Citation
Northslope Village Hotel

Material Information

Title:
Northslope Village Hotel hotel & base facilities at Steamboat's north slope
Creator:
Grant, Daniel Scott
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 250 leaves : illustrations, charts (including 1 folded), maps (including 3 folded in pockets), plans ; 28 cm +

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ski resorts -- Colorado -- Steamboat Springs ( lcsh )
Ski resorts ( fast )
Hotels, motels, etc -- Designs and plans -- Steamboat Springs (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Steamboat Springs ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Daniel Scott Grant.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
11279074 ( OCLC )
ocm11279074
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1984 .G716 ( lcc )

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Full Text

H 422000

-701DD

OPEN SPACE SINGLE FAMILY MULTIPLE FAMILY COMMERCIAL
MAY 29. 1973


VILLAGE
HOTHL Sa BASK FACILITIES AT STEAMBOAT’S IViORTH SLOPE
m A

A INS ARCHITECTURAL THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF OESIGSM & PLANNING, UNIVERSITY OF CCILORACQ AT DENVER m PARTIAL FULLFBLLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DECREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
3 . .
' • - —-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*
OASS3ISL SCOTT ^S&AfMT MAY 'IS, 1SS4
s




DANIEL SCOTT GRANT IS APPROVED
KEN MULLIN PRINCIPLE ADVISOR
GARY LONG ADVISOR
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO - DENVER
MAY nSf 1984




CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
ECONOMICS - ROUTT COUNTY STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT - BASE I STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT - ECONOMIC IMPACT NORTH SLOPE AT STEAMBOAT - BASE II NORTH SLOPE SKI RESORT ~ DESCRIPTION
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE & CIRCULATION PLAN 1981-199
STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE CIRCULATION POLICIES - RE
OPEN SPACE GUIDELINES
GROWTH $< ANNEXATION
MASTER PLANNING
ZONING
WATER SEWER SOIL ENGINEERING CLIMATE ANALYSIS CLIMATIC DESIGN BUILDING CGDES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS BUILDING DESIGN
CONCLUSION
APPENDI X APPENDI X APPEND I X APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDI X APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDI X
A - TABLES 1-23 B - FIGURES 1-9 C - SOILS ANALYSIS CHARTS D - GEOLOGIC MAP E - ZONING MAP
F - HOTEL SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS G - RETAIL SHOP SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS H - RESTAURANT DESIGN SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS I - PARKING GARAGE SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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INTRODUCTION




INTRODUCTION
Located at 6,700 -feet above sea level, Steamboat has grown to be one of the largest ski resort towns in the United States. Because of its popularity, the population of Steamboat increases to nearly 25,000 during the Christmas season compared to a mere
6,000 that live there year-round.
Because of this large increase that occurs during the winter months, a second ski base is needed at the Steamboat Ski Area. Presently, the Steamboat Mountain can support 15,000 skiers/day. Because of congestion, safety problems, and snow erosion that has occured in the past, it was desireable to start Base II when the design day (average o-f the top 23 ski days) exceeded 6,000 skiers/day, which occured in the 1973-74 winter season. As soon as the design day reached 8,000 skiers, Base II should have became a requirement. Last season, the Steamboat Base I was •farced to handle over 10,000 skiers/day - well in excess o-f its capacity.
In 1934, the -final two chairlifts are to be completed, giving the Steamboat Ski Area an estimated 20,000 person handling capacity - three times the recommended handling capacity for the base.
As a result of the severe congestion that has occurred year after year(since 1974) at Steamboat Mountain, a proposal to the forest service has been made to expand the ski area to the North which could reduce the congestion at Base I by 30/1. The proposal, made in 1980 by Big Bear Development Company, is now waiting approval by the forest service.
The site -for the proposed Base II is located just walking distance from the Steamboat Golf Course, and about a quarter of mile north of the existing Base I area. The photographs fo 1.1 owing will best sum up its location, sice, and relation to the surrounding area.
Upon V er i f i c at i on of the ski area ad di t i on y Big Bear wi 1 1
d eve lop 6 0 ac res of base f ac i1i t i es, a h ot el , and condomini urns.
M y goal f or thi s thesi s is to design th e hot e l to serve a s a
f oca 1 pci nt f or the North Slope Ski Ar ea.
The scope of th e thesi s wi11 be to i n c 1 tide a hotel tower (as
t he f oca 1 po int) w i t h a r estaurant at th e top y retail shops at
t he base , P ar k i ng bel ow grade, and 1 an dsc 3. P i ng . The en tire
d eve 1 op me nt will be app rox i mately 70, 00 0 s quare feet, not
i ncl udi ng repeti ti ve hot el floors. Th us t h e scheme for my
t h & S i s w i 11 b e f i ve p ar t s — five sets of 112 ati a i_ orders.


The first order is the hotel and the layout of the hotel rooms themselves. The hotel should, as a focal point for the Base II area, have symbolism - a symbol to show that it is for the elite, a symbol that shows dominance. The hotel will represent a dominant element by having a low profile around the edge of the hotel, reaching it’s highest peak near the "center" of the complex. The? layout of the hotel rooms will emphasize space efficiency and comfort. The rooms will be high quality materials, but not the most expensive. Room furnishings should be easy and cheap to replace (due to the possibility of ski equipment being brought into the room - damage can occur). Rooms will probably rent out for $50 - $70 per night during ski season, and $40 per night during the off-season.
The second order is the restaurant. The restaurant, will be â– for hotel guests, and for local people. It will be designed in such a way as to have one of the most elegant environments in the area. The idea of having the restaurant as the second order is an important one because it completes the function of the hotel as a lodge. Because people will be coming to this resort area to get away from their normal activities, the restaurant will help this notion by creating a new atmosphere. The restaurant will be the center for social activity and night life at the new base area. By creating a social environment at night, the hotel becomes a place with two separate identities - a symbol for the ski base, and a center for social activity. The interior design itself will take on the "Rocky Mountain Contemporary" style using natural elements such as stone, wood, etc.
The third order is the landscaping. This part of the thesis will guide the commuter and the pedestrian to places through a set of spaces. The circulation pattern is a significant one because it is the mechanism that will give the project its character. The purpose of the landscaped village is to have control of the pedestrian in the ski resort. Much of this phase of the project will be dealt with in the master-planning of the village itself. Emphasis of the landscaping will be placed on circulation and how people move through spaces. Because the •focal point of the ski base is the main issue, it is important that transition through spaces be emphasized in order for people to find thei r desti nat ion.
The fourth spatial order is the retail shops as support facilities for the base area. This order is a significant one because it provides activities for people when they aren’t skiing. These shops will be convenient for hotel guests and primarily skiers. This part of my thesis will stress efficiency of space and service for the people. Retail shops will emphasize convenience for the guests by being located as close to the hotel rooms as possible. These shops will be convenient shops for the guests and will include a small food store, ski rental shop, ski clothing shop, and a drug store. Emphasis will be placed on access to these shops.


The fifth and last spatial order is- the below-qrade parking structure. The amount of parking will be determined from the design guidelines and will be based on the number of shops, number of hotel rooms, visitors, employees, and restaurant users. This part of the thesis will try to hide the automobile and e m p h a size p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c. A g a i n , e m p h a s i s w ill be pi a c e d o n circulation — parking garage access to the hotel rooms. Circulation should be safe, fast and easily accessible.
As a result of the hotel and its facilities, a scheme will be developed that shows unity, direction, and destination - what all ski resorts should have.


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SKIING TO THE SITE


VIEWS FROM THE SITE
TO THE EAST


TO THE WEST


VIEW OF EXISTING SKI AREA & PROPOSED SKI AREA


HISTORY


HISTORY
Long before Steamboat became the famous resort it is today, the Ute Indians adopted the area as their summer playground. Trappers, while trave 1 i.ng throught the area in the mid-1 SCO’ s, thought they heard the chugging of a Steamboat ’round the bend. Further investigation revealed a mineral spring bubbling through a rock formation which produced the sound. This chugging spring gave the town its name. Known only to the Ute Indian and early mountain men, this remote region did not yield to settlement until go1d and rich grazing 1 ands 1ured miners and cattlemen i n the late I860 •"S' and early 1870 ’ s.
James Crawford brought his family over Gore Pass in 1875 and was the first permanent settler of Steamboat Springs. At this time Steamboat was so secluded that during the 1800’s, when gold was being mined at Hahn’s Peak, 30 miles north, only a few families decided to settle in Steamboat.
It wasn’t until Carl Howelson, at the turn of the century, arrived in town from Norway with funny-looking boards to strap to his feet, that the ski industry began to grow. Howelson began jumping off snow mounds and the local youngsters began imitating him. With different bindings and a technique he brought from Europe, he started a branch of skiing that, today brings hordes of p e o p 1 e i n t o t. h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s.
As a result, Steamboat has produced enough Olympians and National Ski Team members to be known as Ski Town USA.


â– ROUTT COUNTY


ECONOMICS
ECONOMIC OVERVIEW - ROUTT COUNTY
Pqdu.1 at 1 on
Routt County population has more than doubled during the past decade. Between 1970 and I960, the county population grew by 6,800 persons to 13,404 persons.
The majority of the population growth has taken place in Steamboat Springs and the unincorporated areas of the county. Population increases in these two areas accounted for over three-fourths of the county’s total population growth.
From 1970 to 1980, Routt County households increased from 2,159 to 4,934 persons, an increase of 128.5 %. In 1980, Steamboat Springs had 2,051 households, representing about 42% of the county. The number of households increased at a faster rate than population as average household sice declined from 3.01 persons per household in 1970 to 2.69 in 1980.
Emp 1 oy merit
From 1975 to 1980, the county’s employment increased by 3,848 workers to 8,619, up 80.7%. This represents an average annual increase of 770 employees or 12.6%. Private wage and salary employment experienced the largest growth over this period increasing from 2,967 employees in 1975 to 6,330 workers in 1980. Individual industries experiencing the largest gains include construction, retail trade, mining and finance/insurance/real estate. Much of this growth is related to tourism and the
construction of second homes or resort establishments in the county (Table 1, Appendix £i) . Coal mining and power plant
development has also stimulated the local economy.
Between 1974 and 1980, 183 businesses were added in Routt
County, an increase of 56 percent:
Number of Establishments 1974 1980
Agricultural services, etc.................... 1 1
Mining............................................. 5 12
Contract Construction.......................... 44 89
Manufacturing. .................................... 11 10
Transport ai on §< Public Utilities................ 16 19
Wholesale Trade. ................................... 13 12
Retail Trade...................................... 102 52
Finance, Insurance and Real Estate............... 24 44
Services.......................................... 84 124
None 1 assi f i able............................. 26 46
Total 326 509


Industries which experienced substantial growth in the number o-f establishments include contract construction, retail trade, finance/insurance/real estate and services. Much of this growth is related to tourism and local service businesses. Growth in the number of Routt County business establishments is a •further indication of expanded business activity.
F' e r s o n a 1 1 n c o m e
In 1980, the private industry sectors accounted for 91.1 7. of the county’s total personal income by place of work. The largest income generating industry is mining with 25.3 percent of 1930 personal income by place of work. The construction industry has exhibited the fastest income growth between 1975 and 1980, accounting for 6.4 percent of total personal income in 1975 and 157. in 1930.
Between 1975 and 1980, total personal income by place of residence grew about $94 million, an increase of 170,3 percent. This represents an average annual increase of about $18.8 million or 22.0 percent. Among private industries, the largest income gains were experienced by mining, construction and services, corroborating trends evident in prior employment statistics. Residence adjustment data indicate that approximately seven percent of income generated in Routt County is earned by nonresidents commuting into the county for jobs.
Over the period shown, per capita personal incomes grew from $5,635 to $11,000. This represents an increase of more than $5,400 per person or about 97 percent. A large portion of this increase is attributable to the effects of inflation.
Bull ding Permits
The number of housing units authorized in Routt County for 1975 through 1981 were:
Routt Countv Housing Units Authorised
Year Simple Family Mult i f ami Iy Total
1975 59 0 59
1976 1 10 “T • 1 ± 3
1977 137 r>iq
1978 267 122 389
1979 337 449 736
1930 ISO 543 723
1981 131 305 436
On the average, about 390 units were authorized each year in Routt County. Although annual development rates by type of housing unit has fluctuated, multifamily units have accounted for slightly more than half the units permitted over the period shown. Between 1975 and 1981, 2,730 units were authorized or permitted, 1,456 of which were multifamily units. The majority


of these units are -for second-home or seasonal use.
Summary
Routt County maintains a well diversified. rural economy based on mining, tourism and construction, with agriculture and government employment providing additional economic support. In 1980, the county contained 13,400 residents. Steamboat Springs is the county seat and largest community with 5,100 residents.
Substantial economic expansion has occured in Steamboat Springs axnd Routt County in recent years. Since 1976, county retail sales have climbed at an annual rate in excess of 22 percent per year. Similarly, county assessed valuations and commercial bank deposits have grown in excess of 15 percent per year. The county’s economic expansion has been fueled primarily bv growth in the mining and especially the tourism industries.
The following facts are some issues to think about when schematic design is to take place;
1) The population of Routt County increases about 13%/year. This can have an impact on design considerations based on future expansion of the area. Since many people are tourists when they first come to Steamboat, but then become residents, expansion of the master plans should be considered.
2) Routt County’s increase in employment is 3%/year. A new base area would create more jobs, creating even greater employment in the area. The new base would also bring more money into the area, creating higher living standards. Since the amount of money brought into the area is based on what people spend, the more the new area becomes an experience for the tourist, the more money he will be likely to spend. Thus quality of design becomes a major design consideration.
3> Personal Income in the Steamboat area has increased to 17%/year. As ax result of mining and the tourism
industry, Steamboat has grown to be an upper-middie class society — it is the intent of the design solution to keep this trend going. If the1 new base area can create a new identity, parallel with the already
existing Base I ski area, it can increase personal income in the areax a great deal. A design consi derat i on that may help facilitate this goal is to create a unity
program which deals with the entire master plan of the
second baxse area. A unity plan will create its own character and identity, thus improving the economics of the ski area as a whole.




STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT
BASE I
Steamboat, which opened in 1962, is one of Colorado’s major destination resorts. With 13 lifts and a total capacity of
22,000 vertical transport feet per hour, the area is the fourth largest ski area in the state. Skier visitation levels have fluctuated widely over the years, reaching a peak of 630,307 in 1979—80 before failing to 243,000 with the poor snow of 1980—81. During typical seasons, Steamboat captures approximately eight percent of the Colorado skier market. During poor seasons, this percentage has declined to four to five percent (Table 2, Appendi x A).
Steamboat is a major destination area* (Table 3, Appendix A). Two-thirds of the area’s skier days are generated by out—of—state skiers - nearly SO percent by destination visitors in general. Denver skiers, generally overnight weekend guests, represent an important segment of the Steamboat, market. The distribution in skier origin have remained fairly stable over the past few years.
Tables 4 - 17, Appendix A gives Steamboat Skier comparisons
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Tabl e 3
Table 9
Tabl e 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Tab 1 e 15
Table 16
Table 17
The â–  Ste
w i t h ski
record se
ly skier visits by month of skier visits by weekends,
of skier type
of state of origin for top 15
of primary regional markets of total Colorado representation of top metropolitan areas
of the following:
Comparison of year Year1y compari son weekdays
Yearly comparison Yearly comparison states
Yearly comparison Year1y compar i son
- Year1y compari son
- Year1y comp ar i son percentage share
- Yearly comparison
- Yearly comparison
- Yearly comparison
- Year1y compar i son
- Yearly comparison
- Year1y compar i son vacationing with
■ days totaling 745,000. That number eclipsed the in 1979—80 season by almost 115,000 skier days and represents a 21.4% increase over last year’s 613,354 skier days. Charlie Mayfield, director of special services for the Steamboat Ski Corporation claims, "We had the largest increase in skier days in the 1982—33 season — more than any other ski area. Our goal is to increase our skier davs to 1,000,000/year."
o f metr n poli tan ar ea ’ s
if the stat e market
of age di s t r i buti on
of sexual d i str i but i on of s 1
of mar i tal status
of annual h ousehold inc one
of skier ab i 1 i t y
of who res P ondent is
Since the 1932-83 season. Steamboat Ski - Corporation has gone ahead with some of their plans to expand the facilities at the ski area. The $600,000 Ski Time Square construction effort will eliminate many problems presently at the north side of the


base area. The vehicular street will be narrowed and the walkways widened, resulting in many of the cn-street parking spots being eliminated. The overall parking will be increased because of the construction of a parking structure by the Ski Corporation in front of the Clocktower. Additional spots will be available behind the Clocktower and in the new Tori an Plum development. There will be a traffic control booth with a mini-plasa built around it which will serve as the focal point for the entire area. A wide swath of brick pavers will highlight the areas in front of the shops, and landscaping features will improve the appearance of the area next to the road. The project will be completed in November, 1983.
SKI AREA 1983 SUMMER EXPANSION PROGRAM:
The Steamboat Ski Corporation has successfully negotiated the sale of $10 milllion in industrial revenue bonds. The money wi11 be used in the following manner;
- Build a new triple chairlift in Priest Creek; it will parallel the existing lift.
- Build a new lift between the existing Four Points and WJW lifts. It will start from the bottom of Lower Cyclone and end at the top of Storm Peak. For this construction the Storm Peak poma lift will be removed.
- Construct a 185 car parking garage at the west end of Ski Time Square.
- Purchase more snow-making equipment and three new grooming machi nes.
- Add over 200 new trail and facility signs.
- Start construction of a new restaurant near the elbow of High Noon (a run in the Priest Creek area).
- Expand the Christie Base facility by 20,000 square feet.
- Build two new lifts to accommodate the Sunshine Bowl area on the back side of Priest Creek.
Except for the work in Sunshine Bowl and the Christie Base facility, all the construction work will begin finished by the 1983-84 ski season. The expansion into Sunshine Bowl will begin in the summer of 1984.
FUTURE SKI AREA EXPANSION POSSIBILITIES
Certain areas have as expansions of the ex the north is called the Slope) and the area to
tract. The U.S. Forest expansion into the Fish demand requires. Tom says, "Whether a permit area will expand to the
been designated isting Steamboat Fish Creek tract
for future consideration Ski Area. The area to (same area as the North the south is known as the Priest Creek Service would consider an application for Creek area first and then Priest Creek as Lonberger from the U.S. Forest service is issued or not, sooner or later the ski North. Right now the ridge is in the way


for a major base area over there." Thus the ridge will have to be dealt with in order to put a major base area in the area.
More specifically, the Fish Creek tract will be considered when the existing ski area is projected to be five years away from reaching 50 percent of its capacity. As it stands, the existing Steamboat Ski Area is expected to have an annual capacity of 1,605,000 skier days when all the lifts and currently approved new areas and runs area finally built.
That estimated capacity is based on a 107 day season from December 15 - April 1. Based on these numbers, the Forest Service would consider expansion when its projections indicate Steamboat is five years away from 963,000 skier days.
In terms of acreage, the Fish Creek and Priest Creek expansion would represent more than a doubling in sice of the existing ski area. In terms of capacity it falls short of that mar k.
At current planned buildout, the ski area wi11 have a daily capacity of 15,000 skiers. Fish Creek (North Slope) is expected to add a daily capacity of 5,000, half the sice of the Steamboat Area Presently, and the estimated number for Priest Creek is 3,000.
Based on the future ski area expansion, another Base resort is needed to keep skiers at the Steamboat Ski Area well distributed and to prevent the existing base area to be over populated.


ECONOMIC IMPACT


STEAMBOAT SKI AREA
ECONOMIC IMPACT
State Level
The Colorado ski industry is a major contributor to the Colorado economy and represents the largest single industry on Colorado's Western Slope, and the third largest industry in the state (Fig. 1, Appendix B> . The ski industry accounted -for over $1 billion in retail sales in the 1981-82 season, and generated nearly 39,000 jobs for state residents. Personal income attributable to skiing was $586 million. Another $400 million in housing was constructed (condominiums, second homes) in the summer of 1981.
m
The relationship of skier activity to total ski industry economic impacts varies considerably from area to area depending on the maturity, size, and particularly the mix of day and destination skiers (Fig. 2, Appendix B):
1980 Visitor sales
County Ski Areas per Skier Visit
Clear Creek Love!and Geneva Basin St. Mary’s Glacier $16.80
Grand Winter Park Berthoud Pass Ski Idlewi1d $35.30
Summi t Arapahoe/Keystone Brec kenr i dge Copper Mountain $50.00
La Plata Purgatory $55.90
Gunni son Crested Butte $70.70
Routt Steamboat $72.70
Eagl e Vai .1 $97.60
P i t k i n Aspen Complex Aspen Highlands $ 100.20
The larger, more fully developed resorts with a higher proportion of destination skiers generate significantly greater economic effects on a per skier visit basis.
Skiing is one of Colorado’s major basic industries as it draws visitors from around the world and stimulates an influx of dollars into the Colorado economy. An estimated 15,500 skiing-related jobs are directly supported by out—of—state skiers. This figure compares favorably with other basic industries in Colorado. Overall, the ski industry represents 3.8 percent of all basic employment in Colorado.


County Level
Economic activity in Routt County is centered in the City of Steamboat Springs, the county seat and the second largest community in northwestern Colorado. The Steamboat Ski Area is located -four miles south of the original town. The. residential and commercial developments at the base of the ski area, primarily second home and tourist-oriented businesses, are known collectively as Steamboat Village. In the early 1970 ’ s, the village area was annexed by the city and now both the old town and new skiing—oriented developments are within the incorporated municipal limits.
The greatest portion of Routt County’s commercial development is within the City of Steamboat. Minor resident-oriented commercial activity is present in the Towns of Hayden, Oak Creek and Clark. An industrial and general business district has developed just to the north of Steamboat which accounts for the greatest portion of retail sales in the unincorporated county.
Tourism activity, including associated lodging, retail sales and second-home development, is the largest single component of the Routt County economy. Summer tourism centers around outdoor recreation.
The economic influence of tourism and skiing in routt County is visible in many aspects of the economy. Visitors purchase lodging, entertainment and food as well as a variety of retail goods. These expenditures create job opportunities drawing new residents and indirectly new services for these residents. In addition, Routt County has an active construction industry, primarily related to second—home development and tourist-associated commercial development.
The seasonality of local business activity and the magnitude of visitor impacts are reflected in monthly retail sales trends for the City of Steamboat Springs. During the 1980—81 season, winter tourism generated approximately 30 percent of annual sales and approximately 3.5 times the retail sales activity attributable to summer visitors and summer construction (Fig. 3-5, Appendix B).
The mountain's limited operations in January and subsequently improved conditions in February and March are portrayed. Converting these data to constant dollars, Steamboat experienced a 40 percent decline in estimated winter visitor expenditures and a 60 percent decline in ±otal skier visits.
Based on these data, Steamboat Springs and Routt County have strongly seasonal business activity levels which are, for the most part, the result of summer and winter tourism. In total , Steamboat Springs seasonal business activity, as measured by retail sales above the May and November base, represent 40 percent of all annual sales. Sales characteristics for the county as a whole show only slightly less seasonality. Utilizing the city sales tax data and quarterly county retail sales data from the


to cr
state, following are estimates of business attributions:
Routt County Retail Sales - 7. of 1980 Annual Total
Off-season Base (local sales)
Winter Tourism
5 u m rn e r T o u r i s m a n d C o n s t r u c t i o n Total
The presence of the Steamboat Resort represents a major influence on the magnitude and nature of Routt County’s summer tourism activity. Without a nearby summer destination point (e.g. Rocky Mountain National Park) and given the county’s isolation, summer visitation without the Steamboat Resort and accompanying ski-related recognition factor would be significantly below present levels. The ski industry's presence in Routt County directly induces additional summer trade:
__S
1007.
- National motel and hotel chains, which have located in Steamboat primarily to serve winter tourists, also draw summer tourists by their high public recognition and national marketing efforts.
— Developed summer amenities, attempt to attract visitors efficiently utilise lodging
golf and tennis, represent an to the Steamboat Resort to more and amenities built for skiing.
— Community attractions, lodges, could not be amenities now represent
such as shops, restaurants and supported without skiing. These a major summer attraction.
- The presence of the ski an attraction to summer
area and the summer gondola ride is vi sitor s.
- Most second-home owners purchase for winter use or skiing-related appreciation potential, yet many owners visit their properties in the summer months.
- Lodging facilities build primarily for skiing reduce their prices by as much as 50 percent to attract summer visitors.
- The marketing of Steamboat in the winter also brings a summer recognition. Many winter visitors return in the summer months.
- The community hats the necessary public services and
facilities to handle summer visitors without major additional expense or discomfort to visitors.
Evidently, it is the amenities, the lodging and marketing ase which generates the high level of summer visitation in teamboat. Without the ski area, summer visitation
characteristics would closely resemble other isolated mountain


communities. An estimated 60 percent of Routt County's summer tourism business activity is indirectly tied to the county’s ski i ndustry.
In sum, retail sales data indicate that summer tourism and construction represent approx i matel y 25 percent o-f annual tourism-related retail sales. The local ski industry, through the inducement of summer visitors and the construction of second homes, is responsible for an estimated 60 percent of combined summer visitor sales and construction activity. Without winter skiing, tourist visitation and expenditure characteristics would more closely resemble current activity levels in non-skiing counties and the construction industry would be primarily a small local service function.
B ased on t h © S e a S on al ity of ret a i 1 s al e s, est i ma t es of
sk i .i ng â– ' s overal 1 e conomic i mp act ar e:
Routt Count y 193 Q At tr i DU t i on o-f
Re tai 1 3 al es 3 k i i ng
Percen t mi 1 1 i ons P ercen t m i 1 1 .i ons
Off Se ason Base
(1 oc al sales) 67% 1 12 7 4- 5% 50 - 7
Winter Touri sm 25 42 - 0 95 40. 0
Summer Touri sm
and Construct i on 8 13 . 5 60 3. i
Total 100/1 $1 63 ■“ 53. 7 7. $98. 3
T he above Cl 1 1 ocation o *f 1 ocal sal es to sk i i n 9 is ba sed on the
skiing i ndustr y s propor ti on a 1 inf 1ucenc e on 1 oc al emp 1 oym en t and
i ncome . Winte r tourisi m i s al mas t ex c 1 us i ve 1 y a s k i i ng- related
i mpact . An e s t i mated 6 0 percent of summe r t our i s m is a sk i i ng-
related effect.
In addition to the direct expenditures of winter visitors, skiing induces retail sales from local residents through local wages and summer sales through construction and increased summer tourism. Based on seasonality in sales and the tourist industry's relative importance as a generator of local income. approximately 59 percent of 1930 retail sales ($98.3 million) is attributable, either directly or indirectly, to the local ski industry.
Although skiing dominates tourism-related sales in Routt County, the local economy is supported by a diversified economic base centered on skiing, mining, government and agriculture. Tourism (including skiing) is the largest single economic influence accounting for an estimated 3,900 local jobs and over 45 percent of earned income (Table 13, Appendix A).
Because skiing is one of Colorado’s basic industries, the importance of the tourist in the design concepts should be stressed.


The design should emphasize those things that will make the tourist have an enjoyable stay and will result in his return. The design should take into consideration availability of services and convenience to aid the tourist. The one thing a tourist likes the least is his effort and energy he must use when he can’t find his way around. Lodging and amenities shall be stressed to also attract the summer tourist.


NORTH SLOPE AT STEAMBOAT


PROPOSED BASE II
NORTH SLOPE
In January 1970, LTV, the then new owner of Steamboat resort, hired the Ken R. White Company of Denver to provide multidiscipiine professional services. These services included, but were not limited to: Master planning of the new resort over
the next ten years; immediate management consultation on operations and development; and planning, design and construction of current year projects. George A. Thorson, Project Manager,
Architect and Planner, directed a staff of 20+ architects,
planners, engineers, financial consultants, etc. to carry out this project. The planning team also included the President, Vice President, Senior Planner and Market Analyst of Ken R. White Co. along with Alexander Mcllvaine, Resort Architect and Planner
•from New York, and Andrew Sever etc, Market, and Financial Analyst
from California.
"Phase I Report - Analysis Concepts" was completed August 14, 1970. This report provided data on: the existing
development; Market Research and Analysis to determine visitor support; Development Guidelines; and the General Development Concept. The methodology included: field market questionnaires; inventory of all lands and facilities that would exert and influence on development of the complex; analysis of existing ski lift and ski trail facilities; aerial mapping supported by land surveying control; national and local ski market analysis of other existing Colorado ski areas; transportation analysis; utility services; zoning and permitting; and consultation with the Forest Service, City and County of Steamboat Springs, and other agencies. The Market research included analysis of the winter skier market with a forecast of skier volumes over the next ten years, with a projection of required lifts, trails and visitor facilities, along with summer market projections and real estate development. The Report. provided an examination of alternative development possibilities and the preparation of a recommended General Development Concept, together with a proposed improvement schedule. The developed Master Plan defined: proposed ski mountain lifts and trails; roads and parking; and residential, commercial, recreational and open space facilities (Fig. 6-7, Appendix B).
The market analysis projected over 568,000 skier visits by the 1975—76 winter season, or a design—day volume of 9,100. By the 1930—81 season a design—day volume of 14,000 skiers was predicted (Table 19, Appendix A). It was determined that the mountain could support these projected capacities and was
reflected in proposed ski lifts (Table 20, Appendix A). However, there were contingent factors which needed to be resolved:
1. The e x i s t i n a s k i trai 3. s y s tern in 1970, was analysed and classified with a three—category rating system (beginning, intermediate, and advanced) or the four—category system of the Forest Service, and compared with the desirable skier mix of trails. It was found to be a more difficult mix than the market


projected (Table 21, Appendix A), It was then proposed that alternate trail cut-offs around difficult pitches and future proposed trail design could accommodate the skier market mix.
2. The existing 1970 market trend showed that Steamboat had a "predominantly local" market resulting in peak capacities on weekends and greatly reduced skiing during the week (Table 22, Appendix A). This, of course, would not economically support major development expenditures. It was proposed to develop ancillary activities and facilities at the base, such as overnight lodging, condominiums, restaurants, apres ski, shops, etc. in order to attract the "non-local" or long-term visitors which would provide a balanced skier market throughout the season. Further, it was recommended that summer facilities, such as a golf course, tennis courts and other resort/convention activities be developed in order to attract visitors to occupy the developed facilities for a greater season economics feasibi1itv.
3. The existing Base I. due to the unique orientation of iit. Werner which is 90 degrees from the normal ski mountain, becomes a congested area - particularly at the end of the day (normal ski mountains face north with a broad face, however, Steamboat has the base on the West with a ridge rising to the East and the skiing on the North faces with narrow funnel-like return trails). The return—to-base becomes the skier capacity limitation, rather than the full mountain capacity. The problems of the congestion at Base I which were anticipated and now exist i nc1ude:
a. Safety problem and potential increased skier injury rate from higher skier density, particularly at the end of the day when skiers area tired and have a higher accident ratio.
b. Erosion of snow conditions from concentrated, confined
skier use, which has always been a major problem at Steamboat, particularly on the lower slopes and at the warmer end-of—season. This acceleration of snow
deterioration and dissipation has had a negative economic impact on the total skier capacity in the spring. The problem relates to the requirement of
manufacturing artificial snow.
c. Skier satisfaction is greatly reduced when congestion
occurs and pleasurable open slope skiing is not
available -all reducing the image and return business, as the return—to—base is the last impression of the day.
d. Base I facilities, parking and transportation also become congested.
e. There also is congestion in the morning when all skiers are starting up the mountain on lifts. Lift breakdown or high winds which prevent operation of the gondola keeps skiers from getting to the upper ski lifts.


It was recommended to develop a Base II to overcome the congestion. and to start the development -for the 1973-74 season, after the mountain reached 6,500 skiers per day- The report proposed an access lift from the new Base II at the Fish Creek area to the intervening ridge, and an upper facility to the top of the mountain. This proposal was contingent upon the acquisition of the Rickstrew property to the east of the Base II, in order to accommodate skiing. This was accomplished that summer. This need for the Base II area and at this location to the north were recommended for several reasons:
a. To overcome the problems at Base I
b. Provide access to the excel 1 ant north facing slopes above the fish creek area. The Priest Creek area was also studied but it is not as desirable due to its predominantly south exposure and loss of good snow from the sun orientation. Since October of 19(33, the Priest Creek area has been thoroughly developed, the back-side of the mountain included.
c. Provide more diversified skiing, safety, and alternate routes up and down from the main ski mountain.
d. Provide a more diversified land development at Base II, resulting in less congestion and better environment life.
The original intent of Base II was a combination summer-winter complex with a greater sense of seclusion away from the hub of commercial activity.
"Phase II - Master Plan — fin Environmental Challenge" was completed in December of 1970. This report restated objectives, development overview, the Steamboat Master Plan, recommended construction program, and the development program summary. This was a product of further study, research, analysis and design. It confirmed and refined the initial recommendations and development program. The Priest Creek area was also restudied and found to have two distracti ons: southwest exposure would
result in snow problems; and the base was not owned by LTV.
The findings reinforced the requirement for and feasibility of the Base II at the Fish Creek area. During the summer, LTV purchased the Rickstrew property, as recommended, for development area of Base II. This property area was reflected in the revised master plan. It included ski lifts, trails, skier facilities, parking and some apres ski development.
The skiing and lift methods, particularly over the ridge, were analysed in great detail. Aerial photography and contour maps were studied along with helicopter and on—site inspections. There had existed some scepticism about the skiing feasibility which needed to be tested. Sandy Me IIvaine, ski consultant, Don Preszler, Vice President of Ken R. White Co., along with Gordy


Ski
Wren, Dick Randolph, and John Fetcher of the Steamboat Company all personally were involved with the investigations.
It was found that there was excellant intermediate and full range of skiing on the upper 85% of these northern slopes, and a ski way back over the ridge at the end of the day. The top of the ridge would be rated expert skiing, whereas the lower bowls would be rated beginner. It was indicated there was an easy route off the ridge that was higher up the valley (southeast of Fish Creek Falls) and then down the valley through the Stuckey Property (now the Grant property — Big Bear Development Co.). It appeared that by moving dirt in the small saddle on the south side of the ridge. the slopes could be flattened out for skiing. Therefore, in addition to the reverse loading lifts there were two other easy possible ways back to Base II. Despite this research, the myth of E-iase II not being feasible has persisted for unknown reasons. Last winter, representatives of the Stuckey property developers and the Forest Service skied this Fish Creek Base II area and found additional feasible routes, eliminatinq the myth. Base II will become a secondary winter center and major summer center with a lower density than Base I.
In order to determine the present capacity of skiing at Steamboat and compare the existing with the proposed Master Plan, George Thorson recently calculated the lift development since 1971 to date using the same methods as original calculations (Table 23, Appendix A). These calculations were not available from the ski company, although the Vertical Transportation Feet (VTF) were taken from the current trail map. The lift capacities were assumed: 1,000/hour for two-person chairlift and 1,500/hour for three-person chair. Based on these assumptions, the maximum daily capacity is 10,445 and the design day (discounted 80% for reasonable quality skier experience) is 8,356 skiers/day. As noted, there were four days during this 1982—83 holiday season which undoubtedly was too crowded for goodmarket skiing. The return at Base I must have been congested, potentially unsafe, and eroded the snow condition. This was noted in the? local Steamboat Pilot editorial in February and stated, "Christmas was over 10,000 and that was a zoo."
The Forest Service has determined that the eventual mountain maximum capacity is 15,000 skiers/day. Their method further assumes 107—day design season or 1,605,000 skiers annually. Based on trend line analysis methods, the Forest Service assumes that development of a second ski base or area would not be required until five years in advance when the utilization factor of 60% or 9,000 skiers/day and 963,000/year is exceeded, or about 1995. Their calculations for the 1981-32 show a total of 615,354 skiers/year and 504,000 skiers/107 days. They further project skier expansion at the Colorado state rate of 3% to 4% per year.
For purposes of this report, the capacity calculations methods have been analyzed. The 15,000 skiers/day for the whole mountain is reasonable, however the Base I restrictions of the morning lift system and evening trail return limits the capacity to 9,000 skiers. Therefore, the present Skier Visitor Days (SVD)


accommodated now exceeds this base capacity and also the 60% utilization -factor. The use of 107 days/season is not clearly defined or understood.
An average of 107 days does not seem to represent the peak skiing problems. Also, the use of 1,605,000 or 963,000 skiers annually does not reflect peak periods. The Master Plan method of using the top 20 days average as the Skier Design Day seems more feasible. Based on this approach, the design day for the 1982-S3 season will be nearly 10,000 skiers/day. Considering ail factors of design for a base area, the second ski base has been required since 1970 (when 8,000 Skier Visitor Day (SVD) was exceeded). It is therefore obvious, with the further increase in lift facilities and skiers accommodated, that the second ski base is critically required at this time.
The use of 3.1% average skier rate expansion in the state is not correct for any one ski area, as it is dependent on the
appeal of the area and ski facilities actually developed. Some
areas have had no expansion, while Aspen and Vail have expanded at a rate exceeding 10%. The Master Plan market analysis in 1970 showed Colorado skier expansion growth rates at: 21% over the
previous ten years; and 19% projected for the next ten years, however reduced reduced to 11% for Steamboat projections to reflect possible ski area saturation trends. Therefore, if a 10% growth rate is assumed for the next five years, the Forest Service point, when expansion is required, would be much lower. Therefore, if the design day of 28 peak days is used along with
the more realistic growth rate, the 60% utilization factor for
allowed expansions was surpassed over five years ago!
The proposed $10 million expansion of the ski area includes a triple chairlift at Priest Creek (double uphill capacity in this area); a new triple chairlift "Ego" from lower Cyclone to Storm Peak (additional large increased capacity), two chairlifts in the Sunshine Eiowl expansion and a triple chair to replace Elkhead lift in Priest Creek. Although calculations on the lifts are not available, it can be projected that this might be an expansion of skier capacity of over 4,000 skiers/day, or almost a 50% increase of present capacity, without any additional Base I ski—in and ski—out facilities. If it is now considered crowded at Base I, and Base II is critically needed, then this proposed expansion would make Base II imperative. Base II should have
been developed before the additional lifts were installed above Base I to relieve the congestion.
The design solution should take the following into consi derat i on:
1) Emphasize access in and out of the base area.
2) Emphasis should concentrate on the problem of congestion, which is presently a problem at Base I.
3) Emphasis should stress efficiency for future expansion of the base along the ridge.
4) Emphasis should be placed on the pleasant mountain atmosphere and attract summer tourists as well as skiers.


NO!J-cIlfcIOS3a -
X«aS3U !>i5 BdOlS HLLdOEM


NORTH SLOPE
DESCRIPTION
SITE
The Grant property (North Slope) Base Area is nestled at the base of the Routt National Forest near Steamboat Ski Base- The 60 acre property with an east—west orientation lies between the Forest on the east and south, and the Rickstrew/Steamboat Ski Company property on the west. It’s legal description is 3E 1/4, SW 1/4, E 1/2,' SW 1/4, SECTION 14, TOWNSHIP 6 NORTH, RANGE 34 WEST OF THE 6th P.M., ROUTT COUNTY, COLORADO (Fig. 3, Appendix B). Beautiful Fish Creek runs through the property on the north with famous Fish Creek Falls walking distance away, The Mt. Werner Water and Sewer District plant is near the northwest corner. Steamboat Boulevard approaches the property from the west along the Steamboat Golf Course and then turns and crosses Fish Creek to the North. There is a steep hog—back type ridge on the south side covered with a dense growth of trees. The site is steep on its south side, and has a gradual slope on its north side (Fig. 9, Appendix B).
ADVANTAGES
The most obvious reason for developing this area as Base II is that of providing a second ski base in order to take the
pressure off of the present Base I and solve some of its skier
safety and congestion problems. However, it also can provide a predominant1y summer vacation complex with a lower density development. It also would provide further recreational
enjoyment of our national forests. The two—base resort would spread out the potential congestion with two nodes and provide a comprehensive resort complex. These two functional areas would be linked together by a development pattern that blends man-made improvements with natural land forms and by an internal
transportation network.
TRAIL SYSTEM
Although it has been proven that there are excellant ski trails available on these north—facing slopes and several alternative safe novice routes over and down the ridge to Base II, it is imperative to continue on-site investigations during both the winter and summer seasons. Final design will reflect this research and may call for revisions. Ski facilities and mountain development must be designed with good engineering and a careful consideration of the preservation and enhancement of the environment. This would include soils engineering, hydrology and natural landscaping. Care must be taken to minimize the scars of construction roads, with prompt road obliteration and reseeding. Glade skiing through the aspen trees would be provided where possible, preserving powder skiing. The trails would be located in north-facing valleys, cut to the natural outline of the trees, and provide swing—outs around steep areas with efficient


connections between lifts - all to provide an outstanding planned program or mountain grooming and maintenance.
BASE II FACILITIES
The presently proposed -facilities, as designed by Big Bear Development Co., is based on a concept of having all parking underground with the developed areas on the upper levels. The ski-in access would provide a better utilisation of the land and be environmentally more attractive with parking hidden and direct access to facilities by elevator. There would be open areas to the garage below providing natural light and ventilation, along with exterior landscaping. Accommodations will consist of up to 500 hotel rooms and 1400 condominium units. There will be approximately 10,000 square feet of retail space alone in the hotel complex. The architecture would follow the local established "Rocky Mountain Contemporary" style, utilizing natural materials of stained wood, textured concrete, stone or brick that blends with the mountains.
Natural landscaping with indigenous Rocky Mountain plants would enhance this mountain retreat setting and provide a greater sense of low density seclusion away from the urban scene. Paths would lead up into Routt National Forest. and throughout the Steamboat Resort for summer hikes and horseback riding. It is a short walk to the golf course and to nearby fishing. The design provides maximum open space, due to the concentration of improved areas, which is 51 acres of the total, or 85%.
PARKING. ROADS, AND TRANSPORT AT IQN
As previously noted, parking for skiing, commercial activity, and housing is shown under the main base level. These concepts will be studied further in terms of construction details and financial impacts, however parking adequate for facilities will be provided on site.
The roads, as designed in the original LTV Master Plan, shewed Steamboat Boulevard with appr ox i mat el v 120-’ right-of-way through the Rickstrew property. All of this should be studied by the property owners and local agencies involved so that a compatible solution is resolved.
Facilities for buses and a shuttle service between Base I and Base II should be included in order to reduce the need for private vehicles and to increase the open space feeling of this mountain resort - a quality experience.


The intent at the recommended li-ft/trail program is to open up new s 1 opes o f vary i ng di f f i cu 11 y wi. th a. balanced mi x and t a cape wi t h pr o j ec t ad vo 1 ume of sk i ar s „ The upper E!5% af the s3. ape wau 1 d have ssvera. 1 navice t ra.i 1 s nd runs as previ ously described which would includes long sweeping trails to the east around the ridge and down the Fish Creek valleys a shorter switchback-type road trail off the ridge. In addition there would be intermediate trails -farther east of the ridge, joining the Fish Craek va11ey at the bo11am, a1 ang wi th i ntermedi ate s1opes j ust below the advanced skiing on the ridge faces.
0 T H E R M G U N T A IN C 0 M SIDE R A TIG N 5
The Forest Service officials, during a meeting in Steamboat on Jan. 14, 19S3, asked several questions which herein addressed;
•-Mi cr owave Equ i pmen t on the mounta i n top wau 1 d require security from vandalism and people safety. This may be required under present circumstances, however lift design would be modified to divert, skiers away from the site and f ences cou1d be built. Thi s wi11 be studi ed i n mare detai1
d uri n g t h e d esi g n deve1 op ment phase.
- Municipal Watershed should be protected from erosion and/or pollution of the water source. Mountain development and engineering would be coordinated with the city of Steamboat Springs, Mt. Werner Water and Sewer District, and the Forest Servi ce„
- Small Drainage near the top of the mountain, near the small lake, would be considered carefully in the trail design. It has been skied this winter. Layout design would avoid the drainage or provide culverts if required, however enviranmenta1 enginesring wouId be invo1ved.
-- En v i r on men t a 1 Design will be included in t h e f i n a 1 Mast er Plan with potential impacts and methods for their mitigation. Necessary data will be gathered and evaluated by a team of professianals familiar with Environmental Assessments.
FOREST SERVICE PROCESS
The owners of the Grant property

UTILITIES
The property is now in the lit. Werner Water and Sewer District. Electricity is now available at the Rickstrew property and can be extended to this site. The property is not now in the city of Steawmboat Springs, but is contiguous if it becomes desi rable.
RELATIONSHIP WITH STEAMBOAT SKI CORF'OR AT I ON
The owners of this property have met with the Steamboat Ski Corporation and have had discussions on this proposed project. They have agreed to cooperate with each other. There are many alternatives as to how this can be developed and these details will be worked out. However, a major desirable premise would be to have a joint-use ski lift ticket. Other activities and operations would be desirable to be joint and cooperative for reasons of financial and good operations.
PROPOSED FOREST PLAN FOR ROUTT NATIONAL FOREST
The Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Resource Management Plan, as prepared by the Forest Service, has been presented to the public for review and comments were due by March 25, 1933.
There are six alternatives for development which are described and evaluated. Alternative A is the Forest Service preferred plan. There are nine planning questions evaluated, however No. 6 which primarily is applicable to this report asks, "Will inventoried winter sports sites be allocated to winter sports development?" It deals with proposed downhill skiing in the winter sports site inventory and application for a ski area permit.
Alternative A provides for expansion of the current Steamboat Ski Area into the adjacent Fish Creek and Priest Creek area. When use at the current area indicates expansion is
needed, expansi on 2,100,000 result i ng the year expansi on has also expansion analysi s methods findings:
Harrison Creek will be developed after the above It indicates an approved expansion potential of skiers/140 day season, an annual growth rate of 3. IT., in a demand of 912,000 skier visitor days per year by 1995. Presumably this is when they feel that
to another area would be justified. The Forest Service
pref erred the first and the in these
stated area.
or the proposed Forest Plan, Alternative A, of calculations for expansion would result
that Fish Creek is their first As previously stated and discussed,
-The Fish Creek area, designated as Base II in the LTV Master Plan and now known as North Slope by the owners of the Grant property, is the appropriate first expansion area


•for the present Steamboat Ski Area.
-The proposed 15,000 skiers/day is acceptable for the mountain area, but the restricted Base I limits this total.
-The present Ski Base I now exceeds recommended good design standards, due to safety, congestion, and snow
deterioration factors.
-Design-day basis should be the average of the top 2S ski days in the full season, rather than the average of 107 days or the full season.
-Base II was desirable to be started when the design day exceeded 6,000 skiers/day (1973—74) and required when it exceeded 8,000 skiers/day (1977-78), and is now critical as current year may be over 10,000 skiers/day.
-The growth rate of 3.1/1 may be acceptable for the State of Colorado average but not for an individual ski area which is growing. Steamboat expansion may be anticipated at approximately 10/1.
-Therefore, the 60/1 utilization factor of the annual SVD, after also adjusting for design-day vs. 107-day average, would be exceeded now rather than in 1995.
-Base II is now required based on these corrected factors.
-The Grant property owners have applied for and are requesting a study permit at Base II North Slope.
The main goal: To provide future skiers of the Steamboat
Ski Area an exclusive area with uncrowded conditions and the finest in design, atmosphere, and service.
The following considerations should be taken into consideration when designing the base area:
1) Mountain Architecture should be considered.
2) Easy access from the parking structure to the base facilities and lodge should be considered.
3) Open space shall be maximized.
4) Circulation paths shall be explicit.


LAND USE S. CIRCULATION
PLAN


STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE
CIRCULATION PLAN 1981
1996
The 1981 - 1996 Land Use Circulation Plan has, as its basis, a vision o-f the future of Steamboat Springs. This vision represents broad •- based Community goals and reflects both today's values and qualities, as well as tomorrow's aspirations. The strength of the plan is no better than the strength and commitment of the Community to the vision.
The open and spacious qualities of the Yampa Valley contrast strongly with many other Colorado ski resorts. This is one of the qualities which draws people to Steamboat, rather than to other areas. Maintaining this feeling of spaciousness, both visually and physically, is another important Community value. I n s o m e si t uat i an s, an ur b an d e s i g n can i mp r ove upan n at ur e. However, in this community, the general consensus is that man cannot improve upon the major vistas and panoramic views of areas such as Mt« Werner, the Flat Tops, the Sleeping Giant, Strawberry Park, Fish Creek, and other rivers and streams. The Plan encourages the protection of these natural qualities.
Where development is to occur, the Plan encourages the screening of the least desirable development features, and the blending of structures with the natural surrounding amenities in a way which will highlight these amenities. The end result of this Plan will be to maintain the open and spacious characteristics of Steamboat Springs.
The fina1 scenario which the Plan wou1d C o m m u n i t y w h i c h w ill c o n t i n u e t o p r eject a personality, a convenient circulation system, or separation of uses which do not enhance the o f t he Communi t y. C1u st er s of med ium d en s i ty de connected by open space and landscaped areas, will be protected and enhanced by means of we orientations. A continued family orientation socio-economic Community structure will be thoughtful growth policies which foster housing opportun i ties for all segments of the Commun i ty.
en c ou r ag e is a friendly western and the buffering natural features velopment will be Scenic corridors 11 pi anned si te and di versif ied maintained by an d r ec r eat i on a 1
Circulation and transportation systems are an integral part of the Land Use Plan for Steamboat Springs. Where people live and work should serve as guides in planning future routes of travel. The current and future development trends of Steamboat will dictate the character of future circulation and transportation systems.
The existing circulation system is being built according to Steamboat's Master Circulation Plan and is,, therefore, striving to attain the City's long range circulation needs.


Analysis
The circulation system currently designated on the Land Use Map (Appendix D) is generally meeting the needs of the community, and should continue to do so into the -foreseeable future. There are, however, certain sections of the circulation system which are in need of revision.
A road is proposed to tie the Fish Creek Falls Road with northern Pine Grove Road. However, there are engineering and safety problems associated with this route. The physical constraints of building a road through this area are difficult to overcome. Slumping could be expected where the road traverses Browns Park Formation soils. The radius of the curve on Tamarack Drive is tight, and grades in areas exceed the recommended maximums for collectors. Despite these difficulties, an alternative route between the mountain base area and the Harvey Mountain Property and Willett Heights is desirable. By decreasing the road status from a collector to a local residential road, the design requirements for the road can be reduced. Residential road standards would allow a relatively narrow road bed to be constructed. While a cut through the Brawns Park Formation soil would still be necessary, the road cut could be decreased, thus lessening the environmental and engineering problems resulting from the larger cut..
PARKING
Parking facilities play a key role in Steamboat's transportation system. When cars back out onto roadways, or are forced to stack up or wait to enter a parking area, delays are created. The lack of parking in any given area causes congestion and additional trip generation, due to vehicles searching for a parking spot.
The City does have policies to mitigate these problems, including on—site loading requirements for all new structures and a requirement that new residential and commercial projects provide all necessary parking on-site.
TRAILSYSTEM
The City Council adopted the Trailsystem Plan in January, 1931. The Plan is a conceptual base which provides a system of five inter-connecting loops, made up of routes and paths linking the City. This type of Plan allows flexibility within proposed projects for site-specific engineering and evaluation of ai ignments.
Active planning efforts, surveys, studies, and demand petitions determined that the planning of these facilities was a high priority. The Plan proposes a comprehensive multi-use trailsystem for year-round use of ski, bike, equestrian, and


pedestrian travel . The implementation of this Plan will be a continual process to take place over the next several years. 7h process o-f acquiring public access easements and pat construction is based primarily upon private development.
TRAMSIT SYSTEM
A year-round mass transit system presently serves the City of Steamboat Springs. The transit system was initiated as per a five year plan for continued development.
The study acknowledged that development patterns within the City do not make it feasible to provide public transportation to every location within the City; or to provide the same level of service to all areas.
The five year plan provides for a gradual expansion of the transit system to run concurrently with the growth of the communi ty.
Several objectives of the study include:
1) To make available an alternative to the area’s residents and visitors who do not have automobiles, cannot drive, or who would prefer not to drive if a viable alternative ex i sted.
2) To encourage energy conservation.
3) To reduce traffic and parking congestion, and reduce required investments in automobile related facilities.
4) To encourage the development of Steamboat Springs as a year—round destination resort.
The transit system is sympathetic to potential development,
and i s patterns. f1 exi b1e enough to serve Steamboat’ s changing growth
DESIGN CONCLUSIONS
1) Since roads become a ski areas, they will major safety haz be eliminated at ard, especially at Base I I.
2) Par ki ng will be 100% underground.
3) Two bus stops system. will be part of the new base transi t
J id


LAND USE Sk CIRCULATION POLICIES


L.ANP USE & CIRCULATION POLICIES
RESORT
The following policies shall serve as guidelines for decision making and for the future formulation and adoption of the laws which shall govern the development of land in the Resort Land Use area. Said policies are based upon an analysis of existing and projected conditions in the Resort Land Use area and upon concerns expressed by citizens at Community Planning Workshops and other forums.
1) To encourage the development of all land in the area to be in compliance with master plans for the various functional par\s of the area. Functional areas relate to areas that naturally fall into planning areas, due to topography, roads, natural features, etc.
2) To encourage completion of all basic services required by a tract of land (such as roads, trails, and utilities) in conjuction with the development of the property.
3) To encourage Master Plan approval for a tract of land in
conjunction with the subdivision of the property and PUD Plan approval for the property, prior to its ultimate development and subdivision.
4) To encourage developments which minimize traffic and parking congest i on.
5) To encourage the screening of parked cars.
6) To encourage the linking of commercial areas and activity
centers with pedestrian trails.
7) To discourage the use of private automobiles and to provide incentives for pedestrian and mass transit orientations.
8) To encourage high density, close—in housing at the ski base and rapid development of the ski base residential and commercial crescent into a warm and pleasant pedestrian oriented residential and commercial areas.
9) To encourage preservation of the basic visual corridors
toward Mt. Werner and down the valley. To encourage the development of a View Corridor Plan which identifies and provides for the protection of the public’s view of
significant Community features from major public places. The protection of private views is not guaranteed by law, but is a factor to be considered in the application of the Bonus System.
10) To encourage those developments located in areas removed
from the ski base to be of lower density than developments
at the ski base, and to provide for Effective Open Space.
11) To encourage the development of Mt. Werner Interchange area


by the clustering of residential, commercial, and other uses in a manner which accents open space, landscaping, and an entry -focal point. Accenting of commercial recreational and entertainment facilities will also be encouraged.
12) To encourage commercial developments to be integrated into complexes and oriented inward to the functional planning areas, rather than outward.
13) To preserve a visual corridor for lit. Werner from the intersection of Mt. Werner Road and Pine Grove F;oad.
14) To establish a corridor of landscaping and a parkway appearance along the right-of-way of Mt. Werner Road through the adoption of an overall Landscape Master Plan, and to encourage the highlighting of landscape features in the development of commercial property around the Mt. Werner In t er change.
15) To encourage the development of the Knoll to occur in such a manner that the northwest quadrant and western fringe of the site in the vicinity of Mt. Werner Road are retained in a predcminent1y open space use.
CIRCULATION
The following policies shall serve as guidelines for decision making and for the future formulation and adoption of the laws which shall govern the development of the City’s Circulation system. Said policies are based upon an analysis of existing and projected conditions and upon concerns expressed by citizens at Community Planning Workshops and other public forums.
Pgl_i_c i_es
1) To encourage the arrangement of sites so as to facilitate the future utilization or accomodation of a transit system.
2) To discourage developments which are likely to generate a volume of vehicular trips which exceed or disproportionately consume the capacity of the circulation system.
3) To require adequate access for emergency vehicles and for those persons attempting to render emergency services.
4) To promote traffic safety, ingress and egress to commercial centers should be carefully designed. Left-hand movements into and out of commercial areas should be minimized and points of ingress and egress should be limited.
5) To encourage future commercial developments to limit their points of ingress and egress onto major streets, in order to reduce congestion which results from numerous points of access.


6) Where arterial and collector streets are required, to require that residential development be oriented away from such streets, and properly buffered so that the traffic carrying capacity of the street will be preserved and the residential environment be protected from the adverse characteristics of the street.
7) To avoid adverse impact between the circulation system and residential and commercial development, it is recommended that large commercial truck traffic be directed only onto designated streets.
8) To encourage internal circulation within a development which facilitates the movement of persons, goods, services, and waste products in a safe and efficient manner, with maximum use of pedestrian orientations, and a minimum of impermeable surf aces.
9) To encourage the inclusion of, or the contribution to, a permanent non-auto transit system, designed to facilitate the movement of persons to and from Steamboat Springs, or within the City.
10) To give a high priority to the implementation of the Trail system Plan and to encourage development of trails concurrently with initial land development (including basic roads).
11) To evaluate the suitability of all modes of transportation, including bus, bicycle, and walking, for the continuing development of alternatives to the private automobile. Citizens Committees should continue to be consulted.
12) To have a high level of intergovernmental coordination and citizen participation in the circulation and transportation planning process.
13) To encourage placement of all off-street parking areas awai from public view.
14) To encourage private off-street parking for the general public in non-residential areas.
15) To encourage aesthetic signage which aids the flow of traffic and provides convenient directional information to resident and tourist alike.
16) To encourage aesthetic lighting for directional and information convenience, and to improve traffic safety.
OPEN SPACE
fin important foundation of the Steamboat Springs economy is its recreational amenities and environmental quality. This


enables the Open Land Use Designation to take on a vastly more s ignifican t role (a n d i rn p o r t a n c e) t h an i t d a e s in mo s t o t h e r communities.
The Open Land Use Designation has several functions. First, this designation can provide buffering between different types of deve 1 opment. The purpose of this buffering is ta mitigate
conf 1 i cts b etween d i f f erent t ypes of act i vi ty u.sua 13. y assoc i ated with differing Land Use Designations and to provide relief from cont i nuous deve1opment of simi1 ar nat ure. Second, the Open desi gnation pratects and preserves sensi t ive envi ranmenta1 areas. Sensitive environmental areas include sectors which are unsafe and/or undesi rab 1 e for .i. ntensi ve deve 1 opment, such a.s f 1 ood plains, steep slope areas and/or geologic high hazard areas, etc. Sensitive environmental areas may also include important vista points, scenic corridors and significant community natural amenities such as streams, lakes, springs, water-fail Is, etc. The third and fined category of Open Space designations include parks, trai1 systems, and aireas for outdoor recreational uses and ameni ties.
Because the local economy is based on recreational amenities and the quality of the environment, the use and treatment of the Open Land Use Designation is critical. Because of its importance and because open space often provides a feasible alternative land use (such as residential or commercial) open space often has a high economic value. Unfortunately, there is often times reluctance by private property owners to willingly accept an Open Land Use Designation. Therefore, Steamboat must develop strong i ncentives and pi ans ta acquire and i mprave apen space i n ar der to ensure the future economic success of the community? not to mention the desires expressed by residents to develop parks and open space for enjoyment by locals. The simple designation constitute totally equitable and fair arrangement for the private property owner. The designation of open space Land Use areas and policy s tat merit s for Steamboat does reflect the above can s i d er ations.
Analysis
The Open Space Land Use Designations are based on the f o 11 o w i n g c r i t er i a s
1) The wishes and desires of the public, as expressed through the Community Planning Workshops, Counci 1/Commission me e t in g s and other p ub1ic f or ums.
2) The policies and recommendations developed by the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n C a m rn i s s i o n,
3) Existing desi gnated Open Space 1 and areas,
4) The desi gnat i on of sites or areas whi ch mi gh t reason ab1y fae expected to become open space land uses, in accordance with existing dedication requirements of the Municipal bode.




â–¡PEN SPACE - GUIDELINES
T h e f a 11 o w i n g policies s h a 11 s e r v e a. s g u idel i n e s f o r m a. k i n g and for the future formulation and adaption of the laws which shall govern the development and use of land in the open .areas. Said policies are based upon an analysis of the existing and pr o j ect ed needs of the Ci ty ; t.he cancerns ex pressed b y c i ti z en s at Community Planning Workshops and other public forums;; the desires of the Parks Recreation Commission; and a recognition on behalf of the City of the importance of recreational and open space facilities for the economic well-being of the City and the general health and welfare of its citizens.
General Polio
1) To protect, utilize, and enhance natural areas so as to p r o v i d e a p 1 e a s a n t e n v i r a n m e n t.
2) To create, locate, and design parks and recreational facilities based upon convenience, diversity, good landscape design, quality construction, accessibi1ity, safety, compatibility, and the best maximum use of available funds.
3) To integrate the administrative actions of the City with the Local, County, Regional, and State systems, so as to obtain the greatest use of open space lands with the most efficient expenditures of funds.
4) To encourage the deve1opment of grasnbe1t corri dars i n
conjuction with nan-vehicular trails designated in the Trai1system P1 an.
5) To encourage the development of packet parks along the
Tr ai1ways and c r eat e a g r een way 1i n k ag e th at gi ves t hs Commun i t y visua 1 un i t y and i den 111 y t hr aughout..
6) To ac qu ire small n e i g h bor hood p ark s to be 1i nk ed wi t h
trai1s,
7) To encourage the development of a neighborhood park in the greenbelt lying between Fish Creek Falls Road and Tamarack Dr i ve,
8)
To encourage the development of a neighborhood park in the Mt. Wer nsr area.
HIGH INTENSITY COMMERCIAL
The to11owing policies shall serve as a guide1ine for
decision making and for future formulation and adoption of the
laws which shall govern the development of land in High Intensity Commercial areas. Said policies are based upon an analysis of
e x i sti n g an d p r o. j ect ed cauditions i n t he High Intensi t y


Commercial areas and upon concerns expressed by citizens at Community Planning Workshops and other public -forums.
1) To encourage safe and adequate pedestrian circulation on sidewalks adjacent to public streets. New development on unimproved lands shall include construction of sidewalks.
2) To encourage efficient and safe vehicular traffic flow; to encourage safe and efficient on—street vehicular parking for transient purposes; to encourage adequate off-street vehicular parking to meet present and anticipate commercial needs; to encourage improvement of aesthetic and architectural appearances of existing structures; to
encourage the architectural compatibility and development with similar existing accomplish these goals, development of a Plan shall be encouraged.
of new structures structures. To Downtown Design
HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL
Area 1
1) To encourage development suitable for long term housing which provides appropriate recreational relief from a feeling of being crowded in, and from potential conflicts with tourist housing.
permanent ameni ties, separati on
2) To encourage the total buildout and infilling of the area in order to complete trails and utility systems, and provide a completed neighborhood atmosphere for the area.
Area 5
3) To provide housing which is compatible with the golf course and its related atmosphere; and to encourage single-family appearances, even for multi—family structures, i.e. low profiles, relatively small massing, and clustering to preserve natural amenities.
Area 4
4) To provide gradual and sensitive transitions from one land use density pattern to another.
5) To encourage low profile, relatively small mass buildings,
appropriate recreational amenities, relief from feeling crowded, and permanent housing design features.
Area 5
6) To encourage smaller massed buildings which blend well with single-family and duplex structures.
To provide a wide mixture of housing oppotunities; and to
encourage designs which are well integrated with adjoining property.
7)


GROWTH & ANNEXATION


GROWTH & ANNEXATION
At a joint City/County Planning Commision meeting held February 10, 1981, the two Commissions discussed growth policy •for Steamboat Springs and its surrounding vicinities. At that meeting, it was agreed that City/County cooperation was essential in order to ensure the -fulfillment of both City and County policies regarding growth. Both Commissions agreed that there was considerable grounds for agreement regarding development policies for the Steamboat vicinity area.
The first point of agreement was that infill into the existing urban development areas was desirable from both County and City standpoints. An analogy which summed up the basis of this agreement was that one should complete the finishing of one’s house before adding on new rooms. This analogy seemed to encompass the aspects of why infilling has become recognized as an important principle in urban and rural planning.
Another point of agreement was that, the control of the fringe areas around Steamboat is essential if the City is to successfully implement policies regarding commercial and residential development within the City limits. One example of how this intsrrelationship works is that if the County were to allow the development of hundreds of units would compete for unit absorption with development within the City.
This would slow the infilling process for the City and unnecessari1y delay the completion and efficient usage of systems which are already under construction or in some stage of being i «ipl emented. A few examples of systems, public transportation systems, trai1 systems, etc.
A third area of agreement was that the City and County Commissioners both agreed that Routt County planning was essentially rural in nature, while Steamboat City planning was essentially urban growth oriented in nature. This rather simplistic philosophy had within it much more subtle implications than were immediately apparent. Namely, it implied the City of Steamboat is basically oriented toward urban growth and that the City has a responsibility to ensure that quality urban development occurs within the City’s range of influence. This, in turn, implies that if developable property should be developed to urban standards. On the other hand, if the property is outside of the urban development area, development should be rural in terms of density and design; and should, therefore, be the County’s responsibility. Separating the very different urban type development from rural development will protect both urban and rural interests. Rural interests will be protected from nuisance factors, and urban intrusive development will be better designed and served by more efficient urban oriented services.


Founded upon these basic understandings, the Planning Commissions felt that the development of joint development and annexation growth policies could proceed at a fairly rapid rate. The -first step in establishing joint urban growth boundary policy is to establish criteria -for which urban growth boundaries may be determined. The following list is a set criteria which have been employed in many cities throughout the nation, in one form or another.
CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARIES (UGB's)
A. Projected Population
1) Roughly a ten year population project is the first step in establishing a UGB.
2) However, Steamboat Springs might more appropriately be tied to mountain buildout figures.
B. Land Demand - Based on projected population figures, projections for residential and commercial land areas should be made. These projections should coincide with established density development patterns.
C. Square Off Boundaries - Urban boundaries should be squared off to create public service efficiencies and preserve the integrity to both urban and rural areas.
D. Ci rculat ion - Boundaries should be related to local circulation and transportation.
.1) Urban road collectors and arterials
2) Highway service areas
3) Mass transit service areas
E.
Capi tal___I investments - Boundaries should
extension of capital investments such as utility lines, park sites, or future school
consi der sewer and si tes.
the
other
F. Community Planning - Boundaries should be planned so as to maintain the viability of established Comprehensive Plan elements.
G. Neighborhood Completion - UGB's should include land necessary to fill in and complete neighborhoods, while utilizing existing public investments to the best potential.
H. Natural Boundaries - The UGB plan should also include an explanation of how topographic and natural or man-made boundaries influence the shape, direction, and size of boundaries. All attempts to use the boundaries to protect open space, scenic corridors, environmentally sensitive areas, archeological sites, or historical sites should be noted.


I. Buffer Zones -- Buffer zones for airports, mine -facilities, energy facilities, etc. are important in determining UGB'’s. However, these buffer areas should be excluded from the UGB to prevent future temptations.
Using the critieria listed above, a growth and annexation boundary has been established for the City. In addition, an area which should be reviewed by the joint City/County Planning Commissioners has been demarked as the review line. These very straight forward policies can be derived from the discussions and criteria which are discussed above. However, it should be noted that these policies should be reviewed as interim policies which will require continued refinement and revision as the data and analysis of the data becomes more refined and precise.
FLOOR AREA RATIO (F.fi.R.)
A v er aq e Unit Size
500 600 700 300 900 1000 1150 1250 1350 1450 1550
A d j u s t m e n t Factor-
1.37 1.37 1.37 1.22 1.1 1 1 .924 .359 .303 .755
Average Unit Size 1650 1750 1350 1950
A d i u s t m e n t F a c: t o r .712 .674 .641 .610
2050 2150
â– jO
jO
2450 2550

53
490 .470
INSTRUCT IONS
1) Multiply unadjusted density by adjustment factor to get allowed density.
2) Average square footage is used to calculate the adjustment. Round off to nearest 100 square feet to find adjustment f actor.
3) To determine adjustment factors -for units over 2550 sq„ ft., divide by 1200 (the average size of units in the project).
4) Adjustment factor times density after bonus and location adjustments - allowed adjusted density per acre.


5) F.A.R. adjustments will be applied to all projects except those developed at a density of 4.4 units per acre or less.
6) Residential floor area square footage of the unit as applied in this Land Use and Circulation Plan is the floor area i nsi de ex t.er i or wa 11s to center 1 i ne of party walls.
Tl-fl BONUS PL. AIM - RES IDENT i AL t PE COPT
1) To ensure that, the policies and principles of the Land Use Plan are carried out, Land Use Policies shall not be superceded by the effects of the Density E-ion us System.
2) To encourage quality development throughout the City. The Bonus System criteria will be used to help evaluate ail projects, whether they become P.U.D., coned, or specifically zoned.
3) The Bonus P1 an daes not app1y to devslopment in the AR, RE,
or RL. Zones. Multi-family (CUF'/PUD) development will be reviewed on a sits-by-site basis in these zones. Rezoning will be est ab1ished ac cording to p o1i c y gu i d e1i n es,
c o m m u n i t y i n p u t „ a n d s i t e e v a 1 u a t i a n.
4) The Bonus Plan may not apply to development involving
r e n o v a t i o n o f e i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s, p r a v i d e d the d e g r e e a f
any existing nonconformance with the E-ionus P1 an is reduced by all reasonable means, and provided that renovation does not consist of removal of greater than 50% of the floor area of the e xi sting st r uc t ure. The Den sity Bon us Syst em criteria will be used as a guide to evaluate the quality of project design.
5) All density calculations will be based upon the acreage of t h e fee s i rnp 1 e lot,
6) Recognizing the unique requirements of the newly created Resort Land Use Designation, projects which are designed for a commercial and residential mixed use shall not be subject to or limited by the 30% residential to commercial Floor Area Ratio,
7) The Planning Commission and Council have the ultimate authority on all plans for site specific review, as it relates to building footprint, mass, impacts, access, and topography.


LOCATION SYSTEM
Base density before location adjustment is 8,.7 units per acre in r es ar t an d h i q h d en sit y ar eas.
Ski Hill S'. Knol 1 ..... ,
Eagleridge...........
Hi gh 1 a.nds Subdi vi si an , Other................
Adjustment Factor
nr nr
MUM It. vJ.J U »
1 IS
A p p r a i m a t s U n a d j u s ted F AF: Pass i b 1 e Den sit y

.... 11
(Nates Proposed Base II would use the same figures as the Ski Hill S' Knoll)
BONUS SYSTEM - RESIDENTIAL St RESORT AREAS
Employee.............
Senior Housing.......
Parking..............
Solar and Energy..„.„ F . LJ. ................
Master Plan..........
Open Space...........
Landscape............
0ff --Site I mpravements Internal Amenities...
Ma;- : i mum
Avsi .1able
cr â– */ W /a
Un 1.1 .mi ted
C 5-10%
10%
Subtotal
iiS/w (R i~ s. Max . ) 437. (Resort M. > 20%
107.
10%
10%
80%
RESORT ZONES ONLY
Internal Ameniti es...........................
Shadows. . . . ........................
Pedestr i an Access. . .< . . . . . . . . . . . . . . » « u . . ■ . . . . . Views........................................
Subtotal
Total
15% 10% 15%
125


CLARIFICATION NOTES
1) Max i mum bonuses shal1 not. exceed 807. i n R e s i d e n t i a 1 a r a a s o r
1257. in Resort Areas.
2) P. U. D. Bonuses shal1 not exceed 3 5 7 of the sum of the total
bonus p oints ach i sved when P.U.D. . bonus s s e x c e e d 2 0 %.
3) P, U, D. and Master Plan Bonuses shal 1 not be combined or
added t og eth er for b on us calculations.
4) The Off-Site Improvements Bonus is a required bonus if excess of 507. of the total avail able bonuses are sought.
BONUS SYSTEM -- DESCRIPTION
PARKING
Underground or Structure Packing - P ar ki n g which is to t a11y enclosed, except for ventilation and/or fire protection purposes, and located below the first floor level of the development. Parking shall be constructed in such a way as to not create undesi reable hei ght or mass, Guest parki nq may be located on-grade. BONUS = 107.
Garage Park1nq with Doors — A prerequisite of this parking is t hat t he gar ages sha11 n ot ereat e un desi r eab1e height or mass. BONUS = 77.
: I
Covered and Bermed Parking - Bermed parking whi ch is tota11y screened from off-site public view, and very well screened from most major internal views. BONUS -- 67.
Ber mecl and Scrgamed Pai-k i ng - Bermed and screened par ki ng whi ch is well screened from the major public views and well screened from major internal views. BONUS = 57.
SOLAR AND ENERQv EFFICIENT APPLICATION
To encourage the use of passive and/or active energy conservation, systems and techniques to reduce the required poser for heating and cooling, the fallowing bonus credits will be applied, based upon the BTC's saved when compared with the State of Color ada En er gy Con sar v at i on S t an d ar d s an d b ui1di ng s af th e written report. BONUS = 657. Normal BTU usage = 107.
80% Normal BTU usage = 7%


P „ u „ D
PLANNING
Projects or developments covered under such an approved P.U.D. plan shall be considered as a single project for purposes of app 1 yi ng the Bonus System. 3peci -f i ca 11 y, bonus points will be applied uniformly throughout the P.U.D., based upon the highest bonus point achieved in each of the various bonus categories. Densities derived from bonus calculations may be transferred, clustered, or distributed within the boundaries of the P.U.D. BONUSs 1 % per acre, 23% max.irnum in Residentia 1 areas,
43% maximum in Resort areas. P.U.D. Bonus shall not exceed 35% of the total Bonus Points achieved by the development.
NASTER PLANNING
Projects that are included in, and conforming to, d.n approved Master Plan. The purpose of the Master Planning Bonus is to encourage and promote cooperation between adjacent property owners. Master Plans will, therefore, almost always include several different property owners.
BONUS; 20% for 20 Acres minimum included in the Master Plan. Maximum bonus is 20%.
(Notes Master Plan Bonuses and P.U.D. Plan Bonuses are mutually ex c1 us i ve)
OPEN SPACE
For any Effect! ve Open Space (E.Q.S.) wi t h i n a p r a j e c t a b
the requirements, a Density Bonus will be gi v e n w h i c h e q u. a 1 s
increase in Bonus Examp1 additional open space. MAXIMUM 0 u BONUS = 10%
E. Q. 3. i trr»/ — 1 J /« 0% BONUS
E.0.3. = 16% - 1% BONUS
E. 0. S« = 17% - 2% BONUS
E. â–¡. S. = 18% - 3% BONUS
E, □.3. __ cr«/ 10“B 0 N U 3 (m a x i m urn)
LANDSCAPING
Provisions of unique design features and amenities in a development which requires unusually high development costs and which provide an aesthetic projection to the surrounding area will be considered for a bonus. Design considerations, including plant massing, color, and architectural treatment must be present in design. Focal points emphasizing rocks and berms, or other materials and clusters of plantings are encouraged as an integral part of all projects. Where necessary, separating vehicles and pedestrians by such methods as bridges, foot bridges, tunnels, or


earthworks shall be used. A strong commitment to proper installation, including mulching and staking of all trees, and a regular maintenance schedule shall be required,
BONUS; 10% mai mu.m
1. Easy maintenance irrigation system: 2%
2. Greater than minimum plant size; 37.
(Coniferous Trees: 12’—15’ min.)
Bal1ed and bur1apped
3. Ground cover shall be S07. living
material; 2%
4. Enough plant material to give the
overall appearance of an extremely well landscaped project: 17.
5. Native 2< drought resistant plants; 27.
OFF
SITE IMPROVEMENTS
A ten percent (107.) contribution to the city of unit or lot in the project, to projects of community retreat i anal i improvements, links which could not be
given for the cash the first sale of each
bonus will be one percent of
The use of the fee shall be limited benefit for park acquisition and as well as landscaping or Trailsystem 1 otherwise achieved in the subject
property via subdivision requirements or master plan improvements. Subject to approval by the City, the developer may undertake construction of off-site improvements to be credited toward the aforesaid cash contributions; provided, however, that the cost of construction of such improvements, as determined by the City, must not be less than two percent (27.) of the total
amount shown on the approved Building Permit application submitted for such development. The nature and extent of the off-site improvements to be constructed by the developer will be discussed by the developer and the City during the planning process, and will be finally determined by the City Council. All figures shown on the Building Permit application and all estimates for approved off-site improvements will be subject to the prior review and approval of the Building Division and Department of Public Works, respectively. Payment of the Off-Site Improvements Fee shall be the obligation of the developer. BONUS = 107. maximum
INTERNAL AMENITIES
Projects shall be encouraged to provide appropriate recreational and common facilities for the development. The building area required for accessory facilities shall not be computed as a part of the mass (units per acre). These uses will not require additional parking, although convenient parking is encouraged. If the project contains commercial uses which are for the general public’s use, the square footage/density and parking requirement calculation shall be applied. Submittals


will require a breakdown of square footage and uses of accessory of commercial functions in order to review the appropriateness and sha 11 be 1 irnited to use by the owners, guests, and residents
of the project. Design features and the size and scale of amenities relative to the number of units shall guide the P1 arm i n g C o m m i s s i o n in d e t e r m i n i n g i f t he in t e n t o f t h e s e poli cies are met.
BONUS; Community Bldg, or Enclosed Community Facility = 2% Recreational Amenities, at least 2 types required (pools, hot tubs, saunas, tennis courts, r a c q u e t. b a 11 ) = 27.
Other approved by Planning Commission = 1%
BONUS = 57. maximum
RESORT BONUSES ONLY
INTERNAL AMENITIES
Certain amenities are necessary to the management, maintenance, and operation of resort developments. This becomes a land use concern when resort condominiums do not have necessary amenities and guests must venture off-site for basic services, and services for the project must be brought in from outside the deve1 ap ment,
Therefore, bonuses for on-site amenities to improve the operation and suitability of resort condominiums, to better serve the touri st publie, are appropri ate.
BONUS = 5% maxi mum
1. On-site reservation, management, & check-in = 27.
2. On-site linen service - 27.
3. Others approved by Planning Commission, but not including commercial activity which will draw from outside the development = 17.
SHADOWS
If a development can be situated in such a way as to cause no detrimental shadows to be thrown (at any time) onto adjacent property; and if the development shades no major pedestrian areas, paths, or vehicular roadways or parking areas, or the facades or buildings, the project is eligible for a 157. bonus. If detrimental shadow impacts are minimal, a prorated bonus of up to 107. may be achieved.
Shading of major off-site pedestrian areas, vehicular areas, or buildings may be the sole cause for denial of a project.
BONUS = 157. maximum


PEDESTRIAN ACCESS
I f an un i nterrupted psdsstri an access pI an can be deve1 apsd and improved from the project to the commercial crescent east of Mt. Werner Circle, and if the plan does provide a safe, pleasant, and easy walk within 2,000 feet of the Gondola Building, a 10% Bonus may be granted. The plan is encouraged to make use of br i dges or tunnels to span roadways, wiiere topagraphi call y and f u n c t i o n a 11 y f e a s i b 1 e.
BONUS = 107.
VIEWS
Protection of the public’s view of significant community features from major public places will merit a 15% bonus. Accomplishment of this objective will be determined through study of profiles, cross sections, illustrations, and models, When a. View Corridor Plan is adopted, that plan will then determine major and minor views, for bonus purposes. Prorated bonuses of 5% to 10% may be considered, and blockage of the public’s view of significant community features from major public areas may be the s o 1 e c a u s e f o r d e n i a 1 a f a p r o j e c t»
BONUS = 15% maxi mum
RESIDENTIAL 8< RESC
DENSITY BONUS PLAN
APPLYING THE SYSTEM
. o c a t. i o n A d j u s t m e n t
A. Determine your location in relation to the areas described in the location system.
B, Multiply your location adjustment factor times 8.7 units per acre or 4,4 units per acre, whichever is appropriate, to find your Base Density.
11, Bonus System
A. Determine which bonuses you wish to apply for.
B. Based upon the bonus criteria established in the 1981 Land Use Plan, determine how many bonus paints you would ex p ec t to receive.
C. Add the percent bonus to your Base Density, to get the Base Density plus bonuses. (1 plus the total percent of Bonus points times the Base Density will give you the Base Density plus bonuses)
( 1 + X) (Base Density) - Base Density plus Bonuses,
where X = bonus percentages


Ill
Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.)
A. Determine the average size of the units in your
proj ect.
B. Round atf the average to the nearest number on the
F.A.R. chart.
C. Multiply your Base Density plus bonuses times the
adjustment -factor which corresponds to your average square footage figure. This will give your allowed adjusted density, which you may develop subject to Planning Commission and City Council approval of the project; and conformance to all other City Ordinances and poi i c i es.
HOTEL SITE - 500 UNITS/ACRE ADJUSTMENT FACTOR - 1.55
1.55 500 UNITS = 775 UNITS (BASE DENSITY)
RESORT AREA BONUSES
Parking. . . ........107
F'.U. D. ...........437.
Open Space..........107.
Landscape............10%
Pedestrian Access...10% Views. . ............15%
Total = 98%
BASE DENSITY PLUS BONUSES:
( 1 + .98 )( 775 ) = 1535 Rooms possible 760 ADDITIONAL ROOMS POSSIBLE DUE TO BONUSES


MASTER PLANNING


MASTER PLANNING
Master Planning has become an important concept in the planning of Steamboat Springs. Master Planning is encouraged as a means of developing a high quality, cohesive, and integrated commun i ty«
The City approved Master Plan shall include the following;
I. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
An implementation plan must be developed which assures to the City the timing and the means by which the Master Plan
improvements will be implemented.
A. Phasing Plan - A phasing plan will define completion dates for the different phases and elements of the Master Plan.
B. Agreement for Improvements - The obligations of the
Master Plan petitioners to complete the elements of the Master Plan shall be set forth in an Improvements
Agreement with the City which guarantees the development of the Master Plan.
1) The Improvements Agreement shall include or refer to documentation detailing the techniques to be utilised in implementation of the Master Plan.
2) The obligations of each landowner under the
Improvements Agreement, and the security provided by such a landowner, shall be limited to
completion of: a) The elements of the Master
Plan on such landowner's property; and b) the
fair proportion of the elements of the Master Plan on public property, as determined by mutual agreement of the petitioners and the City. This may be accomplished by the formation of a local improvements district or by private individuals posting security for improvements.
3) Threshold improvements shall be guaranteed as part of the Master Plan approval and implemented as quickly as possible with commitment to a specific ti me 1i ne.
Secur i tv - The obligations of the Master Plan petitioners under the Improvements Agreement shall be secured by bonds, bank letters of credit, or other adequate security acceptable to the City.
C)


D)
T i m i no - For land that is expected to be subdivided, the Improvements Agreement and security shall be provided upon approval by the City of the Final Plat of the subdivision. For land not expected to be subdivided, the Improvements Agreement and security shall be provided upon approval of the Master Plan or prior to issuance of a Building Permit for developments included in the Master Plan.
II
MANAGEMENT & MAINTENANCE
The management and maintenance of the Master Plan improvements and elements on public and/or private land must be guaranteed by responsible entity and/or appropriate agreements between responsible affected parties. The City may, by-case basis, decide to accept responsibility for key areas. The following criteria will be used as a determine which areas merit acceptance by the mai ntenance.
on a case-1andscaped guide to City for
A. Very high visibility
B. Primarily on arterials and major collectors
C. Adjacent to City-owned or City maintained open space
D. Not more logically or economically maintained by the private sector
Should the areas, formal i nstal1 ati on .
City decide to accept responsibility for these acceptance shall occur two years after
III. CIRCULAT ION ELEMENTS
A. Pedestr i an - A Pedestrian Circulation Plan snail be
developed for the entire project. Pedestrian
circulation should be separated for vehicular
circulation. The Pedestrian Circulation Plan shall tie into the City’s Trail system Master Plan whenever possible and appropriate. The City shall accept
responsibility for maintenance of trails, which are major links of the City of Steamboat Srings Trailsystem F'l an.
B. Vehicular — A vehicular Circulation Plan shall be developed for the entire master planned area.
Improvements - Both the pedestrian and vehicular elements of the Plan must be improved or improvement must be guaranteed.
C


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS
T W
X r a
A. Landscapino - A coordinated Landscape Plan developed -for the entire Master Plan ar Landscape Plan shall include designated ar will be improved as a part of the Mas improvements. As a general rule, improvem designated open space areas shall be required of the Master Plan improvements.
B. Pedestri an Amen i t i es - Streetscape and pedestrian amenities such as fountains, benches, bike racks, etc. shall be encouraged as Master Plan improvements. Streetscape and pedestrian amenities will be matched by subsequent development, as it occurs within the Master Plan.
C. Lighting - Uniform lighting for pedestrian and
information signs shall be required as a Master Plan element. Access lighting improved areas will be a
required improvement of the Master Plan.
D. Si gnaoe - A Uniform Signage Plan shall be required for the entire Master Plan. Signage improvements will be required for areas which are to be developed as a part of the Master Plans’s initial improvements.
E. Public Transit - Facilities for public transportation, such as turn out and bus shelters, shall be required as a part of the Master Plan improvements (as needed).
F. Natural Features - Rivers, lakes, rock outcrops, mature stands of trees, etc. shall be preserved and highlighted by the Master Plan.
V. OPEN SPACE
All areas and requirements for 15% Effective Open Space shall be considered and planned for initially, as an integrated part of the Master Plan. Both active and passive uses are encouraged. Planning of open space areas should serve to buffer, provide visual relief, and provide recreation areas.
VI. CRITERIA
snalI be ea. The
eas which ter Plan ent of the as a part
A. Acreage - Master Plan’s must include at least 20 acres of gross land area, unless a lesser area is approved.
B. Anne;-: ati on - Adjacent properties may be annexed to an approved Master Plan and become eligible for Master Plan Bonuses. To be annexed, the adjacent landowner must submit to the City an annexation plan which provides for implementation on the annexed property of


the same or better Master Plan elements as were provided or approved in the original Master Plan. Petitioners of annexing property must also comply with the implementation procedures specified in Section I above.
VII. DOCUMENTS TO BE SUBMITTED
Petitioners tor a Master Plan approval shall submit the •following documentation to the Department of Community Development.
A. Maos - One or more maps showing the land area within the Master Plan and the specific location of all improvements and elements of the Master Plan.
B. Legal Descr i pt i on - An accurate legal description of the Master Plan area and evidence of ownership.
C. Report - A detailed written report of proposal setting forth ail improvements and elements within the Master Plan, proposed phases and timing of completion, reliable estimates of cost of completion provided by sources acceptable to the Director of Community Development, description of proposed subdivisions, and proposals for security for Improvements Agreements.
D. Drawinos and Illustrations - A set of drawings and i11ustrations showing typical street furniture, landscaping, signage, and other features of the Master Plan shall be included in the Master Plan Report.
As a result, the Master Plan will make the project very cohesive, giving the project an identity. A very systematic approach to this project will give the ski base character, direction, and organisation.


ZONING


STEAMBOAT SPRINGS ZONING AMD ORDINANCE
SUMMARY
PURPOSE
T h e r sg u1 at i an s an d rest r i c t i on s es tatailshed her ei n h ave been made in accordance with a land use plan, which plan is designed tor,
A. Lessen congestion in the streets
B. Secure safety from fire, panic and other dangers
C. Promote health and the general welfare
D. Provide adequate light and air
E. Prevent the overcrowding of land
F„ Avoid undue concentration of population
G» F a c i1i t at e ad equa t e p r ov isians f ar t r an s por t at ion,
water, sewage, schools, parks and other public requiremen t s
H„ Preserve natural amenities and desireable
character i st i cs of the 1 and' wh i1e provi d i ng f or progress
Such regulations have further been made with reasonable consideration as to the character of each district and its peculiar suitability for particular uses with a view toward conserving the value of buildings and encouraging the most appropr i at e use of 1 and throughout th e ci t y.
PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT DISTRICT - PUD
Floor Area; Mini mum f1oor ar ea shall be as foilowss
A. Six hundred square feet per single-family dwelling unit; B„ No minimum for multi-family dwellings except as required by the Uniform Building Code and applicable health regul at i ons..
Lot Area:
A. There are no minimum lot area requirements for uses by other uses,
B. The minimum lot area may be determined by the council â– for all other uses,
C. Any newly created free—standing PUD district shall contain at least one acre of land.
M1 n 1 m u m S e t b a c k From F1 r n per t y L1 n e s; Minimum setback from property lines shall be as follows:
A. There are no minimum requirements for uses by right,
' except that principal structures shall be set back fifteen feet and accessory structures two feet on single-family and duplex lots unless otherwise approved by the council.
El Minimum setbacks will be determined by the council upon appr G val of the PUD plan.
C. In general, buildings should not be located closer than twenty feet apart.


Building Height: 7hera are no maxi mum b u i1d in g height requirements but the council shall be guided in determining a11owab1e heights by the cri teria of Sections 17.44.010 through 17.44.080.
Resi dent i a3. Densi ty;; Max i mum resi dent i a 1 densi ty a 11 awed i n the planned unit development district shall be as required by the council upon consideration of the individual and unique characteristies of the subject land, but shall not exceed one dwelling unit per two thousand two hundred square feet of land area for the percentage of property area devoted to residential use.


WATER &


WATER & SEWER
Descri oti on
For the S t e a m boat a r e a s y s t e m, w a t e r i s d r a w n f ram F i s h Creek and stored in a 5 million gallon (M.G.) reservoir. Currently, it is untreated beyound sedimentation, chi orination, and floridation. Average daily demand is 1.5 M.G., while peak demand during lawn-watering in the summer is just over 3 M.G. Projected demand in 1990 is 5 M.G./day, and in the year 2000, 7 M.G,/day. Distribution is by a gravity system except for the upper portion of Fish Creek.
The Stat e Hea1th Depart men t has i ssued a comp1i canca ord er requi r i ng Steamboat Springs to provi de f u11 treatment of tha water supply. To meet this requirement, the City is studying construction of coagulation and filtration facilities with a design capacity of 3.5 to 4 M.G./day, and construction of a well field with a capacity of 2 M.G./day. The proposed treatment facility is designed to double in size to meet future needs. Treated water storage is also under review, although the sizing of the storage tanks has not been determined.
The Mt„ Werner Water and Sanitation District draws water •from Fish Creek, Burgess Creek, and from a well field near the Yampa River. This district has full treatment facilities with a capacity of 2.4 M.G./day, and treated water storage tanks with a total capacity of 1.75 M.G. Average daily demand is .7 M.G., while peak demand during watering of the golf course in the summer is 1.5 M.G, Because of Mt. Werner service area, varies in elevation from 7,550 feet to 6,700 feet, the distribution is through a series of four pressure zones.
Analvsis
The U.R.S. Water System Master Plan found that the Steamboat Springs water system is fundamentally sound, but in immediate need of treatment and storage facilities and some improvements in the distribution system. The quantity of municipal water supply is sufficient; the quality is not. The Steamboat area system, with the addition of treatment facilities, the well -Field, and distribution improvements, should be adequate to service the Ci ty’s needs through the year 2000.
Recommendat. i on / Cone 1 us i on
The major current limitation on Steamboat Springs’ water supply is a financial one. The municipal system needs to provide treatment facilities or face the cut off of State funds, Construction in areas outside of the existing districts should not be allowed until a high degree of buildout is achieved. This will be important to complete loops and to ensure adequate fire f1ow pressures.


A sewage treatment plant with a capacity a-F 3.5 to 4 ii» 0./day was completed in 1981. Like the water treatment •facilities, this plant is designed to be doubled in size when needed. This plant will service all of the municipal and Mt. Werner systems. When this project is complete, the main improvements which the system will require will be in the d i stri bution 1i nes.
Analvsis
The sewage system appears able to meet the City’s growth
through the inf i1tration the Spring water in the
year 2000. The major system problem arises from o f g r o u nd wa ter in t o t h e c o11ect i on s ystem dur i n g thaw, which approximately doubles the quantity of system and dilutes the sewage.




SOIL AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
SCOPE
This report covers the results of a soil, foundation, and geologic investigation of Filings i through 4, Country Club Highlands, Mt. Werner Ski Area, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, The said property is adjacent to the Grant property on the north-east side. The report presents the geologic conditions, the most desirable and safe type of foundation system, allowable soil pressures, water table conditions, and design and construction detai1s.
SITE CONDITIONS
Country Club Highlands, Filings 1 through 4, an 95 acre parcel, is located near the golf course at the Mt. Werner Ski
Area about one mile south of Steamboat Springs. Filing no. 1 comprises 7.7 acres, Filing no. 2 comprises 21.0 acres, Filing no. 3 comprises 23.6 acres, and Filing no. 4 comprises 32.4 acres. The parcel is in the northern part of Sec. 22, T.6N.,
R.S4W.
The subdivision is on the north facing valley side of the Fish Creek Valley. The nearly level to moderately steep (7% to 30%) slopes of the valley floor abruptly give way to steep to extremely steep (30% to 85%) slopes along the valley side in the southern part of the parcel.
Fish Creek, a moderate sized mountain stream, flows along the valley floor adjacent to the northernwestern property boundary. Shallow ground water occurs; the area has a flood
potential. Other drainage ways crossing the site are small and should not pose any major problem with development.
No construction has started at the site. The golf course adjacent to the northern boundary is completed and the proposed roads have been surveyed. Vegetation, in general, consists of a dense forest of aspen and conifers with a thick grass and brushy understory. Some open meadow areas occur in the northern part
along the valley floor.
GEOLOGIC SETTING
The valley of Fish Creek in the area of the parcel was extensively eroded by glacial ice during the Pleistocene period. The valley sides are mantled by glacial soil (till) deposited by the ice. The till consists of a heterogeneous mixture of very large boulders and cobbles in a sand and gravel matrix (Appendix D). Some boulders are as large as 30 feet in diameter. Stream erosion has not greatly affected the valley subsequent to the retreat of the glaciers. Scattered patches of sandy clay-silt


alluvial soils have been deposited in the area since the retreat of the glaciers. The test pits indicate that these soils generally are not more than 3 to 5 feet in thickness.
No bedrock outcrops occur at the site although judging from bedrock outcrops in adjacent areas, it is expected that the Browns Park Formation to underlie the western one-third of the property with F'recambrian age crystalline rocks underlying the eastern two-thirds. These bedrocks were not encountered in the test pits, although there is a possibility that bedrock could be encountered if extensive grading is done on the property.
The cemented sandstone st r en g t h strength si opes.
Browns Park Formation in general consists of weakly clayey sandstones with a few scattered conglomeratic and claystone layers. The formation has a fair when dry, but when the material becomes saturated the is lost and slumping occurs on relatively moderate No slumping was observed at the property.
The Precambrian age crystalline rocks consist of a complex of igneous and metamorphic types. The rocks are indurated and from moderately to slightly jointed. In general, they are stable, even on very steep slopes.
GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION
The proposed construction is feasible from a geologic point of view provided certain precautions are taken with respect to the steep slopes, potential floodways, and shallow ground water areas. Unusual problems are not anticipated provided the
precautions and recommendations given in this report are followed.
Steep Slopes: Slopes in excess of 50% occur over much of the
southern part of the parcel. There were no signs of slope instability in these areas, although, if excessive grading is done, then the possibility of creating instability is quite likely. Construction is not recommended on slopes steeper than 50%. In general, the cost of constructing on slopes of greater than 50% is usually prohibitive for the type of structures
proposed. If it is necessary to build on steep slopes, then each building site should be i nvest i gated on an individual basis. The risk of constructing on step slopes underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks will be relatively less than constructing on steep slopes underlain by Efrowns Park Formation.
FIood Potential: The low lands of the valley floor adjacent to
Fish Creek are potential areas of flooding. It is recommended
that a hydrologic investigation be conducted in order to
determine the expected frequency and magnitude of future floods so that adequate protective measures may be taken.
Shallow Ground Water: The northwest portion of the property
adjacent to Fish Creek is also underlain by shallow ground water. The area of shallow ground water is expected to vary from year to


year, depending on the amount of precipitation during the winter and spring. Subdrains may be necessary in this area depending on the type of construction.
SUBSOIL CONDITIONS
Subsoil conditions at the site were quite erratic. In general, the subsoils consisted of medium dense to dense, clean to silty sand and gravel with numerous cobbles to 10 inches maximum size and occasional very large boulders. Up to 5.5 feet of stiff sandy silt-clay was encountered overlying the sand and gravel generally in the flatter portion of the? site along Fish Creek. The sandy silt-clay soils settle excessively under load and when wetted as indicated by the attached Swel1-Consolidation Test Results, Figs. 4 through 6. The si 1 tier members of the sand and gravel stratum settle both under load and when wetted as indicated by the attached test results. Figs. 3 and 7 through 9. The standard properties of typical samples of all the soils encountered are presented in Figs. 10 through 19.
Free water was encountered along Fish Creek at the northwest portion of the site in Test Holes 11, 14, and 15 only at 5.5 to 7.5 feet below the existing ground surface at the time the test pits were excavated. It is expected that during the wetter seasons of the year the ground water in this area will rise.
FQUNPATI ON RECDHHEMDATI QMS
The most desireable and safe type foundation for all of the proposed buildings is spread footings placed on the natural soils. The following design and construction details should be observed:
(1) Footings placed on the upper sandy silt-clay soils should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 800 psf. Footings placed on the upper silty sand and gravel should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 2,000 psf. Footings placed on the lower sand and gravel stratum should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 4,000 psf. Under these pressures we estimate that total settlement will be on the order of 1 inch and maximum differential settlement across individual buildings will be less than .75 of an inch.
(2) Individual buildings should be entirely founded on one soil system stratum; not part on one and part on the other. This is necessary to keep settlement within the limits presented in (1) above.
(3) Local soft pockets of soil found within the loaded depth of the footings should be removed and the footings extended to the lower firm soils.


(4) Continuous foundation walls should be rein-forced top and bottom to span an unsupported length of at least 10 â– feet.
(5) Exterior -footings should be provided with adequate soil
cover above their bearing elevation -for frost
protection. At least 4 feet of soil cover should be used at this site.
(a) Ail foundation excavations should be carefully
inspected by a soil engineer to insure the subsoil conditions exposed in the excavation conform to those assumed in this report.
GROUND FLOORS
The on-site soils are suitable to support slab-on-grade construction. Slabs should be separated from all bearing members with a positive expansion joint and adequately reinforced. A 4 inch layer of free draining gravel should be provided beneath the floor slabs to distribute the floor loadings and to break the capillary rise of ground water.
SITE GRADING
Extensive sice grading will not be necessary in the areas of gentle slopes. Extensive grading will be necessary for the location of roadways and building sites in areas where the slopes are steep. As discussed previously, it will not be feasible to build on slopes steeper chan SOX. The precautions and criteria below are recommended to insure stability in site grading in areas of less than SOX.
Permanent Cut Slopes and Excavations: Permanent cut slopes should be no higher than 10 feet and no steeper than 2:1. If it is necessary to have higher cuts, they should be studied on an individual basis. If seepage is encountered in cuts, an investigation should be done to determine the nature of seepage and design of adequate drainage facilities. If this condition is encountered and the proper corrective measures not taken, the likelihood of slope instability is quite high. All cut slopes should be planted and maintained with a ground cover as soon as possible after excavation to protect them from erosion, 'vegetation requiring excessive watering should be avoided. Paved drainage swales should be provided at the top of all major cut si opes.
Temporary Cut Slopes: Temporary cut slopes up to 10 feet high can be made at 1:1 provided the soil is dry. These cuts should not be left standing any longer than necessary to complete the construction. If the soil is very moist or wet, cut slopes will not stand at this inclination and temporary bracings will be requi red.


Fills: Fill should be no deeper than 10 feet unless studied on an individual basis. Fill slopes should be no steeper than 2:1. The ground underlying fill should be properly prepared, topsoil and vegetation should be stripped, fill should be keyed into the steeper slopes by benching, and all fill should be properly compacted when placed. Fill supporting foundations should be compacted to at least 100% standard Proctor density. Under slab or under pavement fill should be compacted to at least 90% standard Proctor density. All other fill should be compacted to at least S5% standard Proctor density. Care should be taken to insure that fills are properly drained and that they do not obstruct natural drainage ways. Fill slopes should be planted and maintained with a ground cover to prevent erosion as soon as possible after construction.
Excavation Problems: In most cases the glacial till underlying the site can be excavated with medium to heavy power equipment. Some problems are expected to occur when larger boulders are encountered. If it is not practical to route excavations around the obstruction, then blasting may be required.
RADIATION HAZARDS
Ground level gamma radiation measured at the time of this investigation was 0.11 mi 11iroentgens per hour. This reading is of a similar magnitude as readings taken elsewhere in Colorado and does not constitute an unusually high concentration of radiation for the region.
SURFACE DRAINAGE
The following drainage precautions should be observed during construction and maintained at all times after the buildings have been comp1eted:
(1) Excessive wetting or drying of the foundation excavation should be avoided during construction.
(2) Backfill around the buildings should be moistened and compacted to at least 35% standard Proctor density.
(3) The ground surface surrounding the exterior of the buildings should be sloped to drain away from the buildings in all directions.
Roof downspouts and drains should discharge well beyond the limits of all backfill.
(4)


MISCELLANEOUS
Fifteen test pits were widely scattered across the site to obtain a general picture of the subsoil conditions. Erratic soil conditions may occur between test pits. A more extensive investigation may be conducted after final plans are made for the use of this site or individual foundation excavations inspected in the field by a competent soil engineer to insure the soil conditions exposed in the bottom of the excavation conform to those assumed in this report.
CONCLUSION
The area is generally suitable for development of the proposed subdivision. All buildings on the site may be founded with spread footings placed on the upper natural soils. Footings placed on the upper sandy clay—silt should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 800 psf; footings placed on the upper silty sand and gravel should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 2,000 psf; footings placed on the lower dense sand and gravel should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of
4,000 psf. Other design details and precautions are discussed. Construction should not be attempted on slopes in excess of 50%. The areas of potential flooding along Fish Creek should be investigated before a decision is made to construct there; otherwise, there are no geologic hazards on the site which will affect the proposed construction.


CLIMATE ANALYSIS


CLIMATE ANALYST
Steamboat Springs lies astride the mountains of the Continental Divide at an elevation o-f 6, 770 -feet. Latitude 40 degrees, 27 minutes, Longitude 106 degrees, 48 minutes, 45 seconds.
Steamboat has a cool, invigorating climate with low humidity favoring rapid evaporation. The thin atmosphere allows greater penetration of solar radiation and results in pleasant daytime conditions even during the winter.
Prevailing air currents reach directions. Eastward-moving storms Ocean lose much of their moisture in ranges to the west and a large part falls as rain or snow on the mountain slopes of the Rockies.
Steamboat from
wester 1y
originating in the Pacific passage over the mountain of the remaining moisture tops and westward-facing
Storms moving from the north usually carry little moisture. The frequency of such storms increases during the fail and winter months, and decreases rapidly in the spring.
Warm, moist air from the south occurs most frequently in the spring. As this air is carried northward and westward to higher elevations, the heaviest and most general rainfalls of the year occur.
The rugged topography near Steamboat Springs causes large variations in climate within short distances and few climatic generalizations apply to the whole area. Wind characteristics are controlled by valley orientation which lies on a north-south axis, so winter winds tend to come from the north, Significant local variations in temperature and precipitation and wind direction are possible, but are not available for the area. The average annual precipitation is 23,33 inches and the average annual snowfall is 163 inches in town, 325 inches at the ski area.
BUILDING LOCATION
To take advantage of the sun, the areas on the site should be found that receive the most sunlight during the maximum solar radiation — 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM. Placing the building in the
northern portion of this sunny area will insure that a plaza
placed to the south will have adequate winter sun. People use open space if it is sunny, but don’t use it if it isn’t, in
almost all climates. The south faces of buildings are not only
important for the collection of solar radiation, but are also the most valuable outdoor spaces on sunny days.


BUILDING SHAPE AND ORIENTATION
It is necessary to think about admitting sunlight into the building. A building elongated along the east-west axis will expose more surface area to the south during the winter -for the collection of sol ar radiation. This is also the most efficient shape -for minimizing coaling requirements in the summer.
I-f it is necessary to locate building structures on the south side o-f the site, shape the building so that its north side slopes toward the ground making enough sunlight available to the adjacent plaza space. By sloping the north roof of the building at an angle roughly equal to the altitude of the sun at noon during the winter months, the shadow cast by the building will be minimal. If the shadow is small, the plaza area will have enough sun to prevent ice and snow buildup. This is assuming the building is only one story high (the average sun angle between the months of November - January is 29 degrees. This fits in with the 5/12 roof pitch which is 22.6 degrees).
ENTRANCES
Orient the entrances to the hotel and parking structure away from the prevailing winter winds, or provide a windbreak to reduce the wind’s velocity against the entrances. Entrances placed on the east and south sides will be protected from the wind’s impact. If an entrance is placed on the north or west side, recessing the entrance or the addition of wing walls reduce the wind’s velocity and impact.
WINDOW LOCATION
Locate major window openings to the southeast, south and northwest according to the internal requirements of each space. On the east, west and especially the north side of the building, keep window areas small. Recognizing that windows are valuable display areas in the retail portions of the project, minimize retail locations at these orientations.
When the primary source of sunlight entering a space is through south—facing windows, then the depth of spaces along the south wall should not exceed 2.5 times the height of the windows from the f1oor. This provides for the adequate daylighting of interior spaces.
Another method for admitting sunlight into a space is through the roof. Use either south-facing clerestories or skylights to distribute sunlight over a space or to direct it to a particular interior surface. Apply shading devices for summer sun control.


Iji C
SHADING DEVICES
Large south—facing glass areas, sized to admit maximum solar ain in winter will also admit solar gain in summer when it is ot needed.. Shade south glazing with a horizontal overhang located above the glazing and equal in length to roughly 357. of the height of the opening.
Projection = height
2.0
(2.0 is a factor used for latitude)


CLIMATIC DESIGN


CLIMATIC DESIGN
Due to the geographic and climatic location of this building site, the most prominate topic of concern was found to be the functionable construction of places for people. Snow, changes of temperature, wind and ice dramatically affect the requirements of design guidelines as well as how the building and surrounding spaces are experienced and perceived.
Snow creeps or slides on any incline and few people seem to care where it ends up. Very often, it is over the front door or over a deck. An inviolable rule might be is that no roof should be pitched anywhere that people are planned to be.
There is one thing which separates the mountainman from the flatlander, and that is the ice dam. Ice dams are caused by heat from inside the building melting the snow on the roof.- The only right way to deal with ice dams is the expensive way. The entire surface must be kept either cold or warm so that there is no temperature differential. The European cold roof is really two separate roof layers with outside air flowing between them. If there is going to be a sloping roof, it should seriously consider a cold roof or a very carefully detailed warm roof. A flat or almost flat roof might in fact be highly preferable from an engineering standpoint in the mountains, especially where the snow depth is great and the weight is heavy. If there is wind, snow will build up on the leeward side and be scoured off the windward side. This can cause unequal loading which can cause the building to collapse. For this reason, the ridge should always point toward the prevailing wind. On the other hand, in a flat roof, this same wind will tend to sweep the snow off the entire roof surface.
Flat roofs should be internally drained. This means the drainpipe goes down through the warm part of the building. While flat roofs do not develop ice dams, they can leak at the flashings along the perimeter because of the fantastic expansions and contractions of the flashing metal relative to the roofing. Flashings should be installed on top of the roofing to allow them to move independently. This is not standard roofing practice. Flashings are usually installed between roofing systems.
With a wel1 —insulated roof, you will melt less snow and avoid many of the classic problems dealt with above. A type of insulation should be used which will not absorb moisture. There should be an impervious vapor barrier toward the inside (warm side) of the wall so that the wall can breathe, and interior moisture not be trapped in the wall.
All plumbing fixtures should always walls. This might be rule number two: vents into a chimney enclosure or gather roof vent at the ridge.
be located on interior It is best to get the together under
a common


Try tq avoid a walking deck with occupied space beneath. This is almost standard practice in bass lodges. There may be some that don't 1 eak, but they aren’ t t.o dependable.
Generally, double glazing will pay for itself quickly in •fuel savings in cold weather areas like the Rockies, Midwest or East. 11 shou 1 d be strong 1 y considered in moderate tarnperature areas where there will be people seated near the glass. The body radiates heat away from itself toward a cold surface and the person will feel as though he is sitting in a draft.
Footings for foundatians shou1d a1ways be we 11 be1ow the •frost line, It might be well to add a foot to whatever the local accepted standard is. I t i s certai n1y oheaper to excavate during construction than to dig up the same pipe after it is frozen. Do not use plastic pipe, as it cannot be thawed by electric resistance devices.
CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE COLD FGQF FUNCTION
ROOF PITCH -- Cold roofs are ineffective on any pitch less than 6/12. Due to small 1 vented spaces, frictional slowing of the air is very great.
LENGTH QI- RUN •- Longer length runs si ow
Runs
3. i movement, Gui de 1i nes:
c / i n U / 1 .C- p i t c h 16 foot max i mum
6/12 pitch 20 foot max i mum
7/12 pitch ~ 30 foot max i mum
over 35 to 40 f eet s hould be
a 1 s o
avoi a
FLQW BALANCING •-- The surface area of match the area of the ridge vent Imba1 an c ed s i t uat i on s rest r i c t a i r f 1 aw
create
great
ed.
the intake as closely
friction and
v e n t s h o u 1 d
as possible.
RIDGE CLOGGING - The total air flow in the roof system must be g r e a t a n o u g h t a a v e r com e h e a v y IS" t a 2 4 " s n o w s t o r m s .5 w hie h will attempt to clog the ridge vent with ice. Once the vent is clogged, the entire roof reverts to a warm roof system and ice will b eg in to f or m.
HEAT TAPE - The sale purpose of heat tape on eaves is to allow the water farming at the bottom side of the snow pack to run down the roof and over the cold overhangs without freezing. To do t h i s, t h e heat i n g co i 1 s mu51 et end f rom 6 " above the et srior
fall line to the bottom edge of the overhang. Loops should be spaced no further than 24" apart or ice will form between them, heat should be either controlled by a thermostat or set to run c o n t i n u o u s .1 y f r o m M a v a m b e r t o M a y,
ENERGY EFFICIENCY -- Effective cold roofs will draw large volumes of air across the warmed bottom deck. This air movement removes t. h e air f i 1 m p h e n o m e n o n a n d g r e a 11 y i n c r eases h e a t and 1 o s s through the roof. Roofs must be well insulated and a sound vapor


barrier must be installed or infiltration -from the inside of the building to the root vents will increase dramatically.
CRITERIA FOR WARM ROOF DESIGN
The properly designed warm roots otter just as much pertormance as a cold root with much less cost. The objectives ot warm root design are as toilows:
1) Roof surface should be designed to maintain a 36 degree temperature or lower when it is snowing and the building is heated to 6S degrees.
2) Bar joist and metal deck roofs are especially prone to
heat distribution problems. Often the cold roof system is applied directly over the metal deck, this creates a condensation problem. The cool air moving through the cold roof cools down the metal deck and bar joists below the? dew point. Batt insulation between the joists may
keep condensation from forming on the metal deck, but the exposed bottom cord of the joist will have heavy c on d ensati on.
3) One of the best ways to insure a uniform roof
temperature is to install 2 layers of 1.5" rigid
polyurethane insulation between the final roofing surface and the roof sheathing. Two layers are much better than one because the joints can be staggered 507. to reduce i nf i1trati on.


SOLAR SHADING


FOR STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, COLORADO
JANUARY 21
..OCATION = +VE STANDARD TIME
ORIENTATION = 180
.ATITUDE ~ 40.5 LONGITUDE = 106.75
10NTH = 1 DAY ~ 21
r 22 '= SUNRIS E
3 6.. 6 123.6 11.7 -56»4
P 15.4 134.8 O i 3 ”45.2
LC n **} c* 147.7 '0 A. *•*) A..O M 4.. ”32.3
LI 27.4 162.3 28.5 -17.7
L2 99 7 178.1 294 -1.. 9
L 3 28.1 194.1 28 „ 9 14.1
: 4 23.9 209.1 26.9 291
i CT •i 7 9 •—i -f 22.. 8 420 „ 3
1.6 8.7 233.. 9 14.6 53.9
6.6 8 — S U N 3 E T
NOTATION:
*VE= NORTHERN HEM. BLDG. ORIENTATION: S LATITUDE - 40° 27' a" LONGITUDE -106°- 45 - 45"
HR-HOUR AL-ALTITUDE AZ-AZIMUTH
VSA VERTICAL SUN ANGLE HSA* HORIZ. SUN ANGLE
=EBRUARY 21________
JDCATION « - ORIENTATION • 180
..AT IT! iDE = 4 0. 5 LONGITUDE * 106.75
TON T r! = 2 DAY = 21
m AL AZ US A HSA
3.72 ~ SUNRI S L
7 2. u 6 107.1 8 .. 6 -72.9
1 13.1 !. 17 5 26.7 -62.5
> n n 129.3 33.3 -50.7
0 30 M fj 143.2 ■ 36.4 ”36.8
.1 3 6 159.5 378 -20.5
1 38.2 177.8 38.3
1 7 U 36.. 8 196.3 38 1. o.. 3
: 4 39 213.2 36.3 TT •*> \.t >i *_
5 2 4,, 6 2 /.*.! / ii 7 34 „ 3 47.7
L6 15.4 239.. 9 28.8 599
1.7 sr •! ■..) .. .i. 250.6 14.9 70.6
[7. 28 - SUNS ET


I ARCH 21 - EQUINOX
• CATION = +VE I ENT ATI ON - 1.00 TITUDE - 40.5 NTH = 3
S T A N D A R B F.!. ii E
LONGITUDE - 106.75 DAY = 2.L
aL AZ USA HSA
.2 '•= SUNRISE
9. 3 99 47.7 -81
20.3 109.5 48«6 -70.5
31 1 121.7 439 -58.3
39.9 136.7 49 -43.3
46.3 155.3 491 -24.7
49.1 1.77.3 49.1 ~*£ „ 7
47.4 199.8 49. 1 19.8
41.7 219 „ 3 49 39.3
33.3 235.1 489 55.. 1
23.3 247.8 48.7 67.. ’6
124 83 = SUNSET 258.6 48.1 7 8.6
PRIL „ 21
CATION = +-VE IENTATION = 130 FI TUBE •- 40.5' NTH = 4
STANDARD TIME
LONGITUDE = 106.75 DAY - 21
AL AZ USA HSA
! = SUNRISE 62 30 0 0
17.5 89.6 0 0
28.9 99.. 8 72.9 -80.2
39.8 111.7 66.1 -68.3
49.8 127 63 -53
57.5 148.3 616 -31.7
61 176.5 61.. 1. -3.5
58.3 205.7 61.. 4 2 5»7
5 L 9 228.7 62.6 48.7
42.3 245.2 65.. 2 65.2
31.5 257.7 70.3 77.7
20.2 263.1 84.9 881
8.8 277.7 0 0
:s = SUNSET


Full Text

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r J ( J -I ' . ' . / . 'j LAND USE PLAN I ) . -t, . I . , : ... SOD c::J OPEN SPACE c:::::::J SINGLE FAMILY MULTIPLE FAMILY COMMERCIAL .. PVD c:::J COUNTY 0 A L E S Y. F 0 S T E R ARCHITECTS PLANNERS MAY 29. 1973 I 11 ,.,. -t f ' !! ', ,I J I ' I I# ,. ...

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RTHSLOiPE V'll.L.AGE HO-rEL HOTEL &. BASS FACIL;TIES .AT STEAMBOAT'S 1\IIORTH SLOPE Al'\1 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS t='RESIENTEC TO THE C:ClL.LEGE Oi= CESIGr;J & t='LA JNING, UNIVE!s:!SiTY CF CCLORACO AT CENVER IN PARTIAL OF THE FOR THE OEGRE!E CF . : 1 ' • ' OF ARCHDTECTURE CANJEL sc:oTT FAr\IT MAY 18,1594

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THE THESIS OF DANIEL SCOTT GRANT IS APPROVED ,._ . --• UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO • DENVER MAY 181 1984

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CONTENTS

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION HISTORY ECONOMICS ROUTT COUNTY STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT BASE I STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT ECONOMIC IMPACT NORTH SLOPE AT STEAMBOAT BASE II NORTH SLOPE SKI RESORT DESCRIPTION STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE & CIRCULATION PLAN 1981-1996 STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE & CIRCULATION POLICIES RESORT OPEN SPACE GUIDELINES GROWTH & ANNEXATION MASTER PLANNING ZONING WATER & SEWER SOIL ENGINEERING CLIMATE ANALYSIS CLIMATIC DESIGN BUILDING CODES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS BUILDING DESIGN CONCLUSION APPENDIX A TABLES 1-23 APPENDIX B FIGURES 1-9 APPENDIX C SOILS ANALYSIS CHARTS APPENDIX D GEOLOGIC MAP APPENDIX E ZONING MAP APPENDIX F -HOTEL SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS APPENDIX G RETAI L SHOP SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS APPENDIX H RESTAURANT DESIGN SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS APPENDIX I PARKING GARAGE SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY

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I NTF:DDUCT I m , ! Located be one of Because of to neEtrly 6, (>(>(j that: at 6,700 feet above sea Steamboat has grown to the largest ski resort towns in the United States. its popularity, the population of Steamboat increases 25,000 during the Christmas season compared to a mere live there year-round. Because of this increase that occurs during the winter months, a second ski base is needed at the Steamboat Ski Area. Presently, the Steamboat Mountain can support. 15,000 skiers/day. Because of congestion, safety problems, and snow erosion that has occured in the past, it was desireable to start Base II when the design day (average of the top 28 ski days) exceeded 6,000 skiers/day, which occured in the 1973-74 winter season. As soon as the design day reached 8,000 skiers, Base II should have became a requirement. Last season, the Steamboat Base I was forced to handle over 10,000 skiers/day -well in e xcess of its In 1984, the final two chair-lifts are to be the Steamboat Ski Area an estimated 20,000 capacity three times the recommended handling base. completed, giving pers.on handling capacity for the As a result of the severe congestion that has occurred year after year(since 1974) at Steamboat Mountain, a proposal to the forest service has been made to expand the ski area to the North which could reduce the congestion at Base I b y The proposal, made in 1 980 by Big Bear Development Company, is now waiting approval by the forest service. The site fdr the proposed Base II is located just walking distance from the Steamboat Golf Course, and about a quarter of mile north of the existing Base I area. The photographs following will best sum up its location, size, and relation to the surrounding area. Upon verification of the ski areci addition, Bear will develop 60 acres of base facilities, a hotel, and condominiums. My goal for this thesis is to design the hotel to serve a s a focal point for the North Slope Ski Area. The scope of the thesis will be to the focal point) with a restaurant a + the base, parking below grade, and development w111 be approximately including repetitive hotel floors. thesis will be five parts includE a hotel (as the top, retail shops at landscaping. The entire 70,000 square feet, not Thus, the scheme for m y gf

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The first order is the hotel and the layout of the hotel rooms themselves. The hotel should, as a focal point for the Base II area, have symbolism a symbol to shoN that it is for the elite. a symbol that shows dominance. The hotel will represent a dominant element b y having a low profile around the of the r
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The fifth and last spatial order is the below-grade parking structure. The amount of parking will be determined from the design guidelines and will be based on the number of shops, number of hotel rooms, visitors, employees, and restaurant users. This part of the thesis will try to hide the automobile and emphasize pedestrian traffic. Again, emphasis will be placed on circulation parking garage access to the hotel rooms. Circulation should be safe, fast and easily accessible. As a result of the hotel and its facilities, a scheme will be developed that shows unity, all ski resorts should have. direction, and destination what

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-NATtoNA.L. JIIOA .. T c::J COUAaa/OPWN 8PACC RrvaAa 5 PONCe ROAOa 8 PARKING R& .. O.NTIAL • , , • UNIT8 AllatQINTIAL• MULTI .. AMILV/CONOO COMMII.ACIAL • LOOCM,/MOTCL/HOTaL COMMafiK:IAL ALL OTHaR TVPC8 (=:J aKI ALJNa, PRIVATC c::J PAOllltoaao ... _ u c..._atca --• 8KI aOUNOARV •--• PIIIIICH>eaD 81(1 .ouNIDARV '""'-' l<. J ... !OO 1 , & .I:Jt .. ., ' 'oo' ..... - • tu.-TOOOot.no' ....,...." _...,.oo.u• .-.1 N,-'IJI 10 I ,...,.,c _ t v U !IC,...,.. .__. B!o!!; TVel ----•tt-...T l RUN • # .... .,.. """ -u u "'" . . ""' .... .. -'""' .. """' -n-OIIoTl "'"' .. • UIIMtOIAT l '""' """ ..-..... '""' .. -• • toO --u . ,'"""'""''' -..... _., -""' ""' ""' """ ... " ...... -M lltTl-Tt • , ... 1 * .. w • NORTH SLOPE . FISH CREEK AREA LOCATION MAP . "j .a STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, CO. .JANUARY 1984 SKI RESORT C!_(>BEAR DEVELOPMENT CO. P . 0. IMJX •:.30 DUI!Ut.NGO, CO. (30:.1••'74 .. ,,

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I j I

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THE SITE

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SKIING TO THE SITE

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VIEWS FROM THE SITE TO THE NORTH TO THE EAST

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TO THE SOUTH TO THE WEST

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VIEW OF EXISTING SKI AREA & PROPOSED SKI AREA

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HISTORY

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Long before Steamboat became the famous resort 1 t is today, the Ute Indians adopted the area as their summer playground. Trappers, while traveling throught the area in the mid-1800's, thought they heard the chugging of a Steamboat 'round the bend. Further investigation revealed a mineral spring bubbling through .=. r-l r k . .c n 11. '' I .. ,-n n ,-i -f"' ;-4 + h 1'" == 111 1 ;j T I ::; n 1 • ,., .. c. 1 .... LI._ '"d-_n Wl.L._. pt -' .. Juc._ .... _ ... ..... n.. ll-_.prliiQ the town its name. Known only to the Ute Indian and early mountain men, this remote region did not yield to settlement until gold and rich grazing lands lured miners and cattlemen in the late 1860's and early 1870's. James Crawford brought his family over Gore Pass in 1875 and was the first permanent settler oF Steamboat Springs. At this time Steamboat was so secluded that during the 1800's, when geld was being mined at Hahn's Peak, 30 miles north, only a few families decided to settle in Steamboat. It v-Jasn't a,.t i \/ (?. d :i n t: (J t--J ll his feet., until Carl Howelson, at the turn of the century, from Norway with funny-looking boards to strap to the ski industry began to grow. Howelson began jumping off snow mounds and the local youngsters began imitating him. With different bindings and a technique he brought from Europe, he started a branch of skiing that today brings hordes of people into the Rocky Mountains. at ion .:::1.1 a n?s. u l t, Ski. Te.:;J.m St(?amboa.t members ha.:;:; tD produced enough Olympians be known as Ski Town a .nd USt-""1.

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ECO CMICS ROUTT COUNTY

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ECONOI•I I CS ECONOMIC OVERVIFW ROUTT COUNTY F 'oou. l ati on Routt Countv population has mare than doubled during the past decade. Between 1970 and the county population grew by persons to 13,404 persons. The majority of the population growth has taken place in Steamboat Springs and the unincorporated areas of the county. Population increases in these two areas accounted for over threefourths of the county's total population growth. From 1970 to 1980, Routt County households increased from 2,159 to an increase of 128.5 %. In Steamboat Springs had 2,051 households, representing about 42% of the county . The number of households increased at a faster rate than population as average hcusehold size declined from 3.01 persons per household in 1970 to 2.69 in 1980. Emplovment From 1975 to 1980, the county's employment increased by 3,848 workers to 8,619, up 80.7%. This represents an average a n n ual increase salary employment o f 770 e mployees or 12.6%. Private wage and experienced the largest growth over this period increasin g from employees in 1975 to 6,330 workers in 1980. Individual industries exper1encing the largest gains include construction, retail trade, mining and finance/insurance/real estate. Much of this growth is related t o tourism and the construction of second homes or resort establishments in the county (Table 1, Appendix A). Coal mining and power plant development has also stimulated the local economy. Between 1974 and 1980, 183 businesses were added in Routt County, an increase of 56 percent: N umber of Establishments 1974 1.980 Agricultural services , etc ....................... . 1 1 i'.lining .............•.................. ..... ....... 5 1 .. , ..::. Contract Construci.:i on ............................ . 44 89 1anuf ctctur i n g .................................... . 1 1 1 (l Transportaion & Public Utilities ................. . 16 19 vJhol esal e Tt-ade ............ . ................. . . . . . 13 1 '-:• ..:.. l Trade ....................................... . 1Ci2 52 Finance, Insur.:::nc:e and F :e.: d Estate ............... . 24 44 . ces ......................................... . 84 124 Non c J. ass if i able ... ........... ................ _ . _ ._. -'-"-"---'--------'"""t l 4t:, ..::.o Tot:al 326 509

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Industries which experienced substantial growth in the number of establishments include contract construction, retail trade, finance/insurance/real estate and services. Much of this growth is related to tourism and local service Growth in the number of Routt County business establishments is a further indication of e xpanded business activity. o f In the 1980, the private industry sectors accounted for 91.1 % county's total personal income b y place of work. The largest income generating industry is mining with 25.3 percent of 1980 personal i ncome b y place of work. The construction industry has e xhibited the fastest income growth between 1975 and accounting for 6.4 percent of total personal income in 1975 and 15/: in 1 ?ElO .. Between 1975 and 1980; total personal income b y place of residence grew about $94 million, an increase of 170.3 percent. This represents an average annual increase of about $}8.8 million or 22.0 percent. Among private industries, the largest incom e gains were experienced b y mining, construction and services, corroborating trends evident in prior employment statistics. Residence adjustment data indicate tha t approximately seven percent of income generated in Routt County is earned b y non residents commuting into the county for jobs. Over the period per capita personal incomes grew from $5,635 to This represents an increase of more than per person or about 97 percent. A large portion of this increase is attributable to the effects of inflation. Ru.i.l di nq F ' f2rmi ts The number of housing units authorized in Routt County far 1975 through 1981 were: Year 1975 1976 1977 1978 197<7 1980 1. '181 Routt Countv Units Authorized Single Family Multifamily Total 59 110 187 267 337 180 1 :31 0 ' --'k t-:=--::449 543 305 c:.-o '-' .; 1 ..,.. .L.:. '-:>1 • ::J ..:.. J. I 389 7 1 3 6 723 436 On the a veragej about 390 units were authorized each year i n Routt County. Although annual development rates b y type of housing unit has fluctuated, multifamily units have accounted for slightly more than half the units permitted over the per iod show n . Betwe e n 1975 and units were authorized or pen11itt.::?d, 1,45.:S of ' . A J et-e multifamily units. The m-.=<.jorit y

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of these units are for second-home or seasonal use. Summarv Routt County maintains a well diversified, rural economy based on mining, tourism and construction, with agricultur e and government employment providing additional economic support. In 1980, the county contained 13,400 residents. Steamboat Springs is the county seat and largest community with 5,100 residents. Substantial economi c expansion has occured in Steamboat Springs and Routt County in recent years. Since 1976, county retail sales have climbed at an annual rate in excess of 22 percent per year . Similarly, county assessed valuations and commercial bank deposits have grown in excess of 15 percent per year. The county's economic expansion has been fueled primarily by growth in the mining and especially the tourism industries. The,? f c::Jll m •Ji ng facts are some issues to think about 1--Jhen schematic design is to take place: . \ l' 2) The population o f Routt County increases about 13%/year. This can have an impact on design considerations based on future expansion of the area. Since many people are tourists when they first come to Steamboat, but then become residents, expansio n of the master plans should be ccmsi Routt County's increase base area would create in employment is 8%/year. more i ng even A employment in the area. The new base would also bring more money i nto the area, creating higher living standards. Since the amount of money brought into the is based on what people spend, the more the new area becomes an experience for the tourist, the more money he will be likely to 5pend. Thus quality of design becomes a major design consideration. 3> Personal Income in the Steamboat area has increased to 17%/year. As a result of mining and tourism i ndustry, Steamboat has grown to be an upper-middle class society -it is the intent of the design solution to keep this trend going. If new base area can create a new identity, parallel with the already existing Base I ski area, it can increase personal income in the area a great deal. A design consideration that may help facilitate this goal is to create a unitv program which deals with the entire master plan of the second base area. A unity plan will create its own character and identity , thus improving the economics of the ski area as a whole.

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STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT BASE I

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/ STEAMBOAT SKI RES ORT BASE I Steamboat, which opened in 1962, 1s one of Colorado's major destination resorts. With 18 lifts and a total capacity of 22,000 vertical transport feet per hdur, the area is the fourth largest ski area in the state. Skier visitation levels have fluctuated widely over the years, reaching a peak of 630,307 in 1979-80 before falling to 243,000 with the poor snow of 1980-81. During typical seasons, Steamboat captures approximately eight percent of the Colorado skier market. During poor seasons, this percentage has declined to four to five percent (Table Appendi>: A). Steamboat is a major area CTable 3, Appendix Al . Two-thirds of the area's skier days are generated by out-of-state skiers nearlv 80 percent by destination visitors in general. Denver skiers, generally overnight weekend guests, represent an important segment of the Steamboat market. The distribution in skier origin have remained fairly stable over the past few years. Tables 4 17, Appendix A gives Steamboat Skier comparisons of the following: Table 4 Comparison of yearly skier visits by month T c1b 1 e c::-....! Table 6 Table 7 1 e 8 Table 9 T<:ible 10 Table 11 T 2c. b l. e 12 T c?.ble 13 Tabl :? 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Yearly comparison of skier visits by weekends, W
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base area. The vehicular street will be narrowed and the walkways widened, resulting in many of the on-street parking spots being eliminated. The overall parking will be increased because of the construction of a parking structure b y the Ski Corporation in front of the Clocktower. Additional spots will be available behind the Clocktower and in the new Torian Plum development. There will be a traffic control booth with a mini plaza built around it which will serve as the focal point for the entire area. A wide swath of brick pavers will highlight the areas in front of the shops, and landscaping features will improve the appearance of the area next to the road. The project will be completed in November, 1983. SKI AREA 1983 SUMMER E XPANS ION PROGRAM: The Steamboat Ski Corporation has successfully negotiated the sale of $10 milllion in industrial revenue bonds. The money will be used in the following manner: Build a new triple chairlift in Priest Creek; it will parallel the e xisting lift. Build a new lift between the existinq Four Points and WJW lifts. It will start from the bottom of Lower Cyclone and end at the top of Storm Peak. For this construction the Storm Peak poma lift will be removed. Construct a 185 car parking garage at the west end of Ski Time Square. Purchase more snow-making equipment and three new grooming machines. Add over 200 new trail and facility signs. Start construction of a new restaurant near the elbow of High Noon (a run in the Priest Creek area). Expand the Christie Base facility by 20,000 square feet. Build two new lifts to accommodate the Sunshine Bowl area on the back side of Priest Creek. Except for the work in Sunshine Bowl and the Christie Base facility, all the construction work will begin finished by the 1983-84 ski season. The expansion into Sunshine Bowl will begin in the summer o f 1984. FUTURE SKI AREA EXPANSION POSSIBILITIES Certain areas have been designated for future consideration as expansions of the existing Steamboat Ski Area. The area to the north is called the Fish Creek tract (same area as the North Slope) and the area to the south is known as the Priest Creek tract. The U.S. Forest Service would consider an application for e:-:pansi'on into the Fish Creek area first and then Fr i es: . t Creek as demand requires. Tom Lonberger from the U.S. Forest service a perml 1: is issued or not, or later thE ski area will expand to the North. Right now the ridge is in the way

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for a ma jor base area over there. ' ' T h u s the ridge will have to be dealt with in order to put a major base area in the area. More the Fish Creek tract will be considered when the e x isting ski area is projected to be five years away from reaching 50 percent of its capacity . As it the e xisting Steamboat Ski Area is e xpected to have an annual capacity of skier days when all the lifts and currently approved new areas and runs area finally built. That estimated capacity is based on a 107 day season f r om December 15 -April 1. Based on these the Forest Service would consider expansion when its projections indicate Ste amboat is five years away from skier days. I11 e xpansion existing mark. terms of the Fish Creek and would represent more than a doubling in Priest Creek size of the short o f that ski area. In terms of capacit y it falls A t current planned Fish the s k i area will hav e a daily Creek (North Slope) i s expected half the size of the Steamboat capacity of skiers. to add a daily capacity of Area and the estimated number for Priest Creek is Based on the future ski area another Base resort is needed to keep skiers at the Steamboat Ski Area well distributed and to prevent the existing base area to be over populated.

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STEAMBOAT SKI RESORT ECONOMIC IMPACT

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STEAMBOAT SKI AREA ECONOMIC IMPACT State Level The Colorado ski industry is a major contributor to the Colorado economy and represents the largest single industry on Colorado's Western and the third largest industry in the state Appendix 8). The ski accounted for over $1 billion in retail sales in the 1981-82 and generated nearly JOos for state residents. Personal income attributable to skiing was $586 million. Another $400 million in housing was constructed second homes) in the summer of 1981. The relationship of skier activity to total ski economic impacts varies considerably from area to area on the size, and particularly the mix of destination skiers (Fig. 2, Appendix B>: industry depending day and County Clear Creek Grand Summit La Plata Gunnison Routt Eagle Pitkin The Ski Areas Loveland Geneva Basin St. Mary's Glacier Winter Park Berthoud Pass Ski Idlewild Arapahoe/Keystone Breckenridge Copper Mountain Purgatory Crested Butte Steamboat Vail Aspen Complex Aspen Highlands 1980 Visitor sales per Skier Visit $16.60 $35.30 $50.00 $55.90 $70.70 $72.70 $97.60 $100.20 more fully developed resorts with a of destination skiers generate significantly economic effects on a per skier visit basis. higher greater Skiing is one of Colorado's major basic industries as it draws visitors from around the world and stimulates an influx of dollars into the Colorado economy. An estimated 15,500 SKllngrelated jobs are directly supported by out-of-st2te skiers. This figure compares favorably with other basic industries in Colorado. Overall, the ski industry represents 3 . 6 percent of all basic employment in Colorado.

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Countv Level Economic activity 1n Routt County 1s centered in the City of Steamboat Springs, the county seat and the second largest community in northwestern Colorado. The Steamboat Ski Area is located four miles south of the original town. The. residential and commercial developments at the base of the ski primarily second home and tourist-oriented businesses, are known collectively as Steamboat Village. In the early the village area was annexed b y the city and now both the old town and new skiing-oriented developments are within the incorporated municipal limits. The greatest portion of Routt County's commercial development is within the City of Steamboat. Minor resident-oriented commercial activity is present in the Towns of Hayden , Oak Creek and Clark. An industrial and general business 01strict has developed just to the north of Steamboat which accounts for the greatest portion of retail sales in the unincorporated county . Tourism activity. including associated lodging, reta11 sales and second-home development, is the largest single component of the Routt County economy. Summer tourism centers around outdoor recreation. The economic influence of tourism and skiing 1n routt Countv i s visible in many aspects of the economy. Visitors purchase lodging, entertainment and food as well as a variety of retail goods. These create job opportunities drawing new residents and indirectly new services for these residents. In addition, Routt County has an active construction industry, primarily related to second-home development and touristassociated commercial development. The seasonality of local business activity and the magnitude of visitor impacts are reflected i n monthly retail sales trends for the City of Steamboat Springs. During the 1980-81 winter tourism generated approximately 30 percent of annual sales and approximately 3.5 times the retail sales activity attributable to summer visitors and summer construction CFig. Appendix Bl. The mountain's limited operations in January and subsequently improved conditions in February and March are portrayed. Converting these data to constant dollars, Steamboat experienced a 40 percent decline in estimated winter visitor expenditures and a 60 percent decline in otal skier visits. Based on these Steamboat Springs and Routt County have strongly seasonal business activity levels which for the most part, the resul t of summer and winter tourism. In total, Steamboat Springs seasonal business as measured by retail sales above the May and November base, represent 40 percent of all whole sales annual sales. Sales characteristics for the county a show only sl1ghtly less seasonality. Utilizing the city tax data and quarterly county retail sales data from the

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state, following are estimates of business attributions: Off-season Base (local sales) l.>Ji nter Tour ism Routt County Retail Sales % of 1980 Annual Total Summer Tourism and Construction Total 8 100% The presence of the Steamboat Resort represents a major influence on the magnitude and nature of Routt County's summer tourism activity. Without a nearby summer destination point (e.g. Rocky Mountain National Park) and given the county's isolation, summer visitation without the Steamboat Resort and accompanying ski-related recognition factor would be significantly below present levels. The ski industry's presence in Routt County directly induces additional summer trade: National motel and hotel chains, which have located in Steamboat primarily to serve winter tourists. also draw summer tourists by their high public recognition and national marketing efforts. Developed summer amenities, attempt to attract visitors efficiently utilize lodging golf and tennis, r-epresent an to the Steamboat Resort to more and amenities built for skiing. Community attractions, lodges, could not be amenities now represent such as shops, restaurants and supported without skiing. These a major summer attraction. The presence of the ski area and the summer gondola ride is an attraction to summer visitors. Most second-home owners purchase for winter use or skiingrelated appreciation potential, yet many owners visit their properties in the summer months. Lodging facilities build primarily for skiinq reduce their prices by as much as 50 percent to attract summer visitors. Tht:? marketing of Steamboat summer recognition. summer months. in the winter also brings a winter visitors return in the The community has the necessary public services and facilities to handle summer visitors without major additional expense or discomfort to visitors. Evidently, it is base which generates Steamboat. Without characteristics would the amenities, the lodging and marketing the high level of summer visitation in the ski area, summer visitation closely resemble other isolated mountain

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communities. A n tourism business i ndustry-. estimated 60 percent of Routt County's s ummer activity is indirectly tied to the county's ski In s um , retail sales data indicate that summer tourism and construction represent approximately 25 percent of ann ual tourismrelated retail sales. The local ski industry , through the inducement of summer visitors and the construction of second homes, is responsible for a n estimated 60 percent of combined summer visitor sales and construction activity . Without winter skiing, tourist visitation and expenditure characteristics would more closely resemble current activity levels in non-skiing counties and the construction indust r y would be primarily a small local servic e function. Based on the seasonality of retail skiing's overall economic impact are: esti m .::d:es o f Off Season Base (local sales) Winter Tourism Summer Tourism and Construction Total Routt County 1 9 8 0 Retail Sales Percent millions 67i: 112. 7 -.r.::-_,;;_,:-) 42.0 8 13.5 100/. $168. 2 Attribution o f Skiing Percent mill ions 4 <='".' ,J/ o 50.7 95 4(). (i 60 8. 1 r.:r. _,, , .Jt:'l • / /. $98.8 The above allocation of local sales to skiing is based on the skiing industry's proportional influcence on local employment and income. Winter tourisim is almost exclusively a skiing-related impact . An estimated 60 p ercent of summer tourism is a skiingrelated effect. I n addition to the direct expenditures of winter visitors, skiing induces retail sales from local residents through local wages and summer sales through c onstruction and increased summer tourism. Based on seasonality in sales and the tourist industry's relative importance as a generator of local income, approximately 59 percent of 1980 retail sales ($98. 8 million) is a ttributable, either directly or indirectly, to the local ski indus t r y . Although skiing dominates tourism-related sales in Routt the local economy is supported by a diversified economic base centered o n skiing, government and agriculture. Tourism (including skiing) is the largest single economic influence accounting for an estimated 3,900 local jobs and over 45 percent of e arned income (Table 18, Appendix A>. Because importance stressed. s kiing of the is one tourist of Colorado's basic in the design concepts should the be

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The design should emphasize those things that will make the tourist have an enjoyable stay and will result in his return. The design should take into consideration availability of services and convenience to aid the tourist. The one thing a tourist likes the least is his effor t and energy he must use when he can't find ar-ound. L_odging and .=1menities shall be stressed to also attract t h e summer tourist.

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NORTH SLOPE AT STEAMBOAT BASE II

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PROPO SED BASE II N ORTH SLOPE In January the then new owne r of Steamboat resort, hired the Ken R. White Company of Denver to provide multidiscipline professional services. Th2se services but were not limited to: Master planning of the new resort o ver the next ten years; immediate managemen t consultation on operations and development; and p lanning, design and construction of current year projects. George A. Project Architect and Planner, directed a staff of 20+ planners, financial consultants, etc. to carry out this project. The planning team also included the Vic e Senior Planner and M arket Analy s t o f Ken R. White Co. along with from Y k f 1 ' om Cal if orn i a. Alexander and Andrew Resort Architect and M arket and Financia l F'l P 1nal yst I l:;:eport f:;n.:d vsi s Concepts" ltJ a s comp 1 e ted r.;UIJUSt 14, 1970. This report provided data on: the existing development; Market Research and Analysis to determine visito r support; Development Guidelines; and the General Develop m ent Concept. The methodology included: field market questionnaires ; inventory of all lands and facilities that wculd and influence on development of t h e complex; ana lysis of existi n g ski lift and ski trail facilities; aerial m apping suppor t e d b y land surveying control; national and local ski market analysis of other e xisting Colorado ski areas; transportation analy s is; utility services; zoning and permitting; and consultation with the Forest Service, City and County of Steamboat and other agencies. The Market research included analysis of the winter skier market with a forecast of s kier volumes over the next ten with a projection of r equired trails and visitor facilities, along with summer market projections and real esta t e development. The Report p rovided a n o f alternative development possibilities and the o f a r ecommended General Development together with a propo s e d improvement schedule. T h e developed Master P an defin e d : proposed ski mountain lifts and trails; roads and parking; and residential, commercial, recreational and open space facilities (Fig. 6-7, Appendix B). The market analysis projected over skier visits by the 1975-76 winter season, or a design-day volume of 9,10 0 . B y the 1980-81 season a design-day volume of S Klers was (Table 19, Appendi x A). It was determined that the mountain could support these projected capacities and was reflected in proposed sk1 lifts (Table 20, Appendix A ) . However. there were contingent factors which needed to b e resolved: 1 . The e xistin g ski trail in analysed and classified with a three-category rating s ystem (beginning, intermediate, and advanced) or the four-cat e gory system of the Forest ce, and compared v1i th the desi rab1 e =ki etmi > : c•f tr ails. It f ound tD be a difficul t mi:: : than the market

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projected (Table 21, Appendix HJ. It was then proposed that alternate trail cut-offs around difficult pitches and future proposed trail design could accommodate the skier market mix. ? The 1970 market trend showed that Steamboat h.:1d a "pn:?dominantly loc.:.d" mar-ket resulting in peak c:ap.:.Kities on weekends and greatly reduced skiing during the week (Table 22, Appendix A). This, of course, would not economically support major development expenditures. It was proposed to develop ancillary activities and facilities at the base, such as overnight lodging, condominiums, restaurants, apres ski, shops, etc. in order to attract the "non-local" or long-term visitors which would provide a balanced SKier market throughout the season. Further, it was recommended that summer facilities, such as a golf course, tennis courts and other resort/convention activities be developed in order to attract visitors to occupy the developed facilities for a greater season economics feasibility. The existing Rase I, due to the unique orientation of Mt. Werner which is 90 degrees from the normal ski mountain, becomes a congested area particularly at the end o f the day (normal ski mountains face north with a broad face, however, Steamboat has the base on the West with a ridge rising to the East and the skiing on the North with narrow funnel-like return trails). The return-to-base becomes the skier capacity limitation, rather than the full mountain capacity. The problems of the congestion at Base I which were anticipated and now exist inc:lude: Ct .• Safety problem and potential from higher skier density, the day when skiers area accident rai:io. increased skier injury rate particularly at the end of tired and have a higher b. Erosion of snow conditions from concentrated, confined skier use, which has always been a major problem at Steamboat, particularly on the lower slopes and at the warmer end-of-season. This acceleration of snow deterioration and dissipation has had a negative economic impact on the total skier capacity in the spring. The problem relates to the requirement of manufacturing artificial snow. c. Skier satisfaction is greatly reduced when congestion occurs and pleasurable open slope skiing is not available -all reducing the image and return business, as the return-to-base is the last impression of the day. d. Base I facilities, become congested. pa1 ki ng and tr-ansportat:i. on also e. There also is congestion in the morning when all skiers are starting up the mountain on lifts. Lift breakdown or high w:i.nds which prevent operation of the gondola keeps skiers from getting to the upper ski lifts.

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It was recommended to develop a Base II t o o vercome the congestion, and to start the development for the 1973-74 after the mountain reached 6,500 s kiers per day . The report proposed an access lift from the new Base II a t the Fish Creek area t o the intervening ridge, and an upper facility to the top of t h e mountain. This proposal was contingent upon the acquisition of the Rickstrew property to the e ast of the Base II. in order to accommodate skiing. This was accomplished that summer. This need for the Base II area and at this location to the north were recommended for reasons: a. To overcome the problems at Base I b . Provide access to the excellant north facing slopes abov e the fish creek area. The Priest Creek area was a lso studied but it is not as desirable due to its predominantly south e xposure and loss of good snow from the sun orientation. Since October of 1983, the Priest Creek area has been thoroughly developed, the back-side of the mountain included. c. Provide more diversified safety , and alternate routes up and down from the main ski mountain. d . Provide a more diversified land development at Base resulting in less congestion and better environment life. The original intent of Base II was a winter complex with a greater sense of the hub of commercial activity. combination summerseclusion away from "Phase I I taster Plan -An Environmental Ch all r->nq<;:" completed in December of 1970. This report restated development overview, the Steamboat Master Plan, recommended construction program, and the development program summary. This was a product of further study , research, analysis and design. It confirmed and refined the initial recommendations and development program. The Priest Creek area was also restudied and found to have two distractions: southwest exposure would result in snow problems; and the base was not owned by LTV. The findings reinforced the requirement for and feas1bilitv of the Base II at the Fish Creek area. During the summer, LTV purchased the Rickstrew property, as recommended, for development area of Base II. This property area was reflected in the revised master plan. It included ski lifts, trails, skier facilities, parking and some apres ski development . The skiing and lift methods, particularly over the ridge, were analyzed in great detail. A erial photography and contour maps were studied along with helicopter and on-site inspections. There had e xisted some scepticism about the s kiing feasibi l ity which needed to be tested. Sandy Mcilvaine, ski consultant, Don Preszler, Vice President o f Ken R. White C o . , along with Gordy

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l"Jn:o>n Dick Company all F:andol ph, 2Hld per-soncill y John Fetcher-o f involved with the the Steamboat invest i gat i ems. Ski It was found that ther-e was excellBnt inter-mediate and full r-ange of skiing on the upper-85% of these nor-ther-n and a ski way back over the ridge at the end of the day. The top of the r-idge would be r-ated expert skiing, whereas the lowerbowls would be rated beginner. It was indicated there was an easy r-oute off the r-idge that was higher up the valley (southeast of Fish Cr-eek Falls) and then down the valley thr-ough the Stuckey F 'roper-ty (nm J the proper-ty B:ig Development Co.). It aopear-ed that bv movino dir-t in thP small saddle on the south of the ridoe, the slooes could be flattened out forskiing. Ther-efore, in addition to the r-ever-se loading lifts ther-e wer-e two othereasy possible ways back to Base II. Despite this r-esearch, the myth of Base II not being feasible has persisted for unknown reason s . Last winter-, r-epresentatives of the Stuckey proper-ty developers and the Forest Service skied this Fish Cr-eek Base II area and found additional feasible r-outes, eliminating the myth. Base II will become a secondar-y winter centerand major-summer-center with a lower-density than Base I. In order to determine the pr-esent capacity of SKllng at Ste2mboat and compare the existing with the pr-oposed Master Plan, George Thorson recently calculated the lift development since 1971 to date using the same methods as original calculations (Table Appendix A) . These calculations were not available fr-om the ski company, although the Ver-tical Transpor-tation Feet CVTF> were taken from the cur-r-ent trail map. The lift capacities were assumed: 1,000/hour-for-two-person chair-lift and 1,500/hour thr-ee::: --per-son c:hc:<.ir-. Based on i:hes2 thS' ma>:imum daily capacity is 10,445 and the design day (discounted 80% forreasonable quality skier experience) is 8,356 skier-s/day. As there wer-e four-days dur-ing this 1982-83 holiday season which undoubtedly was too cr-owded for-goodmarket skiing. The retur-n at Base I must have been congested, potentially unsafe, and er-oded the snow condition. This was noted in the local Steamboat Pilot editori.:d in Februar-y .:tnd 1.-Jas 10,000 and that t.oJas a zoo." The For-est Service has deter-mined that the eventual mountain maximum capacity is 15,000 skiers/day . Their method furtherassumes 107-day design season or 1,605,000 skiers annually. Based on tr-end line analysis methods, the For-est Service assumes that development of a second ski base or ar-ea would not be r-equired until five years in advance when the utilization factor of 60% or-9,000 skiers/day and 963,000/year is exceeded, or about 1995. Their-calculations for-the 1981-82 show a total of 615,354 SKlers/year-and 504,000 skiers/107 days. They fur-ther-pr-oject skier expansion at the Colorado state r-ate of 3% to 4% per-year. For-pur-poses of this the capacity calculations methods have been analyzed. The skier-s/day forthe whole mountain i s r-easonable, however-the Base I restr-ictions of the morning lift system and evening trail return lin1its the capacity to 9,000 skiers. Ther-efor-e, the present Skier Visitor Days CSVDl

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accommodated now exceeds this base capacity and also the 60% utilization factor. The use of 107 days/season is not clearly defined or understood. An average of 107 day s does not seem to represent the peak skiing problems. the use of or skiers annually does not reflect peak periods. The Master Plan method of using the top 28 days average as the Skier Design Day seems more feasible. Based on this approach, the design day for the 1982-83 season will be nearly skiers/day. Considering all factors of design for a base the second ski base has been required since 1978 (when Skier Visitor Day , two chairlifts in the Sunshine Bowl expansion and a triple chair to replace Elkhead lift in Priest Creek. Although calculations on the lifts are not available, it can be projected that this might be an expansion of skier capacity of over 4,000 skiers/day, or almost a 50% increase of present without any additional Base I ski-in and ski-out facilities. If it is now considered crowded at Base and Base II is critically needed, then this pr-oposed expansion would make Base II imperative. Base II should hav e been developed befor e the additional lifts were installed above Base I to relieve the congestion. The design consideration: solution shOLll d take the follmJing 1) Emphasize access in and out of the base area. into 2) Emphasis should concentrate on the problem of congestion, which is presently a problem at Base I. 3) Emphasis should stress efficiency for future e xpansion of the base along the ridge. 4> Emphasis should be placed on the pleasant mountain atmosphere and attract summer tourists as well as skiers.

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NDIJ.dlt:l::::tsac • .LI:tOS:It::l I>IS EldO,S

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NORTH SLOPE DESCRIPTION The Grant Property . The most obvious reason for developing this area as Base II is that of pt-o\tiding a s .econd ski base in to the pressure off of the present Base I and solve some of its skier safety and congestion problems. However, it also can provide a predominantly summer vacation complex with a lower density development. It also would provide further recreational enjoyment of our national forests. The two-base resort would spread o u t the potential condestion with two nodes and provide a comprehensive resort complex. These two functional areas would be linked together by a development pattern that blends man-made improvements with natural land forms and by an internal transportation network. Although it has been proven that there are excellant ski trails available north-facing slopes and several alternative safe novice routes over and down the ridge to Base it is imperative to continue on-site investigations during both the winter and summer seasons. Final design will reflect this research and may call for revisions. Ski facilities and mountain development be designed with good engineering and a careful consideration of the preservation and enhancement of the environment. This would include soils hydrology and natural landscaping. Care must be taken to minimize the scars of construction roads, with prompt road obliteration and Glade skiing through the aspen trees would be provided where possible, preserving powder skiing. The trails would be located in north-facing valley s , cut to the natural outline of the trees, and provide swing-outs around steep th efficient

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connections between lifts -all to provide an outstanding planned program of mountain grooming and maintenance. BASE II FACILITIES The presently proposed as designed b y Big Bear Development is based on a concept of having all parking underground with the developed areas on the upper levels. The ski-in access would provide a better utilization of the land and be environmentally mo r e attractive with parking hidden and direct access to facilities by elevator. There would be open areas to the garage below providing natural light and along with exterior landscaping. Accommodations will consist of up to 500 hotel rooms and 1400 condominium units. There will be approximately 10,000 square feet of retail space alone in the hotel complex. The architecture would follow the local estab 1 i shed "F
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The intent of the is to open up new slopes of difficulty with a balanced m i x and to cope with volume of skiers. The upper 85% of the slope would have novice trails and runs as previously described, which would include: long sweeping to the east the and down the Fish Creek valley ; a switchback-type off the In addition would be intermediate t rails east of the joining the Fish Creek valley at the bottom, along with intermediate slopes just below the advanced skiing on the ridge faces. OTHER MOUNTAIN CONSIDFRATIONS The Service officials, a meeting 1n Steamboat on .Jan. 14, a.sked severa.l questions Equipment on t h e mountain top woul d security from vandalism and people safety. This may be under lift desig n would be modified to divert skiers away from the site and fences could be built. This will be studied in detail the design development phase. Municipal should be protected pollution of the source. Mountain development and engineering would be coordinated with the city af Steamboat 1'1t. i/JetnE?I'-I.AJa.tei-and ,::.nd the F (J t(?. :; t S • : ? r \/ i c: E? Small near the top of the mountain, near the small lake, would be carefully in the trail design. It has be(?.ri 5l:::i ( ?.d thi:; L .. <:1.you t. d,:2si. '.,dn v-Jc.ulc l ,:o.vD:id the provide culvert5 if required, environmental would be involved. En vi r -ollmental. F'l.an I!Ji th miti.qa.tion. Design will be included in the final potential impacts and methods for 1Jy . 3. team :; . Necessary data will be gathered and evaluated of professionals with Environmental FOREST SERVICE PROCERS The of the Grant Development have applied for the Service permit to develop Base II -North Slope ski development. They also submitted proposed designs, photos, and met representatives to needs and information. c:cJ .. ) thi.s ha.ve I ,
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UTILITIES The property is District. Electricity and can be extended to city of Steawmboat desirable. now in the Mt . Werner Water and Sewer is now available at the Rickstrew property this site. The property is not now in the Springs, but is contiguous if it becomes RELATIONSHIP WITH STEAMBOAT SKI CORPORATION The owners of this property have met with the Steamboat Ski Corporation and have had discussions on this proposed project. They have agreed to cooperate with each other. There are many alternatives as to how this can be developed and these details will be worked out. However, a major desirable premise would be to have a joint-use ski lift ticket. Other activities and operations would be desirable to be joint and cooperative for reasons of financial and good operations. PROPOSED FOREST PLAN FOR ROUTT NATIONAL FOREST The Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Management Plan, as prepared b y the Forest Service, presented to the public for review and comments were due 25:' 1983. F:esource has been b:r !'larch There are six alternatives for development which are described and evaluated. Alternative A is the Forest Service preferred plan. There are nine planning questions evaluated, however No. 6 which primarily is applicable to this report asks, "l.>Ji 11 inventoried winter sports sites be allocated to winter sports development?" It deals vJi th proposed dmmh ill ski i nq in the winter sports site inventory and application for a ski area permit. Alternative A provides for expansion of the current Steamboat Ski Area into the adjacent Fish Creek and Priest Creek area. When use at the current area indicates expansion is needed, Harrison Creek will be developed after the above e xpansion. It indicates an approved expansion potential of 2,100,000 skiers/140 day season, an annual growth rate of 3.1%, resulting in a demand of 912,000 skier visitor days per year by the year 1995. Presumably this 1s they feel that expansion to another area would be justified. The Forest Service has also stated that Fish Creek is their first preferred expansion area. As previously stated and discussed, the first analysis of the proposed Forest Plan, Alternative A, and the methods of calculations for expansion would result in these findings: -The Fish Creek area, designated as Base II in the LTV Master Plan and now known as North Slope by the owners of the Grant property, is the appropriate first expansion area

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for the Steamboat Ski Area. -The proposed mountain skiers /day but the restricted is acceptable for the Base I limits this total. -The present Ski Base I due to deterioration factors. now e xceeds recommended good desi •.;)n safety, and -Design-day basis should be the average of the top 28 ski days in the full rather than the average o f 107 days or the full season. -Base II was desirable to be started the design day e xceeded s kiers/day (1973-74) and required when it e xceeded 8,000 s kiers/day and is now critical as current year may be over s kiers/ day. -The growth rate of 3.1% ma y be acceptable for the State of Colorado but not for an individual ski area which is growing . Steamboat e xpansion may be anticipated at approximately 10%. the utilization factor of the annual after also adjusting for design-day vs. 107-day a verage, would be exceeded now rather than in 1995 . -Base II is now required b ased on these corrected factors. -The Grant property owners have applied and are requesting a study permit at Base II North Slope. The main goal: To provide future skiers of the Ski Area an e xclusive area with uncrowded conditions finest i n design, and service. Steamboat and the The following considerations should consideration when designing the base area: be taken into 1) Mountain Architecture should be considered. 2) Easy access from the parking structure to facilities and lodge should be considered. 3) Open space shall be maximized. 4) Circulation paths shall be explicit. the base

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STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE & CIRCULATION PLAN '198'1 '1996

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STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE & CIRCULATION PLAN 1981 -1996 The 1981 -1996 Land Use Circulation Plan has, as its a vision of the future of Steamboat Springs. This vision represents broad based Commun1ty goals and reflects both today's values and qualities, as well as tomorrow's aspirations. The strength of the plan is no better than the strength and commitment of the Community to the vision. The open and spacious qualities of the Yampa Valley contrast strongly with many other Colorado ski resorts. This is one of the qualities which draws people to rather than to other areas. Maintaining this feeling of spaciousness, both visually and phys1cally, is another important Community value. In some situations, an urban design can improv e upon nature. However, in this community, the general consensus is that man cannot improve upon the major vistas and panoramic views of areas such as Mt. Werner, the Flat the Sleeping Giant, Strawberry Cirt-:?ek, thf:? pi-otf:?ct ion o f thesE ThE? F'1 a .n qua.l1 t1 f::s. Where development is to occur, the Plan encDurages the screening of the least desirable development features, and the blending of structures with the natural surrDunding a.menities in a way which will highlight these a.menities. The end result of this Plan will be tD maintain the open and spac1ous characteristics of Steamboat Springs. The final scenario which the Plan would encourage is a Community which continue to project a friendly western personality, a convenient circulation system, and the buffering or separation of uses which do not enhance the natural features of the Cornmun it y. Cl U!5t('"2rs of 1TH:?CI i t.trrl densi t y' development ll be connected b y open space and la.ndscaped areas. Scenic corridors will be protected and enhanced by means of well planned site orientations. A continued family orientation and diversified socio-economic Community structure will be maintained b y thoughtful growth policies which foster and recreational opportunities for all segments of the Community. Circulation and transportatiDn systems are an integral part of the Land Use Plan for Steamboat Springs. Where people live and work should serve as guides in planning future routes of travel. The current and future development trends of Steamboat will dictate the cha.racter of future circulation and transporta.tion systems. The existing circulation system is being built according to Steamboat's Master Circulation Plan and is,. therefore, striving to attain the C ity's long range circulation needs.

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Analysis The circulation system currently designated on the Land Use Map (Appendix D) is generally meeting the needs of the and should continue to do so into the foreseeable future. There are, however, certain sections of the circulation system which are in need of revision. A road proposed to tie the Fish Creek Falls Road with northern Pine Grove Road. However, there are engineerin g and safety problems associated with this route. The physical constraints of building a road through thi s area are difficult to overcome. Slumping could be expected where the road traverses Browns Park Formation soils. The radius of the curve on Tamarack Drive is tight, and grades in areas exceed the recommended max1mums for collectors. Despite these difficulties, an alternative route between the mountain base area and the Harvey Mountain Property and Willett Heights is desirable. By decreasing the road status from a collector to a local residential road, the design requirements for the road can be reduced. Residential road standards would allow a relatively narrow road bed to be constructed. While a cut through the Browns Park Formation soil would still be necessary, the road cut could be decreased, thus lessening the environmental and engineering problems resulting from the larger cut. PARKING Parking facilities play a key role in Steamboat's transportation system. When cars back out onto roadways, or are forced to stack up or wait to enter a parking area, delays are created. The lack of parking in any given area causes congestion and additional trip generation. due to vehicles searching for a parking spot. The City does have policies to including on-site loading requirements a requirement that new residential provide all necessary parking on-site. TRAil SYSTEM mitigate these problems, for all new structures and and commercial projects The City Council adopted the Trailsystem Plan in January, 1981. The Plan is a conceptual base which provides a system of five inter-connecting loops, made up of routes and paths linking the City. This type o f Plan allows flexibility within proposed projects for site-specific engineering and evaluation of alignments. Active planning efforts, surveys, studies, and demand petitions determined that the planning of these facilities was a high priority. The Plan proposes a comprehensive multi-use trailsystem for year-round use of ski, bike, equestrian, and

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pedestrian travel. The implementation of this Plan will continual process to take place over the next several years. process of acquiring public access easements and construction is based primarily upon private development. TRAN S I T SYSTEM A year-round mass transit system presently serves the of Steamboat Springs. The transit s ystem was initiated as five year plan for continued development. be a The path City per a The study acknowledged that City do not make it feasible to every location within the City; service to all areas. development within provide public transportation or to provide the same level the to of The transit five year s ystem to community. plan provides for a gradual expansion of run concurrently with the growth o f Several objectives of the study include: the the 1 ) T o make available an alternative to the area's residents and visitors who do not have cannot or who would prefer not to drive if a viable alternative e xisted. 2) To encourage energy conservation. 3) To reduce traffic and parking congestion, and reduce required investments in automobil e related facilities. 4 ) To encourage the development of Steamboat Springs as a year-round destination resort. The transit and is flexible pattern s . system is sympathetic to potential enough to serve Steamboat's changing growth DESIGN CONCLUSIONS 1) Since roads become a major safety especially at ski they will be eliminated at Base II. 2) Parking will be 100% underground . 3) Two bus stops will be part of the new base system. transit

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STEAMBOAT SPRINGS LAND USE & CIRCULATION POLICIES RESORT

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LAND USE & CIRCULAT ION POLICIES RESORT The following policies shall serve as guidelines for decision making and for the futur e formulation and adoption of laws which shall govern the development of lan d in t h e Resort Land Use area. Said policies are based upon an analysis o f existing and projected conditions in the Resort Land Use area and upon concerns expressed by citizens at Community Planning Workshops and other forums. 1 ) 10 encourage the development of all land in the area to be in compliance with master plans for the various functional parts of the area. Functi anal i:<.reas ate to arec:1 s that naturally fall into planning areas, due to topography , natural features, etc. 2) To completion of all basic services required by a tract of l and (such as roads, trails, and utilities) i n conjuction with the development of the property. 3) To encourage Master Plan approval for a tract of land in conjunction with the subdivision of the property and PUD Plan approval for the property, prior to its ultimate development and subdivision. 4) To encourage developments which minimize traffic and parking congestion. 5 ) To encourage the screening of parked cars. 6) 7 ) 8) o ' ) To encourage the linking of commercial areas and centers with pedestrian trails. activity To discourage the use of private automobiles and to provide incentives for pedestrian and mass t ransit orientations. To encourage high density , close-in housing at the ski base and rapid development of the ski base residential and commercial crescent into a warm and pleasant pedestrian oriented residential and commercial areas. To encourage preservation of the basic v1sual corr1aors toward Mt . Werner and down the valley. To encourage the development of a View Corridor Plan which identifies and provides for the protection of the public's view of significant Communit y features from major public places. The protection of private views is not guaranteed by law, but is a factor to be considered in the application of the Bonus System. 10> T o encourage those developments located in areas removed from the ski base t o be o f lower density than developments at the s k i base, and to provide for E ffectiv e Open S pace. To encourage the development of Mt . Werner Interchange area

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b y the clustering of and other uses in a manner which accents open and an entry focal point. Accenting of commercial recreational and entertainment facilities will also be encouraged. 12) To encourage commercial developments to be integrated into complexes and oriented inward to the functional planning rather than outward. To preserve a visual corridor for Mt. Werner from the intersection of Mt. Werner Road and Pine Grove Road. 14) To establish a corr1aor of landscaping and a parkway appearance along the right-of-way of Mt. Werner Road through the adoption of an overall Landscape Master and to encourage the highlighting of landscape features in the development of commercial property around the Mt . Werner Interchange. 15) To encouraqe the development of cne Knoll to occur in such a manner that the northwest quadrant and western fringe of the site in the vicinity of Mt. Werner Road are retained in a predominently open space use. CIRCULATION The following policies shall serve as guidelines for decision making and for the future formulation and adoption of the laws which shall govern the development of the City's Circulation system. Said policies are based upon an analysis of existing and projected conditions and upon concerns expressed by citizens at Community Planning Workshops and other public forums. 1) To encourage the arrangement of sites so as to facilitate the future utilization or accomodation of a transit system. 2) To discourage developments which are likely to generate a volume of vehicular trips which exceed or disproportionately consume the capacity of the circulation system. 3) To require adequate access for emergency vehicles and those persons attempting to render emergency services. for 4) To promote traffic ingress and egress to commercial centers should be carefully designed. Left-hand movements into and out of commercial areas should be minimized and points of ingress and egress should be limited. 5) To encourage future developments to limit their points of ingress and egress onto major in order to reduce congestion which results from numerous points of access.

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6) Where arterial and collector are to require that residential develooment be oriented away from such and properly buffered so that the traffic carrying of the street will be preserved and the residential environment be protected from the adverse characteristics of the street. 7) To avoid adverse impact between the circulation residential and commercial is that large commercial truck traffic be directed designated streets. system and recommended only onto 8) To encourage internal circulation within a development which facilitates the movement of and waste products in a safe and efficient with maximum use of pedestrian orientations, and a minimum of impermeable surfaces. 9) T o encourage the inclusion or the contribution to, a permanent non-auto transit system, designed to facilitate the movement of persons to and from Steamboat or within the City. 10) To give a Trailsystem concurrently roads). hig h F'l a11 with priority to the implementation of and to encourage development of initial land development (including the trails bas1c 11) To evaluate the suitability of all modes of including bicycle, and walking, for the continuing development of alternatives to the private automobile, Citizens Committees should continue to be consulted. L J 14) To have a high level of intergovernmental coordination and citizen participation in the circulation and transportation planning process. To encourage placement of all off-street parking areas from public view. awai To encourage private off-street parking for public in non-residential areas. the general 15) To encourage aesthetic signage which aids the flow of traffic and provides convenient directional information to resident and tourist alike. 16) To encourage aesthetic information convenience, lighting for directional and and to improve traffic safety. OPEN SPACE An important foundation of the Steamboat Springs economy is its recreational amenities and environmental quality. This

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i0n<=tb l o:=!::; the f i Cc:lfrlmun it :i (=);:..;. iJpi;;'n • . 1-::J l t: L .::•.nd (and Use De signation to take on a importance) than it does in va.::;t 1 '/ filCJ::; t The Open Land Us2 Designation has several functions. this designation can provide buff ering between different types of development. T h e purpose of this buffering is to mitigate conflicts between different types of activity usually associated with differing Lan d Use Designations and to provide relief from continuous development of similar nature. Second, the Open designation protects and preserves sensitive environmental areas . Sensiti v e environmenta l areas include sectors which are unsafe and/or undesirable Fo r intensive such as flood pla1ns , steep slope areas and/or geologic high hazard etc. Sensitive environ mental areas may also include important vista points, scen1c corridors and significant community natural 1 T l E ! rl i t i t h i . rd a .r d ::;uch ,:;::; <:;t.r-•:=.!<7:\,m::;, f i nc\ l Sp .::c:..c: i=:? waterfalls, etc. The designations include trailsystems, and areas for outdoor uses and a.int:.:?n it i e::; .. Because the local economy is based on recreational amenities and the quality of the environment, the use and treatment o f Open Land Use Designation is critical . Because of its importance and because open space often provides a feasible a lternativ e land use (such as residential or commercia l ) open space often has a high economic: value. there i s often times reluctance by private property owners to willingly accept an Open Land Use Designation. Steamboat must develop strong incentives and plans to acquire and impro v e open space in order to ensure the future economic success of the community ; n o t to mention the desires expressed by residents t o deve lop parks and open space for enjoyment b y locals. The simple designation constitute totall y equitable and fair arrangement for the private property owner. The designation o f open space Land Use areas and policy statments for Steamboat does reflect the above CDrlS i d•:=.!lr -:•. t i CJn-3. The Open Space Land following criteria: Use Designations are the The wishes and desires of the public, as the Community P lanning Workshops, meetings and other public forums. thl-ough Council/Commission 2) The policies and recommendations d e v e loped by the Parks and Recreation Commission. 3) Existing designated Open Space land areas. 4) The designation of sites or areas which might reasonably be expected to become open space land uses, i n accordance with existing dedication requirements of the Municipal Code.

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OPEN SPACE • GUIDELINES

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The following policies shall as guidelines making and the future and adoption of the laws which shall govern the development and use of land in the open areas. Said policies based upon an analysis of the existing and projected needs of the City; the concern s by citizens at Comwunity Planning Workshops and other public forums; the desires of the & Recreation Commission; and a recognition on behalf of the City of the importance of recre3tional and open space facilities the economic well-being of the City and the health and welfare of its citizens. 1) To protect, utilize, and enhance natural areas so as to provide a pleasant environment. 2 ) and des1gn parks and recreational facilities based upon convenience, diversity, goorl landscape design, quality construction, accessibility, safety, compatibility, and the best ma ximum use of available funds. 3) To the administrative actions of the City with the Local, County, Regional, and State systems, so as to obtain the greatest use of open space lands with the most efficient of funds. .d) To encourage the development of conjuction with non-vehicular Trailsystem Plan. greenbelt designated in To the development of pocket parks Trailways and a greenway linkage that Community visual unity and identity throughout. al orl•:;J thE! CJ i ves the 6) To small parks to be linked with ,:o.i l s. 7) To encourage the development of a neighborhood park in the greenbelt lying between Fish Creek Falls Road and Tamarack i V•:?. Bl To encourage the development of a neighborhood park in the 1'1 t: • i,.,; E rn •::? t-,:.;r .:':1 ... HIGH INTENSITY COMMERCIAL The following policies shall as a guidaline making and formulation and adopt:on of the laws which shall govern the development of land in High Intensity Commercial areas. Said policies are based upon an analysis of existing and projected conditions in the High Intensity

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Commercial areas and upon concerns expressed by citizens at Community Planning Workshops and other public forums. 1 ) To encourage safe and adequate pedestrian circulation on sidewalks adjacent to public streets. New development on unimproved lands shall include construction of sidewalks. 2) To encourage efficient and safe vehicular traffic flow; to encourage safe and efficient on-street vehicular parking for transient purposes; to encourage adequate o ff-street vehicular parking to meet present and anticipate commercial needs; to encourage improvement of aesthetic and architectura l appearances of existing structures ; to encourage the architectural compatibility of new structures and development wit h similar existing structures. To accomplish these development of a Dow ntown Design Plan shall be encouraged. HIGH DENSIT Y RES IDENTIAL Area 1 1) To encourage development suitable for long term housing which provides appropriate recreational relief from a feeling of being crowded and from potential conflicts with tourist housing . permanent separation 2> To encourage the total buildout and infilling of the area in order to complete trails and utility systems, and provide a completed neighborhood atmosphere for the area. :::: 3) To provide housing which is compatible with the golf course and its related atmosphere; and to encourage single-family even for multi-Family i.e. low profiles, relatively small and clustering to preserve natural amenities. Area 4 4) To provide gradual and sensitive transitions from one use density pattern to another . l and 5) To encourage low relatively appropriate recreational amenities, crowded, and permanent housing small mass buildings, relief from feeling design features. Area 5 6 ) To encourage smaller massed buildings which blend well with single-family and duplex structures. -, I ' To provide a wide mixture cf h ousing oppotunities; designs which are well integrated with property. and to adjoining

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GROWTH & ANNEXATION

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GROWTH & ANNEXATION At a joint City/County Planning Commision meeting held February 10, 1981, the two Commissions discussed growth policy for Steamboat Springs and its surrounding vicinities. At that it was agreed that City/County cooperation was essential in order to ensure the fulfill1nent of both City and County policies regarding growth. Both Commissions agreed that there was considerable grounds for agreement regarding development policies for the Steamboat vicinity area. The first point of agreement was that infill into the e xisting urban development areas was desirable from both County and City standpoints. An analogy which summed up the basi s of this agreement was that one should complete the finishing of one's house before adding on new rooms. This analogy seemed to encompass the aspects of infilling has become recognized as an important principle in urban and rural planning. Another point of agreement was that the control of the fringe areas around Steamboat is essential if the City is to successfully implement policies regarding commercial and residential development within the City limits. One e xample of how this interrelationship works is that if the County were to allow the development of hundreds of units would compete for unit absorption with development within the City. This would slow the infilling process for the City and unnecessarily delay. the completion and efficient usage of systems wn1ch are already under construction or in some stage of being implemented. A few e xamples of systems, public transportation systems, trailsystems, etc. A third area of agreement was that the City and Count y Com missioners both agreed that Routt County planning was essentially rural i n nature, while Steamboat City planning was essentially urban growth oriented in nature. This rather simplistic philosophy had within it much more subtle implications than were immediately apparent. Namely, it implied the City of Steamboat is basically oriented toward urban growth and that the City has a responsibility to ensure that quality urban development occurs within the City• s range of influence. This, in turn, implies that if developable property should be developed to urban standards. On the other hand, if the property is outside of the urban development area, development should be rural in terms of density and design; and should, therefore, be the County's responsibility. Separating the very different urban type development from rural development will protect both urban and rural interests. Rural interests will be protected from nuisance factors, and urban intrusive development will be better designed and served by more efficient urba n oriented services.

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Founded upon these basic the Planning Commissions felt that the development of joint development and annexation growth policies could proceed at a f airly rapid rate. The first step in establishing joint urban growth boundary policy is to establish criteria for which urban growth boundaries may be determined. The following list is a set criteria which have been employed in many cities throughout the in one form or another. CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING URBAN GROWTH BOUNDARIES (UGB"s> A. Projected Population Roughly a ten year population project is the first in establishing a UGB. step 2) Steamboat Springs might more appropriately be tied to mountain buildout figures. B . Land Demand -Based on projected population projections for residential and commercial land areas should be made. These projections should coincide with established density development patterns. C. Square Off Boundaries Urban boundaries should be squared off to create public service efficiencies and preserve the integrity to both urban and rural areas. D. E. Circulation Boundaries should be related to circulation and transportation. 1) Urban road collectors and arterials 2) Highway service areas 3) Mass transit service areas Capital Investments Boundaries should extension of capital investments such as utility park or future school consider sevier and sites. 1 oc.:d the other-F. Communitv Planning Boundaries should be planned so as to maintain the viability of established Comprehensive Plan elements. G . Neighborhood Completion UGB"s should include land to fill in and complete while e xisting public investments to the best potential. necesse.ry utilizing H. Natural Boundaries -The UGB plan should also include an explanation of how topographic and natural or man-made boLtndaries influence the and size of boundaries. All attempts to use the boundaries to protect open scenic environmentally sensitive archeological or historical sites should be noted.

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I. Buffer-:zones mine enerqy facilities, etc. are important in determining UGB's. these buffer areas should be excluded from the UGB to prevent future temptations. Using the critieria listed a qrowth and annexation boundary has been established for the City. In an area which should be reviewed by the joint City/County Planning Commissioners has been demarked as the review line. These very straight forward policies can be derived from the discussions and criteria which are discussed above. Ho wever, it should be noted that these policies should be reviewed a s interim policies which will require continued refinement and revision as the data and ana lysis of the data become s more refined and precise . FLOOR AREA RATIO CF. A . R.> Average Unit Size 5(>(} 6 (i(} 7(it:) 800 11:50 1250 1350 1450 155(i Adiustment Factor 1 .37 1.37 1.37 1.22 1.1 1 1 .924 • Uni t Si ze 1 .b..JU 1750 1 85(> 1 950 2 1 50 :225C> 235(i 2450 255(> Ad 1 ustment F actor 712 6 7 4 64 1 6 10 c r -.--.558 s::;3 51 .. 490 470 . . . . . Jtj._:;, . . . . . I NSTF:UCT IONS 1) Multiply unadjusted d ensity by adjustment factor to get all otrJed density . 2) Average square footage is used to calculate the adjustment. Round off to nearest 100 squ are feet to f ind adjustment 3) To determine adjustment factors for units over 2550 sq. divide b y 1200 (the average siz e of units in the project> . 4) Adjustment factor times density after bonus and adjustments = allowed adjusted density per acre. l oc,01t ion

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5l F.A.R. adjustments will be applied to all projects those developed at a density of 4.4 units per acre or less. 6) Residential floo1-area square footage of the unit as applied in this Land Use and Circulation Plan is the floor area inside exterior walls to centerline of party walls. THE BONUS PLAN RESIDENTIAL & RERORT 1) To ensure that the policies and principles of the Land Use Plan are carried out, Land Use Policies shall not bP superceded by tl1e effects of the Density Bonus System. 2l To encourage quality development throughout the City. The 3 ) 4) Bonus System criteria will be used to help evaluate all projects, whether they become P.U.D., zoned, or specifically zoned. The Bonus Plan does not apply to development in the or R L Zones. Multi-family (CUP/PUD) development reviewed on a site-by-site basis in these zones. RE, will be Rezoning will be established according to policy guidelines, communit y input, and site evaluation. The Bonus Plan may n o t apply to development involving renovation of struc t ures, provided the degree of any existing nonconformance with the Bonus Plan is reduced by all reasonable and provided that renovation does not consist of removal of greater than 50% of the floor area of the existing structure. The Density Bonus System criteria will be used as a guide to 2valuate the quality of project design. 5) All density calculations will be based upon the acreage of the fee simple lot. b! Recognizing the unique requirements of the newly created Resort Land Use Designation, projects which are designed for a commercial and residential mixed use shall not be subject to or limited by the 30% residential to commercial Floor Area Ratio. 7) The Planning Commission and Council have the ultimate authority on all plans for site specific review, a s it relates to building footprint, mass, impacts, access, and topography.

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T I n1'1 Base density before location adjustment 1s 8.7 units per acre in resort and high density areas. Adj Ll':;tment F=-a . c"l:Di'". Approximate Unadjusted FAR Possible Density Ski Hill & Knoll ......•.•... Eagleridge .............•.... Highlands Subdivision .•..... 1.55 -,.-.c:"/ Proposed Base II would use the same figures as the Ski H i. l 1 K n o l l. ;. Ernrj l D'.,.":?1::?. u II " u u II • lll II Q u .. ;z •••••• n " ••••• II ..... II • II II II ... 1-lousin•] .. " .. u u u ..... " n •• ••• u n •••••• n •• Solar a n d Energy .................. .............. . F ' 11 tj • [) 11 • • 1:1 u 11 a " • • • " • " "' " n 'll 11 • • • a u • • • • a :s u :1 u u 11 11 11 n • " !"i a.:; t e t-F'l a . n • • • • • • .. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .. .. • .. • • • • • .. • iJ p E! n p .;:\ C •??. .. • • .. • • • • • • • • • • • • • .. • • • • • • .. • .. .. • • .. • • .. .. l_a.n cj sc ape u •• " n ••• " • n •• n • n •••••••• " •• u •••••••• Cl++--:3i Impt-0\IE!fnE!ITi:s •••• " . n. " ••• "" .. ". n ••• " n n Internal Amenities ............................ . Subt.Dt . .::t:i. RESnRT 70NES ON! Y Internal Amenities .••.•.•...••.......•....... .••••••••••••••••••••• ................. . Pedestrian Access ............................ . \) i U :1 U ; 1 II II U II P II If : 1 <1 II II U II II U II II • II II U1 U II a Q • II 1.1 II U II ll II U If U Subtota. l Tc:Jt.::t l i i TlUiTl Unl i m.i. t•??.•J :. : --1 0 1 o:. : . ,,-, .. , / .. 4 •;.: ( F: >??. S C) I.t. !"1 n ) 1. 1 1 !::: " / -'i• t::"'" l .,_! / . 11:::"".' , ..J ;.

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CLARIFICATION NOTES: 1) Maximum bonuses shall not exceed 80% in Residential or 125% in Areas. 2 ) P.U.D. Bonuses shall not exceed 35% of the sum of the total bonus points achieved when P.U.D. bonuses exceed 20%. F'. U. D. and Master Plan Bonuses shall not be comb1ned or added together for bonus calculations. 4) The Off-Site Improvements Bonus is a required bonus if 1n excess of 50% of the total available bonuses sought. BONUS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Underqround or Structure Parking -Parking which 1s totally enclosed, except for ventilation and/or fire purposes, and located below the first floor level of the development. Parking shall be constructed in such a wa y as to not undesireabl e height or mass. Guest parking may located on grade. BONUS = 10% that the garages BONUS 7"/ i i!J shall not -A prerequisite of create undesireable ' i this parking is height or mass. Covered and Bermed Parkinq Bermed parking which is totally sc;-eened ft-om public '-/i(2itJ, and VE?t-y , , • . ;ell ft-om most major internal views. BONUS = 6% Bermed and Screened Parking Bermed and screened is well screened from the major public views and from major internal views. BONUS = 5% <:;(JLAF\ AI\ID EI'-IERGY EFF I C I Ei"IT I UH TON To encourage the use o f passive and/or active energy conservation, systems and techniques to reduce the required poser for heating and the following bonus will be applied, based upon the BTU's saved when compared w ith the State of Colorado Energy Conserv3tion Standards and buildings of the written report. BONUS = 65% Normal BTU usage = 10% 80% Normal BTU usage = 7%

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F', U .. D .. F ' l p ,I\JNit,IG Projects or developments covered under such an approved P .. U.D. plan shall be considere d as a single project for purposes of applying the Bonus System. Specifically, bonus points will be applied uniformly throughout the based upon the highest bonus point achieved in each of the various bonus categories. Densities derived from bonus calculations may be transferred, clustered, or distributed within the boundaries of the P.U.D. BONUS: 1% per acre, 28% maximum in Residential areas, 43% maximum in Resort areas. P.U.D. Bonus shall not exceed 35% of the total Bonus Points achieved by the devel Dpment, PrDjects that are included and conforming tD, approved Master Plan. The purpose of the Master Planning Bonus is to encourage and promote cooperation betwee n adjacent property CJi f.in ets. 11.::'\ t •::::1 -F' 1 1,.,1 i 1 l , t h i::!f ot-0.11 iil0' :3 t a ].I,.•J.:":\ :i. n c 1 u.d (-::> several different property owners. BONUR: 20% for 20 Acres minimum included in the Master Plan. Maximum bonus is 20%. Master Plan Bonuses and P.U.D. Plan Bonuses are mutually FDr any Effective Open Space (E.O.S.) within a project abov e the requirements, a Density Bonus will be given which equals the 1ncrease in additiDnal Dpen space. MAXIMUM BONUS = 10% 'F-:onu.s E;.:: .::;.mp l. e: E. CJ. c : = 1 ....!rt E. 0 . c: -1 1 " i E:Di'WS '-'• '• C" 1]. =--1 7"/ , ,., '-• ._}I I I i u ..,::. / A E. o. J A -18% -:; ., -• /u BDNUS E. D. Sn = .. -.!='"1 / u 1 BONU!3 ( m . .=\;.; i iT':UITI) Provisions of unique design features and amenities in a development which requires unusually high development costs and which provide an aesthetic prDjection to the surrounding area will be considered for a bonus. Design considerations, including plant massing, color, and architectural treatment must be present in design. Focal. points emphasizing rocks and berms, or othe r materials and clusters of plantings are encouraged as an integra l part of all projects. Where necessary, separating vehicles and pedestrians by methDds as bridges, foDt bridges, tunnels, or

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e arthworks shall be u:::;ed. i ,3t i. O!l, including mulching strong commitment t o proper and of all trees, and a regular maintenance schedule shall be r e quired. BONUS : 10% maxim um l. • Easy maintenance irrigation Greater than minimum plant size: (Decidiou:.::; Tn;:es: 2.5" Cal. min.) (CcJnift::?t -cJu.s Trees: 12='-1.5=" Balled and burlapped 3 . Ground cover shall be 80% living t E'fi .:3.1 4. Eno0gh p lant material to give the o verall appearance of an extremely well landscaped project: Native & drought resistant plants: OFF SITE IMP R OVEMENTS 2'X •'\P/ ...:.:. lrt l A ten percent (10%) bonus will be given for the c a s h contribution to the city of one percent of the first sale of each unit or lot in the project. The use of the fee shall be limited to projects of community benefit for park acquisition and recreational improvements, as well as landscaping or Trailsy s t e m links which could not be otherwise achieved in the subject property via subdivision requirements or master plan improvements. Subject to approval by the City , the developer ma y undertake construction of off-site improvements to be credited toward the aforesaid cash contributions; provided, however, t hat the cost of construction of such improvements, as determined by the City, must not be less than two percent C2%) of the total <:<.mount <;hm•m on tt-":? appr-oved Bu.ildin•J F'ermit submitted for development. The nature and extent of the off-site improvements to be constructed by the will be discussed by the developer and the City during the planning and wil l be f inally determined b y the City Council. All figures shown on the Building Permit application and a l l estimates for approved off-site improvements will be subject to the prior review and approval of the Building Division and Department of Public respectively. Payment of the OffSite Improvements Fee shall be the obligation of the developer. BONUS = 10% maximum INTERNAL AMFNITIES Projects shall be encouraged to provide appropriat e recreational and c ommon facilities for the development. The building area required for accessory facilities shall not be computed as a part of the mass (units per acre) . These uses w ill not require additional parking, although convenient parking i s e ncouraged. IF the projec t contains commercial uses which arG for the general public's use, the square f ootag e /density and parking requirement calculation shall be applied. Submittals

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will require a breakdown of square footage and uses of accessory of commercial functions in order t o review the appropriateness and shall be limited to use by the owners, g uests, and residents of the project. Design features and the size and scale of amenities relative to the number of units shall guide the Planning Commission in determining if the intent of these policies are met. Community Bldg. or Enclosed Community Facility= 2% Recreational Amenities, at least 2 types required (pools, hot tubs, saunas, tennis courts, racquetball) = 2% Other approved by Planning Commission = 1% BONUS 5% maximum RFSORT BONUSES ONLY I l\!TES'NAI IT I FS Certain amenities are necessary to the management! maintenance, and operation of resort developments. This become s a land use concern when resort do not have necessary amenities and guests must venture off-site for basic services, and services for the project must be brought in from outside the cl•:='vel opment.. Therefore, bonuses for on-site amenities to improve the operation and suitability of resort condominiums, to better serv e the tourist public, are appropriate. BONUS = 5% maximum L -:; .. On-site reservation, management, & check-in = On-site linen = 2% Others approved by Planning Commission, but commercial activity which will draw from development = 1% SH{\DCJi .. not :includint:;J CJI . ..:.tside t!-1,2 If a development can be situated in such a way as to cause no detrimental shadows tCJ be thrown (at any time) onto adjacent property ; and if the development shades no pedestrian areas, paths, or roadway s or areas, or the facades or buildings, the project is eligible for a 15% bonus. If detrimental shadow impacts are minimal, a prorated bonus of up to 10% may be achieved. Shading of major off-site pedestrian areas, or buildings ma y be the sole cause for denial of BONUS = 15% maximum veh i c u l '"r ,:;r-12. a::;, '3. pr-oj '2c:t.

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PEDESTRIAN ArrESS If an uninterrupted pedestrian access plan can be developed and imoroved from the project to the commercial crescent east of Mt. Werner Circle, and if the plan does provide a safe, and easy walk within 2,000 feet of the Gondola Building, a 10% Bonus may be granted. The plan 1s encouraged to make use of bridges or tunnels to span roadways, where topographicall y and functionally feasible. BONUS = 10% • VIEWS Protection of the public's v iew of significant community features from major public places will merit a 15% bonus. Accomplishment of this objective will be determined through study of profiles, cross sections, illustrations, and models. When a View Corridor Plan is adopted, that plan will then determine major and minor views, for bonus purposes. Prorated bonuses of 5% to 10% may be considered, and blockage of the public's view of significant community features from major public areas may be the sole cause for denial of a project. BONUS = 15% maximum RESIDENTIAL & RESORT DENSITY BONUS PLAN APPLYING THE SYSTEM I. Loration AdjustmPnt A. Determine described your location in relation in the location system. to the areas B. Multiply your location adjustment factor times 8.7 units per acre or 4.4 units per acre, whichever is appropriate, to find your Density. II. Bonus System A. Determine which bonuses you wish to apply for. B. Based upon the bonus criteria established in the 1981 Land Use Plan, determine how many bonus points you would expect to receive. C. Add the percent bonus to your Base Density, to get the Base Density plus bonuses. (1 plus the total percent of Bonus points times the Base Density will give you the Base Density plus bonuses) 1 + X) (Base Density) Base Density Bonuses, where X = bonus percentages

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I I I. Floor Area Ratio CF.A.R. ) A . Determine the average size of the units in your project. B . l ::;!ound F .A.R. off the average to the nearest number chart. on the C . Multiply your Base Density plus bonuses times the adjustment factor wn1ch corresponds to your average square footage figure. This will give your allowed adjusted density, wn1ch you may d evelop subject to Planning Commission and City Council approval of the project; and confor ma nce to all other C ity Ordinances and policies. HOTEL SITE 500 UNITS/ACRE ADJUSTMENT FACTOR -1.55 1.55 x 500 UNITS = 775 U NITS RESORT AREA BONUSES Parking ......•...... lO% F ' . U . D ••••••••••••••• 43/: Open Space . .....•... lO% Landscape . . ....... . . 10% Pedestrian Access ... lO% . • r= "' • 1 S • •••••••••••••• ! ..../I . Total = 98% BASE DENSITY PLUS BONUSES : ( 1 + .98 l ( 775 ) = 1535 Rooms possible 760 ADDI T IONAL ROOMS POSSI B L E DUE TO BONUSES

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MASTER PLANNING

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Master planning of a means of community. MASTER P i ANNING Planning has become an important Steamboat Springs. Master Planning developing a high quality, cohesive, concept in the is encouraged as and integrated The City approved Master Plan shall include the following: I. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN An implementation plan must be developed which assures to the City the and the means by which the Master Plan improvements will be implemented. A . Phasinc Plan A phasing plan Wlll define completion dates for the different phases and elements of the Master Plan. B. Agreement for Improvements -The obligations of the Master Plan petitioners to complete the elements of the Master Plan shall be set forth in an Improvements Agreement with the City which guarantees the development of the Master Plan. 1) The Improvements Agreement shall include or refer to documentation detailing the techniques to be utilized in implementation of the Master Plan. 2) The obligations of each landowner under the Improvements Agreement, and the security provided by such a landowner, shall be limited to completion of: a) The elements of the Master Plan on such landowner's property; and b) the fair proportion of the elements o f the Master Plan on public property, as determined by mutual agreement of the petitioners and the City. This may be accomplished b y the formation of a local improvements district or by private individuals posting security for improvements. 3) Threshold improvements shall be guaranteed as cart of the Master Plan approval and implemented as quickly as possible with commitment to a specific time line. C) Security The obligations of the Master Plan petitioners under the Improvements Agreement shall be secured by bonds, bank letters of credit, or other adequate security acceptable to the City.

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D) Timino -For land that is expected to be the Improvements Agreement and security shall be provided upon approval by the Citv of the Final Plat of the subdivision. For land not e xpected to be the Improvements Agreement and security shall be provided upon approval of the Master Plan or prior t o issuance of a Building Permit for developments included in the Master Plan. ti. MANAGEMENT & MAINTENANCE The management and maintenance of the Master Plan improvements and elements on public and/or private land must be guaranteed by responsible entity and/or appropriate agreements between responsible affected parties. The City on a case by-case basis, decide to accept responsibility for key landscape d areas. The following criteria will be used as a guide to determine which areas merit acceptance by the City for maintenance. A. '.,.'ery high visibility B . Primarily on arterials and major collectors C . Adjacent to City-owned or City maintained open space D . Not more logically o r economically maintained b y the private sector Should the areas, formal installation. City decide to accept responsibility for acceptance shall occur two years III. CIRCULATION ELEMENTS these after A . Pedestrian A Pedestrian Circulation Plan shall be developed for the entire project. Pedestrian circulation should be separated f o r vehicular circulation. The Pedestrian Circulation Plan shall tie into the City's Trailsystem Master Plan whenever possible and appropriate. The City shall accept responsibility for maintenance of which are major links of the City of Steamboat Srings Trailsystem F'l an. B. c. Vehicular A vehicular Circulation Plan shall be developed for the entire master planned area. Improvements -Both the pedestr-ian and elements of the Plan must be improved o r must be guaranteed. vehicular improvement

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IV. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENTS A. Landscapino A coordinated Landscape Plan shall be developed for the entire Master Plan area. Landscape Plan shall include designated areas which will be improved as a part of the Master Plan improvements. As a general rule, improvement of the designated open space areas shall be required as a part of the Master Plan improvements. B. Pedestrian Amenities Streetscape and pedestrian amenities such as fountains, benches. bike racks, etc. shall be encouraged as Master Plan improvements. Streetscape and pedestrian amenities will be matched by subsequent development, as it occurs within the Master Plan. c. Light ina information Uniform lighting for pedestrian signs shall be required as a Master Access lighting improved areas willimprovement of the Master Plan. element. required and Plan be a D. Signage A Uniform Signage Plan shall be required for the entire Master Plan. Signage improvements will be required for areas which are to be developed as a part of the Master Plans's initial improvements. E. Public Transit -Facilities for public transportation, such as turn out and bus shelters, shall be required as a part of the Master Plan improvements (as needed). F. Natural FeaturPS Rivers, lakes, rock outcrops, mature stands of trees, etc. shall be preserved and highlighted by the Master Plan. V . OPEN SPACE All areas and requirements for 15% Effective shall be considered and planned for initially, as an part of the Master Plan. Both active and passive encouraged. Planning of open space areas should serve provide visual relief, and provide recreation areas. VI. CRITERIA Open Space integrated uses are to buffer, A. Acreaoe -Master Plan's must include at least 20 acres of gross land area, unless a lesser area is approved. B. Annexation Adjacent may be annexed to an approved Master Plan and become eligible for Master Plan Bonuses. To be annexed, the adjacent landowner must submit to the City an annexation plan which provides for implementation on the annexed property of

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the same or better Maste r Plan elements as w e r e provided or approved in the original Master Plan. Petitioners o f annexing property must also comply with the implementation procedurss specified in Section I above. VII. DOCUMENTS TO BE SUBM ITTED Petitioners for a Master following documentation to Development. Plan approval shall the Department of submit the Communit y A. B . -One or mo1"e maps shovJi ng the 1 and area the Master Plan and the location improvements and elements of the Master Plan. v-Ji thin of all Legal De5cription An accurate legal description the Master Plan area and evidence of ownership. of C. Report A detailed written report of proposal setting forth all improvements and elements within the Master Plan, proposed phases and timing of completion, reliable estimates of cost of completion provided b y sources acceptable to the Director of Community Development, description of proposed subdivisions, and proposals for security for Improvements Agreements. D. As a cohesive, approach dir .. Drawinqs and Illustrations -A set of drawings and illustrations showing typical street furniture, landscaping, signage, and other features of the Master Plan shall be included in the Master Plan Report. result, the Master Plan will make the project very giving the project an identity. A very s ystematic to this project will give the ski base character, and organization. 'I

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I . ZONING

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STEAMBOAT SPRINGS ZONING AND ORDINANCE SUMMARY The regulations and restrictions established herein hav e been made in accordance with a land use which plan is di:?!:i:l']n('2d A. Lessen congestion in the s treets B. Secure safety from fire, panic and other dangers C. Promote health and the general welfare D. Provide adequa t e light and air E. Prevent the o vercrowding of land F. Avoid undue concentration o f population G. Facilitate adequate provisions for t r a nsportation, H. water, sewage, schools, parks and other public no! em e n t Preserve natura l characteristics of the .arnEm i. t i E.'S 1<-:l.nd . . and desireable providing f o r progress Such regulations consideration as t o have further been mad2 with reasonable the character of each district and i t s peculiar suitability for particular uses with a view toward th12 of bui.ldi!I,:JS .and encourt on app t -o-.../ecl B. Minimum setbacks will be determined b y the cauncil upon approval o f the PUD plan. C. In general, buildings should not be located closer than t: t y Feet ap .::w t.

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Ruildino Heiaht= are no but the council shall allowable heights by the criteria of 1 u -4 L't u (>EJ(>" ma; -::im•Jm building hei•.;jht guided in Sections 1 7.44.010 through Residential Density: Maximum residential density allowed in the planned unit development shall be as by the council upon consideration of the individual and unique characteristics of the subject land, but shall not exceed one dwelling unit two thousand two hundred feet of land area for the percentage of area devote d to residential use.

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WATER & SEWER

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the Steamboat s ystem, water 1s from Fis h a .nd s;tm-ed in a 5 million •Jallcm (1"1.1.3.) it is beyound sedimentation, a.nd f 1 i. da.t ion. <:•.ge dai l / demand is L 5 1 '1. G. lA!I' .. , i J. e demand in the is just 3 M.G. Projected demand in 1990 is 5 M.G./day, and in the year 2000, 7 M.G./day . Distribution is b y a gravity system except for the portion of Fish Creek. The State Health Department has issued a complicance Steamboat Springs to provide full treatment of the supply. To me e t this requirement, the City is studying construction of coagulation and filtration facilities with a design capacity of 3.5 to 4 M .G./day, and constructio n of a well field with a capacity of 2 M.G./day. The proposed treatment facility is designed to double in size to meet future needs. Treated water storage is also under although the s1z1ng of the s torage tanks has not been The Mt. and Fish Creek, Burgess Creek, Ya mpa River. This district has Sanitation District water and a well field near the ful l treatment facilities with a capacity of 2.4 M.G./day, and storage tanks with a tota l capacity of 1.75 M.G. daily demand is .7 while peak demand during watering of the golf course in the is 1.5 M.G. Because of Mt. service area varies i n elevation from 7,550 feet to 6,700 the distribution is through a series of four zones. The U.R.S. Water Svstem Plan found that the Steamboat Springs system is fundamentally sound, but i n immediate need of and facilities and some improvements in the distribution system. The quantity of municipal water supply is sufficient; the quality is not. The Steamboat system, with the addition of treat0ent facilities, the well field, and should be adequate to service the City's needs through the year 2000. RPC: d.,:;\ t i 01' / c;Cll"1 c: J. I t:=; i nn T h e limitation on Steamboat supply is 2 financial one. The municipal system needs to provide tre3 t ment facilities or face the cut off of State funds. Construction in areas outside of the existing should not be allowed until a high of buildout i s achieved. This will be to complete lcops and to ensure adequate f l DW

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S e w e r A sewage treatment plant with a capacity of 3.5 to 4 M.G./day was completed i n 1981. Like the water treatment facilities, this plant is designed to be doubled in size when needed. This plant will service all of the municipal and M t . Werner systems. When this project is complete, the main improvements which the system will require will be in the distribution lines. Analvs1s The sewage system appears abl e to meet the City's growth through the year 2000. The major system problem arises from infiltration of ground water into the collection system during the Spring which approximately doubles the auantity o f water in the system and dilutes the sewage. 'I

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EINit:I:IEINIEJNEI ,IDS

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SOil AND ENGINEERING SCOPE This report covers the results of a foundation, and geologic investigation of Filings 1 through 4, Country Club Highlands, Mt . Werner Ski Steamboat Colorado. The said property is adjacent to the Grant property on the north-east side. The report presents the geologic conditions, the most desirable and safe type of foundation system, allowable soil pressures, water table conditions, and design and construction details. SITE COI''.lD IT I Oi'IS Country Club Filings 1 through 4, an 85 acre parcel, is located near the qolf course at the Mt. Werner Ski Area about one mile south of Steamboat Springs. Filing no. 1 comprises 7.7 acres, Filing no. 2 comprises 21.0 acres, Filing no. comprises 23. 6 acres, and Filing no. 4 comprises 32. 4 acres. The parcel is in the northern part of Sec. 22, T.6N., F:. B4vJ . The s ubdivision is on the north facing valley side of the Fish Creek Valley. The nearly level to moderately steep (7% to 30%) slopes o f the valley floor abruptly give way to steep to extremely steep (30 % to 85%) slopes along the valley side in the southern part of the parcel. Fish Creek, a moderate sized mountain f 1 m•Js along the valley floor adjacent to the northernvJestern proper-ty boundary. Shall ovJ grOU!ld water occurs; the area has a flood potential. Other-drainage v Jays crossing the site are small and should not pose <:>ny major em vJi th development. No construction has started at the The golf course adjacent to the northern boundary is completed and the proposed roads have been surveyed. Vegetation, in consists of a dense forest of aspen and conifers with a thick grass and brushy understory. Some open areas occur in the northern part along the valley floor. GEOLOGIC SETTING The valley of Fish Creek in the area of the parcel was extensively eroded by glacial ice during the Pleistocene period. The valley sides are mantled b y glacial soil (till) deposited by the 1ce. The till consists of a heterogeneous mixture of very large boulders and cobbles i n a sand and gravel matrix (Appendix D). Some boulders are as large as 30 feet in diameter. Stream erosion has not greatly affected the valley subsequent t o the retreat of the glaciers. Scattered patches of sandy c l a y-silt

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alluvial soils have been deposited in the area since the retreat of the glaciers. The test pits indicate that these soils generally are not more than 3 to 5 feet in thickness. fro m the the t h e the N o bedrock outcrops occur at the sit e although judging bedrock outcrops in adjacent it is e xpected that Browns Park Formation to underlie the western one-third of property with Precambrian age crystalline rocks underlying eastern two-thirds. These bedrocks were not encountered in test although there is a possibility that bedrock could encountered if extensive grading is done on the proper t y . be The cemented sandstone strengt h strength slopes. Browns Park Formation in general consists of weak l y clayey sandstones with a few scattered conglomeratic and claystone layers. The formation has a fair when dry, but when the material becomes saturated the is lost and slumping occurs on relatively moderate No slumping was observed at the property. The Precambrian age crystalline rock s c onsist of a co1nplex of igneous and metamorphic types. The rocks are indurated and from moderately to slightly jointed. In t h e y are even on very steep slopes. GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION The proposed construction is feasible from a geologic point of v1ew provided certain precautions are taken with respect to the steep potential and shallow ground water areas. Unusual problems are not anticipated provided the precautions and recommendations given in this report are followed. Steep Slooes: Slopes in excess of 50% occur o ver much of t h e southern part of the parcel. There were no signs o f slope instability in these areas, although, if excessive grading is done, then the possibility of creating instability is quite likely. Construction is not recommended on slopes steeper than 50%. In the cost of constructing on slopes of greater than 5 0 % is usually prohibitive for the t ype of structures proposed. If it is necessary to build on steep slopes, then each building site should be investigated on an individual basis. ThP risk o f constructing on step slopes underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks will be relatively less than constructing on steep slopes underlain b y Browns Park Formation. Flood Potential: The low lands of the valley floor adjacent to Fish Creek are potential areas of flooding. It is recommended that a h ydrologic investigation be conducted in order to determin e the expected frequency and magnitude of future floods so that adequate protective measures ma y be taken. Shallo w Ground Water: The northwest portion o f the prop e r t y adjacent t o Fish Creek is also underlain by shallow ground water. The area of shallow ground water is e x p e c ted to vary from year to

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depending on the amount of precipitation during the winter and spring. Subdrains may be necessary in this area depending on the t ype of construction. SUBSD I I CONDIT I 01\IS Subsoil conditions at the site were quite erratic. In the subsoils consisted of medium dense to dense, clean to silty sand and gravel with numerous cobbles to 10 inches maximum size and occasional very large boulders. Up to 5.5 feet of stiff sandy silt-clay was encountered overlying the sand and gravel generally in the flatter portion of site along Fish Creek. The sandy silt-clay soils settle excessively under load and when wetted as indicated by the attached Swell-Consolidation Test Figs. 4 through 6. The siltier members of the sand and gravel stratum settle both under load and when wetted as indicated by the attached test 3 and 7 through 9. The standard properties of typical samples of all the soils encountered are presented in Figs. 10 through 19. Free water was encountered along Fish Creek at the northwest portion of the site in Test Holes and 15 only at 5.5 to 7.5 feet below the existing ground surface at the time the test pits were excavated. It is expected that during the wetter seasons of the year the ground water in this area will rise. FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS The most desireable and safe type foundation for all of the proposed buildings is spread footings placed on the natural soils. The following design and construction details should be observed: (1) Footings placed on the upper sandy silt-clay soils should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of 800 psf. Footings placed on the upper silty sand and gravel should b2 designed for a maximum soil pressure of psf. Footings placed on the lower sand and gravel stratum should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of psf. Under these pressures we estimate that total settlement will be on the order of 1 inch and maximum differential settlement across individual buildings will be less than .75 of an inch. (2) Individual buildings should be entirely founded on one soil system stratum; not part on one and part on the other. This is necessary to keep settlement within the limits presented in (1) above. (3) Local soft pockets of soil found within the loaded depth of the footings should be removed and the footings extended to the lower firm soils.

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( 4 ) Continuous foundation walls s hould be reinforced top and bottom to span an unsupported length of at least 10 feet. (5) E xterior footings should be provided w ith adequate soil cover above their bearing elevation for frost protection. At least 4 feet of soil cover should be used at this site. (6) All foundation excavations should be carefully inspected by a soil engineer to insure the subsoil conditions exposed in the excavation conform to those assumed in this report. GROUND FLOORS The on-site soils are suitable to support slab-on-grade construction. Slabs should be separated from all bearing members with a positive expansion joint and adequately reinforced. A 4 inch layer of free draining gravel should be provided beneath t h e floor slabs to distribute the floor loadings and to break the capillary rise o f ground water. SITE GRA DING E xtensive site grading will not be necessary in the areas o f gentle slopes. Extensive grading will be necessary for the location of roadways and building sites in areas where the slopes are steep. As discussed it will not be feasible to build on slopes steeper than 50%. The precautions and criteria below are recommended to insure stability in site grading in areas of less than 50%. Permanent Cut Slooes and Excavations: Permanent cut slopes should be no higher than 10 feet and no steeper than 2:1. If it is necessary to have higher they should be studied on an individual basis. I f seepage is encountered in cuts, a n investigation should be done to determine the nature of seepage and design of adequate drainage facilities. If this condition is encountered and the proper corrective measures nut the likelihood of slope instability is quite high. All cut slopes should be planted and maintained with a ground cover as soon as possible after excavation to protect them from erosion. Vegetation requiring e xcessive watering should be avoided. Paved drainage s wales should be provided at the top of a l l ma jor cut slopes. Temporary Cut Slopes: Temporary cut slopes up to 10 feet high can be made at 1 : 1 provided the soil is dry. These cuts should not be left standing any longer than necessary to complet e the constructio n . If the soil is very mo i s t or cut slopes will not stand at this i nclination and temporary bracings will be required.

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Fills: Fill should be no deeper than 10 feet unless studied on an individual basis. Fill slopes should be no steeper than 2:1. The ground underlying fill should be properly prepared, topsoil and vegetation should be stripped, fill should be keyed into the steeper slopes by benching, and all fill should be properly when placed. Fill supporting foundations should be compacted to at least 100% standard Proctor density. Under slab or under pavement fill should be compacted to at least 90% standard Proctor density. All other fill should be compacted to at least 85% standard Proctor density. Care should be taken to insure that fills are properly drained and that they do not obstruct natural drainage ways. Fill slopes should be planted and maintained with a ground cover to prevent erosion as soon as possible after construction. Excavation Problems: In most cases the glacial till underlying the site can be excavated with medium to heavy power equipment. Some problems are expected to occur when larger boulders are encountered. If it is not practical to route e xcavations around the obstruction, then blasting may be required. RADIATION HAZARDS Ground level gamma radiation measured at the time of this investigation was 0.11 milliroentgens per hour. This reading is of a similar magnitude as readings taken elsewhere in Colorado and does not constitute an unusually high concentration cf radiation for the region. SURFACE DRAINAGE The following drainage precautions should be observed during construction and maintained at all times after the buildings have been completed: (1) Excessive excavation wetting or drying of should be avoided during the foundation construction. (2) Backfill around the buildings should be moistened and compacted to at least 85% standard Proctor density. ( 3) The ground surface surrounding buildings should be sloped to buildings in all directions. the e>:terior drain away of the from the (4) Roof downspouts and drains should discharge well beyond the limits of all backfill.

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MISCELLANEOUS Fifteen test pits were widely scattered across the site to obtain a general picture of the subsoil conditions. Erratic soil conditions ma y occur between test pits. A more extensive investigation may be conducted after final plans are made for the use of this site or individual foundation excavations inspected in the field by a competent soil engineer to insure the soil conditions exposed in the bottom of the excavation conform to those assumed in this report. CONCLUSION The area is generally suitable for development of the proposed subdivision. All buildings on the site may be founded with spread footings placed on the upper natural soils. Footings placed on the upper sandy clay-silt should be designed for maximum soil pressure of 800 psf; footings placed on the upper silty sand and gravel should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of psf; footings placed on the lower dense sand and gravel should be designed for a maximum soil pressure of psf. Other design details and precautions are discussed. Construction should not be attempted on slopes in excess of 50%. The areas of potential flooding along Fish Creek should be investigated before a decision is made to construct there; there are no geologic hazards on the site which will affect the proposed construction.

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CLIMATE ANALYSIS

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Steamboat Springs Continental Divide at seconds. CLIMATE ANALY SIS lies astride the mountains of an elevation of feet. Latitude Longitude 1 0 6 48 minutes, the 4 0 4 5 Steamboat has a invigorating climate with low humidity favoring rapid evaporation. The thin atmosphere allows greater penetration of solar radiation and results in pleasant daytime conditions even durino the winter. Prevailing air currents reach Steamboat from westerly directions. Eastward-moving storms originating in the Pacific Ocean lose much of their moisture in passage over the mountain ranges to the west and a large part o f t h e remaining moisture falls as rain or snow on the mountain tops and westward-facing slopes of the Rockies. Storms mo ving from t h e north usually carrv l i ttle m oisture. The frequency of such storms increases during tne fall and winte r and decreases rapidly in the s pring . W arm, moist air from the sout h occur s most frequently in the spring. As this is can'i<:;>d nortlwJ<:1r d and to higher elevations, the heaviest and most general rainfalls of the year occur. The rugged topography near Steamboat Spring s causes larg e variations in climate within short distances and few climatic generalizations apply to the whole area. Wind characteristics are controlled by valley orientation whic h lies on a north-south so winter winds tend to come from the north. Sionificant local in temperature and p recipitation and wind direction are possible, but are not availabl e for the area. The average annual precipitation is 23.33 inches a n d the a v e rage annual sno1-Jf.::d 1 is 168 inches in tm•m, inches e.t the ski area. BUILDING LOCATION To take advantage of the sun, the areas on the site should be found that receive the most sunlight during the maximum solar radiation 9 :00 AM to 3:00 PM. Placing the building in the northern portion of this sunny area will insure that a plaza placed to the south will hav e adequate winter sun . Peopl e use open space if it is but don''!: u s e it i f it in almost all climates. T h e south faces of buildings are not only important for the collection of solar radiation, b u t are also the most valuable outdoor spaces on sunny day s .

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BUILDING SHAPE AND ORIENTATION It is necessary to think about admitting sunlight into the building. A building elongated along the east-west axis will e xpose more surface area to the south during the winter for the collection of solar radiation. This is also the most efficient shape for minimizing cooling requirements in the summer. If it is necessary to locate building structures on the south side of the site, shape the building s6 that its north side slopes toward the ground making enough sunlight available to the adjacent plaza space. By s loping the north roof of the building at an angle roughly equal to the altitude of the sun at noon during the winter months, the shadow cast by the building will be minimal. If the shadow is small, the plaza area will have enough sun to prevent ice and snow buildup. This is assuming the building is only one story high (the average sun angle between the months of November January is 29 degrees. This fits in with the 5/12 roof pitch which is 22. 6 degrees). ENTF : Af\ICES Orient the entrances to the hotel and parking structure away from the prevailing winter winds, or provide a windbreak to reduce the wind's velocity against the entrances. Entrances placed on the east and south sides will be protected from the wind's impact. If an entrance is placed on the north or west side, recessing the entrance or the addition of wing walls reduce the wind's velocity and impact. l•JINDm•J LOCATION Locate major window openings to the southeast, south and northwest according to the internal requirements of each space. On the east, west and especially the north side of the building, keep window areas small. Recognizing that windows are valuable display areas in the retail portions of the project, minimize retail locations at these orientations. When the primary source of sunlight entering a space is through south-facing windows, then the depth of spaces along the south wall should not exceed 2 . 5 times the height of the windows from the floor. This provides for the adequate daylighting of interior spaces. Another through the sk";d i ghts to a particular sun method for admitting sunlight into a space is roof. Use either south-facing clerestories o r distribute sunlight over a space or to direct it to interior surface. Apply shading devices for summer

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SHADING DEVICES Large south-facing glass sized to admit maximum solar gain in winter will also admit solar gain in summer when it is not needed. Shade south glazing with a horizontal overhang located above the glazing and equal in length to roughly 35% of the height of the opening. Projection = 2.0 (2.0 is a factor used for latitude)

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CLIMATIC DESIGN

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CLIMATIC DESIGN Due to the geographic a n d climatic location of building site, the most prominate topic of concern was found to be the functionable construction of places for people. Snow, changes of temperature, wind and ice dramatically affect the requirements of design guidelines as well as how the building and surrounding spaces are experienced and perceived. Snow creeps or slides on any incline and few people seem to care where it ends up. Very often, it is over the front door or over a deck. An inviolable rule might be is that no roof should be pitched anywhere that people are to be. There is one thing whic h separates the mountainman from the flatlander, and that is the ice dam. Ice dams are caused by heat from inside the building melting the snow on the roof. The only right way to deal with ice dams is the e xpensive way. The entire surface must be kept either cold or warm so that there is no temperature differential. The European cold roof is really two separate roof layers with outside air flowing between them. If there is going to be a sloping roof, i t should seriously consider a cold roof or a ver y carefull y detailed warm roof. A flat or almost flat roof might in fact be highly preferable from an engineering standpoint in the mountains, especially where the snow depth is great and the weight is heavy. If there is wind, snow will build u p on the leeward side and be scoured off the windward side. This can cause unequal loading which can cause building to collapse. For this reason. the ridge should always point toward the prevailing wind. On the other hand, in a flat roof, this same wind will tend to sweep the snow off the entire roof surface. Flat roofs should be internally drained. This means the drainpipe goes down through the warm part of the building. While flat roofs do not develop ice dams, they can leak at the flashings along the perimeter because of the fantastic expansions and contractions of the flashing metal relative to the roofing. Flashings should be installed on top of the roofing to them to move independently. This is not standard roofing Flashings a r e usually installed between roofing systems. With a well-insulated roof, you will melt less snow and aVoid many of the classi c problems dealt with above. A type of insulation should be used which will not absorb moisture. There should be an impervious vapor barrier towar d the inside (war m side) of the wall so that the wall can breathe, and interior moisture not be trapped in the wall. All plumbing fixtures should always walls. This might be rule number two: vents into a chimney enclosure or gather roof vent at the ridge. be located on interior It is best to get the together under a common

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Try to avoid a walking deck with occupied space beneath. This is almost standard practice in base lodges. There may be some that don't leak, but they aren't to dependable. Generally , double glazing Nill pay for itself in fuel savings in cold we3ther areas like the Rockies, Midwest or East. It should be strongly considered in moderate temperature Jf'l:i.ll n<::!E\r the Tl"i(? body radiates heat away from itself a cold surface and the person will feel as though h e is s itting in a draft. Footings for foundations should always be well below the F lr CJ ::; t:. 1 i I I > I t ill i \;) h t b e l,".j (::! ]. 1 t C) a c: d ,:\ -f 0 C) t t. Cl l ,".j h t e vI? t h l 0 c a l .:_4_c:: c ('=:p t ::; t c"i.n c:! d i . s. It i :; t 1 y c h C1-:?:1.per to e:-.: c 3. v.:.:;_ t (:? d Ul'in 1.] construction than t o dig up the same pipe after it i s frozen. Do not use plastic as it cannot be thawed by electric resistance devices. FnR FFFECTIVF COLD P_OF FUNCTinN ROOF PITrH Cold roofs are ineffective on any pitch less than 6/12. Due to small vented spaces, frictional slowing of the 2ir i y g f.?c! . t. I FNGTH OF RUN Longer length runs also create great and slow air movement. Guidelines: 5/12 pitch 16 foot maximum 6 /12 pitch 20 foot max1mum 7 112 pitch 30 foot maximum Runs over 35 to 40 feet should be avoided. FU:Jl'-l Dr41 1'-"iNC INn m,"'J.tch th12 ar-e::;. The surface area of the int::;.ke vents should of the ridge vent as closely as possible. Imbalanced situations restrict air flow. !:;:I:OGE C:l -The tot.:d ai1--Flc:n-J in ::;y:;:;t:(?m mu ::;t b;:> \:;)1.-E!,:t t enCJuq1 1 tD h1:?<::\VY ltl1 ' to 2.::1 '' J_.•.Jhici> irJill attempt to clog the ridge vent with ice. Once the vent is clogged, the entire roof reverts to a warm roof system and ice will begin to form. HEAT TAPE The sole purpose of heat tape on eaves is to allow the water forming at the bottom side of the snow pack t o run down the roof and over the cold overhangs without freezing. To do th :i. ::;, t.he hea.t i cc1i l must. 1-:2:< t.end f Dm 6 1 1 t E!: ; ter i fall line to the bottom edge of the o verhang. Loops should be ::;p.::tcl:=d nc; -Ful--thel-thi:•.n :2411 Dl""-ice I.A!ill Fo1' m th1;?rn, heat should be either controlled b y a thermostat or set to run continuousl y from November to May . ENERGY EFFiriFNCY -Effective cold roofs will draw large volumes of air across the warmed bottom deck. This air movement removes air film phenomenon anrl greatly increases heat and loss through the roof. Roofs must be well insLtlated and a sound vapor

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barrier must be installed or infiltration from the inside of the building to the roof vents will increase dramatically . CRITERIA FOR WARM ROOF DESIGN The properl y designed warm roofs performance as a cold roof with much less of warm roof design are as follows: offer cost. just as much The object i \les Roof surface should be designed to maintain a temperature or lower when it is snowing and the i s heated to 68 degrees. det;Jr ee building 2 ) Bar joist and metal deck roofs are especially prone to heat distribution problems. Often the cold roof system is applied directly over the metal this creates a condensation problem. The cool air moving through the cold roof cools down the metal deck and bar joists below the dew point. Batt insulation between the joists may keep condensation from forming on the metal deck, but the exposed bottom cord of the joist will have heavy cCJndens.ation. 3) One of the temperature polyurethane and the r-oof because i n f i l at i on . best ways to insure a uniform roof is to install 2 laye1rs of 1.5" rigid insulation between the final roofing surface sheathing. Two layers are much better than the joints can be staggered 50% to reduce

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SOLAR SHADING

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FOR STEAMBOA T SPRINGS, COLORADO .. Y .. .g1 ... ..... .... ............ _ ............. _ .... ...... .................... . .. :::: +1vF 160 .. AT I :::: .. ::1 1CitJ"IH == l IF.: . , ;) l c i. 1 !. 'j .. .. ' ' . . :) I .'{. I r: I. " ll.. 6 " I f:"'' .. -'"' ,_ .. .. , ... , q , ,., ' .. .. .::. •! ' , .... c " ,1 " .:.'.1 " " .. ) .. l •:.:• .. .. .. ... ,.,. . . , . ,. .. 1 ..... :t.-4/'" 7 1. .:.:; .:';. " 1. ::_'()' ? .. 1 = {I{; r "" :::.1. 11.. 7 J .. ! II 6 .. ,..,., . •.,! ._._ .. • .. J I : .:= • . :,-• • . ! .:) .1." J ... ;. ' : ' ' J() I 11 ,I, ...... ?.. 1 .. ................ __ .... ........................ ............... . = 180 .. .. :::: ' '),'5 iCJN . .,. .. :::: ;.: 0 . i t .... ' J t l..\ <::' .. ) r..:. ! 7 . I ...... -:: -; ;..- •. > ./ •. --:-.< . ' _ .. ........ , .... •,_ .:O:..}nb I c .: .. " . ... '"::' I .! • • 1. t<)'/" .. :1. !. :1.? "1.5 " :.\ l :;: ' ;.:_) l : . '.'! : , "":i :! :; :" c T r::, r,! D T 1. 1"1 E LONGI7UD: = 1 C6 .. 75 Tl t :::: : :.\::. 2o .. 7 .... 1.) .. .... 0 .. '') -''l ,;_ .. ,.:. 3F .:.• . , ... i .. :: " .. j, -: " .:_) NOTATION: +VE=NORTHERN HEM. BLDG. ORIENTATION: S LATITUDE 40 271 .LONGITUDE -'10648'45" HR-HOUR AL-ALTITUDE AZ-AZIMUTH VSA-VERTICAL SUN ANGLE HSA-HORIZ. SUN ANGLE

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H ... . .... ::. -----J Cr;T:.: :::Jr-J '"' +VE: '" 1.'3( ) TITUDE: :::: .{;,c .. •.=:.; i)TH c:: :..=:; :w. \3 31. ' 1 i"f(J" . .'.) l{i '.; I t 1. .:'.;:1. .. 7 '.': t : .-:; •• HZ J. ()•-)" ":j l:.:_:::J. "7 l :=:.i : ' 5 " 3 1.77" : 3 199 .. :::3 ::_J:!. _;> " :..) ;_nNG , = = L () :) .. 7:=5 0 ' y :::: :2 .l •+7 ., 7 4\3" i) .. '1 4'1 4 ' 9 .. :1. 49 .. 1 Aq .. .i. 10 7 48 .. :!. .. tll -::-''0" 5 ., .. 3 . ... " '.7 ' . 5:_:5" t .7Bn6 ._P._ ........ .............. ............ .... -... --........ ........ -.... -........ ... . cr::, T I iJN :::: +-I._' I::: IF!\!--r.:lTIUI'-.! :::: J.:30 rr.T : JoE :::: 4 ( ) .. :.=s . .::: SU1' .iF l 1 7 . . !;; '!. 1:55" :::l 3:1. .. ':5 20 .. !::J" f3 • 1. ' .';t;. :::: '3LJN<:)E f '3() 11. :l "7 .L-4B . . 3 2 II . , 7 '')'7'7 7 ,.; .. / , " / LONG l TUD E :::: I. .:)6 . "" ::21 ( ) 0 () ( \ ./ 7 -) ' ) --B O .:.. " 66 " :1. 63 -:5] 6:!. 6 -3 I .. .1. . .s • l -..3 I. .. " 6 1 < + "1r::: " A.. 1 .. t 1 ' \ o.:. " " .6:'.-i '') •'!::-" " .-:. •,.),,) " 70 O::l 7 ?' n • . • J " B4 .. 9 f3 .. 0 1\ \ J •') " , ... .. . . 7 J : : ,,) ..,. ' y / •") '1 / :1.

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..... . .......... . . ................. ......... . . ... . ---.. ... ... ---.... -... OCAT I:DN ' " •\)[ J RIENTATION 180 ...• : I T U It' : : : .::: A () .. :':i '1 i) N T H :::: :.:'i . . ! , .. , 1 •. l 7 1. :1. .. f., ., ; '") ::; 4. ..:.. " :34 ... , " j :1. "9 l r) 'l 1:: .. . ) "102 .. <;.> !. l 1: .., .JO " .:.: I. . , r;::5 l "'. . :t () :1. ,;) ;:J 19 2. " A f 9 1 :.:2 I. "\I\ ' .:. t,} ..J " ... T T Oi') ::: +',:E JRIENTATT O N 180 ri T T T I J "Ct E .::: G .. 1DN"TH :::: -:i t 1... :' 3 . ? • f .,;j ... :l 1 "7' ... ; (.) !. 0 4? !. 1 I. '"' ,,; .. I. 3 r) / I . 4 (s .. _;, I. : 5 . ') :J f 50 I. !. ; 38 1. <":' :,.) ,., .. ., _ .... :, !. '? 1 6 ?0 " 3 .. .. .. " n " " . " .. .. . , 7 . . ...., . .,. / 1. 4 . \ } 9 ? 6 '"' < : • ' ? ::; ... , .-:: . '7 {)It 7 '7'/ " .... t.S u ;.> / :::? 0

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........ ;:;::!. 1 ................ .......................... .......... .................................................... .. ! ... G c T T 0 N '" .. ; .. I I F.: ,..j'< : r T no .... f .::,.,1 • .. ' ..... o I . .. ......... 1 1 ''' L. t1 -; I .. U L! E ":: .. ' ) . . :.' .'i L . 0 C l T U D :::: :: 6 .. ? . i'i 1.) iJ T H ::: : '7 D n Y :: :: :;: :. HF : 1 ,., I . 'v li. •. l.J t . ..., I. 1(3 i. ' i , I ) • , , ' 1 c'8, / .:) I.. :3 ":d : : ' ()" :1. 7•:) " :1. J. :1. ::. " • . ::. '1. :.:'):)" 8 0 :1. " '?? l . S . ::r { ) ,. 1 /. " : s ) " : 1 . • H 0 () 7:t ' .. + 7()" :!. 7 ( ) " 1 71. .. 6 ; ... .:} "') B ::. .. 0 () () en ... :;. -. 4 ' ) ., 2 ••• I '' :: 1 .. . .J.J. "1,) ... _ .. .................................... ............ _ ....................... _ ......... .. I...DC1::; T T CN ::: ':lfJhhEF: T [ i1:::: ORIENTAT[CN = 1 SC :::: =+,..) .. i .. UNc:: TUDE ::: J..)b . . 7 .. ,_;) i : j l ..,. i.; / " '? 2'-7 l 0 40 • --.4(? 9 .. J. .. l "') •::-'! 7 ... ,.,},' " l .:> 0 :1. ... , " /': . . l 4 •':".t l r.: . ..J 1;.-"""1 .. J l C ) <4 2 .. i ? :!. :1. ,;) I. " 1 8 " 3 l .., " . . :1.9 .. 5:3 " ' ll::. "::=.; ':) () . : : (;) ••• •,• • , J II ',J D '( ::: :2 :!. ( ) 73" . . 4 . : ) J " : 3 c;l . . 3 62 .. ::3 71,l () i) -.30 " 't " -68" :'5 .... 31 "t:> .. c:--: o ... J , .... j i' : J (.j I 11 .... ,/ \ )

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. .... . . g1 .. : ... ............. . ..... . LO-ATION = SUMMER TIME ORIENTATION 180 1.. t -H I TUD E :::: 4 0 .. r!ONTH " = ? LONGITUDE = 106.75 I Ft: AL A7 7.12 8 9.9 98.8 9 21 :lO 3 1.. 2 1.1 40 .. :1. 1 2 46 .. 13 -49 .. J.l+ 4? .. ,:; :1.09.4 1. 1 "6 l 112 177 .. 3 :!.99 .. 9 15 4L .. 9 16 33 .. 5 235. 2 17 23 .. 4 247.9 .8 12 .. 5 258 .. 8 18 . . !38 --SUN::;ET Dt:Yf = 2:1. 49.1 49. 2 49.3 49" 49 .. 2 49 .. 1 4 B . 8 -81.. 2 -70. 6 -5f.l "'+ -43 .. 5 -2-4 .. 8 --2 . 7 :1.9" <-; 9 M 2 "67 .. 9 7!3 .. 8 ... ...... ... _ -... ___ ---....... -. . . _ ... ___ .. . LDCA""i"ION :::: T HIE OPIENTATION = 180 LATITUDE = 40.5 LONGITUDE = 106.75 MONTH = 10 DAY = 21 HF: AL. A ... , t-!,L 7 .. : 7:2 = '3UN!::.:ISE 8 ....., ''1 107.5 . , ..., -72" ..:.. . . ' 9 12 .. 7 1 1.7. 9 -62. 1 1 . () 22" 129 " 6 32. 6 -50. 4 1 1 3(\ " :1.4:.3. 5 35. B 3 . .,.. :1.2 -:r c.-t • 15(:) 7 3 7 . '") -20 :r ._;j..._ ),. . :: ; . "'" " , . ) t3 37 ""/ :1.77.8 37.7 -2 .. 2 .. I 14 3 6 . 3 "1.96 . 2 37.4 :t6 . , •"-:J s:.-• ...J 31. " 212 . 9 2 32 ... 9 :1.6 '"'L J • ) .. •:t 33.6 47.3 • • ... f " ._ ,J 17 1"'" •"}"7.q '"" .;_.-.. J I II ,J 27.9 59 .. 5 18 ' ., ':. ::'iO 13 .. 7 70 .. 2 "i. / .. 8 .. :28 --SUNSET

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.. .... _ ........... -__ -___ ......... _ --_ ... _ LOCATION = tVE STANDARD TIME ORIENTATION = 180 LATITUDE = 40.5 LONGITUDE = 106.75 = 11 DAY = 21 Hl=i: AL 8 6 ..,. . 9 l . '') . :1. 0 , . , . ..., ........ . " ' -1 l 1 '1. J;,. / " :1.2 29 1.:3 :27 n 0 14 ... , .. ? ........ ) . l > .1.5 1 ..., , / l .-:, C.l ... , " 5 16.68 ::SUNSET .1.35 1.1}7" :3 :1.6: :.::" 3 .. 1 2 0 9 VSA :l. :J.. 3 21 :w .. 2 ' 'lC> <: .. J 2i) n (:) 14,. 2 I. .. T I C N :::: +VE TIME ORIENTATION = 180 HSA -56 .. :J. -45 -17" 7 t .. .:.:; ")(.') ":... .t .. 7 LATITUDE = 40 .. 5 LONGITUDE = :1.06.75 MONTH = 12 DAY = 21 HR HSA 7.52 8 4. 1 1 ::::;=:j .. "Y / -54. j, 9 1 '.... .., • • I .. 17 • '1 .:.. -4.3. 2 1.0 19 .. 6 :!.49.2 -30 .. i3 U. :..:4 2 "")l::' ,.._ \, J " 1 -16 .i3 12 26 17t1 '') . .:. r>' ,.:,0 .... :1. • l3 :!.3 24 .9 :L 93 .. 4 ,., c; ......... J " ..J l J . 14 ::..0 .. 9 207.7 '") _. -z .-.:. -' .. ...J 27. 7 :1.5 14. ::'j 22() .. c. . ..) 18.7 40 .. !'5 1.6 6 .. "I :1.0 :=:i l -y " / -

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BUILDING CODES

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BUILDING CODES -1982 UNIFORM BUII DING CODE OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS HOTEL: R-1 RETAIL: B-2 RESTAURANT : B-2 PARKING GARAGE: B-3 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATIONS HOTEL: I RETAIL: II RESTAURANT : III PARKING GARAGE: II ALLOWABLE FLOOR AREA AREAS OF BUILDINGS OVER ONE STORY The total combined floor area for multistory buildings may be twice that permitted for one story buildings, and the floor area of any single story shall not exceed that permitted for a one-story building. BASEMENTS -A basement need not be included in the total allowable area, provided such basement does not qualify as a story nor exceed the area permitted for a one-story building. MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS The height of the building is the vertical distance above grade to the highest point of the structure. The measurement is taken from the highest ground surface within a five foot horizontal distance of the exterior wall of the building, when such ground surface is not more than 10 feet above grade. The maximum building height is unlimited. The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 Structures with open sides three-fourths of building perimeter may be increased 1 tier i n weight. Structures with sides open around entire building perimeter may be increased 1 tier in height. Open parking garage constructed to height less maximum may have individual tier areas exceeding those permitted, provided the gross tier area of the structure exceed that permitted for the higher structure. than the otherwise does not

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ROOM DIMENSIONS CEILING HEIGHTSHabitable space shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except otherwise permitted in this section. bathrooms and toilet compartments may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. Where exposed beam ceiling members are spaced at less than 48 inches on ceiling height shall be measured to the bottom of these members. Where exposed beam ceiling members is not less than 7 feet above the floor. If any room in any building has a sloping prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in onlv half the area thereof. No portion of the room measuring than 5 feet from the finished floor to the finished ceiling be included in any computation of the minimum area thereof. the one less shall FLOOR AREA Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room which shall have not less than 150 square feet of floor area. Other habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 square feet. Habitable rooms other than a kitchen shall be not less than 7 feet in any dimension. FIRE RATINGS Occupancies more than two stories in height or having more than 3000 square feet of floor area above the first story shall be not less than one-hour fire resistive construction throughout. Storage or laundry rooms that are within Group Division 1 Occupancies that are used in common be tenants shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than one-hour fireresistive occupancy separation. Every hotel three stories or more in height or containing 20 or more guest rooms shall have an approved fire alarm system as specified in the Fire Code. Every guest room in a hotel used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with smoke detectors conforming to U.B.C. Standard No . 43-6. In dwelling smoke detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to rooms for sleeping purposes. EXIT FACILITIES Every least one excape or provide a All a minimum sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at operable window or exterior door approved for emergency rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to full clear opening without the use of separate tools. escape or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net

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clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows are provided as a means of escape or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor. LIGHT, VENTI ! ATION AND SANITATION LIGHT AND VENTILATION All guest rooms shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one tenth o f the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1 0 square feet . All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation b y means of openable exterior openings with an area not less than one twentie nth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1 . 5 square feet. All guest rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openable exterior openings with an area of not less than one twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 square feet. In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechanical ventilating system ma y be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in all guest rooms. One fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided. 1 For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a of an adjoining room when one half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feet, whichever is greater. Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or yard or court located an the same lot as the building. SANITATION Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel or subdivision thereof where both sexes are accommodated shall contain at least two separate toilet facilities which are conspicuously identified for male or female each of which contains at least one water closet. HEATING Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature of 70 degrees farenheit, at apoint 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms.

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YARDS AND COURTS YARDS Every yard shall be not less than 3 feet in width for one-story and two-story buildings. For buildings more than two stories in the minimum width of the yard shall be increased at the rate of 1 foot for each additional story. For buildings e xceeding 14 stories in height, the required width of yard s hall be computed on the basis of 1 4 stories. COURT S Every court shall be not less than 3 feet in width. Courts having windows opeining on opposite sides shall be not less than 6 feet in width. Courts bounded on three or more sides by the walls of the building shall be not less than 10 feet high unless bounded on one end by a street or yard. For buildings more than two stories in the court shall be increased 1 foot in width and 2 feet in length for e ach additional story . buildings e xceeding 14 stories in height, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories. Adequate access shall be provided to the bottom of all courts for cleaning purposes. Every court more than two stories in height shall be provided with a horizontal air intake at the bottom not l ess than 10 square feet in area and leading to the e xterior o f the building unless abutting a yard or public space. The construction of the air intake shall be as required for the court walls of the building, but in no case shall be less than one-hour fire resistive. ACCESS TO BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES Buildings containing more than 2 0 guest rooms shall access ible to the physically handicapped by a level entry, or elevator. The number of guest rooms accessible to physically handicapped shall be not less than t h e following: 21 through 99 -one unit be ramp the 100 and over one, plus one for each additional 100 units or fraction thereof T o determine the total number of accessible units, more than one structure on a building site shall be considered as one building. Habitable bathrooms, toilet halls and utility rooms in units that are required to be accessible to the physically handicapped shall be accessible by level ramps or elevators, and doorway s t o such rooms shall have a clear unobstructed width of not less than 32 inches. TYPE I FIRE RESISTIVE BUILDINGS DEFINITION The structural buildings shall be of steel, elements in T ype I fire iron, concrete or masonry. r esistive

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Walls and permanent partitions shall be of noncombustible fire-resistive construction e xcept that permanent nonbearing partitions of one-hour or two-hour fire resistive which are not part of a shaf t enclosure, may have fire-retardent treated wood within the assembly. OPENINGS IN W ALLS -All openings in exterior walls shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire protection rating when t hey are less than 20 feet from an adjacent property line or the center line of a street or public space. FLOORS -Where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete fire-resistive the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with noncombustible material or fire-stopped in such a manner that there will be no open spaces under the flooring which will exceed 100 square feet in area and such space shall be filled e olidly under all permanent partitions so that there 1s no communication under the flooring between adjoining rooms. STAIR CONSTRUCTION Stairs and stair platforms shall be constructed of reinforced concrete, iron or steel with treads and risers of concrete, iron, or steel. Brick, marble, tile or other hard noncombustible materials bay be used for the finish of such treads or risers. ROOF S -Roofs and their members other than the structural more than 25 feet above any floor, balcony or gallery ma y unprotected noncombustible materials. frame be of AUTOMATIC SPRINK LER SYSTEM -When the automatic sprinkler system shall be designed using the parameters set forth in the U . B .C. Standard No . 38-1 and the following: Shutof f valves and water flow device shall be provided for each floor. The sprinkler riser may be combined with the standpipe riser. O CCUPANT i DAD In determining occupant load, all portions o{ a building shall be presumed t o be occupied at the-same time. EXITS EXITS REQUIRED -Every building or usable thereof shall hav e at least one exit, not less than two exits and additional e xists as required by this section. For purposes of this section, basements and occupied shall be provided with exits as required for stories. roofs The second story shall be provided with not less than two e xits when the occupant loa d is 10 or more. Occupants on floors

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above the second story and in shall have access to not less than two separate exits f-om the floo r or basement. Every S+clr'. • . ' or portion thereof an occupant load of 501 to 1-. uuu shall have not less than thre exits. Every storv or portion havinq an occupc:-tnt lo;d of 1001 Clr more have not less than exits. The of exits required from any story of a building shall bedetermined by usinq the occupant load of that story plus the prcentage of the loads of floors which exit through he level under consideration as f oll OltJS: l. Fifty percent of h e occupant load in the adjacent story abce and the first adjacent when a storyelow exits through the level consideration. Twenty-five percenof the occupant load in the immediately beyond e first adjacent story. first story under story WIDTH _ The total width of ets in feet shall be not less than the total occupant load serd divided by 50. Such width of exits shall be divided apprcmately equally amonq the separate e x l"t:.s. The total exit wih required from an; story of a building shall be determinecy using the occupant load of that story plus the percentages o he loads of floors which exit throught the level unde1ons1derat)on as follows : 1. Fifty percent oF th•ccupant load in the f i rs. t adjacent story above the story when a story below exits througnhe level under consideration. 2. . . . percent the occunant led 1 n H • r . ct l i e S"t:.CJt-y o+ a buiiding shall beintained. ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS -If exits are they shall be placed a distance apart than one half of the lenqth of the maximum over.Olagonal dJmension of the buildinq or -area to be served measuln.a straight line between exits: When three or more exits they shall be arranqed a reasonable distance aparb that if one becomes the others will be available. DISTANCE TO EXITS -The maM distance to travel from any point to an exterior exit zontal exit passageway or an stairway in a bujg not equipped with an automatic sprinkler svstem not exceed 150 feet. or 200 feet in a equipp1th an automatic system throughout. These dista!may be increased by 100 feet when the last 150 feet is vJithilon--idor. DOOF:S This area having 2H1 rooms or areas. section shaply to everv occupant ld 10 or exit door serving an or serving hazardous

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E xit doors shall swing in the d irection of exit travel when serving any hazardous area or when serving an area having an occupant load of 50 or more. Double-acting doors shall not be used as exits when any of the following conditions exits: 1. The occupant load served by the door is 100 or more. 2 . The door is part of a fire assembley. 3. The door is part of a smoke and draft control assembly. 4 . Panic hardware is required or provided on the door. A double-acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less than 200 square inches. CORRIDORS AND EXTERIOR EXIT BALCONIES This shall apply to every corridor required exit for an occupant load of 10 or more. serving WIDTH shall Every be not corridor serving an occupant load of 10 or less than 44 inches in width. Regardless of more the occupant corridors in Group Division 1 Occupancies shall have a minimum width of 36 inches. HEIGHT Corridors shall have a clear height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. ACCESS -When more than one exit is they shall be so arranged that it is possible to go in either direction from any point in a corridor to a separate exit, e xcept for dead ends not exceeding 20 feet in length. STAIRWAYS Every stairway having two building or portion thereof shall this section. or more risers serving conform to the requirements any of WIDTH Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or more shall be not less than 44 inches in width. Stairways serving an occupant load of 49 or less shall be not less than 36 inches in width. Private stairways serving an occupant load of less than 10 shall be not less than 30 inches in width. RISE/RUN -The rise of every step in a stairway shall be not less than 4 inches nor greater than 7.5 inches. Except as the run shall be not less than 10 inches as measured horizontally between the vertical plances of the furthermost projection of adjacent treads. The largest tread run within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest b y more than three-eighths of an inch. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs s hall not e xceed the smallest by more than three-eighth s o f an inch.

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LANDINGS -E v e r y landing shall have a o1mens1on measured 1n the direc tion of t ravel equal to the width of the stairway . Such o1mension need not exceed 4 feet when the stair has a straight run. A door swinging over the landing shall not reduce the width of the landing to less than one hal f its reouired width at any position in its swing nor by more than 7 inches when fully open. B A SEMFNT STAIRWAYS -When a basement stairway and a stairway to an upper story terminate the same exit an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent persons from continuing on into the basement. DISTANCE BETWEEN LANDINGS -There shall be not more than 12 feet vertically between landings. HANDRAilS Staiway s shall have handrails o n each and every stairway required to be more then 88 inches in width shall be provided with not less than one intermediate handrail for each 88 inches of required width. Intermediate handrails shall be soaced approximatel y equally across with the entire width of the stairway. RAMPS Ramps used as exits shall conform to the provisions of this section. WIDTH -The width of ramps shall be as required for stairways. SLOPE -The slope of ramps shall be not steeper than 1 vertical to 12 horizontal. The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 8 horizontal. L A NDINGS Ramps havinq slopes steeper than 1 vertical to 15 horizontal shall have landings at the top and bottom, and at least one intermediate landing shall be provided for each 5 feet o f rise. Top landings and intermediate landings shall have a dimension measured in the direction of ramp run of not less than 5 feet. Landings at the bottom of ramps shall have a dimension in the direction or ramp run of not less than 6 feet. Doors in any position shall not reduce the minimum dimension of the landing to less than 42 inches and shall not reduce the required width by more than 3.5 inches when fully opened. HANDRAilS -Ramps having slopes steeper than 1 vertical horizontal shall have handrails as required bar that intermediate handrails shall not be required. to 1 5 e xcept

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OPEN P A R K ING GARA GES DEFINITION A n open parking garage is structure of Type I or II construction which is open on two or more s1oes totaling not tess than 40 percent of the building perimeter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side t o be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50% of the exterior area of the side at each tier. The area of openings may be reduced below the minimum 50% for 40% of the perimeter, provided the percentage of the preimeter in which the openings are contained is increased proportionately . Open parking garages are further classified as either ramp-access or mechanical-access. Ramp-access open parking garages are t hose employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floor s permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level. Mechanical-access parking garages are those employing parking machines, lifts, ele;ators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level. AREA AND HEIGHT -In structures having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the c ase of a structure having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches of height or portion therof shall be considered as a tier. The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet, e xcept that a lesser clear height ma y be permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages when approved by the building official. AREA AND HEIGHT INCREASES -In structures with sides open threefourths, the building perimeter may be increased 2 5 percent in area and one tier in height. Structures with sides open around the entire building perimeter ma y be increased 50 percent in area and one tier in height. Open parking garages constructed to heights less than the maximum established may have individual tier areas e xceeding those otherwise permitted, for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have cont1nuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides, and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier. T ype II-One hour construction, with all sides open, may be unlimited in area when the h eight does not exceed 75 feet. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the

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side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 2 0 0 feet horizontally from such openings. STAIRS AND EXITS Where persons other than parking attendants are stairs and exits shall meet the requirements of Chapter 33, based on a n occupant load of 200 square feet per occupant. Where no persons other than parking a ttendants are permitted there shall be not less than two stairs 3 feet wide. Lifts ma y be installed for use o f employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials. F :OOF DES IGN Roofs shall sustain, within the stress limitations of this all "dead loads" plus unit "li .. .;e loads." T h e live loads shall be assume d t o act Yerticall y upon the area projected upo n a horizontal plane. DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS Where uniform roof loads are involved in the design of structural memb ers arranged so ac to create c ontinuity, consideration may be limited to full dead loads on all spans in combination with full liv e loads on adjacent spans and on alternate spans. UNBALANCED L OADING -Unbalanced loads shall be used where such loading will result in larger members or connections. Trusses and arches shall be designed to resist the stresses caused b y unit live loads on one half of the span if such loading results in reverse stresses, or stresses greater in any portion than the stresses produced by the required unit live load upon the entire span. For roofs whose structure is composed of a stressed shell, framed o r solid, wherein stresses caused by any point loading are distributed throughout the area of the shell, the requirements for unba lanced unit live load design ma y be reduced 50 percent. SNOW LOADS -Potential accumulation of snow at valleys, parapets, roof structures and offsets in roofs of uneven configurations shall be considered. Where snow loads the snow loads shall be determined by the building official. Snow loads in excess of 20 pounds per reduced for each degree of pitch over 20 determined b y the following formula: Rs == S/40 -.5 square foot degrees b y ma y F: be as where pc = Snow load reduction in pounds per square foot per degree of pitch over 20 degrees. S == Total snow load in pounds per square foot.

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INSTALLED An automatic s:.p i n k 1 ers ystem shall be install( ?.d: 1) In ever-y stor-y or basement of all buildings when the floor-area exceeds 1500 squar-e feet and there is not pr-ovided at least 20 square feet of opening entir-ely above the adjoining gr-ound level in each 50 lineal feet or fraction ther-eof of exter-ior wall in the story or basement on at least one side of the building. Openings shall bave a minimum dimension of not less than inches. Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the e xterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. When openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet from such openings, the story shall be provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of an exterior wall of the story . If any portion of a basement is 1 ocated more than 75 feet basement spr-inkler from openings required in this section, the shall be provided with an approved automatic system. 2 ) At the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in theirterminal r-ooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler-heads installed within such chutes at alter-nate floors. Sprinkler heads shall be accessible for servicing. G ROUP A OCCUPANCIES Cniqhtclubs) An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in rooms primarily used for entertaining o ccupants li'Jho are drinking or dining c.1nd unseparated accesc:.ory uses where the total area of such unseparated rooms and assembly uses e xceeds 5000 square feet. For uses to be consider-ed as separated, the separ-ation shall be not less than as required for a one-hour occup.:::.ncy separation. The area o f other uses shall be included unless separated by at least a one-hour occupancy sepal'-at ion. BASEMENTS An automatic spr-inklersystem shall be installed in basements classified as a Group A Occupancy when the basement is larger than 1500 square feet in floor-area. EXHIBITION AND DISPLAY ROOMS -An sprinkler system shall be installed in Gr-oup A Occupancies which have more than 12,000 square feet of floor area which can be used forexhibition or display purposes.

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PROGRAM REGUIREMENTS

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BLIC SPACES SY a LOUNGE ULATION DENS TUBS 'DOOR TERRACES L KER ROOMS !SPACES ITTLE ELEVATORS SENGER ELEVATORS NTAINS KINO 'AIL AREA 8,400 SF 104,384 47,200 1,800 70,200 4,800 1,840 1,080 1580 3,380 1,108 278,8118 Kl,400 SUBTOTAL -OUTDOOR SPI\CE 122,800 ENCLOSED BUILDING AREA 420, 318 SF TOTAL PUBLIC SPI\CE 543,118 SF 100 & BEVERAGE SPACES 'ETERIA ' CHEN FOR CAFETERIA IIN8 ROOM ID PIU!J' . a COOKIN8 !:ANI NO JNO a STORAGE :KTAIL LOUNGE :EPTIOfl AREA IT 1100111 ITROOMS TOTAL fOOD a IIEVDA8! 2,878 SF 1,400 8,ooo 1,410 1580 2,240 1,080 1,400 150 120 400 17,1588 SF HOTEL PROGRAM Dfo TOTAL AREA 1 .10 " 13.72 0.24 0.14 0 .07 0 .44 0 .115 38.88 2 .SS !515.24% .38 ")(, . 18 .Tit .18 .oe .28 .14 .18 .01 .02 .015 2.. 31 ")(, SERVICE SPACES POOL MECHANICAL a S TORAGE POOL PIT a STORAGE TRASH LOADING AREA STORAGE/MAIDS LAUNDRY ROOM POOL EOUlPMENT CHECKOUT ELEV . PIT a STORAGE FREIGHT ELEVATORS TRASH/LINEN MECHANICAL ROOM HOUSEKEEPING SKI STORAGE AREA 2,800 SF 4,800 SF 1100 27,380 3,1500 . 380 720 1,820 388 7,000 1,300 1,200 ADMINISTR;..TION 6, 200 MAHAO.SMENT 1,600 ROOFTOP EQUIPMENT 7, 200 SUBTOTAL OUTDOOR SPACE 7, 200 ENCLOSED BUILDIH6 AREA !58, 3158 SF TOTAL SERVICE SPACE 88,5158 SF PRIVATE SPACES ROOM TYPE A ROOM TYPE B ROOM TYPE C ROOM TYPED SUITE TYPE A SUITE TYPE B TOTAL PRIVATE SPACE TOTAL AREA PUBLIC SPACE SERVICE SPI\CE FOOD a BEVERAGE SPAC P'RIVATE SPACE TOTAL BUILDING AREA TOTAL OUTDOOR AREA TOTAL USABLE SPACE 8e,ooo sF 35,200 40,800 23,000 71,500 15,400 2.83, 700 SF 42.0, 318 SF !58,3158 17,588 2.83,700 780,840 SF 130,000 • 880,840 SF DfoTOTAL AREA 0 .34,.. 0.63 0 .07 3.80 0.48 0.0!5 0.08 0.2.4 0.015 0 .82 0.17 0.18 0.81 0 . 2 1 7 .80 ")(, 11.58% 4 .83 S.34 3 .02 8.40 .71 34.88 •• !515.2.4 ")(, 7 .10 2 .31 100.00 ")(,

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PROGRAM GUIDELINES SPATIAL DESCRIPTIONS GUEST ROOMS: Who t h e guest rooms will be designed for destination guests to spend a weekend or longer in Steamboat. Rooms will acc8mmodate children at least 2 year s of age (since a nyone under two is too young to ski) to the elderlyusually a round 70 years old. In the summer the guest rooms will primarily cater to summer tourists a n d golfers. What -Guest rooms will contain one to t w o three bedrooms, closet space in every roo m, ski equipment storage closet. bathrooms, one to a television, and a Where -G uest rooms will be located for quick access to the ski slope, and the retail shops. near major restaurant, circulation paths parking garage, When -Guest rooms will be available year-round since the present ski area is a year-round resort. Why Since Steamboat is a destination resort, needed to provide temporary housing for the populated ski area. L O BBY/FRONT OFFICE: guest rooms are currently over-Who the lobby is basically for two groups of people: hotel guests and employees. The hotel guests use lobby for verifying reservations and for lounging. The employees will use the lobby for checking people in at the front desk. This function is used for the manage,nent of hotel organization. Whatthe lobby is one of the most important rooms in the hotel. The lobby sets the mood for hotel users and will be the first and last impression. The mood of the lobby will be the basis for things to come, 1 . e . , the guest rooms. Where the lobby will be located at the main entrance of the hotel for two bas1c It is the focal point of the hotel and second, it wil l give the guests required information needed for direction and orientation. When t h e lobby will be open all day and all night since users will be involved in activities usually until the early mornin g hours. The lobby will be used as the main entrance at all hours that way not more than one entrance will be needed. The front desk will be open during regular business but a sign on the desk will be used for people who check i n during afterbusiness hours. This will require one employee to be a permanent resident at the hotel.

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Why The lobby is needed as a form of welcoming people to the hotel. It is needed as a form of organization for employees and guests. Anyone entering or leaving the hotel will go through the lobby unless a separate entry/exit system is set up in the design stages of the hotel. LOUNGE: Who the lounge will be primarily used for those quests who decide to relax during the day and not do anything outside of the hotel. These people include summer guests, skiers who want to take a break, people who want to relax due to their hangovers from the previous night, people who want activities after the ski day is and other reasons. What -the lounge will consist of a relaxation area including furniture such as lounge chairs, card tables, etc. The other part of the l ounge will be an activity center. Activities include video pool tables, etc. Where -the lounge shall located next t o the lobby, yet far from the hotel guest rooms because of the noise created. The lounge should also be kept away from the main entrance due to outsiders (people other than gues ts) going inside to use the hotel facilities (damage may occur by outsiders). When -the lounge will be open during the reasonable hours of the day will the 9 :00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M. because after 10:00 P.M. people start going to bed and might be able to hear any noise from activity room if it were to stay open later. Why -the lounge is needed to fill in a gap that part of the day that is between the end of the ski day and dining hours. In other the lounge will keep people busy after skiing and before they go out at night. Another reason it is needed to keep kids out of trouble, and to give kids something to do so they won't bother their parents. RETAIL STORES Who -the retail stores will b e primarily for the skiers as hotel guests. The skier who doesn't have sun-tanning oil, or forgot his gloves, or even has a broken ski pole, these shops are for him. What the retail stores will convenience and any needed in the schematic design include: a that phase. drug store, ski shop, may be determined as Where The location of these shops will be at the first near the lobby with the most exposure to the exterior of the hotel. The location is very flexible since there is plenty of ground floor area where the shops can be located. Easy access

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should be kept in mind in schematic design since most activity will come from the hotel guests. business t•Jhen fOI '" The F' • 1. the retail shops will be open skiers to get things before and drug store and convenience store a f t.'\li l 1 ( i ( ) the stay A . ! • 1. ski -6: 00 F'. , ... ,. day i::H?gins . ur,ti 1 9:00 !Alhy -the prcbl ems enjoyable. retail shops are or inconveniences DHHNG needed to : . o that help out skiers thei stay me:;,t ltJi th be any more Who the dining room will be used by a everyone -hotel guest or not. The idea here is to attract people to the hotel from the outside by means of a restaurant and hopefully create business for the rest of the hotel in the future. t•Jhat the dining n:JOm vJi 11 be the point of activity for the hotel. It will create the night-scene for hotel guests, and the general public. The plush interior will create a romantic atmosphere for vacationers. Where the dinin g room will be in one of the most special places in the hotel -on the top floor to obtain the best night view of the mountains. It is best to keep the dining room far away and not over the hotel rooms because of the possible noise problem. When the dining room will be open from 6:00 A.M. (for .. early skiers) until 2:00A.M. (for late night partiers). Why the dining room (restaurant) is needed for the foll Dt.'Ji nt:;J 1. f.idd it i onal hotel business; 2. Night i:\ctivity 3. Two identities hotel/restaurant 4. A place for relaxation after a long day of skiing. i Who primarily for used to serve the guests. What -the kitchen is the supplier of food for the dining primarily a functional tool. Where located with direct access to the dining location depends on the dining r oDm location. hours will be around the clock to maximize dining Why to keep the dining room and night scene in operation. i t s

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BAKE SHOP/COFFEE SHOP: Who -this service will be for everyone, hotel guest or not. What -this shop will serve any type of bakery foods donuts, pies, cakes, etc. The purpose is to give people something to eat when they are in a hurry. This is especially good for skiers who are about to hit the slopes and need a fast bite. Where -location will be nearest the ski slope for quick access. The bake/coffee shop should be located somewhere along the route from the guest room to the ski slope -so that a hotel guest will have to pass it before they get on the ski slope. When hours will be to get from 7:00 something A.M. to 6:00 P .M. for those people who want before or after skiing. Why -this shop is rushing to the ski people don't eat donuts anyway. BAR/LOUNGE: needed for those slopes and don't big breakfasts, ski facilities who are always have time to eat. and would prefer Also, many coffee and Who people from all over will be using this facility. It will be of primary interest to those who like to stay up into the early hours of the morning. What -this facility will be used as a gathering place for the restaurant users. Many people who use the restaurant will not feel like sitting down at an elegant table and eating dinner, for these people the bar/lounge is needed. Where located in the same space as the restaurant, yet separated by certain psychological or physical barriers. The restaurant and bar will be treated as one operating facility, yet the activities in each space may be totally different. When same hours as the restaurant. Why the bar/lounge is needed to add to the night-life social activit y since many people like to drink, and forqet about their problems back home. This is an important facility, especially when people are on vacation. GENERAL SER V ICE SPACES: Who uses of employees only. these spaces !listed in the program) are for What these rooms will be designed as space allotments only, and their functional uses will be the primary considerations.

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Where -location of the spaces will be as follows: Manager's Office -near the front office Secretary's Office near the front office Accounting Office near the front office Linen room -one room/hotel floor Laundry -in the parking garage Locker roomsoptional, located near a swimming pool or hot tub if it is decided these facilities are needed. Furniture storage -one room/hotel floor Boiler room -to be decided in schematic design Fuel storage -to be decided in schematic design T ransformer room -to be decided in schematic design Compressor room -to be decided in schematic design Fan rooms & Equip. -to be decided in schematic design When available only to employees at any time. Why for the function of the hotel and its facilities. PARKING: Who primarily for hotel guests employees with parking for the public. additional What the parking will be part small car and part large car and will be large enough to accommodate all hotel guests, employees, and some general public park1ng. Addition to the underground structure can be obtained for future expans1on. Where -to be located directly beneath the hotel -below grade. When -people people leave the parking garage will be open at all hours, because of leaving in the early hours of the morning. This allows to get in an extra day of skiing and late-night people to when they want to. Why -the parking garage is one of the most important facilities in keeping the image of the village. By kinding the automobile, the v1llage can take on a pedestrian-oriented circulation s ystem on grade.

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BUILDING OESIGN & PRESENTATION

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THE SKI AREA HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN A PLACE TO GO FOR PEOPLE TO GET AWAY FROM THEIR NORMAL MODES OF LIFE. UNTIL RECENTLY. SKIING HAS BEEN A WAY FOR PEOPLE TO ENJOY THE ENVIRONMENT. DUE TO OVERCROWDING AND ATTITUDES HAVE CHANGED CAUSING PEOPLE TO CHALLENGE EACH OTHER. NOT THE MOUNTAIN. AS A RESULT OF THIS AN EXPANSION OF THE STEAMBOAT SKI AREA HAS BEEN PROPOSED TO HELP EASE THIS PROBLEM. EACH THE QUANTITY OF SKIERS ON THE MOUNTAIN IN CREASES BY 10%. ON NOVEMBER THE SKI AREA HIT A RECORD-BREAKING CROWD: SKIERS. WITH THE EXPANSION OF THE STEAMBOAT SKI AREA IN THE MOUNTAIN CAPACITY WILL REACH SKIERS -THREE TIMES THE RECOMMENDED HANDLING CAPACITY FOR THE BASE. ANOTHER BASE WAS RECOMMENDED WHEN THE MAXIMUM HANDLING CAPACIT Y OF THE ORIGINAL BASE REACHED SKIERS IN 1973. AS A RESULT OF THIS THREE ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS HAVE BEEN CREATED: 1 . INADEQUATE FACILITIES 2. INADEQUATE CIRCULATION 3. INADEQUATE PARKING THE FACILITIES FOR THE ENTIRE BASE AREA ARE MINIMAL. SPREADING CONDOMINIUMS ALL OVER THE LANDSCAPE LEAVING NO ROOM FOR FUTURE STRUCTURES THAT COULD HOUSE MANY PEOPLE VERTICALL Y . THE CIRCULATION PROBLEM FOR THE EXISTING BASE AREA IS SEVERE. PEDESTRIAN PATHS CONFLICT WITH AUTO THERE IS NO PEDESTRIAN AND THERE ARE LONG LIFT LINES. THE PARKING PROBLEM HAS EXISTED SINCE 1971. EVEN BEFORE THE SKI AREA REACHED ITS CAPACIT Y . MOST O F THE PARKING AREA S ARE LEAVING LONG WALKING DISTANCES TO THE SKI BASE I TSELF. BEING A DESTINATION RESERVATIONS FOR THE BUSY SEASON ARE TAKEN A YEAR IN ADVANCE FOR APPROPRIATE ACCOMMODATIONS. AS A RESULT OF THIS NEVER-ENDING CONGESTION. A SECOND BASE AREA IS TO BE CREATED TO ALLEVIATE THESE PROBLEMS. THE FOCAL POINT OF THE NEW BASE AREA WILL BE A HOTEL WITH SUPPORT FACILITIES WHICH WILL SOLVE THE PROBLEMS PREVIOUSLY MENTIONED. THE INTENT OF THI S HOTEL PROJECT IS TO PROVIDE PHYS I C A L SOLUTIONS IN THE FOLLOWING PROBLEM AREAS: 1. . ., ..::. . ..,. . 4 . <= FACILITIES CIRCULATION VIEWS F'ARKING NATURE THESE PROBLEMS WILL BE SOLVED IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: -ADEQUATE FACILITIES WILL BE PROVIDED TO ACCOMMODATE THE SKIER FROM EATING AND SLEEPING TO S KI REPAIR AND SKI EQUIPMENT.

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-CIRCULATION WILL BE PROVIDED FOR EASY ACCESS TO THE HOTEL ROOMS. SKI SLOPES. ETC. -VIEWS WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH BUILDING PLAN AND FORM. -PARKING FACILITIES WILL BE UNDERGROUND CREATING PEDESTRIAN PATHS ON GRADE. -THE OVERALL INTEN T IS TO BLEND THIS SYSTEM WITH THE LANDSCAPE AND NATURAL LANDSCAPE. THE THEME FOR THE HOTEL IS LUXURY. THIS WILL INCLUDE SUCH ITEMS AS AN INDOOR/OUTDOOR HOT ROOF TENNIS ' COURTS, GLASS ELEVATORS, ETC. EMPHASIS FOR THE HOTEL AS A SYMBOL IS PLEASURE: A RETREAT FROM THE WORLD AS A FUN GET-AWAY. LET"S NOW LOOK AT HOW A PERSON WOULD E X PERIENCE THE HOTEL. OUR GUEST DRIVES UP TO THE MAIN ENTRANCE AND CUL-DE-SAC AND HAS HIS CAR WISKED OFF BY THE VALET TO THE GARAGE UNDERNEATH. TAKING IN THE CLEAR HE SEES THAT THE MAIN ENTRANCE IS SURROUNDED B Y BOTH THE NATURAL FOILAGE AND PLANNED PLANTINGS. OUR GUEST THEN ENTERS THE GRAND ENTRANCE OF THE NORTHSLOPE VILLAGE HOTEL AND AS HE MOVES BY THE ATRIUM PLANTINGS AND FOUNTAIN. HE SEES DIRECTLY AHEAD THE R EGISTRATION DESK IN FRONT OF THE BACK-DROP OF THE FOUR GLASS ELEVATORS. HE REGISTERS AND ENTERS THE ELEVATOR AS HE HEADS FOR HIS SUITE. THE ELEVATOR SPEEDS SKYWARD REVEALING BREATHTAKING VIEWS OUT OF THE ATRIUM GLASS WALLS. THE ROOF GARDENS. AND THE SKI SLOPES BEYOND. WHEN HE ARRIVES AT HIS HE WALKS DOWN THE DECORATED CORRIDOR. HE TURNS THE LARGE CHROME DOOR KNOB ON THE OAK. SOLID-CORE DOOR AD ENTERS HIS SOUND-PROOF SUITE. AS THE BELL BOY PUTS DOWN HIS LUGGAGE AND WAITS FOR A TIP, OUR GUEST IS TAKEN ABACK BY THE VIEW OF THE SKI AREA THAT FLOODS THE SUITE. THE BALCONY I S ENCLOSED. YET THE WALL IS LOW ENOUGH TO LET HIS EYE SIGHT OVER IT TO THE MOUNTAIN. THE SKI RUNS AWAIT OUR INVITING HIM TO EXPLORE THE 15 MILES OF HIDDEN TRAILS. WE ARE ON OUR WAY TO THE SLOPES. AS OUR GUEST DESCENDS THE GLASS ELEVATOR. H E ARRIVES AT THE LOBBY TO CHECK OUT HIS SKIS. LEAVING THE PLUSH LOBBY INTERIOR AND EXITING THROUGH THE SOUTHERN GLASS ATRIUM, HE IS ABLE TO INSTANTLY PUT ON HIS SKIS AND SKI OVER TO THE CHAIRLIFTS. WITH QUIC K TRANSPORTATION TO THE TOP OF THE THE GUEST IS ABLE TO ENJOY THE SKI SLOPES OF BOTH THE STEAMBOAT SKI AREA AND ITS NEW ADDITION. THE NORTH SLOPE. AFTER A HARD DAY OF POUNDING THE BUMPS, OUR GUEST SLIDES INTO THE SOUTH ATRIUM AND STORES HIS SKIS IN THE S KI -LOCKER AREA. THEN, UP THE 800 FEET PER MINUTE GLASS ELEVATOR TO HIS SUITE. NOW IS THE TIME , AS THE SUN SETS. TO STEP OUT ONTO THE ROOF GARDEN AND SOAK IN ONE OF THE 36 HOT TUBS. THEN AFTER DRYING OFF THEY SPEED UP TO THE PANORAMIC LOUNGE FOR A FEW DRINKS AND ENJOY A LOBSTER IN THE DINING ROOM. IN THE LOUNGE IS AN OPERTUNE TIME TO SOCIALIZE OR TO DO ANY OF PAST TIM ES INCLUDING A BIG SCREEN TV, GAMES. OR A QUIET REFLECTION OF THE DAY S SKIING. A FTER DINNER OUR GUEST RETIRES TO HIS SOUNDPROOF SUITE TO SLEEP, TO PREPARE HIMSELF FOR THE FULL WEEK SKI VACATION AHEAD.

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LJNI\IEI:aTV CF en rw:IADDDENVER MAY 'IB, '111114 DAI\IEL BCXJ I I ORANT ... __ ---... __ ---o... , --.__. ----.... -------... -------------, _ ---.. -..... -.. .. -__ .. __ .. . -_ .. ...,._ _ __ ........ --------------,_ .. --.... ----..... -----,_. ---. --------------.-

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I . * I . * SLOPE LOCATK)tlr,l MAP --SKI RESORT BtG BEAR SLOPE ANALYSIS SITE & UTILITIES PLAN

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--' ' .... lr ... I I '' ... -< '---* ---_ -{it -..., = -------( .. ... non..... retCP ftt I mo•r--._ ...... .............. ......... ___ mnnnm QU" i-I4M =--------___ .. _ FRST LEVEL PLAN con'0"'"''" ..... .......... ........ .......u.e __ _._.. _._..... _,___ nnnp= _.-u;;w ---------------------: -----==--

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----=t1RN ---------* ------.__.., ... ---. -----------------* GARAGE/ f I 1ST Fl DDR 1=11-AN ----* GARAGE/SECOND R DDR 1=11-AN

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........., -----. -.. -----------II Z D FLCXlR PLAN * FDURTH R DOR PLAN .__.., ...... --. ..--.... ---------* FIFTH FLOOR PLAN

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===--* SIXTH & SEVENTH -. ( ...---&• .. --. -... -. ---------------------------------* FIDCA = BGI II H R..DCIR PLAN * NNTH & TENTH Fl CXJR -

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l .__ -------. -. ---.. ---... ----------------* ELEVENTH Fl OCR PLAN ..----------l ..=::::= = _ : * TWELFTH & THRTEEN'TH -------..--=..:: ------------* R PLAN I .............

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l -----.. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_____ ... ___ _ __ .. ____ , _ _ ------------... _ w _____ _ --------------I'1CDF PLAN/IVEHANCAL -RDCM LAVDLITS II •• II RDCM LAVDUTB

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SVBTEMB 1\DRTH • EAST ---------------...-----------B F1 FWILI\I t
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BDUTH WEST B FUEUIDN B FWIIDN lV-!._

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-__;)_ = WEST

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IVECHAI\ICAL SB:i iiCIN ' I

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•

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.. • • I I

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---• ----

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CONCLUSION

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THE NORTHSLOPE VILLAGE HOTEL HAS SOLVED MANY PROBLEMS THAT NOW OCCUR AT THE BASE OF THE STEAMBOAT SKI AREA. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF FACILITIES. B Y PROVID ING AN ADEQUATE NUMBER OF HOTEL RETAIL RESTAURANT AND CAFETERIA, AT THE BASE OF THE SKI AREA, VISITORS WILL BE ACCOMMODATED PROPERL Y . AS A RESULT OF PROPER FACILITIES, PROPER CIRCULATION WILL OCCUR BECAUSE ALL CIRCULATION OCCURS WITHIN THE BUILDING. IN ADDITION TO THE PARKING PROBLEM THAT HAS OCCURED AT THE STEAMBOAT SKI AREA WILL NOT EXIST AT THE NORTH SLOPE S KI AREA BECAUSE ALL PARKING IS WITHIN THE BUILDING STRUCTURE. THUS. THE STRUCTURE IS ABLE TO FIT INTO THE NATURAL SURROUNDINGS AND ALLOW PEOPLE TO PARK CLOSE TO THE SKI AREA. THE LUXURY OF THE HOTEL ITSELF IS EVIDENT OF THE ELEMENTS THAT EXIST WITHIN ALL INTERIOR SPACES. SUCH ELEMENTS AS PLUSHLY DECORATED CARPETING. WALL FOUNTAIN GRAND LOBBY SPACE, A RESTAURANT WITH A PANORAMIC HOT ALL MAKE A COMFORTABE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE GUESTS, AN ENVIRONMENT THEY WILL ENJOY TIME AND TIME AGAIN.

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I !D.At L:{ t!aui'Z$_ I ,(:? 1 (l /.. : tc: ao -"":oo 1 11 8 ___ ..JI'Y
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APPENDIX A TABLES

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TABLE 1 Basic Comeonents Pov1er Plant Federal Government Agricu lture, Tourism Total ESTIMATED WEIGHT OF BASIC COMPONENTS OF ROUTT COUNTY ECONOMY, 1975 AND 1 9 8 0 1975 Oasic Perc e nt of Total 1980 Basic Annua l Emeloyment Basic EmQloyrne nt Annual Emeloyrnent 450 15.0% 1,200 180 6.0 180 550 1 8 . 0 600 1,820 61.0 3,1 2 0 3,000 100.0% 5,100 Percent of Total Basic Emeloyrnent 2 4 .0% 3.0 12.0 61.0 100.0% Note: Employme nt dat a from B ureau of Economic Analysis and personal interviev1s. Basic employment totals b<1sed on basic to l ocal service r es ponse of . 6 in 1975 (six service v 1 o r kers for every 10 lJas i c workers) growin g to . 7 in 1980.

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i I CE.. I u t'fiJt -4p u-rc_ m T""AL,-' ___ __ ,_,-3=-----_____ f' _____j 'SM& f7/(}t)iL U0 AM 3 ' . 3,2M?( (-tf!.&) rzYz, 4-s-z!J 15 _________ ------+1' -/ 2 3o pm 8 "Z.() A---I _j 7 1-_.._ !!--=?=-------) ' r -tt2..A -n _ 3 x ____ '1-:, e ----+-'--' fl;c;o Ahl-I __ '---'-'-?-""-______ 1 _ .• _)____ _z_Xz.._ ____ . I I IJ J . !'L -S/7 k!i __ ___ _ ____ _ _ ::!(3z.!z. _____ _ I . I _ Yz_ _______ _ _ 5/3 . -I: _ ' _ 'JL !x 2 :J.Q;_3Q_Z___ .=5ez_L _______ _ _ __eLAN __ 60_&!t_(.::J _ _k. ___ __ _ 5"f-------------I ---------I . ---+-j -----. ___ ___ _ I . I I ------------------------------1 --------------1 I --------1.-..-----------

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TAI3LE 2 ---Skier Visits Steamboat Percent change from prior year ROUTT COUNTY SKI AREAS SKIER-VISITS 1975-76 TO 1980-81 SEASONS 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 . 466,459 181,600 535,032 605,675 6.6% (61.1)% 194.6% 13.2% colorado Total 5,965,172 3,653,409 6,648,866 7,215,316 Routt County As A Percent of S tate Total 7.8% 5.0% 8.0% 8.4% Sourc e : Colorado Ski Country, USA. 1979-80 1980-81 630,307 243,000 4.1 % (61.4)% 7,887,1 8 1 5,498,962 8 .0% 4. 4%

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Day TABLE 3 ROUTT COUNTY SKI AREAS SKIER GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION 198 0-81 SEASON Outside of Colorado Other Counties Colorado Routt County 22% Total Destination 66% 12% 22% 7 8 100% Note: Source : Total 66% 12% 22% Destination skiers are persons staying overnight in assoc iatio n with a day of skiing . Interviews of ski area personnel and review of skier origin studies.

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ble 4 Comoar ison o f Yearly Skier Visits by M onth Percent Change: Perce n t Change: 1981-82 to 1979 -8 0 to 1 982-83 s e ason 1981-82 1 9 82-83 1 979-80 1 9828 3 1 v e m ber 11,695 5,468 +113% 0 124,637 97,406 + 28 75,366 +65 . n u a ry 173,782 133,495 + 30 140,890 +23 !br u a ry 165,530 -43,737 + 15 170,472 -3 1 r c h 2 1 9,6 4 2 1 84,131 + 19 194,698 +13 >ril 4 3,822 49,242 -11 48,6 4 9 -10 >ta 1 739,108 613,479 + 21% 630,075 +17% f able 5 Yearly Comparison of Skier Visits by W eekdays 1982-83 1981-82 Percent Chanoe: 228,563 206,296 +10% Sat u rdays 114,889 100,266 +1s Sundays 113' 674 105,630 + 7 W e ekdays 510,545 406,583 +26 6 Yearly Comparison of Skier Type Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Stea m boat Steamboat 1 982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-7 8 ICa 1 R es idents 17% 22% 21% 21% 18% : her Col orado 18 23 12 1 2 16 Day S kier ( 3) ( 6) NA N A . NA Overnight Colorado (15) (17) N A NA NA r e rnigh t Out-of-State 65 54 66 6 7 66 --100 % 100% 100% 100% 100 % n=1172 n =ll06 n=1530 n=unknown n=unknown

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Jl e 7 Yearly Comoarison of Sti'lte of Origin for Top 15 States Steamboat Rank Steamboat Rank Steamboat 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 lorado 33% 1 45% . 34% l linois 5.7 2 5.4 3 4.9 :
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,le 9 Yearly Comparison of Total Colorado Representation Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 ! Colorado 33% 4S% 34% .oca l s 51 54 61 Range 42 38 29 Jther Co 1 or ado 7 8 10 100% 100% 100% n=39l n=499 n=513 able 10 Yearly Comparison of Top Metropolitan Areas :hicago York and Long Island l a 11 as it. Paul/Minneapolis .os Angeles 1 i ami : h eyenne \ t l anta ) k l ahoma C i ty 3os ton ' lew Orleans not available Mtn. Study 1982-83 4.9 2.9 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.3 1.2 l.l 1.0 n=ll79 Mtn. Study 1981-82 3.7 1.5 1.6 1.5 3 .l " 1. 2 1.5 1.4 .8 1.3 . 2 . . 4 n=l099 Steamboat 1978-79 35% Mtn. Study 1979-80 4 . 4 * 1.5 3.0 2 . 8 1.8 1.3 2.0 1.3 * 1.2 * n=unknown Steamboat 1977-78 34%

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able 11 Yearly Comparison of Area's Percentage Share of the State Market Mtn. Study Mtn. Study 1982-83 1981-82 olorado Front Range 42% 38% Local 51 54 11 i no is Chicago 87 68 ew York New York and Long Island 98 81 ex as Dallas 45 38 Houston 23 32 innesota St. Paul/Minneapolis 90 77 1 ori da Miami 54 59 lyomi ng Cheyenne 53 48 :a1 ifornia Los Angeles 50 51 ;eorgia Atl anta 78 82 J.b l e 1 2 Yearly Comparison of Aae Distribution Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat rears 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78 1der 19 10% 10% 13% 11% 16% 20-24 19 22 22 25 25 25-29 23 28 24 27 24 30-39 30 27 26 24 23 13 9 10 9 9 50+ 5 4 5 4 3 -100% 100% 100% 100% n=ll71 n=l109 n=l520 n=unknown n=unknown

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D l e 13 _ Yearly Comoarison of Sexual Distribution of Skier Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 le 66% 74% 70% 71% male 34 26 30 29 100% 100% 100% 100% n=ll69 n=lllO n=l525 n=unknown ab 1 e 14 Yearly Comparison of Marital Status Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 arried 40% 37% 35% 35% ingle 60 63 65 65 100% 100% 100% 100% n=1164 n=1089 n=l524 n=unknown 1 b 1 e 15 Yearly Comparison of Annual House hold Income Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78 0-14,999 26% 22% 22% 26% 30% l S-24,999 18 19 23 24 26 39 28 30 30 26 30-74,999 7 13 13 12 10 75,000+ 10 18 12 8 8 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% n=l146 n= 983 n=l326 n=unknown n=unknown

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1 e 16 Yearly Comparison of Skier Ability Mtn. Study Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat 1982-83 1981-82 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78 eginner 6% • 5% 7% 6% 9% First time out ( 1) ( 1) Beginner ( 5) ( 4) ntermediate 58 53 50 51 53 Low Intermed. ( 17) ( 18) High Intermed. (41) (35) : xpert 36 42 43 43 38 Advanced (23) (25) Expert (13) ( 17) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% n=1159 n=l098 n=l528 n=unknown n=unknown Table 17 Yearly Comparison of Who Respondent is Vacationing With* Mtn. Study Steamboat Steamboat Steamboat 1982-83* 1979-80 1978-79 1977-78 Alone (self) 6 17 19 12 Family 29 23 21 24 Spouse (6) Friends 41 37 37 40 Family/Friends 15 13 14 14 Ski Club/Group 8 8 9 10 Other 1 2 1 1 100% 100% 100% 100% N=939 *This season does not include the local responses in this queition; whereas other years do:

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TABLE 18 THE ECONOMIC INFLUENCE OF SKIING Economic Factor Employment Direct* Local Service UN THE ROUTT COUNTY ECONOMY, 1980 Amount Attributable to Skiing 3,880 2,280 1,600 Earned Income (millions) $ 57.8 Retail Sales (millions) Direct Winter** Other Housing Construct ion New Units Value (millions) Local Tax Revenues Sales Property State Tax Revenues Sales Income Other Taxes $ 98.8 $ 40.0 $ 58.8 580 $ 67.7 $2,520,000 $3,480,000 $3,270,000 $1,840,000 $ 850,000 s 580,000 Percent o f Routt County Total 45% 45% 59% 80% *Direct emp 1 oyment represents those pas it ions directly supported by skier expenditures, e.g . lodging, mountain operations, restaurants, etc. **Direct winter sales are retail sales attributable to winter visitors (does not include lift ticket sales). Other sales include retail sales by residents employed i n the ski industry and summer sales associated with the ski industry.

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TABLE 19 SKIER PROJECTIONS AND ACTUAL SKIERS Skier Visitor Days (SVD) Forecast Actual Sid Season Accorrmodated Corm1ents Annually SVD Design Day SVD 1968-69 -99,600 LTV Master Plan 1969-70 -124,700 Before LTV Master Plan 1970-71 163,200 2,900 159,077 Master Plan followed by LTV 1971-72 208,900 3,700 203,000 Master Plan followed by LTV 1972-73 271,500 4,800 236,870 Master Plan followed by LTV 1973-74 347,500 5,900(1) 346,163 Master Plan followed by LTV 1974-75 444,800 7,300 437,447 Master Plan cutbacks b y LTV(3) 1975-76 568,300 9,100(2) 466,459 Master Plan cutbacks by LTV(3) 1976-77 650,000 10,000 181,600 Bad snow, partial season(4) 1977-78 740,000 11,000 535,032 Master Plan cutbacks (3) 1978-79 830,000 12,000 605,675 Master Plan cutbacks(3) 1979-80 920,000 13,000 630,075 Master Plan cutbacks(3) 1980-81 996,700 14,000 243,000 Bad snow, partial season(4) 1981-82 -613,354 1982-83 ---(5) (1) Base II desirable start after 6,000 skiers, Design Day • 1973-74 (2) Base II required after 8,000 skiers, Design Day • 1975-76 (3) Due to recession and other economic factors, LTV cutback on projected development, which resulted in m ore skier congestion and less satisfaction and reduced market annually. (4) Bad snow conditions reduced the skier market and closed the ski area. This has an immediate effect on the skier rr. Jrket and a 1 i ngeri ng reduct ion over the next sever a 1 years due to confidence 1 oss. (5) Despite two bad snow years and continued cutbacks in development, t h e skier market has continued to grow. Since 1973, the actual skiers acc011111odated have exceeded the forecast desired to start Base II (600,000). S ince 197B, the total annual skiers have exceeded 8,000 Design Day, which i s when it is required to start Base II in order to overcome Base I congestion. Holiday record 10,722/day and 4 days over 10,000 skier/day • ahead of p revious year. This 1982-83 season may exceed 10,000 skiers/design day--way over requirements to start Base II and c r eating a negative impact on skier experience due to congestion.

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TABLE 20 PROPOSED/MASTER PLAN 1970 SKI LIFT . VlF Capac it Ski ers Number Lift Harne Type Vertical Base I Base II Remarks Feet (1 Per Hou Per Day Exist A Poma 1 poma 275 300 52 B Headwall 2 chair 215 850 114 c Christie 2 chair 1,005 840 530 D Thunderhead 2 chair 1,640 800 820 E Burgess Creek. 2 chair 950 800 473 F 4 Points 2 chair 1,255 700 549 1970 tot a 1 X 5,340 4,290 2,538 • 1970-71 Gondola, Stagecoach 6 gon. 2,180 1,100 1,500 4 Points increase 2 chair X +400 315 Burgess Creek increase 2 chair X +300 177 Poma 1 pam a 600 -8 Negligible increase 1971 sub X 2,780 1,800 2,000 total 8,120 6,090 4,538 Discounted 641 1971-72 cabin 1 Thunderhead/Peak 3 2 chair 1,295 1,025 829 Midpoint station 2 Priest Creek. South/Peak. 3 cabin 1,075 1,025 689 2 chair 1972 sub 2,370 2,050 1,518 total 10,490 8,140 6,056 ' 2 Discounted 6a 1972-73 3 Priest Creek S.E./Peak. 3 open ch 850 1,000 531 1973 sub 850 1,000 531 total 11,340 9,140 6,587 Discounted 731 • 1973-74 Base II 4 Base II/Ridge cabin 700 1,000 43B 5 Base II Ridge/Twin Peaks cabin 1,900 1,000 1,188 (3) 1974 sub 2 ' ,600 2,000 1,626 total 13,940 11,140 8,213 Discounted 721 • 5900 skiers (8170) 1974-75 6 Headwall beginners open ch 250 1,000 156 Replaces poma 7 Christie/Thunder Pk.. cabin 1,900 1,000 1,188 -1975 sub 2,150 2,000 1,344 total 16,090 13,140 9,557 Discounted 77'1 7300 skiers (9520)

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PROPOSED/MASTER PLAN 1970 SKI LIFT CALCULATIONS CONTINUED VTF Capac it' Skiers Number Lift Name Type Vertical Base I Base II Remarks Feet (1 Per Hour Per Day 1975-76 8 Priest Creek/Peak 3 open ch 1,950 1,000 1,219 9 Priest Creek/Thunderhead open ch 875 1,000 547 1976 sub 2,825 2,000 1,766 total 18,915 15,140 11,323 Discounted sa • 1, 2 9100 skiers (11,285) 1976-77 400 10 Base II/Ridge/Buddy's cabin ct 1,525 1,000 1,203 Intermed. stop/reverse total 20,840 16,140 12,526 Discounted 79'.t • I 9920 skiers (12,500) 1977-78 Base I I 11 Buddy' s/Mt. Werner cabin ct 1,600 1,000 1,000 total 22,440 17,140 13,526 Discounted 30:t . . 10,810 skiers (13,500) 1978-79 12 Base II Mt. Werner/North open ch 875 1,000 547 13 Base II Mt. Werner/South open ch 575 1,000 359 1979 sub 1,450 2,000 906 total 23,890 19,140 14,432 Discounted 82'.t I 11,780 skiers (14,400) 1979-80 14 Burgess Creek/Peak 2 cabin ct 2,125 1,000 1,328 Replaces poma total 26,015 20,140 15,760 Discounted 82'.t • 12,840 ski ers (15,720) 1980-81 Base I I 15 Base II/Fish Creek open ch 1,575 1,000 984 total 27,590 21,140 16,744 Discounted 84'.t • • 14,000 skiers (16,700) Total ProJect 1 ons 9,000 5,000 (4) (1) The calculations of lift capacities are based on the vertical feet of the lift, multiplied by lift capacity of skiers/hour, and divided by 1,600 vertical transportation feet (ViF}/skier/hour {based on average skier market demand of 8,000 VTF/5 hours of skiing). (2) Skier Design Day numbers show the actual capacity calculations under Skiers Days (2,538). Under Base I and Base II columns, the bottom number (2,550) is actual skiers capacity and the upper number (2,500) is a discounted capaci ty. This was proposed in order for the . ski area to build up a reputation of "Not too crowded" in the early years. Therefore, calculations are discounted almost 60: in the earlier years and reduced to 85'.t in later years. The right columns shows totals of Base I and Base II. (3) Base II skiing fs started with two lifts fn 1973-74: Lfft No. 4 is an access 11ft from the base to the intervening ridge; and Lift No. 5 continues to the top of the new ski area designated as Twfn Peaks. See Base II Proposals for details of lifts and trails. (4) The totals fn 1980-81 show 11ft capacities of 9,000 for Base I and 5,000 for Base II fer a total of 14,000 skier/day. It was that both base areas could expand some in the future, provided there are two bases in order to avoid base congestion. (5) See Table 5 for Present Lifts Calculations.

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us. FORE5T SERVICE MIX Skier Ability l-'ttna Syate• or Slopes: (vnt./lencth • I% Llecllvlty or slope) Novlce-tralnnu -10% to 25% a lope lnter.edlate . • 25% to 40% •lope Advanced .• 40% tn 55% a lope Expert . • 55% to 80% slope U . S . FOREST SER"\VICE CLASSIFICATION Ability Hajor Sten•boat Cateaory SH o\u-ea Ski Area Ski Area Novice uz:: lS% 8.S% lnunudhtr 40%:. 55% 23.5% Advanced 25%: 20% 38.0% hpen 20:Z:: 10% 30.0% PROFESSIONAL SKI l tdi STRUCTORS CLASSIFICATIOtr. Skier Ability A Straight Practice Straight I Snowp ICN 1l'ou:n lleglnner c St•• Twrn llejtlnnerSide Slip lnt<'nocdlate Cb.rhtle 0 Ste• Chr l.al.t.le lnter.edlate E r .. r .1lld "<1'81'01 lntcr•edlute-Advanced f Short Svta111 Advanced G Slalm • t :xrr.rt Ill S p.-cl.tl w Cl '. I _,.-Eal lln11 Slum oat Ski A t t I )8. 0 Yo I I I 30 "4 I . . I I . ff .. h5.,. J 20 .,_ .. J . J -1!1. 0'>'. I I I 10 '1'. 0 '>'. 8 ... r l I l . r0 10 20 )() 40 50 60 70 80 PERCENT SLOPE VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL TABLE 21 Ski Trail Comparisons ... . 90

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STEAMBO A T • • . 1 . 1,000 ; , • .. •• ; ! .r.-• 1.:.' ;;: ; " I f i .. !'!: ..:; . • • ! .... . .. ... • J { . ,_ I t : •\ .f.A ,_ Vi ..... . , > j J : .... . ! ::s 4 ' 1 , . : • j . . ; )'" . .. ) . .. 100 . , ' . .. ; . :-December ' ; . • t._. : ::j r--i t'4o' :, .. . lit. ; • • " h :r. • , ' ' ' 1.' . .. -. February • • j t ' TABLE 22 • • .. I I t ' (. •' .. • ,,. .,. T • ., . ' . ' March Dally Skier ' • J •• ; ... j ,_. SOURCE: local • •• April VIsits Aspen Complex and Steamboat . 1969-70 -

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TABLE 23 , LIFTS CALCULATIONS VTF Capac it Skiers Lift Name Type Vert ical Per Hou Per Day Base I Base I I Remarks Feet 1971 1971 Total 8,120 6,090 4,538 I 1972-1982 South face 3 chair 200 1,500 188 Beginner's slope Base I Preview pony 20 X -0Beginner's ski school Base I Christie I II 3 chair 1,030 1,500 956 Bashor 2 chair 315 1,000 197 Arrowhead 3 chair 1,640 1,500 1,537 \UW 2 chair 870 1,000 544 Bar UE 2 chair 1,380 1,000 863 Elkhead/Priest Creek 2 chair 650 1,000 406 Priest Creek 2 chair 1,930 1,000 1,206 Subtotal 8,035 5,907 -01982-83 Tohl 16,155 max. Assume 801 discount 10.445 8.356 skiers {10,450)

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APPENDIX B FJGURES

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50,000 40,000 30,000 20,0001 0,000 FIGURE 1 COMPARISON OF COLORADO SKI INDUSTRY BASIC EMPLOYMENT WITH OTHER BASIC INDUSTRIES, 1982 S ource: A gr oculi urt <17,800 OilS. Gas r77'7771 2 7. 3 0 0 E rac o l M o c h iner y Monufacou r i ng 15, 100 a n d r. iC: 1QI Mini'lg Colorado ski ind u stry estimate from Se c lion ill, this r eport; data for other industries from Colorado Dep(Jrtment o f Labo r and Employment, Colorado Labo r Force Revie w, August, 198 2 (released O ctober 1982 ) p .l5.

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Source: Browne, Bortz & Coddington

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(f) 0 z 0 I f-F I GURE 3 390 360 330 300 2 70 240 210 180 CIT Y O F STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, MONTHLY SALES TAX COLLECTIONS, 1979-80 W 1 n t e r V 1 s 1 t o r Sales 150 Construct1 o n Sales 120 90 6 0 30 0 M a y J Jul y Off Season Base A Sept 0 Nov MONTHS Source: Cily of Steamboat Springs. 0 Jan F March A

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FIGURE 4 390 360 (f) 330 a:
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FIG U RE 5 CITY OF STEAMBOAT SPRI NGS, M O THLY SALES TAX COLLECTIONS, 1976-1 981 tACTUAL DOLLARS) (f) 0::: 0 ::r:: f-$420 390 360 330 300 270 240 210 180 ISO 120 1977-78-+\ 1976-77 90 60 0 May J July A Sep t 0 Nov 0 Jan F March A Note . Col lect1ons for 1976 throl!qh Feb. 1979 ere doubled to ma1ntoin cons 1st en c y from p r 1 or 2 percent to present 4 percent tax rate . Source: C1 t y of Steamboat Sprinqs.

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C • " ; ' '..; ' .......... 0 . . 0 0 :.PPROV A L BY REGIOf.iA.L F ORES TER ! STA G t _ _ _______ O.).T---1 STA G E li OAT _ _ _ , l!l' 0 ATE ___ 1 ' c:!'lcf <1c1td 101\'f . I U'(iENQ •a.,.,..o.w. .. .., \..ao•..,o "DI'aaT ___ _ , _ _ _ j I ........ __ .. -----, -a.-.aac o .... .,.. •• • • -.,-••.a .... , .a a-•, • ., 1 " .... . . . .. ::: -, \--_uu_' I ---J --' , . I I I I I I 1.-1 --r

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ROUTT COUNTY l OWNS H I P K EY •,r A i l I 200 -----..... , .;Jiu,.. .. ' .. , " "ut. ,•....: , , , .. c ., . ................ 001 .. "'""• 1 u .. n .. I.OOO 0.\Un( l I .... , .. ,, .... _ \ ' \ '\ ' ' " ' ' I __ ,_j ' ' ,, ...... _:-.:.. =--:..: = =-..::. = =:.:::.::.:.---=--=-; :.;----/ .i)Ul', " • IIDUA t t()ool ........ n " ....,...,., \01 • ...... , (', ... • ) ,_.., ... _ .. , • "-....... ( ' 1 ""' ) l u •••• j_ __ A dJOintng 0841 ---------.,....._' I L . j --------___ _j 0841 -14 T6N . R8 4Y'I sec . , .

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I . . oo" -H.(X:O" I.,_., ... .. , ' ' { ( \ '\ .. ' />1. t I I ' 8 DISMUKE -, .•••. T O M GRAN r PRO PERTY DICK GRANT _.-..... 1 .... "" ; ,.;;;.;-1.... "'" ' ' "' • t ... l. '"' .. :", .. . .. _:. .. !:

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APPENDIX C SOILS ANALYSIS

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) .. . B U TCHE R KNIFE CREEK Sca l e 1 " ... 200 ./\. .. 2 8 D tWTE: M ap i s In T. 6rL , R. 84'w'. Base m a p U SGS 7 . 5 min. to;;o. ----V I C I I TY MAP 1 5 \ 2 7 ( Fig. 1

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_ AND ASSOCIATES I I :I i Jry '.!"' "'e : :)" ' : 93.4:.:cf I I .0 -' J ..,_ a _ r, ... r _E' __ n _ r _ e -rl I ! I j i i i ' I I I I I i I ; i J ! I I ! i 1 I i I I i I _j_ • +++-I +-----+--+-+1 I i l ; ! :-r, , , I 'Il l 1!1 . ""' I i ! ! ! ! i ! ! ! II,,! I I i . l ill! , . , ,, 1 ! 1:i! II;! .---+--t--+,-+-. . , --1 : i I i 1 1! '1 i; 1 . i i 1 I! : i ! ' : I ! I I : I ! I ' I : ! I ! I l-----+--,-.......-+ -11 ! ! i 'I' ! I! I C t ! ' ! ' I I : j j ' I • i : I : I ' I . I I I I I : I i ; : i I i I ! i i ' I : i I ! Addltf:oniall con;stf!nt ' . I :._• ' ----.--' __....; _ , due to wettll19 ' 1 I I I I ! I I I ! I : i ! i • I I . l I ' : ' ' i j I i 1 C. I :() iC PReSSURE ksf Typical sar.1ple of clayey slIt fron Test Pit 4 at depth 3'-0". T.;: c • ' l I 00

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c: 0 Ill Ill v L. 0.. E 0 u 0 2 3 6 7 C A r-. l S S 0 C I A T E S rt :J f u r c I [.; r > .. , ,,. = 105.1 pc: I I ! I r c • u r c I 1
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0 -5 -)._ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 • ; 1 L "llf ,....., ,o4 L l '-'< .) i ... ) I ;.,_ 1 :: ;) f •:: t :J' ':I / . ur : 'ft e I q..... : 105 . 5 M:--.. Co11en = 11 . 0 e r c e r.t : I I I 'l+U' 'li lj I !:: .. 1 .. I i I ' I i , I I ' : I I I : ' I ! I ' I ' I I I ' I l I ! ! j I I i j ; ' ' I I I I : I I I ' . I I • I ' I : : I I : I I • ' i i I I ' I : f ---1 -.---;-' -! I I ! I I ; I I cons;tant i I to:wettlni.: :: ! ! I I .. ' . l . ' I , I I ; I ' i ' t . i I ----, I I . : I : • I o ' I ' ! IJ -----r--: ---. ' . ! . I I I ; . ' _L__:_ _____ . ..,-...:_ __ , ___ _ i ' : . I : i I l I ' I ! . . . . . ; . ' I i : i : ! : . j I : I ; ! I ! I I i I • I : : ! i i 1 : I I I l . ' I . I I I I I .. : -: ! l i ----I . . ' ! i i I ! I I ' . ' • ----ri!: i i I I : 11 i I ' I 1f . P P :.... I E ) P E: S U R !.'. Typical sample of sandy sl lt from Test Pit 2 at depth 2'-011• ( _-' ' ; c: , : (. i : c; • ; r: I' • ; s

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CHEN AND A SS OCIATES Dr;.Un11 Wt! IQI"'87.3 pcf r . a 1 urol M0151ur e C o n • en : = 10.0 cen: I I I' I I I I' I I l1 IJJ I ! I i! ,,. I 1 : I ; I I : I , ! I J I ' I I I I I !I l ! i I . l I : I I d 11 I 1 d I j 1 I I 1 i------+--+--+--+-1 d_+ f a i , s ron u f1d e r ! cons 1 ; f I I II I I ,,! il I ! i p e s e d u e t 0 we t t I n 9 • I ' ' ' I I I i I , ' : • , ' I I I ..,.__ _ _,I i I I!' i I I ., i I ! i I I I : ! ! I I l I : t : • ' : 1,1 :, ,, 11 . . ' '!. i 1' i j il ! 1 i ! i ! ; ; i ! ; 1 , I ! ! . ! I ; I I I I : I I ; ' I ! i ! : I II ! i I il il:. I ! ; : ! i I : I ' I I I I ! i i ! I I i i : : i ! ! : I I ' , I I ! : : I 'I I I ! I I I II ' I I i i i ! i I I I ! . ! j I : : l i I ! i i I . ! I I i I ! i I I : ! i I I I I i . : I, T , If-+ ! I -1-----+-, 1 _..__, --+-1 --' , 1 ..,--_...J; J ' i i l, ! i i ! I I I i' I : 11 I I ',: i i ,1 I I i . I : ! : . i I i I I : ,, i I I ! I : I : i I' I ! I : I ' I ! 1 ' 1 I I I ' I ! : b : I :, ,, l ; I i, I ',1 i; ; ' I, !, -----t-, -+il,--+,!:-+-1 4-i ... ...._, .._: --l: 1 I ' I I I . I i1 ', I ' ;', .: I I , ! j : : i 1 i i I ! ! _ _;_!t-+-'I ! ;...-+-' : --l .... \-; -,, -+-11 -+--li ___,1 -., 'i l Ill i I I ! I i \ I i , i ill . !Iiiii i \ I 'I ill 1 ! I iill i 1 Ill i i i I -+-1--+--+---JI-+-i l-+-1--+-l --+1 mml IG IC..J ' APPLIED PRESSURE ksf Typical sample of very sandy silt from Test Pit 3-A at depth 31-01'. C o n s ol:dat,o:--, R-:-s' . .

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0 c: 0 VI 'fl (I) 1-:::l. E 2 0 u 3 \... 1 11-l'f ,.....,,'ll..,l .. Dr}". U n•f ,-.c ! Q/"\1 = 8].3 o c ' Mr:1s•ure Con •er:= 10.0 p;,•::en: I II I II I l 1 I J l ! i --H--++1--+----' --+'--+-+'-+-[' H-tl T -I I : . II 1 ' 1 1 , ' 1 1 -! 1 : , l------+--+--+-+-,-+-+1-+ ... ' ' ! _, . ' ; ' ! . : I n ' ! I I I I ! I I i I I I : ; i I ' ! 1 ! _ _____ 1 : j I I I i I I ' i -...--' I : pres s u r e due t 0 w e t t I n g • , : I I I I , II, 1 !11----' I I. I IIJ I ' --' I I l I ' I I • I I I i i ! I I i : ! I : i i I I : : ! . 4 I! . , , i : : ,1 ! I ! . 1 : I ,I i i I ! i ! l ! I, : ; I i . j f I ' : ! : i I I I I I i : ; . I j ',, I ! ; : ; • i i I 'I ' ',1 1 1 . I I i : i ! , . , I ! : ! : i i : i I I i I ! ! i i I • ! i ;:!' i : !Tj!! ! ! i I 1 : : ; _ _ i _ . , -' i i i i ! ! i . I I . I i I : j I ! : i ' I I I I I : : I i ; l I ! II II I I ! 1 ' 1.1 \ i ' i i : 111 i I I I 1 . I 1, I: I I I ; I ! I I : ! 1 . I I I ! I I ( ; ' • I • I I I • I I i ' . I I , I ' I I I I I ! I ' : • 9 l I I i i !!Ii i \1-,; i ljii• i ! ! . , ; . 1 i I i I ! i ! ! I : : : I i I : ! ! I ! : : :t , o I i I!:;. \ I I I I l i : , , i i i ' !, 'il! ! ,, i! i i \ ! I ,, ! i I I i Iii I i . -+-+-+-1--t 1-+--i i i I I I i l i i I i 111 5 6 7 8 1 1 I I I i j ! I i ! I . I I ! ! l I i . I • : l I I I I I ! ! i ! ! i I i ! i i i i i i ! ; ; j ! : I 12 01 ::J f(j I C. ' APPLIED PRESSURE -ksf Typical sample of very sandy sil t from Test Pit 3-A at depth 3'-0". Test R s ,_, I ; s

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0 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 1 4 15 0 . 1 I I I I ' CHEN AND ASSOCIATES Not.Jr::JI :Jr1 1 Jr>1 l We 1 g I = 104.1 p c ' Noluro l MOI!.lure Con er:t = 4 . 6 per cent I I I I t ! i i I I 1 I ! II I I I I i : ! ! ! ! ! ! i I ! ! f ! : I I :: : ! I l I l I I i : I : l ' ; i i, ' I ,,,.ill\ ' I I : I I ! I i I I i I I ' ' i : I I I ' I I i I 11 I ' I I I I I I : I I I ; i i I I I I i I II i I I 1 lil : ,11 \ I 1 ! I \ l j . r 10 I C APPLIED PRESSURE ktf ! i I I I ! I I I I 1 1 i illJ roo Typical sample of silty sand and gravel frof"i Test Pit 7 at depth 3'-0". s .... e ll-CorsO i !dCJtlOn Test

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d"' 0 c: 0 \/) VI 'l) I... a. c 2 0 u 3 4 5 7 8 I I I ChEN A t J ASSOCIATES a t I D r y U n d we,gn t : tJc:urol Mc•stur\! Con1P.n• = 98.2 ;:c: I ] , 4 p ercent U! lillli I i i 1i : I I ! ii!!' 11-----I ! i ljl![ l i ! : ' I ---+1 _.___..! I I I ' ' I I ! ! II I ! ill n • v . ' I " .. v I C APPLIED • kat Typical of clayey-silty sand fron Test Pit 8 at depth 2'-611• Swei l -Ccnso: datic n Test R e 1 • s

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ChEN AND ASSOCIATES , , , , : : , . 1 I ! ! 1 ' I l : : ' -L--..------J..i --I . ' I : : ' : I ! I : ! -....----_ __..... ---' ' j i ' ,.,. 0 • u r 0 I 90.6 p c . 13.7 Dt•Ct"f I ' l ' . ___ _ _ ._": . I I ' ' . i i _ _._ ___ ,_"T __________ _.____.,___.._ ' I . ! t I l l I : ; . ; . I , I \ . ' ' Typ I ca.l sa111p 1 e of icl ayey-s 11 tysand frartJ Test .Pit 12 a : t deth: 2 ' " I I ! . ! . I . i ; i I _ _ 1 _ _ :.__ ' .....,;_:_ _ _ I l ; ' ! I I , ....... '1 96.4 14.5 r C '.,.. p c • . ! ; I i . : i . ; : ; I i Add it I ona I compress I on iUnder cbns tan:t 1 -__J --------.,_; due t6 wetting. I : I i I ' ' ! I I ' ! I : , i ' __ __...._----'---+------.--+--.--..,----, _ . ' -! : j : l depth . I

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CHEN AND Soi l ond Foundatio n .. I"l --. --S I E v ( ;.. ,., A:. ' " 5'5 (, S i A ... CAstC T . , . .... . .. \ . -"-• -----. !.-_ : --=:.::-= :_:.:_..::_ L ---.---_ ____ -::=-. :-:---t--. ----• 0 r -----------.. . . • 1 : z ... .-----------------ta.._..., l l ! h. -----:--- • . r I 11 ('• " ...,;._,.... , 49 (J" u .:..•. .>) 40 v ,I.J ,. L..l C .H.J J ,; L I "'-1: I ... , ... ":;,/ , , I I < t : ......... /iJ c s II ty Sand Fill ,_ I..J: Test Pit at depth 2 I 011• s a .. C A .OIC S f • fS--._ ......... •!---•ao• > : ... .. ' .. l I ,... --.... 15 ,, 6 8 AN. 17 , c . . c I . , I ' ........ I '1-• • • t ' I' , .. a i C s 11 ty, G ravelly Sand Test Pit at depth 6'-011• l .::,r-' ,to ' t.:"J I

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CHEN AND AssociATES Con1ulting Soil and Foundation Enginet.l ) S l E 11 f s ..... c .. • o -Si:R .r-s-;,• ""'-) •).... .. ' F.__ 1 ,)>------r...:.:-! ; _ ... . .. -.. ----. . : 5 . . !...:=-. . ..-----:,t-.'A ' J .__ : 30 '7o L..IC....U i o.J L lr-1 ; : .. • j 42 0 ... ,. _.;,_ _ _ ! <1 0: ':)-F t r Silty Sand and Gravel .... uMTest Pit 2 at depth 101-01 1 • _ . _____ f v E .. CA":l Sf••!S-.. .... ... ---r 41 5 ...... 54 'l c L A t .. ; .. 1; L I..J ' .,.,, . ' o p , ,1. ':: .. I ; J •.. t .... • r 1 ... I ' . . Sand and Gravel ... Test Pit 3 at depth 51-011• -,...,; 1 t:::S T r
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CHEN AND AssoctATEs Soi l and Foundat i on + ..... }.-S ' E v E llhAl"StS -------0t---. s [ " i . f S -;_ , -c:r A A ::::.uAIIt .--.. • .. lot. ... ..,. ,. -. : --:-:-T -:-r ---: c . .. . . . . .. . -. • .. t • • • " • .. ' • I ---.=_ _ _ -i_ -J -:::---c .. --- • v z ' -... --1 )a ' " r 5 .,.. " u/0 Sand and Gravel Test Pit 6 at depth 61-011 • ... ::. _ ... J L u • ... G

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L I ... •o----Ct1f N AND Soil a n d Foundation Ens;;int'lt:n .... s E vE lllooAL"'St5 c;-t...,J a a c ;-::-f .t.R • L.••\. ..... ... .... '-• .. . 1 ,. t ------0 -.... • + -----+-+<. -.... ., + • . _ _ J .> . .,.. r -.. . -"'!"" _ -' -----t---' 7--: . .! -J 0 . "---,to .. v t :-f-. _ _ • _ _ _ _ -.. ' I • -.l. r • ' "1-=-j-; .. -: . . ...:...i:.--=..= __ _::_ -___ .,.:)()'!--J. .. --... • .. , ,.. r •.,. j .. H I • t , ' !I.e ... • r . r... 7 oo vv l I • ".,.r ic."' (.• ' " .. j .......... ....... 3G . 0 • s ( I u 48 .3.,._ . J / o Sl lty Sand and Gravel . ... . Test Pit 5 at depth S'-6" . < • fS--. •'). ...... _ • x ... ; _ -;_ ;.__ _ -::: ::_:l t--..... --+ ---'--t> -------.. _ r I ' . f ' -_; = -::c. : T -::= " ' -=:;:: . , . . : cc . : . : : . : -, . : ; l ::; ... .. • l . : . . _-. -' -.. .. " ,... 1-----t - • ... . ----f . • ------t"----1 0>---r ,.. ' . v , _______ _,. _ ____ ..,...... ,._-'f • . . t f _-. I . --r .. •"'! l._ . , 56 • (J 39 '='J :. Sand and Gravel Test \_) .. _ J _ ' I :: I < :-_ : : • J _...__ • > 1 5 Pit 6 at depth 6'-0". • Q

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AND Soil Cfnd Foundation T l .. ( llfAOIIoOS -----+-----_ ... t L ----. . . ---....,..------------. . . ----r :.... 1 l---t.; .-----:--.---: 41 I C..l d ...... • .. ,J tl' !IJ ':-1 ... ,. _ , .... ;. ' " s i 1 ty l II..J;_,I..J l I " " I f ----------S I EvE' AOIAL '-'51$ s S t .. --. --. +---• t.:.•. !" .......... . . )." ... ., #4 -,,a.; . , , 45 o/o I ,), . . . . " ! o T 0 ..... I I'\ ,,..,....,, Sand and Gravel F ""'' .. ., Test PIt 7 .. ) I S, i • I I . ; " .. ; ,;;-.;,:.;, f \ . .., . " . -.1 c . . ...... . .. ... . . . .. ( : r ::..i:J ------14 u / 0 --: .. -:-.::-J c.. ... ' 1 .... _-_.:___: • :..: .. • - • . :z ----... o ... ..., ! : u ; . -_____ ___. e at depth 3'-0". • .1......,. r Sand and Gravel . . . Test ?it 7 at depth 10'-6" . d:. ::::> 1

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'ln.. ; ' . . . . . I p , , . . ...... ... , lo I AND Cumulti n Q So i l e n d F o undation E n Q intl"'' " . , . , . ..._ 4 4 I; . ,> c .; ... t. ,,.: " " .... .... ? '.f • I sr • c s-.. .. .. . . ' __ .! .:__...: _ _ _:._: t t . ' !Yo.. " " \!1 • "' .., • .__ ...... ....... .... . Ill,: . _ 52 -., . . . . " ...., J I I , ... __ . , , .. -:--., : ... ' . . ' • • 1 -:.._, , ..:; , . _ --l. l -i uO .)8 t ,.. 2 0... • I ------' . u "' , .. ' Sand an d Gravel Test Pit 8 at depth 10'-0' ' . .. -............... Aot ... ,. j(! ' "'t .... • . -. . . --.. . . . --+ J . . ...... ---..... . .. .. -..... _ s j .. t .. ,,.,. J A P s r '"[ . -.-.. ... r : -::-: . . • .,f _ _ ____ _ -.. ---. . • ----
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1..... ., .... 4-6 • . • ....... .......... ----r.--r r:--! .. . f. lt I 1--...1 I 1 I , .. &J L (\ Very S 11 t y S and 36 , I ' . . 62 1 ..., Sand and G ravel \.,;; ....... _;-I I ! ,.. '"' T est PIt /' . I ' I ' • 10 at 2 '];. depth 2 '-61 1 • Test Plt 10 at depth 10'-0". I

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• t . ;...,, ... , ... " 42 AND -. \ SP• [5"v . ... :.;_:..l _ : _ _!.: -, , !,..-1\ I,. p , .. fo' ... .. t ;.,. .. ,J ' f .,) 55 , . _ ' ' " i 'lit .. L ..... __ _::_ .,. .,.r •' , u u " ... .... •.: : Sand and Gravel Test Pit 11 at depth 9'-6" . A ... A . f ,oo ....... .. ! "' ..... --_ -------------• l r . .. --! ' . ).-r _ _ _ .:: .:-l , . -' r u r --:------:-----: ' _.__., , . " .. • ., .. : T 40 . '--4 _ , ' S 'A"OA11 8 5"r4 t ( 5.._, .... _ . .-@ ... -: so 10 Slightly Silty Sand and . Test Pit 12 at depth 9'-6" . Gravel • .._ I • ' I f , _ '"' r', _ •'

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t--r : __::---...... ------.... .. : • l Cti N ANu C::.n:o .. lring Soil a n d F;>undotion E n g ine.., . . . , -_ ) 4 4 / u L r-.. . c; . . . ...... "'' .. . l 1<-l\.l l .. ' 11.-11' ....-t • I J,._ I I., . ,,;. c;; • .... l . t :. Slightly Silty Gravel Sand 21 68 and • ,.., Test :'I • I ' '"1 r . 1 • 1 "'""' 7 .. 0 Pit 13 at depth 6 ' -0''. . , -:. .... Slightly S !lty Sand a n d Gravel Test Plt 14 at depth 2'611• . l .. r . . • I • -

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AND JolojA \ '"'l .,;;.. ... ..... . , . _::JQ: _ _ _ --... -:----.__ .. , , . : .. _ _ '" .. , . ... . v r 34 . . -, .. L!.1. r.,A-.. :.,A S! '"' S • . ---...... ... . . . ' 1 . • t . . t '"1'1.. -• , .. 1 I ---! .. : -1 u , ... .-. .... u •,. • )jill "'e t . , -l :JJ ..... ,.,. ....,.:...\Jf'f"'-: r '-: • --.... 1... ------...__ _ -----------G4 ,.. 2 (J .. ,. .... ... , J ; -' J .... . 'jv • .. , .. Sand and Gravel • . : -,Test PIt 14 at depth 7'-6''. 1-"YORO ... fTE" , .... _ ... T 1a.tt --< ....... .,:;:..OJ.) .. " ......... ... " ... . -----: : _: ___ r-. ..,.. -.. ! . _ -_-=:_:_.: :_ _ _ r--.:_-!"• ---. . .... . ! : .:... .--:------....... ..... ---""'t" ---_:r-----+-_. -. i, . . . , . _::::-:r.:._ _:--:::::._ .:. . .: --+---_.,. _ _ +-_j __ -__::_ _ _ ' 1 :-:-::._-4 ::-. --L-:::::.::----::::. -: • - • + -.---. :;J:_ . .., --. ' ___ ::,_ ____ --!---. ' -----------:..l< ;;f.. v :>t I .. ) ' 25 .. 53 Silty Sand and Gravel !, ? !_ ; 5EII !S• . .. ., : • I "'., I , ""'Joll . I '• ••• +.. 22 ' ,, __ --Test Pit 15 at depth 21-6'1 • "::.::)I : L I . z

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..... t5 • • • f.('..... ....... " . .... ==+= --_ ----.-----AssOCIATES __ S l _ E 'I[ . , sroi.CAQC S(5.._ .'1' .. ----------... 1 '"-. .! i:. :l ------
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s u M 'v1 .r:. r . , t i _ / .. 'f . ---. .. . . .. T ' . " : . r t , c i . . , I PERCEN T I N ' T u" A l tAT u" , , , ' ' . L A . '_::_ __ ':'_'. ' .. . < . : f TEST PIT l [') f f : H , .,),•l l . . . ' PASS I tlG M Cll5'fURl L 1':.1 ()IV: : : 1 . , • • l $ ; :: I 1 Y F F. ( F t [. I ) I c __ 1 • . t 7I :, • I . ' I • f ; j .. 110 • 200 ' ' . ' I . S I EVE --. ---------------. ---.. -...... 1 ---1 ----r __ .. _-. . .... ... l l"". I . _ _ .. _-. -.. --2.0 1 4 . 9 1011 . 3 40 1s 11 ty Sand FIll 6.0 8. 0 105. 1 17 f I I ty, Gravelly Sand I j ' I l 2 2.0 1 1. 0 105.5 21 2 75 Eandy S II t I . ----.. --. -. I 1 0 . 0 10.2 28 , s 1 1 ty Sand and Grave l ! 3 s . o 2 . 9 I l j . Sand and Grave l I 87.3 I I I 3-A 3.0 10.0 22 3 59 Sandy Silt -----l 4 3.0 15. 6 93. 4 C l ayey s llt 5 s.s 5.6 I 16 S I I ty Sand and Gravel I I ' . 6 6.0 3.4 5 'Sand and Grave I ... I --7 3.0 4 .6 1 04. 1 I 1 4 s II ty Sand and Gravel 1 ---J . I ' 6 . 7 6 ' Grave l 10.5 Sand and ------------I 8 2 . 5 ].4 98.2 ' 2 2 l 6 42 tlayey-SIIty S and .. ----1.-10.0 5.9 4 Sand and Grave l ... --------.. SlightlyS ilty Sand 9 6 . 5 3.5 I I 1 2 --------. I and Grave l I 10 2 . 5 8.4 . _ _ _ 3 47. t y Sand ... -. --t---10.0 5.8 2 Sand and Grave l .. -. l 1 .. f 1 1 9.5 12.8 3 G ravel -------1 12 2.0 13.7 90.6 I 7 46 Clayey-51 lty Sand I I , . ---l SlightlY !llty Sand 9.5 .-ti ----1 'T" I ! 1 0 ! t. .. Sand 13 6.0 7 ---I Tlty Sand I 14 2.5 14.5 96 ,II j 11 ! I I and Gravel ].5 16. 4 2 Sand and Grave l 15 2.5 1 0 .5 I 22 s llty Sand and Gravel -. .. . . 9.5 18.4 0 Sand and Gravel

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APPENDIX E ZONING MAP

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APPENDIX F HOTEL SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS

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HOTELS BASIC THEORIES OF HOTEl PlANNING Before. an architectural office begins planning and designing a hotel. it should know ... actly how a hotel operates. Every type of building must function smoothly to 11chieve the end re--sult that lhe client is stu:tking. The primary function of a hotel has not changed from the earlittst recorded hostelry to the presentday hotel. whether that be 1 hotel of 1 00 rooms or 3,000 room!i , whether i t be a n incity hotel or a resort hotel. whether i t be a convention hotel or a famiiyrype hoteL The earli•st hostelry offered "bed and board'' as wefl as pleaaant surroundings i n which to enjoy bo:h eommodi ties. The eariiest hostelries and caravansaries worked on the same principle. The guest arrived at the front door, where he was greeted and arrangements were made for his lodging and food. A arable for horses and carrl3ges, or a compound for can1eis and cargo, were pro vided er the rear of the establishment. A rear yard was used by the innkeepers wife .5nd her assistants to prepare food which was then cooked in a kitchen. We therefore h a d a house divided i n two. The front half of the house included the reception area and the public rooms, or the covered arcades i n the c:.ravansa ries, where the guests gethered to dine and to socialize. The other half of the house. or to use a term which i s still applicable. the back of the house, was where food was prepared and where the guests amenities were taken care of, such as laundering, the shoeing of horses, or the repair of harness and travel ing gear. This duality of a hotel must be thoroughly understood by an architect be-fore pencil is put to paper to start the design. For convenience' s sake and for ease i n prepanng a preliminary tudy, we will aasume that ail these services take place on one level. F igure 1 indicates the flow of services and hotel p8rsonnel. For the t ime being, w e will ignot'e the actual rooms and concern ourselves only with the leveJ whet'e the "greeting .. takes place and w here the services are randered. The •greeting area, " for future reference, wiU be known as rh• front of the house, and the pl•c• where services occur will be known ua the of the house. It must be borne i n mind that. as far a• planned ci,.culation ia concerned, there must never be a mingling of the frontofthtf4houae services with thoae of the back of the house. At no t ime should the guell be •ware of everything thet is t•king place at the back of the houae, but, •t the aeme time. the smooth operation of the front of the houae ia completely dependent upon whet i s taking place at the back cf tre houae. The two functions must be kept sep• rats and yet so interrelated that both function smoothly and efficiently. Hotels are designed and built so that the client. owner, or operator of the hotel wiJI get a aatisi•ctory f inancial return on his invest ment. I n order to achieve the greatest return for eacn dollar investe d , we again face a dual problem. In the first instance, rhe guest "'ust feel ccmpletely comfortable and at ease from the moment he step through entranca doorway, Chars and d i n ing rooms . and i n the guest roorn ltSt!lf as well as in thtt corridors must be such that the guest finds his every want cour teously and taker. care of. The phy !i; c :ti environ ment becomes 3n impor1ant p&rt o f :ne guest' s creature comfort. These factor s 1nctude color and decor, light ing, proper a i r te .. noerature, comfor-:able furoishings and. above all. a pleasant and relaxed atmospherft. Everything thet the guest e•pec!s and shoul d get will be a result o f what tak•s place at the beck of the house. It is only i n this area th8t everything that w i ll keop a guest contentl!:d during his stay i s arranged for a,.,d so ordered that everything the guest is seeking is accom plished unob:rusively and. what is most impor tant, economically. Economic operation of a hotel depends entirely upon the backofthehouse services. Since these services are primaril y conc&rned w ith hoteJ personnel, the plan must be so arranged that maximum efficiency from et:tch hotel employee c3n be achiettd w ithout tawing the employee and without allowing the guest to feel the-drie for efficiency tnat dictates every phase of hotel pl21nn inq. HOTEL ECONOMICS The econon1ics of a profitable hotel venture brings us to the third duality of whi c h the arch itect should be extremely consciou.s or awore during every phase of the planning stage. This involves the economics of a new hotel, which w ill center upon the cost of construction And furnishing. These coats represent, together w ith thfJ cost of the land, the amount of money that ia to be invested. They ar& the base upon which the hotelier will f igure h i s financial return. A rule of thurn b devised many years ago by a prominent hotel architect sti ll seems to be • sound rule to follow. At that time. it was stated that for every doJiar of income per room, S 1 ,000 shoul d be spent in the construction of that room. \'Jo muxst beor in mind, of course. that whan we speak of a room we are speaking figuratively, wit h the that the coet of a room would also c•rry its proportionate share of every other part of the structure. such es the hotel lobby, the dining rooms, the bars, the corridors, the oHices, the the kitchens, and o il the other that wilt be found i n a hotel. Using :hat rule of thumb (that i s . S 1 incorna per S 1 ,000 inveated). a room that costs S10,000 to build should bring in 510 for a nignr a lodging. Unfortunatel y , w ith ri•ing costa of operation, this balance of S 1 per S1,000 will not afwaya hold . but i : iw s t i ll d good rule of thumb. With r ooms now going at from s 1 0,0('0 to 'NfJ :hat a s 1 0 pernight room i s a rarity and a n average of 520 and S30 i s more common. whil e lu.cury hocel• run as high aa S40 and SSO per night' s lodging. From the above, it becomes obvious that the architect should know appro• imately wha t type of hotel h i s client wants. as expressed in Ierma of cost p11r room per n ight, i n order to establish some sort of rough buoget for the cost of the hoteL At t h i s point, i t shoul d be pointed out that we are talking of cost of construction, which does not include furnish ing snd equi p p ing the hotel. Anothe r fact whic!1 does not really affect the pll'nn•ng of the hotel but which :he architect should be keenly aware o f ia that preopening expenses are sizable. Thev are. in fact. a part of the original invest ment and should be charged to cost per room. More will be said of t his at an appropriate p lace. The second part of tl"'e financial considera tion i n the design of a hotel i s the cost of opera tion. We now know what it will cost to buil d the hotel, and so some sort of prelimin•ry budget becomes feasible. The architect may not know what i t w ill cost to ope-rate the hotel. but he shoul d under5tand e very facet of hotel operation and develop his plans to 3chieve maximum economies in the operation of the hotel. Thi s includes the hours spent by such personnel as maids, porters, chefs, cooks. dishwashers, laundry workers. bellmen, rec_,otioni.sts. bookkeepers, reserve t ions clerks. banquet managers, and e.cecuti'te staff. If we would, for e moment, : h inic. of a h otel a s a p1ant whic h turns out a finished product. we would think of the fi"liShftd prod uct as the creature comforts of the guests (bed and board) and of the kitchen&, laundries. and service area s as the machines. The hotel per sonnel woul d be workers w h o operate thft machines i n order to achiee a fine product at the lowest possib'• cost. With these thought5 i n mind, we c3n now take up each facet of hGoteJ front of the house and back of !he house-which w i ll be discussed i n detail and .,,ith d iagrams and drawings so that each pert of the jigsaw puzzl e which forms a hotel can be fitted into place to achieve e smoothly funct•oning, plea.stngt y de•ir•ble, and financially profitable ooeration. First let ua cJear up the question of preopen• ing expenses. which should be considered aa a pan of th• tor•l coot of rhe hotel. Before a hotel is put into operationin fact, months before the first guest arrives-certain hotef personnel are employed who will eventually be charged w ith the operation of the Motel. Such employee• would includ• a manager, a chief chef, a controller, an advertising and/or a public relations firm, and sn engineer who w i ll be operating the mechanical equipment of the hotel. These peopltt w i ll usually b• lound on the sue of th• hotel under construction anywhere from si.1 monthG to one year befor., the hotel is completed. Their salarie& are part of preopening expttnses. Another factor i n pr& opening expenses would include •nd othe r supplies that various key cer!\cnnel w ill naea before the openfng of the hotel a s well as, ultimatel y , t h e coat of hot&f stationary. fyF=e-wr iters, book:...eeping m 6chinery, and

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ce sup p lies. Another preopening eupense J be a coM allocated for opening ceremonies, ich often include cocktail ?erriee and tquera for people from the newa media and ic organizaciona aa wall as for civic authori 1 . .All these costs are considered preopening >enaee. One other item that muat be con a id • d i n preopening tupenaea i s the training of t personnel that w i ll service the hotel. Thi a II include meida. nouaekeepera, cnefa and oka. waiter• and waitreaaea. and frontoHice d clerical peraonnel. Tnere oleo will be rtera, auch •• maintenance men, bellmen, d portere. Tneee cen add at 1 ... , 30 percent the conetruction coat. Another fecet of coats, which the architect 1y or may not be involved in, involve• furniah• ga for tne notal. In tnla category will be found ot only tne octuel bada, druura, chaira, blee, and floor covering• i n the gueet rooma 1 t e lao the furniehinga. floor coverings, •P• al lighting fixturaa, and decor itema needed r a ll public apecea. Theaa fall into t n e cat .. )riee of lobbiae, dining rooms, bara. cocktail ungaa, coffee a hOP • meeting room a , ooma. and • neat of othar facilltiu whicn will • found i n notela. Anotner large portion of tne coata which ormally would not be 1 coat of conetruction 'ould be tna equipment for ell kitcnena and are aa wall aa the equipment, if such a facility 1 to be included. of laundriea and valet service. i oinc; further, we w i ll need lockers for emplcy• •• and other amenitiea for the service peraon• e l. F inally, we come to a group of item• which till include glaaawara, chine, eifv&r, pots and SALAD a-MANGER KEY ?E:RSONE!. F OOO FLOW COOK E D FOOD pans. linens, p illows, ond u n i f orms for m aids , waiters. etc. When we lump preope ning expenses togerh er with e ll the item• enumerated above, we w ill f ind curaalvu adding anywhere from 50 to 7 5 p ercent mora te the sctual conatru:tion costa. All thaae f igure• w ill not i n fluence the b u d get for construction, but i t would be w ise for an architect deaigning a hotel t o be conacioua of thaae additional expenditures. BACK OF THE HOUSE Though rarely aeen by • gueat. tne beck of tne ncuae i a the moat cruoiel part of the plan. I t muat be laid out w ith two paramount objec .. tlvu: control end effi c iency. Foodatufh, noua .. lo.eep ing auppli u , and a great many o tnar i tem a muat be received cut of > ignt of t n e notal gueata. Sucn recei v ing I a usually dona at • loed ing dock, which 1houl d be covered ao that deHvariaa can be made r egard lea a of the weeth er. An operating hotel, even a amall one, w ill hove deliveriee going on throughout tne day. The recei v ing of shipment• aa well •• the checking of whatever comee into the notal and, finally, lending the varioua item a rl!ceived to thei r proper deatination muat be under tight control. Thi a i a uaually the function of a recaiv• ing deportment that anoul d be located d irectly on or adjacent to tna loading dock. T ight eon trol must be eaercised i n two directions. I n one direction, i t i a not uncommon for material to be delivered ano:i, w ithi n a short t ime o f its having been lett on tne dock unchecked, for the management to f ind that thi a material hea -:: ... ... , COFFEE 3HOpt-: S ERVi C E TO 8 FROM R E STA U R A N T SERVI C E T O 8 FROM :!ANOUET ROCPICS ROOM SERV I C E G A R BAGE F lew diagram of serv i ce a reas . l.CITIITil::lll.iiCI HOTELS d iiJappeered or that some parts of the s h ipment have gone astra y . The second p a r t of the con trol ia to m ake sure that , once these s h ipments have arrived, they go d irectl y t o the i r t ion w ithout 3 c hance o f becoming !oar on the way. A a en a x ampi.'J. let ua aay t hat a thipment o f liquo r i a delivered t o t h e hotei. I t i a • very simpJe thing to p ick up a case and remove i t t h e loading dock b e iore the recei v ing c lark n•• c tucked t n e onipment tnrou g n nia control point. It i a efao a very s imple t h ing t o heve • c••• of liquor d iaappeer on ita rout e . once i t haa been checked i n and before i t geta t o the liquor atoraga room. Tnia type o f p il ferage w i ll apply not onl y to l iquor but t o a lmoat every item. includi n g linena, toodstuffa, end even iteme of furni ehinga. A good baekcf t he•h o uae plan w ill be workecJ out i n t uch a way t n e t the flow of aup p liea I a tightly con• trolled b y tne ••curity tnet tne architect worka into n i a p lan. Anoth•r uampl e w i ll a u ff lca: It woul d be poor p lanning t o neva a vai uebl a item such •• l iquor c•rted through a peaaag..,. way end pa•t an employee•' locKer room on i t 1 wev to the liquor atcrage room. I t would t a k a but a momen t for e caae co disappear from the cart i n t o tne locker r oom. A t i ght, wailpl e nned beck of t h e nouae w ill neve c irculation pattern• that w ill provide the utmo1t i n control. I t i a thia type of p lenning that i a defi n itely the province of the architect. There i a one further item i n the control area whicn, e t g lance. m ight seem highly u nimportant: namely, t h e move ment o f garbage out of tne notel to a point where i t w ill be p icked up by garbag e t rucka. Expenence haa indicated that a good d e e l o f p ilferage i n notela i a accom;>liahed tnrougn

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Commercial HOTELS I he medium of garbaga. removal. Wullwrapped eteaks and cans of food can be concealed i n garbage and removed by an accomplice before the garbage haulers pick up the refuae. In the larger hotels, garbage destructors or com pressors m•y be used, i n which case tight aurvetltance ia neceaaary only in the garbage receiving area. Where garbage is shipped out, it ia wiae to have the garbage rooms so placed (and. incidentally, refrigerated) that the receiv ing office haa this apace i n full view to diacour• age an outside accomplice or an employee who ia leaving the hotel from entering the garbage room to filch what was placed there prelll'iously by someone in the kitchen or the supply areas. Anothe r form of control which muat be eaer cised and which becomes a part of the 11rchi teet' s planning ia the flow of personnel into and out of the hotel. Hotel personnel usually come through at a point close or adjacent to the receiv1ng erea. This is not necessarily a must. but it i s advisable because the same control office can observe the coming and going of the holp. Usually time control is through the um of a time which is punched by the employees. It is not uncommon for thieves to attempt entry through the service area and to work their way up through service elevators to accomplish what they came for. A tight con trol at the point of entry and egress of all employe-es is highly desirable and can easily be accomplished if it is the same point as that et which food and other hotel supplies are brought i n . Once again, the architect"s careful planning w ill make it possible for employees to reach their various dressing and locker areas with a minimum of travel time lost. It must be borne in mind that there is claas distinction in hotels and. as an eaample. that dishwashers and porters are not placed i n the same locker rooms as head waiters and reception cJerks. The d istinction here i s far from a fine line. The mix of hotel employees will be dictated by the hot&l operator, and he may determine whethEtr waiters and bellmen are to be placed together or separated. Maida and wailntsaes may or may not be in the same locker room, depending on hotel operation. Locker rooms should be provided with 11mple toiiet facilities and showers. Once the personnel have changed into their uniforms, the plan of the back of the house will make it possible for the people to get to their work stations with liUie time lost. Maids end porters will want to get to service elevators along the shortest pos a ible route. Chefs, cooks. and d ishwashers should get to tneir work areas without going through long. tortuous passages. It is usual to issue uniforms in an area as close to the locker rooms or the point of entry as possible. In this pnade of planning, it shou,.j be borne in mind that uniforms are usuaHy under the controt of the housekeeper, so that the proai m ity of the uniform iaauing room to the housekeeping depanmani become& a most imponant con1ideration. It ahoutd atao be borne in mind that the housekeeper controls soiled and clean laundry aa wall as cll'ln uniforms ready for reissue. The interplay of all of these activitie1 will dictate a finesse in p lanning to bring all theae •ctivities together and to achieve aa tictle loa• in time and motion 111 possible. At this point, let ua aum up this portion of the back of the house. A flow d iegrem (Fig. 1) lor a typ;c .. l b•ck of the house will indicate that the .service entrance i s located out of v iew of the main entrance to the hotel bu! has direct aecess to a street or road c.:tpable of handling truck traffic. The load ing dock s hould be protected from weather so thet food. l•undry, and supplies will be off loaded and stored and not get ra•n4soaked while waiting to be checked in. All personnel will enter the hotel at this point. At least two small offices will probably be located here. one for the ateward (or receiving clerk) and another for the timekeeper. Outside the stew ard' a oHice there should be a floor sc.ale to check the weight of produce a& i c enters. If the food storage and preparation kitchens are located on a d ifferent level. a sidewalk lift or conveyor beltl should be provided. The keeper will check the employees i n and out and help to d iscourage those who may be tempted to steal. lmmediattlly past the timekeeper, the employees should be separated into two dif ferent traffi c flows. one for tht:t food service personnel. the other for everyone else. Once food service personnel enter their traffic flow, they should have no contact w ith either guests or other house personnel w ith the obvious exception of waiters. All this is simply a matter o f security. If there is any deep dark secret of successful hotel service design. it i s a builti n security system. which i s e direct outgrowth of the architect's plans. Uniform issue is related to the housekeeper. the housekeeper to the laundry room. and the laundry room to the soiled linen room. The soiled linen room connects by vertical linen chute to the serv1ce room on every typical floor. and every typicaf floor is connected by a service elevator that opens to the lower-floor service area convenient to the scrutinizing gaze of the steward and the timekeeper. For convenience. a trash chute (Fig. 2). going from every typical floor service area, should be lo cated neat to 1he linen chute. Thi s will forco sn arrangement where the trash room is close or adjacent to the soiled l inen room and both of these are near the service entrance for ease in pickup. Laundry Facilities A laundry i s a usual adjunct of most good Many hotels avail rhemsetves of city laundry service, i n which case there is n o laundry room at all or only a small laundry which handles towels onty. A hotel laundry that does irs own uniforms and flatwork (sheets. pillowcases. linens. etc.) requires a goodsized space for washers, dryers, drum iront!rs. and various pressing machines-eoch suitable for its own type of f la:work, uniforms and laundry, and men' s and women' s wearing apparel. If the laundry i s done by a laundry service out of the hotel. thef1 items like towels require o comparatively small space for washing and drying, since only washers and fluff dryer, are necessary, together with an area for folding and stacking the clean tow • I s . Larger hotels w i ll matntain their own cleen ing departm8nt for dry cleaning and pressing of woolen a and similar garments. Such a clean• ing and valet service ia usuaHy a part of or clo5e to the laundry area, and i t is definitely under the aupervision of the laundry rru1nager. It may bo that. in the nottoodistant future. experi menta w.th d isposable sheets. pillowcases, and uniform• w ill do away with l•undry servicea in hotel1. Presently. the d isposable types thet have been produced are atiil not of sufficient and durability for hotel use. although the future may produce exactly that. At present some "no iron linens are i n use, thus elimi nating some of the large ironers. Housekeeping Department The housekeeping department, having several functions. i s the province of the c h ief house-keeper •..... ho w ill usually have ossistant floor housekee?ers . Under the srrict control and supervis1on will be all the maids and portera. people, after donning their uniforms, wilt come to the for instructions and very often for supplies to take with them to the various guestroom floors. The porters will deliver to th. e service areas on the guestroom fioors ell linen and soap a a well as facial tissue, toilet paper. matches, room service menu•. and ashtrays. (Most hotels use ine .. pensive ashtrays that carry the hotel name and that the guests may take along as souve nirs. ) The housekeeper's area is also a storage srea. for here are kept aJI the supplies that become a part of housekeeping. Aside from such obvious thing1 as a stock of linen. paper goods, soaps. ete . • the housekeeper will carry i n her warehouse storage area additional lamps ("Nhich are easily broken by guests) and &mall items of furnishings "Nhich are e•sily removed or destroyed. In the housekeeper's department there will usually be a ;>lace for a seamstress to mend tho$e sheets, pillowcases. and drapes that need repair. It might be usli!ful !or the architect to know how many rooms a mai d can make up during her daily tour of duty. I n some areas unions control thtt number of rooms, and it may be as little as 12 per mai d . It rarely goes beyond 15. One porter i s usuatly assigned t o each mai d . In add;tion to the regular dayti :-ne mai d , there w ill be, i n most hotels. a n ight maid who w ill make up beds for guests ready to go to sleep. This entails the removal of thtJ bedspreads, straightening of the room, 1he supplying of •dditionat soap, toilet paper, etc . • all for the guests" convenience. One night mai d usually c.sn handte twice as many rooms as a day mai d handles. Fcod and Beverage Service We have now taken care of the be'd portion of the "bed and board." Now let us 'e•amine the .. board part of a hotel service. The bo•rd, of course. refers to the o l d English trestle table wher8 guests took their meals. In the earlia5t the innkeeper' s wife took cere of tne cooking, maids took care of the serving. and • large board or table suHiced for the guests . Today s food operation is a h ighly compticated one. and an erchitecr should be familiar with the entire operation. Most hotel kitchens and food preparation areas are planne d by eaperts known as k itchen engineers. It ia not the architect's province to plan a k itchen. but i t itt cer tainly helpful for the architect to have a good working knowledge of what takes place in the food preparation area and i n the l..itchens. It will make for better communication between the architect and the kitchen engineer when they are di•cuasinq the planning of the'Se spaces. Just one word of caution-each e•pert will want more apace than the plan can possibly allow. They don" t rully need that much 1pece. The engineer will confure up vision• of ir•te chefs stalking oH the premise•. but ••perience has indicated that the architect'• knowledge of what the requirement& are will temper the demands of the kitchen engineer. Let ua foUow the flow of the rew food from the time it ie delivered t o the areward until it i1 finally cooked end reedy to be picked u p by the waiters or the waitres••• After the comestibles have been weighed in, checked. and signed for, they art! sent to either dry storage o r liquor storage ( e room w ith a big loek on i!) or to one of the vanous cold holding rooms or boxes. Canned food and bottled or packaged food which does not need refriger4 etion will be s ent to df'y-storage rooms. In th1s storage space w ill atso be kept the various condi.,ents that the chef w ill i n the preparation of h•s food. "NIII be sent to

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1n area where they w ill b e stored ready for •reparation. A refrigerator bo• of the propttr emperature will be needed, a 1 well as work 1pace, sinks, end cutting boards where regetablee wifl be prepared for the chefs ae '\eeded. The peeling of potatoea. cleaning of :arrota, trimming of lettuce. etc., are done i n :he vegetable preparation area and not i n the
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ommercial ,OTELS LOAOUIIO OOCJC ,0. T'JtA::I( .ICC(SS rooo l l.r-L n OIS" WASMUIIG . . ... c= ni\."ass the checker, who w ill checK off the drink itema as hl quantity and orice. Before leaving the kitchen, we must look at some other areas that we will usually f ind in our ideal kitchen. There will be a chef' s oHica. which is set where the chef can observe atl the activities i n the kitchen. His office i s usually enclosed with glass to give him aural privacy but complete v isual control. Here the chef win prepare and plan menus. He will beplacing orders for food and will generally ba opttrating a rather complicated and meticulous part of the hotel ser...,ice. In addition to the chefs office, there may be two other areas (once again. aaauming that everything i s happening on this one level). The firat of these i s the area. Here there muat be auHicient space for a fairly large number of room4 service rolling tables, which are set and rttedy to carry the dishes that have been ordered by the guest via telephone. These tables are usu .. ally set up with their linen. glassware, snd sil4 ver. In the warming compar1ment below the tablecloth, the room•aervice waiter wiU place the hot dishes, and on top of the rolling aer4 v;ce teble he will piece the cold diahea. The room•servic:e area is a•w•y• cfoae to the ing and g•rde m•nger area. Much of tha room service will conaiat of breakfasts or sand w iches and salada. Wherever a hot dish i s called for, th.e room-service waiter will pick. i t up at the chef' s cooking area. ihe room service area should. of b e a• close to the service elevators es possible. These, of course. must come down to the kitchen from the service ereea on each of the guest Normally , wo will find a roomservice operator . .....,f"\o sits at a te!ephone taking call1 from the guests . Thes• call s are especially numerous i n che morning. 'Nhen guesta ll"YIC[ CAI'T1 ... ... Y.AL • 1'0:• are calling i n ior their breakfasta rather than coming down to the dining room. The cooking area, consistjng mainly of griddles, wd; be manned by short"''rder chefs who are ready to prepare various t-\ot breakfast dishes. and the g•rde manger sect ion will be manned by a crew who are expert in the preparation of breakfast menus. For the rest of the C.y, sand wiches and s a iads coming from the g;ude ger will be most in demend. Another part o f the kitchen will be-devoted t o the banquet area . Wa are assuming that this hotel i s not too Jarge and does not require a separate banquttt kitchen but rather a banquet ser..., ing area. \"ie w ill see agai n that the chef s w i ll prepare the banquet food, managing their schedule so that i t does not interfere w ith lunch or dinner. In the banquet there will be mobil e cabinets that take trays. These are electrified cabinets arranged t o keep dishtt5 e-ither hot or cold. These banquet cabinet' be stocked before a banquet for certain types of menus. In other instances, where steak and roast beef are on the banquet menu, there must be areas i n which the chef can broil the steetc.s or large oven• where a number of roasts c a n be at the same time. A large banquet are-a i n • hotel w i ll require a separate banquet kitchen with its own cooking faciJities as well as its oYWn dishwaahing area. Here tha architect mu•t r vvie w the food service requirements and. working w ith the kitchen engineur, determine the location of the banquet cooking "nd ser vice area. Very often the banquet facilities ere not on the same floor as the d ining rooms, i n which case there would have to be an eiev .. tor connecting the main kitchen with rhe ban• qu•t area. Let us have one last look •round. To begi n with , bec.ause of what f s taking place i n the k itche-n. the floor should be of some material which can be eeaily cleaned. In the peat, the used ceramic t ile. There are many new typea of floor preparations which can be applied directly over the concrete a teb and which lend themselves to easy cleaning as well as offering a firm foothold to prevent slipping on wet spots. The wells. in moat kitch ens. were ceramic t iJe. Here again, the new p lastic materials are by some standard• even better than tile, w ith its j o inta and the possibility of spaHing t il e . By all meana. every eHort should be made to hold do....,n ll'w noise level in the kilchen, and thi s i s best •c-

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.,plished by using a perforated metal cetling t h acousti c baus above or a ceramic-treated 'ustical material. Hoods over all cooking !85 are a must, and the architect should !Ck with the building code to that the ods conform with the standards not only the code but also of the National Fire Under iters to prevent the spread of which en occur when a dish flames up while cook f One last observation: i t is an excellent , . to have toilets and washrooms for kitchen l p . so that i t isn' t necessary for them to re n to their locker rooms. which may be at me distance. It is always advisable to keep t kitchen help within the kitchen during tir stint of duty. Coors to dining rooms, and rre may be several dining rooms serviced the one kitchen, should be strategically teed and baHied so that the diners do not "" a view of what goes on in the kitchen, d . whiJt i s more important, do not hear what going on. Most hotels have coffee shops. although the nd i n many hotels today is to worlc out an angement in which a coffee shop and a res arant are combined. This is especially true of t smaller hotels and of some of the chain tats. For purposes of discussion. let us con ter that the coffee shop i s a separate entity. e ideat plan would be to place the coffee op backed up to the kitchen, so that certain iahed dishes and prepared foods can be livered to the coffee shop work area directly 1 m the main kitchen under complete con• •I as it passes from prep areas to kitchen to Hee shop. In the coHee shop much of the Jd preparation will be done et the counters. this area there usually will be found sand ch and salad areas as well as fryers and 'ilers and griddlea. Also in the .coffee shop II be the cold area for ice cr••"'!s• desserts, : . In the larger coffee shoos. most of the oking may be done in the kitchen and pes5ed ough to the counter for pickup by wait•r• d waitresses. In a coffee shop there will, of ursa. be counters and stools. but there will 1 0 be tables and chairs. At the counter we II usually find a pickup area where the w•it ' can pick up the food prepared for them thout disturbing the diners who are s itting counters. Cirty dishes will be sent back to • dishwaahing area through a pass•through. they will be carried to the diwhwashing area the main kitchen. Coffee shop diners eapect ick set"vice and. toward this end, the menue 1 c.refully prepared for usy handling by ortorder chefs and sandwich and salad men 10 work within th• coffee shop and not in rhs 1in kitchen. Wherever specialty d ishes of the If are offetred, such as ragouts or soups. they t prepared in the main kitchen and placed in t ready to be picked up for ick service. There is another phase in the food area which 1 y or may not be conaidered in a hotel. nam• food service or dining for the hotef help. rger hotela will provide an employees' caf• ia. This space is usuaUy planned to be cJose the help' s locker rooms and yet contiguous the main kitchen. If such a plan can be 1rkad out, the food prepared for the employ• • . cafeteria comes from the main kitct1an. d i t i s served aa i t would be in any normal feterie. Employee• go throygh a selfaervice e, picking up hot and cold foods as wall aa nke •• rhey go along. They are checked by t checker or cashier and carry their trays to t tables. Attention shoutd also be paid to the : t that tne dirty dishes which come out of the 1ployeea' cafeterta muat be returned to 1 dishw•shing area and here agatn. i f at aU aaible. • P••sthrough should be arranged whereby the dirty dishes can be passed d irectly to the main dishwashing area in the k itchen. While !it i ll i n the food department. let us look i n on the beverage service area. This may be a bar room or a cocktail lounge. In :1ny case, there wilt be a bar with stools ( if local codes permit) and an area for cocktail tables and chairs. A cocktail lounge must be serviced just as the kitchen i s serviced. To the bar must be brought not only liquor and bottled goods but also the usual crunchies that one finds in a bar, such as potato chips. peanuts. pr4ttzefs, etc. The banender will also need from the is 5ary area oranges. lemons. limes, tomato juice. etc. Cocktail lounges will also serve cocktail canapes and. very often. sandwiches. Arrangements must be made i n the plan for the delivery of all ot these items to the bar without too much possibility of losing something on the wey. Ideally, the delivery should be made directly to the back bar through pass•throughs from the kitchen, so that we find once again another unit backed up to the ideat kitch"n. This will not always be possible. There is a great deal more to be kf"own about full food and beverage service in a hotel. but a general knowledge on the part of the architect w i ll suffice. He must depend upon the k itchen engineer for advice. plans. and details, just as he must depend upon his electrical engineer. hi a mechanical engineer, and structural engi neers to feed him the infot'mation that he will need to comp,ete his plans for a hotel. It must be borne in mind that most hotels consider food service as a necessary evil. The percent age of profit on a food operation i s always very small. Profit on beverages i s much higher, and so beverage service i s quite desirable as an adjunct to a food operation. A weH-planned food and beverage setup, where control and efficiency are the guiding wiH in crease the rather meager profits on hote4 function. It is in this area thai the architect. working with the hotel operator and his staH of experts-which includes chefs. managers. e t c .. as well as the kitchen engineer -can bring to bear his talents in creating an entity which will function at top efficiency. Mechanical Spaces Another area that snould be considere-d i n designing the back-of-rhe-hous• space• will be the boiler or mechanical room. In this area will be found the various pieces of equipment for heating and cooling as wall as all the tanks and pumps to keep all the mechanical systems i n open•tion. Each mechanical room will be of • size and shape that wilt satisfy the ments for all the creature comforts that a mod ern hotel has to offer. In this area will also be found all central switch gear rhac controls electric currant for every purpoae in the hotel complex. This domain belong• to U'1e house engineer and. naturally, there should be provision for an engineer's office. with a mechani .. cal repair shop close by. There are a number of other shop• th•t prob•bly will be loc•ted in thia area of the hoteL The•• wouJd include a carpentry ahop, an upholstery shop, and deli nitaly an area for a lockamith. Somewhere in thtt where they are easily accessible. will be storage rooms in which wilt b• kept a multi tude of spare parts to service the hotel. Same of this space will be used for mechanical equipment replacements, and other storag• areas w i ll contain spare parts ftlr the furn•ture, carpet replacttments, waUpaper replacements. cleaning materiel•. and cleaning "quipment that wfU btt used by the house porters. There w i ll be another area which, technically. to the back of the hous•. Thi s area will l..ommerr:Jal HOTELS be occupied by personnel that very often c o m e i n contact w ith the guests. and the strategtc location o f these back-of-the--house facil i t ies will be controlled entiret y by w hat happens ' " the front of the house. Included i n these 3reas you will f ind account•ng and bookkeeping offices (which back up the front cash•ersl: reservations olfices (which back up to the front regi s tration desk) : anct offices for man agement, which will include a reception are a . a manager's offici!, and .-n assistant manager s office. In thi s part of the hotel complec one would usually f ind the head of the food and beverage department. who may doubltt as the banquet manager. There w ill be a mail sorting room. which might well be placed behind the registration desk. since guests mad is deliv ered at thi s poinr. More wtll be sai d about 311 these spaces when frontofthe--hous e o._,eration i s discussed further. Before leaving this are a . we should note the fact that thera w i ll probably be a secretarial pooJ to handle all the spaces that have b een enumerated above. We V\ltll be refer:-ing to all the above spaces as the .Jdmi n iStrlltivw FRONT OF THE HOUSE We have now established the activity which controls the plan of a hotel as far as the back of tho house i s concerned. We will now e•am ine what happens in the so..o:al led "front of the house" that area which concerns itseU wuh the guest as distinct from that area which concern s i:self with rhe smooth function•ng of the hoteL It must be borne i n mind that a hotel, l ike Janus, wears two faces. The guest or the paying customer sees only the front of the house. and this must be ail that he desires-a wish fulfillment. en ego builder. a status s ym• bol, and above aU else a pleasant and satisfy ing ptace i n which he will spend a ntght, a week. or a month. The back of the house. which hes a lready been discussed, is whvre all that m.skes thi s happen takes place. These are the areas of burntshing, butchering, baking: of boilers. motors. compressors. and ovens. The guest never aU this. but these unSe@r. space s w i ll precisely determine h i s degree of contentment. These are the areas that wdl uhimat•ty dictate whether the hottH will run 3t a profi t or a toss. The front of the house com prises every area that the will sea; lobbies. dining spaces, rest rooms. passenger elevators. corridors. hotel roon,s. etc. Thess speces must be handled and planned wi:th one thought in mind: the convenience and contin ued approbation of the guests. Let us now accompany our arri v ing guest from the time his car or reai pulls up to the main entrance. As the guest enters the mai n entrance (and there should b• only one main entrance). he should be overcome with a feel ing of s•renity. welcome. and definitely • com plete •bsenCe of confusion. The registration desk and the elevators should and must be immediately apparent. The registration aree consists of a front desk. behind which i a • registration clerk, behina whom is the key and mail rack, and behind thAt the varioua admin istration sp•c•• At rhis point let us consid•r the registration procttss irself. (See F i g . A . ) Guost Registrat ion A hotol rec;istration deak must be loeated s o that it i s immediately v 1sible •• one enters the hotel lobby. The !lile of the desk wdl be detet'• m ined by the size of th• horel. There i s no special rule to be followed tuc:ept that a hotel of let us say. 2 , 000 rooms m•ght have ilny w here

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.ommercuu iOTELS CON FERENC ROOM RESI DENT MGR"S ,AUOITOA. OffiCE: , .CASHIER r ' 0 10 ..... IC<\1..1 IIC I'ET The Churchill Hotel, London. GENERAL. i'o4ANAGER I RESERVATIONS from four to si• regiatretion clerka, while a horel of 100 to ZOO rooms will have one or at most two spacea at which gueeta may register. There are ce,.tain requirement• for the clerk behind the desk 11 fer aa equipment i s con cerned. The simplest arrangement w ill call for a suitable file containing advance reservation carda requesting apace. so that the clerk can quickly ch•ck what room haa been reserved for what particuter guest. Another mandatory piece of ttquipment ia a slip or card file which, at a glance. indicate• which rooma are occu pied and which room a are open. Occupied room spaces will have a card with the name of the guest and probably the d•te when the guest intenda to leave. Aa soon •• the gueat checks in, a card ia slipped into the space for the room. indicating that the room i s now occupied. This, the aimpleat form of ret;istretion, is applicable to the amaHer hotels. Larger hotell have far more sophiaticated equipment, much of i t electronically controlled, which servea to indi care time of arrival of guests who have made reservations. t ime of departure of guests who are already checked into the hotel, and systems whereby the registration clerk can aJso be informed whether the room haa been vacated and whether the room haa already been made up by the maid on the floor and ia reedy to , ... ceive a new guear. The architect should ac quaint himaell with the requirements of the front desk and alao be aware of certain com paniea who manufacture the filing ayatema and the electronic equipment which ia uaed for rea ervecion and guest control. Advence Reservation$ The hotel industry depends primarily on advance reser..,ations to keep ita rooms filled. The traveling public is aW"ara of this fact. and moll 1ra..,eler• will book their reservations in advance. Chain hotels and chain motets have developed complicated and eHicient electronic syst..ml for advance reser ... ation booking• which are m.ede from any point within tha chain . The eystema employed are very much like the systems now being used by airtines for bookings and re•ervatione. Terminal points in the larger hotels have automatic electri c equip ment which types out the name, date of arrival. anticipated length of stay. and type of accom ACCOUNTS I ... ----i" .......lo---. . modations requested. Whether the eystem be the involved eJectronic system or whether i t be a reservation made by telephone or wire. a ,.eearvation c lerk within a reservat;on office i n the hotel will take care of aJI the'e requests for rooms. Since questions do arise at tha t ime when the guest i a checking in. the location of the reservation office muat obviously be aa close to the front desk as the plan will permit. Thi s will enable a reeervation clerk to go back to the reaervation department to check on a quaatio,able reservation or to adjust any problema which may ariaa at the time that the new guests are checking in. Mail and Keys There are two other services that the front or registration desk must perform. The first and obvioua one is to serve as the place where the room keys are kept. Some of the larger hotels t.•v• roomkey clerks whose fur.ctions consiat only of recei ving keys from suests a=they leave the hotel and giving the incoming gue•ts. either upon registration or during their atay. the keya to their rooms. If the registration c lerk handles the keys, then obvioualy the key rack ia directly behind the desk. easily acceaaible to the regisrration clerk. If the hotel is large enough to require a separate area and aeparate personnel for handling of keya. this function will uaually be alongside the actual registration desk. Since i t is comparatively simple for some one to ask for a key who ia not entitl•d to i t and who may be uaing that key to encer and rOb an absent gueat. it behoove• the architect to reeli•• rhac some control ia neceaaary i n the handing out of keys to make aure that keys ere given only to the registered guvats for t hat particular room. Mail i a also handled in moat hotels at the registration desk. which dictalea that keys and mail slots are designed •• one unit and placed directly behind the ragi•tration desk. Where a hotel is large enough to require special key clerks. tha aame clerka will probably handle all incoming mail for the gue•ta. If at all possi b l e , mail sorting and handling should be dona i n an area where the guest doea not ••e thi s operation take place. ldaaUy it would be behind the rnail and kay rack. A well designed unit wili be worked out to that a mail clerk can place the mai l into the individual mail alots from behind. rather than working i n the front and interfering w ith t h e actavity of the regietration clerk. Cashier The average hotel usually has the cashi a r" a counter located adjacent to the reg1stration deak. There is no hard and feat rule concerning thia close interrelationship. The larger hotela may place caahiera in the socalled .. front daak"' area but aomewhat remote from the actual registrat ion desk. There are t ime• i n large hotels. eapeciafly those catering to conven t ions. where one convention i s checking out Ywhile another i s checking in. Thi s will make for traffic congestion and aome confusion. Such a situation can be avoided by p lanning the regia tration and cashier f•ci l itiea so the• linea forming in front of the registration desk do not conflict w ith l ines forming at the cashier"t counter. The cashier i n the smaller hotels will handle moat of the bookkeeping. This i s done by means of today a quick and efficient electric bookkeeping machines. Very chan the night cashier will handle a good deal of the book keeping, relieving the daytime staff of this chore. Larger hotels w ill have a complete book keeping dttpartment. Thi s will require more than juat the actual cashiers. who remain at their stations. while the bookkeeping depart ment handles all entries and bookkeeping for the gueats. lc ia obvious that this bookkeeping department shoula be close to if not b•cked up t o the front desk cashiers. so that any ques t ions of charges can be quickly checked and adjusted by the cashier, who vviJI contact the bookkeeping department for clari f ication or corrections i n the guests' billa. Conveniences will uauaUy be found in the area for guests who bring valuables wit h them. whether it be caah. jewelry. or important papers. Guests are requested by hotel management to leave valuables in the hotel's safe deposit boatts or vault. It i s desirable t o have the guest transfer t'us valuables to a cashif!r out o f sight of the publi c occupying the main lobby. Therefore. a small c losed room IS normally provided. The guest enters this room and gives the valuables to the cashier through a window. This passthrough window should have a view of the vault or th• safe so that the guest can watch Mis valuables being deposited properly. Where safe deposit boaes are furnished by the hotel, the cashier wall hand a key to the guest. Tl'le same procedure will be fotlowed when the guest w iahas to w ithdraw his valuable• from the safekeeping of the hotel. This conveni•nce i • especially useful in large reson or conven tion hotels where women gue.sts w iiJ be wvar ing jewelry on special occasions. A closed room rnakes it poaaible for the guest to delivttr and receive the jewelry without betng ob•erved. a precaution that is moat neceasary in todey' a theft•prone society. A hotel caahier must a l s o handl e the from restaurant& and coffee shop. cash iars in these facilities will be bringing thei r caah receipts to the central cashier. In a small hotel. thie can be done d irectl y with out any concern about the of the funda from the restaurant and coffee shop to the eashiter. In ll'rge hotela. where there are "' number of restaurants and other faciiitiea which entail cash payment, spl!cial arrangements should be made for tho handling of this cash and, i n some in.stances. safety deposit boaes or vaults provided so th•t the money can be stored when i t i s brought to the cashier apace at :lff hours end held until

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I I ' ,. -r--T-1 { c ) (cl ( 1) Uris Brothen Hotel. New Yon. (b) Americana Hotel, Ne " Yon, typical tower room. (c) loeM N . Y . Motel, typrcal ream. idl Caunw_, Inn, hmpa, Florido. (d) S' 0' I I I I I 'of ! ! ' .. ' II l HOTELS I -

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rELS ( ) i ' ' ;,I , I :::!' I I I I I I ? \ I . i ' . i 0 'II I I I I I I I i_ .,., J I (e) {I) 1 3 ' • .)• d , , • ! 1 o f I I (nl (i) { a l Tampa lntarnational Inn, hmoa, F lorida. { f) Indies House, Ouc'c Key, Florida. {gj Arr.ericana Hotel, Bal Harbour, Florid1. {h) Paradise Island H aul, Paradi11 Island, Bahemu. {il Ameriun1 at typical room layout. (j) Massena MoUlt Inn, Mauena, N . Y . I I ! ! i I ! ,. . • . • I ' I I I I I i I i I I _ l T 0 0 ,., I' ' ' ' ,. ( ) ' , . ' " (g) ,,.. (j)

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1 o . o -(k) 1 2 ' -<.-(m) '" -., "' i I r ' I o l J .... ' :.I (k) Chieep11 Mcbf Inn, Muuchusetts. (f) and (11) Thomas Cirtle Mcu;, Hctel, Washinqton, ) RiYerYiew Motor Hotel, Hew York. I.UIIIIIli;! '-IQI HOTELS (l)

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.ommerc1a1 iOTELS normal caehier operation• begm i n the morn ing, at which time rece1pta from tne night b .. fore are taken out and properly credited. Thi a ayatem i a very much like a n iGht depoaitory i n a bank. More and more hoteia are inatelling pneumatic tube ayatema for the trenafer of gueata' check• directly to the caahier. Theae checka will be coming from varioua dining rooma and cocktail loungea •• well •• from the coffee a hop and from the rooma•rvice area. Theae ehecka for food, beveregee, etc. , which have baen a igned by tl'le gueata, al'lould be tranafarred aa quickly aa poaaible to ll'la caal'l ier. Thia i t eapecialty important when a gueat i a checking out • ahott time after having eigned • check for food or beverage• or auch itema u laundry and valat. Cl'largea for lalapl'lona calla wHI have to be forwarded to tJ't• caahier alao. Many hotela are uaing •n etactri c count ing device Yiaible to the caahier which indicate• tl'le number of calla made by tha guut wl'lila occ:upying hia room. Theae indicator• function automatically but muat be aupplemantad when aver longdiatance calla are mada by gueara. Such aupplemantal information i l fad to the c•ahiar by the telephone department. Administrative Area The adminiatrarion of a hotel operation da panda entirel y upon ita 11ize. A amatl hotel will moet likely have an office for a manager, who may have h i e aac:retary working in the aame room with him. The door to hia oHice facaa tl'le public lobby, and an additional door ia pro vidad ao that he c•n go from hia office to the front da11k . Thia ia the aimplaat operation and i a found only i n the amallar hotela. A larger, mac:Humai.zed hotel will have a manager and an aaaiatant manager and. aa a rule, thef"e wiJI be a recaption office where one or two typiet raceptioniata w ill be acting aa a buffer between ll'le public and ll'le managar. Aa e l'lotel project growa larger, the admfniatrative area growa more complex. A aide from the manager and the aaaiatant manager. there may ba an office for a food and beverage manager end 1 banquet manager. A larger hotel, with 1izable conven tion facilitiea, wilt alao have an office for the c:onver1tion manager and h i a aeaiatanta. Obvi ously, •• tl'le eomple•ity of ll'la office and edminiatrativa area growa, a more careful and detailed atudy i a , perforce. made to arronge a emoothly functioning 1uite of adminiatrative oHicee together with secretarial paola, book• keepers, teletype machinaa, a mailroom for incoming m•il and for voluminous outgoing mail, etc. The accompanying illuatrationa ahow how theaa areaa have been handled i n varioua l'lotela. II muat be borne in mind tl'lat tl'lia front of tl'le l'louaa work a cloaely with the back of the h..luae. Many of the people in the adminiatrative area will deal with guaata •• waU aa hotel cue• tamara aaeking to arrange for luncheona. banquete. and convantiona. Acceaajbility to the therefore, ia of the uamoet importance. Rest1urant Facilities Every l'lotal. wl'lethar It l'laa SO room• or Z.OOO, muat conaidar tl'la feeding of guaata. Small l'lotela may gal by wltl'l a pleaunt coffee el'lop reataurant. Thia type of i a becoming mora popular In lha amaller hotel wl'lara feeding facilitiae era Kept to a minimum. Sc.;ch a facility would be the type wl'l•re quick coffea al'lop aarvice coul d be oHarad • gueat, either at a counter or at a table. and where. withi n the aame apace, more l•iauraly dining could be pro•.dded. The d ifference batwaan the two i a achieved primarily through decor and acmoaphare racher than any physic4l or atruc• tural arrangement. I n auch a feci l ity, i t •'-' poaai bte to take care of a large breakfaat buain••• uaing the entire facility. There a r e occaaiona when a viaual separation between coffee ehop and reauturant ia maoa movable. ao i t can ba taken away during the breakfaathour ruah. For luncheon, the divi a ion i a reeatabliahed. making i t poaaibJe to aerva quick maafe for thoae in a hurry i n the coHaa ehop area •nd mora laiaurely luncheona i n the reetaurant portion. I n the evening, it ia poaaibla to get a more permanttnt type of aeparation between coffaa al'lop and restaurant by pual'ling tl'la cof fee ahop aeparator around the counter area. thue allowing for ma•imum labia and aeating al'rangementa i n the eOwc•iled reatauranc area when the c:oHee ahop i a doing a m inimum bue inaaa. Under normal a ituationa there w ill b• 1 cocktail lounge or ba\l'araga bar ""'" i n tha amelleet dining facility. The larger hotel will he"• a pleeaant ahop tor aui c'< ••rv1c e and for a implar maala. wheraaa a reataurant. with ita appropriate decor for more leiaurel y d i n ing, will offer a mora \taried menu With probably l'ligl'ler coat par meal than in tl'le coff .. al'lop .. Tl'le cocktail loung• w ill usually be found cloae to the dining room ao that hotel gueate can pauee for 1 cocktail before lunch or d inner, or while waiting, before going :o t h e dining room. to meet frienda or other gueata. Where convention facilitiaa are offered within a hotel, i t ia wiae to have a bar placed cloaa to the convention fecilitiaa. Conventioneer• aaem to have a propanaity for a cocktail before or after meeting•. Thia impula .. typa of beverage buying ia booated tremandouafy if beverage facilitiea are placed i n tha normal path of tref f i e . large convention and banquet facilitiea uaually provide 1 fiaed or portable bar arreng .... ment in the praaaeambty or foyer areaa to take care of pauaea between meetinga and aemi nare and to f i ll thoaa pauses w ith a facility that will provide • .. peuaa that refreshes: Thera i a no apeciaJ requirement for the deaign of hotel reatauranta, bars. cocktail loungea. and coffee ehope which are i n any way d if ferent from the etandard requlfemanta for any auch facility. Attention i t called t o fact that people ataying at hotafa hav" a ten dancy to aeak out l'ligl'lly touted specially reatauranta w ithin an area rather than eating their maeia in the hoteL Thi a i a eapeeially true for evening d i n ing. Toward thee end. hoteia more and mora are turning to lp&eialty ro1 tauranta whoae epecialty ia not only food but a lso decor. 10 that they can compete with individual raat:auranca in the general 1trea of ll'le notal. Tl'la aame l'lolal kitcl'len can pre pare almoat any type of apacial food including Chineae. Polyneaian, aeafood, or gourmet diahaa. The important thing to remember i n lay ing out the•• epacea i a that the decor muet be developed to entice the hotel ;uaeta to eat i n the hotel racher than outaide in other apeeialty raateuranta. Continuing i n thi a vain of apacial • i;ad feeding. eoma hotala are inatalfing roof• top reetauranta where a v iew of the city or the general area i a available and i n which fairly limited manu a are offered-moatly opan•hearth kitchen earvica which includaa at•aka, chopa, and cute of roeat !)eef. Such a manu raquiraa a very em•ll kitchen 11'\d obviate• the need ior creating large, ••peneive facilitiee on a roof for apac:ialty cooking. Wherever a rooftop reetaurant i a created. the architect bear i n m ind that there w i ll ba incro•••d traffic: i n the ela"'atora taking dinera from both in and outeide tl'\e hotel to thi a apecialized rooftop faci l ity. And don" t forget that. becauae of public aeaembly requirement•. the aca ire muat be a izttd larger. Supper cluba or nightcluba w ill a l•o be found i n the larger hotela. When feced thie type of d ining and antartainm1nt feature, the p lana muat include not only a a tag a of aorta. together with the attendant stage lighting, but a lao dreaaing rooma for perform era and a room for the orchestra. It i a highly deairable to keep auen an adjunct aa c loaa to the msin kicchan aa poaaible. I n the iJianning of larga l'lotal a ll'lat ancompau a ll tl'la d i ning facili t iaa already mentioned, i t may not ba poaaibla to operata out of one central kitchen. In thia caee there mey be taveral kitchane, preferably on a horizont•l core, ao that there i a the poaeibility of vertical d iatribution of food from the preparation areal whi c h woul d prob abl y be on tl'la lowar level. Lobbies Every hotel, ragardleea of ita e iza, muat have a public lobby. Tl'le a ize of tho lobby i o largely determined by the numoer oi gueat rooma •• wall aa by the type of hotel that i a on the arehi tact's drawing boards. I t goea w ithout saying that ll'le largar tl'le l'lotel. ll'la larger tho l obby . Tha lobby w ill a lao have to be large r i n a reaort or eon"'ention hotel. A reaort hotel w ill require a large lobby becauae gu .. ta will congregate there in the evening. A hotel catering to con ventiona ne•da. a large lobby bacauae h e r e again there i a a conatant gathering of conven• t ioneara before they go off to lac:turaa. temi nara. meetinge. luncheon•. and dinnara. There ia no rule of thumb to determine the size of a lobby. One muat proceed by making a careful etudy of e imilar typea of hotele and arri"e at deciaiona after d iacuaaione with hotel opera tore and managers. A notol lobby uu tha mood for a hotel. Thia space. more :han any other. will create the f irst and uaually the moat lasting impreaaion. Furniahinga, co!or, fin iahing mate r i a l a , lighting, and decor muat create the proper ambiance regardleaa of wheth4r the hotel i a large or amall, i n a c ity or a raaort. moderately priced or e.apanaive. The interior deeignar playa a mo•t vital part i n p lonning and design ing hotel lobbies. Elevators Eacapt for one• and twoetory motala. •"'ery hotaf and motel w i ll use elevators to toke gueets from the point a t which they have checked i n up to the floor where the gueafa room i a loeatttd. Elavstora should b • located ao that they are immediately e ither from th• entrance of the hotel o r from thet checki n or regiatration ares. Another conaid eration i n the p lanning o f elevator• i a : hat of their location on the gueatroom floora. It i a adviuble to pleca tl'lem c8ntrally ao th•t the d ;atance walked by a gueat i n any d irection i a reduced to a m i n imum. ft Would obvioual y be wrong to place the •le\l'atora at the and of a long corridor. It would ba far better to h•v• ll'lua elevator• placed a a tl'la t they are about midway betw•an the two enda of the gueat .. room corridor. The number, aize, and epeed of the required elevator a i a beat determined b y the elevator companiea thamaelvaa. It woul d not be wiaa for the arc:hitecc to make a datlrmi nation aa to thaaa factor1. EJevetor companiaa can g ive the a nawera when facta and figure& a r e g ivtn to them, and i t i a they w h o w ill inform the arcnitect whet tha number and aiza a a w•ll aa lha apead of th• •levatora should be. Moat e levator companiea ere computerizing thi a information and can l!..:rniah i t t o t h e archit•ct within • matter of houra. T h e anould bear i n mtnd that el•vator i • pa\ • the hotel atmoapher a and, just l!tl i t i a important t o cre•te the proper •mbienca i n the lobbia•. it i a important t o create and to carry out thi a

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•sent feeling i n the elevators, sinctt they che trans•tional points from lobby t o guest m floor. lnder no circumstances should gueat ele ors be used for service. Service elevators separate and apart. Many hotel design• icate the service elevators withi n the same teral area aa the passenger elevators. but 1 need not necessanly be so. Each bank elevators should be strategically located best service the front of the house (guests• the back of the houaa. Before leaving the subject of lobby design. ention is called to the location of the bell ptain s station. The bell captain • station ould be located so there i a a commanding tw of the hoteJ entrance. the registration sk. the cashier, and the elevators. If the hotel to render the proper kind of service, it is up the bell captain to see that the arriving or !p3rting guest is property taken care of. He ust see to i t that there i s a bellman or a bell •Y available for the luggage going into the •tel and the luggage going out of the hotet. cidentally. this is also • form of safeguard see that guests dapart•ng the hotel stop at 1 e cashier and take care of their bitl.s before eving. The bill captain .should have at his tSposal a storage space for small parcels hich may be left for absent guests and which e will eventually deliver when the guests !turn to the hoteL Somewhere i n the lobby 1ere .should be a rather large storage spar.e H luggage which may be left by guests after hecking out but prior to departing. In very ctiv• hotel• with a h igh occupancy, there i s mandatory checkout t ime. Very often the uest i s not going to leave the hotel until sevrat hours after the check•out time. Under hose circumstance. t! . the guest will leave his uggage with the betJ captain after checking •ut. but he will remain i n the hotel until it is ime for him to depart via his car or to the rail oad terminal or airport. 3uest-Fioor Corridors will now accompany our guest from the !levator to the guest' s room. As the elevator open. the guest should find himself i n 1n area which can be designated as an ale lfator foyer. This may be a large open space or a space slightly wider than the corridor itself. Whatever its size, it should, by its w idth. denote the fact that i t i s the eJevator foyer. I t i s wise to remember that no gue11troom should be placed opposite the elevators. Guests coming or going late at n ight, com•ng out or getting into rhe elevators, may talk loudly or may be too noisy, in .which case they .vould be disturbing guests whose doors open lff this area. The foyer should be further from the guest•oom corridor by its •nd lighting. It is alw•ys • thoughtful touch to have certain appurtenances which tndicate consideration for the guttst i n the total ;,verall plann•ng. One of these appurtenances be a small bench or som• type of seat for who may want to wait in the foyer for the elevator or who may be waiting to meet 1omeone e&se on the floor. It ia also a thought ful gesture to h.ave a fulllength mirror i n thia trea; men as well •• women guests appreciate :he chance to have a look at themselves before ::2escending to the main lobby floor. There 1houtd obviously be a goo(l.si.zed ash receiver !or cigarettes . cigars . and other trash nui lances thar the guest may to get rid of :Jefore gerting into the elevator. The guestffoor corridors are tranaitionel 1paces between the public space. which hes already been discussed. and the guest room. which wilt be discussed further below. The first problem the architecr faces i s a ques:t1on of dimension-width and length. Ler us con sider the advisable length of a corridor first. Good practice indicares that a corridor should, i f at all possible, not be over 100 ft i n length. It sometimes occura that. because of the size of tha hotel or irs configuration. corridors may b• longer. Thers are • number of hotels where corridors stretch out for over 200 ft. The archi teet would be weU advtsed to introduce an interruption of some sort i n t'tis corridor plan ning to keep the guest from feeling as i f his approach to hia room were an endless patn. The interruption may be by means of a change in dimension or, i f the plan permits. a change i n direction. The long look o f a corridor may be relieved by means of appropriate lighting and decor. Where a corridor turn.s at right angles or at any angle. i t would be well to arrange for a secondary foyer effect to giv" the guest a second breach, so to speak. before continu ing along the corridor to his room. There i s very little choica i n the w idth of a corridor. Normal ly. 6 ft is considered an adequate width. al though some hotels have made do w ith only 5 ft. This could well suffice i f the corridor was a rather short one. Anorher e•pediant, which may be used either in a narrow corndor (under 6ft) or a standardwidth corridor. would be the device of recessing the bedroom or guestroom doors. Setting doors back from tha corridor wall 1 ft or even as much as 2 ft givtts an appara ent wtdth to the corridor and, what is more important. i t givas each room entrance its own sense of privacy and individuality. It is normal to pair guestroom doors and therefore the recess or door alcove would normally be the w idth of two doors or a m i n imum of S ft and a depth ranging anywhere from 6 in. to Z ft. An expedient that always helps a corridorto appear short•r it that of cr•ating a change i n the colors of the recesses. which under ideal con d itions would be opposite each other on either s ide of the corridor. If this i s possible i n the plan. and i t usually works out that way. a break i n the carpet ector or design i n t his area as well as a change i n the color scheme for each entrancedoor alcove creates a pleasant feeling of pause or intertude along • long corridor. L ighting w ill also play an important part i n making corridors seem more interesting and less stretched out. lllumin•ting the alcove areas i s always a pleasant device. In the first place, it makea the numbers of the doors immediately visibta. and i n the second place. i t gives the guest a sense of Comfort to know that no one could be lurking in the door alcove wh••• deep shadow• might hid• him. L ighting always creates an ambiance of hoapitality, and lights wouJd be beat placed in these door atcovea. This is not • h•rd and fast rule. In instances. the interjor designer or the arcnitect may decide that lighting along the blank wall between the guest•room doora would eerve hta purpose better. All thia, of course. ia • matter of individual taate as well •• of the wiah•s of the hotel operator. Another small but important facco,. i s lhe design of the gueat•room door itseU. A flush panel door i s the least •apenaive but also the least desirable type of door for a guest room. If only a ftush door ia u•ad. strong color might be helpful. or the use of natural wood finishes would be pleasant. If at etl po•aible, 1ome form of decor on the doo,. will create a &en•• of inviting hospitality for the arriving guest. Another thing to be borne in mind i a that the guest must be able to recognize his room number. and such a room number might welt be an attracttve decorathta adjunct in thia are•. Soms hotel• have u•ed room numb•rs pbced to the HOTELS s ide of the door rather than on th• door it seif. Here again, the ingenuity of the designer comfJs into play. It i s not th!! inrentlon of this dissertation to discuss color. but wall covering and waH colors in corridors are most important. It must be borne i n mind that along these dors pass endless numbers of pieces of lug gage carried by the guest or the bellboy. Luggage may also be transported by means of trolleya. In any case. the lower portion of the wall will be subjectttd to brutat abuse b y being banged with luggage or trolleys. The lower par• tion of the wall. therefore. m ight well be designed as a dado made of a bruis .. and shockaresistant matenal or marked off with a contrasring color or wail covering. Thus the lower walls in the corridor can be repainted or repapered when they have be•n sufficiently scuffed while the upper waits may remai n as they are. This can resuJt i n considerable !aving.s t o the hotel operator. Guest Rooms Everything that. has been said about hotels thus far may be considered t o the prime product theta hotel has to offer. namel•f, the guest rooms. This i s the final product that is to be sold . In connectton w ith this thought. i t i s well to remember (aJthough this may not have any influence on the ptanning or the a r e hi tecture o f a hotel) that. unlike an item o n a merchant's shelf. a suesr room that i s not sold one night means a complete loss. It would be as if a grocer were forced to throw out each day' s unsold supply of boaed cereal and to lay i n a fresh supply every morning. That i s a pr..,. cise anaJogy to the situation of the hocsl man and his guest rooma. The room that is t1ot sol d and the revenue that i a losr can never be re-covend ( F i g . 5). Now let us have a look at the guest r oom itself. The first considerarion i s that of size. The ac:ompanying illustrarions of guest rooms i n hoteh designed by the authors show as wide a variety of d imensions ss an architect may encounter. For the moment. let us eli minate the space taken by a bathroom and a closet and consider the actual room itself. The length and w idth are determined by the amount c f furniture that is to go into the room and by rha degre e of lu•ury that the hotel oparator w ishes to achieve. Lttt us consid the latter first. It i s an obvious trui•m that the lu•ury of space i s an expensive one when i n the light of construction costs. Space, how• ever, doea convey a feeling of lu.tury end. where an operator i s a iming for the market. it would be well to cre•te rooms thar are s ized not for the actuat furniture requir ... ments but for the sheer luxury of spaciousness. And now to the first premise-namely. what furnitureJ should go i n and whst s ize room shoutd accommodate the furnishings. In order to understand furniture requirements. it i s impor-tant to have a knowledge of the var ious type• of rooma that • hot•' or motel oft•rs guests. The mofU common room i n the hot&J field today i a the twinbedded roorn. Then we the pos•ibiJity of a aingl• occupancy room. and. laady. studio rooms or suites. The twinbedded room. the moat common in hotels generally. will very i n length depending on the type of bed that the operator wishe• to in•rall. The smallest unit will have a pair of twin beds. The first q uastion that •rises in con• sidering twin beds i a whether there will be a night table between the beds or whether the two bttds wdt be placed s ide by s1de. Rooms contai n ing twan beds, w ith a n ight table between them. arw preferred by most hotel opera tors because a,.,t many double oceupen •

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mercia! ELS cies that do !'lOt necessarily involve married couples. For instance. the occupants m•ght be two women. two men. or one adult and one child. and in these instances it is alway• desir able to provide separate beds. Aa an example, two men traveling together would much prefer to have their beda separated than to sleep s ide by side. Economy i n apace and length of room can be achieved by placing beds side by aide. but although such an arr-angement is often used, it is not the best one. The ne•t consideration is the size of the beds themselves. There are single beds which are 3 It 6 i n . wide, • full-sized bed which is 4 It 6 in. , a bed which is 5 ft wide. snd • king-sized bed which is 6 ft wide. Pr.aently, ell beds ore still being made in • 6-ft 6tn. length dimension. Since the average American is growing taller and taller, it would be wiee to conaider beds as a stnnderd . s ince i t will not be long before such beda will be introduced into moll hotels. One reason for the bed i s the comfort of the guests. Many guests would appreciAte the 8.tra width of 1 queen-sized bed. and it is possi ble for families together to heve an adult and a child sleep in the aame bed. Where beds are emploved (and this will be found most often in motels). two adults occupy one bed. s o that a two-bed room may take a family of four people. In connection with beds. it is w ise to remem• bet' that the headboard. which seems like an anachronism i n home furnishing. is a most important fe•ture i n hotels. Guests like to read in bed. end because of the widespread use of hair preparations. thw headboard portion of the bed i s subjected t o heavy wear and soiling. Whether a headboard is provided or whether aome other such •• a flat cushion against the wall or any other ingenious arrang ... ment that the interior designer may come up with is uaed, headboards are definitely a part of hotel equipment. Beds, as a rule. come on glides or coasters in one form or another so that they can be when the maid comes in to malite up the beds. Movement of beds i s most important. so that maids and porters can clean under them. Notheng is more disturb .. ing to a guest than to look under a bed and see an accumulation of carpet fluff and discarded cigarette butts. Now that we d iscussed we know that we must at least 7 ft 6 i n . from :he wall to the front edge of our newer anticipated 7 -It beds. If at all possible, there should be a aisle and, i f no furniture is placed op posite the bed ( a very unlikely arrangement). then the width of the room would be a mini mum of 10ft 6 in. Where furniture will be placed on the watl opposite the bed. such furniture will moat likely consist of a dresser or cup board with Such a piece of furniture requires a minimum of 1 8 in. in width and most tikely an optimum width of 24 i n . It must be remembered that drawers have to be opened, and the guest wilt need room to stand in front of the dresser to open the drawer withour being forced to a it down on the bed thila doing so. Therefore. a J .. ft aisle again comes into play. If we consider the 7 ft 6 i n . required for the bed. 3 tt for the aisle. and 2 h for the dresser. we have an optimum room d imension of 12 ft 6 in. behveen walls. Thia is a minimum dimension. and if the plan and the budget permit, anothttr 6 in. would be • most welcome spatial device. Let us now consider the length of the room. This dimension will vary depending upon the types of beds usedqueen. king. or standard twin-but this is only part of our consideration. It is necessary i n each room to provide not only sleeping faci l i t ies but also s itting facilities. The most common arrangement found in most hotels consists of two comfortable armchairs w ith a cocktail table between them. A com fortable chair will require • depth of least 30 in. and another 30 in. of leg apace in front of it. which meana that we need at leaat 5 tt from the wall before we encounter the f irst piece of furniture, which w i ll probably be e bed. The furniture placement will usually call for the chairs to be placed againat the windot wall. The reaaon is ob..,ioua. A view out of the w i n dow is a pleasant experience for someone using the guest room as a sitting room. In tion with the SO"'i:aJied cocktatl table. this mey give way to a low table which may be used for dining, card playing, or writing. Many so .. cafled cocktail tables are. in effect. pedestal stand ing lamps which combine two pieces ot furni .. ture in one: tne cocktail table and the standing lamp. Such an eapedient is a apace saver, since the light is exactly where it •• wanted end there i s no need for another movable lamp. In talking of lighting, we must beer in mind that we want n-ot only a lamp or a ceiling fixture over the sitting area but also adequate reading lights for the beds. The most often used arrangement i s a twinheaded lamp sitting on the n ight table between the two beds. Far from enough study has been done i n this type of lighting. which would make it possible to give adequate and direct light for one guest i s reading in bed while the other guest can sleep without being disturbed by the light of his roommate. Lights may be plsced over the headboards, but thia means that two outlets may be required and certainly t-wo luminairea inatead of one. Another area that vvill need good lighting i s the area which wve will celt the writing and makeup area. Thi s is usually some sort of table arrangement where a guest may s i t and write or where a female guest can sit down and apply her makeup It has become rather standard to combine the dra•aer with its drawers with an• other piece of which is called the dressingwriting table. This type of case goods i a most often used. but it i • by far the least desirable for a welleppointeci room. Another piece of fi•ed furniture that ia desirable is a luggage stand. Many hotels thi s useful piece of furniture and supply folding lug• gage stands. These will serve adequatsly but. since the guest will usually leave his piece of of luggage in the room, it is far more desirable to have a pleasant piece of furniture than a ing luggage rack. Before leaving the furnishing of the standard room. it should be noted that there should be at least one more chair in the room. This c ould be a straight .. backed chair or • stool placed in front of the writing-makeup table. This wilf provide for three s itting pieces. If at all possible, a fourth t:hair should b• con sidered. It is far pleasanter to four people sitting on chairs than to have tnree people supplied with chairs thile the fourth or guest hes to a it on one of the beds. SetwHn a pair of twi,, beds. the ubiquitous nightstand with its small storage space below ia standard. A interior designer can improvise and create far batter furnishing arrangements than the standard nightstandsarrangem•nta which will give the room additional storage apace. The cocktail table which has been pre mentioned may wetl g ive way to a dining table. which w i ll serve the purpo5e far bett•r because it can be used for setting down a drink or a book or a package and also for • meal (rather than depending upon th• room-service trolley). In connection with the trolley, the designer should bear i n mind that i f a dining i s not ,Jrovided, there must be sufficient space i n the room to set up a room-service table. This is wheeled in by the waiter. and i t must then be possible to arrange at least two and sometimes more chairs around it for the guests who wish to dine i n their rooms. The luggage atand has already been men• t ioned. but at hotels where the guests may be staying for a a long •• a """eek or more (this obviously will be the case i n resort hotels), the designer should bear i n m ind that thev will come ..-.,ith more than one piece of l u ggage. Some traveiftrS carry four and s i x p ieces, and where to put them i n the standard room be comes a serious problem. L i ghting i n the room. which has been partial l y will depend upon the interior d.,. s igner. The necessary luminaires have already been d iscussed. but these may be supplement ed with additional fight to create a p feasanter ambience i n room. Thtt controt o f these l ights must be carefully considered. The s imp lest type of control will call for a switch at the door which w i ll turn on one or two or even all the lights in the room. Most hotels and thei r designers give entirel y too l ittle thought to the switching arrangement for th• control of lights. Thi s l eads to confusion on the pert of the guest, who has to e•plore the room and decida which light s are controlled at their source. A great source of annoyance is tho arrangement i n which afl the lights are controlled by one switch at the door and then each luminaire has its own ON and OFF switch. It presents an annoy ing and puzzling problem to the guest coming into the room or the guest who wants to turn out the lights when going to sleep. Thia problem has been aotved i n many hotels by placing one light switch at the door to turn on one of the lights and then providing a battery of l ight switches ar the bed which control the other l ighting i n the room. If this i s not carefully thought out, a fuming guest will often com• ment that one haa to be a lighting engineer i n order to understand how to work the intri cate switching arrangement. Thi s i s especially true if two•wey switches are used. one ftt the door and one at the bed: then you may be sur e that the guests w iil become quite thoroughly confused. Such switching arrangements are in European hotels. but there thtt problem i s by using graphic symbol a on eac h switch to make i t pos s ible for the traveler to figure out the intricaci8& of lhe l ight controls. Here we can give no advice other than to consider the problem carefully •• if i t were a problem i n logistics. Thus far we been speaking only of guest rooms w ith normal twin-or s ingle-bed arrange ments. Another poputar arrangement i n hotels i s that of tha so...called studiO room ... Dual sleep pieces have been developed which are comfortable sofaa during the day and p•rfectly comfortable beds at n ight. I n thi s context we are not speaking of the fol d ing sofa beds. These ahould be uaed only •• a last resort in hotel furniahings. They can achiewe the comfort of the stsnderd bed. The duel sleep pieces we are talking about come i n varioua ingenious arrangements. but they are primarily beda which have some back-up arrangement ao that they become normal !'ofas when uaed for sitting. When they are mo'lled out. rolled to a s ide, or adjust•d i n some other way to clear the backrest. they become full length beds. The accompanying illustrations show some of the ways i n which these dual sleep pieces may b e used. The purpoe of a studi o arrangem•nt i s to enable t},e guest to use h i s room &s a true s itting room. Many travelers usa thetr rooms during the day t o conduct business or to v i s i t w ith Obviously i t i s much p leasanter t o s i t i n a rooM which look• l ike • l iving room than to ignoro

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, beds. which may or may not have been 1de up when the guest receives company. 10ther reason for hevrng studio rooms that they may double as silting rooms for ites by h3ving one room. which i s a normal droom or guest room. adjoin another room 1ich is furnished as a studio room. Thus tne 1tet can provide a two•room suite (obviously. 1nnecting doors must be provided between ese two accommodations). Before leaving e question of adioining rooms. the architect 1ould determine with the hotel operator how eny rooms will have adjoi n ing door'!. Too ften the planner decides that all rooms should ave interconnecting doors. These doors are soul'ee of annoyance because, unless the nest type of sound barriers are used on them, 1e•e doors become a nuisance in that sound rill travel more easily through doors than 1,-ough walls. This is true i n spite of the fact hat a good installation will c311 for one door n each room, so that &very connecting •paning has two doors. \r'\iherever the budget lermits, a highrated door is desirable. and i f at all possible, a gaaketing de..,ice shoula be 'mployed to cut the sound transference from lne room to another. With regard to sound transference. the mechanical plans must indi cate that base outlets and telephone outlets may not back up to each other. This 1 S one of the most troublesome ways of transmitting sound from one room to the other. It is •conom ieat to back up eteetrical and telephone outlets. but it ie a bad policy i n hotels. Outlets should be ataggered to avoid sound transmission. The architect shoutd definitely cOnsider the decibel rating of h t s wall construction to try and cut sound transmission from one room t o another. Thia usually adds to the cost of the hotel, but it is h ighly desirable. As one guest once said, he is tired of answering his phone when it i s his neighbor's that is ringing; and as another once complained. ttvery time his neighbor flushes the toilet. he runs for the hills. Sound transmission i s • nutsance i n hotets and it should be c3refully considered by the architect. Every hotel should have arrangements for suite• of a permanent nature as opposed t o a combination of a studio room with a typical guest room. Suites will be furnishttd like fine s itting rooms. They are used not only by the affluent traveler because he can afford i t but also by trav•lers who do a good deal of enter taining, eapeciatly business travelers who entertain clients and customers on their arrival in any given city. If a hotel offers convention facilities. it will require an inordinate number of suites. Conventions will meen that there will be a good deat of entertaining going on, and compenies whose representati'lol'es are guests in the hotet will want good-sized suites for fairly large cocktail parties and other forma of entertainment. These large suites. incidental ly. may double at times as seminar or confer• ence rooma. In this conte•t the hotel may be asked to move moat of the furniture out of the suite living room and bring in seminar chairs for meetings. If such w ill be the caae. the plan• nef' should provide for e storage room on each floor capable of hojding alternate types of furniture ro suit the requirements of gueats using large suite-sitting rooms. These suites aro also often uaed by two couples or by a large family. i n which caae the sitting room of the suite may be used for at night. In this c:ase. dt.ral steep piec:ea will be required. but they will usually be the typ• that i a referred to •• a "davenpon." or the type of sofa wnich opens oul to become • comfortable double bed {never aa c:omfor1able ae • true bed). Thttse tuites should have a din1ng taole w ith • sufficient number of chairs, proviston for an adequate desk (s•nce some busint!s S may be carried on i n that room). a sufficient ber of comfortable lounge chairs, and an acces sory table. The decor o f the room will depend upon the interior des1gner and the hotel opera tor, who usually knows what he woul d like i n thes e suues. I t i s a good practice to arrang e the sitting room of a suite so that i t connects with at least two bedrooms and. i f at all possi b l e . three and sometimes even four bedrooms . This wdl require some inuicate planning. Suitf:IS w ill usually btt found i n the corner of a build ing, which makee it possible for the planner to join up several bedroom!l. There are t imes when su•tes are not used. and the hotel shoul d be able to rene each of the rooms in the suite separately. This means that each room will have its own s•parate key. A foyer which connects the bedrooms 3nd the sitting makes this separate keying of rooms possible. A s ingle door or a pai r of doors leading to the foyer of the suite will be o n one key, but by opening these doors tem porJtr i l y (the plans should be devised so that the doors can be swung back and out of the way), the foyttr becomes part of the corridors and each roam, including the sitting room, would have its own kay. This makes for ma•i m u m fle•ibility , so that the sitting room can be rente d on an individual basi s . A complete bath• room should be planned for each of the Sitting rooms of a suite to mak• it possible to rent the rooms out singly. Ev.,n i f the room is not rented s ingly, a bathroom or lavatory facility certainly i s needed i n eech living room or sitting room of a suite. Plumbing connections m ight well be arranged so that a bar can also be introduced in the sitting room. Since this room will be uaed for entertaining ( e ither busi nasa or private). a bar with water connection becomes a pleasant adjunct. There is a growing tendency i n hotels and motels to create greater flexibility in meeting and seminar rooms that would be available to eonventiona. These rooms are so deaigned that they can be used as bedrooms when not required for meetings or other purposes when a convention is in the hoteL Under thi s concept usually two rooms are divided by a foldaway partition, ao that the two rooms can be thrown into one i f a larger room is required. On other occasiona. the one guest room may be used for very smaU meetings w ithout being opened up to the adjoining guest room. I n view of the fact that these rooms are designated for meetings, whether singly or in pairs, their furnishings are diHerent from those of the st:an dard guest room. At the outs•t i t must be determined that thi s will probebly be used as a single room rather than a double room. The b•d itself is placed i n the wall. It i s the type that swings up and is hidden in the wall. There are e number of manufacturers today wi\o are m•king these hideaway beda. which are quite satiafactory for hotet uaa. It i a possible. i f so desired. to have two beds, i n which case the room becomes a double room. The rest of the furniture i• carefully considered ao that i t can be moved out of the we, to open up the room for matJtings or, at best, i s si.zed so that it will not interfere with meetings i n the•• rooms. Obviou•ly, these rooms will be placed on the lowest #loora so they can be cloae to the public spaces for the convenience of thoae who are going to use them for meet ings or in connection with a larger con..,ention or meeting taking place in the hoteL Guest Bathrooms We are now ready to review the bathroom in a holel. The minimum bath room w ill have a combinacion rub-ehow"r, HOTELS a lavatory , and a water c loset. S ince the travel ing publi c i s very consc ious o f bathroom accommodations. thtt architect should give a good deal of thought to this featur'l in the hotel. The accompanying plans of the writer' s proj ects show various arrangements of bathroom accommodations. An innovation devised by the writer's firm was the tntroduction of two i n the bathroom facilities. These two lavatories may be right i n the bathroom itself, they ,ay be pulled out into a dressing area. or one lavatory may be placed i n the bath room and another outside the bathroom. This last arrangement is most desirable. so that i f two people occupy a room, regardless of whether i t i s a husband and wife, two fnen. or two women traveling together. they have the use of 1he bathroom facilities without inter fef'ing with each other. It immediately becomes obvious that i f , for instance. the husband i s shaving, the wife can be taking a bath or showerand other possibilit ies are immediat ... ly self-evident. European invariably not onl y the tub. water closet. and lavatory but also a b idet. This i s a particularly European custom. and we are finding that i n many ho:ei s i n Amer ica the b idet i s being introduced. Obviously, thi s additional feature is found only i n the moll luxurious hotels. Taking the water closet as the first of the f ixtures i n th• bathroom, :hera is one word of caution. A noi•y flushing toilet is a d isturbing noise element not only to the occupants of the room but also to the oc cupants of the a d joining rooms. Flushomerers are nor desirable because they are noisy. There are noiseless flushometers. they are qui t w expensive. The average hotel uses 3 silent tanktype of toilet es rhe mos t expedient type of water c loset for hotels. A waHhung uni t makes cleaning of hotel bathrooms easier for the maid, but again. its economics will decermine whether this fairly e•pensive type of insUIIIa t ion i s warranted. The tub i n a guest room i s normally a Sft tub. A good hotel installation w ill go for the additionat eapense and the addicionat d imension by installing Stt 6in . rubs. The European hotels invariably have at least a Stt 6in. tub, and ther• are many luaury hotels with 6ft tubs. The normal shower head becomes scandard i n atl Morels. although there is a growing tendency to using the "telephone shower head. " This i s a hand operated shower head which ia more common i n Europe than i t i s i n Americe. Manufacturers of bathroom equipment have devised a hand• held shower httad which operates as well as the normal wall show•r head. and by using two movable showerhead supports, one at the nor mat hand level and one at the higher level 'INhere a f i•ed shower head normally woul d oc::ur. the guest haa the option of aUowing the hand• type shower heed to remain in a standard posi t ion or to remove it and use i t a• he • pi-••• Thia type of showet" heed. incidentally. i s also convenient for woman guests washing their hair. Recently. most beChroom fi•ture companies have been turning their attention to soma form of fiber gtass or plastic tub and s how4r ar• rangements that can ba deli..,ered e ither i n one p iece or i n several sections. Thi s eliminate:& the necessity for the usa of tile or other imper• v ious wall material i n thi s area. These on.piece inatallarions ar• still i n the early stages of dawalopment, but eventually hotels will be turning to them for economy in construction and for s implicity i n inatallation . The atand•rd one-piece lavatory i s fast disappearing from hotels. Instead, a lavatory i e becoming e shelf arrangement i n t o which the bowl i 1 sunk. Usually. a marble slab wirh • cutout to recai'lol'e the lavatory bowl is used. There ara many

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tmerc1a1 rELS companiea manufacturing ayntheti c marble that make the bowi and the ledge i n one p iece. Thi s i a h ighly deaireble in hotels. but cere should be •••rciaed to make aura that the aynthatic material c•n withstand cigarette burna, alcohol ataina, and the general abuaa that thaaa •reaa gat. Older hotel a uaed to have i c ... water connections in the lavatory. Thia is now a thing of the peat because moat hotels provide ice makef'a i n corridors aa a nice touch for the guests, who can fetch their own ice cubee for cold water or for coJd drinks. Another consideration in a bathroom ia the so•callad medicine cabinet."' S ince guests really do not carry medicines any more. i t ia ad"isable to eliminate this facility entirely. If a medicine cabinet is used, very often a guest wi11 place shaving materiels. lotions. etc. , i n the cabinet and upon leaving the hotel forget to look i n it, therefore leeving behind h i s or her toiletries. It i s preferable to have a ledge on which toiletries may be pieced. where they are conveniently reached, and where, obvious ly, they will not be left when the guest checks out. There are a number of appurtenances that wilt be pl•ced i n the washing area. such as a tumbler holder or toothbrush holder, but here again the tendency i s to leave out these p ieces of hardware. although a receptacl e for toilet tiaaues ia deairable and should be included. If • ledge is used, the toilet tissue holder can be placed within the recess of the ledge. aa can be the tumbler holders and the toothbrush hold era. Obvioualy, an electrical convenience out• let must be placed in this area for electric shavers. electric toothbrushes, and other alec trical gadgets that todey' l traveler takes with him. A slot receptacle for used razor bladea ahould not be forgotten. Towel bars must be strategically placed so that the guest can reach for a towel regardless of whether he is stepping out of the tub or whether he is washing or aha..ing at the leva .. tory. A wellrun hotel ahould keep an ample auoply of bath towels and face towels in each guest room. and sufficient space for these should be allowed together with the necessary hardware arrangements. Hooks are often omitted. but these are necessary for a gueat' a pajamas or bathrobe. Of course. the ubiqui taus bottle opener should not be forgorten. We atill heve bottles with bottle caps. although in the near future thi a will probabty be an inter eating anachroniam. Another nicety which might be provided i s some form of clothesline. With Coday' s waah•andwear apparel, many guests. especiaHy women. like to do their washing at n ight and hang their garments i n the bathroom. Since this has become a way of life for the traveler. an architect will be wail advised to aeek out one of the msny tricky seff .. concaating wash linea on the market today. Finally, the treatment of the watla and floors of a bathroom become• th• province of the interior designer. The use of tile, for one reason or another, is being reduced to a minimum. It w i ll be found around the beth encloaure (where •he new on ... piece units are not uaad) and u•u•Uy on the floor• because they are so required by sanitary building codes. There are many new materials on the market, and auch old material• •• thin-afeb marbte may be used. Where coda permita, aome hotels are ec1ually using waahable carpets i n bathrooms for floors. The walls are definitely no tiled, but some form of acrubbabla wall cover• ing material is prevalent in most hotels today. II need hardly be said but it should be noted that good l ighting is an essential in a bathroom where men will be shaving and where women will be applying makeup. This, tog•uher with ample mirror services, is an indisputable must. A number of hotels are installing a wall-hung mirror which is an enlarging mirror on one aide and a normal mirror on the other, a very nice touch for both man and women guests. Much has been said about the bathroom. but Ameri cans arv a bathroom•conacious people. A hotel deajgnar should realize that p leasing the guest i • h i s prima purpose and that the bathroom cztn be a great guest pieaaer. Guest Room Closets We now come to the final requirement in the guest room, namely. the closet. The size of a closet will be determined by the type of hotel. Obvioualy, such an accommodation i n a motel ia of little use. Most motels eapact gueats to stay only o..-ernight. and therefore they need very little accommodation for henging clothes. Many motels. in fact, have no closets at all but p rovide a neat hanging space to m&ke sur" that the motel guast who likes to check out early in the morning doea not forget any clothes in the closet. which might be ctosttd when he is leaving. Having the open hanging arrangements ob..iates this possi b ility. The longer the guestroom sray that is ant•cipated, then the larger the closet. The larger welkin closet should certainly ba considered where guests wil1 be ataying for any ler.gth of t ime. Thia is especiaiJy true in resort hotels. where the guest will be arriving with many piecaa of luggage and the closet should be lerge enough to accommodate the emptied luggage during the guest' s stay. It should be possible to store the luggage out of sight in the closet without diminishing the available hanging space, the shoe-rack apace, or ahelf space for hats and other appareJ and peraphernatia. Whether the closet ii a flat reach•in type or a walkin type, the door should be auch that, when the closet i a opened, there are no hidden recesses wh•re clothing may be forgotten because it cannot be readily sean by the departing guest. Another thought to be borne in mind is that closet doors can become a nuisance when opened, and their streteg;c location to avoid banging into open doors is definitely the province of 11 hotel plan n•r. A good closet will have a hang rod w ith suHicient apace to comfortably hold men' s and women' s clothes, a thelf for packagts, hats, etc .• and a shoe ledge or rack for placing shoes. A walkin cfoaat must, of course, have a good aource of tight. A reachi n closet ahould also have light outside the closet so that the guest can see what i s inside. Guest-floor Service Space Every guestroom floor will have a service area. A service area aervea ae'leral functions. Pri marily. it i a a place where linen i a stored and where the maida' carta are kept. We muat bear in mind that each maid will handle anywhere from 12 to 1 5 roo me and th•t each maid will need a can. The number of rooma on the floor will, therefore. determine the number of maids and, in turn, the number of carts. Aside from the space for the maida' carts, there muat be a porter' s closet for cleening supplies, vacuum cleaners. paila. etc. A closed storage antll should be provided for the storage of linens. In addition to the maids', porters'. and linen supplies. 1uffi c ient apace shoul d be left for the •torage of room•ser..-ice carts. Thttse carts will be brought to thia ar•• by the waiters after the guests have finished their meala. They mfty have to remain on the floor for some time woit ing for the service elevator or elevators. Obvi ously. the service elevators will open out to thi s service area, so that atl thia activity t.ake• plac• out of the sight and hearing of the hotel guests. Some hotel operator• still in,.ist on providing to•let facil it ies for the help i n thia aree. Most hotels, however, go on the assumption that the maida and porters w ill. 1n the absence of the gueat. be using the toi let facili t ie1 o f the guest rooms whil e they are working i n them. Banqueting Facilit i es Moat hotels and motels include meeting end banquet facilities. The smaller hotels may provide only a number of meeting rooms which may also be uaed for luncheons and d inners. Larger hoteln w i ll heve a more d iversified arrangement for meetings. luncheons. dinners. and banquets. The largest hotel s are usua11y designed with a full banqueting and convention facility. The extent of these faci l i t ies ""'ill be determined by the hotel operator who. i n turn, will convey h i s requirements to the archjtect. It i s w ise for the architect to h ave a thorough knowledc;e of what the feedi n g and space requirements for these facilities are. The normal meeting rl)orn r equi rements artt rl'lther s imple. The rooms will vary i n sue to ac.c ommodate anywhere from 10 to as many as 100 people. I n most instances, wherever i t i s feasible. the meeting rooms w i lt be ar ranged in a straight line. so that the walls separating one room from the other can be made movable. Movable, separa t ing walls make it possible to achieve a great fleai b ility in the size of the rooms to accommodate meet ings of various s izes. Thus, if two meeting rooms which normally might seat 25 people ore thrown open to one, we would have a meet ing room to take 50 people; and if another wail is opened, we would be abl e to seat 7 5 people. and so on. The numbers used are not necessarily 1hose tftat wiJI be found in hotels. they are merel y used for convenience. as an e:aample. In larger rooms, which normally quali fy for conventions or large banquets, i t is also posaibht to subdivide the space by the use of movable walls to create smaller rooms when a large room is not required. A large space whi,ch might seet 1 ,000 peopl e all folding have been moved back can be cut up into anywhere from four to s i z .spaces. allowing for meeting rooms that can accom mod ate t 50 to 250 people. In meny ins:onces both arrangements will be found i n a hotel. so that there ere lines of mettting rooms of a smaller nature. all subdivisible. and a really large space that is a Jso subdivisible. Thus far we have spoken of thes e spaces as meeting rooms. Most of these spaces will also be used to aerve meals. Thes e meals may con sial of small luncheons or dinners for 10 or 1 2 peopl e and go on up to accommodate aa meny ea t .000 people seated et tables for dining. Of course, i n the really large conVention halts. it will not ba unusual to seat 3,000 or more people i n one large convention banauet hall. Realizing that food must be brought to all these rooms. the1r juataposit;on to aer..-ing k itchen• is h ighly important i n arranging the p len. For the moat part, food should be brought directly from b•nquet kitchens to the banquet spaces. In subdividing these spaces. the aub division muat be so planned that each space is contiguous to the k itchen and hes its own doors to enabl e waiters to come and go between the b•nquel spaces and the banquet k itchen. In some instances, thi s i s not com pletely possible, and it is an accepted practice, where small meeting rooms cannot be place d contiguous to the actual banquet k itchen, t o arrange to ser..-e through the same corridors that w ill be used by people coming and going as diners i n these smaller spaces. I f the architect. working with h i s c l ient, the hotet operator, has come t o the conclusion that the subdivision of these spaces by mean• ol movable Y'lralls i s whac w i ll be included i n

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'II.Tn I . . I i r 1 . . • ,_ ; lti .:Mill l..,.OUS AI.SOC:LATII • AICNUICfl . ; fluafrty Courts Motal pratDtype. the plena, it bahoovaa the architect to make • carehol lludy ol the varioua types ol movable walla available lor uaa in auch hotal lacilitiaa. Thera are many manufacturer• who make thaea walla. The architect ohould be careful I n arrang ing thea• walla ao •• not to interfere with the overall concept of opening up clear apacaa by moving walla. The •couatical value of the walla muat be carefully atudied. Nothing i a more d i•rurbing than to have two meatinga i n adjacent rooma where the so..,nd tranamiasion i a of auch • high ,AU P\AM uco•• 1\oce level thet what happana i n one apace can be clearly heard in the other. Sound iaolation i a of the greataat importance, and thia eppliea not only to the decibel rating of the panah tham• aalvea but alao the arrangement of the joints between the aectiona or panala of the watt. The architect muat a lao be aware of what happen• above panel •• i t come• up to the ceiling track and what heppana !o the panej •• i t glidea a long the floor. Scund isolation ehould be carefully atudiad in ell theae spec•• which w ill allow. i f not properly controlled. aound to ' . !'II I . I I =n \IOtNO --.... . -HOTELS --. --be tran'lmirted. There ars practically no waHa which cen guarantee a beolute eound iaolation when the eound reachea a h igh enough decibel rating. In auch inataneaa. it haa bean found eapedient t o uaa two aata of wall a with en a i r apace between them. which w i tt enaura almoac total aound iaclation. Th••• movable w•lla o.p•n•l• can ba op•retad by hand or by motor. Swaer a catalog carries all the pertu.,•nt infor• marion from every manufacturer, and an archi teet i a welt adviaad ro carefuily atudy not onl y the operation and conatruction o f theae mov•

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JmmercJal JTELS DOUBlE -WITH BALCONY SINGLE -WITH Ul.CONY Typical rooms, Oulit'l Courts Mota! prototype. able well panela but alao the sound iaoleting devices that the manufacturer apeci fi•• In fairly large meeting, banqu•t. and conven .. tion facilities. space muat be provided which ia normally called "preconvention aaaembly apace:' Actually, this ia • aort of foyer or g•th•ring pl•c• for people before they go to the various meeting rooms or where they may congregate before going in to a banquet. Since moat of the people who are standing are those who will eventually be seated, the proportiona of the preconvention foyer apace w ill be deter• m ined by the number of people who will be eventually aeated. A a a rule of thumb, a person standing in fairly close quarter• w ill take up appro•imately 5 aq ft. A person seated at a table will take up anywhere from 10 to 1 5 oq h. A peraon aeated for a aeminar or a meeting will require 8 or 9 oq ft. It become• ap parent that the ideal preconvention, preban quet, or aooembly apace ohould be at l•aot one third of the area of the actual dining and meeting apace&. This one•third i s arrived at empirically by comparing the amount of required sitting or atanding and by allowing for a d iversity factor, knowing that not all the people who w i ll evenlually be seated will be atanding, since aome of them will be latecamera and w ill arrive after many of the people have already gone i n to be for their meetings or their meaaa. Even the one-tf1ird proportion may not be poaaible. and it haa been found proper to uae •• little •• 25 percent of the apace for t h i o preaaaembly foyer. It haa been previouaiy noted in this diacuaaion of hotel and motel design thet i t i o good policy to have a bar withi n thia preconvention. premeeting apace. Such bara do an exc•llent buai nea&. A fiaed bar would be a 'ttery nice feature. but in many very large kotela it ia normal prac• tice to have movable bara aet up. Very often there may be two or three bars to accommodate l•rge groupa of people. MOTELS Much of what haa already been diseuaaed wil1 apply zo motela. The term mot•l ia rather loosely uaed. Thera are many ao-call•d motela within cities which are, i n fact. multile'ttel hotels pro'W i ding more than the average parking found in a hoteL Wherft su:h a project occurs, it would normally be eaUed a motor hotel. .•. . • . -r-----_..lo&..-1 I ... QQJBLE .. SINGLE Parking may be provided in 11n adjacent g•rage. in &&\leraf levels below gr&de, or i n severe' levels above grade w ith gu•sts rooms atarting on an upper floor abO'ttl the garage le'ttels. If property valuea permit, there may be an open parking area or a two-or three-story open park• ing garage. Whatever arrangement is eventual ly used, these structures should properly be called motor hotela rather than motels. Aaide from the parking. every1hing thot will be found in these motor hotela will be the same •• what haa been diacuased under hotela. A true motlil ia one which ia normally found on a main highway. at an important intersec• tion of se ... eral or. finally. at a high way which entera a c ity and therefore i a to the city and yet not • part of it. The obvioua reason i a that land valuea w ithi n cities ere too high to permit the apread that a true moteJ w H I require. Motels uaually pro'ttide open parking and as • rule are only one, two. three, or at rnoat four atories high. Usually moat of the rooms will be entered from an open corridor, this is not • hard fast rule. There may be a .combination of open coHidora and closed corridors. The parking, by preference, should be placed aa close as po& s i b l e to tho

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actual room that the guest will be occupying. The great advant3ge that motels have i s the abi l ity of guests t o park close t o thei r rooms rtnd to carry thei r luggage back and forth with out the assistance o f a bellboy. Bellboy service i s available when required. but many gut:tsts arriving by car preier to handle their own lug gage. The option shoul d be w ith the guest rather than w•th the management of the hoteL In the highway morel the lounge and registra• tion area as well as administration offices may be within the buildings housing the guest rooms. or they may be completely separate aa an entity which i s reached from the motel rooms by means of covered or enclosed pas• sages. Housekeeping and maintenance spaces may be placed w ithin the management reg•stration area. actach•d to the motef wings. or hous•d i n a separate small buil ding to handfe laundry, housekeeping supplies. locker rooms for help. and maintenance c1nd storage for taking care of the grounds, the swimming pool, etc. The restaurant which w i ll be a part of the normal motel compte• may be attached to the management and registration area or, again. m:Jy be in a separate building or i n a build I I I' , I I 1 141 -4.!tz' CJ Tampa lmemor!ional Inn, Tamp a, F lorida. ing attached to the motel w i ngs rather than to the building housing management and registra tion. In many motels the food operat ion is a lease arrangement and i s run by of food and beverage companies that make a specialty of restaurants for indi v idual or for motel chains. Quality Court Motels are use d i n this conte..:t as an eumple. (See Figs. 6 and 7 . ) Our oHice has prepared prototypes for this company for motels ranging i n size from 51 rooms, 76 rooms. 103 room a , on up to 150 rooms. In the case of this particular organization, where the motets are usually individually owned and operated under a franchise . the food operation is a lease operation, but in every respect each of the motels contai n the same basic ehtm ent: namely. the registrat ion and administrative buiiding and a restaurant varying i n size depending upon the size of the morel. A stan dard feature of e v ery motei i s an adequate swimming pool and pool deck ( a n amenity which is invariPJbly found in all highway motels) , ample parking to take care o f aU the guest rooms. and suff i cient parking for restaurant guests who may not be staying at the moteL \. "---J-\IUJIJiiiWIVIUI HOTELS Motel guest rooms differ somew hat from hotel rooms. Motels cater t o two disti n c t clienteles. One type i s the tra\reling business• man using a car for transportation. H e usually travels a lone. Alf he wants is a small room for his overnight The other guest accommo• d ation is for a family. Here a large room is wanted. I t w ill hove two k ingsize beds to accommodate the parents and two childre n . A careful s tudy of the location w iJI yield the clue that will determine thtt mi• of small and large rooms. Drawer space is not a necessity; several shelves and luggage stands are of prime importance. Closets may be and usuaiJy are omitted. Most motels are designed for s ingle overnight stays. The use of an additionat l avatory i s suggested . . This amenity permit s a fam il y to complete its toilet rapidly for tne usual early morning start. ( See F i g s . 8 and 9 . ) A spac e should be provtded for vending machines that dispense hot and cold drinks. candy. snacks. and magazines. An ice maker is a must. as well as insulated i c e bucket s far each room. Seltservi c e o f tr3veler comfor!5 and needs by means of vending machi n e s i s an e•tra boon for the roadwear y traveler who i & an.w:ious t o get his night' s re•t . .&.:,-_.S.tawai Hertel, Jamaica , B . W .I.

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1mercra1 rELS Motel roams exterior ent ranee. Motel roomsinterior I I I , . . . . • • I ! . . . ..... .. .... . . --' : :1' ;\ r'511iiif II . : . . ( ! -: = ftl \ \ \ r 1 :=. i !\ . I K : I I \ = , : -I I

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SPAC E ALLOTMENTS In designing hotels, orchitech ore fre quenlly handicapped by the lock of fcctucl dolo o n space requirements. Too much space resuJrs in excessive investment and building-maintenance costs . Too little space makes it difficult for the hotel owners to realize sotislcctory profits end, in service areas, causes crowding, reduces speed, and increases payroll. Information on a lew hotels con prob ably be obtained by the architect. However, the dolo may apply to hotels of the wrong size, possibly of a different type. or designed to meet unusual requirements. Even with a set of complete p lans, there i s no auuronce that the orecs shown ore the right size or that the building ... ill be well suited to the complex business of hotel operation. Generally, the dot e col lected from th e sources usually ovoilcble ore incomplete, unrepresentative, or etherwise inadequate. In order to obtain spoce-ollotment fig. ures that would be reasonably reliable, the pions of marl! than 40 hotels exam ined. These ranged up to 500 guest rooms in size, were of wide geographic distribution, and ell were built w ithin the last 2.S years. They werl! predominantly of the transient, commercial type end were be lieved to be A lthough sev ercl were in resort communities, this hod little influence on the space cllotmenh for the working areas. Residential hotels end apartment houses were not included. ORGANIZATION AND USE OF GRAPHS In general, each space cllotment is plotted on a separate graph, with the total number of guest rooms in the hotel as the base line, for t his appears to be the most feasible common denominator. The plotted points (each representing one hotel) often pepper the graph i n o widely scott .. red manner without suggesting a good location for o trend l in e running through the field of points. The plotted points for the lobby, main kitchen, and boiler room, however, indicate that the s ize of these areas varies directly with the number of guest rooms. This is o reason able expectation for other oreos. To orr on ge tile information in a dear and •Hable form, a solid diagonal line i1 storied al "zero-zero i n the /ower left corner of the graph and located by trio/ to show the median trend running up through the f i e l d oi the points so that hall the points ore above the l ine end half below it . On most ol lhe graphs, two broken d icgoncl lines ere i n oddi! ::> 0 "' ... : : 4 • • • Explonction of graph 100 HEIGHT I 50 40 0 30 z I I I I i I I I . I w • o " ; I ; f.-GROUND FLOOR !AREAl ; ! ' 1 / / I : • i lC w ! ' / ! /v' i I 7 j / A_, i •( 1./ y .... zo .. . /r /.: ;..1 " I i 1 0 .. I I I ! 0 0 . / 'Jj 1./ /. ' I I I I I I I I I I i I --= I r . : i I I I 500 I . • . I .. • . ' 6 20 a: "-1 10 Ill . I i T_ I . .. r r -r;: . .. . . • > 0 a:l 4 "' "-1 a: 0 ..... "' 5 4 3 2 i 0 ... 0
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... IIIIIIUI._,tUI OTELS T;PICAL I i i / i GUEST FLOOR l r----l AREA /.j I / / A / L_ I./ /-v _..,. / . _. v/ ... . "..-:: _. !----;'" ! .. l ( C Z(C • .. H U W@(C : r I i i 0'----'---..._ _ __. __ ....___;,__, 0 •OO zco 'oo •co 100 GUEST planning, to modifications to m eet individual requirements. GENERAL DATA Certain general da!c warrant considero. ti on to give on approximate overoll ideo of lypicol with any number of rooms. Sui/ding height i s by number of cbovh thews tw o ore usually e nough i f ther.e ore no more then 40 guest rooms per STAIRWAYS 1 I "' . 0 I G U EST FLOOR I' I --i, i ,,__ , -z 0 I : I i I ...... J 60 I : I / I-FRONT OFF ICE I v I I I I / c c : I / 1// I / /1 30C I I / ,/. I I I I ., :,-"1 y.{' I i '?/ c 0 . .. , .. o • c o 500 .. s,. =c:._.s floor. In general, ore cboul 15 to 20 rooms per st o ir.v oy. Elevators ore provided cccord ing t o the number of guest rooms. The number of ele"otors i s of course o!so influenced by o ther factors such os th e height of the build ing, the speed o f the e l evators, end the desired average frequency of service. T h e toto! number o f guest end e le"ot ors is pre sen ted on the graph. A sp10ci ol study of e levo iors in 100 hotels showed t h e distribution between guest and service c a r s {includin g l ift cars) to be os follow!, Number ol rooms in hotel 50-150 150-550 Guest carr per J 00 rooms 1.3 0.7 Se-rvicecars J 00 rooms 1. 0 0 . 5 another way. about 60 of the e levators ore guest c a rs end about 40 per cent ore service cars . The typical hotel has s i a mai n space d ivisions, classified according to function: (1) Publi c space, (2) Concession space, (3) Subrentol tpoc e , Food and beverage service space. (5) Guest-roo"' space. and (6) Generalserv ic e space . division wiil be c ons idered separately. ihe percen rage of the oreo that i • produc tive (revenue produ::i n g } spcce i s of spe cic f s ignifico nce . P r eferabl y , at l e!lst 50 per cent of ti-le torol creo ,noulci be pro ducri ve space.

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: w "' 4 => : = "' 4 0 "' I LOUNGE z I 114 ,.. 8 0 0 I I I i / _MEN ' S TOILET IS) . / .1 . / 600 •oo 0 0 FOR GUESTS I I ! i l / y ' I I i .t / 1 / V ! / : " I ! / fA• v ( 'IL I v Y v-1 I : I • . VJ: v . .1 I I I I I I ! 1 00 zoo loOO •oo 100 NUIO!U 01 GUH T OQO w S PUBLIC SPACE Public space comprises !hose crecs that ore open to !he publi c as necessary aux iliaries but !hot generally do not yield a direct profit. Typical inclusions i n these promoting guest ore th e lobby, lounge, public toi lers, a n d enlertoin ment rooms. The lobby including front office i s usually assigned about 11 sq fr per guest room. The tendency i n recent years has bee n t o reduce the s ize of thi s nonproducti"e area. Formerly, 14 sq f t wcs not uncommon, but now 9 sq ft i s often considered ample. About 40 per cent o f ! h e points on the graph do not exceed 9 sq •r per guest room. The front olfie :. " ' •oo zoo only 4 •q ft and a fe w c ut t h i 1 creo t o 2 sq ft per guesr room. The lounge usually odj oin1 !he lobby so tho! gue1ls waiting i n !h e lobby con overnow inro th e lounge. Some s i m p l y designat e t h e area " Lobby-Lounge" with no demarcation between them. Public eorridors odi o ining the lobby ore often designed s o that !he lobby is set bock from the street enlrcnce and i• reached by one or more corridor s nanke d by stores, restcuronh. or other orl!cs. This nonprcduc l iv e area i s ju s tifie d if i t per m it s a high return from street-frontage areas. Some layouts require no •uch corridors. The space allotment is dependent more on design than on th e number of guest room1. Tlte eombined lobby, l oung zoo .o'7": "'!JW8f, .JF acQ "' S b e th e chief considerat ion in plonninq location. Thi s faci l ity sh o u l d n o t too accessible t o the mon on the street. The women" r to il etlsl f e r guesrs •houl d be prcvided on the $Cme basi s as the men , t oilet foci lit i e1 . In addition, rhe -.nlronce should be inconspicuous. The women" • r e stroom(s} lor guests fr e quently precedes the women' s toiler. l r i s an oppreciored The restroom i s generally of obcul th e some area as rhe adj o i n ing women s t o ile t. The combined a l lotment fo r th e women' s roilet and re•trcom i • ty p ically I sq ft per guest room. Some recenil y p lanned hove cu t th i s figure i n hal f t o reduce rhe n o nprofit area. Entert a inment quarters end game rooms ore properly clcuified as publ ic space b e cause they seldom y ield on annual prorit. T hus, i f a bo:lroom were used only f o r donees and other entert a inment. it would b e included under publi c . •pace . However, a ballroom is aiso use d for banquets, i t i • more suilobly i n cluded under food end be.,.erage \ervice space and w ill rl'lerefore b e con1 idered later. CONCESSION ANO SUSRENTAl Conceuion space i s fo r ;uesr -poi d hot"l serv ices might be run by the menage m e n r cr sublet o n a perce!1toge basi s . It may well include a barber shop, beoury HOTELS

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UIIJIIHUVIGl OTELS 1000 600 10 SHOP . f-(TYPICALLY L 90 SO. FT. A .... 1-PER CHAIR l 1 / l I NUWBER L L l OF I v L. RENTED / Lr STORES ' I / / / I / '1/ 0 0 • o o zcc •co 0 0 • oo zoo Jco •oo . • u.,et• 0' GUEST AOO"S • uwet• Of '-"lST •oo" s '!"" I s TOR!ES I RENTED TOTAL AREA I I I I 10 w I ::: ; ::0 ;: !W 1 0 0 zoo !OO •oo N U.,SER O F GuEST 000015 parlor, c igar and n"ws stand, end vo l"t shop. Subrentol spec" i s for '"'vices that or" not normally provid"d under hol"l opere tion , such os stores, exMibits, trov"l ogenci"' offices, end club quarters. Th" r"ntol i s usually a fi•ed mont hly amount. These two income-producing divisions or" treated together for the purpose of spec" allotments. The barber shop i s i n considerabl y leu demand than formerly. less then half of the recently constructed hotels hove this facility. If provided. the allotment is about 1.5 sq ft per guest room. Typically, the barber shop requires 90 sq ft per choir and o minimum of 4 choirs. There were insufficient dolo en beauty parlor to warrant a gropll. The b"outy parlor, if usually has about half os many choirs as th" barber shop i n th e some hotel. The required area, including space lor manicure tables and l ocktHS and toilet for employ""' is about 200 sq ft p"r choir. The c igar ond news stand is customarily c!)era!"d by the front desk in the smeller hotel s . Meci i um s i a ho t e ls oft"n p lace this area cdj oc.,n t t o front desk so that i t con b" op.,r o ted b y c seporo1e clerk during busy hours and by the front-o!f.ce person " STORAGE SPACE ! • I • w FOR I / RENTED STORES I X ' ' . ... J" ' :/ I I I ' ' / I ' .. . z w ::0 ;/ . I ' / I !........-:-:: I W /1 l I :J/ J....-n l l i -:.--: I o c 100 zoo Joo •oo 500 HUW8(R C' GU( 5T ROO"S nel during slack periods. In some hotels, this or"o i s operated by the drugstore con cession. The largest hotels may place the c igar and news s tand across tile lobby from the front desk. The va/.,t shop handles the pressin g and cl"oning of the gu.,sts garments. Usually the service i s p rovided for the guest through the b"llmon. The va le t shop is g.,n.,rolly locot"d odjoc.,nt to th" laundry i n the larger hotel s and i s olloll"d about 1 sq It per guest room. Many h o t e l s , find ing that guests e•pect this servic.,, hove hod t o because it was not in. in the plans. Sometimes the has no pressing equipment but merely se r ves as the pick:up and $'otion for a local concern in the business. .4 oiTice, requiring 40 to eO sq It, may be desirobl" in the hotels to relieve the front of the work of prot essing guest t e legrams. The e•tremely high cost of land and the heavy tax cneument i n the choi ce reloil d i s tri ct of a city generally mcke it sory to count on store rental s to carry the pr.,mium cost of the land, regardless of whether the owners prefer the-inclu sion of s t ores . Tne number ol •tor.,s, os indi by t h e w ide dispersion of the data e " . ' I _J L ! ' l. . " ..Ll X: I j/1 I / 1./ I ' I .L Y. .Ji(_ .. ::0 2 • I V / lL..Z .L,r • . /: . . I . I.' v.x. I I I W iYY ' i '1// . ; ! I I 0 0 1CO !CC . c c poi nts on lhe graph, depends more upon circumstances than upon the number of guest rooms. He graph does not indicat e the percentage of h o tels without s tores. I f Hores ore incl ud,ed, howeYer, there is generally about on., star., for every 35 guest rooms. The total orec of r•nred stores il"tcreos es w ith the size of th e hotel. store• ore we!l advised to hove o d i rect entrance from the street; however, en cdditionol en trance fr o m the lobby increases the rente! value. If s tores ore provided, 20 sq ft of store area per g u es t room i s the overage allotment. Some designers increase the in come potential b y raising this fi9'Jre t o 30 sq It of store area per guest room. Storage s ,coce lor rented stores enhances the rental value of the store. Most hotel s provide a separat e area, often in the bose ment space i s lor less valuable), t o serve os o receiving room, o to open bous and t o store a moderate amount of A co:r.porison of the typical shows t hat !h e storage spc'e i s fre c;ue nrl y eboul o,.e. fifth o f s tore c rec, and i n some i ns tances at least one-third of the store area. OrMer subrenrcl a r e a s ore 10metimes p ro v ided f or lrove l agen c i es, offices , end club auorters. N o con clu si on1 con

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... ... ... " :;: ... ... '"' "' .. :> 0 'w • w l w z w '"' 0 0 to:o !CO 6c'O 4 0 0 zoo 0 . . I I I ! / WAIN I .A / I I v : /1' I I j / i I ,( .. /. /f l / I I " ' i / ;r _.,.•i : .; v v i I : / I ; r,t 0'.. • I . I I . X . I I I ! : I tOO zoo lOO •oo I C O I I I 1-AUXILIARY KITCHEN / FOR I SHOP : v I I / y I / / I / v A'/ I ' ...... -/..:cl . . I< i I . i I ; I I I 0 1olO ZOO lOO •oo !00 .. YVt sT •oow1 be drown, however, because of frogmen .. tory data on the scattered uses of areas. fOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE SPAC; This division includes all areas used fer the receiving, storage, preparation. ond service of food and beverages for guests. th e general public, and employeu. It includes the receiving area, storerooms for food and beverage supplies, ch ina, glassware, and silver, end also the kitchen, restaurants, banquet noll, private d ining rooms, employees' dining area, food serv ice pantries. bar, cocktail lounge, and gar bage room (sometimes with on incinerator). The main dining room area shoul d not be determined merely on the ba•i s of over age data. The probable demand for a main dining room should be estimated with care, for, at best, profitable operation i s espe ciolly difficuiJ . The difficulty i • due t o the necessity of long hours of operation at s lack load together with competition from other restaurants. About 16 sq ft per seal : s required for the dinin9 room. The allot ment varies from 18 sq ft for de lu•e din ing rooms to 14 sq ft for popular priced place•. Tne typical allotment of 16 sq H of main dining-room area per guest room i s not especially helpful in p lanning. The main lritchen s noul d be sized for the ;:: ... " c :> ;;: 5)} I I I L I I -BAKE SHOP I I l . zco 8 C O •oo 0 0 l .. I I I I / I / ' I ' ' . / / I I I -' : / I ..:-I .Y_;Y 1 --., ! I i'1-i . . , . I ! i o o o zco l JO •co ' UNB(R O F :>uST •cO"S . I . BAR AND : I -COCKTAI L ;(/ V i zw 0 J LOUNGE • I I /{ ! / l . I . /( I ;fl /" I ....-1 I . I ../ v.v I . I }) / (;/ I I I . I I tOO ZOO lOO •OO •uwaER C F GUEST ROOWS ' / : ' J( I I work load. In addition t o the main dining room. the main k itchen may also nove to service th e coife" shop, the banquet hall, private dining rcomt, employees' meals, and room service t o guests. Such condit ion• apply t o the Hartford Stotll!r, for e• omple. where th e kitchen i s 33 per cent larger than th e mai n d ining room. If the kitchen i s to service onl y th& main d ining room, however, i ts area is cus tomarily J.Q t o 45 per cent of the d ining room area. I n two of lne h o t els studied the k itchen serv cnly the coffee shop: in two other hotels, it serviced th e coffee shop. private dining room•. and, presumably, employee meals. It was not feasible in analyzing and presenting the data t o separate th e kitchen work load into i ts several types of components and their sizes or the number of persons served. A bake shop. of one type or another, i s usually provided. In many of th e smaller hotels, tne baio:er occupies a corner of the kitchen. If a separate bake-shop :1reo is pr:tvided, the ty p ical allotment is 2 5q I t per guest room. Howevl!r, it i < preferable to •ize it for the work load. If a separate bake shop i • provided, its creo i s usua lly "qual to 20 per cent of the :.irchen area. T h e cofft>e shop provides quick food •ervice at moderat e prices. Of r h e -16 hotels onolyted, 63 per cent haci o shop. I.UIIIIIItlll.lal l" COFFEE SHOP I I / ' 1/ . . ! . I / " / ./ ., ... "' . I ' l/' V )' i . t/ I I " " '"' //'v V:! ' . ! I • ' I ' ' / . .-: . i I 17 I ' I I . J 0 •CO Z:JO !OC 100 • uwar• O F oUEST •oc• s I NUt.ISER " 2 PRIVAiE 0 D I NING "' ROOMS Q ., :: .. > 3 " 2 " "' z:o ::o •co "'.\18 ("t O F ::tOOitiS About 7 sq ft per guest room is tt>e usual allotment. T n e area required per seat i n coffee shops i s about 18 ' q ft per seal for counter service only, (th i s oreo includes the coun ter), 16 sq f t per seat for born counter and tab l e service, end l-1 sq It per seat fo r table service only . F requently cboul one third of the seals ore at counter. An ou•iliarr lrit cile n lor the coffee shop " customarily provid.,d if the coffee shop i s remote from :h., main Under these c irc:umstcnces. the! auxiliary kitchen mcy be "backed-up" by th e main k itchen. which prepares su c h heavy-duly items as raatt meat s, or i t may complete facilities for 'coking almost everything on i ts menu. The auxiliar y lritcnen i s generally from 20 t::. 25 per cent of the area of the coffee •hop. However, th e ealra kitchen payroll and equipment requ;rl!d make i t to p lan so that on ouailiory kitchen i s not needed. The bar and cocictail lounge may be •eporoted. adjoining, or combined. Sometimes one orea is Jhown without the F.or each hotel anolyzl!ci, the data point •haws the total area. No data point i s shown for any of the several hotels that had neither bar nor cocktail lounge. If th e area is 7 . 5 ''l It per guest room i s the typical allotment. Howe.,er. it i t well to estimate the cmounf of HOTELS

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ommercsal IOTELS •w PRIVATE DINING ROowV ----;--TOTAl. AREA / j / ' I I • .t I I l / I / I I lW ' I / l / t !_,--I . /-]...-,/ I /Y I I I . ....1/ . / / ! / I • : ./ :; zw : "' I W i ' I 0 0 zc:c :: ' 2:'(: I / I BANQUETl r-I/ I 1/ LJ PANTRY I / 1 / / / .. . 80V . l / / . I ' v v. •cc . L::.--/ t::<" • ! /.j/ ' : : ZCO lOO •OO "t\Jft,l8( R o& GJ S T S business that the bor and cocktai l lounge will handl e i n view of the chorocterislics of the community end the type of po lronoge l ikely to be cllrocled. The space allotment should then be altered prapor tianotely. n •• number of private d ining room: in dicated an the graph does not include in•lonce• i n which the banquet hell i • di vided into smeller dining oreo• by folding walls or slid ing partitions. Mast hotels that serve food have private dining rooms, with an overage of one room for. 80 guest rooms. The use of private dining rooms depends more upon the demand in the par ticular communi ty then upon the number of guest rooms. The total area oi private dining rooms is typically 7 sq It per guest room, but variations are eJCtremely wide. The \eating capacity i • often estimated ot 10 or 11 •q It per seat. However, much depend• upon the right d imensions to accommodate the de•ired layout of tables, choirs, end a isle spaces, which have certain minimum II the room i • large end ih d imensions ore right, 9 •q It per sect i s o possi b ility. Small rooms witt\ random dimen•ions moy nearly twice as much area j:er seat. The typical private d i n ing room he• an area of 6 0 0 sq I t , for the graph• •how that 6 of them hove a total of 3600 sq ft . If d ining rooms ore provided, . ./ I BANQUET/r BALLROOM I I ' " . j J "' I i d .... I ! W I 1 Ill --+-'1 ' . .:c ( .. j . ;60C . :::: .. . "' -'OC c 0 zoo )OO •o' 'Y G U E S T ROOW S ir is usual t o hove t ht! sizes increased pro gressively to core for various size groups. For e•ample. capacities of 15, 25 . 40, end 70 seats would provide a good variety. T h e r e i • o decided odvanloge i n having private dining rooms adjoining and sepa rated by fo l d in g , •ound-obsor b ing parti ti o n s . The bonquel-boll r oom was provided i n half of the hotels studied. It i s generally used more frequent ly for banquets lhan for dances. The p robabili ty of its operation being flnonciolly succeulul i• allen a leriOul que•tion. If provided, the ollotmen l is usually from 10 to 20 sq It per g ue•t room. A banquet-ballroom loYttr i s recommended. The •ize is u•ually one-si • t h to one-third of banquet-ballroom areo. 8onquet-ba/lroom storage, preferably ad joining the banquet hell, i s required for chairs end tables. Thi• storage oreo is typically about one-tenth of the • ize of the banquet hall. os may be determined from the two graphs. The bonquet-bollroam serving pantry i s often s imply o food-auembly end p i ck -up a rea. Pantry scoce i s sometimes p rovided w ithin the mci n i i lc hen i f adjacent to the banquet hell. In other instoncrs, a separat e room i • provided odjocent to th e banquet hell, w i th p l a t e wormer s , h o t-top s e r v in g tabl es , refrigerators, serving counten, coffee u rn s , end som etimes focili -e.:)l = ,z q g " i..:\! c zoe );;C .&CC 1 ; : S T •co w s ! w I , STEW ARO' S I STORE ROOW z w = "' " "' I W :CC ---•.. . N c W S E R cr l qCO'-'S l ie s . Occosionally , cook ing e q u ipment, so.;ch os broilers. is included and the area i • then known os t h e banquet kit c hen. Obviousl y . l h e requisite spcce allo tment per 100 ban sects varies w it h t h e function of the pan try. The t y p ical rati o auigns to the p a n t r y on area equal t o 2 3 ;>er cent of t h e b anqu e t-hell o r eo, but i n c dozen separat e investigations th e rati o wos from 1 2 t o 3 8 per cent. A n employee s d i n ing r oom i • p rovided for t h e bellmen, m a ids, operators, end th" like. ( O ther employees su c h os lh" staff from the front olfrce end the account ing department u sually "at i n the coffe" s hop.) Sects cr" usually p r o vided for holf o f those on hand for the noon meol, since all do not eat ot one t ime. Food •ervice i s often cafeteri a style w i th a simpl e menu. The neceucry space including the serving counter should be determin"d on the basis of 1 8 •q It per seat and the. number of e m p l o yees t o be seated ot one time. If th is i s not fec: s ible , 111'! ;rcp h • haws lhol 1.4 s q It of employ e e s ' din ing room i s : h., t y p i c a l allo tmen t per g u .,s l roam, o value 1 1\a t i s g ener ally satisfactory. The ste.,ard s storeroom provides th e storage space fo r d r y fo odst u l h , canned goods. v"'getob lel, d a iry prad v c l s , end Meat. Platforms, s h e lve•. r tfrigerators, a n d ore Deliveries e re us u ally at least thre e t i me s o w e e k, although

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• ceo I f-BEVERAGE 800 STOREROOW(Sl f-FOR LIQUOR, ETC. f--;:: soo "' .. . . " •co ;: L zoo . / . v. y, . 0 0 ;o o " _/. GARBAGE ROClol L I ./ I / •oo '-)00 '; " z o o / I / . ./I . / _T.-' / i _/.. /. IC O 0 / ! . _..' _;/ v . _ ...... , ( . I ' I ' I : 1 0 0 zoo o n • • • 0 co I I ' mai d ' s closets. Any parlors (usually parr of a su ite) are included. If provided. S.:lmp l e rooms for th e disp lay of merchandise ore also consid.,red guestroom space, regard l ess o i th e i r locati o n . A sc hedule i s customarily prepare d slat in g the appro.ximote t o ! ol number o f 9 ' JP.Sf ro o ms . Th i s i s t o g ive! t._,e nu.,.. . ber and approximat e s i:e of • t p e of room C:esi r e d , such os singl e . douol e . and t win beds, end any sample rooms. Deci s ion must be reached on whor proportion o f t h e rooms of ecch lype i s to be of t h e con ventional ond of lhe studi o style1. l(i"g lengt h beds versus !hose of standard lengt h must also be consi d ered. Un less s lated otherwi se, eoch guest room h as a three fixture both and a clothes ciosel. These problems of guest-room spa c e must not be considered trivial; indeed, the main reason for building a noteJ i s t o rent guest rooms, which ore thl! unquest ioned source of greatest profits. Every mistoa.c, every omiuion, and every point of e.aceJIencot i s mul t i plied by the number of r o o m s constructed. Extremely careful plonni r.g is warranted for it pays bi'1 d i v i de!'1:h . GENERAL SERVICE SPACE T h i s d ivision, cloued as nonprodu ctive includes those ore':JI fo r g e !'1ero l odr-Jinistrotion, operc : ion, maintencncl!, end thot ore not otherwi,e clcuifie d . HOTELS

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mmerc1a1 ITELS :::: w "' .. :> z •oo zooc I ZCC ace •c.;; I ! i • L L INEN I I h. -ROOM ' y I I I ) / / ' / / V ! . 1 / / I .-1 ' / . / V -1/:y-' // ..:.--:, --s--;1 •CO :0 .:c __.,.. . I I ! c;, •oo I I . ... -------,------.---, TOILET 8 ROOM fWOME!i' S ::::r-LOC KER --__ I -4----i----1 I • ;;; ::.__I --+-----+-! - • L l __ _,_ _ :o z c c "'J Y5ll: :r T h t!y i ncludt! e:..ecu t ivt! and admi n istrative o ffi ces ; creos devoted to the handling and s torage of linen; h e l p ' s quarters; mainten:>nce shops; rooms for housing the mechanical equipment for heat, light, powt!r, vt!n t i l o t ion, and rt!frigerat ion; end c h o certa i n storeroom s . Art!cs relott!d lo food end beverage ore not i n cluded cause they hove been cl assified separatel y . The manog e f s office requires o m inimu m area of about 100 sq f ! . (Note that the t rend lines on the g raph a r e not drown through the ":era-zero" poi n t . ) Th i s area moy well increase sli g htly w ith the s ize of the hotel, but the activities i n this office seldom justify more then 200 sq fl. About 1.40 sq f t i s the most common space allotment, r"gardless o f the size of the hotel. The accounting office should have o mini mum area o f about 1 0 0 sq ft to accommo date one person or a desk with appropriate record-keeping and filing equipment. (On this graph also, the trend lines are not drown through the "zero-zero" point. ) As the size of the hotel increases, more oc counting personnel ore nee-ded requi r ing mor e space. The t ypical area of the oc counting office for o 200-room hotel i s shown on t h e g raph os 2 0 0 sq f t , whereas far o 4 0 0 -rcom hotel i t i s JOO s q fl. Oui te often the p lcn1 do not provide for th a • w )W I W 0 I I I I I I , ( ! LAUNDRY /rL"' c I I I I I l /. ,/' I I / l / I I I i/. /1 ! I ' 7 I i I I ' :....---r I • i L v_;,..--'• I ' : , I 100 ,oo •oc o r •oc w s I :co •co ICC " H J W B(q GU(ST o o o w s gues t rooms ( c lang with bathroom . cl o thes closet, end vestibul e ) for the purpose. The investment i n the bathroom area and plumbing equipment i s lost, the polenticl p rofit of five dollars per day on the room i s w iped out. and the location of t h e improvised accounting office i s often inconvenient. If on to economite the accounting office t o be omitted from t h .. plans, it was certainly misdirected and proved to be very costly. A linen room i s necessary to occommo. dot'" the housekeeper's c ffi ce and t h e shel ves of neatly stocked linens, together wit h the counter over which the maids recei•e their supplies. Often the lost-ond fcund cabinets for articles left i n guest r "oms ore located here. Frequently a sew ing machine and mending tabl e ore pro..-ic:ied. Various empfoyee un i forms ore stocked and distributed here. The space allotment for the 1"1tcin lin•n room i s usu oily from 2 to 4 . 5 sq It per guest room, according to the graph, with many hotels favoring the larger value. A lovndrr i s sometimes operated by th e hotel, although frequently the hotel lcun dry services only flat work end uniiorms, and sends out gues t laundry. To whether !he hotel s houl d operate its loun dry requires on anal ys i s of the costs of compl e t e linen s e r ... i ce , coU\ o f commer c i c l lo\Jndering. l ocal woge rote s , r e lative life of a•oilabi l ity e n d costs of 1poce, "' .. ., :;: :: % .. 5 ,, z • x _.A WEN'S TOI LET ! a .., ZJX r-LOCKER ROOM l ! -I _ _j _ _ !6: j I(J: r. . j -. i I i ' ' I l I L . J I _A I I I I I / I ./'1 !CO 1 ./. I j / ..---I ... ::::::1 •:)j .. 1:::::::::. : _;..>-I I I l . .. 3\.1.. • o o j.,., S . r-FURNITURE l .LJ SiOI\AGE; l L ' 1 1GC , .. c 0 l I i . l I / / l i I • _ / I / I // / I J / / . 1__,_ -! / L v --:---I /h_--.....--; . ' l I I ' l 100 JCO •CO .,u(ST neceucr y l inen in-.entory, responsi bility of r u n ning another deportment, and other fac t ors. I n the l a rger the hote l . the more likel y i t i s t o r v n its own laundry. (For o more det ailed d isc uss ion of t h i s sub ject , see o n Hotel end M ;otel l o u n dri es . ) T h e grcpn shows t hat i f o laundry i s i n stalled. it i s us u ally allotted 7 sc; ft per ;uesl room. I n o f e w cases, the allo tment i s only 4 sq It per g u e s t room. m e n " s end room i n th e empl o yees' qucrlers i s g eneroily allotted 2 . 4 s q i t per g u e s t room. Th oughtful p l anning 1 us t ifoes ol least hell ogcin os much space, or J . 6 :q ft per guest room. The Hartford Stoller w i t h 455 guest rooms al l otted 2 .550 sq f t, with the ratio !:leing 5 . 6 sq f t per guest room. ihere il reason to belie..,e that ti-le overage figure i n ::rowded end unscrisfccrory co n d itions. Two separate but adj o i n ing rooms ore generally but not always provided. I n gen e r a l , about 35 per C
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women, weof course otsume that they ....,jl l be e'"ployed i n oppro•imctely equal num bers. If the operating pol i cy favors waiters i ns teod of waitresses. t hen th e space allot ment should be adjuste d occordingl y . Moinf!nonce shops ore necessary t o keep the hotel running. There should generally be o m inimum of three separate rooms: ( 1 ) Plumb ing-ende lectric shop, (2) Corpen lry-cnd-uphol. s tering shop, and (3) Pcint cnd-vornish room. The work i n eocn shop i s such that i t does nat mia well with th e others. The plumbing shop i s sometimes i n th e boiler room although not marked on the pions. The typi cal allotment for main. tencnce s hops i s 4 sq ft per guest room. Some hot els have cut th i s ollotmenl i n hall. General maintenance suff10rs as a re• s u it . When the means for repair are lack i n g , things t he! could be fiaed hove to be replaced by buyin g n10w anl!s . The reduc ti on i n i n iticl cost is more rhcn offset by increased operating expen,e. Furniture slorc:ge i s required for e-xtr a items of furniture and broken p iece s await ing repair. They should not be placed i n basement corridors. The typical allotment !or furniture s torage i s 2 . 5 sq It per guest room, apparently a reosoncble end soti s fcctory amount. The boillfr ro'om space allotment is de !ermined by many factors, such as the elimote, the various use s of steam, the type cf boilers, and the capaci ty of the standby boiler. Water heaters for th e u•ual not 1 water supply are often placed i n the boiler room although no t noted speci fically on the plans. The graph shows the angl e betw.,en the two broken l i nes t o be re iotively narrow. T h e middle 50 per cent of the points do not "fan out" over a wide engl e . Conse quently, t h e ' ty p ical allotment for th e boiler room of 6 sq !t per guest room may be us v . ; . . . :c z : J 'iUir,jleE:. : : I ! TRANSFORMER --+-VAULT I i z •oo " • 0 0 :co item• de•ignoted by c qces:ion !"'cri< rr'Cf be o m itted i f the s i ze of tfo:!' c r cons iderations do not wcrrant 1he area. I n addi ti on , the floor cuig:"\men t!. ore dl!s ig noted as follows: basement s;round Aocr ( G), end gve • l " cor Sinc e many of t h " ho t e l s ' n surv e y were p lanned w iti-tovr c e rt a in d e s i red areas. SPACE ALLOTMENTS AND FLOOR ASSIGNMENTS FOR TYPICAL HOTEl OF 100 ROOM S General dote and Height of bui l d in g above ground (grounci Acor plus 6 ty pica l 7 s t o r ies fioors ) Ground-floor are a Typical guest-floor erec Gue1t room s per typical floor , Stairways on th e typi ool noor, Eleva tors (I guest end 1 service cor) 10 .000 sq f t 6 ,CCO > q ft 1 7 rooms 2 stairways 2 The first four factors l i•ted cbove ere of ccurs" oil i nterr.,luted end mu•l be organized as a compatible group. Publie tpoce lobby end front office lounge Corridors adj o ining (total of above, 1,900 sq II) Men' s !oi l e t for guuts 'Nomen' s t oi let for gvests Women' s restroo:ft fer gues t s coot c h edtroom • B e llman' s cnecltroom Productive Nonproducti ve a reo, orf!o,. sq f l sq ft l , ICC(G) 600{G) 200( Gl 1 5C(G) 1CC(G) 10C(G ) 12C( G l 4C(C)

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Ulll"'l '"'"'"' TELS Concession •pace Sorber shop 'Val e t shop Subrentol •pace 3 ren ted stores, (each SOO sq It) 3 storage rooms (each 200 sq It) Food and beverage Jervice space Main d i n in g room (90 seoh) Main kitchen Boke shop ?Coffee shop (50 seats) Bar end cocktail lounge Frivote d i ning rooms (250 -500sq It) 'Bcnquet-bcllrcom 'Bcnquetbollroom foyer ?Scnquet-bcllroom storage ?Scnquet serving pantry Emp loyees' dining room Steward's storeroom Bevercge uorerooms • Ch ino, glen, and silver storage Rece i v in g room Garbage room Guesr-room •pactt 102 rooms (each 250 sq It ; includinc; both, closet o"d vestibule) Auxiliary space (odd 40 per cent of above for corridors, stain, e levators, mai d ' s closets, walls, and partitions) Manager's office • Setretcry' s office Accounting office ? • Sole s and reservations office • M imeograph room lin en room ?laundry (700 sq It; omitted) Men' s toilet end locker room Women' s toilet and locker room Maintenance shops Furn itue storage • Records storeroom • Gene raJ storeroom Boiler room 'Water.heater tonk space Fuel storage Transformer vault • Refrigeration compressor room • Fan rooms , equ ipment Tot o/ p roductiv e oreo nonproductive a rea Add for basement corridors, walls, 1tcirwcys. end elevators Add for ground-noor stoi,....oys and e levators Total nonproduct ive area Grand t o tal of areas Productive oreo, sq I t 18 0(8) 100(8) 2,400( G) 6CO(B ) 1,SOO(G) SOO(G) 750(G) 750( G) 1,J00(8) Praductivf! or eo sq It 25,500(T) 33,980 sq ft 57, 7SO •c; It Nonproduclivf! a reo, sq It 1,100(G) 200(G) 450(8) 140(8) 350(8) 220(8) 400(G) I SO( B) 300 8) 180(Gl SO( G) Nanproductiv" area sq It 10.200(T) 140(G) lOC( G) 150(G) l40(G) 40(G) 350(8) 360(8) 360(8) 400(8) 250(8) 250(8) 200(8) 600(8) 150(6) 200{8) 100(8) -400(8) .400(8) 20,800 sq It 2,500 sq It 500 sq It 23,8CO sq It it i s well t o make o liberal estimate of the total ground.fleor oreo. The above schedul e shows o preliminary estimate of 59 per cent producti ve area and 41 per cent nonproductive oreo, wh ich i s a more favorabl e ratio than i s generally realized i n practice. Dur ing the preliminary planning stage, i t may be decided to allocate the 1,SCO sq ft area to the coffee shop, thus elim inating th e ma i n d i n ing room and reducing the s ize of the main kitchen by about 250 sq ft. The bonquetballroom, together w ith its three auxili a ry rooms, might be omitted or, i f demand far these facilities i s assured, ;>laced i n the basement. The laundry woul d probably be omitted. although i t was p ieced i n the schedule u s c possi b ilit y . From th e s tand;>oin l of effic iency, i t might be convenient t o hove a l most all on the ground floor. However, t o moke th e grcund.noor and ba1ement area approximo:ely equal, those areas desig nated ( 8) hove been consigned I a the bose ment. Thus the a rea of the ground noo r i n . eluding 500 sq It for stoirwoys and ele vot:lrs, but omitting the 800 sq !t coffee s hop ond deducting 250 sq It from the moin kitchen, amounts to 10,590 sq ft. This figure 'ompores sotisfoclorily with the pre lim inary over-oil estimate of 10,000 sq ft for th e ground floor. The of !h e basement including the b:lnquelballroom facilities, but omitting the laundry, ond allowin g 2 .500 sq ft for corri c!ors ond the like, amounts ! o 10,440 sq ft. This figure i s about the soml! os th e ground.noor oreo. The typical floor hos 17 gues! rooms. Two stoirwcys, the e levctor shaft , and mcid' s closet increase the floor oreo by on equivalent of J guest rooms, making o total oreo equivalent to 20 rooms per floor. Ten rooms on each side o f th e corridor and each rocm w ith an assumed cvercg:e front .. age of 12 It gives 120 It as the opproxi mole length of the typical guest floor. Tile w idth i s usually about 50 ft . T hu s the oreo of the typical guest no or ( 1 20 It b y 50 !t ) is 6,000 sc; ft, which checks w it h the esli mote previously made under "general data. " The summery of areas is as follows : 6 lypiccl g uest floors, each 6,000 sq ft Ground noor, figured ct 10,.590 sq ft Basement, figured ol 1 0 ,440 sq It Toto/ approximate floor area 36,000 sq It 10.500 sq ft 10.500 •q It S 7,COO sq It

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APPENDIX G RETAIL SHOP SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS i '1

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\.IUIUIIIDI .... IGI RETAil SHOPS Br MURRAY S. COHEN, AlA, Archlt-' GENERAL People Iowa to look, w indowahop, and buy. Shopping aa an experience ahould provide fun, which in tum providaa profita. A auccaaaful atora ur ahop ia ona that ia daaignad to mar chandiae in addition to looking good. A atora can be d i v ided into two principal parte: the a .. tarior, whieh givaa identification! ancomP••••• the atorefront, ahow windowa, and d i a playa, and the interior, where tha promiaa of the atorafront diaplay ia delivered. Briefly atated, the atorafront initiataa the aala, and tha interior conaummataa it. The atorafront and tha daaign of the facade muat ba anractive in order to catch the ahoppera' aHention and to draw the euatomara in from the atraet or from tha mall i n ahopping cantara. Graphic identification, with bold color. lighting, lettering, and logoa, and attractive diaplay of marchandiae are tha initial atepa. In ancloaed malla, the glaaa-.nctoaad ahow windowa ara often eliminated or m inimi&ad. The ahow window .. diaplaya ara aet up in a large veatibula9 perhapa elevated or on portable platforma, and become part of the interior. Hance the demarcation between tha exterior and tha interior ia not phyaical, rather the two era integrated, and it ia difficult to define whara ona •nda a _nd tha other bagina. Thi a ia particul•rly true i n enclooed •hopping m•ll•. The open or no front g•nerally promotaa mora impulaa buying; department atoraa will otten make their antrencea an eatanaion of the malt oo tt..t the ohopper will be •••llr enticed Into the atore. When doora are uaad, aithar on the atraat or on the m.!!ill, they ahould ba wall marked and eaay to fi"d. Entrance to th. Interior ahould ba aaay, related to interior traffi c flow and layout, and ahoul d ba accaaaibla to vertical tranaport.tion, if any. PRINCIPLES OF RETAIL SHOP DESIGN In order to deaign aatiafactory ahopa, the firat requirement ia an undaratanding of thoaa por• tiona of currant marclundiaing theorlaa which aHact the daaign problem. Briefly, ••marchandiaing paychology .. conaiata of, firat. arouaing lntareat; aecond. aatiafying lt. W ith goodo the firet ph••• ie •lmo•t automati c . When nonataplaa, acceaaoriaa, or apaeialtiaa other than gooda •r• to ba aold, malhoda of arouaing lnteraat m•y b• come mora complea. The aacond phaaa-the actual aale-invoh••• factora of convanienc• which ere deairabJe In order to make buying ••ay, to aatiafy cuatomara completely, and to aehia'W'a economy of apace end l ima for the elora management. Both ph•••• atfac:t lha daaign of retail ahopa, and era cloaaty Interrelated. In aom{l caaaa the pla,ntng problema in"W"olvad cannot be aegr • gated. A mora d•tailad liating of atapa IP't tha rnarchandi a ing procaaa, •• they -11Hact ahop deeigft, followa: At .. nctir.g C ustom ers Thi a c..n be accompliah•d by meana of ad"'ar• t ieing. pricaa. diapl•ya, or naw or remodeled quart are, which oecupiaa much of a marchant'a aHorta. Of theaa, atorafronta and d iaplay w indowa are import•nt to the atore daaigner. Inducing Entrance Show w indowa. in addi t ion to attracting paaaaraby, ahould induce tham to antar Ch• atora. Show windowa may ba opened u p to d i a play tha ahop' a interior; or c loaad i n , to g ive P"ivacy to cuatomara Door locationa require atudy in relation to padaatrian tr•ffic flow, gradaa of aidewalka and atore floora. and interior layout of the ahop. In colder c limate& drafta and outdoor temperatura chang•• can ba controlled at the door. Organizing Store Spaces Organizing atore apecea, and conaaquently the merchandiae to be aold, into department•. enablaa cuatomara to find objacta eaaily, and parmita atorekaepar• to t. .. p cloaa check on profit& or loaaaa from varioua typea of gooda. Store lighting and drttaaing" are aimplifiad. Evan amall ahop a benefit from a maaaure of dapartmantaliz•tion; in large ahopa, the pract ice becomea aaaantiaJ ea mathoda of trai n ing aalaapaopla. of handling, controlling, and wrapping atoek become mora complex. lnteiior Displays Interior diaplaya require particular attention in • p•cialty ehops. Typee r•nge from displays of atapla gooda which aaaiat cuatomera in aelaction. to d iaplaya of accaaaoriea which the aala of may auggeat to tha cuatomer. Problema of arrangement with regard t o mer ch.andiaa, departmanta, and routaa of cuatomera approach are involved. Raliaf from the repealed impact of merchan d iae aalaa affort a and d iapleya i a naeeaaary in moat ahopa. Experienced aaleapeopla c.n tall at a glanc e the eualomar who i a aatiated with shopping end too bewilderad to buy. After ha haa baen refreahad by a brief reat. tha cua• tomar'a interaat can be recaptur•d qui c kJ y . Such relaxation may ba mental or phyaical, or both. ConveniBnces Conveniencaa intended primarily 'for the cue .. tomera' benefit, whil e not atrietly allied to the problema of anracting trade o r aalting goode, ara naeaaaary to aoma typaa of a hope. A flori at, for inat.ance. providaa a cardwri t ing deak or counter in hia ahop. In other a hop typea. particu larly thoae whoaa pricaa a r e above the aver .. age. auch estra proviaiona are often highl y daairable. Conveniancaa of thi a k ind Include: telephone booths. drinking lounteins. lavato r ies or powder rooms, daaks for writing c a rds or checks. s tools or c h a irs at counters or i n special ulea rooms. and vanity tebl .. or tri p licate m irrors lor certai n types of •pparel f itting rooma. In tagard to finiahea •nd equipment, the idea may ba estanded to include: floor au,... facing for comfort; acousti c treatment of cailinga and poaaibly wall a ; illumination of pleaaant, aomatimaa apecial, qu•lity; and a i r conditioning. All thaaa have bean found profitabl e invaatmanta i n varioua caaaa. Their nace• .. aity or desirability dapanda to en extant on the typa of ahop, ita location, or the climate of the loc•lity. INTERIORS The aucceaaful retai l a hop i a an eHiciant aallin g machine or aalaa factory. In addi t ion to • .,... vicing tha cuatomera, tha employaaa hawe to be conaiderad ao they can give b.tter aervice to the cuatomer. Merchandiae and apace muat ba organized to help the customer in making • a election and to hel p tha aalaa peraon i n aafling. Eeay c irculet inn and expoaing the cuatomar to tha maat.. mum amount of marchandiae are pert of good d•ei g n . Avoi d monotony in circulation and d l a .. r-r---r----, t lj , .. : , --' I _______ ...1._ ___ _ LEG E ND : Or m and . or slap! • . goods Con•enie"c.a i fe:nt or lu1u ry . goods i Principles af shc p design. Merchandise i s located according t.o cla u if:c!ticn : s ta;:l e 111 u nob!rus inly y e t a c:euibly ! u J UI"f ium s are spotted wher11 tho c ustome r tannct but l'tlllcta d to the•. Whi te counter Ifill 1 1 1 a lloc 611d ID unicas : cuh: er, wrapper. info rmwtion, ett.

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ple1 of merch•ndiae. Where poaaible, do n<>C heait.te to be bold or even ahocking. Thia atimulataa the cuatomar and hia urge to buy. The location and daaign of the caahier and wrapping unit are importllnt and provide for ••••ral paraona to be aarviced. Often thia acta •• a control canter. Ffa•ibility ao that and departmanta can be moved or modified ia part of praaent-day merchandiaing. fi•turaa ahould be minimized and marchandiae emphaaizad. Oeaign and uae fixture• ao that full attention ia thrown on the merchandiae. Surveya muat be made for -ch type of atore, ita merchandiaa, operation, and peraonnef to determine actual aizea and Do not deaign fixturea ao theta aaleaparaon haa to reach merch.endiae on coo high e ahalf or aloop too.,ow. Oetermine wh..t customer accessories are required: seating in general, countera, tabfaa, mirr-ors, telephones, drinking fountaina, reat rooms, apecial lighting, and floor coverings. Acceasoriea will vary, depending on the store' s location and the type of customer, sa well as the nature of the merchandise. Location of stock rooms, or of reaervea, mual be carefully considered ao that the aalaa person doaa not have to leave a customer for too long a period. Fining and dressing rooms should be located conveniently near the item baing sold. Salling Areas DepartJnantlfautiOII Benefit• to be derived from segregation of merchandise by types have b .. n touched upon previously. All these are feetore in decreasing the average time per sale, an important figure i n large-store account ing and in small atoraa with rush perioda (Fig. 1). Within each department, and as a guide when relating depertmants to -ch other and to the path of the typical customer through the atora, merchandise and aervicea can be analyaed by classification. Moat objects can be placed in one of the following clsaaea, relating them to the needa of cuatomers: lmpul••• or luxury, gooda ere high-profit article•, uau•ll1 (but nol nec:e .. •rily) high in pt"ice. items are stocked for the paeaerby who happena in, but who may return for other purchaaaa if property impraaaed. Often theae are not in themaelvaa strictly profitable merchandiae. Dem•nd goode are alao ataplaa, like convaniencea, but are ar1iciea which the customer atarta out with a definite idea of purehaaing. Theaa anract him to the store and he buya them-other gooda mual be aold to him. Thea a claaaifications naceaaarily overlap; but, in a shop whoae type of custom.,. can be forecast, diviaiona along aome auch linea are poaaibla. Signa are not alwaya naceaaary; each department may be deaignatad by display of typical articles •• a kind of poster. C..lto ... r Flow The accomp•nying d i•grama baaed upon analyses of traHic indicate the poa• aibility of organizing departments in relation to the now of cuatomara through the store. lntareat in articles on display was found to be invaraely proportional to the number dla• played •fter e low limi l hed been r .. ched. A central location in a group aaamad to lead to increased interaat in a picture. One importent concluaion Ia that what a cuatomef' •••• la mora influenced by the arrangement of the apace and the walking habita of cuatomef's. than by the intrinaic quality of the objects exhibited. Tendencies to turn to the right. to be attracte-d by doorwaya, to chooee the wider of two aialea, •nd to be fatigued by too much material on display are all of utmost imporC.nce to the store planner. Store aarvicaa muat also be analyzed in ral ..... tion to customer flow. SelfSII'fiCCI Opera!ora of large alorea heve found that aelfaervice apeeda up selling. For that reason their atock ia eaeily accaaaible to the ahopper. Ohan. too, cuatomera inaiat upon handling maf'chandiae, and are more easily sold when they can gat theae firat ... hand impraa aiona. A a a result, many atoraa have abandoned the aelling-ovarth.....countar plan, which d ... creaaea free sales apace, and rely upon open wall fixtures. walt d iaplaya, and diaplay tables whenever poaaible. In direct contraat to thia type i s the exclusive shop which keapa ita stock in cloaad fix!uraa or in the atockroom. permitting selection of merchandise only by &le diaplaya. Some apecialty ahopa work entirely on this baaia. ShOll Sizes Th .. a are fer from alandardized. However, •• determined by real estate values, and merchandising, structural, fia:ture, and a iala apace raquiramenta. ahopa with one cue comer• •i•l• only •re uau•lly 12 to 1 5 ft wid a b1 50 10 60 ft long in large ciliea; •nd 15 10 18 ft. wide b1 60 10 80 ft long in ameller citiea. Theae dimenaiona apply particularly to shops in 100 percent retail diatricta. Heights are mora eaaily determined. Saar menta 8 to 9 ft high. in the clear, permit eco-nomical stock atoraga. Ground floora are preferably approaime1el1 12 ft h igh if no mez unine ia included; ma.zzaninaa at laaat 7 ft 6 in. above floor level will accommodate moat fixture haighta. Haight from mea.zanine floor to ceiling may be a a low aa 6 h 6 in. if uaad for service apaca only; 7 ft ia the preferred mint mum for public uaa. Typical Counter and Case L1youts Center Island T1pe illuatreted, L = 13 ft •vg. min.; W = 9 tc S in. to 13 tc. lal•nda com poaad of ahowcaaaa only, L = 10 h min.; W = 5 ft 10 in. lo 8ft 3 ln. For lloor tablea, L = -' to 7 ft; W = 2 ft 6 in. lo 3 ft. Aislta Widths For clerka, min. = 1 ft 8 in. ; des irable, 2 h to 2 ft 3 in. For main public aialaa, min. = 4 ft 6 in. ; avg. , 5 h 8 ln. to 1 ft; uauaf maa. , 11 ft. Secondary public •ialea, 3 ftto 3 ft Sin. See Figs. 2 and 3 . Displays The segregation of diaplays in area a apecificef ly designed for the purpose, and in location• aelectad with raapact to entrance• and cuatom• , traHic flow, ia •••ily accomplished in departmentalized store planning (Fig. 4). Oispl'f Surhc:es Locating d iaplay aurfac•• per pendicular to the line of entrance may result in angular plana, or in the use of acraena or standing diaplay caaea, a a indicated in the dia gram. Locations for display niches, alcovea, etc. , mey dep•nd on apece requirements of the varloua ahop department• and upon the rei ... tlonahlp to cuatomer flow l inea. In a ahop, ''architecture .. Ia preferably aeco,.. dary In imporunca to the merch.andia• dia played. This doea not meaR that every inch of apace muat be crowded w ith goods ... on die ... p lay,-bacau•e auch practice cau•e• loaa of cualomef' intaraat. Sule An important factor in display ia the talation between the poaaible v iewing dictanca RETAIL SHOPS and the acala of the merchandiae. Thu• a ablir way aida wall or narrow peaaage ia auitad fOf' amell acale diapl•y only. Viataa, on the other hand. and diaplaya oppoaita doorways, have mof'e carrying power and consequently can be bolder. Viataa, or a aenae of perspective, un alao be cr••••d by lighting emphaai a . When e l ighted diaplay ia placed et lhe reer well under a mezzanine apace which ia alightly darker than the store propef', a apatial ralationahi p is aet up which dependa mora upon tha relative intenait iea of light than upon actual distance. It ia po• a ibla to dramatize objects on display, to maka them stand apart from their neighbors and in this way auggeat that they are mora deai,..ble. On the other hand, it ia not alwaya beat 10 aeparata costly and inaapenaive objaeta. Low priced merch..ndiaa may oh:an be aold by contreat with highpriced obj•cta, and v ice war .... Choice of method depends to an extent on the probJem under consideration. Acceaaibla zona•, rather than low or high d i•playa, are particularly valuable i n aaffa v ica portiona of the shop. Juat aa ahow.....,i""" dow bulkheeda are riaing and heighta decreasing, ao the fia:turea inside the atore are bringing merchandise within reach and COrt"' cantrating it for amphaaia. Show Windows Th•ae •r• duigned primerily with the eHact upon potential cuatomera in mind; •••e in changing diaplaya i a alao impo,... tant. Window• must be '"dreaaed .. quickly; it they are hard to work with, they will not be changed as often •• merchandising policiea indicate to be nac•aaary. Variety and timelineae of d iaplaya are conaiderad eaaential. The diegrama i n Fig. S illustrate one aet of principle• whoae uae incf'aaaaa the value of diapl11ye. The ume principle• me, be applied to horizontal planning; the .. ahadow-boa" type of window, with limited diaplay apace, ia considered moat aHa-ctiva by display af'a. In conjunction with thaaa, it should be noted that bulkhead heights tend to incraaaa •• the ai.ze of objects diaplayad deer••••• to permit mora minute examination of merchand ise. Gluing of 11pe• which do not interfere willt vision will malariaUy incraaaa the ahow wi.,... dow a value. Patented ayatema, which alimtnata f'eflectiona, are available; ao are typaa of g leas suited to apecial conditione, auch aa haatreaiating glaaa. Window backa may ba cfoaed or open, d .. pending on the lype of ahop •nd the degrM of customer privacy deairad. When b•cka are open, confuaion of diaplay and shop interior may be avoided by uaing temporary or perm .... nent acraena or panafa •• backgrounda .. Window dr .. aing mey be done in full publlo v iew in certain typea of ahopa, aa jewelry or gift shops. In other ceaea, venetian blinda or other typaa of glaas curtaina may be r .. quired .. Apparent aiza of glass araa may be chengad IO accommodate varying d iapleya bot using variable valance• and aida-pie-cea. Storage apace ia required for diaplay acce ... aoriea, forma, blocka, plarforma, panel back• grounda, and aeaaonal changea of floor pada or carp•ta. e ••• of window dre•sing may be e id.d Jn aeveral waya. Accaaa panala shoul d be large enough for eaay P•••aga for man and mat ... rials. Acceaa paaaagas, aagragated from the ahop' a interior, may be provided. O ummy w indowa may be p rovid.G, aometimaa on rolltna plalforma. Show Wind""' In ma.,y aloraa other I han tpacialty ahopa, light inteneitiaa have bean incraaaad far •bove requirements for ordinary v iaion, In an aHort to overcome raffactiona.

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lmmerc1a1 ETAIL SHOPS 1'10" HY -ro-'.: :., 1r< Ad J :r;, ()Oaf' .. or E or.1wer c..-.c :, Iimikl'm " ..• t)o ' :.! . . " > < WALL CASE TYPICAL a-s lla!nf doors _j_ 1 :81 j . Toe space f s! 1 I P E CIA L CLERKS COUNTER I PUBLIC SHOWCASE VZ CENTER CASE lor LANDS AISLE SHOWCASE AISLE AI)LE TYPICAL

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&.ommtlii,;UU RET All SHOPS SHOW CASES TALL CASES WRAPPING COUNTER TYPE H W L RMAA.J:S TYPE H w W' L PLAN \My obstruct i on 6'-"'1" s : 6. 7 411 types HANG ROO i-i(doar) UEN'S 7' ( s . 6 . 7 I-WoiGROO nrtb::YrJ front 6'-4 GENERAL. 1'-6" (-kJ-s .6. 7 U sed 3 ' 2 -4 ' . 0 BAXER"f' i"1 -8'.10' C1 Jn 1)4irl, CENTER C1 mrrror 4 '-6' 3 -o s .6 . 7 belwml ISLAND s :o loCILLINERY' 'i b -f IO. 3 : 0 -2 ' 8 3-o b :o I \loping TROUSCRS 4 2 3 '-6 4' 4 . TC4) PATIERN.S 2'-lo" Ho 4 : 6' 3 ' 2 8',10' SHELVING DATA JEWELRY GROCERY HATS STORE I TV PE 1----.-----+----..----1------..-----1 SHOES LIQUOR BOOKS l11e Items llt"lm Staples Men's Wcrnen ' s DEPTH 2'-o HEIGHT 3-o 1 16 7-Jo Sm•ll C41( ld OISTANCC I BETWEEN ! DOORS I SlrdrnS GJ;.ss F ITTJNG and DRESSING RMS _ ___;, _ IO.ta 1 : 6 I :e Looter a_djurla* I : i M'l,n Omit Omrt I USE w z Customer 3 :o to UJ F : tter 4 :o 0 roro on tv .(a Customer 4:0 'to z 4nd Frtrer s : o uJ C ustomer l-0' only Slidtng Gl;m or Open 1'-2" ... .c c: :> V"" r-::J .:0E • • .. -0 .8.2 L MIRROR (HTliAHC( 4{ito P 1 er s -o 8"'= --o3: 3'-6 to .c P r er 4:6' v Wood s :o" Prc:r doore1 3 :0-to Wood l-6" T nplc: door. hooks e: 9 : 1 o 7' 1 . Var i able 9 : 15-1o: 1 :2 Omit Omi t TRIPLICATE MIRROR <."_!}-Lro /fay t.! >-an(Nifly Combtnd tU: bad, In unrt1 cJ rour • roun d SECTION JO"to J'-6' b -•fai( b'•f 1 : 2 1 :0-lol: i adjldkl* Slidrng. wood C1 CREDIT BOOTH """ arM C4ll mu/llp/1/'d .o-Ot!pl Jlon=J ft' n r l a open" rr fo-:. J D 0 .;. io...:l......J

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Commercial RETAIL SHOPS DISPLAYS OPPOSITE DOORWAYS ISOLATION OF DISPLAYS BY ANGULAR PLANNING ' . . . . "' . .-. . . Thia haa alao been conaidered a meena of competing with adjacent atora windowa. Sh011 Entrancal Show w indow• cannot atop at merely attracting and atopping paaaaraby. Patrona muat ba induc.d to enter the ahop. Stapa are conaidarad inadviaabla. When a change in grade ia nacaaaary, and it ia too great for a ramp, the atapa may be i n the a tore, well lighted. It ia nacaaaary to provide aoma form of prolttetion from drafta at antrancaa, particularly in cold climataa. In a ir-conditioned atora•, In ordw to mainuin tha conditioning ayatam'a efficiency at a ma .. imum, a aeal batwaan indoor and outdoor air may ba naadad. Vaatibulaa oHar euch protection. and may be mad• removable in aummer montha. Revolving door a are often aaaantial where w ind praaaurea are high, whan \I'Oiume of traffic ia great, or when air conditioning i a uaed. Work Areas Wr1pping 1nd Cuh Regi ster Counter location• for H"'eae require atudy. The type of ahop will determine whether U"'eae aer\l'icea ahould be out in the open or concealed, near or r•n•ot• from the door; poaitionad to permit a aalae• clerk to make change while facing the doorway, or. •• aome managera prefer. to do nothing a lae when ringing up aalea. In other ahopa, a c•ahiar i a conaidered to provide baUer control and eHiciency . Soma ahopa h..va a aepar11te room or cun..ined alcove for wrapping ttnd caahier apace. or a baaemant or me.:.z.eniJ"e aerw.d by dumbwaiter and pneumaric tube (Fig. 81. A c.aah ragiater and wrappino counter in an alcove ne•r the door 1 which pttrmita the clerk to face the ahop and doorway, i a deairabla in amall ahopa where buaineaa i a hurriitd, or where for long perioda one clerk muat aell, order, wrap. ring up aalea, make change, and watch the a hop. A a tore with a narrow entrance might better have theae aervice• remote t o avoid cro.,.,ding at the doorway. Tha aeparete wrepping room, baaement, or other apace ia uaed in atorea with • more leisurely t r.de9 or when, aa in many gift ahopa, goode are fragile and rar•ly earried out by the r:uatomet'. 1t i a leaa confuaing end leas ''comme rcial .. in appearance for the ahop aa a whol• to have thi• aerwice outaide of the aelling apace. Howevef', auch planning increase• cuatomera' waiting t ime. Proper loc.ation of the caah regiatar f?r aafety may alao be dependent upon a wide \l'ariety of factors such aa number of aal•apeople, type of ahowwindow back (open or cloaed on.aa which conceal the ahop from the aidewalk). 11nd type of neighborhood (buay or quiet). There i a in the more ••elusive amall ahopa a tendency away from thA uaa of caah rag:atera. Some n1erchanta conaider them too commet'" cial i n appearance and provide a a imple c•ah drawer, aometimes without • beJI a larm. Thia naturally i a a c11a1t of individual preference end reliability or peraonn•l. Wasta Buket Space for weate baaketa ahoulcl be provided i n each department. Thi a can be arrengltd under a counter or i n • beck fixture near the wrappec by omitting the baa e . When i n • counter with r eceaaed •t the front, auch waate baaket apece wilt hev• a amall ledge-the top of the toe apeea-which ahould be continuoualy braced. Offitas Mezzanine apace overlooking the stor e ia !he moat popular location for management ol"ficaa. Venetian blinda are often uaed aa a acraen; aemi-obacure gl••• may uaed: tranaparent mirrora can alao ba uaed, but the apace they concael muat be darker than the atore a ide. A practical way of doing thia o n a meuanina uaed for working officaa ia to run the corridor along the front of the mezzanine, aeparating the mirroracreen from the offices. WOMEN'S WEAR SPECIALTY SHOP Thia type of atore i a uaually one of two typee: 1 . A chainatore operation. uaually telling at lower pricea w ith g reater quantitiaa. which requirea maaa diaplay and maaa aalling, aom ... t imwa a mul t i p l..-floor operation. There i a uaually more aelfaervice and leaa cont..ct and aelling required by the aaleaperaon. All mer ch.andiae ia up for """'ard in aelling ar••• 2 . A medium and higherprica operation. uaually a email atore, most often o"""'neroper• ated. There i a more personal .selling and cloaar contact between aahuperaon and cu•tomet". The amaller •tyliah Uore d oea not neceaa•rily

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lOUVERED liGHTING i!XTURES .... 1 INTO VIEWING .lNGl[ WIN PRACTIC A L ClEAR ANCE fOR CONCEALED LIGHTING \_ .. Al PRACTICAL H[AD LOCAT ION \-WIN I'll ACT I CAL r I .• \-. :EYE lEVEL / . 3' fRO" •o:, : __ ..,o I SIDEWAlK I . . . J0 • <:>1 I L..J . . Of EFFECTIVE OI!PLAY AREA DEPENDS ON SIZE OF .lND TYPE Of 8ACKGRO\JNO .............. ---t EYE L(V(L ) '.)'HIGH WIHOOW ---] CENTER Llll( Of VISUAL CON( ...... EYE lEVEL . .., .. 12, • • , . 1 . .... --\\ .,, 1 12'"' r o 15"" ! r -----. • . l l J . ' I I 3 • W o n l j SIDEWALK r -FIN. Ill fL. C(lliNS F I NISH ""EZZANIN[ FLOOR \ 0"TIMUIO V l f:WIIULK { O.......,., ining optimuM clept+.L W lthl11: • 60 co.n• , t+.a evef"'t• hV"'•ft •r• ...,.. cornforlcbt r , withovt appr.-
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LE'I: E >tiGH W IHOOW 1. LOUVERED LIGHTING fiXTURES WA1 PROJECT INTO VIEWING ANGLE W I N PRACTICA l CLEARANCE FOR CONCEALED LIGHTING \ , . I I WU P RA CT I C AL HE LOCU IO N "\ --W I N PRACtiCAL HEAD ' I . LEVEL 1 3 FROM '71 ' S IDE WAL K 1 L,_.) 12" ro .,1. "'I . I .c, I I I I I , I FIN. 1at n . . CLING \1 \ .>-CONCEALED •••• • • . F=-LIGHTING •• •• : , , ,........__, • . I 1i1 '2 • [::.. q .... :: Q PTIN U II VI[WI"G P LANES ...... v fOR LOCAT I N G OBJECT . ; DISPLA1 OVERAll DEPTH )0• Of EHECTIVE OISPLA1 _ AR(.O DEPENDS ON SIZE O f OBJECTS AND TYPE Of .,--LINE -.. 2 • "'". F I N . l ot .. \ . . . . .... \ OI'TIWUW VI( W INO OPTIWUW \ 1'\.AN(\ 2. VINIIIO
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nmercial TAll SHOPS men'a Wear h..va all demand marchandiaa on diaplay. The merchand••• i a brought out from atock room a . (See Fig a . 7 to 9 . ) The eatarior cf the lower-price atora. like the interior, will heva large diaplaya, hence large ahow windowa with low bulkhaada. The vaati buta. or diatanca from the building line to the entrance doora, ia uauelly greater then for the 1::: . I • I . [J[j I ; . 'o I , . .; I , ... ELEVATION .PLAN awaraga atora. Tha amallar atyliah atora wiU have a amallar ahow window, or parhepa no ahow window, onl!" a d iaplay platform which ia really part of the atora. The interior for both types of atoraa ia d .. partmant.lized, and the atora ia dh,tdH into related dapanmanta. Tha front part of the atora will have tha impulaa i!ama auch •• baga, CASH REGISTER STANO REQUIRE .. E NTS & (l(C:TitiC OUTt..[T '01t ft(CIST(It I C.A)M Dlt&w(llt J Olt ltUSflll 'lRIOOS C C.OWP&IUW(fill S f()fl &C:C:OU•fiiiiG. 100AI 0 WRAPPING COUNTER REQUIRE1o4ENTS A COM,AitTIIIIIUfTI '011 ""'• IAII I COIIfP,Uf'TtltMTI fOIII PAP'(Jt SMt(TI ltOLL WtTM CIJTTllt ALT(It .. ATl: UPl•KD ,,., 2•: ;,o• ere D rwur( a su .. o•,. o•u•• MOLl I N ••A'PtMI TM fOIIt TWIN( STOCK SUtS USUAlll' Ol(lttlf1M[0 IY OWN(It :; -..., :: J • -glovaa. hoaiary, lingerie, awaatara, and coa• tuma jewelry. with the c..eah iar and w,.apping counter. The rear w i ll have the demand mer chandiae auch •• dreaaaa, auita, robaa, and aportaw-r. The caaaa for thia merchandiae are ohen aat away from the walla to pt'ovida apace behind for the fiHing rooma, atock, altarationa, and work room. PLAN ' • h L(OCO( . I I ttl TUIIIN L(OG( I .t.T (WOS II 0($1111(0/ ..,..._ ____________ _ FIN . WOOD RAIL CASHIER'S STANO PL. GLASS TOP )FIN. WALNUT PLYWOOD END INTERIOR 11." PLYWOOD IREMOVI COVERED BY OWNER FIN. WALNUT PAINTED •;,. • . TEMP. PREST WOOD SLIDING DOORS PAINTED INTERIOR -++--+-1 'LYWOOD 0 I a SECTION 1 (a) Jewelry and lingerie. (b) Neckw•ar and ponli•t.. CLEAR PLASTIC TRAYS DEEP 10lr. w10E HIGH FIN WOOD RAIL SECTION WRAPPING COUNTER (01 FIN. HARDWOOD ., PAINTED INTERIOR

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Oood general l ighting for main area a , li.:;hting panern in areaa architecturally aaparated, can vary from the general light pattern. Adjuatabla apotlighta for changing d iaplayo anC: apeci•l lighting ahould be provided at fitting mirrora or over countara. Carpet ehould be uaad throughout ••capt in •tock or work rooma. In ahopa for women' a clothing and heber daahary, the turnover of atock muat be rapid, aa atylaa quickly become obaolata. Moat aniclaa, other than acceaaoriea which are easily damaged or loat, are currently at leaat partly aold on a aelfaenlice baaia. Nonselling Areu A workroom for marking marchandiaa, making amall rapaira, and preparing article a for diaplay ia na.-de
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Commercial RET All SHOPS Women'a Wear CUSTO"E SPACE 3' 0 -NIH :------1 APRVN Ol1ST .. OLE SECTION TYPICAL CASE FOR DRESSES AND COATS LENGTHS 4 '-o: 6'-o: 1 4 H A NGERS PER FT Of ROO RO!E a NEGLI GEE CASES REQU IRE WU OWIT .. EVENI NG CLOTHES C:ASES, QU I T APRON 1 , :: 'ol "---v---' <.PAC.[ ,;, PULL-OUT CASES FOR'-....-:--BLOUSES, SKIRTS, JACKETS; poss1bly doubledecked type ACCOWWOOATES 1 2 HANGERS •Ell FOOT OF CARRIER OOOR DESIGN '"UST P[ RWIT PASSAGE GARW[NTS AND HANGERS ' o SECTIO N DOUBLE-DECKED a SKIRT CASE LENGTHS• 4'-0', 6'-0: 1 4 HANGERS PER fOOT OF ROO "' > ... .., ... Li...:.G' I -ADJUSTABLE SHELVES GAR .. E>
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Mtchlnical Syrtlml L ighting of triple end other m irrora and fining rooma ia extremely impor tant. Strong d irect overhead lighta are to be avoided b•cauae they cast unflattering ahad owe. Wall-diffuaad indir•ct light with direct aida light haa bean found fairly aatiafactory. Special ''daylighf' fixturaa and lampe are helpful in color matching. 1111"! 0 ,11 LIGHT OVE II o 1111111011 -LIGHT..) \.ommercJal RET All SHOPS Women's Wear; Men's Wear MEN'S WEAR Countera and clark a " aialea are aaldom. if aver, included in clothing aalea apace. but are ordi narily required in combination with waU c.aaea for haberdaahery and acceaaoriea. One or mora f i Hing rooma are nacaaaary in clothing depart• menta; a amaU fitting platform, one atep high and Gpproa.imately 4 ft by 4 ft, ia aomatimea needed. Chaira and amokind atanda are atan dard equipment. ""Daylight" lighting fixture& aid i n marching or determining colora. Nonsalling Areas Stock rooma, w ith apace for about 20 percent of tho atore" a total atock, are uaually aufficient for pe:tkload aea•ona. If alteration a to clothing are made o n the premiaea, a tailor ahop. with water and electrical connection• for preaaing and aewing m•chinea, ia required. Wrapping countera for clothing department& are ohen located in workroom a ; for haberdaahery, wrap ping counter& are uaually combined w ith cashier"a apace, which ia Jocated to both depertrnenta ( F iga. 13 to 15). Triple min"On.. n I 1: 111 [ II II I f I I II CH A Ill --l::_jlJ LINO TO p'""" I I! II 'tl I I II II il I 1 lT 2'. o Fitting rooms; 3 by 4 ft i1 minimum size. WRA P ;:., /FLUOR. FIN . SLIDING 10 " DOO AS ADJUSTABLE SHELF t'2" PAINTED •;:J SLIDING DOORS WOOD 0 H.VI . EDGE__:.v H . W . ED GE f-0-LIND BA SE, -+r-SECTION H-H ( a I II 0 0 II olfo II Oj 0 n II II II II II , I !! !I ! II !I H-4 J .. ACCESSORIES (cl FURNISHINGS 1'10" '+t I 3" } =::.-:... -:: . .-::. ""J FLUORESCENT FIN . HARDWOOD LIGHT I SLIDING PL. GLASS 1" DOORS ""ADJ . PL. GLASS !'---... -SHELF SLI DING j H .W. DOORS 1=.-'H .W. EDGE .. _jjl PLYWOOOSHELf' , :: : H.W . EDGEI I LINO BASE-"" l l -I J SECTI O N J J (bl hlancl dhplay ccae1. (a) !oy"a fvmishinga acceuoties. (b) Men's fvrnl1hin;t atodc thelvin;. (c) Fro,.t v iew.

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Commercial RETAIL SHOPS Men'a Wear; Book; Gift L a TOI" 0"&0V[ DOOM STOCX -:--r-"r-...,r" Sllti.VU ... .._____.._ rr Ill TII&TS 6 UATS lO I'IG[ON (liNUII} Of 110\.[ S I'(R SH I RTS o GlASS Sll[l\IU {LIN( All) Of C&S( DOORS, COUNT[ II .,; leO SIIIIITS > .. . • SliDING f-GART[tRS, .. l[A'} --.... IR&CU 'c 'o .( .... .. • . HOSIERY a GLOVES TYPICAL HABER DASHERY CASE FLOOR CASES OR COUNTERS PLAN TRIPLE MIRROR .; > c . .. .... 40 IIATS !'Ell CASE SECTIONS •.• O"lOWG r---.... .... .... . ... 'o .. • I 1'-e I .. l l Gl 5Hl\I(S h a DOORS/ SECTIONS 4 '-o" LONG 0 > .. 1'055181.[ . SliDING .. .... LEAr"'\ '-"" . • -.. '• SHIRTS SHIRTS HATS UNDERWEAR Men' s ...,., tua. BOOKSHOPS Each cuatomar in a bookahop raquiraa privacy, direct acceaa to 1he booka d iaplayed, and auf ficiant light for comfortable viaion whil e reading. Book buying cuatomara like to browaa, and nothing ia laaa attractive to them than crowded circulation. Sales end Displey Specaa The firat requirement i a a plan which by maana of low book ahalving prowidaa alcovaa or aaiJ.. ing racaaaaa into which cuatomara can be drawn out of the main circulation. Such an arrangement lncr••••• lineal feat of ahalving. The aacond important atap i a to •••ura fail'ly high tntenaitiea of lighting, not onty on ahelwea and diaplaya. but to p•rmit book reeding without diacomf('rt at any pl•c• in the a hop. The third a t•p i a the deaign of atora fiaturaa which aell booka. Dui;n af Store Fixtur111 Thia requir•a conaid•r•ble atudy. The front cowe r of a book i a three or foyr timea aa w id• •• the b.ecllstti p . Cona•quantly, d isplay which faatutal thi a maaimum d irnenwion aecurea the maairnurn d i •pfay of jacl..at daaign and title l ettering. For thi1 reaeon thara i 1 • tr•nd, WALL CASES rarticularly notic••ble in chain bookahopa, to uaa the moat accaaaible area of the fixture, a t about hand height, for front-cover diaplay. There are aome diaadvantagea to thia practice, including loaa of atock apace and untidineaa reaulting from piling booka too h igh on count .. ara. Thia lanar practice alao makea acceaa to Jowet diaplay ehelvea difficult. Some otherwiaa waate apace behind vartic.l '"front-cover diaplaya may be uaed for atock. Use of eloping countara, with r ima high enough to retain only one lay of book a , will prevent the aecond practice. All ahelving ahould be within normal ing diat.ance; the maaimum height to which the average adult can reach •• from e ft 3 in. to 15 It e i n . Oiaplay and atock t.ablaa may be in troduced in wider alcovaa. Alalea not laaa th.n 3 f1 wide are preferred; main circulation aialea era not uauaUy greater in width than 6 h or e It 6 in .. for horg• ahopa. Pionselling Areas Thaae conaiat of wrapping and caah regiater apece, amall office and employeea lavatory, and neceaaary room for mechanical ayalam equipment. location of all of theae variaa w ith each job. In amaH, one-man"' ahop a , wrapping, eaa h ragiater, and oHice apace may be com• b ined and located near the entrance for eaa y auparviaion. In no ceae ahould theae ereaa obtrude upon cuatomer apace. lighting and Air Conditioning lighting ia preferably high in intanai: y and w ithout glare. Direct lighting concentrated on the fixturea' aelling .zona-the area of the counter and of the two or three ahelvea immediately above counter heighthaa bean found aatiafactory. Light aourcea •r• beat concealed. Complete air conditioning w i ll aid in praaerving atock, and ia often neceaaary to incr•••• the comfort of cuatomera in the rather conf;n.ct aicove apacea. GIFT SHOPS The problem in deaigning glh ahopa ia complicated by the variety and number of objacta which muat be Merchendiae le aeldom bought w ithout aaaing and handling either the actual object or a eampla. Cleaning and arranging auch " \faried, fragil e atock i a a aerioua main1enance problem. Selling end Interior Display Araaa Oepartmentali.ring the atock i e v•luabl• but d iHicult to •chieve, and ia ordinarily acco,... p li•hed diHerently for each job, depending Oft the general type of m!trchandi•• Object& may be arranged according to mater i a l , te.atur e , and color; or according to function; or in miaed grouping• coordinatl"d according 10

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uae. Both claaaified and miaed grouping• are eonaidered eaeential. Timea and aeaaona for varioua typea of merchandiae muat be conaidered and d iaplay apace provided to accommodate theae change• in poaitiona and importance relative to the regular atock. Shelving ie required for all small objecta, auch aa glaaaware, pottery, ail""' etc. Sizaa range from 8 to 12 and even 20 i n . in w idth; below counter height. ahelf or stock apace i a often enclosed to protect objects which m ight be dam1111ged by dual. Sa lea counters are usually eliminat•d: although, again, for amall, pariahable articles, glaaa ahow caaea may be advia eble. Cloaed displays with concealed aoHi t l ighting haYe been found valuable for auch objec:ca of ape-cial value or fragility, arti c lea which deteriorate i f left in the open {leather, a ilver, p l a ater, unglazed terra cotta). Sale of g ift march.andiae impliaa the writing of carda and notea for and of checks. One or mora daaka ahould be provided for cus tomera for theaa purposes. It haa bean aug gaatltd that apace ahould be provided for telephone books for addreaaea. Show W indows Moat g ift ahop w indow bocks are open, or paniatly so, in order to g ive v iews through into the ahop. lighted interior displays vis ible through open backa often atlract customers. Fle•ibility ia aometimea demanded; that ia, a w indow with a back which may be open or ----j v closed at will. l ighted recesaad shelving i n the window aida or backs, or on adjustable brackets, eaploita varied d isplay lavela. Nonselling Areas Stock rooms require a renge of a izes of shalv ing, from 8 to 12 or 20 in. wide, aa weJI •• closed cupboarda for objects which might b e damaged by duet. The receiving and packing room w i ll have to Nndla large quantities of inflammable pack ing material. A wrapping table, 3 ft 6 i n . by 5 ft, with two peper rolla, 18, 24 to 30 in. long ia uaually aufficiant. Weighing acalaa are required. JEWELRY SHOPS Jewelry .stores range from the small shop which sella fine. aapanaive, and exclusive items to the commercial credit store which display• and sella i n volume, end than to the costume jewelry shop. Jewelry, at aU pricea. ia an im pulaa item and so needa good visual appeal. The better jewelry atora ia a small atora w ith a small front and may be the open or ••.,.. through type. Displays are on an indi v idual basi s . uncluttered, vary well illuminated, and up high for easy, cloaa examination. Thi a atore is never selfaervice; i t requiraa laiaurely attention to the customer. Oisplaya and countera are indi v idual unita. Small tables, aometimea combined with a •mall display or STRI 1 P "? :! r X THIN WALL ALUM IN TUBES (181 15/ 1 1.0 9l> .. LONG SET AT ANG LE AS SHOWN "" , .. ......___ -'lo . . : -I I n; --PAINTED INTERI OR M .---FIN . MAHOG. PAINTED + M I--"" T J+ "'-. "' "" -:.. .1-;, ? ..J LINO BASE J'' J "J'' ' F I .... 0 : b I c. :l'-
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RET AIL SHOPS Jewelry to c-. , ELEVATION Je-lry. 2 . stock room or oHice. Thi s may be done with the uae of one-way mirrors. The credit jewelry store, or thf'l popular price Afore, cetera to volume in both cuatomera and merchandise. Counters are of the atandup type; not indi v idual (Fig. 17). Two, three, or more are combined into a aingle long unit. Displays on the interior and the ahow windowa w i ll have a mass display of itama. The cashier and wrapping desk are located at the front of the store for better control. Jewelry i a sold by persons trained to give individual aHention to each customer. Patrons are given little opportunity to haindle merchandiae ••capt i n the preaence of a aaleapereon. Valuable atock ie ordinarily locked in a vault each night, and the entire atore muet be "dreaaed"" each morning. Sales and Display Areas Theae are divided into a general aelearoom for ordinary cuatomera, and one or more private rooma for cuatomera who wiah to buy eapen aive itema, u&ually precioua atonee. No countera, in the ordinary aenae, are pro vided: it haa been found preferable to have nothing betwveen cuatomer and aaleaman. Both ait at tablea, 2 h by 3 It in size , which are a paced at 9 to 10 ft intervals for privacy. A few d iaplay c•••s a r e uaed, and atock drawera to hold jewvelry trays. Display tables for atationery and watches are aometimaa fitted with d iapley drawera, the full size of the table, end visible through a g leaa top. Wall caaea are often r• ceaa.O i n aalearoom Walla . Private aalea cubicle• may be from 6 to 7 tt by 8 to t 0 fl . Furnitur a ahould include 3 or -4 chaita and a aalaa tabie. Show Windows They '-'•u•lly h••• high bulkhead&, a r e email i n a ite, end ha"e opaque backa. O i aplaya .,.. '-'•u•:lr ltmited, e n d arnall i n acale. Glazing ahould int•rler e w ith v i a ion a a ,fittle •• poa•ible. 1 1'-4" TO 1'6" j _,{LIGHT OR SHELF DRAW ER -" REM. TIIAY l---I SECTION 1 2 %" oc D O . NOTE : MIRROR ON SLIDING DOORS W ITH LOCKS FELT COV. REM . PAD / ,b.i?::: ' / . ' .................. 2 TRAYS SHALL BE FABRICATED TO FIT DRAWS METAL RAIL FLUORESCENT LIGHT 1/e" PLYW OOD JEWELRY TRAY 1'." %"PL . GLASS I ._"'--rF=======i-H.W . EDGE H . W . EDGE REMOVABLE UPHOLSTERED PAD WOOD SLJD:NG DOORS WITH LOCKS TRAYS H . W . DRAWERS PROVIDE WITH LOCKS MASTER LOCKING RAIL ACCESS PANEL FOR TRANSFORMER "-,__ _____ L1 NO BASE _. __ COLD-CATHOC'E TRANSFORMER SECT ION C<:stuMo jewelry. ANCHOR BASE TO FLOOR

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Honsailing Araas Protection of stock i s important. although there are few deleterious influences against which jewelry must be protected. and i"ory w H I not 5tand heat. S ilver will tarnish; watches and clocks must be oiled and regu lated. A jewelry pofishing shop may b e needed i n a room adjacent to the general offices. Tnis i s about 8 by 8ft w ith benches, shelves, sink. and tools. Protect• on against theft i s provided ordinarily by keeping stock i n a wault at night, and by in atailing alarm systama at all window• and doors. Where available. various private, police, or similar protective agency sywrems are usual It intMconnected. Conveniences installed for customers' com• fort include privata telephone bootns. drinking fountains. and a lavatory. ae well as vanity tablea. may include spaces for manager, cle.-i cal department. telephone switchboard. and registry (accurate recorda of purchases •ra usually required by law). Offices are often i n mezzanines. Shipping departments may be i n basements or f irst floors. UNIT a b c RET AIL Jewelry; Barber; Tailor and C !eone uun SHOI' typical berber shou co;, Ce a ccommodored i n o itore 1 4 by J2 ft. i n \ ize. A shop for a smoil ordinarily Mcs a •ingl e •hompoo 'lc•i n ; if inciv ;duol ere or oil b.:2rber choi rs, space quiremenu ha .. e to be increc\ed o=ig. 18) . SHOI' Cl.E .. U.A.HC!S a. I Q'.q" b. ,.. t" c:. 7' b " d • ... . o .. Cl-IA i l a. ]' .Q" b. I b " c. 1 '-o" • o. : a f. I 2' .Q" 'c 1 4 " C " q. 2'o " Wa.-lc:.r• tabl•: 1 ' . 4 " , : e" 1JHIT d. 4 ' q. 0 .J" .. 1 ' -0" ... 0 ' 6'" f. I". Q " I. 0' . ) " e e a o WOR\4 B :;;:;! Let: ::c' DO PLAN T oi1or and cluner. I I 1 • I Barber shoo . PU13LIC 0 100 + L!ANO 165. UNO.L n TOWEL TAlLO. AND CL!ANU ihe schemati c pion here oreH,nted •ho""' orecs requi red fer tnl! various functions i n a complete sm ell t oi l o11ng and cleaning estcol ishment. If a toiler' shop i s rne only '"ouire ment (for prening end '"pairs) ond cieonin<; work i s •ent out, cleaning and b o o lerroom areas may be omitted ( Fig . 19) . I'USSIHG \JN!T Vaca•m sham o • l'r•ulllq mac:llln•: sl J'. o . 5'-0". or o'-0" artd rae!": :. c . ::: ... :t. HANDWOU AREA Tablet: ]'.Q" r 0" e " ' , ; S
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\wQffimtff'-IUI RET AIL SHOPS Beauty; Shoe-Repair; Florlat 0 J!. b c c c c d CASil 0' TOllkT QJ;OJSHR ,_ ......... !-f-i WAIT! NO I .._ QOOHH 20% m TOTAL / ,_ F\ Ul 0 0 0 :c OJ SPLAY 4 ;: 'L-"" " t! 0 .... 0 -u a b c .0 Ul z -..J SlliN' < IIOC fT ll s f-:z: v 0 0 0 0 0 < Ul < .... 0 a d f Cl e 0 I v :::: "" I .._ .... :i. COUN taR < 8 ::::< >:: 0 I r-a I OI a 0 ..... < > < _, IUUTY SHOP The typical small s hop has to at least s i x to eight booths in order to de enough bus i ness to successful. If man i cur ing i s done in booths , 20"/ . of the ahop 'r total area i s dev:>ted to waili ng room. I f mani cure toblea (15 by 30 in. , with 5 ft. betwee• tables) hove to be placed i n waiting apoce , the 20 "1. proportion may have to be enlarged (Fig . 20). DIW!NSIONS a. 1'-C/ ' to 1'-6" b. 1'.0" c. 5'.0" , 6'-C/' , 7'-C/' !for standord well :obinots) L 3'-0" e. 6'-6" to 7' -C/' f. 3' -4" to 7' .0" 9 6 ' -6" to 7 ' -C/' SHOE-IEPAII SHOP Octo are based on requ i rements for a one men shop , possibly with he l per . Door is a l ways at one side of show w i ndow ; small w i ndow is sometimes omiHed . Large window con loins 10. to 12 inch wide Booths for " while you -wait" are standar d ized at 1 ft. 8 i n . w i de, with 2-in. arm resh between; depth is va r iable . Shoeshi ne ore never placed opposite wai t i ng booths (Fig . 21) . DI .. ENSIONS •• 5'-6" ... 6'-0 " L 6'-C/' b. 5'-8" •• 11'" J. 3'6 " c. 5'-0" std. for f. 2"-6" k. 5'-6" 2 cho i rs: 6' • 6 ' -C/' L 3'-6" 0" size also Ia.. 7'-0 " • • 13'-0" a v ailable Cooling coilo are uouelly placed in the 1 o of ca •••, with compreaaora i n baa e m • apacea. Nonsellin g Areu Workroom• are required for prep•ring apac d iaplaya. fl oral p iecea, and for atoring waterir cane, ribbon, twine, paper, bo••• and a d• t ional potter y . Workroom a i.zaa are not au dardizad. A a ink w ith a h igh cold water U or hoae, i a required for f i ll ing watering c., Ribbon i a atockad in roll a from t o 10 I w ide. Boaat a r e at..eckad on t..ebla• or a h e l w for each dey" a t r a d e ; 1 S O boa a a i a a n a v e r a for moderately large ahopa . Tabl • may ba .. ! 8 h ; b o a ahelvoa may be 1 t o 3 h

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IIUOAWHI • I I .-J I I I b I i a F-' e f -! loooooo oo .QQ I I II ....r nc. SODA a b a c I [[OJTI]i Drugstore. DRUGSTORES Todey'a drugatore ia no longer the amall neigh borhood pharmacy or wet" atore that included a aoda fountain with tablae. It ia now e ither a amall .. dry' ' atora, primarily handling praacriptiona, aundriea, and coamatica, or tha large variety type of atore, vary often pert of a chain operation with certain departmanta leaaad out. In addition to the department• already men• t ioned for the amall atore, it may have a com plata luncheonette and dapartmanta for tobac co. film, greeting carda, booka, and certain houaahold itema typical of the variety atore. The larger a tore vary often ia part of • ahopping center complaa. Storafronta are aimpla, gener•lly the open or type. with ahallow diaplay dowa with high p latforma. lnt•rior muat be well organized and grouped or departmentalized. The praacription depart ment uaually ia in the rear of the atora, vwith • •m•ll •••ting or waiting area. Thta ia aimilar to typical department atora aalling, which forcaa the prescription cu&tomer through the entire atora and peat the impulae itema. Vary ohen the tobacco eaction will alao be located in the rear, for the aama r•••on. though aoma op.rationa prefw to handle tobacco ar the c.eahiar along with film. The h.tnchaonana normall y ie at the rront, a a i a the coamatica dapanmant, with druga and aundriaa cantered. and the book department and telephone• agai n fay. Of'-.d In the rear_ laTga Operetiona 'WiJI have aaYetaJ COntroiJ.cJ eountara at rha front, w ith aaparate C..ah re-g iatara at the pharmacy and lunch!I I I I t J I I z P"' 2 d c ... ... Q. u" Q a: 0 ..., u; r, tC "' 0 ,. t-l ... Hl' PIIOrU;{7 .... mDA li!OOTIH STORE FLOOR WORKBENCH area of RET AIL SHOPS Beauty, Shoe Repoir, Drug DltUwSTOll PLJ.N DUo4EHSIONS a. 8'-6" b. 32'-6" ( w a II """" counter, slopped coun r. er) c. 10 '-b" d. 9'-0" e. I ) ' -0" SOOA IOOTHS a. 1 ' -4" b. 2'-0" RAISED FLOOR E [] f. 21' -6" 9 ... I. ' 14' -6" b' -9" to 7' -0" 5' -9" to 8' ..{)" 4 '-6" to 5' -a" (vorios with counter dopth) c. 4'-8" min . d. 3' 6 " min . STOCK ROOM .PLAN SECTION

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1...ommerc1al RET AIL SHOPS Drug; liquor The only department• requiring or uaing counter aervice are preacriptiona, coametica. tobecco, film, and radioa. All other aelling ia from open diaplaya, gondolas, and wall ahelv ing, uaually continuoua for flexibility identical to that uettd for aupermar ... eta and with a cur tain 'Wall and continuoua light cornice at the top of the ahalving. If the preacription and pharmacy work area i a •leveled one or two atepa above the main floor. h provide• a better view and con trot of the entire atore. The layout and operation of the prescription department wariea with the individual pharmaciat. The work area ia divided into a wet and dry area with a 'worktable, atainleaa-eteel aink with hot and cold water,end • refrigerator. In addition to bottle and container atorage, generally under the workbench, apace i a required for prescription filea, current and peat. Keeping good recorda ia mandatory by l•w (Fig. 23). By A . FLORIO Oesigner.Consult•nt LIQUOR STORES The liquor a tor• will conaiat of many idea a auch a a : 1 . Zoned and cold wall refrigeration 2. Perpetual inyentory ayatema 3 . Refrigerated gondolea 4 . Electronicair filter ayatam to remove duat and dirt from aalea area 5. Automati c check--out ayatema 6. End of pilfer•ge 7 . New approachea to ••terior a tore deaign New product ideaa auch aa: 1 . Frozen and refrigerated cordiala, liqueur a 2 . Complete linea of powd•red cocktaila, mi•ed drinka The rapidly growing "apendable income'' of the American publi c i a the aingl e largeat factor. for the perpetual atream of new product• and new packaging that entera the retail l iquor in duatry conatantly i a afowly bringing about new idaaa in product development and procf. uct preaentation which, in turn, create new demands and new requirement• for equipment manufacturers and store d•aignera. All theae new itema create new problema of merchandising techniquea. In conjunction with thaae new produeta, the percentage of women euatomara ia ever increaaing. Within the neat 10 year a, women will outnumber men cuatom• era, •• liquor in one form or another ia becom• ing more and more of a ataple item in the aver• age American home. Women ahoppera are more demanding, more critical, and more auaceptibla to a deaigned merchandiaing layout in an attractive welllighted etore, and they are bigger .impulae i .tem buyera than men. (And they alao control moat of the family money.) The aelling area will e ither be covered with carpeting, which will be •peciafly deaigned with a foam backing that will eliminale a large percentage of bottle breakage ; n the ••lea area, or floor t ile that will neYer need poliehing. The merchendiaing layout will be completely diHerent than we know today, with the use of L iquor Store M•n• gement M•nu•l. r eprinted from L1quor Stor e March 1968 . 0 1968 by Jobson Publ•sh•ng Corp. New York. N . Y zoned and cold wall refrigeration. Appearanc ... wiae, the ahelving will baaically look •• it doea preaently, but each •helf will have temperature control •• required to hold each category of merchandise at a correct holding temperature. Walkin coolera will be eliminated aa a meana of refrigeration. One example of the uaage of the cold-wall method ia aa followa: 99 percent of every liquor atore in the United Statea today twa a partition wall aeparating the back room from the aalea area, and in almoat every case the cooter ia either in front of thi a partition or the partition ia built fluah w ith the front of the cooler. with the idea, when the panition ia buil t . Cold panel a will be built r ight into the wall with UP" righta placed every four feet for adjuatable ahelving. All the can beer and beverage a can be merchandised thia way, for combination caae beer. can beer, and beverage merchandiaing. The zoned idea will be used ao that case beer can be a tacked 2 or 3 cases deep and with edjuatable ahelvea for looae merchan d iae. Thia method can be applied to any length and width of floor apace required, Thia aame idea will be uaed to encompaaa the w ine wall ahelving. The ahelf merchandise w i ll maintai n a temperature range of 37 to 61 c which can be adjusted to hold at • preselected temperature. and percentage of humidity to properly contain the product. The ••me method of zoned refrigeration will be u•ed on •II gondol•• that will be u•ed to merchandiae eatate and chateau bottling of wine; cordials and Jiqueura (that can be held in a frozen or refrigerated atate. thereby offering more true flavor and taste than ia now poaai ble); gourmet fooda and can beer. It will heve an electronic pilferegtt detection ayatem auch aa the aenaormatic detection aya tem which uaea a aenaitized dot in the pric e tag or aticker. It i a afmoat impoaaible to find the dot without apecial equipment. If the package or article ia properly chf'cked out through • caahier, the dot i a deaena;. t izad by equipment under the counter. If the ahopliher conceal• the package o r article and geta by the caahier, the dot continue& to give oH electroni c aignala that are picked up boy a aenaitive detector at the exit, notifyin9 aacurity officer& that a theft i a taking place. Location Analysis DowntoWII City locat ion • Advantage• Pedeatrien traHic i a principal advantage. Alao availability of buaineaa mar ket. • Diaadvantages High rent.ala, competition, lack of perking facilitiea. Suburba1 • Advantage• Upper income cuatomera. Conaiderable home entertainment. Good g ift market. • Oiaadvantagea Lack of atreet traffic. High delivery costa. lndurtNI • Advantage• Excellent customer pool. Both buaineaa a n d labor. • DiAadYantagea Peak selling perioda. Pay daya, aher '-' "Orking hours. Need tor Iota of amaH aizea. Res i dellti.l •Advantagea Regular cuatomera. Opportunity for promotion. •Oiaadvantagea C uetomera i n m i•ed income groupa. Therefore, need to maintain variety of aervicea. Shoppina Centat • Advantage• Heavy traHic location a . Good parking facilitiea. • Oiaadvantagea Moatly femal e traHi c . O ia t raction of other typea of atorea. Hiahway loeatio1 • Advantage• C ustomerconvenience.Heavy automobile traffi c . • D iaadvantagea Not eaay to "atop cua tomera. Need for eatenaive parking facilities. Aa mentioned above. there are opponunitiea to do buaineas r egardle a a of the location. Considerations i n l iquor Store Design Among the poaitiva marketing trenda that are aHec t ing liquor store daaign today are the fof low ing: 1 . The change i n buying trends of the con aumer public 2 . The new drinking sophistica t ion of con aumera 3 . The emergenc e of women a a liquor atore 4 . The home entertainment boom S . The conatant flow of new br•nda, new products, new a izea e ntering the mark•t to meet the new demanda of conaumera There are a lao aome negativ e trenda, and atorea muat be deaigned to cop e w ith them. They •r•: 1 . The shortage of experienced peraonnel 2. The high coat of overhe•d •nd dsily opera t ion 3 . Extrema price competition in many aectiona of the country 4 . Pilferage problema in aome city areaa 5. Regulation&. regulationa, regulation& I n order to properly ley out and design a liquor operation, the following pointa muat be covered in order to achieve the utmoat eHi c ien cy, ileaibility, economy of operation. a n d profi t : 1 . Location analyaia 2 . Structural arr angement 3 . liquor merchandising "'problem areaa 4 . Product placement s . Checkout ayatem 6 . TraHic control 7 . Financing 8 . Interior designing 9 . Signa and diaplay technique• 10. Refrigeration requirement& 11. Electric•l requirementa 12. Plumbing requirement& 13. Air con d i t ioning requirement• 14. Heating requirement• See Fig. 24 for aome poaaible layouts. Interior Design The baaic plan and operation of a liquor •tore ia that of self-service , i . e., open a h elvtng, but with a auffieient number of clerka available to help cuatomera. Women are doing more ahopping in liquor atorea. paniculady the n e ighborhood store, and are impulae buyerat hey need •nd e•pect aasiatan:e in meking selection•. Storefront& are uauerly the completely open, aee-through type wilhout any w i ndow beeka since many atatea require the enti r e interior of the store to be v isible from the atreet. e ... f ore alerting eny or ak etchea . check carefully with local and !\tate liquor authort. t ies about any apecific requirements or reatric: t iona becauae they var y in ttnch erea . P.1erch.and i&e i n ahow w indowa may ba protected by grillea or a i milar deYicea . Oftttn only one entrance may be permitted. e:J"cepl w hen the atore i a """"i thin • shopping center. A separate deliver y is desirable, bu n1uat be well controlled from the oHice and, if poaa ible, from

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the caahier. Exterior hardware ahould be omitted on thia door. Showwindow platform• ahould not be too d-p. from 4 tt 0 in. to 5 tt 0 in. end ohould be on the low aide, from 8 to 24 in. maximum above th., floor. On the eaterior, proviaion muat b• made for protection when the a tore ia cloaed by uae of an overnead rolling grille or a folding gate. Thia protection ahould be over all ahow windowa and the entrance door. The entire rremiaea including all wall and roof openinga, auch aa air intake• and aahauata, muat be protected by • weU-daai9ned alarm ayatem. The interior wiH be departmentalized to the ea tent tNt hard liquora. winea, and bear are all ond diopleyed diHerenlly. Herd liquora are d iaplayed and aold from ahalving not unlike that of a aupermarket or auperdrugatore, i rt cluding the typical price or label holder on the ahelf edge, and are well illuminated from a light cone at the top of the ahelving. Oomeatic, inexpenai\ta winea may be dia play.d and aold from ahefving aimifar to that for hard liquor. Generally winea are atored lying down aa in a wine rack except tNt eeveral boMiea would be grouped in one opening and dirttetly und•r or over the opening would be an upright bottle cerefully d iaplayed 10 give good "iaibi!ity for reading the label. Being abl e to read the label on a wine bottle ia a muat for the cuatomer. Another method ia to have e loping ahelvea with the angl e changing to give a belt.,. v i.,_ of the label. Agai n , all ahelving i a to ba well iiJuminat.ci. An illuminated wine chin ... , with d iaplaya, ia a muat aince many w inea muat be aerved chilled and a good, ataady cuatomer can be developed if he or ahe knowa thai a chilled wine cen be picked up for 1,.. • -nedi•te uae. Pull'"'()ut ahelvea, which hold aey. aral boHiea, are alao handy ao a cuatomer may accumulate a aelection or await a deci a ion on final aelaction. Beer and mixer a ahould ba located at the rear and to the aida and, i f poaaibla, atored and d iaplayed in reachin refrigeration. Where po• aibla, build theae accommodationa into the woll. Loeding or refilling from lhe reer io highly daairable for thia bulky merchandiae. A g ift. or apecialty, aection and impulae itema ahould be adjacent to or part of the caahier or aantica counter. Other impulae item a, auch •• gourmet fooda, bar acceaaoriaa, and gihware ahould be located ao that they are eaaily \tiaible from the eatarior. The caahier, or aarvice counter, ia generally located toward the rear of the atore, except for "•ry large operation a where checkout countara and aervica carte, •• in aupermarkats, ere IO"T'Ietimaa uaad. When i n the rear, the counter ahoul d be large enough to accommodate at laaat t'wo cuatomef'"a at the aame time. O iacuaa with the operator of the atore the apaciaf r• quirementa for the working aide of the countiH": the \tarioua aizaa of baga, wrapping matariala, recei\ting compartment• for inventory taga, handling of caah, and caah regiater aecurity. An oHice working area ia required. If poaaible, loc.ata i t ao that from i t deliveriaa can be co.,... trolled and a view of the caahiar and of the .,... tire atore ia poaaible . The entrance door muat be equipped to announce the entering or lea,. ing of any peraon. liquor atorea are prime targate for holdupa and pilfMage. The cantaf' of the noor ia generally kept fr .. of fi•ed fi•tuf'•a; uaa gondolaa or ialanda. Oiapfaya often are made up of m.,.... c"'-ndiee and container• and with IT'\afarial fu,... n i • hed by the auppJiera. By keeping the cant.,.. of the floor lleai b l e , d irection and location ol d iepJaya can be changed. In a d dition to the lfghring and l ight ing over provtde adjuet.ble epotlighta throughout the ceiling area to h ighJ;ght dia playa and accent downlighta o"er the caah iar. For floor covering, carpet i a preferred i n the selling areaa, or perhapa wood, and hard floor covering for the atoraga araaa. If atorage ia on a level above or below the selling floor. a belt conveyor ahould be i,. atalled. To expedite the handling of the heavy merchandiae, portable roller conveyor• ahould be uaad where there are long atock a ialea. 1 = , • Office Printe O!Tice I _I • P 1 cture C heck Desk RET All SHOPS liquor Stor3ze lor Cne Beer Etc . • j aeer Cooler lDJ Cashiers Counter Refri&. Beer Case Counter l__j (1) Island D isplays ... .. Ci 0 '" .... .::; I ---------' f----'---'---1.---''--'-__J o ... y c ... C•u Bur ! J II il I__ . . .r---Dt!.srrt Wtne cornm Ch•mP•cn t •nd Donntr i i w C•rton C ic•rtlttl -f. r • ' • 1 G off Pock l•l•nd :: lt '"""'"" : M•u Stackonc M .. s Stockon& : --ltquor f-----if----: 1 L oquor lsl•nd R•ilin& ,--,----.--.,. ... (c) fo;oot st!>--'f- •moo . ( c ) uro-s.ol!... mc.. l Storo• .. .. .c .. :: ;; • " .. z

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RET AIL SHOPS Shoe By MURRAY S . COHEN, AlA, Architect SHOE STORES OiHerent requirements and customer demands have generally required separate stores for men, women, and children. A shoe store ia a volume trade operation and ia highly competitive. The atorefront i s the seethrough type. with a large enclosed ahow window for display of th& maaimum number of ahoea. Average depth of the show window ia from 4 h 6 in. to 5 ft 0 in. w ith platforms 2 ft 0 in. above the floor. Oust on shoes ahowa up very quickly, downgrading the merchandise. thus ahow windows should be enclosed and have tight sliding or hinged ac ceaa doors. A ceiling display gri d facilitates the handling of suspended items. tn ahow win dowa, lighting muat be predominantly deacent; fluoreacent lighting i a uaed only to provide general illumination. Provide an ea hauat to reduce the heat buildup from the lights. Floors w i ll sometimes have removable plywood panels to which changeable material s are fastened by the window trimmer. The interior of thia type of store muat be arranged to accommodate the maximum numLIGHT CORNICE REMOTE BALLAST 2 -T12-40W} 1 -T12-20W REG. 1 -T12-15W LIGHT CORNICE REMOTE BALLAST 2 T12 40W 1 T12-14W ADJ . W OOD SHELF PAINT I N TERIOR bar of aeata allowing eHicient c irculation for the salemen' a treHi c route from stock to cus tomer and not crowding the fitting apacea in front of customer s chai r a. Chairs must btt com fortable and have arms to provi d e separation between customers. Provide plenty of fi&ed or portable shoe-level f itting mirrors as well a& occasional full-length mirrors so that customera can get a full view of thei r entire figure. The shoe shelving generally has some ••poaed space in the sales area and some concealed in rear or aide stock rooms or areas. E.cpoaed shelving in sales a reas should not be higher than can be reached without a step stool; concealed or stock-room shelving can extend up to 10ft 0 in. Where the height ia available, two levels, l ike library stacks. can be used. A cellar storeroom i a required for reserves. (See F igs. 25 to 27. ) Cashier counter should be centrally located for good control and accessibility. The hoae bar, acceaaoriea, and impulse item a are generally located near or adjacent to the cashier. If poaaible, arrange for rear delivery of mer ch.ndiae. An employee toilet, a combination workbench for m inor repaira, and a deak ahould be provided i n the stock room, with quick access to aalea room. In certai n men' a •tores selling a better or h igher .. priced a hoe there will be a a hoeshine stand serviced by the porter o r handyman. F loors in the selling area must be car peted. In enclosed shopping malls the c.r pet i s often ••tended out into the vestibule. Stock rooma can have hard f loor covering. Women' s stor e a usually are more p lush, have mor e of ft salon aeuing, and have leaa ••posed s1oc k i n the s a l e s area. Seating i a more infor mal, with love a eata and groupinga i n addition to the indi v idual wellupholatered aeat. Adjacent to or part of the c .aahier counter there ia an extensive hosiery, glove, handbag, and other matching acceaaoriea area. A bar ia usually a separate aection. I n the area or store for children i t ia highly desirable to have a raiaed platform, acceaaible by atepa, ao that the aaleaman can better observe the fitting end walking without having to bend or lie down on the floor. LEATHER SEAT UNO FACE 1' -0" DET. X-X SECTION %" = 1'-0" SECTION %"' = 1' 0 " (a) (b) (el Sock b11. (b) Shoethi"" lieN!.

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STOREFRONT SHOW WINDOW I I u II II CASHIER ;; "--i 0 II II I HOSE -SALES ROOM 0 I I H I II II SEATS DISPLAYO II II II II II II r-3'-0" . . . II II II II I) lU DISPLAY BENCH RET All SHOPS Shos STOCK ROOM l -II H u Il 16'-0" TO 20'-0" 'll2" SHELVING VARIES 36" TO 45" CEILING CURTAIN WALL SHELVING SALES ROOM SHELVING 2 BOXES HIGH STOCK CASHIER 1111111111 s.w. PLAN FOR WIDE SHALLOW STORE Moas s hoe rtol'l. C;> 0 0 1-9 Co STOCK ROOM I I I I I I 6" r I I I 1 1'-4" I I I Y." MIRROR ON PLYWOOD FOOT MIRROR I I I DOUBLE DECK 10"

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RESTAURAI\
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By LENDAL H. KOTSCHEVAR and MARGARET E. TERRELL SPACE REQUIREMENTS Adequacy of apace w i ll influence building and operating coata and aHiciancy. When apace Ia too amall, labor time and effort ara l ikely to lncreaaa and the volume and quality of output dacraaaa. When i t i a too larga, building and maintenance coata are axeeaaiva. Oaciaiona part.8ining to apace allowance may be atrongly affected by the limitation• of invaatmant funda and available apace. Ample apace ia aomatimaa provided by maana of low coat matariala and equipment of auch inferior quality that they have ahort and uneatiefactory aarvica fife. In other inatancaa, apace ;a raatrictad to a point whara i t prohibita pt"Ofit• abla volume or tha baat utilization _,, labor. Space artowancaa in relation to invaatmant ehould be balanced i n tarma of (1) propoaad permanence of the facility, (2) acutanaaa of need for the apacific operation, (3) aeaantlala for operating efficiency, (4) daairabla atandarda In Ierma of appearance, aanltatlon, and good quality of production and .. rvica, and (5) Immediate and future coata, depreciation, upkeep, and maintenance. Facta peculiar to tha particular aetabllahmenl ahould be uead •• tha baaia for determining •p•c• naeda. Raquiramenta will vary for facilltiea of a glvan type and voluma. Location; type of operation; clientele; frequency of dall-riaa of auppliaa; kind of food uaed, auch aa freah, fro2en, or canned; and the camplet .. naaa of proceaelng to be done will cauaa variation in production and atoraga requlr .. manta. The policlea of thoaa I n charge will have an Influence. Certai n general Information, auch •• numbere to be aerved, turnover, arrival rata, and type of aervica, will be helpful In deciding dining •••• need•. Study Ia required to clarify lmmedleta and future neada In food production. Cholcaa ahould be mada betwHn ma•t cutting or ponion;o-eady meata, a baking aection or uae of commercially baked producta. and the u .. of unproceaaed veraua procaaaed fooda. If enlargement ia prob•bla, atudiaa made before the building ia planned •• to how apace may ba added and how the initial plan ahould be deaignad to minimi2a ultimata coat, will be helpful. It ia well to block out apace allowance• according to function• that lha facility i a to perform. Calculate area requirement• in tarma of: (1) volume and typa of earvlca, (2) amount and aize of equipment to be uaed, (3) number of workara required, (4) apace for needed auppliee, and (5) auitabla traffic araa. Tha dining area location and apace allowance are uaually determined firat, the pt'oduction araaa neat I n tarma of apaciflo ralationahi p to the d ining area, and the other aectiona aa required to theaa. Plannara ahould be careful In accepting general apace recommendationa. There are many variationa. Food Serv•c• John waey & Sana. N e w York. 1 967. Dining Area Space for dining araaa i a uaually baaed on the number of aquare faat per peraon aaatad timaa the number of peraona aaated at one time. Spa.:. Requi1111111at1 Tha patron a aiza and tha type and quality of .. rvica ehould be conaid ared. Small children may raquira only 8 aq h for a typa of aervica I n which an adult would need 12 aq h for comfort. A banquet aeating allowance might ba •• liHia aa 10 eq ft par aaat and that for a daluae raataurant •• much •• 20 aq ft. The amount of aarving equipment in the dining araa and lineup apace will lnfhr ence n..da. Loat apace muat be conaidered. The dlner"a comfort ahould govern allowance. Crowding le d iataateful to many peopla. It i a likaly to be tolerated more readily by youngatera than by adulta. It ia mora accept abla in low-coat, qulckaarvlce unlta than In thoaa fa•turlng lalauraly dining. Both young and old anjoy having auHiolanl albow room and enough apace ao that dlahaa of food and beverage are not crowded. Place aettinga for adulta uaually allow 24 ln. and for children 18 to 20 ln. (Tabla 1). . Square Feat per Seat Used for Various Typos of Food Operations Square feet per $eat Cafeteria, commercial ...... . Cafeteria, college end industrial . .•..... . ...•. Cafeteria, school lunchroom •... College 11sid1nca, tabla servica . . •... ..... . Counter servica . . .... .... . Table servica, hotel, club restaurtnt. ... • . . • . . . Tabl a servica. m i n imum eating . • . . . .... . Banquet. minimum •.•...... 18-18 12-15 91 2 12-15 18-20 15-18 1 1-14 10-ll All of the areaa in a dining room uaad for purpoaea other than aaating are a part of the aquare footage allo•ad for &eating. Thi a doea not include waiting areaa, gueat facllitiea, cloakroom a, and othH a imilar area a . Eacecaive loaa M uae of apace for other than aeating ln the dlning area will, however, increaae needa .. Structural featurea of the room ahould be coneiderad. W idth and length of tha room, uble and chair aia:ea, and aeating arrangements affect capacity. S•rwiee atatlona may be eatlm•ted In the proportion of one arnell one for avery 20 aeeta or. farge central one fOf' ..... ,, 50 to eo placea. The adviaability of having • central ••rving • .. l ion will be Influenced by the d ietance of the d ini"9 area from the aerving area. It Ia of apecial value when pr-oduC1ion and d ining are on d iHerant noora. Plumbing and wiring and whethoet' euppli•• are d•li.,•red m•c"-nically w i U lnfh .. •nce location of the atati o n a . Small aub•tationa for aUver, d iah•a, napery, bever-'-UIIIIIItHI,;IIU RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES agaa, Ice, butter, and condlmanta may maaaure 20 to 24 in. aquara and 36 to 38 ln. high. Tha abe of central atationa variea from that for a amall ancloaed room to that of a ac:caaned aaction meaauring approaimataty I t o tO ft long by 27 to 30 in. w ide by 6 to 7 ft h igh. Tabla a ize will influence patron comfo.rt and eHicient utilization of apace. In a cafeteria, for aaample, where patrona may dine on their t raya, i t i a important that the tabla ba of ad ... quata aiza to accommodate th• numb.tof traya likely to be thara. Four trays 14 by 18 in. f i t beHer on a tabla 48 ln. aquer• than on a .. b l a 38 or "2 in. aquara. Small tablea, auch aa 24 or 30 in. aquara, are economical for aaat ing but are uncomfortable for large people. They are only auitable in crowded araaa for feat tumover and light meala. Tablea having cornmon width and height allowing them to be filled togathar will g ive flaaibillty in aaatlng arrangamenta. Thaae era particularly good for banquette or cockt11il-type benoh •••tlng along a wall. Tablea for bootha a r a difficult for waltraaaea to aarva if they are longer than 4 ft. n.. width of bootha including eeata and tabla I a commonly 5'.' ft. A lunch counter will hllva • minimum width of 1 e ln. and • m•aimum width of 2" to 30 ln. Tha lin-• feet are calculated on the baaia of 20 to 24 ln. par eeat. The maximum araa beat aerved by one wai!raaa ia generally 15 ft of countar. Thla will g ive e ight to tan aeata. Uahaped countara make maalmum uaa of apace and reduce travel. Space I n depth of 1',4 to 11 ft w i ll be required for every linear fool of counter. Thi a will provida 3 to 4 h of public alala, 2'.' h for alala apace for employ••• A width of 4 '.' ft I • de airable where employ•e• muat P••• Calculate aiala epaca between tablaa and chai n to Include pu .. ge araa and that occup ied by tha p•reon .. ated at th11 .. ble. A minimum paeeaga area I a 18 ln. between chalra and, Including chai r area, tablaa ahould be apaced 4 to 5 h apart. Alelea on which bua carte or other mobil e equipm•nt I a to be moved ahould be e lzad according to t!'le w idth of auch equipment. The beat utllizetion of apace can often be arrived •• through the uee of lamplataa or acaled modale. D iagonal arrangement of _quare tablea utilize• epaca baHer than a quare arrang•ment and yiafda a more troubl ... fraa traffic lana. Lanaa that p••• b•twHn backa of chaira are likely to be blocked when gueata ariae or are being •••tad. Tabla haighta In echoola ahould be choe ... for the comfort of children. In unite patronized by many gredaa a compromiaa height will ba needed between the 30 ln. normally ueed for adu!la and the 24 ln. aulteble for children, or two a i2ea may be uaed in d iHet'anl aectiona of the room. A tabla length to •••t four, a ia, Of' e ight I a preferable to longer onea. Number !If Persor:s Aflc,.lnc:t The number of peraona to be aeated at one t ime i a the aecond point of Information n .. d.ct for celculatiott of the d ining room a i2e. The total num!Mt' of aeata required at one tim•. multiplied by the apace required for each aeat, w ill g iwe the total number of aqu•re faet ne•ded I n the

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IESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES dining arH. The number of timea a •••• ia occupied during a given period ia commonly referred to •• "turnover. • The turnover par hotJr. tJmaa the number of ••••• available. givaa the tot.l number of p3trona who can be aerved in an hour. If pMk loada, or number to be aW'Ved at one time, ara known, tha number of •-•• raquirad can be aatimated. Turnover rataa tend to vary, for they are influ..,ced by auch factora •• the amount of food eaten, the elaboratanaaa of the aarvica, and the dinera time ellowenca. A bre•kfeal meal of few fooda may ba eaten mora quickly than dinner. and a a imp'• fare faatar th•n a manrcouraa meal. Turnover ia quickaat in dining room• where food hee b.., prepared in advance for faat aarvica and where patrona aarva thamaalvas and bua their aoiled diahaa. The turnover time ia apeedad up 10 paf'cent by patrona removing their aoiied dianea ao that t8blea are quickly •veil•ble for other gue•te. Oeluae aervice for leiaur• dining, involving remoal and placement of aeveraf couraaa, tak.. the long .. , lime. Although apecific turnover may vary from 10 minutaa to 2 houra, actual eating time ia normaUy 10 to 1 5 minutaa for breekfa•t. 15 to ZO minutea for lunch, •nd 30 to 40 minutea for dinner. The calculation of occupancy of aeata in a dining room muat t8ke into conaidaration a certain parcentllga of vacancy, aacept what'a a given numb ara aHted at one time accord ing to aaaignm.nt. In tabl.-aarvica dining room• lhi• hea b..., e•timated •• ZO percent of total cap•city, in cafeteria a from 1 Z to 18 percent, and for counter operation& 10 to 12 percent. Many factora influence thia par• cantaga, auch •• patrona arriving at diHarant timea, rata of turnover, and raluc .. nca to ah8ra a tabla with atranoera. The tllble ai:ree u•ed in the dining room will eHect occupancy. It ie often deeireble to provide for group• verying from rwo to eight, with a predominance in moat dining rooma of thoee for two people. The ' 'deuoe•" may be of • aize and ahepe th•t c•n be put togeth•r to form tablee for lerger group•. In metropolitan araaa where many tend to dina alone, wall b-en-type aoeting and t.ble• for two with • center ridge or line denoting apace for one have been ueed auc:ceufully. Chair• with • "t.blet •rm lhel will hold • tr•y have been ueed for faat turnover in crowded areaa. The utilization of aeating capacity tende to be grMtar for cafet..,.iaa than for table aarvica. The patron m•y apend ZS to 50 percent of the time while •••ted at lha table wailing for aervica. The cafeteria dinar may begin eating •• aoon aa he ia aeated. One cafeteri• line can aarva four to eight patron• par minute depending on ( 1) the apaed of the aerver•, (Z) the elaboretenea• of food aelection, (3) conv..,ionoe of the layout, •nd (4) the type of patrone. At theae r•t••• Z40 to 480 patron• will need lo be aeated within an hour. If the turnover rate ie two pH hour, then from 120 10 Z40 eeela will be u•ed. However, if 15 -cent of the total capacity •t the peak period remain• unfilled, then between 140 and zao aeeta will be required. An additional 14 10 Z8 ••••• or 10 percenl would be needed if the patrona do not bua their aoiled diahea. Patronage eatimatea for facilitiea of different typea m•y be guided by the number of peraone in residence. enroJJmanta in a school, an indu•lry' a payroll, thel memberehip of • club, or the amount of traHic in an oHica or ahoppino area. In each c:.ae a certain percentage may normally be eapected to dine in the facility provided. The percentage will be influenc•d by auch factora •• ita location in retation to other f•cititiaa. the patron' a buying power, the price pl•n (on the b•ai• of aubaidy or prof• it), patron a mealtime allowance. end conven ianca of the location. The patronage eatimata for a collage c.afet• ria ahould taka into conaideration the number of atudanta who five at home, are mambera of a group, auch aa an organized houae, and the number of other dining facilitiaa available on or near the campua. A collage reaidence providing tabte aervice may have to allow • aaating capacity th•l ia 11 0 percent of occupancy if a policy eaiata for having .. apeci aJ guaat" occaaiona and seating eH at one time. An induatrial lunchroom may aarva •• few •• ZS percent •nd •• m8ny •• 90 percent of the peyroll. Cluee to prob•ble petron•g• may be drawn from auch factora aa naerneaa to other eating facilitiea. wage rataa. type of work. pricea to be charged. eonven,enca. quatity, and attractivaneaa. Th attitude of manag• ment toward the lunchroom may affect patron aga alao. Pride i n providing a good aervice for the induatrial family •• oppo•ad to a takeit• orleav .. it attitude tenda to win favorable raaponae. The aize of a dining room in a hoapital should be determined a• to whether it ia to be uaed for employ••• patianta, or gueats. or eny combination of theae. The type of hoepit•l end the number of •mbul•tory petienta ahould eleo be conaidered. The type of hoapit•l will aJao influaftce the number of peraonnal am• ployed. The ratio of peraonnel to p•tiiOnte will very from 1 to 3, depending on how much apaciaJ care ia required or how much tMching and raaaarch are dona. Good food and raaaon able price• will anract • t.igh percent.go of tho•• eligible to eat in the facility. School lunch participation vari•• ZS to 75 percent end • good percentage for planning i a 60 to 75 percent of enrollment. Where price• are low. the food good, meal aaJectiona •pp-ling, •nd the food ••rvice carefully integrated with the educational program, the percent.ge will be high. Banquet &eating raquirea planning because maaimum aeating potential meana maximum profit• Folding tabfee 30 in. wide are popular. The•e ere obt.ined in varying lengtha, but 72 •nd 96 in. •re commonly ueed. The epacing for the lege ahoufd be auch •• to allow for comfof'tabfa aeating when the tablea are joined end to and and place aattinga are laid on 24in. centara. Raataurant oparatora ahould conaider apace in relation to patronage Yolume eaaantiat for • profit.bfe buaineea. Labor, food, end operat• ing coata muat be met and a profit realized that covera riakbaering aHort eapendad and ratuf'n on invaatmant. Eaaential income ia weighed in the light of probable p•tronag• end probable average check. Tt.e number of •e•t• in planning muat cover thia need. Flexibility in •••ling c:op•cily i• often deeir• able. People do not like to be crowded nor do they enjoy the lonely e.aperience of being aaat.ci in a huge area occupied by only a few. Sparae patronage creetaa an impraaaion of poor populerity. Separ•t• rooma, folding doora. acreena, or other attractive device• can be uaed to reduce aize of an area during alack perioda. Section• felt open ahould be thoae eeaieat to aerve. Bafconiee, beck rooma. or othef' leaa deairabla apace can often be uaed tor overflow numbara that occaaionelly require •ervica. A common ••perienc • in many d i n ing room operation& ia the need for mora seeting at one m .. l than at othera. Thia may be due either to increaaed numbera or different turnover rates. A residence cafeteri a serving 600 men he a •n overflow room aeeting 100. which it u••• only el dinner. The night m .. t i a not only larger but the men dine in a more leiaurely faahion. The room ia available for aerving other groupe at breakfaat and lunch. Commerctat raateuranta loc.ted in ahopping or oHice araaa often have a heavier demand at noon ttwn at the dinnor hour. Rooms uaed for genef'el patronage at noon may ba cloaed at n ight or provide apace for privata dinner partie•. Entrance• to thaaa room a ahould not require paaaage through the main dining room. Convenience for special service ia import.nt. Production Areas A frequently uaed rule for efloning apece for tt.a kitchen ie that it ahould be one-third to onehaU the area o f the d intng room. I t hea been found unaetiafactory. however. to go by a aet space allowance for thia area. Detailed study of apace atlocationa laeda to the concluaion that parcentagea in relation to the dining area are "compla&ely unreatiatic and unreliable." An anatyai a of apecific need a ia required. Many factors influenc• apace requiramenta. auch aa: 1 . Type of preparation and aervice 2 . Amount of the total production done in the unit 3 . Volume in tarma of the number of maala aerved 4 . Variety of fooda offered in the menu 5. Elaborateneaa of preparation and aervice 6 . Amount of individual service given, •• in a hospital tray aarvica 7 . Seating and aervica plan, whether on one floor or many The coat of providing apace. equipment, and labor ia auHicient to met"it careful calculation of the be•t typa of operation before plenning. New products on the market, new cooking method•. end new equipment sveilable ehould be evaluated. The u•• of preproceeaed product& in many metropolitan ar .. a haa made a pronounced change in the amount of apace allotted for bake ahop, meat cutting, and veg• tabla preparation areea. Where portion--out me•ta are readily aveilabJe, it i a queationable whether even a large eatabliahmant can aHord to equip •nd provide akilled l•bor for • butcher ahop. The uae of large quantitiH of frozen fooda aHecta 11torage needa. The coat and quality of market producta, thei r availability, and the frequency of deliveries are all to be conaidarad. Variety in manu aelection and elaboration of fooda tend to increaae apaca needa i n work areaa and atoraga. Small amounta of numer oua itema do not permit &tacking and bulk packaging. Elaboretion of food often invol..,ee individual portion treatment, w ith individual caaaerolea. for example. •• compared to bulk ataam table pana. A hoapital food aarvic:e requiring many apecial dieta sarvea aa • com mon of manu variety and individual portion treatment impoaing apeciaJ apace raquiremanta. The equipment provided will affect the apace needa. Garbage and refuae, for example, may requir• a eizebla arM for atorage awaiting pickup. Disposal unite for food garbage. inein• erator for burnable refu•• and a cruaher for t i n eana will greatly reduce the amount to be held. Frequency of garbage collection will mint mize the apace needa. Structural featurea of the building may ;nfluenca the utilization of space. The ahape of the kitchen. location of 'Wentilation and e l ... vator ahaha. support columna and par-tition& ahould be conaidered i n relation to an efficient layout for work. The location of entrances ar1d

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azita for a good flow of traHic, window mant, auitabla apace, and ralarionahip of a41C"" tiona need c:onaideracion. Eliminate partition• whenever poaaible; thia will reduce apace needa and alao permit eaaier auperviaion of production areaa. Kitchena let'Ving a amaller number require a larger aquare footage per meal than thoae aerwing a larger number. The following data ua.d for induatrial cafetariaa ahow the rate at which apace needa per meal tend to decreaae a1 the number served increaaea (Table 2). Variation in Space Needs in Relation to Numbers Served Sauare feet Variation in Meal load per meal square feet 100-200 5 .00 500-1,000 200-400 4.00 800-1,600 400-800 3 .50 1.400-2.800 800-1.300 3 .00 2,400-3,900 1,300-2.000 2 .50 3,250-5,000 2.000-3.000 2 .00 4 , 000-6,000 3.000-5,000 1.85 5,500-9,250 Plannera are often aaked to make aatimatea of apace needa before h8ving an opportunity to make policiaa or detailed plana for opera tiona. Figurea that will be found uaeful in maklng auch eatimatea are given in Table 3. Theae figurea pertain to average kitchen areaa found in diHer.,.t typea of food facilitiee. Their uaa ia to be regarded •• tanrati"a and to be m•••urad c•refully itt term• of specific needs. The •qu.ere foot•g• gi-n ie to be multiplied by the maximum numbw of meala eatimated per hour of aef'vice, in ordet' to find the total apace After production poticiea have been eat.bliahed, work areea may be blocked out in term a of the equipment n..de end the number of workera raquirad to do the work in a aection. linear apace, depths, and h•ighta for work cantera ahould b4t contTolt.cf in tarma of aver• age human meaaurem..,ta. Thia will Include the r .. ch to and graap of material or equipment ueed in working. The length end width of the work tabla ia adjusted in terma of the amount and aiza of equipment that will raat on it during the prograaa of work. The Hn .. r meaauremant will vary in tarma of the number of workera U2-ing It at one time. The width of the table mey be 24 to 30 in. unleaa djahaa or food container& are to reat •t the beck of the table. Table• 35 in. wide ere preferable when the back of the area ia uaad for auch atorage. Where two workers work opposite -ch other. a tabla 42 in. wide may be uaed. A •ork ar .. of 4 to 6 lin ft will be within con'W'eniant r .. ch of the averaga peraon. Tablea I to 10ft long are ua.ci if two people are working aida by aide. A height of 34 in., commonly used aa a working height, ahould be evaluated in tarma of apecific work dona and equipment u•ed Aiale apace ahould permit free, e•a, mov ... ment of eaaential traHic. The minimum width for a lane between equipment where one person worka alone ia 36 and 42 in. where mora than one ia employed and where worker a muat paaa each other in the progreaa of work.. VI here mobile equipment ia used, 48 to 5.4 in. are recommended. At laaat 60 in. are needed for main traffic lanes Ylfhera workers regularly paaa each other with mobile equipment. If workara or equipment muat stand in the lane while working, appropriate apace ahould be ellowed for lhia. Thought ahouid be given to SP-C• for doors opening into an aiala and for handling large piecea of equipment, auch ea roaating p•na, baking ahaeta. and atock pota. Main thoroughfare• should not paaa through work canters. Compactneaa ia eaeantiat for atep•aaving. It ia well for the work centera to be in cloaa proaimity to main traffic lanes, with eaay acceaa to them. It ia important both to avoi d distraction from outaidera paaaing through work centara and to conserve apace. Work canters at right angles to tr.Hic lanea are eHicient (Fig. 1 ) . The percentage of floor area covered by equipment variaa according to p:-oduction needa and the type of equipment uaed. A satia factory layout may claim laaa than 30 percent of total apace for equipment while work areas, traffic lanea. and apace around equipment for eaay operation and cleaning may require 70 percent or mora. For hoapital production and -rvice areaa, 20 to 30 aq ft per bed ie auggeated. The need ia reduced aa the number of b.de increaaeaappro•imately 30 •q ft per bed for a 50-bed, and 20 aq ft per bed for • 200-bed hoapilal. Thia allowance doea not include major storage areas. dining rooma, employee facilitiaa. or floor aanting pantriaa. Serving Areas Space allowance of serving areaa ahould be adepted to the needa of the apecific facility. The manu, organiz.ation of work, and number aerwecf will influence size. The type of aervica will alao be influanti•t in dictating apace needed. In cafateriaa the counter length should be regulated by the variety and volume. Eaceaa 8p81Ce partially filled ia unanractive, but crowd ing i a alao undesirable. An estimate that may be uaad for allotting width ia ft. This ailowa for 4 ft a a P-tron lane apace, 1 ft tray elide, 2 ft counter width, 4 'h h for work era, and 2 j4 ft for back bar. The aize of the tray should dictate the width of the tray elida. The average length of countera in collage reaidence halla and hoapitala ia found to be 30 to 32ft, while tho•• Square Feet of Kitchen Space per Meal for Food Facilities of Different Type and Size Estimaled maximum meals per hour TYilt of facility 200 or Ius 200-400 400-800 800-1 , 300 1,300-7 , 500 C.fetariaa . •.••••.••• . 7 . 5-5.0 5 . 0-4 . 0 4 . 0-3 . 5 3 . 5-3 . 0 3.0-1.8 Hospi!Jb •••••••••.•• 18.0-4 . 5 12. 0-4 . 5 11. 0-4 . 5 10. 0-4.0 8 . 0-4 . 0 Hor.ls ••••••••..•••• 18. 0-4 . 0 7.5-3.0 a.o-3 . 0 4 . 0-3 . 0 4 . 0-3 . 0 Industrial lunchrooms ••••• 7 . 5-5 . 0 4 . 0-3 . 2 3.5-2 . 0 3 . 0-2.0 2.5-1.7 Lunch Cllunten ....••..• 7 . 5-2.0 2 . 0-1.5 Railroad dining cat ...... 1.8 Restauran!J (servicwl ..•. 7.0-4 . 0 5 . 0-3 . 8 5 . 0-3 . 8 5 . 0-3 . 0 5 . 0-3 . 0 Schcul4 lunchrooms ..•.... 4 . 0-3 . 3 3 . 3-2 . 2 3 . 0-2 . 0 2 .5-1. 8 2 . 0-1.8 Commercial RESTAURANTS AND EATING PlACES in achool lunchrooms average around 15 to 20 tt . Some commercial cafeteria counter1 may be 70 to 80 It long, but counler• over 50 ft long ara frequently considered inefficient. Twenty feat ia uaually thought of •• a minimum but, under special conc::iit iona and wh...-a a limited manu ia aer'W'ed , 6 to 8 h may be sufficient. The trend ia toward shorter countera w ith mobife aer'W'ing units or diah holder a aet •t right anglea to the counter. Smoother service and greater apeed are achieved. Counter height may be aet at comfortable levela for workera and patrons. Schools may have lower countera ao ttt.t children may see the food and puah their traya along a slide aa they are served. For linle folk, 2e 10 30 in. ia d••irable, with countera narrow ao that aervara may reech ower to aaaiat a child. A aolid tray slide tenda to result in fewer accidenta th.n thoaa made of bera or lubing. P laatic traya meaauring 9 by 12 i n .• compartmented. and of paatel colora are popular. Slides for these may be on the earvera' a ida of the counter for eaae of aervice and to eliminete apillage or accidenta. TM child pick. a up the completed service at the end of the line. Some plannera uae. aa a rough guide. one counter or line for avery 250 to 300 patron• served, but arrival rate, speed of service. and turnover are more reliable factora to conaidar i n eatabliahing the number of linea t"aquired. Hoapital service apace will depend upon whether central or floor service ia uaed, traya are aat up in aarving pantriea, and modified dieta are aet up in line or in a diet kitchen. Space muat be allowed for bulk food trucka, tray trucka, small tray carta, or apeeial dia penaing unite used. Short-or-der units where food movea directly from production to the consumer require the leaat earvica apace. The n.-d for an inter mediate station ia alimin•ted. SteP""saving compactness aawea apace. The unita requiring the moat apace are thoaa furniahing elaborate or highly individualized service. Receiving and Stnrage Arus Space •llocation for receiving •nd a tor age mu•t be baa.d on epecific neada. The volume and type of itema received end atored should be conaidered. AJthough the average operation mey find • dock 8 It deep end 1 Z It long auHicient for receiving items, thia would not be auHiciant for a large one. The apace raquir ... ment in a quare feet for food ate raga for 30 daya haa been calculated by aome aa approzimately one half the tot•f aerved or, if 1.000 are aerved, 500 sq ft may be uaed aa • tentative figure for tolal food atorage need•. Ceaea of 6j10' a 6 caaea high on flat trucka wilt have a b .. ring weight of eppro•imelely 250 to 300 lb per aq ft. Ski d a i••• •hould be 3 by 2'.' ft by 8 to 1 Z in. high. Where heavy item a, auch aa 1 0-gal c.na of milk, are atoreod, bearing waighta may be increeaed. One c••• of 6 {10' • , 24/2'.''a, or 24t/2a weigha approzimataly SO lb and occupiaa 1 cu ft. The volume of canned rood needed to aarva 100 paraona three meals daily for one month ia estimated at appro•imatety 46 c•••• of 6/10' a or equival•nt. The maaimum atack height will ba 8 or 9 c..aaa or appro•f... mataly 72 in. Acceaaibility oi itema that diHer. •• ...,ell aa volume, will govern the number of atacke needed. A total of 3 cu ft per atack ia eatimated to include floor apace cover!td by a c••• of cann.d food, plua a ahare of aiala apece. One thoua•nd c.aea eight high in 125 atacka will require 375 aq h: or a atorag• area approximately 20 by 20 h . Storeroom • ialca may be as narrow •• 38 in . • but 42

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•UIIIIIICII.IGI IESTAURANTS AND EATING PlACES .. Delivery yar d and reaivini a r u I SJiad and uni t I I I I I I I .L ________ _ Servin g aru Oinin1 rooms and cat erini L--------------------------1----------Flow diagra• ahowing lvnctional rwlationahipa . ln. ara preferred. Wider a ialaa may be required If truck• ••• uaad. A 3ft akid on a hydraulic jac k neada maneuvering room. If rolling bina or garbage c.na on dolliaa are uaed for a tor age, plan location for thaaa. If c.ena or bina are under ahalvaa, adjual height of boHom ahalf to c lear and allow for work apace for removing food from lh••• containera. F i•ed ahalving will be baal when planned to auil the a iaea of llama alorad. Conaldar both lnterapaca and depth auitabta. Condiment bottlaa, cereal pack• agaa, and canned d iHar In package a izaa and i n alacklng quality. The depth of a ahalf ahou.ld accommodate aithar tha w idth or length of the caaa, and the intarapaca ahould ba adequate for the number to ba atacked one on top of another. Allow t ',4 t o 2 in. •• free apace for •••• of poai tl o n ing. Add thicknaaa of ahalvinv to intarapaca when atating meaauramanta batwaan cantara. Poai t ion heavy itama to reduce l ifting and facilitate d iapanaing. O ruma of o i l and v ineoar ahould luove apigota and ba equipped w ith pumpa or on cradlea. Tabla aurface and a ca1ea ahould be loeeted for convenient iaauing of d r y atorea. Plan to h.lva •II p toduct a at lea at 6 in. above the floor or movable to facil it.te c leaning of ator a g e area. L i m i t h eight of tDp aheif for •••Y reach w ithout a i d of atool o r a tepladder. The average 'it'ert ical re.ach of men Ia 84',4 ln. and of woman at ln. Uaa of the lop ahalf for light, bulky packagea, auch aa cereal, i a recommended. Rtlriglrattd 1nd Low T1mperaturw Storage There are many factora affecting apace naeda for refrigerated and lowtamperature fooda. Acroaalh .. board f igure• generally ahould be uaed only in pr•liminary eatimataa. The quantity alored at one l ima will d ictate lha atoraga needa. Variation In tha typa of uoraga alao will ba Indicated by tha typaa of itama to ba atored. Allocation in preli m inary p lanning may be •• followa: 20 to 35 percent lor meat (ponlonready me•t • require % to % leaa apace then carcaaa or wholeaala cuta); 30 to 35 percent for fruita and vegetablaa; 20 to 25 percent for dai,.y producta, including thoaa l n aarving areaa; 10 to 25 percent for frozen fooda; and 5 t o 10 percent for carryovar food a, aalada, aandwich material, and bakery producta. A requirement of 15 to 20 cu ft of refrigeration per 100 complete m ... l a luoa alao been uead by aome p lennera. Other a a tale 1 10 1 ',4 cu ft of uaabla r efrigerator apace ahould be provided for a very three meal a aerved. Analy a i a of a number of awar d w inning inat.allationa indl• c a ted tluot a pproai m • tely 0 . 2 5 to 0 .50 cu ft o f refr igerated wal kin a p ac:e waa prO'it'ided per m•e l • •rved, and frozen w•lk i n apace approa'-' mated 0 . t 10 0 . 3 cu ft par meal aarvad. Addi t ional lowtamparature Of' refrigerated apaoe i n tarma of raact.-ina waa not calculated. In aoma cUmatea, rafrigeratad apace muat be prov ided for dried fruita, nuta, cer-Ia, and other looda to prevent weevil and ina-1 infaatation. A walk-In bacomaa faaalbla for an operation aarving 300 to 400 meala par day, and rafrig.,.. aled paatlhrougha can be added when from 400 lo 500 m .. la ara aarved par day. A -I k-In 5 to e ft w ida doaa not permit atorage on both a idaa w ith adequate a i a l a apace. Storage apac• of 1 \4 to 2 ft ahould ba a llowed on either a ide of the a iale. If cratea Of' c:aaaa are a tored, thi a may luowe to ba incraaaed. A ialaa of 3 0 ln. are uaually too narrow; 42 ln. ara daeirabla. If mobile equipment I a moved i n and out, a l a laa may have to ba wider. Walkina that ara I to 11 •tt w ide and about 10ft long are minimum ain. Thi a allowa for two a toraga ar-• 30 i n . w ide w ith a 3 l o 4 ft a iala. If added w idth i a daeired for storage apace i n tha canter, allowance for a torage a rea a of about 3 ft w i d a and 42 i n . m ini mum a i a lea ahould be provided. Large wal k ..fn a may ba deaignad for lift truck operation, w ith doora opening f rom the recei v ing doc k on ona aida and into lha kitchen oppoaita . If thia i a dona and lift truck& are uaad, apace muat b. provided i n atoraga a ialaa for theif' working and turning around. Ooora ahould be a m int. mum of 42 ln. wida to admit large crataa and cont.inara or ba a iaad to suit mobil e mant. Doora to lowtemparature areaa ar• moat often planned to open into a refrigerated arM. I f thia i a nol dona a heating device may hava to ba lnalalled on a door opening Into a warm a rea t o prevent ita freezing t ight from condanaation. About 12 to 15 eq ft mual be kapt fr11 for avery door openi n g . About 45 lb of frozen food, II atackad i n caaaa, can ba atored par cubi c foot . About 30 to 35 lb of refriganaled food can ba alored per cubic foot. Sanitat ion Areas D i ahwaahinv Am The apace required for the d iahwaahing operation dependa on the mathode and equipment uaad. In all inatancaa th.,. muat ba adequate room to receive the volume of aoiled d iahaa likel y to arrive al any ona l ime, p lua apace for acraping, atacklng, and p lacing I n baskets on a conveyor of a machine or Into a prerlnaing operation. The dlmanalona may be onl y 30 to 38 ln. for a .aingla tank machlna, 60 to 72 ln. for alnka, or 7 to ovar 30 ft for a conveyor-type machine. Tha requlramenta In the c leen diah arae will vary. Ilia Important that there be enough apace for d iahu to be ••po•ed to • l r for aufficiant t ime to air-dry before a .. ok• ing. For • baakat-typa machine, il Ia wall lo allow apace equal t o lluol required for thrM baskets, • et.ck of traya, and thr .. or four atacka of dlahaa. For baakat machlnea, It Ia uaually recommended tluol the clean d lah arM occupy 66 percanl of the total tabla apace and t h e aoiled d lah a rea, 40 percanL Methode uaad for tr•naponlng and atorlng d iahaa will Influence apec:a needa. Whena mobil e ator•g• equipment Ia -vw.cf, mor a apeoe ia needed for tha aevaral unlta than where one c.art i • uaed for tranaportlng and Ia rap ..... adly loaded and u n lo•ded. A tabla aurlaoe Ia deai rebl e for sorting, t reeting, or fnapecting ailver and other tableware. The inat.llatJon of a d omaati c waahar and drier in the d iahroora m o y require apace. l'ot a n d l'u Sactioa Provide a aolled utenal c o ll ection area adequate for the lergest wo lurne I h a t normelly arrhtaa I n t h e aection at o n a time. The buaieat perioda a r a li l.te l y to occ W't' •h4n preparation containers ara emp1iad for aervtce

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-+--, T .... 11 _,, .. _ .... ,., + t--1 m•-•._.., I T ....... g -T j "•-• r •• ; ! u r1 +--........ _. __ ,,,, ....... . t•t-CJ'4'"1 leU ••••• , .. ;t + .. _rt--. t ---", I I + I ....... nuSeat grouping• around redangular and circular table&. &onquette seating arTangemenh ancl limiting ilmentfona lnduding •pace for acceaa ancl aervJce. lawtOn. R•Jiat.Jronf Pfo,n;m; anrJ OeJi,n, The l.rdlotedurol Preu, ltd. , london, 1973. Module 1100•• 17'0"1 +-Module 1111 •• 11'-TI + I I I---+Module j , .... ll' l-1 aoo lllha 11'11 Commercial RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES Restaurant Seating , .... ,.._ ,.._,r.• ,,._ a . n gg I i -!.. _ _ j , _ ........ "'1 I -... _. 111"1: -... . .J f.---Mod .. le I I I I g:g-g:g ... _,,1, 0 -,._ , n -e: ..... 1 lUI•• li'S"J + s.,.,,,.-, •••• + I f--Service I + --IHI•• JICI"I -t . I !II • • ,,,,-, + BOOTH SEATING

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,...,._. .... , + T '"'-"'' - •tt +--t-1 I T " " •• ,.,_ ... _ , ' " ' " ' • -cu1f + ...__,.,.., . -T ... i I . . ._, ,,, ........ • •ua.--1 s.u ....... , . . ... ,. Seat grouping& around rectangular and circular tablea. -+-......... un-•r•, I 4.-M.,4.,1e .... _ u : n Commercial REST AU RANTS AND EATING PLACES Restaurant Seating 9 f@M ! . . _j d) ,. , . -Pdj r.w. } ..........._ ""-' ' ,., ; c".:, u ... u .rt '"lii=i I t'"' ,.., .. _ ,,..n , ... ... T ' -Modul o + 1 100•,., 1 -al lonquelte aeallng arrangemenh and limiting dlmenolono Including opace for acceu and aervlce. fred lawtOn , Restaurant Planning and D•tig n , The Architecturcl Pross , ltd., london, 1973. Module !100 '"'" 17'-0"1 +-Module 1111•• "'" + T f too.,.! +-..... 11'0"1' ---*Module j ,. .... 11'1"1 • • • . au •• I 1 + +----Serv•c•-t OO, . + --ll!l ... " ''"' -t-llUaa 1 4 ' 1 " 1 + BOOTH SEATING

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z 0 0 :::> 0: t A C/) m 0 0 w X lL 0: __ ....._ w I b 0: ::tr--+----r 0 _J _J A c Service or pub. eire'" Between un it s Length Width Abs. Min. 2 0 to 3 o 3-0 to 3-o 1 8 to 2-0 On. Min. 2 o to -46 3 6 to -4-0 3-10 to 2 0 to 2 3 (.-tl,._.j) T•l>k .,.., chGir units. Ap I I I I lw Comfortable 3 0 to S-0 3-9 t o -4-0 +-0 2 -4 to 2 6 Commercial REST AU RANTS AND EATING PLACES z 0 to :::> 0: t C/) m 0 0 w X lL 0: w I t o 0: 0 _J _J Comfortable A Service or pub. 3 o t o 4 6 to S 0 S 0 to 5-6 circ'n I To Well 2--0 2 0 to 2 6 2 0 to 3 0 C Bet...een unih 0 t o 1 0 1--0 Lenqth -3-IOto+-01 +--0 jl8 t o 2 0 2 0 to 2-3 2 -4 to 2 6 Width

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Commercial RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES Reataurant Seating _u I I I I I I J: I liJ 0 I _, _, z I tD lJJ I
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STANDARD (straight) TYPE Abs. Min. X No cooking equipment I b I With cookinq equipt. 2 0 y I penon 2 0 y 2 or more penons 2 b z 1 -10 E 9 Ap 3 b I 1-0 c:c: 1-10 X LEVEL FLOOR R•nqe of Dimens i ons I 2 b to 3b X II 3 0 to ). b Work H 7 to 10 s l 2 4 to 28 Oesireble Min. 2 2 b 2 3 2-9 2 0 Variations in Shape 1 2 Usual Minimum +b 2 b to 3-b 1-2 I 2-b to +b 2 0 c: 2 9 to S-o HEICHTS Renqe of O imenlio"s 1 2 to 13 2 4 to 2 7 1 b t o 2 b Commercial REST AU RANTS AND EATING PLACES I I( s X Work B OROPPE 0 FLOOR Food Bars I I I I I J R•ng• of Oime n s ionl 3 0 to ). b 2 4 to 21 0 1-b t o 2 I 1 2 to 1 J 2 4 to 28

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Commercial RESTAURANTS AND EATING PLACES Serving Unlta I I L I I I I L _____ J -n-:r-------,---....... .,. ' c:t ------', ....... \ AREA OCCUPIED Y\ '. BY CART WHEN ,.. IP""' STORED: 38'x21Y2'x35" . I 'c I L I I I I cl I I L ____ J AREA OCCUPIED BY TRAY STAND WHEN STORED: 5"x 20"x 3 4 SERVINC TABLE {&. sideboard) AI Service only Ap Public circ' n . Abs. I Min. _.2!:._ I 2 0 C Clurence to ed : 2 _ 0 j jecent units • Des. Min . 3-0 2-6 2-3 Lenqth I W idth I 30" • iO " • 42 " is o vcro9e. Comfortable _.;;.,;:.,;,.;:._ 3-6 --:-3--0--2 6 tables (hors d 'oeuvrcs, etc.) usually s 0 " a 2' O"; (woncsj, 3 ' 0 " round SERVINC CART AI Service only R Turn red ius . Abs. Min . 2-0 3-0 0 Door , openinq width 2 0 Approa. area when storeds liS'' x 21 .. x 35" TRAY STAND Abs. Des. Min . Min. AI Service only 2 6 3 0 Ap Public circ' n 2 0 2-6 c Cleerence to ed-2 0 2 3 jecent unih Des. Min. 2 6 3-6 2 6 Comfort eble 3 6 3-0 2 6 Lenqth (trey) l Width (trey) f Depends on type of restourent. Approa. area of stand, stored: S" x ZO" x 34" WATER COOLER Abs. Des. Comfort-Min. Min . able As Service only 2 6 3 0 3 6 Ap Public circ'n :Z0 2 6 3-0, c Cleorance to ed Cen top f ront jacent units erreng e on cr Length Depencis on cepocily ond if g len storege Width i ncluded.

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WALL BARTENDERS AISLE B cc STR.AICHT TYPE-with or without stools I cc I I y z . m < 0 m m Abs. Min . Publ i c aiale 3-b to Stool to wall f.O to 1-o Stool, cent. to cent. 1-9 to 2 Stool to &u 9 to f-0 B.ck bar 1 o to 1 a.rtender'c •isl e 2-0 to 2 S.r 2 to 2-b vCABINET OVER vSPACE FOR CASH REG. X BACK BAR a:: 0 BAR BAR HEICHTS Oea. M in. to S 0 t-2 to 1-o 2-0 f. o 1-8 to 2 2-b 2-5 to 2 o \ A I r-J Ill C/) ' STOOL N 0.. < Comfort able to b-0 to 1-o 2-2 to 2-o 1-1 to 1 2 0 to 2 3 3 -0 2 8 to 2 9 H RAIL OR STEP p = 7 tp 10 H = 7 to 10 Commercic REST AU RANTS AND EATING liquor Bar CURVED TYPES: Rad ius R should be at l .. st 2 ft.; other dimensi ons •• for straight types. lor lugth: Allow from I ft. 8 in. to I ft. 10 i n . per person for standup bars; 2 ft . for each stool. lor depth: No increase in deprh i s needed for more then I b .srte nd er. as e.sc h men should be provided wiih his own "set-up" s;>.sce in t he work counter er.d bad-b.sr. Service bars: These are usually from b to 8 ft. long. for 1-man serv ice: from 10 to 12 ft. long if 2 bor lenders .sre needed for peek service periods. No footr.sil. counter overh.snq . or stools are required. Loc.stion is often .sdj.scen t to k i tchen .snd concealed from p.st r ons ; however. adverti s i ng values somet i mes c.suse it to be set i n public v i ew . In the lllller c.ss e . a rope rail or s i milar device, t o discour.sqe patrons from stending at the bor, i s often advisable . dimensions in feet and inches Usual u.u.l Mi11. Mu. I 3-b 3-9 II J . o ----3 9 Cab J . o to 3-10 S 0 to S 7 s to 2-o 2-7 Work 2 4 2.0 X f.O t o 1-2 1 2 to ll

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Commercial REST AU RANTS AND EATING PLACES Nondinlng Spaces C.ASHIII'S DISK and COUHTII Uau•l s Caahi•r'• to Aiale Ap 'ubllc 34 to s-o Aide ...... 4-4 Wldtt. to 2-4 Nonclinlnt apoc.L and immediately following aarvica when • .,.. vice equipment ia brought from the serving ar-a. A d iapoaal or a removable atra;nar above a drain ia desirable for waata removal. When ellowing cpoco lor tho pot end pen aection, 40 aq ft i a g•narally regarded •• a mini mum for the amallaat unit. Tha tr .. work a iala between tha ainka and other equipment ahould be 4 ft wide. Tho epeco ollowonco obovo tho minimum will vary widely depending upon the typo equipment u .. d ond tho volume of pote end pane hondlod. Leu epaco in relation to the maaimum load may ba required whara a m ... chanical waahar ia uaad and fawar labor houra w i ll ba spent in handling a large volume par unit hondlad. Miseellaneoua Senitation Arau For woohing mobile equipment, apace ia needed where aplaahing can ba confined and ttult haa aatiafactory drainage. Thia area ma,. be adjacent to the diahwaahing aaction or to the place where can waahing ia done. The aize and type of equip mont to be handled will go11orn lho epaco neada. A atorage area for emergency cleanup equip ment ia needed in convenient relationahip to dining rooma and work aaetiona. Spillage and breakage create unaightlineaa and are accident hazarda. Immediate care uaually doaa not r• quire heavy or large equipment but may be handled by a a mall broom. duatpan, a mall mop, and bucket not uaad for major cleaning. A mobile unit may be designed to carry thale thi.noa, or a amall cfoaat may b• provided. Major cleaning equipment required will d ... pend on the f loora. finiahea. and furniture to ba Oerermina whether a power aweaper, acrubbar, and wa•er are to be used. Space may be r equired for atoraga of janitor aupply cart a and for m iacellaneoua replacement itema, auch •• l ight bulba. P rowiaion w i ll ba needed •• _ .. 0 LIJ -••o _J (!)It< Z"a:: (/) z••a:: .:z:ll <'' xJl < :x::_ll CHICK lOOM w AI w • < Ail a. o ... eo-Milt. ,.,.. eble ', t ., ... I A.p ........ I r: ........ At 24 2-9 w en GATE FLAPJ : DOOR ETC. I 1-6 1-9 c s-o G 14 1-9 w 1-10 -----------climonaionl i11 foot a11d inchea for storing, emptying, cleaning. and filling mop trucks and for cleaning and air--drying wet mopa. Employee Facilities Facilitiea for employ••• may include locker and lounge area, toilata, ahowara, time-record ing equipment, hand baaina near work araaa, and dining rooma. An employee entrance ehould bo eo locatad that tho omployoeo moy go directly to tho droeoing roomo without paaaing through the dining room or productiGn ., ... locker end lounge Area Employoo poueeeion e should be protected in a auitably safe and aant tary condition while the employ••• are at work. Whether indi v idual lockera or common cupboard, auHiciant apace ahould be allowed for paraonal clothing to hang w ithout crowdtng or wrinkling. If cupboarda are uaad for clothing, a aaparata apace ahould ba afforded for street clothing and for uniforma, and individual parcel lockora ehould bo provided for etorogo of puraaa and other valuables. The height of the epoco lor clothing ohould permit tho longoet garment to hang straight w ithout wrinkling. The doplh from front to back ehould bo a min;. mum of 20 ln. Suitable size for an employee lounge d• panda largely on acheduling of workers and the policies of individual establishments. Many operators d iscourage lounging i n the dreaaing f'OOm and recommend the employees dining area for thi a . Othera hawing broken ahifta on th•i r schedules fawor an extra room for foung ing. In all c.aaea benchaa or chaira are to be provided upon which workera may ait while changing clothes and ahoea. A cot or daybed, 36 in. by 6 ft, ahoul d be provided in the women" a room. Toilets and Showtl'l Tho location of toilot faclli t iaa near work areaa ia preferred over a remote location In promoting good ho•lth hobita, loa• aening loaa o f labor time, and permitting cloaer employee aupen,.a•on. Separate facilltiea ahould bo provided lor men end women. Tl],ey •hould bo eoporoted from food orooa by • hell woy or double onlr•nco. Supply ono waoh bowl for every 8 to 10 worker&, one toitat atool for every 12 to 15 women, and one urinal and one toilet etool lor ovory 15 men. Tollot comportmonte meoeuro opproaimotoly 3 by to 5 ft. Tho typo of employooo, tho clim•to, kirtd of work, and condi t ione of work w i ll Influence tho neod lor ehowor locllitloe. Showoro will be appreciated and uaad by employ••• workine i n hot, humi d k itchens. Experience haa etrotod that thoy ara llttlo ueod In localltloa where the weather ia cool moat of the year, the work araaa wall yantileted, and workara drawn from an income group who have good facilitiea at homa. Equipment Provide epoco for • corder near and within view of the office. Walt-. hung card racka of auHi c iant are Tacommandad for the number of workara, both full and part t ime, who are l ikely to be employed during an accounting period. Eatimated apace for a clock recorder ia appro:.:imatalr 18 in. wido by 12'h in. deep end t II in. h igh, and a rack of 50 card a approximately 1 ',4 by by 34'h in. General Consideration• Tho e i u of employ•• fAcilities Ma bean found t o very w idely. Small operationa may nnt aupply lockara end mey have only a toilet and lavatory for workara. Soma do not provide aeparata d ining a r-a. Expediency i n allowing ample apace may be tempered by coat of space, awailabla room, and the acutenesa of need. T otal apace u aed

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1'1'\ef M inc rae eed where main toilet and lock ... arM a are remotely located and additional faciJ.. itiea ara prowide
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APPENDIX I PARKING GARAGE SPATIAL CONSIDERATIONS I • J I

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TITr '( "" i \.. ... .::=----. W102 W120 W103++--1U:._.' 1_r_1 ____ .. _-_c;...J ' -..................... H102 ' ' ' .. EXTERIOR WIDTH DIMENSIONS H133 H135 EXTERIOR HEIGHT DIMENSIONS t---L123 H104 L103 EXTERIOR LENGTH DIMENSIONS _ P'arlcing dimenolono for 1978 pauenger carL s .. pagu 811--321. MotOf Vehicle Monufactureu Ann. of the U . S . Oetroi t, Michigan, 1978 . , I I I I I I I I I I Commercial PARKING Automobile Dimensiona ------,..,.,. ............. ', ,."' .,"" ....... ' / , ', ' / ' ' \ \\ \ \ ' ' ' \ I I I t--CURB TO CURB OUTSIDE FRONT ----<,.1 1'+--------WALL TO WALL OUTSIOE FRONT -----o"'i TURNING DIAMETER DIMENSIONS INCLUDED RAMP ANGLE GROUND CLEARANCE DIMENSIOHS

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PARKING Car C1auificatian By CHARLES M. BOLDON and RICHARD F. ROTI 1971 DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PASSENGER CARS-BY CLASSES The popular domeatic and imported paaaenger cara are li•ted below in aaven claaaea. The rat ing categories are eatabliahed on the baaia of aquera fHt of floor ar-covered by a vehicle. ca ••• 60, for ••ample, containa vehicle• where the raaultant of length X width dimanaiona fall into the 60. 0 to 69.9 aq h area range. Claaa 70 covara the 70. 0 to 79. 9 aq h area ranga. It c.n be noted that the new domestic: aub-compacta, Pinto, Vega, and GramJin, fall into the upper araaa of Claaa 70, differing con aidarably from Colt in the middle of Claaa 60. Apan from Volvo and Marcadaa 280 SLrapreaanting approaimataly 1 . 2 percent of the ;nduatry and .... 70 parcant of all foreign makaaimporta are not conaidared a aubatantial factor ;n Clan 80. listings in Class 110 for Ford Custom/ Galeaia/l TO. Plymouth Fury/GT and Chevrolet a;sceynallmpala ••• basad on standard sedan dimensions. The high proport;on of stat;on wagons sold of these models has ra;sad these vehicles into Class 120. Vehicle Width The trand of overall width from 1927 to data haa been about 10 or 12 in. The incraaaa waa to provide for generoua thrae-paaaenger room in the front aeat of the wider cara and to •P'"' proach comfortable three-paaaenger capacity in the ama11er. Any increaae in the width of larger cera would be to provide for four people. Thia would amount to another 18-20 in. Manufacturara do not •nticipata • one unit incraaaa to a four•paaaangar front aeat. The current growing demand in peaaenger cara ia for two-paaaenger unit aeata, a feature previoualy confined to vahiclaa of apecial intareat. Width of motor vehicl .. uaing federal highwaya ia limited to 96 in. maaimum in moat atataa. The ••caption•. Connecticut, Maine and Rhoda leland, allow 102 ln. maximum dimanaiona. Moat of tha width gain• took place ;n the 1930-19"'2 pariod. Tha amallaat cara widanad out "' "' in. (from 65.8 to 70. 2 ;n. ) . The big thra•paeeangar cara incraaaad 6 . 4 in. (from 155. 5 to 71. 9 in.l. The overall average of all makaa increaaad 6 . 5 in. (from 68.5 to 75. 0 in. ) . Tha graateat gain waa an incraaae of 1.1 in. by tha largaat lu•ury cera A concealed fact in tha figurea ia that running boarda di .. ppaarad during thia padod. In 1930 running boarda 6 to 8 in. wide on each aida ware eliminated in the bellying out proceaa to obtain threap••••ngar unita. 'The gap between today"a widaat car and narrowaat c:er ia once again incraaaing. The domaatic ""mini.oeompacta'' lad by tha Colt et 151 A in .• Vega ol 65 .... in. , Pinlo al 69. 4 ;,, , and Gremlin et 70. 6 in. contraata aherpfy with the Tt-10 in. traditional " 'big three .. and luxury cera. From A Por4ing Stond•rds Report Vol. r, by Stand•rda Desig n Associates, a joint ventura of Conrad Aasoc•ates 6 Richard F . Rot• & A••oc•atea. 1971. Oossiflcation Sytte• Class SO-Subcompacts: 1 . Toyota Cotolla/Splintet 2 . Datsun B110 Sedan 3 . Toyot1 Coroll1 Wagon 4 . Datsun SPl311 Roadster 5 . Volkswagen Bee11e 6 . Dodge Colt 7 . Toyota Corona 8 . Toyo11 landcruiser 9 . Datsun Pl51 0 Sedan 10. Peugeot 304 Class 70Subcompacts: 11. Datsun WPl51 0 Sedan 12. VolkSWJgen Super Beetle 13. Porscha111 models 14. D1tsun 240Z 15. Volksw•venKennan Ghi1 16. Volkswagen Type 3/Square back 17. Toyota Corona Mark JJ 18. Mercury Capri 19. CheYTolet Vega 20. Audi Super 90/Sta . Wgn. 21. Ford P into 22. American Gremlin Class 80 -Compact: 23. Volvo 1800 E 24. Volkswagen 411 Sedan 25. Peugeot 504 26. Mercedes 280Sl 27. Volkswagen Sta. Wagon 28. Toyota Crown 29. Toyota Crown Wagon 30. Audi 1 OOlS 31. Volvo 14211441145 Won. 32. Toyota landcruiset Won. 33. CheYTolet Corvena 34. American Hornet 35. Ford Maverick 38. Volvo 184 37. Mercury Comet GT 38. Mercedes 220/250 Class 90-Compact: 39. Mercury Coma! Sedan 40. Plymou1h Valiant/Ouster 41. Dodge Oart/Custom/Swing11 42. CheYTolet Nova 43. Mercedes 280S/280SE 44. Dodge Demon 45. Mercedes, 280SE, Coupe 3 . 5 48. Plymouth Barracuda 47. CheYTolet Cemaro 48. Mercedes 2 80SEl 49. Ford Mustang 50. Pontiac Firebird Class 100 -lnlermediate : 51. American Javelin 52. Rolls RoyceS ilver Shadow 53. Dodge Challenger 54. Rolls RovceFormal Sedan 55. Mercury Cougar 56. CheYTolel Chevelle/Malibu 57. Pon1iac leMans 58. Dodge Charger RT 59. Pontiac GTO 60. CheYTolet Monte Carlo 61. Oldsmobil e Cutlass " S " 62. Buick G . S . 63. Ford Torino 64. Oldsmobile F-85 Class 11 0-Standard 65. American M1tador S6. Oldsmobile Cutlass Sedan/Coupe 67. Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme 68. Buick Skylark 69. Plymouth Satellite/Road Runner 70. Mercury Monteoo 71. Dodge Coronet/Custom/ Brougham 72. Dodge Charger 500/Coupe/ SE 73. American Ambassador 74. Ford Thunderbird 75. Pontiac Grand Prix 78. CheYTolet Chevelle Wgn. 77. Plymouth Fury/GT 78. Ford Custom/Galuiell TO 79. l incoln Mark Ill 80. Chevrolet B iscayne/Impala Class 120 -luxury: 8 1. Buick Riviert 82. Dodge Polara 83. Pontiac Calalina 84. Oldsmobile Delta 88 85. Buick leSabra 86. Oldsmobile Toronado 87. CadiHac El Dorado 88. Chrysler Newport/New Yorker 89. CheYTolet lmoela Sta. Won. 90. Mercury Monlerey/Custom 91. Mercury Marqui s /Brougham 92. Pontiac Bonneville 93. Oldsmobile N inetv-Eioht 94. lincoln Continental 95. Cadillac Coupe De Ville 96. Cadillac Sedan De Villa 97. Buick Electra 98. Chrysler Imperial 99. Cadillac Fleetwood 60

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lamp braalrover angle. Ia) 0ftro0 lon;tll Durin; tho period of 1930-1942 major chang•• were made in car length which hed a aavara eHact on garage daaign and inwaatmant coat par c:.r apace. The amalleat care incraaaad over four feat in length (from 140. 1 in. to 193. 5 in.). Tho femily aoden, Ford, Chovrolot ond Plymouth .. Big Throo .. incr .. aed 3 ft (from 152. 9 in. to I 96.1 in.). Tho evor•vo of aU makea ahowad an overall increase of in. (from 169. 3 in. to 206. 8 in. ) . Tho lu•ury cere ro9iotorod • 21 in. goin (from 204. 9 in. to 225. 9 in.). Tho 12-yoer period from 1946 to 1958 brought out two trenda. Rambler aa the email• eat car pioneered the reveraal toward amallar cere in 1952. In 1954 tho lo-pric:o fomily aeden (Ford, Chevrolet end Plymouth) begen • 1year incr•••• in car aiza from 99 to 11 a aq ft. (b) (e) of approach. (II) Anvlo of clopariuro. From 1957 to 1960 the .. teil-fin .. uploaion Tr•nsition Slope • I ll.•mg Slope Maximum Ramp Slope 20: 8'-0" "in. a • ..,,. alopaL (Tranaillona ore ro'111lr.., only if .. ,.,. alopa .,. •• ..,, 10 percent.) Property L ine Slope: S' (a) Street """""------/ E•i t Drivew•y (b) Driveway ••Ita.. 16 I " -No Solid lhll Permit ted I n This Tri•ngle Curb, ll.•ilingor lhll Line PARKING occurred leading to a buyera' revolt againat ltretched-out aheet metal. followed by an increaae in importa and introduction of domea• tic compacta. Immediately following intro duction of United St•t•a compacta the c.r manufacturer• began an inching up proceaa until tho 85 eq ft c:ompoc:t woe 90 eq ft •• ovidonc:ed in tho 1963-1970 C8r" indication. During the aama period the "'1owprice three" began an active 7•yaar growth period projecting ell throe into tho lergor eizo ceto;ory Cl••• 120. Ramp Breako'ltll' Angle The ramp braakovet" angle ia the meaaura of ability of the car to bra•k ovw a ataap ramp • either climbing or descending. without scraping h•• Fig. 2) . Tho Society gf Automotive En;ineara calla for a minimum of 10 .. a aa a deaign atandard. A numb.,. of rnodela Mve not mat thia atandard in recent ., .. ,... The avaraga for atl groupe h.a remained relatively c:onetent during tho period I 958-1911 doepite appreciable vehicle height raductiona. The ramp tweakovw angle influence aan be altered thl-u uae of deaign technic;uae .. Tranaitional blanda top and bottom of rampa CIOffP poaed of two or mora break point a CJtn muttipiJ the ramp ataepneaa, with workable br•ak anglea. beyond the normal capacitiaa of cal' Of' driver. In eaiating atructuraa theaa problema are overcome by building a pad of aaphelt w concrete aach aida of the break point. In thia m•nnar cara hawing • low braako • .,. anvl• can potential critical pointa without acraping. Long whaelbaae ears combined with low canter clearance are moat auacaptibla to ift.. adequ.ta breakovar anglaa. Buick Riviera, Pontiac Tampaat. Oldamobila Toronado. anU L incoln had lower ramp braakovar anglaa in 1970 than Society of Automotive Engineera daaign atandarda r.commendation. Angle of Departure A reaaonabla minimum value ia necaa ... ry to reduce the incidence of tailpipe and rear bumper dragging. The atandard calla for a minimum of tO dogrooe, violetod only in tho 1957-19511 period. Only one t 970 car. Mercury, mat tha minimum standard. Moat cara are aubatantiau, above 10 degr .. a . Tha moat cri t ical condition ia at drivawaya where the apron ia ataep, or a combination of ••caaaiva crown to gunar and apron alopa. Angl e of Approach The trend. of opprooch ongle of domestic cars from 1948 to 1962 indicates o drop in the 19.57-19.59 period below 1.5 degrees. The stan dard developed in 1960 by the Society of Automot ive Engineers calls for a minimum volue of \i degrees. The standard hos been maintained up tg 1970 when reduced by Chrysler ond Dodge to U . O ond U . 6 degrees respectively . (See Fig . 3.) lomp Slopoa The maximum romp slope should bl! 20 percent. For slopes over 10 percent, o transi t ion ot least 8 ft long should be provided of eot:h end of tho romp at one half the slope of the ramp ihelf. (See Fig . .oi. ) Driveway EKih A ramped dri vl!woy exit rising up to o public sidewalk must have a transition se
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PARKING GARAGES almost level (maximum slope : 5 percent) befOte intersecting the sidewalk to ptevent the hood of the car from obscuring the driver's view of pedes trians on the walk. This transition should be 16 ft long. (See Fig. 5o.) Property line walls should also be regulated so as nat to interfere with the driYer's view of pedes.n-s on a public sidewalk.. Where.,., an exit drh•eway is pcuaDel and adjacent to a property line wall which extends al the way to a sidewalk, the edge of the driveway should be physically established, by curb Ot railing, at least 6 ft from that wall . fOt each foot that the wall is held bock from the sidewalk, the required dis lance between driveway and waD moy be ,... duced by ane foal. (See rog. 5b.) RAMI' SYSTEMS* A number of different interfloor ramp systems can be used Ia enable vehicles to traverse the opptoximate 10-ft (3m) elevation between park ing levels. Some of these systems provide sepa rate and exclusive ramps, while others make use of continuous sloping Roan that accommadcte both parked vehicles and interfloor travel. Romps may be straight, curved, Ot a combine lion. No single ramp system is best for all applica lions. The choice should be based on site shape and dimensions and parking demand chorocteris tics . Romps may be designed fOt one-way or two way traffic movement. However, one-lone-wide romps should not be operated on a two-way basis. In some instances, site topography will allow direct access to several parking levels from the street system. This is o desirable arrangement, since it leaves mOte space fOt parking and ptovides more flexibility for traffic distribution be tween the street system and parking facility. Time and convenience ore important to romp travel and >hould be considered in any compari son of romp typeL Actual travel time an romps varies little among different romp system types; however, some ramp systems hove more potential for delay caused by conRicting traffic movements that lim!t ramp capacity. Other factors influencing ramp design include accident haz.ords, constrvc lion cost, and ability to accommodate vehicles and driven conveniently. Analyslo ef A romp system includes any portion of storage floors used by vehicles moving between levels. Nearly every successful ramp system requires ve hicles to follow on approximately circular path when traveling between parking levels. The number of 360-Gegree rotations required Ia circulate through the goroge and parking structure height are mojOf' concerns, particularly in self-park designs. It is generally desirable to limit the maximum number of complete rotations to five or six. De pending on romp system type, this wiD control the moximum desirable number of parking levels and limit the number of parking spaces a driver must pass during goroge travel. Drivers are sometimes distracted or disturbed by the oworenen of height when traveling on upper parking levels-<1 condition that con be accentuated if parking luels extend higher than odjocenl builclings. To reduce driver distraction, • l'""ing Plonnl,.g """ Eno F.,.,... dot;... lar Inc., Conn . • 1978. parapet walls along driving romps should be de signed to limit the driver's view of >urroundings outside the parking structure . a-rway tttH1 Acljecenl Ramp TyP" Romp sys terns may be divided into two types. based on the amount of interference between romp traffic and parking-iinparking operations. Romp systems designed on the "cleorway" principle provide in terfloor travel paths completely separated from potentially confticting parking-unparking move ments. Romp systems in which part Of' oU of the romp travel is performed on access aisles may be called the "adjacent parking" type. The number of parking stalls adjacent to the ramp may vary from a small number Ia the total capacity of the facility . (See Fig. 1.) Oeorwoy ramp systems provide the safest movement with least delay ond, except for sloping Roar designs, ore preferred for sell park designs. However, the cleorwoy ramp system is seldom feasible for small garage sites. An adjacent-parking layout requires less area per parking stall because of the twofold use of travel paths, and consequently con be used Ia advantage on smaller land parcels. However, od jocenl porking ramp designs ore more susceptible to traffic movement delays and potential occident-causing situations. The actual travel speeds far free-moving vehi cles on the two types of ramps do nol vary greatly. Delays on the adjacent-parking type romp system caused by parking-unparking rnoneuven ore difficult to but must be recognized as a sizeable quantity. Delays will be ;realer on parking levels nearest the street level, Iince these levels always hove larger numben of vehicles in the circulation system. eo.. .. ntrlc Venva Tenclem Ramp Deai;n Romp systems also con be classified os concentric Of' tandem, depending on whether the travel paths of vehicles moving up and dawn between parking levels revolve about the same or separate centers . Helically-curved (spiral) romps ore usually buill concentrically to save space and to provide Rotter grades. Straight romp systems are designed in either concentric or tandem configurations. Vehicles traveling on a romp system may move either clockwise or ceunterclockwise . Counter clockwise rotation is generally preferred in the United Stoles and other countries where drivers customarily sit on the left side in vehicles since it places drivers on the inside of turns, enooling better vehicle handling. 'arallel Venua Oppooecl Doolen fOt vehi cles to rotate in the some direction on a romp system, up and down ramps must slope in oppo site directions, requiring romp surfaces lo be op-posed. If up and down ramps slope in the some direction, romp surfaces are parallel and vehicles must rotate in opposite directions. While no significant difference has been ob served in operational it is obvious that op posed ramp types ore safer, Iince oil vehicles must travel in the same direction. Parallel romp systems are considerably cheaper to construct, however. G.ometric Ramp TYPft For safety, convenience, and traffic operating ef ficiency, the path followed by lhe romp through traffic on any floor of o parking garage s••ould be short, with minimum turns and traffic crossings. Romp arrangements within a goroge should be consistent, in order to be as simple and compre hensible as possible. Ramp design and arrangement ore influenced by (1) orientation of romp traffic Row to main Roar street entrance and exit points and to other romp systems that might exist in larger garages, (2) conformance of romps with occess aisles throughout each Roar area, and (3) site dimensions . Strolght..-amp Syotema Ramps within a straight romp system usually should be "sleeked" one over another for construction economy and traffic circulation uniformity. The stocking of romps creates a "romp-weU." From o plan view, the sum of the system's romp-well areas and the Roar area containing aisles used by ramp portal-to portal traffic is the ramp system ' s area, or enve lope . This extends vertically through the parking structure (with the possible exception of roof and/ Of' basement levels). FOt straight-ramp garages, the romp system is usually rectangularly shaped (ignoring curnd romp ends), with the romp well(s) along the strvc lure's longer-side dimension. This is because more horizontal distance is required to sctisfy romp grade criteria than to accommodcte vehicular movement between romp ends. Figure 2 illustrates a basic straight-ramp system having a romp-well on one side only . In this sys tern, vehicles follow on elliptical path, most of which is on Rot surfaces. Figure 3 is a parallel straight-romp system, with on two s ides of the strvctvre. Turning movements for the up and down romps are performed in different areas, while the Roar travel is performed in a two-way movement along the some aisle . De pending on strvcture width, the Roar travel could be directionally separated. The systems repre sented in Figs. 2 and 3 ore both very adaptable to entrance ond exit points on the same street. Figure 4 is on adjacent-parking type opposed stroighlromp system. Travel paths for through "P and down movements fall in the some aisle, raricing gara;e ••ample1 that Incorporate ocfjocentparking romp •ystems for tratfit entering and dearway ramp •yateml for traflfit exiting the fodlitieL

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eliminating traffic crossing points. Figure S illus trote> o cfeorway type opposed >lroight romp sys tem. End• of opposed rompa on the main floor are pointed in opposite directiona, making this type >uited to atn.lctures with entrance and exit points on aeporate streets. Thi a de>ign con be adopted to entrance and exit points on the same street, !x.t requirea a 180-degree tum on the main f\oor--fteceuitoting additional >pace. Straight-ramp systems ore advantageous in rel atively narrow buildings. They require leu floor p0,.nel stralvht-nunp system with rampwell• en twe aiNclu,. aldeL syote• with one Nmp-weiL Ad(ocenl-porlllnv typo oppoood otralvht,...,p ayate""" Ooorway-typo oppoao ond ore >imple to con>tn.lct, parti cularly in existing stNctures being converted to porkinggorogea. However, sharp tums, necessary to gel on and off >troight ramps, ore diaodvonlogu. Split-level .. Stavv•red-Fl-Syote"'L The >toggered-Aoor parking garage, invented by Fer nand E . d'Humy, is now generally referred to os a split level garage. It is constructed in two sect i ons, with RoOt levels in one section staggered vertically by one-half story from those i n adjacent sections. Shari straight ramps, sloped in oltemate d i rections and separated by the distance required to easily make o 180-degree tum between ramps, connect the holf storieL Any combination of straight romps con be ap plied to the split level floor systemL Traffic rota tion d i rection may be the some, in which coso the a i sles ore one-woy, thereby reducing conflicts. Tuming pat hs moy overlap, requiring less space fOt the romp system. Rotat i on con be provided also in oppooite directions, wh i ch simpl i fies romp constn.lction by having up and down ramps on the some plane. The div i s i on between split-level stn.lcture halves Tw ... way stovvered-floor "'"'P syate..._ Tandem ataggered-ftoor ramp ayate ... . Thl1 otagger.4-ftOO< ayatom P"'"ldol pan.. lnv on level floors end de•lrabl e an.-way INI!Ic flow. Commercia PARKING may be perpendicular to the street ot parallel. I n the Iotter coso, e i ther the f ront or bock half may be elevated. Split-level floors con overlap os much os 5 to 6 ft (1.5 to 1.8 m) t o increase space efficiency and make narrow sites workable. Figures 6 through 9 iOustrote various types of spr.t-level configurations. Figure 8 is the most cotn mon type. Split-level designs ore particu l arly applicable to small, high-<:osl s i tes where max i mum use of space must be achieved. ConsiNc:l i on i s relatively s i mple , ond the design fits well on rectangular s i teL This >ystem is effidenl i n terms of floor space per vehi cle parkin; stall but, lilte on ramp sys tems employing adjacent parking. frequent confl i cts moy arise between c i rculating troffic ond parking-unparking vehicleL One variation i n the •plit level 1ys tem uses three leporole sections , with the two end leclions ot equal elevation• ond staggered on e-hal f slaty with respect to th e center section (leo Fig . 9). F if ty percent fewer tums or e requ ired, thereby reducing travel time. However, vehiclel parked on the end •ections must be driven on ex ITo hal f floor when enter ing or leaving . "Wrong woy " r amp travel i s a lso o greater pouibili ty w i th this type of design. Slop lnv-floor Systems The slop ingfloor parking garage, in its simp l e s t lonn, contai ns two adjacent parking modules til ted i n opposite di r ections , with cross-ai sles at each end so tha t vehicles 1Tovelin9 the length of bot h a i>les make a 360-degree tum t o move up or down one complete parking level ( Fig . 1 0). Thus , there is no area se t aside for ramps in the ordinary sense . The cross-a i sles may be s loped 0t level. Parking industry experience indicates that the sloping floor design is well-su ited to se l l pork op erotiona. The re l atively flat floor slope (cuatom arily ranging between J and S percent) permits com fortable parking and pedestrian walking . Be cause parking i s cdjocenl to tile i nterfloor c i rcula t ion system, each entering customer has on OppOt Thre.-level stovgered-ftoor Nmp tyste.._; aa.r . a lop l ng -ftoo< concopl .

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PARKING GARAGES tvnity to pori< in the first available space. Hawner, the operational problems in adjacent porlting con cause congestion during peak out bound movements if cleorwoy type express romps are not used. Floor-to-floor travel distance is greater in slop ing -flO garages than in ather types of ramp garages. Howeer, this is offset somewhat by the opportunity lor greater trael speeds due to flat slopes and longer tangents. Far large structures it is desirable to han only port of the floor area sloped, with level floor sections at ends to form cross a i sles . Romp con nections at midpoints of opposite sloping floors permit one-way traffic circulation (fig. 11 ) . It is possible to achieve one-way traffic circulation in sloping-flO loyouh, with porlting along aisles on every lnel, by using two sloping-floor garage units placed In the level center section where the two units meet, traffic flow con change from up to down end vice versa. This permits fluibility for angled parking, limited only by available site width (Fig. 12) . Heroc-eny C:...Ved Ra"'p Syat ... oa The helix (spiral) ramp con be o single surface that permits vehicles to lroel on c continuous helical path between porlting le,els. When two-way traffic is handled on a single helix, the outer lone is used far up movements, $lnce it has o larger radius of. curva tvre and lower grade. Up mo,ements are usually counterclockwise and down movements clockwise. Helical-ramp entrance end exit points can be located on the some side or opposite sides of the ramp coil . In either case, ramp access points are located directly above each ather on each succeeding floor. Helically curved romps should be of the deorwoy type. Examples ore illustrated in Figs. 13 and 14. The double helix system (Fig . 14) uses twa heli cal-path surfaces that ore sloped in apposite di rections . One surface can be used for up moe r:.cnls, the other for down mo,ements. The two sloping helical surfaces may be separated or they may be interwoven . Vehicle movements lor both up and down travel d i rections ore made in the some direction of rotation. In the United States and other countr ies using left-side drive vehicles, counterclockwise rotation is preferred. . Stoping.floor aytfem with croaaover rorwtt of ... icl-paint. Double alopingflloor ays.tem with midpoent crouover. Interwoven double helix systems ore popular in tell structures ( 10 to 12 porlting levels) because the number of 360-degree tums can be reduced by using two separated helical surfaces to serve alternate porlting levels. Traditionally, curving romps ere said to b. con tinuous where they provicle 360 degrees of rota tion between two parking leYels. The noncontinv ous helically curYed romps that provide rotation through 180 degrees ore commonly referred to as this definition is not quite correct , since the curved section is helical in shape. Helically curved romps ere most often located in comers of rectangular structures to minimize floor -space loss, or they ore located outside the structure when additional site area is available. Helically curved romps requir e more space than straight romps , but they con offer better traffic operation by prov i d i ng gradual turning as com pored to sharp turning movements usually re quired of ends of straight romps . In addition, • Helice! rempa ouch aa thi• one can be uaecl for eaprea1 eaitift11 . superelevation at ends of straight ramps may re quire undesirable warping of floor areas. Expreu Exit lempa Large parlting structures with frequent high-tumoer conditions may be served best with an express romp for one direction of tra•el-..... auolly for exiting traffic. Expreu exits con be curved or straight, and ore designed al ways on the cleorway principle , proiding oneway IToffic mo•ement (Fig . 1.5). They ore generally desirable to serve h i gh-turnover transient patTon age. They i mprove operating effic i ency by reducing trael time and conflicts--but may odd s i gnif'i contly to structure costs, since they increase the area prorated to each parking space in determi nations of spaceuse efficiency. Ramp Stanclarclt Romp design parameters governing the accepta bility of such ramp features as maximum gradient and minimum radi us of curvature hove eolved from garage operati ng experience. The follow i ng d i scussion presents standards generally used by the parking i ndustry . Ramp Graclea Romp grade ( s l ope) is computed by multiplying Aoortofloor he ight by 100 end d i Yiding by the romp length. The difference between ramp length measured along the slope or horizontally is neglig i ble . Grades on cvrving ramps ore measured along the outer ramp pave ment edge. Maximum prccticol ramp grades are principally limited by safety considerations end the psycho logical effect on driven, with hill-climbing and braking abilities of automobiles being a second ary factor. Steep romps slow traffic movement and can be parti cularly ho:zardous wh.n wet, re quiring drinrs to be excessively cautious. Helical rornp eystems con often be advanfageou• for atrvctvres a ituated on oddhopetll a iteL Examplea of .. raight ancf helical express •xi t rampa..

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_1.v .f ... v .... r/ / 15 li v I / / /_ 'z // 7 [7 / I// / ./ /.I / / v / // / / / yeet\t-I // 7/ / ...-//: // / / _. --1/// '/ / -:c 10 tiG ;; = .. g Ei: s .. 5 8 Ei: /) W/ / ---12 v ---_. 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Length of Ramp (Feet) . . Relationahip between tiOOf'otc>-lloor height, "'"'P grade, and length. lsouoa, Edm"nd R. Ricker, Trr:Ric Design o/ Porlt:ing Garages, The Eno Foundation lor H i ghway Traffic Control, 19.57, p . 11.5. 1 Transition Angle of Angle of 'I Approach 'I Slope = 'h Ramp Slope l2'Min.L lt 0 Transition V Slope = 'h Ramp Slope L ----l 12' Min.. Tranaition Lenitb "Ramp slopes (grades) leu than 10 percent can be blended satisfactorily with an S.foot tranaition lenitb. _ Method of blending rarnp and floor grade&. Vertical acale lo eaaggeroted Ia ahow detail. lsouoa , Adapt ed from Edmund R . R i cker , Traffic Design ol Par*ing Garuges, The Eno foundat i on for Highway Traffic Control , 19.57, p . 117 . ) Curv.d ramp aystem with tangent sectiona.. Minimum radlu• 32 reel 10 OU!er p.vemen! edg e ror l>ellc.al ramp or or her rurnlng p.rh. A 35!O 37 -roO( Is mo..! desirable. H•lical ramp d imenaion tfondard&.. lloOVOQ, Porting Pnnciplos. SP"'i o l Report 12.5 H i ghwoy Boord, 1971.) For self -park designs, maximum romp grades should nat exceed 15 percent; however, 20 per cent maaimum ramp grades for oltendonl-parking garages are acceptable. In parking structures where pedestrians ore expected to wal k an vehi cle romps, grades preferably should be no more than 10 percent. Figure 16 grophi caUy relates romp grade and length with floor-to floor heights. For instance, th i s graph shows that for a slope of 13 percent and a rise of 9 ft ar 2 . 7 m (flcor to Aoor hei ght), a romp length of 70 ft (21 . 3 m) long is required. S i milarl'y, a floor to-floor height of 11 ft (3.-4 m) and a ramp length of 90 ft (27 m) results in a slope (ramp grade) of 12 percent. The moai mum preferable grade for slop ingfloor self -pork garages is .4 percent, and in ettendoni-park garages, 10 percent. Ang l e perking in slcping-Aaor garages should be 60 degrees or greater, to m i nimiz.e gravity roll -bock of vehicles. Ramp Gnodo TranaiHo11 Ooaign Crit ical vehicle clearances, dri ver comfort, and safety considera t ions inAuence the design of ramp ends where they meet flatter floor s urfaces. Romp breokovef' angle, and the angles of approach (effecting front overhang of vehicles) and departure (affecting rear overhang) are critical veh i cle clearance paint-s. These angles o r e established for stationary ve hicles with normal equipment end load, i nclud i ng passengers and fuel. Commercial PARKING GARAGES Ramp breokover angl e is limited by wheelbase and vehicle ground clearance, and i s a measure of on automobile' s abil i ty to be d riven over the crell formed by twa converging surfaces without >ere ping its underside. Romp breokover angle var ies inversely to wheelbase. Angles of approach and departure are l imited by vehicle front end rear overhang and ground clearance. These veh i cle clearance angles deter m i ne an automobile' s ability to roll over the sag point (lower end of romp) formed by different grades without scraping or touching the pavement surface. The angle of departure is more crit ical because the rear overhang of vehicles i s generally Ianger thon the front overhang. Standards established by the Soc iety of Auto moti ve Engineers limit the romp anglo to no less than 10 degrees; angle of departure, no less than 10 degrees; and angle of approach, no less than 15 degrees. Vehicles designed to these minimum standards theoretically are able to traverse sag and crest sections at the bottom and lop of o 17.6 percent romp grode, and to move Ia flat floor grades without need for a grade trcnsitioning (blend i ng) area. However, centr ifugal force, causing veh i cle sus pension to compress when crossing a sag paint, even at low speed, con result in veh i cles scn>ping pavement surface'-Without grade tronsiticning at the romp crest, drive<' s ight-distance can be limited momentarily, and crossing obrvpt grade changes can be uncomfcrtcble for driven and passengers. Therefore, ramp grades should be blended gradually or trcnsitioned to flatter floor surfaces. A practical method of blending romp grades to relatively flat floor levels involves us ing a mini mum 12ft -long (3.7-m) trans i tion slope equal lo one-half of the romp grade. Figure 17 illustrate s this ramp grade transiticning method. Ramp grades of less than 10 percent con be blended satisfactorily w i th a tronsit i on ing slope shorter than 12 ft (3 . 7 m). Ramp Width ond aadil For one-way straight romps, minimum acceptable width i s 1 2 ft (3.66 m); and for two-way straight ramps, w here oppos ing traffic flows ore net separated, 22 It (6 . 71 m ) i s the recommended minimum w idt h . Where a barrier is used between lanes to separat e traffic flows, each lone shou l d be at least 12 ft (3.66 m ) wide fer tangent lengths. Grculcr romp lanes generally should be 14-18 ft (-4.3-5. 5 m) wide. The repeated tuming movements of veh i cles traveling between parki ng levels is a primary de sign consideration. The spira l ing path radi us must be kept minimal to conserve space and reduce travel distance. Howuer, very sharp and unre lieved fuming will produce a diz.z.ying effect on drivers. To minim ize this effect, ramp systems can be lai d out w i th sharp curves separated by short tangents or less sharply curved sections (fig. lateral clearance for a veh icl e traveling a c urved path is determined by a ve hicle's outer moll corner poi nt radius (usually the front bumper) when it i s tum ing on a m i n i mum rodiuL The inside edge of travel lone radius must be leu than tho m i n imum inside rearwheel radiulo--but not mud\ s m aller, or driven w i O attempt to enter tho romp at lao sharp on angl e. The relationship between these radii depends on re lative veh i cle position, wh i ch is determine d by maximum steering angle a n d driver steering i nput, e.r.treme comer d ime" s i cn1 , and speed. Oeoronca i s usuall y provided for the vehicle w i th the largest outermost comet point radius. Minimum outsid e radius for a s ingl e -lone helical

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Commercial PARKING GARAGES ramp is 32 ft (9.75 m); however, on outer radius of 35-37 ft (10.67-11 . 28 m) is desirable. With helically curved romp surfaces, the outer lone need not be as wide as the lone used on the inside path. The outer lane radius is leu re strictive, allowing drivers to tum at a flatter angle that requires len effective width far o travel path (Fig. 19) . Ro"'p Tum $yporolovotlon Vehicles traveling on curved paths ore acted on by centrifugal force proportional to the square of the velocity and inversely proportional to the radius of curvature. This centrifugal Ioree must be balanced by other forces that ore developed by side-friction of the tires on pavement, and superelevation (bonking) of the romp surface. Although speeds in parking garages ore low, turning radii ore much smaller than those required lor street or highways, thus resulting in rather Iorge centrifugal forces . Romp curves should not be superelevoted too steeply, because very slow drivers may hove difficulty in keeping owoy from the inside edge of the romp pavemenf and fast driven may be encouraged to drive ot speeds greater than conditions of grade and sight-distance safely permit. Garage romp superelevotion should be ap proximately 'n -in/It (approximately cm/m) of romp width at the point of sharpest turning, with lesser amounts adjacent to straight sections or storage floors . Ro"'p Appooranco Some motorists are reluctant to use romp garages because travel paths in park ing garages moy combine narrow Iones, steep grades, and sharp turns. Even drivers accustomed to garage parking depend on . appearance and "feel" in maneuvering their vehicles . Consequently it is desirable to use architectural and optical effects that will give drivers confi dence and reduce possible adverse psychological effects of driving in restricted spaces. An obvious means is to make sight distances as great as possible and to provide abundant illuminat i on. The optical trick of obscuring horizontal and vertical lines of reference may be used to reduce the apparent steepness of romp grades. Romp walls con be painted with stripes contrasting to wall color, parallel to romp surface or ot sleeper angles. The normal angles between vertical col umns and the lrovelwoy con b .. obscured by paint markings, or odjac .. nt structural f .. otures may be built with arch i tectural lines poroll"l or perpen dicular to romp surfaces. Romp structures should be as open as practicable, to provid" sight distonc"s and to reduce closed-in impr,.ssions. In locat i ons wh .. re icing conditions ore common, romp systems should be placed in bu ildi ng interiors or otherwise protected from weather. Romp illum inati on should be given special at, tention. Wall openings should not be allowed where outside light sources could blind drivers . Artificial lighting should toke the form of diffused illumination, and reA .. :tors should be pointed away from th" direction of travel. PARKING GARAGES Typical Designs In the following pagea the func:tionel plena and deaign faahuea of ""• aelfparking facilitiea ere preaented. They are typical of the modern P•rl
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and the ataira and alevatora are atratagicaiJy located in the canter of the facility to take advantage of the aplitla"Wel and to afford mini mum waiking diatancaa. In Fig. 3 a functional plan ia praaanted for a facility with atraight rempa. The garage haa one-way aialaa and angle parking. Actually. a portion of the aialaa ia uaed in the floor•toftoor circulation. There are three pedeatrian ele•atora and four atairwaya to aarva the eight floora. Though the entrance and ••it were on MAIN FLOOR the aama atraet, they are w ideh .aerated to reduce conflicta. The overall d,.....,aiona of lh• l•cilily ••• 183 by 165 h . fn a eloping-floor or continuou ... anp garage, the aialea aarYa two purpo-.ea: a:::2sa to the parking atalla, and floor•t&-floo In Fig. 4, a typical garage ia aha.t" •hich providea 90 parking. One pedeSTT'W"' elevator and three atairwaya have been for the fiv ... laval facility. The antranc:. rei ••it on one atraat. The direction of on the TYPICAL FLOOR ROOF 3RC -----I I 2'10 SECTION A-A' funcrionel plu lot lt:IQ;e .. d . ftoot o•••o•. Commercial PARKING GARAGES rampa haa bean revaraed to reduce the conflict at the contact with the one-way atreet. Overall dimanaiona ara t22 by 157ft. The preparation of a deaign for an irregular ahapa aita praeenta many problema, aapeciaUy when aalf-parking ia to be provid•d. An •••m pia of a good daaign ia praaanted in Fig. 5 where a apiral ramp ia in tha canter of the g• rage. The aialaa are on•way and two-way. and 90 parking ia uaad throughout the facility. For the three-floor garage. there ia one MAIN FLOOR TYPICAL FLOOR ROOF SECTION A-A' functional plu far garoge .

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Commercial PARKING GARAGES • TYPICAL FLOOR MAIN FLOOR nrv uso• o' = I o' fl.mction•l pl1n for galliQI. JRO LfVfL 1-w w a: 1(/) MAIN STREET OAK STREET MAIN FLOOR I I I I 1 1 TYPICAL FLOOR Ftmction•l plen for eoneerrtticapir•l v•raae.

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pedeatrian elevator available at preaent. Plana and areaa are provided for an additional eleva tor when warranted. Thera are four alairwaya. In the operation of the facility, an entrance haa been provided on one atraet and two atreeta are uaed for aaiting. Many variation• may be uaed in garage deaign. The pravioua aaamplea ara typical daaigna. Daaign criteria and atandarda w.ra aaaambled in a recant atudy. ' The daaigna muat be tailored to the available land. By GEOFFREY BAKER end BRUNO FUNARO RAMP GARAGES Ramp geregee do not eimply multiply the perk ing cepecity of e lot by the number of perking lavale added. Conaidarabla apace on each laval will tM taken by rampa and circulation waya which muet be kept free of perked cere. Only on the uppermoat laval (or the lowarmoat in the caM of an underground garage) can c.ra be temporarily atored in the aialaa a a they normaf. ly are in an attendant-operated parkin9 lot. On a eloping lot, developed with only two or three parking levela, apace normally required for rampa may be reduced. By c-onnecting adjacent atraata to the different parking lavala, the atr .. t ayatam ia, in aHect, incorporated into the garage ramp ayatam. Aa moat geregea henceforth will be d .. a igned, we believe, for cuatomef' Hlfparking, we hewe taken 12 percent (I.e., e riae of 12 ft in ewery 100, or e 7 angle of elope) •• the maaimum convenient ramp grade. Actually public uaa and acceptance of a ramp alopa dapanda laaa upon lha mechanical powaf' and body dimanaiona of the car than upon the apparent hazard a to the woman drivar of at .. p, narrow alopaa, and a harp, blind turn a . Fof' her alao the terror of coming down a ramp Ia likely to be greater than that of going up, aapecially now that ao many car a have automat ic ahifta which prevent them from atafling or running backward on hilta. To make a ramp aeam laaa confined and ha.rardoua. it ahould ba ona•way, wall-lighted but without diatracting glare, and aeparatad from oppoaing traHic with a wida divider atri p . Camouflage painting davicaa may ba uaad to make the alopa appear leaa ataep. Horizontal linea of rafaranca can ba obacurad with wall atripaa parallel to, or at a ataaper angle than, the roadway. A long eight line, particularly at the upper and of a ramp, will guard againat drivara heaitating. Thla in turn will incraaaa ap.ada (without dacreaaing aafaty), and ao incraaaa the ramp a traffic capacity. The ahallower and longer the ramp. tha mora apace it raquiraa on each parking level. The only ••caption to thla ia where the whole g ... raga bacomea in eHect a ahallow-anglad ramp, • wide roadway with a Una of 90 parking on each a ida. Thia apirala up and around in a con-P•rking, Reinhold Publishing Corp. . New York. 2d ptg . • 1963. by perm••••on of Van No•trand Re•nhold Company. 'R•cker. Des1gn of P•rJc ,ng G•r•g•s. Eno Foundation, 1957. t inuoua line of warped ractangfea f itted into the rectangular ahall of the building. The aecond factor governing ramp length ia ftoortofloor height. The amallar thia dimanaion, the ahortar can ba the rampa. However, the floor•to-cailing clear height ahould not be lea a than 7 ft, and evan thia will require many radio aerials to ba retracted or tied down at the garage entrance. Thin-floor atructural alaba ara particularly worthwhile in garage conatruction. Each end of the ramp, where it join a the park ing laval, muat ba blended into the floor grade over a minimum diatanca of 12 h . The aectiona of a modern car moat likely to acrapa ground at top or bottom of a a lope are the long overhangs in front and rear beyond the whaelbaaa. The area required for a ramp ayatem will be moat important in determining whether a given piece of land can be profitably developed with a multiatory gataga atructura. A floor-to-floor h-eight of 8% h raquirea a 12 percent ramp 71 ft long (aee Teble 1). Another 45 ft beyond thia will ba na.ded for a reaaonably convenient turning radiua in circulation lanaa on each perking floor. So the minimum length na.ded for the aim pleat form of perking deck, w ith e etreight ramp and on more than two lavale, ia 90 h in Commercial PARKING GARAGES in attandantooOparalad garage& will ba aat by the time required to walk between the furthaat parked car and tha central inlarfloor man lih which connacta with the entrance check-in point where cara are collected and delivered. Thia intarfloor communication point ahould be aa naar aa poaaibla to the centroid of the parking floor. For attendants' average watking apead ia found to be 5 ft per aacond: their dri v ing apaad averagaa 13 ft per aae:ond. The layout of perking etalle ehould be d,.. aignad to minimi.za travel time. One 100 h of eatra. travel diatane:e to and from a parking atall will add 1h aeconda to dri v ing t ime, 20 aaconda to walking time, thua reducing each attendant'• pal'king rata by one car per hour. In a large operation with high tul'nover. thia will be revealed by either an increaaa of 1abof' coata, or by long delay• in the delivery of care to outgoing or by n .. d for a largaf' reaervoir to prevent delay in recaption of incoming care. fot' cuatomar-parking garage• the aame alandarda of walking diatanca ahould appty •• in parking Iota: a maaimum walk of 300 ft from parked car to garage entrance. Moat important hera i a allowance for peak period• of intarfloof' travel by cuatomara entering or leaving. Ramp length for Straight Ramps (to the nearest loot) Split-level Floorto Hoor height floors Angle, Ramp grade, degrees pertent 8ft 9ft 3 5 160 180 3/', 8 133 150 • 7 114 128 4J', 8 100 112 5 9 89 100 6 10 80 90 6•;, l1 73 62 7 12 67 75 7J', 13 81 69 8 14 57. 64 8/'. 15 53 60 addition to the ramp length, which will vary according to ateepneaa (••• plan, Fig. 3). Minimum economical w idth totala 108 ft. And atilt. w ith thaaa minimum d imanaiona, thera ia a quite uneconomical ratio of circula tion •pace to a tor age apace on aach parking floor. Only by enlarging the floor areaa, which uaually meana enlargirrg the available lot aize, can mora atorage apace be aarved by the aama amount of circulation apace. Ramp length, of couraa, can only be reduced by ataapaning the ramp angle Of' reducing the floor•tofloor height between parking floora. The ahape of a ramp can be changed and condanaad by co;ling it into a helb. Location and ahapa of the ramp ayatam ia particularly important on the entrance floor of anandant-operated garagaa. The further away tha ramp from tha street entrance a , tha larger tha raaervoir apace, and the better the cuahion againat delay and conge at ion at period a of peak arrival. In general. aa we have aean above, the laroer aach parking floor, tha more ad"antag ... oua the ratio between atorage apeca and circulation waya. The upper limit on floor area 10 ft lift 12ft 411 5 ft 200 220 240 80 100 167 183 200 67 88 143 157 172 57 77 125 138 150 50 63 111 122 134 45 55 100 110 120 40 50 91 100 109 37 46 83 92 100 34 42 77 85 92 31 39 72 7 9 86 29 36 66 73 80 27 33 In • large garage, cuatomar•oparatad elevalora may be inaufficiant for thaaa peak period a . Eacalatora will give much better aervice under the•• conditione: but they will probably be juatified only in a vary large garage. In a oarking garage of three ffoora or le•a. ataira are atill accepted by the public. It w ill , how•ver, generally be wiaar to fill the top f loor with long-term parkera, who {parhape templed by lower monthly retee) will be more willing to maka the climb. Types of Ramp Garages Typea of ramp garagaa vary w idely. No on• pl•n ie beet for all eitu or all typee of g .. rage. Tt-.a •hepa of the lot. anticipated parking demand. whether the garage ia to ba deaignad for parking by euatomara or by attandanta, limitation• of coat and of atructur a (particularly if the g•raga i a part of another building auch •• an oHice b lock or an auditorium)-all are important factora when deciding what ie the moat aHi c i•nt type of ramp daaign for the job.

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\.ommerclal PARKING GARAGES To improve the ratio between ramp area and parking area, the ramp can be ateepened. a one-way ramp can tM uaed for two-way traHic, the ramp can be deaigned to double aa a park• ing aiala with atalla on each aide. c.ara may tM parked in the aialea, and more rowa may be double-perked. Every one of theae will lower operating efficiency. None of them, .,.capt poaaibly the r•mp which double• ee • perking aiala, are evan to be conaiderad in a modem cuatomer-parking garage. All r•mp eyatema except the helicel need circulation lanea kept clear on each pariling floor for a continuoua path upward and downwerd through the building. Actually all ramp ayatema muat circle in order to gain auHicient length within the builcf. ing to upward at a reaaonabla slope. In h.li cal ramps thia circling ia confined to the ramp. In all other typea the turning movement (through 360 or 180 eccording to remp type and floor layout) ia made not on the ramp but on the parking floora. Thia turning movamant can be made mora eaaily on a banked helical r•mp th•n on the flat perking floora. Of helic•l r•mp typee the leeet coetly to conetruct ia uauelly that ahown In Fig. 7 . 0-•Y up and down lanaa are on a aingle-bankad aur faca. The outer lana ia uaad for up traHic, uauaf... ly eountarclockwiaa, ao that cara k••P to the right in norm•l l•ahion. The die meter of the r•mp ia controlled by the required turning radiua: a minimum of •& ft to the f•ce of the outeide curb of the out..-lene. Thera ia of traHic at .. ch parking floor connection, but drivara have a clear view each way. J In tha circular ramp ehown in Fig. 1 there ia no croaaing of up and down traffic, evan at lhe parking floor connactiona. Each traHic atraam ia confined to ita own ramp aU the way from top to bottom of the building. Aa entrance and aait pointe ara at oppoaita aidaa of the ramp cyltndar, the beat poaition for thia type of remp will be neer the center of the perking fi-r. The eurfece of thea• rempe can be fully benked between floora, but they muet be flettanad at tha point of connection w ith aach parit• 60' Minimum aile width required for a ramp gar age ia 100 to 110ft, ea ahown below; and evan than thara ia a quite uneconomical ratio between parking area and ramp apace. A helical ramp would fit a narrower aita but waata even mora apace. For a narrow aite. particularly • corner lot, the elevator garage m•y be moat economical. Minimum width of the structure alone mey be ea little aa 60 ft. But there muat be acceaa on both aidea of thia, for entrance and ea;t. There ahould alao be oHatreat reaerYoi r apace. So minimum aite width. with a atreet on the front end one aide. i• 80 ft. (aee Fig. 6). If there ia no aide &treat, another 20 ft muat be added to the frontage for eait lanea. L t+f•--.btw.t_:....__ 39' -f--t 2 '2.' --tof4-I g' .. , . l )] rr---T""""<::.) J !:=;:=( J t ,..___._..__) J [( ) J li"------,. 14"-+--.,. I 1 \ !}. 'J/ • \ I I \ , 2o" aa I I \ \\,' " ...... __ .. { .. / I \ ' __..... \-// I \, ...... , / ' ........... _., / ' ---/ / ', --_,-' .... ... ..... ....... __ ---t 80' TRAFFIC CIRCULATION ON PARKING FLOORS (!fLOW) IS IMPOSED IY THE RAMP LAYOUT CHOSEN

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nelical Ramps-Minimum Dimensions for Two lanes Side by Side, feet Rad1us to insida face of outer curb of outer lane. 45 Radius of inside lana t o inside face of outer curb . 32 Width of inside lane between curbs . . . 12 Width of outside lane between curbs . . . . . 11 Width of border curbs (curb height: 8 in. ) . . . Width of median curb (curb height: 8 i n . ) . . . 2 Maximum super-elevation on ramp turns . . . . . . . . . 0 . 1 It per It of width ing floor, ao that cars can turn oH and on with out too aherp a break in grade. To avoid acraping the floor with front or rear overhang• or aoma part of the under body of the car, change of grade between floor and romp muat not be too audden. The blending diatanca muat be at laaat •• long •• moat wheelbaae length•about 10 h . A a preciaa conatruction in concrete ia not to be e•pected, it i a w iaer to aet 12 ft •• minimum. A aimple rule of thumb ia to make thia tranaition grade hell tt>. remp grede. (See Fig. 8 . ) HaUway between the circular and the atraight ramp ia what may be called the rae .. tangular c ircle. Thia i a ao large and ao ahallow that it normally filla the whole building, and ao wide that there ia a line of ri.ghtangle parking along each aide. The floora of the garage become tilted planea. A baaic diaad...,antage of thia plan ia that a two .. way circulation road muat alao aerve •• e parking aiale-and a vary long one too. The inevitable reault ia congea• tion and delay, particularly at the lower favela during outgoing ruah houra. Probebly the s implest types of remp in struc ture. planning. and operation are the twoway divided rampa aet one abo"• the other at one edge or in the canter of the perking floor. (S .. Fig. 9 . ) Thia ia quite economical of apace, partie ularly on a lot that ia rather long and narrow. Two-way circulation lanea on the parking floor may be haaardoua. Hera the up and down traHic atrearna have b.en aeparated. Th;a plan atill haa the advan• tagea of ahape and arnall ramp area. But the up and down circulation lana• interaect on the parking floor unleaa the floor •raa i a ao large that each circulation can be kapt within ita own half on one-way lanee. ---On eoma aitea it mey be an advantage to have in and out traffic widely aeparated at atraet leltel, aa it ia here. If the up and down rampa criaacroaa at each floor (like an X in elevation), 1he two traffic atrean1a flow in the aame direction on each parking floor, and conflicting traHic mov ... menta are immediately reduced. By placing up and down rampa at altarnate edgee of each floor, the up and down circule tion in the ramp type ahown in Fig. 10 i a com• pletely aaperared. MoraoYer, the turning mov .. manta have been cut in half. The car haa to turn through only 1 80 (inet .. d of 360 •• I n th• preceding ramp plana) to go up or down through one parking la..,el to the ne•t. The travel diatance on each floor ia alao reduced, ao thi a type of ramp layout uaually ahowa e•cellen!ly feat dri v ing time belween ftoora. Commercial PARKING GARAGES ...... 1--IS lt --1 ----At ground level the in and out rarnpa point in oppoaite directiona, ao thia plan i a ularly well f itted to any piece of land which rune through a block ao that'it haa frontage on two a treeta. The Split-lewel Saraga The garage ia the parking equivalent of the aplitlevel houaa. One aaction of a garage ia oHaat vertically by half a atory from the remainder of the buil d ing. (See F i g . 11. ) The length of each arraight ramp can then be d i v ided into two h a lvea ••P"' arated from one another in plan auffi c iently to allow a 180 turn on the parking floor. Thia meena a minimum d iaunc:e of ,.5 tt centerto-canter of the rampa. Climbing upward, or on the return tri p down,

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Commercial PARKING GARAGES the motorial negotiates these ahort ramps easily. ao that parking in a ramp garagtt aeems no more comple• or frightening than any Olher aort of driving. At the junction point between lhe two aec tiona of the building, where the floora are offaet vertically, they alao overlap horizontally. In these few feet along the edge of each floor there ia only half the normal floor-toooeeiling height found in the real of the building; but thia ia sufficient height for the end few feet of a car, front or rear. So here the perked cera actually overlap one above the other, to give a aaving of perhapa four to five feet i n the overall width of the atructure. On a narrow lot these may be the few extra feet neceaaary to accommodate minimum parking lot dimensions to the dimension of the lot. Any of the ramp and circulation ayatema diacuaaad earlier can be applied to the aplitlevel garage structure. Mechanic•( Elentor Garages Mechanical elevator garagea ara moat auit able on ••penaive aitaa which are too small for economical development with a ramp garage. They are the only practical meena of developing garage apace on deep Iota with narrow frontage. Mechanical elevator garages can be atructurally \lery light and open if local building codes allow. The two principal makes-Bowaer and Pigeon Hole-both impose similar circulation patterns. Cera enter the central elevator,oiat way on one a ide and e•it on the other. So this type of garage ia particularly well suited to corner sites. or any interior lot where the long side ebula on an alley which can be for eait. In such cases the main street frontage required will be only 80 h . If entrance and e•it must be on the aame frontage, the minimum width required will be appro•imate1y 1 00 ft. On a atructure above 10 stories in height, however, if auHicient reser voir apace i s provided at ground level to cuah ion peak arrival periods (without cars having to line up on the atreet outaide), the lot a ize may have to be greater than thi a minimum. Up to a point thia will depend alao upon the number of elevator• used (the mora elevatora, the higher the apelld of atorage and delivery). which in turn will affect the c•pital coat of auch a garage structure. In mechanical elevator garages a minimum of one quarter of each parking level area is occupied by circulation. When there ia no doubl ... row parking (which may entail moving front•row cera 10 reach thoae in the back), circulation apace. i.e. the elevator hoiatway. occupiea one third of the area on each parking level. On the other hand, on • aile 100 by 100ft a circular ramp (the moat condenaed type) would occupy almost twothirda of the area on each level. The Pigeon Hole hydraul•c ele\lator equip-ment movea on raila aet on the ground; the Bowaer electri c elevetora are hung from an overhead crane track. In both ayatema the elevator car movea aimultaneoualy in a hori zontal end a \lertical direction. Thia ia the allimponant d iHer•nce between theae elevator ayatema and those which proved unaucceaaful in the thirties. P igeon Hole uaea a dolly, controlled by the elevator operator, for moving the car in and out of the elevator. Bowaer elevator operator• drive the car on and oH. The elevator control panel is withi n eaay reach of the operator aa he aita in the car. An intercom and signal light ayatem connecta the elevators with the caahiera control booth. The Bowaer elevator• ere counterweighted ao th•t, if the electric power fails, the garage een atill be unJoeded. These elevator• will riae without power when empty. Loaded with • car, they deacend at a controlled rate.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY I .

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rc.. York, 1965, 238 pps. B I BL I OGF':APHY Reinhold Publishing New Albi, Joan M. State Capital Bldg. Rm. 227Senate Office 2 0 0 East Colfax Ave. Denver, Co. 80203 = Qf Unpublished document, Nov. 29, 1982, 95 pps. Atkin, William W., Joan Adler. Whitney Library 212 pp::;. lDtCiQC o f design, !;!ggh 1\lew 9 York, Based upon data in ''Analysis of the Colorado Income Tax : BBC, Inde:-:ation and 1980, for the Colorado Legislature Council in January 1981 . Colorado Bank Data System, as published in Ibg Qgoygc E9t, St.:?l ected dates. Bell, David J. Steamboat Chamber Resort Association, Fall 1983, 24 pps. Big Bear De velopment Co. preliminary design plans, January 1 , 1983. Brennen, Joe -Interview 10/14/83 Steamboat Springs Planning Co mmissioner F'. 0. Bo : : 5460 Steamboat Village, Co . 80499 ( 303) 879-61 (H) Building a n d Planning Department Courthouse Bl 500 L incoln Ave. Steamboat Co. Chen & Associates, Inc. gilL 2QQ EiliQg ! 4 Mt. ti Unpublished document, August 8, 1974, 29 pps.

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Joseph, and John Egc 898. Hancock Callendar. Iirug 11 Book Co. 1980, pps. 870 = !2Q, NOAA, Jan. 1.3! , 1983, 19 pps. Colorado Department of Local Affairs, Division of Taxation, BQQCt, selected issues. Col or ado Department of F\evenue, 11 Annua.l ,.-eport, 1980, 11 p. 111. Colorado Department of Revenues, issues. selected Colorado Division of Employment & Training, selected issues. Colorado Division of io Mines, A gf 1975 and 1980, selected pages. -------"'---'v'ol 1 1 Title I""JC: Art. c::-Sec" 701 !I .. .J , B:Yigg t@:t.Yl@2 -\.'ol 14, Titlt? 33, Art. 44, Sec .. 103 tl':-lt@2 Vol 17, Title 4 '::' Art. 4, Sec. 1103. 1 Profile :3tudy , 1980,11 for-the ColorEldO Legislative January 1981, p. 6. gf li ll, Steami:Jo,.:d.: Ski Corporation -map. (Date unkno\.o'.Jn ) County Business Patterns, 1962 as published Colorado State Planning Division, 1982. in Denver, Colorado, County Clerk and Recorders Office -Routt County Courthouse Building 500 Lineal n A\'e. Steamboat Springs, Co.

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t=::evin. Unpublished U n i versity of Colorado, May 1978. Department of the Interior F•:::>der-al CenterDenver, Co. 80302 Department of the Interior Steamboat Springs Quadrangle 7.5 minute 1969 Dismuke & Dismuke. LQQ July 26, 197 2 . Dismuke & Dismuke. . July 1972. Eagleridge Design Competition, McGraw Hill F'ubl.ications, Feb. 1982, no. 2, pp. 4 0-44 .. = Economic Research Department United Banks of Inc. October 29, 1982. = Economic Development United Bank o F Colorado, Inc. 1'7'80. Stephen S. Interview 10/14/83 Director, Land Development Steamboat Ski Corporation P. 0 . Bo:-: 11 78 Steamboat Co. 80477 ( 303 > 879--6111 Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Washington D.C., unpublished data, September 30, 1975, 1977-81. Max. Books, New York, 1971, 9c.b.Lt.ih!C 176 pps. Louis E. gf Qg2i9D Press, London, 1974, 87 pps. The Architectural

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Frick, Ford C., Dean C. Coddington and Harvey L. Rubinstein. gf tiiog Ig B9Yti Colorado Ski Industry USA, Denver, Co. August 1 982, 37 p p Frick, Ford C., Dean C. Coddington and Harvey L. Runbinstein. Ibg gf tiiog Ig Ibg Colorado Ski Country, USA, Denver, Co. Nov. 1982, 114 pps. Dales y. Davis & Associates. unpublished document, June 1983, 9 pps. Goeldner, C.R., Ted Farnwell. Business Research Division Business Administration, University of 1981, 136 pps. 81J.@J .. Z.:.i.2 Colorado, Goeldner, C.R., Karen Dicke. Li. Research Division Graduate School of Administration, University of Colorado, Boulder, pps. of f.::!gctb. o f Boulder, Busi nes! s Business 1982' 88 -Goeldner, C.R. LiC Business Research Division Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1978, 92 pps. Goesenjoku Lodge, Japan. F'ublications, no, BQcQ., pp. 41-51, March 1966. Holloway, James S. -Interview 10/14/83 Director Department of Community Development F'. 0. Bm: 770940 Steamboat Springs, Co. 80477 (303) 879-7150 International Conference of Building Officials, l•Jhittier California., 1980, 780 pps. McGr .::;lt\1 Hi 11 Klose, Dietrich. Frederick A . Praeger, Publishers, New York, 1965.

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l, McGraw Hill .Jan . 1 '17 4 n Packard, Robert T . CQl2bi Sons, New York, 7th Ed., 1981, 785 pps. John V.Ji ley

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Fomc.<. of Inc. (Brochu.resl 2510 Foresight Circle Grand Junction, Colorado 81501 (:303) Real Estate Marketing Service 405 Lincoln Ave. Steamboat Square Steamboat Springs, Co. Richards, Dee. Steamboat Pilot, 1976, 227 pps. Published by The Rocky Mountain Center on Environment, An Environmental Study of Colorado. Denver, 80222, 1974. Routt County Tax Assessors Office, Sec.14map, April 1982. Shivers, Jay S.. George Hjelte. Fairleigh Dickinson University r1acl i son, 1971!, 381 pps. Ski Resort, Avoriaz, France. Publications, val. 155; pp. 119-126, 1974. Soils Conservation Service 410 Lincoln Ave. Steamboat Springs, Co. sconsi n, State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs, Division of y T .9.>: a.t ion, 11 Eleventh Annual Report to the GO\iernor, 11 Apr:il 1982. State of Number-2, October 1981, p. 28. Steamboat Chamber Resort Association Steamboat Village, Colorado. Steamboat Pilot Newspaper Steamboat Springs, Co.

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Steamboat's Real Estate News Downtown Office 729 Lincoln Ave. P . O. Box 773779 Steamboat Springs, Co . 80477 (303) 879-3366 Steamboat Ski Resort Association P.O. Bo x 771178 Steamboat Springs, Co. 80477 Steamboat Springs City Council Courthouse Bldg. 500 Lincoln Ave. Steamboat Springs, Co. 80477 Steamboat Springs Chamber of Commerce Steamboat Springs, Co. 80477 Steamboat Springs Public Library Steamboat Springs, Co. 80477 Winter Season 1983 -1984, 4 pps. Tax Assessors Office Courthouse Bldg. 500 Lincoln Ave. Steamboat Springs, Co . Telephone Director y Steamboat Springs, Co. September, 1982 Thorson, A., AIA. IQ Ib QQ ti ll 81 Ei2b Unoublished, Lakewood, Colorado, March 25, 1983, 32 pps. Tweeto, Ogd on. Department of the Interior USGS. l99i gf ! Map I-972 1981. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Construction Reports, Egcmit selected issues.

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U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census of Population, g Final Report PC: ( 1) -A7. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, ! 2Q gf PHCBO-V-7, p.9 and 1970, PC<1)-B7 p. 84. u.s. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Business Patterns, Colorado, 1974, p.116 and 1980, :32. County pp. 81-u.s. Geological Surv ey, Co. 8t)225 .. Routt County Topographical Map, Denver, Resort Association, !b 8glg gf tb unpublished document, July 30, 31, 1971. Wahl, Rolly. QCiQQ Wahl Publishing Co., Steamboat Springs, Co., Summer/Fall 1983, 68 pps. Wah l , Roll. y. Steamboa.t gciog Springs, Co., Winter/Spring [..!Jah 1 Pub l. ish i ng 19:33, 80 pps. Co. , Wallick, Steve. Avon, i shed 1978. Thesis, University of Do:=c:. 15, White, Ken R. Address unknown.) !.Ali 11 i amson, 1-:a.ndy. [iQ!;L University of Colorado, Zoning Department Courthouse Bldg. 500 Lincoln Ave. Steamboat Springs, Co. Denver, Dec. 15, Zoning Map & Ordinance Summary Department of Community Development F'. 0. Bm: 770940 Steamboat Springs, Ca. unpublished 1980.
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t 0 f-I L I ...!. t-f= 5 0.. -c llO 11 , 2l..j F I L I G IJO. 1 FIL'NG NO. 2 pit 1 i t 2 Pi 3 r i t 3 A Pi L 4 r it 5 Pit 6 pit 7 El.=7096.0' fl. =7133. 0 ' [1.=7137. 0 ' [1.=7148.0' 11.=7120 .0' ll.=7198 .0' L1.=711S . O' [1. =7169.0' LE'GfND: 4/6 WC=14 . 9 00=1 Ol1. 3 2QQ:l..j Q 613 DD=1J5. 1 -200=17 r it 8 R 5/6 WC=11. 0 I DO= 1 0 . 5 0 1 0/4 6/4 WC=1 0 . 2 -200=28 F ILING NO. 3 6/2 '1/3 WC=2. 9 JP 2QO:l..j r i L 9 p i l 1 0 pit 1 1 pi l 1 2 4/6 WC=l5 . 6 DD=93 . 4 5/3 FILIIJG NO. 4 [1.= 711 9 . 0 ' 11. t 1.=712 B . , , [ l . = 7 1 • I ) 1 [1.=7155.0 ' __ Pit 13 F1.=7JC1. 0 ' 5/5 1 /C=d . 4 DD=69 . 3 -200=47 S/4 0/' . .JC=5 . 8 200=2 6/3 6!2J, I.JC=12 . -200=3 5/5 11(=13 . 7 '1)=00 . ) LL=74 , PI=7 700:.4 J o/3 )/ 1 _ , _ ' , C=• • 3 2 00= 1 1 6/5 I.JC=6. 7 -200=6 10 15 p i t 1 5 E1.=7185.0' R 5 ;oJ...., 4 q -1 T ';,•J-G/3_ -/2 'v.C=l6. 4 -2(=2 6/4 j WC=18 . 410 -200=8 Fd bW 4/6 Topsoil, sandy sandy silt; and silty sand and rav 1, dar'k bro-:n, m;, is t . F i l l , s i l t y 5 n d n : l q ravel , f i numerous cobble t o 1 ) inch br01m, n is. Sand and Gravel silty, mediurr dense to d ns , Ill. lvl uus cobble to 1 0 inch maximun size, >ccasionally very large boulder, rrn. n , mois t . S i l t C l a y ( CL , sandy, s t i ff , porous struc urc, bn11 m , moist. Sand and G ril I (SP--p), rnediu 1 dense to dens , nur1C' , C • ) 1 e to 1 : nch m a x i n u n size, "CLilsi 1nally vcr; Iaroe b oulder, b r01 n , ,.,.) i s t . Indicates lOGl t i 111 . ) r undisturjed so i 1 sampl e . Indicates r ]alive Jcns i ty of t.e soil Indicates loco L ion t'f disturbed soil Indicates backhnc excavat ion stopped on o bH! ldcr . Indicates free leve l mea5ured at the time the t st p i s e?<-a ated. NOHS: ( 1 ) T e s t p i l s vi r e x c