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Application of passive cooling system for high density housing complex

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Title:
Application of passive cooling system for high density housing complex
Creator:
Hwai, Chen ( author )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (38 leaves : illustrations (some color), color photographs) ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture and climate ( lcsh )
Architecture and climate -- Taiwan -- Taipei ( lcsh )
Ventilation -- Tropical conditions ( lcsh )
Architecture and climate ( fast )
Ventilation -- Tropical conditions ( fast )
Taiwan -- Taipei ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
presented by Chen Hwai.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10156 ( NOTIS )
1015683587 ( OCLC )
on1015683587
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1989m .H82 ( lcc )

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Full Text
APPLICATION
OF
PASSIVE COOLING SYSTEM FOR
HIGH DENSITY HOUSING COMPLEX
PRESENTED HY CHEN HWAl
A THESIS RESEARCH SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THI REQUIREMENTS FOR THESIS RESEARCH AND PROGRAMMING DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE POST PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER FALL,1989


GENERAL REVIEW
CLIMATE AND COMFORT
At one time, the only way to create an acceptable thermal enviroment was to adapt a building to its climate. The human desire for thermal comfort and the scarcity of fuel led many early cultures to build what we now call passive sloar building.
Variations in weather, materials and mores resulted in diverse building response, rich with gorms and images — African huts, Arab sunscreens and ventilating towers, ancient Greek and Roman Solar cities, Native American teepees and adobe dwellings and Eskimo igloos. Climatic adaptation was not simply a practical aspect of building design, but an essential element of daily life of social organization, and of cultural and spiritual values.
Beside; the climate at a building site, the microclimate, maybe quiet different from that listed for nearby towns. Variations in elevation, orientation, vegetation, proximity to water, and manmade features often include large changes in temperature,
precipitation, and available sunlight.
Under the topic of how to apply passive cooling system for high density housing complex, we should understand the climate and microclimate to which it must respond:
THE FACTORS OF CLIMATE
* Temperature
* Humidity
* Sunlight
* Precipitation
1


THE FACTORS OF MICROCLIMATE
* Orientation
* Vegetation
* Bodies of water
* Urban features
All these factors, we can use a very simple diagram to
intergrate them:
FIGURE 1.
BUILDING
ENERGY SYSTEM
DESIGN
COOLING
HEATING
LIGHTING
VENTILATION
THERMAL COMFORT
SUNLIGHT
CLIMATE
TEMPERATURE
HUMIDITY
WIND
ORIENTATION VEGETATION WATER LAND FORM
MICRO
CLIMATE
INTEGRATION DIAGRAM


THERMAL COMFORT
What is Thermal comfort? It is both a physical response and a mater of perception. It is "the state of mind which express satisfaction with the thermal enviroment" (ASHRAE)
In addition to the normal definition of physical comfort, this must include a knowledge of the user's psychological needs, preferences and capabilities. The emphasis in this discussion of comfort is on human needs as well as on the performance of architectural form.
On the basis of Fanger, Thermal comfort; ASHRAE Fundamentals, the following table shows "best" comfort temperatures, as tested over a large college age population for different clothing and activity levels.
BEST COMFORT TEMPERATURE ------------------------------------
When the air temperature equals the MRT, the air velocity is 40 feet/minute, and the RH is 50.
SEDENTRY, NUDE 88.0' F
MID1UM ACTIVITY. NUDE 84.0' F
SEDENTARY. LIGHT CLOTHING 80.5' F
SEDENTARY, MEDIUM LIGHT CLOTHING 11.5' F
SEDENTARY, MEDIUM CLOTHING 75.0' F
MEDIUM ACTIVITY, LIGHT CLOTHING 69.0' F
MEDIUM ACTIVITY, MEDIUM CLOTHING 61.0' F
HIGH ACTIVITY. LIGHT CLOTHING 58.0' F
HIGH ACTIVITY, MEDIUM CLOTHING 46.0' F
SEDENTARY .........SEATED AND QUITE.......................
MEDIUM ACTIVITY....WALKING LEISURELY, DOING LIGHT CLEANING.
HIGH ACTIVITY...... WALKING BRISKLY, EXERCISING...........
LIGHT CLOTHING-.... UNDERGARMENTS, SHORT SLEEVE SHIRT.....
MEDIUM CLOTHING....BUSINESS ATTIRE. WARM TROUSERS, SWEATER.
3


EANGER. THERMAL COMFORT, ASHRAE FUNDAMENTALS
In addition, the Psychrometric chart and the Olgay Biolclimatic chart are useful in this field, they can be used easily and quickly in the schematic phase to find what shold the designers focus on, if the climatic data is out of the comfort zone.
THE PSYCROMETRIC CHART
The qualities of mixures of air and water vapor are summarized graphically in the psychrometric chart, FIGURE 2, Its use is explaned in figure 3.
FIGURE 2
GIVOM MODIFIED PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
O
E
4


I ICI RK 3
ISK OF THK PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
C.ivoni
Modified
psychrometric
ch.irt
THE BIOCLIMATIC CHART
This chart shows the comfort zone in the center, the climatic elements around it are shown by means of curves which indicate the nature of corrective measures necessary to restore the feeling of comfort at any point outside the comfort zone.
5


FIGl'RE 4
OU’.AV
1UOCLIMATIC CHARI
6


SUMMARY OF PROCEDURE
1. Find the weather data of Taipei Municipality, including the solar altitude, temperature, relative humidity and w i n d.
2. According to the data, plot the bioclimatic and psychrometric chart.
3 . Find the nature of corrective measures necessary to
restore the feeling of comfort.
4 . Study the nature of corrective measures already known.
Find some principles for mass design.
5. Build up some models and use water-table for experime.
Record the possible result and make a matrix analysis. r>. Analyze the matrix chart and make some guideline for building design.
7. Feed back these guidelines to a variety of shapes
commonly designed nowadays and test them to find the best way of passive cooling solution.
METHODOLOGY
7


INTRODUCTION OF TAIPEI
Natural enviroment and location of Taipei
Taipei city is situated at the center of the Taipei basin in northern Taiwan, the area is hilly in the southeast, comparatively flat in the northwest and mountainous in the northeast, bounded by the Tamsui River in the west and Hsin-Dien Creek in the south. Keelung River flows across the city and gather together with Tamsui River around the northwest part of the city.
Taipei area is a typical basin with volcanic rocks at north, gravel and clay at center and sand stone, shale, volcanic gravel and coal scattered at southeast.
Climate of Taipei Municipality
The climate of Taipei is subtropical, with an annual average temperature of 22' C, In winter, northeast by east wind prevail with an average velocity of 7.875 mph and in summer, west wind prevail with the velocity of 5.4 mph. More detailed data refers to Table l. According to these data plot the bioclimatic chart Figure 5.
When temperature and humidities are above 80'F and 80%, according to the bioclimatic chart we know" that the focus must be on cross-ventilation shading and minizing the humidity.
Humidity
Within the comfort zone, changes in humidity have only a moderate effect on comfort temperature. Increasing the relative humidity from 20 - 50% lowers the comfort
temperature by 1 - 2'F. At temperature above the comfort zone
8


increased humiditv cuts the rate of evaporative heat loss ereatlv increasing discomfort.
Air movement
At low air velocity, small fluctuations have a relatively large effect on comfort temperature. Rising the air velocity from 20 -60 ft/minute requires a 2 - 3' F increase in temperature to maintain equivalent comfort. This accounts for the importance of drafts. Because drafts are localized, they are hard to offset with higher dry-bulb temperature.
Beyond 60 ft/minute. increasing in air velocity have a more moderate effect on comfort temperature, high air velocities are most helpful above the comfort zone, when evaporation of perspiration is essential to acceptable comfort. Effective cross ventilation, which often lowers the air temperature and increase the air speed, greatly increases the accupants control over indoor comfort conditions.
Shading and daylight
Of course the shading and daylight are important too, poorly planned, oversized or unshaded passive solar features may admit large quantities of unwanted sunlight and cause veiling reflections or glare. Since it is relatively easy to control sunlight falling on window by using overhangs, awnings, vertical shading and other devices, this study will concentrate on cross ventilation.
'-oiar Position and Related Angies tor -4 Deg North Latitude
"olar Time •v»Ur Position Profile t*i hado* 1 i n e < \n*>ie\ Snglet of Incidence Vertical surfaces
D\n \l.T \/ s NM Nf 'f yy VS •»w VS y VS s NNF Nf t NF F FSF SF vSF 6 6>SS 6VS VS^SS HOR
DEC •a • 4 •9 -9 50 33 26 54 51 "1 64
' i '9 L* •« •4 *4 4 J M 4' 56 56 4~ 63 8! *6
* • 44 4.’ 42 '6 so 4“ 4! 44 << "0 S’ 50
4*) 52 4S 4 : 45 â– T 90 "4 59 4' 43 4" 59 '4 47
u 11 r>< ID 4.) 4; id yo 40 '} 5" 45 40 45 58 -3 50
, - , ' s4 "4 *2 “* 54 ;5 "5 67 63 62 67 ~5 85 28
yO VJ “3 68 s8 "3 SO 90 SI ~3 68 66 68 73 81 24
9 ■ty VW << 44 < t Aj -i •a 3.4 50 50 56 67 81 41
.cN ri 9* -- • • *\4 ~2 s; *8 *9 S4 S3 06 ’3 82 27
• ; 9! yO '4 ill -- > *“ SO . < 80 76 77 SO 85 14
*9 90 40 â– *) 89 ?9 ?9 90 40 90 90 90 89 89 89 90 90 1
s NNVS NVS VS NVS VS VS y VS >\s yy VS y >SF SF. F.SF s ssvs svs vs su vs sssvs sss ssvs S SSF SF FSF HOR
Solar
Time
PM
I
3
7
12
3
7
12
PM
9


CWB-J0B-CLM-STAP011
DATA LIST
PAGE:0001
& R
AREA TAIPEI f T A I WAN r R . 0 . C. (LAT:250221N, LOG:1213021E, ALT:0005M)
STNO:46692 ITEM : A 3 1 3 ABSOLUTE MAX . TEMP. YEAR :1985- 1 989 UN IT:0.1 C
MON TH I \ 35 261 -> d- 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 MAX
232 289 311 330 350 360 355 352 343 299 269 360
D 22 A 27 25 23 21 31 7 1 5 16 5 3 31
36 2 A 7 232 272 324 336 352 355 360 348 318 304 256 360
r- i r 1 A 1 A 27 19 2.9 31 10 8 17 l 4 24 10
.? 2 6 28 A 323 326 352 357 357 3 7 A 350 321 326 273 374
l L* 1 1 7 10 2 2 A 22 8 3 21 1 26 8
• ‘ O *. 268 32 5 315 36.3 3 6 2 3 77 382 360 321 283 272 332
■. \ r) 1 A 26 20 5 0 •» r v ■"> ri 23 1 8 2 2
/ i 500 292 316 3o1 3 7 1 3 7 8 3 9 4 34 4 / / 3 78
'; ! 7 5? _0 3 1 1 i r> 1 3 ! 5 ! 6 ! 3
A, ?« r' • Jr~ pr /• ’• ■ p .y. v ■ •- x; "X v L-V ■ i - !X
• ■ A IV A ! P F. L / TAIWAN/ P . 0 . C . V L A ! : 2 5 0 2 2 IN. L 0 G : 1 2 i 5 0 2 1 r . ALT:00050.
: •"'i * ' A V> b y ITEM - A 5 A A ABSOLUTE MIN • 1' T M P . YEAR : 1985 1 9 89 UN I T : 0 . 1 ...
’! • M 1 H U i y 3 A ,, f O o 10 1 1 1 2 M I N
\ 109 1 00 1 2 1 2 1 0 i c» 2 A 0 2 3 0 2 5 8 2 09 1 59 3 9 > Q
A-, - ^ J 31 V. 29 50 30 <2 24 1 7 i 7
3 ) A3 153 170 i 2 A ] 2 30 1 8 8 1 73 1 5 7 1 1 1 A 5
•. 3 1 7 • ’ 5 50 50 2 6 20 3
7 1 ! Q2 1 i2 *?> 1 K r> ! -'• 2 A 9 2 5 I ■>F. •a ’ r. 1 5 1 1 0 5 7 !
' O I 2 A ! 0 1 7 i i 1 V y A 50 6 2 8
]<)?• 1 0 A 100 13 3 i •- 4 I 3 0 2 6 1 - 2 / 20 5 1 3 5 101 109 100
1 3 7 r 7 1 ' 2 7 \ ') • a. 2 • -! 2 3 1 5 7
v ;i 8 5 / o f U ! 6 8 ! 7 r) 2 0 5 2 A 5 tl > *1 ' •* ! 78
:• 1 2 o 2 4 : A 4 Q
• r- f i A f*: h :> : 1, ■U.UE- V Y F A R r !. 0 A \ L , !) R W 1 N 0 DIRE C T I 0 N r N ‘ NORMAL
-- N * N E X - T R 0 U B l h - UNI MOWN R I-: F E R F N 0 F V ALUE . T - TRACE
s Vv r . 2- t . â– S* i 2 j


WEATHER OF TAIPEI MUNICIPALITY
YEAR(MONTH) MAX.
1980
1981
1982
198 3
1 984
1985
1986
l 987
1 988
Jan. 2 8.2
Feb. 2 5.8
Mar. 3 2.5
Apr . 31.5
May . 36. 3
Jun . 36.2
J ly . 37.7
Aug . 38.2
Sep. 36.0
Oct. 32.1
Nov. 28.3
Dec. 27.2
1989
Jan. 27.1
Feb. 30.0
Mar. 29.2
Apr. 31.6
May. 36.1
Jun. 37.1
Jly. 37.8
Aug. 36.4
Sep. 34.4
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE( 22.5
22.4
22.4 22.7 22 . 8 2 5.0 2 5.2 2 5.0 2 5.1
23.8
MIN.
HH
DA YI.I GUT ( hr.)
77 78 146 5.6 1415.4
79 14/6. 5
80 1 5 56 . 5
82 1 2 62.8
82 1 2‘> 1 . /
77 1 4 2 4 . 7
77 1 5 8 / . 4
77 1 4 1 0.6
10.8
10.4
10.0
15.3
10.4 18.0 20.1 24.7 2 0.5
18.5 10.1 10.9
79
8.8 166.5
8.5 112.4
7.8 9 1.0
16.8 97.7
17.6 7 4. 5
20.5 9 1 . 0
24.5 14 5.6
23.4 211.2
24.1 113.9
Central Meteorological Observatory


DRYBULB TEMPERATURE E
GRAINS OF MOISTURE POUND OF AIR
FREEZING LINE
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
RELATIVE HUMIDITY %
BIOCLIMATIC CHART
LOCATION: TAIPEI
R.O.C


(iivnni Modified p^Nfhmmi'ti it.
i h.irt
LOCATION: TAIPEI
R.O.C


STUDY OF PASSIVE COOLING FACTORS
Natural air movement
Natural air movement is caused by differences in temperature and the other differences in pressure.
Vertical currents of air carrying the dust of a field up into the sky are frequently observed. These vertical currents, called "thermals", are composed of relatively hot air that rise above the cooler air surrounding it.
The energy implications of wind patterns on building
orientation are complex and can not be described by simple rules or mathematical formula. The direction and force of the
wind is constantly being modified and changed by the features of any building, site and structure. An important concept in understanding how wind generated pressure differentials produce air movement is "Venturiaction", which is based on the Bernoulli effect. From Bernoulli theorem, the pressure of a moving fluid decreases as its velocity increase. When air is
channeled into the larger end of the tunnel, it accelerates as it passes through, owing to the reduced open area through which the same volume of air must pass in the same volume. Figure 6. shows the basic guidlines to natural air movement.
Figure 6
FLOW OVER WALLS
/
INCIDENT MEAN WIND PROFILE
CONSTRAINED TO PREVENT DIVERGENCE
CONSTRAINTS REMOVE


FLOW OVER WALLS
UNIFORM INCIDENT CONSTRAINED TO
WIND PROFILE PREVENT DIVERGEMCE
CONSTRAINTS REMOVED
PRESURE COFHCIENT
FLOW OVER ROOF
UNIFORM INCIDENT WIND PROFILE
?ESURE COf FlCiENT PRESURE COf FiClENT
EFFECT OF ROOF PITCH ON FLOW

Solar radiation
Calculation to determine the available amounts of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface for any design condition require consideration of several different types of variables. Because the position of the sun in relation to the surface is constantly changing, the amount of incoming short-wave radiation from the sun varies as a function of the latitude, time of year and time of day. Knowledge of these three variables


enables a precise determination of the angles of the buildings' facade in relation to the position of the sun.
trrcCT Of LATITUDE ON THE SUN'S ALTITUDE SOLAR ALTITUOE OF DIFFER ENT TIMES OF YEAR
SUMMER
SOLSTICE
SUN'S DAJLY PATH ACROSS THE SKY
Shape and orientation
For a building with one primary axis of orientation, orientation of that axis towards the south will allow the controlled reduction of heat gain in warmer periods while enhancing heat gain in the cooler periods.
Move complex shape will be more difficult to orient sucessfully. In many cases, optimal orientations must be adjusted so that
12


all important building surfaces can best utilize radiation impacts. Square or round shapes with no predominant axis of orientation require more detailed consideration in the designs of the building envelop and shading devices to respond effectively to variations in radiation intensities received by the different building surfaces.
On a completely configured building, a detailed analysis of solar radiation on each surface, including self-shading, can assist orientation decisions. Figure 7. shows building shape as a response to radiant heat gain, according to that , an optium
ratio of sides can easily be decided.
Figure 7.
Q Q o â–¡ â–¡ = = Q D q â–¡ â–¡ = =>
IIK.\T Cains 5:1 4:1 3:1 2:11:1 1:21:3 1:4 1:5
0 0 D â–¡ o a =
5:1 4:13:1 2:1 1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:5
optium 1:1.3 â–¡
[] [] D 0 □ c=a c—n
IIKaT gains 5:1 4:1 3:1 2:11:1 1:21:31:4 1:5
optima 1:1.7
-S - °E£?ONS5 ~3 RADIANT -‘EAT 3 A i N j c:zr Cigvav, Design rV-rfi C/.-mare.
13


WIND DIRECTION
On the basis of passive cooling factors, the intergrated scheme can be developed:

APPLICATION OF NATURAL AJR MOVEMENT
INTEGRATION DIAGRAM
\ _ 1 / \ 1 /
m
/ 1s / \'
2.
*â– >
3.
4.
Natural air movement. Solar radiation.
Mass control.
Concept of courtyard.

CONCEPT OF COURTYARD
INTEGRATION DIAGRAM
\ ' /
/ I '
Y ' / Y '/
/ |\ / | \
23.5'

CONCEPT OF SOLAR RADIATION
INTEGRATION DIAGRAM
J O D D â–¡
IIKaT GAINS 5:14:13:1 2:11:1 1:21:31:4 1:5
oplium 1:1.7
Mass control.
14


ANALYSIS OF INTEGRATED SCHEME
HOT AIR
As H increase, P will increase, but; wind velocity will decrease. As H decrease, P will decrease, but; wind velocity will increase. Each space of zig-zag section still has steady wind blowing through.
If there is any obstacle in front of the building, P will decrease. Proper design will be helpful to drain out the heat stack.
15


If HI minus H2 is R (+).
As R increase, the amount of P will increase.
OPTIUM DESIGN CRITERIA * Increase the HI and minimize
16
the h, thus; the amount of P will increase and the wind velocity will increase too.


inn
□—H-
â–¡ â–¡â–¡
As the areas of inlet opening are the same:
More areas of inlet opening concentrate in the middle facade facing the wind, greater pressure of outlet air will result.
As there is no opening on the facade paralleling the wind:
H does not affect PI.
More areas of outlet opening are on the facade paralleling the wind, less Pi will result.
As the building situated 90 degrees with the wind:
OPTIUM DESIGN CRITERIA * Increase the area of A.
Decrease the length of H.
17


—>-
60°
45°
Jb
Under the condition of the same building type as rotating angle increase:
Inlet air will decrease, outlet air will decrease too.
OPTIUM DESIGN CRITERIA * Increase the areas that situated 90 degrees with the wind, besides; according to previous design criteria to choose the location of inlet opening.
18


FEED BACK
According to the conclusion of intergrated scheme, apply them to a variety of shapes commonly designed nowadays and test them to find the best way of passive cooling solution.
19


NATURAL VENTILATION
20


— >


INSUFICIENT NATURAL VENTILATION
22


INSUFICIENT NATURAL VENTILATION
23


WIND SIMULATION OF MASS conclusion 1
24


WIND SIMULATION OF MASS
CONCLUSION 2.
25


PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES
Because of Urban features, the direction of wind conies from different directions and it is very difficult to predict using common weather data. Owing to this, the microclimate data, especial wind direction, is needed.
In order to increase the wind flow and the cooling effect of wind on a high- density housing complex the designer should:
* Build decks or platforms on the windiest areas in order to
take advantage of natural breezes. ENERGY INFORM
* Increase the areas of facade perpendicular to the wind direction in order to induce as much wind as possible into the building.
Decrease the areas of facade paralleling with the wind direction.
If the designer applys the concept of courtyard in building design, plan the hollow openings on the middle facade perpendicular to the windiest direction.
Common principles and guidelines for different shapes, Please refer to the analysis of integrated scheme (page 15-25).
26


DESIGN APPLICATION
ro
-J
LOCATION: TAIPEI, R.O.C.
2
SITE AREA: 226000 FT
2
FLOOR AREA: 172000 FT
CONCEPT:
POPULATION: 4860 persons
HOUSING UNIT VARIETY: 488.5 FT
t
732.8 FT 2
787.7 FT 837.5 FT
AN APPLICATION OF PASSIVE COOLINC SYSTEM
Jot-
high DENSITY HOUSING COMPLEX


MASS-PLANNING- APPROACH
Using Fluid-Mapping Technique
0 S 15 30

PRIVATE SPACE
SEi^I-SljiCE
FEET

HOUSING UNIT
------ HOUSING UNIT
I----1 SOCIAL GYM.
SUPERMARKET RETAIL STORE
PARKING LOT
SEMI-PUBLIC SPACE
PUBLIC SPACE
APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX




feet
0 30 90 180

300
__ feet
4.F


6-F


MAIN FLOOR PLAN
UPPER FLOOR PLAN
HOUSING UNIT/
0 5 15 30
FEET
DESIGN CRITERIA: 3 BEDROOMS, 900 ft/HOUSING UNIT
APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX


MAIN FLOOR PLAN

UPPER FLOOR PLAN
HOUSING UNIT2
AIR FLOW OF MASS
AIR FLOW OF PLAN
DESIGN CRITERIA: 3 BEDROOMS, 725 ft/HOUSING UNIT
APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX


i 4
0 5 15 30
HOUSING UNIT3
FEET
S>
EXPERIMENT 1
A
EXPERIMENT Z
EXPERIMENT 3
DESIGN OBJECTIVE AIRFLOW THROUGH HOUSING UNIT
CONCEPT or VENTILATION CAVITY
SECTION or CORRlDOn
DESIGN CRITERA: 2 BEDROOMS,520 ft/UNIT
APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX


DESIGN OBJECTIVE: PRIVACY •------^ THE BASE PLANE ELEVATED
Edge of the field is well defined Visxial and spatial continuity is interrupted
[
1 PRIVATE SPACE ( PUBLIC ) L iVWiii PRIVATE SPACE
u ■j—it
DESIGN CRITERIA: SINGLE ROOM 324 fl‘/HOUSING UNIT
APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX


HOUSING UN IT 4’
0 5 15 30
FEET
WIND DIRECTION OF SUMMER
APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX




37


BIBLIOGRAPHY
* Michael Hough. "CITY FORM AND NATURAL PROCESS... Towards a new
urban vernacular" Toronto, 1984
* Mark Francis et al. "THE MAKING OF NEIGHBOURHOOD OPEN SPACE,
CENTER FOR HUMAN ENVIROMENT" Now York, 1981
* Victor Olgay. "DESIGN WITH CLIMATE...Bioclimatic approach to
architectural regionalism" New Jersey,
* Mcguinness Stein Reynolds. "MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDING" New York, 1980
* AIA research Corporation with Syska & Hennessey. "ENERGY INFORM ... Designing for energy conservation" 1978
* Hassan Fathy. "NATURAL ENERGY AND VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE"
C h icngo, 1986
* Git 3eon Golany. "HOUSING IN ARID LANDS ... Design and planning"
London, 1980
* Amos Rapoport. "THE MEANING OF THE BUILT ENVIROMENT"
New York, 1982
Atkinson. G. A. "PRINCIPLES OF TROPICAL DESIGN II 1953
Calder. R. "MAN AGAINST THE DESERT" Lawrence, 1958
Ge: iger. R. "THE CLIMATE NEAR THE GROUND" Mass, 1965
Mcharg. L. L. " DESIGN WITH NATURE" New York, 1969
* RESOURCES ON HAND
38


Full Text

PAGE 1

APPLICATION OF PASSIVE COOLING SYSTEM FOR HIGH DENSITY HOUSING COMPLEX PRESENTED B Y C HEN 11\V A I A T HESI S RESEARCH SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLl\ l E T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR THESI S RESEAR C H AND PROGRAMI\II NG DEGREE OF l\1ASTER OF A RCHITECTUR E POST PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AN D PLANNI NG UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER FALL,1989

PAGE 2

GE:\ERAL REVIE\V CLii\IATE AND COMFORT At one time, the only way to create an acceptable th:ermal enviroment was to adapt a building to its climate. The human desire for thermal comfort and the scarcity of fuel led many ea rly cultures to build what we now call passive sloar building. Variations in weather, materials and mores resulted in diverse building response, rich with gorms and images --African huts, Arab sunscreens and ventilating towers, ancient Greek and Roman Solar cities, Native American teepees and adobe dwellings and Eskimo igloos. Climatic adaptation was not s imply a practical aspect of building design, but an essential c l ement of daily life of socia l organization, and of cultural and spiritual values. Beside; the climate at a building site, the microclimate, maybe quiet different from that listed for nearby towns. Variations in e levati on, orientation, vegetation , proximity to water, and manmade features often include large changes in temperature, precipitation. and available s unli g ht. Under the topic of how to apply passive cooling system for high density housing co mpl ex, we s hould understand the climate and microclimate to which it must respond: THE FACTORS OF CLIMATE * * * * Temperature Humidity Sunlight Precipitation 1

PAGE 3

THE FACTORS OF MICROCLIMATE * * * * Orientation Vegetation Bodie of water Urban features A I I these factors, we ca n use a very simple diagram to intergrate th em: FIGURE I. SUNLIGHT B UI LD ING ENERGY SYSTEM CU\•IATE DESIGN TEMPERAT URE COOLING HUMIDITY HEATING [ WIND THERMAL COMFORT LIGHTING VENTILATION MICRO ORIENTATI O N VEGETATION CLIMATE WATER LANDFORM I NTEGRATION D IAGRAM 2

PAGE 4

TIIER\1.-\L CO\IFORT What is Thermal comfort? It is both a physical response and a mater of perception. It is "the state of mind which express sa tisfaction with the thermal enviroment" (ASHRAE) In addition to the normal definition of physical comfort, this must include a knowledge of the user's psychological needs, preferences and capabilities. The emphasis in this discussion of co mfort is on human need s as well as on the performance of architectural form. On th e basi of Fanger, Thermal comfort; ASHRAE Fundamentals, the fo II owing table shows "best" comfort t e mp e ratur es, as tested over a lar ge co llege age population for different c lothin g and activity l evels. BEST COMFORT TEMPERATURE ----------------------------Whe n the air temperature eq ual s the MRT, the air velocity IS -+0 feet / minute, and the RH is 50. SEDE ' TRY, 1\'UDE 88.0' F MIDIUM ACTIVITY , NUDE 84.0' F SEDE ' TARY, LIGHT CLOTHING 80.5' F SEDENTARY, MEDIUM LIGHT CLOTHING 77.5' F SEDE ' TARY , MEDIUM CLOTHING 75.0' F M ACTIVITY, LIGHT CLOTHING 69.0' F ACTIVITY, MEDIUM CLOTHING 61.0' F HIGH ACTIVITY. LIGHT CLOTHI ' G 58. 0' F HIGH ACT I VITY. MEDIUM CLOTHING 46.0' F SEDENTARY --------------SEATED A D QUITE ........ . ......... ... ........................ . .... . MEDIUM ACTIVITY------WALKING LEISURELY , DOING LIGHT CLEANING . HIGH ACTIVITY---------WALKING BRISKLY, EXERCISING ........................ . LIGHT CLOTHING-------UNDERGARMENTS, SHORT SLEEVE SHIRT ... ........ . MEDIUM CLOTHING--------BUSINESS ATTIRE, WARM TROUSERS, SWEATER. 3

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FANGER. THERJ\lAL COMFORT, ASHRAE FUNDAMENTALS In addition, th e P sychrometric chart and the Olgay Biolclimatic chart are useful in this field, they can be used easily and quickly in the schematic phase to find what shold the designers focu s on, if the climatic data is out of the comfort zone. THE PSYCROMETRIC CHART The qualities of mixures of air and water vapor are summarized graphically in the psychrometric chart, FIGURE 2, Irs u e i s explane d in FIGURE 3 . FIGURE 2 :. \,-_ . _ Gl\' 01'\I MODIFIED PSYCHROMETRIC CHART .:1_ ::::> 0 0 I :>2 6 r: < cIN E S OF CCJN S T A N T H DB 1):0 r 0 ' • --;cc-';S F 4 a > CJ c.

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FIGL 'RE J L'SE OF THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Ci\lllli \1odifieJ th.ut RH • ; ...... THE BIOCLii\IATIC CHA RT bo. I / 'fo•p This chart show the comfort zone in the center. the climatic elements around it are shown by means of curves which indicate th e nature of corrective measures necessary to restore th e feeling of comfort at any point outside the comfort zone. 5

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F !Gl"RE 4 OLGA\' BIOCLI\1.-\TIC CHART "' 'a'. no .. s .. 100 90 80 70 o(J 50 30 'II'C"'&A-1 \ ( ...... -. , . I() ' . ' ._..,. s JU 1'10 RAOIAJ)Of'l 200 )00 ntu; l ________________________ _ 20L O ___ l _ 0 ____ RELAT I VE HVMI OITY•/• 6

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S t \ 1 \ 1.\ R Y 0 F P R 0 C EDt; R 1:. I. Find the wea ther dat a of Taipei Municipality, including the olar altitude , t e mperatur e, relative humidity and wind. Acco rdin g t o the data , plot the bioclimatic and psychrome tric c h art. 3. Find the n:1ture of co rr ec tiv e m eas ure s n ecess ary to re sto re the feeling of co mfort . Study the nature of co rr ective measure a lready known. rind so m e pri n c ipl es for ma ss desig n . :-. Build up ome m odel and u se wa t e r -table for experime. R ecord the possible result and make a matrix analysis. o . na l yze the matrix chart and make some g uidelin e for bu ildin g d e ign. 7. reed back these guidelines t o a va riet y of s hap es commonly de igned nowadays and t est them to find the be t \\'ay of passi\'e coo lin g solu tion. rlBIOC\.1\i\TIC OIAWT I m.'DY J' I ,,.,.,.,,.,..,. I t-:' U , , ,, . • ' llt'TIIt:'tt 0-'T A TilE 'ATilU: O f 0' MASS DESIG S f--4 fOR O F aau.cTTYE l . ..-I n .. t :'ID MAI"C'IC CORRECTl\l: \.O;ASL1U:S IUlLDlVG DESIGS T \ll'(k I APPI. y TO A v AJUETY Of SH APES l I'
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1:\TRODLCTIO:\ OF TAIPEI :\atural enviroment and location of Taipei Taipei city IS sit uated at the center of the Taipei basin in northern Taiwan, th e area is hilly in the southeast, comparati\'el y flat in th e northwest and mountainous in the north east. bound ed by the Tamsui River in the west and Hsin Dien Creek in the so uth . Keelung River flow s across the city and gather together with Tamsui Riv e r around the northwest part of the city. Taipei area I S a typical basin with vo lcani c rocks at north , g ra\'el and clay at ce nt er and sand tone , shale. volcanic gravel :1ncl coa l scttt cred :tt southeast. Climate of Taipei \lunicipality The cl imate of Taipei is ubtropical, with an annual average temperatu r e of 22' C. In win t er. northeast by east wind prevail \\'it h an a\ erage veloci t y of 7.875 mph a nd in summer, west " inc! pre\ ail \\irh the velocity of 5.4 mph . More detailed data rcfl;;rs t o I. Acco r ding t o these data plot the bioclimatic hart Figure 5. \\'hen t emperature and humidities are above 80'F and 80%, :1ccordin g to the bioclimatic chan \\'e kno that the focus must be o n cross-\ entilation s hading and minizing the humid ity. Humidity Within the comfort zone. c han ges in humidity have only a moderate effect on comfort temperature. Increasing the relative humidity from 20 50% lowers the comfort t e mp e rature by l 2'F. At temperature above the comfort zone 8

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\ ' , t.P ilh.'l\.' : hl'd !Jumid i t\ Cllt._ the r at\.? o f e \';lp O rat i ve h e at lOSS :.:rc:tth Inc re:l "Ing di::-CL)mfo rt . . \ir 1110YCI11CI1t :\t l o w air \'e l ocity . s m all flu c tuat io n s ha ve a relati ve l y larg e eff ec t o n co mf ort t e mp e r a tur e . Ri in g the a ir ve locity from 20 6 0 f t / m i nut e r e qu i res a 2 3' F in crease in t emperature to ma inuin equival e nt co m f ort. T h i s account s fo r the importance o f draft s . Because d raft s are l oc ali ze d , the y a r e hard t o offs et " irh hig h e r d r v -bulb t e m p e r a tur e. 8 e\' Ond 6 0 f t / m inu t e . i n c r eas in g in ve l oc it y have a more m o d e rate eff e ct o n co mf ort t e mp e r a tur e, hig h air v e lo c it ies ar e m os t he l pfu l ab o , e t he co 1nfort zo n e. w h e n ev ap o ration of pcr"pir atio n i s e.s"e ntia l t o accep t ab l e co mfort. E ffe ctive c r oss c n til a t i o n . "'hi h o f t en l o \\'e r s t h e alf t e mp erature and i n cre:tsc t h e :1ir "peed . g r e a tly Inc r e a s es the. accupants co n t rol (l\er i n d oo r c o mf ort co ndit i o n s . Shadi n g and d aylight o r co ur"e the !Jadin g and daylig h t a r e impo rt a nt t oo , poorl y pl:tnncd . o , c r s i zed o r unshaded pa s 1 ve a lar features ma y : tdmit l a rge qu anti tie o f un\\'anted s unli g ht and cau se ve ilin g refle c t i o n s or g lar e. Sin c e it i s rel a tive l y eas y to c ontrol s unli g ht f:tll i n g o n \\'ind O\\' b y u sing ov e rha n gs , aw nings, vertical :;hadin g a n d othe r dev i ces . thi s s t ud y w ill co n c en tr a t e on c r oss , . e n t i I :1 t i o n . .... \I.H f 1mr P r h 1t1<1n Jl :o :-' :< J' !6 !b ,.] J' J ) ' J J' ,, • ) -") J j " .. ' • " J ' 9 •J J ..., 6] .. .... 'U '] o8 • N ' " " ... ..1 -1 ,j o •' . . , . "' ,, ,, ' ] .. ; .... '1 0 ) ...., --.... , 00 so ' ' ' " "' "''' " " ' " 9 Solar T imt -l l 2

PAGE 11

--------CWBJOB CLM-STAP011 DATA LIST PAGE:0001 jJ AREA TAIPEI , T AIWAN, R.O.C . (LAT:250221Nr LOG:1213021E, ALT:0005M) ITEM:A313 ABSOLUTE MA TEMP . YEAR:1985 -1989 UNIT:0.1C , 1 r H I 261 2.h7 1 i ,. . I j i fj : 'I-I: -,F t 2 232 L , 232 1 L, 1 1 :iOO 17 3 289 2 7 2 7 2 1 4 323 7 4 31 1 2 5 324 2 7 326 10 ::, 1 5 :: 31t> 5 330 336 l'.,t 35: 1 r 'J 1-\ tJ , r ' ' ... ''I • c• I[Ji. 1 "' I.. 100 ) 1 / , <; lfJ(J I,, u ! ,.\ L. u F. , -• 1 E ... t-... 'X' • _:.,_ I . 1'18S1)L Ul I. ; i ii . (. It,, 1 .'= 1-:. I • . I I J i ... i , • (7, I I ) '., 6 350 2 1 352 357 'I -.. j r , 7 360 31 355 3 1 357 317 13 3 3'5 7 360 10 3 4 I .; 9 35 15 3 8 R 350 360 10 343 1 6 318 1 7 321 21 321 .23 1 1 299 5 304 14 326 1 ?83 I 12 269 3 256 24 273 .26 2?2 ,, (• I'! AX 360 3 1 360 IQ 3 7 L , 8 302 '>73 I) L ,, i . ; "• fJ ,'.;, I N , L < l 1) : I . ' 1 !; i 2 1 r , /\ L f : () 0 ) ','I rt r1. , I f•lf'. ' ... : / , 0 '-' 0 I:' •• 1 I L I ' I l! ! I L I "N f N ' 0 i.J !1! • :o ( j : I t i '• -, I ) . y :-/"..R: lO 20'.:, I ( .. i r 6.''...J ' 1 ' '" UNll:O. I I ... ' 30 1 (I I I. 1 ( I I I 'I) 1 l f1 1 ) ') I •. tl!rJ 1 . , If . ' ' ; () 1 ': (J r' r i\1 • N !.l '' r 1 ,, t f'R!\CC'

PAGE 12

WEATnER OF TAIPEI MUNICIPALITY Y El\ R ( M O N'l'll) M/\X . 1\ I ? 1\G 1 : 'I' I:M P 1 m 1\ 'I'U 1n: ( ' c ) MJ:N. lUI I li\ Y I , I '; I I 'I' ( l1 r • ) 1 980 :u. s 77 I !J r' . r ' l.!l I.() • 4 M a r . 32 .') 10. 0 1\pr. n . , , 1 L 3 May . 3 6 . 3 1lJ. 4 Jun. 3 6 . 2 1 8 . 0 Jly. 3 7 . 7 2 s . 1 1\ug . 38 . 2 2 4 . 7 Sep . 3 6 . 0 2 0 . 5 Oct. 32 . l 1 8 . 5 Nov . 28. 3 1 0.1 Dec. 2 7 . 2 1 0 . 9 1 989 23 . 8 7 9 Jan. 2 7 . 1 8 . 8 l1 l 1 1., 1 } Feb. 3 0 . 0 8 . 5 I I / . 4 M ar. 29 . 2 7 . 8 I) I . () Apr. 31.6 16. 8 (n . 7 May. 36.1 17. 6 7 4 . l Jun. 37. 1 20. 5 ( J l . () Jly. 37. 8 24. 5 J 4 '.i • () Aug . 36.4 23.4 2] l./. S ep. 34.4 24.1 l J J . y *****************************************S C entral Meteorological Observatory **************************************** ource : ............

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0 u.. UJ 0: 120 1 0 0: a.. 1 0 0 UJ 1-m ....J ::J CD > 0: 0 90 80 70 60 50 4 0 30 GRA INS OF MOI S TURE ' POUN O OF A I R 0 LIMIT OF WORK OF M O DERATE I NTE NSITY LI M IT O F WINO A N D HU MID FT/ M WIND SHADING LINE 50 100 150 BTU / HOUR 200 RADIATION 250 300 FREEZING LINE 0 20 30 4 0 5 0 60 7 0 80 9 0 100 RELATIVE HUMIDITY '\ o BIOCLIMATIC CHART LOCATION : TAIPEI. .... . . ....... ........... . ............ . ........... . . . . ... . .............. R.O.C

PAGE 14

C;hnni t .. l ifitl 1'<\ r h I 1111\l'l I j , t lr.1 rt <\H . . . . • • • I • I I I I /. ' ; / ').\ ' • I \ , • • />{ I I I . I ' I / J.-c-j-i . I I I / I • I ' , . ( I • \ ' I ' \ , l;. 1\ • ' \ ( \ " 1 ; . ' . I \ G ' , I • , \ . • • ' . ( 1 .' " , o I 1/, . • I I / I ... I l • q I / .. , COt-IFOP.I J / f .' ; C:ONE. I 4' . t . I , ' l I / \ A :. 'I I -' , . r ' / ( t I :-' . \ I I ;;.-I I I • J' ;--;, _ ! = I _..,;. ..-W11'H \ : : : ;r. ; :,-; :!.:;, T . I 1 ' I o I • I:: . o '-:::-.; '1;.. I ' 4cf :5tf bo' ? o ' OCJ' '!O ' F L OCATION : TAIPEI ......... . .............. ........... . ......... . ........ ....... ...... . .... R.O . C

PAGE 15

STLDY OF P.-\SSIYE COOLI;\;G FACT ORS \'atural air movement \'atural air movement i s cau se d by differences in temperature and the ot h e r difference In pres s ur e. Vertical c urr e nt s of air ca rrying the dust of a field up into the s k y are frequently observed. These vertical currents, called "thermal " . are composed of r e lativel y hot air that rise above the cooler air s urrounding it. Th e ener gy implications of \Vind patterns on building orie ntati o n ar e complex a nd c an n o t be described by simple rul es o r mathematical formula. Th e direction an d forc e of the w ind i constantl y being modified and changed by the features o f any bui ldin g . sit e and stru c tur e. A n important concept in understanding how wind generated press ur e differentials produce air mov e m e nt i s " Venturiaction", which is based on the Bernoulli effect. From Bernoulli theorem. the pressure of a moving fluid decreas es as it s ve locity increase. Wh en air i s c hann eled into the larger e nd o f the tunnel, it accelerates as it passes through . O \\'ing t o the r educed ope n area throu g h w hi c h the , ame \ ' O ium e of air mu t pass in the same vo lum e . Figure o. s hO\\' the ba:ic g uidlin e to natural air movement. Fi gure 6. INC10[N T MEAN W INO PROFILE FLOW OVER WALLS CONS TR.AJNED TO PREVENT DI VE RGENC E 10 CONSTRA I NTS REM OVE PRESURE COFFlCIEHT

PAGE 16

FLOW OVER WALLS UNifORW INCIDEHT WINO PROFILE CONSTAAlN[O TO PR EVENT OIVERCf tiC t. FLOW OVER ROOF ... t , I N C I D E N T V."tNO PROfiLE ... r s .... I E COfFICf.N T "II -, P R ( S U RE COfF"tCif.N T So lar radiation COHSTRAJHT S REWOVED PRE.SURE COf"fI C I ENT EFFECT OF ROOF PITCH ON FLOW 30' 45 Calculation t o de t ermine the availabl e amounts of solar radiation rea hing the e arth ' s su r face for any des i g n condition require consideratio n of eve ral different types of variable s. Because the position of the sun in r e lati o n to the s ur face is con stantly c h a ngin g, the amount of incoming s hort-wave radi:1tion from the sun varies as a functio n of the l atitude , time of yea r :1ncl tim e of day. Knowl edge of these three va riables I l

PAGE 17

cn:tbks a Jeterrnination of the :.tngks of the buildings' facade in relation t o the po irian of the s un. c r r (C f OF LA n T U D E O N THE SUN'S 4 l nTVDE S U N S DAlLY P ATH ACROSS Tl-IE SKY 50Ut., Shape and orientation S O LAR AL TITUOE OF DIFF ERENT TIMES OF YEA R SUMMER SOLSTICE For a building with one prima r y ax1s of orientation, orientation o f that axis towards the so uth will allow the controlled reduction of h eat gai n in wa rmer periods while e nhancin g heat g ain in the cooler period s . \1ov e complex. s hape will be more diffic ult to o r ie nt s ucessfully. In man y cases. optimal orie ntati ons must be adj ust ed so that 12

PAGE 18

:til imporLtnt c an best utilize radiation imr:tch. Squ:trc o r ro und s hape s \\ ith n o predominant ax i s of o ri entatio n require m ore detail ed con sideration in the designs o f th e building envelop and shading devices to respond effectively to variations in radiation intensities received by the different building surfaces. On a comple t e l y configured building, a detailed ana lysis of solar r:tdiation o n eac h surf:tce. including self-shadin g, can assist orientatio n d ec i s i o ns . Figure 7 . shows building shape as a rc-:;pon:e t o radiant h eat gain. acc ording to that an optium utio o f sides can e:tsilv be dec id ed. Figure 7. 0 0 0 0 = = n o co = = ,,,, _;,. lll:., r<:•l'5 5: 1 1 : 5 llll'lll\" 40 SC:\ 1 :\IEH . ' .!I I \ I I . It .. .. t: It : • \\ "1)Tj0.376 0.369 0.361 rg0 Tc 6.4001 0 0 6.4001 287.3 226.09 Tm(1 :1._1 optium 1:1.1 rou t """ o D -10 IH \II 0"' -..+U IIF \1 <: \J\S I i i I ll . l \" 4 0 '1 WI :'\TEll Q 0 Do = = 5 :14 D : I 2 1 1:11:21: 31 4 1 : 5 optium I : :. 7 \\ I\ TEl{ s t \1 '!I .,. II II I \I{ II) II D II O T HUIIIJ 0 .. .. HI -20 3 L .... ..:.s:.. .. s = -:; ... -t:..T -:. , ...... c ::: r : lt;ya v . ,.V•r'1

PAGE 19

NOT AIR APPUCA TlON OF NATURAL AIR W OYOI E.HT INTEGRATION DIAGRAtd ' I/ -@)-/I'\ ..._I/ -(1-/1'\ /'} ; \ u CONCEPT OF COURfYARO INTEGRATION DIAGRAM , I / -(W-/ 1'\ 'I/ /1' ,I/ --/ 1 ' ')(>c '' ... , '' J un 71 SO LAR RADIATION INTEGRATION DIAGRAM N O D IRECTION I N W1NTE R hot a!r On the factors, ca n be basis of passive the intergrated developed: coo lin g sc h e m e I. I .., J . -+. ltr.\T (; ,\1\S llrt DAY 10 IIO T Ill.\ I 10 0 -10 111.\fi.O. 1-t Nat ural air mo ve ment. Solar radiation . Ma . co ntrol. Concept of co urtyard. = = 5 :14: 1 3 : 1 2 :11: 1 1 :2 1 :31-1 1.5 \\'I \TER opli u m I : 1.7 \lass co ntrol.

PAGE 20

H ANALYS I S OF INTEGRATED SCHEME A s H increase, P will increase, but; wind velocity will decrease. As H decrease, P will decrease, but; wind velocity will increase. Each space of zig-zag section still has steady wind blowing through. If there is any obstacle in front of the building, P will decrease. Proper design will be helpful to drain out the heat stack. 15

PAGE 21

H2 H2 Hl Hl ----7-----D 16 If Hl minus H2 is R (+). As R increase, the amount of P will increase. OPTIUM DESIGN CRITERIA * Increase the Hl and minimize the h, thus; the amount of P will increase and the wind velocity will increase too.

PAGE 22

--_., '" -.;Jo-------->-_,.. . Pl Fl DOD D he areas of inlet opening are he same: Mor e areas of inlet opening concentrate in the middle facade facing the wind, greater ressur e of outlet air will resu-l . As ther e is no opening on the fa-ade paralleling the wind: H doe s not affect Pl. Mor e areas of outlet opening are o n the facade paralleling the wind, less Pl will result. As the building situated 90 degrees with the wind: OPTIU M DESIGN CRITERIA * Increase the area of A. Decrease t h e length of H. 17

PAGE 23

Under the condition of the same building type as rotating angle increase: Inlet air will decrease, outlet air will decrease too. OPTIU M DESIG CRITERIA * Increase the areas that situated 90 degrees with the wind, besides; according to previous design criteria to choose the location of inlet opening. 1 8

PAGE 24

F E E D B ACK According t o the conclusion of i n t ergrate d sche m e , apply them to a varie t y of shapes commonly designed nowaday s and t e s t them to find the best way o f passive cooling solution. I N S UFICIENT NATURAL VENTILATION 19

PAGE 25

------__.,. ---::.------------II I t S UFICIENT ATURAL VENTILATION 20

PAGE 26

----------7---'lo-----;) --------------------------------.._ ----7--II I l S UFICIENT L ATURAL VENTILATION 21

PAGE 27

II I N S UFICIENT NATURAL VENTILATION 22

PAGE 28

---------? -----II INSUFICIENT ATURAL VENTILATION 23

PAGE 29

I WIND SIMULATION OF MASS BASIC SHAPE (P8 [] [] [] o8 s + I I I I I I I c c c 1111111 ----0 0 D ';Ill . , Ill D o;m DO'' 0 0 0 J... CONCLUSION 1 WIND DIRECTION /. 30 DOc 0 :Ill D :olll 'Ill DO' B ••• a ••• c.•••• 0 • 0 Olllllllllllllllll!il 45 0 :II D > : : DO' • • • oooo••• 0 B 011 •••• 0 • 0 ma:oo DDo D :::::: o ;:nu D • • • • • • • • A o •• • • :111 • oil! =r11 oo' ........ . ...... • . oO ••••• • . : OoooO • • • ooo •rno • • • •••••• • • • OITIIJO • I A o 1m I INSUFFICIENCY OF NATURAL VENTILATION 24

PAGE 30

I WIND SIMULATION O F MAS S BAS I C SHAPE


PAGE 31

PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES Because of Urban features, the direction of wind comes from different directions and it is very difficult to predict usmg common weather data. Owing to this, the microclimate data, especial wind direction, is needed. In order to increase the wind flow and the cooling effect of wind on a high -density housing complex th e designer should: * * * * * Build decks or platforms on the windiest areas in order to take advantage of natural breezes. ENERGY INFORM Increase the areas of facade perpendicular to the wind direction in order to induce as much wind as possible into the building. Decrease the areas of facade paralleling with th e wind direction. If the designer applys the concept of courtyard in building design, plan the hollow openings on th e middle facade perpendicular to the windiest direction. Common principles and guidelines for differe nt shapes, Please refer to the analy sis of integrated scheme (page 15-25). 26

PAGE 32

DESIGN APPLICATION 0 so 90 180 360 HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX DESIGN ..... ,.. .. "'-'LOCATION: TAIPEI, R. D.C. CONCEPT: 2 SITE AREA: 226000 FT 2 FLOOR AREA: 172000 FT POPULATION: 4860 persons ll HOUSIJro UNIT VAJUETY : FT ll 732. 8 FT ll 767. 7 FT I. 837. 5 FT AN APPLICATION OF PASSIVE COOLINC SYSTEM for HIGH DENSITY HOUSING COMPLEX

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MASS-PLANNING APPROACH Using Fluid-Ma.pping Technique 15 30 FEET HOUSINr; UNIT D HOUS/Nr; UNIT SOCIAL CYJI. SUPA'RJ/ARJa'!' roeCA' D RETAIL STORE D PARKINC LOT APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX

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0 30 90 180 300 0 30 90 180 300 l f-1--+-FtJ-t------+-------11 feet 2 . 1--+-FtJ-t------+---------il feet

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w C> . . -. . 0 30 90 180 300 FtJ I I feet 0 30 90 180 300 4 . F FtJ I I feet

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. I -0 30 90 FtJ 6 F 0 30 90 180 R 300 LJ I I -feet

PAGE 37

w N MAIN FLOOR PLAN HOUSING UNIT 1 0 5 15 30 c::ii\ I I AIR FLOW OF MASS AIR FLOW OF PLAN UPPER FLOOR PLAN AIR FLOW OF SECTION .__ _____________ __.DESIGN CRITERIA: 3 BEDROOMS, 900 ft/ HOUSING UNIT APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX

PAGE 38

HOUSING UNIT2 0 5 15 30 r::::ii\ I I MAIN FLOOR PLAN • • AIR FLOW OF MASS AIR FLOW OF PLAN UPPER FLOOR PLAN I AIR FLOW OF SECT! N L ______________ _JDESJGN CRITERIA: 3 BEDROOMS. 725 ft/ HOUSJNG UNIT APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX

PAGE 39

! i I I l_ HOUSING UNJT3 EXPERIMENT 1 EXPERIMENT 2 EXPERIMENT 3 2 DESIGN OBJECTIVE CONr:ZPT 0, V8N'rll.ATIOII CAVITY f---___._. SI/CTION 0, CORRIDOR DESIGN CRITERA: 2 BEDROOMS,520 ft/UNIT APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX

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w (J1 v v v v v v HOUSING UNIT4 EXPERIMENT 1 0 5 15 30 FEET EXPERIMENT 2 EXPERIMENT 3 DESIGN OBJECTIVE : PRIVACY ---7 THE BASE PLANE ELEVATED Edge of the field is well defitud Vis-ual and spatial continuity is interrupted PRIVATI SPACE PRIVATI/ SPACE DESIGN CRITERIA: SINGLE ROOM 324 UNIT APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX

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H OUSING UNIT4' WIND DIRECTIO N OF SUMMER APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION IN HIGH-RISE HOUSING COMPLEX

PAGE 43

3 7

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BIBLIOGRAPHY *Michael Hough. "CITY FORM AND NATURAL PROCESS ... Towards a n e w urban vernacular" Toronto, 1984 * Mark Francis et al. "THE MAKING OF NEIGHBOURHOOD OPEN SPACE, CEN'l'lm f'OR IIUMl\N NC'w York, ] CJBl * Victor Olgay. " DESIGN WI'l'H CLIMATE ... Bioclimatic approach to architectural regionalism" New Jersey, * Mcguinness Stein Reynolds . " MECfll\N1Cl\L 7\ND ELECTRIC/\!. MENT FOR BUILDING " New York, 1980 * AlA research Corporation with Sy ska & Hennessey. INFORM ... Designing for energy conservation" 1978 * Hassan Fathy. "NATURAL ENERGY 7\ND VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE" Chic