hewson
Further to our report of June 30, 1966, regarding the subject project.
h f
The elevation of the basement of the demolished Park Lane Hotel is 121.98 feet. This elevation refers to the bench mark at the rim of the manhole on East Virginia Avenue, elevation 130.98 feet.
If we can be of further service, please call.
FHC/bjc
Very truly yours, CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
By_


Fu Hua Chen, P. E.
Joseph T. Wilson, Denver " " 11 Alamosa
cc:


TABLE OF CONTENTS
SCOPE 1
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS 1
PROPOSED STRUCTURE 1
POSSIBLE FOUNDATION TYPES 2
Drill Pier Foundation: 2
Raft Foundation 2
WATER TABLE CONDITIONS 3
MISCELLANEOUS
FIG. 1 TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN FIG. 2 LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES FIG. 3 LEGEND S- NOTES
FIGS. U & 5 SWELL-CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS TABLE I SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS


SCOPE
This report covers a preliminary soil and foundation investigation for the proposed Park Lane Project to be located in the 400 Block on South Marion Parkway, Denver, Colorado. The report presents the general subsoil conditions, possible foundation types, range of soil pressures and water table conditions.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Subsoil conditions for the two test holes drilled, are fairly
uniform. Generally, they consist of about 20 feet of sandy clays, stiff
clays and weathered claystone, overlying claystone and sandstone bedrock.
The lower bedrock consists of a combination of claystone and sandstone.
The hardness of the material increases with depth. Below elevation 100.0'
*
bedrock is hard and is capable in supporting the proposed structure. The claystone possesses moderate swelling potential and will settle about 5% under a pressure of 50,000 psf. Taking into consideration the disturbance of the sample, the actual settlement will probably be less than 2%. These are indicated in the Swel1-Consolidation Curves, Figs, k and 5.
In Test Hole No. 1, no water was foundaat the time of our investigation, however, water table rose to 11^ to 14 feet below existing ground surface 2 days after drilling.
PROPOSED STRUCTURE
We understand that the proposed tower structure will be forty-five


stories high with 1 or 2 story basement. Total load of the building will be on the order of 160,000 kips and average load on the order of 10 kips per square foot.
POSSIBLE FOUNDATION TYPES
Two possible types of foundation are feasible for the proposed building. These are as follows:
Drill Pier Foundation:
In this case, each column will be supported by a single pier.
The piers should be drilled at least 10 feet into bedrock, designed
for maximum end pressure on the order of 40,000 psf to 50,000 psf,
and skin friction on the order of 4,000 psf to 5,000 psf, for the
portion of pier in bedrock. For 54-inch diameter piers, the total
*
load carrying capacity will be on the order of 1,500 kips. -A greater pier carrying capacity can be obtained by drilling the pier deeper into bedrock.
Raft Foundation:
If deep basement is contemplated, then it would be possible to place the entire structure on the upper bedrock with a raft foundation. Such raft foundation can be designed for maximum soil pressure on the order of 15,000 psf. The feasibility of this foundation alternative will depend on our final investigation as to the degree of hardness and the depth of bedrock.


- 3 -
WATER TABLE CONDITIONS
Present water table Is at depth 11^- to 14 feet below existing ground surface. Based on our experience In the area, we do not believe that water table will rise more than 3 feet above present measurement under normal conditions. If deep basement is contemplated, we believe it is possible to lower the water table by the Installation of an effective sub-surface drainage system. Basement floor slab placed at depth 20 feet below existing ground surface, is to our opinion, feasible.
MISCELLANEOUS
We are not able to determine all the pertinent details on the design and construction of the foundation system from our preliminary investigation. In our final investigation, we will be able to accurately recommend the most desirable foundation types, settlemen predictions, the allowable soil pressures at various depths, as well as the resistance of the bedrock against lateral pressure.
FHC/bjc
cc: Joseph T. Wilson, Denver
11 11 Alamosa
if fbjf
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
Fu Hua Chen, P. E.
y a


East Dakota Avenue
Hole 2
O
KJ
h
LU
UJ
LU
cm
h-
m
oo
£
<
X
K
o
OQ
X
h-
ID
O
oo
ffo
le 1
B.M. at Rim of Manhole Elevation =130-98
East Virginia Avenue
TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN Scale 1" = 100*
Fig. 1


LOGS OF EXPLORATORY HOLES
ELEVATION FEET
o
CO
o
I 11 11 I I
_|_LLLl
VO
o
111-1 In
o
T NJ VaJ
p o r
ILL lIllll -Li.llLu 11 1 LI 11 lLlji
f

i_i
*2




C3 JG ts>
JT- o r> £- sn
V. a a "v
w- n> cr>
%r KJ
* *s*4
o
io
N>
r ri i | 1111 i i ii 11 i i i i 11 i rpmT 11 11 p 11 i I 111 | u i i rr n i | tttttttttjtttt
~vl 00
o o
VO
o
o
o
N
o
£
ELEVATION FEET
i
i
i
Hole 1 Hole 2
£1=13^.08' E1=I35.^8


LEGEND:
Topsoil,
sandy clays,
Lawn
Sand (SC), clayey, brown, moist, loose.
Clay (CL), sandy, brown, moist, medium stiff.
Clay (CL), weathered Claystone, Firm,
Bedrock, sandstone, claystone, brown, moist, very hard.
Bedrock, claystone, grey to blue, moist, hard to very hard.
a . ... .. .
Undisturbed drive sample. The symbol 4/12 Indicates that 4 blows of a 140 lb hammer falling JO Inches were required to drive the sampler 12 inches.
Water table measured 2 days after drilling.
NOTES;
(1) Test Holes were drilled on June 28, 1966.
(2) All elevations refer to B.M. at rim of manhole on Virginia St. as shown In Fig. 1. Elevation =130.98*
LEGEND S. NOTES
Fig.


Compression Percent Compression Percent
;v CHEN ainu ASSOCIATE
~~~i 71 .Noturol Natural Dr M ri y si Jr it r i lit jr -i 1i Weight : I Content SB I 1 -I pcf percen t



\
i \
C A \
V )
i

4
Ty i ca s imp 1 e : 0 idrock from Ha !! 1 a t ' ?<' cpth kh 1-0" -V
0.1 l.o 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE kef
r i i irm i 1 1ir^i i Natural Dry Unit Weight / pcf Natural Moisture Content *t-T percent

c )
sxpa du "is i 3 t On 0 1 ul ve iti i < don sian I pT 2SS jr^ >
} |
Tyi > i ca s. imp 1 j | fj Ll 3 jd rock f rom Ho 1 e 2 a 1 c Ipth 28 I -0"
0.1 1.0 10 100
applied PRESSURE kef
Swell-Consolidation Test Results
i
t
| i
':Wv
'0 i
mi
, Y*. 1- V
.tv
I:
: V*
Fig. k


Compression % Expansion Compression % Expansion
CHEN AND ASSOCIATES
_____________ ! 1 I ______I I I I I___i I I I___ I 1 I I I I
0.1 1.0 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i Natural Ory Unit Weight pCf Natural Moisture Content za-7 percent
s 1
ex >an d 3 i c je n tc u > ' 1C ve e t r t const; i ng. nt [ i re: SL rc


Tvf i ca Sc mp 1 e idrock rrom Ho e 1 a t d e pth 2k' -0"
0.1 1.0 10 100
APPLIED PRESSURE ksf
Swell-Consolidation Test Results
Fig. 5


CHEN AND ASSOCIATES TABLE I
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TEST RESULTS
JOB NO.
HOLE DEPTH (feet) NATURAL MOISTURE (*/.) NATURAL DRY DENSITY (PCF) ATTERBERG LIMITS UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (PSF) TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS SOIL TYPE
LIQUID LIMIT (%) PLASTICITY INDEX (%) DEVIATOR STRESS (PSF) CONFINING PRESSURE (PSF)
1 24.0 20.9 1 05.0 CLAYSTONE
34.0 18.4 109.8 1 1
44.0 5.9 SANDSTONE-c1 avs tone
r
2 28.0 21.7 104.0 ri aysTONE

*


















UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING Graduate Divisions 1100 Fourteenth Street Denver, Colorado 80202 (303) 629-2755
D. Stafford Woolard
RULES OF THUMB FOR DENVER SCHEMATIC DESIGN
Skin Dominated Buildings
From Baicomb D. (1980) "Passive Design Handbook" Vol.II U.S. Department of Energy
Solar Collection Area
"A solar collection area of 12% to 25% of the floor area can be expected to reduce the annual heating load of a building in Denver by 27%-43% or if R9 night insulation is used by k7% to 7L%."
These values can be adjusted depending on the design standards.
Thermal Storage Mass 2
"A thermal storage mass of 0.6 x SSF pounds of water or 3 x 5SF pounds of masonry is recommended for each square foot of south glazing, where SSF is the desired solar savings (%). This assumes that the mass is in direct sun ail day as, for example, in a water wail. In direct gain situations this is adequate thermal storage provided 1) the mass is in the direct gain space or encloses the direct gain space
2) the mass is not insulated from the space 3) the mass has an exposed surface area equal to at least 3x glazed area. If masonry is used it is not effective beyond a depth of L"-6" measured from the surface. If the mass is located completely out of the sun in back rooms, then about four times as much mass is needed."
Orientation
"The orientation of the solar glazing should lie between 20 east and 32 west of true south." For Denver true north is 13.5 west of magnetic north.


ANNUAL METHOD
Fixed:
Then:
(also known as LCR method)
1. Base temperature (degree days),
2. Orientation (due south),
3. Tilt (reference design),
4. Ground reflectance (0.3), and
5. Shading (none).
^annual
csr
annual
= function of LCR and passive system type,
sum of (SSF x DD)
____________monthly_______
sum of (DD)
This can be tabulated for any city because DD and S are known (see table).
Procedure: 1. Calculate NLC,
2. Calculate LCR = NLC/Ap,
3. Look up SSF, and
4. Calculate auxiliary,
aux = (1 SSF) x (NLC) x (DDyear).
Example for Denver, Colorado, Commercial Building, 3000 ft2
Rwal1 = 25
^ceiling = 33
Rfloor = 35 (over crawl space)
Infiltration = 0.5 air changes per hour (ACH)
Solar Elements
Sunspace 390 ft2
Direct gain (night insulated) 100 ft2 See worksheet.
5


40(1
EXAMPLE BUILDING


NET LOAD COEFFICENT and ANNUAL LCR METHOD WORKSHEET
NET LOAD COEFFICIENT. NLC
BUILDING
ELEMENT
DATE


BY.
JPS
WALLS
ROOF
: UA,
E. W, N WINDOWS: UA
FLOOR
PERMETER
BASEMENT
INFLTRATION
FORMULA Fill In the Blanks and Perform Arithmetic LOAD. UA
= /mo / 25 7o
w w ,/fi, = 3000 / 53 m R
r r ,n.un - /CO X .55 - 55'
'R 1.1 P /(R 6) = 3000 1 Z5 - no
4.1 x /( +6) a
: UA,
: UAp
:UAb 10.7 Pb/(Rb + 8)
10.7 *
/(.
: UA.
0-01BV x ADR x ACH 0.018 x
fiiiLCo
1 A/w .
2&QQ.
______ +8)
0.75 ,
0.5
no
NLC
Sum 24 x Sum

Btu/ F h Blu/*F *day
LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO. LCR
LCR NLC/A-
/Z600 430
Z6
Blu/*F*day ft2
WEIGHTED AVERAGE, SSF
REFERENCE
DESIGN
35P/
--- Jzft lylUAJ7ti,UJL
(/PROJECTED (iM.
> APERTURE L FRACTION
\
P6P/
TOTAL Ap
AUXILIARY HEAT, Qaux
AREA
/06>
43#
OF A
P
.7
.2
8SF FOR EACH REFERENCE DESIGN
P.65
0.50
PRODUCT OF SSF x FRACTION
032
0./&
SUM
8SF P- ^Z-
Q.ux-d-SSF)
NLC DD r( 1 - t26&0 W ) 1Q-fl . ^
(0,000
. MBtu/year


Val ues of the load collector rati o (LCR) required to achieve different levels
of SSF for the reference des1 gns. The base temperature used is 65 F. rr < S'
/-T (s'5 V '
DENVER, COLORADO 6016 DO DENVER , COLORADO/ CONTINUED
SSF - .10 .20 .30 40 .50 .60 .70 .80 90 SSF -.10 .20 .30 . 40 .50 (.60 .70, .80 .90
uw A1 729 93 44 26 17 12 9 6 4 DG C2 209 99 62 44 33 '7S~ vf 13 8
ww A2 262 106 61 40 28 20 15 11 7 DG C3 253 121 77 55 42 33 26 20 14
ww A3 224 108 66 45 32 24 18 13 9 SS A1 444 140 74 46 31 22 16 11 7
ww A4 207 109 69 48 35 26 19 14 9 ss A2 413 180 105 70 49 35 26 18 12
ww A5 198 no 72 51 37 28 21 15 10 SS A3 419 125 64 39 26 18 13 9 6
ww A6 193 111 73 52 38 29 22 16 11 ss A4 416 177 102 67 47 34 24 17 11
ww B1 206 77 42 27 19 13 9 7 4 ss A5 714 139 67 40 26 18 13 9 5
ww B2 207 112 72 51 37 28 21 15 10 ss A6 410 178 104 69 48 35 25 18 12
ww B3 242 137 90 64 47 35 27 20 13 ss A7 782 115 52 30 19 13 9 6 4
ww B4 216 132 91 66 49 38 29 21 15 ss A8 416 173 99 65 45 32 23 16 11
ww B5 200 125 87 64 48 37 28 21 14 ss B1 303 106 57 36 25 18 13 9 6
ww Cl 258 146 96 68 50 38 28 21 14 ss B2 322 145 86 57 40 29 21 15 10
ww C2 224 133 89 64 48 36 27 20 14 ss B3 276 96 51 32 22 15 11 8 5
ww C3 233 152 108 80 61 47 36 27 19 ss B4 314 140 83 55 39 28 20 15 10
ww C4 211 137 97 72 55 42 33 24 17 ss B5 380 93 47 28 19 13 9 6 4
TW A1 631 90 43 26 17 12 8 6 4 ss B6 304 139 83 55 39 28 21 15 10
TW A2 267 96 54 35 24 17 13 9 6 ss B7 331 78 38 23 15 10 7 5 3
TW A3 219 96 57 38 27 20 14 10 7 ss B8 294 132 78 52 36 26 19 14 9
TW A4 188 92 56 38 28 20 15 11 7 ss Cl 199 93 56 37 27 19 14 10 7
TW B1 364 86 44 27 18 13 9 7 4 ss C2 216 115 73 51 37 28 21 15 10
TW B2 217 88 50 33 23 17 12 9 6 ss C3 203 74 41 27 18 13 10 7 5
TW B3 191 85 51 34 24 18 13 9 6 Si JT4 213 103 63 43 31 23 17 12 8
TW B4 176 78 47 31 22 16 12 9 6 Css dT) 415 168 96 62 43 30 22 15 10
TW Cl 246 78 42 27 19 13 10 7 5 si -52 370 197 125 86 62 46^34 24 16
TW C2 192 76 43 28 20 14 11 8 5 ss D3 511 159 83 52 35 25 17 12 8
TW C3 183 71 40 26 19 13 10 7 5 ss D4 378 192 120 82 59 43 32 23 15
TW C4 191 63 35 22 16 11 8 6 4 ss El 307 130 75 49 34 24 17 12 8
TW D1 151 60 34 22 15 11 8 6 4 ss E2 303 160 101 70 50 37 27 20 13
TW D2 220 106 65 44 32 24 17 13 9 ss E3 362 111 58 36 24 17 12 8 5
TW D3 225 116 74 51 37 27 20 15 10 ss E4 310 150 92 62 44 32 24 17 11
TW D4 219 123 81 57 42 32 24 18 12
TW D5 206 119 80 57 42 32 24 18 12
TW El 262 136 86 60 43 32 24 17 12
TW E2 239 130 84 59 43 32 24 18 12 Sol ar, weather and degree- day tab! a m
TW E3 255 154 104 75 56 43 32 24 17
TW E4 228 139 95 69 52 39 30 22 15 HS-horizontal sol ar radi ation
TW TW TW El F2 F3 295 192 161 78 81 79 40 47 48 25 31 33 17 22 24 12 16 17 9 12 13 6 8 9 4 6 6 Btu/ft2-day VS-incident solar on south vertical
TW F4 134 71 45 31 23 17 13 9 6 TA-averaqe ambient temperature, F
TW TW G1 G2 188 141 68 67 38 41 24 28 17 20 12 14 9 11 6 8 4 5 DX-degree-days to ba se X
TW G3 120 61 38 26 19 14 11 8 5
TW G4 97 51 32 22 16 12 9 7 4 DENVER, COLORADO ELEV 5331 LAT 39.7
TW HI 124 55 33 22 16 11 8 6 4 JAN HS vs TA D5C D55 D60 D65 D70 KT LD
TW H2 97 49 31 21 15 11 8 6 4 840 1465 30 623 778 933 1088 1243 .64 61
TW H3 81 42 26 18 13 10 7 5 4 FEB 1127 1577 33 482 622 762 902 1042 .64 53
TW H4 63 32 20 14 10 7 5 4 3 MAR 1530 1503 37 406 559 713 868 1023 .64 42
TW 11 117 50 29 19 13 9 7 5 3 APR 1879 1227 48 130 240 379 525 675 .62 30
TW 12 169 89 56 39 29 21 16 12 8 MAY 2135 1061 57 18 63 143 253 406 .62 21
TW 13 180 98 63 44 32 24 18 13 9 JUN 2351 1037 66 1 5 23 80 158 .65 16
TW 14 183 107 72 51 38 29 22 16 11 JUL 2273 1053 73 0 0 0 0 50 .64 18
TW 15 178 107 73 53 39 30 23 17 12 AUG 2044 1188 72 0 0 0 0 69 .64 26
TW J1 218 120 78 55 40 30 22 16 11 SEP 1727 1491 63 3 14 51 120 232 .66 38
TW J2 198 113 75 53 39 30 22 16 11 OCT 1300 1657 52 63 143 261 408 559 .67 50
TW J3 214 134 93 68 51 39 30 22 15 NOV 883 1441 39 324 469 618 768 918 .62 59
TW J4 197 123 86 63 48 36 28 21 14 DEC 732 1323 33 540 695 849 1004 1159 .61 63
DG A1 150 66 37 21 10 YR 1570 1334 50 2592 3588 4733 6016 7535 .64
DG A2 172 80 49 33 23 15 10 6
DG A3 216 103 65 46 34 25 19 13 7
DG DG B1 B2 149 177 68 83 40 52 27 36 18 27 11 20 14 9 4 From: Passi ve Solar Design Handbook,
Dfi. -ar 220 105 67 47 28 22 16 10 Volume III
^DG JP 186 85 52 36 (IT 19 13 6
8


NET LOAD COEFFICENT and ANNUAL LCR METHOD WORKSHEET DATE____________ BY
NET LOAD COEFFICIENT. NLC
BUILDING Fill In the Blanks
ELEMENT FORMULA and Perform Arithmetic
WALLS : uaw aw/rw - /
ROOF :UAf-Af/Rr - /
E. W. N WINDOWS :UAn-An-Un - X
FLOOR : UAj A|/R| - /
PERMETER : UAp-4.1 Pp/(Rp + 6) - 4.1 x /( +6)
BASEMENT :UAb 10.7 Pb/(Rbl8) - 10.7 x /( 8)
NFLTRATION :UA,-0.018V x ADR ACH - 0.018 x X X
Sum
NLC 24 x Sum
LOAD COLLECTOR RATIO, LCR
LCR NLC/Ap - / Btu/*F day ft^
LOAD.
UA
Blu/V'h Btu/*F day
WEIGHTED AVERAGE, SSF
PROJECTED
REFERENCE APERTURE FRACTION 83F FOR EACH PRODUCT OF
DESIGN AREA OF Ap REFERENCE DE3ION 8SF x FRACTION
TOTAL Ap -
SUM -
SSF
AUXILIARY HEAT, Q,u>
Qaux (1 SSF)*NLC DOs(1 -________M____________)(_________) x 10~ ---------MBIu/yaar


YENTED TROMBE WALL SYSTEMS
Thermal Nominal
Des1gna tlon Storage Capacl ty* |Btu/ft2F) Wall Thickness** Hn.) pck (8tu2/h ft4 F2) No. of Glazlnqs Wall Night Surface Insulation
A1 15 6 30 2 normal no
A2 22.5 9 30 2 normal no
A3 30 12 30 2 normal no
A4 45 18 30 2 normal no
B1 15 6 15 2 normal no
B2 22.5 9 15 2 normal no
B3 30 12 15 2 normal no
B4 45 18 15 2 normal no
Cl 15 6 7.5 2 normal no
C2 22.5 9 7.5 2 normal no
C3 30 12 7.5 2 normal no
C4 45 18 7.5 2 normal no
01 30 12 30 1 normal no
D2 30 12 30 3 normal no
D3 30 12 30 1 normal yes
D4 30 12 30 2 normal yes
05 30 12 30 3 normal yes
El 30 12 30 1 selective no
F2 30 1? 30 2 selective no
E3 30 12 30 1 selective yes
E4 30 12 30 2 selective yes
per unit of projected area for the particular case of pc 30 Btu/ft3 F
UNVENTED TROMBE WALL SYSTEMS
Thermal Nominal
Storage Capacity* Wall Thickness** pck No. of Wall Night
Designation (Btu/ft2F) tin.) (Btu2/h ft4 F2) Glazings Surface Insulation
FI 15 6 30 2 normal no
F2 22.5 9 30 2 normal no
F3 30 12 30 2 normal no
F4 45 IB 30 2 normal no
G1 15 6 15 2 normal no
G2 22.5 9 15 2 normal no
G3 30 12 15 2 normal no
G4 45 18 IS 2 normal no
HI 15 fi 7.5 2 normal no
H2 22.5 9 7.5 2 normal no
H3 30 12 7.5 2 normal no
H4 45 18 7.5 2 normal no
11 30 12 30 1 normal no
12 30 1? 30 3 normal no
13 30 1? 30 1 normal yes
14 30 12 30 2 normal yes
15 30 12 30 3 normal yes
J1 30 12 30 1 selective no
J2 30 12 30 2 selective no
J3 30 12 30 1 selective yes
J4 30 12 30 2 selectlve yes
per unit of projected area for the particular case of pc 30 Btu/ft3 F


SUNSPACE SYSTEMS (all are double glazed)
gnatlon Type Tilt (degrees) Coiunon Wall End Walls Night Insulat
A1 attached 50 masonry opaque no
A2 a ttached 50 masonry opaque yes
A3 attached 50 masonry glazed no
A4 attached 50 masonry glazed yes
A5 attached 50 Insulated opaque no
A6 attached 50 Insulated opaque yes
A7 attached 50 1nsul ated glazed no
A8 attached 50 Insulated glazed yes
B1 attached 90/30 masonry opaque no
B2 attached 90/30 masonry opaque yes
B3 attached 90/30 masonry glazed no
B4 attached 90/30 masonry glazed yes
B5 attached 90/30 Insulated opacue no
Bfi attached 90/30 Insulated opaque yes
B7 attached 90/30 Insulated glazed no
BB attached 90/30 1nsulated glazed yes
Cl semi-enclosed 90 masonry common no
C2 semi-enclosed 90 masonry common yes
C3 semi-enclosed 90 Insulated common no
C4 semi-enclosed 90 1nsulated common yes
01 semi-enclosed 50 masonry common no
02 semi-enclosed 50 masonry common yes
D3 semi-enclosed 50 1nsul ated common no
04 semi-enclosed 50 Insulated common yes
El semi-enclosed 90/30 masonry common no
E2 semi-enclosed 90/30 masonry common yes
E3 semi-enclosed 90/30 Insulated common no
E4 semi-enclosed 90/30 Insulated common yes
ft.
SUNSPACE GEOMETRIES


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REFERENCE DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
Masonry properties
thermal conductivity, direct gain and sunspace 1.0 Btu/h ft F
density 150 lb/ft3
specific heat 0.2 Btu/lb F
infrared emittance of normal surface 0.9
infrared emi ttance of selective surface 0.1
Solar absorptances
water waTI 0.95
masonry, Trombe wall 0.95
direct gain and sunspace 0.8
sunspace: water containers 0.9
lightweight common wall 0.7
other lightweight surfaces 0.3
Glazing properties
transmission characteristics di ffuse
orientation due south
index of refraction 1.526 0.5 in-^
extinction coefficient
thickness of each pane 1/8 in
air gap between panes 1/2 in
infrared emittance 0.9
Control range
room temperature 65 F to 75 F
sunspace temperature 45 F to 95 F
internal heat generation Thermocirculation vents (when used) vent area/projected area (sum of both upper and 0
lower vents) 0.06
height between vents 8 ft
reverse flew Night insulation (when used) none
thermal resistance P9
in place, solar time 5:30 pm to 7:30 am
Solar radiation assumptions
shadi ng none
ground diffuse reflectance 0.3
lightweight absorption fraction 0.2
Other sunspace characteristics
opaque wall thermal resistance (both Insulated wall and end walls, 1f any) R20
infiltration, ACH 0.5
masonry wall thickness (masonry wall cases) 12 in.
water container heat capacity (insulated wall cases) (per square foot of projected area) 62.4 Btu/F-ft2
12


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Alexander, Christopher, "A Pattern Language,"
Oxford University, 1979.
2) An Achitectural Record Book, "Motels, Hotels, Restaurants and Bars," F. W. Dodge Corp, N.Y. 1960 (728.5A673).
3) Atkin, W. and Adler, J., "Interiors Book of Restaurants," Whitney Library of Design, N.Y., 1960.
4) Chen and Associates, Soil Analysis, 400 Block Marion, Denver, 1966.
5) Chiara, J. and Callender, J., "Time-Saver Standards," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1980.
6) Davis, Ben, "The Traditional English Pub," Architectural Press, London, 1981 (NE7850 G66 D3).
7) Denver Building Codes, 1979.
8) Denver Zoning Codes, 1982.
9) Doelle, Leslie, "Environmental Acoustics," McGraw-
Hill, N.Y., 1972.
10) Mikellides, Byron, "Architecture for People," Holt,
Rinehart and Winston, N.Y., 1980 (720.103A673).
11) Mueller, Chinooks, Thesis of 1982.
12) NOAA, Climatological Report, 1982.
13) Palmer, M., "Architects' Guide to Programming," McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1982.
14) Washington Park Profile, July 1982, "No Restaurants in Washington Park Yet," page 13, and May 1982,
"Park Problems," pages 1 and 4.
15) U.S. Government Census Report, 1980.


Personal References:
1) Paul Cashman of the Washington Park Profile, Denver, Colorado (778-8021).
2) Joe Ciancio of the Denver Parks Department.
3) Nick Heis and Jerry Paisley of the Design Engineering Department for the City of Denver (575-3155).
4) Shelly Gorman of the Community Recreation Center, Denver, Colorado (777-9876).