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1984 Z364 !'
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.in Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
James F, Zapf
IQ/vy\jiA Dec., 1981
Advi s or s: % .
Tom Edmiston Director
Jestside Neighborhood Design Center
(NEW3ED) New N'estside Economic Development, Inc.
;hitecture School of Design and Planning University of Colorado an Denver
Table of Contents
Land Use and Zoning.................9
Site Analysis.......................... 16
Office Design.................... 48
Specialty Shop Design..............49
Scale 1" = 7f8mile
In the La Alma/Lincoln Fark neighborhood of the Westside, immediately north of 8th Ave. between Kalamath St. and Santa Fe Drive, lie ten lots which are each 25 ft. wide. The five to the west of the alley are 150 ft. long and cover 18,750 sq. ft. The five lots from the alley east are 193 ft. long and cover 24,125 sq. ft. Together, excluding the alley, these, lots constitute a site of 42,875 sq. ft. or slightly under an acre of land. This little acre is the site of my thesis study of a program for a marketplace which would consist of a restaurant, shops, office space and facilities to accomodate the parking needs of the complex.
The restaurant would offer a menu of primarily Mexican/Southwestern food. It should present a variety of dining arrangements and seat not more than 150. The restaurant would have a wine and beer license for dining service only and no bar.
The office spaces should be aimed at professional type services and public agencies, such as, architects and designers, lawyers, community development and assistance agencies, etc. but they should be flexible enough to satisfy a wide rental market. They would be geared to small firms and organizations.
The shops should serve small specialty retailers of many varieties of goods. They should be so designed as to have individual identities and accessibilities, but yet be part of a common shopping experience.
Space should be provided for community sales and artist exhibitions.
SDace Function Floor Area Parking Requirements
-restaurant A,500- 5,000 sq.ft. 1/200 = 23-25 spaces
-shops 8,000-10,000 fe 1/200 = A0-50
-offices 8.000-10.000 fe 1/500 = 16-20
Total 20,500-25,000 sq. ft. 79-95 spaces
At this location a veritable gantlet of design issues confront the Little Acre. It lies on what was once a prosperous retail strip, Santa Fe Drive, that has declined drastically in the past thirty-five years as businesses developed in the suburbs. A revitalization effort of that strip is now being conducted. The surrounding area is low-income residential of mostly Hispanic/Chicano population. One side of the Little Acre is bordered by a major ingress to the Central Business District,
Santa Fe Drive. The other two sides are bordered by two major egress arterials, Kalamath St. and 8th Ave.
While providing access for service, fire and parking, the Little Acre must not inhibit the high speed traffic on the bordering streets.
This access must be readily apparent and easy to negotiate. It must also jibe with the traffic flows.
The complex itself must be a sound composition of functional relationships. The Little Acre will have to allow convenient customer and occupant parking. The relationship between the office space and the marketplace must be defined. The transition between inside and out must be considered both physically and visually and then the task of making these spaces comfortable must involve considerations of light, growing things, security and protection from street noise and weather.
This complex will have to become a vehicle for community improvement which will be accepted by the neighborhood and, even more, will be a fulfillment of needs of the local people. At the same time, this vehicle must be profitable unto itself.
The success of this depends upon the design considerations given to the types and sizes of enterprises which will occupy the development. That is, a certain flexibility must be programmed into the design that will accomodate a wide variety of Santa Fe Drive scale entrepreneurs.
Also, the facilities must be convenient and comfortable during any season of the year.
Physically and visually the Little Acre must relate to its surroundings. After development is completed, normal pedestrian circulation should not skip a step. The complex must be harmonious with the adjacent residential areas. The scale and character should reflect the context of, not only the existing buildings on Santa Fe Drive, but also the revitalization program and the ethnicity of the neighborhood.
Beyond merely relating to the area, the Little Acre should become an advertisement for the neighborhood. Because of its strategic location, the site could entertain the very large, captive audience that stops at 8th and Santa Fe daily. The revitalization of Santa Fe Drive would be heralded to these commuters and to them would be revealed the prospect of excitement and charm of a neighborhood that does not tantilize without gratifying.
As a revitalization effort and an economic boon, the Little Acre development would, of course, have an intrinsic relationship to the
social fabric of the local community. Other considerations, however, must be made. This new kid on the block must neither insult nor betray. No foreign architectural language should be imposed upon the community and no one should have to move or change their way of life as a result of this development. On the contrary, the people of the neighborhood, at the very least, should be able to immediately and spontaneously relate to what they see on this site and further, hopefully, they would take pride in and be inspired by this development because it is an expression of themselves. It should produce respect, self-esteem and an identity. Given the large numbers of people encountered by the intersection of Santa Fe Drive and 8th Ave., this Little Acre could prove to be very fertile soil for the cultivation of a cultural focal point.
Before Colorado was a state, the La Alma/Lincoln Park area was annexed into Auraria City under the Territorial Session Laws of 1874.. Since its very beginning, the area has been home to working class people. During the late 1800's and early 19C0's, when the railroad was king, many of the Anglo and German immigrants who got jobs with the railroad or with Denver's developing trolley system built modest Victorian hones in the area.
Many of these buildings remain today, rendering a distinct historical personality on the neighborhood. The average year of residential construction is 1893. Twenty of these buildings are designated architecturally or historically significant by the "Denver Inventory". The four square block area between Kalamath St. and Lipan St. and between 13thi Ave. and Colfax is on the National Register of historic Places.
The Buckhom exchange was built about 1885 and is a Victorian commercial structure that is a locally designated landmark.
In the 20's and 30's the older, socially and economically upward bound population of thie neighborhood began moving out.
The Buckhorn ExcPiange
They were replaced in their jobs and their homes by a newly arrived Italian population.
Throughout this period of growth for most of 70 years or until about the end of WWII, the entire Westside enjoyed prosperity. As the growth of the metropolitan area continued, however, the flight to the suburbs began and a growing Denver proper in need of service and industrial sites found this area convenient. So, with the decline in population and the invasion of industrial uses in the Westside, an economic erosion began that, until recent years, has continued unaddressed.
In the pattern of the classic urban barrio development, when the upward mobile move out, those on the bottom of the economic scale move in and, so, the people who worked the fields of Colorado, those who thinned and topped the sugar beets, who picked onions, bucked sacks and bales, those people came to the city to escape the unsettled life of the migrant stream and the drudgery and low wages of the fields. A Chicano population came to the city to find their dreams which began in the most inexpensive area to live, the Westside.
Today Chicanos represent about 75% of the population of La Alma/ Lincoln Park, itaglos represent about 17%, Blacks about 5% and the remaining 3% fall into the category of "other". Because of the high costs and hassles of commuting to work in downtown Denver and because of relatively lower property prices in the Westside, there has been somewhat of a reversao of the "white flight" syndrome, especially among
white single professionals who are moving into the area and renovating seme of the old Victorian homes.
This trend, however, has been relatively recent with the actual population of La Alma/
Lincoln Park dropping from 10,788 in 1960 to 5,875 in 1980. During the latter part of the 1970's, the city of Denver initiatated efforts to interrupt this decline of population in the Westside and today, as a result, there exist 750 new housing units built in conjunction with Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) that are presently being filled and should add about 1200 people to the La Alma/Lincoln Park neighborhood along Speer Elvd. between 11th and 14-th Aves.
In spite of the presence of 800 firms employing nearly 10,000 in La Alma/Lincoln Park and nearby Auraria, the unemployment rate in the neighborhood runs far above that unemployment rate in the rest of the city. Data from 1970 shows that 54# of La Alma/Lincoln Park residents were not in the labor force compared to 40# for the entire City of Denver. Unemployment in the neighborhood was running at 7.4# compared to 4.4# city wide. A staggering 34# of the households in the La Alma/Lincoln Park area had incomes below the poverty level in a city with an average of 9# below. These figures have not improved in recent years, as median 1977 family income here was $5,519 compared to $14,398 citywide.
WESTSIDE POPULATION 1960-1980
Sources: U S. Census of Population and Housing, 1960, 1970, and 1980
LA ALMA/LINCOLN PARK SUB-AREAS & ZONING
(?) Auraria Campus West High School
(5) Zocalo Commercial Area Sunken Gardens
(3) King Soopers Denver Boys Club
(X) La Alma/Lincoln Fark Housing Del Fueblo Elementary
(?) La Alma/Lincoln Park Recreation Center Byers Library
(?) UDAG housing Denver General hospital
(?) La Mariposa Health Center The Little Acre
Land Use and Zoning
The population of La Alma/Lincoln Park has fought an uphill battle to maintain a residential character in the neighborhood and it is a complicated task because the area is so chopped up by different uses as described by the Denver Planning Office in their "Westside Neighborhood Plan1';
"...From west to east, the neighborhood includes several sub-areas defined by the change in land uses and the location of major arterials.
More specifically, the neighborhood includes a wide area of industry, a sector of residential, the Santa Fe Drive strip which includes heavy business uses and industrial uses, a triangle occupied by the UDAG Program and a residential area which lies between several large public facilities and the business uses extending east of Santa Fe Drive. As can be seen from the land use chart above, only about 14$ of the neighborhood's land is used for residential purposes. Unfortunately, not all of tlie nonresidentially uses are separated from the residential portions. Many residentially zoned blocks have nonresidential uses on
EXISTING NET LAND USE La Alma/Lincoln Park
Source: Denver Planning Office, Neighborhood Land Use by Zoning 1980.
them which creates problems of traffic, noise and visual pollution.
Most of the current use conflicts are the result of businesses and industries fronting residential properties on the edges of both neighborhoods or located on residential blocks as "legally nonconforming" uses, i.e., uses that do not conform to current zoning but were there prior to the zoning and are therefore legal. Negative effects which are the result of incompatible land uses include truck and automobile traffic generated by the business uses, visual, noise and air pollution, and litter. All of these effects threaten the desirability and livability of the adjacent residential areas."
Sub-area "A": This section covers some 160 acres, is heavily industrialized and is zoned accordingly. Uses include heavy manufacturing, warehousing and storage, and office and commercial uses which are accessory to the industrial uses. This area provides much employment and tax revenue for the City of Denver.
Down in the southeast toe of sub-area "A" is an area in which there are several single family and multi-family units which, according to the Denver llanning Office, "...range in condition from sound to blighted and the overall character of the area is unstable." Although services will be continued to the homes in this toe area, residential use appears to be terminal with industrial use as the replacement.
Sub-area "B": This section is largely residential. It includes the Lincoln Park Homes, a 68$ unit family oriented public housing project which lies between Osage and Mariposa on both sides of Lincoln Park. Directly east is a 2-g- block wide strip of 1-2 zoned land v/hich is occupied by mostly single family homes with a few higher density
residential structures. Within this area is the neighborhood's national historic district, a few public facilities, and a small number of non-conforming uses. Overall, the area has a stable residential feeling. Many homes have been renovated and the UDAG street scaping effort has begun to unify tnese blocks. At the extreme north end lies B-1 and B-A zoning which accommodates the Denver housing Authority, the Community Development Agency, and the Zocalo commercial area.
Sub-area "C": This triangle is zoned B-8, a zone that can develop businesses compatible with residential uses which has recently occured with the construction of a new King Soopers grocery store in the block between 13th and 14-th Aves. and Santa Fe and Inca. The residential aspirations of the neighborhood are being fulfilled, also. On the triangular plot immediately north of the King Soopers a 157 unit senior citizens residence has been built and, of course, between 11th, Speer and Inca the 750 middle income UDAG units are presently being filled.
Sub-area "D": The Little Acre off Santa Fe Drive is included in this sub-area which is zoned B-A and which embraces the major commercial strip of Santa Fe Drive. Because of the large amount of traffic on the strip much of the commercial activity has died off and much of that which remains is not compatable with the adjacent residential areas.
Sub-area "E": This sub-area contains many major public facilities, West High School, Denver General Hospital, Sunken Gardens Park, and Del Pueblo Elementary School. Some office and light industry use are located in the B-8 and R-A zones. The remainder of the area is residential and the Denver Flanning Board is suggesting prevention of encroachment by further nonresidential uses.
Education Complex^______j i___\\/CBD
Colfax^ Avo. 6 BLOCKS
Target Area for Santa Fe Drive Revitalization
In the "Westside Neighborhood Plan" the Denver Planning Office describes Santa Fe Drive as, "...the main commercial area in La Alma/ Lincoln Park, contains limited neighborhood-serving uses and businesses with a regional market. Due to the nature of the zoning, uses that have rather negative impacts on abutting residential areas have developed.
Once a thriving market area, the Santa Fe commercial area has deteriorated physically due to the uses that have evolved and the high volumes of traffic on Santa Fe Drive. The Santa Fe merchants, recognizing their common problems, are now organized into a local development corporation (LDC) and are meeting monthly to share concerns and ideas for improving the commercial climate. A similar situation has evolved on heavily travelled 8th Avenue, which includes vacant gas stations, offices, vacant storefronts and regional shopping outlets. A city-funded market study for Santa Fe Drive has recently been completed and suggests the most appropriate land uses for Santa Fe, as well as public strategies for investment in a revitalization effort."
The primary objectives of organizing this revitalization effort are to attract money from the outside and create jobs for local people.
Also, the new commercial developments are to be geared to provide the people of the V/estside with acciss to shopping opportunities, public amenities and frofessional services. Finally, it is the aim of these efforts to sculpt a physical and visual improvement of the Santa Fe Drive area.
The revitalization effort has several vanguards. The LCD mentioned in the above quotation is known as the Santa Fe Drive Redevelopment
Corporation and is a non-profit corporation established to promote commercial revitalization along Santa Fe Drive or what is now being called the Near Westside Neighborhood. Composed of local business people and community residents, this organization solicits financial and technical assistance and acts as a watchdog for the revitalization effort. The teeth of this watchdog is its role as screening committee for the designs of construction porjects that are applying for low interest loans from the Community Development Agency (CDA) of the City and County of Denver. The Redevelopment Corporation has established architectural guidelines which, not only suggest ways to develop visual harmony along the strip, but also must be followed in order to secure a loan from the CDA.
Assisting the Santa Fe Drive Redevelopment Corporation and serving as another major driving force of the revitalization effort is NEWSED (New Westside Economic Development, Inc.), a Community Economic Development Corporation of the Westside Action Council. NEWSED buys unused properties and develops on them businesses that will benefit the neighborhood by providing jobs, bringing in outside money, and creating a needed marketplace. The viability of a particular type of business is based upon a number of in depth market studies contracted by NEWSED.
Also a tremendous impetus to the revitalization on Santa Fe Drive is the Westside Neighborhood Design Center (WDC) which is an arm of the Center for Community Development and Design of the University of Colorado at Denver. WDC provides design services for community groups, such as, the Redevelopment Corporation and NEWSED and for individuals applying for loans through CDA.
The site of the Little Acre off Santa Fe Drive has been of much
interest to the LCD, the WDC and NEV/SED. It is an area that is ripe for development in the context of the revitalization effort. The program that I have proposed for r.y thesis is one which has grown out of discussions with staff members of NEWS3D and the Westside Design Center. The restaurant, the specialty shops and the office spaces have been suggested to be very viable and consistent with the effort and my role is to arrive at architectural solutions to the problems confronted by the development of the Little Acre.
At a latitude of 39 A5' N and a longitude of 104 52' Wt Denver is located at the eastern edge of the central Rocky Mountains where the climate is relatively mild, sunny and semi-arid with an annual precipitation of 15 inches. At an elevation of about 5280 ft. above sea level, Denver misses out on some of the very cold mornings of the winter that the higher mountainous elevations experience and the very hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Very low or very high temperatures usually don't last very long.
Varieties of weather conditions tour the Denver area from several different sources, the major four being: cold, arctic air from the North, warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, warm dry air from Mexico and the Southwest, and air from the Pacific which goes through some moisture content and intensity changes as it passes over the Sierras and the Rockies.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest and windiest time of the year. During this season Denver gets 39^ of its total annual precipitation much of it coming as heavy, wet snows. The spring is fickle, however, and can be warm and sunny.
Summer sees about 31 % of the year's precipitation, most of it
coming in july and August in the form of scattered local thundershowers
in the afternoons. This clouding many times helps prevent the very
hot summer afternoons. The mornings are usually clear and sunny.
Summer trmperatures bottom out between 50 andoG and hit high in the
80's. Only 35 days of the year does the mercury reach 90 or more and one year in five is the 100 mark attained briefly. Relative humidity usually ranges between 30% and 70%.
Autumn is the time of cooling air and angling but pleasantly intense sunshine. With only 19% of the annual precipitation the fall is rarely visited by cold fronts and the summer thunderstorms are over.
The cold fronts that come from the north and northwest in the winter can be cold and bring the most severe winds but are usually brief, rolling down to the lower elevations to tne east. Compared tc other areas at the same latitude Denver's winter weather is mild due to warm chinooks from the southwest and the Pacific that are occasionally brought in by the westerly air flows. The lows are usually in the teens .and the highs in the forties. Sky cover ranges from 6 to 7% and the relative humidity is between 50% and 70%.
Prevailing winds year round are from the south, but trds, of course, is a norm. In fact all of this information is generally an accurate description of Colorado's weather. It does not, however, seem to be describing the Denver climate of tine past tPiree years which has been a period of extremes. During this time, we have seen record rainfalls and record snowfalls. We experienced the longest time period in Denver's weather history without precipitation.
Recently record low temperatures were set for both lows and duration below zero. All of this is to say that it is very prudent in Colorado to design for the extremes.
Monthly Diurnal Bioclimatic Analysis
Night Time Data (4 AM)
Month Wind (Mean fnm) Kean Rel. Humidity Average Temn. F. Possible $ Sun Solar Radiation 3TU/so. ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly PreciD.
Jan. 950.4- 47.156 23.5 C 0 0.75 in.
Feb. 765.6 39.556 22.3 0 0 1.00 in.
March 721.6 36.8$ 29.3 0 0 1.20 in.
April 836.0 33.7$ 38.6 0 0 2.10 in.
May 704-.0 37.6$ 46.2 0 - 0 3.00 in.
June 959.2 33.8$ 52.5 0 0 1.75 in.
July 739.2 27.0$ 61.0 c 0 1.90 in.
Aug. 660.0 35.7$ 58.6 0 0 1.75 in.
Sept. 633.3 24.4$ 50.0 0 0 1.00 in.
Oct. 668.8 29.0$ 39.8 0 0 1.00 in.
> o 5*5 642.4. 46.3$ 31.6 0 0 0.75 in.
Dec. 616.0 42.7$ 23.7 0 0 C.6C in.
Monthly Diurnal 3ioclimatic Analysis Denver, Colorado Morning Data (1C AH)
Month Wind (Kean fern) Mean Rel. Kumiditv Average TemD. F Fossible $ Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sa. ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Frecip.
Jan. 906.A 47.1$ 34.6 68$ 116.8 5.1$ 0.75 in.
Feb. 968.0 47.3$ 37.8 75$ 138.6 5.7$ 1.00 in.
March 862. A 43.1$ 47.0 85$ 205.1 5.8$ 1.20 in.
April 932.8 41.6$ 53.7 78$ 224.1 5.7$ 2.10 in.
May 862.4 50.3$ 62.5 65$ 245.4 5.8$ 3.00 in.
June 976.8 44.0$ 70.9 68$ 262.5 4.5$ 1.75 in.
July 827.2 34.9$ 80.3 72$ 263.4 4.6$ 1.90 in..
Aug. 668.8 47.4$ 77.3 72$ 240.3 4.6$ 1.75 in.
Sept. 695.2 41.6$ 67.6 85$ 213.9 4.1$ 1.00 in.
Oct. 774.4 45.0$ 55.8 75$ 165.6 4.2$ 1.00 in.
K ov. 739.2 61.5$ 42.3 58$ 117.3 5.8$ 0.75 in.
Dec. 853.6 51.3$ 35.5 72$ 100.7 5.3$ C.6C in.
Monthly Diurnal Bioclimatic Analysis
Afternoon Data (4. 1M)
Month Wind (Mean fen) Mean Rel. Humiditv Average Temp. F Fossible % Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sc. ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Frecip.
Jan. 906. A 6A.8% 3A.2 68% 36.AA 5.1% 0.75 in.
Feb. 968.A 63.3$ 39.A 75% A8.30 5.7% 1.00 in.
March 862. A 66.2% A6.1 85% 113.30 5.8% 1.20 in.
April 932.8 62.6% 57.5 78% 150.27 5.7% 2.10 in.
May 862. A 7A.8% 66. A 65% 169.90 5.8% 3.00 in.
June 976.8 69.5% 7A.A 68% 18A.A0 A. 5% 1.75 in.
July 827.0 58.9% 80.5 72% 182.20 A. 6% 1.90 in.
Aug. 668.8 70.1% 78.6 72% 156.90 A. 6% 1.75 in.
Sept. 695.2 60.3% 75.3 85% 123.50 A.1% 1.00 in.
Oct. 71A.A 60.9% 61.7 75% 57.70 A. 2% 1.00 in.
Nov. 739.2 76.3% AA.7 58% 36.50 5.8% 0.75 in.
Dec. 853.6 72.8% 37.2 72% 22.90 5.3% 0.60 in.
Monthly Diurnal Bioclimatic Analysis
Evening Data (10 Hi)
Mon th Wind (Mean fnm) Mean Rel. Humiditv Average Temn. F Possible % Sun Solar Radiation BTU/sc. ft. Avg. Sky Cover Avg. Monthly Frecio.
Jan. 950.7 67.6% 24.1 0 0 0.75 in.
Feb. 765.6 57.8% 25.9 0 0 1.00 in.
March 721.6 62.1% 32.2 0 0 1.20 in.
April 8-36.0 52.9% 44.8 0 c 2.10 in.
May 704.0 58.2% 53.8 0 0 3.00 in.
June 959.2 52.2% 61.0 0 0 1.75 in.
July 739.2 47.8% 67.8 0 0 1.90 in.
Aug. 660.0 56.2% 65.3 0 0 1.75 in.
Sept. 633.6 45.8% 57.9 0 0 1.00 in.
Oct. 668.8 54.2% 42.8 0 0 1.00 in.
K cv. 6 42.4 70.7% 34.9 0 0 0.75 in.
Dec. 616.0 68.7% 26.6 0 0 0.60 in.
Drought Tolerant Plants Suitable For Denver
Verv Drv Places Dry Places Medium Dry Places
Pinon Fine Ponderosa Pine Colorado Spruce
Gne-Seed Juniper Austrian Pine Douglas Fir
Rocky Mt. Juniper Scotch Pine
Eastern Red Cedar Bristlecone Pine Limber Pine
Verv Drv Places Drv Places
None Recommended Junipers
Deciduous Trees (AO1- lL
Verv Dry Places Dry Places Medium Dpy Places
Not Recommended Honey Locust Little Leaf Linde
Hackberry Green Ash Western Catalpa Kentucky Coffee Tree American Linde
Verv Drv Places Medium Dry Places
Russian Olive Golden Raintree
Single Leaf Ash Crabapple Chinese Catalpa Mountain Ash
Rocky Mt. Maple Amur Maple Hawthorn
Deciduous Shrubs (7 + )
Verv Drv 1 laces Drv Places Medium Drv Places
Mountain Mahogany Scrub Oak Beauty Bush Privet Hedge Sumac (Staghorn) Peashrub Bush Honeysuckles Lilacs Buckthorn (Common) Matrimony Vine Rose (Austrian Copper) Firethorn Mockorange American Plum N in e bark (Common)
Verv Drv Places Drv Places
Cliff Rose Wild Mockorange Rabbitbush Big Sage Saltbush Apache Plume Cinquefoil (bush) Euonymus (Winged) Golden Current
Shrubs and Other FIantines Under 3'
Verv Drv Places Dry .Paces
Yucca Cacti (Barrell, Pin- Leadplant Barberries
cushion or Prickley Pear)
Dwarf Safe Dwarf Rabbitbush
Silver Vine Clematis English Ivy Englemen Ivy Purple Leaf Winter Creeper Virginia Creeper
Very Drv Places Lot Recommended
Medium Dry Places
Creeping Mahonia L ative Raspberry-Dwarf Yarrow .
Creeping Red Penstemon hens and Chickens Phlox Sedums
Kinnichinnick a jug a Periwinkle Wild Strawberry
Adjacent Properties (See map on following page)
The formula for the use of the land around the Little Acre is simple. Santa Fe Drive is commercial and Kalamath St. is residential. That is to say that everything north of the site and east of the alley is business oriented. Everything north of the site and west of the alley is residential. This means that each end of the site has special considerations. The east end should complement visually and functionally the existing businesses. The west end of the site must respect the residential character and functions of its neighbors to the north.
Except for one narrow gap over the top of the 8th Ave. viaduct to the west, all views from the Little Acre are obstructed by surrounding buildings. A view of the downtown Denver skyline to the northeast or the mountains to the west cannot be seen from below a two story level.
s sewer w water
e electric g gas
One of the major issues to be dealt with on this site is the adjacent high volume traffic. To the east is Santa Fe Drive, a north bound arterial, which in 1979 carried 12,400 vehicles per day, an increase of 8.8$ over 1971. Kalamath St., a south bound arterial, carried 15,300 vehicles per day in 1979 up 14.2$ over 1971. The south and longest side of the Little Acre is fronted by 8th Ave. which is a west bound arterial that turns south at Kalamath or continues straight over the 8th Ave. viaduct. 8th carried 23,600 vehicles per day in 1979, an increase of 11.4$ over 1971. There are stop lights at both intersections of 8th and Santa Fe and 8th and Kalamath.
A computer times the lights on Santa Fe so that traffic can flow uninterrupted at slightly over 30 mph. The computer does well with the traffic flow on 8th and on Kalamath until they intersect and converge. Then there are essentially three sources of traffic being dumped into one street, so everybody has to take their turn stopping here.
While being visible and convenient, entrance and exit from the site will have to be accomplished without interruption to the traffic flows of these adjacent streets. Noise from the high volumes of traffic lends to an unpleasant environment. The alley is used for trash pick up, business deliveries and fire access, all of which must be uninterrupted. There is an RTD bus stop on Santa Fe directly across the street from the site.
Pedestrian traffic around .the site is relatively light with the heaviest concentrations occurring on Santa Fe Drive due to the businesses located there. Because of the very busy streets, pedestrians respect the sidewalks;' crosswalks and traffic signals. The sidewalks, however, are narrow and close to traffic creating an unpleasant situation.
----To 6th Ave. Freeway
Major C3D Egress Arterial"
The following is a compilation of relevant Denver Building Codes. Sometimes the codes will be in summary form or they may be statements or tables taken directly from the book.
- Fire Zone No. 3
- Occupancy Group
Group Division Description of Occuoancv
F 1 - dining establishment with occupant load of less than 150
F Allowable Floor 2 Areas - office building and stores for retail sales
BASIC ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA (IN SQ FT.l FOR BUILDINGS ONE STORY IN HEIGHT IN FIRE ZONES No. 1 AND No. 2. FOR BUILDINGS LOCATED IN FIRE ZONE No. 3, THE BASIC AREA MAY BE INCREASED 33 1/3 PERCENT.
I TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
1 ii III IV V
j i Occupancy 1 Hour or H T N 1-Hour-N 1 Hour N
A Unlimited 22.500 NP NP NP NP NP NP
B 1 Unlimited 22.500 10.200 NP 10.200 NP 7.800 NP
B-2 Unlimited 22.500 10.200 NP 10.200 NP 7.800 NP
B 3 Unlimited 22.500 10.200 6.900 10.200 6.900 7.800 1.500
B 4 Unlimited 22.500 10.200 6.900 10.200 6.900 7,600 4,500
Cl Unlimited 33.000 15.300 10.200 15,300 10,200 11 ;700 1.200
C 2 Unlimited 15.000 15.300 3.000 6.000 3.000 4.800 600
D 1 Unlimited 12.000 NP NP NP NP NP NP
D 2 Unlimited 12.000 5.100 SR 5.100 SR 3.900 SR
El 20.000 9.000 4.200 2.700 4.200 2.700 3.300 1.200
E 2 35.000 9.000 4,200 2.700 4.200 2.700 3.300 1.200
E 3 Unlimited 18.000 8.400 5.700 8.400 5.700 6.600 3,800
E 4 Unlimited 18.000 8.400 5.700 8.400 5.700 6.600 3.800
E 5 Unlimited 33.000 25.000 15.000 25.000 15.000 6 600 3.800
FI Unlimited 18.000 13.500 9.000 13.500 9.000 10.500 6.000
-| F-2 Unlimited 30.000 13.500 9.000 13.500 9.000 10.500 6.000
The total area of all floors of buildings over one story in height shall not exceed 200 percent of the area pemitted for one story buildings No single floor area shall exceed that permitted for one story buildings.
Basements and cellars need not be included in the total allowable area.
- Minimum Plumbing Facilities for restaurants, office and retail bldgs.
Water Closets Male Urinals LaYatQÂ£ie.s
Male fseals Mals Female
1 1-30 1 1-10 0 1-10 1 1-30 1 1-30
2 31-60 2 11-30 1 11-60 2 31-60 2 31-80
3 61-90 3 31-60 2 61-120 3 61-120 3 81-120
For additional occupants For additional For additional . occupants
1 per 30 1 per 20 1 per 60 1 per 40 1 per 40
These figures represent the number of fixtures per occupants. For
drinking fountains there are 1 per 75 with 1 per floor minimum.
- Available Square Feet per Occupant and Egress Facilities
Use Rooms Sq, Ftt/OcSttBaPli
2 or more exits buildings
req. when occ. floors
load exceeds rooms
- dining rooms 50 15
- kitchens 30 200
- offices 30 100
- stores retail
basement 30 30
ground floors 30 30
upper floors 10 50
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS (For details, see Chapters under Occupancy and Types of Construction)
1 Materials i ii in IV V
of Nonconi- Noncom- ('ombustil le Noncomhustihle Combustible
( onst ruct ion bustible hustihle 1 Hr. or irr N 1 Hr. N I llr N
- . ..... - -
KXTKKJOR 4 4 4 4
BEARING AND Sec. Sec. Sec. Sec. Table Table Table Table
NONBEARING 1 HO.*) (a) 190:iiai 2003(a) 2003 17 B 17 B 17 B 17-B
WA1.I.S (a) Sec. 2103(a) Sec 2103(a) Sec 2209(a) Sec 2203(a)
BEARING WAI.I.S 3 2 1 N 1 N 1 N
FRAME 2 1 or HT. N 1 N 1 N
PARTITIONS i 1 1 or II T N 1 N 1 N
t - -
OPENING 2 2 1 or N T 1 1 1 1 1
ENGLOSIKES Sec 1706 Sec. 17(>(i
FLOORS 2 1 1 or II T. - 1 N 1 N
ROOFS 2 1 1 or H T. N 1 N
Sec. 1806 Sec. 1906 Sec 2107
OPKNINOS See Section 1707 and Table 17 (
N No general re|iiirementK for fire resistance. N T Heavy Timber
RKlJl 1KFI> KIKK RKSISTANCK OF KXTKKIOK WAI.1.S FOR TYIKS IV AM) V CONSTRICTION See Chapters 21 and 22i
| IK (1 I'AM A FIRF ZONF KKCil'IHKI) KIKE RESISTANCE OK EXTEUIOK W Al l.
i 1 NA See Chapter 6
6-1 B-2 1 j 2 hours iess than 20 'eel i hour elsewhere
23 i 2 hours less than 10 feet 1 hour elsewhere
B-3 1 2 hours less than 20 feel 1 hour eisewnere
2 2 hours less than 5 feet 1 hour elsewhere
3 2 hours less than 5 feet 1 hour less than 10 feet
B-4 1 2 hours less than 20 feet
1 hour elsewhere
I 1 hour
3 1 hour less than 10 feet
C-l 1 2 hours less than 20 feet
C-2 1 hour elsewhere
2 2 hours less than 10 feet
1 hour elsewhere
3 2 hours less than 5 feet
1 hour less thann 10 feet
D-1 NA See Chapter 9
0-2 1 2 hours less than 20 feel
1 hour elsewhere
23 2 hours less than 5 (eel
1 hour elsewhere
E-l 1.2 Not permitted See Chapter 16
3 4 hours less than 5 feet
2 hours less than 10 feet
1 hour elsewhere
E-2 1 4 hours less than 20 feet
E-3 1 hour elsewhere
2 4 hours less than 5 feet
2 hours less than 10 feet
1 hour elsewhere
3 4 hours less than 5 feet
2 hours less than 10 feet
1 hour less than 20 feet
E-5 12 Not permitted See Chapter 16
3 1 hour less than 60 feet
F-1 1 2 hours less than 20 feet
F-2 1 hour elsewhere
2 1 hour less than 20 feet
3 1 hour less than 10 feet
G-t 1 2 hours less than 20 feet
G-2 t hour elsewhere
G-3 _Â£ 1 hour less than 20 feet
3 1 hour less than 10 feet
- Occupant load greater than 50, min. width of in.
- Occupant load less than or equal to 50, min. width of 36 in.
- Rise must not be greater than 7gr in, run must be 10 in. or more.
- Landing depth cannot be smaller than the width of the stairway.
- Min. headroom clearance of 7 ft.
- Height of masonry chimney at least 3 ft. above the highest elevation of any part of a building within 10 ft. of the chimney.
- Fire Sprinkler Systems to be used in every floor, cellar and basement of all buildings when the floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft.
- The area in which the Little Acre is located is zoned B-A.
- B-4 zoning permits the following uses:
- retail sales
- repair, rental and servicing
- business and personal service
- amusement, entertainment and recreation
- public facilities
- special trades
- Height limitation is determined by the Floor Area Ratio (FAR), which is tne total floor area of a builoi-ng/area of ine lot. In a 3Z zone the total floor area of all structures on a lot shall not be greater than twice the area of the lot.
- In this area bulk, openspace and setback requirements do not apply.
- Planned Unit Development (1UD)
FUD is a form of development characterized by a unified site design for clustering buildings and providing common open space, density increses, and a mix of building types and land use. It permits the planning of a project and the calculation of densities over the entire development area, rather than on an individual lot-by-lot basis as in the two districts B-8 and R-4-. It also refers to a process, mainly revolving around site-plan review, in which city agencies and neighborhood residents have considerable involvement in determining the nature of the development. It includes aspects of both subdivision and zoning regulation and is administered through the zoning process.
Any PUD is in effect a specific zone for a specific area, including specific regulations written by the applicant and when approved during the planning stage and maximum assurance that exactly what is proposed will be developed as proposed.
- Off-street Parking and Loading
Retail businesses and restaurants require at least one parking space for every 200 sq. ft. of building floor space. Offices require at least 1 for every 500 sq. ft.
Loading space shall be at least 10 ft. wicjej twenty-six ft. long and K ft. high.
All off-street parking areas must include on-site maneuvering areas and aisles to permit user vehicles to enter and exit the site in forward
drive. Curb cuts will not be approved for parking areas that require backing maneuvers in a public street right-of-way.
When a parking row is adjacent to an alley and uses the alley as the access aisle, use dimension z plus either dimension c if wheel stops are used, or dimension e if a curb is used to establish the total width of the parking area. Measure the total width from the far side of the alley to establish the location for the front of the stalls.
Stoll (Vehicle) I
K*:.'aier of Stolls
L-Total Langt-h of Parking Area
s II * 31 U * j 3 1 jj 5 1 x s 1 | J Q j 1T a ? 1= I 51 c ! Â£ 3. A X .6 Â£ fj Â£ -i j i i V> M f* Â£ s s 5 6 f3 Â§ u 2 -! H M s e s! X *8 af 2 VI y 1 % 3 ? S2 z "1 3 u 5 13 13
0* 9.0 9.0 j 12.9 9.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 11.0 20.0 "-li
20* 15.Cl 11.9 11.1 91, 12, 37.2 26.3 5, 20.3 l*5.i 26.3
20* 9.3 17.9| 11.7 15.1 43.6 37.i <1.2 17.9 3, 20.3 Si
O' 19.1i 11.0 16.5 50.2 <3.3 45.0 14.0 6.2 20.0
<5* 9.0 19.si 13.0 17.2 52, .6, 47.4 12.8 7.0 20.0 -Si
50* 9.0 20.-4 j 16.0 17.2 56.8 47.0 50.4 11.8 7.3 20.0 -Si1
60* 9.3 21. oj 18.C 19.1 6C.0 55.5 54.2 1C.3 6 a 20.0 -Si1
70* 9.0 21.0i 13.0 1S.1 61.0 57.9 55.2 9.6 5.3 20.0 ..aL-5. J
9.0 19.3 I 23.C- 15.5 61.0 61, 56.0 9.0 23.0 N?
a b c d e P P
fork (*nf*r-to-(tnl*r width
pottkf stvfl rttftl hi* lonffh ( two-row kin with
mfk width to tort width ft car octtii load k*tw**n
(ir Ufixii] c*rb-lcurh ovtrlop
n tr 1.5 12.0 23.0 29.0
u ro" f.O 12.0 23.0 30.0
30* ir 16.f 11.0 17.0 44.8 37.4
f'O" 17.3 11.0 18.0 45.8 37.8
45 ir lf.4 13.5 12.0 52.3 46.3
f'O" 19.8 13.0 12.7 52.6 46.2
60 ir 20.7 18.5 9.8 59.9 55.6
f'O" 21.0 18.0 10.4 60.0 55.5
90: i'*" 19.0 23.0* 8.5 61.0
f'O" 19.0 23.0* f.O 61.0
* Two-wtr circultlwfi
COMPACT CARS -r
a b c d e P P cvrk contor-to-contor width parking tt0 ftfffl ohl* l*nfth ( two-row bln with awyi* width to fork width pot cor Mini rood botwo*n [15 l**1t**] orrh-lo-curt oroflcp t-f
( J 7.5 7.5 11.0* 19.0' 26.0 26.0
CO J 7.5 14.0 11.0 15.0 39.0' 32.5'
4! ) 7.5' 15.9' 11.0' 10.6 42.8' 37.9'
6( 7.5' 16.7' 14.0' 8.7' 47.5' 40.4'
9( J; 7.5' 15.o' 18.0: 7.5' 48.0' 48.0'
* Two-wj ci/culotiofl
The Little Acre off Santa Fe Drive sits amidst two very influential architectural styles. One style is old to the neighborhood and struggling to survive. The other is the expression of a thriving and vibrant population teeming with a newly developed, positive identy and self-esteem.
The Victorian architecture, which so dominated the early development of all Denver, is the old, yet powerful, presence that resides in the domestic structures in La/Alma Lincoln Park neighborhood. A very reassuring continuity of that style is carried, also, up and down Santa Fe Drive in the store fronts on that commercial strip. Yet, the buildings are old and suffering from the ravages of age. Their design is frequently not functionally or structurally adequate for today's needs and so they are razed. The craftsmanship of the Victorian design and carpentry is a rare and expensive commodity today and almost never utilized in new construction. The historical and architectural value of these meticulous structures, however, has been recognized and an ambitious preservation and restoration effort has emerged. This movement is helping to maintain the architectural integrity and influence of the old Victorian style in the Vestside.
The other influence emanates from a living, growing source, the Chicano population of the Westside and, as such, is more than historical art to be preserved. It is an expression of a proud past, a dynamic present and a glowing future. Actually, it is the only style of architecture in the U.S. with real Native American roots. Adopting some foreign influences, this architecture is as Mestizo as the Chicano and it has grown without betraying its basic identity.
The New Movement
This principle of coexistence without cultural disintegration has been one of the main objectives of the Chicano movement. Eventhough it has been a long and painful struggle, advances are being made in the field of education and in the political arena. But it is a real sign of approaching success when leverage can be brought to bear upon art and architecture, the historically last fields to be influenced and first to be sacrificed because of more important priorities, food, guns, education, political battles. And that leverage must be gained and exercised in order to educate society beyond the Taco Bell, Frito Bandito mentality.
And right here on our own turf is a splendid example of this leverage in action embodied in the Santa Fe Drive Redevelopment Corporation.
Under the heading Project Background, it was mentioned that the Redevelopment Corporation had adopted guidelines for any additions or alterations
to properties within the target area, Santa Fe Drive, between 14th and 6th. The Santa Fe Drive Architectural Guidelines state that the architectural style of the Southwest, as exemplified in Santa Fe, New Mexico, "...has been selected as the design theme because it portrays the hispanic/Chicano culture of the V/estside neighborhood.
Since Santa Fe, New Mexico has a distinct and identifiable image, its style of architecture will be referred to throughout these guidelines.
The guidelines have these distinct functions:
1) They portray the Southwest .Architectural style within its historical context.
2) They offer suggestions for facade designs that reflect or relate to the Santa Fe theme.
3) They establish one of the criteria for the approval of loans channeled through the LDC..."
La Mariposa Health Center
One of the architectural styles stressed by the "Guidelines" is the "Spanish/Pueblo" style. It is a blend of the building nethods of two parent cultures, the Spanish colonists and the native Pueblo Indians. These buildings are usually one or two storied with a flat, parapeted roof. Due to the adobe construction and stuccoed walls, these structures have a soft edged, flowing appearance. Heavy timber lintels and sills provide a solid horizontality which is also reenforced by log ceiling beams that frequently protrude through the facade. Sometimes the ends of these beams or Vigas are carved and colored. The earthy quality of the adobe and stucco is maintained by painting with earth-tone colors. .Another common feature of the Spanish/Pueblo style is the portal or front porch whose roof rests on carved posts and corbels or zapatas.
Doors can be recessed and decorated with carving. Windows are often decorated with carved vertical wooden posts or regas. Murals of paint or ceramic tiles sometimes adorn these buildings.
The other style emphasized in the "Guidelines" is the Territorial Style which is similar in color and texture to the Spanish/Pueblo Style but has a much cleaner and sharper edged appearance. This is due to machined lumber with square portal posts and a fenced decorative balcony above. Also the tops of the Adobe walls were squared off with caps of kiln-dried bricks. Fitched roofs are characteristic of this style and windows became larger with a vertical Victorian influence. Bay windows can be utilized in the Territorial Style with sashes divided by mullions. A certain identifing characteristic of this style is a low triangular shaped lintel over the doors and windows.
8th and Santa Fe, Southeast Corner
South of 8th
East Side of Santa Fe Drive, North of 8th
West Side of Santa Fe Drive, South of 8th
West Side of Santa Fe Drive, North of 8th and Site
Angle of Departure
Slope = Vi Ramp Slope
Angle of Approach
Slope = Vi Ramp Slope
-H 12' Min.* Transition Length
Ramp Breakover Angle
Ramp slopes (grades) less than 10 percent can be blended satisfactorily with an 8-foot transition length.
Method of blending ramp and floor garages
Architect and Designer Office Elements
- .Areas for drafting tables could be open office plan (good lighting)
- Large surface area to hold drawings
- Nearby reference material area
- Computer area
- Conference rooms (formal and informal)
Lawyer Office Elements
- Word processing center
- eye contact with other operators
- nonglare lighting
- comfortable chairs
- good acoustic isolation
- Attorney's office
- privacy, confidentiality needed
- Secretarial corridor outside office
- Paralegal office space
- Law library
- books and computer equipment
- acoustically controlled
- planned for future expansion
- Security file/work rooms
- Reception area
- Conference rooms
Specialty Shop Design
- The Store Front
- The store front must provide an effective barrier between store and street during hours when the store is closed and give easiest possible access during business hours.
- It must advertise and identify the store
- It must include provisions for all possible contingencies in displaying the merchandise carried in stock.
- Should be subtle and attractive
- Mezzanine min. of 8'-6" above and below
- Direct lighting employs bubls and reflectors, either set into the ceiling or projecting from it to direct the light downward onto selected goods or areas. Or it may use hanging fixtures designed to diffuse the light over the whole space to be lighted.
- The common characteristic of Indirect lighting is concealment of the light source the light itself being reflected from the ceiling of other surface. Due to its soft diffused quality, this type of lighting is used for general lighting, in ceiling coves, behind light baffles, etc. It is seldom intense enough to bring out merchandise properly.
- In most modem stores, the actual illumination results from a clever combination of Direct and Indirect lighting indirect contributing decorative effects and general illumination, while direct light emphasizes the merchandise.
- Elements entrance area, dining, kitchen
- Entrance attracts and advertises
- Anterooms circulation, orientation of entering and departing traffic
- Cashier counter fixtures evident but not obtrusive
- Wash and retiring rooms sometimes in anterooms
- Dining areas variety of seating, varied levels
- Settee and booth seats at least 18 in. deep and 18 in. high. Width
for ong person 26 in.; for 2, 44 in.; back hts. seldom exceed 4'.
- Necessary functions receipt of food, preparation, cooking, service,
- Kitchen and service area
- One-way traffic of all personnel
- Waiter leaving dining room with dirty dishes should come immediately to washer, then to pick up new orders, (salad, sandwich, cold
meat and sea food section; then hot food area adjacent to ranges and cooking equipment; dessert, pastry and beverage; return to dining room) preparation, storage and receipt kept separate from all of above.
- Dishwashing area shelves or ledges on soiled dish table to rest trays for unloading; preliminary soaking sinks; pre-flushing equipment
- Glass washing series of racks below table level to assist in basket stacking of glasses as they emerge from washer
- Refridgerator units for salad, cold meats and seafood (hooked in with main refridgeration
- Hot food area food warmer (steam table)
- General provisions for kitchen and service areas should include:
- Rounded comers and cove bases.
- Welded stainless steel surfaces.
- Ramps in place of steps.
- Impervious floors, walls and even ceilings.
- Floor drains for daily hosings.
- At least 20 f.c. of light at working levels
- Walk-in boxes with electrical germ-killing devices and magic-eye operation.
- Employee locker-toilet-restroom
- Sub-service stations
-Napkins, 2-3 clean tableclothes, iced butter in a bowl, a pitcher of water, glasses, silverware, hot plate for coffee.
- 1 for every 18 seats.
- Max. size 20 x 2A in. at a ht. of 36 in.
- Ventilating Commercial Kitchens
- General ventilation removing air from general area, space, room or building
- for temperature, humidity, odor and comfort control
- commonly accepted standard 10 to 30 cfm of outdoor per person
- not less thai} 20 cfm per person for restaurant
- or U cfm/ft. of floor space
- Local ventilation contaminant captured at source
- local more effictive than general
- requires less air movement so less heat loss and lower power cost for same degree of control
- also acts as a general ventilation because air supply for exhaust hoods must come from the general room area.
- sheet steel ducts and stainless steel hoods
- straight as possible, gradual direction change
- round ducts best lower perimeter-area ratio (less friction), more uniform cross-sectional flow pattern
- Kitchen ventilation systems
- an approved fire damper with fusible link in ducts next to hoods
- transport velocity of 1500-2000fpm
- freely suspended canopy -suspended from above with U sides open
- shed type canopy extends outward from wall with 3 sides open
- edges should extend at least 12 in. beyond cooking unit
- over steam tables and dishwashers
- 9 ft. dishwasher use 1500 cfm
- 5, 6 and 7ft. sizes use 1000 cfm
- smaller sizes use 750 cfm
- Standard in kitchen
- Illuminated mural visible outside
- Accentuating with light
- Fin lights
- Mirrors and other specular surfaces guarded to prevent glare
- Incandescent light best where food and facial complesions are concerned
- Sizing rules of thumb
- Dining space = 40%, kitchen and storage = 40%, staff and admin =23%
- Dining space 10 sq. ft. per seat min. and 15 sq. ft. per seat max.
- Banquettes and booth seats range from 1'-6" to 1'-9" deep.
- A small booth may be just under 5 ft. from seat back to seat back. Tables in this size booth would be 2' wide.
- Booth for 2 requires table 2' x 2* min., for 4 a long distance
of 4' min., square for four a min. of 2'-6" x 2'-6" min. but 3' better
- Flooring Materials for Restaurants
Lobby Steps Rest Rooms Dining Room Kitchen Dishwashing Bakeshop Refrigeration General Storage
Concrete Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Terrazzo Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Quarry & Vitreous Tils Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Magnesite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
linoleum Yes Yes No Yes No No No No Yes
Vinyl Tile Yes Yrs Yes Yes Yes No
Asphalt Tile Yes' Yes' Ye.' Yes' Yes1 No Yes' No Yesi
Rubber Tile Yes' Yes' Yes' Yes' No No No No No
Cork Tile No No No Yes' No No No No No
Wood Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No
* Do not use il (here is grease in the area. Special grease proof type which is available.
Composition: Fortland cement, sand, and other aggregates; in case ot terrazzo, marble chips. Thickness: (topping) % to 1 inch. Color: gray but integral color may be added; in case ol lerrazzo, multicolored. Qualities: hard surface, easy to clean, withstands heavy traffic, low upkeep, jointless, sanitary, non absorbent. Economical to install (except terrazzo).
Quarry and Vitreous Tile
Composition: hard-burned, impervious, solid clay Hoot block. Thickness: various. Color: various. Qualities: smooth, hard surface, resistant to staining by impurities, chemical acids Cove and bull-nose shapes available: attractive and sanitary. Greaseproof pointing in mortar lines where necessary.
Composition: oxychloride inorganic cement; one brand includes copper. Thickness: V2 inch. Color:
various. Qualities: smooth, monolithic. Same hard ness as hardwood on Brinell test. Good resilient working surface. Highly water resistant, non-denting. wear resistant, non dusting, vermin proof with coppei; resistant to oils and greases.
Composition: hard-surfaced material of linseed oil, wood flour, and coloring ingredients on a suitable backing; available also in tile form. Thickness: 3/32 and 1/8 inch. Color: multi-colored or monochromatic. Qualities, resistant to food oils, greases; good tesilienl working surface, attractive, easy to maintain. May he used in all areas except floors on or below grade.
Composition: vinyl resins, asbestos, and pigments. Thickness: \ inch. Color: multicolored or monochromatic. Qualities: unaffected by grease, oils, alkaline moisture, mild acid solutions. Resistant to cigarette burns; resilient. May be used above, on, or below grade.
Composition: synthetic rubber, inorganic fillers, and pigments. Thickness: 1 8 and 3 16 inch. Color multi-colored or monochromatic Qualities: long wearing, extremely resilient High resistance to indentation. May be used on a concrete floor above grade; with a good vapor barrier it may be used on or below grade but only if manufacturer approves installation.
Composition: pure cork compressed to provide good wearing qualities Thickness: 3 16, 5/16 and '2 inch Color: light to dark tans. Qualities: Ex-Homely tpiiet and very resilient May be used on any smooth concrete or wood surface above grade.
Composition: strip or plank. Thickness: various. Colors: wide range. Qualities: handsome, good resilience, but high maintenance. No longer appropriate in areas of hard wear because difficult to keep sanitary.
Third Floor Plan
A Little Acre Off Santa Fe Drive
JIM ZAPf THESIS DEC. 1984
>. THIEb FLCx^K TH-EL 123L-J0*
VstxoKjp nacre ~n>u EJ_ ill* II*
FlgST FLOOR TBL, EL, 1QO -O
OF PORT Bfl
m m fins?wwv bm
n 'T 11 I 1 l_ I 11 I I I f *1 I I I I IT
' I 1 I I I 1 1 'I T T
I I I 1 I 1^11 I I I I I I I M I I
THIRD FLOOR Tbt-EJ_ I231 I0'
VS6U>Jb R-OOg T^4-Q. Iii'-ll'
\ FIRST rLOOR 751, EL. ISO -O
A Lillie Acre ff Santa Fe Drive
Wall Section q
Atrium Reflected (Veiling Plan
A Little Acre Off Santa Ee Drive
- Bainbridge Bunting. Early Architecture in New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque. 1976.
- Bainbridge Bunting. Of Earth and Adobe. 'Jhiversity of New Mexico Press. Albuquerque. 197A.
- Anthony C. Antoniades. "Traditional Versus Contrmporary Elements in Arcnitecture". New Mexico .Architecture, vol. 13, nos. 11 and 12.
-New Mexico State Planning Office, "historic Preservation: A Plan for New Mexico". L.C. 77-633959. 1971
- James Marston Fitch. "Cosmetic Aspects of historic Preservation".
New Mexico Architecture, vol. 19, no. $, Sept.-Oct., 1977.
- "Old and New Architecture....Design Relationships, a talk by John P. Conran, FAIA/FaSID". New Mexico Architecture,, nol. 20, no. 3, May-June, 1978.
- Denver Flanning Board, City and County of Denver. "Jestside Neighborhood Plan". 1981.
- Brooks Waldman Associates. "Vestside Concept: El Nuevo Pueblo de Santa Fe". 1975.
- Westside Neighborhood Design Center, Santa Fe Drive Redevelopment Corporation. "Santa Fe Drive Architectural Guidelines".
- "Santa Fe Drive Market Analysis and Public Investment Strategy".
Prepared for Community Development Agency of the City and County of Denver by ThK Associates, Inc. Dec., 1981.
John Nichols. The Hilagro Beanfield War. Ballantine Books, Div. of Random house, Inc. hew York. 1976.
John Nichols. The Magic Joumev. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
New York. 1978.
Hotels, hotels. Restaurants and Bars. 2nd ed. an architectural iRecord Book, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. Hew York. 1960.
William Wilson Atkin and Joan Adler. Interiors Book of Restaurants. Whitney Library of Design. I960.
Kraemer, Sieverts and Partners. Open Plan Offices New Ideas. Experience and Improvements. McGraw-Hill Book Co. (UK) Limited.
Rosenaur. Modem Office Buildings. B.T. Batsford, Ltd. London. 1955 Morris Ketchum, Jr. Shoos and Stores. Reinhold Publishing Corporation New York. 194-8
Karl and Eva Hang. New Shops. Architectural Book Publishing Co.
New York. 1981.
Robert A. Weant. Parking Garage Planning and Operation. Columbia University Fress. New York. 1978
Dietrich Klose. Metropolitan Parking Structures. Frederick A.
Praeger, Publishers. New York. 1965.
Denver Planning Office. Neighborhood Land Use bv Zoning. 1980. Thornton Utilities Department, Water Conservation Program. Plants Suitable for Thornton.
Veronica Barela, NEWSED Director. Numerous occasions.
- Tom Edmiston. Westside Neighborhood Design Center. Numerous occasions.
- Ernesto and Esther Jiron. Monte Vista, Colo. Numerous occasions
- La Alma/Lincoln Park Neighborhood Organization Meeting. Oct. 8, 1983.
- El Dieciseis de Setiembre. Denver, Colo. Sept., 1983