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A transportation and land use plan for southeast Denver using the alpha technology

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Title:
A transportation and land use plan for southeast Denver using the alpha technology
Creator:
Green, Catherine Ann
Publication Date:
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English
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v, 89 leaves : illustrations (some color, some folded), maps, plans ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Personal rapid transit -- Planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
City planning ( fast )
Personal rapid transit -- Planning ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Planning and Community Development, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Catherine Ann Green.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
28092915 ( OCLC )
ocm28092915
Classification:
LD1190.A78 1986 .G725 ( lcc )

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A TRANSPORTATION AND LAND USE PLAN FOR SOUTHEAST DENVER USING THE ALPHA TECHNOLOGY
A Thesis Program Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning and Community Development
By
Catherine Ann Green
Denver, Colorado August 1986


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
I. INTRODUCTION................................. 1
Problem Statement Thesis
Organization Methods and Evidence Scope and Limits
II. THE ALPHA TECHNOLOGY.......................... 8
III. THE AREA..................................... 23
IV. STUDY AREA ONE............................... 33
Image Goals Social Function
Natural and Site Function
Building Treatment
Massing
Circulation
Quality of Life
V. STUDY AREA TWO............................... 48
\ Image Goals
Social Function
Natural and Site Function
Building Treatment
Mass ing
Circulation
i Quality of Life
VI. STUDY AREA THREE............................. 60
Image Goals Social Function
^ Natural and Site Function
Building Treatment Massing Circulation Quality of Life
-ii-


VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION....................... 77
Findings
Strengths and Weaknesses For Further Study Conclusion
BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................... 89


LIST OF TABLES
1. Population Trends For The Southeast
And Related Sectors..................... 26
2. Employment Trends For The Southeast
And Related Sectors..................... 26
3. Future Land Use In Study Area One............ 40
4. Travel Time To Activities.................... 44
5. Study Area Two Present And Future Land Use.. 53
6. Cost Of Parking In Study Area Three.......... 72
IV


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Alpha Vehicle Cutaway....................... 12
2. Installation of the Alpha Technology........ 13
3. Alpha Technology Vs. Freeway................ 15
4. The Alpha Grid.............................. 16
5. The Three Types of PRT Circulation.......... 18
6. Average Costs............................... 20
7. Hierarchy of Transportation................. 21
8. Regional Sectors............................ 24
9. Southeast Denver............................ 28
10. Alpha Technology - Study Area One.......... 36
11. The Triangle................................ 38
12. Study Area One — Mixed Use.................. 39
13. Study Area Two.............................. 50
14. Neighborhood PRT Station.................... 57
15. Study Area Three............................ 63
16. Study Area Three — Present Land Use......... 65
17. Stud Area Three -- Future Land Use.......... 67
18. Alpha Station in Denver Technical Center... 70
19. Alpha Technology in Greenwood Plaza......... 74
v


. .there is an art of relationships just as there is an art of architecture. It’s purpose is to take all the elements that go to create the environment: buildings, trees, nature, water, traffic, advertisements and so on, and to weave them together in such a way that drama is released. For a city is a dramatic event in the environment. Look at the research that is put into making a city work: demographers, sociologists, engineers, traffic experts; all co-operating to form the myriad factors into a workable, viable and healthy organization. It is a tremendous human undertaking.
And yet. . .if at the end of it all the city appears dull, uninteresting and soulless then it is not fulfilling itself. It has failed. The fire has been laid but nobody has put a match to it. "
---Gordon Cullen
The Concise Townscape
1


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Problem
The heavy reliance on the private automobile in Denver, Colorado has resulted in up to 25% of urban land being used for the construction of networks required to accommodate this preferred mode. Yet, traffic congestion continues despite efforts by the highway department to continually widen freeway
right of ways, some of which are already 500 feet in width.
Besides wasting land, today’s transportation networks are responsible for the automobile-generated urban forms we see
everyday: the division of communities, large asphalt parking
lots connecting buildings, little if any consideration for the
pedestrian and widely scattered settlements requiring expensive urban infrastructure. Like many cities in the U.S., Denver's attempts to solve the automobile problem have been limited to a
system that not only uses this same network, but is also
considered both unattractive and inconvenient; the bus.
A transportation system is needed that combines the convenience of the private automobile with a network that
promotes high quality land use development.
Thes i s
This paper describes the future outlook of land use
possibilities in Southeast Denver after implementation of
2


Personal rapid transit (PRT). Changes in transportation networks will change other urban elements arranged around such networks. It is the thesis of this paper that the installation of a PRT system would improve transportation, as well as urban living, by making possible new prototypes of urban development not likely without the unique features provided by PRT technology.
Organization
Chapter 1 describes a specific PRT system, the Alpha technology, recommended for Southeast Denver. Chapter II defines and describes Southeast Denver and why is was chosen for this study. Included in this chapter is a definition of the Southeast Corridor and a brief description of three close-up study areas used in this paper. Also in this chapter is the criteria used for choosing each of the three study areas and why each is an appropriate example of land use possibilities resulting from the installation of a PRT system.
Each of the next five chapters (III — VII) takes a closer look at one of the three study areas. The study areas will be described as they presently are and how they might appear in the year 2050 after installation of the Alpha technology. The order of the criteria used to describe each area is as follows: image goals, social functions, natural and site functions, building treatment, massing, circulation and the urban quality of life. Each of these headings contains between three and twelve subheadings. The purpose of such detailed descriptions is to show the reader how each element is an integral part of the
3


others and all are affected by the quality of the transportation system used.
Chapter VIII concludes the paper with an overview of the degree to which the thesis was supported and a discussion of items requiring further study.
Methods and Evidence
Chapter two is a result of literature research done on PRT systems in general. This chapter describes the system which the author felt was best suited for the study areas used.
Chapters three through six also used literature research to determine the most accurate description of each area’s present personality.
Future land use plans are a combination of the area’s present personality and the author’s interpretation of the future relationship between land use and transportation. The visual descriptions given for each area are qualitative suggestions of how this relationship might best be directed.
Scope and Limits
It is intended for the case studies in this paper to allow the reader to visualize a variety of areas using PRT and the relationship between transportation networks and land use poss ib i1i t ies.
This study does not include a detailed plan for financing the installation and maintenance of a PRT system. Nor does this
4


study describe a plan for public policy requirements and community involvement in the planning process. Both Edward Anderson (1) and Byron Johnson*2> have written and spoken extensively on the subjects. While financing and public policy are key factors in the implementation of any transportation systems, they are not the emphasis of this paper.
The engineering feasibility of the Alpha technology is not within the scope of this paper. It is, therefore, assumed that the methodologies used by Automated Transportation Systems Inc., to test the workability of this system are reported accurately.
Since no PRT system exists on a large comprehensive scale, it is not possible to refer directly to patronage or mode split data. A model for forecasting patronage and the cost effectiveness of PRT systems was developed by Edward Anderson*3*. This model is not included in this study because it deals with a comparison of transit modes using current data and land use trends without consideration of changing land use patterns resulting from a PRT network. Anderson's model relies too heavily on present, not future, travel patterns and habits.
In fact, this paper is an attempt to step back from all models and take a more comprehensive approach. Joseph Schofer has stated that:
"All transportation planning models are inherently narrow, accounting for only some of the operative quantitative variables, and are based on hypotheses about relationships, and the temporal stability of relationships, that have restricted and sometimes unknown validity. Our concept of problems and solutions often appears to be based on a similarly limited view of the world."*45
5


The placement of future stations will not always coincide with where we might place them were the system being built today. Assuming development would occur around transit stations, the author simply describes the development, she does not attempt to predict where development would occur and then overlap a transit network.
Auto and parking reductions due to the PRT network may appear drastic, but are necessary to gain a sense of how development could evolve without heavy reliance on the automobile. The seventy-five percent reduction in parking assumes that approximately half of those driving automobiles will park at a station and ride PRT to his or her destination.
Service roads are assumed to meet all future dimension standards. This would probably require the changing of ordinances to allow T-turns as opposed to circular turns for fire trucks.
In contrast to quantitative studies of technical workings or economic feasibility of PRT, the study areas described in this paper are subjective and more qualitative in nature. They attempt to show the environmental, social and physical benefits gained by the installation of PRT.
6


REFERENCES CITED
1 Edward Anderson, "The Development of a Model for Analysis of the cost Effectiveness of Alternative Transit Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), pp. 155-172.
2 Speech by Byron Johnson, "New Opportunities for Urban Mobility," Denver, Colorado, Nov. 1985, (Conference).
3 Anderson, Personal Rapid Transit III, pp. 155-172.
4 "Challenges to the Future of Urban Tannsportation Planning," Transportation Research Tecord. 931 (Spring 1985): 29.
7


"The facility with which we travel within our community is then a determinant of the quality of life in that community."
----Ray MacDonald
Conference on Personal Rapid Transit, 1975
8


CHAPTER 2
THE ALPHA TECHNOLOGY
Linear development along streetcar radials, immense tracts of grid-pattern streets, and dispersed centers within suburban sprawl have formed the American city. "Central city cores, often with narrow streets and intense land use which developed during the streetcar era, have become inaccessible due to the congestion of increased populations jamming radial arteries with automobiles of a new transportation era. The automobile system which enhanced suburban sprawl has required wide right-of-ways and excessive land for parking."(1>
As development concentrates in the automobile oriented suburbs, "the pedestrian environment has deteriorated to such an extent that in some cases it might be described as hostile, walking distances have become excessive, and cycling is often dangerous."(2 >
In 1982, Denver voters turned down the allocation of funds for a light rail system, a system expensive both to build and to operate. It was apparent then, as it is today, that the preference for the automobile is growing despite existing and more advanced transit systems build on narrow guideways that maintain average running speeds equal or better than the automobile. In 1973 such a system, the Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) was considered and then discarded on the basis that its technology had not matured.(3 >
9


"It is difficult to find a foothold for an early urban application of automated public transport. If there is a critical need, then politicians cannot take the risk of proposing an untried system. If there is less urgency. . .the project can be rejected because it is not sufficiently relevant."(4 >
Buses and proposed busways are RTD’s present, past and future answer to Denver’s transportation problem. Yet, this system often yields a very low ridership at a very high cost as Ray MacDonald points out:
"The benefits of such systems are low because of the random travel-demand patterns of modern cities. Usually all that can be achieved in an amelioration of the central-business-districtbound traffic. The vital collection -distribution system is often short-changed because of the high capital cost of the line-haul system from a service-level point of view, the bus operating costs soar and that number of passengers per vehicle mile drops. The general tendency is for transportation authorities to reduce bus service and rely on the automobile as the collecion-distri-bution mode. This does not solve the automobile ownership problem for the young, old, and handicapped, and it reinforces the trend toward the urban sprawl of the automobile-oriented land use. If an adequate collection-distribution bus fleet is provided, it can be shown that this fleet will offer almost as high a mode split to transit by itself (5X to 8X) when exclusive bus lanes are used as the combined line-haul, plus bus system.
The planner is then faced with the uncomfortable fact that most trips can be made without the line-haul system, and that construction of this high capital-cost item is only improving mode split by 2X to 4X."(5)
As long as they will have and very limited
RTD tries to serve the Denver area with buses, limited success, high costs, public resistance, impact upon urban development patterns.
10


The system described below provides service when needed, travels directly to the riders destination without stops and
7
does not require that strangers share vehicles. The study areas in this paper will use a Personal Rapid Transit system (PRT). Although several PRT systems might produce the same results, this paper uses the Alpha Technology designed by Dr. Edward Anderson of Automated Transportation Systems Inc. The concept of PRT can be described as small vehicles with a capacity of 2-6 passengers that travel on exclusive guideways which are generally elevated. Vehicles are automatically controlled through computer programming which allows nonstop routing to any destination requested by the passenger. Off line stations, short headways between vehicles, and automated control systems allow line capacities of approximately 6000 vehicles per hour. Lightweight elevated guideways and small vehicles reduce the cost per mile of the system so that a fine network providing accessibility to numerous points within even a low density city becomes economically feasible.<5)
The Alpha technology uses linear induction motors allowing safe, quiet and pollution free travel. The vehicles are lightweight, have a low profile and can carry up to three people. (See Illustration 1) The guideway used is narrow and lightweight, thus it needs fewer support columns and is easy to construct and maintain. In fact, the light, prefabricated guideway parts are installed similar to light poles allowing a system that is easily expanded with a minimum disrupt ion.(7> (See Illustration 2))
11


ILLUSTRATION I
THE CUTAWAY
Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc
Modern Technology Add Ii ed To. Transportation.
Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).
• >


ILLUSTRATION 2
INSTALLING ALPHA
Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc.,
Modern Technology Add I i ed To. Transportation ,
Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).


The Alpha Technology can locate stations in commercial and residential buildings as well as parking structures. These stations could be open 24 hours a day and with automatic replenishment, passengers need never wait over 30 seconds for a vehicle in peak hours. With a thirty second headway, the Alpha Technology has a higher capacity than a four-lane highway. When compared to the bus, Alpha is faster with no transfers and no waiting. (See Illustration 3)
Such a system may appear to cause as much congestion as city streets since, like the auto, the Alpha Technology carries only 1-3 passengers. Use, however, is more important than efficiency. What good is an eighty passenger bus that only carries 3 people? It makes better sense to use a three passenger vehicle instead. It is also important to understand that in a typical city one Alpha vehicle would replace about ten autos since, during peak hours, each vehicle would make several round trips.(8> During off peak hours the Alpha Technology could be used for freight movement as well as automatic collection of waste and packages.
The circulation pattern suggested by Automated Transportation Systems, Inc. is a square mile grid with stations halfway between every intersect ion.(See Illustration 4) The study areas in this paper will use a full square mile grid and allow the guideway within each mile to be custom placed according to densities, design, and land use. Unlike Anderson’s circulation patterns, this study will use a primary corridor to directly connect the study areas to Denver’s Central Business
14


ILLUSTRATION 3
ALPHA TECHNOLOGY VS. FREEWAY

Freeway

ft ftft W
30 MPH
FREEWAY LANE
88 FEET MINIMUM
Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc.,
Modern Technology Add Ii ed To T ransportat i on.
Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).


ILLUSTRATION A
THE ALPHA GRID
i p jjj.finJ iMi

6 MILES
Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc.
Modern Technology Applied To Transportation. Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).
5 MILES


District (CBD). Besides giving a more direct route to downtown, the corridor will provide up to four Alpha guideways for even higher capacity movement. Thus, three circulation patterns of the Alpha Technology emerge. First, the primary corridor following Interstate 25 which would carry passengers directly between Denver’s CBD and County Line Road. This corridor would allow vehicles to run at speeds up to 60 mph for faster and more direct travel to and from the CBD. Second, the square mile grid with stations halfway between every intersection would provide a systematic approach to intercity travel. The consistency of the square grid and half mile spaced stations would assure the passenger of finding a station even in unfamiliar areas.
The last pattern of circulation is the local pattern within each square mile, guideways could be adapted to local needs. This could mean up to 15 miles of guideway and ten stations in highly populated areas such as the Denver Technical Center or a simple bisection of the grid in low density residential areas. Development would be able to work hand in hand with the local guideways. (See Illustration 5)
A passenger would find where he or she desired to go on a map, punch the appropriate code into the computer, and the vehicle would travel the grid of that given destination and follow the local lines to the appropriate station.
Although this may sound like an immense amount of guideways to be constructed and paid for, it is important to stress the comparison between the cost of an Alpha system compared to other, more familiar technologies. A subway system consisting
17


of ten miles of guideway and six stations at one mile spacings would cost the same as 130 miles of an Alpha one-way guideway
with 260 stations at a . 25 mile maximum walk distance.(9>
When all it totaled, Alpha would provide a 40:1 increase in
access by area, a 50% increase in average speed with lower operating costs. When comparing capital and operating costs, the Alpha Technology costs about $0.23 per mile while the bus costs $0.30, the subway $0.77 and the streetcar at $1.40.(10> (See Illustration 6)
Perhaps the most important feature of the Alpha Technology is its ability to run on very little land thus opening up streets and parking lots for other uses. What was once a far stretching hard surfaced parking lot can now become a park or a
mall . Where land is expensive and up to 60% of it is used for
the housing and circulation of the automobile, parking lots can
be developed into more productive uses. And with less rel i ance
on a street system, newly developing neighborhoods can be
designed in new and innovative ways.
A hierarchy of networks encourages the use of many modes of transportation such as walking, biking, motor bikes, horses, autos and PRT. Illustration 7 presents this hierarchy of modes as used in the land use maps for the study areas.
19


ILLUSTRATION 6
AVERAGE COSTS
CAPITAL COSTS
(DEPRECIATION & INTEREST)
OPERATING COSTS
TOTAL COSTS
(CAPITAL & OPERATION)
Q
STREETCAR COST % ELEVATED TRAIN COST % SUBWAY COST % GROUP AUTOMATED COST % BUS COST % ALPHA COST %
1.14 81 0.41 67 0.57 74 1.67 87 0.08 25 0.15 72
0.27 19 0.20 33 0.20 26 0.24 13 0.22 75 0.08 28
1.41 100 0.61 100 0.77 100 1.91 100 0.30 100 0.23 100
* ALL COSTS ARE EXPRESSED IN DOLLARS PER PASSENGER MILE
Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc
Modern Tech no 1 oo y Ad d 1 i ed To. Transportation ,
Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).
• *


REFERENCES CITED
1 Task Force on New concepts in Urben Transportation, Planning for Personal Rapid Transit (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1972), p. 71.
2 Ray MacDonald, "Economic considerations and Potential Applicatins of PRT Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), p. 173.
3 Denver Regional Transportation District, " Rapid Transit for the Denver Region: Evolution and Rationale," Denver, Colorado, October 1982, (Mimeographed.)
4 MacDonald, Personal Rapid Transit III, p. 177.
5 Ibid., p. 173.
6 Automated Transportation Systems, Inc., "Modern
Technology Applied to Transportation," Mineapolis, March, 1985, (Mimeotraphed).
7 Ibid.
8 Task Force on New Concepts in Urban Transportation,
Planning for Personal Rapid Tranist. p. 27.
9 Automated Transportation Systems, Inc., "Modern
Technology Applied to Transportation."
10 Ibid.
22


CHAPTER 3
THE AREA
The region chosen for this study is the southern section of Denver’s Southeast Corridor. This Corridor extends from Highway C470 in Douglas County northerly through unincorporated areas of Arapahoe County and the incorporated municipality of Greenwood Village. Following 1-25, the area stretches from County Line Road to Hampden Avenue using Colorado Blvd. as the farthest west boundary and Peoria as the farthest east boundary (See Illustration 8). Along with low density residential, this area contains the Denver Technical Center (DTC), the Inverness Development, Greenwood Plaza, and a number of other major office and commercial job centers. Intensified growth, particularly employment growth is projected for the Southern section making access and distribution to the above areas a high priority in present and future transit planning.
In a regional transit system planning study (PMM Study) done by Denver Regional Council on Governments (DRCOG), it was determined that "residential and employment growth in the Southeast Corridor, Douglas County and other outlying areas has surpassed previous expectation and is causing increased traffic congestion on 1-25. Furthermore, the amount of the industrial and commercial space in the Denver Technology Center/Inverness/-Meridian/Greenwood Plaza employment is expected to increase
23


ILLUSTRATION B REGIONAL SECTORS


six-fold to over 60 million square feet by the year 2000."(1) Tables 1 and 2 show the growth projections of Southeast Denver compared to other sections of Denver. Note the 449% increase in employment under Table 2.
Naturally, traffic problems will result from such high growth. The same study predicts 134,630 daily work trips originating from the southern section of 1-25, of which 75,633 will travel within the same area.(2)
The amount and type of growth in the southeast corridor makes this an appropriate area to study for alternative transportation systems since this type of development and resulting problems are becoming an increasing trend in all major U. S. cities.
"The high tech corridors may not represent a large part of the nations real estate market, but experts at the Urban Land Institute and other research organizations agree that they are among the fastest growing segments of the market. As a result, they are stirring up familiar questions about the impact of economic growth on the quality of life and the issue of control over development."(3 >
The criteria used in choosing the three study areas had primarily to do with their individual differences. How we feel about a particular city or neighborhood is a sensual observation. Since these senses are usually touched while moving through an area, visual impact, smells and sounds are observed from transportation networks be they streets, highways, bikepaths, transit lines or footpaths. Therefore, it was
25


TABLE 1
POPULATION TRENDS FOR THE SOUTHEAST
AND RELATED SECTORS
1980 2000 Projected Percent Increase
Downtown 3,000 4,000 33*
Inner Southeast (CBD to Belleview Ave. near 1-25) 69,000 72,000 4%
Outer Southeast (Belleview to C470 near 1-25) 61,000 120,000 97%
Inner Cherry Creek 95,000 102,000 7%
Outer Cherry Creek 76,000 204,000 168%
Aurora 119,000 173 45*
TOTAL ALL SECTORS 1,287,000 ,015,000 45*
SOURCE: DRCOG/PMM Report
TABLE 2
EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR THE SOUTHEAST
AND RELATED SECTORS
1980 2000 Projected Percent Increase
Downtown 71,000 126,000 77*
Inner Southeast (CBD to Belleview Ave. near 1-25) 61,000 68,000 11*
Outer Southeast (Belleview to C470 near 1-25) 35,000 192,000 449*
Inner Cherry Creek 67,000 106,000 58*
Outer Cherry Creek 16,000 39,000 144*
Aurora 49,000 101,000 106*
TOTAL ALL SECTORS 770,000 1,342,000 74*
SOURCE: DRCOG/PMM Report
26


important to show the impacts of the Alpha Technology on a variety of land uses. In this case, those land uses are residential, undeveloped, infil, low density office, and medium density business parks. It was also important to choose areas adjacent to or near one another in order to demonstrate how a PRT system could allow a smooth transition from one land use to another. Each area needed to be a square mile or less in size to best show how flexible the Alpha Technology could be within its square mile grid. And finally, the study areas needed to be adjacent to or near a primary corridor so that the reader could get a better feel for how a PRT system could provide service on a regional scale.
(Illustration 9) shows a simplified circulation pattern for the entire Southeast Denver region with the three study areas highlighted.
Each study area’s character was then examined by first
studying it’s present and future image goals including its
trends, tendencies and how the study area fits into a regional
context. Next, the areas present and future social functions were examined. Social functions include such things as demographic background and projections, life styles, user needs and general character of the community. Natural and site functions were taken into consideration including topography and the conservation and preservation of natural resources.
When applicable, building treatment and the massing of structures was examined in its present state, and then future possibilities were described. Included in this criteria was the
27


use of centers and nodes, scale an rhythm, zoning, flexibility, materials and structures, proportions and scale and visibility requirements.
Twelve criteria were used when describing the study areas present and future circulation. Traffic projections, mode split, access patterns, public transportation, hierarchy of networks, parking requirements, automobile networks, physical and terminal facilities, network form, the interface and interaction of the above criteria and the regional interface and interaction.
Finally, each study area was evaluated according to its quality of life. Here a synthesis of all the criteria listed determined the present and future well being of the area.
Following is a brief description of the study areas including the challenges or problems that each presented: The first study area is a square mile bordered on the north and south by Belleview and Orchard Roads and on the east and west by Holly Street and Colorado Blvd. This area is less than 5% developed. More than one quarter of the property is the setting for the Highland Canal. This area offers one of the best opportunities for using the Alpha Technology because development could be planned and constructed hand in hand with the transit system. The Highland Canal property will demonstrate opportunities for development without the automobile dictating land use. The challenge should be smoothly integrating routes into the surrounding developed areas.
29


Study areas two
is the square mile directly east of the
first study area. It consists of low density single family housing The routes here will be kept simple, conforming to existing streets. Although part of this land remains undeveloped, the remainder is unlikely to change much in looks or density. The challenge here is to protect the neighborhood character while development continues directly to the east and the west, and at the same time create a transportation network less reliant on the private automobile and more concordant to the pedestrian.
Study area three is the area adjacent to 1-25 between Belleview and Orchard. Presently zoned for low density office (Bl) or mixed use (town center zone(4>), it is bisected by 1-25. The west side is Greenwood Village, the east side is part of the Denver Technical Center. The visual and emotional impact of the dominance of mobility over tranquility is exemplified here in Denver’s southeastern streets Belleview and Orchard. Here 100* right-of-ways and heavy traffic prevent any pedestrian interaction with commercial uses.
Such areas of new development are a growing phenomena in suburban areas. This clustering also provides the nodes needed for suburban transit centers in areas once considered forbidden transit territory. The problem facing this area is the vast separation and isolation of structures due to the need for wide streets and large parking areas.
As Doxiados pointed out, "The market-place should not be a system of buildings isolated form the city as most of the modern
30


shopping centers are, nor the area where we now bring people to be squeezed between buildings and machines, as the great shopping avenues do, but it should be a place of interaction of people in a balanced network between buildings and nature. It is human energy that must be in control.5>
All three areas represent today's trends in development from low density suburban housing, to high tech clusters along transit corridors. It is here where we must apply modern
technology in
of living tha
first place.
31


REFERENCES CITED
1 Parsons Brinkerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., et.al., "Technical Analysis and Technology Assessment," Working Paper 3, Denver, Colorado, November 1985, p. 18, (Mimeographed.)
2 Ibid.
3 William Fulton, "Silicon Strips," Planning 52 (May 1986): 7.
4 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982, p. 10.
5 C. A. Doxiadis, Anthropopolis. (New York: W. W. Norton and Company Inc., 1974), p. 171.
32


"The failure of the suburbs is implicit their nature. It is not possible — yet — humans to live out their lives in widely scatte settlements. We are social, if not sociab creatures and presumably will always require s degree of congregational activity."
in
for
red
le,
ome
----Ray McDonald
Conference on Personal Rapid Transit, 1975
33


CHAPTER 4
STUDY AREA ONE
Image Goals
Study area one is one square mile bounded by Belleview and Orchard on the north and south, and Colorado Blvd. and Holly on the west and east. The Greenwood Village Master Plan calls this land "one of the most beautiful square miles in the Denver Metro Area.1> With horse stables to the east and west, this land is often used for horseback riding appearing as a rural oasis overlooked in the surrounding suburban sprawl.
Social Function
At the present time, there are only eleven residences and one school on this property leaving over 90% of the land undeveloped. Although no formal projections have been made, current zoning would allow another 363 dwelling units to be built.<2> Present development assumes that residents living
in or adjacent to this property would prefer it either developed as very low density single family homes or not developed at all. The future plans used in this study would widen the social functions and land use possibilities while leaving most of the land open for open space and parks.
34


Natural and Site Function
The natural and site function of study area one is dominated by the Highland Canal which loops around the northwest corner. Almost 150 acres are included in its flood plain. The remaining land is slightly elevated offering a spectacular view of the mountains. The future site plan for this area encourages the preservation of most of the area in its natural state.
Building Treatment
The present buildings, excluding West Middle School are residential and sit on large lots, rural in nature. Most of these lie adjacent to Belleview Avenue and will not be affected by future development plans outlined in this study. In fact, the development proposed in this paper would free existing structures from any close-in development that might possibly change the open environment they now enjoy.
Working with a clean slate such as this study area has endless possibilities. The following proposed site plan demonstrates one of the unique mixed use concepts that is possible when a PRT network forms the framework for a new community. Illustration 10 shows a site plan that is dense and requires very little land. The development is located on a highpoint in the southern half of the area. Instead of city blocks, the plan calls for triangles. These triangles can be fitted together as a pentagon enclosing the residential dwellings, or they can form a star, opening up the residential areas and forming large enclosed open spaces.
35


Either way, there is little automobile access and no reason to build a large or complex street system.
Each triangle represents a vertical mixed use situation in which a variety of buildings and uses share a variety of types and sizes of open space (Illustration 11). The pink area in each triangle represents up to 15 four story buildings containing vertical mixed use. The ground floor is composed of commercial retail and services. The second floor contains offices and/or apartments. The third and fourth floors are both residential. The orange area represents three and four story apartments. A limited amount of parking could be offered underground or on ground level for residents. With the Alpha system integrated, residents would require only one automobile, if any, for each household.
The center alley is the only vehicular access to these buildings, all other land within the triangle is broken up into smaller more intimate courtyards. Illustration 12 shows how
such a development might look with different levels of
pedestrian space and lack of visual obstruction due to
automobiles and their networks.
As Table 3 shows, such a development would take up only 52 acres or 8* of the entire square mile. With nineteen triangles built and assuming an average dwelling unit occupancy of two, this development could house up to 6650 residents. This number is over five times that of the present development plans under current zoning and uses 70X less land. At the same time, this
37




TABLE 3
USE FUTURE LAND USE STUDY AREA ONE TOTAL ACRES * TOTAL
R2.5 15 2
R-l 4 .6
School 19 3
Canal 18 3
Commercial 12 2
Mixed Use 40 6
Open space 532 83
MIXED USE
2.08 Acres/Triangle x 19 = 9.5 Acres 175 DU’s/Triangle x 19 = 3325 DU’s 3325 DU’s x 2 (Occupants) = 6650 Residents
P • R • T
Length: 5 Miles Stations: 7
Maximum Walking Distance: 1200 Feet
»
»
40 -


development contains no high rise buildings and has a low profile.
Massing
The triangles present a form of development that could easily be phased into a cluster form by building one or several triangles at a time and adding more when needed. "Construction costs of this type of development can be substantially reduced due to economics of scale and lower infrastructure costs. Roads, sewers, and other utility lines can be reduced by as much as 75% under the requirements for single family units on one acre lots."< 3 >
As similar cluster developments become common, we might find other advantages arising due to similar economics of scale. For example, consumer habits may change as residents find it easy and convenient to shop within his or her community cluster rather than travel long distances to regional shopping centers or large super markets. This could lead to a much healthier society as people begin walking or biking to nearby shopping and numerous long trips are no longer required or desired.
Without streets that divide and bring safety hazards into neighborhoods, community clusters could choose and build upon a common identity, be it lifestyle, ethnic background or a commercial common denominator. For example, one cluster may
choose to house a majority of art galleries with the artist choosing to live in that community.
41


Each cluster of triangles Each node is then connected by a fixed-guideway structure, e connectivity is strengthened, station facility at the cente strengthen the visual image, can provide the strong determi separate nodes conceptually form."<4>
Transition into adjacen Although surrounding areas a surrounding this development transition area.
forms an activity center or node.
the Alpha System. "By providing levated above grade, the image of In addition, the use of a fixed r of each activity node will also Only a fixed (elevated) guideway nistic element needed to link the into one continuous urban
t areas would blend smoothly, re far less dense, the open space would make a more than sufficient
Circulation
At this time, the road system is limited to the surrounding streets on three sides; Belleview Avenue, Holly, and Orchard Road. Colorado Blvd. is not a through street and other roads are private drives accessing homes.
1.5 miles of the Highland Canal Earthen Trail is located in this area and roughly two additional miles of earthen and bike trails have been proposed.(5> The future site plan would integrate an extensive network of pedestrian, bicycle and
equestrian paths providing internal circulation as well as linking to regionally planned networks.
The future circulation plan for study area one calls for five miles of one-way guideways for the Alpha Technology.
42


See Illustration 10.
Four of the five miles circle the area
counter clockwise merging into the regional grid. The last mile
services the new development cluster with a maximum walking
distance of 1200 f eet to the nearest station. Seven stations
serve this area; four stations are located on the surrounding
grid, three stations are located internally, situated in the cluster developments.
Table 4 lists all amenities necessary to serve this areas needs and the traveling time required to reach each one. The first column, entitled "activity", lists amenities broken down by three categories; education, recreation and commercial. An "0" following the activity indicates that it is provided outside this study area. The second column, entitled "population served", lists the population needed to serve each activity. The third column indicates travel time on the Alpha system from each of the area's seven PRT stations (Refer to Illustration 10) to the desired destination station. A maximum of ten minutes could be added to this travel time to allow for walking to a station and from the end station to the activity. If the activity lies within 1200 feet, or approximately five minutes walking distance of the origin station, it is indicated by a "W" meaning the distance directly to that activity is probably less than the distance to a station. As noted earlier in this chapter, consumer buying habits are also likely to change due to urban forms resulting from a PRT system. Choosing to shop in smaller food shops located within the clusters rather
43


TABLE 4
Activity
Educa t ion
Day Care Center Primary School - 0 Middle School High School - 0
Recreat ion
Play Area Swimming Pool - 0 Health Club - 0 Golf course -Tennis Courts Cinema - 0
Commercial
Convenience Store Restaurant/Bar Super Market - 0 Shopping Center Hotel - 0 Regioinal Shopping Center ~ 0
TRAVEL TIMES USING ALPHA TECHNOLOGY
Populat ion Served
Travel Time
Station
1 2 3 4 5 6
6,000 W W W 7 5 3
6,000 5 4 3 W 6 4
9,000 4.5 3.5 2.5 W W 4
24,000 3.5 12.5 11.5 9 7 13
2,000 W W W W 4 2
3,000 8 7 6 11 9 7
3,000 8 7 6 11 9 7
9,000 10.5 9.5 8.5 12 10 8
24,000 4.5 3.5 2.5 W W 4
24,000 14.5 13.5 12.5 10 8 6
3,000 W W W 6 4 2 4
6,000 W W W 6 4 2 4
10,000 13.5 12.5 11.5 9 7 13 11
40,000 W W W 6 4 2 4
24,000 14.5 13.5 12.5 10 8 6 4
150,000 18.5 17.5 16.5 14 12 10 8
44
CO 05 Ol Ol to I—1 tO CO CO


than distant large supermarkets would result in less travel time required for grocery shopping.
The Alpha technology would provide for more services than passenger travel alone. With special vehicles or the conversion of existing vehicles, freight could be delivered to stores and garbage could be hauled off. These services could take place at night as well as during the day since the system does not produce any offensive noises.
According to the Automobile Manufacturers Association, "A typical city daily produces about 200 intracity truck trips per 1,000 residents. Excluding the Central Business district, each developed acre of land attracts 1.6 tol.8 truck trips daily. . .retail shops generate about 11 daily truck trips per 1,000 square feet of floor area. Convenience and general merchandise stores generate about 5 trips per 1,000 square feet."(6> "Placing PRT stations at terminals and warehouses could eliminate many truck trips, and the lessened person-trips on the streets and highways would ease the freight movement remaining by truck."< 7 >
QUALITY OF LIFE
Newly developed cluster centers such as these constitute the most fertile ground for planting the PRT Idea. "A change in the
pattern or the technology becomes a stimulus, provoking a response in the other, which itself becomes a new stimulus in an
endless chain of adjustments, such is the interaction between transportation and land use."<0)
45


These designs are intended to show the reader how, when developed jointly, concepts or urban development can compliment capabilities of the Alpha Technology. Although vehicular access and parking is provided for residents, proximity to PRT stations makes the Alpha Technology very attractive. Unlike the automobile network, the closeness of housing to transit is possible with the narrow, quiet, low profile characteristics of the Alpha Technology.
Using a cluster development such as this one allows significant increases in density without sacrificing the desirable quality of life which the present residents now enjoy. In fact, the extensive amount of open space around the cluster development will actually better preserve the rural atmosphere than the current 2.5 acre lot zoning.
46


REFERENCES CITED
1 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan, p. 28.
2 Ibid., p. 27.
3 Jerome M. Luten, "Usint New Transit Technology to Shape Suburban Growth." in Personal Rapid Tansit II.
47


"There is no reason why we should let the invaders of new technology take over everything, instead of accepting the best from the invader and creating a balance with all local needs, human community, etc."
"Should we allow such a large percentage of action to come by chance and individual necessity as today; or should we stress the importance of action by the community to build now and serve the needs of all human beings?"
----C.A. Doxiados
City for Human Development, 1974
48


CHAPTER V
STUDY AREA TWO
Image Goals
One square mile bounded by Belleview Avenue and Orchard Road on the north and south, this area extends east from Holly Street to Quebec Street.(Illustration 13) The area is primarily residential, consisting of large single family homes. The attitude here is conservative and residents hope to discourage further expansion of commercial development especially on the corner of Quebec and Arapahoe. The Master Plan encourages large residential building sites to protect and buffer this area from adjacent commercial zonings in the northeast and town center zoning in the southeast.(15
The intention of the future land use plan is to protect the current low density and rural image. The area would become somewhat of a transition area between dense development to the east and the cluster development with predominant open space to the west.
Social Functions
"The present pattern of urban development in the U.S. has resulted from the compounding of individual decisions about where to live and the lack of enforceable land-use plans. The automobile has been a prerequisite to random low-density development, but by itself, could not have produced it. The fundamental driving forces appear to have been simply a desire for privacy, fresh air, closeness to nature, and a nice place for one’s children to run and play."<2)
49


Today the population in study area two is just under 1000 persons; a density of 1.6 persons per acre. Under current zoning, there could be an increase of 97 dwelling units, bringing the total up to 369 dwelling units.(3) This would increase the population to approximately 1300 persons; far less growth than what will be taking place to the east and west. Of prime concern to today's residents is the intrusion of commercial traffic through any of the residential streets in this area.<4) This will be discussed in detail later in this chapter.
Natural Site and Function
Much like Study Area One, this area is "identified with excellent mountain views and interesting terrain."(5) The terrain is hilly and slopes toward an east-west drainage line that approximately bisects the land.
The eastern side of the property is a buffer zone approximately 660 feet wide running from Belleview south to Orchard. Most of this land was bought by developers in the Town Center Zone to the east, and given to the community as open space in lieu of certain landscape restrictions.
The future land use plan for this area keeps this rural image and protects it from the threat of over development in years to come.
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Building Treatment
The homes built in the north half of the Study Area Two are very large and affluent. Many of these homes are built in materials and styles indigenous to the area. Sitings are often aligned with the topography rather than the street, and often the landscaping has been left in its natural state.
The southern half of this area also consists of large, affluent homes. However, this section is more typical of suburban development with homes lined up facing the street and more planted landscape.
The commercial buildings are on the northeast corner facing Belleview and Quebec. Although relatively low in profile, — no buildings over 4 stories — they appear to be spillover from commercial areas to the east and have little ,if any, relation to one another. In fact, the placement of these building looks like the beginning of strip commercial along Belleview Avenue. The future land use plan will direct the focal point of these commercial buildings back towards the Town Center Zoning in the east. (Table 5) shows a breakdown in acreage of present and future land uses. Note how little will be changed. Residential housing will increase according to guidelines set by the Master Plan. Other changes include additional park land and open space and a small reduction in public roads — two acre.
Massing
The unorganized massing of buildings will remain in the future land use plan. Because this area is so automobile
52


TABLE 5
STUDY AREA TWO PRESENT & FUTURE LAND USE
PRESENT FUTURE
USE ACRES % ACRES ACRES % ACRES
Residential 309.2 49 419.5* 65
School 15 2.7 15 2.7
Church 2.5 .4 2.5 .4
Commercial 24 3 24 3
Mixed Use — — 40 6
Parks 15.7 2 25 4
Roads Undeveloped 128 145.3 20 23 114 18
* 369 DU’s X 3.5 = 1292
P • R • T Length: 6 Miles Stations: 5
Maximum Walking distance: .5 Mile
53


oriented, clustering around centers and using the Alpha Technology as a connector line is impossible. The present land use has little flexibility and will never be the ideal set up for PRT. However, as shown in the next section, there are still many advantages gained when traditional neighborhoods install PRT.
Circulation
As mentioned earlier, a prime concern of residents in Study Area Two is traffic. "Through traffic along Berry and Monaco should be actively discouraged as should the intrusion of commercial traffic through any of the residential streets of this area.6 >
Presently, access to this area is limited to three sides. The eastern border and dividing line between study area two and the heavy employment areas to the east, is Quebec Street. Quebec Street is a four lane parkway offering no access to Study Area Two.
With the inevitable development of land to the west, and projected employment increases of up to 450%(7) to the east, it is unlikely that this area will be able to avoid through traffic, resulting in a moderate to large amount of congestion, noise and unsafe pedestrian movement.
Illustration 13 is the circulation pattern of the Alpha Technology for Study Area Two. Because the existing development is dispersed, the plan calls for seven miles of one-way guideways. The inefficiency of such dispersed development
54


can
now
be seen when we compare Study Areas One and Two. Study
Area Two requires one more mile of guideway to serve a population that is smaller by eighty percent. The maximum walking distance is .5 mile compared to 1200 feet in Study Area One. Still, residential areas such as this should not see their future as "once to be served by the auto, now always to serve the auto."
Like every square mile, this area will have a guideway around its border with four stations — one between each intersection. This guideway serves as more than regional circulation, it also creates a visual border around the Study Area giving it a sense of community. Gateways in the Study Area could be played up where the guideways leave the grid and travel internally. Again, this would reinforce a sense of neighborhood or community despite the dispersed placement of homes.
The internal circulation plan shows two guideways crossing the Study Area. The first guideway runs westward on Berry Street with a station midway. The second guideway runs east on Dorado with no stops. Through traffic on the Alpha System would not be discouraged at all. Since lines are designed to be physically attractive and produce no offensive noises or fumes, there would be no problems associated with heavy traffic. Neighborhoods would now be able to further reduce automobile traffic by restructuring streets into "dutch woonerfs, (or 'living yards’) where streets are blocked off and cars may enter only at a reduced speed while obstacles such as planters and trees force the cars to take an indirect course,"(e) Other
55


streets could be completely closed and converted into linear parks.
Ray McDonald writes:
"The problem in existing developed areas is that the only communal land available is generally used for streets and parking facilities; very often these are underutilized but cannot be closed off or restructured. The comprehensive use of PRT in certain zones may make this land usable. Streets often amount to 20% or 25% of urban land which is an extremely valuable commodity and could be better utilized to enhance the quality of urban living."< 9 >
Illustration 14 shows a PRT guideway and station in a street converted to a linear park.
To compliment the Alpha System, a comprehensive network of bike, walkway and motorbike trails lead to the Alpha station, the present bike path runs along Monaco from Belleview Avenue to Orchard Road with a connecting line on Orchard Place. The path is separated from the street by a wooden rail adding a human attractiveness to the street system. Extending these paths to all stations would provide safe and easy access to the PRT system.
QUALITY OF LIFE
The original desires for a low density surburban lifestyle fresh air, privacy and open space -- were made possible by the freedom of the private automobile. Natural landscaping, bike paths reflecting country roads, and large sites with horse stables all reflect the communities desire to remain rural in
56


nature despite
intensive development directly to the east.
And
yet, the same mode of transportation that allowed this rural development, now threatens to destroy it.
Along with the extension of pedestrian and bike paths, the Alpha technology would service this area’s residents, prevent unwanted through traffic and free up more land to enhance a rural atmosphere. Although the area might become a bridge between more intensive developments, the landscape will be protected as Alpha vehicles pass quietly and harmoniously along their guideways.
58


REFERENCES CITED
1 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982. p. 31.
2 Task Force on New Concepts in Urban Transportation, Planning for Personal Rapid Transit, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1972), p. 60.
3 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982. p. CO o
4 Ibid., p . 31.
5 Ibid., p CO o
6 Ibid.
7 Parsons Brinkerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., et.
"Technical Analysis and Technology Assessment, "Denver, November 1985, p. 16. (Mimeographed.)
8 Kevin Lynch and Gary Hack, Site Planning. (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1984), p. 203.
9 Ray MacDonald, "Economic Considerations and Potential Applications of PRT Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A Dennis, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), p. 177.
59


"If the architecture is just a display like pictures for the comple either statical than a picture can be realize buildings, tre arrangement."
outdoors is to be colonized, not enough. The outdoors is not of individual works or architecture in a gallery, it is an environment te human being, who can claim it ly or in movement. He demands more gallery, he demands the drama that d all around him from floor, sky, es, and levels by the art of
----Gordon Cullen
The Concise Townscape
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CHAPTER 6
STUDY AREA THREE
Image Goals
Study Area Three runs from Quebec Street east to Yosemite Street, and is bounded by Belleview Avenue on the north and Orchard Road on the south. (See Illustration 15) Bisected by 1-25, the Denver Technical Center lies to the east and Greenwood Plaza to the west. Both business parks are regulated by the Town Center Zone District with each further regulated by Master Development Plans.(1) According to the Master Plan for Greenwood Village, the concept of this area is to provide office parks exhibiting "excellent planning and architecture with an emphasis on open space landscaping."<2> Of direct concern to the city is adequate open space and the character of parking. It is the goal of Greenwood Village to maintain a balance between surrounding low-density residential areas and this major regional employment center.(31
An advertisement for John Madden Real Estate Company describes Greenwood Plaza as "an enriching, enlivened place of work. A balance of commerce and creativity, technology and art, productivity and leisure. A progressive environment enhancing your business future today.4> Thomas Taylor, an employee at the Denver Technical Center described this same area by saying,
61


"The landscaping around our office is beautiful but it’s just decorative, it doesn’t relate to people. I’ve often eaten lunch outside without seeing another person. There’s something almosT prohibitive about the landscape".
The future plan for Study Area Three will change this area’s image from one of enclosed daytime productivity to one of twenty-four hour, diverse activity.
Social Functions
Study Area Three is a social, if not sociable, gathering place. Unfortunately, this area has little activity after working hours. Many of the restaurants here are located in office buildings and are open only for lunch. Retail shopping is limited to the Beau Monde Mall which is situated adjacent to the intersection of 1-25 and Orchard Road. Although accessible by car, there are parking and street barriers on all sides preventing pedestrian interaction from the surrounding offices.
There is no residential housing in Study Area Three. Without residents to provide the need for social interface beyond working hours, there will be little chance of changing this area into a vital community.
Under the subtitle, Building Treatment the mixing of land uses resulting in the mixing of human activity will show how social functions in the future can be improved.
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Natural and Site Function
A ridge runs beneath Interstate 25 creating drainage and drainage related land forms to the east and west of 1-25. These land forms will be preserved by discouraging any development that seeks to level out the land. The future site plan shows a small lake in the northern half where drainage water can collect and be recycled for landscape irrigation.
Like the other two study areas, protecting and emphasizing the views of the Front Range should be one of the highest priorities. This view gives the area its uniqueness, putting it a step ahead of the other high-tech corridors or "silicon strips."
Building Treatment
The buildings in this area range from small one story offices, to high rise (over nine stories) buildings with over 400,000 square feet. Architecturally this area combines everything from the small chalet style single office to the geometric and colorful post modern styles. Smooth glassy surfaces integrate with rough finished wood and reflective glass to make this area a conglomeration of different styles, colors and textures.
Illustration 16 is a present land use map of Study Area One. The yellow tones depicting office buildings darken as the building height increases. Most high rise buildigs are located east of 1-25. The red tones indicate hotel and commercial.
64


There are no permanent residential structures in Study Area Three at this time. Below the map on Illustration 16 is a breakdown of present land uses by acreage.
Attempts have been made to increase the amount of landscaping to help offset the visual intrusion of large streets and parking lots. East of 1-25 in the Denver Technological Center, developers are required to landscape at least 30% of each site. The remaining 70% is divided between parking, which cannot exceed 40%, and the building itself.
Illustration 17 shows the future land use plan. There has been a seventy-five percent reduction in parking and a 50% reduction in street square footage. Development is intensified and diversified, especially around transit stations.
Approximately 15 acres (pink) of mixed use and 6.5 acres of residential mid-rise apartments (brown) have been added to the future land use map. By providing land uses for living, playing, and relaxing, as well as working, this area will be able to accommodate a more diverse population.
Massing
Currently, there is little massing of buildings into centers or focus points. Separation of sites by wide streets and parking prohibits, the flow of human activity between buildings. If there is any focus to this area, it is that focus of each individual building onto the street in front of it.
The overlay on Illustration 17 shows how buildings would be massed. As buildings fall into clusters, plazas could be
66


formed, each with its own transit station to achieve a focus and minimize access to the Alpha system. Clusters consist of the highest density buildings in the center, surrounded by lower density office, retail, and residential buildings. Each plaza or closure reinforces the influence of open space and assures activity on a pedestrian scale. The Alpha guideways serve as connector lines between the clusters.
As a passenger rides through this area, he or she should feel a sense of the quiet open space leading into a dynamic center and back into the open space as a transition to the next center.
Circulation
"In the anticipation of tens of thousands of workers migrating daily to the office parks, an already serious traffic problem will get much worse.5>
"Park developers have become very sensitive to employee access problems and are beginning to provide accessary services such as the development of mixed use parks. Distinction between office and industrial space is blurring as many once office functions move into industrial space for cost reasons. This will accelerate business industrial park development and increase the need for public transit access to the parks."(6)
As shown in Illustration 15, ten miles of PRT guideway circulates in, around, and through this area, including a stretch of four guideways along 1-25. The maximum walking distance from any building in this area is 1200 feet or approximately 4.5 minutes. Circulation is of three types: 1)
68


Two two-way guideways along 1-25 serve as the most direct route between Southeast Denver and downtown. 2) Running clockwise around the square mile is a guideway best used for long trips where the destination is not near a corridor line. This guideway is part of the square mile grid covering the entire region. 3) The last type of circulation is the circulation within the square mile. East of 1-25, one large loop connects with the grid pattern on the north, south, and east. West of 1-25, two circular patterns meet and merge on Syracuse Street. This guideway carries people from the shopping center Beau Monde and disperses them throughout Greenwood Village. These circular routes connect to the square mile grid in two places on the west side. Beau Monde also serves as the off line station for the primary corridor.
Most stations have been converted from covered parking shelters and can be used for parking as well as a platform to load and unload PRT passengers. Station one is located in the three level parking structure for the "One DTC" building. (See Illustration 18). Station two is located in the six level parking structure for "The Quadrant" Building. Station three is located at 5613 DTC Parkway. This station accesses station six in Beau Monde across 1-25. The transition across 1-25 is very smooth since the guideway actually points to the clock tower above Beau Monde, a focus point usually overlooked from 1-25.
Station four is located in the Key Savings and Loan Building. Station five is next to the Boettcher Building at
69


8400 DTC Blvd.
Stations seven and eight in Greenwood Village
are not located in existing structures. Additional stations could easily be added to buildings whose developers are willing to donate their parking structures or part of their building for the station.
All transit stations are near high density office buildings or activity centers such as the Beau Monde shopping center. As development occurs, it will cluster around these stations to take maximum advantage of the Alpha technology.
Looking at Illustration 16, the reader can see that thirty percent of the and is surface parking. Combine this number with covered parking structures and land used for roads, and almost 50% of this square mile is used for the storage and circulation of automobiles. Less than 17% of the land surface is used for building structures. In this area where building leases vary from $7.00 to $25.00 per square foot, more land is used for parking than any other type of development.
Table 6 shows the amount of land used for, and the cost of constructing parking in this area; money that could be used for constructing Alpha guideways, and land that could be developed or converted into open space.
Illustration 17 shows that with the installation of the Alpha technology, approximately 75% of parking could be eliminated. This is based on an approximate mode split of 45% used in the Duluth study,(7> and an additional 25% who drive to remote parking and use the Alpha technology to reach the area.
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TABLE 6
* Land
Required for Parking
Price per Square Foot
Total Cost
Cost of S tructure Surfacing etc.
Total Cost
Average Cost per Car
* Numbers are
PARKING COSTS FOR STUDY AREA III COMPARED TO PRT COST
SURFACE PARKING
23,216 spaces 153.5 acres 6,686,460 sq. ft.
$10/square foot
$10.00 x 6,686,460 = $66,864,600.00
6,686,460 x 1.76/ square foot = $11,768,170.00
$78,632,770.00
$3,387.00
STRUCTURE PARKING
18,906 spaces 25 acres
1,089,000 square feet
$10/ square foot
1,089,000 x $10.00 = $10,890,000.00
5,445,000 x 4.87/square foot = $80,967,150.00
$91,857,150.00
$4,858.00
est imates
Price Source: Black's Guide 86
A McGraw Hill Office Leasing Guide, p. 20.
72


Looking again at Illustration 17, the reader sees that movement in this area is now divided into categories: 1) The Alpha technology. 2) The public roads, colored grey on the map, have gone from an average of 74 foot right-of-ways to approximately 35 foot right-of-ways. These streets could be two way, two lane streets or a one-way, circular street if faster circulation is desired. 3) Service Roads are olive colored on the map. These roads are for authorized vehicles such as cars owned by the particular office they serve, or cars owned by residents of the apartment buildings. Service roads are all open to vehicles providing fire and police protection as well as vehicles needed for the building and maintenance of infrastructure, buildings, and landscaping. The service roads could also serve bikes and pedestrians since vehicular use is restricted. 4) Light green represents primary corridors for bike and foot travel. These corridors are too wide to be considered paths. Most have hard surfaces and are used as pedestrian plazas. In any case, all vehicles except emergency (fire and police) would be strictly forbidden in this network. 5) The last type of circulation is not pictured on the map. It is a system of narrow bike and foot paths connecting all structures to one another. These paths will tie together the pedestrian oriented activity centers with pedestrian oriented circulation. (See Illustration 19)
73


>
QUALITY OF LIFE
"PRT urban forms must be attractive in a social sense covering aesthetics, convenience, reliability, security, and other less obvious psychological factors.With the Alpha technology, such human, not automobile, needs can be met.
The scenario presented in Study Area Three was intended to provide the reader with an optimistic view of how suburban business parks can provide employment, entertainment and a clean environment while keeping in harmony with the surrounding region. The Alpha technology is no longer seen as a competitor for auto travel, "transit now becomes more like a horizontal elevator and this extends the environment of the building to the scale of an entire community.
In essence, the Alpha technology provides a potential tool by which purposeful social commitment can be translated into physical reality.
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REFERENCES CITED
1 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982. p.32.
2 Ibid.
3 Ibid.
4 Advertisement from Black's Guide. Winter, 1986, p. 7.
s City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982. p. 32
6 Donald E. Priest, and Joseph L. Walsh-Russo, "Land Use Trends and Transit Operations," TRB Special Report. 199, p. 40.
7 Ray MacDonald, "Economic considerations and Potential Applications of PRT Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. by Gary A. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976)
p. 181.
8 Ibid.
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"First, the taking in of scattered particulars under one X^ea, so that everyone understands what is being talked about. . .Second, the separation of the X^ea into parts, by dividing it at the joints, as nature directs, not breaking any limb in half as a bad carver might."
----Plato, Phaedeus, 265 D
"It is appalling and amazing to me how many people in the political process look at the future through a rear-view mirror, and think that the future is going to be nothing but an extrapolation of the past. That is absurd and insane. Considering the kinds of realities which face the world and this country, it is absurd to believe that we can continue living in the past and using the institutional approaches to solving problems that we have used in the past."
----Governor Richard Lamn
Conference on Personal Rapid Transit, 1975
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CHAPTER 7
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
This paper has thus far described the problems inherent in an automobile oriented society; congestion, inefficient use of land, safety hazards, and pollution, to name a few. Suggested in this study is the implementation of the Alpha technology, a PRT system recently designed by Automated Transportation Systems, Inc. This system allows the freedom and convenience of the automobile without the negative impacts and at a cost far below that of other, less efficient transit modes. Installation of the Alpha system and other PRT systems have been rejected in cities because it was considered unproven technology. Meanwhile, more proven, if not effective, line haul systems are still being built with no positive effect on current or future land use development.
The three study areas used in this study are located in Denver's Southeast Corridor, a corridor typical of many suburban high tech employment areas across the nation. The individual study areas represent a variety of different land use characteristics and how they might be impacted by PRT implementation.
Study Area One concentrates on land infil using a new urban form that allows concentrated development and large open spaces without an extended street network.
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Study Area Two uses PRT in an established neighborhood. Here the reader is shown how PRT can be integrated into a street network and still provide good service.
Study Area Three integrates Alpha into a high tech office park. Using the Alpha technology, stations can be placed in parking structures and most surface parking can be converted into open space or additional buildings.
Findings
Two important findings evolved from this study. First, a feeling of doubt over such an unused technology diminished as the study progressed. The technology itself has been proven as far as reliability and automation is concerned. Practically any scenario provided, even a mediocre one, will show that a PRT system is less expensive to install and more convenient than any other transit alternative.
The current distrust in PRT technologies is more a result of the professional transit establishment being pressured over rising costs, decreasing ridership, and under constant scrutiny of the press and revolting taxpayers. It is this distrust and fear of change that must be overcome, not any technical faults.
The second finding in this study was the endless number of urban forms possible when the Alpha technology comes into play. For each of the three study areas, there was not one, but several optimum alternatives regarding the placement of guide-ways and the land use surrounding them. The more each area was studied, the more possibilities arose. In the end, the future
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site plans for each study area are not illustrations of the only, or the best examples of land use, but one of many examples of where we might direct land use in the future.
Strengths and Weaknesses
It is not easy to predict the tastes and habits of future generations. Although exciting, the guesswork involved when looking so far ahead into the future can be frustrating when there are no proven methods, long equations or long form surveys to prove what is in essence a "vision" of the future.
Study Area One is the best example of how the Alpha technology could be applied. Of course, the future will always be easier planned without the cumbersome problems inherited from past and present decisions. Study Area One demonstrated success in all areas of the criteria used; a well defined community, providing all necessary amenities without burdening the infrastructure and circulation systems. Given more time, a further study into the architecture used would further demonstrate the quality of life available to the residents of this area.
Study Area Three was difficult to plan because of the numerous and random decisions required: where to cluster development, which parking structures to convert into stations, which parking structures to keep intact, where to place service roads and how to bring cohesiveness to a fragmented development. Arguments for the future site plan may appear weak, but are actually quite sound. Use of present employment figures cannot
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predict the placement of a circulation system. First, the major networks and stations must be planned to form the framework around which clusters and a future focus will be built. If such decisions appear random, it is because the author illustrated how she would like to see development occur in the future,not where she predicts it is going at this time.
To further the work done on Study Area Three, several further studies are suggested: An employment and population estimate drawn from the development square footage used in the future site plan. From this estimate further study could determine more specifically the usage of service roads. High rates of employment might also determine a need for more Alpha stations located in or near high density buildings.
As a contained business park, Study Area Three is a prime target for initiating the Alpha technology. A survey determining the interest in such a system among developers could begin a study on the economic feasibility of PRT in an isolated area. A study of this type could determine a cost-benefit analysis of providing outlying parking, bringing employees into the business park via the Alpha technology and eliminating a given percentage of surface parking.
Study Area Two was the weakest example of how the Alpha technology could provide optimum service. Retrofitting the Alpha Technology into low density, residential area is difficult due to problems of accessibility. It is not economically feasible to cover a square mile of dispersed single family homes with stations that will serve a population of under 2000
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persons.
In addition to further walking distance, problems
arose concerning the one-way guideways. The guideway running on the square mile border of this Study Area is not circular, thus trips on the Alpha system would require the vehicle to go several miles out of the way in order to circle around and stop on the desired destination This problem could be solved by adding more lines or, perhaps, making one or more lines two-way. However, as previously stated, this is not economically feasible due to the low density in Study Area Two.
A question arose from this study over the need for corridor guideways of such high capacity. There was a certain amount of pressure felt to use 1-25 as a PRT corridor simply because the land is there and is very transit intensive. There is a good possibility that the square mile grid could adequately take care of trips between the CBD and the outer Southeast Corridor. Normally, transit along major corridors is a priority among transit planners. However, it is recommended in this study that the corridor guideways be low priority and built only if grid guideways can no longer provide enough service. Money used for corridor travel would be better spent on building more stations for better access.
For Further Research
Three primary issues regarding the Alpha technology were not covered in this study; financing the technology, public policy issues needed to promote the technology and community involve-
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ment in the decision making process. Below is a synopsis of some of the work done in each of these areas.
The Alpha technology’s flexibility allows a unique form of financing not available in other mass transit technologies;
freight hauling.
"Studies of PRT for both the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and the Duluth Metropolitan Area discussed in this report indicate that even if a PRT system is used for moving passengers only, it is cost-competitive with other forms of public
transit and at the same time provides a much higher level of service. It the system is also used for moving freight, it appears quite probable that the entire cost of the system can be paid for out or revenues."(1>
Further studies have been written on freight hauling
published in Personal Rapid Transit III.<2). and Planning for Personal Rapid Transit*3 > .
"Joint use policy" is a term heard frequently among transportation planners and describes an increasing need to use private as well as public funds on transportation systems.
Already private developers have placed PRT systems in many
isolated projects across the country; primarily airports and large amusement parks.
Private developers from the Denver Technical Center have
already hired "Skidmore Owens and Merril" to do a transit study for the Southeast Corridor and surrounding business parks.
Denver’s Regional Transportation District has been working with these same developers to form a subscription service where buses would pick up employees of the Technical Center and bring them I directly to and from work. Employees of many large businesses
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provide free bus passes or similar incentives to those willing to leave their autos at home. This clearly shows that developers see the need to help finance alternatives to the costly and growing parking problems they are faced with. As Robert Hemmes suggested:
"Try to find capture strategies in order to acquire for the system some of the benefits that it produces. For instance, if we put a PRT terminal of our downtown area in a department store, the normal approach would be for the store to allow the PRT lease space for the station. But a PRT at the second level really makes the second level of the department store as valuable as the first. The department store ought therefore to pay for having the PRT station. Morever, as an added incentive, we could perhaps allow a building having a PRT terminal not to build the parking spaces which are now required in most urban ordinances."(4 >
Hand in hand with financing goes public policy. PRT should be considered as infrastruture. Subdivision regulation should require the installation of PRT quideways and stations in the drawing board stage and finance them as a utility essential to the project.
During the ATRA Conference, held in Denver in November of 1985, Byron Johnson suggested a form of public policy both financially beneficial to PRT and an incentive to the automobile user to use the PRT. Johnson suggested that monthly or even annual PRT passes be mandatory for Denver residents. This would assure a predictable revenue for PRT and discourage auto users who would pay for transportation twice if they chose to dr ive.< 5 >
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Robert Hemmes points out we should "avoid asking the system to be a welfare program. Let the welfare program find ways to subsidize the cost of riding on the system!for those unable to pay]. Riders should pay something toward the cost of their transportation in order to value what it is."<6)
Denver Regional Transportation District lacks the flexibility needed in planning a large scale PRT system since it is limited to a fixed income based on general taxes plus operating fare revenues. As Ray McDonald points out:
"Since PRT development depends so much upon urban planning and development, it is doubtful if a separate Rapid Transit District or Authority is the right organizational structure. Certainly the tax revenues available to most transit authorities are inadequate to finance ubiquitous PRT systems, and it may be wrong to invest what amounts to urban planning authority in a transportation-oriented body. After all, the transportation is a means to an end not an end in itself. A Regional Urban Development Authority with broad reaching powers may be necessary to coordinate and control all these separate functions."(7>
Finally, regarding public policy, the public must be made aware of the real expenses in owning and using a private automobile. Perceived automobile costs are low. After purchasing the vehicle, the owner perceives costs only when insurance is due, registration is due, or occasional gasoline expenses are incurred. For the most part, at least five days out of the week, he or she perceives transportation as free. The cost of building and maintaining highways and street networks is seldom considered since they come from taxes. It is time Denver considered a public policy that charges daily fees for using streets in congested areas with inadequate parking.
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Public policy should concentrate on showing people the real costs of owning and operating an automobile, not the perceived cost of free transportation on a day to day basis.
Community involvement will be necessary in determining where stations and guideways are to be installed especially on the local internal grid lines As always, a great deal of education must be provided on a technology unknown to most citizens. The prevailing attitude of "not in my backyard" must first be reversed so that once accepted, PRT can be addressed as a positive attribute to the community. Questions such as "where would stations have the most accessibility?" as well as urban design questions such as "how do we construct Woonherf streets?" or "where could we create parks?" must be answered. Current programs for citizen participation in transportation planning do not integrate the design and function of the communities personality. Such programs require further study as it is imperative to the planning process for PRT.
Conclusion
"Land use is a critical variable in urban development which has traditionally been determined by transit modes. Therefore, if the forces for change described previously have been accurately assessed, the automobile-oriented land use will not support the urban goals of the future."<8 >
If we are to leave future generations with an environment both healthy and dynamic, we must stop denying the well-being of individuals and communities by using excessive land for the accommodation of the automobile. It is time to take a more
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serious look at newer technologies such as the Alpha technology, that allow freedom of movement and the ability to develop vital and inviting environments in which to live, work and play.
»
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REFERENCES CITED
1 Task Force on New Concepts in Urban Transportation,
Planning for Personal Rapid Transit. (Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota, 1976), p. xxxiii.
2 Gary A. Dennis, ed., Personal Rapid Transit III. (Minneaoplis: University of Minnesota, 1976).
3 Task Force on New Concepts in Urban Transportation,
Planning for Personal Rapid Transit.
4 Robert Heomes, "Political Perspectives," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), p. 19.
5 Speech by Byron Johnson, "New Opportunities for Urban Mobility," Denver, Colorado, November 1985, (Conference).
6 Hemmes, "Political Perspectives," in Personal Rapid Transit III, p. 19.
7 Ray MacDonald, "Economic considerations and Potential Applications of PRT systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, p. 179.
Ibid.

>
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anderson, Edward. "The Development of a Mode For Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Transit
Systems." In Personal Rapid Transit III, pp. 155-172. Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota. 1976.
Automated Transportatio Systems, Inc. "Modern Technology
Applied to Transportation." Minneapolis, March 1985 (Mimeographed.)
City of Greenwood Village. Master Plan 1982.
Denver Regional Transportation District. "Rapid Transit for the Denver Region: Evolution and Rational," Denver,
October 1982. (Mimeographed.)
Doxiadis, C.A. Anthropopolis. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1974.
Fulton, William. "Silicon Strips," Planning. 52 (May 1986): pp. 7-12.
Hemmes, Robert. "Political Perspectives," in Personal Rapid Transit III. pp.14-23, Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976.
Johnson, Byron. "New Opportunities for Urban Mobility," Denver, Colorado. Speech, November 1985.
Kornhauser, Alain L. and Philip, Craig E., "PRT in the Land Use Environment: The Implied Changes," in Personal
Rapid Transit III. pp. 197-208. Edited by Gary A
Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976.
Lutin, Jerome M. "Using New Transit Technology, To Shape Suburban Growth." in Personal Rapid Transit III, pp. 209-226. Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976.
Lynch, Kevin and Hack, Gary. Site Planning. 3rd ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1984.
MacDonald, Ray. "Economic Considerations and Potential Applications of PRT Systems." In Personal Rapid Transit III. pp. 173-182. Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976.


(
ILLUSTRATION T


Full Text

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ILLUSTRATION c DENVER

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. V I L hlt..L ILLUSTRATION .J. O ALPHA TECHNOLOGY STUOV AREA ONE , ,,.. .. GREENWOO SCHOOL GUIOE\1\/AV ,. _S...TATI.ON SCALE: ..... : 730' ..

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ILLUSTRATION . . J . I THE TRIANGLE ( du d/u CCC CCC MME;::::::'ICIAL RESIDENTIAL 2.0 2 -446 OPEN SPACE .6 ______ I 120

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ILLUSTRATION ... L3 STUDY AREA TWO __,....,..... .... _ -GUIDEWAY _S...TATI.ON SCALE: ..... : 730' m -I l l AGE _ _ ... l \ " . • • t. 0 I •. ., .. , .. T . .,..

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, ILLUSTRATION _14 NEIGHSORHOOC PRT STATION I .

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( ILLUSTRATION 15 STUDY AREA THREE ---GUIDEWAY : _5_TATI.ON SCALE: ..... : 730' d) -

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I c;R&f./'l'v/ooo D&NVfR !i&H CtJiffR 71fJoY AREA fflf5/!!lf t/7 r r-ILLUSTRATION_ 16

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( V!t-t,AC,& 711/JJY AR'iA -fV1{)Re, tAli!? 1)713" D-NV&R /&t:-H C./3N7fR ,. ' J -.-.,I& I I v ILLUSTRA T.ION 17

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ILLUSTRATION J . S ----I /

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• • A TRANSPORTATION AND LAND USE PLAN FOR SOUTHEAST DENVER USING THE ALPHA TECHNOLOGY A Thesis Program Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Planning and Community Development By Catherine Ann Green Denver, Colorado August 1986 :":

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I •

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Chapter I. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .......................... Problem Statement Thesis Organization Methods and Evidence Scope and Limits II. THE ALPHA TECHNOLOGY ....................... 8 III. THE AREA ................................... 23 IV. STUDY AREA ONE ............................. 33 Image Goals Social Function Natural and Site Function Building Treatment Massing Circulation Quality of Life V. STUDY AREA TWO ............................. 48 Image Goals Social Function Natural and Site Function Building Treatment Massing Circulation Quality of Life l VI. STUDY AREA THREE ............................ 60 Image Goals Social Function Natural and Site Function Building Treatment Massing Circulation Quality of Life -ii -

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VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ...................... 77 Findings Strengths and Weaknesses For Further Study Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................... 89 -iii -

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LIST OF TABLES 1. Population Trends For The Southeast And Related Sectors .................... 26 2. Employment Trends For The Southeast And Related Sectors .................... 26 3. Future Land Use In Study Area One ........... 40 4. Travel Time To Activities ................... 44 5. Study Area Two Present And Future Land Use .. 53 6. Cost Of Parking In Study Area Three ......... 72 -iv -

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Alpha Vehicle Cutaway ...................... 12 2. Installation of the Alpha Technology ....... 13 3. Alpha Technology Vs. Freeway........ . . . . . . . 15 4. The Alpha Grid ............................. 16 5. The Three Types of PRT Circulation ......... 18 6. Average Costs .............................. 20 7. Hierarchy of Transportation ................ 21 8. Regional Sectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 9. Southeast Denver ........................... 28 10. Alpha TechnologyStudy Area One .......... 36 11. The Triangle ............................... 38 12. Study Area One-Mixed Use ................ 39 13 . Study Are a Two . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 14. Neighborhood PRT Station ................... 57 15. Study Area Three ........................... 63 16. Study Area Three --Present Land Use ....... 65 17. Stud Area Three--Future Land Use ......... 67 18. Alpha Station in Denver Technical Center ... 70 19. Alpha Technology in Greenwood Plaza ........ 74 -v -

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" .there is an art of relationships just as there is an art of architecture. It's purpose is to take all the elements that go to create the environment: buildings, trees, nature, water, traffic, advertisements and so on, and to weave them together in such a way that drama is released. For a city is a dramatic event in the environment. Look at the research that is put into making a city work: demographers, sociologists, engineers, traffic experts; all co-operating to form the myriad factors into a workable, viable and healthy organization. It is a tremendous human undertaking. And yet. .if at the end of it all the city appears dull, uninteresting and soulless then it is not fulfilling itself. It has failed. The fire has been laid but nobody has put a match to it." ----Gordon Cullen The Concise Townscape -1 -

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Problem The heavy reliance on the private automobile in Denver, Colorado has resulted in up to 25% of urban land being used for the construction of networks required to accommodate this preferred mode. Yet, traffic congestion continues despite efforts by the highway department to continually widen freeway right of ways, some of which are already 500 feet in width. Besides responsible wasting for the land, today's transportation networks are automobile-generated urban forms we see everyday: the division of communities, large asphalt parking lots connecting buildings, little if any consideration for the pedestrian and widely scattered settlements requiring expensive urban infrastructure. Like many cities in the U.S., Denver's attempts to solve the automobile problem have been limited to a system that not only uses this same network, but is also considered both unattractive and inconvenient; the bus. A transportation system is needed that combines the convenience of the private automobile with a network that promotes high quality land use development. Thesis This paper possibilities in describes the future outlook of land use Southeast Denver after implementation of 2 -

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Personal rapid transit (PRT). Changes in transportation networks will change other urban elements arranged around such networks. It is the thesis of this paper that the installation of a PRT system would improve transportation, as well as urban living, by making possible new prototypes of urban development not likely technology. Organization Chapter technology, without the unique features provided by PRT 1 describes a specific PRT system, the Alpha recommended for Southeast Denver. Chapter II defines and describes Southeast Denver and why is was chosen for this study. Included Southeast Corridor and in this chapter is a definition of the a brief description of three close-up study areas used in this paper. Also in this chapter is the criteria used for choosing each of the three study areas and why each is an appropriate example of land use possibilities resulting from the installation of a PRT system. Each of the next five chapters (III-VII) takes a closer look at one of the three study areas. The study areas will be described as they presently are and how they might appear in the year 2050 after installation of the Alpha technology. The order of the criteria used to describe each area is as follows: image goals, social functions, natural and site functions, building and the urban quality of life. treatment, massing, circulation Each of these headings contains between three and twelve subheadings. The purpose of such detailed descriptions is to show the reader how each element is an integral part of the -3 -

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others and all are affected by the quality of the transportation system used. Chapter VIII concludes the paper with an overview of the degree to which the thesis was supported and a discussion of items requiring further study. Methods and Evidence Chapter two is a result of literature research done on PRT systems in general. This chapter describes the system which the author felt was best suited for the study areas used. Chapters three through six also used literature research to determine the most accurate description of each area's present personality. Future land use present personality plans and the are a combination of the area's author's interpretation of the future relationship between land use and transportation. The visual descriptions given for each area are qualitative suggestions of how this relationship might best be directed. Scope and Limits It is intended for the case studies in this paper to allow the reader to visualize a variety of areas using PRT and the relationship between transportation networks and land use possibilities. This study does not include a detailed plan for financing the installation and maintenance of a PRT system. Nor does this -4 -

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study describe a plan for public policy requirements and community involvement in the planning process. Both Edward Anderson <1> and Byron Johnson<2> have written and spoken extensively on the subjects. While financing and public policy are key factors in the implementation of any transportation systems, they are not the emphasis of this paper. The engineering feasibility of the Alpha technology is not within the scope of this paper. It is, therefore, assumed that the methodologies used by Automated Transportation Systems Inc., to test the workability of this system are reported accurately. Since no PRT system exists on a large comprehensive scale, it is not possible to refer directly to patronage or mode split data. A model for forecasting patronage and the cost effectiveness of PRT systems was developed by Edward Anderson<3>. This model is not included in this study because it deals with a comparison of transit modes using current data and land use trends without consideration of changing land use patterns resulting from a PRT network. Anderson's model relies too heavily on present, not future, travel patterns and habits. In fact, this paper is an attempt to step back from all models and take a more comprehensive approach. Joseph Schafer has stated that: "All transportation planning models are inherently narrow, accounting for only some of the operative quantitative variables, and are based on hypotheses about relationships, and the temporal stability of relationships, that have restricted and sometimes unknown validity. Our concept of problems and solutions often appears to be based on a similarly limited view of the world."<4> -5 -

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The placement of future stations will not always coincide with where we might place them were the system being built today. stations, Assuming development would occur around transit the author simply describes the development, she does not attempt to predict where development would occur and then overlap a transit network. Auto and parking reductions due to the appear drastic, but are necessary to gain PRT network may a sense of how development automobile. could evolve without heavy reliance on the The seventy-five percent reduction in parking assumes that approximately half of those driving automobiles will park at a station and ride PRT to his or her destination. Service roads are assumed to meet all future dimension standards. This would probably require the changing of ordinances to allow T-turns as opposed to circular turns for fire trucks. In contrast to quantitative studies of technical workings or economic feasibility of PRT, the study areas described in this paper are subjective and more qualitative in nature. They attempt to show the environmental, social and physical benefits gained by the installation of PRT. -6 -

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Edward Analysis of Syste•s," in (Minneapolis: REFERENCES CITED Anderson, "The Development of a Model for the cost Effectiveness of Alternative Transit Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A. Dennis University of Minnesota, 1976), pp. 155-172. 2 Speech by Mobility," Denver, Byron Johnson, "New Opportunities for Urban Colorado, Nov. 1985, (Conference). 3 Anderson, Personal Rapid Transit III, pp. 155-172. 4 "Challenges to Planning," Transportation 29. the Future Research -7 -of Urban Tannsportation Tecord, 931 (Spring 1985):

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"The facility with which we travel within our community is then a determinant of the quality of life in that community." ----Ray MacDonald Conference on Personal Rapid Transit, 1975 -8 -

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CHAPTER 2 THE ALPHA TECHNOLOGY Linear development along streetcar radials, immense tracts of grid-pattern streets, and dispersed centers within suburban sprawl have formed the American city. "Central city cores, often with narrow streets and intense land use which developed during the streetcar era, have become inaccessible due to the congestion of increased populations jamming radial arteries with automobiles of a new transportation era. The automobile system which enhanced suburban sprawl has required wide right-of-ways and excessive land for parking." As development concentrates in the automobile oriented suburbs, "the pedestrian environment has deteriorated to such an extent that in some cases it might be described as hostile. walking distances have become excessive, and cycling is often dangerous."<2> In 1982, Denver voters turned down the allocation of funds for a light rail system, a system expensive both to build and to operate. It was apparent then, as it is today, that the preference for the automobile is growing despite existing and more advanced transit systems build on narrow guideways that maintain average running speeds equal or better than the automobile. In 1973 such a system, the Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) was considered and then discarded on the basis that its technology had not matured.<3> -9 -

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"It is difficult to find a foothold for an early urban application of automated public transport. If there is a critical need, then politicians cannot take the risk of proposing an untried system. If there is less urgency. .the project can be rejected because it is not sufficiently relevant."<4> Buses and proposed busways are RTD's present, past and future answer to Denver's transportation problem. Yet, this system often yields a very low ridership at a very high cost as Ray MacDonald points out: "The benefits of such systems are low because of the random travel-demand patterns of modern cities. Usually all that can be achieved in an amelioration of the central-business-districtbound traffic. The vital collection -distribution system is often short-changed because of the high capital cost of the line-haul system from a service-level point of view, the bus operating costs soar and that number of passengers per vehicle mile drops. The general tendency is for transportation authorities to reduce bus service and rely on the automobile as the collecion-distribution mode. This does not solve the automobile ownership problem for the young, old, and handicapped, and it reinforces the trend toward the urban sprawl of the automobile-oriented land use. If an adequate collection-distribution bus fleet is provided, it can be shown that this fleet will offer almost as high a mode split to transit by itself to when exclusive bus lanes are used as the combined line-haul, plus bus system. The planner is then faced with the uncomfortable fact that most trips can be made without the line-haul system, and that construction of this high capital-cost item is only improving mode split by to As long as RTD tries to serve the Denver area with buses, they will have limited success, high costs, public resistance, and very limited impact upon urban development patterns. 10 -

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The system described below provides service when needed, 7 travels directly to the riders destination without stops and does not require that strangers share vehicles. The study areas in this paper will use a Personal Rapid Transit system (PRT). Although several PRT systems might produce the same results, this paper uses the Alpha Technology designed by Dr. Edward Anderson of Automated Transportation Systems Inc. The concept of PRT can be described as small vehicles with a capacity of 2-6 passengers that travel on exclusive guideways which are generally through elevated. Vehicles are automatically controlled computer programming which allows nonstop routing to any destination requested by the passenger. Off line stations, short headways between vehicles, and automated control systems allow line capacities of approximately 6000 vehicles per hour. Lightweight elevated guideways and small vehicles reduce the cost per mile of the system so that a fine network providing accessibility to numerous points within even a low density city becomes economically feasible. The Alpha technology uses linear induction motors allowing safe, quiet and pollution free travel. The vehicles are lightweight, have a low profile and can carry up to three people. (See Illustration 1) The guideway used is narrow and lightweight, thus it needs fewer support columns and is easy to construct and guideway parts system that is maintain. In fact, the light, prefabricated are installed similar to light poles allowing a easily expanded with a minimum disruption.<7> (See Illustration 2)) -11 -

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ILLUSTRATION J __ _ THE CUTAWAY GUIDEWAY COVER-----HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING TiiREE ABREAST SEATING---......_ FLOOR AT STATION LEVEL--, AIRBAG & CRUSHABLE NOSE SUPPORT ....--SOLID STATE MOTOR CONTROLLERS (2) "'-......;._...,__LINEAR INDUCTION MOTORS (2) '--+------SIDE BEARING WHEELS (8) '------PNEUMATIC, LOW FRICTION SUPPORT TIRES (4) "'---ANGLES FOR SWITCH WHEEL SUPPORT '---LATERAL SUPPORT RAILS '----SMOOTH RUNNING SURFACE CABLES Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc., Modern Technology Apolied To Transportation, Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).

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ILLUSTRATION 2 INSTALLING ALPHA GUIDEWAY Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc., Modern Technology Applied lQ Transportation, Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).

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The Alpha Technology can locate stations in commercial and residential buildings as stations could be open well as 24 hours parking a day structures. These and with automatic replenishment, passengers need never wait over 30 seconds for a vehicle in peak hours. With a thirty second headway, the Alpha Technology has a higher capacity than a four-lane highway. When compared to the bus, Alpha is faster with no transfers and no waiting. (See Illustration 3) Such a system may appear to cause as much congestion as city streets since, like the auto, the Alpha Technology carries only 1-3 passengers. Use, however, is more important than efficiency. What carries 3 people? good is an eighty passenger bus that only It makes better sense to use a three passenger vehicle instead. It is also important to understand that in a typical city one Alpha vehicle would replace about ten autos since, during peak hours, each vehicle would make several round trips.<8> During off peak hours the Alpha Technology could be used for freight movement as well as automatic collection of waste and packages. The circulation pattern suggested by Automated Transportation Systems, Inc. is a square mile grid with stations halfway between every intersection.(See Illustration 4) The study areas in this paper will use a full square mile grid and allow the guideway within each mile to be custom placed according to densities, design, and land use. Unlike Anderson's circulation patterns, this study will use a primary corridor to directly connect the study areas to Denver's Central Business -14 -

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ILLUSTRATION 3 ALPHA TECHNOLOGY VS. FREEWAY Freeway 30 MPH 30 MPH ---II:r:mm::m::mitl FA e e w A v LANe l::::t::::::::t:::::r:l I I I 88 FEET MINIMUM __ Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc., Modern Technology Apolied To Transportation, Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).

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ILLUSTRATION 4 THE ALPHA GRIO "[j ...J &I) Source: Automated Transportation System, Inc., Modern Technology Aoolied To Transportation, Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).

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District (CBD). Besides giving a more direct route to downtown. the corridor will provide up to four Alpha guideways for even higher capacity movement. Thus. three circulation patterns of the Alpha Technology emerge. First. the primary corridor following Interstate 25 which would carry passengers directly between Denver•s CBD and County Line Road. This corridor would allow vehicles to run at speeds up to 60 mph for faster and more direct travel to and from the CBD. Second. the square mile grid with stations halfway between every intersection would provide a systematic approach to intercity travel. The consistency of the square grid and half mile spaced stations would assure the passenger of finding a station even in unfamiliar areas. The last pattern of circulation is the local pattern within each square mile. guideways could be adapted to local needs. This could mean up to 15 miles of guideway and ten stations in highly populated areas such as the Denver Technical Center or a simple bisection of the grid in low density residential areas. Development would be able to work hand in hand with the local guideways. (See Illustration 5) A passenger would find where he or she desired to go on a aap. punch the appropriate code into the computer. and the vehicle would travel the grid of that given destination and follow the local lines to the appropriate station. Although this may sound like an immense amount of guideways to be constructed and paid for. it is important to stress the comparison between the cost of an Alpha system compared to other. more familiar technologies. A subway system consisting -17 -

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of ten miles of guideway and six stations at one mile spacings would cost the same as 130 miles of an Alpha one-way guideway with 260 stations at a .25 mile maximum walk distance.<9> When all access by it totaled, Alpha would provide a 40:1 increase in area, a 50' increase in average speed with lower operating costs. When comparing capital and operating costs, the Alpha Technology costs about $0.23 per mile while the bus costs $0.30, the subway $0.77 and the streetcar at $1.40.<10> (See Illustration 6) Perhaps the most important feature of the Alpha Technology is its ability to run on very little land thus opening up streets and parking lots for other uses. What was once a far stretching hard surfaced parking lot can now become a park or a mall. Where land is expensive and up to 60' of it is used for the housing and circulation of the automobile, parking lots can be developed into more productive uses. And with less reliance on a street system, newly developing neighborhoods can be designed in new and innovative ways. A hierarchy of networks encourages the use of many modes of transportation such as walking, biking, motor bikes, horses, autos and PRT. Illustration 7 presents this hierarchy of modes as used in the land use maps for the study areas. -19 -

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ILLUSTRATION 6 AVERAGE COSTS ELEVATED GROUP STREETCAR COST % TRAIN SUBWAY AUTOMATED BUS COST O,i) COST O,i) COST % COST CAPITAL COSTS (DEPRECIATION & 1.14 81 0.41 67 0.57 74 1.67 87 0.08 INTEREST) OPERATING COSTS 0.27 19 0.20 33 0.20 26 0.24 13 0.22 0 ALPHA % COST % 25 0.15 72 75 0.08 28 TOTAL COSTS (CAPITAL & OPERATION) 1.41 100 0.61 100 o.n 100 1.91 100 0.30 100 0.23 100 * ALL COSTS ARE EXPRESSED IN DOLLARS PER PASSENGER MILE Source: Automated Transportation Inc., Modern Technology Aoolied To Transportation, Minneapolis, March 1985, (Mimeographed).

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REFERENCES CITED 1 Task Force on New concepts in Urben Transportation, Planning for Personal Rapid Transit (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1972), p. 71. 2 Ray MacDonald, "Economic considerations and Potential Applicatins of PRT Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), p. 173. 3 Denver Regional Transportation District, " Rapid Transit for the Denver Region: Evolution and Rationale," Denver, Colorado, October 1982, (Mimeographed.) 4 MacDonald, Personal Rapid Transit III, p. 177. s Ibid., p. 173. e Automated Transportation Systems, Inc. , "Modern Technology Applied (Mimeotraphed). to Transportation," Mineapolis, March, 1985, 7 Ibid. a Task Force on New Concepts in Urban Transportation, Planning for Personal Rapid Tranist, p. 27. 9 Automated Transportation Systems, Inc., "Modern Technology Applied to Transportation." 10 Ibid. -22 -

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CHAPTER 3 THE AREA The region chosen for this study is the southern section of Denver's Southeast Corridor. This Corridor extends from Highway C470 in Douglas County northerly through unincorporated areas of Arapahoe County and Village. Following the incorporated municipality of Greenwood I-25, the area stretches from County Line Road to Hampden Avenue using Colorado Blvd. as the farthest west boundary and Peoria as the farthest east boundary (See Illustration contains the 8). Along with low density residential, this area Denver Technical Center (DTC), the Inverness Development, Greenwood Plaza, and a number of other major office and commercial job centers. Intensified growth, particularly employment growth is projected for the Southern section making access and distribution to the above areas a high priority in present and future transit planning. In a regional transit system planning study (PMM Study) done by Denver Regional Council on Governments (DRCOG), it was determined that "residential and employment growth in the Southeast Corridor, Douglas County and other outlying areas has surpassed previous expectation and is causing increased traffic congestion on I-25. Furthermore, the amount of the industrial and commercial space in the Denver Technology Center/Inverness/Meridian/Greenwood Plaza employment is expected to increase -23 -

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ILLUSTRATION B REGIONAL SECTORS SOUTHEAST OUTER---......... --------------...

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six-fold to over 60 million square feet by the year 2000."<1> Tables 1 and 2 show the growth projections of Southeast Denver compared to other sections of Denver. Note the 449% increase in employment under Table 2. Naturally, traffic problems will result from such high growth. The same study predicts 134,630 daily work trips originating from the southern section of 1-25, of which 75,633 will travel within the same area.<2> The amount and type of growth in the southeast corridor makes this an appropriate area to study for alternative transportation systems since this type of development and resulting problems are becoming an increasing trend in all major U.S. cities. "The high tech corridors may not represent a large part of the nations real estate market, but experts at the Urban Land Institute and other research organizations agree that they are among the fastest growing segments of the market. As a result, they are stirring up familiar questions about the impact of economic growth on the quality of life and the issue of control over development."<3> The criteria used in choosing the three study areas had primarily to do with their individual differences. How we feel about a particular city or neighborhood is a sensual observation. Since these senses are usually touched while moving through an area, visual impact, smells and sounds are observed from transportation networks be they streets, highways, bikepaths, transit lines or footpaths. Therefore, it was -25 -

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TABLE 1 POPULATION TRENDS FOR THE SOUTHEAST AND RELATED SECTORS 2000 1980 Projected Downtown 3,000 4,000 Inner Southeast 69,000 72,000 (CBD to Belleview Ave. near 1-25) Outer Southeast 61,000 120,000 (Belleview to C470 near 1-25) Inner Cherry Creek 95,000 102,000 Outer Cherry Creek 76,000 204,000 Aurora 119,000 173 TOTAL ALL SECTORS 1,287,000 ,015,000 SOURCE: DRCOG/PMM Report TABLE 2 EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR THE SOUTHEAST AND RELATED SECTORS 2000 1980 Projected Downtown 71,000 126,000 Inner Southeast 61,000 68,000 (CBD to Belleview Ave. near 1-25) Outer Southeast 35,000 192,000 (Belleview to C470 near I-25) Inner Cherry Creek 67,000 106,000 Outer Cherry Creek 16,000 39,000 Aurora 49,000 101,000 TOTAL ALL SECTORS 770,000 1,342,000 SOURCE: DRCOG/PMM Report -26 -Percent Increase 33% 4% 97% 7% 168% 45% 45% Percent Increase 77% 11% 449% 58% 144% 106% 74%

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important to show the impacts of the Alpha Technology on a variety of land uses. residential, undeveloped, density business parks. In this case, those land uses are infil, low density office, and medium It was also important to choose areas adjacent to or near one another in order to demonstrate how a PRT system could allow a smooth transition from one land use to another. Each area needed to be a square mile or less in size to best show how flexible the Alpha Technology could be within its square mile grid. And finally, the study areas needed to be adjacent to or near a primary corridor so that the reader could get a better feel for how a PRT system could provide service on a regional scale. (Illustration 9) shows a simplified circulation pattern for the entire Southeast Denver region with the three study areas highlighted. Each study area's character was then examined by first studying it's present and future image goals including its trends, tendencies and how the study area fits into a regional context. Next, the areas present and future social functions were examined. Social functions include such things as demographic background and projections, life styles, user needs and general character of the community. Natural and site functions were taken into consideration including topography and the conservation and preservation of natural resources. When applicable, building treatment and the massing of structures was examined in its present state, and then future possibilities were described. Included in this criteria was the -27 -

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use of centers and nodes, scale an rhythm, zoning, flexibility, materials and structures, requirements. proportions and scale and visibility Twelve criteria were used when describing the study areas present and future circulation. Traffic projections, mode split, access patterns, public transportation, hierarchy of networks, parking requirements, automobile networks, physical and terminal facilities, network form, the interface and interaction of the above criteria and the regional interface and interaction. Finally, each quality of life. study area was evaluated according to its Here a synthesis of all the criteria listed determined the present and future well being of the area. Fol.lowing is a brief description of the study areas including the challenges first study area is a or problems that each presented: The square mile bordered on the north and south by Belleview and Orchard Roads and on the east and west by Holly Street and Colorado Blvd. This area is less than 5% developed. for the More than one quarter of the property is the setting Highland Canal. This area offers one of the best opportunities for using the Alpha Technology because development could be planned and constructed hand in hand with the transit system. The Highland Canal property will demonstrate opportunities for development without the automobile dictating land use. The challenge should be smoothly integrating routes into the surrounding developed areas. -29 -

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Study areas two is the square mile directly east of the first study area. It consists of low density single family housing The routes here will be kept simple, conforming to existing streets. Although part of this land remains undeveloped, or density. the remainder is unlikely to change much in looks The challenge here is to protect the neighborhood character while development continues directly to the east and the west, and at the same time create a transportation network less reliant on the private automobile and more concordant to the pedestrian. Study area three is the area adjacent to I-25 between Belleview and Orchard. Presently zoned for low density office (Bl) or mixed use (town center zone<4>), it is bisected by I-25. The west side is Greenwood Village, the east side is part of the Denver Technical Center. The visual and emotional impact of the dominance of mobility over tranquility is exemplified here in Denver's southeastern streets Belleview and Orchard. Here 100' right-of-ways and heavy traffic prevent any pedestrian interaction with commercial uses. Such areas of new development are a growing phenomena in suburban areas. This clustering also provides the nodes needed for suburban transit centers in areas once considered forbidden transit territory. The problem facing this area is the vast separation and isolation of structures due to the need for wide streets and large parking areas. As Doxiados pointed out, "The market-place should not be a system of buildings isolated form the city as most of the modern 30 -

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shopping centers are, be squeezed between nor the area where we now bring people to buildings and machines, as the great shopping people avenues do, but it should be a place of interaction of in a balanced network between buildings and nature. It is human energy that must be in control."<5> All three areas represent today's trends in development from low density suburban housing, to high tech clusters along transit corridors. It is here where we must apply modern technology in transit networks to promote the same high quality of living that brought businesses and residents here in the first place. -31 -

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REFERENCES CITED 1 Parsons Brinkerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., et.al., "Technical Analysis and Technology Assessment," Working Paper 3, Denver, Colorado, November 1985, p. 18, (Mimeographed.) 2 Ibid. 3 William Fulton, "Silicon Strips," Planning 52 (May 1986): 7. 4 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982, p. 10. s C. A. Doxiadis, Anthropopolis, (New York: W. W. Norton and Company Inc., 1974), p. 171. -32 -

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"The failure of the suburbs is implicit in their nature. It is not possible --yet --for humans to live out their lives in widely scattered settlements. We are social, if not sociable, creatures and presumably will always require some degree of congregational activity." ----Ray McDonald Conferertce on Personal Rapid Transit, 1975 -33 -

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Image Goals Study Orchard on CHAPTER 4 STUDY AREA ONE area one is one square mile bounded by Belleview and the north and south, and Colorado Blvd. and Holly on the west and east. The Greenwood Village Master Plan calls this land "one of the most beautiful square miles in the Denver Metro Area."<1> With horse stables to the east and west, this land is often used for horseback riding appearing as a rural oasis overlooked in the surrounding suburban sprawl. Social Function At the present time, there are only eleven residences and one school on this property leaving over 90% of the land undeveloped. Although no formal projections have been made, current zoning would allow another 363 dwelling units to be built.<2> Present development assumes that residents living in or adjacent to this property would prefer it either developed as very low density single family homes or not developed at all. The future plans used in this study would widen the social functions and land use possibilities while leaving most of the land open for open space and parks. -34 -

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Natural and Site Function The natural and site function of study area one is dominated by the Highland Canal which loops around the northwest corner. Almost 150 acres are included in its flood plain. The remaining land is slightly elevated offering a spectacular view of the mountains. The future site plan for this area encourages the preservation of most of the area in its natural state. Building Treatment The present residential and buildings, excluding West Middle School are sit on large lots, rural in nature. Most of these lie adjacent to Belleview Avenue and will not be affected by future development plans outlined in this study. In fact, the development proposed in this paper would free existing structures from any close-in development that might possibly change the open environment they now enjoy. Working with a clean endless possibilities. slate such as this study area has The following proposed site plan demonstrates one of the unique mixed use concepts that is possible when a PRT network forms the framework for a new community. Illustration 10 shows a site plan that is dense and requires very little land. The development is located on a highpoint in the southern half of the area. Instead of city blocks, the plan fitted together dwellings, or they calls for triangles. These triangles can be as a pentagon enclosing the residential can form a star, opening up the residential areas and forming large enclosed open spaces. -35 -

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Either way, there is little automobile access and no reason to build a large or complex street system. Each triangle represents a vertical mixed use situation in which a variety of buildings and uses share a variety of types and sizes of open space (Illustration 11). The pink area in each triangle represents up to 15 four story buildings containing vertical mixed use. The ground floor is composed of commercial retail and services. The second floor contains offices and/or apartments. The third and fourth floors are both residential. apartments. The orange area represents three and four story A limited amount of parking could be offered underground or on ground level for residents. With the Alpha system integrated, residents would require only one automobile, if any, for each household. The center alley is the only vehicular access to these buildings, all other land within the triangle is broken up into smaller more intimate courtyards. Illustration 12 shows how such a development might look with different levels of pedestrian space and lack of visual obstruction due to automobiles and their networks. As Table 3 shows, such a development would take up only 52 acres or B' of the entire square mile. With nineteen triangles built and assuming an average dwelling unit occupancy of two, this development could house up to 6650 residents. This number is over five times that of the present development plans under current zoning and uses 70' less land. At the same time, this -37 -

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.. "t ) .. ILLUSTRATION 12 STUDY AREA ONE I--

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TABLE 3 FUTURE LAND USB STUDY ARBA ONB USE TOTAL ACRES % R2.5 15 R-1 4 School 19 Canal 18 Commercial 12 Mixed Use 40 Open space 532 MIXBD USB 2.08 Acres/Triangle x 19 = 9.5 Acres 175 DU's/Triangle x 19 = 3325 DU's 3325 DU's x 2 (Occupants) = 6650 Residents P • R • T Length: 5 Miles Stations: 7 Maximum Walking Distance: 1200 Feet 40 TOTAL 2 . 6 3 3 2 6 83

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development contains no high rise buildings and has a low profile. Massing The triangles present a form of development that could easily be phased into a cluster form by building one or several triangles at a time and adding more when needed. "Construction costs of this type of development can be substantially reduced due to economics of scale and lower infrastructure costs. Roads, sewers, and other utility lines can be reduced by as much as 75' under the requirements for single family units on one acre lots."<3> As similar cluster developments become common, we might find other advantages arising due to similar economics of scale. For example, consumer and convenient to habits shop may change as residents find it easy within his or her community cluster rather than travel long distances to regional shopping centers or large super markets. This could lead to a much healthier society as people begin walking or biking to nearby shopping and numerous long trips are no longer required or desired. Without streets that divide and bring safety hazards into neighborhoods, community common identity, be it clusters could choose and build upon a lifestyle, ethnic background or a commercial common denominator. For example, one cluster may choose to house a majority of art galleries with the artist choosing to live in that community. -41 -

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Each cluster of triangles forms an activity center or node. Each node is then connected by the Alpha System. "By providing a fixed-guideway structure, elevated above grade, the image of connectivity is strengthened. In addition, the use of a fixed station facility at the center of each activity node will also strengthen the visual image. Only a fixed (elevated) guideway can provide the strong deterministic element needed to link the separate form."<4> nodes conceptually into one continuous urban Transition into adjacent areas would blend smoothly. Although surrounding areas are far less dense, the open space surrounding this development would make a more than sufficient transition area. Circulation At this time, the road system is limited to the surrounding streets on three sides; Belleview Avenue, Holly, and Orchard Road. Colorado Blvd. is not a through street and other roads are private drives accessing homes. 1.5 miles of the Highland Canal Earthen Trail is located in this area and roughly two additional miles of earthen and bike trails have been proposed. The future site plan would integrate an extensive network of equestrian paths providing internal linking to regionally planned networks. pedestrian, circulation bicycle and as well as The future circulation plan for study area one calls for five miles of one-way guideways for the Alpha Technology. -42 -

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See Illustration 10. Four of the five miles circle the area counter clockwise merging into the regional grid. The last mile services the new development cluster with a maximum walking distance of 1200 feet to the nearest station. Seven stations serve this area; four stations are located on the surrounding grid, three stations are located internally, situated in the cluster developments. Table 4 lists all amenities necessary to serve this areas needs first and the column, traveling entitled time required to reach each one. The "activity", lists amenities broken down by three categories; education, recreation and commercial. An "0'' following the activity indicates that it is provided outside this study area. The second column, entitled "population served", lists the population needed to serve each activity. The third column indicates travel time on the Alpha system from each of the area's seven PRT stations (Refer to Illustration 10) to the desired destination station. A maximum of ten minutes could be added to this travel time to allow for walking to a station and from the end station to the activity. If the activity lies within 1200 feet, or approximately five minutes walking distance of the origin station, it is indicated by a "W" meaning the distance directly to that activity is probably less than the distance to a station. As noted earlier in this chapter, consumer buying habits are also likely to change due to urban forms resulting from a PRT system. Choosing to shop in smaller food shops located within the clusters rather -43 -

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TABLR 4 TRAYRL TIMBS USING ALPHA TBCHNOLOGY Population Activity Served Travel Time ------------------=============================================== -----------------Station 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rducation Day Care Center 6,000 w w w 7 5 3 9 Primary School 0 6,000 5 4 3 w 6 4 2 Middle School 9,000 4.5 3.5 2.5 w w 4 2 High School 0 24,000 3.5 12.5 11.5 9 7 13 11 Recreation Play Area 2,000 w w w w 4 2 2 Swimming Pool 0 3,000 8 7 6 11 9 7 5 Health Club 0 3,000 8 7 6 ll 9 7 5 Golf course 9,000 10.5 9.5 8.5 12 10 8 6 Tennis Courts 24,000 4.5 3.5 2.5 w w 4 2 Cinema 0 24,000 14.5 13.5 12.5 10 8 6 4 Commercial ------------Convenience Store 3,000 w w w 6 4 2 4 Restaurant/Bar 6,000 w w w 6 4 2 4 Super Market 0 10,000 13.5 12.5 11.5 9 7 13 11 Shopping Center 40,000 w w w 6 4 2 4 Hotel 0 24,000 14.5 13.5 12.5 10 8 6 4 Regioinal Shopping Center -0 150,000 18.5 17.5 16.5 14 12 10 8 -44 -

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than distant large supermarkets would result in less travel time required for grocery shopping. The Alpha technology would provide for more services than passenger travel alone. of existing vehicles, With special vehicles or the conversion freight could be delivered to stores and garbage could be hauled off. These services could take place at night as well as during the day since the system does not produce any offensive noises. According to the Automobile Manufacturers Association, "A typical city daily produces about 200 intracity truck trips per 1,000 residents. Excluding the Central Business district, each developed acre of land attracts 1.6 tol.B truck trips daily . . retail shops generate about 11 daily truck trips per 1,000 square feet of floor area. Convenience and general merchandise stores generate about 5 trips per 1,000 square feet." "Placing PRT stations at terminals and warehouses could eliminate many truck trips, and the lessened person-trips on the streets and highways would ease the freight movement remaining by truck."C7> QUALITY OF LIFE Newly developed cluster centers such as these constitute the most fertile ground for planting the PRT Idea. "A change in the pattern or the technology becomes a stimulus, provoking a response in the other, which itself becomes a new stimulus in an endless chain of adjustments, transportation and land use."<8> such is the interaction between -45 -

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These designs are intended to show the reader how, when developed jointly, concepts or urban development can compliment capabilities of the Alpha Technology. Although vehicular access and parking is provided for residents, proximity to PRT stations makes the automobile Alpha network, Technology very the closeness attractive. of housing to Unlike the transit is possible with the narrow, quiet, low profile characteristics of the Alpha Technology. Using a cluster development such as this one allows significant increases in desirable quality of life density without sacrificing the which the present residents now enjoy. In fact, the extensive amount of open space around the cluster development will actually better preserve the rural atmosphere than the current 2.5 acre lot zoning. -46 -

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REFERENCES CITED 1 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan, p. 28. 2 Ibid., p. 27. 3 Jerome M. Luten, "Usint New Transit Technology to Shape Suburban Growth." in Personal Rapid Tansit II. -47 -

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"There is no reason why we should let the invaders of new technology take over everything, instead of accepting the best from the invader and creating a balance with all local needs, human community, etc." "Should we allow such a large percentage of action to come by chance and individual necessity as today; or should we stress the importance of action by the community to build now and serve the needs of all human beings?" -48 -----C.A. Doxiados City for Human Development, 1974

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CHAPTER V STUDY AREA TWO Image Goals One square mile bounded by Belleview Avenue and Orchard Road on the north and south, this area extends east from Holly Street to Quebec Street.(Illustration 13) The area is primarily residential, consisting of large single family homes. The attitude here is conservative and residents hope to discourage further expansion of commercial development especially on the corner of Quebec and Arapahoe. The Master Plan encourages large residential building sites to protect and buffer this area from adjacent commercial zonings in the northeast and town center zoning in the southeast. The intention of the future land use plan is to protect the current low density and rural image. The area would become somewhat of a transition area between dense development to the east and the cluster development with predominant open space to the west. Social Functions "The present pattern of urban development in the U.S. has resulted from the compounding of individual decisions about where to live and the lack of enforceable land-use plans. The automobile has been a prerequisite to random lowdensity development, but by itself, could not have produced it. The fundamental driving forces appear to have been simply a desire for privacy, fresh air, closeness to nature, and a nice place for one's children to run and play." -49 -

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Today the population in study area two is just under 1000 persons; a density of 1.6 persons per acre. Under current zoning, there could be an increase of 97 dwelling units, bringing the total up to 369 dwelling units.<3> This would increase the population to approximately 1300 persons; far less growth than what will be taking place to the east and west. Of prime concern to today's residents is the intrusion of commercial traffic through any of the residential streets in this area.<4> chapter. This will be discussed in detail later in this Natural Site and Function Much like Study Area One, this area is "identified with excellent mountain views and interesting terrain." The terrain is hilly and slopes toward an east-west drainage line that approximately bisects the lend. The eastern side of the property is a buffer zone approximately 660 feet wide running from Belleview south to Orchard. Most of this lend was bought by developers in the Town Center Zone to the east, and given to the community as open space in lieu of certain landscape restrictions. The future lend use plan for this area keeps this rural image and protects it from the threat of over development in years to come. -51 -

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Building Treatment The homes built in the north half of the Study Area Two are very large and affluent. Many of these homes are built in materials and styles indigenous to the area. Sitings are often aligned with the topography rather than the street, and often the landscaping has been left in its natural state. The southern half of this area also consists of large, affluent homes. However, this section is more typical of suburban development with homes lined up facing the street and more planted landscape. The commercial buildings are on the northeast corner facing Belleview and Quebec. Although relatively low in profile, --no buildings over 4 stories they appear to be spillover from commercial areas to the east and have little ,if any, relation to one another. In fact, the placement of these building looks like the beginning of strip commercial along Belleview Avenue. The future land use plan will direct the focal point of these commercial buildings back towards the Town Center Zoning in the east. (Table 5) shows a breakdown in acreage of present and future land uses. Note how little will be changed. Residential housing will increase according to guidelines set by the Master Plan. Other changes include additional park land and open space and a small reduction in public roads --two acre. Massing The future unorganized massing of land use plan. Because -52 -buildings will remain in the this area is so automobile

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USE Residential School Church Commercial Mixed Use Parks Roads Undeveloped TABLE 5 STUDY AREA TWO PRESENT & FUTURE LAND USE PRESENT FUTURE ACRES % ACRES 309.2 49 15 2.7 2.5 . 4 24 3 15.7 2 128 20 145.3 23 P • R • T Length: 6 Miles Stations: 5 ACRES % ACRES 419.5* 65 15 2.7 2.5 .4 24 3 40 6 25 4 114 18 * 369 DU's X 3.5 = 1292 Maximum Walking distance: .5 Mile -53 -

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oriented, clustering around centers and using the Alpha Technology as use has little a connector line is impossible. The present land flexibility and will never be the ideal set up for PRT. However, as shown in the next section, there are still many advantages gained when traditional neighborhoods install PRT. Circulation As mentioned earlier, a prime concern of residents in Study Area Two is traffic. "Through traffic along Berry and Monaco should be actively discouraged as should the intrusion of commercial traffic through any of the residential streets of this area."<&> Presently, access to this area is limited to three sides. The eastern border and dividing line between study area two and the heavy employment areas to the east, is Quebec Street. Quebec Street is a four lane parkway offering no access to Study Area Two. With the inevitable development of land to the west, and projected employment increases of up to 450%<7> to the east, it is unlikely that this area will be able to avoid through traffic, resulting in a moderate to large amount of congestion, noise and unsafe pedestrian movement. Illustration 13 is the circulation pattern of the Alpha Technology for Study Area Two. Because the existing development is dispersed, the plan calls for seven miles of one-way guideways. The inefficiency of such dispersed development -54 -

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can now be seen when we compare Study Areas One and Two. Study Area Two requires one more mile of guideway to serve a population that walking distance is smaller by eighty percent. The maximum is .5 mile compared to 1200 feet in Study Area One. Still, residential areas such as this should not see their future as the auto." "once to be served by the auto, now always to serve Like every square mile, this area will have a guideway around its border with four stations one between each intersection. This guideway serves as more than regional circulation, it also creates a visual border around the Study Area giving it a sense of community. Gateways in the Study Area could be played up where the guideways leave the grid and travel internally. Again, this would reinforce a sense of neighborhood or community despite the dispersed placement of homes. The internal circulation plan shows two guideways crossing the Study Area. The first guideway runs westward on Berry Street with a station midway. The second guideway runs east on Dorado with no stops. Through traffic on the Alpha System would not be discouraged at all. Since lines are designed to be physically attractive and produce no offensive noises or fumes, there would be no problems associated with heavy traffic. Neighborhoods would now be able to further reduce automobile traffic by restructuring streets into "dutch woonerfs, (or 'living yards') where streets are blocked off and cars may enter only at a reduced speed while obstacles such as planters and trees force the cars to take an indirect course."<8> Other -55 -

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streets could be completely closed and converted into linear parks. Ray McDonald writes: "The problem in existing developed areas is that the only communal land available is generally used for streets and parking facilities; very often these are underutilized but cannot be closed off or restructured. The comprehensive use of PRT in certain zones may make this land usable. Streets often amount to or of urban land which is an extremely valuable commodity and could be better utilized to enhance the quality of urban living."<9> Illustration 14 shows a PRT guideway and station in a street converted to a linear park. To compliment the Alpha System, a comprehensive network of bike, walkway and motorbike trails lead to the Alpha station. the present bike path runs along Monaco from Belleview Avenue to Orchard Road with a connecting line on Orchard Place. The path is separated from the street by a wooden rail adding a human attractiveness to the street system. Extending these paths to all stations would provide safe and easy access to the PRT system. QUALITY OF LIFE The original desires for a low density surburban lifestyle fresh air, privacy and open space --were made possible by the freedom of the private automobile. Natural landscaping, bike paths reflecting country roads, and large sites with horse stables all reflect the communities desire to remain rural in -56 -

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nature despite intensive development directly to the east. And yet, the same mode of transportation that allowed this rural development, now threatens to destroy it. Along with the extension of pedestrian and bike paths, the Alpha technology would service this area's residents, prevent unwanted through traffic and free up more land to enhance a rural atmosphere. Although the area might become a bridge between more intensive developments, the landscape will be protected as Alpha vehicles pass quietly and harmoniously along their guideways. -58 -

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REFERENCES CITED 1 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982, p. 31. 2 Task Planning for of Minnesota, Force on New Concepts Personal Rapid Transit, 1972)' p. 60. in Urban Transportation, (Minneapolis: University 3 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982, p. 30. 4 Ibid., p. 31. s Ibid., p. 30. 8 Ibid. 7 Parsons Brinkerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., et. al., "Technical Analysis and Technology Assessment, "Denver, November 1985, p. 16. (Mimeographed.) 8 Kevin The MIT Press, Lynch and Gary 1984)' p. 203. Hack, Site Planning, (Cambridge: 9 Ray MacDonald, "Economic Considerations and Potential Applications of PRT Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A Dennis, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), p. 177. -59 -

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"If the outdoors is to be colonized, architecture is not enough. The outdoors is not just a display of individual works or architecture like pictures in a gallery, it is an environment for the complete human being, who can claim it either statically or in movement. He demands more than a picture gallery, he demands the drama that can be realized all around him from floor, sky, buildings, trees, and levels by the art of arrangement." ----Gordon Cullen The Concise Townscape 60 -

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CHAPTER 6 STUDY AREA THREE Image Goals Study Area Three runs from Quebec Street east to Yosemite Street. and is bounded by Belleview Avenue on the north and Orchard Road on the south. (See Illustration 15) Bisected by I-25. the Denver Technical Center lies to the east and Greenwood Plaza to the west. Both business parks are regulated by the Town Center Zone District with each further regulated by Master Development Plans.<1> According to the Master Plan for Greenwood Village. the concept of this area is to provide office parks exhibiting "excellent planning and architecture with an emphasis on open space landscaping."<2> Of direct concern to the city is adequate open space and the character of parking. It is the goal of Greenwood Village to maintain a balance between surrounding low-density residential areas and this major regional employment center.<3> An advertisement for John Madden Real Estate Company describes Greenwood Plaza as "an enriching. enlivened place of work. A balance of commerce and creativity. technology and art. productivity and leisure. A progressive environment enhancing your business future today."<4> Thomas Taylor, an employee at the Denver Technical Center described this same area by saying, -61 -

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"The landscaping around our office is beautiful but it's just decorative, it doesn't relate to people. I've often eaten There's something lunch outside without seeing another person. almosT prohibitive about the landscape". The future plan for Study Area Three will change this area's image from one of enclosed daytime productivity to one of twenty-four hour, diverse activity. Social Functions Study Area Three is a social, if not sociable, gathering place. Unfortunately, this area has little activity after working hours. Many of the restaurants here are located in office buildings and are open only for lunch. Retail shopping is limited to the Beau Monde Mall which is situated adjacent to the intersection of I-25 and Orchard Road. Although accessible by car, there are parking and street barriers on all sides preventing pedestrian interaction from the surrounding offices. There is no residential housing in Study Area Three. Without residents to provide the need for social interface beyond working hours, there will be little chance of changing this area into a vital community. Under the subtitle, Building Treatment the mixing of land uses resulting in the mixing of human activity will show how social functions in the future can be improved. -62 -

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Natural and Site Function A ridge runs beneath Interstate 25 creating drainage and drainage related land forms to the east and west of I-25. These land forms will be preserved by discouraging any development that seeks to level out the land. The future site plan shows a small lake in the northern half where drainage water can collect and be recycled for landscape irrigation. Like the other two study areas, protecting and emphasizing the views of the Front Range should be one of the highest priorities. This view gives the area its uniqueness, putting it a step ahead of the other high-tech corridors or "silicon strips." Building Treatment The buildings in this area range from small one story offices, to high rise (over nine stories) buildings with over 400,000 square feet. Architecturally this area combines everything from the small chalet style single office to the geometric and colorful post modern styles. Smooth glassy surfaces integrate with rough finished wood and reflective glass to make this area a conglomeration of different styles, colors and textures. Illustration 16 is a present land use map of Study Area One. The yellow tones depicting office buildings darken as the building height increases. Most high rise buildigs are located east of I-25. The red tones indicate hotel and commercial. -64 -

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There are no permanent residential structures in Study Area Three at this time. Below the map on Illustration 16 is a breakdown of present land uses by acreage. Attempts have been made to increase the amount of landscaping to help offset the visual intrusion of large streets and parking lots. East of I-25 in the Denver Technological Center, developers are required to landscape at least 30% of each site. The remaining 70% is divided between parking, which cannot exceed 40%, and the building itself. Illustration 17 shows the future land use plan. There has been a seventy-five percent reduction in parking and a 50% reduction in street square footage. Development is intensified and diversified, especially around transit stations. Approximately 15 acres (pink) of mixed use and 6.5 acres of residential mid-rise apartments (brown) have been added to the future land use map. By providing land uses for living, as well as working, this area will be playing, and relaxing, able to accommodate a more diverse population. Massing Currently, there is little massing of buildings into centers or focus points. parking prohibits, Separation of sites by wide streets and the flow of human activity between buildings. If there is any focus to this area, it is that focus of each individual building onto the street in front of it. The overlay on Illustration 17 shows how buildings would be massed. As buildings fall into clusters, plazas could be 66 -

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formed, each with its own transit station to achieve a focus and minimize access to the Alpha system. Clusters consist of the highest density buildings in the center, surrounded by lower density office, retail, and residential buildings. Each plaza or closure reinforces the influence of open space and assures activity on a pedestrian scale. The Alpha guideways serve as connector lines between the clusters. As a passenger rides through this area, he or she should feel a sense of the quiet open space leading into a dynamic center and back into the open space as a transition to the next center. Circulation "In the anticipation of tens of thousands of workers migrating daily to the office parks, an already serious traffic problem will get much worse."<5> "Park developers have become very sensitive to employee access problems and are beginning to provide accessary services such as the development of mixed use parks. Distinction between office and industrial space is blurring as many once office functions move into industrial space for cost reasons. This will accelerate business industrial park development and increase the need for public transit access to the parks." As shown in Illustration 15, ten miles of PRT guideway circulates in, around, and through this area, including a stretch of four guideways along I-25. The maximum walking distance from any building in this area is 1200 feet or approximately 4.5 minutes. Circulation is of three types: 1) -68 -

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Two two-way guideways along I-25 serve as the most direct route between Southeast Denver and downtown. 2) Running clockwise around the square mile is a guideway best used for long trips where the destination is not near a corridor line. This guideway is part of the square mile grid covering the entire region. 3) The last type of circulation is the circulation within the square mile. with the grid pattern East of I-25, one large loop connects on the north, south, and east. West of I-25, two circular patterns meet and merge on Syracuse Street. This guideway carries people from the shopping center Beau Monde and disperses them throughout Greenwood Village. These circular routes connect to the square mile grid in two places on the west side. Beau Monde also serves as the off line station for the primary corridor. Most stations have been converted from covered parking shelters and can be used for parking as well as a platform to load and unload PRT passengers. Station one is located in the three level parking structure for the "One DTC" building. (See Illustration 18). Station two is located in the six level parking structure for "The Quadrant" Building. Station three is located at 5613 DTC Parkway. in Beau Monde across I-25. This station accesses station six The transition across I-25 is very smooth since the guideway actually points to the clock tower above Beau Monde, a focus point usually overlooked from I-25. Station Building. four is located in the Key Savings and Loan Station five is next to the Boettcher Building at -69 -

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8400 DTC Blvd. Stations seven and eight in Greenwood Village are not located in existing structures. Additional stations could easily be added to buildings whose developers are willing to donate their parking structures or part of their building for the station. All transit stations are near high density office buildings or activity centers such as the Beau Monde shopping center. As development occurs, it will cluster around these stations to take maximum advantage of the Alpha technology. Looking at Illustration 16, the reader can see that thirty percent of the and is surface parking. Combine this number with covered parking structures and land used for roads, and almost 50% of this square mile is used for the storage and circulation of automobiles. Less than 17% of the land surface is used for building structures. In this area where building leases vary from $7.00 to $25.00 per square foot, more land is used for parking than any other type of development. Table 6 shows the amount of land used for, and the cost of constructing parking in this area; money that could be used for constructing Alpha guideways, or converted into open space. and land that could be developed Illustration 17 shows that with the installation of the Alpha technology, approximately 75% of parking could be eliminated. This is based on an approximate mode split of 45% used in the Duluth study,<7> and an additional 25% who drive to remote parking and use the Alpha technology to reach the area. -71 -

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* Land Required for Parking Price per Square Foot Total Cost Cost of Structure Surfacing etc. Total Cost Average Cost per Car TABLE 6 PARKING COSTS FOR STUDY AREA III COMPARED TO PRT COST SURFACE PARKING 23,216 spaces 153.5 acres 6,686,460 sq. ft. $10/square foot $10.00 X 6,686,460 = $66,864,600.00 6,686,460 X 1.76/ square foot = $11,768,170.00 $78,632,770.00 $3,387.00 STRUCTURE PARKING 18,906 spaces 25 acres 1,089,000 square feet $10/ square foot 1,089,000 X $10.00 = $10,890,000.00 5,445,000 X 4.87/square foot = $80,967,150.00 $91,857,150.00 $4,858.00 * Numbers are estimates Price Source: Black's Guide 86 72 A McGraw Hill Office Leasing Guide, p. 20.

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Looking again at Illustration 17, the reader sees that movement in this area is now divided into categories: 1) The Alpha technology. 2) The public roads, colored grey on the map, have gone from an average of 74 foot right-of-ways to approximately 35 foot right-of-ways. These streets could be two way, two lane streets or a one-way, circular street if faster circulation is desired. 3) Service Roads are olive colored on the map. These roads are for authorized vehicles such as cars owned by the particular office they serve, or cars owned by residents of the apartment buildings. Service roads are all open to vehicles providing fire and police protection as well as vehicles needed for the building and maintenance of infrastructure, buildings, and landscaping. The service roads could also serve bikes and pedestrians since vehicular use is restricted. 4) Light green represents primary corridors for bike and foot travel. These corridors are too wide to be considered paths. pedestrian plazas. Most have hard surfaces and are used as In any case, all vehicles except emergency (fire 5) The and police) would be strictly forbidden in this network. last type of circulation is not pictured on the map. It is a system of narrow bike and foot paths connecting all structures to one another. These paths will tie together the pedestrian oriented activity centers with pedestrian oriented circulation. (See Illustration 19) -73 -

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QUALITY OF LIFE "PRT urban forms must be attractive in a social sense covering aesthetics, convenience, reliability, security, and other less obvious psychological With the Alpha technology, such human, not automobile, needs can be met. The scenario presented in Study Area Three was intended to provide the reader with an optimistic view of how suburban business parks can provide employment, entertainment and a clean environment while keeping in harmony with the surrounding region. The Alpha technology is no longer seen as a competitor for auto travel, "transit now becomes more like a horizontal elevator and this extends the environment of the building to the scale of an entire In essence, the Alpha technology provides a potential tool by which purposeful social commitment can be translated into physical reality. -75 -

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REFERENCES CITED 1 City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982, p.32. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Advertisement from Black's Guide, Winter, 1986, p. 7. s City of Greenwood Village, Master Plan 1982, p. 32 8 Donald E. Priest, and Joseph L. Walsh-Russo, "Land Use Trends and Transit Operations," TRB Special Report, 199, p. 40. 7 Ray MacDonald, "Economic considerations and Potential of PRT Systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Applications by Gary A. p. 181. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976) 8 Ibid. -76 -

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"First, the taking in of particulars under one Idea, so that understands what is being talked about. the separation of the Idea into parts, by it at the joints, as nature directs, not any limb in half as a bad carver might." scattered everyone .Second, dividing breaking ----Plato, Phaedeus, 265 D "It is appalling and amazing to me how many people in the political process look at the future through a rear-view mirror, and think that the future is going to be nothing but an extrapolation of the past. That is absurd and insane. Considering the kinds of realities which face the world and this country, it is absurd to believe that we can continue living in the past and using the institutional approaches to solving problems that we have used in the past." ----Governor Richard Lamn Conference on Personal Rapid Transit, 1975 -77 -

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CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This paper has thus far described the problems inherent in an automobile oriented society; congestion, inefficient use of land, safety in this study PRT system Systems, Inc. hazards, and pollution, to name a few. Suggested is the implementation of the Alpha technology, a recently designed by Automated Transportation This system allows the freedom and convenience of the automobile without the negative impacts and at a cost far below that of other, less efficient transit modes. Installation of the Alpha system and other PRT systems have been rejected in cities because it was considered unproven technology. Meanwhile, more proven, if not effective, line haul systems are still being built with no positive effect on current or future land use development. The three study areas used in this study are located in Denver•s Southeast Corridor, a corridor typical of many suburban high tech employment areas across the nation. The individual study areas characteristics implementation. represent and how a variety of different land use they might be impacted by PRT Study Area One concentrates on land infil using a new urban form that allows concentrated development and large open spaces without an extended street network. -78 -

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Study Area Two uses PRT in an established neighborhood. Here the reader is shown how PRT can be integrated into a street network and still provide good service. Study Area Three integrates Alpha into a high tech office park. Using the Alpha technology, stations can be placed in parking structures and most surface parking can be converted into open space or additional buildings. Findings Two important findings evolved from this study. First, a feeling of doubt over such an unused technology diminished as the study progressed. The technology itself has been proven as far as reliability and automation is concerned. Practically any scenario provided, even a mediocre one, will show that a PRT system is less expensive to install and more convenient than any other transit alternative. The current distrust in PRT technologies is more a result of the professional transit establishment being pressured over rising costs, decreasing ridership, and under constant scrutiny of the press and revolting taxpayers. It is this distrust and fear of change that must be overcome, not any technical faults. The second finding in this study was the endless number of urban forms possible when the Alpha technology comes into play. For each of the three study areas, there was not one, but several optimum alternatives regarding the placement of guide-ways and the land use surrounding them. studied, the more possibilities arose. -79 -The more each area was In the end, the future

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site plans for each study area are not illustrations of the only, or the best examples of land use, but one of many examples of where we might direct land use in the future. Strengths and Weaknesses It is not easy to predict the tastes and habits of future generations. Although exciting, the guesswork involved when looking so far ahead into the future can be frustrating when there are no proven methods, long equations or long form surveys to prove what is in essence a "vision" of the future. Study Area One is the best example of how the Alpha technology could be applied. Of course, the future will always be easier planned without the cumbersome problems inherited from past and present decisions. Study Area One demonstrated success in all areas of the criteria used; a well defined community, providing all necessary amenities without burdening the infrastructure and circulation systems. Given more time, a further study into the architecture used would further demonstrate the quality of life available to the residents of this area. Study Area Three was difficult to plan because of the numerous and random decisions required: where to cluster development, which parking structures to convert into stations, which parking structures to keep intact, where to place service roads and how to bring cohesiveness to a fragmented development. Arguments for the future site plan may appear weak, but are actually quite sound. Use of present employment figures cannot 80 -

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predict the placement of a circulation system. First, the major networks and stations must be planned to form the framework around which clusters and a future focus will be built. If such decisions how she appear would random, it is because the author illustrated like to see development occur in the future,not where she predicts it is going at this time. To further the work done on Study Area Three, several further studies are suggested: An employment and population estimate drawn from the development square footage used in the future site plan. From this estimate further study could determine more specifically the usage of service roads. High rates of employment might also determine a need for more Alpha stations located in or near high density buildings. As a contained business park, Study Area Three is a prime target for initiating the Alpha technology. A survey determining the interest in such a system among developers could begin a study on the economic feasibility of PRT in an isolated area. A study of this type could determine a cost-benefit analysis of providing outlying parking, bringing employees into the business park via the Alpha technology and eliminating a given percentage of surface parking. Study Area Two was the weakest example of how the Alpha technology could provide optimum service. Retrofitting the Alpha Technology into low density, residential area is difficult due to problems of accessibility. It is not economically feasible to cover a square mile of dispersed single family homes with stations that will serve a population of under 2000 -81 -

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persons. In addition to further walking distance, problems arose concerning the one-way guideways. The guideway running on the square mile border of this Study Area is not circular, thus trips on the Alpha system would require the vehicle to go several miles out of the way in order to circle around and stop on the desired destination This problem could be solved by adding more lines or, perhaps, making one or more lines two-way. However, as previously stated, this is not economically feasible due to the low density in Study Area Two. A question arose from this study over the need for corridor guideways of such high capacity. There was a certain amount of pressure felt to use I-25 as a PRT corridor simply because the land is there and is very transit intensive. There is a good possibility that the square mile grid could adequately take care of trips between the CBD and the outer Southeast Corridor. Normally, transit along major corridors is a priority among transit planners. However, the corridor guideways be it is recommended in this study that low priority and built only if grid guideways can no longer provide enough service. Money used for corridor travel would be better spent on building more stations for better access. For Further Research Three primary issues regarding the Alpha technology were not covered in this study; financing the technology, public policy issues needed to promote the technology and community involve--82 -

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• ment in the decision making process. Below is a synopsis of some of the work done in each of these areas. The Alpha technology's flexibility allows a unique form of financing not available in other mass transit technologiesj freight hauling. "Studies of PRT for both the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and the Duluth Metropolitan Area discussed in this report indicate that even if a PRT system is used for moving passengers only, it is cost-competitive with other forms of public transit and at the same time provides a much higher level of service. It the system is also used for moving freight, it appears quite probable that the entire cost of the system can be paid for out or revenues." Further studies have been written on freight hauling published in Personal Rapid Transit III,<2>, and Planning for Personal Rapid Transit<3>. "Joint use policy" is a term heard frequently among transportation planners and describes an increasing need to use private as well as public funds on transportation systems. Already private developers have placed PRT systems in many isolated projects across the countryj primarily airports and large amusement parks. Private developers from the Denver Technical Center have already hired "Skidmore Owens and Merril" to do a transit study for the Southeast Corridor and surrounding business parks. Denver's Regional Transportation District has been working with these same developers to form a subscription service where buses would pick up employees of the Technical Center and bring them directly to and from work. Employees of many large businesses -83 -

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provide free bus passes or similar incentives to those willing to leave their autos at home. This clearly shows that developers see the need to help finance alternatives to the costly and growing parking problems they are faced with. As Robert Hemmes suggested: "Try to find capture strategies in order to acquire for the system some of the benefits that it produces. For instance, if we put a PRT terminal of our downtown area in a department store, the normal approach would be for the store to allow the PRT lease space for the station. But a PRT at the second level really makes the second level of the department store as valuable as the first. The department store ought therefore to pay for having the PRT station. Morever, as an added incentive, we could perhaps allow a building having a PRT terminal not to build the parking spaces which are now required in most urban ordinances."<4> Hand in hand with financing goes public policy. PRT should be considered as infrastruture. Subdivision regulation should require the installation of PRT quideways and stations in the drawing board stage and finance them as a utility essential to the project. During the ATRA Conference, held in Denver in November of 1985, Byron Johnson suggested a form of public policy both financially beneficial to PRT and an incentive to the automobile user to use the PRT. Johnson suggested that monthly or even annual PRT passes be mandatory for Denver residents. This would assure a predictable revenue for PRT and discourage auto users who would pay for transportation twice if they chose to drive. -84 -

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Robert Hemmes points out we should "avoid asking the system to be a welfare program. Let the welfare program find ways to subsidize the cost of riding on the system[for those unable to pay]. Riders should pay something toward the cost of their transportation in order to value what it is." Denver Regional Transportation District lacks the flexibility needed in planning a large scale PRT system since it is limited to a fixed income based on general taxes plus operating fare revenues. As Ray McDonald points out: "Since PRT development depends so much upon urban planning and development, it is doubtful if a separate Rapid Transit District or Authority is the right organizational structure. Certainly the tax revenues available to most transit authorities are inadequate to finance ubiquitous PRT systems, and it may be wrong to invest what amounts to urban planning authority in a transportationoriented body. After all, the transportation is a means to an end not an end in itself. A Regional Urban Development Authority with broad reaching powers may be necessary to coordinate and control all these separate functions."<7> Finally, regarding public policy, the public must be made aware of the real expenses in owning and using a private automobile. Perceived automobile costs are low. After purchasing the vehicle, the owner perceives costs only when insurance is due, registration is due, or occasional gasoline expenses are incurred. For the most part, at least five days out of the week, he or she perceives transportation as free. The cost of building and maintaining highways and street networks is seldom considered since they come from taxes. It is time Denver considered a public policy that charges daily fees for using streets in congested areas with inadequate parking. 85 -

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Public policy should concentrate on showing people the real costs of owning and operating an automobile, not the perceived cost of free transportation on a day to day basis. Community involvement will be necessary in determining where stations and guideways are to be installed especially on the local internal grid lines As always, a great deal of education must be provided on a technology unknown to most citizens. The prevailing attitude of "not in my backyard" must first be reversed so that once accepted, PRT can be addressed as a positive attribute to the community. Questions such as "where would stations have the most accessibility?" as well as urban design questions such as "how do we construct Woonherf streets?" or "where could we create parks?" must be answered. Current programs for citizen participation in transportation planning do not integrate the design and function of the communities personality. Such programs require further study as it is imperative to the planning process for PRT. Conclusion "Land use is a critical variable in urban development which has traditionally been determined by transit modes. Therefore, if the forces for change described previously have been accurately assessed, the automobile-oriented land use will not support the urban goals of the future."<8> If we are to leave future generations with an environment both healthy and dynamic, we must stop denying the well-being of individuals and communities by using excessive lond for the accommodation of the automobile. It is time to take a more -86 -

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serious look at newer technologies such as the Alpha technology. that allow freedom of movement and the ability to develop vital and inviting environments in which to live. work and play. -87 -

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1 Task Planning for of Minnesota, 2 Gary (Minneaoplis: REFERENCES CITED Force on New Concepts Personal Rapid Transit, 1976), p. xxxiii. in Urban Transportation, (Minneapolis: University A. Dennis, ed., Personal Rapid University of Minnesota, 1976). Transit III, 3 Task Force on New Concepts in Urban Transportation, Planning for Personal Rapid Transit. 4 Robert Hemmes, "Political Perspectives," in Personal Rapid Transit III, ed. Gary A. Dennis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976), p. 19. 5 Speech by Byron Johnson, "New Opportunities for Urban Mobility," Denver, Colorado, November 1985, (Conference). 6 Hemmes, "Political Perspectives," in Personal Rapid Transit III, p. 19. 7 Ray Applications 179. 8 Ibid. MacDonald, "Economic considerations and Potential of PRT systems," in Personal Rapid Transit III, p. -88 -

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Anderson, Edward. "The Development of a Mode For Analysis of the Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Transit Systems." In Personal Rapid Transit III, pp. 155-172. Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 1976. 2. Automated Transportatio Systems, Inc. "Modern Technology Applied to Transportation," Minneapolis, March 1985 (Mimeographed.) 3. City of Greenwood Village. Master Plan 1982. 4. Denver Regional Transportation District. "Rapid Transit for 5. 6. the Denver Region: Evolution and Rational," Denver, October 1982. (Mimeographed.) Doxiadis, C.A. Anthropopolis. New York: w.w. Norton and Company, Inc., 1974. Fulton, William. pp. 7-12. "Silicon Strips," Planning, 52 (May 1986): 7. Hemmes, Robert. "Political Perspectives," in Personal Rapid Transit III, pp.l4-23, Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976. 8. Johnson, Byron. "New Denver, Colorado. Opportunities for Urban Speech, November 1985. Mobility," 9. Kornhauser, Alain L. and Philip, Craig E., "PRT in the Land Use Environment: The Implied Changes," in Personal Rapid Transit III. pp. 197-208. Edited by Gary A Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976. 10. Lutin, Jerome M. "Using New Transit Technology, To Shape 11. Suburban Growth." in Personal Rapid Transit III, pp. 209-226. Edited by Gary A. Dennis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1976. Lynch, Kevin and Hack, Gary. 3rd ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1984. 12. MacDonald, Ray. "Economic Considerations and Potential Applications Transit III. Minneapolis: of PRT Systems." In Personal Rapid pp. 173-182. Edited by Gary A. Dennis. University of Minnesota, 1976. -89 -

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BIKE ILLUSTRATION 7 _HIERARCHY OF TRANSPORTATION PRT ONLY HIGHWAY . . . . , . . . , . . AUTO-SEF;VICE BIKE-MOPEC-RES.-SERVICE BIKE-MOPEC-PEC.-EME;::::;. PEC.-EMEI=CGENCY ' : PECESTRIAN TRANSIT PI=CIMAFiiLY MOTORIZEC PRIMARILY .... ..NON-MOTORIZEC NON-MOTORIZEC