environmental design AIJRARIA IRRARY
TAIPEI STATION SQUARE
An Urban Design Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning,
University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Urban Design
San-Ming Yeh May, 1986
The Thesis of San-Ming Yeh is approved
University of Colorado at Denver May 1986
1-1 Thesis Statement
1-2 Study Area and Background
1- 3 Relative Plan
2. EXISTING SURVEY AND ANALYSIS
2- 1 History and Image 2-2 Land Use and Building 2-3 Circulation
2-4 Public Facilities 2-5 Space Quality 2-6 Nature Environment
3. ESSENTIAL DEVELOPMENT
4. TARGET AND PRINCPLE
5-1 Spaces and Requirement 5-2 Codes
At a city an accessible public transitional area nrovide the most intense of city image as any door leaners will testify. Kevin lynch said : "Those important exterior and interior soace that are exnlicity accessible to general oublic and frequency used by them the main street but also the central area............. The charac-
ter of these elements and their connection as a systerm can be analyed at the regrnal scale."1 Taipei Station area, which located at the central downtown area, is such a public transitional area of Taioei city. It will provide a new urban environment to the city.
Thr-ee- most directly effected nieces of this urban environment have been land use, urban snace and trans-nortation, which are weak today. This thesis will deal with the reinforcement of those urban function and exploring ways new develnment can draw from old city structure and environment. My thesis project, a transit center square renewal, is such that land use urban snace, transportation and existing historic buildings are the critical issue.
The city is understand only in Imagination. Didersity is the mental image of a city. As Jane Jacobs said:
"........cities are natural
generator of diversity.......a
mixture of use needs an enorm-
ous diversity of ingredients." Since Taipei Station square is such a imnortant transitional area, it should be a "mincity" whibh rro-vide the first image and diversity urban function to the public. And because "for the understanding of city, we have to deal outright with combination or mixtures of uses, not
senerated use as the essential phe-
It means a integated frame work in which activities of citizen and economic are allowable.
Open space is the major element of urban space. Taipei Station plaza used to be the most important open space of Taipei city, where allowed people trail, gather, transfer.
Today, it is crowded with vehicle and forgot how the open space enrich human life. I wish to receate the
missing quality ---- a open space
which is belong to citizen, not belong-to vehicle.
Circulation is the natural function of Taipei Transit center. Fecause of it's important location, this area
should be.a central core for the whole City. The public transoortation will all get gather to here and disperse from here. For this reason, a clear sys-term for velhicle and pedestrian is necessarily established. This system applies to the oarticular value site is vertical seoeration system.
Because of it is a critical respond to the urban renewal, because it
is in Taipei station area --- a unique
historic area and where so much has been destroyed necessarily confronts the issues of History and Historism to the renewal. Historism is the most arbitary use of history. In my thesis,
I neither attemp to go back with imitation past or to use all the historical Pieces of architectural like.
I want to establish a more dillectial relationship between the modern oeriod and his toric period.
For the understanding through a structral reading, of the difference between the new urban structure and old urban environment, this area should be componsed by historic buildings and new structure, and to tran-form the old structure into new structure with linking different grids and orientation of historic buildings.
Therefore, the idea for the new and old buildings is "combination".
Taipei Station Square renewal
It was in its early history, the fortress wall of ancient Tainei was builtalong the north and east edge of the downtown area, that is precisely the location of today's railroad, and most of the north part is occupied by the Taipei Railroad Station. Because of its exis-tance the site is presently characterized by a somewhat disconnected and discontinuous pattern of use. Particularly, it causes wild break in the continuity of the north-south traffic of this area, downtown frame uses, and additionally reduces the potential for an invisiting urban quality, thus inhibit development.
Therefore, the rainitry of communicate begin to develop a rapid transit system to solve those problems. The first proposal was approved in 1981 and the whole project will be finished in six years.
In this project, the existing track was combined with rapid transit system at 27 feet below ground level was provided for further delvelopment. It is anticipated that when this projected transit system is built, it will increases the values of land
use and.the site which at nresent confused and of poor quality will become highly attrative.
My thesis, the Taipei Station Square renewal, is to deal with the development of the land use urban form and function for this Dotential si te.
Â§$. study area
existing rapid system proposal rapid system existing main street proposal main street
The thesis is a mixed-use' urban renewal. The location and importance of the site make it much more than that. The city was once very active around. With the increaseing of passengers cars and with the physical separtion of it from the city by the highway and cars, the Taipei station square gradually loose it's function and urban core image. Any efforts to develop have not made the economic and social impact necessary to make it a vibrant, populous part of the city. Government of Taiwan R. 0. C. finally decide to reinforce it's land value and function by adaption to the new Taipei metro-rapid transit systerm. This thesis will be an effort to renew the Taipei station square after the existing railroad moveing to 45' feet underground. I will try to reform the importance and city core image that has all but died, to transform it into a "place" which is belong to citizen and to return the important to the city.
EXISTING SURVEY AND ANALYSIS
2-1 HISTORY AND URBAN IMAGE
1. Analysis Method :
Three critical issue in ana-lizing the develpment of situation of Taipei station are :
(1) culture background : History, social affector.
(2) function background : Urban develpment orocess.
(3) environment background : Fhsical characterisic of urban snace.
The reason for using this kind of analysis is to review the develp--ment of each urban snace and mass in order to understand the traditional situation and image of study area so that to figure out the outlay of future develpment.
2. The' History Of Taipei Station :
* 1887,The train drive from Taipei to Gi-long,1891 extent to Shi-chu Taipei Station then was located beyond Cho-shing hospital.
* 1905, Station was moved to existing uosition.
* 1908, The track was extent from North Taiwan to South Taiwan.
* Because of the increasing
of nonulation and gargo, established Hau-San Station is established to share the pressure in 1937.
* 1938 renew the old Taipei Station.
* 1951 Taipei Station become a major passenger's station, subway station union and head'-quarter offices were built beside railroad station Prom then on, Taipei Station become the transit center till now.
(2) Function and Image :
a. A transimission snace :
Located among local retail area (north bound), commerical office area (east bound), contral Business District (Southern-west),and public culture centeral area.
b. A transit hub and gate way of old Tainei city :
North Gate, West Gate and South Gate were the main "door" which connected inside and outside of city.
The establishment of train station and bus station made this area become a transit hub.
C.Indicates the traditional axis and orientation of Taipei city (figure ).
d.A historic area :
Taipei Station Area was the linking area of earier clusters and public facilities. Also because of the long history of this area, it contents many historic buildings
which were the part of city.
3. Suggestion :
(1) Maintain, the original supper block, so that to keep the urban structure and local unique character.
(2) Link the historic image to new buildings,landmark and urban space.
(3) Create a pleasure urban space which allowed public gathering and reform the function of city "door".
vl IS 1-11
I 111 -I I lilt
1740-10 1131-53 1780 1 701
HISTORY CF TAIPEI CITY
2-2 LAND USE AND EXISTING BUILDING 1. Land use Analysis :
(1) Object :
Because of the snecial character of study area and different land use of surrounding area, it is necessary to survey the existing land use and buildings to establish the andysis and evaluation model of this study area.
(2) Survey area : (figure ) Station northbound : number
1-7, 48, 49.
Station area : number 8,-,9,
West C. B. D. number 10-25. East C. B. D. : number 26-44,
(3) Result : (figure ,table )
(4) Conclusion : (major land use of each area)
Station Northbound : local retail and high density residential.
Station Area : office buildings and. small restraurants coffee shop.
West C. B. D. : most of this area are residential, retail mixed-use, some office buildings, and entertainment.
East C. B. D. : office buildings, retails, restraurants, some important oublic facilityes.
EXISTING LAND USE AND BUILDING
e. Chung-Shan N.Rd.
h. Kuan-Chien Rd.
i. Chung-Ching S. Rd,
j. Po-ai Rd.
k. Chung-Hua Rd.
l. Chung Hsiao W. Rd.
m. cheng-Chou Rd.
f. Chung-Shan S. Rd.
g. Kung-Yuan Rd.
3.east bus station d.west bus station
5. station blaza
7. central news building
8. commercial building cretails(apartment stor
9. railroad administration building
Land Use Of Tainei Station Area
land 1 % 2 % over 3 % integate
anartment store 1 0.3 1 0.7 0 2 0.3
retail 47 15.2 2 1.3 4 53 53
restraurant 45 14.6 0 0 11 56 56
entainment 3 1 1 0.7 1 5 5
commercial 48 15.5 30 19.6 21 2 290 290
office residential 123 39.8 80 52.3 37 240 240
light industrial 2 0.6 0 0 0 2 2
schvoland 36 11.7 13 8.5 26 75 75
public building 4 1.3 26 17 0 *0 30
market 509 153 753 753 .
2. Exsiting buildings
(1) 0bject :
To understand the condition of existing buildings and to evaluate their value in future develpment.
(2) Result : (figure )
m&' light industrial H shoo stores(along the jggj retails stree
Ha nablic building 1H transnortion facility local commerical
? projected parks site
projected office 1 projected office 2 exsiting office ^projected office ^
projected open space
new struction good condition
old buildings damaged
1. Net work : (figure )
Railroad and station cut down the net work, the street systerm is confused and crowded.
(1)East 4:----> West
Nanking W. Rd., Chang An W. Rd. and Chung Hsiao W. Rd. are the major streets. Chung Hsiao W. Rd. is the most serious traffic in peak hour.
'(2)North 4---> South
Chung Shan S. Rd., and Huan-hos. Rd. are the major circulation lines. Huan-ho S. Rd. is a perimeter road, there is short of link with the local street. Chung-Shan S. Rd. is a left-turn limited line. Cars come from freeway, pass trough Chung-Ching N. Rd. (a turn-nike) then up 'Torth-gate high way to Southbound of the city. Therefore North-gate intersection. (Southern-west corner of study area) become a traffic bottle neck.
This intersection is the most crowd corner in the whole city's, (figure )
Circulation Carry Capacity and Range of Surrouding Street
Street Direction PCU/hr. Canacity V/C Range
Yeh-Ping N. Rd. S. 719 800 0.90 D N. 1314 1600 0.82 D
Chung-Ching N. Rd. S. 700 2400 0.30 A N. 1724 2^00 0.72 C
Cheng-Te Rd. s. N. 995 1600 0.63 B
Chung-Shan S. Rd. S. 2567 3200 0.8 D N.
Chung-Hua Rd. S. 2237 3200 0.70 B N. 1621 2400 0.68 B
Po-Ai Rd. s. N. 1728 2400 0.72 C
.ehung-Ching S. Rd. S. 981 1600 0.61 B N. 727 1600 0.45 A
Chung-Shan S. Rd. S. 1326 2400 0.55 A N. 1350 2400 0.56 A
Street location direction PUC/hr Canacity V/C Rang?
E. 644 800 0.81 D A W. 1010 1200 0.84 D
Chung Hsia W. Rd. E. 2255 1600 1.41 F B W. 1891 1600 1.18 F
E. 5560 4000 0.89 D C W. 2776 4000 0.69 C
E. 2018 4000 0.59 A D W. 2358 4000 0.44 A
Cheng-Chou Rd. E. 1691 1600 1.06 F A W. 1399 1600 0.87 D
Public Transit Supply
(1)City bus :
Whole city Total lines : 125 Nonpeak hour : 1 bus/15 rain Peak hour : 1 bus/10 min Pass by Taipei Station Total lines : 1 25x496=49 Nonpeak hour :
Peak hour : 940 buses, 60 person/ bus.
(2)Courty bus :
Taipei Transit center
400 lines , ,
----------- each main county.
Taipei Station is a transit center for it's two satellies cities.
North 858Q' ^ Gee-lung, 50% 10096 seats/train South 12iono Taoyuan, 6096 10096 seats/train
5. Pedestry Systerm
Arcade is a very special building type of Taiwan. It purpose is to prevent the heavy rainning and strong sunshine, and to provide a oath way between street and shonstore for oedestrian. In study area
With aracde without -acade
(3)Pedestrian bridge :
Only two bridge in study area.
(4)Sub-pedestrian channel :
4. Parking : (figure )
" (l)narking along the street : 45.5%
(2) parking lots : 54.5% (1,875 m2)
(3) advantage : convient for short--time parking.
disdvantage : reduce the carry capacity of main street especially arround the study area the traffic is serious.
free way Uiajor street inter-city rapid road
perimeter rapid road major boulvard
A. Subway route
rapid transit system jexisting station
CITY BUS SUPPLY
2-4 PUBLIC FACILITIES : (figure )
2-5 SPACE QUALITY
1] Types Of Urban Space (figure )
(1)open space : plaza (?)wide view street space : Street spaces with low rise building on both side and which have wide view.
(3) general street space : Wider street with clear and regular building on both sides. The ratio between building height and width of street is 1.0-1.5.
(4) narrow street space : Narrow streets and Alley.
(5) confused space : Streets or open plazas are broken by highway, bridge or railroad track and-can't give a continuious sense.
(f)ouen space in study arpa :
Station front plaza :
* a enclosure open space.
* The front facade which faces to the Taipei museum indicate the traditional axis of Taipei city.
* allowed public gathering and meeting.
* bus stops which along the plaza
reform the function of the plaza--- a transit center.
* a good buffer between main street and station.
* huge parking lots and pass through road break the completed from of plaza and force pealestrian use the underground pealestrian chanell. To get to train station and bus terminal.
2. Image Of Central City Area
Base on the therov of Kevin Lyneh's city image to analyze the element and character of the com-nonent of this area (figure ).
(1) Major landmark
a. Taipei train station :
classic stile building type.
strong transit center visnal
major transit center (bus, train mixed-used)
b. North gate
North "door" of Taipei city.
traffic node of nine streets.
c. Taipei Museum
lacted inside the main onen space of Taipei city (Taioei New nark ).
faces to Tainei Station, the end point of traditional main axis of Taipei city.
d. Hilton Hotel :
a higher building of this area.
e. The president Hall
the most important building of this area.
main entry of east bound of this area.
nine street intergated circle.
(3) Edge :
North-Gate high way, Tan-sue River.
Chung-shan N.Rd. bridge.
a.Kuan-Chien Rd.(from Taipei Station to taipei Museum).
3. Public Activities
* to understand the behavior of user and their reaction to the soace.
* to find the nroblem of these public snaces.
* to establish a steady model to recreate a pleasure place for citizen.
(?)Dr. Shung Yet-Sen Memorial Hall Located at the Northern-east cornor of study area, it provide a vivid memory of the establishment of R.O.C. There are two parts in this memorial hall, one is them main display hall the other is the memorial house which Dr. Shung Yet-Sen used to lived in. It usually attracts thousands of neople each month to here.
(3) Taipei Station front Plaza
(4) Taipei New Park and Taipei Museum
Taipei Museum plaza is small plaza which is the front of Taipei New Park. The activities on this Plaza is vivid and attractive. Taipei New Park is the most important recreation space in this area.
The activities are : rhsical exercise, outdoor concert study, pinic......
(5) An access systerm for city bus and short-distance bus.
(6) pedestrian systerm.
1 4. Reform the image of new urban core
(l)create a intergated function for citizen and economic activities.
(2)create a diverse urban ac-
tivities shonping, office,
(3)Seperate four different C.B.D.
| (4)Transmit the old station message
and axis into new station and j grid systerm.
5. Respect the historic building
(1) reiforce the image and Visual
' impact of North-gate.
(2) provide a buffer snace for Dr.
I shung Yeh-Sen memorial hall.
6. Reduce the diffiqulty during the
J procedure of construction.
(1)consider the government buget.
j (2)prevent disturbing the facilities
and activities of surrounding j area.
wide view "br [2, open space RS wide street narrow street confused space
~~ main axis --- -potential axis
.=2 1 Dr. Sung Yu-Sen memorial ?.W. bus station u hall
3. E. bus station
4. station front nlaza
5. new nark,Tainei museum
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ESSENTIA! D .VET, PM ENT
In order to define the function and farget of mysite. I enlarge the study area and try to define the situ-lation of ray site by analyzing the whole central city area. therefore T review the develpment and existing land use (chanter 2), and establish the tendency of essential develoment (chap. 3), then to define the basic target of this project (chan. 4). The tendency of future develoment are :
(1) A diverse urban core :
Because the unique character of this site (see chap. 2,figure ),
it will still be the best position for urban core and transit hub.
(2) Link the structure of Taipei city :
This site is a transimission area of several different land use zone, snd which indicate the urban structure and orientation.
(3) A new Gate-way of Taioei city :
This area used to be a gate way of Taioei city, and it will still on the same situation.in the urban future.
(4) To establish an open space which is connected to the western planning park systerm and River. The open space will provide a place for gathering, dispersion and transfer.
(5) To privde a aboundant historic image of old Taipei city.
(6) To privde a clear sky line of modern city.
TARGET AND PRINCPTE
Ease on essential develpment of study area (chapter 3) and consider the pratical to define the target of
(1) land use (2) circulation (3) environment quality, then summarize the orincple of fature develpment.
1. Satisfy the function of transit
(l)At least need train, city bus, short distant bus, and rapid transit terminal.
(?)create a convienent connection for transfer.
(Strain station :
to provide a pleasure space for transfer, despersion and waiting.
to provide a major access for the passenger to connect with outside street systerm.
station design must match the new rapid transit systerm (under structure).
(d)bus station :
Reducing the types of transportation by moving the exsiting long distant servce to Sin-Ye sub-urban core.
redesign the existing bus station and adapt to the block newal.
sperate the different scale of bus, road and parking lot.
(5)city bus :
reconsider the position of existing bus stops.
create a certain route and parking lot for city bus.
create a waiting space along plaza and connected with pedestry.
(6) New rapid transit systerm
below the ground level 45 ft.
use the same facilities with train station.
main entry of terminal should be connected with pedestry.
keep the shortest walking distant with other facilities.
(7) passengers cars and taxi :
to design a certain ai*ea for passengers parking.
to limit the time for taxis' staying.
to limit the pass-through circulation.
2. Reinforce the landuse
(1) provide a suitable public facilities.
(2) commercial building can increase the lane value.
3. Eastablish a easy circulation systerm.
(1) The circulation land used is the first considerlation.
(2) prevent directing uneed transportation into this area.
(3) seperate the cars and pedestrian.
(4) perimeter circulation systerm.
(5)Bus station and train station: The activities of study area are most effected by the cars and passengers. Their be havior model are :
1. Land use (1)existing :
a. area : 38 A.C.
b. commerical, transnortation.
* retail mixed-use
* commerical : 6.0 A.C.
* transportation (station, road, parking) : 20 A.C.
* open space : 10 A.C.
(2)goal of city (after renewal) :
a. area : 38 A.C.
b. commerical, transportation, retail mixed-use.
c. commerial I :
* F.A.R. : 360%
* open space : 40%
(4)the ratio of commercial, transportation ratail are flexible, but transportation is the first consideration.
2. Circulation (l)existing :
a. train : 10.6 (unit : million persons/day)
b. other transportation : 3?
c. all kinds of transportation/ train = 3.0
(?)goal of city (2001)
a. train : 18
b. short-term bus : 1^.4
c. city bus : 23
d. walk : 26.9
e. other (taxis passenger cars, motorcycle) : 45
Table : Transportation typ ef> cav* humbero^ nt>er resource :
transportation 1985 2001
train long distance 4.16 " ) train 0.15n
short 4.54 \ 10.64 ranid transit T 2,94 17.95
Te-shew 1.04 . I ranid transit H 5.86^
transfer 0.28 transfer 17.37
PUS long 1.24 I 1 .89*i
medium 1.4? 8.54 r 1 ^. 4 ?
short 5.88 J 9.19J
city bus 22.44 23.00
OTHER 1.31 8.48
Walk ... 21.70 26.90
Figure : The relationship between number of user
and transportation types (?001)
unit : million persons / day
Figure : The number of user for Taipei Station (?001)
(B) P C U P U C of Train Station
Passengers uillion persons/day cars/day cars/neak hour PUC/car PUC(peak hrs.)
BUS 13.4 3,000 4 50 1.9 860
CITY BUS 23.0 3,800 760 1.9 1,440
ACCOUNT 36.4 6,800 1,110 2,300
PRIVATE CAR 6.0 31,600 6,300 1.0 6,300
MOTORCYCLE 2.5 25,000 5,000 0.3 1,500
ACCOUNT 8.5 56,600 11,300 7,800
TOTAL 44. 9 6L,400 12,410 10,100
Table P U C of Commercial
FLOOR AREA PUC/A.C./LAY PUC/DAY PUC (peark hrs)
Y. A.C. 15 15 Y 15 Y. 16%
According (B), we can get the demand for short-term narking.
Table Short-term parking demand
cars/peak hr. time for get off berth narking
Buses 4 50 5 min. 38
City Buses 760 2.5 min. 32
Private cars 6,300 45 sec. 39
(D)Parking Lots a.commerial I :
* office : 1200 sq. ft. need
1 parking snace.
* public facilities : 1500 sq. ft. need 1 parking snace.
* hotel : 1500 sq. ft. need
1 parking space.
* retail :
* restranrant : 1500 sq. ft. need 1 parking snace.
3. Train Station and Rapid Transit systerm ('resource : Minstry of communication, R. 0. C.)
(1)Train Station :
a. passengers : 18,720/hr.
b. track : 7 lines, 27 ft. underground
c. space requirement :
Space 1n3 Area persons 10 S.Q. P. Quanti ty T. Function Note
plateform 1,920 1 50 4 960 ft
waiting hall 18,700 374 1
pathway stair ticket window 660/ft w idth/hr 0.7 30 total width 60 ft
and hall 160 1
check-out restranrent 700 102 18 1 width 4.5ft buffer area 81 sq. ft.
baggage room 165 1
other reatail office raerchanic room rest room 500
(2)Rapid Transit Systerm
a.passengers : 60,000/hr.
b. track : 2 lines, 36 ft. c. space requirement below ground
Space person Area Quantity 10 S.W.F.T. Note
platform waiting hall 4,000 200 same with train station 2
path stairs entry exit ticket windows 3,750/Hr 2 90 ft total width ticket machines
others restrooms retails office 20
land use regulations :
The site is an urban renewal area thus the allowed land uses are as follows :
publicfacility 40 %
public psrk or walks 10 %
small marina/recreational development 7 %
street right of way 10 %
commercial mixed use/or related 33 %
The site, developing and landscap plans serving the area are subject to the approval of the city of Taipei Renewal Agency and the city Planning Baord.
permitted uses :
-office building -neighborhood retail service or center
-restaurant, coffee house, ice cream parlor, dinner theater including nightclub or discoteque -hotel, motel, or boatel -parking garage
-television and radio studio and office, excluding hight level transmission towers
-health club and/or related activities such as pool, sauna, tennis, handball
and squash courts
building heights : subject to approval of the City of Taipei Renewal Agency, and the Citv Planning Broad
parking requirements : retail 1 space /1200 sf
restaurant 1 space /5 natrons
GENERAL CODES :
groups fire rating occup
theater A1B 3 1 30
night club A2 3 1000
art galleries/ restaurant A3 2 1500
retail M 3 1666
hotel R1 2 25
detached 1-2 B 2 15
nost office B 2 15
guidelines to mixed use :
1. ) requirments of use with the greatest
oublic safety will apply;
2. ) mixed uses will be completely se-
parated, both horizontal and verticle by fire senarating walls and floors with the rating used being the highest between the uses; or
3. ) mixed uses must be separated by
firewalls having a resistance rating highest among the uses.
codes relating to the physically handicapped :
parking and building app. see App.
parking spaces as close to entry as possible
building entry at least 1 accessible; min. width : 5* max. grade : 1;20
interior access access to all floors
toilet rooms at least one to
water closet no less than 42" wide, 72"deen
compartment swinging door not less than."52"
codes relating to parking lots
access lanes not less than 12' wide
spaces not less than 8' x 18' in area
protection of a substantial bumper
adjoining property shall be placed at
all interior lot lines
illumination not less than .25 lumens/sf of parking area
codes relating to open wellÂ£ :
atriums less than' 3 stories no smoxe control system needed
smoke control system upon detection of fire and smoke : air supply to firefloor, and return air to non-fire floor shut down
atriums less than 55 ft high 6 air changer/hr. or 4 ac/hr. when volume is over 600,000 cu. ft.
enclosure senarate from ad7 joining spaces by a 1 hr. fire rating glass walls acceptable when sprinklers are along separation line 6' o.c.
travel distance when means of egress is through the atrium: dis tance of not greater than 150 feet
pxcention 5 floors adjacent to it need not be separated but are considered part of its volume
codes relating to natural lighting and
Windows and skylights all habitable spaces shall have access to natural light.
window size when used for natural light and vent. : glass area not less than 8% of floor area served, with 50% of glass area availabl for ventilation.
ceiling heights habitable spaces : min 7*6" halls, corridors, bath, kitchen : min. 7'0"
alcove rooms borrowed light is accentable
bath, and laundry rooms must be vented
codes relating to open courts :
dimensions min. width: ^ in./ft. of ht.
area no less than 5' for outer courts no less than 10' for inner courts no less than 1.5 x width1
length no greater than 2 x width
access has to be nrovided
codes relating to means of egress :
exit discharge all exits to discharge with access to a nublic way
unit width 1 unit 2?" .5 unit each additional.1? units
exit design/floor canacit.y designed for one floor occupancy when serving more than 1
Â§ of exits min. # : 2 for less than 500 people ? for 500-1000 4 for greater than 1000
buildings with one exit see Apnendix
dead end corridors
# of doorways
interior exit stairway
unobstructed access provided for all occupants
not greater than 20' long
not less than 4^"
-36" when serving 50 people or Ipss
distance not greater than 10' from an exit, with the width not greater than 20*
can be a discharge from an exit if there is an automatic fire suppression system
if greater than 50 people, 2000 sf :
2 exit doors, with swing in direction of egress -exception : R3
headroom : 6'8" landings have min. length : 60" slope : see table 4 in Appendix E capacity and dimensions see table 2 in Appendix E
width : min. 44" or 36" if under 50 people min. headroom : 6'8" landing : stair width or greater
rise : max. 12' between landings
treads and rises : see table 5 in Appendix D stairways must not narrow in direction of exit
codes relating to exit doors in stirways:
not less than 3?"
direction of swing shall swing in the
direction of travel or landing; shall not imoede more than f of the required width
circular stairs min tread width: 10"
smaller radius : min. ? x width of the stairway
enclosure required interior
exit stairways shall have highest fire separation uses involved
codes relating to smoke proof enclosures :
when occupancy is 75' or more above
fire veh. access at least one necessary if fire suopres.
system thoughout none are needed
codes relating specifically to public assembly :
skating rinks shall not be lower
(interior) than the floor nearest
main exits located on a stret
front width : to accomodate at least Â£ of total occupant load
levels each level to have
access to main level -has other exits of width to accomodate ?/3 of total occupant load at that level,
with of exit doors
length of travel aisle width
cross aisles aisle gradient
located as far from the main exit as possible
-when occupant load is 50 or more at that level, have 2 such exits
max single exit : 4?" min double doors :6(V'
min. : 1.5 sf/occupant shall not encroach upon the clear of the front exits
min. : 56" if serving one aisle 42" if serving two aisle
aisle increases 1.5" for every 5' of length towards exits if continental : min. : 44"
6 seats max between any seat and the aisle if continental:
no dead end length of over 20*
max slope : 1 in 8 if steps are thus needed : full aisle width with no isolated steps
min : 12" if continental :
18" if 18 seats max 20" if 18-55 seats 21" if 56-45 seats 22" if 46 seats and on
see table 7 in Appendix D
codes relating specifically to
mercatile uses :
covered malls :
tenant separation each must be separated by a 1 hr.fr.
travel distance max. distance from any point in mall to the exit is 200'
secondary exits when exit travel length in tenant space is more than 100' a 2nd means of egress must be provided
dead end length shall not exceed twice its width
floor area allowance see Apr.
exit access width min. : 6f"
mall width min. : 20' min. : 10' clear exit width to a height of 8'
floor/ceiling assembly within multi-level enclosed malls : 1 hr.fr
automatic fire suppression system necessary
parking structure is a separate if ser. by a 2 hr. fire wall
access travel see tables 2 & 6 in Appendix E
# of exits see appendix
checkout lanes should have least 1 wide or erreater for the handicapped
codes relating specifically to
residential uses :
length of access travel
area and dimensious
if beneath : 1 hr. fr separation
see table 5 in Appendix D
sleeping rooms below the 4th floor shall have means of ep'ess (window or door) min. onen. : 5.7 sf, 24" high, 20" wide exception : R3
exception : R3
use group R1 and R2
# of units accessible :
1 for 21-99 units
2 for 100 or more plus 1 for evefy add. 100
at least one room more than 150 sf others not less than 70 sf min. min. width : 7
(except kitchens and bath)
natural lighting in R? interior
and ventilating stairs have windows
or skylights of not less than 10 sf. the corridors shall have approved means of dissipating smoke.
codes relating specifically to the business uses :
length of exit travel
Site Area 38 Ac
Open Space 10 Ac
Road 4 Ac
Gross Area 24 Ac
Train Station 116,000 S.F.
Bus Terminal 18,000 S.F.
Retails 300,000 S.F.
Offices 2,400,000 S.F.
Hotel (500 rms) Parking 300,000 S.F.
For Terminal 140,000 S.F.
For Commercial 1,200,000 S.F.
Total 4,470,000 S.F.
, '' (Vf^i Tinifc i jiy f rai
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H s si
* TRANSPORTATION AND PARKING FOR TOMORROW CITIES wilbur smith and associates, 1981
* CENTRAL CITY MALL
----- Harvey M. Rubenstein, 1970
* SHOPPING CENTER DEVELOPMENT
----- ULI- The urban land institute, 1980
* URBAN RENEWAL
----- James Q. wilson, 1964
* CONCEPT OF URBAN DESIGN
----- David Gosling & Barry Maitland, 1984
* URBAN OPEN SPACE
----- cooner-Hewitt museum, 1980
* HOW TO SAVE YOUR OWN STREET Raquel Ramati, 1978
* UNION STATION
TRANSIT CENTER AND MUTI-USE COMPLEX ----- Enrique Garcia, 1983
* THE NEW DOWNTOWN
----- Lousis G. Redstone / FAIA, 1976
* THE GRANITE GARDEN
----- Anne Whiston Spirn, 1983
* A PATTERN LANGUAGE
----- Christonher Alexander, 1977
* THE IMAGE OF THE CITY Kevin Lynch, 1960
* HUMAN ASPECTS OF URBAN FORM Amos Rapoport, 1977