Citation
Stout Street mews

Material Information

Title:
Stout Street mews middle income housing on the Greyhound parcel
Creator:
Wright, Jim
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
102 leaves, [8] leaves of plates : illustrations (some color), charts, maps ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Housing -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Land use, Urban -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Housing ( fast )
Land use, Urban ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 85-87).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jim Wright.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08646580 ( OCLC )
ocm08646580
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1981 .W74 ( lcc )

Full Text
W£IG,HT
STOUT STREET MEWS :
MIDDLE INCOME HOUSING ON THE GREYHOUND PARCEL
JIM WRIGHT
M. ARCH. THESIS 1981
i


CONTENTS portents contents contents cor.ter.ts ccrte^tr contents contents cor.
PART 1 PROGRAM
lo Introduction
The Greyhound Parcel
4. Regional Map
5. Downtown Map
6. Neighborhood Map
History of Site
11. Curtis Park History
15. Neighborhood Boundaries (Map)
16. Land Use
19. Site History
Politics and Goals
23. Comprehensive Plan 25o Five Points Neighborhood Plan 26o Downtown Housing Programs 2?0 Housing Study Areas (Map)
28o Current Administration Policies 29. DURA Policies
Site Analysis
31.
33.
34.
35. 360
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51. 57.
Climatic Summary Climatic Summary (Map) Heating and Cooling Chart Solar Chart
Existing Land Use (Map)
RTD Buses
Transportation (Map) Pedestrian Paths (Map) Views/Noise (Map)
Utilities Waste Water (Map)
Water Service (Map)
Gas Service (Map) Electrical Service (Map) Site Survey (Map)
Zoning Requirements Building Code Requirements Fire Protection Guidelines
Development Potential
59. Market Analysis 62. Building Cost 64, Project Cost Summary 69. Market Summary


Program
Sources
PART 2
Requirements 71c Building Program 73 Project Area Breakdown 7^o Design Checklist
8^o Interviews 85 Bibliography
PHYSICAL DESIGN
88c Introduction 89o Market Analysis 95 Project Cost Summary 100c Program Summary 101c Thesis Feast 102. Additional Credits


PART 1
PROGRAM


INTRODUCTION introduction introduction introduction introduction introducti
There is a curious process that unfolds as you attempt to observe and analyze a problem in detail. As you observe somewhat casually from a distance, the object may appear static with obvious characteristics. Focusing in with ever greater magnitude of detail reveals something else. It is like a slippery fish that refuses to stay put when you try to hold on to it. It looked holdable until you tried.
So it goes with this thesis project. I look at my thesis as an attempt to wrap up summarize if you will my three years of study of architecture. I was not interested in attempting a new building type. I was interested, rather, in taking a building type with which I have some familiarity residential design in this case and attempting to clarify what I perceive to be my design direction. This, combined with my own biases toward architecture, could form a theoretical framework from which I could approach the problem.
These biases will soon be evident. After defining my intentions I looked for a suitable site to use to develop my theories. One of my goals was to approach the project as if it were to be actually developed. The site that I eventually chose presented several problems. First, was that it didn't quite fit the model that I was trying to explore. My interest in the design of low-rise, high-density residential development was reasonable for the site. My interest in infilling with other buildings was not. The site is vacant. Second, was that with no actual developer chosen by DURA, I was forced to do the preliminary information gathering and feasibility analysis that a developer would go through before handing the project to the designer.


page Z.
Well, if my fish was hard to handle and it was I am rewarded by the discovery that after the various analyses presented in this report I have generally confirmed my biases. Low-rise, high-density residential development is a reasonable alternative to high-rise construction. It makes sense on this site from an economical as well as sociological point-of-view. As for the infill concept, I now recognize that the idea of infilling between blocks is different from infilling within a block only in scale and that looking at the larger neighborhood as the context "may" have greater implications for the general pattern of development of an area. I say "may* the variable here is a committment be a reasoned, coherent planning policy by the city. This I don't see in Denver.
Without Denver developing an actual program to realize its housing policies, coordinating the distribution of utilities, mass transit, and land acquisition to lower development costs, and providing encouragement of low-rise development through flexible zoning policies, projects like this will exist as isolated developments.
The inclusion of a recipe at the end of each section gives an indication of how this report should be read. Take it in courses with a brief rest before the next. Don't overdo any section or you won't make it through the whole thing. And above all, sit back and enjoyj


THE GREYHOUND PARCEL


page 4
1" 3 mi.


page 5
1" 2000'


page
6


page 7
PROJECT DESCRIPTION project description -project description project descrip
The site is being offered by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) for residential housing redevelopment. It is intended to provide housing for upper and middle income families and individuals.
The site is identified by DURA as the Greyhound Parcel. It occupies 3A of a block northeast of the CBD in Denver. It is bounded by 23^, stout and California Streets. The site is relatively flat but is complicated by the context. The entire area is zoned B-8 which allows all types of businesses, certain industrial uses and high-density residential and office uses. The Curtis Park Historic District wraps around the site on two sides. Facing the block to the northwest are single-family residences. On the opposite side is Lawson Park occupying the entire block. The two short sides facing the block are currently occupied by bars, small retail shops, etc. In addition, the remaining lA block adjacent to the site is owned by the Public Service Company of Colorado which maintains an electrical substation there. The site size is 77,837- square feet, or 1.78 acres. The base price is $3.00 per square foot for a total land price of $233,511* The site has been cleared.
The project was released for bids the week of 10/6/80 with proposals for redevelopment to be submitted by 12/1/80. The negotiation process is summarized below (dates are approximate):
DURA invites bids
Bids submitted
DURA reviews for 60 days
DOHA chooses redevelopment package
Developer and DURA negotiate for 90 days
10/6/80
12/1/80
2/1/81*
5/1/81*


page &
Preliminary plans due after 60 days ?/l/81
Redevelopment agreement reached 8/1/81
note; date may be later if
an extension is granted
DURA requires that any prospective development on the site should be designed to attract middle- and upper-income persons to the neighborhood. In addition, proposals must be made in compliance with City and County of Denver R-2A Zoning requirements with the exception that a small amount of nonconforming commercial and/or office use will be considered* The R-2A Zone in the city requires 2000 square feet of land for each dwelling unit unless a unified site plan is submitted under the Planned Building Group (PBG) provisions, in which case 1500 square feet of land is required for each unit. The density is thus equal to 21.8 housing units per acre under R-2A Zoning, or 29 housing units per acre under the PBG provision. The R-2A Zone requires 1-1/2 parking spaces for each housing unit. DURA is requiring a minimum of one parking space per housing unit. Garages are permitted.
Although DURA is seeking primarily residential development, up to 10% of gross floor area may be devoted to office or commercial/retail functions serving the neighborhood's needs if well integrated into the development. The appropriate zoning requirements are summarized in the chapter on Site Analysis.
DURA urges that the developer "give consideration" to the following;
Materials; use of masonry construction
Orientation; orientation of housing toward the street, with appropriate setbacks on Stout Street; construction of an earth berm or other noise control construction along 23^ Street.
Roof shape; roof design compatible with existing houses


page 9
in the neighborhood.
Directional expression of front elevations the structural shape, placement of openings and architectural details which give a predominantly vertical, horizontal or non-directional character to a building's front facade.
Window shapes a two-to-one vertical ratio.
Porchess facade treatment which adds dimension as well as height to the entrance areas.
Landscapings high quality landscaping compatible with the best of which exists in the nearby residential neighborhood.
The preceeding items were developed from suggestions by community organizations. They are not absolute requirements but lack of compliance could be viewed negatively in proposal evaluation by DURA. Masonry construction as well as landscaping setbacks required in R-2A Zoning were stressed as especially important in discussions with DURA.
The DURA Board of Directors will evaluate the bids submitted based on recommendations of the staff (Gaylen McFadien, Gary Gaglia and Bob Cameron). The Board probably won't act until the middle of January, 1981.


SOUP COURSE soup course soup course soup course soup course soup course sou
Consomme with Marrow
4 marrow bones, each about 3 inches long Salt and freshly ground black pepper 4 cups beef consomme 4 t. chopped chives
Have the butcher split the marrow bones and remove the marrow. Cut the marrow into 1/4 to l/2 inch lengths and place in a bowl. Add cold water to cover and let stand overnight in the refrigerator. Drain the marrow and place in a saucepan. Add fresh water to cover and salt and pepper to taste. Bring to a boil and simmer briefly just until the marrow is heated through and changes color. Do not simmer too long or the marrow will dissolve. With a slotted spoon, scoop out the pieces of marrow and add equal amounts to each of 4 cups of hot consomme. Sprinkle with chopped chives. Serves *4-.


HISTORY OF SITE


page H
CURTIS PARK HISTORY curtis park history curtis park history curtis park his
The early history if Curtis Park is a short hut significant plateau in the early history of Denver.
In 1858, Denver was little more than an encampment of goldseekers at the confluence of the Cherry Creek into the South Platte River.
It was the edge of two vastly different geographies, both psychological and physical. This is where the Great American Desert gave way to the Promised Land: the Wild West, the stage for men and women to act out their individual lives according to the impassioned fantasies each had.
The early population boom led to incorporation in I860 when 5000 residents could be counted. The next 10 years however did not see the growth of the first few years. It was a transient period in Denver's history. Those who stayed serviced those who passed through in search of quick fortunes. The tragic Denver fire of 1864 resulted in at least the physical manifestation of permanency. New buildings were now required to be built of masonry or stone, not wood. Solid social and civic class structures also began to emerge. In the late 1860's a small consortium of influential businessmen and promoters exerted the pressure necessary to get railroad service to Denver. By 1870 there were two railroads serving Denver. In the decade from 1870 to 1880 the city grew to 35*000 residents. By 1990, the population exceeded 100,000.
From 1868 to 18?6 the street grid was extended to the northeast to accommodate new subdivisions. It was a natural extension of the original land grant, paralleling the South Platte River and the new railroad network. Curtis Park itself, bounded by 29th, 31s-t, Champa and Arapahoe Streets, had been given to the city in 1868. It was


page 12-
Denver's first park. By 1871 Denver's first streetcar line had a loop running up Champa Street to 27th Street affirming this direction of city growth. Development opportunities were recognized and seized in the area. Downing and Washington Streets became the east boundary to this intensive development. Most of the expansion to these streets where the famous Denver "crease" (the intersection of skewed grids) occurs took place from the late 1870's to the late 1880's. Robinson's Atlas of the City of Denver published in 1887 indicates that most of the area in what is now the Curtis Park Historic District was developed by then.
The Curtis Park neighborhood was primarily a creation of the mid-1880's. This was when many of the fine brick residences (some large and some small) that still stand today were built. It was an economically mixed neighborhood. There were, from the beginning, a mixture of the lower middle classes with the socially prominant. Curiously, the solid middle class didn't enter the neighborhood until the wealthy moved on to more desirable locations. Fashionable as the neighborhood had been, its social star set as that of Capitol Hill rose. By 1898, the social register recognized Capitol Hill as the neighborhood of the socially elite.
What the prosperous residents left behind was a remarkable group of buildings expressing the taming of the tendency toward individuality into a unified neighborhood. For the range of exuberant decorations seen on many of the houses was really only variations on a common theme of Victorian floor plans executed in a rhetoric of brick and stone, wood trim and iron cresting.


page
The remainder of the area developed by 191^, albeit in a more restrained fashion. For the most part, the neighborhood remained middle class until the 1920's. Upper class Blacks began moving into the area now known as Five Points by the turn of the century. The Black neighborhood abruptly ended at Welton encompassing the area to the south. The Five Points neighborhood was called "the most stylish Black community by the end of World War I."
The Curtis Park neighborhood began to decay during the 1920's.
In the 1930's Chicanos (who formerly had been unwelcome in the neighborhood) began to replace the descendents of the original owners. The neighborhood now boasts a heavy percentage of Spanish surnames in its population. Some of the more stable residents have been here since the 1930's. In the 19^0's the disenfranchised Japanese were accepted into the neighborhood although most left after World War II.
The neighborhood went into a decline during the 1950's. Several low income housing projects were built in the area sometime after WW II. Pockets of commercial and retail ventures crept into the former residential areas. The neighborhood became notorious for the highest crime rates in Denver. During this time, residents began their headlong rush to Suburbia. Total population declined by nearly one half between 1950 and 1970. Neither they nor the City government had any committment to the quality of life in the area. Despite this neglect, many of the low- to moderate-income residents maintained their homes with as much dignity and pride as their incomes allowed.
In the mid-1970's, what the planning profession calls gentrification began to catch on here. Extremely cheap property could be had for those


page
14
willing to forego conventional financing (redlining was a fact until some successful renovations were sold) and scrape years of dust and neglect from the houses. The Curtis Park Historic District was established in 1975 thanks in large part to the efforts of Historic Denver, inc., lending official support to the activities of the preservationists. The new residents are mostly young, middle-class, white and non-Denver natives.
The following table should serve to illustrate the trend of decline and recent reversal in the neighborhood since 1950. Between 1950 and 1970 the neighborhood lost half of its population. During the 1970s this drop continued at a slower pace until the period of 1978 1980.
The trend reversed itself showing a gain in 1980. This is reinforced by the number of households which rose dramatically from 1977 to 1980.
The ratio of population per household however continues to decline reflecting a national trend toward smaller household groupings.
Population Trends
1950 I960 1970 1975*
Population 26,000 19,089 13,067 12,700
Households 6,24? 4,875 5,011
Persons/Household 3.0 2.7 2.5
1976 1977* 1228* 1980*
Population 12,300 11,890 10,271 11,580
Households 4,748 4,692 4,955 5,440
Persons/Household 2.5 2.5 2.1 notei * 2.1 estimated


page 15
Five Points Neighborhood Boundary
uiiiiiimmiiiiiimmii Curtis Park Historic District Boundary
1- 2000'


page
16
LAND USE land use land use land use land use land use land use land use lan
For planning purposes, the Five Points Neighborhood District incorporates what was the original Curtis Park neighborhood as well as adjacent commercial and residential areas. There is no predominant land use in the district. Industrial use accounts for nearly two-fifths of the total parcel area. One-fifth of the area is residential, divided fairly evenly between multi- and single-family parcels. Commercial land also occupies nearly one-fifth of the area. There is a moderate amount of vacant land, more than half of which is zoned industrial. The rest is distributed between multi-family residential and commercially zoned parcels.
Correlation between actual land use and zoning is poor. Some singlefamily development exists within the industrially zoned area. There is also scattered single-family development on commercially zoned land. Overzoning of residential land is also common, since all other singlefamily structures occupy residential land zoned for high-density apartment use0
Industrial uses are concentrated along the northern boundaries of Five Pointso Commercially zoned land in the form of strip development occurs along Welton and Downing Streets. The area southwest of 23r<*
Street contains service businesses related to the Central Business District, with an increasing number of parking lots, as well as dilapidated dwelling units.
There are six designated parks in the neighborhood. Curtis Park (?3 acres) features an outdoor swimming pool. Lawson Park (2.3 acres) has a fenced softball field with facilities (bleacher, restrooms) for


page 17
league play. Benedict Fountain Park (recently expanded to 3*0 acres) is an open space area. Three mini-parks provide open space for small children.
Indoor community facilities are provided by the Five Points Community Center Complex (library, gym, indoor pool, pool room, workout area, crafts rooms, darkroom), Twentieth Street Recreation Center (indoor pool, basketball court, boxing ring, weight lifting area, outdoor wilderness activities)and Curtis Park Community Center (basketball court, ceramics and exercise rooms, outdoor soccer and football fields).
There are three public elementary schools and one parochial school in the neighborhood. Ther are two fire stations located within the neighborhood. Eastslde Health Center, under the jurisdiction of Denver General Hospital, provides out-patient health service and instructive medical information.
All of the above mentioned community facilities are within walking distance of the Greyhound Parcel.
Because of the proximity of Five Points to the Central Business District, streets serving other than neighborhood residents interlace the area. There are five sets of one-way paired streets, three of which are arterials and two are collectors. The paired one-way arterials are: Stout and Champa Streets; Lawrence and Larimer Streets; and Ogden and Downing Streets. The one-way collectors are Welton and California Streets along with Walnut and Blake Streets. 23rd Street is the only two-way arterial. The only two-way collector streets are Curtis and Arapahoe. During the peak hours commuter traffic on the one-way paired


page 16)
streets creates air and noise pollution, as well as a hazard to the circulation of pedestrians. The peak traffic is due to private automobiles and RTD buses, many of them on Express routes. Problems specific to the Greyhound Parcel will be probed in the chapter on Site Analysis.
The Denver CBD is immediately adjacent to the neighborhood and within easy walking distance of the Greyhound Parcel. The commercial core provides an office district along 17th Street and a retail district along 16th Street. Throughout the downtown area there are major educational facilities, government offices, performing and visual arts centers, as well as more decentralized retail and entertainment establishments. The concentration of medical facilities to the east of the CBD provides another major employment center.
The recently renewed vitality of the Central Business District poses a real threat to the residential quality of the Five Points Neighborhood. Expansion pressures from commercial developers coupled with favorable commercial zoning in much of the southwest portion of Five Points have fostered land speculation in the neighborhood. Thus, at a time when the neighborhood has reversed its residential decline, by new destabilizing forces.
it is being threatened


page 13
SITE HISTORY site history site history site history site history site histo
The Greyhound Parcel is located on a block that was a part of a larger parcel owned in the 1860's by B. B. Stiles. On November 3 18?1 the Stiles Addition was incorporated into the Denver boundaries. Streets had already been laid out by the old street naming system where 23^
Street was "0" Street and 24th Street was "P" Street. In 1873 street names were changed to their current usage, presumably because the alphabet had been exhausted.
During the 18?0's and 1880's residential units began to fill in the
blocks of the new subdivisions. By 1889 the area was fairly densely
developed with residential structures. In the same year building permits
were taken out for most of the units located across from the site in the
2300 block of Stout Street. In the 1890's William Barth owned the block
now occupied by the Greyhound Parcel. Here he established the City
Market which he leased to the city which in turn rented display space to
farmers and merchants selling foodstuffs. The Sanborn Map shows retail
rd
stalls fronting on 23 Street and around the corner part way up Stout Street. There were parking stalls for the farmers' wagons within the block.
Baist's Real Estate Atlas of Denver (1905) shows that by 1905 residential use was established on the block. A 2-story townhouse facing on Stout occupied the first 5 lots on the block. Just behind, a 2-story townhouse faced on 24^ Street0 Other townhouses had been built on lots 26 29 fronting on California Street.
The next Sanborn Map published in 1929 showed many changes on the block. The City Market retail buildings were gone and the Public Service


page 20
Company had established its foothold. A 500,000 cubic foot gasometer was located on the northeast quarter block. A filling station briefly occupied the corner lot at 23rt^ and Stout Streets.
City records show that a vacating ordinance was passed by the City Council in 1936 creating a utility easement in the 16 foot alleyway while eliminating public access from the alley. This was probably in response to the building of an automobile maintenance garage and truck terminal facility on the south half of the block. Sometime before 1952 PSC replaced its gas storage facility with an electric substation which remains in use today.
During the 1950's, the remaining townhouses on the north half of the block were razed. They were replaced by a parking lot. The block remained virtually unchanged through the 1960's and early 1970's.
After a series of meetings with neighborhood improvement associations, the Five Points Neighborhood Plan was approved by the Denver Planning Board in 1975o The buildings on the Greyhound Parcel were vacant by then. The Plan recommended that the City acquire the block (excluding the PSC substation) as an extension of Lawson Park across the street. Since the City didn't have funds for this, the Plan was not realized. In 1976, the vacant buildings were razed.
In the spring of 1979 the Greyhound Lines Inc., the bus company, acquired the site with no fanfare. The neighborhood residents awoke one morning to see the site covered with large buses. Neighborhood ire was manifested in picketing of the site and petitions to the Mayor.
The City began mediation efforts through Councilman Elvin Caldwell.
The City offered Greyhound an old City-owned RTD maintenance facility in


page Z\
trade for the Greyhound Parcel. Greyhound agreed.
In the meantime, the City had committed itself to the expansion of the Benedict Fountain Park about four blocks away. The pressure for open space development of the Greyhound Parcel was vented. The Arapahoe Place concept was being incupated, so the City saw an opportunity to take a positive step in encouraging inner-city residential development. Within a few months DURA acquired the property. Plans began to write a program for redevelopment of the site. That led to the Greyhound Residential Project Prospectus which is the basis of my thesis project.


SALAD COURSE salad course salad course salad course salad course salad cour
Nice Green Salad
Red leaf lettuce Watercress
Vinaigrette:
3 parts French peanut oil 1 part balfamic vinegar Dijon mustard to taste Thyme to taste
Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
Wash and dry lettuce and watercress. Tear lettuce and arrange on individual plates. Add about 1 part watercress to 3 parts lettuce.
Mix ingredients for vinaigrette just before serving, shake well and dribble over greens.


POLITICS AND GOALS


page Z.~t>
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN comprehensive plan comprehensive plan comprehensive plan In the current Comprehensive Plan for Denver, a series of Goals, Objectives and Policies are outlined which attempt to provide some guidance to growth and change on a city-wide level. The Goals and Objectives are purposefully very general and tend to be self obvious.
The Policies are more specific although not as specific as Programs which are outlines of specific activities to be performed in achieving Goals and Objectives and in implementing Policies. Some Policies which relate to this project follows
IA. Existing land use patterns and intensities should generally be preserved.
Rl. The density related character of residential neighborhoods should be preserved.
R4. Although mixed land uses are acceptable and desired by
residents of some neighborhoods, the neighborhoods should be protected from commercial developments and their related parking areas that threaten residential stability.
R12. Residential development on vacant sites within developed portions of Denver should be encouraged.
R13. The City should develop a coordinated improvement program for each deteriorated neighborhood, and neighborhood conservation programs for all other neighborhoods.
R17. A variety of housing types should be provided through
preservation and selective redevelopment of the existing mixed-density residential neighborhoods adjacent to downtown Denver.
R18. Developers should be encouraged to use Planned Unit Developments on both scattered site and large vacant tracts where appropriate.
R19 New high-density residential developments should be well served by public transportation and should be in close proximity to employment centers and shopping facilities.


page 2,4
R20. New residential development should give priority consideration to environmental concerns and energy and resource conservation.
H3. Measures should be taken on a case-by-case basis to
preserve the existing residential density and character of numerous areas in Denver zoned for moderate- to high-density or mixed uses.
H8. Opportunities should be created for attracting middle-
and upper-income families to the inner city, particularly those who are employed in and adjacent to downtown Denver or other activity centers.
H12. New construction of both multi-family buildings and singlefamily houses should be encouraged within the city.
T23. The city should require the provision of parking facilities in a manner that will encourage transit use while supporting the economic vitality of land uses served.
All of the preceeding is relatively obvious and "safe" to anyone familiar
with post WWII planning theory. What is of more interest are the specific
programs and policies of the different city agencies with a stake in
the neighborhood.


page £5
FIVE POINTS NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN five points neighborhood plan five points nel
The major recommendation of the Five Points Neighborhood Plan developed by the Denver Planning Office is downzoning of the area between 27^ and 23rc* from B-8 to R-2A* This responds to several of the most aggravating situations in the neighborhood. One is the lack of a predominant land use in the neighborhood. Another is the poor correlation between actual land use and zoning. For example, over half of the Curtis Park Historic District, at a density compatible with R-2A zoning is located within this area of proposed change. While tha R-2A Zone allows mixed uses, it would draw a definite limit to the high density development that is pressing from the upper CBD. This would establish high-density residential use as the primary pattern in the neighborhood.
Another recommendation which would have a major impact on the Greyhound Parcel is the designation of Champa and Stout Streets as local streets, returning them to two-way travel. The excess traffic would be picked up by the Larimer/Lawrence corridor.
* R-2A: MULTI-UNIT DWELLINGS, MEDIUM DENSITY. 2,000^ of land required for each dwelling unit unless a unified site plan is submitted under the Planned Building Group (PBG) provisions. In which case, 1,500^ of land is required for each unit. Home occupations are allowed by permit. Density ** 21.8 housing units/acre (29 housing units/acre under PBG).
B-8: INTENSIVE GENERAL BUSINESS/VERY-HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT. Permits all types of businesses, certain industrial uses, and high-density residential and office uses. Intended for application in large business areas and around the Central Business District. Total floor space cannot exceed 4 times the area of the site.


page 2,6
DOWNTOWN HOUSING PROGRAMS downtown housing programs downtown housing procra
With $13 million soon to be returned to the City in closeout funds from the DURA Skyline Project, the Mayor has asked public agencies to propose the best reinvestment. Arapahoe Place is DURA's proposal responding to the need to promote the development of downtown residential neighborhoods. The initial proposal to the Mayor in December 1979 included a 25 block area roughly bounded by Larimer, 25^\ Champa and 20^ Streets. Up to 2800 units of middle- and higher-income housing would be built necessitating the relocation of 85 businesses and 76 households. In addition to the new housing units, the proposal includes a supermarket and a park along Lawrence Street from 23r<^ Street to 20^ Street. DURA would assemble the land through condemnation, relocate residents and businesses, clear the land and sell it to private developers.
The Arapahoe Place project is located within a larger housing study area which includes about 78 acres within the southwest section of the Five points neighborhood. A scaled down version of the Arapahoe Place proposal to be bounded by Champa, Arapahoe, 20tl1 Streets and Broadway would include 1000 housing units and a park.
Other housing study areas in downtown Denver are the Silver Triangle area and the North Capitol Hill area. The Silver Triangle is seen as an alternative to the Arapahoe Place project and is being studied by DURA.
The Denver Housing Authority (DHA) has acquired a 2 acre site bounded by l6th Avenue, Grant Street, 17th Avenue and Logan Street within the North Capitol Hill area0 It has proposed 350 units of middle-income housing and appears ready to proceed with the project.


page Zl
HOUSING STUDY AREAS housing study areas housing study areas housing study area
Arapahoe Place 2 North Capitol Hill ^ Silver Triangle
1** 2000'


page 2-0
CURRENT ADMINISTRATION POLICIES current administration policies current adm
The Mayors office has established its own policies and seems to have the last say in inter-agency budget and policy conflicts. Flushed by the critical and financial success of the residential portion of the Skyline Project, Mayor McNichols has announced a program to encourage the construction of approximately 9000 housing units downtown by 1990. McNichols insists that he is opposed to the larger 78 acre Arapahoe Place project but feels that the smaller 20 acre project is justified. Perhaps reacting to criticism of the use of condemnation for land acquisition, the City has backed off from the Arapahoe Place project for the time being. As an alternative, the City recently asked DURA to initiate more detailed studies of the Silver Triangle site.
To its credit, the City did acquire the Greyhound Parcel for residential development. However, the City has not indicated a willingness to support downzoning efforts in the Five Points neighborhood. One suspects that the difference in potential income from taxes on commercial property as compared to residential property is a factor as well as the pressure from investors who have paid commercial prices for the land. I think that the City will try to achieve its housing goals with ad hoc infill projects as it is now doing rather than within a unified master development plan.


page Z)
DURA POLICIES dura policies dura policies dura policies dura policies dura
The Denver Urban Renewal Authority has been responsible for 3 major projects since its inception in the mid-196o's the Auraria HEC campus, the Skyline Project and the Lincoln Park UDAG Housing project. There seems to be an attitude at DURA of self perpetration. With its major projects in the construction phase, DURA is interested in getting something else going. In accordance with the Mayor's publicized commitment to increased housing opportunities in and around the CBD, DURA is investigating large scale projects on two locations, Arapahoe Place and the Silver Triangle. Housing would be a significant portion of either project. The Arapahoe Place project, located contiguous to the Skyline project would possibly be able to capitalize on the success of Skyline.
The Arapahoe Place scheme would complement the neighborhood goal of stabilizing and unifying land use on the southwest side of the Five Points Neighborhood. The Greyhound Parcel is included within the boundaries of the larger Arapahoe Place project. It was to have been the first site to be developed since the site has already been acquired.
The downzoning of the Greyhound Parcel from B-8 to R-2A would establish a precedent for the larger project.


VEGETABLES vegetables vegetables vegetables vegetables vegetables vegetable
COURGETTES SAUTEES AUX PIGNOUS Sauteed Zucchini with Pignoli Nuts
2 lb. zucchini 2 T. pignoli nuts 6 T. butter
2 shallots or green onions, finely minced Salt and pepper
Wash and trim ends from zucchini. Grate or cut into jullienne strips. Salt well and put in colander to seep. Let sit for 30 minutes. Wash salt off the zucchini, drain and dry thoroughly.
In a large skillet, cook the nuts in 2 T. butter until they are golden. Reserve nuts. Add the shallots or onions to the butter and cook over low heat for one minute being care not to allow the butter or shallots to burno Add 2 T. butter to pan, turn heat to high, add zucchini and toss in butter just until zucchini is very hot 2 to 3 minutes. Be careful not to burn it. Season well, sprinkle with nuts and serve.
POMES DE TERRE FONDANTES
2 lbs. new potatoes (sized about 2 l/2" to 2")
3 T. butter and 1 T. oil Salt and pepper Additional 2 T. butter Parsley, chopped
Peel potatoes and cut them in quarters, lengthwise. Trim them so that they resemble a large teardrop. Do not was or submerge peeled potatoes in water.
Choose skillet with a lid and of a size to hold potatoes in one layer.
Heat butter and oil (3 T. and 1 T.). When foaming has subsided, add potatoes and brown them all over at moderate heat by shaking the pan every few minutes. Salt and pepper the vegetables and cover the pan. Cook at low temperatures until tender about 15 to 20 minutes shaking pan occasionally to turn the potatoes. Add additional butter and parsley just before serving.


SITE ANALYSIS


page
CLIMATIC SUMMARY cllinatic summary climatic summary climatic summary climati
Denver is located on the South Platte River on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. The climate is characterized by low relative humidity, light to moderate winds,mild average temperatures with wide diurnal and seasonal extremes, light precipitation and a high degree of solar radiation. The average monthly temperature varies from 30.^ F in January to 73*3 F in July. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures. Annual snowfall averages 62 inches but persistent snowcover is unusual.
March is typically the snowiest. Precipitation averages about 15*5 inches per year. Little precipitation falls during the winter. More than 50$ of the annual precipitation occurs from April through July. Thunderstorms occur fairly frequently on summer afternoons.
In Denver the combination of buildings,, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a smoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
Average Yearly Precipitation 1^.53"
Average Yearly Temperature 50.2 F
Average Relative Humidity (Noon) 40$
Degree Days Heating 6oi6
Cooling 623
Percent Possible Sunshine (Yearly) 58$


page 32-
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (Degrees Fahrenheit)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION (inches of Precipitation)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL (inches of Snowfall)
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE {%)


page 33
1" 200*


HEATING DEGREE DAYS, BASE 65* F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
* 2 ' " 71 ' T--------'---------
page '54-
HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO
SUN ANGLE


page ^>!o
SOLAR CHART-DENVER
LAT. 3950'N LONG10450'W
ELEVATION 5280 FT.


page
| 1 Residential-1 I 1 Comaercial-2
1 1 Residential-2 I-L Public-1
J... 1 Residential-3 J_1 Church-2
j -1 Conunercial-1 I_I Parking


page 37
RTD BUSES rtd buses rid buses rtd buses rid buses rid buses rtd buses rid b Present Impact
There is presently one bus stop located on the block. It is on Stout near 23r<* Street. There is no bench or shelter. It serves bus routes #32, #38 and #28 going northeast. The same routes going the opposite direction travel on California with a stop in the 2200 block of California Street. The closest crosstown route is #23 on 20^ Street.
The northeast side of the site along 2^^ Street between Stout and California Streets is the evening staging area for all express buses that go south through downtown. This means that between ^:00 p.m. and 6t00 p.m. 50 75 buses stop and wait on this block.
Design Standards
All bus stops including sign, benches and shelters are located on public right-of-way. The bus stop is typically 100' along the curbline.
In areas of moderate density, bus stops are located every 900'
1200'. On the long side of blocks, this would result in a bus stop every 2 blocks. On the short side of blocks, bus stops should occur every 3 ** blocks.
Design Recommendations
The location of the stop on 23rd & Stout is adequate but the waiting area should be tied to the site planning for the block.
Engage in negotiations with RTD to relocate the express staging area to a more appropriate location.


page i3g>
TRANSPORTATION transportation transportation transportation transportation tran


page 3^
A r\\ ' <" S - \ .
run
1" 200'


page 40
VIEWS/nOISE views/nolse views/nolse views/roise views/nolse vievs/noise vlews/n


page A l
UTILITIES utilities utilities utilities utilities utilities utilities utlli Mountain Bell
There is currently a buried cable and overhead line, both spurs, within the utility easement. Since they serve only this block, the relocation cost would be minimal, probably $2000 $3000. Cost for hookup to service is negligible. It would be necessary to satisfy these people in order to free the utility easemento
Waste Water
There is currently an 8" sanitary sewer line (spur) within the utility easement. It would be possible to have it abondoned as a public sewer line it alternative service was provided to the PSC subatation. This could be done by tapping off the end of the line between Stout and California Streets in the alley easement. I would estimate that the cost would be $3000. It would be necessary to satisfy these people in order to free the utility easement.
There Is a $25 fee for each permit. A permit is required for each separate address, water meter or building (whichever combination would yield the least permits should be used). The method of building drainage would be somewhat dependent on the Occupancy Classification. See below:


page 4Z
To be extremely conservative, assume 1 permit/unlt or 50 permits costing
$1250.
The only requirement for storm water is if the site is a PBG, it would be required to provide retention for the difference between the Historic Flood Runoff and the Design Flood Runoff.
Water
The mains surrounding the site are;
23rd: 8" main located 23' from property line
Stout: 6" main located 23' from property line 24" conduit
California; 6" main located 23' from property line 24'th! 8" main located 36' from opposite property line
Most likely service could be pulled off of any of the above mains.
It would be a 6" 8 line to the property which would cost $1500 -
$2000. Domestice service would be tapped off of this line which could
also provide sprinkler water if necessary. The costs of a "Systems
Development Fee" for a tap would be one of the below:
3A" Tap; $1700
1-1/2" Tap; $7100 2" Tap; $13,000
3" Tap; $31,000
There are 3 taps on the property which would be credited to the above fee as if they were 3A" Taps. Therefore, ($1700 x 3) $5100 would be deducted from the Tap fee.
Davis Holder suggests the use of 2|2" Taps. One may be adequate but 2 would guarantee that there would still be service if one went out. Therefore, the "Systems Development Fee" would be $26,000 $5100 $21,000.


page 43
Gas
The mains surrounding the site are:
23rd, main located 33' from opposite property line
24th, 4" main located 29' from property line
Stouti 4" main located 33' from opposite property line California: 12 main located 12* from property line
Detailed plans would have to be submitted for the connections to
be engineered# The process takes 3 months. There is a hook-up fee
of $100/unit.
Electricity
There is an overhead street lighting system in the alley easement which would have to be abandoned. There would probably be no charge# Electric service would be pulled off underground service located in 2^h Street. There is no tapping fee. Again, detailed plans would have to be submitted for connection engineering 3 months in advance.
Utility Easement Abandonment
There is a 16' Utility Easement located 125 from the Stout and California Street property lines running the long way through the block. Vacating Ordinance #56 of 1936 created the easement while also vacating the alley for public access. The procedure to release the easement follows:
Letter to: Harold Cook
Manager of Public Works
Room 379 City and County Building
1^+37 Bannock Street
Denver
Negotiate with each affected utility for relocation approval
Pay $200 to initiate a City Ordinance


page 44
If everything is in order, it goes to the City Council which will consider and pass the ordinance if there are no objections
2-3 such ordinances are passed every year
Utility Contacts Telephones
Jack Hansen, Asst. Manager for Network Distribution
Mountain Bell
778-4806
Waste Water:
Don Stinson
Wastewater Management, City and County of Denver
629-1451 x252
Water:
Randy Christensen or Jerry Walden Water Board, City and County of Denver 623-2500
Gas:
Pete McNeil
Public Service Co. of Colorado
571-8676
Electricity:
Steve Douglas
Public Service Co. of Colorado 571-8572 or 571-8829
Utility Easement Abandonment:
Bill Melton
Design Engineering of Public Works, City and County of Denver
573-2605
Fire Protection:
Eric Neff
Denver Fire Department
575-2540
Mass Transit:
Ron Clark
Regional Transportation District
759-1000 x497


page 4E?
Storm Sewer
1- 100'


page 4

page 41
GAS SERVICE gas service gas ervice gas service gas service gas service gas se

Underground
Main
1" 100'


page 4fi>
miHimtmiitiiiuiiiii muninimmiuiiii m_____ T T.
Trunk Line
tjtr-t
n ^
IH ^
1- 100'


23rd ST.
page 49
SITE SURVEY site survey site survey site survey site survey site survey sit
STOUT ST.
IX)
<0
CSJ
402. I6
GREY HOUND/RESIDENTIAL REDEVELOPMENT SITE
183.08
CALIFORNIA ST.
A. Location: 23rd, 24th, Stout and California Streets
B. Size: 77,837- square feet, or 1.78 acres
C. Zoning Classification: R-2A
D. Disposition Price: $233,511 ($3.00 per square foot)
IS


page 50
ZONING REQUIREMENTS zoning requirements zoning requirements zoning requirem
Applicable Zoning Ordinance:
Denver Zoning Ordinance
Zoning Classification: R-2A; Planned Building Group (PBG)
Primary Use by Right:
Multiple unit dwelling
Floor Area Ratio/ Building Square Foot Limits: None
Building Height Limits (Stories, Feet): None
Building Setback/Yard Requirements:
Front: 10'
Side: 5
Rear: 5'
Minimum Lot Size Requirements:
1500 ^/dwelling unit yields a density of 29 housing units/acre
Off-Street Parking Requirements:
Minimum 1 space/dwelling unit
Screening/Wall Height Limits:
Front setback: 48"
Within Zone Lot: 72"
Minimum Spacing Between Buildings:
25' or the height of the taller building whichever is greater.
Maximum Open Court Area Enclosure:
75%
reference
.3-23(l)(d)
.3-24(1)
.3-24(1)
.3-24(2)(a) ,3-24(2)(b .3-24(2)(c
.3-24(1)
by DURA .3-24(2)(e)
43(1)(b) 4-3(1)(d)
DURA has made the determination that non-conforming uses of up to 1C# of the total gross floor area will be considered. The non-conforming vise can include retail establishments providing neighborhood services and/or professional offices.


page 51
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS building code requirements building code require
Applicable Building Code Ordinances
Denver Building Code, 1979 Edition
Fire Zone Designations 3
Occupancy Classifications Apartmentss H-2 Townhouses s H-3 Office/retails F-2 Open Parking Structures G-3
Construction Types H-2 s V,1-Hour H-3: V,1-Hour F-2 s V,1-Hour G-3: IV, 1-Hour
Occupancy Separation Requirements $
1-Hour except between G-3 and H-2 or H-3, 2-Hours
Exterior Wall Fire Ratings:
Group H-2, H-3, Type V, 1-Hours Unprotected if exterior walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40's and if greater than 5' from adjacent property line or center line of abutting street or alley to wall, 1-Hour unprotected if not.
Group F-2, Type V,1-Hours Unprotected if exterior walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40'5 and if greater than 10' from adjacent property line or center line of abutting street or alley to wall,
1-Hour unprotected if not.
Group G-3, Type IV,1-Hours Unprotected if exterior noncombustable walls fronting on streets or yards having a width of at least 40'; and if greater than 10* from adjacent property line or center line of abutting street or alley to wall. 1-Hour if not.
Exterior Wall Openings Limitations:
F-2. G-3: Protected if less than 10' setback
from adjacent property line or center line of abutting street or alley.
ref erenee
Sec. 1601(a) Table 5-A
Sec. 505(b) Sec. 505(c) Table 5-C Sec. 1?01
Table 5-B
Table 17-A Table 17-B Table 17-C Sec. 2103(a) Sec. 2203(a)
Sec. 1707 Table 17-C Sec. 4308(h) Sec. 4308(i)


page £jZ.
reference
Exterior Wall Openings Limitations (cont.): H-2: Protected if less than 20 setback from adjacent property line or center line of abutting street or alley. H-3: Protected if less than 5* setback from adjacent property line or center line of abutting street or alley. Operable window with wire glazing is considered protected.
Structural Frame Fire Rating: 1-Hour Table 1?-A
Permanent Partition Fire Rating: 1-Hour Table 17-A
Floor Fire Rating: 1-Hour Table 17-A
Roof Fire Rating: 1-Hour Table 17-A
Maximum Floor Area Per Building: F-2, H-2 Mixed Occupancy: Area Increases Fire Zone 3 0.33 Over one story: 2.0 Sec. 503(a) Sec. 505(a) Sec. 505(8) Table 5-C Table 12-A
Separation on 2 sides (40'): 0.25
Total Increases: 258#
F-2, Type V, 1-Hour:
allowable (10,500)(2.58)
-2?,090 ^/building H-2, Type V, 1-Hour:
allowable (?800)(2.58)
- 20,124 ^building Mixed Occupancy Ratio:
actual F-2 actual H-2 ( 1 allow. F-2 T allow. H-2 -1 Limit per Story: ,
F-2: (10,500)(1.58) 16,590 'fyfloor
H-2: (7800)(1.58) = 12,324 /floor
H-2 (non-mixed) Occupancy:
Area Increases: 258#
H-2, Type V, 1-Hour:
allowable (7800)(2.58)
- 20,124 ^/building Limit per Story:
(7800)(1.58) 12,324 vfloor
H-3 Occupancy: Unlimited G-3 Occupancy: 50,000 tier


page co~t)
Maximum Heights
F-2, H-2, H-3s 3 stories G-3 4 stories
Occupant Load:
H-2: 200 r/occupant} assume 1000^/unit;
yields 5 occupants/unit ,
H-3s 300 V/occupant; assume 1000 ^/unlt;
yields 4 occupants/unit Retail (ground floor): 30^ /occupant; assume 900 ^/store; yields 30 occupants/store Offices 100 ^/occupant; assume 1000 P/office;
yields 10 .occupants/office Parking: 300 P/occupant; assume 16,000
parking structure; yields 54 occupants
Number of Exits Required;
H-2: 2 if serving more than 2 units
H-3 1 per unit, if necessary
Retail: 1 per store Office: 1 per office Parking: 2
Number of Stairs Required:
H-2: 2 if serving more than 2 units
H-3 1 per unit, if necessary
Retail; ------ ,
Office: 2 if over 1000 ^ on second floor Mezzanines: 2 if over 2000 $ or 60' in one direction Parking: 2
Door Width Requirements: 3' if Exit
Stair Width Requirements:
Private stairways (occupant load of 10 or less):
30" min.
Public stairways; 36" min.
Stairway Landing Requirements:
Maximum vertical distance between landings:
12.5*
Minimum dimension same as width of stair
Public Corridor Width Requirements:
44" min.
Travel Distance Limits:
H-2, H-3:
Maximum 50' within unit Maximum 1 flight of stairs
reference Table 5-D
Table 33-A
Sec. 3302(a) Table 33-A
Sec. 3302 (a) Table 33-A
Sec. 3303(d) Sec. 3305( b)
Sec. 3305(g)
Sec. 3304(b)
Sec. 3320(c) Sec. 3321(b)


page 6>4
Travel Distance Limits (cont.):
F-2: Maximum 150' (200' if sprinkled)
G-3* Maximum 200' in open parking garage
Dead End Corridor Limits: Maximum 20'
Door Swing Requirements: In direction of Exit when serving an occupant load of 30 or more.
Stair Rail Requirements:
Handrails on at least one side, both if open on both sides
Extend rail minimum 6" beyond top and bottom of risers
Group H only: If less than 4 risers and within dwelling unit, no rails needed
Balcony Rail Requirements:
Reqd. if 15** above grade Minimum 42** high
Maximum 9M clear space between intermediate rails Tempered glass, laminated safety glass or gratings may be substituted
Riser/Tread Limits:
Riser maximum 7-1/2"
Run minimum 10"
Ramp Requirements:
Same width as stairways Maximum slope:
First floor to grade: 1 in 12 All others: 1 in 8 Landings:
1 per 5' of rise minimum length of 5'
Vertical Opening Limits and Fire Ratings:
Type V: 1-Hour enclosed if indoor public Type IV: 1-Hour
Group H: None if within individual unit Stair or ramp need not be enclosed if serving only one adjacent floor and not connected with corridors or stairways serving other floors
reference
Sec. 3304(f) Sec. 3303(b)
Sec. 330$(i)
Sec. 1714
Sec. 3305(c)
Sec. 3306
Sec. 1706(a) Table 17-A Sec. 3308(a)
Exit Lighting Requirements:
1 foot candle at floor level
Sec. 3312(a)


page 5>5
Emergency Lighting Requirements:
1 foot candle at floor level
Ceiling Height Mlnimums:
Corridors: 7'
Stairs: 7"
H Group: No portion less than 5' allowed
with 7' over at least 50% of floor area
Mezzanine Restrictions:
Defined as intermediate floor less than one-third of total floor area in room Clear height of 7' required below
2 stairways to floor below required if over
2000 $ or over 60' in any direction
Light Requirements:
No windows required for light if adequate artificial illumination provided Required windows shall open on a court, yard, or street of minimum dimensions
Ventilation Requirements: SEE CHAPTER 52
Roof Access Requirements:
None if less than 4 stories
Penthouse Limitation:
Maximum 12' above roof
Not over 35% of supporting roof
Unprotected if minimum of 20' from property
line and housing only mechanical equipment
Skylight Requirements:
All skylight on pitched roofs shall be mounted on a curb 6" min. above roof plane
Chimney Height and Construction Requirements:
Masonry chimney minimum of 3' above any part of building within 10'
Toilet Room Requirements:
Group H;
Min. one W.C, one lav., one tub or shower per unit
Min. one laundry tray and one automatic washer for first 10 units and one for each 15 units thereafter Public Buildings:
Handicapped Persons:
reference Sec. 5310(a)!
Sec. 3304(c) Sec. 3305(b) Sec. 3305(p)
Sec. 402 Sec. 1715(b) Sec. 3302(b)
Sec. 1105(a) Sec. 1205(a) Sec. 1305(a)
Sec. 3305(n)
Sec. 3601
Sec. 5^07 Sec. 6005
Sec. 3703(f) Sec. 3708
Sec. 509(a)5 Table 5-E Table 5-F
Sec. 5O9(a)l0 Sec. 510(c)


page 66
Sprinkler Requirements!
In every story, cellar and basement of all buildings when the floor area exceeds 1500unless:
Provide 20 ^ window opening for each 50 lineal feet (or fraction thereof) of exterior wall in each story.
Windows provided on at least 2 sides of building Minimum 30 clear in smallest dimension In every basement if any portion is over 50' from required opening.
Enclosed usable space under stairs.
Dry Standpipe Requirements: None
Wet Standpipe Requirements: None
Open Parking Garage Requirements:
50# open on 2 or more sides
Curbs and guardrails required at each opening
Vertical openings need to be enclosed
Requirements for H-3 Occupancies:
Minimum of 3 attached dwelling units Each unit has independent access to the exterior of the building in the ground story Shall be provided with separate utility systems Each dwelling unit separated by 2-Hour resistive wall extending from foundation to highest point of building and to exterior walls Separation wall shall not contain utilities Basement considered a story if used for living quarters
No stacking of units
Sleeping rooms shall have at least one openable window (minimum 5*7*# minimum 24 high, minimum 44" above floor) or exterior door (minimum 36 wide, minimum 6'-8" high)
Handicapped Person Requirements:
F-2: one W.C. and one lav for each sex H-2: 1 unit for each 7 units shall be fully
accessible} units must be located in each building unless excepted.
Public Buildings built with private funds:
If 50% of services are available on first floor, access to second floor not required
reference Sec. 3803(a) 14
Sec. 3806(a)
Sec. 3806(a)
Sec. 1209(b) Chapter 33
Sec. 1302(b)
Sec. 510 State
Requirement


page 'S7
FIRE PROTECTION GUIDELINES fire protection guidelines fire protection guide Source Denver Fire Department
Primary Access
Primary fire access on at least one side of every building is required. Fire access within 50 of any unit is required. Public streets, approved private circulation driveways and fire lanes provide primary fire access. Alleys cannot be considered a primary means of access.
Private Circulation Driveways
Private circulation driveways must be a minimum of 25 wide to be considered primary fire access. Dead ends that exceed 150 shall be provided with an adequate turn-around. Radius at 90 turns shall be a minimum of 25' at the inside curb line and 50' at the outside curb line.
Fire Lanes
Primary access can be provided by fire lanes with a minimum width of 12' Grades shall not exceed 5% Fire lanes must be linked to other approved roadways. No other use can be allowed in fire lanes. A chain must be suspended across the entrance to the fire lane.
Parking Structure
In case of car fires in a parking structure, can a fire truck get to the car? This is not required but should be considered. 12* overhead clearance is necessary for a truck to get in a parking structure.


MEAT COURSE meat course meat course meat course meat course meat course mea
FILET DE BOEUF ROTI AUX POIVRbS VER1ES Roast Fillet of beef Green Peppercorn Sauce
1 3-4 lb. tenderloin of beef, trimmed weight
3 T. butter
Fresh pork fat strips
Marinadei 3 T. cognac
1 T. green peppercorns, rinsed and mashed well 1/2 c. dry red wine 1 shallot, minced
For the Saucei (Green Peppercorn Sauce)
1 T. green peppercorns, minced and mashed well 3 T. butter
1 c. demi-glace sauce (brown sauce) See £-35
Brush the marinade on the tenderloin and let it marinate for several hours or overnight in the refrigerator. Remove from the refrigerator at least an hour before roasting.
Preheat oven to 400. Remove meat from the marinade, reserving the marinade. Thoroughly dry the tenderloin on towels. Tie it loosely with twine so that it will hold its shape. Bub the entire tenderloin with softened butter (about 3 T.) Place it in a roasting pan just large enough to hold it and place pork fat strips over the roast, salt the roast a little (no pepper).
Roast the tenderloin in upper part of the oven for 35 to 45 minutes (for rare) or until done to your liking. Meat will cook a little more after it is removed from oven so allow for this. Remove from oven, place on a heated platter and let it rest in a warm place for 10 to 15 minutes. String and fat may be removed either before or after placing on the platter. (Removing the fat a few minutes before finishing the roasting will allow the top of the roast to brown more evenly, but is not absolutely necessary).
To Make Saucet
Method Ii In pan In which meat was cooked, pour the reserved marinade. Deglaze the pan with the marinade and then pour it through a strainer into a heavy saucepan. Press on the shallots and peppercorns to squeeze juices from them. Cook the sauce which you have just strained until about 2 tablespoons remain,
add the brown sauce (demi-glace) and the additioral tablespoon of peppercorns. Heat well. Off the heat, stir in about 3 tablespoons soft butter, a little at a time.


DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL


page 59
MARKET ANALYSIS market analysis market analysis market analysis market anal
This is perhaps the most difficult part of this project analysis.
It is also crucial for project success. Without an actual market study for this site or a developer yet chosen by DURA, I was thrust into the position of researching the market on my own.
There are two ways of determining who the buyer would be for a project of this type in this market area. The standard market procedure would be to define the probable marketing area and through a series of exhaustive statistical analyses, determine the profile of the "most likely buyer". This analysis can also be used to generate the actual number of units of a certain type/cost by location which would be sold if available. This is the type of analysis a mortgage banker would like to see barring substantial pre-sales.
The only site specific study of this nature that I was able to obtain was the "Housing Market Study for the Skyline Project, a study done for DURA by the Real Estate Research Corporation in June 1978. According to this study, a maximum of 675 new multi-family units in or adjacent to the CBD could be absorbed in the 3 year period from 1978 to 1980. It predicted a maximum of 1250 more units in the 5 year period of 1981 to 1985. DURA currently has 1137 units under construction or under contract in downtown Denver. Pre-sale demand has been higher than expected indicating a greater market than RERC predicted. The study found that the typical household buying into high cost new housing in the city consists of 1 or 2 persons with jobs in or near the central city. As employment opportunities in downtown Denver increase this group will surely rise.
The study noted that single persons living alone, unrelated person


page 60
households and married couples without children category. These household types are increasing family grouping confirming a national trend.
A more generalized Denver buyer profile is
under i8 could fall in this at the expense of larger
summarized below.
PROFILE OF THE DENVER HOME BUYER
ALL LARGE CITY ALL WESTERN
Chorocteriitic DENVER HOME BUYER 1979 1977 HOME BUYERS 1979 HOME BUYERS 1979
Borrower Median Age 33 years 34 years 32 years 35 years
Household Size
1 or 2 64.3% 54.8% 52 8% 54.1%
3 or more 35 7% 45.2% 47.2% 45.9%
Maritol Status
Single 43.9% 25.0% 26.1% 25.5%
Married 56.1% 75 0% 73.9% 74.5%
First-time Buyers 16.8% 24.0% 18.5% 14.9%
Purchase Price
Less than S30.000 4.1% 16.4% 6.0% 3.4%
$30,000 to $49,999 27.6% 49.3% 20.5% 16.1%
$50,000 to $79,999 39.7% 32.9% 40.2% 39.7%
$80,000 or more 28.6% 1.4% 33.3% 40.8%
Median $63,504 $43,500 $67,000 $73,000
Age of Home
New 34.7% 37.0% 26.6% 28 8%
Existing 65.3% 63.0% 73.4% 71.2%
25 or more years 13.8% 17.1% 30.5% 25.7%
Condominium Buyers 43.4% n/o 14.7% 16.5%
Annual Household Income
Less than $15,000 6.7% 8 9% 4.6% 5.1%
$15,000-524,999 29.7% 45 2% 27.2% 22 6%
$25,000 to $34,999 32.1% 33.6% 31.4% 29.4%
$35,000 or more 31.5% 12.3% 36.8% 42.9%
Median $28,782 $23,370 $30,354 $32,106
Importance of Second income* 66.6% 41.2% 57.8% ss.o%
Totol Monthly Housing Expense
$300 or less 5.1% 15.8% 3.3% 2.5%
1301 to $600 51.5% 78 8% 41.9% 33.8%
More than $400 43.4% 5.4% 54.8% 63.6%
Median Monthly Housing Expense
Totol $569 $406 $617 $676
Mortgage payment $449 $281 $452 $533
Real estate taxes $50 $63 $72 $65
Utilities $55 $50 $75 $60
Hazord insurance $15 $12 $18 $18
Downpayment
10% or less 21.4% 23.3% 15.3% 13-9%
20% or more 57.1% 56.2% 59.7% 53.5%
Median $12,009 $7,751 $15,532 $15,927
Housing expense exceeding
25% of household Income 60.9% 25.0% 49.8% 54.2%
Percentage of households with two adults In which income contributed bv a second corner accounted tor 10% or more of totol household income.
Source: U .S. League of Savings Associations.
The second method of analysis is less rigorous, relying more on the personal experiance of the developer. There is a fairly high overhead in a project off the ground. It is important for the developer to have an accurate "feel" for the market. While the statistical methods may be


page on the conservative side, these predictions tend to be more daring. The developer or architect tend to be more visionary due to nature of his/her work.
Since this intuitive approach is based on personal experience, it produces a wide range of opinions. For instance, I have been told that in the current Denver market 1-bedroom or studio condominiums are the hot ticket. Others have insisted that they could not sell this unit type, that only 2- or 3-bedroom units will sell. There does seem to be a consensus that 2-bedroom units are the most desired units for the market that I am trying to reach About 50$ 2-bedroom units with the other half split between 1- and 3-bedroom units seems to be a reasonable first estimate for my project.
According to George Writer, the most important variables in residential development currently ares supply 4 demand, interest rates, energy usage, household grouping types and investor purchasing. This last item accounted for of all house purchases in 1979 and is extremely inflationary. Writer feels that you can predict housing trends 5 years in advance although a lot of risk is removed with a 3 year prediction.


page CoZ.
BUILDING COST building cost building cost buildlrg cost building cost build The following cost comparison is based on estimates provided by Davis Holder. The building systems costs are based on updated (1980) figures from the Marshall Valuation Service, as adjusted for the Denver area. The cost analysis covers only the residential portion of the project.
Cost of Parking per Unit (assume 330^/space)
parking 1 space/ 1-1/2 space/ 2 space/
type_______ _________________unit________________unit___________unit
Surface $1,980 L, $2,970 $3,960
Structured (no sprink, no mech) $3,950 $7,425 $9,960
Structured (yes sprink, no mech) $6,600 $9,900 $13,200
Structured (yes sprink, yes mech) $9900 $14,850 $19,800
Building Systems Costs (Denver, 1980)
Frame (Multiply cost by gross floor area for project total)
Steel $8.28/^
Reinforced Concrete $7.06/ ^
Wood Frame (l6 max. span, 12' preferred) $2,20/ ^
Glu-lam Girders w/ Wood Beams $3.66/ ^
Exterior Wall (Multiply cost by area of exterior wall surface) Brick Veneer $9.66/ ^
Floor System (Multiply cost by gross floor area)
All Systems $6.00/ #
Roof System (Multiply cost by gross roof area)
All Systems $5.00/3?
As an alternative, masonry bearing walls could be done with a maximum of 3 stories.
Wall (Support and infill) $10.00/ ^
Floor Support (Multiply cost by gross floor area) $0.70/ $ Roof $5.00/ #


page (ot>
Elevatorlng Option Type:
Geared or gearless Good quality 2500 lb. car lOOO'/od-n. speed
Cost (includes car and controls)
($142,000 + $2,150/stop) x 1.42 cost adjustment factor Hydraulic is 75# of cost of geared or gearless systems
Cost Recap
Professor Holder assumes that for an excellent quality building the total cost will be 4 times the cost of the structural system. For a good quality building the total cost will be 3 times the cost of the structural system. He figures that l/2 of the cost of the floor and roof systems are part of the structural system. Using his method, the cost per square foot for steel frame construction ( no elevators) follows.
Excellent: 8.28 + -Nr x 4 $55* 12/#
Good: 8.28 + -Nr + x 3 $41.34/^
Excellent construction would be appropriate in luxury housing. For the type of development that I am anticipating, good construction (which is actually translated as high quality in the minds of developers and builders) would seem to be called for. This allows a certain refinement of finish without the use of extravagant materials. The cost includes the cost of a fireplace in each unit, as well as standard amenities such as carpeting and quality appliances. I will use a cost of $40.00/43 which is in agreement with figures quoted by several bankers who I
interviewed


FRCJECT SUMMARY
page (o4r
Froject Titles tfOUtip
Froject Description: _____________
Project Location: ________________
Zoning/Bensity: T_A________
r&or-_________
Height Restrictions:
Project Size: 1. 78 acres
Maximum Allowable Units: G? 1 units
Actual Project Units: E>0 units
lAXeb. ^'LIGO/Y^ Cw/0/M^f^OvJ EX?)
Parking: .
Spaces/Unit: _______j_____________
SF/Space: ________________________ / o GoO Total SF
Land Cost:
Total SF: 77 ,87 ^
$/SF: ______________,g>o__________ 6? /1 Total Cost
Construction Cost (includes builder's profit) __________<4q___________ $/SF
Unit Breakdown
Type: | &OZ-KA / j7yvn4
Net SF: 7 OQ $___________ 5ELLI6c A f T?Op$>
% of Total Units: T /mo.
Number of Units: / Q_______ j
I o ** Type: Z. j / ^ gVrfM
Net SF: IQOo ^_________
% of Total Units: To
Number of Units: _____________
Type: To j5_PgXJ Z, gAfM
Net SF: \EE0 ^
^ of Total Units: S> O Y-?
Number of Units: ____I Go_____
Type: ___________
Net 3F: ________
% of Total Units: Number of Units:


page 6 3
UNIT COST PROJECTION
Project Title: Y HoUMP______________
Unit Type/Size: ) ______________
Total Number of This Unit Type: __________l Q
MET
A. Land ($/unit) 47oo
B. Euildinp Construction Cost *4o/A 3oooO
C. Utility Hookup 7^0
D. Landscaping ($/unit)
E. Parking ilo
TOTAL HARD COSTS
F. Architecture & Engineering: 6 t _ Z.-&74 _
G. Construction Interest
Amount Borrowed $ ^82.00
Outstanding Balance
Interest Rate 17 7o 3*2-47
Months Outstanding iZr
H. Taxes During Construction 50
I. Carrying Costs s AfMl 1
Amount Borrowed
Interest Rate |6h-z_ 17% |3> 8-Z-
Months Outstanding z
TOTAL SOFT CCS TS 7 Z53
TOTAL HARD & SOFT COSTS 6o | 6-5
T Development Fee: 3 7 1
Ko Contingency Fee: 6 # 85>o8
TOTAL DEVELOPKENT COSTS

L. Developer's Profit:
o
TOTAL PRESALE COSTS
5 4 17
'235S 3
H. Sales Commission:

TOTAL SALES COST
FEE UNIT
3616
6 3 | 6g>
84/0


page 6 UNIT COST PROJECTION Project Title i 4t^E-Yfi~DU K)P_____________
Unit Type/Size: Z-
I OOP MBT
Total Number of This Unit Typei

A. Land ($/unit)
B. Building Construction Cost $ 4-0/ Zjft
C. Utility Hookup
D. Landscaping ($/unit)
TCTAL SALES COST
FER UNIT
AlPO_
4-0 ooo
77c*
Z-^OQ
4 f
TCTAL HARD COSTS Ap^uO
F. Architecture & Engineering: 4 # 2>ll4
G. Construction Interest Amount Borrowed Outstanding Balance Interest Rate / % AS ZjOO yti'lc* J7Jo 4 o f 7
Months Outstanding 1.3-.
H Taxes During Construction pO
T a c Carrying Costs Amount Borrowed $ (A 02plA
Interest Rate /^t 2. 17 7o 1 7
Months Outstanding z.
TOTAL SOFT CCS T3 7.o Z-l..
TOTAL HARD & SOFT COSTS fcim
J. Development Fee; 3 * l&e>8
K. Contingency Fee:
TOTAL DEVaLGI-K i NT COSTS SSf
L. Developer's Profit: IO % 4 <3 /
TOTAL PRESALE COSTS 675>e>o
M. Sales Commission: 6 jf
-116,03.


page 67
UNIT COST PROJECTION
Project Title: Ax^EYHvU^IP____________________________________
Unit Type/Size: 3? 15DKM________________________l'Z-e?D & aJE~T
Total Number of This Unit Type: ___| E?________________________
A. Land ($/unit) ______A 70 O_________
B. Building Construction Cost ^4o/fA ______3 Q OOP________
C. Utility Hookup lEp
D. Landscaping ($/unit) 'EcboO______
E. Parking 47^0
TOTAL HARD CCSTS A?'Lc]00
F. Architecture & Engineering: ______(=>____:
G. Construction Interest
Amount Borrowed $ 4?
Outstanding balance _________e>p%
Interest Rate ~Z-_______\1 ^fo
Months Outstanding __________\z*
H. Taxes During Construction
3114
4141
Ic Carrying Costs
Amount Borrowed $ 11 £>"1 I
Interest Rate |5-ft_ ilAo
Months Outstanding
z.
TOTAL SALES COST
FER UNIT
Eo^l
TCTAL SOFT CCSTS 1 O ^07-
TOTAL :iARD & SOFT CCSTS A iD-l^Z,
J. Development Fee: 3 m A Z-T-W
K. Contingency Fee: & t 8?>
TCTAL DEVELOPMENT CCSTS 17&7&
L. Developers Profit: .. /o % 174?
TCTAL FRESALE CCSTS £7^47
K. Sales Commission: (o %
?z->i Q
^74/4


page PRO FORMA COSTS
Project Titles _______________
Land Acquisition
Building (Hard and Soft Costs)
Types I SP CM____________
Sales Costs
Number of Unitss /O
Types Q CLP Sales Costs ^ I'Z. QQO Number of Unitss
Types O
Sales Costs ^ TS ooo Number of Unitss /
Type: __________________
Sales Costs _____________
Number of Unitss
i
Z^^OOC

ooo
-b
I Co ooo
^---------
/ 0? ff?, Ooo
-----L,---------------------------------
Q^> ^ Q Q Q
TOTAL PROJECT COST


page 69
MARKET SUMMARY market summary market summary market summary market summary
The final figure on the previous page represents the total development cost of the project using typical unit sizes and percentages of unit types. It will tighten up as the design is refined. Several iterations have shown that the $/43 Sales cost goes down as the unit size increases. This is a factor for a buyer evaluating the economic worth of a dwelling unit. He/she wants to get the most return for the investment.
Market conditions will set the price at the time of sale. It will be based on the relative demand for a certain unit type and the prices that the competition is offering. This is where market surveys come in again. It is often necessary to subsidize the more expensive units with those that cost less to develop.
A quick survey of houses for sale in the Curtis Park area indicated a range of sales prices from $19/4* to $90/4i with some successful renovated houses in the $50 $60/$ range. Obviously, I will have to do something pretty special with my project to compete. It will be important to explore the financial implications of commercial development within my project.


CHEESE COURSE cheese course cheese course cheese course cheese course chees
Stilton
Brie
Let sit to achieve room temperature. Serve with water crackers and wheat meal biscuits.


PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS


page ~] |
BUILDING PROGRAM building program building program building program bulldin
Due to economies of scale, the greatest number of dwelling units allowed by zoning will be attempted. A preliminary schematic design using a PBG Zoning classification shows that 5^ units in 3 story buildings ranging in size from 900 ^/unit to 1600 ^/unit can fit comfortable on the site. This is with 1-1/2 parking spaces/unit and private exterior space on ground level available to 60# of the units. The rest had generous balconies so everyone gets a piece of nature. All parking is surface and close to units (decentralized).
For my design, the residential condominium units will be either 2 story townhouses or 3 story apartment walk-ups. They are geared to young professionals who do not have great space needs. Therefore, an efficient, low-maintenance type of spacial configuration is desirable.
The units will be sold as condominiums, so high-quality materials and construction will be used to insure long-term value. There should be an attempt to squeeze down the unit area where feasible in order to maintain high-quality construction at a lower cost. Each unit will have assigned private outdoor space either through terraces contiguous to units or private balconies. The non-private open spaces should be arranged to form a sequence of hierarchies from public to private domains.
Passive solar design should be investigated although this becomes a problem when higher densities are required. See Design Checklist for specific issues that should be addressed.
Although my financial analysis only covers residential use, the addition of up to 10# low-traffic commercial/office space would improve the economic picture. The spaces could be income producing to the


page 72,
dwelling unit owners through leasing or could be sold outright as office condominiums. The subdivision of these spaces should allow flexibility.
As an initial assumption I have considered the smallest commercial space to be 900^. This is based on the area limit of one fire exit and the convenience of shoppers. The smallest office unit would be 1000^ and could be located on any floor. This is also based on fire exit requirements. Larger office or commercial spaces could be assembled using the single unit as a module. There should be an effort to develop a module which will work for both residential and commercial units.
Using fairly standard Net Areas for each dwelling unit type yields a total project size as summarized below. A note on commercial parkings due to the vagaries of zoning brought on by a non-conforming use, this will be further researched and added in the next level of program refinement.
A project breakdown follows with assumptions noted where used.
RESIDENTIAL
Number of units: 50
Models: 1-, 2- and 3-bedroom condominium apartments and townhouses
Occupants: Middle- to upper middle-income group Professional occupations Relatively young and relatively childless Some sharing of units by unrelated occupants
structural system: Structural steel or poured-in-place concrete
with posttensioned slab
Wall infill: Masonry veneer
Landscaping: Dense (for Denver) shrub and tree plantings, underground sprinklers, sidewalks
Phasing: Not allowed by DURA


page ~73>
PROJECT AREA BREAKDOWN project area breakdown project area breakdown projec RESIDENTIAL
Unit Type Net iJ $ Total
1-Bedroom 750 20 10 7,500
2-Bedroom 1000 50 25 25,000
3-Bedroom 1250 30 15 18,750
Net Residential Total - 51,250*
(Assume Net '^Gross^ 85$) .
Gross Residential Total - 60,294
Therefore, the total residential Gross Square Footage housed in 2 story town-houses pr 3 story apartments is about 60,000^.
Commercial
(Assume commercial/office space @ 10$ Gross Project Area)
Gross Commercial Total -
6,699 ^
Gross Project Area
66,993 4
Site Coverage
In addition to the building area listed above, off-street parking will be required.
(Assume 1 space/unit)
(Assume 330*/ space)
This yields 16,5004* parking space. If it is on two levels, the site coverage will be 8,250 4*.
Most of the building wil be 3 stories, with some 2 story townhouses.
(Assume average 2.75 stories)
This yields a building footprint of 24,360^.
Total Site Coverage will be 32,610^.
Percentage of lot coverage will be 42$


page 74-
DESIGN CHECKLIST design checklist design checklist design checklist design This checklist is to be used as a feedback tool in the design process. It is meant to be used in evaluation of the residential units but has applications in the siting of commercial units as well. It will force me to ask the question Does it do what I want? when I would rather look the other way.
Site Plan Needs of the Community
3 Reconcile the needs of downtown expansion and conservation of residential neighborhoods
Does it relate to both high-rise commercial and low-rise re si de n tia lbui ldi ng ?
Does it establish a natural access bridge" between the nodes in each?
3 Does it relate to existing mass transit routes?
Does it relate to logical future mass transit routes?
3 Downtown housing goalss
(3 Does it relate to existing housing?
Q Does it relate to the logical location of new housing?
3 Does it fit into land use patterns?
3 Does it establish land use trends?
3 Energy conservations
3 Is auto use discouraged?
3 Is alternative transportation encouraged?
3 Is common wall construction maximized?
3 Is passive solar design (daylighting and heating) maximized?


page
It
O Is there an efficient use of materials in construction?
Site Plan Needs of Neighborhood
0 Buffer to encroaching commercial usei
0 Is the project strongly residential in character?
(^) Is a strong relationship established to the residential neighborhood?
0 Does the project help relate Lawson Park to the residential neighborhood?
10 Enhancement of streetscapej
0 Do setbacks conform to the neighborhood?
0 Is landscaping an integral part of the design?
0 Are the houses connected to the streets?
0 Is the impact of automobile storage minimized?
0 Is the impact of the substation minimized?
0 Does the project relate to Lawson Park?
0 Are there public spaces (bus stops, pocket parks, public walk-throughs, etc.) which would make the project a part of the larger neighborhood?
0} Residential scale i
0} Is the massing sympathetic to the residential neighborhood? 0 Is the height sympathetic?
0 Is the bulk sympathetic?
0 Is the detailing sympathetic?
0 Are the openings sympathetic?
0 Are the materials sympathetic?
0 Is the landscaping sympathetic?


page lb
Site Plan Needs of Users (~) Shelter:
.'^) Is the construction of a level of quality to provide protection from the elements when necessary?
Are units clustered in such a way as to protect outdoor spaces from winter and storm winds?
) Are entrances oriented away from storms?
Are units clustered in such a way as to catch the winter sun? Are there provisions to shade outdoor spaces in the summer? f~) Self-Image*.
) Can each unit and related outdoor space he visually identified? ; Does each unit have some private outdoor space directly related to it (balcony, outdoor terrace)?
Is there a sense of unity to the project?
) Is there a sense of relatedness of the project to the residential neighborhood?
Q Is an urban lifestyle projected by the design of the project? Q Does the project appear to be well-built with an air of lasting quality?
(2) Orientation:
Q Does the project have a sense of place within the neighborhood (does it relate to the context)?
(2) Are windows oriented to take advantage of the sun for heat and daylighting?
Q Are openings arranged to facilitate breezes for ventilation?
Q Can windows be shaded when necessary?


page
77
j Is the potential for views maximized?
Is there a relationship between the project and local topography?
^ Privacy/lndividuality there is a recognition that there is some sacrifice of privacy in exchange for the amenities of city living: O Is territoriality enhanced through a clear sequence from public to semi-public to semi-private to private outdoor spaces?
Are massing and landscaping used to subdue street noise?
^ Are sound barriers provided between units?
^ Are massing and landscaping used to preserve visual privacy from the street?
Are massing and landscaping used to preserve visual privacy between units?
Security/Community physical closeness is not a guarantee of community involvement:
(3 Are public and semi-public spaces used to foster a sense of community?
Are physical barriers used only where necessary?
Are neighborhood amenities (bus stop, pocket park, walkthroughs, etc.) designed to provide interaction between the project and the neighborhood?
Can the "streets see in" to the project?
, Relationship to neighborhood:
~)Is the scale compatible with the neighborhood?
Qls the streetscape compatible with the neighborhood?


page 7&
Are setbacks compatible with the neighborhood?
Is landscaping compatible with the neighborhood?
Are stylistic details compatible with the neighborhood?
Is massing compatible with the neighborhood?
Access:
Are units connected to the street?
Is internal circulation between units provided?
Does internal circulation connect to the street?
Is parking relatively convenient to the units?
Is there adequate visitor parking?
Are transportation alternatives (mass transit, bicycling, walking) encouraged through design?
Is there provision for secure bicycle storage?
Do fire vehicles have access to all units?
Can utilities be efficiently provided for all units? Economical housing:
Is a relatively high-density achieved?
Are common walls maximized?
Are outdoor spaces kept small?
Are non-specific left-over spaces on the site minimized?
Is there a repetition of unit types?
Are elevators avoided or kept to a minimum?
Are interior public spaces minimized?
Is there an efficient arrangement of floor area within units? Is the shell of high quality construction with an emphasis on energy efficiency?


page 79
) Maintenance:
Is it clear who is responsible for the upkeep of outdoor spaces?
Is trash disposal convenient and unobtrusive?


page 30
Unit Plans Needs of Users Living*
Is its form flexible enough for alternative furniture arrangements?
Can it be separated from the main circulation pattern of the house?
Can it be visually and acoustically separated from the other interior spaces?
Is it connected to the private outdoor space so the living function can be easily extended outdoors?
Can it function as a temporary extension of the dining area? Are doors and windows placed to enhance view, daylighting and ventilation without violating Privacy?
Dining:
Is the space large enough to seat family and guests at a table?
Is it directly connected to a Kitchen?
2) Can it function as a secondary living or study space?
^2) Is it connected to the private outdoor space so the dining function can easily be extended outdoors?
(2) Are doors and windows placed to enhance view, daylighting and ventilation without violating privacy?
) Kitchen:
Q Is the equipment and counter arrangement efficient for food preparation?
(2) Is prepared food easily transferred from kitchen to dining


page 8/
space
Is it directly accessible to entry for ease of bringing in groceries, etc.?
Does if have adequate view and daylignting amenity?
Does it have adequate natural and/or mechanical ventilation to exhaust cooking odors?
Is there space for informal eating?
Primary bedroom:
Is the space flexible enough to have different furniture arrangements?
Can it accomodate a queen size bed?
Is there space for secondary furnishings? Chest of drawers, desk, chairs, bedside table, T.V.?
Is there adequate closet storage?
Is there adequate view, daylighting and ventilation?
Can it be acoustically isolated?
Does it have easy access to a bathroom?
Secondary bedrooms:
^ Can it accomodate a queen size bed?
Is there space for secondary furnishings?
) Is there adequate closet storage?
Is there adequate view, daylighting and ventilation?
Is there easy access to a bathroom?
Can it be acoustically isolated?
Is it flexible enough to function as a study?


page 0Z.
0 Bathi
0 Is there adequate space for fixtures?
Can the more private functions (bathing, elimination) be separated from the sink functions? Can it be used by more than one person at a time?
3 Is there adequate ventilation?
) Does it have adequate privacy separation?
0 Storagej
Is there adequate general storage for off-season clothing and equipment, automotive and garden tools, trunks, extra furniture, etc,?
Is the storage properly located throughout the house to minimize the distance objects must be moved?
Entry!
Is it directly accessible to living/dining/kitchen?
Does it have a clothing closet nearby?
Is it possible to view a person outside the door without being seen?
Does it have an airlock?
Is it protected from storms?
Outdoor spacei
~'N Is it large enough to accomodate outdoor furniture?
Is it easily accessible from living/dining/kitchen spaces?
Is it observable from other units or public spaces?
Is it securable?
/) Can shade be provided when necessary?
Is it protected from storms?


DESSERT dessert desser+ dessert dessert dessert dessert dessert dessert des
POIRES AU VIN ROUGE Pears In Red Vine
8 firm, medium-mimed pears 2/3 c. sugar
1 bottle (26 os.) red wine (Beaujolais or Rhone) strip of lemon peel
one cinnamon stick ***
3/4 c. heavy cream
2 t. sugar 1/2 t. vanilla
Choose saucepan that will fit pears in one layer, standing upright. Put sugar, 3/4 of the wine, the lemon peel and cinnamon stick into pan. Bring to a boil, stirring to dissolve sugar, and boil for 5 minutes. Let cool slightly. Peel pears, cut piece off bottoms so they will stand evenly in the pan and put into the pan. Add the additional wine if needed to cover the pears. Bring to a poaching temperature, cover with parchment paper and poach for a minimus of twenty minutes so that a dark line will not appear near the co£^/ftenove pan from heat and, if there is time, cool pears in the syrup for two or three hours (or longer, if desired).
Remove pears from syrup, strain the syrup to remove the lemon peel and cinnamon and cook it down until syrup is thickened, but not carmelised.
Taste and add lemon or sugar, if needed. Let syrup cool a little, pour it over the pears and chill well.
This dish may be made a day ahead of serving.
If desired, sweetened whipped cream (ingredients above) nay be served with the pears. Pipe it through a pastry bag and tip in an attractive garnish.


SOURCES


page <64
INTERVIEWS Interviews interviews interviews Interviews interviews interview
Jim Ash; Environmental Developers, Inc.; development considerations and typical costs in multi-unit residential construction.
David Cohen; Investment Councilor, Heitler Development; unit and project cost projection method.
Gary Crowell; Associate Professor, CED-UCD; site analysis.
Gary Gaglia; Real Estate Division, DURA; requirements for submission of bid for redevelopment of the Greyhound Parcel.
John Gray; Construction Loan Manager, Western Federal Savings; typical building cost estimates.
John Harris; Five Points Neighborhood Planner, Denver Planning Office; evolution of neighborhood.
Paul Heath; Staff Architect, CCD-UCD; programming procedure.
Dave Hill; Professor, CED-UCD; Planning analysis procedure.
Davis Holder; Associate Professor, CED-UCD; building cost estimates.
Mark Johnson; President, Intermountain Pacific Construction Company;
the role of the developer in successful building projects.
Robert Kindig; Professor, CED-UCD; thesis advisor.
John Koons; Structural Engineer; structural consultation.
Gaylen McFadien; Architect, DURA; problems and opportunities for residential development of DURA properties.
Jenifer Moulton; Architectural Designer, Barker Rinker Seacat, Inc.; problems of inner-city housing development and design.
Buzz Sampson; Mortgage Broker, Sonnenblick Goldman Corp. of Colorado; project cost assumptions.
Elizabeth Schlosser; Executive Director, Historic Denver, Inc.; Historic Denver's input to DURA on programming for the Greyhound Parcel.
G. K. Vetter; Professor, CED-UCD; general considerations for residential development.
George S. Writer, Jr.; President, The Writer Corporation; issues and
opportunities for residential development, an Arapahoe Place proposal, development cost breakdowns.


page 86
BIBLIOGRAPHY bibliography bibliography bibliography bibliography blbliograp Books and Reports
Alexander, Christopher, et.al. A Pattern Language. New Yorks Oxford University Press, 1977*
Benevolo, Leonardo. The Origins of Modern Town Planning. Cambridge,
Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 19^7
Bonta, Juan Pablo. Architecture and Its Interpretation. New York:
Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1979
Bruckman, Hansmartin, and David L. Lewis. New Housing in Great Britain.
New Yorks Universe Books Inc., i960.
Colorado Climatological Office; Colorado Solar Radiation Data.
August, 1979*
Davis, Sam, editor. The Form of Housing. New Yorks Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1977*
de Chiara, Joseph, and Lee Koppelman. Planning Design Criteria.
New Yorks Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1969.
Deilmann, Harald, et.al. The Dwelling. Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlag,
1973.
Denver Planning Office; Denver Atlas: A Sourcebook of Social and Economic Information. 1978.
Denver Planning Office; A Comprehensive Plan for Denver. May, 1978.
Denver Planning Office; Five Points Neighborhood Plan. March, 1975*
Denver Planning Office; Planning With Climate and Solar Energy. 1980.
Denver Urban Renewal Authority; Greyhound Residential Redevelopment Project. October, 1980.
Denver Urban Renewal Authority; Housing Market Study for the Skyline
Project, report by Real Estate Research Corporations Chicago, 1978.
Gray, Genevieve. Condominiums: How to Buy, Sell and Live in Them,,
New Yorks Funk & Wagnalls, 1975*
Griffin, C, W. Development Buildings The Team Approach. New Yorks John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1972.
Hoffman, Hubert. Row Houses and Cluster Houses, An International Survey. New Yorks Frederick A. Praeger, 1967.


page 06
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Cambridge, Mass.: The M. I. T. Press, 1971*
Mackay, David. Multiple Family Housing: From Aggregation to Integration.
New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1977*
Mazria, Edward. The Passive Solar Energy Book. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1979*
McKeever, J. R. Apartment Development: A Strategy for Successful Decision Making. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Land Institute, 197^+
Newman, Oscar. Design Guidelines for Defensible Space. U. S. Department
of Justice. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 197&.
Norcross, Dr. Carl. Townhouses and Condominiums: Resident's Likes and Dislikes. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1973*
O'Mara, W. Paul. Residential Development Handbook. Washington, D. C.:
The Urban Land Institute, 1978.
Paul, Samuel. Apartments. Their Design and Development. New York:
Reinhold Book Corporation, 1967*
Pena, William M. Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer. Boston: Cahners Books International, 1977*
Portman, John, and Jonathan Barnett. The Architect as Developer.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.
Rowe, Colin, and Fred Koetter. Collage City. Cambridge, Mass., 1978.
Schaenman, Philip S., and Thomas Muller, Measuring Impacts of Land Development. Washington, D. C.: The Urban Institute, 197^.
Schmitt, Karl Wilhelm. Multistory Housing. New York: Frederick A.
Praeger, Inc., 1966.
Sherwood, Roger. Modern Housing Prototypes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Snyder, James C., and Anthony J Catanese, eds. Introduction to Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1979*
Spreiregen, Paul D. Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19^5*
Swinburne, Herbert. Design Cost and Analysis for Architects and Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965.
Unger, Mauric A. How to Invest in Real Estate. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975*


page <0>7
Unterraann, Richard, and Robert Small. Site Planning for Cluster Housing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 197?.
U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Minimum Property Standards for Multifamily Housing. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1973*
Vogt, Lloyd J., and R. Allen Eskew. Modern Architectural Forms:
A Project Sourcebook. Englewood, N. J.: Aloray, Inc., 1974.
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APRES apres apres apres apres apres apres apres apres a-pres apres apres apr
Warm roasted walnuts Coffee or tea Port Cigars
Find a comfortable chair. Sit, relax and chat. Munch, drink and meditate. Be sure to offer cigars to the ladies.


PART 2 PHYSICAL DESIGN


page
INTRODUCTION introduction irtroducti or introduction introduction Irtroducti The following analyses and drawings summarize my design solution for the program requirements described in Part 1 of this book.
The initial market study relied on a market analysis done by the Real Estate Research Corporation for the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) Skyline Redevelopment Project. I have examined another study, extracted data from each and come up with the market potential for my project as designed.
My initial feasibility study has been revised to reflect actual floor areas of each unit type. In addition I was a little more conservative in my carrying time after project completion. Initially I assumed that I could sell 100% of the units in 4 months. Now I am using a figure of 100% in 12 months or an average of 6 months carrying time.
I am assuming that an aggressive marketing campaign on the strength of the design will result in substantial pre- and early-sales.
The Program Summary and photographs represent the physical design of the project as presented for jury evaluation on Kay5, 1981,
The Thesis Feast was realized on May 22, 1981. It was for me a fitting finish of my thesis and of three years of graduate study in
architecture