Citation
The Performing Arts Center

Material Information

Title:
The Performing Arts Center
Alternate title:
Performing art center
Creator:
Yang, Chia-Cheng
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
103, [15] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (some color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Centers for the performing arts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Buildings ( fast )
Centers for the performing arts ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 108).
General Note:
Cover title: Performing art center.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Chia-Cheng Yang.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13774927 ( OCLC )
ocm13774927
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .Y34 ( lcc )

Full Text
PERFORMING ART
CENTER


The Thesis of Chia-Cheng Yang is approved
University of Colorado at Denver May 14, 1986


THE PERFORMING ARTS CENTER
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Chia-Cheng Yang
Fall 1986


ge
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Thesis Statement ............
Background
A. Historic Background .........
B. Development of Theater Form
Site Analysis
A. Regional Map ...............
B. Site Picture ...............
C. Site Description
1. Access ...
2. Topography
3. View
4. Noise
5. Vegetation
6. Program Soil
A. Space Analysis ........
B. Space Requirements ...
C. Space Diagram .........
Physical Factors
A. User Needs ............
B. Code Analysis .......
C. Seating and Acoustics
Design .....................
Conclusion .................
Appendix
Bibliography


INTRODUCTION


STATEMENT
The Performing Art Center on Auraria urban campus is the important context in my thesis project. These contexts are relevant to the surrounding campus environment, planning principals and guidelines of Auraria Higher Education Center. All I have to do is to deal with these contexts which are based upon the related synthesis and continue to proceed the design stage.
The Auraria Higher Education Center is a new urban campus. It is situated on 169 acres across Cherry Creek from downtown Denver. AHEC not only brings a new look into Denver, but also serves the educational needs of the metropolitan area. There are four major gateways to the campus which are to be developed. Lawrence street becomes a linkage to downtown Denver. Tenth Street and Wazee Street become a gateway to the Platte Valley. Tenth Street also is planned as a campus "main street" a mall for pedestrian activity and circulation free of traffic flow. Ninth Street is a service entrance and will become another pedestrian mall connected to the Performing Art Center. Lawrence and Seventh Streets become a vehicular gateway. These will have important effect on the site in the future.
The existing character of Auraria campus is a new and old combination of buildings. The historic site and buildings provide a great variety of visual, aesthetic, and spiritual contributions to the campus. One such example is the church. St. Elizabeth can be
1


viewed from Arapahoe Street, or Lawrence Street, and the projecting Gothic spire of the church, seems to me, constitutes the entirety of the campus spirit.
The campus itself is very dynamic and active, but it seems to be short of appropriate spaces for students and faculties to communicate and meditate. To this fact, in addition, the three educational institutions at Auraria have Departments of Theater, of Music. Some of these departments have a problem owing to the lack of fixed place to practice their performances, to share the art and performance with the public. For this reason, the future Performing Art Center will provide these music-oriented (1,200 seats) needs and requirements.
Oswald Mathias Ungers, in "Architecture as Theme," says "A building without a theme, without a supporting idea is an architectural work without theoretical foundation," so to suggest. "Go beyond pure satisfaction of functions." So, we should ask ourselves first, "What is the image of Performing Art Center? Its theme?" The essence of art was never changed in the long passing history. In general, art serves two main functions: one is to express the complexity of the human world, its feeling, emotion, imagination, association and idea. Another is to communicate the message concepts and ideas. As music is expressed in composition; drama in the action, costume, and language, architecture utilities spatial composition, etc.
The theme of the Performing Art Center is "architecture as performance." Space, form and time are prepared to explain the theme. The performing space outside and inside, I
2


believe, should have intimate connection with students and performers, have images of common recognition and ideology, and define all parts according to their usage both physically and psychologically. As Louis Kahn said, "Form is not a shape, shape is a design affair, but form is a realization of inseparable components." The composition address that each part has its own identity or meaning. All parts form a whole, and the whole is the central image which has to respond to the building itself. Furthermore, form is not a monumental response, but rather shows the media of message to people. Time is linkage between past and future and is a continuous process which is reflected in the historic buildings of these times. The campus has some well-preserved buildings, such as Tivoli and St. Cajetan's Center, but it does not mean that we shall follow this related style and return to antiguity. However, the buildings will be a stimulus of creation and association.
The hypothesis of this rationale is based upon a problem-solving method from analysis to synthesis. These have some principle theories which mentioned the main problems of the theses and space, form and time above. These theories are the following components:
Contextualism
Contextual ism is looking for a source, a beginning. In other words, it is "the order," that were to be the starting point. A building must be what it "wants to be." The
3


material like brick or concrete, should tell the building what it will be as does the
form and space.
The context of the campus is the issue - the campus is situated in an urban area
which is surrounded by the Rocky Mountains as a natural sources of Colorado. There is a strong axis, for Lawrence and Larimer Streets, between downtown Denver and Auraria campus and visually connected to the Rocky Mountains. So, it is from the urban context, to the
campus, then pointing to the natural context. Urban context is a very hierarchical grid
system, the natural context is the sources of spirit. From order to sensibility, physical universe to abstract universe, the Performing Art Center should respond to both characters at the same time.
Transition
The concept of transition expresses change from one phase to another. For instance, nature is a constant process of transition. To make this clear we can look at an example such as the different forms of representation of the column, from the stump of a tree, column shaft, free-standing column, the crown column, then to the column as figure.
If life is a stage, some will never play a fixed role in their whole lifetime. It always changes dramatically even on stage or off stage. The architectural transition
4


expresses these subtle differences usually neglected between the contradiction and complexity of form and space. In fact, the science building, will start construction in 1986, and become the first impression of Auraria Campus as well as play an important role of gateway image. Similarly, the Performing Art Center and St. Cajetan's Center have the same function as a terminal image or vista of the future. Besides, transition needs to explain the context above from urban environment to natural source.
Genius Loci
Genius Loci is an ideal place where people can enjoy, relax or even meditate. This concept of place seems like the "Agora" for Greek or the "Forum" for Roman and "Quadrangle" for Chinese of the medieval age. Generally speaking, the Performing Art Center will adopt this concept. It will serve cultural place, performing place, communicating place and meditating place to pass the message to the public. To go beyond this functional explanation, the in-between space the thesis will explain what I try to approach the concept of Genius Loci. It is the ways of explaining the twin-phenomena of the world inside/outside, void/entity, active/static, feeling/reason, sun/shadow, laughter/sorrow, etc. The in-between space is relevant to the theory of Kisho Kurokawa-Rikyo Otray as will as Van Eyck's outside space inside. Their design ideas create not only the variety, contrast, flexibility of the space, blit it also explain and enrich the philosophy of human activity and behavior as it is selected to and interacts in the surrounding environment.
5


BACKGROUND


I 6
Regionl Map


7
Broadway


AR .............-Arts Bldg
AU ..............Auraria Library
BR ..............Bromley Building
BU ..............Business Services
CC ..............Child Care Center
CD ..............Child Development Center
CN ..............Central Classroom
DR ..............Dravo
EC --------------East Classroom
EG ..............Emmanuel Gallery
MR ..............Mercantile Restaurant
PE ..............Physical Education
PP ..............Physical Plant
PS ...............Public Safety
RO ...............Rectory Office
SA ---------------St Caietan's Center
SE ---------------St. Elizabeth's Church
SF ---------------St. Francis Center
SI ...............Science Building
SO ...............South Classroom
ST ...............Student Center & Book Center
TE ---------------Technology Building
Tv ---------------Tivoli
UA ...............UCD Administration
WC---------------West Classroom
-Speer Blvd South
Visitor Parking in Lots G & Q
Braille Map available at Disabled Student Services Central Classroom 108
^ Auraria Higher Education Center
Community College of Denver Metropolitan State College University of Colorado al Denver

Lot S


8
1985 AHEC


BACKGROUND
When the lure of gold brought prospectors across the plains to Colorado Territory in 1858, two downs across side by side at the foot of the Rockies. Auraria from the Latin word for gold was located on the west bank of Cherry Creek. Across the Creek a similar town named Denver.
Auraria's neighbors were several other settlements to the north including Denver City, Highland and St. Charles. Competition gave way to cooperation, and in 1860, Auraria and Denver consolidated in a formal ceremony which took place on the bridge at 15th and Larimer.
Original residents were primarily German and Irish. Over the years, Jewish and Mexi-can-American families settled the neighborhood. Reminders of the unique contributions of these groups remain in the historic structures on and near the campus.
Through the decades, Auraria remained an active community with flourishing business and residential districts. By the late 1960's, Auraria, like older parts of many cities, had become a likely prospect for urban renewal.
In 1967, the Auraria site (30' X 30' grid) was selected by Metropolitan State College from numerous suburban and urban sites. The $18 Million price was substantially higher, because of its proximity to downtown Denver, than that of the larger suburban sites. However, the Auraria location offered a greater opportunity for the people and knowledge
9


between the campus and the business center of the city and region.
Because the South Platte River flood plain roughly included the northwest third of the site, with that of Cherry Creek covering the east and northwest third, the essential campus buildings are on the higher portion of the ground with the parking lots, education field, open space and physical plant shops located on the lower two-thirds of the site.
All facilities of the Auraria Higher Education Center are shared facilities Library, Science Building, Student Center and Physical Education Building are grouped at the campus center. The identity of the each individual schools is maintained through the types of educational programs each offers.
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Some of the well-preserved historic buildings on campus as below:
Tivoli
The 114-foot tower of the Tivoli-Union Brewery is a striking landmark on the Denver skyline. Build in 1880 and was the first brewery in Colorado. In 1973 the buildings were acquired by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority to be transferred to the state as part of Auraria. Tivoli is under long-term lease to a private developer who will create an historic-flavored center for retail and commercial use.
St. Cajetan's Center
St. Cajetan Church has been retained on the Auraria Campus as a monument to Auraria's former Mexican- American community. Formerly a Spanish language church, it was erected when the population of Auraria became predominately Mexican-American in the 1920's.
11


St. Elizabeth Church
St. Elizabeth's parish was founded for and by German-speaking families in Denver in 1878, making it the city's second-oldest parish. The building was constructed in 1896 of stone transported from Castle Rock. Its architectural style is German-Gothic, and the spire stands 162 feet tall. It is recognized as one of the most beautiful church edifices in Denver.
Emmanuel Gallery
Emmanuel Gallery is a Romanesque, Gothic chapel which was build in 1874 and which is Denver's oldest standing place of worship. Originally an Episcopalian church, the building was later converted into a synagogue by the congregation of Shearith Israel. Now, Emmanuel Gallery is used as a student art gallery.
12


The Nine Street
Nine Street Historic Park is the oldest residential block intact in Denver. The oldest house in the park is at 1020 Ninth Street and was build in 1873. The houses are used for faculty offices and educationally related programs. It is a common for student activities and meditation and for public enjoyment.
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PRINCIPAL WESTERN THEATER FORM OUTLINE PLANS & CHRONOLOGY
PRIMITIVE
: CLASSICAL i o
?aC.-400A.D j . v
^ s
ANCIENT
GREEK ARCHAIC (IKRIA) GREEK CLASSICAL GRECO- HELLENISTIC ROMAN GRECO-ROMAN ODEUM
A v \ .
//' \\ \ ;( "\\ i
/ J ' , I
i ) - . 'W' j 'LL -'Lf 7 --'--i 'iff: -111 ft nm
L J
! V J
MODERN

LATE
RENAISSANCE | 1550 1650 1
SINGLE VISTA STAGE (Strlio)
MULTIPLE VISTA STAGE (Palladio)
PROSCENIUM STAGE (Alllotti)
THEATER of SHAKESPEARE
GRANDE SALLE
HORSE SHOE-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM STAGE
THEATER OF THE RESTORATION
BAROQUE NEO-BAROQUE 1650 1070
FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM STAGE
FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM. APRON. CALIPER STAGE
PARTIALLY ENVELOPING AUDITORIUM THRUST STAGE
.
L
AUDITORIUM
FULLY ENVELOPING AUDITORIUM IN-THE-ROUND STAGE
ORCHESTRA
NO SCALE
CONTEMPORARY 1870 1970 j

v v |

IILliKK This graphic reference table shows the basic ground plans of ancient and modern theaters. No si ale is intended or implied, hut the shifting of emphasis between shape and position among auditorium, orchestra, and stage is basic to understanding the historiographv of theater design. To relate matters of scale and si/e, refer to the drawing portfolios of specific theater buildings in Chapters It and 7 and the juxlapositional line drawings of Chapter 12. |C. C. l/enour Archive)


Historical Summary
performances an architect to solve, building was
The design of an arena for is one of the most complex can be called upon Traditionally theater as the responsibility of the architect virtually working alone. He had to solve all problems associated with designing, structuring, seeing,
hearing, seating, ventilating and lighting. History shows that the Greeks and Romans found out by
empirical means that speech and hearing are essentially directional and are
both straight line phenomena. It was therefore obvious that the performer and the audience had to be brought into as close and unrestricted relationship as possible. Thus the theater "in the round" developed. Through time the
"performer" emerged as an entity apart from the audience, while the audiences became increasingly larger. The rite became formalized, away from the impromptu in-the-round form and became organized into a sophisticated form that became both predictable and repeatable performance.
Finally disciplined to high art, it automatically imposed order upon the design of both visual and aural systems of communication, which became absolutely essential if the passive spectors from positions of seated comfort were to see and hear the performers.
Modern theater design is concerned with manipulation of three basic geometries that control design. The originating system is the unified, essentially democratic one of the classical theater. The other two having their origins in the former, are (1) The horse shoe-shaped, fragmented, and vertically stratified system of the baroque and (2) the wedge (fan) shaped plan of the last 100 years. "Today there is virtually infinite variation both rectilinear and curvilinear within the parameters of these separate seating geometries.
15


SITE ANALYSIS




South-west View
17


West View


SITE DESCRIPTION
The site of the Performing Art Center is situated on the south of Tivoli. Its existing use now is the parking lot Lot G. The site is about 3.4 acres, including the sidewalks. The following categories address the existing physical facts.
Access
There are three convenient accesses for pedestrians to arrive on site. One is from Lawrence Street where it connects the main gateway with downtown. Another is from Larimer Street where it serves the similar function with Lawrence Street. Except that, it also plays an important role for the patrons after joining their activities in Tivoli then come by the Performing Art Center. The third is from the Ninth Street Park where it connects the pedestrian mall to Tivoli and form the entirety of this mall. As for the vehicular access, it is mainly from the 8th and Larimer Streets. The place for the handicapped parking is between the site and Student Center.
Topography
Topography of the site is inclined toward the west direction. The highest point is in the upper right corner and the lowest point is in the lower left corner elevation 5187.3 feet which is lower than Denver's elevation of 5280 feet. The difference of
19


height between highest and lowest point is 12.7 feet in term of one story height difference. Generally speaking, the average slope is almost equal to three percent and smooth. Usually the slope between 3 to 5 percent is good condition for development.
View
Two main directions are composed of the site view. Walking the sidewalk which faces with the Student Center, the view changes gradually from left corner to right corner. First, the spire of St. Elizabeth's Church behind the library was to be seen at first impression, then, the skylines of downtown come into sight and reach to the climax dramatically. It is a very pleasant experience in terms of the composition of wide open spaces
and buildings, and of the skylines of Denver to be used as a good background. The end of
Lawrence Street and Larimer Street from the physical viewpoint, both point to the Rocky Mountains as a visual axis. These facts are valued to the site.
Noise
Noises are directly from Lawrence Street and Larimer Street and 8th Street partially. It needs to have buffer areas to reduce the impact as least as possible. Considering
the theater's design, it is important to isolate the noise sources completely by means of
some considerations on site planning, design and structure.
20


Vegetation
Vegetation around the site will be used to mask and visually break up lots of cars, making this area less of an eyesore. Selection of vegetations was made from the native and drought tolerant dry land plants. Buffalo Grass or Blue Grama Grass are used for the lawn, which required continual mowing and a great amount of water. Buffalo Grass which grows to six inches seldom requiring water after it becomes established. Blue Grass grows to twelve inches and will be used in large berms.
Soil
The top layer of the site was made of asphalt for parking lot, concrete slab and part of the grass area. The subsoil is alluvium deep, loamy and sandy composition. Because of the flood hazard from Cherry Creek, it is not permitted to consider the use of basement and change the topography greatly.
21


UBId
piJO/p0ld


Pedestrian
Analysis
__ EXISTING mm BUILDINGS
MAJOR
CIRCULATION MINOR
CIRCULATION GATEWAY
0 50 150




Spacial Analysis
US LANDMARK
ESS STRONG SPACE
1 PATH/LINK
NODE
BOUNDARY
0 50 160 300 500
-w "U J


View Analysis
<
HISTORICAL
LANDMARK
OUTSIDE VIEW
INSIDE VIEW


V
Vehicular Analysis
CHERRY CREEK
VEHICULAR
ACCESS
SERVICE
ACCESS
BUS STOP
0 50 150


Access
PEDESTRIAN VEHICULAR
T = 100-0"


OPQ


View/Noise
Vegetation
f = 100-0"


Utility
SANITARY
SEWER
ELECTRITY
WATER GAS
lllllllllllllllllllllllllll
STORM
SEWER
1" 100-0"


PROGRAM


SPACE ANALYSIS
There are three basic parts of a performing arts facility: The audience space (includes stage), backstage space and administrative space.
The Audience Space (See Fig. 1 )
It is the heart of the facility, and is made up of the stage and seating for the audience. In any Performing Art Center, the design of the stage shape and the capacity
of the space are the major considerations. Only after these key decisions are made can the rest of the facility be planned.
Of another importance are good hearing and sightlines to every part of the performance areas. This means that an effective compromise must be made between width and depth of the audience space.
Backstage Space (See Fig.2 )
The main function is to support the stage space. It includes production preparation areas (where materials are constructed), dressing rooms, make-up and costume shop for the performers, the technical equipments (lighting, acoustics installations, mechanical device for opening the curtain and raising the orchestra pit, etc.) and storage space.
31


Administrative Space
It is mainly for the convenience and efficiency of theater patrons, include the
foyer, lobby, lounge, ticket office, rest rooms, and art room, and art gallery.
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
I. The Audience Space (1,200 seats)
Large Theater Dance Studio
Small Theater (300 seats)
Area (ft) 15,000 3,500 5,000
Total 23,500
II. Backstage Space
Print Shop 750
Scene Shop 5,000
Prop Storage 1,200
Make-up 1,000
Dressing Room 2,000
Rehearsal Space 3,000
Costume Shop 650
Rest Room 600
Storage 2,500
Technical Control Booth 200
Technician's Office 250
Mechanical/Electrical Room 700
Lighting/Sound Booth 200
Vestibule 125
Total 18,175
32


Ill.
Administrative Space
Foyer 1,200
Lobby 2,400
Ticket Office 50
Art Gallery 4,000
Bar/Lounge 400
Office 450
Secretary 50
Kitchen 150
Rest Room 500
Workshop 500
Storage 150
Art Room 2,500
Conference Room 200
Lecture Room 2,000
Total 14,550
I. II. III. Totals 56,225
Note: Comparison of some 19th and 20th-century halls; seven 19th-century halls with ex
cellent acoustics, eight 20th-century halls with mediocre acoustics. All numbers are median values.
19th-Century Halls 20th-Century Halls
1. Seating and orchestral areas 14,000 sq. ft. 23,000 sq
2. Ceiling Height 60 ft. 52 ft.
3. Width 70 ft. 128 ft.
4. Initial-Time-Delay Gap 20 msec. 30 msec.
5. T500-1000 (occup.) 1.7 sec. 1.5 sec
6. Substantial amount of thin wood in theater? No Yes
33


SPACE ORGANIZATION
Scene Shop
Work Shop Storage
Paint Shops Props
Elec.
Toilets
Foyer
Coats
Dressing Room
Costumes
Restrooms
Vestibule
Rehearsal Room Stage
Auditorium
Office
Lobby
Ticket Office
34


Fig. 1
Composite audience flow chart,
f-------------------------------- leave* theatrereturns after show-
35


I t
SOLID LINES-------PERSONNEL
BROKEN LINES-------MATERIALS
Flow chart for actors in the theatre.
36


SPACE: foyer
AREA: 1,200 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
FACILITY/FURNITURE
Entrance to the theater
User: up to 1,000 Activity Level: high Min. Area: 10 Min. Height: 12' No. of Space: 1 Daylight: Yes
Chairs, vending machine, telephone booth
SERVICES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH.
I 1 hot water I I cold water I I steam
gas
I x,J air cond. Cx~l healing I 1 exhaust

SOUND
speakers CD amplifiers 1 1 microphones
| | tape decks
ELEC.
m outlets CD specilities CD telephone CD intercom 1 1 audio-visual

LIGHTING
CD house lights
work lights
stage lighting
FINISHES
1 x 1 walls.
1 x I ceilings CD floors CD doors CD windows
OTHER
37


SPACE lobby FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
AREA: 2,400 sq. ft.
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
FACILITY /FURNITURE
Entrance intermission consider as a social
User: up to 200
Tables, chairs, information desk, signs
occasion as well as dramatic entertainment
Activity Level- high Min. Area' 2 sq- ft*
of seats
Min. Height: 2 story No. of Space: 1
Daylight: ves
SERVICES
MECH.
ELEC-
FINISHES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
I 1 hot water I x| cold water I I steam
gas
I xl air cond. m heating I I exhaust

SOUND
DD speakers O] ampl ifiers microphones I | tape decks
1 x 1 outlets dH specilities m telephone CU intercom
I_1 audio-visual

LIGHTING
[xd house lights
work lights
stage lighting
I x I walls. m ceilings I x I floors GO doors m windows
OTHER
A combination of exhibition space and lobby is desirable
38


SPACE: TICKET OFFICE AREA: 50 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Sell tickets and function of information Needs security User: 1 3 Activity Level'- low Min. Area'- 30 sq. ft. Min. Height'- 9' No. of Space: 1 Daylight: allowable Ticket racks, desks, chairs, tables
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 1 cold water 1 1 steam gas rxl air cond. Cxi heating 1 1 exhaust ELEC. DO outlets CO specilities CO telephone 1x 1 intercom 1 1 audio-visual O FINISHES 1 x 1 walls CO ceilings m floors CO doors CO windows CO gT m
SOUND speakers amplifiers 1 1 microphones 1 1 tape decks LIGHTING CZI house lights SH work lights CZI stage lighting OTHER There are perferably two ticket windows
39


SPACE: ART gallery
AREA: 4,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
FACILITY/FURNITURE
Exhibit school's or community's works
User: up to 500 Activity Level: high low Min. Area: 1,200 sq. ft. Min. Height: 10'
No. of Space: 1 Daylight: yes
Information desk, work tools for exhibiting preparation
SERVICES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH.
1 1 hot water
I 1 cold water 1 1 steam
gas
1 x 1 air cond. m heating I 1 exhaust

SOUND
CD speakers DO amplifiers microphones [~n tape decks
ELEC.
CD outlets CD specilities CD telephone CXI intercom Cxi audio-visual
CD
LIGHTING
CD house lights DO work lights CD stage lighting
FINISHES
I x 1 walls.
CD ceilings CD floors CD doors CD windows
CD
OTHER
40


SPACE- BAR/LOUNGE FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
AREA'- 400 sq. ft.
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
FACILITY/FURNITURE
Serve light food and drinks
User: 10 80 Activity Level: Min. Area: 4 Min. Height: No. of Space: Daylight: yes
high
Vending machines, sofas, tables, telephone
sq. ft./person
12'
1
SERVICES
MECH.
ELEC-
FIN I
SHES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
I I hot water
I I cofd water
I I steam
gas 1 x 1 air cond. fx I heating
DD outlets CH specilities
1.x .1 telephone I I intercom 1 ! audio-visual

1 x 1 walls.
OH ceilings [HI floors [XU doors CZ] windows
cm
1 x 1 exhaust

SOUND
LIGHTING
OTHER
DO speakers CCd amplifiers [CZ] microphones | | tape decks
\I2 house lights work lights CZ! stage lighting
41


SPACE'- ART ROOM AREA: 2,500 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
It is used for class instruction, choral work and as a dressing room for large group User: 20 40 Activity Level; medium Min. Area'- Chalk-board, bulletin board, tablet, armchairs, projector, television, projection screen
Min. Height: No. of Space: 3 Daylight: yes
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. ELEC. FINISHES
1 x 1 hot water 1 x 1 cold water steam gas 1 x 1 air cond. HH heating fx I exhaust CD outlets specilities d] telephone 1 1 intercom PH audio-visual 1 x 1 walls. m ceilings [ X 1 floors vinyl , , asbestos [XU doors 1 x 1 windows s*^ /art gH (x) V
SOUND LIGHTING OTHER
1 1 speakers [XU amplifiers ]x 1 microphones | 1 tape decks house lights CD work lights (ZU stage lighting
42


SPACE '- CONFERENCE ROOM AREA200 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Will be used for case conferences User: 5 10 Activity LeveL low Min. Area'- 100 sq. ft-Min. Height: 10' No. of Space: 1 Daylight: yes Large tables, chairs, projection screen
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 1 cold water 1 1 steam gas m air cond. D heating 1 x I exhaust ELEC- DO outlets 1 1 specilities 1 1 telephone intercom 1 x 1 audio-visual Finishes 1 x 1 walls. Qd ceilings Qd floors [Jd doors 1 x | windows
SOUND speakers [ID amplifiers microphones | | tape decks LIGHTING house lights [Zd work lights stage lighting OTHER
43


SPACE'- lecture room AREA'- 2,ooo sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Give a lecture or Symposium or seminar room. User: io 50 Activity LeveL medium Min. Area'- 2oo sq. ft. Min. Height: 12. No. of Space: 3 Daylight: yes Platform, tables, chairs, projection screen, television, chalk-board
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 1 cold water 1 1 steam gas 1 x 1 air cond. 1 x | heating 1 x 1 exhaust ELEC- DO outlets CZH specilities Cm telephone Cm intercom 1 x | audio-visual FINISHES 1 x 1 walls. CT1 ceilings QC! floors CX] doors 1 x | windows Q. SOUND speakers 1 x 1 amplifiers fx~l microphones | | tape decks LIGHTING Ex] house lights tm work lights Cm stage lighting OTHER
44


SPACE- THEATER AREA 15,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Performing space for different types of performances, music, dance and theater User: up to 1,200 Activity Level'- high Min. Area 6 sq. ft./person Min. Height' 20' No. of Space: 1 Daylight'- No Armed-chair
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 1 cold water steam gas 1 x 1 air cond. Un heating 1 1 exhaust ELEC- CxH outlets specilities telephone CXU intercom 1 x I audio-visual FINISHES 1 x 1 walla PH ceilings PH floors DO doors 1 x I windows ( w.s. j f P.S. J f d.r. J 00^0 I 0
SOUND LxJ speakers |x | amplifiers IxJ microphones [T-] tcipe decks LIGHTING ExU house lights CU work lights [HI stage lighting OTHER
45


SPACE- DANCE STUDIO
AREA'- 3,500 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
Dancers practice room
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
User: 10 30 Activity Level' medium Min. Area: 2,000 Min. Height: 12'
No. of Space: 1 Daylight: yes
FACILITY/FURNITURE
Balance bar, mirrors, recorder
SERVICES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH.
I x 1 hot water I x I cold water 1 I steam
gas
m air cond. Cxi heating 1 1 exhaust

SOUND
DO speakers CD amplifiers 1 1 microphones
nn tape decks
ELEC-
CD outlets Cd specilities dll telephone HZ] intercom Cm audio-visual
LIGHTING
house lights DO work lights CD stage lighting
FINISHES
I x I walls Cxi ceilings I x 1 floors Cm doors cm windows
OTHER
46


SPACE SCENE SHOP AREA: 5,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTION /ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Supply room for storage of bulky materials, especially lumber, building board and rolls of cloth User: 5-30 Activity Level: medium Min. Area'- 900 sq. ft. Cabinets, tool racks, saw, jointer, drill press, woodworking benches.
Min. Height: 30' No. of Space: 1 Daylight: No
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. ELEC. FINISHES
1 1 hot water 1 1 cofd water 1 1 steam gas CO air cond. UT~1 heating fx 1 exhaust OG outlets HZ] specilities CO telephone mU intercom 1 1 audio-visual mu 1 1 walls fxU ceilings f~xU floors mU doors 1 1 windows mu /staged (UTjyUmU
SOUND LIGHTING OTHER
LO speakers IUU amplifiers [ZH microphones | | tape decks mU house lights [xU work lights mU stage lighting It should adjoin the stage storage space.
47


SPACE: prop shop AREA: 1>2oo sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Provision for the fabrication of properties in wood, metal, and other materials. User: i 4 Activity Level: low Min. Area: 150 sq. ft. Min. Height: 12' No. of Space: j Daylight: No Cyclorama, partitions, shelves
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 I cold water 1 1 steam gas 00 air cond. 1 1 heating 1 x 1 exhaust ELEC. DO outlets OH specilities OH telephone OH intercom 071 audio-visual on FINISHES 1 1 walls 00 ceilings 00 floors 1 1 doors 1 1 windows on ( stor. ) (P- s-) j TstageJ
SOUND 00 speakers amplifiers [ 1 microphones 1 | tape decks LIGHTING On house lights DlI work lights 00 stage lighting OTHER
48


SPACE make-up
AREA'- 1,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
FACILITY/FURNITURE
To serve as actors preparation before the performance
User: 20 40 Activity Level: medium Min. Area ioo sq. ft. Min. Height: 10'
No. of Space: 2 Daylight: allowable
Make-up table or benches, chairs on two sides
SERVICES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH.
CD hot water CD cold water n steam
gas
1 x 1 air cond. CD heating I x 1 exhaust

SOUND
CD speakers I I amplifiers CD microphones I | tape decks
ELEC.
CD outlets CD specilities CD telephone I .1 intercom CD audio-visual
CD
LIGHTING
CD house lights CD work lights CD stage lighting
FINISHES
lx I walls.
CD ceilings lx 1 floors ED doors CD windows
CD
OTHER
49


SPACE DRESSING ROOM AREA: 2,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Dress for performance take off street clothes, put on make-up, costume User: 30-50 performers Activity Level'- High Min. Area'- ^ s9* ft- per person Min. Height: 9' No. of Space: 4 Daylight'- yes Clothes hangers, shoe rack, make-up table (30" wide, 15" deep), mirrors (l8" wide)
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. ELEC. FINISHES
1 x 1 hot water 1 x | cold water 1 1 steam dH gas 1 x 1 air cond. m heating CTI exhaust Cm outlets tm specilities Cxll telephone Cm intercom 1 1 audio-visual 1 x 1 walls, tm ceilings 1 x 1 floors Cm doors EC] windows
SOUND tXJ speakers Cm amplifiers Cm microphones I | tape decks LICHTING house lights tm work lights stage lighting OTHER
50


SPACE rehearsal space
AREA: 3,000 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
FACILITY/FURNITURE
Have floors suitable for dancing and a piano and be quiet and pleasant to facilitate concentration
User: 20 50 musicians Activity Level: medium Min. Area: 500 sq. ft.
Min. Height: 13'
No. of Space: \ larff
4 small
Daylight: No
Piano, mirrors and bars for dancers, cloths lockers, bulletin boards, 24 sturdy chairs and tables
SERVICES
SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH.
hot water dl cold water
steam
gas
I y 1 air cond. [T1 heating 1 1 exhaust

SOUND
CO speakers to amplifiers CO microphones PH tape decks
ELEC.
CO outlets CZ] specilities 1 1 telephone 1 1 intercom Cxi audio-visual
LIGHTING
tm house lights work lights cm stage lighting
FINISHES
1 x 1 walls.
I x 1 ceilings CO floors CO doors CO windows
OTHER
Should reproduce stage conditions as' closely as possible.
51


[ SPACE costumes AREA: 650 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Equip to fabricate any imaginable costume User: 5-20 Activity Level'- medium Min. Area'- 420 sq. ft. Min. Height: io' No. of Space: 2 Daylight: allowable Long cutting tables, chairs, hand ironing boards, electric ironers, steam presser, mirrors, sewing machines and tables
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 1 cold water CHI steam gas PH air cond. m heating Pxl exhaust ELEC. Pxl outlets PHI specilities PHI telephone PH intercom 1 1 audio-visual PH FINISHES [Zd walls PH ceilings PH floors f 1 doors 1 1 windows PH
SOUND PH speakers PH amplifiers PH micro[)hones I | tape decks LIGHTING PH house lights PHI work lights PH stage lighting OTHER
52


SPACE TECHNICAL CONTROL BOOTH AREA: 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Allow 3 persons to share space: 1 sound technician 1 stage manager 1 lighting technician User: 1 3 Activity Level' low Min. Area' 66 sq. ft. Min. Height: lo' No. of Space: i Daylight: No Tables, chairs, filing cabinets
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water 1 1 cold water 1 1 steam gas 1 x 1 air cond. DO healing 1 x 1 exhaust ELEC. EE outlets EH specilities Lx] telephone EX] intercom f~l audio-visual FINISHES lx 1 walls. EE ceilings lx 1 floors EE doors EE windows EE ^stage^
SOUND LX] speakers dH amplifiers fTl microphones I | tape decks LIGHTING EE house lights EC work lights EE stage lighting OTHER
53


SPACE- TECHNICIAN'S OFFICE AREA' 250 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY'FURNITURE
Serve as management of backstage stage manager, technical director User: 1 4 Activity LeveL low Min. Area: 80 sq. ft. Min. Height: 10 No. of Space: 1 Daylight: No Desk, chair, filing cabinet, bookshelves, drafting table
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. 1 1 hot water cold water 1 1 steam gas CxO air cond. m heating 1 1 exhaust ELEC- Cm outlets Cm specilities lJLl telephone Cm intercom 1 1 audio-visual FINISHES 1 x 1 walls, m ceilings 1 x 1 floors Cm doors Cm windows cm ^stage^ I
SOUND tZU speakers amplifiers CH] microphones I | tape decks LIGHTING [ 1 house lights Cm work lights stage lighting OTHER
54


SPACE- lighting/sound booth AREA: 200 sq. ft.
FUNCTION /ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Serve as sound/light control and recording room User: 1 4 Activity Level'- low Min. Area 100 sq. ft. Min. Height: 10' No. of Space: 1 Daylight: No Tables, chairs, cameras, sound/light board
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. DO hot water 1 x| cold water 1 1 steam gas 1 x 1 air cond. HU heating 1 x 1 exhaust ELEC- CO outlets [O speci 1 ities lx I telephone CO intercom fO audio-visual FINISHES 1 x 1 walls. CO ceilings f~xH floors 1 x 1 doors 1 1 windows ^stage^
SOUND LxJ speakers PH amplifiers | x | microphones [T1 tape decks LIGHTING house lights O work lights IO stage lighting OTHER
55


SPACE- VESTIBULE AREA: 125 sq. ft.
FUNCTION/ACTIVITY GENERAL CONSIDERATION FACILITY/FURNITURE
Central to all backstage departments User: 1 3 Activity Level' medium Min. Area: 50 sq. ft. Min. Height: 10 No. of Space: 1 Daylight: yes Time clock or other in-out indicator, bulletin board, telephone booth with muffled bell
SERVICES SPATIAL DIAGRAM
MECH. GH hot water Cm cold water steam gas 1 x 1 air cond. Cxi heating Cm exhaust ELEC- CO outlets Cm specilities Lx.-] telephone 1 1 intercom Cm audio-visual cm FINISHES 1 x 1 walls. Cm ceilings Cm floors [m doors 1 1 windows cm (load.pj ( w.s. ) (stage)
SOUND speakers Cm amplifiers | 1 microphones | | tape decks LIGHTING [Ed house lights Cm work lights Cm stage lighting OTHER
56


PHYSICAL FACTOR


USER NEEDS
The existing facility of performing space is in the Arts Building. It was shared by the three institutions: University of Colorado (UCD), Metropolitan State College (MSC) and Community College of Denver (CCD). In general, there are two theaters, three large rehearsal rooms (for band choral and orchestra, one small chamber music room, two recording studios, and other support areas such as: scene shop, instrument storage, and dressing rooms, (See Fig.3 ). The following will talk about their department of Music, of Theater and needs.
The Music Departments
University of Colorado (UCD)
This program is designed for students seeking preparation for professional careers in recording, broadcasting, film, and entertainment industries. Four areas of concentration are available: Applied Music, Music Management, Scoring and Arranging, and Sound Syn-
thesis and Recording.
Metropolitan State College (MSC)
MSC offers two degrees in music: Music Education and Music Performance. The emphasis of the program is performance from solo to ensemble.
57


The Theater Departments
UCD
The Communication and Theater Department of UCD offers a B.A. in the arts and sciences. The communication provides the student with a variety of theoretical aspects and communication skill. The theater provides experiences in workshop, full production and field work.
MSC
MSC offers a communications multi-major for a B.A. degree. Among the specific areas of emphasis through the Speech Communication Department are degrees in Broadcasting and Theater Administration.
The following are the introduction of requirement as below:
Need a good and adjustable acoustical music hall.
Require different sizes of performance space in order to fit for the functions from small ensemble to orchestra.
Provide an orchestra pit and enough storage space for instruments.
Provide an experimental theater to seat 150-300 persons with modular system in lighting, mechanical, shaft and ceiling pattern.
Adjustable seating arrangement should be considered in experimental theater.
58


Fig
3
MUSIC
280 - Instrument Storage
281 - Storage
283 - Band Rehearsal, Lecture 28S A-F Electronic Music Core
28S G and J Small Recording Studio
285 H Large Recording Studio
289 - Chamber Music
293 - Choral Rehearsal Room
294 - Music Library and Copying
295 - Orchestra Rehearsal Room
290 A-U Private Rehearsal Rooms 288 A-P Faculty Offices Music
286 A-G Faculty Offices Art
284 A-W Private Lesson Rooms
THEATER
271 - MSC Theater
272 - Scene Shop
271 A Dressing Room 278 A Dressing Room 278 UCD Theater
273 - Offices
274 - Offices
275 - Offices
60


CLIMATE ANALYSIS
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold weather of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer. Wind is lessened by the proximity of the mountains. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of sort duration.
In the cold season, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains are too shallow to reach Denver's altitude. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the mountains. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated on the same latitude.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by a high mountain barrier, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable clear-sky sunshine.
As for the seasons, spring is the cloudiest, wettest, and windiest season. Much of the 39 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder periods of the season. Summer precipitation about (31 percent of the annual total) particularly in July and August, usually falls during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon
61


and many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the pleasant season. Local summer thunderstorms are over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are still infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than any other time of the year. Winter has less precipitation. There is more cloudiness and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Weather can be quite severe, but as a general rule the severity does not last long.
Temperature (See Fig. 4 )
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are rare. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing.
Precipitation (See Fig.4 )
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. The winter months are normally the driest months. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer. Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to 0.1 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded is 3.55 inches.
62


Wind (See Fig.4 and Fig.5 )
Wind speed in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall. Because of the night time drainage wind down the South Platte Valley,
south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and afternoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent.
Clear/Cloudy (See Fig. 4 )
Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover).
Solar Radiation (See Fig. 4 and Fig.6 )
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorbtion by the earth's vaporous atmosphere.
63


I FMAMJ JASQND
annual =64
total precipitation = 15.51 inches
annual = 9.1 mph max. = 56 mph
64


WIND
WIND FACTORS
Fig. 5
Strongest Wind
From northwest every month of year
The Primary Wind
From the south every month of year
The Secondary Wind
Winter - From north-northwest
Fall - From north
Spring and Summer - From north-east
legend
wind speed
4 -12mph m
13-24mph n=L
>24mph BESB
Annual frequency of winds of various velocities at Stapleton Airport, Denver, Colorado.
65


SOLAR CHART-DENVER
LAT. 3950'N LONG 10450,W
Fig. 6
SOLAR ANGLES
Solar Time Altitude Azimuth
June 21
7 a. m. 26.2 99.7
8 a m. 37.4 90.7
9 a. m. 41.9 80.2
10 a.m. 59.8 65.8
11 a.m. 69.2 41.2
12 noon 73.4 0.0
March 21/Sept. 21
7 a.m. 11.4 80.2
8 a.m. 22.5 69.6
9 a.m. 32.8 57.3
10 a.m. 41.6 41.9
11 a.m. 47.7 22.6
12 noon 50.0 0.0
Dec. 21
7 a.m. 0.0 58.7
8 a.m. 5.5 53.0
9 a.m. 14.0 41.9
10 a.m. 20.7 29.4
11 a.m. 25.0 15.2
12 noon 26.5 0.0
66


HEATING DEGREE DAYS, BASE 65 F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO
Ui
O
<
z
D
(/>
DATA SOURCE:
U S. WEATHER BUREAU 19411970, DENVER


CODE ANALYSIS
1. Occupancy Group (Table 5-A) Group Description A-l Assembly building with a stage and and occupant load of 1000 or more in the building.
2. Allowable Floor Area (Table 5-C)
Types of Construction
Occupancy I II III IV V F.R. F.R. 1-H.R. N. 1-H.R. N. H.T. 1-H.R. N. A-l Unlimited 29,900 Not permitted N = No requirements for fire resistance F.R. = Fire Resistive
H.T. = Heavy Timber
3. Maximum Height of Buildings (Table 5-D)
Allowable Stories Unlimited Allowable Height Unlimited
68


4.
Requirements for Group A Occupancies
Location on Property (Sec. 603)
Buildings Group A Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street not less than 20 feet in width. The access to the public street should be a minimum 20-foot-wide right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
All portions of the buildings used by human occupants should be provided with artificial and natural light. The mechanically operated ventilating system should be capable of supplying a minimum of 5 cubic feet per minute of outside air with a total circulated of not less than 15 cubic feet per minute per occupant.
5. Type I Construction
Definition (Sec. 1801)
The structure elements in Type I buildings should be of steel, iron, concrete or masonry. Walls and permanent partitions should be of noncombustible fire-resistive construction.
69


Structure Framework (Sec. 1802)
Structure framework should be of structural steel or iron reinforced concrete or masonry.
Exterior Walls and Openings (Sec. 1803)
(a) Exterior Walls Exceptions:
1. Nonbearing walls fronting on public ways or yards having a width of at least 40 feet may be of unprotected noncombustible construction.
2. Exterior nonbearing walls may be of one-hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction where fire unprotected openings are permitted.
(b) Openings in Walls
All openings should be protected by a fire assembly having a three-four-hour fire-protection rating when they are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property.
Stairs (Sec. 1805)
Stairs and platforms shall be constructed on reinforced concrete, or steel. Brick, marble, tile may be used for the finish of such treads and risers.
70


Roofs (Sec.1806)
Roofs and their members other than structural frame more than 25 feet above any floor may be of unprotected noncombustible materials.
6. Fire-Resistive Requirements Type I Construction (Table 17-A)
Rating (hour)
Exterior Bearing Walls 4
Interior Bearing Walls 3
Exterior Nonbearing Walls 4
Structural Frame 3
Permanent Partitions 12
Shaft Enclosures 2
Floors 2
Roofs 2
Exterior Doors and Windows 3/4
71


7. Occupancy Unit Live Load (Table 23-A)
Occupancy or Use Live Load (Sq.Ft.)
Assembly
Theater (Fixed seating area) 50
Lobby (Movable seating) 100
Stages, Gridirons, Fly Galleries 125
Corridors 100
Storage
Light 125
Heavy 250
Offices 50
Rest Rooms 50
Stairs 100
Classrooms 40
72


8. Exits
A. Occupant Load
Use Occupant Load (Sq. Ft.)
Assembly 7
Conference Rooms 15
Dining Rooms 15
Art Gallery 15
Lounges 15
Stages 15
Classrooms 20
Mechanical Room 300
Offices 35
Storage 300
B. Number of Exits
Every building shall have at least one exit. The second story shall be provided with not less than two exits when the occupant load is 10 or more.
73


C. Arrangement of Exits (Sec. 3303)
At least 30 feet apart.
D. Distance to Exits
Maximum travel distance to exit 150 Feet
(No automatic fire sprinkler system)
Travel distance with automatic 200 Feet
fire sprinkler system
E. Side Exits
Provide a direct, obvious and unobstructed travel open directly to a public way, court, stairway.
F. Door Width and Height (Sec. 3304)
Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches in height.
74


Corridor and Exterior Balconies
Minimum width Minimum height Minimum dead end
Stairways (Sec. 3306)
a. Width
44 Inches 36 Inches 30 Inches
b. Rise
Maximum
Minimum
c. Run
Minimum
Sec. 3365)
44 Inches 7 Feet 20 Inches
50 or more occupants
49 or less occupants
10 or less occupants
7 1/2 Inches 4 Inches
10 Inches
75


d. Landings equal to width of stairway Maximum
12 Feet (verticular distance
Minimum
e. Ramps
Width
Slope, Maximum (without fixed seats) Slope, Maximum (with fixed seats)
Aisles (Sec. 3315)
a. Width Minimum
One side only Both sides
Add 1 1/2 Inches width for each 5 tance to an exit.
b. Continental Seating
between landings)
4 Feet
Same as Stairs 1 = 12 1=5
3 Feet 0 Inches 3 Feet 6 Inches
feet in length from the farthest dis-
Minimum Width
44 Inches


9. Seating
A. Standard seating
The spacing of rows of seats
inches from the back of one
projection of the seat behind.
B. Continental Seating Width 18 Inches
20 Inches
21 Inches
22 Inches
shall provide a space of not less than 12 seat to the front of the most forward
Number of seats in a row 18 or less 35 or less
45 or less
46 or more
10. Other
Toilet Room Facilities
Use Male Female
Wc . Lav. Wc. Lav
Theaters 8 4 8 4
Offices 1 1 1 1
Backstage 6 3 6 3
77


11. Stages (Sec 3903)
A. Construction
Legitimate stages shall be constructed of materials as required for a Type I building. In all cases the finished floor may be of wood.
B. Accessary Rooms
Dressing rooms, workshops and storage accessary to stages shall be separated from each other and from the stage by not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction, and openings within such separations shall be protected as required corridors.
C. Vent
Stages exceeding 500 square feet shall be provided with one or more vents constructed of noncombustible materials. Vents shall be located near the center and above the highest part of any stage. They shall have a total vent area equal to at least 5 percent of the floor area of stage.
D. Proscenium Walls
Stage shall be separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall of not
78


less than two-hour fire-resistive noncombustible construction.
The proscenium
wall shall extend at least 4 feet above the roof of the auditorium.
E. Special Exiting
Each side of a stage shall be provided with at least one well-marked exit providing not less than 32 inches clear width. Such exit shall open directly to a street.
12. Fire Extinguishing Systems Required
13. Automatic Sprinkler Systems Required
14. Smoke Detection Systems
At least one approved smoke detector suitable for the intended use.
15. Alarm and Communications Systems Required
16. Zoning: Clasification R5
Building Setback Requirements
Front 20 Feet
Side 7.5 Feet
Rear 20 Feet
Maximum Zone Lot Coverage 60%
Floor Area Ratio 5=1
Off Street Parking
79
Covered by Auraria Parking Lots.


VISUAL PRINCIPLES
An optimum view of the stage depends on four factors :
- Slope of the floor
- Staggering seats
- Stage height
- Depth of house The Slope of The Floor
To make sure the good sightline from any seat, the floor shall not be flat. The floor can be ramped or stepped. Usually, a ramped floor is limited to maximum slope of 10 percent;
stepper slopes should be stepped.
Some of the principles should be kept in mind:
- Maximum tolerable downward sight line angle from balcony is about 30.
- Maximum tolerable upward sightline angle from motion pictures or maximum angle from closetest seat.
- The sightline of the standing patron limits the balcony overhang.
- Establish a point 5 inches above the intersection of the intended sight line and the
next verticle line.
- Developed floor slope for unobstructed vision. It will base upon 5 inches rise above extended sight line.
80


Staggering Seat
Staggering is accomplished by the nonuniform placement of seats of varying widths in s succeeding rows.
One - row vision - require a very steep rake to allow for proper viewing angles.
Two - row vision - involves staggered seating and permits an unobstructed view between two seats
in front of the patron.
Stage Height
The stage should be below eye level ( 3' -8" ) of patrons sitting in the first row. Optimum stage height is about 2' 6" to 3' 6" from the floor at the first row of seats. Depth of House
The depth of house vary considerably and are all empirically derived on the basis of existing theaters. Typical are the following:
- Optimum depth equal 4 times screen width
- Maximum depth equals 6 times screen width
Practically, there are two main factors in deciding the depth of the house:
1. Visual acuity Normal human vision at 10 feet can perceive a dimension of .035 inches, at
50 feet, .175 inches and at 100 feet, .35 inches. Details of actor's make-up and facial
expression are not recognizable at distances of more than 50 feet from the stage.
2. Capacity As various requirements operate to increase capacity, the distance of the rear
seats from the stage must be increased and viewing conditions impaired in proportion. The
81


recommended depth
is as below
Maximum
Optimum
depth 75 depth 50
feet
feet


ACOUSTICAL PRINCIPLES
It is up to architect to insure perfect audibility of the show, and to protect the audience against distracting sounds. He must eliminate from the audience area all unwanted sound; assure audibility for all sound which is part of the show.
The followings are some principles to follow:
- Sound absorptive materials and other acoustical treatment can be used extensively in the backstage area and in the work rooms.
- Adequate noise insulation should be provided in the ventilation system.
- Provide sound buffer zones between stage and work rooms.
- If possible, do not place motors or air-conditioning equipment under stage.
- A high degree of floor slope, which enhances patron vision, usually results in
acoustical benefits as well.
- For reinforcement, the ceiling and the side walls nearest to the acting area should
be reflective.
- Keep the rear wall of the theater to a minimum height.
- Avoid the use of unbroken parallel side walls in the theater.
- Avoid excessive balcony overhang so as not to hamper the free flow of sound to the
rear seats.
- Straigh or segmented rear walls are more desirable from the standpoint of avoiding
rear-wall echoes.
83


- Consider the use of carpeting to reduce footfall noise.
- The recommended reverberation time for the music-oriented is between 1.5 second second.
to 2.0
84


STAGE TYPE
Theater-in-the-Round or Arena
There are three types of stage: the proscenium stage; the thrust or open stage; and the arena stage (theater-in-the-round). Proscenium, the type most adaptable to a variety of staging demands, is the practical choice for shows. For drama,
arena stage can work well; every member of the audience feels
close to the stage.
Proscenium Stage
- Traditional form
- Offer flexibilities for a variety of performances
- Need more sophisticated machinery than do other stages
- Permitting rapid and dramatic changes in scenery Open Stage
- Creat a sense of intimacy
- Requires minimal scenery, backstage space
- Less expensive to build
Arena stage
- Most intimate stage
- Poor choice for presenting dance
- It is unsuitable for traditional stagings of standard
85


performance Exiperimental Stage
- A flexible space that allows for a variety of stage and seating arrangements.
- Seats only 50 to 300 people, it cannot serve as a large fpr, pf performance.
Multiuse Stage
- More expensive to build and to operate
- Results in non-optimal conditions for some type of performances
- It is hard for technician to involve in running the facility
- Consider to serve one use best. Other uses which must be adapted to the chief purpose of
the hall
Stage Floor
Wood is the best material for all stage floor. Dancer require a "sprung" or resilient
wood floor.
- At least 8' of workable space under the stage floor
- The height of the loft should be at least two and half times the height of the
proscenium arch.
Stage Wall
The wall between stage, playing area and backstage should be a sound barrier. Putting two
layers of 5/8" sheetrock on one side and one layer on the other is considered a better
86


Fig. 7
FIGURE 2.126 Modular seating system, combination, manual and mechanized, air-caster-raised for manual linear movement and electric-hoist lowered (see Fig. 2.145). [G. C. Izenour Archive|
Fig. 8
KH.IIRK 2.130 Modular lift system, electromechanical!} driven and counterweighted. |(i. C. l/enour Archive]
Modular Design
It is concerned with elements of moving seating and control of the horizental, transverse, and verticle spatial dimensions.
Seating
It is based upon average mean dimensions of the seated human being either individually or in multiple.
One example is Fig. 7 that is air-caster-jacked on a cushion of air for manual transverse and lateral movement to positions at random.
Wall
Wall systems are suspended modular panels, usually
two-sided ( one side with finish, the other for painting
). Panels are moved manually on pairs of wheeled or
ball-bearing hangers on monorails. They can be positioned
as to defined within the modular, frequency of the
uncommitted space a defined axial, radiall space for
seating and performance. Sizing of panels and modularizirg of the tracking system does relate to modularized
seating dimensions or the purpose of futuer standardizing
room dimensions. (Fig. 8)
87


Lighting Grid
The perferred system is tensioned wire ( Fig.9 ). This system provides, in addition to a continuous walking surface, an infinitely variable means for positioning lighting instrumentation so as to pivot about vertical hangers that also provide intermediate support for the grid.
Fig. 9
FIGURE 2.131 Modular lighting grid system, tensioned wire type. [G. C. Izenour Archive)
88


\
de tail
IIMIKK 2.I2H Modular wall panel system, manually operated two-way rectilineal (tensioned wire grid above; see also Fig. 2.t:il). |(i. C. l/enoiir Archive|
\
\
I
/
SYSTEM
*\
\
FIGIIKI: 2.1211 Modular wall panel system, manually operated three-way triangular (tensioned wire grid above; see also Fig. 2.131).
|G. C. Izenour Archive]
89


EFFECTIVENESS
FACTORS FOR THEATER SEATING
PLANS AND SECTION
The plan form and profile of the audience seating deserves analytical design. This may be approached through a quantitative analysis of effectiveness.
Sight lines and sound lines are interestingly compatible, as well as some psychological factors. These five independent factors and functions are shown in Fig.
The induction from the Figure are as below:
Steeply sloping floor also favors sound propagation to rearward audience.
Increasing distance from the stage is a negative factor, decreasing effectiveness.
A seating position having a large eccentricity angle is less effective.
90


Too low or too high viewing angles are undesirable.
A steep balcony is also unsafe. Locations under a deep balcony overhang are undesirable, because the reverberation sound is lost.
91


SIGHTLINE
As each audience enters the theater he wants to see the user, the steps, the aisles, row and seat, the program and the show. If the patrons are to see satisfactorily, we must pay attention on the study of sight line in terms of plan and section conforming to a number of limitations which are set forth in the following items. To design a theater is to determine a seating area and sight line within thesis limitations and to establish the position of walls and slope of floors.
The horizontal angle of vision is about 40 .
The horizontal angle to the center line at which objects onstage of the curtain line, cease to bear intended relationship to other objects is about 60.
The horizontal angle of a flat projection sheet of which distortion on the screen becomes intolerable is 60.
Audiences will not choose locations beyond a line about 100 to the curtain at the side of house.
The vertical angle beyond which ability to recognize standard shapes falls off rapidly is about 30.
92






















CONCLUSION
Theater reflects the history of man himself; it has existed as long as man existed
and has satisfied basic needs of human nature. In the lore of the theater there is a
poetic metaphor of uncertain authorship that goes like this: "Theater is two planks and
passion." This mean one blank for the performer to perform upon, and what passes
between them is passion. History indicates that successful theater design is a balancing
act that constitutes reconciliation of the practical planks with the spiritual passion in a successful building for public performance.
Theater is a king of art form-one that is collective, eclective and compound, that
gathers together in itself all other art forms and is expressed through the conscious efforts of the public. It is not only the response of a group of audience-as it
watches and hears the movements and expressions of the performers; more than that, it is an idea that reflects the union and identification of the audience with the spirit,
the passions, and the experience of the playwright, who leads the audience, through the
actor, into the midst of a scenic activity and a cultural character.
The first issue, I encounter in the design process, is the complexicity of campus
context. Auraria campus is a combination of new and old building. In order to keep
the character of the campus and building language. The design vocabulary I select is
a compromising way which I try to enhance the quality of the site can offer to school. For example: to continue the planning grid ( 30 x 30' ) used for the open space
and the structure system; enhance the red brick with the same color in ST. Cajetan's
Center on parapet and add the contrast of vertical element to the horizontal facade,
102


etc.
Another issue I learn from the process is Theater is a art form for people who watched
in this sense, as performance.
All the spaces of the event That is the statement I try
the visual perception in architecture, and be watched on stage of off stage are surrounded by the theme architecture to integrate all the parts as a whole.
103


APPENDIX


APPENDIX
A. AURARIA CAMPUS PLANNING GUIDELINES
B. BASIC SEATING DATA
C. DENVER INVENTORY
D. DIMENSIONAL AND ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND YEAR OF DEDICATION CONCERT HALL AND OPERA
HOUSES.


CAMPUS PLANNING POLICIES
1. Each side of the campus is to have a general function. The northeast is to be a pedestrian and visual relationship to the CBD. The south is to be for service access off of Colfax. The southwest is for private motorized traffic. The northwest is to be a pedestrian and visual connection to the Platte Valley.
2. Four major gateways to the campus are to be developed. Lawrence becomes a link to the CBD. Ninth Street becomes a service and Child Care Center entrance. Lawrence and Seventh Streets become a vehicular gateway. Tenth Street and Wazee Street becomes a gateway to the Platte Valley.
3. Major traffic flows should be kept to the perimeter of the campus.
4. The AGT should be designed with the potential for expansion into the CBD.
5. Parking should be kept southwest of Ninth Street and should be accessible
from Seventh Street. Parking lots should be planned for the inclusion of one level deck between Seventh Street and Eight Street.
6. The campus should be considered an urban park. Green space should be maximized with contrasts between wide open spaces and heavily foliated spaces.
7. Generally, buildings should provide back drops for exciting landscaping.
8. Lawrence should be made a major pedestrian space. Auraria Square is to be
developed between Ninth Street and Tenth Street. A new square is to be
developed between Eleventh Street and Thirteenth Street. Expansion of the Library and Physical Education building is to occur towards Lawrence creating a narrow linear space between the two squares.
9. A new building should be planned between the South Classroom and Speer Blvd. which would reduce the scale of the space and accentuate Saint Elizabeths.
10. Ninth Street Park should be expanded towards Saint Cajetans. The existing character should be maintained. An office classroom building should form a back drop to the park and separate it from Eight Street parking lots.
11. The Replacement building, NCPP Building and the Science Addition should be constructed between Eleventh Street and Speer. They should form a connection to the CBD, a gateway to the campus and be oriented toward Lawrence.


BICYCLES
I. Planning.
A. Major bicycle paths are confined to the periphery of the campus
core. No bicycle riding in the inner core of the campus.
B. Major bicycle paths should be clearly defined with appropriate
pavement textures or signage. Signs should be kept to a minimum.
C. Parking racks should be provided within easy access of entrances of major buildings.
D. Every attempt should be made to separate bicycles from automobiles
and pedestrians.
E. Design and planning of campus bicycle paths should be sympathetic to the city plan.
F. A convenient access to the Cherry Creek Bike Path should be created.
G. Bicycle parking areas should be located adjacent to pedestrian
walkways and screened from the sides.
H. Bicycle paths should be planned so as to have minimal impact from ice and snow.
II. Design.
A. Materials for bicycle routes should be concrete or asphalt with paver edges. Gray unit pavers should be used in the historic park.
B. Ramps should be provided at curbs on bicycle routes.


PEDESTRIAN SPACES
I. View corridors to be preserved.
A. Saint Elizabeths and Arapahoe walk to D&F Tower.
B. Saint Cajetans to Tenth Street and Lawrence.
C. Arapahoe walk to DCPA.
D. Tivoli Brewery across the open playing fields to downtown.
E. Auraria Square and Student Center to the mountains.
F. Saint Cajetans to Emanuel Gallery.
G. Tivoli Brewery and aside to Tenth Street.
H. Physical Education Building second floor to DCPA.
I. Ninth Street entrance down the historic park.
J. The green in front of Saint Elizabeths to the State Capitol.
K. Cajetans from Eight Street.
II. Focal points to be created. ,
A. Both ends of Tenth Street.
B. Both ends of Ninth Street.
C. Arapahoe walk looking southwest.
D. Both ends of Champa.
III. Open spaces (plazas, court yards, roads).
A. Create a variety of spaces in terms of scale, size and character.
B. Landscaping should respond to function of space, view axis and
entrances to building.
C. Create a park like setting.
D. Street furniture should be designed and arranged to maximize social and physical comfort.
E. Trash containers should be of uniform design.
F. Spaces should be well lighted without dark concealed areas.
G. Spaces should be easily maintained.


PEDESTRIAN SPACES CONTINUED
IV. Walkways.
A. Auraria is a pedestrian oriented campus. There should be maximum separation between vehicles and pedestrians.
B. Pedestrian connections should be created to surrounding neighborhoods.
C. Major pedestrian walkways are Lawrence Street and Tenth Street. Such walkways should have paver surfaces and twelve feet high character 1ighting.
D. Secondary walkways are to be of asphalt with a paver edge. Concrete
walkways in general are to be used in areas adjacent to the city
sidewalk system.
E. Walkways should be well lit.
F. Curbs should be removed whenever possible.
G. Long vistas from narrow walkways should be avoided.
H. There should be a variety of focal points observable from a variety of distances.
I. Major walkways should be eight feet minimum and should conform to
fire and service standards. Use large radius corners to accommodate vehicles.
J. The width of secondary walkways should conform to the volume of
pedestrian traffic.
K. Walkways should be planned with an exposure that reduces icing.
L. Planning and design should enable easy access to utilities.
M. Walkways should be easily maintained.


PARKING
I. Planning.
A. The covenants and terms of the parking revenue bonds should be met.
B. Internal streets should be closed and parking lots consolidated.
C. Primary entrances to parking lots should be off of Seventh Street and Eight Street.
D. Parking lots should be planned to divert traffic from downtown
streets and to discourage parking on streets in the Lincoln Park nei ghborhood.
E. There should be a continued effort to share parking lots with
McNichols Arena and Mile High Stadium.
F. Lots should be planned to maximize pedestrian and vehicular
separation.
G. Stacking space at parking booths should be created within the lots.
H. Lots should be screened from view whenever possible.
II. Design.
A. Landscape materials should be limited to large shade street trees
which can be pruned to walk under. Shrubs should be limited in
height to what a person can see over.
B. Parking lots should be designed to facilitate snow removal.
1. Landscaping should generally be kept to the perimeter of the lots.
2. Corners caused be interior landscaping should be avoided.
3. Curbs should be provided around lots.
4. Sufficient drainage should be provided.
C. Construction materials should be limited.
1. Parking pavement: asphalt.
2. Curbs: concrete.
3. Pedestrian walkways: concrete or asphalt with a paver edge.
D. Lots should be well lit with mercury vapor or high pressure sodium box fixtures on a thirty-five foot pole.


LANDSCAPING
I. Planning
A. Define the edges to the campus.
B. Create a continuity between campus landscaping and the landscaping of adjacent communities.
C. Landscape planning and design should conform to city policies when appropriate.
D. A variety of experiences should be created, i.e. formal verses informal, hard verses soft, masses verses specimens, open grass areas verses heavy planted areas.
E. The campus should have an image of an urban park.
F. Landscaping should accentuate pedestrian spaces and walkways and not block lines of pedestrian movement.
G. Landscaping should accentuate entrances and gateways to the campus and entrances to buildings.
H. Landscaping should articulate vehicular paths and parking lots.
I. Formal tree planting with informal shrub plantings should occur along Tenth Street, Speer, Ninth Street and around parking lots. All other areas of the campus should have natural free flowing landscape forms.
J. Relocate trees that seriously infringe on view planes and trees being damaged by over crowding.
K. Maintain the historical landscape concept on Ninth Street.
II. Design.
A. Avoid dense landscaping that creates areas of concealment.
B. Earth berms should be large and natural. They should be used to
direct pedestrian traffic and, where appropriate, screen parking. Berms should never be so high as to create security problems.
C. Predominant landscaping should be of a heavier textured foliage.
D. Vary the massing of the planting.
E. Emphasize the winter appearance of landscaping. It is the time when the campus is most heavily used.
F. Avoid smaller trees in large open spaces. The size of the plant should reflect the scale of the space.
G. Limit the palette of materials.
H. Select materials which are hardy, long lasting and easily maintained.


Hl.llkK l.5ti Contemporary American self-rising/retracting pushback theater chair. Dimensional drawing (no scale, dimensions in inches). (Courtesy of American Seating Companyl
39
99.1cm
't > / r
39
99.1cm
UtlJHli 1.58 Contemporary American back-lo-back spacing of theater chairs; self-rising versus self-rising/retracting pushback, as used in author's theater consulting practice (no scale). |G. C. Izenuur Archive)

CHAIR SIZE
KlhllKK 1.57 Contemporary American theater chair widths: arm-to-arm. Dimensional drawing (no scale, dimensions in inches). |Courtesy of American Seating Companyl
W ,*==
J1 \ Y
! i- V JZ_________rui

.c
fl
36
91.4cm
91.4cm


Cultural
MUSIC FACILITIES
BASIC SEATING DATA
Seating standards for use in theaters, auditoriums and similar buildings are developed on this and the following pages, which give tabular data and methods for laying out seating plans. Material is the result of research by Frederic Arden Pawley Sources include seating manufacturers and architectural offices specializing in theaters.
Types of Seats
Construction and Finish Upholstery variations include spring-edge seats (most luxurious, more expensive); box-spring (nearly as comfortable);
spring-back; and padded-back. Veneer-back seating is suitable only for conditions subject to hard usage, as in schools. Acoustical control is more satisfactory with upholstered types.
Sizes Seats are designated by width, the depth front-to-back varying only slightly. Common sizes and recommended uses are shown below. In pew seating without individual arms, as in churches or arenas, a sitting" is usually 18 in. wide.
Pitch of Back Thi6 will vary according to the vertical angle of vision to the center of interest. In general, greater pitches are used for front
portions of orchestra floors and more nearly vertical backs for elevated banks such ns balconies.
Clearances In addition to those noted dingrnm-matically below, the following points should be considered: Coves at intersection of floor and walls (or risers) should be kept small (1 '/>-in. radius) to permit close fitting and leveling of seat standards. Balcony risers cause cramped knee-room when 12 in. high unless back-to-back seat spacing is increased. End clearances in balconies should be increased to 2'/*-in. Pitch of back greater than average (see Fig. 7) also requires increased back-to-back spacing.
Standard ser ti^ht against wall, if at angle, causes sear back to scrape
CORR ECT-Sef standard far enough from wall to allow r clearance at back
SIDE ELEVATION
(End Standard shown Solid; Middle Standard Dotted)
SIZES AVAILABLE
w*
D
18- im iq- zm 20 m zr 28' rO CD e£ ^ 23 28k/
24
ZW
*l8width not recommended; iQ'width recommended only for ends of rows; 20'fo22'si3es for all locarions
PITCHES: measured either by angle or hori3. projection (see diagram): 8'A(usual max.); 7n\ 6V/,(standard); 5K/ (usual min.) 4, 3' (special)
Scale
Vr- V-0
Note additional allowance ot !'/z' tor each End Standard
PLAN- Se vera/ types ot Ventilators are available. Preferred kinds are those occupying /east space
CLEARANCES
TYPICAL SEATS
Fig. 7
389


Cultural
MUSIC FACILITIES
AUDITORIUM DIMENSIONS
Preliminary estimates may be based upon the Rule of Thumb" which is sufficiently accurate for rough sketches.
Tobies. For such purposes as financing, working drawings, etc., follow method outlined in Examples A, B, C and D. Variations between the two methods are to be expected.
1-row cross-over
EXAMPLE A: Given auditorium area = 87'-0" x 56 -5" or 4?00 -f sq. tt., haw many 20" seats, 36" back to back?
1. Row*: In Table I, 36" col., at
87'-0" depth, No. rows = 29
less cross-overs ( I row at front,
4 at rear) 5
Rows available for seats = 24
2. Aisles: Table II, Increase In aisle width per row zz 0.75"; 0.75 x 24 =
Total increase = l#6"
Min. aisle zz 3,-0"
3.
4.
Max. aisle
Seating Scheme: Select tentative scheme; 2 aisles, 2 dead-end seat banks. I center bank. From typical code, dead-end rows may be 7 seats long, center rows 14 seats. In Table IV 1420" seats 720" seats 720" seats
From (2) above. 2 aisles
Total width Seats per row Total No. of Seats: (Table III) or 28 x 24
zz 4'-6"
= 23'- 7" = I I-I I" = I I'-11"
= r- o" = 56'- 5" = 28
_ I 672 l seats
EXAMPLE B: Given capacity of 672 stats, what are auditorium dimensions?
This problem is the converse of "A.
EXAMPLE C: What is radius of any row?
To radius of back of first-row seats add desired value from Table I.
EXAMPLE D: Hew many and what sizes of seats can be used in rows shortened by curved or radial aisles? See Table IV.
RULE of THUMB for SEATING AREA:
Allow 7^2 sq.ft per Seat, including Aisles and Cross-overs.
This is sufficiently accurate for preliminary planning.
Table I Depth Dimensions (Ft.-In.) for Various Spacings
No. Overall Depth For Seat Spacing ( Back -to-back) of:
Rows 32" 33' 34" 35 36" 37 38" 39" 40" 41" 42"
1 2 8 2 9 2 10 2- n 3-0 3- 1 3- 2 3-3 3-4 3 5 3 6 1
2 5 4 5 6 5 8 5- 10 6-0 6- 2 6- 4 6-6 6-8 6 10 7 0 1
3 8 0 8 3 8 6 8- 9 9-0 9- 3 9- 6 9-9 10-0 10 3 10 6
4 10 8 11 0 11 4 11- 8 12-0 12- 4 12- 8 13-0 13-4 13 8 14 0
5 13 4 13 9 14 2 14- 7 15-0 15- 5 15- 10 16-3 16-8 17 1 17 6 1
6 16 0 16 6 17 0 17- 6 18-0 18- 6 19- 0 19-6 20-0 20 6 21 0 1
7 18 8 19 3 19 10 20- 5 21-0 21- 7 22- 2 22-9 23-4 23 11 24 6
8 21 4 22 0 22 8 23- 4 24-0 24- 8 25- 4 26-0 26-8 27 4 28 0
9 24 0 24 9 25 6 26- 3 27-0 27- 9 28- 6 29-3 30-0 30 9 31 6 1
10 26 8 27 6 28 4 29- 2 30-0 30- 10 31- 8 32-6 33-4 34 2 35 0 1
11 29 4 30 3 31 2 32- 1 33-0 33- 11 34- 10 35-9 36-8 37 7 38 6
12 32 0 33 0 34 0 35- 0 36-0 37- 0 38- 0 39-0 40-0 41 0 42 0
13 34 8 35 9 36 10 37- 11 39-0 40- 1 41- 2 42-3 43-4 44 5 45 6 1
14 37 4 38 6 39 8 40- 10 42-0 43- 2 44- 4 45-6 46-8 47 10 49 0 1
15 40 0 41 3 42 6 43- 9 45-0 46- 3 47- 6 48-9 50-0 51 3 52 6
16 42 8 44 0 45 4 46- 8 48-0 49- 4 50- 8 52-0 53-4 54 8 56 0
17 45 4 46 9 48 2 49- 7 51-0 52- 5 53- 10 55-3 56-8 58 1 59 6 1
18 48 0 49 6 51 0 52- 6 54-0 55- 6 57- 0 58-6 60-0 61 6 63 0 1
19 50 8 52 3 53 10 55- 5 57-0 58- 7 60- 2 61-9 63-4 64 11 66 6
20 53 4 55 0 56 8 58- 4 60-0 61- 8 63- 4 65-0 66-8 68 4 70 0
21 56 0 57 9 59 6 61- 3 63-0 64- 9 66- 6 68-3 70-0 71 9 73 6 1
22 58 8 60 6 62 4 64- 2 66-0 67- 10 69- 8 71-6 73-4 75 2 77 0 1
23 61 4 63 3 65 2 67- 1 69-0 70- 11 72- 10 74-9 76-8 78 7 80 6
24 64 0 66 0 68 0 70- 0 72-0 74- 0 76- 0 78-0 80-0 82 0 84 0
25 66 8 68 9 70 10 72- 11 75-0 77- 1 79- 2 81-3 83-4 85 5 87 6 1
26 69 4 71 6 73 8 75- 10 78-0 80- 2 82- 4 84-6 86-8 88 10 91 0 1
27 72 0 74 3 76 6 78- 9 81-0 83- 3 85- 6 87-9 90-0 92 3 94 6
28 74 8 77 0 79 4 81- 8 84-0 86- 4 88- 8 91-0 93-4 95 8 98 0
29 77 4 79 9 82 2 84- 7 87-0 89- 5 91- 10 94-3 96-8 99 1 101 6 1
30 80 0 82 6 85 0 87- 6 90-0 92- 6 95- 0 97-6 100-0 102 6 105 0 1
31 82 8 85 3 87 10 90- 5 93-0 95- 7 98- 2 100-9 103-4 105 11 108 6
32 85 4 88 0 90 8 93- 4 96-0 98- 8 101- 4 104-0 106-8 109 4 112 0
Table II Aisle Width Increase (in inches) Per Row of Length
Table III Seating Capacities, 1-32 Rows
Seat Spacing Back-to- Back Fire Underwriters Code: i-O* plus VV per r-o" N.Y. City Code: 3-o" plus 1 Vi'f*1 5 No. of Rows 7 Seats 14 Setts 28 Ststs No. of Rows 7 Seats 14 Seats 28 Seats
32" 0.67 0.80 i 7 14 28 17 119 238 476 |
2 14 28 56 18 126 252 504
33" 0.69 0.83 3 21 42 84 19 133 266 532
34 0.71 0.86 4 28 56 112 20 140 280 560 ,
35 0.73 0.88 5 35 70 140 21 147 294 588 1
36' 0.75 0.90 6 42 84 168 22 154 308 616
37 0.77 0.93 7 49 98 196 23 161 322 644
38" 0.79 0.95 8 56 112 224 24 168 336 672 |
39" 0.81 0.98 9 63 126 252 25 175 350 700 *
40" 0.83 1.00 10 70 140 280 26 182 364 728
41" 0.85 1.03 11 77 154 308 27 189 378 756
42" 0.88 1.05 12 84 168 336 28 196 392 784 |
13 91 182 364 29 203 406 812
Proper factor x no. of rows = 14 98 196 392 30 210 420 840
total increase in inches. 15 105 210 420 31 217 434 868
Add to 3 O" minimum aisle width 16 112 224 448 32 224 448 896 |
391


Cultural
MUSIC FACILITIES
Table IV Numbers of Seats (Stock Sizes) for Any Row Length
Row Length Ft.-In. | In. 19" 20" 21" 22" Row 1 Ft..In. -ength In. 19" 20" 21" 22" Row L Ft.-In. ength In. 19" 20" 21" 22" Row 4. Ft. In. .ength In. 19" 20" 21" 22"
5 0 60 3 . 11 5 137 6 1 16- 4 196 7 3 5 4 21 3 255 8 12
5 J_j 61 2 1 11 6 138 5 2 16- 5 197 6 4 4 5 21 4 256 7 6 11 1
5 2 62 1 2 11 7 139 4 3 16- 6 198 5 5 3 6 21 5 257 6 2 10 2
5 3 63 3 11 8 140 3 4 16- 7 199 4 T 2 7 21 6 258 5 8 9 3
5 4 64 2 1 11 9 141 2 5 16- 8 200 3 / 1 8 21 7 259 4 9 8 4
5 T1 65 1 2 11 10 142 1 6 16- 9 201 2 8 9 21 8 260 3 10 7 5
5 6 66 3 11 11 143 7 16-10 202 1 9 21 9 261 2 11 6 6
5 7_ 67 2 1 12 0 144 6 1 16-11 203 10 21 10 262 1 12 5 7
5 8 63 1 2 12 1 145 5 2 17- 0 204 9 1 21 11 263 13 4 8
5 9 69 3 12 2 146 4 3 17- 1 205 8 2 22 0 264 12 1 i3 9
e 7 79 4 12 3 147 3 4 17- 2 206 7 3 22-1 265 11 2 |2 10
6 8 80 3 1 12 4 148 2 5 17- 3 207 6 4 22 2 266 10 311 11
6 9 81 2 2 12 5 149 1 6 17- 4 208 5 5 22 3 267 9 4 12
6 0 82 1 3 12 6 150 7 17- 5 209 4 6 22 4 268 8 5
6 1 83 4 12 7 151 6 1 17- 6 210 3 7 22 5 269 14 7 6
7 0 84 3 1 12 8 152 5 2 17- 7 211 2 8 22 6 270 13 1 1 6 7
7 1 85 2 2 12 9 153 4 3 17- 8 212 11 1 9 22 7 271 12 2 5 8
7 2 86 1 3 12 10 154 3 4 17- 9 213 10 1 10 22 8 272 11 3 14 9
7 3 87 4 12 11 155 8 2 5 17-10 214 9 2 9 1 22 9 273 10 4 1 3 10
7 4 88 3 1 13 0 156 7 1 1 6 17-11 215 8 3 8 2 22 10 274 9 5j2 11
7 5 89 2 2 13 1 157 6 2 7 18- 0 216 7 4 7 3 22 11 275 8 6ll 12
7 6 90 1 3 LLL 2 158 5 3 18- 1 217 6 5 6 4 23 0 276 7 7 13
7 8 91 4 13 3 159 4 4 18- 2 218 5 6 5 5 23 1 277 6 8 12 1
8 2 98 5 13 4 160 3 5 18- 3 219 4 7 4 6 23 2 278 5 9 11 2
8 3 99 4 1 13 5 161 2 6 18- 4 220 3 8 3 7 23 3 279 4 10 10 3
8 4 100 3 2 13 6 162 1 7 18- 5 221 2 9 2 8 23 4 230 3 11 9 4
8 5 101 2 3 13 7 163 8 18- 6 222 1 10 1 9 23 5 281 2 12 8 5
8 6 102 1 4 13 8 164 7 1 18- 7 223 11 10 23 6 282 1 13 7 6
8 7 103 5 13 9 165 6 2 18- 8 224 10 1 23 7 283 14 HT 7
8 8 104 4 13 10 166 5 3 18- 9 225 9 2 23 8 284 13 115 8
8 9 105 3 2 1 13 11 167 4 4 18-10 226 8 3 23 9 285 12 214 9
8 10 106 2 3 14 0 168 3 5 18-11 227 7 4 23 10 286 11 3; 3 10
8 11 107 1 < 14 1 169 2 6 19- 0 228 6 5 23 11 287 10 4! 2 11
9 0 108 5 14 2 170 1 7 19- 1 229 5 6 24 0 288 9 5! 1 12
9- 1 109 4 1 14 3 171 8 19- 2 230 4 7 24 1 289 8 6 13
9 2 110 3 2 14 4 172 7 1 19- 3 231 12 3 8 24 2 290 7 7
9 3 111 2 3 14 5 173 6 2 19- 4 232 11 1! 2 9 24 3 291 6 8
9 4 112 1 * 14 6 174 9 5 3 19- 5 233 10 2 11 10 24 4 292 5 9
9 5 113 5 14 7 175 8 1 4 4 19- 6 234 9 3 11 24 5 293 4 10
9 9 117 6 14 8 176 7 2 3 5 19- 7 235 8 4 10 1 24 6 294 3 11
9 10 H8 5 1 14 9 177 6 2 6 19- 8 236 7 T1 9 2 24 7 295 2 12
9 11 119 4 2 14 10 178 5 4 1 7 19- 9 237 6 6 8 3 24 8 296 1 13
10 0 120 3 3 14 11 179 4 5 8 19-10 238 5 7 7 4 24 9 297 14
10 1 121 2 4 15 0 180 3 6 19-11 239 4 8 6 5 24 10 298 13 1
10 2 122 1 5 15 1 181 2 7 20- 0 240 3 9 5 6 24 11 299 12 2
10 3 123 E 15 2 182 1 8 20- 1 241 2 10 4 7 25 0 300 11 3
10 4 124 5 1 15 3 183 S 20- 2 242 1 3 8 25 1 301 10 4
10 5 125 4 2 15 4 184 8 1 20- 3 243 'IT1 2 9 25 2 302 9 5
10 6 126 3 3 15 5 185 7 2 20- 4 244 11 1! 1 10 I 25 3 303 8 6
-10 7 127 2 4 15 6 186 6 3 20- 5 245 10 2 11 25 4 304 7 7
10 8 128 1 5 1 15 7 187 5 4 20- 6 246 9 3 25 5 305 6 8
1 9 129 6 15 8 188 4 5 20- 7 247 8 4 25 6 306 5 9
10 10 130 5 1 15 9 189 3 6 20- 8 248 7 5 I 25 7 307 4 10
1 11 131 4 2 15 10 190 2 7 20- 9 249 6 6 25 8 308 3 11
1 0 132 3 3 15 11 191 1 8 20-10 250 13 5 7 25 9 309 2 12
1 1 133 2 4 16 0 192 9 20-11 251 12 1 ! 8 25 10 310 1 13
1 : 134 1 5 16 1 193 10 8 1 21- 0 252 11 2 13 9 25 11 311 14
1 3 135 6 16 2 194 9 1 7 2 21- 1 253 10 3 2 10
1 4 136 7 16 3 195 8 2 6 3 21- 2 254 9 JjJJ 11
End Allowances: Normal 3* allowance to accommodate 2 end standards per row is included above. For balconies with steps m aisles allow 2" additional.
Seat Sizes: Common sizes shown. Seats are also available 18" 23" Cr 7u" wide. 18" size not recommended. Limit use of 19" seats to ends of rows for comfort.
Choice of Seal*: Note that for longer rows two choices of seat sizes are available. Example: Row length m 14'- 9" ; six 19 seats and three 20" may be used; or, two 21" end six 22 Dotted lines separate choices. Dimensions not fitted by stock sizes are omitted.
392


Denver Inventory
CONVENTION FACILITIES
Denver's meeting facilities are new, modern, and strikingly designed At its heart is the 2-block long Currigan Exhibition Hall. Inside it offers 100,800 sq. ft. of column-free space, made possible by a roof design featuring a space frame of repeating pyramid-shaped cones. The futuristic-looking building was used as a location in Woody Allen's science fiction movie SLEEPER It can seat up to 14,000 persons theater style or 9,000 banquet style, can accommodate 600 booths, or can be divided into 2 sections of 50,000 sq. ft. each. Linked to Currigan by a covered bridge is the Auditorium Theater/Arena Complex which offers a 2,240-seat multi-purpose theater and a versatile 7,387-seat Arena Double wall dividers on each floor enable the areas to be sectioned off into as many as 5 rooms with capacities of 135-410 persons. The Auditorium is attached to the new Denver Center for the Performing Arts by one of the world's largest glass arches. Other facilities in the city include McNichols Arena which can seat 16,500 with 17,000 sq. ft of floor space; Mile High Stadium with a total seating of 75,000; and the Denver Coliseum, home of the Western Stock Show and a popular site for exhibitions and general convention assemblies. Denver's most unusual meeting facility is the 9,000-seat Red Rocks Amphitheater, an acoustically perfect open air theater nestled between huge red rock sandstone monuments overlooking the city.
ENTERTAINMENT
At the heart of Denver's entertainment is the new $80 million Denver Performing Arts Center.
The center features the first symphony ha 11 -in-the-round in the country, 2 theaters, a shopping promenade, a film institute, and a screening room Denver also has more than 1,000 restaurants, 30 theaters, 70 cinemas, and a whole array of nightspots, single bars, country and western dance halls, and discos.
Denver Center for the Performing Arts and Currigan Exhibition Hall
9
\


!
V Sj, So Sor Sr Nr
Volume Audience Aren with Sin mires Pil Area (Open) Pit Area (Floor) Proscenium Area Total Area
iXame ft* ft2 ft2 ft2 ft2 ft2
AMERICA (m) (ill2) (in2) (ill2) (in2) (in2)
Baltimore. T20.000 15.714 1024 1088 2612 19.350
Lyric Theatre (20.380) (1160) (95) (101) (243) (1800)
Bloomington. Indiana 902.000 25.710 878 878 1652 28.270
University Auditorium (25.500) (2390) (81.5) (81.5) (153) (2625)
Chicago.
Arie Crown Theatrc- 1,283.800 33.100 970 1130 3520 37.590
McCormick Place (36.300) (3075) (90) (105) (327) (3490)
Detroit. Henry and 630.000 19.900 970 1050 1300 22.170
Edsel Ford Auditorium (17.800) (1850) (90) (97.5) (121) (2060)
Ixifayette. Indiana. 1.270.000 37.210 840 840 3626 41.680
Purdue University 11all of Music (35,900) (3460) (78) (78) (337) (3875)
New York. Metropolitan 690,000 24.050 980 1130 2700 27.730
Opera House (19.500) (2235) (91) (105) (251) (2575)
Philadelphia. 533.000 15.700 640 690 2401 18.740
Academy of Music (15,080) (1460) (59.5) (64) (223) (1740)
Bochester. New York. 846.500 20.530 770 1750 2752 24.050
Eastman Theatre (23.950) (1905) (71.5) (163) (256) (2230)
San Francisco, 5\ar 738.600 22.240 760 1075 2430 25.430
Memorial Opera House (20,900) (2065) (71) (99.9) (226) (2360)
ARGENTINA
Buenos Aires. 726.300 19.000 675 2050 3402 23.080
Teatro Colon (20,550) (1765) (62.7) (190) (316) (2145)
AUSTRIA
Salzburg, Neues 495.000 14.100 800 950 2100 17.000
Festspielhaus (14,000) (1310; (74.3) (88) (195) (1580)
Vienna, Staatsoper 376,600 12.850 1150 1150 1720 15.720
(10,660) (1195) (107) (107) (160) (1460)
CANADA
Edmonton and Calgary, 723,000 21,000 950 1250 2625 24.575
Alberta Jubilee Auditoriums (20.460) (1950) (88) (116) (244) (2280)
Vancouver, Queen 525.500 19.300 585 785 2215 22.100
Elizal>eth Theatre (14,870) (1800) (54.3) (73) (206) (2060)
FRANCE
Paris, Theatre 352.000 12.120 840 2538 15.500
National de I'Opcra (9960) (1130) (78) (236) (1445)
GERMANY
Bavreuth, 364,000 8500 371 1485 1638 10,510
I* estspielhaus (10,300) (90) (34) (138) (152) (975)
(JREAT BRITAIN
l/.ndon, Royal Opera 432.500 14.630 670 670 1700 17.000
House (12.240) (1360) (62.2) (62.2) (158) (1580)
ITALY
Milan, 397,000 14.000 1200 1350 2 400 17.600
Teatro alia Scala tVolume in well only. (11.2(5) (1301) (111) [318.200|f [T700|t |9000|t [(T15)|t .Main floor seating area only. (125) (223) (1635) (11.300)2 l(1050)U
r
I
V, Ar Yr * 1 \r .S', A T Tsoo10i0 (/ Year SK \ T SPACING
1 /ST Seats Standees Filed ire (Oceup.) Initial- Dedi-
Seats Pererher- I ime-Delay ailed How-to-
niton i l line
rt. ft* ft- 7mi in. in. in. in
(Ml) (ill3) Cm2) SCO sec (cm) (cm 1 cm i '. III .
37.2 2456 2456 294 6.4 1.4 21; 11 1891 31 19.5 31-33 20
(11.3) (8.3) (0.59) (79) (50) 79-84 51.
31.9 3718 3718 242 6.9 1.4 40; 10 1941 34 20.5 34 22
(9 6 7) (0 8) (0.64) (86) (52) (86) (561
34.2 5081 5081 253 6.5 1.5* 36; 14 1961 38-40 22 3810 oo
(10.4) (7.1!> (0.60) (96-102) (56) 196-102) (56)
28.4 2926 2926 215 6.8 1.45 28 ;6 1956 36 20-21.5 36 20-21.5
(8.61) (6.1) (0.63) (91) (51-55) (91) (51-55)
30.5 6107 6107 208 6.1 1.45 45; 6 1940 33 25 32 21.5
(9.24) (5.9) (0.57) (84) (61) ai) (55)
24.9 3639 280 3779 183 6.4 1.2 22; 18 1883 33-35 22-23 32 35 20-22
(2.54) (5.2) (0.59) (84-89) (56-58) .81-89) (51-56)
28.4 2836 2836 188 5.5 1.35 19; 10 1857 30-33 20-21 5 30-32 18-21
(8.61) (5.3) (0.51) (76-84) (51-55) 76-81) (16-53
35.2 3347 3347 253 6.1 1.65 55; 31 1923 32.5 20 31 20-21
(10.7) (7.2) (0.57) (83) (51 i .79) (51-53)
29.0 3252 300 3402 217 6.5 1.6* 51; 30 1932 31 21 36 21
(SB) (6.1) (0.60) (79) (53) ;9I) .53)
31.5 2487 600 2787 261 6.8 1.7* 19, 13 1908 39 23.5 27.5-31.5 19.5
(9.54) (7.4) (0.63) (99) (60) 70-80) 50)
29.1 2158 _ 2158 29 6.5 1.45 23; 14 1960 29.5-31.5 17-20 29.5 17-20
(8.82) (6.5) (0.60) (75-80) (43-51) .75) (43-51)
24.0 1658 560 1938 195 6.6 1.3 15; 6 (1869) 32-33 22-23 5 36 21
(7.27) (5.5) (0.61) 1955 (81-84) (56-60) (91) (53)
29.4 2731 2731 265 TJ7 1.35 31; 8 1957 33 20-22 36-37 24-27 5
(8.91) (7.5) (0.715) (81) (51-56i 91-94) (61-70)
23.8 2800 _ 2800 188 6.9 1.35 24; 6 1959 33-34 19 5-21 34 19.5-21
(7.21) (5.3) (0.64) (81-86) (50-53) 86.4) (50-53)
22.7 2131 200 2231 158 5.4 11* 17; 15 1875 38 2'>_oo j 26 20.5
(6.88) (4.5) (0.50) (96) (56-57) .66) (52)
34.6 1800 _ 1800 202 4.7 1.55 14; 4 1876 28 21.5 24-32 18-21
(10.5) (5.7) (0.11) (71) t 33 ) 61-81) (46-53)
25.4 2180 58 2209 196 6.6 11 19; 13 1858 33 21 Varies
(7.70) (5.6) (0.61) (84) .61;
22.5 2289 400 2489 160 5.6 1 2 15; 12 1778 29 18.5 30 16
(0 82) (4.53) (0.52) (1946) (74) . 171 .76) (41)
|202|
(<8.51)|
/


V Sa Sr V/ST NA V/Na
Volume Audience Orchestra Total Seats
A rea Area .4 rea
Home ft3 ft2 ft2 ft2 ft re
(m3) (m2) (m2) (na) (m) (m>)
Copenhagen, 430.000 12,240 2100 11.340 31.0 1789 252
Tivoli K oncer tsal FINLAND (12.740) (1136) (195) (1330) (9.39) (7.1)
Hels inski, 354.000 10,180 1790 11.970 29.6 1500 2.16
Kulttuuritalo (10.000) (945) (166) (1110) (8.97) (6.7)
Turku, 340,000 8000 1750 9750 34.9 1002 319
konserttisali GERMANY (9600) (745) (163) (910) (10.6) (9.6)
Berlin. 457.500 10.300 1000 11.300 40.5 1220 375
Benjamin Franklin Kongresshalle (12,950) (960) (93) (1055) (12.3) (10.6)
Berlin. 310.000 8000 1830 9830 34.6 1340 254
Musikhoclischule Konzertsaal (9600) (740) (170) (910) (10.5) (7.2)
Berlin. 455.700 8600 2000* 10.600 43.0 1120 407
Sender Freies Berlin, (12.900) (800) (186)* (985) (13.0) (11.5)
Grosser Sendesaal
Bonn, 555,340 12,000 2200 14.200 39.1 1407 395
Beethovenlinlle (15,700) (1115) (204) (1320) (11.8) (11.2)
Leipzig, 375.000 9750 1250 11.000 34.0 1560 240
Neues Gewandhaus (10,600) (905) (116) (1020) (10.3) (68)
Munich, 480,000 7250 1810 9060 53.0 1287 373
Ilerkulessaal (13.000) (675) (168) (845) (16.1) (10.6)
Stuttgart, 365,000 14,000 1900* 16.500 34.2 2000 283
Liederhalle, Grosser Saal (16.000) (1300) (177)* (1535) (10.4) (8.1)
GREAT BRITAIN Bristol. 475.000 12.310 1150 13.460 35.3 2180 218
Colston Hall (13,450) (1145) (107) (1250) (10.7) (6.2)
Edinburgh. 565,000 15,300 1200 16.500 34.2 2760 205
Usher Hall (16,000) (1420) (111) (1530) (10.4) (5.8)
Glasgow, 569.000 13,500 1400 14,900 38.2 2133 267
St. Andrew's Hall (16.100) (1255) (130) (1385) (11.6) (7.6)
Liv erjiool. 479.000 13.900 1400 15.300 31.3 1955 215
Philharmonic Hall (13.500) (1290) (130) (1420) (9.48) (6.9)
London, 3.060.000 37.800 2200 40.000 76.5 6080 503
Royal Albert Hall (86.600) (3510) (204) (3715) (23.2) (14.2)
Ixmdon, 775.000 21.230 1860 23,090 33.6 3000 258
Royal Festival Hall (22.000) (1970) (173) (2145) (102) (7.3)
Manchester, 545.000 14.800 1940 16,740 32.6 2569 212
Free Trade Hall (15.400) (1375) (180) (1555) (9.88) (6.0)
ISRAEL Jerusalem, 873.000 23,000 2800 25.800 33.8 3142 278
Binyanei HaOomah (24.700) (2140) (260) (2400) (10.2) (7.9)
Tel Aviv, 750.000 18,300 2100t 20.800 36.0 2715 276
Fred lie R. Mann Auditorium (21,200) (1700) (195)t (1930) (10.9) (7.8)
NETHERLANDS Amsterdam, 663.000 12,200 1600 13.800 48.0 2206 301
Concertgebomv (18.700) (1135) (149) (1285) (14.5) (8.5)
SWEDEN Gothenburg, 420,000 8900 1450 10.350 40.6 1371 306
Konserthus (11.000) (830) (135) (965) (12.3) (8.7)
SW ITZKRLAND Basel, 370.000 8000 1650 9650 38.3 1400 264
Stadt-Casino (10,500) (740) (153) (895) (116) (7.5)
\j\ Chaux-de-Fonds, 278,000 7000 1350 8350 33 3 1032 269
Salle Musica (7870) (650) (125) (775) (10.1) (7.6)
Zurich. 402,500 9440 1560 11.000 36.6 1546 260
Grosser Tonhallesaal (11.400) (875) (145) (1020) (11-1) (7.4)
VENEZUELA Caracas, 880,000 20,300 2200 22.500 39.0 2660 331
Aula Magna (24,900) (1885) (204) (2090) (118) (9.4)
* ..* ....... ... .... M . ton ft7 (37 2 m2' ..r rhorus ..r. a
Sa/Na ft2 (m2) 7 sou-1000 (Occup.) Hererheration Time 7mj 6.8 (0.63) 1.3 16; 14 1.10 1956
6.8 (0.63) 1.05 ' 26; 17 1.17 1957
8.0 (0.74) 1.6 37; 24 1.14 1953
8.4 (0.78) 1.2 25; 19 ca.1.30 1957
6.0 (0.56) 1.65 18; 4 1.06 1954
7.7 (0.72) 1.95 21; 13 1.15 1959
8.5 (0.79) 1.7 27; 14 1.12 1959
6.3 (0.59) 1.55 8; 6 1.00 1886
5.6 (0.52) 1.85 24; 10 1.01 1953
7.0 (0.65) 1.62 29; 12 1.06 1956
5.6 (0.52) 1.7 14; 6 1.04 1951
5.5 (0.51) 1.65 33; 11 1.15 1914
6.3 (0.59) 1.9 20; 8 0.95 1877
(0*66) 1.5 25; 18 1.00 1939
6.2 (0.58) 2.5 65(35) ; 70 1.29 1871
7.1 (0.66) 1.47 34; 14 0.88 1951
5.8 (0.54) 1.6 25; 7 0.97 1951
7.3 (0.68) 1:75 26; 13 1.20 1960
6.7 (0.62) 1.55 30; 7 0.98 1957
5.5 (0.51) 2.0 21; 9 1.10 1887
6.5 (0.60) 1.7 33; 22 1.06 1935
5.7 (0.53) 1.7 16; 6 1.21 1876
6.8 (0.63) 1.7 14; 6 1.03 1955
6.1 (0.57) 1.6 14; 6 1.22 1895
7.6 (0.71) 1.35 30; 10 1.44 1954
s:at sp ACINr. Staqe

Main Floor Balcony Ileu/ht
How-to-How Seat-lo-Seat How-to- How Seat-lo-Seat
in. (cm) in. (cm) in. (cm) in. (cm) in. (cm)
31-32 23-25 31-32 23-25 32
(79-81) (58-64) (79-81) (58-64) (Bl)
36 21 31.5
(91) (53) (88)
45 25-26 35
(114) (64-66) (89)
39 25.5 26.7
(99) (65) (68)
33 20.5 33 20.5 30
(83) (52) (84) (52) (76)
35.5 21.5 29.5
(0) (55) (75)
39.5 25 25 39.5 43.5
(100) (64) (64) (100) (HO)
29-30 21.5-22 5 31.5 20 36
(73-76) (55-57) (80) (51) (91)
31 20 33 o Cl 9 37
(78) (51) (84) (18-51) (94)
39-40 23.5 39 20 49
(99-102) (60) (99) (51) (125)
29.5-30 5 20 32 20 43
(75-78) (51) (81) (51) (109)
28 33.5 19.5-21.5 28 19-20 53
(71-85) (50-55) (71) (48-51) (135)
31.5 20 29 20 56.5
(80) (51) <74) (51) (114)
34 20 33-36 5 20-20.5 35 5
(86) (51) (84 ,J3) (51-52) (90)
33-37 23.5 32 18.5 10
(84-94) (60) .81) (47) (102)
31 21.5 31 20 30
(79) (55) (86) (51) (76)
31 18 31-32 18 60.5
(79) (46) (79-81) (46) (151)
35.5 19.5-27 35.5 20 115
(90) (50-69) 90) (51) (113)
30-33 20 35 19 30
(76-84) (51) .89) (48) (76)
28.5 20.5 30-33 20-22 58.5
(72) (52) (76-84 51-56) (149)
35.5 21.5 35.5 21.5 47
(90) (55) 90; (55) (119)
32 20 32 18 36
(81) (51) 81) (46) (91)
29.5 20.5 35.5 20.5 47
(75) (52) 90) (52) (119)
29 20.5 30 20.5 48
(74) (52) 76) (52) (122)
36 20.5 22 35 20.5-22 39.5
(01) (52-56) 89) . 52-56) (100)


BIBLIOGRAPHY
The Amercian Theater Planning Board, Inc. Theatre Check List. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1969
Building for the Arts. Architectrual Record, Mcgraw-Hill, 1978
Burris-Meyer Harold and Cole, Edward C. Theatres and Auditoriums. 2nd ed. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1964.
Denver Urban Design Sourcebook Denver Planning Office, 1982.
Dober, P. Richard. Campus Planning. Cambridge, Mass. June 1963.
Elder, Eldon. Will It Make a Theatre. Judy Sagarin, New York: OOBA 1979.
Izenour, C. George. Theater Design. Mcgraw-Hill, 1977.
Joseph, Stephen. New Theatre Forms. New York: Theatre Art Books, 1968.
Palmer, Mickey. The Architect's Guide To Facility Programming. New York: Mcgraw-Hill, 1981. Pena, Wiliam. Problem Seeking. Boston: Cahners Books International, 1977.
Ross, Michael Franklin; AIA: Beyond Metabolism-The New Japanese Architecture. Mcgraw-Hill, 1978. Schubert, Hannelore. The Modern Theater. Praeger Publishers, Inc.m 1971.
Silverman, Maxwell. Contemporary Theatre Architecture. New York Public Library, 1965.
The Uniform Building Code-1985