Arapahoe Square

Material Information

Arapahoe Square
Wires, C. J
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
88 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), maps, plans ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic ( fast )
Real estate development ( fast )
Stores, shopping centers, etc -- Designs and plans -- Boulder (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
C.J. Wires, Jr.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12266114 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1985 .W57 ( lcc )

Full Text

An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design & Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
C. J. Wires, Jr.
Spring, 1985

The Thesis of ______C. J. Wires, Jr.
is approved.
(Name) Committee Chairman
(Name) Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver
LL /I": LllT

To Dawn and Jacob, for their lasting patience and eternal support.

Acknowled gemen t s
1. Introduction
Thesis statement Goals and objectives Project description Vicinity map Area history Area economy
Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan Results of neighborhood liveability survey
2. Site
Legal description
Description of area
Proposed site, plan
Existing buildings and uses
Existing vegetation
Topography and soils
Traffic circulation and auto access
Key to photographs
3. Analysis
Zoning review
-applicable zoning ordinance -building limits/allowable square footage -parking requirements -allowable uses -minimum bulk requirements -solar access requirements -flood plain requirements Building code analysis -applicable code -occupancy classifications -construction type -maximum permitted floor area -maximum permitted height
-well and opening protection of occupancies -required separation in buildings of mixed occupancy -fire resistive requirements based on type of construction -open parking garages area and height -requirements based on occupancy group -design loads Climate analysis
-table of climatic data -graph of climatic data -sun angle chart Utilities locations
4. Program
Spaces and descriptions Uses and areas
Relationships between program elements Relationships within individual program elements


"Preference is not an idle whim but an indication of what is healthy for and supportive of people." (Stephen Kaplan, introduction to Chapter 7. Humanscape: Environments for People).
Over the past 75 years or so, urban areas have been faced with many problems, resulting from such things as new developments in technology, growing populations with increased mobility and leisure time, and new public attitudes toward lifestyles and standards of living, to name a few. To deal with these problems, governing bodies established legislation to control growth of cities in order to protect the safety and general welfare of the public. While these measures have provided a good degree of protection for the public, they have tended to have a negative impact on the quality of the built environment due to the division of urban areas into zones and stipulating allowable uses within each zone. Zoning regulations tended to create homogeneous areas of one use type (i.e. all housing, or industrial, or commercial) and then connected these zones with major transportation links. As a result, urban growth became channeled in very definite directions, eliminating the potential for creating diversified environments which provide a choice of activities, allow for greater interaction with different kinds of people, and make mobility of the individual an essential ingredient for survival in the city. The legislative body's attempts to protect the welfare of the general public have resulted in removing the essential ingredients of a healthy environment: diversity and choice. An article by Kenneth Watt* describes diversity as being necessary for human well-being, arguing that diversity among species and elements in the environment promotes stability, provides insurance against the risk of total failure, and improves the average level of mental health in a population. Watt points to research conducted by Prof. J. Kavanau of UCLA, who performed experiments with small mammals in controlled environments. Results indicated that, when confronted with a choice of living a constantly optimal world or in a world optimal only part of the time but with variety, even a small rodent will opt for variety. Perhaps diversity is more than a luxury, but an ingredient essential to the welfare of mankind. A hypothesis is thus suggested:
Diversity is a desireable element in the built environment and can be provided with architectural means by incorporating a variety of uses, forms, and materials, organized coherently within a single development project.
In his recent book, Architecture and the Urban Experience, Curran describes four orders of urban development since the middle ages: the closed order, the structured order, the pragmmatic order, and the open order. The closed order is characteristic of the medieval era, with walled cities, organic growth, dense population, and spontaneous, informal, small-scaled public spaces. The structured order is a product of the Renaissance, and is based on derivitives of Greek and Roman concepts, providing greater clarity of organization and largescale public spaces. The pragmmatic order, associated with the industrial revolution, is basically the grid system as we know it today, described as being anonymous, monotonous, and lacking the human qualities of the closed or structured orders. Thus, the general trend towards productivity and efficiency gradually led to a decline in diversity. As populations became better educated, wealthier, more mobile, and had more leisure time, they sought to escape the pragmmatic order. The open order, a product of the modem era, sought to alleviate the monotony of the pragmmatic order by offering personal isolation and independence from the communal context, based on the concept of a high degree of mobility of the individual. While the open order was conceived as being the answer to many of the problems of the pragmmatic order, it tended to isolate people to the extent that they lost the advantages resulting from collective life. As Lewis Mumford suggests:

Our elaborate rituals of mechanization cannot take the place of
human dialogue, the dream, the circle of mates and associates, the
society of friends. These sustain the growth and reproduction of
human culture and without them the whole elaborate structure becomes
meaningless indeed actively hostile to the purpose of life.
Thus, while the open order was intended to provide a greater degree of freedom for the individual, it isolated people to the extent that it eliminated opportunities for interaction between people and between people and the environment. As Curran says:
The basic underlying motivation and raison d'etre for city-making throughout history, that of maximizing access between individuals and their activities, relies on the supportive qualities of the public domain.3
The open order tended to minimize contact between individuals and between individuals and the environment, which is in direct conflict with the principles on which City making is based.
The shortcomings of the open order have recently been recognized by a growing number of people, resulting in a new migration back to the cities from the suburbs. These people are looking for the qualities of life which are lacking in the suburbs, namely, a diversity of form and content within the built environment which allows for a variety of choices for participation and interaction on an individual level. While the suburbs provided a well-designed, isolated, monotonous blandness, the city offers the collective experiences of spaces and places conceived for linkage between people and for social interaction; a spontaneous living theatre which enriches the lives of those who participate in it.
Diversity in the built environment can be a result of combining programmatic uses, varied (but related) forms, and complementary materials in such a way as to promote interaction on the part of the user. This implies that the built environment be responsive to the needs of the user so that the user is presented with opportunities for participation and choices as to the level of intensity of participation desired, based on personal preference or mood. The architect can provide a physical environment which encourages interaction at many levels. Programmatic elements can be organized in such a way on the site as to enhance the potential for contact between users and between different groups of users in a way that promotes mingling of people who ordinarily might not ever have contact with each other. This type of spontaneous interaction can be very exciting as it is always fresh and new and seldom predictable. Those program elements which are part of the public domain, such as commercial and retail establishments, can be organized to define spaces which will foster this type of spontaneous activity; these spaces can then be articulated to provide choices for participation at different levels on the part of the user.
In this sense, choice of program elements becomes very important. By careful selection and integration of different programmatic uses, the architect can begin to provide that diversity so essential to human happiness and well-being.
On another level, thoughtful programming can allow a space to be designed to be used differently by different users or during different times of the day. For instance a small urban plaza might be an informal lunchroom by day and become host to a more formal gathering of theatre-goers by night, allowing the space to be experienced on a number of different levels, futher enhancing its meaning(s) to the user. Similarly, programmatic elements which are basically different

can complement each other by juxtaposition, the excitement of diversity being emphasized by direct contrast. An example might be a small cozy tavern or cafe situated adjacent to a public library, perhaps both of which overlook the same park. After spending many hours in the library, where one experiences one kind of quiet intimate environment, one can adjourn to the tavern for a totally different experience of a quiet, intimate environment. Experiencing these drastically different and yet in some ways basically similar environments can add extra richness to the meaning of either experience.
Another potential way to diversify the built environment is through the responsive use of form. Architectural problems are resolved in terms of 3-dimensional form which is modulated in accordance with the program and the site. Architectural form therefore comes into being as a response to two sets of conditionsthe internal conditions generated by the:pjrogram and the external conditions generated by the site. Just as natural organisms take their form in accordance with those forces of nature which dictate their existence, architecture takes its form partly from programmatic response and partly from the force characteristics of the context in which it is situated. Thus, site factors such as hill or valley, river or road, may by considered as forces to which architecture may respond in a positive way, taking advantage of existing conditions to exploit the opportunity to promote interaction between architecture and environment. The medium of architectural expression can be exploited to comment on or engage in dialogue with those forces which govern the existence of architecture, as evidenced by the bulging echinus on the capitals of the Greek temple of Hera, symbolizing the enormous compressive force being exerted by the entablature, or in more simple terms, the struggle between vertical and horizontal. In this way, the emphasis of the articulation of form is intended to comment upon that pattern of forces continuously being balanced, ordered, and unified in the built environment. Additionally, form can be used in this way to activate feelings within human beings as we respond to those same forces in our environment; we become more aware of ourselves and our relationship to our world.
In a larger sense, responding to the immediate conditions of a given site and program with appropriate forms which express the terms of those conditions offer potential opportunities for creating diversity in the built environment. As no two sets of conditions (i.e. programmatic and site) are exactly alike, an infinite number of architectural expressions are possible, all of which are understandable by and meaningful for users.
Just as form can express a reaction to the forces present, the manipulation of surface modulation can be used to express the intrinsic qualities of different materials. As the nature of different materials is expressed in their application, the potential for establishing creative dialogues between various materials becomes an opportunity to engage the user intellectually. Similarly, by responding to the same conditions in a variety of ways, material assembledges can add visual and tactile interest to the built environement. Thus, as the nature of individual materials comes to be understood, the infinite number of ways in which they can be used can potentially add enrichment and diversity to the environment.
As a vehicle for further exploring the use of these ideas to provide diversity in the built environment, I am proposing a mixed-use development project to be located in a redevoloping area of Boulder, Colorado. The proposed program includes 15,000 square feet of commercial/retail space, to be anchored by a small grocery store and drug store with pharmacy. Also included will be Boulder Stained Glass (a stained glass studio currently located on the site), a bookstore, an art gallery, a florist shop, a card shop, a small restaurant and bar, a small daycare center, a travel agency, and office space for small

professional companies available on a lease-basis. To complement these public uses, approximately 30,000 square feet of residential rental units will be provided, offering 1, 2, and 3 bedroom units with various floor plans to encourage a mixture of tenant household types. Off-street parking will be provided for each unit and for the commercial/retail elements of the program. Also, private outdoor spaces will be designed for each unit, as well as larger, public outdoor spaces intended to promote user and tenant interaction.
The project will be located on a site bounded by Arapahoe Avenue on the north, 19th Street on the west, 20th Street on the east, and a parking lot and apartment house on the south.

1. W3tt, Kenneth. "Mans Efficient Rush Towards Deadly Dullness", taken from Kaplan & Kaplan, p. 160.
2. from Lewis Mumford's The City in History, taken from Architecture and the Urban Experience, Curran, p. 23.
3. Curran, p. 57.
Baker, Geoffrey. Le Corbusier: An analysis of form. Berkshire: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983.
Curran, Raymond J. Architecture and the Urban Experience. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1983.
Herdeg, Klaus. The Decorated Diagram. Cambridge, Massachuetts: The MIT Press, 1983.
Kaplan, Stephen, and Kaplan, Rachel. Humanscape: Environments for People. North Scituate, Massachuetts: Duxbury Press, 1978.
Wright, Gwendolyn. Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1981.

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The site of the city of Boulder, Colorado was once on the floor of a great inland sea which covered much of the front range as we know it today. It remained so until the land, by inner convulsions and consequent changes of the earth's crust, was elevated until the sea drained off. What were once islands in the sea became mountains in the plains. As rock forms were thrust up by the shifting crust of the earth, they brought to the surface with them large deposits of gold, silver, tungsten, lead, zinc, copper, and other minerals.
The land lay untouched by man until gold was discovered in Colorado in 1858, and prospectors poured into the state. The incoming prospectors fanned out along the foothills forming mining camps at various locations, of which Boulder City was one. It was founded in October, 1858 by a group of prospectors from Nebraska. The town quickly grew to a population of two thousand, becoming a supply town for the surrounding mining activities as opposed to being a boom town itself. The Boulder City Town Company was formed in early 1859, and lots in Boulder Valley were plotted and sold for homesteads.
Boulder experienced steady growth throughout the 1860's, and, with the coming of the railroad in 1874, as well as the addition of the state university in the same year, was subject to a population boom in the 1870's. By 1895, seventy-eight subdivisions had been plotted and the town was still growing.
The founding of the Boulder Chatauqua in 1898 brought many visitors to Boulder, many of whom were in awe of the magnificient beauty of the site. Realizing Boulder's uniqueness, civic leaders in the early 1900's took control of Boulder's growth, laying much of the groundwork for the pattern of future development.
They were responsible for the use of an Italian Renaissance style of architecture for the university buildings, much better suited to the mountain backdrop than the Gothic style popular on eastern U. S. campuses at this time. They were also responsible for commissioning Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of Central Park in New York City, to develop a master plan for Boulder City parks. Olmsted recommended that, in Boulder, "Nature should appear to be in full command and one of the essentials is a certain amount of open space not obstructed by trees, buildings, or anything rising much above the surface." Olmsted's advice has been adhered to almost to the letter. During the 1950's, Boulder adopted legislation to inhibit development above the 5,750 footmark of the foothills by prohibiting water service above this elevation. Also, an open space or green belt program was developed in which the city continuously buys up available tracts of land around the perimeter of the city to curb urban sprawl and preserve the natural environment for future generations. As a result of this program, open space became a major planning issue in the city and county of Boulder. Boulder continued its growth management program during the 1970's by passing a zoning ordinance limiting height of urban buildings to thirty-five feet, with fifty-five feet established as the absolute maximum height, and that attainable by variance only. Also, the city adopted a 2% growth plan in 1976, limiting residential growth to 2% per year. The city of Boulder felt that limiting growth was essential to maintaining the character and uniqueness of Boulder.
Today, Boulder is in a state of transition, having reached the limit of urban sprawl. The 2% growth plan and comprehensive plan of Boulder makes development (commercial or residential) on a large scale difficult. Since growth is controlled both outwardly to the east by the comprehensive plan and by the mountains to the west, new growth must occur from within. There has been much discussion generated as to how this growth should take place, but basically all agree that development and density should be intensified in the "urban triangle",

located between the downtown mall, Crossroads Mall, and the University Hill area. Innovative zoning has been enacted to allow this development to occur in a controlled fashion, always with the end goal being the preservation and enhancement of the natural beauty of the area.

The desireability of Boulder as a place to live and work both with respect to the Denver metropolitan area and also the nation as a whole proves to be a major force in attracting new businesses and people to the area. Boulder ranks fourth in the state in manufacturing, attracting research and "high-tech" manufacturing firms in electronics, computers, and engineering. The University of Colorado, IBM, Storage Technology, Inc., Ball Aeorspace Engineering, and several other large firms and private and government research facilities such as the National Bureau of Standards, and NCAR (National Center of Atmospheric Research) further help stabilize Boulder's economy.
As recent studies have shown that Boulder's strong and diversified economic base is still growing at a strong rate, the need for additional commercial, retail, and residential space has not yet been fulfilled. In this sense, a mixed-use development of the type being proposed is an appropriate response to help meet the needs of a growing area.

Boulder Valley Comprehensive Flan:
TRANSITIONAL RESIDENTIAL generally between 3rd and Folsom from Arapahoe to Spruce Streets.
City Policies
Private, hi-density re-development will be encouraged through an "in-fill" approach designed to minimize negative impact on surrounding areas. Standards used to measure impact.
-bulk and height of structures
-compatibility with nearby buildings
-architectural treatment (i.e. materials and colors)
-landscaping -off street parking
designs meeting these criteria will be considered positive alternatives to urban sprawl, an asset to downtown and shopping corridors, and an important energy conservation approach.
City will encourage re-use and improvement of existing sound structures as an integral part of re-development.
No large scale urban renewal and residential relocation programs to implement residential development will be undertaken. Under certain circumstances limited clearance of certain structures and non-conforming uses, which are themselves blighted or are deteriorating influences on the neighborhood, may be considered when adequate compensation and relocation expenses would be provided to affected parties.
In transitional neighborhoods, upgraded public investments and services such as parks and recreational facilities, coordinated street furniture and street improvements, public transit, bikeways, etc. shall be given hi-priority in CIP socio-economic programs such as day-care will be encouraged.

Results of Downtown Neighborhood Liveability Survey Conducted by the City of Boulder, Fall 1984.
A. Demographics
* on average, residents had lived in their present homes for seven years, however, 60% of residents had lived in their present home for less than three years.
* forty-two percent of households are renter occupied with the remaining 58% being owner occupied; this ratio of renter to owner is in live with the overall City of Boulder ratio of 50% renter occupied and 50% owner occupied.
* twenty percent of families have children under the age of 18, as compared to 25% for the city as a whole.
B. Home Selection
* price or cost was identified as the most important reason why people chose their current home, attaining a ranking of 1.79 on a 1 ("very important") to 7 ("very unimportant") scale.
* location was ranked a close second at 1.83.
* unit size ranked third at 2.65.
C. Resident Satisfaction
* most important neighborhood features include safety, security, cleanliness, low noise, and general aesthetics, with parking availability and traffic volume rated as slightly less important access to community services, such as schools, entertainment, and shopping areas were rated relatively least important, although all features examined averaged higher than the 4.0 median on the 7 point scale.
* as a group, residents are satisfied in general, however, many are relatively dissatisfied with some specific features.
* analysis of questions about satisfaction with neighborhood features indicated that residents are:
more satisfied with features considered to be of relatively less importance (i.e. access to community services).
moderately satisfied with aeschetic/security aspects of their neighborhoods (features considered to be most important).
least satisfied with auto-related features. Noise, parking availability, and traffic volume in particular received relatively low resident satisfaction ratings.
Given the response patterns presented above, it should not be too surprising that the measures of disparity between feature importance and resident satisfaction indicate that the largest gaps between expectations and satisfaction center on automobile related features. The concern about parking, traffic, and increasing noise levels is not confined to a particular neighborhood or location. Traffic studies indicate that 60% or more of vehicle trips on downtown streets are through trips not related to downtown use, suggesting that new policies and programs intended to reduce traffic volumes and downtown parking congestion be pursued.
Maintaining and enhancing the residential environment whether through private development or public right-of-way improvements is an important issue to be dealt with at the planning level.

The addition of more shopping, entertainment, or recreation to the downtown area will not serve the self-reported needs of the current resident who appears to already be satisfied with the level of access to these amenities. Providing more of these services will only induce the negative spin-off effects of parking congestion and traffic noise, conditions which are already less than satisfactory to residents.
At the same time, an evolution of resident preferences is anticipated as presented by the slight preference differences between new residents and longtime residents. New residents appear to be somewhat more tolerant of traffic and safety problems, placing greater emphasis on access to shopping, entertainment, and recreation. If parking, traffic, and noise problems are aggravated, a more rapid evolution to a neighborhood of people interested in access to downtown activities may occur. These kind of residents may tend to^ younger and more transient than current residents, a face which could have implications for the long-range future of the area.

6th Principle meridian Township 1 North, Range 70 W Mountain View Subdivision
Lots 158, 158A, 158B, 158BA, 01, 167, 168, and 169.
The proposed site is bounded by Arapahoe on the North, 19th Street on the West, 20th Street on the East, and an apartment house and University housing parking lot on the South. Site area is 87,500 SF .
The site is within walking distance of the C. U. campus, the Pearl Street Mall, and major shopping centers, and is presently occupied by some haphazard storefront shops and a used car lot along Arapahoe (a major traffic artery and bus route) with low-density housing along 19th and 20th Streets. There are some excellent views of the Flatirons and good southern exposure as well.
The surrounding neighborhood (south of Arapahoe) is comprised of medium to hi-density rental housing done for the most part on a lot-by-lot basis over the past 25 years. The area North of Arapahoe consists of mostly one and two story single family detatched dwelling units ranging from 50 to 80 years of age, and occupied by the owners, a mixture of families with small children and "original" owners now retired. In recent years, many "original" owners have died and their properties have been sold and re-developed to a higher density. For the most part re-development has occured a lot-by-lot basis, although some (15-20 yr. old) re-developments resulted in bulldozing whole blocks of houses and replacing them with large hi-density apartment houses.




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The vegetation currently on the site consists of relatively low quality deciduous trees and shrubs representing haphazard and uncontrolled growth.
Much of this vegetation has grown up along fencerows and close to building foundations in the form of ''sucker" growth (i.e., no dominant trunk but a series of branches sprouting from the root system). There are several elm trees on the site all of which are diseased and partially dead. It is recommended that all existing vegetation be removed and a new landscaping plan incorporated which will be compatible with the proposed project.


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The chosen site is basically flat, with about a 2 1/2' drop in elevation from west to east over a distance of 300'. As a result, no problems due to excessive slope are anticipated, including potential problems resulting from unstable soils and hydrological analysis.
Although no soils test for the proposed site is available at this time, conversations with builders of projects located in the area indicate that the soils consist of medium stiff clays over silty, gravelly sand and sandy gravel. Typical soil bearing capacity is in the 4,000 psf range, suitable for spread footing foundations. Soils in this area do not exhibit swelling potential due to expansive soil conditions.


The proposed site is bounded on the north by Arapahoe Avenue, which is a light-duty two-way arterial connecting the Crossroads Mall area with the downtown area. Traffic is generally quite heavy for brief periods during the morning (7:00-9:00 a.m.) and afternoon (4:00-6:00 p.m.) rush hours. It is during these periods that traffic noise and pedestrian safety become noticeable problems.
Some of the houses along the north side of Arapahoe between 19th and 20th Streets have attempted to deal with the noise problem by installing 6' high solid plank fencing at the point where their property meets the city sidewalk, physically restricting the street space and making pedestrian activity even more dangerous along that side of the street. There is a bus stop on the site along Arapahoe also, presenting an opportunity to interface the project with public transportation connections and offering the potential to create a people-oriented space with the bus stop as the activity focus. The Traffic Engineering Department of the City of Boulder indicates it has no future plans to change the present use of Arapahoe Avenue.
The other streets adjacent to the site (i.e. 19th, 20th, and Maine Street) serve local traffic only and present no potential circulation problems.
Access to the site is restricted to points along 19th and 20th Streets which are a minimum of 50' from Arapahoe Avenue. There is the potential to develop a through alley along the southern border of the site which could be shared with other projects in the neighborhood.






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Project; mixed use planned unit development
Location; site bounded by Arapahoe Avenue on north, 19th Street on the west, 20th Street on the east, residential development on the south.
Applicable Zoning Ordinance; Boulder Land-Use Regulations, 1984.
Applicable Building Code; Uniform Building Code, 1982.
Zoning Classification; HRX (hi-density residential, redeveloping).
Building Square Foot Limits; From Appendix B, Boulder Land-Use Regulations, "Formulation of Dwelling Unit Yields in Developing & Redeveloping Zoning Districts".
fos + fp + u
where N = number of dwelling units
a = area of site in SF = 87,500 SF f = number of floors os = open space required = 800 SF/d.u p = minimum parking required/d.u. = 432 SF/space
u = average size of d.u. = 750 SF
for f = 3 floors:
_ 3(87,500)________
3(800) + 3(432) + 750
= 59.0 d.u.
- or -
= 59.0 d.u. x 750 SF/d.u. = 45,000 SF
therefore 45,000 SF maximum allowable for 3-story building assume 15,000 SF of commercial/retail space:
45.000 -15,000
30.000 SF of residential, or 40 d.u. at 750 SF each (2 bedroom units) Parking Requirements:
commercial/retail: 1 space/300 SF floor area = 50 spaces required residential: average of 1 space/1.5 bedrooms = 54 spaces required
104 spaces total
area required for parking = 104 spaces x 288 SF/space
= 29,952 SF
One space (area of space) + (1/2 area of drive)
= (9' x 20') + (1/2 x 9 x 24") = 288 SF/space
NOTE: see subsection (g) Parking Reduction, Section 9-4-12,
p. 14, for allowable parking area reductions.
P.U.D. Criteria for Review: See Boulder Land-Use Regulations, Chapter 9-4, p. 11-15
Allowable Uses: see Boulder Land-Use Regulations, Chapter 9-3, "Schedule of Permitted Uses".

Minimum Bulk Requirements: see attached schedule 9-3-2.
Solar Access: SA Area II
Solar access is protected principally for roof tops.
No object or structure may be erected or any other lot that would shade a protected lot to a greater degree than the lot would be shaded by a solar fence 25' in height between 2 hours before and 2 hours after solar noon on a clear winter solstice day.
Flood Plain: 100 year Boulder Creek floodplain
All uses otherwise permitted by zoning are allowable if conditions of Section 9-9-9 are met.
Lowest floor level including basement = 5,315.0'
NOTE: to convert from city map to USGS, add 4,247.18'

U) Rooming or Dcrdint KouMk. fraternities, sororities. group quarter*, and hostels Mall provide 2 spaces par 1 vrqanl* Motels, hotels, and bed and
breaafasu shall provide I space per room or unit plus required spaces for non-resuSsntial imta. Efficiency linn( units shall provide I space per unit. Persons renting rooms within a single iut dwelling shall provide at least I nsaev for 2 roomers.
Oil Restaurants, taverns, and theaters require I apace for every 3 seats or the ratio provided m this section, whichever is greater.
le) Use principal Du tiding front yard setback where adjacent lot fronts iqion the street.
Id) A maintenance easement may be required if sere setback is provided.
(el The 33-tool height limn may be modified only in certain areas and only under the >tenderck and procedures provided in Sections 1-3-4 and 4-4-11, B.R.C
(f) For buildings over twenty-five feet in height see Section l-3-IO(a) B.R.C. 1411.
(g) The major road designations are as shown an the Major Street Setback Map, Appetvks C to this title.
(hj The dwelling units allowed can be determined by following the example and formula contained in Appendix B to this title.
(D For imas in CACID and UHC1D Parking Districts see Paragraph 4-]-l4 0) Far any rmudeniial development with the total number of one Dco-oom units ecpiai to sixty percent or greater of the total number of units, the parking requirement a I.2S parking spaces for each one bedroom unit.
(e) Redeveloping Districts
Minimum Useable Open Space par Dwelling Unit nq-fL)**1'
Minimum Number of Off-Street Parking Spaees per Dwelltrg Unit**1*11
S. Minimum Front Yard Setback for all Accessory Buildings and Uses (ft.)
4. Minimum Side Yard Setback Irom an Interior Lot Line for ail Principal Buildings end Usas (fU
2. Minimum Setback from on Interior Side Lot Line or Roor Lot Line for all Accessory Buildings and Uses (fL)
I. Minimum Side Yard Landscaped Setback from a Street for all Buddings and
Urns (fi.J<*J
4. Minimum Rear Yard Setback for all Principal Uses (fL)
10. Minimum Front and Side Yard Setbacks from Major Roadster
. freeway
b. Major arterial streets of I lanes e. Major arterial streets of 4 lanes
d. Major artenai or collector > tree is
e. Major streets at intersection wittun 300 fL of major arieruJ or other major streets.
11. Maximum He^ht for all Principal Uses 12. Maximum HeifM for all Accessory
Um fU
12. Principal Building Maximum Floor Arts Ratio
3S S 33
t3:l 111
Bulk Requirements (continued)
0 for first snd second story; 20 non-lanAesped setbeck for third story snd above
12. if sny side yard is provided*0'
12, if sny side yard is provided*0'
3, if sny side or resr yard is provided*01
---1 for every
2 feet of budding height, but no less than It
40 ft. from the 24 ft. from the 43.3 fL from the
24 fL from the street
from property line -
23 ft. from the lot line adjoining the right of way is greater.
23 fL from the lot line adjoining the right of way is greater.
it the lot line adjoining the right of way a greater.
the lot line adjoining the right of eey is greater.
for detaehad for attached 3 bedrooms r
J. Minimum Number of Off-Street Parking Spaces per Square Feel of Floor Area for Non-residentiaJ Uses and their Accessory Uses**1*01 1:300
4. Minimum Front Yard Landscaped Setback from s Street for all Principal Buddings and lus (fL) SO
I spec**!1; 2 bedrooms recurs l.S spaces; require 3 spaces.
3. if any side yard is provided*01
3, if sny side or
1 for eve: heigh i, but

DEC 2lst
9 OOom
noon 3-00 pm
Dec. 21
ALTITUDE 14' 26.6*
AZIMUTH -42* 0*
Mar./Sept. 21
SEPT 21*1/MAR 21*1

ALTITUDE 33 49 33
AZIMUTH -58* 0* 58*

Applicable Building Code: Uniform Building Code, 1982 Fire Zone Designation: None in Boulder Occupancy Classifications:
* B-2 office, retail, restaurant less than 50 occupants
* B-3 open parking garages
* R-l residential apartment houses
* R-3 dwellings
Construction Type: Type III buildings include steel or iron, concrete, masonry, or wood framework.
Maximum Floor Area and Height Permitted: See table 5-C (p. 63), 5-D, 7-A.

1 ii ;i m IV 1 v
Unlimited j 160 65 33 1 LdLJ 1 40
A 1 Unlimited 4 ioi Pe: mined
Ai 2-2.1 Unlimited 4 2 Net Permitted | i No: Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
Al 3-1 Unlimited 12 2 1 ISfMfl 1 2 2 1
Bl 12 3 Unlimited 12 4 2 2 4 3 2
IF4 Unlimited 12 4 2 i 4 3 2
E- Unlimited 4 2 1 ptlpf I 2 2 1
H-l Unlimited 2 1 1 Ip- I 1 1 1 1
H) 2-3-J-5 Unlimited 5 2 1 H 2 '' 1 2 2 1
1-1 Unlimited 3 1 Not Permitted i is Not Permitted i 1 Not Permitted
1-2 Unlimited 3 2 Not Permitted ^ a s gsy >: -. Not Permitted 2 2 Not Permitted
1 3 Unlimited 2 ot Permitted
R-l Unlimited 12 4 2 Hi- 4 1 *1 2 s 4 3 2s
K 3 Unlimited 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
'Fur open parking garages, see Section 709.
-See Section 802 (c).
See Section 1002 (b)
'Foi agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11. 'For limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 tb).
NNo requirements for fire resistance F.R.Fire resistive H.T.Heavy Timber
(In Square Feet)
A-l Unlimited 29,900 lot Permitted
A)2-2.1 Unlimited 29,900 13,500 Not 1 Permitted Not Permitted 13,500 1 10,500 Not Permitted
A) 3-4 Unlimited 29.900 13,500 9,100 9,100 13,500 j 10,500 6,000
B) 1-2-3' Unlimited 39,900 18.000 12.000 12,000 18,000 14,000 8,000
B-4 Unlimited 59,900 27,000 18,000 27,00ft $ 18,000 27,000 21,000 12,000
E Unlimited 45,200 20,200 13,500 20.20ft ; 13,500 20,200 15,700 9,100
HI 1-2- 15.000 12,400 5.600 3,700 ? '* 3,700 5,600 4,400 2,500
H) 3-4-5 Unlimited 24,800 11,200 7,500 Mm 7,500 11,200 8,800 5,100
01-2 Unlimited 15,100 6,800 Not Permitted >> .6,800 J Not Permitted 6,800 5,200 Not Permitted
1-3 Unlimited 15,100 1 ot Permitted3
MJ Sea
R-l Unlimited | 29,900 13,500 9,100s | mSSm 9,100s i13,500 10,500 6,000s
R 3 Unlimited
'For open parking garages, see Section 709.
2See Section 903.
See Section 1002 Cb) NNo requirements for fire resistance
'For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11. F.R.Fire resistive
For limitations and exceptions, see Section 1202 (b). H.T.Heavy Timber
'For multistory buildings, see Section 505 (b).

TABLE NO. 5-AWALL AND OPENING PROTECTION OF OCCUPANCIES BASED ON LOCATION ON PROPERTY TYPES II ONE-HOUR, ll-N AND V CONSTRUCTION: For exterior wall and opening protection of Types II One-hour, ll-N and V buildings, see table below. Exceptions to limitation for Types II One-hour, ll-N and Type V construction, as provided in Sections 709,1903 and 2203 apply. For Types I, ll-F.R., Ill and IV construction, see Sections 1803,1903, 2003 and 2103.
A See also Section 602 1Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building Not applicable (See Sections 602 and 603)
2Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 1000 and a stage 2.1Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of 300 or more without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy 2 hours less than 10 feel, 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
3Any building or portion of a building having an assembly room with an occupant load of less than 300 without a stage, including such buildings used for educational purposes and not classed as a Group E or Group B, Division 2 Occupancy 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour less than 40 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
4Stadiums, reviewing stands and amusement park structures not included within other Group A Occupancies 1 hour less than 10 feet Protected less than 10 feet
n See also 1Gasoline service stations, garages where no repair work is done except exchange of pans and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or use of flammable liquids
2-Drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 50, wholesale and retail states, office bufhfings prim mg plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using materia! not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling Buildings or portions of btikftags having rooms used for educatnxnd purposes, beyond the 12th grade. wi& less than SO occupants in any room 1 hour less than 20 feet Not permitted less &aa 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
I w 3Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and naumerance requiring bo open Same, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids Open parking garages (For requhnaents. See Section 709.) Heliports 1 hoth- less than 20 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet Protected less than 20 feet
4Ice plants, power piants. pumping plants, cold storage and creameries Factories and workshops using noncombustible and nonexplosive materials Storage and sales rooms of noncombustible and r.onexplosive materials 1 hour less than 5 feet Not permitted less than 5 feet
E See also Section 802 1 Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by 50 or more persons for more than 12 hours per week or four hours in any one day 2 Any building used for educational purposes through the 12th grade by less than 50 persons for more than 12 hours per week or four hours in any one day 3 Any building used for day-care purposes for more than six children 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour less than 10 feet1 Not permmed less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet1
H (Conti 5Aircraft repair hangars 1 hour less than 60 feet Protected less than 60 feet
I See also Section 1002 1Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age of six (each accommodating more than five persons) Hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes with nonambulatory patients and similar buildings reach accommodating more than five persons) 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour elsewhere Not permined less than 5 feet Protected less than 10 feet
2Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, homes for children six years of age or over (each accommodating more than five persons) 1 hour
3Mental hospitals, mental sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories and buildings where personal liberties of inmates are similarly restrained 2 hours less than 5 feet, 1 hour elsewhere Not permitted less than 5 feet, protected less than 10 feet
W 1Private garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings (See also Section 1101, Division 1.) ! hour less than 3 feet (or may be protected on the exterior with materials approved for l-hour fire-resistive construction) Not permitted less than 3 feet
2Fences over 6 feet high, tanks and towers Not regulated for fire resistance
i.; See aiso i; n ii 1202 > 1Hotels and apartment houses Convents tad monasteries {each accommodating more that 10 persons) 1 hoar less dan 3 feet Not permated less than 5 feet
3Dwellings end lodging houses 1 how less than 3 feet Not permBted less than 3 feet
JFor agncultural buildings, see Appendix Chapter 11.
NOTES: (I) See Section 504 for types of walls affected and requirements covering percentage of openings permitted in exterior walls.
(2) For additional restnctions, see chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction.
(3) For walls facing streets, yards and public ways, see Part IV
<4) Openings shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-protection rating

(In Hours)
A-1 A-2 A-2.1 A-3 A-4 B-1 B-2 B-3 a-4 H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4-5 1 M2 R-1 R-3
A-1 N N N N 4 3 3 3 N 4 4 4 3 1 1
A-2 N N N N 3 1 i i N 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
A-2.1 N N \ N N 3 1 i i N 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
A-3 N N N N 3 N i N N 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
A-4 N N N N \ 3 1 i 1 N 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1
B-1 4 3 3 ' 3 3 1 i 1 4 2 1 1 i 4 1 31 1
B-2 3 1 1 N 1 I ' Ms*?* it!g 1 1 2 1 1 i 2 1 1 N
B-3 3 1 1 1 1 1 mm 1 1 2 1 1 i 4 1 1 N
B-4 3 1 1 N 1 1 i i ! 2 1 1 i 4 N 1 N
E N N N N N 4 i i 1 \ 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1
H-1 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 4 1 4 4
H-2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
H-3 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 J 4 1 1 1 4 1 3 3
H-4-5 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 \ 4 1 3 3
1 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 4 1 4 4 4 4 \ 1 1 1
VP 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 1 V 1 1
R-1 1 i 1 1 1 3' 1 1 4 3 3 3 1 1 pill MifM
R-3 1 i 1 1 1 1 N 1 4 3 3 1 i ill
Note: For detailed requirements and exceptions, see Section 503.
The three-hour separation may be reduced to two hours where the Croup B, Division I Occupancy is limited to the storage of passenger motor vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons. This shall not apply where provisions of Section 702 (a) apply.
2For agricultural buildings, see also Appendix Chapter 11.
(In Hours)
For Details see Chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction and for Exceptions see Section 1705.
FItb- Rithr FW- R**lsthr t-Mr. N H.T. 1-Hr. N
Exterior Bearing Walls lfifiTt.u 4 1903(a) i N 4 2003 (a) 4 2103(a) i N
Interior Bearing Walls 3 2 i N N 1 i N
Exterior Nonliearing Walls 1 Sec. 1803(a) 4 1903 (a) i N 4 2003 (a) 4 2103 (a) i N
Structural Frame1 3 2 i N 1 1 N 1 or H.T. i N
Partitions Permanent 1- 1* N N 1 or H.T. i N
Shaft Enclosures o 2 i 1 1 i i 1706 1 1706
Floors o 2 i N N H.T. 1 N
Roofs o Sec. *1806 i 1906 i 1906 N N H.T. 1 N
Exterior Doors and Windows Sec. 1803 (b) 1903 (h) 1903(b) 1903(b) 2003 (b) 2103 (b) 2203 2203
NNo general requirements for fire resistance. H.T.Heavy Timber.
'Structural frame elements in (he cxichor wall shall be protected against external fire exposure as required for exterior bearing walls or the structural frame, w hichever is greater.
3Fire-rctardant treated wood (see Section 407) may be used in the assembly, provided fire-resistance requirements are maintained. See Sections 1801 and 1901, respectively.

7-A, 7-B
Automatic Flr*-axtlngulshlng Syttom
Nc 1 Vn
i U nlimited l* nlimited Unlimited Unlimited
II F.Fi. 125,000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers 18 Tiers
II 1-hour 50.000 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
II-N 30,000 8 Tiers 8 Tiers 12 Tiers
0'-20' One-hour

1. Special Provisions
2. Exit Facilities, General
3. Number of Exits Required
4. Number of Stairs Required
5. Door Width/Height Requirements
B-2, B-3
Open parking garages shall be constructed of non-combustible materials with clear height of 7'-0" above finished floor.
2 per building where occupant load is at least 30.
2 per building.
Exit doors 36" minimum, all others 32" minimum; 6'-8" minimum height; 32" minimum clear opening.
R-l, R-3
Storage garages in connection with Group R, Division 1 occupancies shall have an unobstructed headroom clearance of not less than 6-6" above finished floor to any ceiling, pipe, beam, or similar construction.
Buildings greater than 2 stories in height and 3,000 SF of floor area above the first floor shall be of fire-resistive construction througl out.
Storage/laundry room used by common tenants shall have 1 hour minimum separation.
Buildings greater than 3 stories in height or more thar 15 dwelling units shall have £ approved fire alarm system EXCEPT when all attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and from public and common areas by a ] hour rating, and each unit has direct exit to a yard or public way.
Each sleeping room below the fourth floor shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency excape or rescue, operable from inside.
Minimum area = 5.7 SF Minimum clear height = 24" Minimum clear width = 20". Finished sill not more than 44" above finished floor.
2 per unit.
2 per building; 1 per unit if occupant load is less than 10.
Exit doors 36" minimum width, 32" minimum clear opening all others minimum 32" width 6'-8" minimum hdight.

B-2, B-3
6. Door Swing In direction of exit for
occupant loads greater than fifty.
7. Cooridor Width 44"
8. Dead-end Corridor Limits 20'-0"
R-l, R-3
150' if unsprinklered 200' if sprinklered
44" (occupant load greater 36" (occupant load between
than 50) 10 and 50).
30" (occupant load less than
10) .
Handrails may project 3 1/2" maximum from each side of stairway
Dimension of landing in direction of travel equal to width of stairs.
Handrails must extend horizontally 6" beyond top and bottom risers; 30" to 34" above nosing of treads.
Handrails must be at least 1 1/4" but not more than 2" in cross section (handgrip portion).
Minimum of 1 1/2" clear between rail and wall.
2 handrails required (one on Only one handrail required,
each side).
6'-6" clear opening required as measured vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to stairway tread nosings to soffit above at all points.
Riser 4" minimum 7 1/2" Riser 4" minimum 8" maximum
maximum tread 10" minimum. tread 9" minimum.
9. Travel Distance Limits
10. Stair Width Requirements
11. Stairway Landing Requirements
12. Stair and Ramp Handrail Requirements
13. Stair Headroom Requirements
14. Riser/Tread Limits
15. Ramp Requirements
16. Guardrail Requirements
17. Exit Lighting
1:12 maximum slope, 44" minimum width, handrails as per stairs.
Exits illuminated at any time building is occupied with light having an intensity of not less than 1 fc at floor level.
None for individual dwelling units otherwise same as B-2 and B-3.
Required above 30" above grade of finished floor, minimum height 42". minimum height 36".
Intermediate rails such that 6" diameter sphere cannot pass through.
Exit signs required at doorways

B-2, B-3
R-l, R-3
and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate direction of egress when the exit serves an occupant load greater than 50.
18. Natural Light Minimum glazing of .10 total
floor area.
19. Natural Ventilation Minimum openings of .05 total
floor area.
Auto garage minimum 1.5 cfm/
SF floor area or 14,000 cfm/ vehicle.
20. Sanitation Minimum one w. c. for employees
for each sex when more than 4 employees, either in building or adjacent on property.
Minimum one towel fixture and one mirror, 40" A.F.F. minimum 44" clear each side of door. W.C. minimum 30" wide with minimum 24" clear in front cf stool. Grab bars 32" 34" A.F.F.
Provide either:
fully operable exterior window minimum 3 SF.
Vertical duct minimum sq. in. with 50 sq. in. for each additional w.c.
Mechanical system with 4 ach. discharged to exterior at least 5' from any operable window.
21. Minimum Ceiling Height 7-0" garage.
7'-6" offices.
Minimum glazing of .10 total floor area.
Minimum openings of .05 total floor area for all bathrooms, laundry rooms, water closets. All other habitable rooms must have operable exterior openings of .05 total floor area, with minimum opening of 5 SF.
- OR -
Mechanical system with 2 ach, 20% of which is outside air, for all habitable rooms.
Baths, laundry rooms and water closets minimum 5 ach, connected directly to outside.
Minimum per dwelling unit:
1 kitchen with sink and hot and cold running water.
1 bathroom with 1 w.c.,
1 lavatory, 1 tub or shower hot and cold running water.
7-6" minimum or not less than 7-0" to lowest projection from ceiling.
For sloped ceiling:
prescribed height required in 1/2 total area.
ceilings greater than 5'-0" not included as habitable floor area.

22. Minimum Floor Area
23. Minimum Chimney Height
24. Access Requirements
25. Fire Warning Systems
26. Skylight Requirements
B-2, B-3 None.
3'-0" minimum above roof opening 2'-0" minimum above any part of building within 10 feet.
Ramp or elevator required for handicapped.
Smoke detectors:
1 per mechanical/electrical room 1 per main return air
1 per connection to vertical duct serving 2 or more stories.
R-l, R-3
Minimum 1 room with 150 SF per dwelling unit. All other rooms minimum 70 SF minimun dimension in any direction 7,-0".
2-0" minimum above roof opening 2'-0" above any part building within 10 feet. Minimum 1" clearance to combustible construction.
number of dwelling units accessible to handicapped shall not be less than:
21 through 99 units: one unit.
100 and over: one unit plu one additional unit per 100 units.
Each dwelling unit has smoke detector conforming to UBL Standard #43-6. Must be centrally located in corridor or area giving access to sleeping rooms.
Wired or tempered glass, minimum 7/32". Less than 45 from horizontal shall be mounted minimum 4" above plane of roof.

Design Loads:
Garages Uniform load 50 psf
* Offices 50 psf
Residential 40 psf
Retail 75 psf
load (LL)
Snow load = 40 psf Wind load (WL)
Design to resist pressure due to 105 mph wind

Boulder's climate is mild, sunny, and semi-arid. A thirty degree diurnal temperature swing is common throughout the year, making cooling with outside air possible for commercial buildings (at night) even during summer months.
The great abundance of sunshine makes passive solar design feasible for housing, while the relatively cold winter temperatures make it desireable. Hot summer temperatures indicate the need for sun control or shading devices during June,
July, and August, as well as the need for good ventilation.
High winds can be a problem in Boulder, where winds speeds are frequently clocked in excess of 100 mph. Preventative measures must be taken to ensure structural stability and integrity during these periods of high winds, which are generally of short duration.
Winter storms generally come out of the northwest, and, although sometimes intense, usually do not last long. Large amounts of snowfall are to be expected, having implications for roof design as well as limiting the size of small courtyards.

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
aily Sol. 717 976 1464 1626 1958 2123
Sunshine 64 59 67 75 70 87
D Heat Base 65F 995 806 767 478 215 50
Cool 0 0 0 8 29 154
ean Max. 42.6 44.5 52.4 62 70.8 81.8
ean 32.2 35.3 39.7 48.3 57.8 67.3
an Min. 19.9 23.1 27.0 35.6 44.8 53.5
ays Precip. 0.1 Inc. 2.9 2.6 4.8 5.5 7.2 5.9
ax. Rain (In.) 2.5 1.9 3.9 6.9 9.3 7.4
ean Rain (Ave.) oo vD .75 1.60 2.52 3.25 2.07
in. Rain 0.0 0.03 0.04 0.15 0.0 0.30
ti. Storm
ax. Snow (In.) 35.0 25.0 56.7 44.0 26.7 2.2
rt Max. 61 67 68 65 68 75
B Min. 43 45 42 35 37 42
irection 4
(m/sec.) 8
Speed 5
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Mean Total
1977 1741 1658 1183 763 680 1405
81 79 85 78 57 54 73
4 7 114 342 711 902 5371
282 234 109 26 0 0
87.5 85.3 77.7 67.4 53.5 47.2 64.8
73.5 71.7 63.6 53.7 41.1 35.4 51.7
59.6 58.0 49.4 39.9 28.7 23.5 38.6
5.8 4.8 4.0 3.1 3.2 2.9 52.9
5.2 7.5 5.5 6.0 3.7 2.2 29.
1.61 1.50 1.50 1.32 .96 .63 19.1
0.0 0.10 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01 10.9
0.0 0.0 21.0 49.3 46.7 31.4 123.1
71 69 71 59 67 65
36 37 36 30 42 44



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186 {
JULY 1976 REC. NO. 184682

While there will be more than one entry, the main entry to the project will be off of Arapahoe and will be connected to the major public space, from which all other uses will be^accessed. Entrances will be well defined architecturally to provide visual clues/Jorientation within the project. A hierarchy of entries will be developed to clarify the transition from public to private. Individual unit entries will be articulated to give each a sense of identity.
Entries will be identifiable through a developed language of forms and materials intended to order and unify the project. Automobile and service access will be separated from pedestrian entrances.
The major public space will be the single most important element in the project, and must provide that special mix which creates an exciting space, as well as support the integration of other program elements. It is intended that this space will also organize circulation through the project. Several options will be explored which offer different ways to articulate the space (i.e., linear, clustered, centralized). The emphasis of the development of this space will be on human interaction. Therefore it is essential that all program elements have access to this space to intensify its use and create opportunities for user interaction. Public amenities, such as kiosks, directory, telephones, seating, landscaping, and sculpture, will be provided to further encourage activity and use.
The retail portion of program elements is intended to be used primarily by residents of the neighborhood. Choice of retail elements has been carefully considered to 1) fulfill existing needs in the neighborhood, and 2) provide diversity and add excitement to the environment. Retail areas are intended to be people oriented and encourage browsing and mingling among customers. Storefronts will be designed to arouse public interest and attract the attention of passers by. Storefronts will be individually articulated within a language of forms and materials adding coherence and richness to the project. Office lease space is intended to be used by small professional companies such as insurance, finance, or computer firms. Commercial and retail spaces will be located so as to intensify use of the major public space.
Dwelling units will be developed to offer an assortment of floor plan layouts for one, two, and three bedroom configurations intended to offer opportunities to pursue a variety of lifestyles. An overall architectural language will be developed within which individual units will be articulated to enrich and diversify the environment and to provide a sense of identity for each unit.
Units will be provided with secure entries, storage facilities, semi-private outdoor space (in the form of balconies, decks, patios, and roof gardens), and efficient design utilizing basic passive solar technology strategies.
Parking will be provided for all dwelling units and for the commercial/retail elements of the program. Access to parking facilities will be off of 19th and/or 20th Streets and will be located to minimize traffic congestion and

Pedestrian interface. The potential for developing a service alley which provides access to parking, trash, and delivery areas will be explored and evaluated.

USES AND AREAS (total building area = 45,000 SF)
Retail Gross Square Feet 9,000 GTSF Total
1. Grocery Store 2,000
deli/meat dept.
produce/fruit dept.
basic foodstuff and
household supplies
2. Drugstore/Pharmacy 1,500
3. Boulder Stain Glass Studio 1,500
4. Bookstore 1,000
5. Art Gallery 1,000
6. Copy Center 1,000
7. Florist 500
8. Card Shop 500
1. Travel Agency 500
2. Small day care (less than 6 children) 1,000
3. Personal care outlet 1,000
4. Restaurant/Tavem 1,500
5. Office Space (intended for insurance,
finance, computer, etc.)
4 each at 500 SF 2,000
6,000 Total

total 30,000 SF
10 3 BR at 1,100 SF
18 2 BR at 800 SF
8 1 BR at 550 SF
Utility Room 200 SF
Gross Square Feet
1 BR Unit at 550 SF
Living/Dining combination 255
Kitchen 95
Bedroom 160
Bathroom 40
Private outdoor space 75
Storage compartment 25
** Optional study/office 125
2 BR Unit at 800 SF
Living/Dining combination 320
Kitchen 120
2 Bedrooms at 140 each 280
Bathroom and powder room 80
Private outdoor space 100
Storage compartment 25
3 BR Unit at 1100 SF
Living/Dining combination 345
Kitchen 125
2 Bedrooms at 125 each 250
Bathroom and powder room 80
Master suite 280
- bedroom 200
- dressing/bath 80
Utility closet 20
' Private outdoor space 125
Storage compartment 25
Utility Room (shared by tenants) 200
5 washers
5 dryers
folding table
pop machine

PARKING: total building floor area = 45,000 SF
1. 15,000 SF commercial/retail, required parking 1 space/300 SF floor area
= 15,000
50 spaces required
2. 30,000 SF residential
10 - 3 BR requires 20 spaces
18 - 2 BR requires 27 spaces
8 - 1 BR requires 8 spaces
55 spaces
3. total spaces required 105
area per space = (area of stall) + (1/2 area of drive) = (9 x 20) + (1/2 x 9 x 24)
= 288 SF/stall
4. total area = 105 spaces x 288 SF/space = 30,240 SF

As stated in the descriptions of spaces, the major public space will be used to organize other program elements. To make this space successful, it is essential that the retail and commercial portions of the program be located adjacent to it to intensify its use and provide opportunities for user interaction. Points of access to other program elements should be visible from this space, allowing the user to orient himself and develop a cognitive map of the complex.
A direct connection between parking and the major space will be provided allowing users of the commercial and retail elements immediate access to those functions.
Although the residential portion of the program will have a strong connection to the major space, it will be located to provide privacy for individual units.
Entry to the residential portion of the project from the major space will provide "filters" to empahsize the transition from public to semi-private to private. Housing units will be located and situated to take advantage of solar access and outstanding views of the Flatirons.


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As stated in the introduction, the goal that this project set out to achieve was to create and promote diversity within the built environment by incorporating appropriate program elements, forms, and materials organized coherently in a single project.
From a programmatic standpoint, the project is successful in the sense that the type and amount of commercial/retail space is appropriate for the scale of the neighborhood, and is useful to the residents of the neighborhood while also offering something to the city as well. The housing density achieved is also appropriate in scale to the neighborhood and is beneficial to the city as well.
Architecturally, the design solution responds well to the site forces, establishing a strong hierarchy of spaces based on the fit between the program elements and the existing context, including automobile and ped-estrial traffic patterns. The emphasis is definitely on pedestrian activity, yet the automobile has not been denied or forgotten. The strength and simplicity of the urban design allowed for the resolution of architectural problems in a way which reinforces rather than dilutes the original concept.
Circulation patterns through the site offer residents of the neighborhood a variety of alternatives for participation and interaction with the project, while embracing a strong gradient of public to private spaces. As such, there is a sense of privacy and protection for the residents of the project, yet residents of the neighborhood are not denied use of the project or the opportunity to interact with the residents and program elements of the project.
The use of strong yet simple architectural forms was exploited to reinforce the established hierarchy of spaces and circulation patterns in a positive way, offering visual cues to guide users through the project while expressing the different nature of different programmatic functions and the transitions from one space to another. Although different program elements have different formal expressions, the vocabulary employed allows a dialogue to occur between the different functions within a common overall language, offering diversity of expression within a unifying framework. The manipulation of form within the derived language also allows the project to relate to the scale and language of the existing neighborhood. By softening the edges of the project, and allowing the edges of the project to come down to street level, the overall mass of the project is visually minimized, and the human scale is emphasized at street level. The architectural forms were also selected to help integrate the project physically and visually with the neighborhood and to establish a dailogue with other buildings of similar form in the area.
The materials used in this project successfully reinforce the urban design diagram and express the different program elements. The masonry base or podium is utilized to define the perimeter of the project and to express the more public nature of those program elements which are located at street level, while the wood siding is used to define the housing, and is indicative of much of the housing in the area. The standing seam metal roof adds a cheerful element of color which further helps to unify all of the various elements of the project, as well as brighten up the neighborhood. In this sense, the project is layered from bottom to top as well as from outside to inside, both of which express the different

functions of the program elements and reinforce the nature of public vs. private spaces. On another level, a dialogue is established between the different materials, acknowledging the forces acting on them and also recognizing cultural and symbolic associations. The massive masonry podium gives visual reassurance of the solidity of the building and suggests the transfer of loads from the levels of housing above to the ground below while at the same time connoting a sense of security associated with the walled villages characteristic of the middle ages, in the way that the masonry wall rings the project and can only be penetrated at certain "guarded" points. In this way, materials have been used to define a hierarchy of program elements, establish a transition gradient from public to private, and express some of the intrinsic qualities of the individual materials.
In conclusion, this project has achieved the original intent of successfully integrating a variety of program elements to promote interaction and participation, and of using forms and materials to create an expression of individual elements within an overall framework, while simultaneously responding to the site forces and recognizing the scale and architectural style of the surrounding neighborhood.

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