Citation
Mackintosh Academy

Material Information

Title:
Mackintosh Academy
Creator:
Zunger, Dalia
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
89 leaves : illustrations, charts (1 folded), maps (1 folded), color photographs, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
School buildings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
School buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-88).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Dalia Zunger.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
12078019 ( OCLC )
ocm12078019
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .Z86 ( lcc )

Full Text
ARCHIVES
LD
1190
AT 2
1981+
Z86


To my friend Alex and Two joyful people with
to Yonatan, our son. everlasting curiosity.


"MACKINTOSH ACADEMY"
An Architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Dalia Zunger, Spring, 1984


The thesis of Dalia Zunger is approved.
University of Colorado at Denver
Date:


CONTENTS
Page
Preface....................................................... 1
Introduction ................................................. 4
Special Requirements........................................ 10
Program...................................................... 13
The Site..................................................... 21
Climate...................................................... 40
Zoning Requirements and Building Codes....................... 52
Addendum..................................................... 62
Bibliography............................................... 83
Appendix .................................................... 89
Design Solution


PREFACE


THEORY OF ARCHITECTURAL APPEAL
In this preface I will propose an analysis of what are the underlying requirements for architectural appeal, how have the classical, as well as the post-modern school answered these requirements in profoundly different ways, and how could these historical lessons be combined to provide design guidelines.
In my view, design concepts have tried to fulfill two tacit requirements. First, since we seek in a design (either consciously or unconsciously) the personalized qualities of balance, confidence, shelter (as opposed to fine arts, where sheer aesthetics is the main theme), I suggest that we instinctively react to a picture of a house by seeking its internal center of gravity. It is only then, that we feel at
ease, in having emulated its essence by personally relating to its center. Second, I suggest, that a satisfying design always provide an optimal degree of stimulation: exceeding it or failing to meet it, creates an instinctive frustration. I will
refer to this requirement as "conservation of archtiectural stimulation".
Interestingly, there is a close analogy to it in music:
classical music, much like classical architecture, has maintained easily identifiable central themes and predicted structure, and could, therefore, digress to musical detours without impairing its quality and balance. Modern music in its early stages, on the other hand, had often sacrificed all identifiable predicted themes together with strong musical
detours, creating an excess stimulation with no balance.
Classical Architecture won our hearts and endured many cultural changes, simply because it had an obvious and easily
2


identifiable center of gravity, and since it fulfilled the need for conservation of stimulation by providing ample ornamentation. When this exceeded the limit - symmetry had been
invoked to conserve the degree of stimulation. In contrast, modern architecture had replaced the classical obv ious balance-point by structurally intricate motives, inviting the observer to a nontrivial search for the balance point. The
classical ornamentation and use of symmetry had become unnecessary, since conservation of stimulation was already provided by the choice of non-obvious balance point.
This re-interpretation by Modern Architecture of the two basic requirements of architectural appeal, was clearly anchored in a conceptual and social need for a rebellion against classicism with its fixed dogmatic rules. Nevertheless, this approach may not have had the enduring vitality that classicism has offered, simply because it is self defeating. As we become, with time, more proficient and experienced in identifying, almost instinctively, the balance point of the modern archi tectura I designs, we tend to become disappointed at the lack of additional
stimulation generated by the removal of ornamentation and symmetry. The initial charm and intricacy of the balance-point's hidden location has now become an ineffective excuse for the absence of adequate stimulation in the details of the design.
3


INTRODUCTION
4


The subject of this proposal is the design of a school building for "Mackintosh Academy", a private school aimed at serving academically gifted children in the greater Denver area.
The school is expected to enroll 222 children between the ages 2-l/2and 14, and include 30 teachers and administration
personnel.
As the school is expected to draw pupils scattered throughout the metro area, it was considered advantageous for it to be centrally located. The site that has been selected for this project is a block bordered on Broadway to the east, Irvington to the north, Acoma to the west and West Ellsworth to the south.
The total built area needed for the school is 33,000 square
feet. The total area of the site is 100,100 square feet. Of that,
we suggest to leave a strip of 80 feet along Broadway for
commercial use, so as to create a solid buffer between the school and this arterial street. Area of site left for the project is, therefore, 79,294 square feet.
A school building, like other human spaces, bears a strong obligation to its occupants. It is in a school where the stage is set for the first significant and complex learning experience a child has outside the home.
5


It is in the security, convenience and informality of a home that a chi id first receives his starting education. There seems to be no real reason, in the opinion of the proposer, for a rather traumatic transition to a sometimes threatening, impersonal and often intimidating environment of a conventional formal school, when the second stage of the child's education is to be started.
It is the view of the proposer that some of the most important components that bring about an ideal environment for a child at home have both straight forward manifestation and a more subtle analogy to the design of a space.
It is our hypothesis that an optimal environment should offer the following for a child: a) physical comfort, b) acceptance and encouragement, c) balance and harmony, d) accessibility to the world and the right for individuality and self expression.
Since the first two components go without saying, will proceed to discuss the others.
Balance and Harmony: When a baby (and then a child) , is
exposed to a world which has clear rules i on which a more
comp lex structure can be bui It, he is actua 1 ly given the
opportunity to identify this world and to Teel capable. (Whereas in an orderless world, the chance for him to both perceive the underlying ordered and to perceive himself as one who can master it's knowledge are slim.)
1 wish to bring here an example in order to point out that the
above does not hold only for the very obvious realms of the
baby's life: When a baby is exposed to classical music, i n
6


which the harmony is clear and the ornamentation is built on it, he is more apt to perceive the underlying subject and sort of predict the next note in his mind. This is, no doubt, of great value to a self perception of "able" and to a perception of the world as attainable.
The serenity that comes with harmony is, at the same time, a sound jumping board from which to venture into experimenta-
tion. ("1 am on a safe ground and can jump from here to
check the unknown ", as opposed to "1 am on an unpredictab le
environment and should direct all my energy to achieve
security").
Accessibility to the world and the stimulation it offers: This is a continuation of the previous conditions. The opportunity to stand on a safe, comfortable and accepting ground on which the baby can move in freedom, look in every mode possible and ask questions. Then and along with the mentioned above, comes the right for self expression and individuality. (E.g., that the baby's mumblings are treated as a form of speech, that little achievements are recognized and praised, that there exists objects and spaces that are treated as his own.)
These, the proposer believes, are some of the more valuable preconditions that provide the positive self image, learning and creative experience that, once established, are bound to accompany a child through his life.
The proposer believes, that the psychological attributes mentioned above, have clear manifestations in a design. E.g., avoidance of a constant remark as "don't touch" by simpiy providing a child with a safe environment for him to explore, placement of favorable objects in places he can reach, doors
7


not too heavy for him to open, environment sewn to his size for him to learn his way around independently, windows in a suitable height to peek through, spaces that are his for his "secrets", etc.
We have come to believe that much of the symbolism associated with the ideal home should be carried into the school, that the design concept of a school should strive, much like a home, to reflect the accessibility of a reachable world, rather than an estranged, impersonable environment which might inhibit creative search.
Along with that, clearly, there are constraints that impose a limit on the similarity between a school and a house: the shear volume of students, the structure of a curriculum, the need for big gathering spaces, etc. Still, it is highly significant, that a symbol ic resemblence be maintained.
We wish to bring up here two examples of schools which are, to a large extent, the antithesis to what we discussed so far.
First are those schools traditionally associated with the
parochial stream. They often imposed the structural concept of the church: domineering, authoritarian, untouchable and rule oriented.
Second are the "modern" public schools: whereas these
attempted straight, no-nonsense functionality and efficiency, they are often void of inspiration and lack any small pleasant details; they are very often institutions or industrial in form, and lack any message of harmony, privacy and acceptance. These schools have a tendency, given the right combination of students, to "offer" themselves as objects to vandalizism.
8


Clearly, children were saved from the huge vertical spaces of the church like schools only to be gathered in huge horizontal spaces. Furthermore, in the so called "open-schools", due to misinterpretation of the educational message and by a too literal perception of the term "open", the child was now brutally exposed to an incredible amount of disturbance to a constant noise and movement around him with virtually no place to hide.
which will should be, i t.
It is the proposer's intention to achieve a design reflect our perception of what a school environment keeping in mind the practical constraints imposed on
9


SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
10


While the Introduction addressed the proposer's perception of a school environment in general, there are a few special requirements that are due to the unique character of the proposed school.
Mackintosh Academy was established in 1977 as a private initiative by Mrs. Eve Mackintosh. At that time it was realized, that there exists a group of children demonstrating academic ability which exceeds what is commonly expected of their age group and whose needs could not be properly met in the present school system. The school offers a "sewn-to-f i t" curriculum, so as to answer the wide range of demands evoked in these cases. The school's goal is to attend to the high academic stimulation desired by this group as well as to support their physical, emotional and social development which tend to be in agreement with the chronological age of the ch i Idren.
The school, so far, is rather small and maintains a family-like atmosphere which it wishes to maintain, as much as possible, once it grows in size and number.
General design requirements:
1) The overall concept of a classroom should allow for the
following: Play area in lower school (see "Program"),
quiet corners for individual study, reading, and socializing; a private storage space for each student in which to store a coat, a lunch box, a school bag, toys, books, and "secrets".
2) Passage ways between classes should have a pleasant, inviting and easy to grasp direction, one which is fit for the very young children who are on their way to attend a class with a higher age group.


3) The design should provide for spaces that are solely
dedicated for the display of science and art objects
(including children's drawings, etc.) This - inside and
outside of classroom.
4) Windows should be placed in a height which enables the
children to peek through.
5) All rooms in which children study or play should have
windows. Sky lights as the only mode of day 1 i ght penetra-
tion will be accepted in restrooms, passage ways and the I i ke.
12


PROGRAM
13


1) DIRECTOR AND PARTENT CONFERENCE ROOM: i room, 350 square feet
2) ASSISTANT DIRECTOR'S OFFICE:
I room, 300 square feet
3) SECRETARY AND BUSINESS OFFICE:
I room, 600 square feet
Users: I personal secretary to the director
I school's secretary I business secretary
Provide space for 3 desks, 2-typing desks, filing.
4) WAITING ROOM:
I room, 400 square feet
Users: For both students or parents with appointments,
waiting to meet with someone.
Design Characteristics: Could be an open room. Provide space to hang coats (about 7).
or
a
14


5) NURSES' 5 OFFICE AND CLINIC:
I room, 450 square feet. Will contain a first aid station and emergency medical care equipment.
6) TEACHERS LOUNGE AND LIBRARY:
I room, 800 square fee*
7) ADULT'S RESTROOMS:
I man's, I woman's. 180 square feet each.
Users: Teachers, Administration, Guests
8) CHILDREN'S RESTROOMS:
1 set of 2 preschool sized toilets and 2 lavatories in each preschool and kindergarten class.
2 girl's restrooms, 2 boy's restrooms. 150 square feet each to serve 8 classrooms.
1 boy's restroom, I girl's restroom, 150 square feet each in closer adjacenty to Art, Science, Library.
9) PRESCHOOL:
2 rooms, 900 square feet each.
/
15


Users: (in each room) 21 children, 2 teachers and a
teacher's aid.
Special Needs: Each room to accommodate the following: 2 preschool sized toilets, 2 preschool sized sinks, uncarpeted water-play area and art area, I small reading loft, I small play loft, (all portions of the two lofts will be visible to the teachers in the room), storage closets for material and toys, storage area for 21 cots and blankets, small area for each child to store personal belongings 2
tables each for 10-11 children with 12 preschool sized chairs arount each table, and a small b iackboard.
10) KINDERGARTEN:
2 rooms, 900 square feet each
Users: (in each room): 18 children, 1 teacher, and I
possible aid.
Special Needs: Will be similar to the preschool space in size and facilities.
11) PRIMARY:
2 rooms, 600 square feet each.
Users: (in each room): !8 children, I teacher.
"Primary" implies those students usually associated with grades one and two.
Special needs: Each room to accommodate 18 chairs, 18 small-personal tables that can be arranged in room according to needs, one teacher's desk and chair, storage area for general class needs, 19 personal storage areas (to accommodate a coat, etc.), a blackboard attached to wail and a loft for playing, reading or other uses.
16


12)
INTERMEDIATE:
2 rooms, 400 square feet each
Users: (in each room) 18 students, I teacher.
"Intermediate" implies those students usually associated with greades three and four.
Special Needs: Will be similar to the "primary" in size and space.
13) ADVANCED:
2 rooms, 400 square feet each
Users: (in each room) !8 students, I teacher.
"Advanced" implies those students usually associated with grades five and six.
Special Needs: Similar to primary in size and space.
14) JUNIOR:
2 rooms, 400 square feet each.
Users: (in each room) 18 students, I teacher.
"Junior" implies those students usually associated with grades seven, eight and nine.
Special Needs: Similar to primary in size and space.
15) KITCHENS:
There will be I small kitchen to be used by every 2
classrooms (6 in all).
100-150 square feet
Use: Kitchen will be used for projects such as
baking, preparation of occasional snacks, "hiding" place for teachers who take few minutes break, etc.
17


Special Needs: Each kitchen will have a sink, few storage cabinets, a refrigerator, a stove, a small table with 2 chairs and one door to each classroom .
16) MULTIPURPOSE ROOM:
1125 square feet.
Will be used as indoor play, assembly and special activity area, with adjacency mainly to classes "Primary through "Junior". Could accommodate lofts above.
17) LIBRARY:
Area: 3000 square feet
Special Needs: To include audio visual room and a
computer room both in enclosed area so as to prevent noise in the library. Library will include book storage, reading areas with tables and areas for reading on carpet and pillows.
18) FOREIGN LANGUAGE ROOM:
I room, 400 square feet.
Users: Maximum of 21 students at a time and a teacher.
18


Special Needs: To accommodate 21 standard school chairs, one teacher's desk and teacher's chair.
19) SCIENCE LABS:
I room, 2000 square feet
Users: Primary to Junior (144 students)
Special Needs: To include storage space. To be used for all types of scientific experiment and study.
20) _ ART CENTER:
I room, 2000 square feet
To include storage of art material and to be used for all visual arts. One area to be used for carpentry. This area will be part of the art center and will be enclosed in a separate room with a door.
21) GYMNASIUM:
a. 8250 square feet
Will be a regulation sized Junior High gym with all the necessary equipment. In addition, the space will be used for dance classes, drama classes and as an assembly hall for special occasions. A temporary stage will be set up at one end of the gym when required.
b. Locker Rooms: Men and women, 600 square feet each. Each to include toilets, sinks, showers, lockers and a bench. To be attached to gym.
c. Storage Area: I room, 400 square feet
For interior equipment storage (e.g. tables and chairs, temporary stage, athletic equipment, etc.) Will include coach's small office.
19


Kitchen: I, !50 square feet
d.
For food storage and preparation for special occasions in gym.
e. Gym Mechanical Room____[
300 square feet.
To serve school facilities excluding gym area.
23) ADDITIONAL AREAS;
Entrance; 400 square feet Circulation; 2500 square feet
Courtyard; (Covered walkway and landscaped pedestrian space between areas.
Outdoor play areas; Size, location and character to be open to designer's decision.
24) PARKING;
Provide parking on site for 30 staff member plus 10 parking places for guests.
TOTAL BUILT AREA 33,000 SQUARE FEET
20


THE SITE
r
21


THE SITE
. Address: Block bounded by Broadway, Ellsworth Avenue, Acoma Street and Irvington.
. Legal Description of Property: Lots 1-20, Block 6
. Area of Property: 100,100 square feet, 2.3 acrea.
. Present Zone: R3, B4
. Easemeents: A Mountain Bell telephone easement 10 x 110'
is existing on this project. It is recorded in Book 247, Page 486. Orville E. Madsen and Son, Inc. and
Mountain Bell have begun the process of vacating this easement. The existing alley easements have been
vacated and the utility lines which were in these right-of-ways will be relocated.
. Maximum Height of structures: facing neighborhood houses: 38 feet
. Maximum height of structures facing Broadway: 40'. Note:
These heights do not include mechanical equipment.
SITE DESCRIPTION:
I) The site is located on the west side of Broadway between Irvington Place and West Ellsworth Avenue and is bounded on the west by Acoma Street. Broadway is the major southbound one-way arterial leading from the central business district. The site is adjacent to a stable neighborhood which is showing signs of substantial reinvestment.
22


The eastern 1/3 (minimum) to I/2 of the block could be left for commercial use. Developers may consider the closing of Irvington Place if such an action would enhance the development. Both alleys on the site have now been vacated. Broadway frontage development may not exceed five stories. A three story height limitation is set for the on-street western portion of the development.
2) In order to preserve the integrity of the historic Victorian housing around the project area, design should be compatible with the surrounding Victorian structures.
The following design components identify characteristics of the existing housing stock:
Use of some of the elements may make new construction more compatible with the residential neighborhood:
a) Material Most of the houses in the area are masonry construction.
b) Orientation The front orientation of the existing housing is toward the street.
c) Roof shape Majority of houses have gabled roofs.
d) Directional expression of front elevation Many of the houses have a vertical orientation.
e) Window shape A 2 to I vertical ratio is typical.
f) Porches Most of the homes have front porches which add dimension as well as height to the entrance areas.
g) Setbacks along Irvington Place and West Ellsworth Avenue should be compatible with the existing residential setbacks opposite the site. No specific requirements on landscaping will be made, but the quality of landscaping is a major concern cf the city and neighborhood.
23


3)
Vegetation: Few old trees along Acoma Street which are to
remain in place.
4) Views and Noises; The Broadway side is responsible for
traffic noise and pollution and should be buffered from the proposed school (possibly by an office and/or commercial
building). The remaining 3 streets are residential, quiet, and have big old trees. Many of the houses are in
moderate to low condition but have the potential of a great revival with the new development of inner city's neighborhood. It is a stable neighborhood most appropriate for an in-city school.
5) Soil: A soils study was conducted on the site in May,
1981 by Fox Consulting Engineers and Geologists. The study was prepared for The Writer Corporation with the intention for a mixed-use development.
The study is no doubt appropriate for this thesis proposal and is, therefore, brought in full in the enclosed document.
24


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IVI-ST IRVINGTON IM.ACI: (80)
385.24'
BROADWAY


Consulting Engineers and Geologists
F. M. FOX & ASSOCIATES. INC. 4765 INDEPENDENCE STREET WHEAT RIDGE, COLORADO 80033 (303) 424-5578
PRELIMINARY GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION PROPOSED OFFICE AND TOWNHOUSE COMPLEX BROADWAY AND ELLSWORTH AVENUE DENVER. COLORADO
Prepared for The Writer Corporation
Job No. 1-1107-5240-00 May 14, 1981
ALBUQUERQUE
DENVER PHOENIX


FOX 3 Consulting Engineers and Geologists
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL Page 31
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION AND SITE CONDITIONS 31
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS 31
PRELIMINARY FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS 32
INTERIOR FLOOR SLAE5 33
CONSTRUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS 34
Site Drainage Excavation Construction 34 34
DISCUSSION AND CONSTRUCTION REVIEW 34
TEST HOLE LOCATION PLAN Figure 1
LOGS OF TEST HOLES 2
SWELL CONSOLIDATION TESTS 3,4
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY TESTING Table 1
30


GENERAL
This report presents the results of a preliminary geotechnical investigation conducted at the site of a proposed office and townhouse complex to be constructed on the block bounded by Broadway to the east, Ellsworth Avenue to the south, Accma Street to the west and Irvington Place to the north in Denver, Colorado. Factual data gathered during the field and laboratory investigations is presented in Figures 1 through 4 and Table 1.
The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the subsoil conditions and to recommend preliminary construction design details concerning foundation systems for the site. The recommendations are preliminary and not intended for final design. Final design criteria and detailed construction recommendations should be provided after the final subsoil investigation is conducted.
*
PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION AND SITE CONDITIONS
It is understood that the development will consist of office and townhouse buildings and a parking structure. Construction and design details are not known at the time of this report.
The site is presently vacant and is being used for commuter parking. The area is relatively flat with approximately four feet of relief across the site from the northeast to the southwest. An alley splits the site in half from north to south. Several old concrete foundations, rubble piles, and trees are located on the western portion of the lot.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Man-made fill was encountered in all of the test holes on the site (refer to Figure 2) Depths of fill varied from two feet in test hole 3 to 14 feet in test hole 5. The fill was primarily sandy clay with varying
31


Consulting Engineers and Geologists
amounts of concrete, brick and organic materials.
Underlying soils consist of sand, very silty sand, silty clay, and clayey sand and gravel. A layer of dense sand and gravel was encountered in all test holes at depths varying from 14 to 17 feet. Bedrock was encountered in test holes 2 and 4 at depth 41 and 42 feet, respectively. The bedrock encountered consisted of either hard to very hard claystone bedrock or very hard shale bedrock (Denver Formation).
Free water was encountered in test holes 2 and 4 at depths 40 and 38 feet, respectively, at the time of drilling. All test holes except test hole 3 had caved when checked six days after drilling (see Figure 2). The fill materials are not suitable for slab or foundation support.
The natural sand and clay are con-expansive but will consolidate under light to moderate building loads. The dense sands and gravels will consolidate under heavy building loads.
PRELIMINARY FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS
The man-made fill encountered is not adequate for structural support. Evidence on the site and existing structures surrounding the block indicates that at some time in the past the site was probably developed and subsequently razed. Portions of the site could contain deep rubble and fill with thicknesses on the order of that encountered in test hole 5.
Lightly loaded shallow foundations may be supported by the natural overburden soils. Conventional spread footings designed for maximum bearing pressures on the order of 1,000 to 2,500 psf (dead-load plus 1/2 live-load) may be used to support these structures.
-0-
32


Consulting Engineers snd Geologists
Moderately loaded structures could be supported by the dense sand and gravel underlying the shallow overburden sand. Spread footings or piers bearing on this sand and gravel layer may be used with maximum bearing pressures on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 psf. Piers penetrating the man-made fill would have to be designed with a negative (reduced) skin friction factor to compensate for any consolidation of the fill.
Heavily leaded structures would require a deep foundation systen.
A drilled pier (caisson) foundation system is the most widely accepted type of deep foundation used in the Denver area. Based on the data new available, the drilled piers may be designed for maximum soil bearing pressures on the order of 30,000 to 50,000 pounds per square foot. Caving soils were encountered in roost of the test holes and free water was encountered above the bedrock in test holes 2 and 4. These may necessitate the use of temporary steel casing to properly clean and dewater the pier holes. The depth and hardness of the bedrock may require a specialized drilling rig capable of deep penetrations (i.e., in excess of 50 feet) and penetration into very hard bedrock.
Final design criteria for all of the foundation types noted above will be determined when the final subsoil investigarin is conducted.
INTERIOR FLOOR SLABS
The natural soils are capable of supporting floor slabs. There may be soft pockets which will require some densification in the upper level soils. This is especially true for the parking structure.
The man-made fill is not suitable for slab support. This material should be overexcavated and replaced with a non-expansive compacted fill material.
-1-
_______________________________________33__________________________


CONSTRUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS
FOX
Consulting Engineers and Geologists
Site Drainage
The overburden soils are relatively permeable, however, depending on the type and depth of lower level construction, permanent foundation drainage systems may be required.
Excavation Construction
The presence of deep rubble fill may indicate that old building foundations and basenents may be encountered during site construction.
The proximity of the site to major transportation systems indicates that the areas adjacent to the site cannot be disturbed during construction. Deep excavation adjacent to property lines will require braced excavations. Construction dewatering is not anticipated to be a major concern at this time.
DISCUSSION AND CONSTRUCTION REVIEW
The main constraint to the planned construction on the site is the man-made fill noted above. A detailed analysis of the site should be carried out to define the limits, both in area and depth, of the fill material prior to finalization of construction plans.
The preliminary recommendations outlined above are based on a limited investigation of the site and cur understanding of proposed construction. We are available to discuss the details of our recommendations with you and revise then where necessary. Please call when further consultation or testing becomes necessary.


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40


CLIMATE
The following enclosed pages were taken from a survey of the Denver climatic conditions with regard to building planning.
The site for our proposed building has an uninterrupted exposure to all sides with some deciduous trees on its south border.
The exposure to east, which is Broadway Avenue} bears with it some pollution problems due to traffic. This, makes a barrier between the building and Broadway, a most desirable feature.


Chapter 1
CLIMATE AND PLANNING WITH EMPHASIS ON DENVER
WHAT IS CLIMATE?
The earth's climate is the product of the sun which supplies the energy to set the atmosphere in motion. Climate can be defined as the collective state of the atmosphere for a location at a given time of day or year. It is frequently described in terms of these statistical weather variables: temperature, wind, sunshine, precipitation and cloud cover.
The state of the atmosphere at any moment for a given location could also be described in terms of energy, because it is the result of continuous exchanges of energy within itself and with the surface of the earth. If the surface changes, as when urbanization replaces countryside with concrete and buildings, the mechanisms of energy are modified and the climate changes.
In Denver the combination of buildings, paved surfaces and air pollution has altered the local climate. The core city is hotter than the surrounding countryside in summer. During the winter air pollution interferes with the receipt of solar radiation. It is estimated that a srnoggy day can lower the surface air temperature by as much as ten degrees F.
TEMPERATURE
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Table I gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
TABLE I
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY !Fl DENVER, COLO.
Month Daily Maximum Daily Minimum Monthly Mean Record High Record Low Normal Degree Days Base 65F Mean Number of n avg Ten-'eratures
90F and above 32F and below
(Heating) (Cooling)
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1083 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 902 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 34 -11 863 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
May - 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2
Jun 80.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 0 243 15 0
Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sep 77.7 47.8 62.8 97 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - 8 768 * 0 o 25
Oec 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 | 50.1 1 104 -30 6016 625 32 162
* Less Chan one half.
Source: Department of Commerce, 1977
42


PRECIPITATION
WIND
Denver lies in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky Mountains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The' winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Table II shows Denver's precipitation characteristics.
Daily precipitation amounts greater than or equal to 0.10 inches can be expected on the average of 88 days per year and the maximum daily rainfall recorded at Denver is 3.55 inches. Thunderstorms account for most of the summer precipitation, and annually there is an average of 41 days with thunderstorm occurrences. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and snow has been recorded in every' month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24-hour snowfalls recorded are 39.1 inches and 19.4 inches, respectively.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in Table III. Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximum recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a tew feet above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higher.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is func-
TABLE II
DAILY, MONTHLY AMD ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA finches] DENVER, COLORADO
Month Total Precipitation Mean Number a of Days with Precipitation ^.01 inch Snow Mean Number a of Days with Snow 1.0 inch
Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Monthly Mean Maximum Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1.5 13.6 *b
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 TC 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Auy 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 1 2.44 6 1.9 21.3 *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15.51 7.31 TC 3.55 88 59.9 39.1 18
a Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. b*Denotes less than one-half.
CFVnotes a trace of precipitation
SOURCE: C. S. Department of Commerce, 1S77
43


TABLE ill
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS DENVER, COLORADO
Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with § Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 SW
Jun 9.2 S 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
Aug 8.2 S 42 SW
Sep 8.2 s 47 NW
Oct 8.2 s 45 NW
Nov 8.7 s 48 W
Dec 9.0 s 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW :
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977
TABLE IV
AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.h.) AND DIRECTION AT DENVER
Mountain JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
Standard Tine Dir - mph * 01 r. mph Qir. mph Dir. mph Oir. *ph Sir. mph Cir. mph Oir mph Oir. mph Oir mph Oir mph Oir mph Oir. mph
AM 1:00 S 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.9 S 7.0 S 5.5 s 5.3 $ 6.3 S 6.2 S 6.3 S 6.7 S 7.0 S 7.3 S 6.7
2:00 s 7.2 S 6.9 S 6.9 S 6.3 S 6.3 < 6.1 s 6.1 3 5.0 3 5.3 $ 6.5 S 7.1 S 7.4 s 6.5
3:00 s 7.2 3 5.9 s 6.3 s 6.3 s 6.3 s 5.9 s 5.7 z 5.9 S 6.1 s 6.5 3 7.1 S 7.4 s 0.0
4:00 s 7.2 S 5.3 s 6.3 3 6.7 s 5.6 s 5.7 3 5.4 S 3.0 3 5.C s 6.4 j 7.2 3 7.5 s 6.4
5:00 5 7.2 c G.7 s 6.3 S 6.5 s 5.7 s 1.3 $ 5T2 s 5.5 7 6.9 s 6.5 c J 7.3 S 7.5 s 6.4
5:00 s 7.3 $ 5.3 3 5.3 s 5.5 s 5.7 s 5.3 s 3 i 3 5.3 C 5.5 3 2.6 S 7.3 s 7.5 3 6.1
7:00 s 7.5 s 5.3 s 5.9 s 675 s 5.7 s 5.3 s 5.0 r> 5Ti 3 C Q 5 6.6 3 7.4 5 7.5 s 6.4
3:00 s 7.5 s 7.0 5 7.0 5 6.3 3 5.2 s 5.7 s 5.3 5 5.0 $ 5.5 s 6.4 S 7.4 S 7.7 s 6.5
9:00 3 7.7 s 7.3 S 7.5 it 7.4 S 6.3 s 5.1 s 5.5 S c J S 5.7 5 5.4 s 7.4 e j 7.7 s 5.7
10:00 s 7.7 s 7.5 5 8.0 .1 3.0 ' u 7.5 ri 5.7 *1 5.9 NE 5.4 > 5.9 c 6.5 s 7.1 3 7.7 s 7.0
11:00 s 3.0 s 3.2 N 3.7 tc 3.3 mE a.3 NE 7.6 ;i 5.5 NE 6.2 NC r..5 7c 7.0 3 7.4 S 7.3 NE 7.6
12:00 s 3.3 NE 3.8 *l 9.5 ..C 9.4 it C.9 r.E 3.3 TE y 2 NE 6.9 ri£ 7.1 NE 7.5 5 7 0 C. 1 iE 3.2
PM 1:Q0 s 9.1 .E 9.5 NE 12 2 10.2 NE 9.6 NE 9.1 Nc 7.3 7.7 NE 7:6 NE 2 ? NE 3.4 S .3.5 Nc 8.9
2:00 NE 9.3 NE 10.3 t TO .7 NE 10.3 E :o j c 9.6 .1 3.5 TE 8.1 c 3.1 c 8.7 t 3.5 N 9.7 c 9.2
3:00 NE 9.5 NE 10.1 it 11. C NE 10.9 NE 10.6 Nc 10.2 N 3.4 { 6.7 n£ 3.5 'i 9. J nE 0.6 NE 3.7 Nc 9.6
4 :C0 14 9.1 .,E 10.2 11.2 c IT.2 10.8 i;E 10.5 .*; 9.6 9.1 fl 2.3 E 3.8 NC 3.5 :N 3.3 NE 9.7
5:00 NE 3.4 NE 9.7 NW 11.1 TE n.2 c 10.8 n 10.5 ri 9.7 it 9.3 NE 3.7 NE 3.5 Nc 7.7 : 7.6 NE 9.4
5:00 ,£ 7.7 ;c 3.3 10.1 ; 1C.5 NE 1C.2 7:00 s 7.3 fi 7.2 ii 3.7 NE 9. j 'L 9.2 fit 9.: 5 3.5 vC 7.7 ft ' _2 NE 5.7 s 6.4 S 6.3 tc 7.3
3:00 5 7.1 S 5.7 \ 7.3 S 3.4 Hi 3.4 3.0 3 77 s 7 1 £ 5.7 S 6.3 s 5.7 < 7.0 3 7.3
9:00 c J 7 s 6.9 s 7.1 sw 7.7 SW 7.7 c 7.3 j 7.2 s 6.6 3 5.3 3 0.4 s 7.0 s 7.1 c 7.0
10:00 S 7.1 s 6.3 s 5.9 s 7.4 j 7.1 i- *5.1 S 5.3 s 5.2 z 6.4 3 0 0 s 2 5 7 S 6.9
11:00 c 7.2 s 5.3 s 5.9 s 7. * 5 6.3 s 5.7 3 5.7 c 2.4 3 o.5 S 6.3 3 7. l' S : j j 6.9
12:00 S 7.1 s 5.9 s 6.9 s 7.3 S 6.7 s 5.5 S 5.5 s 5.3 S 5.3 3 6.3 7.1 S 7 2 s 5.3
-1SJ' ;j 1JSJ
Data Soufc: U.S. v*thr 3ureu
L^cacion of Ylnd Var.ea: Downtown Oanvar, rooftop lveiona at or n*r Halo ?oat Offica


TABLE V
MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA
Denver, Colorado
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number of3 Clear Davs Number ofa Partly Cloudy Days Number ofa Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
aMonthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
tioning. Tables III and IV, used together, may be of some limited use in this regard.
Table III presents monthly annual mean and extreme winds at Denver. The annual average wind speed is 9.1 miles per hour with Apnl having the highest average (10.4 miles per hour). Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and afternoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent as shown in Table IV.
SUNSHINE DURATION AND CLOUD COVER
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring.
Annually Denver averages 115 clear days (10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30 to 80 percent cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover). Table V presents daytime solar and cloud data at Denver.
SOLAR RADIATION
So!ar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value (solar constant) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earths vaporous atmosphere. Table VI is a summary of average daily solar and reflected sky radiation for Denver ar.d other western cities.
45


TABLE V!
SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY SOLAR AND SKY RADIATION IN LANGLEYS Ical/cm2/day)
Station Jan Feb Mar Apr Mav Jun Jul Auz Sept Oct Nov Dec
Riverside, Calif. 260 305 390 500 540 585 595 540 475 375 290 205
La Jolla, Calif. 260 305 400 460 505 510 500 475 400 340 290 240
New Orleans, La. 220 275 350 425 460 470 425 425 380 380 300 205
Fresno, Calif. 170 275 400 575 650 700 685 615 510 480 360 155
Nashville, Tenn. 140 210 310 410 500 530 510 460 385 300 200 110
Davis, Calif. 210 280 375 560 640 700 690 615 515 360 240 115
Phoenix, Ariz. 270 330 480 570 660 650 600 555 495 400 300 260
Grand Junction, Colo. 210 265 400 470 550 620 610 545 445 340 230 195
Boise, Idaho 130 185 310 420 525 565 600 525 405 275 160 115
Dodge City, Kansas 235 265 375 460 515 575 585 540 440 345 235 215
Ely, Nevada 215 270 420 495 565 620 600 560 460 360 250 200
Brownsville, Texas 260 265 365 390 500 525 555 510 410 360 250 235
Fort Worth, Texas 230 265 380 430 510 575 570 550 445 365 270 230
Midland, Texas 260 295 260 490 545 560 560 540 450 355 295 250
Spokane, Washington 105 155 280 395 495 565 605 510 350 210 115 80
Lander, Wyoming 205 265 410 480 535 590 595 530 430 330 215 130
Boulder, Colorado 200 270 400 450 460 515 510 460 430 315 210 190
Denver, Colorado* 240 325 425 510 560 610 620 560 460 345 240 195
Based on Hamon, Weiss and Wilson nomograph and Che U.S. Weather Bureau climatological normals (percent of possible sunshine) for the 1941-1970 period of record.
Source: U.S. Weather Bureau Records (unless otherwise noted)
TABLE VII
SOLAR POSITION AND INTENSITY;
SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS* FOR 40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time A.M. Solar Position Direct Normal Irradiation, Stuh/sq ft Solar Heat Cain Factors, Btuh/sq ft Solar Time P.M.
Alt. Azimuth N NF y SE S SW V NV Hor.
SUMMER 5 4.2 117.3 21 10 21 20 6 1 1 1 i 2 7
6 14.8 108.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
June 21 7 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
8 37.4 90.7 246 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 153 4
9 48.3 80.2 262 33 113 192 161 45 31 31 31 201 3
10 59.3 65.8 272 35 62 145 143 69 36 35 35 237 2
11 69.2 41.9 276 37 40 80 116 88 41 37 37 260 1
12 73.5 0.0 278 38 38 41 71 95 71 41 38 267 12
Half Da y Totals 242 714 1019 810 311 197 181 180 1121
WINTER 8 5.5 53.0 88 2 7 67 83 49 3 2 2 6 4
9 14.0 41.9 217 9 10 135 205 151 12 9 9 39 3
Dec 21 10 20,7 29.4 261 14 14 113 232 210 55 14 14 77 2
11 25.0 15.2 278 16 16 56 217 242 120 16 16 103 1
12 26.6 0.0 284 17 17 18 177 253 177 18 17 113 12
Half Da y Totals 49 54 380 831 781 273 50 49 282
*Total solar heat gains for DS (1/3 in.) sheet glass Based on a ground reflectance of 0.20
Reorinted from ASHRAE "Handbook of Fundamentals 1^72
46


TABLE VSII
EFFECT OF DATE ON SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 21/Sept. 21) Summer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
4:00 a.m. 0. -121.3
5:00 a.m. 4.2 -117.3
6:00 a.m. 0. -90.0 1* 00 o -108.4
7:00 a.m. 0. -58.7 11.4 -80.2 26.2 -99.7
8:00 a.m. 5.5 -53.0 22.5 -69.6 37.4 -90.7
9:00 a.m. 14.0 -41.9 32.8 -57.3 41.9 -80.2
10:00 a.m. 20.7 -29.4 41.6 -41.9 59.8 -65.8
11:00 a.m. 25.0 -15.2 47.7 -22.6 69.2 -41.2
12:00 noon 26.5 0.0 50.0 0.0 73.4* 0.0
TABLE IX
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES [in feet per one foot of obstruction!
40 N LATITUDE
Solar Time Level Ground 5% S* Slope 5% N Slope 5% W Slope 5% E Slope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solstice 9:00 3 IQ 4.0 3.5 4.7 4.7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1
9:00 3 IQ 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5
Summer 9:00 3 IQ 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
1 Solstice 8:00 3. m 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2
7:00 3 m 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9
* Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance.
HOW TO PLAN WITH CLIMATE AND SOLAR ENERGY IN DENVER
The first step in planning with climate and solar energy is to identify those parts of a development project which are sensitive to weather and climate including solar variations. For construction of a residential unit or project, or with any decision to install solar equipment, information on solar positions and intensity, percent of possible sunshine, and air tempera-
ture will be a necessity. Refer to Tables I, V, VII, VIII, and IX for relevant Denver data.
The cost benefit ratio and how a planned solar system compares with conventional systems, will be important. In this regard it is important to compare projected costs based on the expected life of the equipment. Solar is expected to become more and more attractive as fossil fuel related energy systems continue to increase in cost, in some geographical areas the tipping point has already been reached.
47


HEATING DEGREE DAYS, BASE_65 F COOLING DEGREE DAYS
FIG. 1
HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO
NORMAL HEATiNG DEGREE DAY! -rarasro NORMAL COOLING DEGREE DAY! SUN ANGLE
o-
DATA SOURCE: U.S. WEATHER BUREAU 1941*1970, DENVER
48
SUN ANGLE


The site upon which the development occurs may have important micro-climatic characteristics such as slope and exposure, vegetative screening, and/or shadows. The problem of continuing solar access will be important, particularly for adding greenhouses and solar systems, both active and passive.
Precipitation statistics will be useful in planning window orientation and planting trees or gardens.
Wind data will be helpful in determining the way doors should swing open, patio construction, and the creation of wind breaks and breezeways.
Degree-day temperature data will help predict seasonal heating and cooling demand.
Consideration of each of the above mentioned climate factors will invariably result in long-term economies and increased enjoyment and appreciation of the development and the climatic characteristics at the site.
COMPUTING DEGREE DAYS
The concept of degree-days is useful for determining energy requirements and for predicting energy demand. Briefly stated, outdoor temperatures as indicated by degree-days are closely related to energy, consumption. In the winter, energy for space heating peaks in January as shown in Figure 1. In summer, energy for air conditioning peaks in July as shown on the same chart.
Table I in Chapter I lists the monthly heating and cooling degree-day normals for Denver. These are depicted graphically in Figure 1. The sun angle curves are superimposed on the same chart to show the relationship with the solar seasons. It is interesting to see how the seasonal temperatures (as shown by degree-days) lag behind the sun by about a month.
Degree days, base 65F, are computed in the following manner:
Max. temp for the day = 50F Min. temp for the day = 30CF
Sum = 80 2 = 40F Degree day base = 65F 40F
= 25 degree days
PLANNING FOR SOLAR ACCESS
Solar Access may be defined as the necessary view of the sky required by a solar collection system to provide a given thermal performance. The skyview will vary depending on the daily and annual use pattern, the site and its environment, and the location and function of the collection system.
ZENITH
SOLAR ANGLES, SEASONAL VARIATION, DENVER.|40N|
FIG. 2
Heating for domestic hot water usually requires access to the sun throughout most of the day all year long. A roof-mounted collector would be best for this purpose.
Solar access requirements for space heating depend on the length and intensity of the cold season as defined by the number of degree-days recorded below 65'F^The heating season in Denver normally encompasses all but the three summer months of June, July and August. Table I, seventh column, shows the relative intensity of the cold experienced in each month by listing the normal degree-day totals. Access to the sun during the coldest winter months is a necessity for space heating.
Winter access is the most difficult to attain because of the low sun angle. Roof mounted collectors are obviously easier to protect for solar access than waii mounted collectors or those installed at ground level.
For maximum solar collection efficiency, new houses should preferably face south and have no shading obstruction in that direction during collection hours. Orienting new streets predominately in an east-west direction may be the most desirable.
49


PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES FIG, 3
50


FIG. 4
SOLAR CHART-DENVER
LAT. 3950'N
LONG10450'W
ELEVATION 5280 FT.
55


ZONING REQUIREMENTS
and
BUILDING CODES
52


GROUP OCCUPANCY C-l
Special Provisions:
I) Rooms having an occupancy load of more than 100 and rooms used for preschool, k i ndergarten, and first or second-grade shall be located at ground level.
2) Except in one-story bui Idings in which rooms used for
instruction have at least one exit door directi ly to the
outside, building shall be at least one-hour fine-resistive construction throughout.
3) Balconies and bleachers over useable space, and janitor closets, shall be protected with at least one-hour, fire-resistive construction.
Location on property: Buildings shall have front directly upon or having access to a public street at least 20 feet in width. The access to a public street shall be 20 foot minimum width right-of-way maintained soley as access to the public street. At least one required exit shall be located on the public street or access way.
FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS (Fire zone I)
Required fire resistance of exterior wall: 2 hours if less than 20 feet away from lot line. I hour elsewhere.
Exterior Doors: 7-1/2 hour fire rating, maximum 72 square inch glazing, self closing.
Boiler and Furnace Room: I hour fire rating, no glazing, self closing.
Interior Doors: 3/4 inches thick, maximum 12 square inch of glazing, automatic self closing.
53


EXITS
Maximum Travel Distance: Exits shall be arranged to conform to the following:
1) No point in a room in a building shall be more than 75 feet from an exit corridor, enclosed stairway, or exterior of the building.
EXCEPTION: In buildings not more than two stories in
height, an increase to 90 feet shall be permitted when the building is protected throughout with detectors of products of combustion other than heat. When a building is protected throughout by an automatic fire sprinkler system, the distance may be increased to 110 feet.
2) No point in a building without an automatic fire-sprinkler system shall be more than 150 feet measure along the line of travel, from exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway, or enclosed stairway. In buildings not more than two stories in height, protected throughout with detectors of products of combustion other than heat, the distance may be increased to 175 feet. In a building protected throughout with an automatic fire sprinkler system, the distance may be increased to 200 feet.
Exits through Adjoining Rooms: interior rooms may exit
through adjoining or intervening rooms, provided the total distance of travel through rooms to an exit corridor does not exceed that specified in Subsection (b) I, and provides a direct, and unobstructed means of travel, the routes of exit travel shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, rest rooms, closets, laboratories using hazardous materials, industrial shops, or similar spaces. Foyers and lobbies constructed as
54


required for exit corridors shall not be construed as adjoining or intervening rooms. Where the only means of exit from a room, detectors of products of combustion other than heat shall be installed in the area of the common atmosphere through which the exit must pass.
Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies; The width of a corridor in a Group C, Division I Occupancy shall be the width required by Section 3302, plus 2 feet; but no corridor shall be less than 6 feet wide.
EXCEPTION: When the number of occupants served is less
than 100, the corridor may be 44 inches wide.
1) Corridor walls shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
EXCEPTION: When each room used for instruction has at
least one exit door directly to the exterior at ground level, and when rooms used for assembly purposes have at least one-half of the required exits directly to the exterior at ground level, one-hour f ire-resisti ve construction of corridor walls and ceilings shall not be required.
2) There shall be no change in elevation of less than 2 feet in a corridor or exterior balcony unless ramps are used.
Exit serving Auditoriums in Group C, Division I
Occupancy. An exit serving both an auditorium and other rooms need provide only for the capacity of whichever requires the greater width if the auditorium is not used simultaneously with the other rooms.
55


Stairs. Each floor above or below the ground level shall have at least two exit stairs. The required exit width shall be equally divided between the stairs. Stairs serving an occupant load of more than 100 shall be at least 5 feet in clear width.
Basement or Cellar Rooms. Exit stairways from a cellar or basement shall open directly to the exterior of the building without entering the first floor corridor.
Panic Hardware. Exit doors from rooms having an occupant load of more than 50, and from corridors, shall not be provided with a latch or lock other than panic hardware.
Fences and Gates. School grounds may have fencing and gates equiped with locks, provided dispersal areas are available for persons between buildings and fences. Gates shall not be permitted across corridors or passageways leading to dispersal areas unless they comply with exit requirements.
Required building separation: none
Construction type is II: maximum height of 4 stories.
Required areas: Classrooms: 20 square feet per student. School shops and vocational rooms: 50 square feet per student.
Toilet facilities:
Male 7 water closet per 100 Female 7 water closet per 115 Urinals I per 30
Lavatories 7 per every 2 water closets or urinals Drinking Fountains I per iOO
56


As the site is located on Zone R-3 and Zone B-4, and as we
wish to preserve the appeal of the place as a R-3 neighborhood, the following R-3 Zoning codes are to be regarded:
1) Front setback: All structures shall be set in a distance
of not less than ten (10) feet from each front line of the
zone lot; provided, however, that on the two (2) shorter dimensions of any block oblong in shape, the front setback may be reduced to five (5) feet for structures which face on either longer dimensions; and provided further, that detached accessory structures, except those detached accessory structures used as garages or for
recreational or outdoor cooking and eating purposes or gas-fired incinerators, shall be set in a sufficient
distance from each front line of the zone lot so that such
structures are located only on the rear one-fourth of interior zone lots and on corner zone lots are located
only on the rear part of the zone lot which is adjacent
to and corresponding with the rear one-fourth of abutting
interior zone lots and no closer to the side street
right-of-way than thirty (30) feet or one-half the dimensions of the corner zone lot, measured perpendicu larly from the side street right-of-way, whichever distance is greater. The space resulting from the foregoing setbacks shall be used for landscaping and access ways to the use by right but shall not be used for the parking of vehicles.
2) Rear setback. If no alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, all detached accessory structures and fixtures shall be set in a distance of not less than five (5) feet and all other structures shail be set in a distance of not
57


less than twenty (20) feet from each rear line of the zone lot. If an alley abuts the rear line of the zone lot, detached garages and carports opening directly on the alley shall be set in a distance of not less than five (5) feet from the alley line; detached accessory structures (including garages and carports which do not open directly on the alley) and fixtures for the disposal of
trash and garbage may be located on the alley line and
all other structures shall be set i n a distance of not
less than twenty (20) feet from the center line of the
abutting alley.
3) Permitted encroachments on setback space:
a) Belt courses, sills, lintels and pilasters may project
eighteen (18) inches into front, rear and side
setback spaces.
b) Cornices, eaves and gutters may project three (3)
feet into front setback space, five (5) feet into rear
setback space and thirty-six (36) i nches into side
setback space; provided, however, that if the side
setback space is less than five (5) feet in width, then such projection shall not exceed one-half the width of the side setback space.
c. Outside stairways may project five (5) feet into front setback space, then (10) feet into rear setback space and three (3) feet into side setback space; access ramps for the handicapped may encroach into any required building setback space, providing no alternative location is available and providing the ramp construction is compatible with the character of the structure.
58


d. Unwalied porches, terraces and balconies may extend five (5) feet into front and rear setback spaces.
e. Chimneys not to exceed six (6) feet in width may
project eighteen (18) inches into front, rear and side setback spaces.
f. Building accessories designed and intended to control
light entering a building and being a permanent part of such building may project five (5) feet into front
setback space, ten (10) feet into rear setback space and three (3) feet into side setback space.
g. Building accessories designed and intended to control
light entering a building and not being a permanent part of such building, by being removable therefrom and by not being attached to a load-bearing member thereof, may project any distance into any setback space.
h. Canopies may project any distance into the front setback space.
i. Any structure or part thereof which is below the grade of any setback space may project any distance into such setback space.
j. Gas and electric meters and transformers may project three (3) feet into front, rear and side setback spaces if screened on all sides by a masonry wall. 4
4) Fences, walls and retaining walls. Fences, walls and
retaining walls not exceeding forty-eight (48) inches in
height may be erected on any part of the zone lot
59


between the front line of the zone lot and the front
setback line for structures and on any other part of the
zone lot may be erected to a height of not to exceed
seventy-two (72) inches; provided, however:
a. Retaining walls abutting public rights-of-way may be built to any height;
b. Schools, public parks and/or playgrounds may erect open-mesh fences to any height on any part of the zone lot; and
c. On a corner zone lot, fenches and walls not exceeding seventy-two (72) inches in height may be built on the rear line of the zone lot and one the front line of a zone lot from the rear line forward to the rear of any structure containing the use by right if the corner zone lot meets the following qualifications:
1. Is located on a block oblong in shape;
2. The structure thereon containing the use by right faces a longer dimension of the block; and
3. All zone lots on the same shorter dimension of the same block are either vacant or do not have thereon any sturcture containing a use by right, which sturcture faces the shorter dimension of the block.
The height of walls, fences and retaining walls shall be determined by measurement from the ground level at the lowest grade level within three (3) feet of either side of such walls, fences or retaining walls; provided, however,
60


that in computing the height of retaining wails there shall be omitted from such computation any open-mesh fence iocated on top of the retaining wall and not exceeding forty-eight (48) inches in height.
5) Maximum gross fioor area in structures. The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a zone lot, shall not be greater than three (3) times the area of the zone lot on which the structures are located.
6) Required off street parking: Parking Class Seven. Each elementary or grade school or junior high school shall provide 10 off-street parking spaces plus one off street parking space for each classroom.
61


ADDENDUM
62


Euucanonai
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Sit* Planning; Busing; Parking
C. Utilities
1. Normal roqulramant
2. Spacial requirement
D. Miscellaneous
1. Polica and fira protection distance, location, municipality, jurisdiction.
2. Exhibit areas
9. Community usa
Ism) Uss ,
'etc* Altoestim Studies should incorporate all tha elements and spaces required by the total developed program. In addition, any iimitationa which may be caused by specific site conditions should be noted.
RtrifttiOfttfeipS Tha relationships of these proposed site elements and spaces to each other and to tha site ore best developed visually as diagrammatic studies such as those shown in Figs. 1 to 3.
Circulation
Circulation patterns are continuous from tha points of access at property lines to and through tha buildings and must b* designed as integrated systems. Safety is important, particularly for tower age groups. For safe and officiant movement, separata eech different type of circulation. Eliminate or minimize cross traffic between pedestrian* and vehicle*. Separate drop-off facilities for buses and auto-mobilaa. Service vehicles should be excluded from these drop-off areas; if this ia not pos-sibfa, use of service areas should be permitted only at times when pedestrian* ere not present.
Vahteoiat/Automobile Differentiate and provide for the three types of automobile traffic normally found on a school sits: faculty, student, and visitor or parent.
VahictfiRf/Bm Give careful consideration to num\nart loading and unloading areas, site sccsss, and storage of vehicles. Flan so that the backing up of buses is never necessary.
Vsbkuiar/Senrkt Service-vehicle access and loading and unloading areas should permit ae short and direct an approach as possible with adequate maneuvering space. Service area# and access should be asperate from other circulation systems.
BUSING
Paople
PARKINS
Magnet School Sofia, Study Figure* 4 to 7 represent four (4) approaches to developing a system of bus parking and circulation. Presently, 36 buses wilt be required eo provide transportation for 1,300 students to and from the school site (eite area required for this service la significant see land use studies).
Dimensions of busas to ba considered are bus length = 36 ft 0 in.; bus width = 8 ft 0 in.; inside turning radius = 45 ft 0 in.; outside turning radius = 60 ft 0 In.; typical stall sits = 12 ft 0 in. X 14 U 0 in. Busas should not ba required to back up. (Tablos 1 end 2.)
TABLE I Auto fhmifcsr arui Spaea Reqsiratnents*
School Parkmp space*
Elementary...................One per classroom + 3
Junior high..................One per clessroom + 6
High school..................One per classroom + 18
' Space requhamems average 350 to 400 so It per auto-mobile, depaooina oa parkins angla. Tha moat efficient is 90 parkin,.
Safety is most important. Walkways of all-weather, nonskid materiala, well delineated end arranged to eliminate or minimize conflict with vehicle circulation can be both safe and plessant. Where changes in grade are necessary, a ramp is generally preferred to steps and the incline should not exceed 5 percent especially where snow and loa era expected.
There is usually merit in separation of the thrss types of aulomobiio parking, with th* daytime visitor taking precedence over faculty and student. Parking facilities should be locatsd to consider all their uses, including daytime usee for visitor, parent, faculty, o* student, uses for school-related or community events within the school building, and uses
TABLE 2 Comparison of Busing Study Data
Area required per bus Minimum width Lineal (set required (includes circulation!, required (far 38 busas) sq ft
Parallel single file................. 12 ft 0 in. 1.584 528
Parallel free access ....... 25 ft 0 in. 2,738 1,900
305 peal-off......................... 55 ft 0 in 680 1,320
30 free actasi...................... $5 ft 0 in. 860 1,572
45 peel-off ........................ 85 ft 0 in. 820 1,100
45 free access...................... 85 ft 0 in. 820 1,440
60 peel-off ........................ 85 ft 0 in. 510 1,184
80 free access..................... 115 ft 0 in. 510 1,584
* Data art approximate.
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Educational
B'7i* REQUIRES 523 sq ft/BUS
V cI..] cmzi
(a) SINGLE-FILE SYSTEM
FIRST BUS IN LINE MUST GO TO END OF SYSTEM ANO MUST ALSO LEAVE FIRST. LIMITED.
, 76' + AVERAGE I REQUIRES 1,900 sq ft/BUS
- SI
If*

36
36
p<;r


: r - -..y.- - -
(b) FREE-ACCESS SYSTEM
^ STUDENT TRAFFIC FLOW 0 BUS DIRECTION OF TRAVEL
Fig. 4 ParalW but parking intern.
(a) PEEL-OFF SYSTEM
FRONT BUS MUST LEAVE FIRST, THEN NEXT BUS, ETC.
REQUIRES 1,572 sq ft/BUS
(b) FREE-ACCESS SYSTEM Fig. 5 30 bus parking system.
relating to various outdoor athletic events. Overflow parking areas may double aa paved play areas when properly designed and located.
Access to parking facilities and arrangement of parking lanes should minimize conflict between automobile and pedestrian. Collector walks should be provided and arranged to permit pedestrians to exit vehicle areas as directly as possible (see Fig. 8).
RECREATION FACILITIES Sits Location Considerations
These criteria for recreation areas, such as relation to adjacent property, soil stability and percolation, existing vegetation, existing topography, etc., are important; however, special attention should be given to the need for large open spaces for field gsmes with adjacent existing vegetation to provide shade, oxygen, and windbreak. In dense urban areas, where ordinary open spaces are scarce, such field facilities can be created on air rights, rooftops, and terraced slopes. Informal play areas, especially for the lower grades, can ba created in multilevel arrangements conforming to a steep site; this is not possible with field
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Busing; Parking; Recreation Facilities
(c! PEEL-OFF SYSTEM
(FIRST BUS MUST LEAVE FIRST).
REQUIRES 1,440 sq ft/BUS
Fig. S 45 bus paiking recreation facilities for the contact sports onjoyad by upper grades. Superimposition of layouts and multiuse helps conserve space when land is at a premium.
Recreational Facility Layout
One of the best approaches is to construct scale templates (1 in. = 50 ft for most site planning purposes) of ail facilities considered in the school program. These can be drawn on tracing veilum, using official court and field dimension layouts as a guide. Cutouts can be used for shifting locations on site plan to determine optimum layout. Construction and funding phasing and types of multiuse can also be developed using these templates.
In creating a unique layout for a site, consider these factors:
REQUIRES 1,164 sq ft/BUS
(a) PEEL-OFF SYSTEM
(FIRST BUS MUST LEAVE FIRST).
REQUIRES 1,584 sq ft/BUS
Fig. 7 60 bus parking system.
1. Optimum orientation for sun and wind control
2. Circulation for players and spectators
3. Buffer zones oetween action spaces
4. Access from showers, classrooms, student and spectator parking, and buses
5. Access from community where multiuse is possible
6. Flexibility of layout and accommodation of staging or building expansion
7. Programming of play and learning expariences for younger children
TABLE 3 Analysis of Playground Surfacing
From School Sites, No. 7, US. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Qualities
Type
of
surface
CL
O.
o
iL 0 9 >- 3 5 T p Q it c 0 u 0 a Of * 0 e at * o w M 0 HI
Forth e e e a
Turf e e e e e #
Aggregate e a e
Bitumen e e e e e e e
Concrete s e e e e
Masonry e e o e e
Miscellaneous* e e e
* Tan bark> sawdust, cottonmeal, rubber, plastics and vinyls, asbestos-cement boards, wood.
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Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Recreation Facilities; Safety
8. Supervision and safety
9. Compatibility of age groups, sexes, and type of activity in contiguous play oreas
10. Grading and slope for drainage (or underdrainage)
11. Existing relationship to nearby community facilities
12. Need for balance of action spaces with provision of quiet open spaces
Suggested Facilities According to Age 6toups and Srade
Kindergarten to third grade: Sandboxes, sand trays/cans, slides and tunnels, swings, tres houses, climbers and steppers, trike and bike riding, water features.
Fourth to seventh gradee: Climbers and jungle gyms, shuffleboard, hopscotch, informal group games, littls league ball, softball, spider webs and trampolines, adventure playgrounds with junk building materials.
Eighth to twelfth grades: Softball, baseball, football, touch football, soccer, volleyball, tennis, archery, track and field events, rifle range, physical fitness workout course.
Materials for Recreational Surfaces and Structures Effect of low-maintenance synthetic surfacing and structural materials ia significant. Their increased durability under intensive use makes multiuse and community use feasible. All-weather surfaces maximize use; cleaning by hosing, vacuum, and snow blower minimize maintenance. Durable yet flexible play surfaces allow use in cold or wet weather without injury to surface or players. Regrading, reseeding, fertilizing, aerating, spraying, mowing, and weeding are eiiminated.
VEHICULAR
PEDESTRIAN
III I I
o o to *o so
DRAINAGE
Proper storm drainage is essential to successful school-site facilities in moat areas of the country. Not only do the function and longevity of many facilities and materials depend on good drainage, but In some esses permanent damage may result from water. Surface and subsurface systems or combinations should be designed to adequately handle the needs of buildings and sits facilities. Where possible, an overland emergency system should be incorporated, using the relative grade elevations of the site. When circumstances do not permit this, a standby system of pumps or power generators is racommendod.
PUNTING
Select materials indigenous to the area where possible, and supplement with ornamental materials that possess characteristics not obtain-
able with local materials. Plant materials should also have low maintenance requirements and be compatible with existing growing conditions. Plant material for school sitae generally consists of shade trees, ornamental trees, evergreen trees and shrubs, deciduous shrubs, vines, and ground covers (see Fig. 9). Though soma of the ground-covering material on most school sites functionally is mowed grass, this material remains one of the highest maintenance typea. It is recommended that its use be kept to the necessary minimum and the use of meadow and prairie grasses and other types of ground-covoring materials be considered. This is particularly important on sites where appropriate ground cover material exists and should be carefully preserved. Select plant materiel on the basis of its mature size end character to minimize excessive shearing and aarly replacement. Initial sizes should not be less than a reasonable minimum to ensure survival from injury or damage by students and other cuusos. In addition to providing an aes-
thetic contribution plant material on the school site can be used to solve many problems such as windbreaks, screens and buffers, sound dampers, sun and light controls, erosion control, and air purification.
SAFETY
Schools, by the nature of their occupancy and use, require higher standards of safety than other types of buildings. Provisions for life safety have the highest priority and affect the entire design in plan, construction, and choice of materials. All phases of health and safety become pervasive program elements that unavoidably add to the complexity and cost of schools and greatly determine their form and plan organization and appearance.
Building codes generally have separate and specific requirements for school construction. Many states and counties have school safety codes established by departments of education.
PLAY AREA SITTING AREA
OUTDOOR CLASSROOM
Fit. 9
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Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Safety
health, and public cafaty. Architects and engl-naars ara obligated to inform themselves of ail reviewing authorities and appiicabla codas in a given locality. In the absence of adequate local codas, standards of the National Building Coda, the National Board of Fire Underwriters, and/or the BOCA (Building Officials Conference of America) Coda ara good guides. The following ara soma of the safety considerations of oonoarn:
Structural safety
Material strengths and factors of safety Fireproof and fire resistive structures Windstorm resistance Earthquake resistance
Fire safety
Provision and protection of exits, corri-dors, and stairs
Fire detector and alarm systems Sprinkler systems
Materials and finishes with low flame-spread rating and Nontoxic combustion characteristics
Health safety
Ventilation systems and standards Lighting standards and electrical code Plumbing fixture requirements and plumbing code
Swimming pool and locker room requirements
Special emergencies '
Emergency lighting systems
Air raid shelter and radiation protection Tornado protection and shelter
Accident protection
Nonslip surfaces (especially stairs, ramps, locker rooms, pool decks)
Vision panels, door swings and hardware. Hand rails
Safety glass in doors, sidelights
Handicapped provisions
Required accommodations at entrances in circulation provisions, toilets, and other public accommodations for use by handicapped persons.
Sensible corridor planning and location of stairs and exits to handle traffic flow without congestion will usually provide appropriate fire exit facilities. However, codes must be checked to ensure proper corridor widths, corridor lengths, and smoke barriers at suitable intervals. Stair enclosures are required for all stairs connecting more than two levels and are recommended for stairs generally. Most stairs are used for exit purposes and have detailed cods requirements which must be met such as width and ratio of tread-to-risers.
School Exits
Exits and emergency exits should be clearly marked so that at no time is there any doubt or
hesitation as to their purpose. A sign indicating the nearest exit should be visible from every point in the corridor. Two or more exits should be provided from any area within the school. Some states require two exits from each classroom.
It should be possible to open every door from the inside at all times, even after school is closed for the day.
A well-defined exit will include a lighted red exit sign and a white security light connected to an emergency power supply in the event of mein power failure.
2'- 9* ABOVE STAIR TREAO NOSING
Fig. 12
Stairway*
One of the moat critical parte of echool traffic design is the stairway, which should be located in relation to the overall traffic pattern, keeping in mind load distribution, safety, destination of students between periods, and elimination of cross traffic. The stairways should be designed for easy, feat, and safe movement of boys and girls.
Stairways not only provide egress to and from various floor levels, but they ere used every period for the vertical circulation of students changing classes. It is important that stairways be designed so that boya and girls with books undor their arms may walk side by side to avoid congestion; a width of 4 ft 8 in. to
EXTINGUISHES
Fq. 10
5 ft between handrails is recommended. Stairways should be of fireproof construction, leading directly to the outdoors. They should be provided with smoke-control facilities, separating the stairwells from the corridors which they serve.
Corridor*
A well-designed school has corridors that accommodate the free and informal movement of students. The narrow corridor usually requires formal, regimented, and supervised traffic flow.
The wails of corridors should be free of all projections. Heat units, drinking fountains, fire extinguishers, lockers, doors, and display cases should be recessed in the interest of student safety (Fig. 10).
Acoustical properties ere desirable to reduce hall noise. Corridors should be well lighted, with emergency provision in the event of main power failure. Floor covering should be durable, nonskid, and easy to maintain.
The maximum length of unbroken corridors should not exceed 150 to 200 ft. Longer sections give an undesirable perspective.
Stair Treads
Standard dimensions of stair treads and risers should bs used in schools. Odd dimensions increase the stair hazards for children as wail as adults. Wax used on classroom and corridor floors may be deposited on stair treads by students shoes. One way to reduce this hazard is to design a tread that will give traction regardless of wax application. Inserted carborundum treads have proved adequate (Fig. 11). Surface-mounted strips are unsatisfactory.
Handrail*
Handrails are necessary on both sides of stairways in accordance with the National Building Code. They should be installed with attachment brackets permanently anchored in the masonry wall (Fig. 12). Brackets anchored with lead, wood, or leather expansion bolts often result in unsafe support end considerable maintenance.
Door*
Boys and girla are not expected to use caution in opening and closing doors. The hazard of striking students with doors can be reduced by including a vision panel in the door (Fig. 13) and by recessing the door. The location of this panel should be in proportion to the varying heights of children. Use of tempered or wire glass will provide safety.
Vision panels placed next to doors allow students to see someone approaching the door from the opposite direction. These panols should be designed with opaque sections near the floor and mulllons at suitable intervals to clearly identify them as windows, not passageways.
Covered walkways to accommodate inter-building traffic should be designed to protect students end not for appearance alone. Tho roof deck should be wide and low. Provision should be made to carry off roof water. Proper outside lighting will be necessary under the roof deck.
Some current trends in school planning such as the open-plan concept depart from traditional room and corridor arrangements and raise new problems in preserving a protected route of exit from all parte of a school building. Attempts to make use of corridor areas for instruction, study, or special purposes must be carefully planned to maintain a clear traffic lane free from obataciea or disruption by movable equipment end furnishings.
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ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Kinds of Schools
corner orientation, minimum corridors, simple convertibility to open-plan clusters, efficient site utilization, and repetitive construction.
Figure 17 shows an open-plan concept of spaces for small groups arranged around large group instructional areas for three age groups in turn related to a central study-resource center. Administration and other shared spaces wrap around school court entrance area.
Figure 18 illustrates a cluster plan of divisible classrooms arranged by age groups sharing central entrance areas, relating to shared spaces, and resulting in a plan of residential scale and noninstitutional interiors.
A two-story school, a near square in plan, is shown in Fig. 19. its lower level accommodates the more fixed elements of specie! function
requiring special services. The upper floor accommodates the more typical, simpler spaces like classrooms and library and has the potential for complete flexibility around the stair and toilet cores.
In Fig. 29, there is an efficient, one-atory plan of alternating classroom clustars opening to private courtyards and connected by a main circulation aisle. Shared facilities are centered in the plan for easy public access through the largo entry court.
Figure 21s shows another special city school for ages 3 to 14 on a limited sits, thres floors, with large cornsr open-plan spacss for group instruction related to a core specs for faculty end seminar use. Rooftops of a related parking ares and a communicative arts center are used
to supplement the sites minimal play area.
Figures 21b and c show the communicative arts unit, a cantered experimental theater surrounded by art studios of adaptable, divisible space with service utilities on the inner perimeter.
Junior High Middle Schools The plan ahown in Fig. 22 was developed for a narrow city lot, and compactly radiates its parts out from s central activities court. The specialized and public-oriented facilities are all on the ground floor, while stairways at the four cornars serve the upper floors of typical classrooms that ring the courtyard.
Figure 23 is a two-story middle school with classroom/laboretory blocks related to a central resource area. All the major units are wall articulated, with stair units on the edge of or between flexible units of space. The pool is a later added unit and illustrates the ability to successfully expand such a concept. Figure 23b is the upper floor academic unit, illustrating a classic end basic grouping of classrooms around a large, shared lecture room.
High Schools Figure 24 shows it campus-type plan resolving a relatively large school into smaller elements. Classrooms era grouped around interior laboratory and lecture facilities, and the library is the academic focus; gyms and auditorium are in separate buildings of structures appropriate to their function, as are the academic elements.
Figure 25 demonstrates a basic disposition of functional elements in simple, economic blocks of spaces organizing its public and major entrances to the left, and focusing its emphasis on a pleasant circulation-flanked court to which the learning resource opens.
Again, simple large blocks of space, in Fig.
67


caucaiionai
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Kindt of Schools
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
68
x


Educational
Fig. 24
1
IOO
69


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Kinds of Schools
26, in a compact pian on a restricted city site, connected by a see-through, central, two-story unit of cafeteria, study and lobby and balcony circulation (toned area) and library at the second level. Terrain and grading of site allow academic units to exit without stair units. Form articulation develops a scale compatible to the neighborhood's apartments.
Figure 27 is a school that has been added to many times; its most recent and substantial addition enlarges it from a school for 2,400 students to 6,000 students. The plan expansion develops around courtyards and resolves itself into four subschoois, or houses, of 1,500 similar academic facilities, with shared facilities expanded to serve the total. Each "house of 1,500 has its own resource center, study, and dining facilities, as well as core classrooms giving the students a better sense of identity and scale for learning.
Vocational High Schools A typical floor pian of a high school for business instruction (Fig. 28) is located approximately in a ten-story building in a downtown location. Designed as an office building to expand vertically, it has flexible space around the core of circulation and mechanical requirements. Additional elevators can be accommodated in spaces next to the existing elevators.
Figure 29 proves that vocational schools can indeed be exciting in concept. This plan groups its major shops efficiently in two wings and slashes through a ramping diagonal connecting the changing levels of the site.
The portable or prefabricated classroom (Fig. 3C) is a good and useful idea that has developed a somewhat bad reputation. Designed to be temporary, it too seldom has been removed or replaced or refurbished. It remains, however, o good idea to serve temporary peak enrollment loads. Many such facilities are available, and their quality is improving.
70
m


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Clattroanu; Multipurpose Rooms
TABLE S Working Haights in Inches for Elementary end Secondary School Children
Item Elementary Junior high Senior high
Kindergarten Grades 1-3 Grades 4-6 Grades 7-9 Grad.a 10-12
Min. Opti- mum Max. Min. Opti- mum Max. Min. Opti- mum Max. Min. Opti- mum Max. Min. Opti- mum Max.
Cabinet, display (top) 54 56 66 74 77
Cabinet, display (bottom) 26 29 34 38 39
Cabinet, pupil use (top) 30 56 65 74 79
Chairs and bench 10 11 11 10 12 13 12 14 16 13 15 17 14 16 18
Chalkboard (top) 68 70 73 72 73 74 76 77 78 79 80 82 80 82 84
Chalkboard (bottom and chalkrail) 20 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 34 32 34 36
Counter, cafeteria 21 27 32 23 31 34 29 36 39 32 40 45 33 42 48
Counter, classroom work
(standing) 20 24 26 24 26 29 28 30 34 31 34 33 32 36 39
Counter, general office 20 27 32 24 31 34 28 36 39 31 40 45 32 42 49
Desk and tabie, classroom 17 18 19 18 20 22 21 23 25 23 26 28 24 27 29
Desk, typing 26 26
Door knob 19 27 32 24 31 35 23 36 40 30 43 46 31 42 49
Drinking fountain 20 24 27 24 27 29 28 32 34 32 36 40 32 40 44
Fire extinguisher (tank)*
Hook, coat 32 36 48 38 41 51 47 48 58 53 54 64 54 55 63
lavatory and sink 20 23 25 24 26 27 28 29 31 32 33 35 32 35 38
light switch 27 27 46 31 35 49 36 40 56 40 46 64 42 50 63
Mirror, lower edge 33 38 43 43 52
Mirror, upper edge 46 36 65 71 71
Panic bar 21 27 32 23 31 34 29 36 39 32 40 45 33 42 48
Pencil sharpener 20 27 33 23 31 35 28 36 40 32 40 46 32 42 49
Rail, hand and directional 20 21 32 24 24 34 28 29 39 31 32 45 32 33 48
Shelf, hat and books 41 48 46 51 54 58 60 64 62 63
Soap dispenser 20 27 33 23 31 35 28 36 40 32 40 46 32 42 49
Stool, drawing 19 21 26 28 29
Table, drawing 26 29 34 38 39
Tabie and bench, work (standing) 25 26 28 26 29 32 30 34 38 36 38 41 37 39 42
Tackboard (top) 72 84 72 84 72 84 72 84 72 84
Tackboard (bottom) 20 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 34 32 34 36
Telephone, wall mounted 33 37 43 48 52
Toilet stall, top of partition 44 44 32 52 61 61 67 67 69 69
Towel dispenser 23 27 46 28 31 49 33 36 56 37 40 64 37 42 68
Urinal (bottom) 3 3-15 17 3 3-17 20 4 4-18 22 4 4-19 24
Wainscotting 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 60 60 60 60 60 60
Water closet (seat) 10 10'/2 12 n W/2 12 13 13'/2 14 14 141/a 15 141/2 15 15
Window ledge 29 30 34 38 41
* Recessed at baseboard height.
good use of this area and provides counter space for plants and displays. The units may be prefabricated or custom built.
Working Heights for Students
Table 6 can be used as a general guide to accep-table working heights for elementary and junior and senior high school children. There is a large variation in the size of children within a particular classroom group and in various geographical sections of the country. The architect should obtain the modian child height in the particular community and select minimum, optimum, or maximum heights as indicated.
MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS
The layout in Fig. 59 was designed for a smo'fl high school. As the student enrollments increase and additional classrooms are built, the stage will be removed and this area converted to dining. The room is located at the main entrance to the building, with a combined corridor and lounge. The chair and table stor-ags is well pieced with direct access to the
71


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Multipurpose Rooms
service entrance. The room is opened up to the two wide corridors an arrangement that per* mits overflow seating during special assemblies or public performances. The openings can be closed with drapes when desired. The openness reduces traffic congestion and discipline problems.
This cafeteria-assembly room (Fig. 60) is opened up on two sides, with the kitchen at one end. Overflow seating is available on the corridor side. The plan provides space for an adequate program within a limited budget.
The following information and drawings are primarily concerned with large areas in school buildings which are designed and equipped for two or more group activities. The most frequently used room combinations include assembly-cafeteria, assembly-cafeteria-gymnasium, assembly-gymnasium, and a student activity area where many small learning centers may operate at one time.
Assembly-Cafeteria
The assembly-cafeteria combination is popular because the room can be designed with a pleasing environment for both eating and assembly. This type of room is also more adaptable to scheduling without limiting other phases of the educational program.
The room should be furnished with tables that can be quickly moved into e nearby storage area. A large portable folding unit containing table and benches has proved satisfactory for elementary schools. Tables that fold into the wall are also available. Many high schools prefer the smaller folding table end stacking chairs, which permit a more informal and flexible arrangement.
This type of room should have a stage, stage curtain, backdrops, and adequate lighting for dramatic presentations.
Student traffic flow in this area should be planned. Minimum cross traffic is essential during the lunch period when children are carrying food. During atudent assembly periods good circulation may reduce discipline problems.
Assembly-Cafeteria-Gymnasium
The nssembly-cafeteria-gymnasium combination can be found in schools where limited funds are available. This arrangement may seriously curtail the educational program. The time necessary to set up the cafetoria furniture, feed the children, clean the room, and remove the cafoteria furniture will consume a large portion of the school day. The remaining time available for physical and assembly activities may be insufficient for a good program. It is also difficult for the architect to design a room in which the atmosphere is conducive to dining, physical education, and assembly productions.
Assembly-Gymnasium
The assembly-gymnasium combination is a possible solution to seating the total student enrollment when a small or no auditorium is availabla. This area should be designed with a stage that can also ba used for physical activity. Storage space will ba needed for chairs, gymnasium equipment, and stage equipment. Acoustics, lighting, ventilation, end treffio flow should be adequate for assembly and physics! education. This arrangement is not considered as satisfactory ae the assembly-cafeteria combination.
Adequate chair storage is provided in this cafeteria-assembly combination (Fig. 81) for an
Fig. 58
rVi v: i__1___
!/
Fig. 59 Chapman and Letter, Architects
CORRIDOR :
SCALE SH* TTI 0 3 10 3 20
Fi$. 33 Chapman and Lnfflar, Architacti
72


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Multipurpose Rooms; Student Lockers
elementary school. Tha low display can be movsd and overflow seating is available In tha lobby corridor. Public toilets are wall placed. Tha stage has outside end inside access independent of the main room. The music room and the stagecraft area provide adequate space for school or pubiio performance preparation.
The gymnasium-assembly combination shown in Fig. 62 provides chair storage, gymnasium storage, stage, and exercise rooms. The large gymnasium has a large folding door which provides two teacher stations. The stage can be divided with a folding door to provide two more stations. Access to shower rooms is on either side of the stage, and the stage can be entered from the corridor on either side. Folding bleachers close the proscenium opening when the stage is used as exercise rooms.
STUDENT LOCKERS
Many different solutions have been developed to solve the problem of storing coats and personal belongings of students. In the elementary school, proximity to the homeroom for ease
C.R.
C.R.
C.R.
C.R.
dig r cBb?


Fig. 63 CORRIDOR
Fifl. 81 Chapman and Leffler, Architects
of teacher supervision is important. Lockers in the high school should be located for easy access between periods. Circulation in the locker areas should be sufficiently adequate (o prevent congestion, it is generally necessary to provide arrangements whereby students may lock up personal belongings and books. Most high schools also provide lockers with locks for costs. However, others have been successful in providing small security lockers and open coat racks.
Figure 63 shows one way of storing coats, boots, and small personal orticles in a four-class room unit of an elementary school. Ventilation can be provided economically. This type of open cubicle should have permanently attached coat hangers. The boot rack should be constructed of materials resistant to water and dirt.
Another way of storing coats is within a classroom (Fig. 64), where the storage area serves also for passage of pupils. The area is convenient for teacher supervision. The coat and toilet areas for ail four classrooms are located together, permitting economical utilitiee.
F!. 62
73


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Science Facilities
Plant and Animal Room
The plant and animal room ahould be located adjacent to the biology laboratory, poaaibly adjacent to a biology storeroom. Easy access to the outdoors is desirable.
Southern exposure is desirable. This area should be arranged like a greenhouse, with sanitary finishes and a concrete floor with drain so that the room can be hosed down. In addition to sunlight, the plant room will require special ventilation and heating so that it does not get cold overnight. Special heating, thermostatically controlled and separate from other parts of the building, should ensure even heating during weekends and holiday periods.
Equipment includes table and racks for plants; growing beds on wheeled tables; animal cages; feeding trays; storage for food, tools, equipment; sink with hot and cold water; hose; pails; hand garden tools; bins for loam, sand, and peat moss.
Chemistry Laboratories
Chemistry laboratories should be readily accessible from individual research and prepara-
tion rooms (see Fig. 75). Laboratory activities include demonstrations, individual and group study and experimentation, writing, viewing projected materials, and lectures.
At a comfortable height thore should be student stations for 24 students, consisting of tables with large free working area and alt services available: ac and do variable voltage should be provided. The front wait should be equipped for its entire length with a chalkboard, the center section of which should be raisabie. There shouid be a display rail over all but the raisabie section of board. On the back wall above the wainscoting level, there should be some corkboard and pegboard with hardware. A fume hood, accessible from three sides, shouid be provided.
One end of the room should contain the teechers desk and a demonstration area with a 5-in.-high dais for demonstration. Demonstration table should have a stone top, spotlight lighting, and a roil-away extension. Ail services should be provided for the demonstration, including variable ac and dc voltage. Sound cable should be installed in the floor for projection purposes. Provision should be mads for dark-aning the room.
Special attention should be given to the furniture for this space. As a minimum, it should be acid- and base-resistant and easy to wash and clean. It should include tablet armchairs; teachers combination wardrobe and closet; acid-proof sinks with dilution tank; storage for chemical supplies; storage space in laboratory tables; normal chemistry laboratory equipment for semi-micro techniques; salt and solution cabinets; thraa rolling tables to service tables; standard raagont storage area; locked cupboards for delicat# instruments and dangerous chemicals; firs extinguishara and first-aid kits; storage for notebooks and aprons; experiment-sheet filing cabinet; charts and models; projection scroen.
Physics Laboratories
Physics laboratories are used for lectures, demonstrations, viewing projected material, individual and group study, writing, individual and group experimentation (see Fig. 76).
Around the room on three sides at a comfortable height (higher than the ordinary table) should be a work station for each student,
Fig. 76 ?'
74


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Science Facilities
consisting of s table with a large free working area and all services available; ao and do variable voltage should be provided to all stations; voltage should be supplied by several portable voltage-regulating units. Sinks should be available. Some attention should be given to permanent or semipermanent laboratory stands for rigging equipment.
One end of the room should contain the teacher's desk and a demonstration area with a 5-in.-high dais for the demonstration table. The demonstration table should have a stone top, spotlight lighting, and a roll-away extension. All services should be available. Down-draft ventilator is suggested, but it should be positioned so as to give as much unobstructed broad area on table surface as possible. It should not be centrally placed. Tablet armchairs should be placed in front of the demonstration desk.
The room should have as much chalkboard space as possible, since chalkboard work with problems constitutes a considerable part of class time. Ample corkboard space and some pegboard with hardware are needed.
Attention should be given to darkening the room properly. This is important for the projection of movies and slides, as well as for demonstrations that require a darkened room, and for some laboratory work such as photometry. Sound cable should be installed for projection purposes and antenna facilities for television and radio reception. There should be central control of lighting.
Doors should open into the front of the laboratory. An open-joist ceiling has the advantage of permitting hanging of apparatus. A ceiling hook capable of holding a ^-ton load should be provided.
One of the main problems for the physics area will be provision of adequate storage space for a vast amount of demonstration equipment and specialized scientific apparatus. Storage space with glass doors for visibility, bookshelves for a reference library, and a cabinet for notebooks should be provided.
Preparation and Storage Rooms for Chemistry and Physics Laboratories
Preparation and storage rooms should be adjacent to laboratories, with a door leading to corridor and laboratory. They are used for teacher preparation, storage of bulk supplies, and conferences.
The area should be lined with storage spaces for materials and equipment of various sizes (in chemistry, glass tubing, long items, tall items). All shelves should have lips to prevent slippage, and should be built so that tha fioor supports the weight, unless the storage area ia small and specifically designated for light items.
Chemistry Open shelving of cabinets is favored for storage of bulk chemicals. Special transite-lined volatile closets vented to the outside for volatile reagents, acids, and alkalies should be provided, along with provisions for the teacher's records and professional books. The room should be outfitted with sink and gas and electric outlets. It should also have storage provision for ail equipment, a preparation table large enough for six analytical balances, adequate work space for preparation, special storage for cherts so that they are kept flat, not rolled, desks and chairs, preparation table on wheels, ladders with rail, and a bookcase.
Physics A storage bin mode up of many small drawers measuring approximately 4 by 4 in. for efficient storage of small items of equipment is suggested. Electric outlets similar to those provided in demonstration table, as well as plentiful 110-V oc outlets, and adequate lighting should be provided, as well as ladders with rail to reach stored items, ar.d a workbench and sink with drainboard along one side, to repair and set up equipment. The bench should be rugged enough to take considerable hammering.
Individual Research and Project Rooms for Chemistry and Physics
Research and project rooms should be adjacent to chemistry and physics laboratories and separated from them by half-glass partitions. They are used for individual and small group study and experimentation, instruction, and research. (See Fig. 89)
Science Shop
The science shop and the darkroom may be built as a unit and placed back to back between the corridor and the window side. The project room should be located on the window side and have a door opening into a laboratory. A glass wall will enable the teacher to keep the area under observation.
The science shop is used for individual work in making and rapairing instruments and equipment.
It should have a workbench and sink along one side of the room. The bench, for repair and setting up of equipment, should be rugged enough for metalworking.
The furniture and equipment should include equipment drawers, work counter, drill press, small metalworking lathe, some storage shelves for reference books, tool storage, sink, and ample space for electrical equipment. Electric outlets similar to those provided in the demonstration desk should be available, as well as 110-V ac outlets.
Darkroom
The darkroom could be placed back to back with the science shop and located on the corridor side with the door opening into the corridor.
It is used for developing film and the storage of darkroom materials and reagents, mounting equipment, and the like.
A vestibule and two-door entrance will prevent light from entering. The area could be divided into a small room near the entrance for weighing and mixing chemicals and a larger room toward the rear for developing and printing.
A counter should be constructed along three sides of the room, 34 to 36 in. high and 24 in. wide. There should be a large chemical-resistant open sink, 24 by 30 in. and 18 in. doop; and a wet bench, attached at either end, draining into the sink. The sink must have both hot and cold water. Stainless-steel surfaces are recommended; finishes must be easily cleaned and stain-resistant.
Shelves 12 in. apart and 10 in. deep shouid be constructed above the counter. Storage in standard darkroom style should provide tray and chemical storage as well as shelves for dry stock. Since the room will be used for dry work, such as spectroscopy, provision
should be made for sit-down as weil as stand-up dry work. Walls should ba finished a flat green for eye ease. Serious attention must ba given to ensure adequate ventilation of this room.
Furniture and equipment will include retouching table; developing; enlarging, and printing equipment; dryer; print washer; trays; paper cutter; hot plate; safe lights; timer; fire extinguisher; clock.
At least four double electric outlets are needed at tha counter. There must be sufficient plugs for all appliances, conveniently placed near all work positions.
AUXILIARY SCIENCE FACILITIES
Special science facilities like animal rooms, greenhouses, vivariums, and planetariums are not axclusivaiy part of large science complexes. Sometimes a given instructor will have
CORRIDOR
M0V&3LE 0NE-5TL0ENT TABLES
EARTH SCIENCE, GENERAL SCIENCE. PHYSICAL
SCIENCE
e STUOENT STATION 3 SINK
Fig. 77
C0RRI00R
MOVABLE TWG-STUCENT A6LES BIOLOGY, P:-IYSiCS. EARTH-PHYSICAL ft GENERAL SC'ENCES
Fig. 78
75


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Science Facilities
CORRIDOR
Fig. 79
CORRIDOR
PENINSULAR CABLES- J SIDES OPPOSITE, FLEXIBLE SEATING
CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS, BIOLOGY, EARTH SCIENCES
PENINSULAR TABLES* 3 SIDES LONG AXIS, STEPPED FIXED SEATS
CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS. BIOLOGY, EARTH SCIENCES
Fig. 84
Fig. 85
PREP. B
STOR. VIVARIUM
FIXED LINEAR TABLES* IN-LINE ARRANGEMENT RlOi.OGY, CHEMISTRY
Fig. 80
PENINSULAR TABLES'. CENTER GROUPING, FLEXIBLE SEATING
CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY
Fig. 86
CORRIDOR
FIXED LINEAR TABLES'. GROUPED ARRANGEMENT BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY, EARTm-GENERAC-PHYSiCAl SCIENCES
Fig. 81
PENINSULAR TABLES* 3 SiOES, FLEXIBLE PHYSICS
LABORATORY LECTURE SEATING
CHEMISTRY. PHYSICS, BIOLOGY, EARTH SCIENCES
Fig. 82
PENINSULAR TABLES- 2 SIDES, ADJUSTABLE,
FLEXIBLE LECTURE SEATING
CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS, BIOLOGY, EARTH SCIENCES
CORRIDOR
CORRIDOR
FREE-STANDING POD TABLES: SEPARATE LECTURE AREA *
CHEM., PHYS., BIO., EARTH SCI.
I !
Fig. 83
Fig. 88
76
m


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Sclents Facilities

U L> Li U U Li (j U CHEMISTRY
PHYSICS
U ti b k> k> h t>
TLTLTUJ
Fig. 32
wm
LiCjLi 3> j
UUUi-.l
fjLi L) t iti ti C_> Ci *j j Lj GREENHOUSE L
-[ttaoiffiiT
u BrntD-Dira
CHEMISTRY UU U UU Co
UUUUi_i u
Co (_> C_ Co Cj Co UUUUUU Co Co Co Co Co Co
7 t; : J! Im : -
11 si 1st| < si
CHEMISTRY rsft 'iim
r% *- >~9 -* m n *-i in rm -*-)
rn^r
Ptf\P;SX n -n n fi
s_s----a .. rr_i
Fig. 83
III I
0>O tQ
CORRIDOR
3'I ~!
,vVV
, j*
.* .* -
i INSTRUMENT
CONTROL (ft e >
\ e
>
0 :
DEMO.
DtMU./
'
. VV* % > % V *
WORK
a STOR.
v\',
.DOME PERIM.-t
r/
PROJECTION
JCZZ
I i I
Fig. 91
77
PLAN
Fb. S4


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Arts; Music Facilities
Displaying art work itself becomes a creative and practical challenge. Ample tack surface should be available on the wall. Display devices can be hung from the ceiling, developed as free-standing kiosks, or used in other constructions, oven in front of windows to set ceramic pieces on. The art room should be an exciting place to be and to work, amid work that has been done to encourage comparison and increasing quality. Finishes should be practical and spartan, for it is a laboratory to work in with freedom to explore and, if necessary, to be messy.
Arts and Crafts Rooms
Arts and crafts rooms should be located near auditorium stage, stagecraft area, homemaking, industrial arts, dramatic, and music rooms. Location should facilitate delivery of supplies. They should have an outside door, for use when holding classes outdoors, and good natural lighting.
The space should be arranged with sufficient imagination so that it is flexible and allows the teacher to vary the curriculum from year to year. The program involves the use of a number of media. Rooms, therofore, should be conceived of as a series of work centers in which activities with different kinds of materials can be carried forward. Thera is much need for display space for finished work. Weils should be of material that will receive thumbtacks, to eliminate the need for broken-up wail panels and bulletin board. Avoid breaking up wail spaces uneconomically; keep display areas large and simple. Phones, light switches, thermostats, and other necessory electric outlets should be placed where they are accessible but do not interfere with otherwise usable display spaces. Windows should provide adequate light and be high enough for storage and counter space underneath.
Ceilings and/or walls should be acoustically
treated. It is preferable to have a vinyl asbestos floor in the general art area; in the ceramics area terrazzo or hardened concrete floor is suggested. Finishes should bo easily washed and maintained, and resistant to oils and heat. A chalkboard should be placed where it can be seen easily but where it will not produce reflections or shine. It could be incorporated in a cabinet of vertical sliding balanced sections to include two chalkboards, one corkboard, and one projection screen. A bulletin board and opaque drapes or light-tight Venetian blinds for darkening the room are also necessary.
Suitable lighting is needed to ensure effective color rendering on dark days and in the evening. Semi-indirect lighting with daylight bulbs is recommended. If the room is located on the ground floor, it will need protection against ground glare in lower sash of windows. Double sinks with hot and cold water; drinking fountain outlet; gas outlets; enough electric outlets around room for projectors and spotlights; and heating by ceiling or floor radiation to save floor and wall space, or at least a minimum allocation of space to this utility, are also recommended.
Room for bulk storage and storage of papors. Illustrative materials, models, cardboard, finished and unfinished projects will have to be supplied. Tho area will require much protection against fire. Shelving, suspension facilities, and bins should bo arranged for greet flexibility.
MUSIC FACILITIES
The music program is usually divided into four parts: instrumental activities; choral activities; classes in music theory, music appreciation, and voice; and correlated activities, such as drama and opera projects. Good traffic circulation is essential. Instrument storage area should be planned so that students can
circulate easily to collect their instruments, attend class, and return instruments for storage. It should be convenient to move large instruments to buses, stage, and playing field.
The size, shape, and construction material are important factors to consider in planning and designing music facilities for tho best sound control possible. The architect should aim for rooms that have optimum reverberation time, even distribution of sound, and freedom from undesirable absorption at certain pitches Nevertheless, the reverberation period must not be reduced below the point mandatory fot correct brilliance of tone. Nonparallel wailr or splayed walls and ceilings should be considered; soundproof walls and doors are desirable. Acoustic ceilings and walls should be carefully designed to ensure satisfactory conditions within each room. Storage areas should serve as sound-transmission buffer areas to keep interference between music rooms at a minimum. It is recommended that a competent sound engineer be consulted in preliminary planning stages.
Music Classroom
The music classroom should be part of the music suite and readily accessible to corridor and office (see Fig. 107).
It is used for class instruction, choral work, and as a dressing room for large groups.
It should have sound-tight doors, natural lighting, lavatory, and a dressing table. A chalkboard ruled for music, bulletin board, piano, and tablet armchairs will be needed.
Provision should be made for projection, television, and a high-fidelity sound system.
Choral Room
The choral room should be near the rear of the auditorium stage so that choral groups can move easily onto stage for performances.
Fig. 99
CCRRIOOR
CORRIDOR
Fig. tot
CORRIDOR
113 I
O 3 to 20
78


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Food Service; Physical Education: Gymnasiums

-qp-
a n a -a .a n u a :o 'a.
n .-a n a tj o U -o H n ttao^ Dq:n agParr J
e=>io
i
CAFETERIA
:fi: 33 £t H r=fASH tt .a :q:
n u tr :o. a o-
reag
i i i
0 5 10
I
20
Fig. 140 Seating arrangement.
cal item. Food odors are best controlled by bringing air into the dining room and exhaust* ing it through the kitchen at 30 air changes per hour minimum. In the kitchen itself, 30 to 60 air changes are desirable.
Space and how its used, though, ia the key. A good guide ia to allow 12 to 15 aq ft per seat in planning the dining space. Smaller tables will use more space, but will encourage more quiet conversation. The small table for four persona, which makes moat of floor space and yields the moat elbow apace when standard trays are placed on its top ia 30 X 48 in. Four standard 14 X 18 in. trays will not fit on a 36 in. sq table. Mixing round tables with rectangular ones relieves the monotony of the repetitious, institutional look. Manufacturers provide tables which are 29 in. and 24 in. high for the younger children. All kinds of table and seating types folding, jockknifing, folding into walls, stacking allow for countless arrangements and flexibility.
To review briefly, in planning for food service, the simple objectives are getting the food to the student, getting the students to the food, and providing on enjoyable dining atmosphere.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION Gymnasiums
In this keep-fit, diet-craze, body-bent, sports-minded age, physical education programs have gained a new focus, and top-notch facilities are getting built, from multipurpose 40 X 60 ft rooms in the elementary grades to muiti-gyma and specialty spaces in the large high schools. The basketball court is the common denominator of the gymnasium plan, overlapped by other court layouts and enlarged for other uses including spectator seating.
Making up the right kind of environment are the factors diagrammed below. Places to play well in should be well designed in ail ways, more than super-space boxes. The gymnasium, the whole physical education unit, is most always a place for other performance use, and so its internal planning relationships must serve its everyday use, but its public use sets other demands for its relation in the total plan. Its great volume begs other considerations for separate, special ventilating systems, structural systems, and related massing concerns of its exterior (see Fig. 141).
The gymnasium complex in Fig. 142 shows several relative points: direct relation to parking and playfielda, public lobby spaco and rest rooms, double-decking of locker facilities and auxiliary, or balcony, gym space equating to the height of the main gym, boys" and girls'* gyms divided by a folding partition
TABLE 9 Recommsnried Dimension* in feet for Gymnasiums
School w L W|* L|* Seats
Small elementary 36 52
Large elementary 62 72
Junior high school* 65 86 42 74 400
Small senior high schoolt 79 96 50 84 700
large senior high schoolf 100 104 50 84 1,500
opening to allow the total space for exhibition game use, with bloachers folding out and down from the balcony gyms, and the whole volume given better scale and character inside and out with beams and undulating angular roof/ceiling treatment.
Table 9 gives recommended dimensions for various gymnasium sizes.
The basic relationship of elements nmi planning fundamentals for a gymnasium are shown in Figs. 143 to 147. In the typical school the staff for boys and girls have a working relationship to each other and a responsibility for instructional supervision to both the gymnasium and locker spaces, as well as a preferred, aa-direct-aa-possible relationship to the total school, or corridor entry. The staff offices are, in effect, control centers. The locker rooms should be so located and planned to allow direct access to the outdoor playfiaids as well aa to the gym.
Expansion potential should always be considered, and the physical education parts should not be "locked" into other plan elements. As enrollment increases, oft-times added practice gyms or auxiliary spaces like wrestling rooms, a pool, or more locker space may be needed-
The gymnasium itself develops from many functional and prescribed requirements as are noted on Fig. 143.
Figure 148 illustrates a field house complex, with large balcony gyms (above the locker areas) flanking the main exhibition gym. Spectator seating is accommodated by folding/roll-ing bloachers at both levels. Those at the main floor level can be folded back against the locker room wail to allow more usable space in the main gym and those on the balcony can be rolled and folded back, or could be detailed to fold up to form a wall between the balcony and main gym spaces.
J~ lrz n £ V
j U >i L_ m 4

W, and L, are dimensions of basketball court. t Use folding partition.
79


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Phyeical Education: Gymnatiumt

Fig. 142 Physical education unit, Newark High School, Newark, Ohio.
A. ACCESS FROM LOCKER ROOMS
8. 5' MIN. DIMENSIONS RECOMMENDED-FACE OF BLEACHER OR WALL FROM END OR SIDE LINE OF COURT.
C. FOLDING BLEACHERS EXTENDED. VARIES DEPENDING ON REQUIREMENTS. FOR BEST SPECTATOR VIEW, RESTRICT BLEACHER LENGTH TO FACE-TO-FACE DIMENSION OF BACKBOARDS.
D. 6' MIN. -10RECOMMENDED.
E. SCORERS' TABLE-MAY BE LOCATED IN BLEACHERS. PROVIDE ELECTRICAL OUTLETS, MICROPHONE JACK, AND SCOREBOARD CONTROLS.
F. COURT SIZE: JR. HIGH-42 X 74, HIGH SCHOOL-50 X 84. SOME HIGH SCHOOLS USE COLLEGE SIZE COURT, 50 X 94. FOR VARSITY TOURNAMENT COURT.
G. HIGH SCHOOL BACKBOARD, GLASS OR METAL, 54" FANSHAPED (PER 1969-1970 N.F S.H.S.A.A. RULES) KEEP WALLS BEHIND BACKBOARDS FREE OF DOORS AND OBSTRUCTIONS.
H. EGRESS TO PLAYING FIELDS.
I. lO-RECOMMENDED CLEARANCE FOR TOURNAMENT COURT.
J. ACCESS FOR SPECTATORS. LOCATE TO MIN. TRAFFIC ON GYM FLOOR. (POSSIBLE USE OF CARPET RUNNERS.)
K. PRACTICE COURTS. MAY BE SHORTER AND MORE NARROW THAN STANDARD COURT.
L. STRUCTURE HUNG WO. FOLD. PART. HORIZONTAL PULL OR VERTICAL ROLL NET CURTAIN WITH CANVAS BOTTOM VISUAL BARRIER MAY BE USED.
M. SPAN-ACROSS SEATS (UP TO 6) TO ACCOMMODATE FOLD. PART. OPENING.
till i
O 5 10 20 40
Fig. 143 Divided gym, leafing one side. (Two teaching stations.)
80
aa


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Physical Education: Gymnasiums, Locker Rooms
OUTDOOR
EQUIPMENT
STORAGE
INDOOR
-EQUIPMENT
STORAGE
TOWEL AND UNIFORM STORAGE
CHAIR \ INDOOR 'storage ^EQUIPMENT STORAGE
OUTDOOR
EQUIPMENT
STORAGE
Fig. 150
Unless the increasingly seldom used system of central basket storage is utilized for clothing storage, the number end ratio of gymsuit to street clothes lockers are determined by the formula
T X N/P S
where T number of students to be enrolled /V = number of times/week student in course
P number of periods/week that physical education is given (hours/ day X days/week)
5 number of street clothes (dressing) lockers required
T also then represents the gymsuit lockers needed, and 7/5 = R, or the ratio of gymsuit versus street clothes lockers, varying as shown in Figs. 151 and 152 and determining the total space required for lockers.
The standard type of full-length locker should be set on a masonry base to facilitate cleaning. The unit should be complete with two top shelves, ventilating grilles, and four hooks for hanging clothes. Some type of locking device should be furnished.
Wire baskets may be used in place of the small lockers for the storage of gym clothes. Although in some cases the baskets have been mounted in a fixed position, it is more desirable to place them on trucks which can be locked in a well-ventilated storage space. The basket system is generally more difficult to manage than the iocker system.
A common arrangement is to provide one large drossing locker, togethor with six storage lockers. This permits the student to have a large locker in which to hang his street clothes and also provides him with a small locker for the storage of gym clothes.
Figures 153 through 157 show various shower arrangements and dimonsions for group showering. Additionally, it is still common practice to provide some private showers for special demand usage. As the illustrations indicate, there is a trend to prefabricated plumbing arrangements wherein the plumbing is not built into the walls, reducing its installation and repair costs. It is also quite common to equip the facility with preset temperature valves or graduated saltings in walk-through showers. Figure 158 shows the height range for shower heads.
The arrangements shown here are for a 500-student junior high school boys' locker room (Fig. 159) with center benches, a 1,500-student high school girls' locker room (Fig. 160), and the boys' and team locker room (Fig. 161) with benchea integral with the locker bases. Note the inclusion of two private showers in the girls' locker room, the supervisory location (and windows) of the office in both areas, the walk-through showers in the one, and showers and drying areas in the other.
Figure 162 shows a very compact, well-organized complex of team locker bays, permitting unused bays to be locked with sliding gates while providing good access from the opened bays to the shower facilities. Figures 163 and 164 show various details and arrangements providing for uniform drying and storage.
COMBINED WIDER AISLE AND DRESSING AREA
SEAT FOR EACH LOCKER BANKLESS CONGESTION
SEAT PROVIDES AISLE PROTECTION FROM DOOR SWING
POSITIVE THROUGH -LOCKER VENTILATION (SEE DETAIL SKETCH)
ECONOMICAL USE OF FLOOR AREA
Fig. 151
COMBINED AISLE AND DRESSING AREA-CONGESTED
SINGLE SEAT FOR TWO BANKS OF LOCKERS
.UNPROTECTED LOCKER DOORS IN AISLE PRESENT HAZARD
BOTTOM GYMSUIT LOCKER INCONVENIENT
ECONOMICAL USE OF FLOOR AREA
CENTER TRAFFIC AISLE NO CONFLICT WITH DRESSING AREA
BENCH FOR EACH LOCKER BANK
LOCKER DOORS LESS HAZARDOUS THAN (b)
BOTTOM GYMSUIT LOCKER INCONVENIENT
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA REQUIRED
81


Educational
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Physical Education: Locker Rooms
3-2" MAX.
M---------------
2'-8 MIN.
(a) 12" X 12* *'
X60_____12" X 12" X 20"
9" X 12" X 20"
X72"____12" X 12" X 24 *
9" X 12" X 24" RATIO: 6 TO 1
REQUIRES MOST FLOOR AREA PER RATIO UNIT
HIGHEST INITIAL COST
AFFORDS GREATEST HANGING DIMENSION IN GYM SUIT LOCKER FOR GOOD VENTILATION AND DRYING OF GYM SUITS.
SEE SKETCH DETAIL OF POSITIVE VENTILATION THROUGH LOCKERS
(b) 12" X 12"
X60"_____12" X 12" X 30"
9" X 12" X 30"
X72"_____12" X 12" X 36"
9" X 12"X 36" RATIO: 6 TO 1
ECONOMICAL USE OF FLOOR AREA BETWEEN (a) AND GOOD VENTILATION-SINCE HANGING OF GYM SUITS POSSIBLE
(c) 12" X 12"
X60"_____12" X 12" X 12"
RATIO: 5 TO 1
X72_____12" X 12" X 12"
12" X 12" X 142/5
RATIO: 6 TO 1
5 TO 1
REQUIRES LEAST FLOOR SPACE PER RATIO UNIT
POOR VENTILATION AND DRYING OF GYM SUITS-NO HANGING POSSIBLE
(d) 12" X 12"
X72"_____12" X 13" X 3"
9" X 13" X 8" RATIO: 14 TO 1
LEAST INITIAL COST
OPEN SASKET PROVIOES SETTER VENTILATION THAN (c). NOT AS GOOD AS (a) AND (b)
REMOVABLE BASKETS MORE SUBJECT TO DAMAGE -MAINTENANCE PROBLEM
NOTE: OTHER WIDTHS, DEPTHS AND COMBINATIONS ARE AVAILABLE: THESE SHOWN ARE REPRESENTATIVE.
Fig. 152
8'-o"
MIN.
Fig. 15S Prepiped package showers (span-actoss); 12.2 sq ft per head.
Fig. 154 Prepiped package showers (wall-ir.ourrted): 14i sq ft per bead.
Fig. 158 Column showars. (Available ia 4, 5, Of 8 heads per coJutna; 12.8 sq ft per head at 5.)
82


BIBLIOGRAPHY
83


American Association of School Administrators, Commission on open space schools. Open Space Schools. 1201 16th St. Northwest Washington D.C. 20036.
American Association of School Administrators, School-Building Commission. Planning America's School Buildings Report. A.A.S.A., Washington, D.C., I960.
American Society of Landscape Architects Foundation. Site Development Goals for City Schools. Edu. Faci. Lab. N.Y., 1973.
Bernard Henry. Practical Illustrations of the Principles of School Arch. Research Pub. Woodbridge, Conn., 1973.
Bernard Henry. School House Architecture. Research Pub., Woodbridge, Conn., 1973.
Castaldi Basil. Creative Planning of Educational Facilities. Rand McNalley & Co., Chicago, 1969.
Caudill, Wiliiam Wayne. Toward Better School Design. Dodge Corp., N.Y., 1959
Colo. Dept, of Educa. The Summit Schools, I960.
Council of Educ. Facility Planners. Guide for Planning Educational Facilities. Columbus, Ohio, 1969.
Engehardt Nickolaus, Louis. Complete Guide for Planning New Schools. Parker Pub., West Nyack, N.Y., 1970
Eveleth, Samuel F. School House Architecture. Research Pub. Woodbridge, Conn., 1973.


13) Eveleth, Samuel F. School House Architecture. Research
Pub. Woodbridge, Conn., 1973.
14) Eveleth Samuel F. Victorian School House Arch. American
Life Foundation, N.Y. 1978
15) Envi. Design Research Assoc. Sumbolic Aesthetics in
Architecture: Toward a Research Agenda. Envir. Design. Re. Assoc. 1982, No. 13, 172-182.
16) Ferrer Terry. The Schools and Urban Renewal, a Case
Study from New Haven. Educational Facilities Lab., 1964.
17) Findlay Robert A. & Field Kenneth F. Functional Roles of
Visual Complexity in User Perception of Architecture.
Environmental Design Research Association, i 982, No. 13, 145-153.
18) Gardner Eugene Clarence. Town & Country School Buildings. Research Pub. Woodbridge, Conn., 1973)
19) Gibson Charles D. & Eatough Clair L. California School Buildings 1960-1965, Buearu of School Planning, California, 1965.
20) Great Britain Dept. of Education and Science. New
Problems in School Design. Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London, June 1968.
21) Great Britain Dept. of Education and Science. New
Problems in School Design. H.M.S., London, 1967
22) Griffin, Charles William. Systems, An Approach to School
Construction. Educ. Facilities Lab., N.Y., 1971
85


Change and Architectural
23) Gross Ronald. Educational
Consequences. Educ. Facilities Lab., N.Y., 1968.
24) Herrick John Henry et al. From School Program to School Plant. Holt, N.Y., 1956
25) Heyman Mark. Places and Spaces: Environmental Psychology in Education. Phi Delta Kappa Educ. Foundation, Bloomington, Indiana, 1978
26) Inland Steel Products Company; Modular Systems Division. School Construction Cost Comparison Study. Inland Steel Product Co. Milwaukee, Wis., 1980
27) Institute of Advanced Arch. Studies, University of York. A Right to be Children. RIBA Publications Limited, London, 1976
28) Irving, Wendy cunningham. Evans School: Integrating the Old and New. Master Thesis, UCD, 1982
29) Johonnot James. School Houses. Research Pub.,
Woodbridge, Conn., 1973
30) Kohn, Sherwood Davidson. The Early Learning Center,
Stamford, Conn.
31) Levi Daniel et al. The Experience of Environmental
Quality, A Journey into Remembrance. Env. Design Research Association, 1981, No. 12, 18-23
32) McQuade Walter. School House. Simon & Schuster, N.Y., (no year)
33) Morisseau, James J. The New Schools. Van-Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y., 1972
86


34) Noschis Jaj. Architects and Psychology: Notes on a
Diachronic Psychology. Architecture & Compartment, 1980-81 (October), Vol. I (2), 149-164
35) Osmon, Fred Linn. Patterns for Designing childrens
Center. Edu. Faci. Lab., N.Y., 1971
36) Pearson Eric. Trends in School Design. Citation Press,
N.Y., 1972
37) Randall Gurdon P. How to Build School Houses. Research
Pub., Woodbridge, Conn., 1973
38) Robson Eduard Robert. School Architecture. Leicester
Univ. Press, N.Y., 1973
39) Rogers Nagel. Planning and Design Concept for Peck
Elementary School. Rogers/Nagel, Denver, 1965
40) Rogers, Nagel, Langhart Architects. Schematic Design
and Design Development for an Addition to Green Mountain Elementary School. Rogers, Nagel, Langhast, Denver, 1966
41) Roth Alfred. The New Schoolhouse. Praeger, N.Y., 1966
42) Stanford University, School Planning Lab. British Pre-
fabricated School Construction. School Planning Lab., Stanford Univ., California, 1962-67
43) Stanford University, School Planning Lab., Trends in
School Planning. Stanford, Calif., 1955
44) Testa Carlo, New Educational Facilities: An International Survey. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo., 1975
87


45) Utzinger Robert C. Some European Nursery Schools and
Playgrounds. Arch. Research Lab., Univ. of Michigan, Ann-Arbor, Mich., 1970
46) Waechter, Heinrich Hormuth, Schools for the Very Young
F. W. Dodge Corp., N.Y., 1951
47) Walker Brad A. Rangeview High School. Master Thesis,
U.C.D., 1981
48) Ward Colin editor. British School Buildings, Design and
Appraisals, 1954-74
48) The Arch. Press Ltd., London, 1976
49) Wineman Jean D. Color in Environmental Design: its
Impact on Human Behavior. E.D. Research Assoc., 1979,
No. 10, 436-439
88


68

X I a N 3 d d V


DESIGN
S 0 L U T ION


CONCLUSIONS


I would like to mention a few issues that were of great
importance in the design solution.
1) Dealing with the duality of an inevitable large building that has to address itself to a small scale neighborhood and to a ch i I d.
2) Maximum use of daylight inside the building.
3) The need for one large playground.
4) The program which asked for clear passageway and the need
to give a child spaces that are solely his to identify with.
From the beginning it was obvious that the building could not be cut into smaller areas due to two reasons:
1) The site was too small for such a solution to leave enough
space for one large schoolyard.
2) Dispersing of few small buildings would have meant very
iong passageways contrary to what the program desired (see special requirements chapter).
It was concluded that a two-story L-shaped building would be most favorable since it would give access to daylight from both sides, as well as provide a shelter to the playground from northwesterly wind.
The building sits on the northwestern corner of the site. The parking, separated from it along the east edge, bordering the commercial area. The large mass of the gymnasium was designed at the eastern edge of the L-shape. This answered several desirable considerations: At that location its size does not offend the neighborhood, it has a straight connection to the play-
ground, and last, its location in relation to the main entry
created a cei lebratior.a 1 procession of times when it functions as
an auditorium.


The lower side of the L-shape was dedicated to classrooms on both floors. This made every classroom accessible to full daylight in addition to having straight sun rays coming in through the windows.. (A play of sun rays on the oak classroom floors
and on pastel painted walls in part of the day was most desired by the designer.)
The large indoor playroom was designed to have direct access to the outside playground and to sunlight (it is facing southeast).
It is protected in the summer by two existing deciduous trees. It is also close to the library (and to classrooms on the other
side) so as to answer the need to express the dual function of a school (play and learning) as well as to function properly in after school activities. (At which time 2-4 adults supervise a large group of children whose individuals may choose to do homework, read or play).
Another consideration, which came up later and became important in the design solution, was the following: It was felt that
schools are usually deserted buildings in the evenings and there exist some functions in them that can be utilized at that time for other users; namely the gymnasium and the library. It was decided at that point to use the gymnasium for aerobic class, etc. in the evening and to open the library to use by the nei ghborhood.
To accomplish this, four gates divide the school inside (see plans) so that the library has an entry from the street and can function independently with a set of restrooms. The same applies to the gym, that has an entry from the parking through the playground and can function independently with its locker rooms.
And so as it is the school can function as a whole or as three different buildings while still maintaining integrity in its plan and providing a clear passage way for those very young ch iIdren.


I feel that the building's plan is successful, and having a lot for playful arrangements. I building's elevations successful in the way mass and relate to the neighborhood. Alas, I breaking the somewhat rigid appearance by element of surprise or more play in the edges the L-shape).
being both clear also consider the they cut the big would reconsider introducing an (i.e. both ends of


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^ MAN-MADE FILL, CLAY, sandy, pieces of Brick and Concrete, medium moist to moist, erratic moisture and compaction 7/j CLAY, very silty to SILT, clayey, medium stiff to stiff, moist to very moist, iron stains, gray brown (CL)
SAND, some clay lenses, loose to medium dense, medium moist, light brown to white (SP-SW)
SAND, fine grained, loose, moist, brown (SP)
SAND, silty with occasional gravel, loose to medium dense, medium moist, brown (SM)
SAND and GRAVEL, medium dense to dense, moist to wet, some iron staining, brown to white (SP-GP)
s \

SAND and GRAVEL, clayey, medium dense, moist, brown (SC-GC)
7 SAND, very silty to SILT, sandy, stiff, moist, brown (SM-ML)
CLAYSTONE BEDROCK, hard to very hard, moist, brown.
SHALE BEDROCK, (Denver Formation), very stiff, very hard, some lense of sandstone, medium moist, dark gray === Indicates water table at time of drilling.
Indicates depth at which hole was plugged 6 days after drilling.
NOTES
1. Test holes were drilled on May 5, 1981, with a 4 inch diameter, continuous flight auger.
2. (10/12) location of Standard Penetration Test; indicates that 10 blows with a 140 pound hammer, falling 30 inches, were ^nnnivn^ +r> H>iuo a ? inrh Hianiptpr <;amnlpr 1? inches.


MACKINTOSH
ACADEMY.
ALIA ZUNGER,
U.C.D, SPRING, 1SB4.