kilowztlt rca..; . c!cmztnd rCitc and tr1c untt-rr•et: conscrvCJtron r.'d<] rs:! I . -------------------------

PAGE 146

regional variation in cost and availability of different wood types, proximity to wood supply, and amount of personal time invested. Table II contains a brief list of the woods most common to Colorado. Those residences located in the mountains with easy access to legal firewood areas can drastically reduce their overall heat costs. This is dependent upon the amount of time the owner i s willing to invest in cutting, hauling, and chopping. In making a fair comparison between heating systems, one must look not only at end-use costs, but also at the largerscale costs of energy production. There is a significant amount of energy lost in some of the conversion processes, and the end-use costs therefore illustrate only a portion of the overall picture. The discrepancy is created by a failure to match enduse needs with appropriate forms of energy generation. This is explained clearly in Amory Lovins' book, "Soft Energy Paths" " A fundamental physical insight we have gained about the energy system, then, is to distinguish primary from end-use energy, and hence to focus on the conversion a nd distribution losses that rob us of much delivered end-use energy. These losses can be virtually eliminated by determining how much of what kind of energy is needed to do the task for which the energy is desired, and then supplying exactly that kind. This enduse orientation leads to almost the reverse of conventional con-elusions about which kinds of energy supply technologies we need to build." 4 "People do not want electricity or oil, nor such

PAGE 147

econ omtc abstrctions as "residential services" but rather com-fortable rooms, light,vehicular motion, food, tables, and other real things. Such end-use needs can be classified by the physical nature of the task to be done."5 Only 8 percent of all U.S. energy end use requires elec-tricity for purposes other tha n low temperature heating and cool-ing -4 percent in industrial electric motors and 4 percent in lighting, electronics, telecommunications, electrometallurgy, electrochemistry, arc welding, and electric motors in home appliances and railways.6 Generation of this electricity at power plants is a process of approximately 30% efficiency since three units of fuel provid e one unit of electricity and two units of useless waste heat. It is therefore wasteful a nd expensive to use this process for providing low temperature heating needs. Why produce heat at thousands of degrees to supply a house with enoug h heat to accomodate a 30 or 4 0 temperature differential? The high cost of electricity is due not only to secondary con-version processes, bu t also to distribution costs. Centralized power generation necessitates t h e construction of a n elaborate energy system: transmission lines, transformers, cables, meters and people to rea d t h em, headquarters, billing computers, etc . The cost to consumers for this network is staggering: A recent study found that for the small customer (averag e load 1.04 kW), "a dollar spent on electri(2ity was allocated approximately 19 percent to transmission e quipment, 2 4 percent to distribution

PAGE 148

equipment, 21 percent to operation and maintenance of all that equipment (including metering-a small term-a nd billing), a-bout 6 percent t o profit and arithmetic discrepancies in the analysis (owing largely to differential escalation of various components)-and only 29 percent to electricity."? The statistics .. cited above argue strongly towards the use of "soft" technologies,for s atisfying a l arge portion of our residentia l heating need s nationwide. These include t h e use of solar energy, and wood burning . It is difficult, if not impossible, to carry t h e above cost analyses down to a cost figure per B T U of useful energy, but it is apparent that when using the public service figures in table I , the overall costs of gas and are much higher than they appear. Being as we are, in an age of r apid exploitation and de-pletion of our natura l resources, it would b e unfair to evaluat e the " c o st" of energy simply in terms of financial cost. The closer we come to exhausting some of the non-renewables of our environment , the mor e we b ecome aware of their value. We are approaching a time when som e of these comodities will no longer b e available to buy, and we are already developing a national consci ousness dedicated t o conserving such things a s coal, oil, and gas. It is also essentia l to consider the effects that t h e power-generating processes have on the quality of the air that we breath, and to adress the issue of timber depletion in our forests. In essenc e then, we must evaluate these processes also

PAGE 149

on the basis of environmental "cost". While it is certain that the world's supply of oil, coal, and natural gas is finite, it is not as obvious what t h e regenerative capacity of our forests is. A report con-ducted by-the U . S . Forest Service shows opposite trends occur• ing in the eastern and western portions of the country. Even after timber cut and natural mortality are taken into account, there is a net annua l growth in t h e east of 4884 million cubic feet (61 million cords) of hardwoods and 2 891 million cubic 8 feet ( 3 6 millio n co r ds) of softwoods. Figures from the western half of the U . S . indicate a small increase of hardwoods, but the softwoods are being harvested faster than they are growing. T h e report shows a grand total of 13 billion cubic feet of wood, no t including c u l l trees, smaller trees, branches a n d deadwoo d , which would bring the a nn ual figure for f uelwood closer to 2 0 billion cubic feet ( 2 5 0 million cords). Since the average american house requires a bou t 5 cords a year for heat, that i s enough wood for 50 million houses. Essentia lly the situ ation is on e of p r oper manage m ent of planting a n d harvesting policies w h ich would b e necessary t o maintain a rate of growth equal to or greater than t h e r ate of harvesting. A recent st dy on fuelwood harvesting indicates additio n a l environmental impac s , loth n egative a s well as the p ositive. Negative effec t s i d e water po l l ution problems, loss of soil nutrients, and t o residual stands, wherea s positive impacts include e nnctnc e d wildlife habitat, improved productivity

PAGE 150

and increased awareness of forest management.9 The problem of air pollution, and the degree to which energy production contributes to it, is quite complex. The major difficulty is in ismlating the type and amount of pol-lution from each of the various stages of electricity production or•coal production. A recent study b y Robin Dennis of the National Center for A tmospheric Research indicates that the three main contributors to Denver's ' B rown Cloud' are " industries, like oil refineries and g ravel pits, motor ve hicles , and wood burning 1 0 for home h eating." Clearly then, the megapower utilities are not the only culprit. The study estimated that if Colorado would set emissions standards for wood-burning stoves-a policy cur-rently being enforce d in Oregon-the particulate pollution from each stove could b e cut in half, t hereby reducing the metro area haze 10 percent by the year 2000 . A study conducted in 1980 provides evidenc e that particulates are the most signifi-cant element of wood-burning solution. Sulfur dioxides, nitro-gen oxides, a nd hydrocarbons are not produced in appreciable quantities. Whil e much carbon dioxide is produced, it is in-significant compared to t h e amount introduced into the atmos-1 1 p here by natura l d e co m position and respiration processes. The study concludes that impact may b e severe in certain cases or inconsequential in o t h ers depending upon a tmos pheric c on -ditions, residentia l density, and wood burning techniques. Boulder county t h e latter issue by presenting home-12 owners with a o utlining the following recommendations:

PAGE 151

• Burn only seasoned wood that has a moisture content of 15% to 25%, obtained by a 6 to 12 month drying period. • Never have a slow-burning, smoldering fire, as this is the major cause of creosote buildup and air pollution. • Use small fuel loads-less than half of the stove's ca-pacity-and keep the air inlets wide open until the flame goes out. • Install a stovepipe thermometer to properly monitor the stove's exhaust gas temperatures. Operate between 300-500F. • Consider installation of a catalytic combustor. This can reduce particulate pollution up to 90%. Cities and counties' across the country will require that certain wood-stove efficiency standards be met when geographical factors a nd population density present regional pollution problems. It is important to keep in mind the chemical nature of the pollutants we are discussing here. Those byproducts of incomplete wood combustion are chemical compounds found in nature, and will, over a relatively short period of time, be rendered harmless by natural processes. In contrast to this, a portion of our electricity is generated by nuclear fusion, leaving us with byproducts such as strontium-90 and plutonium. These poisons cannot b e neutralized by environmental mechanisms and are essentially permanent environmental pollutants. Having looked at both financial and environmental costs of auxiliary he a t systems we can now examine regional installa-

PAGE 152

tion costs and present some options for specific cases. The Denver Solar Energy Associat1on in their latest newsletter evaluated the cost effectiveness of three different gas furnaces based on system efficiency, fuel costs, and pay-back period, and concluded that a medium efficiency furnance (86%) was the best investment. Installation and equipment costs would be about $1,540 for a 1,500 sq. foot home. A survey of local contractors' rates for the equivalent size electrical baseboard system yielded comparible costs. The range was from $1,200 for a basic system to $2000 for a system with hot-water-reserviour baseboard units. Other such peak load inhibiting devices would further increase the system cost by several hundreds of dollars. The sizing of a wood stove for a 1500 sq. foot house would depend heavily on compactness (i.e. New England Salt-box vs. Ranch style ) and openness of the floor plan(s). , since much of the distribution is accomplished by convective currents. Estimates for a tight, open-plan house call f o r a $400 $650 stove. Materials and installation would be between $600 and $900 . One additional factor of great importance involves re-strictions placed on the builder by lending institutions. Most , if not all, banks in the Denver area will not grant construction

PAGE 153

loans or mortgage loans for a solar house if it does not have a conventional back-up system. This precludes building a passive solar home with only a wood stove as back-up. A key question then i s whether the auxiliary system will be installed for use or simply to meet requirements. Another important factor is the ( projected solar savings fraction (SSF). Looking at a simple building in Denver of 1500 FT2 with a 90% SSF , and an annual consumption rate of 5 BTU/DD/sq. ft., we arrive at a total energy usage of 45 million BTUs annua]y. Of this t otal, the auxiliary system need only carry 4.5 million BTUs. Since this load could easily be carried by a wood stove alone, if t h e homeowner desired to use a stove despite the time investment, then he/she might consider installing an inexpensive baseboard system to satisfy the loan conditions. If however the SSF was only 35% and the auxiliary system was expected to handle 30 million BTUs , then the homeowner might do better by installing a gas furnance system, which by all estimation methods has a shorter pay-back period than an electric base-board system. In summary then, only general rules of thumb can be given. Specific decisions are based on a multitude of factors: building factors, i.e. amount of insulation, degree of solar savings fracti on , and configuration of interior spaces; site factors, i.e. location near fuelwood, location near power grid, regional pollution situation; financial factors, i.e. materials and installation costs, local energy rate system, and compara-

PAGE 154

tive costs of fuel; psychological factors, i.e. the emotional benefits involved with splitting wood and sitting in front fire; and finally, one's ph losophical approach to global energy issues will be a key determining factor. All of the above should be taken into consideration, and each factor given appropriate weighnng in order to answer to specific situations of back-up energy needs. It must be noted at this point that the focus of this study has been on the three most commonly used back-up systems and does not claim to have comprehensively covered all possible options. Conscientious consumers should look into other systems such as off-peak electric heat storage, and propane furnances.

PAGE 155

RESIDE N TIAL HEA TING FUEL COST COMPARISON FOR DENVER METRO PO UTAN AREA NATURAL GAS $ .46/cd 91%-80%-60% $6.10-$6. 94 -$9.2 5 ELECTRICilY $.0852 140%4100% $17. 79-$24.90 $.07,33 $ 15.28-$21.39 Fireplace $5Qjcord 30% 5% $7.94-$47.62 PINE Woodstove 70%-20% $3.40-$11.90 (Lodge pole) Fireplace $t20/cord 30% 5% $19 .05-$11 4 : 29 Wood stove 70%-20% $ 8.16 $ 2 8.57 ' OAK Fireplace $190/!=ord 30% 5% Wood stove 70%-20% -$8.84-$ 30.94 KEROSENE $1.25/gaJ. 100% $ 9.26 $1.80/gal. $ 13.33 PROPANE $ . 80/gal $ 9.65-$1 0.98-$14.64 $1.30/gaJ. $]5.69$17 . 84.$23. 79 #2 HEATIN G OIL $1. 12/gal 75%40 % $10. 67 $ 20 .00 COAL Fireplace $95 / ton 30% 5% $ 13.19-$79.17 Wood stove 70%-20% $ 5.65-$19.79 NOTE: If used only fo r spot heat i ng, some fuels may be more co st-eff ici ent to use than fuels used fo r cen tra l heati n g . W A R NING: Adequate co mbus tion and ventilation air is required fo r the safe operation of any fuelburn ing appliance. H EAT ING FUEL COST COMPARISON W OR KSHEET AVERAGE FUEL BTO CONI'ENT To c a lculate " Cost of One Million BTUs of Useful Heat," use the f ollowing formul a : Natural Gas E lectri city L odgepole Pin e Oa k K er osen e Propane # 2 Heating Oil Coal 82 , 900 BTU / ccf 3,413 B TU / kwh 21, 000 , 000 BTU / cord 30, 700 , 000 BTU/cord 1 35 , 000 BTU / gal. 91', 065 B T U /gal. 140 , 000 B TU/ gal. 24, 000 , 000 BTU / to n 1 , 000,000 BTU x Fuel P rice Ex ample: BTU Content x Efficienc y Lo dg epole p ine at $}20 p er cord in a w oods to v e having a s easonal efficie nc y of 20 % : 1,000 , 000 x $120= $28.57 per mill i on BTUs 21, 000 , 000 X . 2 I. Pric e s arc ., .:b _i "o"erroer :<83 Gas S elc'-': _r , ;( .'::e f ranchise iee [; :axes. 2 . Based on 'ieau ng Serv1ce rate r o r electn c aliyh e ated hc..,c:; 3. Based o n r es1dent ial d e m a nd r ate usin g avera ge c storrer der-oand a nd "'. \ h cons motion. ---., lDt'\e ' =. -J. ')'" rea che d W l m d .l<:d: r J .. t ur b aDo\e d p p r ox:mc:te'\ ..32 Fah r en he it.

PAGE 156

(' Millions of BTU/ cord * (Based on 80 cubic ft./ cord air dried wood, Ease of Ease of Wood 12% moisture content) Splitting Sparks Starti ng Softwoods : Ponderosa Pine 20.5 easy moderate easy Lodgepole Pine 21.0 easy moderate easy Douglas Fir 24.5 easy moder ate easy Englemann Spruce 17.9 easy many easy True Firs 19.5 easy many easy Pinon Pine 27. 1 hard moderate easy Hardwoods : Gam bel Oak 30. 7 moderate few difficult Aspen 18. 2 easy few eas y *Green wood yiel ds 20% less of the available heat than air-dried wood. (Source: Co l orado S tate Forest Service . Co l orado State Univers ity)

PAGE 157

REFErtENCES 1 . Residential Electric Load Management, (pamphlet), Public Service of C olorado, P . O . Box 8 4 0 , Den ver, Colorado, 19 8 3 2 . "How Demand Rate Billing Discourages Solar", Solar Flashes, Oct . /Nov. 1983 . pp. 3 4 . 3 . Vivian, J., Wood Heat, Emmaus, Pa. : Rodale Press, 1976. 4. Lovins, A . ' Soft En erg,y Paths: Toward a Durable Peace, New York: Harper and Row, 1 9 77 . p .8. 5 . IBID., p . 39 6 . I B ID, , p . 39 7 . IBID., p .88 8 . Gay , L . ' Heating t/i t h Wood, Vermont : A Garden Way Publishing, 1974. 9 . Burns, H . L., "Environmental Impacts of Increased Firewoo d Use" , Energy From Biomass and Wastes IV: S ymposium papers, 1980. pp. 251-266. : tO . Graham , S., "Denver 1 s ' B rown Cloud 1 is tiere to Stay", Rock,y Mountain News, Denver, Colorado, Sept. 5 , 1983 . 11 . Burns , p . 260 . 1 2 . "How Should You Burn Wood?" ( pamphlet) Boulder County Energy Office, Boulder, Colorado, 1983 .

PAGE 158

REFERENCES INTRODUCTION l. 2. Sharpe, Bill and Collins, Anne. Dec./Jan. 1983, p. 22. 11Digits on a Landscape. 11 Ha rrowsmi th. Niles, J. M., et. al. Options for Tomarrow. 11 11The Tellecommunications-Transportation Tradeoff: John Wiley, New York, 1976. 3. Van Dresser, Peter. Landscape For Humans. Biotechnic Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1972. p. 36. 4. Hayden, Dolores, Seven American Utopias: The Architecture of Communi tarian Socialism, 1790-1975. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1976. p. 34q. 5. Kaufmann, Edgar, and Raeburn, eds. Frank Lloyd Wright: Writings and Buildings. Meridian , New York, 1960 p. 173. 6. Bloomer, Kent, and Moore, Charles. Body, Memory, and Architecture.

PAGE 159

SITE ANALYSIS/ PLANNING 1. McHarg , Ian. Design With Nature. 2. Marsh, William . Landscape Planning , Addison-Wesley Publishing, Reading, Massr , 1983. 3. Stirling, Raymond. Eart h Shelter Community Desig n . Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. , New York, 1981. 4. Caribou Ranch Land Use Study , Dept. of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning, University of Colorad o at Denver, 1983. 5 . Unterman, Richard, et al. Site Planning for Cluster Housing. Van N ostrand Reinhold, New York, 1977" 6. Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning . Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1971. 7 . McClenon, Charles, ed. Landscape Plann ing for Energy Conservation. Env ironmenta l Design Press , Rest on, Va. 1977. 8 . The Cerro G ordo Experiment: Land Planning Package. Town Forum, Cott a g e G r ove,Or . 1974, 9 . Geiger , Rudolf . The Climate N ear the Ground. Harvard Univ. Press, Camb i dge, Mass. , ---,--g-55. ---10. Arapahoe and Roosevelt Nation al For ests Management Plan , U.S. Fore s t Service. Lakewood, Co, 1981. 11, Nelson , Ruth. Handbook of Rocky Mountain Plants , Tucson, DaleS. King. 1969-12. Soils R a t ings For D evelopment, Soil Consevation Service , 1978. 13 Water Resources of Boulder County . Col orado Geological Survey , 1980,

PAGE 160

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, Christopher, Sarah I shakowa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford Pre s s , 1977. Balcomb, Douglas . Passive Solar Design Handbook Vols. I , II, & III. U . S . Department of Energy. W as hington, o . c.-:-1982.--Chermayeff , Serge , and Christopher Alexander. Community and Privacy. Garden City , N . Y . : Doubleday & Co. Inc., 1965. DeChiara, Joseph, and John Callender . Time Saver Standard s For Building Types. New York: McGrawHill , Etzioni, Amitai . The Organi zational Structure of the Kibbutz . New York: Arno Press , 1980. Giovani, B . Man, Climate and Architecture . London: Allied Science Publishers Ltd., Hardy, Dennis. New York: Hayes, John, and New York: Alternative Communities in Nineteenth Century England. Longman Inc., 1979. Dennis Andrejko . 8th National Passive S olar Conference. ASES Publications Office, 1983. Mazria, Edward. The Passive Solar Ene rgy Book. Emm? us, Pa.: Rodale Press, 1979-. ---McGuiness, Stein, and Reyno lds. Mechan ical and Electrical Equipment For Buildings . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980. Olgyay, Victor. Design With Climat e. Princeton , N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1976. Region_al_ Guidelines f.or Bui ldinu Pass ive Ehe rgy Conserving Homes. U .S. of Housing and Urban Development, Washington , D.C. , 1980. Riker, Hugh. Colorado Ghost Towns Minig Camps. Palme r Lake, Colorado: The Filter Press , 1979. Wolle, M . S . Stampede to Timberline . Boulder, Colorado : Muriel S . Wolle, 1959.


Citation
Mountain Moshav

Material Information

Title:
Mountain Moshav an alternative community
Creator:
Gould, Harris Joshua
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
151 unnumbered leaves : illustrations (some color), charts, maps, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Collective settlements -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Nederland ( lcsh )
Collective settlements ( fast )
Colorado -- Nederland ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
[Harris Joshua Gould].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11301923 ( OCLC )
ocm11301923
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .G68 ( lcc )

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an alternative community
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AURAR/a LIBPapv
An architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Denver in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Harris Joshua Gpxrld Spring Semester, 1984
AURARIA ! IPO/spy


i-\, CX^ is approved.
The Thesis of
Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver May, 1984


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special thanks are due all those people in my life who have made the completion of this project possible. Especially helpful to my state of mind were the long walks with Dodger and Zahav.
Thanks also to Christopher Pyzik with whom I collaborated on the conceptualization and development of the project. The development study that he conducted for the site has added a special dimension of understanding to the project.


introduction


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION
Project statement Thesis statement
II. BACKGROUND
Context
History
III. SITE ANALYSIS
Context Inventory Analysi s Guidelines
IV. CLIMATE
Overview Data graphs Summary
V. ENERGY
Goal s
Patterns
Issues
VI. CODES
Buildings
Zoning
VII. PROGRAM
VIII. APPENDIX


PROJECT STATEMENT
This thesis project involves the programming and design of a co-operative community composed of 100 members. It will be developed on an 87 acre site located just out side of Nederland, Colorado. The program is composed of three major design segments - housing, businesses, and public facilities - and while all three elements will be programmed, design will focus primarily on the 37,000 sq. ft. of housing. The project is undertaken as an exploration in alternative forms of population growth. A case will be made for the likelihood of increased numbers of decentralized, small communities.


There is currently a trend of people returning to simpler, slower-paced lifestyles which is more than just an extension of the back-to-the-earth movement of the sixties. "Statistics Canada"1 has shown in a study that "rural growth from 1976 - 1981 was almost twice that of urban centers," and some of this can be attributed to the increased oppurtunity for working at home brought about by computer advances of the last decade. Current technology is allowing a rapidly increasing number of people to do bookkeeping and secretarial work for large businesses, stock market analysis, and free-lance programming, among many other tasks, without the need to commute to a central facility. Indeed , we are already in a situation where telecommunications and information systems require less energy than that necessary for mass commuting between residences and work. This has made it economically feasible for a large proportion of the work force to earn their livings at home. Research conducted by Jack Nil 1es and a team sponsored by the National Science Foundation^, has found that "the relative energy consumption advantage of telecommuting over commuting (i.e. the ratio of commuting energy consumption to telecommuting consumption) is at least 29:1 when private auto is used; 11:1 when normally loaded mass transit is used; and 2:1 for a 100% utilized mass transit system."
The implications that this trend will have on urban planning include the feasibility of establishing new patterns of decentralized growth. With people given more flexibilty in choosing a location to settle down, it then becomes reasonable to devise a growth plan which will allow for the development of numerous small communities. These communities would offer an alternative lifestyle, where the members could experience a stronger connection to the natural environment, and a more active and direct link to the socio-political structure which shapes their environment.


Perhaps this task falls outside the general parameters of an architect's roll in today's society. However, it also does not fall clearly within any one of the design and planning disciplines, and yet it encompasses elements specifically connected to each one of them. There exists a need for interdisciplinary work in developing an overall plan, for designing such communities. In this project I have assumed certain overall goals and ideoloqies for a model community, and have then focused on several of the major architectural issues.
The title 'Mountain Moshav' was chosen because of the use of the Israeli moshav as a model. Its characteristics of co-operative ownership mixed with private family life provides a tested and proven framework for small communities.
Two key goals which will help give form to the community, influencing
everything from land use to location of bedrooms, are self-sufficiency and the
establishment of an effective community network. In regards to the first goal,
a look at Peter Van Dresser's image of decentralized growth may be helpful:
"... the bulk of the livelihood needs of such a region must be met within the region itself by skilled, scientific, intensive, and conservative use of the lands, waters, and renewable biotic and environmental resources of the region. The long-term strategy for economic development should be gradual de-involvement from the mass logistic machinery of the continental economy, with its enormous and ever-increasing consumption of energy and irreplaceable natural resources.
The de-involvement should be facilitated by an evolution towards basic self-suffiency at a high real standard of 1iving."3
While some of the community members' income would be generated from computer-related jobs, others would work on soft technology research, development, and outreach appropriate to the region (i.e. windmill design). Also, a communal effort toward the production of food and the use of renewable energy sources would lighten the burden of outside income generation, and minimize the community's environmental impact.
The second goal, that of working within some form of communal structure,


is one which brings to mind a number of alternative life styles and utopian communities. There have been many such communities covering a wide range of unifying concepts and varying degrees of communal commitment and individual freedom. Dolores Hayden distinguishes between "utopias" and "ideologies", stating that utopias are designed with social revolution in mind whereas ideologies are designed to harmonize with the spirit of the age in a wishful but nonrevolutionary way.^ Most utopias are short-lived experiments, rarely lasting much longer than the lives of their founding members, and often lasting only for several years. The focus of this community would not be religious, ascetic, or revolutionary, but instead would allow a great degree of freedom for individual ownership within a co-operative framework. By scaling the community at 100 members and planning for a diversity of job types, it would take on the character of a village and not a commune. Such things as communal buildings (i.e. recreational and cultural facilities), open space, and small businesses would be co-operatively owned, thereby providing each member with more amenities and more incentive to see the community and its businesses successd.
Given this structural basis, I have chosen to focus on one particular concept : that of fascilifating a strong connection between the people and the natural environment. It is my assumption that this would be one of the primary interests drawing people to this type of lifestyle, .Much of the task of fascilitating this connection falls within the domain of the architect.
It is my hypothesis that the connection can be strengthened by the use of appropriate design solutions. Three specific areas of focus are:
1) The use of appropriate materials and forms to effect a strong connection between building and ground
2) Orientation and siting of buildings to allow the buildings to become a part of the landscape


3) Organization of building clusters and design interconnections to provide successful exterior transition spaces.
In designing residences, it is possible to use materials found locally, such as stone for the central hearth or rough-sawn wood for interior trim, which will provide the inhabitants with a visual and psychological connection to their external environment. Also, the inside — outside relationship can be accented by such things as extended roof planes which appear to float over a heavily anchored base.
Proper orientation and fenestration will provide a more obvious link to the changing pattern of the sun and the natural rhythms of the seasons. Furthermore, the appropriate siting of the buildings will be necessary to bring about a blending of built form and landscape. Quoting Frank Lloyd Wright,
"____ no house should ever be on any hill or on anything. It should be of the
hill, belonging to it, so hill and house could live together each the happier
for the other____ Architecture, after all, is no less a weaving and a fabric
than the trees."®
Finally, this connection which I am aiming for must be brought about through levels other than the purely visual, as experiencing architecture is never uni-dimensional. Bloomer & Moore® speak of architecture as a body-centered art, stressing the importance of haptic experience and of how one moves through a space. The movement between communal and private space, for instance, must be considered in design as an important transitional event. The use of appropriate paving materials, and the design of outdoor gathering places and gateways can minimize the abruptness of these transitions and strengthen the connection from interior to exterior.


background


HISTORY AND CONTEXT
The site chosen for the project is one rich with natural beauty and history,,
It is located approximately one mile northeast of Nederland, Colorado on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. Nederland grew up in 1870 with the first discovery of silver ore, and concentrated silver bricks were produced regularly, with the steady business resulting in the development of a small town. In, 1900, tungsten ore was discovered and the next 20 years saw major growth with Nederland becoming the chief trade center of the region.
As the mining camps grew, log cabins were built, mainly with square-hewn timbers, until the sawmill was erected and wood-framed structures emerged. It was
/MS"& , t>*
<9 79


not uncommon to see framed storefronts with false fa-
LAKE CiTy Colorado
cades deceptively taller than the actual building. This practice enabled the miners to believe more wholeheartedly in their endeavors and in the elegance of their surroundings. The architectural style of the residences can be said to be a smorgasbord of what were then current styles. Much of the building occured during Victorian times, and therefore a good bit of the architecture is Victorian with some Greek revival and Gothic thrown in.
However, a more obvious influence in the region was the ever tight economic situation, resulting in buildings that display practicality, use of regional materials, and a
The Victorian Lace House in Blackhawk.


climate-responsive form.
The open-plan log cabin with steeply pitched roof and stone fireplace was a very successful response to heavy snow loads and significant heeting needs, using readily available materials. The strength of that image as it relates to the surrounding landscape will be an inspiration when designing new stuctures.
Unfortunately, the town of Nederland followed the same course as most other Colorado minig towns, and even today it is less vibrant economically than it was 70 years ago. With the the silver supply depleted and the demand for tungsten decreased, the businesses have closed down and left their scars on the landscape.
A still common sight in Nederland is the empty shell
COLO RAPO


of a concentrating mill or the delapidated remains of a wood-frame house. The site itself is randomly doted with defunct mines, most of which are only 20 feet deep and a few feet wide, but there are 12 of them in all.
The design approach will be to eliminate the possibility of foundation bearing problems or site circulation problems, without covering al1 of the mines. One or more should actually be highlighted so as not to lose connection with the history of the region.
ashcbo r T


site


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. CONTEXT
a. Regional Context
b. Site/Local Context
II. SITE INVENTORY
A. Landform
1. Topography/ Elevation
2. Slope Analysis
B. Natural Systems
1. Geology
2. Hydrology
3. Soils
4. Vegetation
5. Wildlife
C. Microclimate
1. Slope Orientation
2. Solar Exposure and Albedo
3. Shading by Landforms
4. Shading by Vegetation
5. Winds
6. Other Thermal Effects
D. Visual Character


III. SITE ANALYSIS
a. Development Suitability
b. Natural Systems Impacts
c. Energy- Efficient Potential
d. Composite of Site Factors IV. SITE PLANNING/ DESIGN GUIDELINES


SITE SELECTION
The site was chosen based on the following criteria:
* mountain location
* southern exposure
* abundant site vegetation
* moderate slopes
proximity to small town
* road access
* adequate size for program
* moderate land costs
CONTEXT
REGIONAL CONTEXT
The project site is near the town of Nederland, in Boulder County, Colorado. Nederland is a small town of about 1000 persons nestled in a mountain valley east of the continental divide, 17 miles west of Boulder, (see map). Much of the land in this area is a part of the Roosevelt National Forest. Economic activities in the region include recreation/ tourism, forestry, mining, grazing and residential development. Major recreation and tourist centers include Eldora Ski Area, Indian Peaks Wilderness and Rocky Mountain National Park.
SITE/LOCAL CONTEXT
The site is located 1.5 miles NE of Nederland off of Colo. Hwy.
72 on a gravel county road. The property is 87 acres in size and composed of what were originally several smaller parcels. The site is surrounded by both national forest and private properties. A number of low- density residences exist in the area. The area has a history of mining and as such quite a few old tungsten mines and mine buildings still exist.
Adjacent national forest property along the western site boundary


REGIONAL CONTEXT
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will likely become included in the town of Nederland in coming years for use as a light industrial zone. When such changes occur, city water and sewer lines will be extended, allowing access from the project site. Electric and telephone lines currently exist along the county access road.
SITE INVENTORY LANDFORM
Topography/Elevation
The site area exists on the SW and west slopes of Hurricane Hill (elo 8770), a mountain landform rising from slopes on the north side of the valley in which Nederland is located. Site elevations range from 8440' at the county road to 8680' at the highest points up Hurricane Hill. The summit is located slightly NE of the site.
Two ridge forms extend outward from the main slopes of the mountain in an east- west direction. These create long south facing slopes and two NW facing gulches,, Relatively level areas exist along the road and at a plateau formed where a ridge section meets the slopes of Hurricane Hill.
Slope Analysis
The site contains a variety of slope types, from gentle to steeply pitched. Four slope catagories are defined:
1„ 3-8% Gentle Slopes
2„ 8-15% Moderate Slopes
3. 15-25% Moderately Steep Slopes
4., 25%+ Steep Slopes


SITE CONTEXT
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3-8% and 8-15% slopes generally have few stability and erosion problems and are well suited for development. 15-25% slopes may require some efforts to protect against slope failure and erosion such as vegetation cover and terracing. Slopes greater than 25% present severe problems for development and should be avoided.
Approximately one third of the site falls within the gentle and moderate slope categories. These are located along the county road and up on the ridge plateau. Another one third of the site falls in the moderately steep category. These areas are scattered throughout the site, often on the upper sections of slopes. Steep slopes comprise the final third of the site and are mostly located in the north, NE and NW parts of the site,
NATURAL SYSTEMS
Geology
The underlying geologic material throughout the site is crystalline bedrock. This is composed of a variety of metamorphic and igneous rock formations, all extremely stable,, These formations are highly fractured with mineral veins, many of which were mined in the 1800's.
A number of old mine shafts and pits are found today on the site.
Most of these mines went very deep under the crystalline bedrock and thus present no subsidence hazard.
Several rock out-crops exist along the ridgetops and steep slopes.
A fault line occurs off the site on Hurricane Hill, but does not
pose any threat to development.


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Hydrology
The accompanying map shows direction of surface runoff for rainfall and snowmelto Intermittent streams are formed in the two northwest gulches. These probably flow only in the spring from snowmelt runoff. Ground infiltration is typically good except on very steep slopes, because of permeable soils and abundant vegetative cover.
Local ground water sources are from crystalline rock aquifers.
These aquifers are a high quality but low yield H2O source. Typical well yields are between one and 20 gal./ min., with an average of 3 gal./min. Such yields are sufficient for residential development, but may not be adequate for higher density community development. Although the overall project size and density is low, water conservation and rainwater capture may be desirable unless Nederland municipal water is available.
Water table depths vary from 6' to 80' in the area, with an average of 35'. Two existing wells adjacent to and on the site are 15' and 30' deep respectively. Existing mine shafts in rock fractures may provide potential well locations, although care should be used such that they do not become ground water pollution sources.
Soils
Soil types on the site are generally similiar in that they were formed by decomposition of igneous and metamorphic bedrock. The soils are classified under the Cryoboralfs- Rock outcrop Association. A general description includes: Shallow to deep soils, well drained, gentle to steep slopes, often coarse, sandy and gravelly, frequent rock outcrops.


HYDROLOGY
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Typical soil characteristics are listed below:
1. Texture/Profil e
0-1.5' silty sand,dry, medium dense
1.5-3' silty sand and gravel, moist, medium dense
3-5.5' sand and gravel with some rock fragments, dense
5-15' bedrock
2. Bearing capacity: good- 3500-4000 psf ( GM, SM unified classification)
3. Shrink/ swell and frost heave potential: low
4o Average permeability: good
H2O percolation test: 1'/ 16 min, ave., max. l'/5min., min. 1 730 min„
5, Slope stability: good due to well graded texture
6. Soil depth: varies, 0-30' in area, 5-15' average.
Less than 2' poses severe development limits due to difficulty of excavation. Shallower soils exist on steep slopes, deeper soils on gentle slopes and near bottom of slopes.
7. Soil erosion potential: varies
0-15% slope Low
15-25% slope Moderate
25%+ slope Severe




8. Septic tank suitability: varies, good to poor
Limitations: - less than 7‘ soil depth - greater than 30% slope
Shallow soils ( less than 2' deep) which present limitations for development exist on ridge tops and some steep slopes. Severe erosion potential exists on steep slopes in the north and NE portions of the site. Moderate erosion potential exists on moderately steep slopes scattered throughout the site„
Vegetation
The site is located in the Montaine Zone climax forest which extends from 8000' to 9000' elevation. Primary tree species found include Lodgepole Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Douglas Fir and Quaking Aspen. Because of past site disturbances such as fire and logging, climax species of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir are intermixed with and less common than Lodgepole Pine, a pioneer species.
Sunny, south facing slopes contain low to medium density forests of Lodgepole Pine and Ponderosa Pine with a grassy understory. Cool, north facing slopes have dense forests of Lodgepole Pine and Douglas Fir with little or no understory plants. Moist pockets and north facing slopes contain small groves of aspen with grassy understories. Grassy meadows exist on south facing slopes and vary from small forest openings to larger expanses. Existence of past disturbances are seen in the predominant young, pole stage trees on the site (30-401), many forest openings and brush and slash piles scattered throughout the site.


VEGETATION
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Shrubs, wildflowers and ground covers are found in the grassy
meadows, amongst thin pine forests and below aspen groves. A list of
major plant species found in the Montaine Zone is included below.
Shrubs: ground juniper, sagebrush, mountain mahogany, mullen, choke-berry, serviceberry.
Wildflowers/ groundcovers: lichens/ mosses, sedums, saxifrages, geraniums, cinquefoil, pestemons, potentilla, kinnikinnik, jamesa, ninebark, squaw currant, pinedrops.
Wildlife
The natural setting of the site provides habitat for a number of animal species, although species density and variety have decreased substantially due to site disturbances and increasing development in the area. The young, pole stage trees on the site a suitable habitat for fewer species than mature forests although more species are found here than in grass and tree seedling environments.
In general, the aspen groves provide the richest wildlife habitat on the site. The greatest density and variety of animal species are found here. Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir forests have lower species numbers and densities, followed by Lodgepole Pine, with meadows providing the poorest habitat. The disturbed nature of some environments, such as increased forest/ meadow edges due to logging can actually improve habitats for many mammal species.
The distribution of animal species between habitat types is difficult to acertain since many species utilize different environments for feeding and reproduction and move between habitats seasonally or daily, The


following is a list of major wildlife species found in the area of the site. Large Mammals
Elk
Mule deer Porcupine Bobcat
Bighorn sheep
Mountain lion Black bear Coyote Fox
Small Mammals
Cottontail rabbit Snowshoe rabbit Ground squirrel Albert squirrel
Chipmunk Pine Marten Red-backed vole Deer mouse
Birds (partial list)
Golden eagle Bald eagle (endangered) Peregrine falcon (endangered) Gray- headed junco
Woodpeckers
Goshawk
Turkey
Pygmy nuthatch
MICROCLIMATE Slope Orientation
South facing slopes are optimal building locations from an energy efficient standpoint since they receive the most sun and are the warmest. Optimal orientations extend +30° off of true south. Within this range approximately 90% of potential winter solar gain is available. Between +30° and +60° high percentages of sun are still present,, Between +60° and +90° only moderate amounts are present. Beyond +90° little solar is usually available. This is not exactly true for some slope angles as discussed in the next section.
Approximately 3/8 of the site contains south facing slopes. 1/4 of the site falls on SE and SW facing slopes. 1/8 of the site has


SLOPE ORIENTATION

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west-SW facing slopes. North, NW and NE slopes take up 1/4 of the site.
Slope Exposure and A1bedo
Steepness of slope is a factor which alters the solar gain characteristics of different orientations (see chart). Steep south slopes receive the greatest amounts of solar radiation in winter because they are closest to a perpindicular plane to the low sun angles. Steep SE and SW slopes receive the second most radiation. Gentle slopes of south, east and west orientations receive moderate amounts of sun in winter. Steep east and west slopes, and gentle north slopes receive small amounts of radiation. Steep northern slopes receive almost no radiation. In spring and fall, the pattern is somewhat changed with gentle gentle slopes of all orientations receiving similiar amounts of radiation.
The site contains a large amount of good or exellent solar exposures, with poor areas located in the north and NW portions of the site.
Albedo is the degree of reflection of solar radiation by surfaces in the environment. During cold periods high reflection is desirable to heat building surfaces, whereas during hot periods higher absorbtion is desirable for cooling.
albedo of various surfaces for total solar radiation with diffuse reflection fresh snow cover 75-95°o
old snow cover 40-70°o
light sand dunes, surface 30-60%
brick 23-48%
dirty, firm snow 20-50%
sandy soil 15-40°o
meadows and fields 12-30°o
densely built-up areas 15-25%
woods 5-20%
asphalt 15%
dark, cultivated soil 7-10%
water surfaces, sea 3-10%
Sources: The Climate Near the Ground Design With Climate


Dec. 21 Mar.,Oct. 21
SOLAR EXPOSURE: Average clear day solar radiation values due to
combined effects of orientation and slope.(Btu/ft^/day)
Orientation
percent slope South SE ,SW East,West NE,NW North
5 1150 1026 814 712 664
10 1416 1164 735 548 460
20 1681 1278 593 310 177
30 1947 1416 513 164 0
5 1821 1763 1664 1652 1646
10 1926 1797 1576 1552 1541
20 2101 1848 1418 1323 1378
30 2276 1901 1261 1083 998
Rudolph. The Climate Near the Ground.
Source: Geiger,




Shadows Cast by Landforms
Areas that receive some shading in winter due to topographic obstructions are shown in the accompanying map. These may be only in the morning or afternoon due to low sun angles. Areas depicted are basically north, NW and NE slopes.
Shadows Cast by Vegetation
Much of the site contains low density pine forest which creates variable shading patterns in winter. Many sunny pockets are available as potential building locations with careful siting. Large open meadows which are unshaded are found on the southern parts of the site. Smaller meadows exist to the north and east. Deanse forests with little sun penetration exist on northern slopes. The deciduous aspen groves contain some winter sun but are shaded in summer.
Wi nds
Significant winter heat losses in building are due to infiltration from cold winds. On the site, the strongest winter winds come from the NW. Areas that are protected from these winds by the landforms are shown in the accompanying map by the 20h zone. Areas of wind turbulence due to mixing of these winds with secondary winds are shown by the 5h zone, h refers to the height of the landform the wind must rise over and 5h
and 20h are the widths of these zones from the crest of the hill.
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Actual observed conditions on the site indicate that the 5h zones are mostly protected due to dense forests on the northern slopes. A rule of thumb is that vegetation wind breaks slow wind speed for an area the width


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of 30 times the height of the vegetation(30h). Up to 15h the wind speed is reduced 50%, with velocity increasing as the distance from the windbreak.
Open areas close to the county road were also observed as exposed to winds blowing off the road. Secondary winds from the south are available on most of the site for summer cooling and ventilation.
Other Thermal Effects
Elevation change on the site is not significant enough to create any noticable effects on microclimate.
No major cold air pockets exist on the site from nighttime cold air drainage being blocked, although the north and NW facing ravines probably collect some due to their steepness,
VISUAL CHARACTER
The site contains a number of spectacular panoramic views from the ridgetops. These survey the continental divide, the Nederland area and surrounding smaller mountains. In the forested areas of the site partially obstructed views of the divide from small openings or along roads may be seen,
A number of internal views within the site are created by the meadows and along the access road from the northwest. These are potential places for visual access during progression thru the site.
Other special features include rock outcrops, aspen groves, sunny meadows and dense conifer forests. The accompanying map shows direction of views and locaton of special features.


VISUAL CHARACTER
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SITE ANALYSIS
DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY
Areas suitable for development were determined from slope, geology, hydrology and soils data. Feasability and cost of development were the primary considerations involved.
3-8% slopes are most suitable for conventional construction, roads, sewers, cultivated agriculture and intense recreational uses. 8-15% slopes are well suited to one- story earth shelter construction and create moderate limitations for the above categories. 15-25% slopes provide svere limitations for all uses suitable for gentle slopes but are well suited for 2-story earth shelter construction. Slopes greater than 25% and soils with shallow depths present severe development limitations for all uses because of extreme slope protection and difficult excavation required.
Severe areas exist mainly on the steep north slopes and at ridgetops, NATURAL SYSTEMS IMPACTS
Environmentally sensitive areas were determined from geology, soils, hydrology, vegetation and wildlife data. Extremely sensitive areas which should be protected consist of steep slopes greater than 25% which would have substantial erosion problems if developed. Aspen groves are also very sensitive areas since they provide rich wildlife habitats. The small size of aspen groves on the site reduces their importance.
Moderately sensitive areas include 15-25% slopes which require erosion control if developed and forested areas which control water runoff and soil erosion, moderate climatic extremes and provide wildlife habitat. Both areas are buildable if carefully developed. Open areas on gentle slopes




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(less than 15%) would have the least development impact.
ENERGY-EFFICIENT POTENTIAL
Best areas for energy efficient development have an optimal mix of conditions from solar exposure, wind protection and shading data.
Next best areas require careful siting or vegetation thinning to overcome effects of vegetation shading. Moderate areas need wind protection and in some places vegetation to get optimal solar gain. The poorest areas for energy efficiency have little solar gain and much wind exposure.
Best areas for energy efficiency are on the southern and middle parts of the site.
COMPOSITE OF SITE DEVELOPMENT FACTORS
Development suitability, natural systems impacts and energy efficiency data were combined to determine the best building locations on the site. Optimal building areas contain optimal energy benefits and little to moderate limits to development. Good building areas have high energy efficient potential, low to moderate limits for development, although vegetation
thinning to improve solar gain should be weighed against vegetation conservation in these areas. Moderate areas are buildable but have wind exposure and are located near public roads. Poor areas are buildable but have few energy benefits. The worst areas for building are environmentally sensitive or difficult to develop and should be protected.
Excellent and good building areas exist on the southern and central
portions of the site.


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SITE PLANNING/DESIGN GUIDELINES
The following guidelines were derived from site analysis data,
1, Maintain site character/ provide natural buffer zones
2, Respond to landform, natural systems
3, Build on warm, south slopes
4, Protect from wind
5, Cluster development to preserve open space
6, Repair disturbed areas
7, Balance vegetation thinning and conservation 8„ Terrace steep slopes if developed
9. Utilize panoramic views
10. Preserve and utilize special site features
11. Use native and drought resistant landscaping
12. Maintain and improve meadows for grazing( ave. one acre/animal)
13. Use earth shelter construction on steeper slopes
14. Minimize roads and hard surfaces
15. Centralize parking
16. Use vegetation to moderate climatic extremes
17. Utilize indigenous building materials
18. Provide rainwater storage and water recycling/ conservation
19. Consider small scale community sewage treatment systems


climate


OVERVIEW
The site, which sits at 8,500 feet above sea level and is primarily south facing, is exposed to a typical Colorado mountain climate. Temperatures range from moderate to cold, mandating a need for heating during virtually all months of the year. Temperatures of 85 are not uncommon in July and August, but due to moderate humidity and frequent breezes, mechanical cooling is generally not needed. Another characteristic of the climate is the large diurnal temperature swing, especially noticeable from fall through spring. This provides design opportunities to use passive techniques to carry some of the daytime heat over into the cold nights and also release heat at night when appropriate. The greatest amount of rain comes in the fall with occasional thundershowers throughout the summer. The winter months experience steady snowfall with an average of 15-20 inches per month, and a semi-perminent ground cover from October through March.
The humidity is generally about 50-60%, and the winds are primarily out of the west sweeping across the sloping site. The nature of the winds is erratic, with alternating periods of calm and motion. The active periods can occasionally be quite severe due to storm activity over the continental divide.


DATA
The data used to generate the following charts comes primarilly from two sources: 1) The National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado; 2) The University of Colorado Mountain Research Station. Both maintain climate stations within several miles and a few hundred feet elevation of the site. Solar radiation data was obtained from Denver statistics with the assumption that it would provide accurate design information for the site. The two factors of higher altitude and greater precipitation causing a greater amount or cloudiness, would roughly balance out.
The Mahoney method of climatic analysis has been used along with the computer program 'CLIMAT'(see appendix). Results are tabulated and conclusions drawn about design implications.


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SU MMAR Y
Results of the Mahoney analysis suggest use of heavy, well insulated walls and roof, with additional heavy mass on the interior. The long axis should be east - west so as to maximize heat gain and minimize the chilling effect of westerly winds. Window openings should be less than 20% in all walls except south to minimize heat loss. Also, the building should be designed with a large time-lag indicating the use of heavy materials inside the insulated skin, and the floor layout should be compact so as to minimize exterior surface area. In general, the location is ideal for passive solar heat strategies such as trombe wall or direct gain, and the next stage of analysis should include optimization of insulation / solar ratio and rough sizing of south glazing area for schematic design. The high percentage of snow cover will be an asset to such systems due to its reflectance of solar radiation increasing the amount of energy striking a vertical surface. It will also be a detriment since increased roof loads will require more expensive structural systems.


energy


GOALS
If new patterns of decentralized population growth are to develop in the near future, a critical aspect of their success or failure will be the degree to which they are energy self-sufficient. Costs for being on the public utilities grid are ever increasing, and a large percentage of those costs are attributable to the extensive delivery network. A mountain community run on gas and electricity would certainly tax that delivery system, and also be a heavy economic burden. It is therefore a goal of the moshav to be as independent of outside energy sources as possible, and this will be accomplished in two ways:
1) minimize energy use through the use of heavy insulation, caulking and weatherstripping, earth berming, and other conservation techniques in the smaller buildings; daylighting and approppriate shading devices in the load dominated buildings.
2) maximizing use of renewable resources such as solar and wind energy. This could take the form of direct gain areas, trombe walls, greenhouses, and natural ventilation, in addition to active strategies of flat plate collectors and possibly a wind power generator.
Winds on the site are not ideal for such purposes due to their undependable nature. Velocities frequently range from 0-40 mph with significant periods of inactivity. However, an undeveloped but privately owned peak just northeast of the site boundary is high enough to receive unobstructed winds from the west and south with an estimated average speed of 15-20 mph.
A co-operative venture between land owner and community could be sought in an attempt to provide usable energy to both parties.


PAT T E R N S
The following schematic design patterns are recommended for region four in "Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes". This region's characteristics are described in the previous overview. The patterns provide suggestions for dealing with the assets and liabilities of the climate.
1A. Keep the Heat In and Cold Temperatures Out
Snuggle the house into the site to minimize heat loss.
Place storage and secondary use spaces on wind exposed walls. Let sun and light into major living spaces.
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IB. Insulate Thoroughly: Temperatures are a Liability Most of the Year
Use insulation around the entire perimeter, include thermal mass within the interior to store internal heat gain and modify temperature swings.
Earth coverings for insul-
Use double or triple glazing and fit insulated curtains or
1C.
Avoid building in the bottom of a valley where cold air drainage causes the coldest temperatures. Slopes and benches are the warmest sites to build on.


1C. (confd)
Minimize the number of outside doors, and provide vestibules or airlocks for main entires.
Masonry is a heat conductor that should not project through an exterior wall. Chimneys and flues should be clustered and placed in the center of the house to minimize perimeter losses
2. Let The Sun In: Sun is an Asset Throughout the Year
Build on the north side of a valley facing south, and plan sun angles carefully to prevent the winter sun from being cut off by trees and mountains.
Make the entire south wall a sun room of some sort. Greenhouse living spaces work well from the end of January to early December.


2. (confd)
DIRECT GAIN (See Part II) Collect and store solar radiation in floors, walls or ceilings for direct gain solar heating.
Use heavy, massive walls on the south, make the outside
3. Protect From the Wind: Winds are Always a Liability
Site the house to minimize exposure to the wind, and
All doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds with both roofs and wing walls or screens.


3. (cont'd)
4. In Climates with a Big Day-To-Night Temperature Difference, Use Mass to Smooth Out Temperature Fluctuation
Use underground construction to reduce the effects of outdoor temperature fluctuations. This will provide more constant indoor temperatures, making the house cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter.
This bermed home uses large south windows and a dark colored concrete slab to achieve 95% solar heating. \V

Use thick or massive south walls to store the sun's energy in the winter. Care must be taken that they do not overheat in the summer.


ISSUES
TREES
75% of the site is covered with evergreen trees, which could become either an asset or a liabilty depending upon the siting of the buildings.
When situated to the north of a structure, the trees can provide a windbreak up to 10 times their height. When located to the south they can prevent a significant amount of solar radiation from entering the building even in winter when the solar rays are most desired. This issue can be dealt with in two ways: proper siting of structures among the existing trees, and appropriate relocation or planting of new trees to provide wind buffers and assure solar access. One common misconception is that deciduous trees be planted immediately to the south for summer shading. While it is true that transmission increases in the winter, it is estimated to still be only 50% due to the trunk and branches. Therefore, keep the south side clear of all trees and use architectural elements to handle shading needs (e.g. overhangs and louvers).
MASS
As previously stated, mass can be used very effectively on the interior of the buildings to store daytime heat and smooth out the diurnal temperature fluctuations. Exact sizing will be left to computer analysis in the latter stages of design. It is however important in conceptual design to be aware of basic principles:
1) use properly oriented fenestrations to capture the sun's energy
2) locate mass where it will receive direct and indirect energy through radiation and convection.


3) use selective surfaces to aid heat absorption
4) provide control of sunspace with the ability to isolate it thermally
5) provide all windows with night insulation to reduce heat loss
COMPUTER ANALYSIS * *
Several programs will be used to analyse the energy efficiency of the design solutions. The first is a series of analysis tools developed by Don Woolard at the University of Colorado. The following topics are included:
* Heat Loss/Gain
* Annual Heat Loss
* Solar Flux
* Optimization of Insulation
* Solar Shading
* Solar Heat Gain
* Time Lag
The larger communal building will be analysed through the IBM program
EWIT.
BACK-UP HEAT SYSTEMS
With solar energy satisfying much of the heatingsneeds, back-up systems could be conventional heat or wood heating systems. An analysis of the environmental and economic impact of back-up options has been conducted and is located in the appendix. A general conclusion of the study is that wood burning is less detrimental to the environment than other options, if proper forest managment procedures are employed and if only high-efficiency wood stoves are used.


codes


BUILDING CODES
Building codes are designed to provide regulations on construction which will ensure occupant safety. Policy in Nederland, Colorado is to abide by the Uniform Building Code; the following pages contain a capsulized list of pertinent information from the 1982 edition. It has been divided into eight categories:
* Allowable floor area
'â– * Fire resistive requirements
* Wall and opening protection
* Allowable building height
* Allowable occupant loads
* Exit requirements
* Allowable 1ive loads
* Miscellaneous requirements
The project contains building types which fall into six different occupancy categories, each one requiring a seperate code search:
B-2: Offices, workshops, storage, small meeting rooms
A-3: Dining, large meeting room
R-3: Dwellings, recreational areas
H-3: Testing labs, maintenance garage
E-2: School
M-3: Agricultural buildings
It should be noted that some of the workshops will fall under category B-2 while others will fall under H-3. The determining factor is whether or not the work process involves the use or production of combustible fibers,


dust or liquids. For instance the woodworking shop and agricultural testing lab will be classified H-3, whereas the computer room and printing shop will be classified B-2„
A check of County regulations presented a Boulder County Addendum to the UBC but it dealt specifically with fees and permits and did not include information pertinent to the design stage,,


Group B-2
1 „ Floor Area
Construction type
Occupancy type
Basic allowance area(505a)
Added stories increase Side(s) separation increase Total allowable area
2. Fire Resistive Requirements
Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Inner court wa11s(504c)
Parapets required(1709a)
Attic draftstops required(3205b)
Attic ventilation required(3205c)
III
B-2
18000 SF 18000 SF 4500 SF 40500 SF
III
4
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
2003b
1
same as wall below enclosed attic space: 3000 SF
enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for top and bottom vents
3. Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls 1
Openings in exterior walls 3/4 hour
40 Building Height
Allowable stories 4
Fire sprinkler increase(507) 1
Total allowable stories 5
Maximum height 65 ft.
5. Occupant Loads
Story 5
Occupancy group B-2
Area 40500 SF


Sq. ft. per occupant Total persons per floor Total persons in building
6. Exit Requirements
Number of exits required each floor(3303a) Number of exits required total bui1ding(302a) Required exit width(3303b)
Ramps required
Corridor widths(3304b)
Dead end corridor 1imit(3304f)
Corridor construction(3304g)
Stairway widths(3305b)
Stairway landing depths(3305f)
Stairway to roof( 3305o)
Smoke tower tower required(3309)
Exit signs required(3312b)
Exit sign separate circuit(3312c)
7. Occupancy Unit Live Loads
Uniform load Concentrated load
8. Other Requirements
Separations between occupancies-fire ratings and construction
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706)
Light( 05 sections, ch. 6-14)
Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required(3802) Dry standpipes required(3803)
100
405
2025
1
5 for 5 floors 50 divided by occupancy yes for ground level with toilet 44 in.
20 ft.
see above, no special case 36 in.
36 in,
4 or more stories, 1 stair to the roof if floor is 75 ft. above ground
only to clearly identify no
50 psf
2000 lbs/2.5 SF
B-2 and M= 1 B-2 and R= N more than 2 floors,
1 hr. rated
all habitable rooms get natural or artific. light natural=l/20 floor area or mech.=5 ft^/ min. outside air of 15 ft^/min. total
min. 1 W.C./ sex(nearby) with window or duct if floor area 1500 SF w/o sufficient openings only if 4 stories or 20000 SF/ floor


Group A-3
1o Floor Area
Construction type
Occupancy type
Basic allowance area (505a)
Added stories increase(505b) Side(s) separation increase(506a) Total Allowable area
20 Fire Resistive Requirements
Construction type Exteior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls( 504c)
Attic draftstops required(3205b)
Attic ventilation required(3205c)
III
A-3
13500 SF 13500 SF 3375 SF 30375 SF
III
4
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
2003b
1
enclosed attic space: 30000 SF
enclosed rafter 1/150 or 1/300 for 2 vents
30 Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls 1
Openings in exterioir walls 3/4 hr.
40 Building Height
Allowable stories 2
Fire sprinkler increase(507) 1
Total allowable stories 3
Maximum height 65 ft.
5. Occupant Loads
Story 3
Occupancy group A-3
Area/story 16875 SF
Sq. ft. per occupant 15
Total persons per floor 1125
Total persons in building 3375


Group H-3
1. FIoor Area
Construction type
Occupancy type
Basic allowance area(505a)
Added stories increase(505b)
Side(s) separation increase(506a)
Total allowable area
2. Fire resistive requirements
Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c)
30 Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls
4. Building Height
Allowable stories
Fire sprinkler increase(507)
Total allowable stories Maximum height
5. Occupant loads
Story
Occupancy group
Area/ story
Sq. ft. per occupant
Total persons/ floor
Total persons in building
6o Exit requirements
Number exits required each floor(3303a) Number of exits required total building Required exit width(3303b)
II
H-3
11200 SF 11200 SF 2800 SF 25200 SF
I I(noncombustable/1hr,) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1903b
1
1
3/4 hr, (1903b)
2
1
3
65 ft.
3
H-3
14000 SF 100 140 420
1
3 for 3 floors 50 divided by occupancy


6.
Exit Requirements
Number exits required each floor(3302a) 2
Number exits required total building(302a) 2
Required exit width(3302b) 50 divided by occupancy
Ramps required no
Corridor widths(3304b) 36 in. min.
Dead end corridor limit(3304f) 20 ft.
Corridor construction(3304g) 1 hr.
Stairway width(3305b) 36 in. min.
Stairway landing depth(3305f) 36 in0 min.
Stairway to roof(3305o) over 3 stories, stair to roof 4/12
Smoke tower required(3309) 75 feet above ground
Exit signs required(3312b) where needed to clearly identify
Exit sign separate circuit(3312c) no
Occupancy Unit Live Loads
Uniform load 40 psf
Concentrated load Other requirements 0
Separations between occupancies-
fire ratings and construction R-3 and M= 1 hr.
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706) 1 hr., not on vents and pipes
Light( 05 sections,ch. 6-14) guest, dorms, habitable with window of 1/10 floor area
Ventilation g,d, &h openable exterior openings 1/20 of floor area
Sanitation 1 W.C.+kit.+W.C., lavatory, tub or shower
Fire extinguishing system required(3802) none required(alarms recommended)
Dry standpipes required(3803) no
Wet standpipes required(3805) no
Combination standpipes required(3802) no
Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies) chimney clearance as 37-B
Exceptions and deviations no boiler room on single
(see group occupancies) units dwelling


Group R-3
1. Floor area
Construction type III
Occupancy type R-3
Basic allowance area (505a) uniimited
Added stories increase -
Side(s) separation increase -
Total allowable area uniimi ted
Fire Resistive Requirements
Construction type III
Exterior bearing walls 4
Interior bearing walls 1
Exterior non-bearing walls 4
Structural frame 1
Permanent partitions 1
Shaft enclosures 1
Floors 1
Roofs 1
Exterior doors and windows 1
Inner court walls(504c) 1
Parapets required( 3205b) -
Attic draftstops required(3205b) enclosed attic space: 3000 SF
Attic ventilation required(3205c) enclosed rafters 1/150 or 1/300 for 2 vents
Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls 1 hr.
Openings in exteior walls 1
Building Height
Allowable stories 3
Fire sprinkler increase 1
Total allowable stories 4
Max„ height 65 ft.
Occupant loads
Story 4
Occupancy group R-3
Area uniimi ted
Sq. ft. per occupant 300 SF


6.
Exit Requirements
Number exits required each f1oor(3302a) Number exits required total building(302a) 2
Required exit width(3302b) 50 divided by occupancy
Ramps required yes
Corridor widths(3304b) 44 in.
Dead end corridor 1imit(3304f) 20 ft.
Corridor construction(3304g) see above
Stairway widths (3305b) 44 in.
Staiway landing depths( 3305f) 36 in.
Stairway to roof(3305o) only if more than 4.stories
Exit signs required(3312b) yes
Exit signs separate circuit(3312c) not required
Occupancy Unit Live Load
Uniform load 100 psf
Concentrated load Other Requirements 0
Separations between occupancies-
Fire ratings and construction A-3 and B-2= N A-3 and E-2= N
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706) more than 2 floors, 1 hr. rated
Light( 05 sect,, ch, 6-14) Natural light from min. opening of 1/10 floor area
Ventilation min. 1/10 floor area
Sanitation min. 3 SF window or 100 sq. in. duct for ea. W.C.
Fire extinguishing system required(3802b) when floor area exceeds 1500 SF
Dry standpipes required(3803) no
Wet standpipes required(3805) no
Combination standpipes required(3802) no


CODES
ZONING CODE
The site is currently classified under the Forest Zone in the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. This zone allows low density residential development, recreation and forestry/agricultural activities.
To permit development of the project, a Planned Unit Development application would have to be approved. This process would allow higher densities and commercial uses to be permitted given that the development occur-ed in a manner sensitive to the site character and context. These requirements are compatible with project goals such that development would likely be feasable„
Future incorporation of a light industrial zone adjacent to the west boundary of the site is planned by the Town of Nederland. Building uses in that zone will be required to provide natural buffers to minimize any contextural conflicts.


Number exits required total(302a) Required exit width(3302b)
Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b)
Dead end corridor 1imit( 3304f) Corridor construction(3304g) Stairway widths(3305b)
Stairway landing depths( 3305f) Staiway to roof(3305o)
Smoke tower required(3309)
Exit signs required(3312b)
Exit sign separate circuit(3312c)
Other Requirements Separations between occupancies-fire ratings and construction
Enclosure of vertical openings(l706)
Light( 05 sect., ch,6-14)
Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required(3802)
Dry standpipes required Wet standpipes required Combination standpipes required Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies)
1
50 divided by occupancy no
36 in.
20 ft, see above 36 in.
36 in.
4 stories or more required if roof is less than 4/12 if floor is 75 ft. above ground
only to clearly identify no
M & R—3=1 hr., M & B-2=
1 hr,, M & E= 4 hr. more than 2 floors, 1 hr.
no sprinkler required if building is not surrounded by 60 ft, open space no no no
heating apparatus conforms to ch, 37 Mechanical: flammable liquids stored according to UBC standard 9-1; non- combustable floor surface


Group M-3
1. Floor area
Construction type Occupancy type
Basic allowance area(ch. 15 appendix)
Fire zone 3 increase Side(s) separation increase Total allowable area
2» Fire Resistive Requirements
Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs
Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c)
3. Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls
4. Building Height
Allowable stories
Fire sprinkler increase(507)
Total allowable stories Max„ height
5. Occupant Load
Story
Occupancy group Area
Sq„ ft. per occupant Total persons per floor
6„ Exit requirements
Number exits required ea. floor(3302a)
III
M-3
27100 SF- unlimited if building is entirely surrounded by public street or yards not less than 60' 13550 SF 6775 SF 47325 SF
III
4
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
2003b
1
1
1
4 1
5
65 ft.
5
M
47325 SF 100 473
1


Number exits required total building(table 33-A) Required exit width(3303b)
Ramps required Corridor widths(3305b)
Dead end corridor limit(3305e)
Corridor construction( 3304g)
Stairway widths(3306b)
Stairway landing depths(3305f)
Exit signs required(3312b)
3 for 3 floors 50 divided by occupancy yes 44 in,
20 ft, see above 36 in.
36 in. no
7. Occupancy Unit Live Loads
Uniform load Concentrated load
40 psf
1000 1b./2,5 ft2
8. Other Requirements
Separations between occupancies-fire ratings and construction
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706) Light( 05 sect., ch, 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required(3802b)
Wet standpipes required(3805)
Combination standpipes required(3802)
Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies)
Exceptions and deviations (see group occupancies)
E-2 & A-3=N,
E-2 & R= 1
more than 2 floors- lhr. 1/10 floor area 1/20 floor area W.C. provided at 1:35 students, min."1 lav. for ea. 2 W.C. if floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft. only if 4 stories or 20000 SF/ floor only if floor area 1500 ft2 without enough windows Chimney special,heating plant 1 hr. enclosed Heating plant if 400,000 Btu/hr.


Group E-2 1 „ Floor Area
Construction type III
Occupancy type E-2
Basic allowance area(505a) 20200 SF
Added stories increase(505b) 20200 SF
Side(s) separation increase 10100 SF
Total allowable area 50500 SF
2. Fire Resistive Requirements
Construction type III
Exterior bearing walls 4
Interior bearing walls 1
Exterior non- bearing walls 4
Structural frame 1
Permanent partitions 1
Shaft enclosures 1
Floors 1
Roofs 1
Exterior doors and windows 2003b
Inner court walls(504c) 1
3. Wall and Opening Protection
Fire resistance of exterior walls 1
Openings in exterior walls 3/4
4. Building Height
Allowable stories 2
Fire sprinkler increase(507) 1
Total allowable stories 3
Max, height 65 ft.
5„ Occupant loads
Story 3
Occupancy group E-2
Area/ story 30300 SF
Sq. ft, / occupant 20
Total persons/ floor 1515
Total persons in building 4545
6. Exit requirements
Number exits required each floor(3302a) 1


Ramps required Corridor width(3305b)
Dead end corridor 1imit(3305c) Corridor construction(3305g)
Stairway widths(3306b)
Stairway landing depths(3306f)
Exit signs required (3314a)
7. Occupancy Unit Live Loads
Uniform load Concentrated load
8. Other requirements
Separation between occupancies-fire ratings and construction
Enclosure of vertical openings(1706)
Light( 05 sections, ch. 6-14) Ventilation
Sanitation
Fire extinguishing system required(3802b)
Dry standpipes required(3803)
Wet standpipes required(3805)
Combination standpipes required(3802) Special hazards and Requirements (see group occupancies)
yes 44 in.
20 ft. see above 36 in.
36 in. no
75 psf
2000 1b./2.5 ft?
H-3 & B-2= 1 H-3 & A-3= 4 more than 2 floors,
1 hr.
1/10 floor area 1/20 floor area, if flammable liquids are used, air chg. rate = 4/ hr.Auto repair needs 1 cfm/ ft2
separate W.C. for ea. sex when number of employees exceeds 4 when floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft, no
If floor area exceeds 20000 SF no
noncombustable floor surface; flammable liquids stored according to UBC standard 9-1; boiler or central heating unit separated from bldg, by
2 hr0 fire resistive occupancy separation


program


The programming for the community is comprised of 3 major pieces, namely housing, business, and communal. The third section, communal buildings, is further subdivided into 4 seperate but interconnected parts: recreation, cultural, administratiive, and food services.
This overall framework is illustrated below, and then each of the 3 major sections is described in greater detail.
1. HOUSING
Living Room Dining Room Ki tchen Bedroom Sun Space Bathroom
Laundry T One per cluster
Recycling and Storage Room J
11. BUSINESSES
Design-Build Firm
Soft Tech. Research and Production
Computer CAD/CAM
Periodical Publishing
Agricultural Lab/Research
111. COMMUNNAL
A. RECREATION
Swimming Room Exercise Room Racquetball Court Sauna
First-Aid Room C. ADMINISTRATIVE
Meeting Room Administrator's Office Secretary/Receptioni st Ma i1 Room
B. CULTURAL
Library Music Studio Art Studio Dark Room Lounge
D. FOOD SERVICES
Dining Hall
Kitchen
Storage
Convenience Store


COMMUNAL FACILITIES
The communal facilities are intended to provide most of the daily needs of the members with the exception of certain services which are more feasible on a larger scale; i.e. hospital service, public schooling, large performing arts events, etc. Some amenities which would be unaffordable to the average individual, would be available due to joint ownership and shared expenses.
These include such things as a swimming pool, a music studio and a dark room. Other buildings/rooms would be necessary for a community of 100 people; i.e. administrative offices, dining hall, and convenience store. The general heading of communal facilities includes the four categories listed previously -recreation, cultural, administrative, and food services - and they encompass co-operatively owned and used spaces. This section would more than likely be built in phases with cultural and recreational pieces being completed last as more members and more funds are incorporated.


Another essential design consideration is to create a home-like atmosphere which will help the teenagers establish an attitude of concern and pride for their living space.
BUSINESSES
The businesses of the community have been chosen due to the high probability of their satisfying two basic conditions: 1) they provide a stimulating work environment for any number of different people who are dedicated in their personal life goals to decentralized growth and a high degree of self-sufficiency; 2) they have a reasonable probability of financial success. It is possible that, given the ideas set forth in the introduction, a small software firm could get started and then grow to supply one-half or more of the community's job needs. However, over-homogenization of interests is seen as a threat to the survival of the community. The goal is to avoid the narrow focus of historic utopian communities by providing a great diversity of professions and labor tasks, therby creating something on the scale of a small village.
This yeastful 1 interactive network will exist within a larger philosophical framework of economic, agricultural, and psychological self-sufficiency.
The businesses have also been selected on their low need for transportation of goods (i.e. no retail sales). They are primarily service oriented operations with minimal materials handling and therefore low transportation energy consumption. Also a consideration was the appropriate matching of businesses to the site. Certain functions were considered too offensive to be located in the general proximity of residential dwellings. Operations with high noise levels, for instance, would not be ideal for such a community despite zoning efforts. The list of businesses include soft technologies and not hard mechanized industry.


Coup!es
This category of housing is designed to accomodate couples and will contain one-bedroom units with a greater amount of shared space than the single one-bedroom units. They will also be clustered together for the above reasons.
* 10 units comprised of a 1iving/dining area (300), 1 bedroom (160), kitchen (80), sunspace (100), bathroom (50), plus 20%
(140) = 830 Ft2.
Families
These units will be used for families of 3-5 members. Once children reach the age of 14 or 15 years old, they will move into a shared household with other adolescents. Families with more than three young children may need to add a room or two onto the above housing units.
* 13 units comprised of a living room (220), dining room (120), kitchen (100), sunspace (130), master bedroom (200), bathroom (50),
3 bedrooms (360), plus 20% (235) = 1415 Ft2.
Adolescents
These apartments are designed to provide a living environment in which the older children of the community can find an additional degree of privacy from their parents, and begin learning responsibility skills associated with being more independent and living with other housemates. It is important to place them far enough from the family units to provide a sufficient degree of acoustical privacy.


HOUSING
The moshav is designed for 100 individuals comprised of 20% singles, 20% couples, and 60% family members. It is expected to appeal primarily
to a young age group and appropriate dwelling sizes were designed so as
\
to best match the needs of such a demographic distribution. The individuals and housing units break down in the following manner:
people units
SINGLES 20 14
COUPLES 20 10
FAMILIES 52 13
ADOLESCENTS 8 2
100 39 TOTALS
Singles
The housing options available to individuals will offer a choice between private or communal living. Those prefering a greater degree of privacy will opt for a one-bedroom unit, and those preferring a shared household will choose a bedroom in a 4-member house. The units will be joined in a cluster arrangement for reasons of energy efficiency and lower site impact.
* 12 individual units comprised of 2 rooms, a small bath and an efficiency-size kitchen. Ft^= 250+40+66+45 (15%)=400.
* 2 shared households of 4 residents each comprised of living room
(220), dining room (120), kitchen (100), study (120), sun-
space (130), 4 bedrooms (400), 2 bathrooms (80), and 20% (230),
2
for circulation and storage = 1400 Ft .


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Full Text

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MOSHAV ODD D CJ 0 Cl 0 D DO an alternative community 00 DODD 0 0 0 0 .. Arch .. _... 1984 LD 1190 G68

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.. I ' ,. r ,. AURARIA LIB ARY An architectural Thesis presented to the College of Design and Planning, University of Denver in partial fullfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture Harris Spring Semester, 1984 AURARIA tfRPARV

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1 . The Thesis of y . is approved. University of Colorado at Denver May, 1984

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special thanks are due all those people in my life who have made the completion of this project possible. Especially helpful to my state of mind were the long walks with Dodger and Zahav. also to Christopher Pyzik with whom I collaborated on the con ceptualization and development of the project. The development study that he conducted for the site has added a special dimension of under standing to the project.

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introduction .. I .

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TABLE OF C ONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION Project statement Thesis statement II. BACKGROUND Context History I I I. SITE ANALYSIS Context Inventory Analysis Guidelines IV. CLIMATE Overview Data graphs Summary V. ENERGY Goals Patterns Issues VI. CODES Buildings Zoning VI I. PROGRAM VII I. APPENDIX

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J PROJECT STATEMENT This thesis project involves the programming and design of a co-operative community composed of 100 members. It will be developed on an 87 acre site located just out side of Nederland, Colorado. The program is composed of three major design segments housing, busi nesses, and public facilities-and while all three elements will be programmed, design will focus primarily on the 37,000 sq. ft. of housing. The project is undertaken as an exploration in alternative forms of population growth. A case will be m ade for the likelihood of increased numbers of decentralized, small communities.

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There is currently a trend of people returning to simpler, slowerpaced lifestyles which is more than just an extension of the back-to-the-earth movement of the sixties. ''Statistics Canada" 1 has shown in a study that "rural growth from 1976 -1981 was almost twice that of urban centers;" anct some of this can be attributed to the increased oppurtunity for working at home brought about by computer advances of the last decade. Current technology is allowing a rapidly increasing number of people to do bookkeeping and secretarial work for large businesses, stock market analysis, and free-lance programming, among many other tasks, without the need to commute to a central facility. Indeed , we are already in a situation where telecommunications and information systems require less energy than that necessary for mass commuting between residences and work. This has made it economically feasible for a large proportion of the work force to earn their livings at home. Research conducted by Jack Nilles and a team sponsored by the Nation al Science Foundation2, has found that "the relative energy consumption advantage of telecommuting over commuting (i.e. the ratio of commuting energy consumption to telecommuting consumption) is at least 29:1 when private auto is used; 11:1 when normally loaded mass transit is used; and 2:1 for a 100% utilized mass transit system." The implications that this trend will have on urban planning include the feasibility of establishing new patterns of decentralized growth. With people given more flexibilty in c hoosing a location to settle down, it then becomes reasonable to devise a growt h plan which will allow for the development of num erous small communities. These communities would offer an alternative lifestyle, where the members c ould e x perience a stronger connection to the natural envi ro nment, and a more active and direct link to the socio-political structure which shapes their environment.

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Perhaps this task falls outside the general parameters of an architect's roll in today's society. However, it also does not fall clearly within any one of the design and planning disciplines, and yet it encompasses elements speci-fically connected to each one of them. There exists a need for interdisciplinary work in developing an overall plan, for designing such communitieso In this project I have assumed certain overall goals and ideoloqies for a model community, and have then focused on several of the major architectural issues. The title 'Mountain Moshav' was chosen because of the use of the Israeli moshav as a model. Its characteristics of co-operative ownership mixed with private family life provides a tested and proven framework for small communities. Two key goals which will help give form to the community, influencing everything from land use to location of bedrooms, are self-sufficiency and the establishment of an effective community network. In regards to the first goal, a look at Peter Van Dresser's image of decentralized growth may be helpful: 11 ••• the bulk of the livelihood needs of such a region must be met within the region itself by skilled, scientific, intensive, and conservative use of the lands, waters, and renewable biotic and environmental resources of the region. The long-term strategy for economic development should be gradual de-involvement from the mass logistic machinery of the continental economy, with its enormous and ever-increasing con sumption of energy and irreplaceable natural resources. The de-involvement should be facilitated by an evolution towards basic self-suffiency at a high real standard of l iving."3 While some of the community members' income would be generated from computer-related jobs, others would work on soft technology development, and outreach appropriate to the re g ion (i.e. windmill des i gn). Also, a communal effort toward the product io n o f food and the use of renewable energy sources would lighten the burden of outside income generation, and minimize the commun-i ty' s environmental i mpact. The second goal , t hat o f w orking within some form of communal structure,

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is one which brings to mind a number of alternative life styles and utopian communities. There have been many such communities covering a wide range of unifying concepts and varying degrees of communal commitment and individual freedom. Dolores Hayden distinguishes between 11Utopias11 and 11ideologies11, stating that utopias are designed with social revolution in mind whereas ideologies are designed to harmonize with the spirit of the age in a wishful but nonrevolutionary way.4 Most utopias are short-lived experiments, rarely lasting much longer than the lives of their founding members, and often lasting only for several years. The focus of this community would not be religious, ascetic, or revolutionary, but instead would allow a great degree of freedom for individual ownership within a co-operative framework. By scaling the community at 100 members and planning for a diversity of job types, it would take on the character of a village and not a commune. Such things as communal buildings (i.e. recreational and cultural facilities), open space, and small businesses would be co-operatively owned, thereby providing each member with more amenities and more incentive to see the community and its businesses successd. Given this structural basis, I have chosen to focus on one particular concept : that of fascilitating a strong connection between the people and the natural environment. It is my assumption that this would be one of the primary interests drawing people to this type of lifestyle, .Much of the task of fascilitating this connection falls within the domain of the architect. It is my hypothes i s t hat the connection can be strengthened by the use of appropriate design solutions. T h ree specific areas of focus are: 1) The use of app ropr iate materials and forms t o effect a strong connection between buil d ing and ground 2) Orientation and siting of buildings to allow the buildings to become a part of the l andscape

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3) Organization of building clusters and design gf interconnections to provide successful exterior transition spaces . In designing residences, it is possible to use materials found locally, such as stone for the central hearth or rough-sawn wood for interior trim, which will provide the inhabitants with a visual and psychological connection to their external environment. Also, the inside outside relationship can be accented by such things as extended roof planes which appear to float over a heavily anchored base. Proper orientation and fenestration will provide a more obvious link to the changing pattern of the sun and the natural rhythms of the seasons. Furthermore, the appropriate siting of the buildings will be necessary to bring about a blending of built form and landscap e . Quoting Frank Lloyd Wright, " no house should ever be on any hill or on anything. It should be of the hill, belonging to it, so hill and house could live together each the happier for the other ••.• Architecture, after all, is no less a weaving and a fabric than the trees."5 Finally, this connection which I am aiming for must be brought about through levels other than the purely visual, as experiencing architecture is never uni-dimensional. Bloomer & Moore6 speak of architecture as a body centered art , stressing the importance of haptic experience and of how one moves through a space. The movement between communal and private space, for instance, must be conside red in design as an important transitional event. The use of appropriate paving materials, and the design of outdoor gathering places and gateways can minimize the abruptness of these transitions and strengthen the connection from interior to exterior.

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background

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HISTORY AND CONTEXT The site chosen for the project is one rich with natural beauty and historyo It is l ocated approximately one mile northeast of Nederland, Colorado on the east-ern slope of the Rocky Moun-tains. Nederland grew up i n 1870 with the first discovery of silver ore, and concentrated silver bricks were produced r egularly, with the steady business resulting in the development of a small town. In, 1900, tungsten ore was discovered and the next 20 years saw major growth with N ederland becoming the chief trade center of the r egion. As the mining camps grew, log cabins were built, mainly with square-hewn timbers, until the sawmill was erected and wood-framed structures emerged. It was ,!{ • .'If k'. f l!J -,. .. / ' 1 /i.'.' /J:;1ic Sn:iti' . , .'r Old Powerf;ouseCrys t a;; Co/prndo

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not uncommon to see framed LAI
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climate-responsive form. The open-plan log cabin with steeply pitched roof and stone fireplace was a very successful response to heavy snow loads and significant heeting needs, using readily available materials. The strength of that image as it relates to the surrounding landscape will be an inspiration when designing new stuctures. Unfortunately, the town of Nederland followed the same course as most other Colorado minig towns, and even today it is less economically than it was 70 years ago. With th= the silver supply depleted and the demand for tungsten decreased, the businesses have closed down and left their scars on the landscape. A still common sight in Nederland is the empty shell

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of a concent rating mill or the delapidated remains of a wood-frame house. The site itself is randomly doted with defunct mines, most of which are only 20 feet deep and a few feet wide, but there are 12 of them in all. The design approach will be to eliminate the poss ibility of foundation bear ing problems or site circulation pr o blems, without covering all of the mines. One 0r more should actually be highlighted so as not t0 l ose connection with the history of the reg i on. /(a#t ,/aee c O U R AY, COLORADO Cdiott:U:UJ fo{q}(_ .4. S HCQO

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I Site

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I. CONTEXT a. Regional Context b. Site/Local Context II. SITE INVENTORY A. Landform TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Topography/ Elevation 2. Slope Analysis B. Natural Systems 1. Geology 2. Hydrology 3. Soi 1 s 4. Vegetation 5. Wildlife C . M i c roc 1 i rna t e 1. Slope Orientation 2. Solar Exposure and Albedo 3. Shading by Landforms 4. Shading by Vegetation 5. Winds 6. Other Thermal Effects D. Visual Character

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I I I. SITE ANALYSIS a. Development Suitability b. Natural Systems Impacts c. Energy-Efficient Potential d. Composite of Site Factors IV. SITE PLANNING/ DESIGN GUIDELINES

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SITE SELECTION The site was chosen based on the following criteria: * mountain location * southern exposure * proximity to small town * abundant site vegetation * road access * moderate slopes * adequate size for program * moderate land costs CONTEXT REGIONAL CONTEXT The project site is near the town of Nederland, in Boulder County, Colorado. Nederland is a small town of about 1000 persons nestled in a mountain valley east of the continental divide, 17 miles west of Boulder. (see map). Much of the land in this area is a part of the Roosevelt National Forest. Economic activities in the region include recreation/ tourism, forestry, mining, grazing and residential development. Major recreation and tourist centers include Eldora Ski Area, Indian Peaks Wilderness and Rocky Mountain National Park. SITE/LOCAL CONTEXT The site is located 1.5 miles NE of Nederland off of Colo. Hwy. 72 on a gravel county road. The property is 87 acres in size and composed of what were originally several smaller parcels. The site is surrounded by both national forest and private properties. A number of low-density residences exist in the area. The area has a history of mining and as such quite a few old tungsten mines and mine buildings still exist. Adjacent national forest property along the western site boundary

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L.OGATION 1" . 7MI . -N

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I will likely become included in the town of Nederland in coming years for use as a light industrial zone. When such changes occur, city water and sewer lines will be extended, allowing access from the project site. Electric and telephone lines currently exist along . the county access road . SITE INVENTORY LANDFORM Topography/Elevation The site area exists on the SW and west slopes of Hurricane Hill (el . 8770), a mountain landform rising from slopes on the north side of the valley in which Nederland is located. Site elevations range from 8440' at the county road to 8680' at the highest points up Hurricane Hill. The summit is located slightly NE of the site. Two ridge forms extend outward from the main slopes of the mountain in an east-west direction. These create long south facing slopes and two NW facing gulches . Relatively level areas exist along the road and at a plateau formed where a ridge section meets the slopes of Hurricane Hill . Slope Analysis The site contains a variety of slope types, from gentle to steeply pitched. Four slope catagories are defined: 1 . 3-8 % Gentle Slopes 2 . 8-15 % Moderate Slopes 3 . 15-25 % Moderately Steep Slopes 4 . 25% + Steep Slopes

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SITE CONTEXT I"•WO' • ..... n .. I'LIII>UC. {6ti-AVU.) HA."f'L.. Lml7 ( fli'fOJ.L L__ U>t.O . 11.' --MI. i i v

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PtRCE.NT Sl-OPE •••too' "

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I ' 3-8 % and 8-15 % slopes generally have few stability and erosion problems and are well suited for development. 15-25 % slopes may require some efforts to protect against slope failure and erosion such as vegetation cover and terracing. Slopes greater than 25% present severe problems for development and should be avoided. Approximately one third of the site falls within the gentle and moderate slope categories. These are located along the county road and up on the ridge plateau. Another one third of the site falls in the moderately steep category. These areas are scattered throughout the site, often on the upper sections of slopes. Steep slopes comprise the final third of the site and are mostly located in the north, NE and NW parts of the sitec NATURAL SYSTEMS Geology The underlying geologic material throughout the site is crystalline bedrock. This is composed of a variety of metamorphic and igneous rock formations, all extremely stablec These formations are highly fractured with mineral veins, many of which were mined in the 1800's. A number of old mine shafts and pits are found today on the sitec Most of these mines went very deep under the crystalline bedrock and thus present no subsidence hazard. Several rock out-crops exist along the ridgetops and steep slopes . A fault line occurs off the site on Hurricane Hill, but does not pose any threat to development .

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CJ EE .. 9nb 510TtfE. ANI? QUM1Z11l:: .qrn MON::Z.ONrfE AMP gd E!MNOO!Dilln. TKhm Moru.DNfiE. routt'l"-Y TKg . ' . . . 'tl' . ' ......... .. I. . . . . . . . . . . . , /.. _. .. : . ,. .•. . : : .:.. . -... ...:. .. . . . . .. .. . . . .. .. ....... ' '

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Hydrology The accompanying map shows direction of surface runoff for rainfall and snowmelt. Intermittent streams are formed in the two northwest gulches. These probably flow only in the spring from snowmelt runoff. Ground infiltration is typically good except on very steep slopes, because of permeable soils and abundant vegetative cover. Local ground water sources are from crystalline rock aquifers . These aquifers are a high quality but low yield H20 source. Typical well yields are between one and 20 gal./ min., with an average of 3 gal./min. Such yields are sufficient for residential development, but may not be adequate for higher density community development. Although the overall project size and density is low, water conservation and rainwater captu r e may be desirable unless Nederland municipal water is available. Water table depths vary from 61 to 801 in the area, with an average of 351 • Two existing wells adjacent to and on the site are 151 and 301 deep respectively. Existing mine shafts in rock fractures may provide potential well locations, although care should be used such that they do not become ground water pollution sources. Soils Soil types on the site are generally similiar in that they were formed by decomposition of igneous and metamorphic bedrock. The soils are classified under the CryoboralfsRock outcrop Association. A gen eral description includes: Shallow to deep soils, well drained, gentle to steep slopes, often coarse, sandy and gravelly, frequent rock outcrops.

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Typical soil characteristics are listed below: l. Texture/Profile o-1. 51 l. 5-3 I 3-5.51 5-151 silty sand,dry, medium dense silty sand and gravel, moist, medium dense sand and gravel with some rock fragments, dense bedrock 2. Bearing capacity: good3500-4000 psf ( GM, SM unified classification) 3. Shrink/ swell and frost heave potential: low 4 . Average permeability: good H20 percolation test: 11 / 16 min. ave., rna x . l 1 I 5m i n . , m i n • l 1 /3 0 m i n • 5 . Slope stability: good due to well g raded texture 6. Soil depth: varies, 0-301 in area, 5-151 average. Less than 21 poses severe development limits due t o difficulty of excavation. Shallower soils exist on steep slopes, deeper soils o n gentle slopes and near bottom of slopes . 7. Soil erosion potential: varies 01 5 % slope 1 5-25 % slope 2 5 % + slope Low Moderate Severe

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SOil-S * D D SHAUOW ( <. Z.' ) OOTCI'\.Or rOT"UfflAL { '? Z-5" 7. ) lt'TENTI"L c rt>Tt:NTIAL<-157.) . , '

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8. Septic tank suitability: varies, good to poor Limitations: -less than 7' soil depth -greater than 30% slope Shallow soils ( less than 2' deep) which present limitations for development exist on ridge tops and some steep slopes. Severe erosion potential exists on steep slopes in the north and NE portions of the site. Moderate erosion potential exists on moderately steep slopes scattered throughout the siteo Vegetation The site is located in the Montaine Zone climax forest which extends from 8000' to 9000' elevation. Primary tree species found include Lodgepole Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Douglas Fir and Quaking Aspen. Because of past site disturbances such as fire and logging, climax species of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir are intermixed with and less common than Lodgepole Pine, a pioneer species. Sunny, south facing slopes contain low to medium density forests of Lodgepole Pine and Ponderosa Pine with a grassy understory. Cool, north facing slopes have dense forests of Lodgepole Pine and Douglas Fir with little or no understory plants. Moist pockets and north facing slopes contain small groves of aspen with grassy understories. Grassy meadows exist on south facing slopes and vary from small forest openings to larger expanses. Existence of past disturbances are seen in the predominant young, pole stage trees on the site (30-40'), many forest openings and brush and slash piles scattered throughout the site.

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-YE.GE. T A Tl ON li1m 1::_:::=:::-:.j r=J DENSE. nNE ANP !"'F:. (NO UNJ'}U.51'Z:F:'f" ) L-OW -ro MIOPIVM DE.N511Y I"INIOAHP <. )

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Shrubs, wildflowers and ground covers are found in the grassy meadows, amongst thin pine forests and below aspen groves. A list of major plant species found in the Montaine Zone is included belowo Shrubs: ground juniper, sagebrush, mountain mahogany, mullen, choke ber ry, serviceberry. Wildflowers/ groundcovers: lichens/ mosses, sedums, saxifrages, geraniums, cinquefoil, pestemons, potentilla, kinnikinnik, jamesa, ninebark, squaw currant, pinedrops. Wildlife The natural setting of the site provides habitat for a number of animal species, although species density and variety have decreased substantially due to site disturbances and increasing development in the area. The young, pole stage trees on the site a suitable habitat for fewer species than matur e forests although more species are found here than in grass and tree seedling environments o In general, the aspen groves p r ovide the richest wildlife habitat on the site. The greatest density and variety of animal species are found here. Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir forests have lower species numbers and densities, followed by Lodgepole Pine, with meadows providing the poorest habitat. The disturbed nature of some environments, such as increased forest/ meadow edges due to logging can actually improve habitats for many mammal species o The distribution of animal species between habitat types is difficult to acertain since many species utilize different environments for feeding and reproduction and move between habitats seasonally or dailyo The

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following is a list of major wildlife species found in the area of the site. Large Mamma 1 s Elk Mule deer Porcupine Bobcat Bighorn sheep Small Mammals Cottontail rabbit Snowshoe rabbit Ground squirrel Albert squirrel Birds (partial list) Golden eagle Mountain lion Black bear Coyote Fox Chipmunk Pine Marten Red-backed vole Deer mouse Bald eagle (endangered) Peregrine falcon (endangered) Gray-headed junco Woodpeckers Goshawk Turkey Pygmy nuthatch MICROCLIMATE Slope Orientation South facing slopes are optimal building locations from an energy efficient standpoint since they receive the most sun and are the warmest. Optimal orientations extend off of true south. Within this range approximately 90% of potential winter solar gain is available. Between and high percentages of sun are still present . Between +60 and only m oderate amounts are present . Beyond little solar is usually available. This is not exactly t rue for some slope angles as discussed in the next section . Approximately 3/8 of the site contains south facing slopes . l/4 of the site falls on SE and SW facing slopes. l/8 of the site has

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SL-OPE. ORIENTATION D (t.o-1o NOI'-111, Nv:-'1 .,a-1eo• . . • . r:r :,:• •••• ......... : : • • \ . . . . . : . . . .

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west-SW facing slopes. North, NW and NE slopes take up l/4 of the site. Slope Exposure and Albedo Steepness of slope is a factor which alters the solar gain characteristics of different orientations (see chart). Steep south slopes re-ceive the greatest amounts of solar radiation in winter because they are closest ta a perpindicular plane to the low sun angles. Steep SE and SW slopes receive the second most radiation. Gentle slopes of south, east and west orientations receive moderate amounts of sun in winter. Steep east and west slopes, and gentle north slopes receive small amounts of radiation. Steep northern slopes receive almost no radiation. In spring and fall, the pattern is somewhat changed with gentle gentle slopes of a l l orientations receiving similiar amounts of radiation. The site contains a large amount of good or exellent solar exposures, with poor areas located in the north and NW portions of the site. Albedo is the degree of reflection of solar radiation by surfaces in the environment. During cold periods high reflection is desirable to heat building surfaces, whereas during hot periods higher absorb tion is desi r able for cooling. albedo of various surfaces for total solar radiation with diffuse reflection fresh snow cover o l d snow cover light sand dunes . surface brick dirty , firm snow sandy soil meadows and f ie l ds densely built-up areas woods aspha l t dark , cultivated soil water surfaces , sea Sour ces: T h e C li mate Near t he Ground Desi gn W ith C li mate 75-95o 407 0o 30-60o 23-48 ' o 20 50o 15 -40% 15-25 o 5-20 % 7-10 o 3 1 0 ' o

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SOLAR EXPOSURE: Average clear day solar radiation values due to combined effects of orientation and slope.(Btu/ft2/day) Orientation percent slope South SE,SW East,West NE,NW North Cl 5 1150 1026 814 712 664 (!) () . N 10 1416 1164 735 548 460 20 1681 1278 593 310 177 30 1947 1416 513 164 0 ::3: 5 1821 Ill 1763 1664 1652 1646 -s . .. 10 1926 0 1797 1576 1552 1541 () rt-2101 1848 1418 1323 1378 . 20 N 30 2276 1901 1261 l 083 998 Source: Geiger, Rudolph. The Climate Near the Ground.

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) IC5 Dr1lMAl. -liDO . IUlO:: I'"' 1100-)1DO I"'IPP.M'fl. 800-IJ) ESJ IY'OP-D D
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Shadows Landforms Areas that receive some shading in winter due to topographic obstruc-tions are shown in the accompanying map. These may be only in the morning or afternoon due to low sun angles. Areas depicted are basically north, NW and NE slopes. Shadows Cast Qt Vegetation Much of the site contains low density pine forest which creates variable shading patterns in winter. Many sunny pockets are available as potential building locations with careful siting. Large open meadows which are unshaded are found on the southern parts of the site. Smaller meadows exist to the north and east. Deanse forests with little sun penetration exist on northern slopes. The deciduous aspen groves contain some winter sun but are shaded in summer. Winds Significant winter heat losses in building are due to infiltration from cold winds. On the site, the strongest winter winds come from the NW. Areas that are protected from these winds by the landforms are shown in the accompanying map by the 20h zone. Areas of wind turbulence due to mixing of these winds with secondary winds are shown by the 5h zone. h refers to the height of the landform the wind must rise over and 5h and 20h are the widths of these zones from the crest of the hill. I Actual observed c onditions on the site indicate that the 5h zones are mostly protected due t o dense forests on the northern slopes. A rule of thumb is that vegetation wind breaks slow wind speed for an area the width

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SHADOWS GAST -L-ANDFORMS WIHm.. (.. H1 Oft-rM) D 1-J" AU.-________ / /

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SHAPOWS CAST BY VE.&ETATI ON ?HAPE.P IN WINIU.. {((8 NroN'),. 6HAD1:.17 IN WINTE.If-, l...t>W -ro ME.P IN ll'i 60MME.Il. AU/ / ------

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NW WtNDSHE.P.S TO l.ANI:)f'QII:.M l"•loo' 0 l>h t-ONE:. f -::-: J U'h (rfl.Dl)L'fl.P) I I

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of 30 times the height of the vegetation(30h). Up to 15h the wind speed is reduced 50% , with velocity increasing as the distance from the windbreak. Open areas close to the county road were also observed as exposed to winds blowing off the road. Secondary winds from the south are available on most of the site for summer cooling and ventilation. Other Thermal Effects Elevation change on the site is not significant enough to create any noticable effects on microclimate. No major cold air pockets exist on the site from nighttime cold air drainage being blocked, although the north and NW facing ravines probably collect some due to their steepness . VISUAL CHARACTER The site contains a number of spectacular panoramic views from the ridgetops . These survey the continental divide, the Nederland area and surrounding smaller mountains. In the forested areas of the site partially obstructed views of the divide from small openings or along roads may be seen . A number of internal views within the site are created by the meadows and along the access road from the northwest . These are potential places for visual access during progression thru the site. Other special features include rock outcrops, aspen groves, sunny meadows and dense conifer forests. The accompanying map shows direction of views and locaton of special features.

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VISUAL.. . TER I "•IOC>' 'IEWS +-IH'TUW-.L-1 Oa6n.wrw

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SITE ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY Areas suitable for development were determined from slope, geology, hydrology and soils data. Feasability and cost of development were the primary considerations involved. 3-8 % slopes are most suitable for conventional construction, roads, sewers, cultivated agriculture and intense recreational uses. 8-15 % slopes are well suited to one-story earth shelter construction and create moderate limitations for the above categories. 15-25 % slopes provide svere limitations for all uses suitable for gentle slopes but are well suited for 2-story _earth shelter construction . Slopes greater than 25% and soils with shallow depths present severe development limitations for all uses because of extreme slope protection and difficult excavation required. Severe areas exist mainly on the steep north slopes and at ridgetops . NATURAL SYSTEMS IMPACTS Environmentally sensitive areas were determined from geology, soils, hydrology, vegetation and wildlife data. Extremely sensitive areas which should be protected consist of steep slopes greater than 25% which would have substantial erosion problems if developed . Aspen groves are also very sensitive areas since they provide rich wildlife habitats. The small size of aspen groves on the site reduces their importance . Moderately sensitive areas include 15-25 % slopes which require erosion control if developed and forested areas which control water runoff and soil erosion, moderate climatic extremes and provide wildlife habitat. Both areas are buildable if carefully developed . Open areas on gentle slopes

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DEVE-L.OPM EN T , . G-100' D m IH"fi:NSI'I/E. 50tft.P 1'01<-ONE..-ION.'TH MOP. Aforft..lv. 1'01<-fWO-'Tt>lll" EJ>Jl.:fH !>Hf.L.IEI't. ;VEJt. I'Oit. U>NVE.NIIDHAL-ltPN1 6E.Vu. L-lMifS PtVt.L.DrME.Nl

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NATUR-AL-SYSTEMS POE. TD PE.Yu.orMJ:.NI r. 1"' I 0 MINIMAL-IMrAc.-r p YE'iE.IA1l"N AHP MANMU'If:HI U. Arri-IU' VU.E.IA1lON/Wil.DI-1Ff. ANP lt'QSC.:l 15t.. N'l'l.-1 111""-"l' AHP

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(less than 15% ) would have the least development impact. ENERGY-EFFICIENT POTENTIAL Best areas for energy efficient development have an optimal mix of conditions from solar exposure, wind protection and shading data. Next best areas require careful siting or vegetation thinning to overcome effects of vegetation shading . Moderate areas need wind protection and in some places vegetation to get optimal solar gain. The poorest areas for energy efficiency have little solar gain and much wind exposure . Best areas for energy efficiency are on the southern and middle parts of the site. COMPOSITE OF SITE DEVELOPMENT FACTORS Development suitability, natural systems impacts and energy efficiency data were combined to determine the best building locations on the site. Optimal building areas contain optimal energy benefits and little to moderate limits to development . Good building areas have high energy efficient potential, low to moderate limits for development, although vegetation thinning to improve solar gain should be weighed against vegetation conservation in these areas. Moderate areas are buildable but have wind exposure and are located public roads. Poor areas are buildable but have few energy benefits. The worst areas for building are environmentally sensitive or difficult to develop and should be protected. Excellent and good building areas exist on the southern and central portions of the site.

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EFFICIENT POTE-NTIAL.. I'•IOo' OrfiMAL. l!-E.!>I MfA'.. VE:"E.I AIIPN Cit cNUOL. rtEaiiiii:$P W t>MlMIU. GrAIN. MWUATE. ,.. WINP fi.UIIIII!Il' 1l> MOPUAIJ!. VE.6iE:fAI11N iHINNJHt. / WEFIJI.. I>NnOf-WINP 0 IMr!Wt W0'-'.>1 nP<":> 1-l"flU. IMrltDVf.Mf.NI

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DEVEl-OPMENT : I ''-, 100 I I777J -OrfiMAL-15UIL-VIN6. WliH MA:ft>fl:. r.rLL.I . NtM"J: :_ :_-:: AfiON I!>E I . . . . . . . ATION onlMAf.... (("''"'. I .... . ._ .. -:.. l'l'77A 110Pf.Mil!. 15UIL-V1Ndi nEI<'$ PN WINP t : . . . HiP ill . -:. _-: I!U1L-VIN" 1.-l"fTL.l.. ott. Nil L:..:!.J E. f'Tf . D -W0'--!>1 WIL.PIN'i PUI:-TD PIP'I'IC-111.-TY Dt1. IMI""'-1 ON NA1Ufi:AI, ..... . . . . . .:. I I

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SITE PLANNING/DESIGN GUIDELINES The following guidelines were derived from site analysis data . 1 . Maintain site character/ provide natural buffer zones 2 . Respond to landform, natural systems 3. Build on warm, south slopes 4. Protect from wind 5 . Cluster development to preserve open space 6. Repair disturbed areas 7 . Balance vegetation thinning and conservation 8 . Terrace steep slopes if developed 9 . Utilize panoramic views 10. Preserve and utilize special site features 11. Use native and drought resistant landscaping 12. Maintain and improve meadows for grazing( ave. one acre/animal) 13. Use earth shelter construction on steeper slopes 14. Minimize roads and hard surfaces 15. Centralize parking 16. Use vegetation to moderate climatic extremes 17. Utilize indigenous building materials 18. Provide r ainwater storage and water recycling/ conservation 19. Consider small scale community sewage treatment systems

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climate

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OVERVIEW The site, which sits at 8,500 feet above sea level and is primarily south facing, is exposed to a typical Colorado mountain climate. Temperatures range from moderate to cold, mandating a need for heating during virtually all months of the year. Temperatures of 85 are not uncommon in July and August, but due to moderate humidity and frequent breezes, mechanica l cooling is generally not needed. Another characteristic of the climate is the large diurnal temperature swing, especially noticeable from fall through spring. This provides design opportunities to use passive tech niques to carry some of the daytime heat over into the cold nights and also release heat at night when appropriate. The greatest amount of rain comes in the fall with occasional thundershowers throughout the summer. The winter months experience steady snowfall with an average of 15-20 inches per month, and a semi-perminent ground cover from October through March. The humidity is generally about 50-60 % , and the winds are primarily out of the west sweeping across the sloping site. The nature of the winds is erratic, with alternating periods of calm and motion. The active periods can occasionally be quite severe due to storm activity over the continental divide.

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I DATA The data used to generate the following charts comes primarilly from two sources: 1) The National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado; 2) The University of Colorado Mountain Research Station. Both maintain climate stations within several miles and a few hundred feet elevation of the site. Solar radiation data was obtained from Denver statistics with the assumption that it would provide accurate design information for the site. The two factors of higher altitude and greater precipitation causing a greater amount or cloudiness, would roughly balance out. The Mahoney method of climatic analysis has been used along with the computer program 'CLIMAT'(see appendix). Results are tabulated and conclu sions drawn about design implications.

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PAGE 58

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PAGE 60

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'SUMMARY Results of the Mahoney analysis suggest use of heavy, well insulated walls and roof, with additional heavy mass on the interior. The long axis should be east west so as to maximize heat gain and minimize the chilling effect of westerly winds. Window openings should be less than 20% in all walls except south to minimize heat loss. Also, the building should be designed with a large time-lag indicating the use of heavy materials inside the insulated skin, and the floor layout should be compact so as to minimize exterior surface area. In general, the location is ideal for passive solar heat strategies such as trombe wall or direct gain, and the next stage of analysis should include optimization of insulation I solar ratio and rough sizing of south glazing area for schematic design. The high percentage of snow cover will be an asset to such systems due to its reflectance of solar radiation increasing the amount of energy striking a vertical surface. It will also be a detriment since increased roof loads will require more expensive structural systems.

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energy

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G 0 A lS If new patterns of decentralized population growth are to develop in the near future, a critical aspect of their success or failure w ill be the degree to which they are energy self-sufficient. Costs for being on the publi c utilities grid are ever inc r easing, and a large percentage of those cos t s are attributable to the extensive delivery network. A mount ain com munity run on gas and e lectricity would certainly tax t hat delivery system, and also be a heavy economic burden. It is t herefore a goal of the moshav to be as independent of outside energy sources as possible, and this will be accomplished in two ways: 1) minim ize energy use th rough the use of heavy insulation, caulking and weatherstripping, earth berming, and other conservation techniques in the s maller buil dings; daylighting and approppriate shading devices in th e load dominated buildings. 2) maximizing use of renewable resources such as solar and wind ener gy. This could take the form of direct gain areas, trombe walls, greenhouses, and natu r al ventilation, in addition to active strategies of flat plate collectors and possibly a wind power genera tor. Winds on the site are not ideal for such purposes due to their unde pendable nature. Velocities frequently range from 0-40 mph with significant periods of inactivity. However, an undeveloped but privately owned peak just northeast of the site boundary is high enough to r eceive unobstructed winds from the west and south wit h an estima ted average speed of 15-20 mph. A co-operative venture between land owner and community could be sought in an a t tempt to provide usable energy to both parties.

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PATTERNS The following schematic design patterns are recommended for region four in 11Regional Guidelines for Building Passive Energy Conserving Homes11• This region•s characteristics are described in the previous overview. The patterns provide suggestions for dealing with the assets and liabilities of the climate. lA. Keep the Heat In and Cold Temperatures Out -cluster functions tightly to minimize perimeter surface. Snuggle the house into the site to minimize heat loss. Place storage and secondary use spaces on wind exposed walls. Let sun and light into major living spaces.

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I lB. Insulate Thoroughly: Temperatures are a Liability Most of ... Use insulati on around the ( f V\ I • -entire perimeter, include . 1 thermal mass withi n the 0 , ) / . interior to store internal '/--:,._ . /tj! heat gain and modify 1). / temperature swings. Earth coverings for insul-ated walls or roofs can ........... provide substantial reduction of __ . tremes. .---------=-..._ Use double or triple glazing and fit insulated curtains or shutters for use at night. !_. ---------__ _. . -1 C. Locate Carefully: Minimize Heat Loss A void build i ng in the bottom of a vall ey where cold air drainage causes the coldest temperatures. Slopes and benches are the warm est s ites to bu ild on.

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l C. (cont'd) Minimize the number of outside doors, and provide vestibules or airlocks for main entires. Masonry is a heat conductor that should not project through an exterior wall. Chimneys and flues should be clustered and placed in the center of the house to / .. ----=--:-::: . __..; # ... minimize perimeter 2. Let The Sun In: Sun is an Asset Throughout the Year Build on the north side of a valley facing south, and plan sun angles carefully to prevent the winter sun from being cut off by trees and mountains. Make the entire south wall a sun room of some sort. Greenhouse living spaces work well from the end of January to early December.

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2. (cont'd) DIRECT GAIN (See Part II) Collect and store solar radiation in floors, walls or ceilings for direct gain solar heating. Use heavy, massive walls on the south, make the outside dark in color, and use rough textures to increase absorption of solar heat. 3. Protect From the Wind: Winds are Always a Liability Site the house to mm1m1ze exposure to the wind, and use landscaping to divert winds. All doors and entrances should be sheltered from winds with both roofs and wing walls or screens. ___ /

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3. (cont'd) Use snow fences and wind screens to keep snow from piling up in entries and against south facing windows --' andwalls. 4. In Climates with a Big Day-To-Night Temperature Difference, Use Mass to Smooth Out Temperature Fluctuation Use underground construct i on to reduce the effects of outdoor temperature fluctu-ations. This will provide more constant indoor temperatures, making the house cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter. bermed home uses Use thick or massive walls to store the sun's energy in the winter. Care must be taken that they do not overheat in the summer. --.::..:... -.. -----:--:=---., -. ---

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ISSUES TREES 75% of the site is covered with evergreen trees, which could become either an asset or a liabilty depending upon the siting of the buildings. When situated to the north of a structure, the trees can provide a wind-break up to 10 times their height. When located to the south they can prevent a significant amount of solar radiation from entering the building even in winter when the solar rays are most desired. This issue can be dealt with in two ways: proper siting of structures among the existing trees, and appropriate relocation or planting of new trees to provide wind buffers and assure solar access. One common misconception is that deciduous trees be planted immediately to the south for summer shading. While it is true that transmission increases in the winter, itis estimated to still be only 50% due to the trunk and branches. Therefore, keep the south side clear of all trees and use architectural elements to handle shading needs (e.g. overhangs and louvers). MASS As previously stated, mass can be used very effectively on the interior of the buildings to store daytime heat and smooth out the diurnal temperature fluctuations. Exact sizing will be left to computer analysis in the latter stages of design. It is however important in conceptual design to be aware of basic principles: 1) use properly oriented fenestrations to capture the sun•s energy 2) locate mass where it will receive direct and indirect energy through radiation and convection.

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3) use selective surfaces to aid heat absorption 4) provide control of sunspace with the ability to isolate it thermally 5) provide all windows with night insulation to reduce heat loss COMPUTER ANALYSIS Several programs will be used to analyse the energy efficiency of the design solutions. The first is a series of analysis tools developed by Don Woolard at the University of Colorado. The following topics are included: * Heat Loss/Gain EWIT. * Annual Heat Loss * Solar Flux * Optimization of Insulation * Solar Shading * Solar Heat Gain * Time Lag The larger communal building will be analysed through the IBM program BACK-UP HEAT SYSTEMS With solar energy satisfying much of the heatingsneeds, back-up systems could be conventional heat or wood heating systems. An analysis of the environmental and economic impact of back-up options has been conducted and is located in the appendix. A general conclusion of the study is that wood burning is less detrimental to the environment than other options, if proper forest managment procedures are employed and if only high-efficiency wood stoves are used.

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codes

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BUILDING CODES Building codes are designed to provide regulations on construction which will ensure occupant safetyo Policy in Nederland, Colorado is to abide by the Uniform Building Code; the following pages contain a capsulized list of pertinent information from the 1982 editiono It has been divided into eight categories: *Allowable floor area * Fire resistive requirements * Wall and opening protection *Allowable building height * Allowable occupant loads * Exit requirements *Allowable live loads *Miscellaneous requirements The project contains building types which fall into six different occupancy categories, each one requiring a seperate code B-2: Offices, workshops, storage, small meeting rooms A-3: Dining, large meeting room R-3: Dwellings, recreational areas H-3: Testing labs, maintenance garage E-2: School M-3: Agricultural buildings It should be noted that some of the workshops will fall under category B-2 while others will fall under H-3. The determining factor is whether or not the work process involves the use or production of combustible fibers,

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dust or liquids. For instance the woodworking shop and agricultural testing lab will be classified H-3, whereas the computer room and printing shop will be classified B-20 A check of County regulations presented a Boulder County Addendum to the UBC but it dealt specifically with fees and permits and did not include information pertinent to the design stage o

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Group B-2 1 . Floor Area Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area(505a) Added stories increase Side(s) separation increase Total allowable area 2. Fire Resistive Requirements 3. 4 . 5 . Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enc 1 osures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c) Parapets required(l709a) Attic draftstops required(3205b) Attic ventilation r equired(3205c) Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls Building Height Allowable stories Fire sprinkler increase(507) Total allowable stories Maximum height Occupant Loads Story Occupancy group Area I I I B-2 18000 SF 18000 SF 4500 SF 40500 SF III 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2003b 1 same as wall below enclosed attic space: 3000 SF enclosed rafters l/150 or l/300 for top and . bottom vents 1 3/4 hour 4 1 5 65 ft. 5 B-2 40500 SF

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Sq. ft. per occupant Total persons per floor Total persons in building 6 . Exit Requirements Number of exits required each floor(3303a) Number of exits required total building(302a) Required exit width(3303b) Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b) Dead end corridor limit(3304f) Corridor construction(3304g) Stairway widths(3305b) Stairway landing depths(3305f) Stairway to roof( 3305o) Smoke tower tower required(3309) Exit signs required(3312b) Exit sign sepa rate circuit(3312c) 7. Occupancy Unit Live Loads Uniform 1 oad Concentrated load 8. Other Requir ements Separations between occupanciesfire ratings and construction Enclosure of vertical openings(l706) Light( 05 sections, ch. 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguishing system required(3802) Dry standpipes required(3803) 100 405 2025 1 5 for 5 floors 50 divided by occupancy yes for ground level with toilet 44 in. 20 ft. see above, no special case 36 in. 36 in . 4 or more stories, stair to the roof if floor is 75 ft. above ground only to clearly identify no 50 psf 2000 lbs/2. 5 SF B-2 and M= 1 B-2 and R= N more than 2 floors, 1 hr. rated all habitable rooms get natural or artific . . light. natural=l/20 f1oo r area or mech.=5 ft I outside air of 15 ft /min. total min. 1 W.C./ sex(nearby) with window or duct if floor area 1500 SF w/o sufficient openings only if 4 stories or 20000 SF/ floor

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Group A-3 1 . Floor Area Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area (505a) Added stories increase(505b) Side(s) separation increase(506a) Total Allowable area 2 . Fire Resistive Requirements Construction type Exteior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls( 504c) Attic draftstops required(3205b) Attic ventilation required(3205c) 3 . Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterioir walls 4 . Building Height Allowable stories Fire sprinkler increase(507) Total allowable stories Maximum height 5. Occupant Loads Story Occupancy group Area/story Sq. ft. per occupant Total persons per floor Total persons in building III A-3 13500 SF 13500 SF 3375 SF 30375 SF I I I 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2003b 1 enclosed attic space: 30000 SF enclosed rafter 1/150 or l/300 for 2 vents 1 3/4 hr. 2 1 3 65 ft. 3 A-3 168.7 5 SF 15 1125 3375

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Group H-3 1. Floor Area Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area(505a) Added stories increase(505b) Side(s) separation increase(506a) Total allowable area 2. Fire resistive requirements Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c) 3 . Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls 4. Building Height Allowable stories Fire sprinkler increase(507) Total allowable stories Maximum height 5. Occupant loads Story Occupancy group Area/ story Sq. ft. per occupant Total persons/ floor Total persons in building 6 . Exit requirements Number exits required each flgor(3303a) Number of exits required total building Required exit width(3303b) II H-3 11200 SF 11200 SF 2800 SF 25200 SF II(noncombustable/lhr . ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1903b 1 1 3/4 hr. (1903b) 2 1 3 65 ft. 3 H-3 14000 SF 100 140 420 1 3 for 3 floors 50 divided by occupancy

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6. Exit Requirements Number exits required each floor(3302a) Number exits required total building(302a) Required exit width(3302b) Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b) Dead end corridor limit(3304f) Corridor construction(3304g) Stairway width(3305b) Stairway landing depth(3305f) Stairway to roof(3305o) Smoke tower required(3309) Exit signs required(3312b) Exit sign separate circuit(3312c) 7 o Occupancy Unit Live Loads Uniform 1 oad Concentrated load 8. Other requirements Separations between occupanciesfire ratings and construction Enclosure of vertical openings(l706) Light( 05 sections,ch. 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguishing system required(3802) Dry standpipes required (3803) Wet standpipes required(3805) Combination standpipes required(3802) Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies) Exceptions and deviations (see group occupancies) 2 2 50 divided by occupancy no 36 in. min. 20 ft. 1 hr. 36 in. min. 36 in o min. over 3 stories, stair to roof 4/12 75 feet above ground where needed to clearly identify no 40 psf 0 R-3 and M= 1 hr. 1 hr., not on vents and pi pes guest, dorms, habitable with window of 1/10 floor area g,d, &h openable exterior openings 1/20 of floor area 1 W.C.+kit.+W.C., lavatory, tub or shower none required(alarms recommended) no no no chimney clearance as 37-B no boiler room on single units dwe 11 i ng

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Group R-3 1. Floorarea Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area (505a) Added stories increase Side(s) separation increase Total allowable area 2. Fire Resistive Requirements Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c) Parapets required( 3205b) Attic draftstops required(3205b) Attic ventilation required(3205c) 3. Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exteior walls 4. Building Height Allowable stories Fire sprinkler inc r ease Total allowable stories Maxo height 5 . Occupant loads Story Occupancy group Area Sq. ft. per occupant I I I R-3 unlimited unlimited III 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 enclosed attic space: 3000 SF enclosed rafters l/150 or l/300 for 2 vents 3 1 4 hr. 65 ft. 4 R-3 unlimited 300 SF

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6. Exit Requirements Number exits required each floor(3302a) Number exits required total building(302a) Required exit width(3302b) Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b) Dead end corridor limit(3304f) Corridor construction(3304g) Stairway widths (3305b) Staiway landing depths( 3305f) Stairway to roof(3305o) Exit signs required(3312b) Exit signs separate circuit(3312c) 7. Occupancy Unit Live Load Uniform load Concentrated load 8 . Other Requirements Separations between occupanciesFire ratings and construction Enclosure of vertical openings(l706) Light( 05 sec L , ch. 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguidhing system required(3802b) Dry standpipes required(3803) Wet standpipes required(3805) Combination standpipes required(3802) 2 50 div ided by occupancy yes 44 in. 20 ft. see above 44 in . 36 in . only if more than 4 _stories yes not required 106 psf 0 A-3 and B-2= N A-3 and E-2= N more than 2 floo rs, 1 hr. rated Natural light from min. opening of 1 /10 floor area min. 1/10 floor a rea min. 3 SF window or 100 sq. in. duct for ea. W. C. when floor area e x ceeds 1500 SF no no no

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CODES ZONING CODE The site is currently classified under the Forest Zone in the Boulder County Comprehensive Plan. This zone allows low density residential development, recreation and forestry/agricultural activities. To permit development of the project, a Planned Unit Development application would have to be approved. This process would allow higher densities and commercial uses to be permit ted given that the development occur-ed in a manner sensitive to the site character and context. These requirements a r e compatible with project goals such that development would likely be feasable o Future incorporation of a light industrial zone adjacent to the west boundary of the site is planned by the Town of Nederland. Building uses in that zone will be required to prov id e natural buffers to min imize any contextural conflicts.

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I Number exits required total(302a) Required exit width(3302b) Ramps required Corridor widths(3304b) Dead end corridor limit( 3304f) Corridor construction(3304g) Stairway widths(3305b) Stairway landing depths( 3305f) Staiway to roof(3305o) Smoke tower required(3309) Exit signs required(3312b) Exit sign separate circuit(3312c) 7. Other Requirements S eparations between occupanciesfire ratings and construction Enclosure of vertical openings(l706) Light( 05 sect., cho 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguishing system required(3802) Dry standpipes required Wet standpipes required Combination standpipes required Special hazards and requirements (see group occupancies) 1 50 divided by occupancy no 36 in. 2Q fto see above 36 in. 36 in. 4 stories or more required if roof is less than 4/12 if floor is 75 ft. above ground only to clearly identify no M & R-3=1 hr., M & B-2= 1 hr o , M & E= 4 hr. more than 2 floors, 1 hro no sprinkler required if building is not surrounded by 60 fto open space no no no heating apparatus conforms to cho 37 Mechanical: flammable liquids stored according to UBC standard 9-1; non-combustable floor surface

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Group M-3 1. Floor area Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area(ch. 15 appendix) Fire zone 3 increase Side(s) separation increase Total allowable area 2 . Fire Resistive Requirements Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior non-bearing walls Structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enc 1 osures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c) 3. Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls 4 . Building Height Allowable stories Fire sprinkler increase(507) Total allowable stories Max. height 5. Occupant Load Story Occupancy group Area Sq. ft. per occupant Total persons per floor 6 . Exit requirements Number exits required ea. floor(3302a) I I I M-3 27100 SFunlimited if building is entirely surrounded by public street or yards not less than 60' 13550 SF 6775 SF 47325 SF I I I 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2003b 1 4 1 5 65 ft. 5 M 47325 SF 100 473

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Number exits required total building(table 33-A) Required exit width(3303b) Ramps required Corridor widths(3305b) Dead end corridor limit(3305e) Corridor construction( 3304g) Stairway widths(3306b) Stairway landing depths(3305f) Exit signs required(3312b) 7. Occupancy Unit Live Loads Un, iform 1 oad Concentrated load B o Other Requirements Separations between occupanciesfire ratings and construction Enclosure of vertical openings(l706) Light( 05 sect., cho 6-14) Ventilation Sani ta.ti on Fire extinguishing system required(3802b) Wet standpipes required(3805) Combination standpipes required(3802) Special hazards and (see group occupancies) Exceptions and deviations (see group occupancies) 3 for 3 floors 50 divided by occupancy yes 44 in o 20 fL see above 36 in. 36 in. no 40 psf 1 ooo 1 b. I 2 0 5 ft 2 E-2 & A-3=N, E-2 & R= 1 more than 2 floors-lhr. 1/10 floor area l/20 floor area W.C. provided at 1:35 lav. for ea. 2 W.C. if floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft. only if 4 stories or 20000 SF/ floor only if floor area 1500 ft2 without enough windows Chimney special ,heating plant 1 hr. enclosed Heating plant if 400,000 Btu/hr.

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Group E-2 1 . Floor Area Construction type Occupancy type Basic allowance area(505a) Added stories increase(505b) Side(s) separation increase Total allowable area 2. Fire Resistive Requirements Construction type Exterior bearing walls Interior bearing walls Exterior nonbearing walls structural frame Permanent partitions Shaft enclosures Floors Roofs Exterior doors and windows Inner court walls(504c) 3. Wall and Opening Protection Fire resistance of exterior walls Openings in exterior walls 4. Building Height Allowable stories Fire sprinkler increase(507) Total allowable stories Max., height 5 . Occupant loads Story Occupancy group Area/ story Sq. ft. I occupant Total persons/ floor Total persons in building 6. Exit requirements Number e xits required each floor(3302a) III E-2 20200 SF 20200 SF 10100 SF 50500 SF III 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2003b 1 1 3/4 2 1 3 65 ft. 3 E-2 30300 SF 20 1515 4545

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Ramps required Corridor width(3305b) Dead end corridor limit(3305c) Corridor construction(3305g) Stairway widths(3306b) Stairway landing depths(3306f) Exit signs required (3314a) 7. Occupancy Unit Live Loads Uniform load Concentrated load 8. Other requirements Separation between occupanciesfire ratings and construction Enclosure of vertical openings(l706) Light( 05 sections, ch. 6-14) Ventilation Sanitation Fire extinguishing system required(3802b) Dry standpipes required(3803) Wet standpipes required(3805) Combination standpipes required(3802) Special hazards and Requirements (see group occupancies) yes 44 in. 20 ft. see above 36 in. 36 in. no 75 psf 2ooo lb./2.5 n2 H-3 & B-2= 1 H-3 & A-3= 4 more than 2 floors, 1 hr. 1/10 floor area l/20 floor area, if flammable liquids are used, air chg. rate = 4/ hr.Auto repair needs 1 cfm/ ft2 separate W.C. for ea. sex when number of employees exceeds 4 when floor area exceeds 1500 sq. ft. no If floor area exceeds 20000 SF no noncombustable floor surface; flammable liquids stored according to UBC standard 9-1; boiler or central heating unit separated from bldg. by 2 hr . fire resistive occupancy separation

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program

PAGE 90

The programming for the community is comprised of 3 major pieces, namely housing, business, and communal. The third section, communal build ings, is further subdivided into 4 seperate but interconnected parts: re-creation, cultural, administratiive, and food services. This overall framework is illustrated below, and then each of the 3 major sections is described in greater detail. 1. HOUSING Living Room Dining Room Kitchen Bedroom Sun Space Bathroom Laundry } Recycling and Storage Room 11. BUSINESSES Design-Build Firm One per cluster Soft Tech. Research and Production Computer CAD/CAM Periodical Publishing Agricultural Lab/Research 111. COMMUNNAL A. RECREATION B. CULTURAL Swimming Room Library Exercise Room Music Studio Racquetball Court Art Studio Sauna Dark Room First-Aid Room Lounge C. ADMINISTRATIVE D. FOOD SERVICES Meeting Room Dining Hall Administrator•s Office Kitchen Secretary/Receptionist Storage Mail Room Convenience Store

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COMMUNAL FACILITIES The communal facilities are intended to provide most of the daily needs of the members with the exception of certain services which are more feasible on a larger scale; i.e. hospital service, public schooling, large performing arts events, etc. Some amenities which would be unaffordable to the average indi v i dual, would be available due to joint ownership and shared expenses. These include such things as a swimming pool, a music studio and a dark room. Other buildings/rooms would be necessary for a community of 100 people; i.e. administrative offices, dining hall, and convenience store. The general heading of communal facilities includes the four categories listed previous lyrecreation, cultural, administrative, and food services-and they encompass co-operatively owned and used spaces. This section would more than likely be built in phases with cultural and recreational pieces being completed last as more members and more funds are incorporated.

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Another essential design consideration is to create a home-like atmosphere which will help the teenagers establish an attitude of concern and pride for their living space. BUSINESSES The businesses of the community have been chosen due to the high probability of their satisfying two basic conditions: 1) they provide a stimulating work environment for any number of different people who are dedicated in their personal life goals to decentralized growth and a high degree of selfsufficiency; 2) they have a reasonable probability of financial success. It is possible that, given the ideas set forth in the introduction, a small software firm could get started and then grow to supply one-half or more of the community4s job needs. However, over-homogenization of interests is seen as a threat to the survival of the community. The goal is to avoid the narrow focus of historic utopian communities by providing a great diversity of professions and labor tasks, therby creating something on the scale of a small village. This yeastfull interactive network will exist within a larger philosophical framework of economic, agricultural, and psychological self-sufficiency. ihe businesses have also been selected on their low need for transportation of goods (i.e. no retail sales). They are primarily service oriented operations with minimal materials handling and therefore low transportation energy consumption. Also a consideration was the appropriate matching of businesses to the site. Certain functions were considered too offensive to be located in the general proximity of residential dwellings. Operations with high noise levels, for instance, would not be ideal for such a community despite zoning efforts. The list of businesses include soft technologies and not hard mechanized industry.

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Couples This category of housing is designed to accomodate couples and will contain one-bedroom units with ' a greater amount of shared space than the single one-bedroom units. They will also be clustered together for the above reasons. * 10 units comprised of a living/dining area (300), 1 bedroom (160), kitchen (80), sunspace (100), bathroom (50), plus 20% (140) = 830 Ft2. Families These units will be used for families of 3-5 members. Once children reach the age of 14 or 15 years old, they will move into a shared household with other adolescents. Families with more than three young children may need to add a room or two onto the above housing units. * 13 units comprised of a living room (220), dining room (120), kitchen (100), sunspace (130), master bedroom (200), bathroom (50), 3 bedrooms (360), plus 20% (235) = 1415 Ft2. Adolescents These apartments are designed to provide a living environment in which the older children of the community can find an additional degree of privacy from their parents, and begin learning responsibility skills associated with being more independent and living with other housemates. It is important to place them far enough from the family units to provide a sufficient degree of acoustical privacy.

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HOUSING The moshav is designed for 100 individuals comprised of 20% singles, 20% couples, and 60% family members. It is expected to appeal primarily to a young age group and appropriate dwelling sizes were designed so as to best match the needs of such a demographic The indivi-duals and housing units break down in the following manner: people units SINGLES 20 14 COUPLES 20 10 FAMILIES 52 13 ADOLESCENTS 8 2 100 39 TOTALS Singles The housing options available to individuals will offer a choice between private or communal living. Those prefering a greater degree of privacy will opt for a one-bedroom unit, and those preferring a shared household will choose a bedroom in a 4-member house . The units will be joined in a cluster arrange-ment for reasons of energy efficiency and lower site impact. * 12 individual units comprised of 2 rooms, a small bath and an efficiency-size kitchen. Ft 2 = 250+40+66+45 (15% )=400. * 2 shared households of 4 residents each comprised of living room (220), dining room (120), kitchen (100), study (120), sun space (130), 4 bedrooms (400), 2 bathrooms (80), and 20% (230), for circulation and storage= 1400 Ft 2 •

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I I Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Ac tl vlt y IS c hedu ling . . • Behavioral Characteristics • • B(e-(l..?r2 OF-._ ?Au"-lA.. Usert HAYIMI.Jr--1 {q Pf'r Df'..t-e -n H: : 7.0 A-r 11M :-Special Needa • \ft:;uAt.-t;>eslgn Characteristics • Dl f2.e:cr 1b 'ft:oL -n:;, • N.o E1e:-LE\JEL w' ... • }\\/ Ac.,... L.DI-.fTTZDL oF V E: 4-WHrPCT'{ l.eJEt.. Finishes & Furnishings • MI::'TAL • lllb "FLPOF-. • of2... fiN! IAlA-t-L..-? Related Activity Sheela

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Activity/Scheduling AT kL.J-T1f-1E2=> D'F CA( Mcr.z;l Acn v nJ l N Ne:Nl 1-J Behavioral Characterlotlcs • A-L-1 .../ t-J. c; . • Ac:nvrru::=-s O(.L.A)TZ-J'21 "bb M • MAjDl2-Ft.h.DF "PAMIL-{ L or-..1. 1\djoconcles Users Special Needs H-ui? oF .,Ap1V .rtf> wrnt-/?::) a: "FfZ.DH -r:>ealgn Characteristics • eN V rrz,..t:>I-J M e:-N, "I .. tiebD oF -re:H"P.?WIN.Ct 4A"'N Finishes & Furnlshlnga • l:>'F • UyH'l L0At..uS • 612-f1..Dl)i2_ wt]a.e"" • Related Activity Sheets

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Space f'lCOM Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. 89-/1..0 Ac tlv It y I Scheduling Behavioral Characteristics • MoRe -n.!AN 1"-J!Gl.if:':N AfJ.EA • t-Jvr Ufe!:> b'F '"'flf-1 e: 1\djacencles Users N.A.. Special Needs • -rz:, l Of4t:R • {.C:ULD "P LDW l t-.trD Ll 'P-cd-1 J IJ Finishes & Furnishings . • cHA-t . vr\eul' tJt1 / cA.t::i Y F============-= -=============4 R a:ated Activity Sheela

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. HDlfSIN 1/uNII \fAVAfj.. Activity/Scheduling • Htfi5f"l-[ u J fJ KDeNL#JCr /tND 1 • ftt'D ) He':111-'F12ePI l A1JD " Behavioral Characlerlallca • HUett Ac;nVtT} • .. • u? DIJ. eJB"Nl'S AdJaconclee Users 1\l.A. Special Needs ttbOJ> VB!TIL.A-noN. Characteristics • • t:::1rSi 'Pftc,uJ 4 • WI r-.l'DD IN D 'te:rz_. S/ N f2D'DH Po72-t...J I'D 'f"ooo OUf::,L.J ... Vt LDJJ 10ez::0 "'f"D Dt7T"b ,pe; Ac:-h v rr( Finishes & Furnlahlnga • i"ll Fi.DDJ2-• • . / rz.A-N 0t r::: • D7Z-=----Relatad Activity Sheeta Ll 'i INCt

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Ac t l v It y I Sche dullng Ll c:::) Hkl N L I fbtz-SLEEP I IN '* 'BUT AL-CZ:D tA'fllHE"" FF.IVAL'( Behavioral Characterletlca • • • I t-.trl H .A:-6/ Adjocenclea Uaera Special Neoda I?&Rlgn Characterlatlca • ltC.Ou ?11 ckL-tPe)2A"fl DN • 1J I Z>N 2-:s I "DE?=, FDrz. PAyutttfr SUHMe::p.. Flnlahea & F urnlahlnga • et:.L{S>) ' Ralated Activity

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. 1/U.NII Ito-Activity/Scheduling • 11ft;: -pA-l t-{fZDW1tJC., /v'-e::rs. • AQt..:F+.C.u L-n.>Re • Behavioral Characteristics • r.JDJ2.lL) -p6r17JJC.,J • t?ut e1 •:::::rrru..J. t; .J 12-c--ur-i. 1 ?EE Users Special Needs • tert::RM I Ne 'PP-1 Nft"fi!..'( USE: OF" "5PACE AS Faz-OFi!. 'f12z:>D.Jc:-n t::>N..) C5l2..Z:VN t2DOM J?eslgn Characteristics DF L.A-'2-INC, • weu-c.-J 1 o12--pi....oC:il2.., wA:'t..l...S lt'ND • NO LkPACt-r'( "'D Flnlshoa & Furnishings • Nl41'f'r • t-.ibt-!Uytf\-Go\...012-l-'L::::>; NbN.-wt+r-r1: Related Activity Sheela

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. 4?-fo? Activity/Scheduling • WJ..lE.NtVEP\ -Behavioral Characteristics Ubt::' Adjacencies Users N . A. Special Needs • \LEN11 -o'F c.uvu<::;, MUL--r?.UM tr.r '?eslgn Characteristics • PP-ot-1 IF • etrr wrn+ L (\jC5T ANnf;(PnC--) rEEUJ\! Finishes & Furnishings • SINK . -tt.Jt? • k,l. L. ( • "11 Lep Pi..OD f2._ LOWE?-. I WALL Related Activity Sheets

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Space Group No. Aqd. Sq. Ft. 11-h Activity/Scheduling Behavioral Characterlutlcs • t...c*DJ A:-1-.n> V12-jl .aJ Li • t7oH • -nN'' -speNT" WA111rvCt WIU-e;u..uTZ-JN H-t:>vbB Adjacencies Users Special Needa • V Hocl0JP l?eslgn Characteristics • Due-' 'TD Or HA;(..tP • vE:).IT • A "'Fi.JNCTl 12-obM-I'Lt5T • LOC)\'T C..Dt.JI)f:}J lEJo.!f lO .4t.L_ u t0t"P.::::> j t0 c. 1-U s Finishes & Furnlahlng1 • (-z_) • t::re-'(VZ-7 ( z) • Nl'. • 1-J. 'Fr 'f1_ool2.-lttJl:> WAti-
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Space I Users GoU'f2..1 Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. eoo Activity/Scheduling Beh a vioral Characterlatlca • • • Adj a cencies '2 1NJ1" .frfr llHE Neede • L>F kt12-E'XL-AANCtE Me_ t?e s lgn Characterlatlca • 2o' lC yo' • 'ZDl c._e1L..If.U1? , -rrfu-t-& Furnishings • H A;u_ WAu-6. t C-elLI N..C, -• IN'::eT ec>.X:E? 1"-1 C-El L-! A.! Ct w m1 H rr AI-41Zkr'E: fb 12-Cz> v e:;p._ Related Activity Sheets i&IZ IJ &! 1:8!' asal

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r---...... ---------..,. . ,..,.._.,.. __ ......, _______ __ Space Ac tl vlt y/ Sc he dullng • • c; CofJVe:lZ-?t NC, • ?UI\1Nii\J0 Behavioral Characteristics • L1 if;:. e;)( • Sq. Ft. 2100 • • 1'-JO' ! Adjaconclee I Special Needa • "bF ""Df1ZEZT .=::u"-lu T Lol.J.NL11 I'JC1 • C1 LA'iZ c.oN--n:<.c L...? srn;: S)ouLD "e ie:t.-6' P->1 Fo'R.. l;)eelgn Characteristic• . ::::-Lz.) -r I LANEZ::, • fl.AC f]'Jt:> 4\ NC5T ace • !::>.. LAP 'PDDL--11-f'x: '-to' • t-h[(H L-El'-' 11) rzeDUL !::OU"-.lD i7C>N Flnlahea & F urnlehlnga • -n Lf f1...oo !Z.; L.Dv.Je:rL. ' D r • ,on_ "TZ> A'Db [..<:>L...D"g_ Aa>US.<7JCAL 'l:.?AffU Ny. • 'P 1?D 'Ft..c8f2.-S-NAt; E: • PwHP Related Activity Sheets

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I Space Group No. Rqd. Ac tl vlt y /Sc hedullng .. 1-Jt::f .. . .. Behavioral Characteristics Sq. Ft. oo • H4!J l.P/e:L D"F-Bf(.s•cAL oF 1\d j o cenclea Users Special Neede • R2e!>l--\ A1 f2.. V IDm !An ct--1 -1-hc;H-J?eelgn Characterletlce • r=i.bDT2-"TO • Ht4H AlfZ---+112 Coi-IDWC::!N.l Ntr Finishes & Furnlahlng1 NftmUJ? • ?"Tfn1cNAl2."( • ON.. Related Activity Sheela

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Space A11;::) Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. P.C-R. lbO Ac tlv It y/Sc hedullng • VDWN'I e:eu._ • -n:> Behavioral Characteristics • Ot-JL-1 IN C/'!p'f: DF I L/...Na:>'==-Adjacencies Users f..LA. Spacial Needa • '?CoH 1!:tll 11 1'-te? cR 'rAj rJ.'4 J.f:1 Characterlatlca • NeeD 'Fb12-t:>Ht;lJ/JtJCt A-ND • L.E:'Vel.-o'F U41-f'nr-l4 HAq az-Finishes & Furnlshlnga fCi.:D OI.J'T'""" Go "I Related Activity Sheela

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Space Group No. Rqd. A c tlvl t y I Scheduling . I'U1 I 1.-JAL.t:J N Behavioral Characteristics Sq. Ft. • f;oQA-U N-Lt • Adjacencies .. User1 Special Needs • OF rPT, tfvHr't> A-112-'?eslgn Characteristics • oJJ. '"'t1AJD VAArn/ IN -perz:PENDIC..tJuA82-fulZ-OF Finishes & Furnishings , Related Activity Sheets

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I Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. rOD ActIvIty IS c he d ulln g • "" • 1-1 DN • I • • ekntJy • IN Behavioral Characteristics • t;fZ.t>cJP • Adlacencles Users Special Needs • R> "AAI E"T'f bF k=flv mE-:> HlfJIHt-z '?eslgn Characteristics • FLZ2< 'P!-M-J • 'fVfZ-N \1\)fl • AND /of2.... -nL.E Finishes & Furnishings Related Activity Sheets

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Space Grou p No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Ac tlv It y I Sc he dullng • -mvkrE oe. 'PrZ-Acn Cl • AN'( i-1ol.>12-D'F-Ol2-,. ... u Ct+-M"' Behavioral Characterlotlca Uaera Special Needa • OPt?ot-.1 OF U?IIJl, 1a::okS A:? -rwo 5h.J'1::>Jt::>c, 01'2-oN.E 2.Dc Pr'l.. .o;,Tl)DtD Characterlatlca . 1 • ftLDI.:f::;.\lcft:L-'Pf2.{ AN'( HthiU\L. .. Wt.J..L.. IN blf2..UHe:-r-.tf • 4-e.e:>LJP • OPnbN -ro A1-D.tJl1 w I p(Z.6e,CDrz;DE1::> H u f::.l CAdj a conclea Finishes & F urnlahlnga Related Activity Sheeta

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Spac. e Users Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Ac tlvlty/Schedullng Behavioral Characteristics • .:f N I Vt V WCfTZ.Jt,1 pAJ .. . 1"2' odl 'Pf2.<::>.1 Adjacenclee Special Needs '?ealgn Characterletlca • • '/lew oF • LA-Ute-"!>-pAt Flnlahee & Furnlehlnga z'xto' Related Activity Sheets

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. YDD ActIvIty IS c he d ullng Behavioral Characterlatlce L.DUt-..i.CtC • Adfocenclea \::1 Ueert Special Needa r;>eelgn Characterlatlca • At:or-J.S W ku-• • Gt A'fZ.et\ I N. -r:;t..'(u-r-Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga • GA.12D • Related Activity Sheets

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Space Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. Ac tl Y It y/Sc he d ullng Behavioral Characteristics • "f1 Ll'-1 • • lm:::tv'rt::uA't... kklNL'f AdJacenclee -Users Special Neede • I N"L-A-T2-C!"D Characterletlce , ?COJE.. • At-fPLE , 'F012-cAL • ND WI tSDbW? \JeN"fiL../rn 0 Flnlahea & Furnishings • LDt-U1 • e:NLJ\f-.4 e:F-Related Activity Sheate

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Space OIFI'-E Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. AVM/f\1. jOO Ac tlvlt y/Schedullng • i N-1 6 'P'-1 LV: Wt:SelL , wmi ENAcn"-ltr 'vb uc..y OF CoHHU"-J lr( Behavioral Characteristics • SHkt.-L 1 t-1P'fZOPnJ • Net:b 'PDf<-'PA \i'AL>( Hou'f2."=> bF AdJacencies Users I Pcc:t-1 Fb"?--L!P -ro 2 VlbtiD'P--'::> ( HErT1N.4S lA \ Ft.Aa': t-.1. ,._u; (2.ocl-1 ; Special Needs 1 w / DF Nc:rT r:>eelgn Characteristics . A:l/H.rtJ . v.Jrnf • Fi-e'l , 1.-Related Activity Sheet• {;EQ<.!OIA"ii( I r-zuePnDI-lb"T

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Space Group No. Rqd. A c tl v It y IS c he d ulln g ' l.C...TI f2.e'? • Behavioral Characterlatlca Sq. Ft. ' hlAU.-\ VAR.it Hel::nNL1 0t2E?::::> l L./ Yo f"EDPLe) Adjacanclea Uaera U:>HMUNrtY L.{-i..Jo. Special Needs R=>12--nle oF 1)'6./AJC, /WO -f>H_41...U::;IZ-• • • J?eelgn Characteristics W*'rr Nt>{'tUtz.A:t-4-n WtN'VbW pt.eilele f Flillahea & Furnlehlnga . CA.pe:-n p..jc; . l DN. 2. IN OF J
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Space I Group No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. IDO Ac tlv It y I Sc hedullng ... t:f At-1 ? 'PM , Behavioral Characterlatlce • 4tJ1E!'I lffic" # KUC+f -e>F ktJD oN? • -rz::> -ry/e: U>H H.LltJ IT'( l 6GJ./eDUU"-.J J ... ert.. , AdJacencies Users PooM fbfL uP IO Special Needa , --to OFF;C.e • 'FOJZVI J2eZ=T1-'( I'D Ai:HI fJj CfPnoJ..L 1=bR 'Pi'<4 vA-c-'{ '?eelgn Characterlatlca • (.A.ZkJl1 CfP E!'I'J. UN /L TO Finishes & Furnlahlnga • P\crotJE fiLe cft:e;:t Ralated Activity Sheets

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Space Group , No. Rqd. Sq. Ft. A'DHrf\.1. A c tl v It y IS c he d ullng rzet_e)V I 10 /n L-f)U-1 N Ct . Behavioral Characterlatlca OAE HlnLli'J'tD r-1Zc>M fZ-OOH • LIP tt 'D:" 'DtJT2.i 10 Gt . UJ IJ c.+f Me-Adjacanclaa Uaert Special Needa !_>aaign Characterlatlca • Wku.-CF HA1L 'fibL.E: 'F'IZ-DM {7"'e" 'E:.(I::>e-Finishes a Furnlahlnga " llLE , \/ercnCA't--WAti-OF &/ Related Activity Sheela

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Space PIN.tNC, Group No. Rqd. 'Fb6P SEF.Vla:7A c tl v It y I Sc h ed u ling '\l:"?o-I' ?D • E"kn"-1 Sq. Ft. t,r:sDo • tlr'1-I"Z--I r-.1 • Behavioral Characterlotlca • U/IJ uP l"b L.uklQ.{ f1z..o H C-D t.> 1'-l"'Te'e-• wt-!D uc..I. \J e.: --rv 1 Nrbf2-H.kL. --ri\-UL--1 N S • L.A:Ut E:-bCA1 J IJTN.Acn DIJ Wlnh>IYI AdJacencloa Uaera ALL-wHHUN.n1 1bl'kl: I o 0 Special Needa • l"b HAtL.. 'IUX:>H ?o c..AH ?ra... tJP H.A:u.-KrD-"'DA\ wjo CtottJC, t:>IJT of WAY Characterlatlca • #.JLr SEc-"'tlt>t-J . 4 'Pe7ZbOA.i -r • IN FOTU'1kl-I HA't1 • lfZ.A/-.tf12e1+ • WELL-"DA('('-11 Finishes & Furnlahlnga Related Activity Sheets

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Space Group No. Rqd. Ac tl vi t y/ Scheduling Sq. Ft. {,DO 4A.H.Behavioral Characteristics • DF BUUL 'Fbe"'D • • Wt-.!ctf .5.;...7 -pee_ WEE:)L styLE -jb Adjacencies Uaera Special Needa • \Jekill LA-"T1 t:::.J-...!. r:>eslgn Characteristics . • . . • t-'11NIMA;L.. e-(E-l.e-IEL WltJ , FOe-HeNI Dr:;L Finishes & Furnlshlnga • f'IZtP 61 • Pcrr {. Nk::.. I • ... • Related Activity Sheeta

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ISSUES CHECKLIST community identity (sens e of place) personalization ( ro o m for individual t o d e t ermine character o f a space) self-suffic iency contact (interaction) privacy individuality / f r eedom i m pact of community o n area historica l cont ext approach to site t ransition f r o m publ i c--p r i v a t e design o f entries ( p ubli c / private climate adaptabilit y building siting relationship t o nature aesthetics use of c o l o r over all uni fying concept I focus h i s torical cont ext attache d vs. sepe r a t e housin g den sity scale d ive r sity vs. repetition roll of au omobi e safet y water s upply a n d gro w th

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CONCLUSION This project has served two main purposes. It has looked at the feasability of the small cooperative community as a model for future growth in this country. It has also provided a vehicle to explore humankind's connection through architecture to the natural elements and cycles. In reference to this latter point, two distinctly different goals emerged through the course of the design. One was to make the buildings fit from the outside the exterior view ; the other to make them fit from the inside being aware of the natu re of the site from one's living room for instance. The success of the first goal was contingent upon using a site development composite as the basis for many siting and design decisions (see section III). Carrying the ground slope through the roof forms was perhaps the other key element that enabled the form to fit comfortably with the site. The connection was m ade on the interior both in a visual and a hapt ic sense. Site materials f lowed from outside to inside with the use of exposed wood beams and local stone in both the living room and the sunspace. Opti onal manual control of insulating quilts provided an opportunity for active participation in solar and thermal cycles. Also, a series of short stair runs, moving from entry level to living room to sunspace, provided a constant sense of the sloping nature of the site. Finally, the arrangement of housing units in a V -shaped cluster formation, Effecti vely defined a public plaza/circulation side as being distinct the undisturbed side. This served to enhcnce the interactive aspects of the community while s till preserving virgin views from bedroom and deck.

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There have been throughout history many attempts at creating successfu l alter native communities. Even today one can find num erous examples, rang ing from urban coope ratives to utopian communities. They v a r y greatly in philosophical orientation, general goals, economic structure, e tc. One of the key element s i s the degree of communality and the way in which t hat effects one's pri vacy. A growing practice in the real es tate world is the deve lo p in g of s uburban communities with open space and recreation areas owned and u sed by the neighborhood . Some devel opments are strictly open to one age gr oup, and some t ake care of t hei r own security and/or maintenance. The question of what in fact constitute s a nei ghborhood o r a community leaves room f o r som e ambiguous answers. Communit y can be a 2 -bloc k a rea in an urban center o r ju s t a network of friends wit h no physical boundaries. The Israeli Moshav presents a time -tested model which would match up well wit h the values and p e r spectives of many Americans. It offers a balance of private f amily domain and c ooperativel y owned land, buil d i n gs, etc. All facilities for indoor and outdoor recreation , cultural amenities (i . e . library, m usi c and art studios), l a rge sca l e business equipment, and even some of the businesse s themselves are jointly o w n ed, whil e the indiv idu al housing units a r e privately owne d. It is unlike th e Kibbutz in that here the children live with the parents g enerally until the y r each adolescence at which point they move i n t o their own shared housing environment. The Mosha v has traditionally had its economic base in agriculture but this i s not a necessa ry characteristic, and in fact would not be v ery f eas i ble fo r a community located at 8400' e l evation. Having program m e d the community for 100 p eople, and adressed th e growth issue wit h a plan for expansion, it seems quite feasible thet such a project

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could get off the ground. A factor that would greatly determine its success or failure would be the degree of input by its members, and I therefore make note that the ideas put forward here are not intended as a fully designed, planned community. Its goal is rather to be a base from which a community with a specific character can be molded.

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location map .... , , . ... SITE PLAN J sule 1 • 100 te development

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CLUSTER PLAN J • c•l• \ . , . 0 0 '------n

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FAMILY CLUSTER rJ PLAN I C I I I t , , . , f u,,, e SOUTH ELEVATION

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CLUSTER SECTION

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SECTION scale v.,. . r STRUCTURAL PLAN SPACE HEATING DOMESTIC WAtER INDIVIDUAL UNIT SCHEMATIC MECHANICAL S YSTEM S

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appendix

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Location NEDE:PJLMJD GOL.-DP.,RC)O Longitude IOJS", 2-6 Latitude 4o.I O J.JD!2:3l+ Altitude B'5:::o "'Fl. A i r temperature: c J F M A M J J A s 0 N D High AMT Monthly mean max . 2 .'-1 2 9 5;, Monthly mean m i n . p . m . 37. 1 Yc.B 3'5:2-3t;. ; 37. 7 324 3S:'i 2.4. b Average 'Sl, ,(::, fd.o 100. 3 bQ2.. :;r., !?1.8 .58. 2 f;/. / 9{. 7 .5S:Cj Humidity group :::, 3 3 3 3 Humidity group: If average RH: below 30% 2 30-50% 3 50-70% 4 above 70% Rai n and wind Rainfall. mm Wind, prevailing vJ 'vJ w w w w w w w w vJ w Wind, secondary ::;
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AMT ove< 20'C AMT t!'>-20'C AMT below t5'C Comfon l i m i ts Day N1ght Day Night Day N i ght Humidity group : 2&-34 17 25 23-32 14-23 2130 12 -21 2 25-31 17 -24 22-30 14-22 2(}..27 12 20 3 23-29 1723 2128 14-21 19--26 12 19 4 22 27 17 -21 2(}..25 14-20 18--24 12 -18 " T ABLE 2 Diagnosis : c J F M A M J J A s 0 N D Monthly mean max . z.'-1 2.'9 -u.., v., lower ICj 1'1 1'1 1'1 ,q 14 J'i 1'1 l'i 19 1 9 14 Monthly mean min . B ."' -8.7 -7. 5 -2. 2.1.. b . O 1 0 . 8 <=t. :., 5:5 / , 0 -.3.5 -7. 2 Night comfort: upper 1'1 l'i 1"1 l't 1'1 I '! 1 9 1'1 1 9 1 4 l'l l 't lower 11--/1.--11-1'2.-I'Z-l'l-1'2.-17-z_. 12.-1'2..-I"Z..Thermal stress : day c.. c.. c.... C--c... 0 0 0 C-c... c_ <::... night c... G c.... c... c... c.... L C--C--C-c.... c... Indicators rHumid: H1 Totals f-H2 f-H3 ! f-Arid : A1 ./ / ,../ ../ ./ ./ / ./ ./ ._/ ./ I I I f-A2 f-A3 ./ v v ./ v v v o/ ./" 9 '-Aoolc.b'e wn.n ... H...-ty ._.onthtv • .n.nQ lnd<-etor R .. ni• W O • v N!oQht fi'OUO "'' ' I'I"'v•n,.•f'U H I H H 2 . l L..., th•n 10" "u movement H2 0 A.••n n.C:n&MY H) Q...• 200 mm fhoeffNiol nec:HWtV A I ' 2 . l MOle'""" 10" Out 6001 >.2 H ' 2 ..... H 0 I . 2 10" ---------P • oc.chon hOI'\ eo'd A) c

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Indicator totals from tab le 2 H1 H2 H3 A1 A2 A 3 0 0 0 II 0 9 0-1 0 5--12 11, 12 ... 0--4 11. 12 2-10 0 . 1 3-12 0--5 1, 2 6-12 2-12 0 0 , 1 0 , 1 0 11. 12 0 . 1 Any ot her condition! 0--2 I 3-12 I I 0--5 _L_ -6-12 ! I ./ 1 2 3 4 5 6 / 7 8 9 ../ 1 0 1 1 12 ./ 13 1 4 ./ 15 Layout TAB L E 3 Recom m ended specifications Or ie n tation nonh a nd south (long axis east -west) Compact courtyard plann ing S p acing Open spac ing for b reeze penetra t ion As 3 . but protecti o n from hot and cold w i nd Compact lay -out of estates Air movement Rooms s i ngle banked , permanent pr o v i s ion for air movement Double banked rooms. temporary pr o vis ion for air movement No a i r movement requ i rement Open i ngs Lar ge openings , 40-80% Very small openings, 10--20% Medium openin g s , 20--40% W alls L ig ht wall s . shon ti me la g Heavy external and in t ernal w alls Roofs L ight. ins ulated roofs Heavy roofs . over 8 h ttme lag Out -door sleeping Spa c e for out-door sleeptng required Rai n protectto n

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Indicator totals fro m t able 2 TABLE 4 H 1 H 2 H3 A 1 A2 A 3 Detail recommendat i ons Size of o p eni n g 0 1 Large : 40--80% 0.1 1-12 2 Medium : 25--40% 2 5 5-10 3 Small : 15--25% 0-3 4 Very small : 10-20% 11. 12 4-12 V" 5 Medium: 25--40% Pos i t i on of o penings 3-12 6 In north and south walls at body he ight on w i ndward side 0-5 1 2 5-12 / 7 As above, openings also i n i n ternal walls 0 2-12 Protect ion of open ings 0-2 8 Ell:clude di rect sunlight 2-12 9 Prov ide protection from rain Walls and floors 0-2 10 Light. low t hermal capacity 3-12 / 1 1 Heavy , over B h timelag Roofs 0-2 12 Light. reflective surface. cav ity 10-12 3-12 13 Light, well i nsu lated 0-5 0 9 5-12 / 1 4 Heavy , ov e r 8 h ttme lag External features 1 12 1 5 Space for ou t-door sleeping 1-12 16 Adequate ramwater dratnage

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-----------------------------------TABI... F , , CLIMATIC fiAT . c ( R H T F' 1:;: E c 1 F> , WIN !I ) --------------------------------------MAX MIN AVE: G R A I N WF' w s -----------------------------------• .JAN 7/ = 35. 6 :'j6 o::-c::3 1 '1. B w ,... " .. } • • J ._) ;:) F"EB 8'+ " 6 37 . 4 6 1 3 43. 3 w s M A R t13 . 8 36 . 8 60 . 3 3 3 1 w s AF' R 8"'" 3 35 ,.) 60 "I r:...3 58 w s , J . " .... . ,:_,_) MAY g:) ' + 35 9 l 3
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TABLE 3 DIAGNOSIS < ----[lAY--> <---NIGHT--> S TRESS MA X UF' I_ O W MIN UF' I_ OW [I N ------------------------------------JA N 2 . 4 26 1'1 -B .. 4 19 c c F 'EB 2 . 19 6 1? () c JUL 24.7 26 19 l.O .. B 19 () c AIJG 22.7 2 6 l • .;; 9.3 l? 0 c ::>EF' 18.!':) 26 1.9 C" 1:: 19 c c J ...... , OCT 14 26 19 1 1 9 c c NOV -, 26 19 1.9 c c / T:IEC "1 ..., ..:.... • I 26 1.9 -7.2 1.'7 c c ---------------------------------------H T f I:;:E::TUI:;:N TO C:UNTI NUE ......

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TABLE 4 INDICATORS MONTH H :1. H2 H3 A:l. A2 A3 -------------------------------------,.JAN () 0 0 l 0 l FEB 0 0 0 :1. 0 1 MAR 0 0 0 :J. 0 l r::>tF'R 0 0 0 l 0 l t'iAY 0 0 0 l () l . . JUN () 0 () l () 0 . . . JUI_ () 0 () l 0 0 AUG 0 0 0 l 0 0 '>EF' () 0 0 l 0 l f"JCT 0 0 0 I . () l N()IJ 0 0 0 :1. 0 1 I:ii::C () 0 () 0 () l ro rAL .. () 0 0 1. 1. 0 ':; ---------------------------------------HlT 1:;:1::: fUF\N TO CUNTlNUF .. . . . .

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B IJ II. .. [I t N G S S H r:J U 1... [I B F U h' J: N T r E D l) N A N E A S T WE S T A X I S , TI-l [ L.. Cl N G E L E V A r l:lJ N F A C I N C N CJ h : T H AN [I 0 U T H r 0 F< E:: [llJ C F F:: i . F' U l.J F\ E T () T H F <:; LJ • H ll # It I* It tt # # U H H SF' A l N G H H H H U 1; H I* h H H llli It U ll H II C JJ M F' ACT F' 1... ANN l N G I S I=< E C 0 M M F: N D [ D J: F f H [: ATR MOVEMI=.:NT I:;:EDI..JII:;:EMENT I S SJGN.IT.ICANT .. HUHHHil#H# AIR MOVEMENT U#H#ItltltltHUHHilHit [F AIR MOVE::MENT IS NEVER ESSENfiAL, AND [S DESIRABLE FOR NUT MORE THAN A MONTH, ROOMS CAN BE DOUBLE BANKED AS THERE IS NO T MUCH NEED FOR CROSS VI::NTll...A riON .. 'VERY SMAI...l...', L..E::SS THAN 20% OF fHE WALL.. OT H EXT 1=.: F< N A 1... AN U l N T NAL WAL 1...;:; SHOUI...D BE MASSIVE. H#HH#HHHHHHHHHHH ROOFS Nlt#Nit#UHHNHitHHH P.t ROOF, WITH CAPACifY, GIVING A TIME LAG AT LEAST 8 HOUI:;:s. HHHHUHHUHUHOl.JTDOOR SLEEPING HHHHHU#UHH H UH#Hitltlt#Hil RAIN PROTECTION HHUHNitllllltNH 4 DE T r; I I_ 1:;: E C Cl M M E N D A T I. ll N S i1tiii:UM: -40% H It H It iHHHI*H* F' 0 S I:T l () N () F . () F' E N J N G S H H IIIHHI k HEA'v'Y. Hill I I ME -LAG. HEA'v'Y, CJVE;:t:; 8 T [ME -LAG.

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STATION. < 8 1 l -.ONa I TUOf: l 050 4 3S Y[Ait IIIII I 111111 1110 I M l DAILY I'IA X I!:XT I'II!:AN 24 7 ' 32 1 2 ' 34 1 J g J l I I II JO ' 6 8 32 1 1 • 3 1 2 7 31 I' II 32 I 2 211 I I 0[Git[S C O A I L I'II H ANNUAL L ONSES T > 0 D;T MAN I'I[AH SEGAH [N0 OAYI . .. 6 1 .. 2 1 6 3 26 I'IAY -24 4 7 2 8 JU N 23 9 55 II J U N 2 1 3 I 1 0 0 -2• 2 a 'II 2 II 4 -211 e 5 JU L • 25 I'IAY ze JU N 24 I'I.OY 2& 5 I 2 ' I'IA 26 II 5 I ' a I'! A Y 3 S[P' 20 SEP' 23 SEP JO AUG 1 0 SEI" ' • SEIIl 23 21 S[P' I SEP' 1 0 1 '05 6 1 'C9 6 1 123 124 107 • I'ICNTM IV.)( I'IIH T OTAL !58 4 7 I 82 53 2 21St 1 . 1 1 5 5A8 85 • 312 1 4 2 Jill llll 1 a J87 I 0.0 'II 4911 64 s 121 " 5aJ a : ZJ 520 0 tV.X 0A I LY I'll N ANHUAL [XT 7 4 2 a I SA 1 13 0 7 3!1 2 a 1 I ao 1 1 0 32 .. 5&. 8 111 11 • o 33 2 e8 4 "!! 4 ' I 33 3 54 4 11 6 s 4 11 s• 8 a2 0 . 0 3 7 3 !Ill 7 I I 7 I 0 36 5 Sll 54 3 5 35 ll 1 0 . I 8A 1 9 3e 7 eo. 2 • IHCIC.OTES CALCULAT IONS IAS[O ON ONLY 11162 It 5 3 11164 I llS& I N ? 111611 111611 a v I'ICNT M 111112 • ee1 C DAILY I'IAX O.OI L EXT I'IEAN EXT I'IEAN I'IEAN 1 5 z . a -1.11 a 3 2 e 1 8 3 4 26 8 I 2 4 Ill 4 II 2 4 7 3 I 2 23 e 8 J 7 5 211 I 4 2 • 1 2 6 7 9 34 2 1 2 . 7 0 ' .. 33 2<1 7 2 I C 2 ' 1 ' 3 2 23 7 0 II 6 '56 3 0 , g 5 a 4 1 z 4 25 I A J 0 7 7 1 5 6 0 2 l _, J 4 17 3 5 26 -7 0 I 8 EXT "'E_...,. 33 \ J 0 J2 . J 4 3 1 7 J O J J : 2 II 27 4 JO II J2 9 :A i _ v ,.. , M EXT I'IEAN • 3 1 2 -JJ II -26 I J -25 .. -22 2 2 3 . ' 8 5 -'22 ANNU A L I'IEAN 5 5 7 5 2 5 5 6 5 e 5 5 ; 5 II D EGREES C "'00 NCAY S 8 6 .. 50 1 230 <:79 278 222 169 Jll 1 4 8i:GA" i J U N 23 I'I.OY J JUN 6 JUN 7 J U N 2 1 I'IAY I JUL 27 JUN PRE CIP' WA•ER ltELATIVE ...ONT>< P'I!:Ri::IO 0 I'IAA DAiLY I'IIH JI1A). ""1M 7 2 23 1 O A ' 5 7 4 5 !I• 4 8. 2 6 A 2 3 & . ::l 127 . 5 164 1 7 64 8 ::l4 1 0 811 zc "ERIOO ENDED 7 SEP 25 'JC7 1 8 SEP 4 SEP 28 S EP ' 2 Si:P 2 SE" ' 0 D A Y S 9 1 '56 'Oil !II 2 OCT '14 o a 6A 118 !'lEAN A3 A 52 4 32 a 33 !5 211 !5 27 0 22 5e ':l :J Jll 8 70 3 4C 5 I!:XT 111 5 e Jt 3 sa o 15 9 I 40 4 63 1 all 7 ' 2 4 1 3 6!5 5 a• 5 1 0 37 " 6 0 11 811 3 . 3 4 0 ' 6A 7 a .. J 1 33 • 5 & a 84 0 &3 1 0 J4 2 a 76 J 9 32 4 74 0 6 33 6 !53 77 2 6 36 J !56 8 71l • 6 JS a '; II LONGITUDE ' 0 5 0 433 "'eN-'" MA)( '"' l"'t 1 0 2 2 1 2 a 9 3 20 t 4 e 7 4 5 1 2 1 2!! 9 8 7 250 e AN"" V A L "C: TAL 4 ().4 6 1 9 631 3 1 428 707 8 1 5 , ANNUA L EXT I'IEAN 11 3 6 J O a s• 1 7 7 5 3 31 ll .. 7 a o o "' 33 s es a 83 !5 7 J ll c 6 1 3 8 0 6 33 56 !I 16 1 1 0 4C :; 63 0 a o s J3 ' 57 3 8 3 e 5 3e 6 1 • """w•TER "AD LY se._.._,. _ r :.A ANNU A L 'IA}f Y f "' 7 6 0 40 345 6 OAIL< 1'1,&; OAIL' I'II N PER !OO rM I "4>0 .,DAY S ' 3 I'!ONH< PERl 0 0 0 DAILY • ! N o.atL • l'l(lNT'" J.ON I"E!! ,.. ... I'IAY JVN JUL AUG SP' OCT Nell Me EXT I'IEAN EXT I'IEAM I'IEAN . • 2 4 33 8 3 J 0 1 8 2 II 8 7 -2 t 1 a 5 J • 2 a • 1 • -1 o 25 9 g 17 5 3 7 2 7 ' 5 J 2 3 •• 3 1 1!12 s o 126 32 2 4 II 2 I 0 8 I 7 II 33 22 9 9 3 1 6 21 e 5 8 55 : 2 • 24 1 4 0 1 II 1 0 ' 5 1 a 1 1 1 a J 4 a 1 • 2 e 8 -7 z 2 2 7 I I ' ' 1ao 228 2•• 2• : 2 ' 0 1 3!1 53 ' e I'IAX MEAN 37 7 1 1 • 113 a 43 3 411 5 3 1 0 113 3 1 58. 0 2!10 27 N '47 27 73 0 85 20 .. 1 1 ea 3 8 83 e 7 4 .. 38 z 1e5 a 42 1 9 1 a 3 1 s ae 11 31 8 Y[A N 77 5 8 8 58 7 •• 6 37 .. 6 ' ::l 83 8 1 2 M a eo J as 3 J 3 5 z eo 3 82 A 10 35 II 51 2 as 3 5 37. 7 5 1 s 1a J a 32 • 59 s e3 a s 3 5 8 511 • a 1 o • 3 5 • 5& 2 1 2 s 5 21 e 5 1 1 7 8 3 a 33 1 54 ' 7 8 3 35 !! 55 II SOLAI> R.OD •Av B E •BMOP•A L_V OUE 'JA Y S I'I.OX IMUM SOLAR RAO V 4L J ES I'IA Y EXCEED CONSTANT OUt!: T O SNOW .......... 270 310 6 1 0 720 HO 780 7AO 820 4.0 290 Z40 I'II N 4::l 50 so 120 140 170 t•o 80 140 .0 10 I'll!: AN 157 7 238 II 303 5 • 7 0 t 1 507. 7 ••• 0 !51 4 8 3ee 1 3A I 8 222 3 I S I 7

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40" I L _ _ _.._----: // \ . / .. -;-. : /1// ' . . _,./ \ ..... .. r ... /"' I / \ I ."'-./ 0:.\ 1 1 /' i . ; .. ;" " y / • '; .. \.' j,., ' I --;:.,! I / / ' . / I . ..,.,.........-\ / / "-.. / ;>-.r-, I ' ' " 1;.. . !"' / , . \ \ . ___ _;____ ' c . "'" ")' .';\ / ' '.// \\ i r: / / I . . ):' \ : I ' - • . / / . I l\' I 7 !"(,I / \ I \ t / '. '._,.-:;.,_. --' .:.-. ,., I \ / ;;, .... . ----t I I , / < J ..,--I , ......_ ' I ' ' \ I \ /'/ I I / I I / I \ ' ' ' \. ,j f.. : '\ ' \ \ \ . , / r A .\'' \ / I ' . \ . . /\\ \ ; i 1 go 80. _,p ) ---.... 20 . .cAM ;\ I ';., . /; / \./ .. \ ._ . : '. I/' , . _ 1 _, \ ,' . .. 1 r .' o;M ' \ , < 1/ ''x\ :,/ 1 20 1 0 5 •:_ .-. :.Yt 15 / '-, 1:/ -4 s ' 7:./ • , ;o: .. : 120 _' .. r ln;) ' r,' <1n\.."' '-) 00 ! .... I 0 t I LJ ..-Cdlll , , ,y;y I _

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF --AUXILIARY HEAT SYSTEMS , .

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There is currently a rapidly increasing number of solar heated residences on the market, co vering a wide range of system efficiencies. The solar features may contribute signifi-cantly to the overall heating needs of the building, or may b e occasional losers of heat, and it is safe to say that very few achieve a solar-savings-fraction of 100%. Homeowners , builders, and architects are therefore face d with the task of choosing an appropriate backup syste m which will carry the non-solar portion of the building's h eat load. This paper is intended to provide information which will aid those people in making a n educate d d ecision. The three basic forms of back-up considered are gas, and wood , and the options are evaluated based on financial cost, environmental impact, and building r estrictions. Financial c ast is a factor of operational rate costs and system installation costs. The followin g rate comparisons were provid e d by the public servic e company and are specific for the D enver metro are a . The figures correspond closely with those of other independent researchers, and provide f o r a wide range of system efficiencies. If we assume the use o f highest efficiency systems for each type, and wood at $85/cord, t hen i t can b e seen that gas and wood heat costs are approximately equal at $ 6 . 0 0 per on e million BTUs of us eful . . heat, s and electric is significantly higher ( $17.79/MBTU j. (see table 1) . Recent changes in t h e structure of the electric rate

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pose serious problems for the consumer using it only as backup. The two basic residential rate systems under current use are the unit-price conservation rate (or flat rate), and the demand rate. Monthly bills figured on the conservation rate are determined by multiplying the total kilowatt use for the mortth by a flat rate ( currently .05766 per kilowatt-hour used). Under the demand rate a customer is charged not only for the total amount used, but also for the highest amount _ used during any t5-minute time period. This latter demand charge can easily b e 6-8 times as large as the base rate charge. An e x -ample might help illustrate this: you come home from work, take a shower, and put some dinner in the oven. During this time your electric baseboard heat is on. The killowatt total for this is 15-minute period might be 20 kW (oven-5kW; water heater-1 4.5kW; baseboard-11.5kW) . Assuming a total monthly usage of 1,200 kWH, we can arrive at a rate comparison2 . DEMAND CHARGE ENERGY CHARGE BASIC SERVICE CHARGE TOTAL BILL DEMAND RATE $7.81 X 20 kW = $156.20 $.0216 x 1200 kWH = $25 . 92 $3.36 $185.48 FLAT RATE ELIMINATED $.05766 X 1200kWH = $69 . 19 $3.36 $72.55 It can b e seen from this example that an energy-efficient home using electric heat only as an auxiliary system would prefer to be on the c onservation rate. Overall monthly use would

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be low, and occasional heavy use would be forgiven. Unfortunately, all new homes in the Denver metropolitan area must be on the demand rate, necessitating the use of load-leveling devices, which add substantially to system cost. The following charts illustrate annual costs for a 1500 sq. foot house; energy-efficient model has a loss of 3.97 BTU per degree day. It is clear that in those locations where a choice exists, the solar home owner should opt for the flat rate system. Operational costs for wood burning systems are clearly less than those for electric systems, but how much less is de pe ndent on several factors. The major determinant i s the degree of efficiency of the system used. Fireplaces are notoriously inefficient systems, losing a large proportion of generated heat up through the chimney. Wood stoves, while being slightly tighter systems, have a general efficiency in the neighborhood of 50% due to incorrect utilization, and incomplete c ombustion of the wood. However, literature on the subject ind icates that if the cumbustio n chamber is insulated so that the temperature remains above 1 ,150 F and combustion is not limited b y lack of oxygen, w e come much closer to a process of combustion that delivers only heat, ash, water, and carbon dioxide3 • Two additional devices often used a d raft inducer and a heat exchange. area which can condense the water vapor oQt of the exhaust gases-can increase that figure to 80%, and indeed there are currently a dozen or so mod e l s on t h e market that can claim such impressive statistics. Other cost determinants for wood systems include

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) . .. " . . . . -_____ -------------1 ........ .. ... ?l -_ _ ______ ._.._._ .. _... _ _ .,. ..... ___ ,. ____ ..... __ ... CHART 1 CHART 2 MINIMUM BUILDING COO( CONSTRUCTiON ENEHGV EFFICIENT CONSTRUCTION A/INUAL EaCTRIC BILL j 1 ll , 200 1100 ANNUAL ELECTRIC B ILL 1100 1 s1089 s1064 1 , 1 1 s:ooJ 100 0 S950/YR. 0: "" 0-Vl "' s 0 900. 8 0 0 700 600 S32 8 /YR. s 592.'YR. 0 500 I DOLLARS I 400 300 200 I I I S164'YR. lO:L_ _ _L __ l[} _ _ NOI-ISOLAR SOLAR NON SOLAR SOLAR DEMAND DEMAND fLA T fLAT RATE RATE RATE RATE Charts 1 and 2 show a 1 .500 squarefoot home used to estimate hea t loss . Note the energy requ1rem ents from the fossil fu el backup heat1 n g sy stem --one w1th a solar system, the ottwr without a solar s ystem on Chart 1 . CHART 3 PEAK 112 15 K W 104 14 KW ---t-96 1 J KW 88 12 K\11_ 11 KW 80. 10 K W 72 I G4 56 48 . 4ll J7 24 16. COST OF ENU1GY FLAT RATE VS UEMAiiD RATE FOR ALAMOSA, COLORADO 1500 SQ. FT. HOM E --, 1000 ' i 9 0 0 ! >"" BOO -S775 I 700-Vl 0: l :5 0 0 I 6 00-500i 400-! 300 -1 001ooL; j I o N O N soLAR scltATs.ot4.._A ___ . DCMAND DWf,SD FL,\T fU\T RATE RATE RATE Hl.Tt Chart 2 s:10w s the same home' . but i ts conscr,<:Jlion mce>.sur<'s hClvc been decrease d . These stc:noards usually apply to a "mmtrnum" code requirements fo r sol