Citation
Nature in the Front Range city

Material Information

Title:
Nature in the Front Range city
Alternate title:
Red Wing Sanctuary
Creator:
LaFleur, Joyce A
Language:
English
Physical Description:
210 leaves : illustrations, maps, plans (some folded) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bird refuges -- Planning -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- History ( lcsh )
Landscape architecture -- Philosophy ( lcsh )
Bird refuges -- Planning ( fast )
Landscape architecture ( fast )
Landscape architecture -- Philosophy ( fast )
Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( fast )
Genre:
History. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
History ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
On cover: Case study: Red Wing Sanctuary.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Joyce A. LaFleur.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
21504231 ( OCLC )
ocm21504231
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1983 .L33 ( lcc )

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Full Text
(CONCEPT 1:
COUNTRYSIDE
CONSERVATION
A minimum development/ minimum use alternative
DESIGN ELEMENTS:
ENTRY PARKING
H NATURE CENTER — TRAIL l1/3 mile) imill BOARDWALK
POINTS OF INTEREST
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100 150 200
IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY
JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS
COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
i


CONCEPT 2:
EDUCATIONAL
ENHANCEMENT
A maximum educational use alternative
DESIGN ELEMENTS ENTRY PARKING
H nature center
TRAIL l1/2 mile]
111111)11 BOARDWALK
POINTS OF INTEREST * ADDED VEGETATION
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BRIDGE
STAIR
STUDY BENCHES ll
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IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY
JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS
COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER


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CONCEPT 3: PEDESTRIAN
PATHWAYS
An optimum pedestrian experience alternative
DESIGN ELEMENTS ENTRY PARKING
P NATURE CENTER EM COVERED EXHIBIT — —TRAIL 1% mile)
Kllflll BOARDWALK
POINTS OF INTEREST (Hj VEGETATIVE SCREEN
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BRIDGE
STAIR
REST BENCH
200
JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS
COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVF'


f CONCEPT PLAN
•••• Trail ® Point of interest
CONCEPT SKETCHES
1 Nature center/parking area
2 Study benches
3 Signage
4 Stairs and bridges
5 Trail to riverbank viewpoint
6 Trail through willows
7 Trail to mound viewpoint
8 Bog boardwalk
9 Ridge trail along bog 10 New plant communities
y
JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS
COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER


CASE STUDY: RED WING SANCTUARY
young
exhibit a-a
5


NATURE
IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY
by
Joyce A. LaFleur
This thesis is submitted, as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Landscape Architecture Degree at the University of Colorado at Denver College of Design and Planning Graduate Program of Landscape Architecture


Copyright (£) 1983 by Joyce A
LaFleur
All rights reserved. No part of this document may he reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thank you for your help in so many ways:
Student Glasses
Water Quality - Colorado School of Mines
Landscape Architecture for Allied Designers - UC at Denver Wildlife Biology - Colorado College
UCD Faculty Members Tom Haldeman Lore McMillan Jerry Shapins
Aiken Audubon Society Charlie Campbell Steve Campbell Kathy Ford Nancy Taggert Will Fowler Linda Ferguson Bob Nates Barbara Dell
City of Colorado Springs Debbie Little, Planning Bob Gleissner, Planning Larry Lane, Traffic Bill Ruskin, Parks Lynn Bergman, Engineer Chris Smith, Public Works Beverly Dustin, Public Works C. K. Ruske, Public Works Don Gardner, Public Works
U.S, Army Corps of Engineers Captain Richard Lewandowski
Colorado Division of Wildlife Chuck Loeffler John Bredehoft
El Paso County Marvin Harris, Parks Doris Lyons, Land Planning
U.S, Soil Conservation Service Lamon Baird
Pikes Peak Area Council of Govnmts. Karen Lancet Bill Gosnell
Leigh Whitehead Engineers Kathy Johnson Linda Janawitz
Terra Graphics Darrold Smith Katina Smith Charlie Smith
Auraria Bookstore Copy Center June Jemberg KaLynn Busler-Ahonen
T-Square Robyn Rucker Bob Pinto
LK Printing Service, Inc.
Mike Souchek
Dimensions Unlimited Terry Dresner
Thank you my thesis advisor, Dan Young, and my consultants, Phil Weinert, Greg McArthur, A1 Howard, Dick Beidleman, Jay O'Shea, and Len Hooper for the hours of technical advice, philosophy, patience, and moral support you shared with me.
Special thanks to Phyllis and Ray Kulbeck of Fountain, Colorado, for inviting me into your home during my trips to Colorado Springs.
And, from the bottom of my heart, thank you my husband, Harold, and my children, Jean, Scott, Ann, Art, and Dean for supporting me and loving me through my school years.'


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
INTRODUCTION 1
RESEARCH
HISTORY
THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION 3
NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY 8
NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY 15
CURRENT PHILOSOPHIES 19
NATURE
OPEN SPACE 23
VEGETATION 25
NATURAL SYSTEMS 29
MAN
HUMAN NEEDS 31
LATENT POTENTIALS 3^
THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM 35
THE GENIUS LOCI 37


DESIGN PRINCIPLES
DESIGNING WITH NATURE IN CITIES 41
DESIGN PRINCIPIES 43
SMALL SPACES 45
EDGES 47
PLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE 49
SYMBOLIC DESIGN 51
HYPOTHESIS 53
ISSUES
INTRODUCTION 55
WHAT IS THE GENIUS LOCI OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 56
WHAT IS NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 58
WHAT ARE THE HUMAN NEEDS FOR NATURE IN
THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 60
WHAT ARE APPROPRIATE DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR
NATURAL AREAS IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 62
WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF NATURE IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE TO THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 64
SYNOPSIS 65
CASE STUDY
RATIONALE
DESCRIPTION OF STUDY 69
SITE PHOTOGRAPH 71
JUSTIFICATION
73


PROCEDURE
STUDY OUTLINE 75
PROCESS DIAGRAM 79
STUDY DETAILS 81
CULTURAL SYSTEM
PHYSICAL SYSTEM 83
SOCIAL SYSTEM 98
NATURAL SYSTEM
ABIOTIC SYSTEM 103
BIOTIC SYSTEM 123
THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM 133
ANALYSIS
VALUE OF SITE TO REGION 141
VALUE OF SITE TO LOCAL AREA 143
ROLE OF SITE IN URBAN ECOSYSTEM 146
SITE ANALYSIS 152
PROGRAM
PHILOSOPHY OF USE I63
TARGETED USERS I63
GOAIS AND OBJECTIVES 164
DESIGN ELEMENTS I65
RELATIONSHIP TO HYPOTHESIS 166
PROBLEM SOLUTION
ALTERNATIVE EXPLORATION I67
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SOLUTION 180
TEST OF HYPOTHESIS 203


INTRODUCTION


NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY
THIS THESIS IS AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURE AND THE MAN-MADE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, A STUDY IN URBAN ECOLOGY.
Elizabeth Barlow, the Administrator of Central Park in New York City, said, ’’Out of some deep-seated psychological necessity we have begun to domesticate wildness in our cities rather than lose it from our lives.”"*' The key in that statement is 'domesticated wildness'. What happens to nature when man brings it into the city - or what happens to man when the city enters a natural area? This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between nature and the man-made urban environment, and more specifically, that relationship in cities lying along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. It explores methods of identifying the 'genius loci' of front range cities and tests theories relating to ways natural areas in the city can interpret and strengthen the 'sense of place' for those who use them. Based upon the historical development of the city and the place of nature in it, the study concentrates on the emerging image of cities and their concurrent integration of natural areas rather than on new urban environments where neither the natural nor the cultural has yet been developed.
1


The study consists of two parts: general research followed by a specialized case study. The following diagram illustrates the method used:
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jProvlem Solving (Programming I Analysis 1 Systems Description




HISTORY


THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION
MAN DOMINATED NATURE IN THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE FOR THE PURPOSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL COMFORT, AESTHETIC AMENITY, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, AND ARTISTIC EFFECT.
The European landscape tradition is steeped in the Occidental philosophy of man having dominion over nature, as opposed to traditional Oriental philosophies which consider man to be a part of nature. Dominion over nature began with the pressures agriculture exerted upon the land and later extended to the treatment of nature in the city.
An early example of man-dominated nature in the city is the medieval garden. There were two types: the enclosed gardens of private homes, castles, and monasteries; and botanic gardens located in relation to medical schools. The enclosed gardens were outdoor rooms where favorite plants were grown.
As the world was considered to be a perilous place and nature a thing to be feared, the garden became a small enclosure against the hostile world. When society grew more prosperous and more
I
confident in the world, the gardens grew larger, but the main
theme was still enclosure, and the dominant design features were
2
walls, moats, and hedges. The botanic gardens arose in response to the search for medicinal plants. The first botanic garden
3


was at the medical school in Padua, Italy (1532). These gardens show two purposes for introducing nature into the man-made environment - using plants for psychological comfort and aesthetic amenity, and using plants for scientific research.
With the coming of the Renaissance, man tempered his
fear of nature and began to consciously manipulate it.
Like the Renaissance, landscape began in Italy with the formal gardens of the Italian villas and later spread north to France, where it changed and expanded under Le Notre, whose landscapes were imitated all over the world. The Renaissance garden was a formal composition of the utmost self-confidence, and its dominating vistas proceeded with superb assurance into the landscape beyond. ^Man's intellect was supreme, and nature was subdued.
The Renaissance garden shows another aspect of nature in the man-made environment, that of artistically arranging plants for effect; in this case, the effect is a demonstration of man's control of nature. Parterres, topiary, mazes, and formal tree-lined vistas are typical examples of man's manipulations in these gardens. The garden was an extension of the architecture of the period and served primarily as a setting or foil for the activities of the dominant man, namely the
King and his court.


THE ROMANTIC.GARDEN STRESSED THE AESTHETIC AND INTELLECTUAL APPRECIATION OF NATURE AND BEGAN TO RECOGNIZE THE RIGHT OF OTHER SPECIES TO SURVIVE IN THEIR OWN HABITAT.
i |
j i
By the eighteenth century there was a change in taste and|attitude and a fashionable 'return to nature'. The landscape paintings of Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, and Salvator Rosa were held up as the ideal. They inspired Jean Jacques Rosseau and other essayists and poets to write about the aesthetic and intellectual appreciation of nature. "In the record of Western culture there is nothing to compare with the vogue for landscape that arose in this period.”^ A large body of aesthetic theory was created to judge the relative merits of landscapes, and complex distinctions were made between the beautiful, the picturesque, and the sublime. The landscape park was conceived in terms of the natural forest; and untrimmed trees, the garden as a series of pictures, and obliteration of relationship of parts to the whole were basic themes.
Led by Capability Brown, the romantic English landscape
school removed geometric forms and connected the garden with the
surrounding countryside through a device called the 'ha-ha' barrier.
Viewers from the human enclosure could now see sheep, cattle, or
deer appearing to roam free in the garden. "Perhaps this concept
can be considered as the first tentative step in a man-dominated
wopld toward recognition of the right of other species to survive
in their own habitat.” 'Return to nature' is the basic theme of
the Romantic garden, but Dubos says it "was in reality an attempt
to make artificial landscapes of human design look as if they
7
wetfe natural.”
5


FROM THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ONWARD, NATURE GAINED IMPORTANCE IN URBAN LANDSCAPES FOR AESTHETICS, ENTERTAINMENT, EDUCATION,
AND RECREATION. TREES WERE USED TO UNIFY AND FRAME VIEWS AND TO DEFINE EDGES.
History so far described is largely the history of estates and parks. What, one asks, was going on in the cities? Christopher Tunnard, landscape architect and city planner, points out that green forms were absent in urban planning until the seventeenth century because cities were considered separate
Q
entities set aside from wild nature. Apparently the need for plants in the city was not keenly felt; cities were small and residents could easily access the countryside; streets were narrow and buildings were high enough to shade them; and in addition, the city planning esthetic demanded perfectly controlled man-made forms. However, from the seventeenth century onward, new attitudes and new activities in the city brought about an establishment of new forms.
As gunpowder rendered the medieval wall obsolete, the wall and its attendant fortifications were sometimes turned into parks, such as those in Magdeburg and Frankfurt, Germany. Squares were planted as landscape gardens for the use and visual enjoyment of those who lived in the surrounding rows of town houses. Botanic gardens and zoos sprang up in response to growing interest in horticulture, botany, and zoology. 'Pleasure gardens' were popular in the eighteenth century as complete
6


centers of entertainment including taverns and pavilions for eating, drinking, music, and dancing. Nature in the city had now become available to the common man for the purposes of aesthetics, entertainment, education, and recreation.
The long straight tree-lined roadway of the seventeenth
century French baroque garden became a determining factor
influencing future use of trees in the city. The radiating
pathways of the French provided a pattern for what was considered
to be the ideal street layout for many eighteenth century city
designs, including that for Washington, D. G. Streets were
laid out with great concern for perspective and field of view
and,were sharply delineated by planting trees along the sides.
Hausmann cut wide tree-lined boulevards through Paris in the
mid-l800s. These street trees provide "a unified matrix
through which the architectural complexities of the city may q
be viewed." Thus another use of nature in the city emerged -to Unify and frame the view and to define 'edges'.
7


NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY
AS IN EUROPE, IT WAS A MAN-DOMINATED NATURE THAT BEDAN THE AMERICAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION.
Similar in feeling to the medieval garden, the colonial town turned its back on the wilderness and attempted to establish a protected place within where residents could feel secure from the wild features of nature. The first enclosures were the town commons where the livestock could graze safely, the military could parade, and people could meet each other without fear. As the settlers outgrew their fear of the wilderness, landscape thought progressed along many of the same lines it had in Europe. The common evolved into a public square or park with community buildings such as the church and city hall lining its edges. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, Lombardy poplars, being considered symbols of civic pride, were imported from Europe to 'formalize' the common. The old familiar forms were brought into the new places, and the wilderness was subdued.
L'Enfant furthered the tradition of the old forms with his plan of 1791 for Washington, D.C. As Hausman's street plan for Paris influenced so many European cities, the formal avenues of the new nation's capital city served as a pattern for many
8


growing American cities. The 'grand, design' had taken hold, and the American east was ready to enter the 'civilized' world where man was in control.
BOTANIC GARDENS WERE ESTABLISHED IN THE NEW WORLD AS CENTERS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION.
There was an intense interest in plant collecting in America and particularly in bringing plants from the territory west of the Mississippi to the horticulturists of the east. Several public and private botanic gardens resulted - Marshall Arboretum (1773)» Longwood (1800), New York (1801), Charleston (1805), Lexington (182^), Harvard (1822), and Haverford College (l833)*^ These served dual purposes of scientific research and education.
AMERICA BEGAN TO DEFINE NATURE FOR HERSELF WITH THE COMING OF THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT. WILDERNESS WAS IDEALIZED AND THE CONCEPT OF PRESERVING TRULY NATURAL LANDSCAPES WAS BORN.
The Romantic Movement in the United States began in the form of the Jeffersonian dream, the pastoral ideal - to transform America into a garden, a permanently rural republic, a Chaste uncomplicated land of rural virtue. American poets, painters, and philosophers turned out work in which nature and natural landscapes were seen as inspirational, as settings to
9


convey moral messages. Similarly, landscape plans were drawn which presented bucolic, naturalistic countryside surrounding the country estate as the true American ideal."*''*'
Prior to American landscape painting in the nineteenth century, no one had ever painted a landscape divorced from human significance. There was always some sign of man or his works in evidence (pastures, cows, bridges, etc.). Nature was background and setting, never important for its own sake. But American painters began painting the wild and great features of nature - the mountains, the canyons, the waterfalls, the raw and rugged wilderness - with a realism that had never before been attempted. Great excitement and interest in nature arose when Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran, and William Jackson brought to the east paintings and photographs of the marvels and wonders of the Great American West. Here was a nature indeed not controlled by man.
The power of nature was demonstrated and became a source of great American pride. The idea arose that Europe, having lost its strength-giving wild roots, was declining and that America, because of its proximity to wilderness, was rising to become the new race of conquerors. The concept of preserving wilderness and hence youth and strength, was bom. Wilderness would remind Americans of their frontier heritage; America's parks and reserves would be islands of wilderness in the midst of civilization. Wilderness came to be considered a mainspring of American
10


nationalism. The idea of wilderness parks, whether local, regional, or national, was a new step in the relationship of man and nature. These would not be the naturalistic landscapes of the romantic period, but truly' natural landscapes preserved
I
in l^he midst of the man-made environment.
CEMETERIES, SUBURBS, AND LARGE CITY PARKS USING INFORMAL AND CURVILINEAR FORMS WERE LAID OUT IN THE ROMANTIC STYLE TO IMITATE PIECES OF NATURAL SCENERY. THE PUBLIC PARKS WERE ACCESSIBLE TO ALL:ELEMENTS OF SOCIETY.
A movement was started to provide attractive new cemeteries since the central churchyards could no longer serve the population of the older American cities. These rural cemeteries were situated on the edge of town and designed with winding roads and paths and romantic scenery. Mount Auburn in Boston was completed in 1831, Laurel Hill in Philadelphia in I836, and Greenwood in Brooklyn in 1838. So many people went to these cemeteries for pleasure outings and picnics that it became obvious there was a need for public parks laid out in a similar manner. Andrew Jackson Downing developed this idea for public parks and also for a new urban form, the romantic suburb. These suburbs had curving streets planted with trees and central park areas. With these additions, the American ci^y now had most of the elements of natural areas which we see in American cities today.
11


Frederick Law Olmsted furthered the idea of large city-parks laid out to appear as pieces of natural scenery and convinced the American people that they were economic, social, and aesthetic assets for any city. Horace Cleveland advocated park systems in which parkways and boulevards linked parks and open spaces of various sizes, thus spreading the benefits throughout the city and providing links to the countryside.
This proliferation of natural areas made nature in the city available to the gentry and the common man alike.
THE DESIGN OF TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN URBAN OPEN SPACES HAS FOLLOWED CHANGING LIFE STYLES. NATURAL AREAS NOW PLAY A PART IN THE ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE CITY.
The 'City Beautiful' movement of the 1890's brought a sense of wide-open space and liberated vistas as well as vitally needed public spaces to the American city. In the early twentieth century, towns across the land made room for centrally located public buildings surrounded by park areas. These did much to bring the town a focus and to generate 'sense of place', albeit a stereotyped 'great white way'.
Another new interest in the twentieth century was in parks for physical recreation and sports in contrast to the nineteenth century ornamental pleasure grounds. Ballfields and playgrounds sprang up everywhere, and natural areas were manipulated to make room for playing games.
12


Jens Jensen, a landscape architect who launched his career in 1900, pioneered the advocation of nature in park design. By that he meant retaining streams and areas of prairie in their natural state and integrating ecological planting with recreational facilities. In addition, he advocated ten to fifteen acres of open space around every school in Chicago. Through the efforts of Jensen and many others who followed him, American urban environments have acquired meaningful open spaces, and those spaces have begun to take advantage of natural attributes such as lakes, marshes, rock outcrops, and indigenous vegetation.
Today there seems to be no questioning the value of
natural areas in cities. In 1970, Life Magazine commissioned
the Louis Harris organization to poll the American population
about desired life styles and environmental values. Ninety-five
percent of those polled listed 'green grass and trees around me'
lZj.
as an important environmental value. However, values have chaqged, and we must be ready to accommodate the new values in our interpretation of nature in our cities.
Certainly no one advocates any more the beneficial effect of trees and grass on the morality of the people. Indeed, parks are considered by some to be centres of immorality, crime, and generators of violence. Park designers may have to eliminate shrubberies in order that police may carry out surveillance from the street.
The benefits of parks for real estate values are no longer universal. . . . Higher incomes, increased mobility and new life styles permit more people to leave the urban environment for relief and recreation. Although space and facilities for sports and children's play located in relation to neighbourhoods and schools are still clearly needed, regional parks beyond the urban area are increasing in popularity and use. . . .
13


Thus the wilderness areas are being more widely used and in some instances overused, polluted, and eroded by those who ostensibly cherish them most. . . .
Interest in aesthetics and visual quality, having fallen from grace for a time, is reviving and the nineteenth century fascination with natural science has been renewed under the name of ecology.
Natural areas in or near cities are needed not only for study purposes and for urban beauty but also because of the public's understanding of their role in the ecological processes on which we depend for survival. ... A more relevant relationship between man and nature will produce new forms of urban space with a new and different character around which cities will take shape. ^
NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY MUST BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE LOCAL AREA, CONSIDERING LIFESTYLES AND ECOSYSTEMS (MAN AND NATURE).
The question, then, is not 'Do we need natural areas in our cities? ' but 'What type of natural areas are valid in today's urban environments?' We have a choice of formalized, man-dominated natural areas, of relatively untouched native areas, or of an infinite range of possibilities between the two. Life styles vary with locality as do ecosystems; thus it seems we must look to the local area for that relevant
relationship between man and nature which needs to exist there.


NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY
THE HISTORY OF NATURE IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE CITY BRINGS TOGETHER THE LANDSCAPE TRADITIONS OF EUROPE, OF THE COLONIAL UNITED STATES, AND OF THE AMERICAN WEST.
The 'front range city' as defined by this study is the city which lies at the foot of the eastern escarpment of the Rocky Mountains in that area where the mountains interface with the short grass prairie. The city itself lies primarily on the plain, with the mountains defining an ever-present visual, climatic, cultural, and ecological 'edge'. At this edge a unique man-nature dialogue has been taking place since before the arrival of white man to the area.
According to Dubos, fires set by pre-agricultural Indians of the North American Great Plains to facilitate the hunt of large animals retarded or prevented altogether the growth of trees and shrubs on the prairie. They also released
l
mineral nutrients from organic debris creating a favorable situation for the growth of annual grasses. So when white man came from the East to settle the front range area, he settled on a short grass prairie where trees and shrubs grew only in the river bottoms and arroyos and along the foothills and mountains to the west.
15


Since the settlers came from forested areas where
vegetative growth was luxuriant, it became their goal as soon as towns became established to duplicate their favorite plants along the front range. All sorts of exotic plants were brought into the area, many of them from mail-order houses in the East. With irrigation and protection from the wind, many survived and some even thrived, so that what one sees today is a composite and intermixture of indigenous plants and plants from all over the world.
A factor affecting the way the plants were used in the front range city was the adoption of the Jeffersonian grid for all lands west of the Mississippi River. Early nucleus areas of the city may be laid out along the rivers or the railroads, but most areas of nineteenth century and early twentieth century growth follow the grid system. This means that the street layout of most front range towns does not take topography into account. It also means that there are long, wide streets with vistas to the mountains and to the prairies, a logical place for the streetside tree plantings of the French baroque.
Many front range cities followed the spirit of the 'City Beautiful' movement and developed city squares flanked by impressive neo-classical public buildings. Formal plantings adorned these public squares as 'culture' came to the West.
16


Large naturalistic ornamental parks were planned and planted as were arboretum-like cemeteries and boulevard parkways in the style of Horace Cleveland.
I
The crowning glories of all are the 'wilderness parks', truly the symbols of the wild and rugged west. The most notable of these in the front range area are The Garden of the Gods near Colorado Springs, The Red Rocks of the Denver Mountain Parks System, and Rocky Mountain National Park near Estes Park.
THE CONTEMPORARY FRONT RANGE CITY SEARCHES FOR A VIABLE MAN-NATURE PHILOSOPHY WHICH WILL ACCOMMODATE ITS EVER-INCREASING GROWTH.
The contemporary front range city shares the frustrations and growing pains of many American cities. There is an ever-increasing demand for open space - for aesthetics, for recreation, for education, for relaxation. There are complaints that the ornamental parks cost too much to maintain and that they are not within reach of all of the residents. There is an ecological awareness that suggests that traditional planting designs are not compatible with the limited water supply of an a^id area. Vandalism and litter cause some to wonder if planted areas, natural or ornamental, are worthwhile in today's
I
city. Pressed by one of the most rapid growth rates in the cbuntry, the front range city searches for a viable philosophy concerning its man-nature relationship in the 1980's.
17


« 1 nil
CURRENT PHILOSOPHIES


We don't have to wait for the grand design. It is there already. The structure of our metropolitan areas has long since been set by nature and man, by the rivers and the hills, and the railroads and the highways. Many options remain, and the great task of planning is not to come up with another structure but to work with the strengths of the structure we have - and to discern this structure as people experience it in their everyday life.-'-'
William Whyte - The Last Landscape
The city lives within its landscape environment. Each city has grown from the nature of its surrounding landscape - the bedrock from which it has been built - its geology and its natural landscape characteristics. These more than anything have established its original icharacter, -the essence of its personality, the quintessence of its usage. . . . The great city builds with its natural environment, enhancing it, using it as a primary resource for its form and shape and life style.18
Lawrence Halprin -
The Collective Perception of Cities
Each region and each community has its own spirit of place resulting from the prolonged int surroundings.
Rene Dubos - The Wooing of Earth
^rplay between people and their
A coherent workable landscape evolves where there is a coherent definition not of man but of man's relation to the world and to his fellow men.^O
John B. Jackson - Landscapes
19


What we long for is rarely nature in the raw; more often it is an atmosphere suited to human limitations, and determined by emotional aspirations engendered during centuries of civilized life. The charm of New England or Pennsylvania Dutch countryside should not be taken,for granted, as a product of chance. It did not result from man's conquest of nature, Rather it is the expression of a subtle process through which the natural environment was humanized, yet retained its own individual genius.^
Rene Dubos - Environmental Improvement
To preserve some naturalness in our American urban scene demands something more than money and men. It demands an appreciation of intangibles and a feeling of respect and reverence toward the earth and all life
pp
that dwells upon it. ^
Joseph Shomon - Openland for Urban America
We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.^
Aldo Leopold - A Sand County Almanac
A community which has been designed in harmony with nature borrows of its strength and returns to the landscape a fitness of its own. ^
John Simonds - Earthscape
21


NATURE


OPEN SPACE
OPEN SPACE SERVES MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS: IT IS USED FOR RECREATION AND FOR CIRCULATION, IT IS VIEWED FROM A VARIETY OF VANTAGE POINTS, AND IT GIVES FEELINGS OF PRIVACY, SPACIOUSNESS AND SCALE.
Discussion of nature in the city logically begins with a discussion of open space, since open space is commonly defined as all those spaces in a city not occupied by buildings or other man-made structures, and this is consequently where one would expect to find flora and fauna, the most obvious examples of nature in the city.
Stanley Tankel expands his definition of open space
even more broadly "to include not only all land and water in
and around urban areas which is not covered by buildings, but
25
the space and light above as well.’ He sees two kinds of open space: that of which people are personally aware, and that of which they may be unaware but which nevertheless affects their daily lives. Open spaces of which people are aware include the parks, plazas, yards, gardens, roadways, vacant lots, lakes, rivdrs, streams, cemeteries, golf courses. These spaces have three basic functions: l) they are used, for example, for recreation, relaxation, or circulation; 2) they are viewed, from buildings, from a road, or from another vantage point; and
23


3) they are felt, perhaps as giving privacy, insulation, or a sense of spaciousness and scale. Spaces of which people may be unaware are spaces which do urban work, such as protecting the water supply, preventing floods by soaking up runoff or serving as detention basins, or providing safety zones for the path of aircraft; or spaces which help to shape the urban development pattern such as spaces between buildings or spaces of land reserved for future development. Often an open space will serve several functions at once.


VEGETATION
*â–  i
PLANTS AND THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT AFFECT EACH OTHER BOTH POSITIVELY AND NEGATIVELY: THE CHALLENGE LIES IN FINDING TRADEOFFS THAT BENEFIT BOTH.
Vegetation is the element of nature man most often manipulates in the urban space. Many forms of vegetation are possible in urban areas, ranging from the highly controlled 'tree in a container' on an urban plaza to an undisturbed plant system adjacent to a stream. In planning the man-nature relationship in any of these situations, one must consider the tradeoffs between plants and the urban environment.
Let us begin with the question, what is the effect of plants on the urban environment? Joseph Shomon says that plants balance the carbon and hydrological cycles, purify air, deflect wind, reduce dust, control runoff, purify water, reduce noise, add to property value, enhance recreation, provide educational opportunity, and provide aesthetic benefit. Pitt, Soergell, and iZube add to those benefits an improvement of urban soil
conditions, increase in diversity and quantity of wildlife, and
27
moderation of the extremes of urban microclimate. Plants are also used as a food source, to articulate space, to control pedestrian movement, to reduce glare, to provide privacy and to add seasonal interest.
2-5


Possible negative effects of plants on the man-made environment are undesirable litter, increased propensity for fire, invasive roots breaking up sidewalks or water lines, damage from falling tree limbs, obstruction of vehicular vision, and shelter for 'muggers'.
On the other side of the question, what is the effect of the urban environment on plants? Gill and Bonnett cite the following as factors: reduced light (due primarily to smog and dust), longer day (due to artificial light), longer growing season (due to elevated temperatures), reduced humidity,
28
increased rainfall, acid rain, and increased frequency of rain.
Sudia mentions changed water run-off and ground water patterns,
artificial watering, introduction of exotic plants, fertilization
29
of soils, and engineering and management factors. Other factors are soil compaction, use of herbicides and pesticides, reduced or increased wind, increased soil salts (due to fertilizing and watering practices), artificial 'microclimates', damage to plants by people and domestic animals, and mechanical damage to plants from lawnmowers and vehicles. These factors become positive or negative depending upon the individual situation and the degree of control man chooses to have in it. It is obvious that urbanization often changes the natural environment of vegetation. The challenge lies in finding mutual benefits for man and the plants.
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FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
PROVIDE &ACKC ROUMO
ATTRACT WILDUFE
PURIFY ATMOSPHERE
Add texture
PROVIDE. PRIVACY
Sketches adapted from Robinette, n
Plants, People and Environmental Quality-5
27


NATURAL SYSTEMS
AH NATURAL SYSTEMS ON THE EARTH TODAY ARE AFFECTED TO SOME DECREE BY MAN; THE GOAL IS TO ACHIEVE STABILITY AND HENCE GREATER PRODUCTIVITY.
"Man's effect on the world environment has been so great that virtually no pristine conditions exist today, not
31
even in the depths of the sea or in the upper stratosphere.1 If that is indeed the case, then striving to preserve a 'natural system' becomes a purely academic exercise. What we are really preserving is a system least affected by man and most like it would be if man had not influenced the earth.
Phrases such as degree of intervention by man in the natural system and tolerance to change of the natural system when affected by man then become meaningful concepts in the ongoing man-nature dialogue.
Nature is most productive when a stable ecosystem is
achieved; thus the stable system is a common goal when man 32
intervenes. We know that natural ecosystems are most stable when there is great diversity, great variety, and great complexity, and when there is ecotypic interchangeability. Man can consciously work toward, encouraging such systems. Ecological surveys can be
29


conducted as a guide for all development; tolerance levels can be determined for food chains, vegetation, soils, currents, aquifers, animal populations, and land conformations; carrying capacities can be determined; intervention methods can be tested and results recorded; and systems with great diversity-can be achieved. Then the benefits for man and the natural systems will be mutual.
30


NVIAI


HUMAN NEEDS
MAN HAS PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS FOR CONTACT WITH NATURE, BOTH FOR INTROSPECTION AND FOR STRESS-RELIEVING ACTIVE RECREATION.
The director of the Delft Zuid project in Delft, Holland, said
During the weekends many inhabitants of the cities migrate to the countryside, to the woods, the moors, and the dunes, and everyone is delighted to walk on small winding paths, to sit on a bank among high growing weeds, to pick flowers in the field, to play with sand in the dunes, and to run over hills. But at home everything is straight and tidy. Shouldn't we ask ourselves if it is possible to bring a piece of nature into the towns so that we can give the „„ inhabitants some weekend fun during the week too?'5'5
On reading the above passage, several questions come to mind.
Why do people delight in the countryside? Do we really want
' everything straight and tidy' at home? If nature were in
the town, would we still want to go to the country?
Man has innate longings for contact with nature.
Ian McHarg says that man'-s longing for nature is a psychological
34
memory of a biological ancestry. Perhaps this is what Dr.
Edward Stainbrook, psychiatrist, alludes to when â–  he comments,
"Just to be in frequent perceptual contact with the reassuring,
enduring earth is a psychological security factor of considerable 35
importance." We want to be in touch with natural things.
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Man is anchored by the timeless duration of nature; it becomes a permanent frame of reference in a constantly changing world. The time frame of nature expands man's consciousness.
The maintenance of a time and space background which reduces the moment of crisis to a manageable circumstance with which one can cope is, I think, one of the very important human contributions that is provided by contact with the natural environment.^
The natural environment may be sought as a 'drop-out
space' or as a place for creative restoration and preparation
for dealing with the highly complicated world. Ian McHarg
compares the response of man to nature to that gained from
works of art, saying it produces tranquility, calm, introspec-
37
tion, and openness to order, meaning and purpose. Nature
appeals to our aesthetic sense in the same way that art does.
It also may produce in man a state of repose, a kind of healing
such as that espoused by John Muir:
Climb the mountains and get their good tidings.
Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves.3°
Another psychological value of nature is that of
relieving sensory overloads. Natural open spaces offer relief
from the stress-producing visual and auditory impacts of high
density urban living. According to Strong, Lawrence Frank comments
We are beginning to realize that this urban crowding and enforced contacts with strangers, plus the continual sensory overloads, may have serious impacts upon the human personality. Man is well prepared to deal with sudden emergencies, to cope with physical
32


threats and actual situations that release his energies for overt activities, but he is less well equipped to bear prolonged strain, to be unremittingly alert and vigilant, under sensory overloads. ... we can say that city living and indoor working require outdoor recreation to provide needed release and compensation for the burdens of city living. People can probably develop 'what it takes' for city living and indoor working but the insistent question arises whether this is compatible with health and well-being and the maintenance of healthy personalities.39
Not only do we need natural open spaces as places for introspection, we need them for stress-relieving active recreation.
As Michael Laurie points out (see quote, page 14), we need natural areas in the city so that more people may better understand the ecological process. This educational need is a basic one; what we understand, we appreciate more fully. Only through a complete understanding of the natural system and man's place in it can we fully enjoy the richness of our world and plan effectively for its future. Natural areas in cities will bring that richness to the greatest number of people.
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LATENT POTENTIALS
THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM CAN BE A SELF-CONFIRMING ENVIRONMENT THAT WILL BRING OUT MAN'S LATENT POTENTIALS.
Man is most creative when he is psychologically at peace. Dubos believes, in addition, that we draw strength from our own wildness:
The experience of the quality of wildness in the wilderness helps us to recapture some of our own wildness and authenticity. Experiencing wildness in nature contributes to our self-discovery and ^ to the expression of our dormant potentialities.
Man throughout history has been continually expanding his
potentials. He, like other organisms, is most productive
when he is part-of a stable ecosystem. Thus we cannot really
separate our discussions of nature and man. We must consider
the two together, the urban ecosystem, to bring out the latent
potentials in both man and nature.
3^




URBAN ECOLOGY
URBAN ECOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY AND MAN IN HIS MAN-MADE ENVIRONMENT.
ITS GOAL IS TO CREATE A TRUE SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN MAN AND NATURE.
The term 'ecology' was coined, in I869. Derived from
the Greek word 'oikos' which means home, ecology means the
study of organisms in their homes. Today we use the term to
mean the study of relationships "between organisms and their 41
environment. Urban ecology, then, is the study of the relationship between man and his environment, that environment including both man-made elements and the biological community.
With today's level of technology and knowledge, man can
create cities that are well-balanced ecosystems. The biological
community can serve as a model:
In the same way that natural ecosystems with great diversity are stable, cities with great diversity are stable.
In the same way that ecotypic interchangeability leads to diversity and stability, so it is that many competing entities produce greater economic stability in cities.
. . . The ecosystem processes that operate in the community of man are the biological and physical ones that operate in natural ecosystems and which have essentially the same properties common to any natural ecosystem. In man's ecosystem, the biological processes are those that occur without the aid of man as well as those that are created by his technology. . . . Desirable communities are the result of ecological factors that promote the desirable or favorable balance or equilibrium. ^
35


The desired goal of urban ecology is to create a
true symbiosis between man and nature, that is, a biological
relationship which alters somewhat the two components of the
symbiotic system in a way that is beneficial to both.
Such transformations, achieved through symbiosis, account in large part for the immense diversity of places on earth and for the fitness between man and environment so commonly observed in areas that have been settled and have remained stable for long periods of time. (Dubos, according to Simonds4'-')
Achieving that sensitive ’fit' between man and environment requires knowledge of both natural and man-made processes. It requires trial and error, and flexibility to let both systems balance each other out over a period of time. This relationship is not static; it is in a constant state of change. When levels of use or abuse are exceeded, the ramifications may extend far beyond the project site and affect the surrounding environments. However, man and nature are both tough and durable; they will always adjust and regenerate given the proper conditions in which to do so. Great cities result from just that kind of natural balance.
Rene Dubos suggests that there is another ecological level beyond natural balance. He says that "the interplay between humankind and the earth has often generated ecosystems that, from many points of view, are more interesting and more creative than those occurring in the state of wilderness."
There is the challenge for the future - to enrich the diversity of the natural world by human management.'
36




THE GENIUS LOCI
THE GENIUS LOCI IS THE PERSONALITY OF 'PLAGE', COLORED BY ALL OF THE DIVERSE ELEMENTS THAT HAVE EVER TOUGHED IT.
Per Friberg tells us that the term 'genius loci' derives from the two Latin words genius and locus, genius being the special perceptions of people, their attitudes and
their ways of living, and locus encompassing all of the natural
Z4.5
and geographical conditions of a site. This term suggests more than the balanced urban ecosystem. It implies a symbiosis of the ecological and the cultural, of the scientific and the aesthetic, a complete fusion of the natural and the human orders. The environment becomes 'place' when man and nature become one.
The unique 'spirit of place' found in a truly great city is the result of a blending of many diverse elements, some tangible and some intangible. Lawrence Halprin expresses it this way:
Each city in its landscape habitat establishes an ecological and cultural environment unique to itself -part natural, part manmade, artifact and archetypal.
It develops over the years its own form, its own ambience, its own 'feel' - a kind of organic whole that is a synergy of many things: nature, the native landscape, its cultural past, its buildings, the open spaces within it, and the geometry of their formations. Within this
37


organism the vitality and energy of the inhabitants give it life and color and involvement, make it come alive, invest it with themselves. Then it becomes their own; it is their experience, they identify with it, and the city becomes them, becomes the people.'
. . . The great cities, it seems to me are those that develop these attributes of self-identification with their people. These cities are not necessarily beautiful in the classically accepted sense of 'beauty', but they are perceived as beautiful in the same inevitable sense that nature is perceived as beautiful. They emit a sense of rightness, a kind of urban charisma.
They develop an almost human personality.' Then people relate to them in a biological sense. The city no longer is only someplace where they live and work.
It becomes more; it takes on anthropomorphic attributes.
MANY ANALYSES HAVE BEEN DONE CONCERNING THE GENIUS LOCI. THE INDIVIDUAL MUST PERCEIVE THE INTRINSIC QUALITY OF A PLACE BASED ON HIS OWN UNIQUE LIFE EXPERIENCES.
Andrew Jackson Downing, in the mid-nineteenth century, was probably the first American landscape designer to study the natural qualities of the site as a preface to designing the landscape. His insistence on recognition of what he then called 'the genius loci' constitutes his major contribution to our understanding of the present state of the art. Since then, many others have tried to analyze 'sense of place'.
Rene Dubos says that the reason we are so often desecrating nature is not because we use it to our own ends, but because we often manipulate it without respect for the spirit of place. He sees man as a force, along with climate, geology, and topography, which alters the surface and the atmosphere
38


of the earth. Each place becomes an expression of the action of these forces, and the way for man to make successful interventions is to integrate his actions with the attendant forces of nature. It becomes imperative for man to continually reevaluate the interplay between his actions and the actions of nature so that the evolving environment is ecologically stable and mutually beneficial to both man and nature.
Another concept purported by Dubos is that the sense of place is the perception of some facet of nature by the god within the human observer. He says that 'place' is a symbol not only of the visible, but of the intangible qualities perceived as a result of one's own unique life experiences. Myths created by painters, writers, and musicians contribute to this cultural view of the landscape. In this context,
'genius of place' symbolizes the living ecological relationship between a particular location and the persons who have derived from it and added to it the various aspects of their humanness.
Kevin Lynch and Ian McHarg are more scientific in their analyses of what contributes to sense of place. Lynch, in his book, The Image of the City, dissects the city image into five elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks. He says these make up the generalized mental picture an individual has of the city. After numerous tests of having people draw diagrams of the city as they saw it, Lynch showed that the individual will proportionately emphasize whatever element he sees as dominant colored by his own life experiences.
39


McHarg applies his 'ecological method.' saying we must
evaluate both the natural and the man-made components of the
city using a value system based upon opportunities for human
use. He calls this "an investigation of the given form (natural
49
identity) and the made form of the created city." He finds
that memorable cities have distinctive characteristics deriving
from the site, from the creations of man, or from a combination
of the two. If the site is beautiful, dramatic or rich, the
city is successful when the site is preserved, exploited and
enhanced. If the site is not outstanding, the city may succeed
through excellence of its buildings and spaces. He concludes,
Gan one then state, as a proposition, that the basic character of the city derives from the site and that excellence attends those occasions when this intrinsic quality is recognized and enhanced? Gan one state, further, that buildings, spaces and places, consonant with the site, add to the genius loci and constitute not only the addition of new resources, but are thus determinants of new form? If these propositions are true, then we can formulate both the objectives and the method. The former require that the genius of the site be discerned as composed of discrete elements, some derived from the natural identity, others from artifacts. These must be evaluated as components of identity, as working processes of value and as containing implications for new formal adaptations.50
Whatever the method of identifying elements contributing to the 'genius loci', it is imperative that the designer analyze both the natural and the cultural aspects of the city before he begins to impose a new order on things. Only in this way will the city become all it can become - "ecologically sound, aesthetically satisfying, economically rewarding, and favorable to the continued growth of civilization.
40


DESIGN PRINCIPLES


DESIGNING WITH NATURE IN CITIES
DESIGN WITH NATURE MUST BE FLUID AND RESPOND TO THE SIZE, COMPLEXITY, ACCESSIBILITY, CONTINUITY, TOPOGRAPHY AND EXISTING VEGETATION OF THE SITE.
The designer, as he becomes more sensitive to natural factors, will become more an organizer of events and less an arranger of artifacts, and his design may accordingly take on the form of a flexible structure within which details may change with the fluidity of natural processes - a form responsive to ecological demands - rather than the fixed form typical of traditional design.-^
Designing with nature cannot be static; it must be done within the continuum of ecological progression.
The natural potential of any site can be maximized if design responds to these site factors:
1) Size and Complexity - the larger the area and the more complex its landscape, the more stable it is ecologically and the more capable it is of renewal.
2) Accessibility - where public access is restricted either by regulation or by natural factors (such as terrain), there is greater potential for nature to flourish. Thus restricted access may compensate for
limited area.


3) Physical Continuity - adjacent open lands, adjoining tree canopies, and connecting waterways allow a free range of animals and the spread of plant communities.
4) Topography - topographical features, whether natural or man-made, influence soil, microclimate and vegetation patterns; they also affect accessibility and site development.
5) Existing vegetation - plants serve as a home for wildlife; biotic potential is greater if there is a balanced community. Plants are also useful in design as symbols of nature.
k2


DESIGN PRINCIPLES
DESIGN PRINCIPLES MUST SATISFT BOTH NATURAL AND HUMAN NEEDS AND AID THE DESIGNER IN CREATING AN ECOLOGICALLY SOUND LANDSCAPE.
Manning lists the following as sound principles:
1) Exploit the full natural potential of the site, which is derived from the interaction of such factors as physical extent, accessibility and continuity, topography, aspect, climate, soil quality, water regime, the distribution of vegetation and foliage canopy levels, and wildlife.
2) Conserve or develop diversity of habitat, by the protection or manipulation of the above features of the site, paying special heed to the value of complex edge zones (ecotones).
3) Encourage a full range of organic life, that is, an extensive range of species compatible with the site and with each other, representing all the categories of life from soil organisms upwards, and principally (but not necessarily entirely) native to the area.
4) Encourage the full cycle of growth from birth to decay, and with this a mixed-aged structure or 'mosaic' of elements at different stages of development.
5) Develop balanced self-sustaining communities capable of renewing themselves in the short term with a minimum of outside interference.
6) Control the system by management: of habitats, species and stages of growth in order to sustain an appropriate balance of elements into the future (for example, of open water against marginal growth, open grass against scrub), aiming at the lowest level of daily maintenance consistent with human uses of the landscape.
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7) Create maximum variety of opportunity for man and nature to coexist, in close proximity according to a spectrum of differing values, allowing site potential reinforced by management to influence the patterns of activity and the separation of conflicting interests, on even the smallest area of land.
8) Create a coherent landscape structure, derived from site potential, habitat diversity, and the separation of conflicting interests; perpetuated by management; capable of assimilating chance and variety without disorder; and providing a continuous sequence of aesthetic experiences through the interplay of landform, space and enclosure, light and shade, and all other sensory qualities of the landscape,
9) Design in four dimensions, accepting the need for continuous flexible design extending into the future. Forego the total control of tradition as the price
to be paid for the privilege of living with nature. J


SMALL SPACES
LEFT-OVER SPACES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE CITY'S ARCHITECTURAL FABRIC AND CAN MAKE A VITAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENIUS LOCI.
grand design that he overlooks the small spaces. Peter
Shepheard, according to Fairbrother, commented
One day I realized that the whole of a landscape architect's raw material - when the city architect and city engineer and traffic manager have done their stuff - is nothing but Sloip (space left over in planning). Actually I wasn't regretting it, just '’ ' ‘^ architecture is
loci. William Whyte says we must concentrate on these small spaces, the irregular bits and pieces, and especially those that we can connect together. "There are an amazing number of connective links right under our noses if we will only look for them - old aqueducts, abandoned canals, railroad rights of way, former streams the engineers have put in concrete troughs. Those derelict areas can be transformed into meaningful places which contribute to the sense of place people experience as they pass them daily.
The designer must not get so carried away with the
Left-over spaces can indeed be the key to the genius


Sloip, by its nature, is already an integral part of the city's architectural fabric and a part of the urban experience. Vegetation in the sloip can add qualities the structures don't have, for example, movement in the wind and intricate shadows. Nan Fairbrother put it aptly when she said, "Vegetation in towns should be fitted in - almost never made room for. The best urban planting is often crammed in as an extra; it is 'as well as', not 'instead of'. It decorates the city scene without destroying the city character.
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EDGES
EDGES ARE A MAJOR ELEMENT OF THE CITY IMAGE. LINEAR OPEN SPACES PRESENT MAXIMUM EDGE, HENCE THEY PROVIDE MAXIMUM VISUAL IMPACT AND MAXIMUM PHYSICAL ACCESS.
Another important and sometimes overlooked design
opportunity lies in the 'edges'. Lynch considers edges to be
57
one of the five major elements of the city image. That being the case, edges deserve special design consideration.
Open space does most of its work along the edges.
The edge is the place people see the most and the part of an
open area they most often use for recreation.
Much as a city park seems bigger when it is enclosed on all sides by buildings, woods or meadows delight our eye most when they provide a contrast to adjoining roads and buildings. Along the edges is where the separation function is largely achieved. Developers are keenly aware of this and whenever possible get a tract bounded by a protected open space. It is good, of course, if there is much more open land beyond.
Edges should not be mere facades. If you find out that what seems to be the edge of a woodland is only a line of trees, at once the beginning and the end, and that just on the other side lies a freightyard, you never have quite the same feeling about it again.
An edge is most entrancing when you sense a depth beyond and that it will be well worth exploring one of these days.-5°
It follows that, per acre, linear strips are the most effective form of open space - they will give maximum visual impact, maximum physical access, and maximum edge.
b-7


Some specific design treatments for edges include
'scalloping' the edges of urban woodlands to provide niches
for wildlife and planting 'barrier species' along the edges
59
of paths to keep pedestrians from straying.
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PLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE
AN INTEGRAL PART OF ANY DESIGN APPROACH SHOULD BE PLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE.
Traditional maintenance strives to maintain the status quo. Ecologically based maintenance is really management. The goal is to ensure that the growing landscape will reflect both the original design and the present or future demands of man and of nature. Ecological design is not static thus management of it must be fluid as well.
Gill and Bonnett advocate the following as good management policies:
1) Retention and creation of biological corridors should be given priority in all development plans to maintain the viability of all open spaces as wildlife habitat.
2) Decaying vegetation and animal matter should be retained in situ.
3) Rejuvenation of some, habitats on a periodic basis should be accomplished by small-scale disturbance over limited areas, such as the clearance of openings in woodland, thinning of shrub, removal of emergent vegetation around small ponds, and the cutting of grassland every three years.
4) Seasonal operations should be organized to cause minimum disturbance to wildlife activities; i.e. concentration of activity should be in late autumn and early spring. Where possible manual rather than mechanical techniques should be used.
49


5) The use of chemicals should be abandoned in favor of other forms of vegetation manipulation. Fenced enclosures should be established to encourage reestablishment of plants rather than relying upon the use of fertilizers.
6) Sanctuary zones for wildlife should be established which can then function as reservoirs for the remainder of the greenspace network.
7) The high biological value and protective function of wetlands such as bogs and marshes should be recognized. These areas should be protected from garbage dumping and from drainage schemes or other forms of detrimental activity.
8) Acceptable modes of people management should be developed to create a general awareness of the ecosystem and its functioning. Damage should be minimized by restricting use to a level below the ecological carrying capacity.
9) The rotation technique should be adopted as a major protective tool in all areas subjected to intensive human use. For example, different portions of a parkland should be periodically fenced to exclude people and allow recovery of vegetation. Alternative walking trails should be provided to maintain each one within its ecological carrying capacity by periodic closure.
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SYMBOLIC DESIGN
SYMBOLIC DESIGN CAN BRING NATURE TO THE MOST HIGHLY URBANIZED PLACES.
The design and management techniques so far mentioned largely concern natural areas controlled by man with the goal of having them appear as 'natural' as possible. What about the highly controlled designs - the 'symbolic' expressions of nature which we see in our cities? Symbolic design in Japan, for example, has reached a high degree of skill and sensitivity to natural qualities. McHarg eloquently describes for us what such design can evoke for a pedestrian escaping the heat and glare of a city street:
We stood on a narrow terrace beside the pool, savouring the silence, then discovering below it the small noises of the trickling fountain, drips and splashes, the rustle of the delicate aralia leaves, seeing the reticulated patterns in the pool, the dappled light. Here were these self-same precious things, but consciously selected and arrayed, sun and shade, trees and water, the small sounds under silence. What enormous power ^ was exerted by these few elements in this tiny space.
There is surely a valid place for symbolic design in our cities. It can be a vehicle for bringing the essence of nature to those highly-urbanized places where the total natural
51


ecosystem cannot flourish. It can be an oasis in the 'urban desert
Here is an echo of something very old indeed: the cool, green garden enclosed from the wilderness, come down to us through many transformations with its ancient name of 'paradise' and still undiminished in evocative power. It has an even sharper relevance for us now, expressing the natural basis of life amidst the barrenness not of the desert but of man's own urban world. ^
We have traced much history and philosophy since our discussion of the enclosed medieval garden; we find an expansion, and yet a sameness. Man is still the inventor, the innovator, the contemplator, and nature is still the seasons, the green, the rushing water, the freshness, the relief for man in his busy world. Man is . . . and nature is . . . and the two are becoming as one.
52




HYPOTHESIS
HYPOTHESIS: NATURAL AREAS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT
RANGE CITY WILL REFLECT AND ENHANCE THE ’GENIUS LOCI' IF ECOLOGICALLY AND CULTURALLY SOUND DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND/OR MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ARE APPLIED.
DISCUSSION:
Research has indicated that the genius loci of a city results from the fusion of man and nature into a continuum where each is constantly shaping the other and simultaneously creating a new whole. With the passage of time, a richness develops in cities where this process is working well. Front Range cities are young and growing; it is a propitious time for a designer to understand the genius loci and to bring all of the natural and cultural forces of the city into a creative working relationship.
The hypothesis tests whether urban natural areas that are designed and/or managed with ecologically and culturally sound techniques will improve the genius loci. It presents an opportunity to investigate what these methods are and how they can be used effectively.
53


I llflll
ISSUES


ISSUES
THE ISSUES MUST BE RESOLVED IN THE CONTEXT OF BOTH THE RESEARCH FINDINGS AND OF THE GENIUS LOCI OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE CITY.
The chosen hypothesis raises a number of issues.
In seeking resolution of these issues, it is first necessary to apply the research findings to the present time and place. Each question must be studied in the context of that particular man-nature relationship which exists in the urban environment of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in the 1980's.
Since the urban population is increasing very rapidly in this area at the present time, it becomes necessary to not only assess the present situation, but to attempt to project the future needs of man and nature. Following the identification of local man-nature needs, a methodology must be found to implement meeting those needs.
In the pages that follow, each issue is stated as a series of questions. A short discussion follows, based upon the information so far uncovered. Further answers will come in pursuing the case study.
55


ISSUE: WHAT IS THE ’GENIUS LOCI' OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY?
What are the components of the front range urban ecosystem? What is the human tradition on the front range?
Are the two compatible? What elements of the genius loci are common to all front range cities? (regional base) What elements vary with the individual city? (local base) Does size of city affect the front range urban genius loci? Is the genius loci of the front range city changing as a result of the phenomenal growth of the past decade?
DISCUSSION:
The genius loci is a living, growing thing; it is constantly changing. The land forms remain constant; the actions and interactions of man and nature upon the land are in a constant state of creation and recreation. Undoubtedly there is much creative activity and much unproductive activity in front range cities as they meet the current pressures of population growth; the genius loci is in a state of change.
The genius loci of the front range city combines the feeling of openness of the high plains with the feeling of protection and enclosure provided by the mountains. The mountains constitute a visual, cultural, and climatic edge; all front range cities share this common backdrop to the west.
5.6


The openness of the high plains contrasts dramatically with the enclosure of the eastern woodlands, the typical setting from which front range settlers came. Man has over the years combined his longing for the security of the woodlands with his appreciation of the wide open spaces of the west; thus we have man-created woodlands on the high plains and we have a perpetual romance with the big blue sky. This is an example of the man-nature dialogue which produces the front range genius loci.
Another factor contributing to the unique man-nature relationship on the front range is the matter of space definition. In England and the American east, unmaintained land reverts to
Zl o
woodland and space is lost by the overgrowth of mass. J On the prairie, reversion to the natural state causes space definition to be lost due to the lack of mass. In other words, in the east, man carves open spaces from the woodlands; on the prairie, he creates spaces on a 'void'.
Land forms dominate on the front range. The overall picture is a large one - a palette of sky, mountain, and prairie. We see the large and assume it; we need to be encouraged to see the small. The complexity of the small against the backdrop of the large is the essence of 'place' on the front range.
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ISSUE: WHAT IS NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY?
What are acceptable ranges of 'naturalness' for natural areas in the front range city? (must take the genius loci into consideration) Does the degree of naturalness affect what is appropriate design for the area? What are important functions of natural areas in front range cities? How do these functions affect the design? What natural ecosystems are present in the front range area and how tolerant are they to change? Does man select from nature only those elements which he finds agreeable? Is nature in the front range city related to the wild and untamed natural features of the west which were first admired by the 19th century naturalists of America?
DISCUSSION:
Fairbrother suggests three fundamental landscape types:
1) Landscapes derived from the natural habitat of the region;
2) Landscapes produced by man's alteration of the natural habitat for his own uses, generally without concern for the 'scenery' as such. An example of this type is agricultural land.
3) Landscape which has been deliberately designed for pleasure,
64
such as parks, gardens, and 'amenity landscape'. Perhaps these three categories typify an appropriate range of naturalness
58


and. also encompass the basic functions of natural areas for front range cities. The degree of naturalness must be in keeping with the function and permit as much ecological progression as is possible to take place.
There are many exotic plants that have been introduced to the front range area that have now 'naturalized' and become an integral part of front range ecosystems. In the purest sense, they are not 'natural', but they are contributing to ecological stability and hence should be encouraged to enrich the front range urban environment.
The front range area is an arid land. Much of the landscape tradition brought to it is not well adapted to aridity. Water is now available through the ingenuity of man, but the growing population is pressuring the water supply as never before. The front range city must define for itself an appropriate landscape tradition based upon natural aridity so that the urban ecosystem can find balance.
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ISSUE: WHAT ARE THE HUMAN NEEDS FOR NATURE IN THE FRONT
RANGE CITY?
Do the human needs for nature differ from those in cities in other parts of the country? What values and conflicts result from the presence of nature in the front range city?
DISCUSSION:
There are two primary factors which respond to human needs for nature in the front range city: the nature of the city itself and the easy accessibility to nature outside of the city. The front range urban area differs from many cities in that it has a lower density. For many years there has been a seemingly limitless supply of land at the perimeter, and so the city has spread laterally rather than concentrate. Thus there is sufficient open space within the city for a variety of natural areas. However, in most cities, these have not been developed and managed to their fullest potentials.
One of the reasons for this lack of development may be that there are abundant public natural areas (for example, regional, state, and national parks and forests) in close proximity to all front range cities, and the highway system makes them easily accessible. The population is made up of a large number of 'outdoorsy' types who make regular use of these natural areas.
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One concludes that many typical front range urban dwellers look to two places for nature - the large suburban back yard and outings outside the city. There are also many
i
urban dwellers who do not have a suburban back yard or the opportunity to seek nature outside of the city. For both grqups, the quality of life within the city can be enriched by 'enhancing the natural areas that are already there.
6l


ISSUE: WHAT ARE APPROPRIATE DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR NATURAL AREAS IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY?
DISCUSSION:
Design must be appropriate for the chosen function and degree of naturalness. Tolerances to change must be considered when designing; ecological balance is always a goal.
’’The ideal of landscape design is . . . that it makes us experience more vividly the natural scenery of the region we are in ... to express the genius loci. If we accept that as a goal, in the front range city we must design to magnify the setting of prairie, mountains, and sky. That setting demands consideration of scale. The land forms of the front range are large; elements of design must be large also. If the given space is small, it will be better to use few large elements rather than many small ones.
Continuity of open lands is important in any city; it is especially critical in the arid environment of the front range city. Plant and animal communities need adjacent open lands to have free range to flourish.
Front range soils are fine and thin and easily eroded; natural vegetation is sparse and does not easily stop the harsh actions of wind and water. Therefore, great care must be taken in designing to prevent erosion.
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There is much 'sloip' in the spread-out front range city. It has great potential to become meaningful natural 'place'. The designer must work with, not overlook, the sloip.
The 'edge' of the mountains is especially significant because the prairie has few edges. The view of the mountains is a psychological anchor for residents of the front range city.
It says 'home' and 'place' to them; it should be preserved and enhanced whenever possible.
Maintenance/management should be integral to all design. The design must provide a flexible structure within which natural processes may take place. Management must be planned to encourage those processes.
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ISSUE: WHAT ABE THE IMPLICATIONS OF NATURE IN THE URBAN
LANDSCAPE TO THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY?
DISCUSSION:
The front range city is one of the most rapidly expanding urban areas in the United States today. It presents infinite opportunities for developing innovative answers to the man-nature question. The landscape architect can be in the forefront of that quest.
Nature in the urban landscape is the realm of many professionals - the designer, the city planner, the architect, the engineer, the hydrologist, the ecologist, the horticulturist. Since the profession of landscape architecture touches all of these areas, the landscape architect is a logical choice to serve as a facilitator and mediator in bringing together the efforts of these many disciplines as they strive to improve the man-nature relationship on the front range.
64




INTRODUCTION
THE EUROPEAN
LANDSCAPE
TRADITION
NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY
NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY
NATURE
This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between nature and the man-made urban environment, a study in urban ecology.
Man dominated nature in the European landscape for the purposes of psychological comfort, aesthetic amenity, scientific research, and artistic effect.
The romantic garden stressed the aesthetic and intellectual appreciation of nature and began to recognize the right of other species to survive in their own habitat. From the seventeenth century onward, nature gained importance in urban landscapes for aesthetics, entertainment, education, and recreation. Trees were used to unify and frame views and to define edges.
As in Europe, it was a man-dominated nature that began the American landscape tradition. Botanic gardens were established in the new world as centers of scientific research and education.
America began to define nature for herself with the coming of the romantic movement. Wi]_(ierness was idealized and the concept of preserving truly natural landscapes was bom. Cemeteries, suburbs, and large city parks using informal and curvilinear forms were laid out in the romantic style to imitate pieces of natural scenery. The public parks were accessible to all elements of society. The design of twentieth century American urban open spaces has followed changing life styles. Natural areas now play a part in the ecological relationships of the city. Nature in the American city must be appropriate for the local area, considering lifestyles and ecosystems (man and nature).
The history of nature in the Rocky Mountain Front Range City brings together the landscape traditions of Europe, of the colonial United States and of the American West. The contemporary Front Range City searches for a viable man-nature philosophy which will accommodate its ever-increasing growth.
Open space serves multiple functions: it is used for recreation and for circulation, it is viewed from a variety of vantage points, and it gives feelings of privacy, spaciousness and scale. Plants and the urban environment affect each other both positively and negatively: the challenge lies in finding tradeoffs that benefit both. All natural systems on the earth today are affected to some degree by man; the goal is to achieve stability and hence greater productivity.
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MAN
THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM
THE GENIUS LOCI DESIGN PRINCIPLES
HYPOTHESIS
ISSUES
Man has psychological needs for contact with nature, both for introspection and for stress-relieving active recreation. The urban ecosystem can be a self-confirming environment that will bring out man's latent potentials.
Urban ecology is the study of the relationship between the biological community and man in his man-made environment. Its goal is to create a true symbiosis between man and nature.
The genius loci is the personality of 'place', colored by all of the diverse elements that have ever touched it. Many analyses have been done concerning the genius loci. The individual must perceive the intrinsic quality of a place based on his own unique life experiences.
Design with nature must be fluid and respond to the size, complexity, accessibility, continuity, topography and existing vegetation of the site. Design principles must satisfy both natural and human needs and aid the designer in creating an ecologically sound landscape. Left-over spaces are an integral part of the city's architectural fabric and can make a vital contribution to the genius loci. Edges are a major element of the city image. Linear open spaces present maximum edge, hence they provide maximum visual impact and maximum physical access.
An integral part of any design approach should be planning for maintenance. Symbolic design can bring nature to the most highly urbanized places.
Natural areas in the Rocky Mountain Front Range City will reflect and enhance the genius loci if ecologically and culturally sound design principles and/or management techniques are applied.
The issues must be resolved in the context of both the research findings and of the genius loci of the Rocky Mountain Front Range City.
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RED WING SANCTUARY
A CASE STUDY




DESCRIPTION OF STUDY
THE CHOSEN CASE STUDY IS RED WING SANCTUARY, AN URBAN MARSH OWNED BY THE AIKEN AUDUBON SOCIETY, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO.
Red Wing Sanctuary is an 18-acre piece of undeveloped land recently acquired "by the Aiken Audubon Society of Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is a marshy area which has two streams running through it and a variety of flora and fauna typical of prairie marsh ecosystems. The study site is located at the southwest comer of Pikes Peak Avenue and Academy Boulevard.
Land on all four sides is urbanized; the site is indeed an 'oasis in the urban desert'.
The Aiken Audubon Society is currently in the early stages of developing a policy and program for the marsh. They would like to preserve it as naturally as possible while at the same time opening it to the public for education and enjoyment.
The thesis study will encompass inventorying and analyzing the marsh and its environs and formulating a conceptual site plan for its optimum development. Throughout the process there will be ample opportunity to explore the identified issues of the research findings.
69


AERIAL VIEW OF SITE FROM SOUTHWEST
Photograph
by Colonel Phillip Weinert, U.S
Army Corps
of Engim


JUSTIFICATION
RED WING SANCTUARY IS UNIQUELY SUITED AS A CASE STUDY TO EXPLORE THE CHOSEN HYPOTHESIS.
This case study is uniquely suited to explore the chosen hypothesis because:
1) It is a relatively 'untouched' piece of land lying well within an urban area of the Rocky Mountain Front Range.
2) The goal for this piece of land is both to preserve nature in the city and to permit man to enjoy it.
This affords a true exploration of the 'genius loci' relative to this piece of land and allows opportunity to develop and test design processes which will promote the integration of man and nature.
3) The marsh ecosystem is an especially sensitive one; it follows that if the hypothesis can be proven for this area, it should hold true for other natural systems in the front range city as well.
The case study relates well to the program focus of the University of Colorado Department of Landscape Architecture: "Arid Region Landscape Architecture for Urban and Community
73


Settlement" because:
1) It is located in an arid region.
2) It is a project which exercises the many disciplines intrinsic to the profession of landscape architecture.
3) It concerns an urban community.
Study and subsequent preparation of a site design for the Red Wing Sanctuary using the researched design process will promote better understanding of the man-nature relationship. The goal will be to produce a design and management plan that is ecologically and culturally sound and that will hence reflect and enhance the genius loci.
7^




STUDY OUTLINE
THE STUDY WILL BE CONDUCTED AS SHOWN IN THE PROCESS DIAGRAM ON PAGE 79.. MATERIAL IS PRESENTED AS FOLLOWS:
CULTURAL SYSTEM
PHYSICAL SYSTEM
1. Regional Context a. El Paso County b. City of Colorado Springs
2. Local Context a. Adjacent Land Use b. Open Space c. Vehicular Circulation
3. Site-Specific Context a. Easements and Access
SOCIAL SYSTEM
1. Regional Context
2. Local Context
3- Site-Specific Context
a. History b. Policy/Program
NATURAL SYSTEM
ABIOTIC SYSTEM
1. Regional Context
a. Land Forms/Topography
b. Climate
c. Geology/Soils
d. Hydrology
e. Fountain/Monument Sub-Basin
2. Local Context
a. Spring Creek Drainage Basin
3. Site-Specific Context
a. Location of Study Site
b. Land Forms/Topography
c. Water Quality
d. Water Movement
e. Soils
75


BIOTIC SYSTEM
1. Regional Context
a. Wildlife
b. Vegetation
c. Biotic Zones
d. Ecosystems of the Pikes Peak Region
2. Local Context
a. Vegetation
b. Wildlife
3. Site-Specific Context
a. Vegetation
b. Wildlife
THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM
1. Regional Context
2. Local Context
3. Site-Specific Context
a. What happens to nature?
b. What happens to man?
ANALYSIS
VALUE OF SITE TO REGION VALUE OF SITE TO LOCAL AREA ROLE OF SITE IN URBAN ECOSYSTEM
1. Urban Ecosystem Analysis
2. Site Functions
a. Primary
b. Secondary
3. Performance Standards SITE ANALYSIS
1. Edges
2. Landscape Units
3. Site Features
4. The Future
PROGRAM
PHILOSOPHY OF USE TARGETED USERS GOAIS AND OBJECTIVES DESIGN ELEMENTS RELATIONSHIP TO HYPOTHESIS
76


PROBjLEM SOLUTION
ALTERNATIVE EXPLORATION
1. Concepts
| a. Concept Descriptions
b. Concept 1 - Countryside Conservation
c. Concept 2 - Educational Enhancement
d. Concept 3 - Pedestrian Pathways
2. Concept Evaluation
a. Advantages-Disadvantages
b. Goal Comparison
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SOLUTION
1. Concept Plan
2. Concept Sketches
a. Nature center/parking area
b. Study benches
c. Signage
d. Stairs and bridges
e. Trail to riverbank viewpoint
f. Trail through willows
g. Trail to mound viewpoint
h. Bog boardwalk
i. Ridge trail along bog
j. New plant communities
3- Cost Estimate TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
77


CULTURAL SYSTEM M^TUPAL. 6Y6T&M UP&AM E2LOSYSTEM
CASE STUDY PROCESS DIAGRAM
79


STUDY DETAILS
CLIENT:
CONSULTANTS:
DIRECT EXPENSES: (SEPTEMBER-MAY)
Aiken Audubon Society
Charles Campbell, Marsh Committee Chairman
Daniel Young, Director of Landscape Architecture University of Colorado at Denver
Colonel Phillip Weinert, Area Engineer
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rocky Mountain Area
Dr. Gregory McArthur, Systems Plant Ecologist Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado
Dr. E. A. Howard, Ecologist
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado
Dr. Richard Beidleman, Ecologist
Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado
James O'Shea, Landscape Architect National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region
Lennon Hooper, Trails Coordinator National Park Service, Denver Service Center
8 trips to Colorado Springs
(1579 miles @ 200/mile) $316
Motel in Colorado Springs (l night) 32
1 trip to Barr Lake (66 miles @ 200/mile) 13
Phone calls 5^
Photographs 96
Books 24
Maps 9
Graphic supplies, typing supplies 71
Photocopies (working copies & draft) 83
Miscellaneous (postage, parking, etc.) 10
Printing of document (ll copies @ $18 each) 198
$906
81


CULTURAL SYSTEM


PHYSICAL SYSTEM
REGIONAL CONTEXT OF PHYSICAL SYSTEM
The study site is located in the State of Colorado, in the western portion of El Paso County, within the city limits of Colorado Springs.
STATE OF COLORADO
(Map from USDA-SCS, Soil Survey of El Paso County Area)
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El Paso County
Although the study property is privately owned, the logical context in which to examine it is that of open space and park lands. The park lands in El Paso County fall under federal, state, county, and municipal jurisdictions (see opposite map - Park Lands). The majority of the park lands under all jurisdictions in El Paso County lie in the western third of the county, the area shown on the map. They vary in size, type, and function and are located at every altitude and in every vegetational zone of the county. Few are contiguous, that is, part of linked open space.
There are only two marsh areas in the park lands of El Paso County. One is the Fountain Marsh owned by the City of Fountain, and the other is Tejon Marsh, an El Paso County property located on Fountain Creek at Tejon Street in the City of Colorado Springs. Both are riparian flood plains.
(Park Lands Map from Sourcebook, El Paso County, Colorado, El Paso County Land Use Department, 1980)
84


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Full Text

PAGE 1

. CONCEPT 1: COUNTRYSIDE CONSERVATION A minimum development/ minimum use alternative DESIGN ELEMENTS: @)PARKING [;) NATURE CENTER --TRAIL (1/3 mile) JII[l[l BOARDWALK OF INTEREST. j I I I 1i 0 50 100 150 200 NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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CONCEPT 2: EDUCATIONAL ENHANCEMENT A maximum educational use alternative DESIGN ELEMENTS iii NATURE CENTER --TRAIL 1''12 mile) 1J11IIill BOARDWALK POINTS OF INTEREST ADDED VEGETATION ,_ "' 1i 0 50 100 150 200 IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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CONCEPT 3: PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS An optimum pedestrian experience alternative DESIGN ELEMENTS ..... ENTRY PARKING NATURE CENTER 1iimi1 COVERED EXHIBIT --TRAIL (7/a mile) l[llrlfl BOARDWALK POINTS OF INTERE VEGETATIVE SCREEN -BRIDG-E (j STAIR * REST BENCH 1 x ..._ ... I I ... ,-..,_-0 50 100 150 200 i NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVF.

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cottonwoods • ••• TRAIL ••••"' ••••• I (CONCEPT PLAN •••• Trail (I) Point of interest CONCEPT SKETCHES 1 Nature center /parking area 2 Study benches 3 Signage 4 Stairs and bridges 5 Trai I to riverbank viewpoint 6 Trail through willows 7 Trail to mound viewpoint 8 Bog boardwalk 9 Ridge trail along bog 10 New plant communities ,.I -....____.1 1 1 i 0 50 100 150 200 f '1\111 ' 1 ' NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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YOUNG 5 Ill I II Ill Iii I 1111111111111111111111111111111 1111111 NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY CASE STUDY: RED WING SANCTUARY -EXHIBIT A-2-

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NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY by Joyce A. LaFleur This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Landscape Architecture Degree at the University of Colorado at Denver College of Design and Planning Graduate Program of Landscape Architecture Accepted:

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Copyright 1983 by Joyce A. LaFleur All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thank you for your help in so many ways: Student Classes Water Quality -Colorado School of Hines Landscape Architecture for Allied Designers UC at Denver Wildlife Biology -Colorado College UCD Faculty rlembers Tom Haldeman Lore Mc:Hillan Jerry Shapins Aiken Audubon Society Charlie Campbell Steve Campbell Kathy Ford Nancy Taggert Will Fowler Linda Ferguson Bob Nates Barbara Dell City of Colorado Springs Debbie Little, Planning Bob Gleissner, Planning Larry Lane, Traffic Bill Ruskin, Parks Lynn Bergman, Engineer Chris Smith, Public Works Beverly Dustin, Public Works C. K. Ruske, Public Works Don Gardner, Public Works U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Captain Richard Lewandm-1ski Colorado Division of Wildlife Chuck Loeffler John Bredehoft El Paso County Harvin Harris, Parks Doris Lyons, Land Planning U.S. Soil Conservation Service Lamon Baird Pikes Peak Area Council of Govnmts. Karen Lancet Bill Gosnell Leigh Whitehead Engineers Kathy Johnson Linda Janawitz Terra Graphics Darrold Smith Katina Smith Charlie Smith Auraria Bookstore Copy Center June J em berg KaLynn Busler-Ahonen T-Square Robyn Rucker Bob Pinto LK Printing Service, Inc. Mike Souchek Dimensions Unlimited Terry Dresner Thank you my thesis advisor, Dan Young, and my consultants, Phil Weinert, Greg McArthur, Al Howard, Dick Beidleman, Jay O'Shea, and Len Hooper for the hours of technical advice, philosophy, patience, and moral support you shared with me. Special thanks to Phyllis and Ray Kulbeck of Fountain, Colorado, for inviting me into your home during my trips to Colorado Springs. And, from the bottom of my heart, thank you my husband, Harold, and my children, Jean, Scott, Ann, Art, and Dean for supporting me and loving me through my school years:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 RESEARCH HISTORY THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION 3 . NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY 8 NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY 15 CURRENT PHILOSOPHIES 19 NATURE OPEN SPACE 23 VEI;EI'ATION 25 NATURAL SYSTEMS 29 MAN HUMAN NEEDS 31 LATENT POTENTIALS J4 THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM 35 THE GENIUS LOCI 37

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DESIGN PRINCIPLES DESIGNING WITH NATURE IN CITIES DESIGN PRINCIPlES SMALL SPACES PLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE SYMBOLIC DESIGN HYPOTHESIS ISSUES 41 4J 45 47 49 51 53 INTRODUCTION 55 WHAT IS THE GENIUS LOCI OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 56 WHAT IS NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? _58 WHAT ARE THE HUMAN NEEDS FOR NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 60 WHAT ARE APPROPRIATE DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR NATURAL AREAS IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 62 WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF NATURE IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE TO THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY? 64 SYNOPSIS 65 CASE STUDY RATIONALE DESCRIPTION OF STUDY SITE PHOTOGRAPH JUSTIFICATION 69 71 7J

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PROCEDURE STUDY OUTLINE 75 PROCESS DIAGRAM 79 STUDY DETAILS 81 CULTURAL SYSTEM PHYSICAL SYSTEM 83 SOCIAL SYSTEM 98 NATURAL SYSTEM ABIOTIC SYSTEM 103 BIOTIC SYSTEM 123 THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM 133 ANALYSIS VALUE OF SITE TO REGION 141 VALUE OF SITE TO LOCAL AREA 143 ROLE OF SITE IN URBAN ECOSYSTEM 146 SITE ANALYSIS 152 PR(X}RAM PHILOSOPHY OF USE 163 TAIGETED USERS 163 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 164 DESIGN ELEMENTS 165 RELATIONSHIP TO HYPOTHESIS 166 PROBLEM SOLUTION ALTERNATIVE EXPLORATION 167 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SOLUTION 180 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS 203

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I ill I I IIIII/lilii/ 1111111111 I I IIIII INTRODUCTION

PAGE 13

NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY THIS THESIS IS AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURE AND THE MAN-T1ADE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, A STUDY IN URBAN ECOlOGY. Elizabeth Barlow, the Administrator of Central Park in New York City, said, "Out of some deep-seated psychological necessity we have begun to domesticate wildness in our cities rather than lose it from our lives."1 The key in that statement is 'domesticated wildness'. What happens to nature when man brings it into the city -or what happens to man when the city enters a natural area? This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between nature and the man-made urban environment, and more specifically, that relationship in cities lying along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. It explores methods of identifying the 'genius loci' of front range cities and tests theories relating to ways natural areas in the city can inter-pret and strengthen the 'sense of place' for those who use them. Based upon the historical development of the city and the place of nature in it, the study concentrates on the emerging image of cities and their concurrent integration of natural areas rather than on new urban environments where neither the natural nor the cultural has yet been developed. l

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The study consists of tuo parts: general research followed by a specialized case study. The following diagram illustrates the method used: 1 0: +li RESEARCH INTRODUCTION l I HISTORY I NATURE MAN "y / <. ---J.-: THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM . DESIGN PRINCIPLES :5 THE GENIUS LOCI s::' >, C/) -r---------I I ,J _J i '( 1 I I I I CULTURAL SYSTEM + CASE STUDY NATURAL SYSTEM URBAN ECOSYSTEM 1 ROLE OF SITE FUNGriONS ! PERFORNANC:E STANDARDS ';d SITE ANlALYSIS ---;-00 ,S:: ' •rl PHILOSOPHY OF USE I USERS I GOAlS AND OBJECTIVES I TEST HYPOTHESIS 1 t ALTERNATIVE . 2 I 1 DESIGN SOLUTION le:: IQ) lr-i I> -

PAGE 15

'-' . _,/ =/ '' --..., r RESEARCH

PAGE 16

! \II I I I 111111111 HISTORY

PAGE 17

THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION MAN iOOMINATED NATURE IN THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE FOR THE PURPOSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL COMFORT, AESTHETIC AMENITY, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, AND ARTISTIC EFFECT. The European landscape tradition is steeped in the Occidental philosophy of man having dominion over nature, as opposed to traditional Oriental philosophies which consider man to be a part of nature. Dominion over nature began with the pressures agriculture exerted upon the land and later extended to the treatment of nature in the city •. An early example of man-dominated nature in the city is the medieval garden. There were two types: the enclosed gardens of private homes, castles, and monasteries; and botanic gardens located in relation to medical schools. The enclosed gardens were outdoor rooms where favorite plants were grown. As the world was considered to be a perilous place and nature a thing to be feared, the garden became a small enclosure against the hostile world. When society grew more prosperous and more confident in the world, the gardens grew larger, but the main theme was still enclosure, and the dominant design features were 2 walls, moats, and hedges. The botanic gardens arose in response to the search for medicinal plants. The first botanic garden J

PAGE 18

was at the medical school in Padua, Italy (1532). 3 These gardens show two purposes for introducing nature into the man-made environment -using plants for psychological comfort and aesthetic amenity, and using plants for scientific research. With the coming of the Renaissance, man tempered his fear of nature and began to consciously manipulate it. Like the Renaissance, landscape began in Italy with the formal gardens of the Italian villas and later spread north to France, where it changed and expanded under Le Notre, whose landscapes were imitated all over the world. The Renaissance garden was a formal composition of the utmost self-confidence, and its dominating vistas proceeded with superb assurance into the landscape beyond. 4 Man's intellect was supreme, and nature was subdued, The Renaissance garden shows another aspect of nature in the man-made environment, that of artistically arranging plants for effect; in this case, the effect is a demonstration of man's control of nature. Parterres, topiary, mazes, and formal tree-lined vistas are typical examples of man's manipu-lations in these gardens. The garden was an extension of the architecture of the period and served primarily as a setting or foil for the activities of the dominant man, namely the King and his court. 4

PAGE 19

THE ROMANTIC .GARDEN STRESSED THE AESTHETIC AND INTELLECTUAL APPRECIATION OF NATURE AND BFTIAN TO RECCGNIZE THE RIGHT OF OTHER SPECIES TO SURVIVE IN THEIR OWN HABITAT. By the eighteenth century there was a change in taste and1 attitude and a fashionable 'return to nature'. The landscape paintings of Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, and Salvator Rosa were held up as the ideal. They inspired Jean Jacques Rosseau and other essayists and poets to write about the aesthetic and intellectual appreciation of nature. "In the record of Western culture there is nothing to compare with the vogue for landscape that arose in this period."5 A large body of aesthetic theory was created to judge the relative merits of landscapes, and complex distinctions were made between the beautiful, the and the sublime. The landscape park was conceived in terms of the natural forest; and untrimmed trees, the garden as a series of pictures, and obliteration of relationship of parts to the whole were basic themes. Led by Capability Brown, the romantic English landscape school removed geometric forms and connected the garden with the surrounding countryside through a device called the 'ha-ha' barrier. Viewers from the human enclosure could now see sheep, cattle, or deer appearing to roam free in the garden. "Perhaps this concept I be considered as the first tentative step in a man-dominated toward recognition of the right of other species to survive in their own habitat."6 'Return to nature' is the basic theme of the Romantic garden, but Dubas says it "was in reality an attempt to make artificial landscapes of human design look as if they we:Ife natural. .. ? I 5

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FROM THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ONWARD, NATURE GAINED IMPORTANCE IN URBAN LANDSCAPES FOR AESTHETICS, ENTERI'AINNENT, EDUCATION, AND RECREATION. TREES WERE USED TO UNIFY AND FRAME VIEWS AND TO DEFINE EDGES • History so far described is largely the history of estates and parks. What, one asks, was going on in the cities? Christopher Tunnard, landscape architect and city planner, points out that green forms were absent in urban planning until the seventeenth century because cities were considered separate entities set aside from wild nature.8 Apparently the need for plants in the city was not keenly felt; cities were small and residents could easily access the countryside; streets were narrow and buildings were high enough to shade them; and in addition, the city planning esthetic demanded perfectly controlled man-made forms. However, from the seventeenth century onward, new attitudes and new activities in the city brought about an establishment of new forms. As gunpowder rendered the medieval wall obsolete, the wall and its attendant fortifications were sometimes turned into parks, such as those in Magdeburg and Frankfurt, Germany. Squares were planted as landscape gardens for the use and visual enjoyment of those who lived in the surrounding rows of town houses, Botanic gardens and zoos sprang up in response to growing interest in horticulture, botany, and zoology. 'Pleasure gardens' were popular in the eighteenth century as complete 6

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centers of entertainment including taverns and pavilions for eating, drinking, music, and dancing, Nature in the city had i now .become available to the common man for the purposes of entertainment, education, and recreation. The long straight tree-lined roadway of the seventeenth century French baroque garden became a determining factor influencing future use of trees in the city. The radiating pathways of the French provided a pattern for what was considered to IDe the ideal street layout for many eighteenth century city I designs, including that for Washington, D. C. Streets were laid out with great concern for perspective and field of view and.were sharply delineated by planting trees along the sides, Hausmann cut wide tree-lined boulevards through Paris in the mid-1800s. These street trees provide "a unified matrix through which the architectural complexities of the city may be viewed,"9 Thus another use of nature in the city emerged-to unify and frame the view and to define 'edges', 7

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NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY AS IN EUROPE, IT WAS A MAN-DOMINATED NATURE THAT BEI}AN THE AMERICAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION. Similar in feeling to the medieval garden, the colonial town turned its back on the wilderness and attempted to establish a protected place within where residents could feel secure from the wild features of nature. The first enclosures were the town commons where the livestock could graze safely, the military could parade, and people could meet each other without fear. As the settlers outgrew their fear of the wilderness, landscape thought progressed along many of the same lines it had in Europe. The common evolved into a public square or park with community buildings such as the church and city hall lining its edges. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, Lombardy poplars, being considered symbols of civic pride, were imported from Europe to 'formalize' the common. The old familiar forms were brought into the new places, and the wilderness was subdued. L'Enfant furthered the tradition of the old forms with his plan of 1791 for Washington, D.C. As Hausman's street plan for Paris influenced so many European cities, the formal avenues of the new nation's capital city served as a pattern for many 8

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growing American cities. The 'grand design' had taken hold, and the American east was ready to enter the 'civilized' world where man was in control. BOTANIC GARDENS WERE ESTABLISHED IN THE NEW WORLD AS CENTERS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION. There was an intense interest in plant collecting in America and particularly in bringing plants from the territory west of the Mississippi to the horticulturists of the east. Several public and private botanic gardens resulted -Marshall Arboretum (1773), Longwood (1800), New York (1801), Charleston (1805), Lexington (1824), Harvard (1822), and Haverford College 10 (18BJ). These served dual purposes of scientific research and education. AMERICA BECAN TO DEFINE NATURE FOR HERSELF WITH THE COMING OF THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT. WILDERNESS WAS IDEALIZED AND THE CONCEPT OF PRESERVING TRULY NATURAL LANDSCAPES WAS BORN. The Romantic Movement in the United States began in the form of the Jeffersonian dream, the pastoral ideal -to America into a garden, a permanently rural republic, a chaste uncomplicated land of rural virtue. American poets. painters, and philosophers turned out work in which nature and natural landscapes were seen as inspirational, as settings to 9

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convey moral messages. Similarly, landscape plans were drawn which presented bucolic, naturalistic countryside surrounding the country estate as the true American idea1.11 Prior to American landscape painting in the nineteenth century, no one had ever painted a landscape divorced from human significance. There was always some sign of man or his works in evidence (pastures, cows, bridges, etc.). Nature was background and setting, never important for its own sake. But American painters began painting the wild and great features of nature -the mountains, the canyons, the waterfalls, the raw and rugged wilderness -with a realism that had never before been attempted, Great excitement and interest in nature arose when Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran, and William Jackson brought to the east paintings and photographs of the marvels and wonders of the Great American West. Here was a nature indeed not controlled by man. The power of nature was demonstrated and became a source of great American pride. Tre idea arose that Europe, having lost its strength-giving wild roots, was declining and that America, because of its proximity to wilderness, was rising to become the new race of conquerors. The concept of preserving wilderness and hence youth and strength, was born. Wilderness would remind Americans of their frontier heritage; America's parks and reserves would be islands of wilderness in the midst of civiliza-tion. Wilderness came to be considered a mainspring of American 10

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t . 1" 12 na The idea of wilderness parks, whether local, regional, or national, was a new step in the relationship of man and nature. These would not be the naturalistic landscapes of the romantic period, but truly. natural landscapes preserved I in midst of the man-made environment. CEr
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Frederick Law Olmsted furthered the idea of large city parks laid out to appear as pieces of natural scenery and convinced the American people that they were economic, social, and aesthetic assets for any city. Horace Cleveland advocated park systems in which parkways and boulevards linked parks and open spaces of various sizes, thus spreading the benefits throughout the city and providing links to the countryside. This proliferation of natural areas made nature in the city available to the gentry and the common man alike. THE DESIGN OF TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN URBAN OPEN SPACES HAS FOLLOWED CHANGING LIFE STYLES . NATURAL AREAS NOW PLAY A PART IN THE ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE CITY. The 'City Beautiful' movement of the 1890's brought a sense of wide-open space and liberated vistas as well as vitally needed public spaces to the American city. In the early twentieth century, towns across the land made room for centrally located public buildings surrounded by park areas. These did much to bring the town a focus and to generate 'sense of place', albeit a stereotyped 'great white way', Another new interest in the twentieth century was in parks for physical recreation and sports in contrast to the nineteenth century ornamental pleasure grounds. Ballfields and playgrounds sprang up everywhere, and natural areas were manipu-lated to make room for playing games. 12

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Jens Jensen, a landscape architect who launched his career in 1900, pioneered the advocation of nature in park design. By that he meant retaining streams and areas of prairie in their natural state and integrating ecological planting with recreational facilities. In addition, he advo-cated ten to fifteen acres of open space around every school in Chicago. Through the efforts of Jensen and many others who followed him, American urban environments have acquired meaning-ful open spaces, and those spaces have begun to take advantage of natural attributes such as lakes, marshes, rock outcrops, and indigenous vegetation. Today there seems to be no questioning the value of natural areas in cities. In 1970, Life Magazine commissioned the Louis Harris organization to poll the American population about desired life styles and environmental values. Ninety-five percent of those polled listed 'green grass and trees around me' 14 as an important environmental value. However, values have changed, and we must be ready to accommodate the new values in our interpretation of nature in our cities. Certainly no one advocates any more the beneficial effect of trees and grass on the morality of the people. Indeed, parks are considered by some to be centres of immorality, and generators of violence. Park designers may have to eliminate shrubberies in order that police may carry out surveillance from the street. The benefits of parks for real estate values are no longer universal ••.. Higher incomes, increased mobility and new life styles permit more people to leave the urban environment for relief and recreation. Although space and facilities for sports and children's play located in relation to neighbourhoods and schools are still clearly needed, regional parks beyond the urban area are increasing in popularity and use ..•• lJ

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Thus the wilderness areas are being more widely used and in some instances overused, polluted, and eroded by those who ostensibly cherish them most •••. Interest in aesthetics and visual quality, having fallen from grace for a time, is reviving and the nineteenth century fascination with natural science has been renewed under the name of ecology. Natural areas in or near cities are needed not only for study purposes and for urban beauty but also because of the public's understanding of their role in the ecological processes on which we depend for survival .••• A more relevant relationship between man and nature will produce new forms of urban space with a new and different character around which cities will take shape. 5 NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY MUST BE APPROPRIATE FDR THE LOCAL AREA, CONSIDERING LIFESTYLES AND ECOSYSTEMS (MAN AND NATURE) , The question, then, is not 'Do we need natural areas in our cities?' but 'What type of natural areas are valid in today's urban environments?' We have a choice of formalized, man-dominated natural areas, of relatively untouched native areas, or of an infinite range of possibilities between the two. Life styles vary with locality as do ecosystems; thus it seems we must look to the local area for that relevant relationship between man and nature which needs to exist there. 14

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NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY THE HISTORY OF NATURE IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE CITY BRINGS TOGETHER THE LAN:OOCAPE TRADITIONS OF EUROPE, OF THE COLONIAL UNITED STATES, AND OF THE AMERICAN WEST. The 'front range city' as defined by this study is the city which lies at the foot of the eastern escarpment of the Rocky Mountains in that area where the mountains interface with the short grass prairie. The city itself lies primarily on the plain, with the mountains defining an ever-present visual, climatic, cultural, and ecological 'edge', At this edge a unique man-nature dialogue has been taking place since before the arrival of white man to the area. According to Dubos, fires set by pre-agricultural Indians of the North American Great Plains to facilitate the hunt of large animals retarded or prevented altogether the growth of trees and shrubs on the prairie.16 They also released I mineral nutrients from organic debris creating a favorable situation for the growth of annual grasses. So when white man came from the East to settle the front range area, he settled on a short grass prairie where trees and shrubs grew only in the river bottoms and arroyos and along the foothills and mountains to the west, 15

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Since the settlers came from forested areas where vegetative growth was luxuriant, it became their goal as soon as towns became established to duplicate their favorite plants along the front range. All sorts of exotic plants were brought into the area, many of them from mail-order houses in the East. With irrigation and protection from the wind, many survived and some even thrived, so that what one sees today is a composite and intermixture of indigenous plants and plants from all over the world. A factor affecting the way the plants were used in the front range city was the adoption of the Jeffersonian grid for all lands west of the Mississippi River. Early nucleus areas of the city may be laid out along the rivers or the railroads, but most areas of nineteenth century and early twentieth century growth follow the grid system. This means that the street layout of most front range towns does not take topography into account. It also means that there are long, wide streets with vistas to the mountains and to the prairies, a logical place for the streetside tree plantings of the French baroque. Many front range cities followed the spirit of the 'City Beautiful' movement and developed city squares flanked by impressive neo-classical public buildings. Formal plantings adorned these public squares as 'culture' came to the West. 16

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Large naturalistic ornamental parks were planned and planted as were arboretum-like cemeteries and boulevard parkways in the,style of Horace Cleveland. The crowning glories of all are the 'wilderness parks', truly the symbols of the wild and rugged west. The most notable of these in the front range area are The Garden of the Gods near Colorado Springs, The Red Rocks of the Denver Mountain Parks System, and Rocky Mountain National Park near Estes Park. THE CONTEMPORARY FRONT RANGE CITY SEARCHES FOR A VIABLE MAN-NATURE PHILOSOPHY WHICH WILL ACCOMMODATE ITS EVER-INCREASING GROWTH. The contemporary front range city shares the frustra-tions and growing pains of many American cities. There is an ever-increasing demand for open space -for aesthetics, for recreation, for education, for relaxation. There are complaints that the ornamental parks cost too much to maintain and that they are not within reach of all of the residents. There is ecological awareness that suggests that traditional planting designs are not compatible with the limited water supply of an a}id area. Vandalism and litter cause some to wonder if pianted areas, natural or ornamental, are worthwhile in today's I ' city. Pressed by one of the most rapid growth rates in the dountry, the front range city searches for a viable philosophy concerning its man-nature relationship in the 1980's. 17

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Ill I I I 111111111/111111'" I I I IIIII CURRENT PHILOSOPHIES

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We don't have to wait for the grand design. It is there already. The structure of our metropolitan areas has long since been set by nature and man, by the rivers and the hills, and the railroads and the highways. Many options remain, and the great task of planning is not to come up with another structure but to work with the strengths of the structure we have -and to discern this structure as peQple experience it in their everyday life.ll William Whyte The Last Landscape The city lives within its landscape environment. Each city has grown from the I nature of its surrotmding landscape -the bedrock from which it has been built -its geology and its natural landscape characteristics. These more than anything have established its original 1character, 'ihe essence of its personality, the quintessence of its usage .... The great city builds with its natural environment, enhancing it, using it as a primary resource for its form and shape and life style.18 Lawrence Halprin The Collective Perception of Cities Each region and each community has its own spirit of place resulting from the prolonged between people and their surrotmdings , 1 9 Rene Dubas The Wooing of Earth A coherent workable landscape evolves where there is a coherent definition not of man but of man's relation to the world and to his fellow men.20 John B. Jackson -Landscapes 19

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What we long for is rarely nature in the raw; more often it is an atmosphere suited to human limitations, and determined by emotional aspirations engendered during centuries of civilized life. The charm of New England or Pennsylvania Dutch countryside should not be taken,for granted, as a product of chance. It did not result from man's conquest of nature, Rather it is the expression of a subtle process through which the natural environment was humanized, yet retained its own individual genius.21 Rene Dubas -Environmental Improvement ' To preserve some naturalness in our American urban scene demands something more than money and men. It demands an appreciation of intangibles and a feeling of respect and reverence toward the earth and all life that dwells upon it.22 Joseph Shaman Openland for Urban America We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.23 Aldo Leopold -A Sand County Almanac A community which has been designed in harmony with nature borr0ws of its strength and to the landscape a fitness of its own. 24John Simonds -Earthscape 21

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I I II "1'1" ''I' II NATURE

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OPEN SPACE OPEN SPACE SERVES MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS: IT IS USED FOR RECREATION AND FOR CIRCULATION, IT IS VIEWED FROM A VARIETY OF VANTAGE POINTS, AND IT GIVES FEELINGS OF PRIVACY, SPACIOUSNESS AND SCALE. Discussion of nature in the city logically begins with a discussion of open space, since open space is commonly defined as all those spaces in a city not occupied by buildings or other man-made structures, and this is consequently where one would expect to find flora and fauna, the most obvious examples of nature in the city. Stanley Tankel expands his definition of open space even more broadly "to include not only all land and water in and around urban areas which is not covered by buildings, but the space and light above as well. "25 He sees two kinds of open space: that of which people are personally aware, and that of which they may be unaware but which nevertheless affects their daily lives. Open spaces of which people are aware include the parks, plazas, yards, gardens, roadways, vacant lots, lakes, rivers, streams, cemeteries, golf courses. These spaces have three basic functions: 1) they are used, for example, for recreation, relaxation, or circulation; 2) they are viewed, from buildings, from a road, or from another vantage point; and 23

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3) they are felt, perhaps as giving privacy, insulation, or a sense of spaciousness and scale. Spaces of which people may be unaware are spaces which do urban work, such as protecting the water supply, preventing floods by soaking up runoff or serving as detention basins, or providing safety zones for the path of aircraft; or spaces which help to shape the urban development pattern such as spaces between buildings or spaces of land reserved for future development. Often an open space will serve several functions at once. 24

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i. VEGETATION I PLANT'S AND THE URBAN ENVIRONNENT AFFEGr EACH OTHER BOTH POSITIVELY AND NEDATIVELY: THE CHALLENGE LIES IN FINDING TRADEOFF'S THAT BENEFIT BOTH. Vegetation is the element of nature man most often manipulates in the urban space. Many forms of vegetation are possible in urban areas, ranging from the highly controlled 'tree in a container' on an urban plaza to an undisturbed plant system adjacent to a stream. In planning the man-nature relationship in any of these situations, one must consider the tradeoffs plants and the urban environment. Let us begin with the question, what is the effect of plants on the urban environment? Joseph Shomon says that plants balance the carbon and hydrological cycles, purify air, deflect wind, reduce dust, control runoff, purify water, reduce noise, add to property value, enhance recreation, provide educational opportunity, and provide aesthetic benefit.26 Pitt, Soergell, and ,zube add to those benefits an improvement of urban soil conditions, increase in diversity and quantity of wildlife, and moderation of the extremes of urban microclimate.27 Plants are also used as a food source, to articulate space, to control pedestrian movement, to reduce glare, to provide privacy and to add seasonal interest. 2.5

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Possible negative effects of plants on the man-made environment are undesirable litter, increased propensity for fire, invasive roots breaking up sidewalks or water lines, damage from falling tree limbs, obstruction of vehicular vision, and shelter for 'muggers'. On the other side of the question, what is the effect of the urban environment on plants? Gill and Bonnett cite the following as factors: reduced light (due primarily to smog and dust), longer day (due to artificial light), longer growing season (due to elevated temperatures), reduced humidity, increased rainfall, acid rain, and increased frequency of rain.28 Sudia mentions changed water run-off and ground water patterns, artificial watering, introduction of exotic plants, fertilization of soils, and engineering and management factors.29 Other factors are soil compaction, use of herbicides and pesticides, reduced or increased wind, increased soil salts (due to fertilizing and watering practices), artificial 'microclimates', damage to plants by people and domestic animals, and mechanical damage to plants from lawnmowers and vehicles. These factors become positive or negative depending upon the individual situation and the degree of control man chooses to have in it. It is obvious that urbanization often changes the natural environment of vegetation. The challenge lies in finding mutual benefits for man and the plants. 26

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FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT PRDV IDE. t?N:K6 ROUND P....D D --rEJ<...TU R E. F'F-.0\/l DE-PR\\JAL'( Sketches adapted from Robinette, Plants, People and QualityJO ATI RA.CT WILD L-1 FE 27

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NATURAL SYSTEMS ALL NATURAL SYSTEMS ON THE EARTH TODAY ARE AFFECTED TO SOME DEGREE BY MAN; THE GOAL IS TO ACHIEVE STABILITY AND HENCE GREATER PRODUCTIVITY. "Man's effect on the world environment has been so great that virtually no pristine conditions exist today, not even in the depths of the sea or in the upper stratosphere."Jl If that is indeed the case, then striving to preserve a 'natural system' becomes a purely academic exercise. What we are really preserving is a system least affected by man and most like it would be if man had not influenced the earth. Phrases such as degree of intervention by man in the natural system and tolerance to change of the natural system when affected by man then become meaningful concepts in the ongoing man-nature dialogue. Nature is most productive when a stable ecosystem is achieved; thus the stable system is a common goal when man intervenes.J2 We know that natural ecosystems are most stable when there is great diversity, great variety, and great complexity, and when there is ecotypic interchangeability. Man can consciously work toward encouraging such systems. Ecological surveys can be 29

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conducted as a guide for all development; tolerance levels can be determined for food chains, vegetation, soils, currents, aquifers, animal populations, and land conformations; carrying capacities can be determined; intervention methods can be tested and results recorded; and systems with great diversity can be achieved, Then the benefits for man and the natural systems will be mutual. JO

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MAN

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HUMAN NEEDS MAN HAS PSYCHOI..CGICAL NEEDS FOR CONTACI' WITH NATURE, BOTH FOR INTROSPECTION AND FOR STRESS-RELIEVING ACI'IVE RECREATION. The director of the Delft Zuid project in Delft, Holland, said During the weekends many inhabitants of the cities migrate to the countryside, to the woods, the moors, and the dunes, and everyone is delighted to walk on small winding paths, to sit on a bank among high growing weeds, to pick flowers in the field, to play with sand in the dunes, and to run over hills. But at home everything is straight and tidy. Shouldn't we ask ourselves if it is possible to bring a piece of nature into the towns so that we can give the inhabitants some weekend fun during the week too?JJ On reading the above passage, several questions come to mind. Why do people delight in the countryside? Do we really want 'everything straight and tidy' at home? If nature were in the town, would we still want to go to the country? Man has innate longings for contact with nature. Ian McHarg says that man •,s longing for nature is a psychological memory of a biological ancestry.J4 Perhaps this is what Dr. Edward Stainbrook, psychiatrist, alludes to when.he comments, "Just to be in frequent perceptual contact with the reassuring, enduring earth is a psychological security factor of considerable importance."35 We want to be in touch with natural things. Jl

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Man is anchored by the timeless duration of nature; it becomes a permanent frame of reference in a constantly chang-ing world. The time frame of nature expands man's consciousness. The maintenance of a time and space background which reduces the moment of crisis to a manageable circumstance with which one can cope is, I think, one of the very important human contributions thaG is provided by contact with the natural environment.3 The natural environment may be sought as a 'drop-out space' or as a place for creative restoration and preparation for dealing with the highly complicated world. Ian McHarg compares the response of man to nature to that gained from works of art, saying it produces tranquility, calm, introspection, and openness to order, meaning and purpose.J? Nature appeals to our aesthetic sense in the same way that art does. It also may produce in man a state of repose, a kind of healing such as that espoused by John Muir: Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their while cares will drop off like autumn leaves,Jb Another psychological value of nature is that of relieving sensory overloads, Natural open spaces offer relief from the stress-producing visual and auditory impacts of high density urban living. According to Strong, Lawrence Frank comments We are beginning to realize that this urban crowding and enforced contacts with strangers, plus the continual sensory overloads, may have serious impacts upon the human personality. Man is well prepared to deal with sudden emergencies, to cope with physical 32

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threats and actual situations that release his energies for overt activities, but he is less well equipped to bear prolonged strain, to be unremittingly alert and vigilant, under sensory overloads, ••• we can say that city living and indoor working require outdoor recreation to provide needed release and compensation for the burdens of city living. People can probably develop 'what it takes' for city living and indoor working but the insistent question arises whether this is compatible with health and well-being and the maintenance of healthy personalities,39 Not only do we need natural open spaces as places for intra-spection, we need them for stress-relieving active recreation. As Michael Laurie points out (see quote, page 14), we need natural areas in the city so that more people may better understand the ecological process. This educational need is a basic one; what we understand, we appreciate more fully. Only through a complete understanding of the natural system and man's place in it can we fully enjoy the richness of our world and plan effectively for its future. Natural areas in cities will bring that richness to the greatest number of people. 33

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LATENT POTENTIALS THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM CAN BE A SELF-CONFIRMING ENVIRONMENT THAT WILL BRING OUT MAN'S LATENT POTENTIALS. Man is most creative when he is psychologically at peace, Dubas believes, in addition, that we draw strength from our own wildness: The experience of the quality of wildness in the wilderness helps us to recapture some of our own wildness and authenticity. Experiencing wildness in nature contributes to our self-discovery and 40 to the expression of our dormant potentialities, Man throughout history has been continually expanding his potentials. He, like other organisms, is most productive when he is partof a stable ecosystem. Thus we cannot really separate our discussions of nature and man. We must consider the two together, the urban ecosystem, to bring out the latent potentials in both man and nature. 34

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I Ill I I 111111'1''1"1'1"1"1"1" I I II II II 111111/ljlll\lllllllil/1 THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM/

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URBAN ECOLOGY URBAN ECOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY AND MAN IN HIS MAN-MADE ENVIRONMENT. ITS GOAL IS TO CREATE A TRUE SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN MAN AND NATURE, The term 'ecology' was coined in 1869. Derived from the Greek word 'oikos' which means home, ecology means the study of organisms in their homes. Today we use the term to mean the study of relationships between organisms and their . t 41 env1rorunen • Urban ecology, then, is the study of the relationship between man and his environment, that environment including both man-made elements and the biological community. With today's level of technology and knowledge, man can create cities that are well-balanced ecosystems. The biological community can serve as a model: In the same way that natural ecosystems with great diversity are stable, cities with great diversity are stable. In the same way that ecotypic interchangeability leads to diversity and stability, so it is that many competing entities produce greater economic stability in cities . . • • The ecosystem processes that operate in the community of man are the biological and physical ones that operate in natural ecosystems and which have essentially the same properties common to any natural ecosystem. In man's ecosystem, the biological processes are those that occur without the aid of man as well as those that are created by his technology .... Desirable communities are the result of ecological factors that prEmote the desirable or favorable balance or equilibrium, 2 35

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The desired goal of urban ecology is to create a true symbiosis between man and nature, that is, a biological relationship which alters somewhat the two components of the symbiotic system in a way that is beneficial to both. Such transformations, achieved through symbiosis, account in large part for the immense diversity of places on earth and for the fitness between man and environment so commonly observed in areas that have been settled and have remained stable 4Qr long periods of time. (Dubas, according to Simonds J) Achieving that sensitive 'fit' between man and environment requires knowledge of both natural and man-made processes. It requires trial and error, and flexibility to let both systems balance each other out over a period of time. This relationship is not static; it is in a constant state of change. When levels of use or abuse are exceeded, the ramifi-cations may extend far beyond the project site and affect the surrounding environments. However, man and nature are both tough and durable; they will always adjust and regenerate given the proper conditions in which to do so. Great cities result from just that kind of natural balance. Rene Dubas suggests that there is another ecological level beyond natural balance. He says that "the interplay between humankind and the earth has often generated ecosystems that, from many points of view, are more interesting and more creative than those occurring in the state of wilderness."44 There is the challenge for the future -to enrich the diversity of the natural world by human management!

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I II II I /\11111 "I' I I II II THE GENIUS LOCI

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THE GENIUS LOCI THE GENIUS LOCI IS THE PERSONALITY OF 'PLACE', COLORED BY ALL OF THE DIVERSE ELEMENTS THAT HAVE EVER TOUCHED IT. Per Friberg tells us that the term 'genius loci' derives from the two Latin words genius and locus, genius being the special perceptions of people, their attitudes and their ways of living, and locus encompassing all of the natural and geographical conditions of a site.4 5 This term suggests more than the balanced urban ecosystem. It implies a symbiosis of the ecological and the cultural, of the scientific and the aesthetic, a complete fusion of the natural and the human orders. The environment becomes 'place' when man and nature become one. The unique 'spirit of place' found in a truly great city is the result of a blending of many diverse elements, some tangible and some intangible. Lawrence Halprin expresses it this way: Each city in its landscape habitat establishes an ecological and cultural environment unique to itself -part natural, part manmade, artifact and archetypal. It develops over the years its own form, its own ambience, its own 'feel' -a kind of organic whole that is a synersy of many things: nature, the native landscape, its cultural past, its buildings, the open spaces within it, and the geometry of their formations. Within this 37

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organism the vitality and energy of the inhabitants give it life and color and involvement, make it come alive, invest it with themselves. Then it becomes their own; it is their experience, they identify with it, and the city becomes them, becomes the people! ... The great cities, it seems to me are those that develop these attributes of self-identification with their people. These cities are not necessarily beautiful in the classically accepted sense of 'beauty', but they are perceived as beautiful in the same inevitable sense that nature is perceived as beautiful. They emit a sense of rightness, a kind of urban charisma. They develop an almost human personality! Then people relate to them in a biological sense. The city no longer is only someplace where they live and work. 46 It becomes more; it takes on anthropomorphic attributes. MANY ANALYSES HAVE BEEN DONE CONCERNING THE GENIUS LOCI. THE INDIVIDUAL MUST PERCEIVE THE INTRINSIC QUALITY OF A PLACE BASED ON HIS OWN UNIQUE LIFE EXPERIENCES. Andrew Jackson Downing, in the mid-nineteenth century, was probably the first American landscape designer to study the natural qualities of the site as a preface to designing the landscape. His insistence on recognition of what he then called 'the genius loci' constitutes his major contribution to our understanding of the present state of the art.47 Since then, many others have tried to analyze 'sense of place'. Rene Dubos says that the reason we are so often desecrating nature is not because we use it to our own ends, but because we often manipulate it without respect for the spirit of place. He sees man as a force, along with climate, geology, and topography, which alters the surface and the atmosphere 38

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of the earth. Each place becomes an expression of the action of these forces, and the way for man to make successful interventions is to integrate his actions with the attendant forces of nature. It becomes imperative for man to continually reevaluate the interplay between his actions and the actions of nature so that the evolving environment is ecologically stable and mutually beneficial to both man and nature. Another concept purported by Dubas is that the sense of place is the perception of some facet of nature by the god within the human observer. He says that 'place' is a symbol not only of the visible, but of the intangible qualities . 48 perceived as a result of one's own unique life experlences. Myths created by painters, writers, and musicians contribute to this cultural view of the landscape. In this context, 'genius of place' symbolizes the living ecological relationship between a particular location and the persons who have derived from it and added to it the various aspects of their humanness. Kevin Lynch and Ian McHarg are more scientific in their analyses of what contributes to sense of place. Lynch, in his book, The Image of the City, dissects the city image into five elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes, and land-marks. He says these make up the generalized mental picture an individual has of the city. After numerous tests of having people draw diagrams of the city as they saw it, Lynch showed that the individual will proportionately emphasize whatever element he sees as dominant colored by his own life experiences. 39

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McHarg applies his 'ecological method' saying we must evaluate both the natural and the man-made components of the city using a value system based upon opportunities for human use. He calls this "an investigation of the given form (natural identity) and the made form of the created city."49 He finds that memorable cities have distinctive characteristics deriving from the site, from the creations of man, or from a combination of the two. If the site is beautiful, dramatic or rich, the city is successful when the site is preserved, exploited and enhanced. If the site is not outstanding, the city may succeed through excellence of its buildings and spaces. He concludes, Can one then state, as a proposition, that the basic character of the city derives from the site and that excellence attends those occasions when this intrinsic quality is recognized and enhanced? Can one state, further, that buildings, spaces and places, consonant with the site, add to the genius loci and constitute not only the addition of new resources, but are thus determinants of new form? If these propositions are true, then we can formulate both the objectives and the method. The former require that the genius of the site be discerned as composed of discrete elements, some derived from the natural identity, others from artifacts. These must be evaluated as components of identity, as working processes of value and as containing implications for new formal adaptations.50 Whatever the method of identifying elements contributing to the 'genius loci', it is imperative that the designer analyze both the natural and the cultural aspects of the city before he begins to impose a new order on things. Only in this way will the city become all it can become -"ecologically sound, aesthetically satisfying, economically rewarding, and favorable to the continued growth of civilization."5l 40

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IIIII II I I 111111111 1 \11 II I II Ill I I I II DESIGN PRINCIPLES

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DESIGNING WITH NATURE IN CITIES DESIGN WITH NATURE HUST BE FLUID AND RESPOND TO THE SIZE, COMPLEXITY, ACCESSIBILITY, CONTINUITY, TOPOGRAPHY AND EXISTING VECEI'ATION OF THE SITE. The designer, as he becomes more sensitive to natural factors, will become more an organizer of events and less an arranger of artifacts, and his design may accordingly take on the form of a flexible structure within which details may change with the fluidity of natural processes -a form responsive to ecological demands -rather than the fixed form typical of traditional design,52 Designing with nature cannot be static; it must be done within the continuum of ecological progression. The natural potential of any site can be maximized if design responds to these site factors: 1) Size and Complexity -the larger the area and the more complex its landscape, the more stable it is ecologically and the more capable it is of renewal. 2) Accessibility where public access is restricted either by regulation or by natural factors (such as terrain), there is greater potential for nature to flourish. Thus restricted access may compensate for limited area. 41

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3) Physical Continuity -adjacent open lands, adjoining tree canopies, and connecting waterways allow a free range of animals and the spread of plant communities, 4) Topography -topographical features, whether natural or man-made, influence soil, microclimate and vegetation patterns; they also affect accessibility and site development. 5) Existing vegetation -plants serve as a home for wildlife; biotic potential is greater if there is a balanced community. Plants are also useful in design as symbols of nature. 42

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DESIGN PRINCIPLES DESIGN PRINCIPLES MUST SATISFY BOTH NATURAL AND HUMAN NEEDS AND AID THE DESIGNER IN CREATING AN ECOLOGICALLY SOUND LANDSCAPE. Manning lists the following as sound principles: l) Exploit the full natural potential of the site, which is derived from the interaction of such factors as physical extent, accessibility and continuity, topography, aspect, climate, soil quality, water regime, the distribution of vegetation and foliage canopy levels, and wildlife. 2) Conserve or develop diversity of habitat, by the protection or manipulation of the above features of the site, paying special heed to the value of complex edge zones (ecotones). J) Encourage a full range of organic life, that is, an extensive range of species compatible with the site and with each other, representing all the categories of life from soil organisms upwards, and principally (but not necessarily entirely) native to the area. 4) Encourage the full cycle of growth from birth to decay, and with this a mixed-aged structure or 'mosaic' of elements at different stages of development. 5) Develop balanced self-sustaining communities capable of renewing themselves in the short term with a minimum of outside interference. 6) Control the system by management: of habitats, species and stages of growth in order to sustain an appropriate balance of elements into the future (for example, of open water against marginal growth, open grass against scrub), aiming at the lowest level of daily maintenance consistent with human uses of the landscape. 43

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7) Create maximum variety of opportunity for man and nature to coexist, in close proximity according to a spectrum of differing values, allowing site potential reinforced by management to influence the patterns of activity and the separation of conflicting interests, on even the smallest area of land. 8) Create a coherent landscape structure, derived from site potential, habitat diversity, and the separation of conflicting interests; perpetuated by management; capable of assimilating chance and variety without disorder; and providing a continuous sequence of aesthetic experiences through the interplay of landform, space and enclosure, light and shade, and all other sensory qualities of the landscape. 9) Design in four dimensions, accepting the need for continuous flexible design extending into the future. Forego the total control of tradition as the price 53 to be paid for the privilege of living with nature. 44

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SMALL SPACES LEFT-OVER SPACES ARE AN INI'EX:iRAL PART OF THE CITY'S ARCHITEai'URAL FABRIC AND CAN MAKE A VITAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENIUS LOCI. The designer must not get so carried away with the grand design that he overlooks the small spaces. Peter Shepheard, according to Fairbrother, commented One day I realized that the whole of a landscape architect's raw material -when the city architect and city engineer and traffic manager have done their stuff -is nothing but Sloip (space left over in planning). Actually I wasn't regretting it, just saying that, in a city, architecture is the poetry of odds and Left-over spaces can indeed be the key to the genius loci, William Whyte says we must concentrate on these small spaces, the irregular bits and pieces, and especially those that we can connect together. "There are an amazing number of connective links right under our noses if we will only look for them -old aqueducts, abandoned canals, railroad rights of way, former streams the engineers have put in concrete troughs."55 Those derelict areas can be transformed into meaningful places which contribute to the sense of place people experience as they pass them daily. 45

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Sloip, by its nature, is already an integral part of the city's architectural fabric and a part of the urban experience. Vegetation in the sloip can add qualities the structures don't have, for example, movement in the wind and intricate shadows. Nan Fairbrother put it aptly when she said, "Vegetation in towns should be fitted in -almost never made room for. The best urban planting is often crammed in as an extra; it is 'as well as', not 'instead of'. It decorates the city scene without destroying the city character ... 5 6 46

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EDGES EmES ARE A MAJOR ELENENT OF THE CITY H1AGE. LINEAR OPEN SPACES PRESENT MAXIMill'l EmE, HENCE THEY PROVIDE MAXIMU1'1 VISUAL IHPACT AND MAXIMUM PHYSICAL ACCESS, Another important and sometimes overlooked design opportunity lies in the 'edges', Lynch considers edges to be one of the five major elements of the city image,57 That being the case, edges deserve special design consideration. Open space does most of its work along the edges. The edge is the place people see the most and the part of an open area they most often use for recreation, Much as a city park seems bigger when it is enclosed on all sides by buildings, woods or meadows delight our eye most when they provide a contrast to adjoining roads and buildings. Along the edges is where the separation function is largely achieved. Developers are keenly aware of this and whenever possible get a tract bounded by a protected open space. It is good, of course, if there is much more open land beyond. Edges should not be mere facades. If you find out that what seems to be the edge of a woodland is only a line of trees, at once the beginning and the end, and that just on the other side lies a freightyard, you never have quite the same feeling about it again. An edge is most entrancing when you sense a depth beyond and that it will be well worth exploring one of these days,5C3 It follows that, per acre, linear strips are the most effective form of open space -they will give maximum visual impact, maximum physical access, and maximum edge,

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Some specific design treatments for edges include 'scalloping' the edges of urban woodlands to provide niches for wildlife and planting 'barrier species' along the edges of paths to keep pedestrians from straying,59 48

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PLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE AN INTEGRAL PART OF ANY DESIGN APPROACH SHOULD BE PLANNING FOR MAINTENANCE. Traditional maintenance strives to maintain the status quo. Ecologically based maintenance is really manage-ment. The goal is to ensure that the growing landscape will reflect both the original design and the present or future demands of man and of nature. Ecological design is not static; thus management of it must be fluid as well. Gill and Bonnett advocate the following as good management policies: 1) Retention and creation of biological corridors should be given priority in all development plans to maintain the viability of all open spaces as wildlife habitat. 2) Decaying vegetation and animal matter should be retained in situ. J) Rejuvenation of some habitats on a periodic basis should be accomplished by small-scale disturbance over limited areas, such as the clearance of openings in woodland, thinning of shrub, removal of emergent vegetation around small ponds, and the cutting of grassland every three years. 4) Seasonal operations should be organized to cause minimum disturbance to wildlife activities; i.e. concentration of activity should be in late autumn and early spring. Where possible manual rather than mechanical techniques should be used. 49

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5) The use of chemicals should be abandoned in favor of other forms of vegetation manipulation. Fenced enclosures should be established to encourage reestablishment of plants rather than relying upon the use of fertilizers. 6) Sanctuary zones for wildlife should be established which can then function as reservoirs for the remainder of the greenspace network. 7) The high biological value and protective function of wetlands such as bogs and marshes should be recognized. These areas should be protected from garbage dumping and from drainage schemes or other forms of detrimental activity. 8) Acceptable modes of people management should be developed to create a general awareness of the ecosystem and its functioning. Damage should be minimized by restricting use to a level below the ecological carrying capacity. 9) The rotation technique should be adopted as a major protective tool in all areas subjected to intensive human use. For example, different portions of a parkland should be periodically fenced to exclude people and allow recovery of vegetation. Alternative walking trails should be provided to maintain each one within its ecglogical carrying capacity by periodic closure.60 50

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SYMBOLIC DESIGN SYMBOLIC DESIGN CAN BRING NATURE TO THE MOST HIGHLY URBANIZED PLACES, The design and management techniques so far mentioned largely concern natural areas controlled by man with the goal of having them appear as 'natural' as possible. What about the highly controlled designs -the 'symbolic' expressions of nature which we see in our cities? Symbolic design in Japan, for example, has reached a high degree of skill and sensitivity to natural qualities. McHarg eloquently describes for us what such design can evoke for a pedestrian escaping the heat and glare of a city street: We stood on a narrow terrace beside the pool, savouring the silence, then discovering below it the small noises of the trickling fountain, drips and splashes, the rustle of the delicate aralia leaves, seeing the reticulated patterns in the pool, the dappled light. Here were these self-same precious things, but consciously selected and arrayed, sun and shade, trees and water, the small sounds under silence. What enormous power 61 was exerted by these few elements in this tiny space. There is surely a valid place for symbolic design in our cities, It can be a vehicle for bringing the essence of nature to those highly-urbanized places where the total natural 51

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ecosystem cannot flourish. It can be an oasis in the 'urban desert': Here is an echo of something very old indeed: the cool, green garden enclosed from the wilderness, come down to us through many transformations with its ancient name of 'paradise' and still undiminished in evocative power. It has an even sharper relevance for us now, expressing the natural basis of life amidst the not of the desert but of man's own urban world. We have traced much history and philosophy since our discussion of the enclosed medieval garden; we find an expansion, and yet a sameness. Man is still the inventor, the innovator, the contemplator, and nature is still the seasons, the green, the rushing water, the freshness, the relief for man in his busy world. Man is • and nature is , , , and the two are becoming as one. 52

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I I I II I I II I ! I 1111111111111111111111111111 I Ill! HYPOTHESIS

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HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS: DISCUSSION: NATURAL AREAS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE CITY WILL REFLECT AND ENHANCE THE 'GENIUS LOCI' IF ECOLOGICALLY AND CULTURALLY SOUND DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND/OR MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ARE APPLIED, Research has indicated that the genius loci of a city results from the fusion of man and nature into a continuum where each is constantly shaping the other and simultaneously creating a new whole. With the passage of time, a richness develops in cities where this process is working well. Front Range cities are young and growing; it is a propitious time for a designer to understand the genius loci and to bring all of the natural and cultural forces of the city into a creative working relationship. The hypothesis tests whether urban natural areas that are designed and/or managed with ecologically and culturally sound techniques will improve the genius loci. It presents an opportunity to investigate what these methods are and how they can be used effectively, 53

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II I Ill I Ill I I I I lllllilllllllllllllllllllllll I I II ISSUES

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ISS,.,.ES THE lSSUES BE RESOLVED IN THE CONTEXT OF BOTH THE RESE1ARCH FINDINGS AND OF THE GENIUS LOCI OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE CITY. The chosen hypothesis raises a number of issues. In seeking resolution of these issues, it is first necessary to apply the research findings to the present time and place. Each question must be studied in the context of that particular man-nature relationship which exists in the urban environment of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in the 1980's. Since the urban population is increasing very rapidly in this area at the present time, it becomes necessary to not only assess the present situation, but to attempt to project the future needs of man and nature. Following the identification of local man-nature needs, a methodology must be found to implement meeting those needs. In the pages that follow, each issue is stated as a series of questions. A short discussion follows, based upon the information so far uncovered. Further answers will come in pursuing the case study. 55

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ISSUE: WHAT IS THE 'GENIUS LOCI' OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY? What are the components of the front range urban ecosystem? What is the human tradition on the front range? Are the two compatible? What elements of the genius loci are common to all front range cities? (regional base) What elements vary with the individual city? (local base) Does size of city affect the front range urban genius loci? Is the genius loci of the front range city changing as a result of the phenomenal growth of the past decade? DISCUSSION: The genius loci is a living, growing thing; it is constantly changing. The land forms remain constant; the actions and interactions of man and nature upon the land are in a constant state of creation and recreation. Undoubtedly there is much creative activity and much unproductive activity in front range cities as they meet the current pressures of population growth; the genius loci is in a state of change. The genius loci of the front range city combines the feeling of openness of the high plains with the feeling of protection and enclosure provided by the mountains. The mountains constitute a visual, cultural, and climatic edge; all front range cities share this common backdrop to the west.

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The openness of the high plains contrasts dramatically with the enclosure of the eastern woodlands, the typical setting from which front range settlers came. Man has over the years combined his longing for the security of the woodlands with his appreciation of the wide open spaces of the west; thus we have man-created woodlands on the high plains and we have a perpetual romance with the big blue sky. This is an example of the man-nature dialogue which produces the front range genius loci. Another factor contributing to the unique man-nature relationship on the front range is the matter of space definition. In England and the American east, unmaintained land reverts to woodland and space is lost by the overgrowth of mass.6 3 On the prairie, reversion to the natural state causes space definition to be lost due to the lack of mass. In other words, in the east, man carves open spaces from the woodlands; on the prairie, he creates spaces on a 'void'. Land forms dominate on the front range. The overall picture is a large one -a palette of sky, mountain, and prairie. We see the large and assume it; we need to be encouraged to see the small. The complexity of the small against the backdrop of the large is the essence of 'place' on the front range. 57

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ISSUE: WHAT IS NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? What are acceptable ranges of 'naturalness' for natural areas in the front range city? (must take the genius loci into consideration) Does the degree of naturalness affect what is appropriate design for the area? What are important functions of natural areas in front range cities? How do these functions affect the design? What natural ecosystems are present in the front range area and how tolerant are they to change? Does man select from nature only those elements which he finds agreeable? Is nature in the front range city related to the wild and untamed natural features of the west which were first admired by the 19th century naturalists of America? DISCUSSION: Fairbrother suggests three fundamental landscape types: 1) Landscapes derived from the natural habitat of the region; 2) Landscapes produced by man's alteration of the natural habitat for his own uses, generally without concern for the 'scenery' as such. An example of this type is agricultural land. 3) Landscape which has been deliberately designed for pleasure, such as parks, gardens, and 'amenity landscape•.64 Perhaps these three categories typify an appropriate range of naturalness se

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anQ also encompass the basic functions of natural areas for front range cities. The degree of naturalness must be in keeping with the function and permit as much ecological progression as is possible to take place. There are many exotic plants that have been introduced to the front range area that have now 'naturalized' and become an integral part of front range ecosystems. In the purest sense, they are not 'natural', but they are contributing to ecological stability and hence should be encouraged to enrich the front range urban environment. The front range area is an arid land. Much of the landscape traQition brought to it is not well adapted to ariQity. Water is now available through the ingenuity of man, but the growing population is pressuring the water supply as never before. The front range city must define for itself an appropriate landscape tradition based upon natural aridity so that the urban ecosystem can find balance. 59

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ISSUE: WHAT ARE THE HUMAN NEEDS FOR NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? Do the human needs for nature differ from those in cities in other parts of the country? What values and conflicts result from the presence of nature in the front range city? DISCUSSION: There are two primary factors which respond to human needs for nature in the front range city: the nature of the city itself and the easy accessibility to nature outside of the city. The front range urban area differs from many cities in that it has a lower density. For many years there has been a seemingly limitless supply of land at the perimeter, and so the city has spread laterally rather than concentrate. Thus there is sufficient open space within the city for a variety of natural areas. However, in most cities, these have not been developed and managed to their fullest potentials. One of the reasons for this lack of development may be that there are abundant public natural areas (for example, regional, state, and national parks and forests) in close proximity to all front range cities, and the highway system makes them easily accessible. The population is made up of a large number of 'outdoorsy' types who make regular use of these natural areas. 60

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One concludes that many typical front range urban I look to two places for nature -the large suburban yard and outings outside the city. There are also many i dwellers who do not have a suburban back yard or the to seek nature outside of the city. For both I grqups, the quality of life within the city can be enriched I by the natural areas that are already there. 61

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ISSUE: WHAT ARE APPROPRIATE DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR NATURAL AREAS IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY? DISCUSSION: Design must be appropriate for the chosen function and degree of naturalness. Tolerances to change must be considered when designing; ecological balance is always a goal. "The ideal of landscape design is .•. that it makes us experience more vividly the natural scenery of the region we are in to express the genius loci."6 5 If we accept that as a goal, in the front range city we must design to magnify the setting of prairie, mountains, and sky. That setting demands consideration of scale. The land forms of the front range are large; elements of design must be large also. If the given space is small, it will be better to use few large elements rather than many small ones. Continuity of open lands is important in any city; it is especially critical in the arid environment of the front range city. Plant and animal communities need adjacent open lands to have free range to flourish. Front range soils are fine and thin and easily eroded; natural vegetation is sparse and does not easily stop the harsh actions of wind and water. Therefore, great care must be taken in designing to prevent erosion. 62

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There is much 'sloip' in the spread-out front range city. It has great potential to become meaningful natural 'place'. The designer must work with, not overlook, the sloip. The 'edge' of the mountains is especially significant because the prairie has few edges. The view of the mountains is a psychological anchor for residents of the front range city. It says 'home' and 'place' to them; it should be preserved and enhanced whenever possible. should be integral to all design. The design must provide a flexible structure within which natural processes may take place. Management must be planned to encourage those processes.

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ISSUE: WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF NATURE IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE TO THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS OF THE FRONT RANGE CITY? DISCUSSION: The front range city is one of the most rapidly expanding urban areas in the United States today. It presents infinite opportunities for developing innovative answers to the man-nature question. The landscape architect can be in the forefront of that quest. Nature in the urban landscape is the realm of many professionals -the designer, the city planner, the architect, the engineer, the hydrologist, the ecologist, the horticulturist. Since the profession of landscape architecture touches all of these areas, the landscape architect is a logical choice to serve as a facilitator and mediator in bringing together the efforts of these many disciplines as they strive to improve the man-nature relationship on the front range. 64

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111111 II II I II II 11\11 II I I I I II\" lllllllllllillllljlllllllllilll SYNOPSIS

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I NTRO DUCT ION THE EUROPEAN LANDSCAPE TRADITION NATURE IN THE AMERICAN CITY NATURE IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY NATURE This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between nature and the man-made urban environment, a study in urban ecology. f1an dominated nature in the European landscape for the purposes of psychological comfort, aesthetic amenity, scientific research, and artistic effect. The romantic garden stressed the aesthetic and intellectual appreciation of nature and began to recognize the right of other species to survive in their own habitat. From the seventeenth century onward, nature gained importance in urban landscapes for aesthetics, entertainment, education, and recreation. Trees were used to unify and frame views and to define edges. As in Europe, it was a man-dominated nature that began the American landscape tradition. Botanic gardens were established in the new world as centers of scientific research and education. America began to define nature for herself with the coming of the romantic movement. Wilderness was idealized and the concept of preserving truly natural landscapes was born. Cemeteries, suburbs, and large city parks using informal and curvilinear forms were laid out in the romantic style to imitate pieces of natural scenery. The public parks were accessible to all elements of society. The design of twentieth century American urban open spaces has followed changing life styles. Natural areas now play a part in the ecological relationships of the city. Nature in the American city must be appropriate for the local area, considering lifestyles and ecosystems (man and nature). The history of nature in the Rocky Mountain Front Range City brings together the landscape traditions of Europe, of the colonial United States and of the American West. The contemporary Front Range City searches for a viable man-nature philosophy which will accommodate its ever-increasing growth. Open space serves multiple functions: it is used for recreation and for circulation, it is viewed from a variety of vantage points, and it gives feelings of privacy, spaciousness and scale. Plants and the urban environment affect each other both positively and negatively: the challenge lies in finding tradeoffs that benefit both. All natural systems on the earth today are affected to some degree by man; the goal is to achieve stability and hence greater productivity.

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MAN THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM THE GENIUS LOCI Man has psychological needs for contact with nature, both for introspection and for stress-relieving active recreation. The urban ecosystem can be a self-confirming environment that will bring out man's latent potentials. Urban ecology is the study of the relationship between the biological community and man in his man-made environment. Its goal is to create a true symbiosis between man and nature. The genius loci is the personality of 'place', colored by all of the diverse elements that have ever touched it. r.iany analyses have been done concerning the genius loci. The individual must perceive the intrinsic of a place based on his own life experiences. DESIGN PRINCIPLES Design with nature must be fluid and respond to the size, complexity, accessibility, continuity, topography and existing vegetation of the site. Design principles must satisfy both natural and human needs and aid the designer in creating an ecologically sound landscape. Left-over spaces are an integral part of the city's architectural fabric and can make a vital contribution to the genius loci. Edges are a major element of the city image. Linear open spaces present maximum edge, hence they provide maximum visual impact and maximum physical access. HYPOTHESIS ISSUES An integral part of any design approach should be planning for maintenance. Symbolic design can bring nature to the most highly urbanized places. Natural areas in the Rocky Mountain Front Range City will reflect and enhance the genius loci if ecologically and culturally sound design principles and/or management are applied. The issues must be resolved in the context of both the research findings and of the genius loci of the Rocky Hountain Range City, 67

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A CASE STUDY

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II II II I I I I II 111 II J i" ll/11111111/lliilllllllli/11!11 I . 111111 RATIONALE

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DESCRIPTION OF STUDY THE CHOSEN CASE STUDY IS RED WING SANCTUARY, AN URBAN JVlARSH OWNED BY THE AIKEN AUDUBON SOCIETY, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO. Red Wing Sanctuary is an 18-acre piece of undeveloped land recently acquired by the Aiken Audubon Society of Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is a marshy area which has two streams running through it and a variety of flora and fauna typical of prairie marsh ecosystems. The study site is located at the southwest corner of Pikes Peak Avenue and Academy Boulevard. Land on all four sides is urbanized; the site is indeed an 'oasis in the urban desert'. The Aiken Audubon Society is currently in the early stages of developing a policy and program for the marsh. They would like to preserve it as naturally as possible while at the same time opening it to the public for education and enjoyment. The thesis study will encompass inventorying and analyzing the marsh and its environs and formulating a conceptual site plan for its optimum development. Throughout the process there will be ample opportunity to explore the identified issues of the research findings.

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AERIAL VIEW OF SITE FROM SOUTHWEST Photograph by Colone1 Phillip Weinert 1 U.S. Army Corps of 71

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JUSTIFICATION RED WING SANCTUARY IS UNIQUELY SUITED AS A CASE STUDY TO EXPLORE THE CHOSEN HYPOTHESIS. This case study is uniquely suited to explore the chosen hypothesis because: 1) It is a relatively 'untouched' piece of land lying well within an urban area of the Rocky Mountain Front Range. 2) The goal for this piece of land is both to preserve nature in the city and to permit man to enjoy it. This affords a true exploration of the 'genius loci' relative to this piece of land and allows opportunity to develop and test design processes which will promote the integration of man and nature. J) The marsh ecosystem is an especially sensitive one; it follows that if the hypothesis can be proven for this area, it should hold true for other natural systems in the front range city as well. The case study relates well to the program focus of the University of Colorado Department of Landscape Architecture: "Arid Region landscape Architecture for Urban and Community 73

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Settlement" because: 1) It is located in an arid region. 2) It is a project which exercises the many disciplines intrinsic to the profession of landscape architecture. J) It concerns an urban community. Study and subsequent preparation of a site design for the Red Wing Sanctuary using the researched design process will promote better understanding of the man-nature relationship. The goal will be to produce a design and management plan that is ecologically and culturally sound and that will hence reflect and enhance the genius loci. 74

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I Ill II I I I I ,[1 II I I I (1. I l''''l'i''l"l''l"l''l'l" II '\ PROCEDURE

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STUDY OUTLINE THE STUDY WILL BE CONDUGI'ED AS SHOWN IN THE PROCESS DIAGRAM ON PAGE 7 9. MATERIAL IS PRESENTED AS FOLLOWS: CULTURAL SYSTEM PHYSICAL SYSTEM l. Regional Context a. El Paso County b. City of Colorado Springs 2. Local Context a. Adjacent Land Use b. Open Space c. Vehicular Circulation J, Site-Specific Context a. Easements and Access SOCIAL SYSTEM l. Regional Context 2. Local Context J. Site-Specific Context a. History b. Policy/Program NATURAL SYSTEM ABIOTIC SYSTEM l. Regional Context a. Land Forms/Topography b. Climate c. Geology /Soils d. Hydrology e. Fountain/Monument Sub-Basin 2. Local Context a. Spring Creek Drainage Basin J. Site-Specific Context a. Location of Study Site b. Land Forms/Topography c. Water Quality d. Water Movement e. Soils 75

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BIOTIC SYSTEM 1. Regional Context a. Wildlife b. Vegetation c. Biotic Zones d. Ecosystems of the Pikes Peak Region 2. Local Context a. Vegetation b. Wildlife J, Site-Specific 8ontext a. Vegetation b. Wildlife THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS l. Regional Context 2. Local Context J, Site-Specific Context a. What happens to nature? b. What happens to man? VALUE OF SITE TO REGION VALUE OF SITE TO LOCAL AREA ROLE OF SITE IN URBAN ECOSYSTEM l. Urban Ecosystem Analysis 2. Site Functions a. Primary b. Secondary 3. Performance Standards SITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM 1. Edges 2. Landscape Units J, Site Features 4. The Future PHILOSOPHY OF USE TAffiETED USERS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES DESIGN ELEMENTS RELATIONSHIP TO HYPOTHESIS 76

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PROBtEM SOLUTION ! ALTERNATIVE EXPlORATION 1. Concepts a. Concept Descriptions b. Concept l -Countryside Conservation c. Concept 2 -Educational Enhancement d. Concept 3 -Pedestrian Pathways 2. Concept Evaluation a. Advantages-Disadvantages b. Goal Comparison CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SOLUTION l. Concept Plan 2. Concept Sketches a. Nature center/parking b. Study benches c. Signage d. Stairs and bridges area e. Trail to riverbank viewpoint f. Trail through willows g. Trail to mound viewpoint h. Bog boardwalk i. Ridge trail along bog j. New plant communities J, Cost Estimate TEST OF HYPOTHESIS 77

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--------------------------------""'TBT + OF US: "'ThRG.a E.TE D U S"ER-5 GOAl-? Ar-4P OeJE.CnVS:'S --t I l ) SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION ANALYSIS PROGRAMMING PROBLEM SOLVING --------------CASE STUDY PROCESS DIAGRAM 79

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STUDY DETAILS CLIENT: CONSULT ANTS : DIRECT EXPENSFS: (SEPTEMBER-MAY) Aiken Audubon Society Charles Campbell, Marsh Committee Chairman Daniel Young, Director of Landscape Architecture University of Colorado at Denver Colonel Phillip Weinert, Area Engineer U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rocky Mountain Area Dr. Gregory McArthur, Systems Plant Ecologist Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado Dr. E. A. Howard, Ecologist Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado Dr. Richard Beidleman, Ecologist Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado James O'Shea, Landscape Architect National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region Lennon Hooper, Trails Coordinator National Park Service, Denver Service Center 8 trips to Colorado Springs (1579 miles @ 20/mile) Motel in Colorado Springs (1 night) l trip to Barr Lake (66 miles@ 20/mile) Phone calls Photographs Books Maps Graphic supplies, typing supplies Photocopies (working copies & draft) Miscellaneous (postage, parking, etc.) Printing of document (11 copies @ $18 each) 81 $Jl6 J2 lJ .54 96 24 9 71 8J 10 198 $906

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CULTURAL SYSTEM

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PHYSICAL SYSTEM REGIONAL CONTEXT OF PHYSICAL SYSTEM The study site is located in the State of Colorado, in the western portion of El Paso County, within the city limits of Colorado Springs. STATE OF COLORADO CHEYENNE WELLS (Hap from USDA-SCS, Soil Survey of El Paso County Area) 83

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El Paso County Although the study property is privately owned, the logical context in which to examine it is that of open space and park lands. The park lands in El Paso County fall under federal, state, county, and municipal jurisdictions (see opposite map -Park Lands). The majority of the park lands under all jurisdictions in El Paso County lie in the western third of the county, the area shown on the map. They vary in size, type, and function and are located at every altitude and in every vegetational zone of the county, Few are contiguous, that is, part of linked open space. There are only two marsh areas in the park lands of El Paso County. One is the Fountain Marsh owned by the City of Fountain, and the other is Tejon Marsh, an El Paso County property located on Fountain Creek at Tejon Street in the City of Colorado Springs. Both are riparian flood plains. (Park Lands Map from Sourcebook, El Paso County, Colorado, El Paso County Land Use Department, 1980) 84

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miles PARK LANDS A FEDERAL 8 STATE C-J MUNICIPAL K COUNTY c1 .. ..... J: . J. ,-f-. .. . . \.. I ,\., ... _,_.J'_-.. -. ' I, r-F-----.. ..... , .EI ., .. ' .... -_'-=''; ' !: ,.;/ • .:r-c • ' -4. if .. r' --l-t-,. / l(f5'/'.....' I .. ,. ;.......... \, . ' '.. I "' J: •. I" '-:-.:;. ' .. -'-., -, .:. ..:.:.-:-.. ' "'---.... ----. .. / rf'. , I I _, \ ' ' \ I 1 I I . ! : -/I '/ -,...._.-. ./. ., of Fountair CITY OF COLORADO SPRINGS WESTERN EL PASO COUNT -=o-; -o,-

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City of Colorado Springs Looking more closely at park areas in the City of Colorado Springs (see map Colorado Springs), one again sees parks of varying size and type. The study site is indicated by the asterisk. It lies approximately J.5 miles directly east of the central business district. The square area hatched in gray is identified as a study It is bounded on the north by Highway 24 (Platte Avenue) and on the south by the Valley Hi Golf Course. Areas to the east and west are residential, The following physical systems in the local study area will be described: Adjacent Land Use Open Space Vehicular Circulation (Colorado Springs Map from Park System Map, Colorado Springs Park and Recreation Department, 1981) 86

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OLORADO 3 CENTRAL BUS. DIST. INTERSTATE HWY. 25 PARK LOCAL STUDY AREA * SITE I ''• l-?I miles h I 0 1;2 1 2

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LOCAL CONTEXT OF PHYSICAL SYSTEM Adjacent Land Use Land use in the local study area ranges from open space to industrial (see opposite map -Adjacent Land Use). Areas adjacent to the two busiest arterial streets (Platte Avenue and Academy Boulevard) are primarily commercial. The largest land use in the local study area is residential -single family, multiple family and planned unit developments. There are three schools in the area -a junior high school and two elementary schools. The study site is within walking distance of all three schools. The symbol <:) indicates land that has not yet been developed. Current zoning for this land is indicated; however, zoning could be changed before development occurs. Since much of the undeveloped land in the local area lies adjacent to the study site, the context of adjacent land use could change dramatically upon completion of development. (Zoning Information from Zoning Map, Sheet 4?, City Planning Department, City of Colorado Springs, revised January, 1982) 88

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ADJACENT LAND USE D OPEN SPACE SINGLE-FAMILY MULTIPLEFAMILY PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIAL Q UNDEVELOPED • SCHOOL 0 500 1000 * SATELLITE HOTEL (12 stories) JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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Land use immediately adjacent to the site is largely commercial. The strip of land north of the and adjoining Pikes Peak Avenue has recently been platted into nine commercial lots which will be used for a C-6 General Business Zone. The City of Colorado Springs Zoning Ordinance (Section 14-J-1601) states, "The C-6 General Business Zone provides for general commercial uses that are typically high volume traffic generators and are generally dependent on more than the immediate neighborhood for their market area," These uses include auto and trailer sales, bottling works, repair garage, glass fabrication, home improvement center with outdoor storage allowed, metal fabrication and warehousing as well as traditional office and retail use. There are no development plan, setback, or lot coverage requirements. The land on the north side of Pikes Peak Avenue is also undeveloped. At present it is rural in feeling, having only two residences and some farm buildings on open land. Land to the west is currently zoned for single family homes, but it is expected that the owner will ask for a zoning change to commercial use, and the City Planning Department has indicated that it will in all likelihood be approved. (noted in conversation with planners Debra Little and Robert Gleissner, January 26, 198.3) Beyond the undeveloped tract to the west of the study site is a strip of multiple family housing. The one to three 90

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story apartment houses are situated on a bluff overlooking the and at present enjoy a pleasant view of the natural area. To the south of the site there are two parcels of land separated by a designated green belt. The parcel to the west is undeveloped and zoned for future offices. The other parcel is developed adjacent to the site. Development consists of four large one-story buildings surrounded by asphalt drives and parking lots. Businesses are Homer's Odyssey (3.2 beer), Ardells, Wood Designs Fine Furniture, and Beneficial Loans. Academy Boulevard borders the study site on the east. Fronting Academy Boulevard and overlooking the site are two zones -a planned business center and multiple family housing. The PBC is the Knickerbocker Subdivision consisting of one and two story buildings housing a convenience store, ice cream store, dry cleaners, liquor store, quick-print shop, and second floor offices. The multiple family housing is a series of three story apartment buildings called Mountain Country Estates. There is a fine view of the marsh, Pikes Peak, and the front range from the apartments. 91

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Open Space At present, the study site is an integral part of large contiguous open spaces. When all of the adjacent land developments are completed, the open space will be as shown on the accompanying map (see mapOpen Space). The Audubon Sanctuary lies between a city park and a city golf course with drainage easements linking the larger units. There are several other neighborhood and school park properties in the local area as well as a cemetery (Colorado Memorial Gardens) which serves an open space function. The open spaces shown on the map present examples of several types of urban ecosystems (see matrix, page 147). These range from ornamental parks to 'sloip' (space left over in planning) and they perform the many roles and functions listed in the matrix. There are also residential gardens and commercial plazas in the study area; thus all types of urban ecosystems are represented. 92

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OPEN SPACE CITY PARK CITY GOLF COURSE ill! CEMETERY AUDUBON SANCTUARY 93 0 500 1000 IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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Vehicular Circulation The local study area is traversed by major arterials in both north-south and east-west directions. Three of these arterials are highways (Colorado State Highways 29 and 83 and United States Highway 24) which connect Colorado Springs with points beyond. Pikes Peak Avenue runs between the central business district and the airport. On the portion of Highway 83 (Academy Boulevard) which passes the study site, adjusted daily traffic counts run 29,500 cars/day. South of Airport Road and north of Pikes Peak Avenue, traffic counts on Academy Boulevard reach 34,300/day. The adjusted traffic counts on Pikes Peak Avenue near the site run 7,150/day. When the proposed developments in the area are completed, all of the above traffic counts are projected to rise. Speed limits are 45 mph on Academy Boulevard and 30 mph on Pikes Peak Avenue. 94

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valley hi golf course colorado memorial aardei'11SJ TO FORT CARSON VEHICULAR CIRCULATION 95 0 500 1000 JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER c 1c 1-1-a:: c c. a: <( c 1-

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SITE-SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF PHYSICAL SYSTEH Easements and Access Easements on the site property include those for utilities, and highways, A drainage easement extends across the site in a V-shape to accommodate the two streams which move across the site from north to south. Since the land is unplatted, the drainage easement is also not platted and is shown on the map in an approximate position. The easement is 50 feet wide, and it is the responsibility of the property owner to keep the channel free of obstructions and maintained, A utility easement runs across the east ten feet of the access road right-of-way north of the site and across the channel at an angle to a point west of the property. Recently a sewer line has been placed in this utility easement. It is suspended from a bridge over the channel; the remainder of the sewer line lies underground, There is an easement allowed at the southeast corner of the property for a right-hand turn lane off Academy Boulevard. Legal vehicular access to the property is via an access road right-of-way from the north off Pikes Peak Avenue. Because of the heavy volume of traffic on Academy Boulevard, no curb cuts will be permitted from the east. There is a possibility of future vehicular access from the west when adjacent land is developed. 96

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EASEMENTS AND ACCESS I T < I DRAINAGE EASEMENT lapprox.J -UTILITY EASEMENT • • -SANITARY SEWER LINE & BRIDGE • 4 ill1llilJ HIGHWAY EASEMENT FOR TURNING LANE LEGAL VE.HICULAR ACCESS _...,.) POSSIBLE FUTURE VEHICULAR ACCESS 97 0 50 100 150 200 IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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SOCIAL SYSTEM RECIONAL CONTEXT OF SOCIAL SYSTEM As has been pointed out in the physical systems section of this study, the residents of the Colorado Springs area have access to a variety of park lands. These various parks meet human needs for recreation, education, socialization, relaxation, and aesthetic amenity (see Human Needs, page Jl). Since the area population is expected to double in the next twenty years,66 there will be increasing impact on the park lands that presently exist and demands for additional facilities. The Red Wing Sanctuary will meet a part of this total regional need for park land. A primary role of the Red Wing Sanctuary, as projected by the Aiken Audubon Society, is that of environmental education. Regional educational institutions include public school districts, private schools, and several colleges, Colorado College, Pikes Peak Community College, Regis College, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, United States Air Force Academy, and Nazarene Bible College. In the Colorado Springs area there are also numerous environmentally oriented groups such as the Sierra Club and the Nature Conservancy. Thus there is potential for the educa-tional function of the Red Wing Sanctuary to serve formal school classes at all levels, informal educational groups, and interested individuals, in addition to the Aiken Audubon Society membership. 98

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LOCAL CONTEXT OF SOCIAL SYSTEH The local study area, as defined in the physical systems section of this study, is primarily a residential neighborhood. There are two elementary schools and a junior high school in the area. The educational function of the Red Wing Sanctuary could easily serve classes from these schools, as well as the needs of interested individuals in the neighborhood. When development plans for the local area are completed, the Red Wing Sanctuary will be the only piece of land which remains 'natural'. Since it is highly visible, both to drivers on Academy Boulevard, and to apartment dwellers in surrounding properties, it is of high aesthetic value. In addition to exposing itself as a remnant of the area's natural past, it sets a foreground for views of Pikes Peak and the Front Range, the domUBnt land forms of the area. As a result, residents of the neighborhood are reminded of the natural context in which they live. The site becomes an answer to the local resident's psychological need for contact with nature (see Human Needs, page Jl). The site may also answer human needs for more intimate contact with nature. Neighborhood residents may visit the site to enjoy the flora and the fauna, or simply to retreat from the urban environment and its sensory overloads and to seek the repose of nature. 99

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SITE-SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF SOCIAL SYSTEM History In 1979, Colonel Phillip Weinert, area engineer for the Rocky fvlountain Area, U, S, Army Corps of Engineers, decided that urban development had gone far enough. His office at the time overlooked a marshy area at the corner of Pikes Peak Avenue and Academy Boulevard in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Certain that there must be a way to save the marsh as urbanization rapidly overtook the area, Weinert contacted the property owner. Negotiations ensued, and in May, 1982, eighteen acres of the marsh were given as an anonymous gift to the Aiken Audubon Society for a wildlife sanctuary. Across the United States, the Audubon Society is dedicated to protecting 'islands of life', that is, preserving wildlife habitats and the wildlife which live there. There are 76 wildlife sanctuaries operated by the National Audubon Society and 100 more which are maintained by Audubon chapters. The Red Wing Sanctuary is the only marsh in a major metropolitan area of the western United States owned by an Audubon chapter. It is indeed a unique place. In July, 1982, Colonel Weinert contacted Ellen Kotz, Associate Director of the Center for Development and Design, 100

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University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, and requested student help to "prepare a plan for optimum use" of the Aiken marsh. The following September, the writer began work on the project as a case study for a Thesis leading to a Master of Landscape Architecture degree from the University of Colorado at Denver. The Audubon Society established a Harsh Committee led by Charles Campbell, past president of Aiken Audubon, and composed of the following members: Steven Campbell, Barbara Dell, Linda Ferguson, Kathy Ford, Will Fowler, Robert Nates, and Nancy Taggert. The committee began meetings in January, 1983, to policy and program for the new wildlife sanctuary. On January 31, 1983, the Audubon Harsh Committee and the writer met with Chuck Loeffler of the Colorado Division of Wildlife to explore the possibility of applying for non-game funds to be used for the development of facilities on the marsh property. It was decided that an application for funds would be feasible and appropriate and that the application should consist of three elements: a development plan, a cost estimate, and a defined philosophy of use. The writer agreed to consider these in the exploration of her thesis project. Completion of the two documents would be simultaneous: application to the Division of Wildlife for funds would be I required at the end of April; the thesis project would be presented at the University of Colorado at Denver on iV,ay 2. 101

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Policy/Program The Audubon Marsh Committee determined the following concerning the new wildlife sanctuary: 1. The sanctuary is to be called Red Wing Sanctuary. 2. The purpose of the sanctuary will be two-fold: a. To preserve the habitat and the wildlife which dwell in it b. To serve as an environmental education laboratory and interpretive nature center J. Targeted users will be: a. The membership of the Aiken Audubon Society b. School classes from the Colorado Springs area c. Interested individuals 4. Development will be: a. 'Low key' to reduce the number of potential 'drop-in' visitors b. Of a type which produces low impact to natural systems 5. Philosophy of use will be: a. The property will be open to the public, but visitation will be carefully monitored to respect the carrying capacity of the site. b. School groups will be required to schedule their visits through an Audubon member so that the habitat is respected and the educational value is not marred by too many visitors at one time. 102

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II I I ! I i1111 I I I I 111\llllillil)liilllllllJ NATURAL SYSTEM

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ABIOTIC SYSTEM REGIONAL CONTEXT OF ABIOTIC SYSTEM Land Forms/Topography Land forms of the Rocky Nountain Front Range are spectacular, ranging from the awesome spaciousness of the Great Plains to the magnificent grandeur of the High Rockies. ... __ --PRAIRIE LAND FORMSROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE Pikes Peak is the dominant mountain, rising to a height of 14,110 feet above sea level. Typical elevations of the prairie in this area are between 5,700 and 6,300 feet. Between mountains and prairie are the foothills, and at their eastern face, a series of ridges or hogbacks formed by a great anticlinal fold which occurred when the mountains were uplifted. Erosional forces wore away the top of the fold so that now only the harder rocks remain. The Garden of the Gods is a prime example of this type of ridge. lOJ

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Climate Climate varies with the elevation throughout the Pikes Peak Region. The area is widely acclaimed for its moderate weather throughout much of the year; however, at times there are harsh extremes. Temperatures range from -40 to 100 Fahrenheit. Along the eastern mountain front, maximum temperatures rise 0 above 90 on about 30 days of the year; temperatures fall below freezing on about 170 days annually. Winds cause considerable heat loss from buildings during much of the year. The prevailing cold winter wind is from the north and northwest; occasionally winter storms blow in from the south and southeast. Local winds vary in velocity and direction due to topography and vegetation. Skies are clear during 48 percent of possible sunlight hours during the year. From February through May, overcast or partly cloudy days are more frequent than clear days. Average annual precipitation is 15 to 20 inches, varying with elevation. Host precipitation occurs in the warm season. Snowfall varies with elevation also, but averages about 40 inches in the front range corridor.6 7 104

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Geology/Soils Eons ago, the front range area was covered with shallow inland seas. These seas produced layers of sedimentary deposits which were repeatedly uplifted and eroded down. The uplift which formed the present Rocky Mountains occurred about 70 million years ago. Thrusts and faults, combined with the effects of many erosional forces, have contorted the rock of the mountains into its present day form. As the mountains rose, fast flowing streams stripped off the soft sediments and carried them eastward to deposit them on the plains. Volcanic ash from the volcanoes of the Cripple Creek area was also deposited to form thin bentonite and clay beds. As they moved down the valleys, glaciers carried sands and gravels and deposited them along the way. Northeasterly winds dropped silt and sand along the eastern edge of the mountains. Thus alluvial, eolian, volcanic, and glacial deposits account for most of the soils present on the front range prairie today. Progressing east to west across the area, we see successively older rocks, beginning with those of relatively recent geologic formation (depositional material) and ending with rock whose history predates the beginning of life on earth. Geologically the Pikes Peak Region presents a rich and varied past, all stages of which are exposed for man to see.68 105

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Fountain/Monument Sub-Basin The portion of the Arkansas River Drainage which concerns the study area is that of the Fountain Creek/ Monument Creek Sub-Basin (see opposite map). Water flows south from the slopes of Pikes Peak and other front range mountains to join the Arkansas River at the City of Pueblo. Honument Creek and Fountain Creek merge at the City of Colorado Springs. The drainage flowing through the study area enters Fountain Creek just below the confluence of Monument and Fountain Creeks. The primary stream of that drainage is Spring Creek, a tributary of Fountain Creek, (Fountain/Monument Sub-Basin Hap adapted from Stream Classification Map, Areawide Water Quality Management Plan for the Pikes Peak Region, 1931 Update) 108

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>o c :I 0 u .. cal Q. I j elbert county el p-;.so county-teller county > /71' ---...... ,/j '-, ' l FOUNTAIN I MONUMENT SUB-BASIN --DRAINAGE BASIN BOUN f 1 CITY & MILITARY PROPERTY SPRING CREEK ORAl NAGE 109 ( \ ))'\ ,\ / -\ l \ l (J \I Q 5) l J countyJOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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LOCAL CONTEXT OF ABIOTIC SYSTEM Spring Creek Drainage Basin The Spring Creek Basin consists of approximately eight square miles of gently rolling hills. Drainage is accomplished by a single stream, Spring Creek, and one tributary which enters Spring Creek from the northeast at the study site. Average annual precipitation in the Spring Creek Basin is about l4i inches per year. Most of this falls as rain in May through August. The fifty-year, one-hour storm has been determined to be that which would produce the highest flood peak.70 The only provisions for runoff detention in the basin are the two pond areas of the Valley Hi Golf Course in Sub-Basin )4. Runoff volume and velocity have been greatly increased throughout the basin by development and by channel-ization and lining of channels. The City of Colorado Springs recommends a greenbelt drainage system as the most economical method of removing runoff from developed areas?0Greenbelt channels generally follow the natural streambeds, and in developed areas are typically lined with riprap or concrete. !-lost of the channels of the Spring Creek Drainage Basin are now lined. (Spring Creek Drainage Basin Nap from Spring Creek Drainage Study, Lincoln DeVore Testing Laboratory, Colorado Springs, 1968) 110

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SPRING CREEK DRAINAGE BASIN -.--DRAINAGE BASIN BOUNDARY SUB-BASIN BOUNDARY e MAJOR COLLECTION POl NTS DRAINAGE FLOWING THROUGH SITE lll contour = 201 ... 0 IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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Most of the soils of the Spring Creek Basin are windblown and waterborne sands and silts which have relatively high infiltration rates. Infiltration is into the Fox Hills Sandstone, the primary water-bearing stratum of the area. Ground water moves through the Fox Hills sands in a north to south direction (see Geohydrologic Section opposite). South of Pikes Peak Avenue, the Pierre Shale is found close to the surface in many areas. This is a very heavy clay shale with low infiltration and high runoff rates. Marshy areas exist where the grade is relatively flat and the Pierre Shale is near the surface; since the Pierre Shale is an impermeable layer, water does not infiltrate in these areas. SITE-SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF ABIOTIC SYSTEM Location of Study Site The study site is located centrally in the Spring Creek Basin at the confluence of Spring Creek and its tributary from the northeast. All of the basin area above the site (from northwest to east) drains through the site (see opposite map). Since almost all of that area is developed and most of the channels have been straightened and lined, volume and velocity of water flow are considerably higher than they were historically. 112

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KEY: aquifer SPWING CREEK DRAINAGE BASIN --------N-• -CXA.UCTIOit approx. direction of
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In the area of the study site (see Geohydrologic Section on page llJ), eolian sands and alluvial silts overlay both Fox Hills Sandstone and Pierre Shale. Soils over the sandstone infiltrate easily; those over the shale do not. Where there is poor infiltration, there is either high runoff or formation of marshy areas, depending upon the topography. Land Forms/Topography The study site is a relatively flat area lying lower than adjacent land to the west, north, and east. Elevations range from 5990 6012 feet above sea level. Slopes are gentle. The most dramatic topographical feature is the channel of Spring Creek. Where the channel is most deeply cut, its side walls rise 12 to 15 feet in a steep vertical face. In other areas, the banks are cut back at a lower angle. There is evidence of much rill and gully erosion. (see diagram on opposite page) , The tributary stream is also beginning to cut a channel i that channel is most pronounced at the southern end. The only other significant topographical feature is man-made: in the area immediately northeast of the culvert across Academy Boulevard, there are two mounds of earth. These are obviously formed from silt which has been removed when the culvert has been cleaned. The view from the top of the larger mound is outstanding. 114

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I WIND EROSION ...... 2 RAINDROP. EROSION 3 SHEET EROSION 5 STREAM AND CHANNEL EROSION TYPES OF EROSION Water Quality The Water Quality Class at the Colorado School of Mines under the direction of Professor A. E. Howard conducted a water analysis in April, 1983. Samples uere collected from the springs area and from the tributary st=eam just below the Academy Boulevard culvert. Findings were the following: 1) The 'springs' are indeed springs deriving from a ground!wa ter source. 2) The dense vegetation in the bog area accounts for the high nitrate concentration; this is nearly sta-t.'snant Hater (i.e. laminar flow) containing large amounts of decomposed plant material. 115

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J) D.O. concentrations are lower in the springs area than in the moving stream; laminar flow reduces re-aeration and dense vegetation within the water body serves to deplete the D.O. 4) The spring water shows elevated salts. The water-bearing strata are rich in carbonate and sulfate-forming materials; also the aerobic/anaerobic environment of the sediment will enrich the sulfate content. 5) There is a lack of vegetation in the waters of the tributary stream, indicating polluted water (organic pollutants tie up the nitrogen as NH3 or N02). 6) The tributary stream shows higher Clion concentration, probably due to the fact that it picks up runoff water from roads which have been salted. 7) The pH of the spring water is higher than that in the tributary due to the carbonates deriving from the water-bearing strata. On the following page is a summary of data collected from the water samples. 116

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WATER ANALYSIS Bottle # 1-5 6-10 Bottle# 1 6 Bottle # 2 8 Bottle # 3 8 Bottle # 5 10 BGttle # 4 9 Station tributary springs Station tributary springs Station tributary springs Station tributary springs Station tributary springs Station tributary springs WATER QUALJTY CLASS COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES APRIL 9, 1983 T (C) Sal Cond D.O. 12 15 (mg/l)Caco3 227 J48 0 5 (mg/l)So4 62 X 2 = 124 70 X 3 = 210 (mg/l)Cl 38 33 (mg/l)N 9 20 (alkalinity) 500 850 7.95 8.15 204 296 (total =bicarbonate) 117 9.8 7.8

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Water Movement Water movement on the study site consists of surface streams, surface sheet drainage, and ground water movement (see opposite map). All progress in a north-south direction. There are two surface streams, Spring Creek and its tributary from the northeast. As previously mentioned, Spring Creek has cut a deep channel through the site and the tributary stream is currently cutting a channel. Erosion is accelerated by the increased volume and velocity of flow produced by each new development upstream. Recurrent flooding undoubtedly will also increase as a result of these developments. The drainage report for the new subdivision to the north of the site shows that all runoff from the nine lots and the access road right-of-way will sheet drain south into the study site.?l As the area to the west has not yet been platted, a drainage report is not available; however, since the city has approved sheet drainage from the property to the north, it is assumed that similar approval will be given for the property to the west. In its natural state, that property historically drains as shown on the opposite map. Ground water movement is also from north to south. Information is not available concerning the exact location of the water-bearing strata. Springs are located as shown on the map. 118

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WATER MOVEMENT • SURFACE STREAM SURFACE SHEET GROUND WATER ,ri' SPRINGS DRAINAGE 119 0 50 100 150 200 IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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Soils According to the general soils map of the USDA Soil Conservation Service, soils on the site are of two types, Blakeland Loamy Sand and Midway Clay Loam (see map opposite). A summary of the characteristics of each follows:72 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL TYPES SOIL CHARACTERISTICS BLAKELAND LOAMY SAND MIDWAY CLAY LOAM RANGE SITE NAME Sandy Foothills Shaly Plains PERMEABILITY (inches/hour) 6" 20" (rapid) .06" .20" (slow) SURFACE RUNOFF High Infiltration Rate Very Slow Infiltration Rate Low Runoff Potential High Runoff Potential EROSION HAZARD (water) High EROSION HAZARD (wind) Very Highly Erodible Moderately Erodible ROOTING DEPTH to 60" 10" 20" AVAILABLE WATER CAPACITY Low-Noderate Low ORGANIC MATERIAL (surface) Medium Low SALINITY ---2-8 mmhos/cm (excess salts) pH 6.1 -7.8 7.9 9.0 (alkaline) SHRINK-SWELL POTENTIAL Low High BEARING CAP A CITY Medium Low RISK OF CORROSION Low High (to uncoated steel & concrete) 120

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SOILS BLAKELAND LOAMY SAND D MIDWAY CLAY LOAM Note: Soils mapping aP.proximate only; derived from Soils Survey of El Paso County Area, USDA-SCS 121 0 50 100 150 200 JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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On-site soil investigations show that in actuality most of the soil on the site is probably Blakeland Loamy Sand. One can easily observe the soil horizons in the stream cuts; these show consistent layers of fine sands and silts. Permeability is generally good; however, these soils are easily eroded. The Water Quality Class of the Colorado School of Mines conducted the following soil tests on March 21, 1983: Bottle # (from) Bottle # (to) Cond Sal P!i wt. (g) 15 .3A JAH 1600 .9 6.75 10.03 12 P-JD 170 BDL* 7.15 10.00 9 22 30 BDL 6.90 10.04 35 P73 U5 69 BDL 7-75 10.01 24 32 2200 1.0 7.85 10.01 * Below detectable limit (BDL) pH levels are neutral to slightly alkaline; they present no obstacles to adding vegetation should that be determined to be advisable. (However, before planting, further and more complete tests should be taken). The higher pH levels were found in soil samples taken from the surface layer where there was evidence of alkaline salts. These salts were judged to be insignificant since they are only a skiff on the surface and result from normal evaporation. 122

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BIOTIC SYSTEM REGIONAL CONTEXT OF BIOTIC SYSTEH Wildlife Approximately 450 species of wildlife, including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles, are found in the Pikes Peak Region. Due to latitude, elevational range, topography, soil conditions, and climate factors, every life zone present in Colorado is evidenced in this area. Consequently, one can find species which commonly inhabit all other areas of the state.7J Within twelve miles of downtown Colorado Springs, one may see as many as 180 species of birds, 40 species of mammals, 20 species of reptiles and amphibians and at least 14 species of fish.74 There is no doubt that man's developments and activities have diminished the numbers of animals in the urban area; however, wherever food, cover, and water are available, many species will adapt to co-existing with man. Areas of diverse natural cover support the greatest variety of wildlife. The type, variety, and quantity of urban wildlife present is dependent upon how the city is designed and built. 123

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Vegetation The vegetation of the Pikes Peak Area covers varied topography and an elevation range of over 8,000 feet. The drawings on the opposite page illustrate the many types of vegetation in the region. Biotic zones are used to establish patterns of vegetation organization based upon changes in altitude, Each zone is typified by ecosystems which usually thrive there. It must be realized, however, that conditions such as slope, aspect, moisture, exposure, and precipitation patterns also come into play; thus ecosystems are not strictly confined to the elevation ranges assigned to the biotic zone. Biotic zones of the Pikes Peak Area are shown on the following page.75 Between the biotic zones are ecotones, that is, regions where the ecosystems of the adjacent biotic zones intermix. The ecosystems listed for each zone (tundra, spruce-fir, douglas fir-ponderosa pine, pinon-juniper, and prairie grassland) are the potential climax vegetation that would cover the zone if climate were the dominant influence and if all other ecological characteristics were moderate.76 A more complete list of the ecosystems and primary species that occur in the biotic zones is shown in the chart on page 126. Species vary according to elevation in those ecosystems which are present in several zones. 124

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ELEV. BIOTIC ZONE 14,110ALPINE 11,500-_......;;::oo,. SUBALPINE 9.000-MONTANE 7.000--WOODLAND 6,300 ---------+-GRASSLAND BIRO'S EYE VIEW PIKES PEAK AREA 14,000_ 13,000 12POO 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 ALPINE tundra spruce-fir MONTANE douglas fir-pinon-juniper prairie grassland ponderosa pine VEGETATIONAL TRANSECT PIKES PEAK AREA REGIONAL BIOTIC ZONES 125

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ELEVATION 14,110 11,500 11,500 9,000 9,000 7,000 7,000-6,300 below 6,300 ECOSYSTEMS OF THE PIKES PEAK REGION BIOTIC ZONE Alpine Subalpine Montane Woodland Grassland ECOSYSTEMS Tundra Bog Spruce-Fir Limber pineBristlecone pine Aspen Riparian Meadow Douglas firPonderosa pine Limber pineBristlecone Aspen Riparian Meadow PRIMARY SPECIES Grasses, sedges, forbs, small prostrate shrubs Sedges, rushes, willows Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir Limber pine, bristlecone pine, kinnikinnic, common juniper Aspen, blue spruce, common juniper, kinnikinnic, forbs, sedges, grasses, herbs Alder, cottonwood, willow, birch, blue spruce, mountain maple, redtwig dogwood, forbs, grasses, sedges, rushes, mosses, lichens Willow, cinquefoil, grasses, sedges, rushes, forbs Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white fir, engelmann spruce, aspen, gambel's oak, mountain mahogany, common juniper, kinnikinnic, forbs (previously listed) (previously listed) (previously listed) (previously listed) Pinon-juniper Pinon pine, rocky mountain juniper, one-seed juniper, shrubs, forbs, grasses Mt. shrub Riparian Meadow Prairie grassland Meadow Riparian Gambel's oak, mountain mahogany, serviceberry, skunkbrush sumac, chokecherry, snowberry, forbs, grasses (previously listed) (previously listed) Mid and short grasses, forbs, some shrubs (previously listed) (previously listed) information from Environmental Resources Study for Teller & El Paso Countie

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IDCAL CONTEXT OF BIOTIC SYSTEr1 Vegetation The local study area is located in the Grassland Biotic Zone. Before the coming of white man, the grasslands stretched out to the east of the front range for hundreds of miles, interrupted only by lines of cottonwoods forming riparian corridors along the streams. Native blue grama and buffalo grasses formed compac4 short mats which were sprinkled with bunches of taller grasses. Prairie flowers (forbs) added a touch of color, and occasional shrubs dotted the landscape. Along streams and in moister meadows, vegetation was more lush and varied, Taller grasses such as needle-and-thread, sand dropseed, side-oats grama, western wheat-grass, and bluestem joined the forbs and the sedges in these places. Peachleaf willow, sandbar willow, and snowberry added shrubby mass below the tall cottonwoods. Human intervention has brought changes in the above picture. Many of the natural grasslands have been plowed or bulldozed. Native grasses have been replaced by crop species, exotics, and Kentucky blue-grass lawns. Cultivated landscapes, bpildings, roads, and parking lots cover much of the land. In urban areas, the natural prairie grassland ecosystems are found 127

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only in sites that have been neglected for decades, such as old cemeteries, areas along railroad tracks, and undeveloped land. Wildlife Typical birds of the prairie grasslands include: horned lark, meadow lark, common crow, roughlegged hawk, red-tailed hawk, ferruginous hawk, sparrow hawk, pigeon hawk, Swainson's hawk, golden eagle, prairie falcon, and loggerhead shrike. 77 Winterni tz also lists the following: mourning dove, ash-throated flycatcher, eastern kingbird, bank swallow, rock wren, western bluebird, Brewer's sparrow, Cassin's sparrow, chipping sparrow, clay-colored sparrow, green-tailed towhee, lark bunting, lark sparrow, savannah sparrow, tree sparrow, common nighthawk, northern shrike, burrowing owl, great-horned owl, screech owl, marsh hawk, turkey vulture, and scaled quail.7S Mammals found on the plains are: pronghorn, badger, coyote, striped skunk, spotted skunk, thirteen-lined ground squirrel, white-tailed jack rabbit, black-tailed jack rabbit, eastern cottontail, plains pocket gopher, plains pocket mouse, western harvest mouse, ferret, and black-tailed prairie dog.77 Winternitz adds: small-footed myotis, deer mouse, eastern wood rat, hispic pocket mouse, northern grasshopper mouse, Ord's kangaroo rat, silky pocket mouse, western harvest mouse, long-tailed weasel, and mule deer.78 1.28

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Other prairie animals include: great plains toad, plains spadefoot, Woodhouse's toad, ornate box turtle, bullsnake, plains hognosed snake, prairie rattlesnake, western plains garter snake, western milk snake, eastern short-horned lizard, lesser earless lizard, northern man-lined skink, t f 1 . rd d . . . li d 78 eas ern ence , an pra.J.ne ne racerunner. Wildlife is more abundant and highly diverse in the riparian areas. Numbers have been greatly reduced where there is human intervention in the natural grassland ecosystems. SITE-SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF BIOTIC SYSTEM Vegetation The vegetation of the study site is a typical marshy riparian plant community of the short-grass prairie. It is a simple ecosystem consisting of about thirty plant species (noted by Dr. Gregory McArthur, February 26, 1983). As is common in these areas, the soils are deep sands which have washed through the area for many centuries. The habitat is continuously changing -eroding away in one place as it fills in another. There are good examples of all of the successional stages of vegetation of the ecosystem on the eighteen acre site. The map on page 131 shows locations of these plant groups. In addition to the natural successional vegetation, there are some exotic species on the site which have been 129

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brought in by urbanization. The most notable of these is the Russian olive which shares a niche with the cottonwood and carries on when there is no longer adequate soil moisture to support cottonwood. The first of successional vegetative stages is the growth of pioneer species. These are the first plants to invade the sand which is deposited following damaging floods or the collapse of stream banks. Among plants filling this niche are thistles, cockleburr, and tumbleweed. Following the pioneer species come various grasses. Mid to tall grasses and sedges grow in the moister areas; short grasses grow on higher dry ground. Where there is ample moisture, rushes thrive. The predominant plants of the marsh are the cattails. As vegetative matter accumulates and the soil becomes drier, willows invade the rushes. Following the willows, and interspersed with them, the cottonwoods begin to grow. The site has examples of young cottonwoods just becoming established near the upper end of the tributary stream and also examples of old cottonwoods which are dying near the center of the site as the soil moisture becomes inadequate. There is a bog plant community in the northeast corner of the site in an area of natural springs. This is the most sensitive plant area on the site and of special interest to students of botany and aquatic biology. lJO

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PEAK VEGETATION co COTTONWOOD-RUSSIAN OLIVE Q WILLOW CATTAIL li'-, GRASS BOG .... .. : SAND (PIONEER SPECIES! . ; . . : ...... , .. .__ . .. . : ...... .. lJl IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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Wildlife The following species have been observed at Red Wing Sanctuary. Observations were taken in January; it is anticipated that more species would be present during the spring nesting season. * BIRD SPECIES OBSERVED AT RED WING SANGI'UARY: 1. House Finch 10. Townsend's Solitaire 2. Song Sparrow 11. Mountain Chickadee 3. Tree Sparrow 12. Crow 4. White-Crowned Sparrow 13. Raven 5. Common Flicker (Red Shafted) 14. Red Winged Blackbird 6. Snipe 15. Magpie ?. Killdeer 16. Pine Sisken 8. Sparrow Hawk 17. Hairy Woodpecker 9. Junco (Oregon) 18. Hallard * MAMMAlS EVIDENCED AT RED WING SANCTUARY: l. Mouse 2. Rabbit 3. Raccoon 4. Dog 5. Cat Highest numbers and diversity of species observed occurred in the cottonwood areas. Those areas offer good water, food, and cover. Cottonwoods serve as high perches, and dead brush provides protection. The dead cottonwoods have an abundant insect population * providing a food source. * Observations by Steven Wood and Phillip Desenne, students of wildlife biology, Colorado College, January 22-29, 1983 132

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Ill II 1111111 \11111/11,11111rllllll I IIIII "1'''1"1'1''1'',''1'1111111 THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM'

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URBAN ECOSYSTEM REGIONAL CONI'EXT OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM Urban ecology has been defined as the study of the relationship between man and his environment (see page J5). The urban ecosystem, then, is a system in which both natural and man-made processes occur. Let us look first at the natural processes. According to Evans, the term "ecosystem" was first proposed by Tansley in 1935.79 It refers to the circulation, transformation, and accumulation of energy and matter through the medium of living things. The flow of energy takes place in this manner: 1. Green plants (producers) produce energy (green leaves and woody structures) through photosynthesis, using light from the sun, water, and nutrients from the abiotic environment. 2. Animals and other plants (consumers) consume this energy. J. Bacteria and fungi (decomposers) convert dead plants and animals to decayed matter (organics). 4. Organic matter is transformed into inorganic nutrients which are again used by green plants. Within the ecosystem there is therefore a continuous flow of energy; some is retained and some is lost to the atmosphere at each stage. A diagram of a self-sufficient natural ecosystem is shown on the following page. This system uses the energy it produces and produces the energy it needs. lJJ

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Essential Components Nonessential Components LIGHT HERBIVORES PARASITES SCAVENGERS Abiotic Biotic Components DIAGRAM OF A SELF-SUFFICIENT ECOSYSTEM (From George 1. Clarke, Elements of Ecology) l:Y* (/ .. (,; '1: c .. c. (/. .. a; E rl c c (.;

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The natural processes just described occur in all of the ecosystems of the Pikes Peak Region. In areas inhabited by we must add to these processes the influence of the cultural environment. The most obvious intervention by man into the natural processes occurs in agriculture. The growing of crops is a deliberate attempt by man to create an ecosystem where more energy is created than is used. Man harvests this 'energy' and uses it for food, clothing, shelter, and other amenities. In a metropolitan area such as that of Colorado Springs, there are many other man-made processes occurring which affect the natural ecosystem. Buildings, roads, and parking lots interrupt land where natural systems once flourished. Where vegetative cover is diminished, animal habitat is reduced. 'Artificial' plant communities exist where exotic plants are grown using irrigation to k8ep them alive. Some natural systems must adapt to air and water pollution and to micro-climates created by urbanization. The cultural environment affects the natural ecosystem at every stage of energy flow. Simultaneously, the abiotic environment (climate, topography, geology, hydrology) is interacting with both the cultural environment and the natural ecosystem. As the natural and cultural systems adapt to each other and to the abiotic environment, the urban ecosystem becomes an integrated whole (see diagram on following page). 135

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THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM -AN INTEGRATED WHOLE As in natural ecosystems, the urban ecosystem is most stable where there is variety and diversity (see page 35). As a city matures, the urban ecosystem matures; it develops greater variety and diversity, and thus a natural balance. Colorado Springs is young and growing; new developments by man keep her ecosystem in a constant state of change. The fitness between man and the environment is yet to be aetermined. 136

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lOCAL CONTEXT OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM According to Marr, an ecosystem can be defined as "an ecological unit, a subdivision of the landscape, geographic area that is relatively homogeneous and reasonably distinct from adjacent areas."80 Size is not important; both an anthill and the entire short-grass prairie can be called ecosystems. The term 'urban ecosystem' has just been used to describe the man-nature relationship in the whole of the City of Colorado Springs. Next it will be used in reference to that relationship in the local study area surrounding the study site. Cultural and natural systems of the local study area have been described. The interaction between the two is typical of front range suburban ecosystems. Control by man in these areas is generally intense; natural systems exist only as man permits. Land is used primarily for residences and their supporting businesses. There are areas set aside as open space which are in various stages of 'naturalness'. Much of the land is irrigated and supports a variety of exotic plants. Topography has been altered by the bulldozer, and the land is parceled out amid a maze of streets and highways. Natural drainageways are channelized, and water is supplied through underground water mains. Soils are fertilized, and salts enter the drainageways. Larger animals native to the area are no longer there; smaller 137

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animals and birds adapt to the places most to their liking. Plants are subject to 'lawnmower-itis' and a variety of 'urban diseases'. The man-made is decorated with the natural (for example, potted plants on back patios), and the natural is decorated with the man-made such as the headstones in the cemetery. Nature adapts and man adapts, and the urban ecosystem is formed. In the area immediately adjacent to the study site, the urban ecosystem is in early stages. Man has platted the land and established the roadways, but there is much of the man-made yet to be built. The natural system is somewhat altered from the original short-grass prairie, but further alterations are yet to come, This, then, is the setting for the study site -an urban ecosystem in its infancy, waiting for the dialogue between man and nature to determine the ultimate relationship. SITE-SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM In describing the urban ecosystem as it exists on the study site, let us return to our original questions, "What happens to nature when man brings it into the city -or what happens to man when the city enters a natural area?" (see page 1) 138

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What happens to nature? Man has exerted considerable influence on the site due to his off-site activities. Traffic noise from Academy Boulevard invades the silence of the marsh. Developments have increased volume and velocity of water flow; erosion is unchecked. The water carries elements unknown to it before the city spread out over the land. Exotic plants migrate into the site from adjacent areas. Domesticated dogs and cats roam with wild species. Views from the marsh are no longer only of front range and prairie; buildings, roads, automobiles, and utility poles intercede between foreground and horizon. Regulations govern use of certain parts of the site through that ubiquitous urban creation, easements. In spite of all of the above factors, the natural system of the study site functions much as it has for a very long time. Vegetation is a marshy riparian plant community of the short-grass prairie (see page 129). Spring Creek and its tributary flow through their natural, albeit ever-changing, channels. The topography is altered by nature, but not by man. 139

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The subdivision to the west of the study site has been there for over twenty years; it is obvious that nature has learned to co-exist quite successfully with man through the developments that have occurred thus far in time. What happens to man? The location of such a place as the study site in the midst of an urbanized area is unique indeed. Even more unique is the fact that man has determined to preserve this site as a 'natural' area into the future. Here is a place where man can observe nature at his doorstep, at all hours of the day, and in every season. Although it is a small piece of land, this natural system can potentially impact thousands of people -those who study it, those who casually enter the site, those who view it from their dwellings, and those who catch a glimpse of it as they speed down Academy Boulevard in their automobiles. Whether the impact is consciously noted (for example, by those who study) or subliminally felt (perhaps by those who drive by), it affects the lives of the people it touches. Here is where the urban ecosystem is perceived in terms of the genius loci (see Halprin, page 38); it is in the perceptions of people that the natural and the human orders become one. 140

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ANALYSI

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ANALYSIS THE SITE WILL BE ANALYZED TO DEI'ERMINE ITS PLACE IN THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM, BOTH REG ION ALLY AND LOCALLY, FUNCTIONS , PERFORI"J.ANCE STANDARDS, EIGES, LA.NffiCAPE UNITS, SITE FEATURES AND THE FUTURE WILL BE DISCUSSED IN SITE-SPECIFIC TERMS. VALUE OF SITE TO REGION The character of the city is derived from the fusion of the natural and the human orders (see 'Genius loci', page 37). This fusion depends upon the integration of many small pieces of the natural and the man-made throughout the region. The Red Wing Sanctuary is one of the 'natural pieces' which can make' a vital contribution to the regional genius loci. Since it is a relatively intact piece of a short-grass prairie ecosystem (see page129), it is symbolic of the natural region as it was before man entered. It is also unique in the region since it is a marshy riparian plant community; on the arid prairie this type of ecosystem occupied a very small percentage of the land historically. Today, protected marshy areas are even more rare in the city and the region; they are a limited resource. As stated on page 98, the study site will meet a part of the total regional need for park land. Specific needs that may be met are those for environmental education, natural 141

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preservation, recreation, aesthetic amenity and open space. Since the site is close to the heart of the city and to major transportation corridors, it is easily accessible as a regional park. It has potential to meet specific needs, particularly those for environmental education, which are not met in all park lands; thus appeal would be regional as well as local. Diversity is important in the urban experience (see page 35). The project team of the Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments recognizes the importance of diversity when it states: A wide degree of ecological diversity is important to the conservation of the region's appeal to residents and visitors alike. Reduction in the ecological diversity will ultimately reduce the area to the sameness exhibited elsewhere in the country. Furthermore, when nat ural ground cover is stripped adverse effects can be noted on air quality and water quality via fugitive dust and erosion and consequent siltation in water courses. Several policies should be adopted with respect to natural ecosystems, among them are: Areas of particular sensitivity to development should be spared, including aspen groves, cottonwood and willow bottom areas, wetlands in general. The effects of channelization on acquatic ecology such as willow bog areas, cotton wood asras, swamps, etc. must be carefully considered, . , The Red Wing Sanctuary is just such a place; indeed it contributes to the diversity of the Colorado Springs Region. 142

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VALUE OF SITE TO LOCAL AREA When development plans for the local area are completed, the Red Wing Sanctuary will be the only piece of land which remains 'natural' (see page 99). There is no doubt that it contributes to the diversity of the local area. In addition to adding a 'natural piece' to a developed area, the site serves as a part of linked open space. The city's greenbelt system of drainage ways links the site to Wagner Park and to the Valley Hi Golf Course. Since the drainage ways are channelized and bared of most vegetation, they are admittedly poor linkages for wildlife corridors, but they are linkages, nonetheless. The Red Wing Sanctuary is, in contrast, a very rich ecological linkage and can serve as an 'oasis in the urban desert'. The site is located in a suburban residential area. It is accessible to residents and visitors both visually and physically (see page 99). This access is of aesthetic, psychological, educational, and recreational value; it is important that these factors not be overlooked in designing for the site. The local educational value is enhanced by the fact that the site is within walking distance of three neighborhood schools. 143

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The sanctuary provides the intriguing edges William Whyte says we sense "will be well worth exploring one of these days" (see page 47 for complete quotation). This sense of opportunity for exploration is integral to the individual's perception of the genius loci. Although the genius loci may be defined as a generalized perception of 'place', it is internalized by the individual on a site-specific level. The prominent location of the study site on Academy Boulevard causes it to be perceived by many individuals as a part of the 'image of the city'. Another factor in this image is the front range view over the marsh from Academy Boulevard and the apartments which overlook it. The backdrop of the mountains, and Pikes Peak in particular, contrasted with the openness of the marsh area in the foreground is that typical view residents have come to associate with the genius loci of Colorado Springs. William Lautenbach, in speaking of the visual resources of Teller and El Paso Counties, calls these areas 'high-value foreground scenes' and says: All development or land use modifications in highvalue foreground areas should be carefully reviewed because of the outstanding scenic quality present in these areas before permission to proceed is given. Permission should only be granted in these areas if the development will retain the visual character present in the area. • • • The most important locations for visual degradation are those areas in completely natural settings adjacent to the main corridors of public experience •..• 144

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The effect of bulk and total size of proposed structures upon viewplanes from public roads and the surrounding landscape should be considered. Whenever development is situated within important viewplanes, the building mass should be designed to be as inconspicuous as possible •••• Fencing which obscures significant views should be prohibited .••• The less fencing of property within the area, the more significant will be the overall impression of open space and old west flavor •••• Where visual privacy is required, vegetation should be used in preference to closed fencing. Upon reading the above statement, one realizes that the development which occurs on the study site and in the area immediately to the west of it is critical to the image of the local area. The view across the study site from Academy Boulevard is a local visual resource; it must be preserved. Land use adjacent to the study site is largely undetermined at the present time. As development occurs, it is obvious that the image will progress from rural to urban; the urban image can become a rich one if the variety and diversity of the landscape are preserved. 145

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ROLE OF SITE IN URBAN ECOSYSTEM URBAN ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS The urban ecosystem is defined for the purposes of this analysis as that system which occurs wherever the biological and man-made communities co-exist. This co-existence takes a variety of forms, depending upon the stage of the human culture and the attributes of the natural system. The matrix on the opposite page summarizes information concerning types of ecosystems present in most American cities. There are six categories of urban ecosystems described: symbolic places, gardens, ornamental parks, recreational parks, preserves, and 'sloip'. These vary in degree of naturalness and in degree of control by man, and serve many functions, some which benefit man, some which benefit nature, and some which benefit the urban ecosystem as a whole. In each category are listed representative places which usually fall into that category. It must be pointed out that in certain instances a particular place might fall into another category: for example, residential gardens and office parks are typically formalized gardens where there is a high degree of control by man; however, sometimes these are left as natural areas and would then fall into the category of preserves. Each factor (role/function and performance standards) is evaluated to be of high, medium, or low degree for the typical 146

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tn :E LLI tt/J iii 0 (.) w z c( al a: :J LL. 0 tn LLI > .... II:M--ROLE/ FUNCTION VALUE OR DEGREE: • HIGH MEDIUM i:il 0 LOW :z; NONE :z; 0 :z; 0 :z; H :z; H ( _)STUDY AREA u H :z; 0 ;: 0 H H 0 H H ............ H > E-< p:: H ;: p:: <:t:! i:il :::r:: <:t:! ::::J i:il >< r::1 E-< H u u p:: t-2 j H (/) u p:: ::::J u > i:il 0 H r::1 i:il p:: i:il H <:t:! (/) u i:il p:: p.., p:: r::1 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS i:il u :z; (/) i:il <:t:! p:: li. 0 H E-< H E-< H r::1 i:il :z; (/) H (/) :;;::: H H ::::J (/) >-< <:t:! > t-2 E-< i:il >-< :;;::: r::1 H H j:Q li. li. 0 i:il 3 > <:t:! r::1 0 0 :.: :z; H u H i:il H E-< (/) 0 p:: p:: E-< li. H ............ p:: H i:il :z; i:il ::::J (/) i:il E-< :::J ::::J r::1 E-< :z; N :z; a 0 :z; <:t:! i:il H 0 i:il ::::J :;;::: :::J :::J :z; (/) (/) u p:: :z; <:t:! Ecosystem: Occurs wherever the biological & man-made communities co-exist, ** Sloip: Space left over in planning. 147

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place listed at the left of the chart. For example, consiuer arboretums: they are usually of high aesthetic, education, preservation, and relaxation use; they typically are large in size with a high degree of naturalness and a relatively high animal population. On the other hand, they are typically of low social and recreational use and require low maintenance. The study falls into the category of 'preserves'. According to the projected use, it could be called a 'wildlife sanctuary', a 'riparian corridor', or a 'nature center', or possibly all three. The role/function and performance standards for the three ecosystem types will be considered in determining the role the site will play in the Colorado Springs ecosystem. SITE FUNCTIONS. Primary As shown in the Urban Ecosystem Matrix, three primary functions emerge for the study site: 1. Preservation 2. Aesthetic Amenity J, Education The preservation function will include preservation of the prairie marsh/riparian plant and animal communi ties previously described (see pages 129 -132). There is a possibility of enhancing this ecosystem as well as preserving 148

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what currently exists. Methods of doing this might be erosion control, adding vegetation, and creating additional wildlife habitat. Management techniques such as isolating sensitive areas and rotating areas of human use may also be necessary to preserve the ecosystem. Aesthetic amenities include both on-site and off-site views (see maps, pages 153 and 159). There is opportunity to create additional aesthetic amenities on the study site by adding vegetation, removing man-made debris, and constructing trails, bridges, and overlooks to open new views and frame existing ones. Care must be taken not to obstruct or adversely impact the desirable views that exist naturally. Educational opportunities on the site are many. The following are possible subjects for study: 1. Soils/Geology -soil types, soil horizons, water-bearing strata, permeability, erosive characteristics, effects of deposition of water-borne chemicals 2. Water -chemistry, physical character, erosive powers, effects of urban pollution on water quality J, Wildlife -species, nesting habits, social habits 4. Vegetation -types, species, zonation, succession, seasonal change 5. Ecosystems -interrelationships, succession, investigation of food chains, bacterial decomposition, effects of invasion by exotic species 6, Interrelationships of man-made and natural systems over a period of time 149

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Secondary Secondary functions for the study site are: l. Recreation 2. Linkage J, Urban Work The recreation function will be quiet rather than active. Activities such as bird watching, walking in the woods or in the marsh, and enjoying the views will be common pursuits, As mentioned previously, the Red Wing Sanctuary serves as a part of linked open space (see page 92). The linkage is an important one because the study site is the most natural of all areas in the linkage and thus provides the best wildlife habitat. There is also a function of linkage with the cultural community. This may be vehicular or pedestrian or both. Most important is the psychological linkage with the local residents. Urban work which the site is prepared to do includes drainage, flood control, and vegetative filtering of surface runoff. The site also serves as a space divider between busy Academy Boulevard and the residential areas to the west. 150

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The performance standards for wildlife sanctuaries, riparian corridors, and nature centers (see matrix, page 147) tell us: 1. Naturalness The area must be kept as natural as is possible. 2. Sensitivity The natural systems are sensitive relative to other ecosystems of the city. J. Size/Scale Sites in this category are usually large. 4. Control by Man -Control and intervention by man will be low. 5. Required Maintenance -Maintenance will be low. 6. Number of Visitors -There will be low to moderate numbers of visitors. ?. Amount of Wildlife -Wildlife numbers should be high; wildlife must be encouraged. 151

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SITE ANALYSIS Off-site factors have much influence on the study site (see opposite map). Since development is not completed to the north, south, and west, the degree of influence in the future is largely unknown at this time. It will be advantageous for the Audubon Society to develop a relationship with the City Planning Department and the developers of the adjacent properties so that benefits will accrue to both the Red Wing Sanctuary and to the newly developed properties. Important considerations are: 1. It is desirable that buildings to the south and west not interrupt the view of the front range from the marsh or from Academy Boulevard and the apartments to the east. 2. Views of the study site should be made available from new buildings planned on the south and the west. J, Linkages between the study site and the community to the south and the west should be considered when planning new vehicular and pedestrian ways. 4. Runoff from the north and the west into the study site should not be permitted to cut gullies nor to pollute the water and soils of the marsh. 5. Expense of edge treatments on the north, south, and west might be shared by the Audubon Society and adjacent property owners since both will benefit from them. 152

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I UNKNOWf-4 EDGES NORTH ZERO LOT LINE COMMERCIAL WEST UNDEVELOPED, MOUNTAINS BEYOND SOUTH -UNDEVELOPED & COMMERCIAL EAST HIGHWAY, APARTMENTS, COMMERCIAL l5J )Jo tj rt--.#""-1""""'11 IN THE FRONT RANGE CITY JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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At present, Academy Boulevard forms a barrier to the east. There is no pedestrian way between the street and the study site, and since the property drops off so abruptly into marshy ground, it would be very expensive to build a sidewalk there. Traffic moves at 45 mph and produces much noise; thus it is really not a desirable pedestrian space. However, traffic does not seem to affect the wildlife of the marsh. Considering that fact and the value of the view from the street and the apartments beyond, further barriers such as fencing and additional vegetation are not indicated. Development of properties upstream from the study site will impact the site in the form of increased runoff flowing through the creeks. Design development must be flexible to allow for this increased runoff. LANDSCAPE UNITS The diagram on the opposite page shows the site divided into landscape units. Each unit has its own character; the collective character makes up the genius loci of the site. 1. Creek Bed The walls of the creek bed are the dominant topographical feature of the site. Standi.ng at their edge, one is acutely aware of the power of the water which cut them. Standing at their base, one finds a quiet, cool, protected environment. The creek bed of the tributary stream is not 154

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1 2 3 5 LANDSCAPE UNITS CREEK BED CENTROID OF SITE WILLOW THICKET TREES MARSH ) if/lf/!Ji!!li DRY UPLANDS 155 0 50 100 150 200 JOYCE A. LAFLEUR MAY 1983 LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS COLLEGE OF DESIGN & PlANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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cut as deeply as that of Spring Creek; hence the feeling there is more one of openness. 2. Centroid of Site -This is a centrally located meadow where one feels a sense of 'arrival', It is a sandy area in early successional stages and thus more open than other places on the site. Both on-site and off-site views are good here. If a resting place is to be provided for outdoor education groups, this would be a good location. There would be little impact to natural systems, and the location is away from the traffic noise of Academy Boulevard. However, the area is subject to periodic flooding, so any structures (benches, signposts, etc.) would need to be resistant to standing and moving water. J. Willow Thicket -These areas consist of dense, brushy willows growing six to ten feet high on relatively high ground. Occasional trees (cottonwood, Russian olive, and taller willow species) intersperse with the thicket and provide high perches for birds. One sees an occasional nest in the stronger branches and rodent holes on the thicket floor. Foot travel in this area is difficult, but a trail penetrating the thicket for a distance could provide a worthwhile experience of the environment. 4. Trees The environment here is varied. Trees are predominant, mixed with pioneer species, grasses, rushes, and willows, depending upon site location. The tree area near the center 156

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of the site consists of large cottonwoods and Russian olives. Some of the cottonwoods are dying, apparently due to decreasing soil moisture, and there are several brush piles, remnants of efforts of previous owners of the site. Both live and dead trees provide excellent wildlife cover, making this the center of greatest wildlife diversity. Planned activity for man in this area should be minimal. The other 'tree' area, near the upper end of the tributary stream, is in an earlier successional stage. Cottonwoods are young, and there are tall willows, indicating greater soil moisture. Just north of the stream there are man-made mounds which apparently are built up from debris cleaned out of the culvert under Academy Boulevard. Atop the largest mound is a place to view the entire site as well as the front range beyond. 5. f'IIarsh Narsh areas are of two types, cattails and bog. These are best viewed from their edges; trails through them would be expensive to construct and maintain and damaging to the natural environment as well. Viewing the marsh is an especially exciting experience. Birds and insects abound, and the vegetation is a lush contrast to that of the arid prairie. The marsh edge is a dynamic place of much natural activity. Some birds nest in the marsh and go to the meadow to forage; others nest at the edge and feed in the marsh. Frogs use wet meadows adjacent to the marsh and insects thrive in the damp environment. The bog is especially sensitive; care must be taken not to adversely impact it. 157

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6, Dry Uplands These are open slopes at the north and west edges of the property. Since they are high ground, they are natural viewing places. They are located near possible access points, are logical entry zones, and fortunately, provide good soils on which to construct parking areas or structures. The feeling in each is one of pause before entering the rich environment below. Vegetation in these areas consists of short grasses and forbs typical of the natural short grass prairie. Additional vegetation could be planted to increase wildlife habitat, add to the educational value, and for aesthetic purposes without adversely impacting the natural system. SITE FEATURES As stated under 'Site Functions' (see page 149), there are many poi.."lts of educational interest on the study site such as soils, water, wildlife, and vegetation. Places where these elements might be easily observed are shown on the opposite map. Also shown on the map are places where there are outstanding views, both on-site and to the front range. Two of these viewing areas are located at high points where there is an overview of the site. The third is at the meadow in the centroid of the site where there are interesting J60 views. Four locations along the banks of Spring Creek are pointed out as providing the easiest access to the creek bottom. 158

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AREAS OF VISITOR INTEREST • SOIL HORIZONS J VEGETATION WATER STUDY WATERFALL = EASIEST ACCESS TO CREEK ( GOOD ON-SITE VIEW ):::>GOOD LONG-OISTANCE VIEW ' .•••• RIDGE SUITABLE FOR TRAIL • 159 0 50 100 150 200 SITE FEATURES CONSTRAINING FACTORS MNOISE hl!Qhf EROSION HAZARD SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM )-POOR OFF-SITE VIEW

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These are locations where the banks are not as steep and thus lend themselves to construction of a path or stairway for descent. In the northeast corner of the site, there is a low ridge north of the bog which presents a natural pathway from which to view the aquatic ecosystem without impacting it. If the ridge were to be integrated into a trail system, boardwalks would probably have to be built at each end to traverse the wet ground; however, impact there would be minimal. Constraining factors on the site are few. There are no unique or endangered species present (noted by Dr. Gregory McArthur on site visit, February 26, 198J). The only sensitive ecosystem is the bog, assuming that site management is reasonable and visitor carrying capacity is not exceeded. According to March, carrying capacity is dependent upon: 1) the deportment of the visitor, 2) the capacity of the area to repair itself, and J) the amount of supervision or control that is possible.83 These factors must be assessed over a period of time to determine proper management policy, Academy Boulevard traffic adds noise and some not-so-attractive views, but these do not seem to impact the wildlife, and design for visitors can easily channel the visitor away from the highway. 160

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Erosion on the site is severe as it has been historically. Two areas need to be carefully monitored: the area surrounding the sewer pipe crossing Spring Creek, and the area where the asphalt pad is eroding to the south of the site. Stabilization measures may be necessary in these areas to preserve vehicular paths. Elsewhere, given the location of the site in the drainage basin and the fact that the primary drainageways flow through it, it is probably best to assume the erosion as an ongoing site activity and consider it an opportunity for education and observation of the man-nature dialogue rather than trying actively to prevent it from occurring. THE FUTURE The study site is well-suited for preservation, education, and aesthetic enjoyment. Rather than displaying unique features, it provides an example of a typical prairie marsh ecosystem interacting with the urban environment. It will never have high numbers and diversity of flora and fauna; but species that are there are easily studied in a simple ecosystem setting. That setting is a unique place to observe and record the continued interactions between the man-made and the natural; much can be learned about the adaptations of each. Design and management of this site must be flexible because many future relationships are unknown. As pointed out 161

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by Bryn Green, "l\laintaining wetland ecosystems for amenity purposes presents more problems than maintaining other kinds of ecosystems because the movement of water makes them much more difficult to isolate from other kinds of land use."84 This site cannot be isolated from adjacent land use; all that can be done is to monitor carefully and mitigate when appropriate. Direct human impacts on the site may be mitigated by such techniques as controlling access and isolating sensitive areas, Indirect human impacts such as erosion and pollution caused by moving water may cause future problems which are beyond the capacity of the ecosystem to repair; only time will tell. }litigation of those impacts, to be effective, will need to be carried out at a larger scale than management of the 18-acre study site. The contribution made by the site to the local and regional genius loci may well be its most important attribute, That contribution can be magnified by careful consideration of edge treatments between the site and adjacent properties and by actively seeking to link the site to the urban fabric. When the site becomes an integral part of the urban body, its health will be insured by the concern of the collective urban mind! 162

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II II II I I I II II II I I I I \II "111111!11111111111111111111 PROGRAM

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PROGRAM THE PROGRAM FOR SITE DESIGN INCLUDES A DEFINED PHILOSOPHY OF USE, TARGETED USERS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES, AND DESIGN ELEMENTS DERIVED FROM THE SITE ANALYSIS. THESE ARE TESTED AGAINST THE HYPOTHESIS TO INSURE INTEr;RATION OF NAN AND NATURE AND HENCE REFLECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF THE GENIUS LOCI. PHILOSOPHY OF USE Use Red Wing Sanctuary as a 'testing ground' for observing and recording interactions between Man and Nature. Preserre and encourage natural systems while allowing visitors to enjoy them and urban work to occur. TARGETED USERS Users of Red Wing Sanctuary are anticipated to be the following: 1. Aiken Audubon Society Members 2. School Classes (Kindergarten through College) ), Environmental Groups 4. Youth Organizations ). Interested Individuals 6. Neighbors

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GOALS AND OBJECTIVES GOAL * Protect and preserve natural systems. * Retain and enhance aesthetic q_ualities. * Offer educational amenities. * Open site to visitors, * Plan for low intervention by man. * Link site to natural and man-made communities. * Allow urban work to occur. * * * OBJEcriVES Preserve integrity of land forms. Allow natural processes to occur. Control direct impacts by man. * Focus attention on views of front range. * Point out 'small' against backdrop of 'large', * Reinforce natural systems where they are aesthetically and ecologically weak. * Blend development into natural environment so that it is unobtrusive. * Plan intriguing 'edges ' • * * * * * * * * * Provide trails and structures as necessary, Provide interpretive signs, booklets, guides. Provide parking for ten to twelve cars. Provide pedestrian ways. Provide signage welcoming visitors. Keep natural systems in balance. Minimize vehicular space and traffic. Use energy-saving systems. Nanage flexibly for the future. * Promote natural linkage through cooperation with developers of adjacent properties. * * Develop vehicular and pedestrian ways connecting site to community. Promote psychological linkage with residents through sensitive 'edge' treatment. * Retain free flow of drainage waters. * Allow for detention and vegetative filtration of flood waters. 164

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DESIGN ELEMENTS Design elements necessary to achieve the defined goals and objectives for the Red Wing Sanctuary are: 1. Signage -to inform the visitor of the nature and purpose of the site and to interpret primary features. 2. Parking -for ten to twelve automobiles and planned in such a way that one or two school busses would have adequate 'tum-around'. ). Visitor Circulation -trails, boardwalks, overlooks, etc. as necessary. 4. Interpretive Nature Center-may be a covered exhibit, a building, a group study area (as appropriate for site concept). 5. Edge Treatments -as appropriate to integrate with or separate from adjacent community. 6. Added Vegetation -as appropriate for site concept.

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RELATIONSHIP TO HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS: NATURAL AREAS IN THE ROCKY NOUNTAIN FRONT RANGE CITY WILL REFLECT AND ENHANCE THE 'GENIUS lOCI I IF ECOLOGICALLY AND CULTURALLY SOUND DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND/OR NANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ARE APPLIED. The stated philosophy of use and goals/objectives will permit the Red Wing Sanctuary to 'be all it can be' to the urban and natural community of Colorado Springs, The site has historically been a part of a dynamic natural system, sustained and simultaneously driven by the water which moves through it, It is now a part of an urban ecosystem, still sustained and driven by the water, but further influenced by the many dimensions of its co-existence with man, The importance of the site to the genius loci is precisely this living relationship. Design for the site must retain the character of the ecosystem that existed before man arrived on the scene and combine it with elements which permit man to enjoy and understand both site features and the place of the site in the city. Some of this understanding will be a subliminal experience, for it is when the environment is internalized that man perceives the genius loci. The projected program is ecologically and culturally sound; it permits both man-made and natural processes to occur in a compatible way. If this program is carried out in the design solution, the Red Wing Sanctuary will reflect and enhance the genius loci of the City of Colorado Springs. 166

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II II II I I I I II II I (U/ I I" ll,llllllll/1/iillllll//i IIlii liilli II PROBLEM SOLUTION

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PROBLEM SOLUTION THREE CONCEPT ALTERNATIVES ARE DELINEATED AND EVALUATED. THE PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE IS REFINED AS A DESIGN SOLUTION AND CONCEPTUAL DESIGN DETAILS ARE SUGGESTED. THE SOLUTION IS IN ACCORD WITH THE HYPOTHESIS. ALTERNATIVE EXPLORATION CONCEPTS Three concept alternatives are delineated; all accomplish the goals and objectives as set forth in the program. Emphasis on site function varies with alternatives. An abbreviated graphic and verbal description of each concept is shown on page 168. Following the general description are site plans illustrating the three concepts. 167

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Concept Descriptions 1. Countryside Conservation This concept stresses the preservation function of the site. Development, intervention by man, use, and cost are low. Visitors are shown through the centroid of the site via a single loop trail which passes major vegetative features. Access is from the north; community linkage to the west continues informally as at the present time. 2. Educational Enhancement The main object here is to present a sequenced educational experience. The loop trail passes all significant points of interest and also stresses aesthetic enjoyment. Areas to the north and west where ecology and aesthetics are weak are planted with native plant communities which further enhance the site. Vehicular access is from the north; there is also pedestrian access from the west. J. Pedestrian Pathways The visitor experience is the central theme of this concept. An interlocking trails network offers the visitor optional pathways and access to all points of interest. Additional vegetation is planted to the north and west to screen commercial development and to develop an 'intriguing edge'. Vehicular and pedestrian access is from both north and west. 168

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CONCEPTS 1 rl-----------r I I. I 2 j .. ...... -_41 • _:-.......... __ I I ___ _j ___ J COUNTRYSIDE CONSERVATION • -t lJ":. EDUCATIONAL ENHANCEMENT • AA'EEJ.h WHERE WBJV<, PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS • 'Sc::.R.E2."--:, 4-51\l!. ,::::.OMMe.s::?aAL De/E.l..Cf'M&.4"7

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CONCEPT EVALUATION Two methods of evaluation are used: a list of advantages and disadvantages and a matrix which ranks and rates each concept in terms of goal achievement. CONCEPT 1 Countryside Conservation 2 Educational Enhancement 3 Pedestrian Pathways ADVANTAGES Minimum impact to natural systems Low cost Low maintenance Shows all vegetative communities Keeps visitors near center of site Unobtrusive development Keeps view from east open Trail shows many points of educational and aesthetic interest Two added plant communities Loop is a sequenced experience Trail is hidden from view Sequenced vehicular entry Many good views, view from east is kept open Linkage with community Offers optional paths Shows many points of interest Oriented to many good views, keeps open view from east Can close off part of trail Sequenced vehicular entry Dual community linkage Aesthetic screen to north and west Rest benches 177 DISADVANTAGES Doesn't exploit full potential of site No enhancement No exposure to main channel, a dominant feature No strong community linkage Must repeat part of trail Cannot close part of trail Must traverse whole trail to reach a particular point High maintenance of bridges and stairs; no optional route available if they are damaged Cannot close off part of trail High cost High maintenance High impact to natural environment Double access difficult to control, depends upon suitable access from west in future

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The list of advantages and disadvantages shows the tradeoffs that are involved in the comparative concepts. These tradeoffs are evaluated in the matrix on the opposite page. The concepts are rank ordered (1, 2, 3) according to which concept best meets each stated goal. Then the concept is given rating points according to its rank order. A rank of 'l' equals 15 points; rank '2' equals 10 points; and rank '3' equals 5 points. The totals shown in the columns 'equal rating' are the total number of points for the concept if all goals are considered equally important. The totals in the columns 'weighted rating' show points for the concept when goals relating to primary functions are weighted x 2. In both cases, equal rating and weighted rating, Concept 2 -Educational Enhancement scores highest. It ranks number 'l' in educational amenities and aesthetic qualities (primary functions), and all other ratings are '2'. It is a balanced solution which satisfies the needs of both natural and man-made systems. (For example, it lies between the other two concepts in protecting and preserving natural systems and in opening the site to visitors). It is therefore decided to pursue site development according to Concept 2. 178

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CONCEPT EVALUATION EY: CONC.EPT I CONCEPT' 2 CONCEPT-; K CONCEPTS: BANK. 13A11HC3 ENH/IN .,.,.. .. .,. ... -PAJ'HWA'(S 1 == 15 fJ D. 2 10 re if if :t"l "w lr% GOALS: 3 -5 J G 3 E.DUC.A\IOt...lAL AM f:"S 3 5 10 1 15 30 2 10 20 *PROTEC.T AND PRESERVE' 1 15 30 2 10 20 3 5 10 AND ,AES-rne:nc. QUALITIES 3 5 10 1 15 30 2 10 20 TO 3 5 5 2 10 10 1 15 15 ALLDW -ro Oc::L.UR.. 1 15 15 2 10 10 3 5 5 PLAN FOR L.t'JW IMTl:RYENTlON MAt-.4 1 15 15 2 10 10 3 5 5 LltJ\( 51iE TO NAnJRA.L MAN-MADE 3 5 5 2 10 10 1 15 15 * PRIMAA'f fUNCTION (Wmtm:o X. 2.) TOTALS 65 90 80 12C 65 90 179

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SOLUTION THE CONCEPT PLAN IS PRESENTED WITH A SERIES OF CONCEPT SKEI'CHES WHICH ILLUSTRATE f'.tAJOR FEATURES. CONCEPT PLAN The chosen concept (Educational Enhancement) is shown on the opposite page. The road and parking area have been dimensioned; other details are conceptually defined. Following the concept plan are concept sketches which illustrate primary design features. The sketches are numbered and keyed to the concept plan for easy location. Description of each feature accompanies the sketch. 180

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CONCEPT SKETCHES l. Nature Center/Parking Area The entry road penetrates the site for 200 feet before terminating in the parking lot. This provides a transition zone between the commercial and the natural and allows an opportunity to 'set the stage' for the visitor experience. 0 5 10 1.0 30 1. NATURE CENTER I PARKING AREA 183

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Primary facilities are grouped near the entrance to the site permitting easy access to utility lines when the nature center is built. This also allows central maintenance and control. The trail begins counterclockwise (to the northwest). The sequence and views'around the loop are best when walking in this direction. Road, parking lot, and trails near the nature center are surfaced with gravel. The remainder of the trail is surfaced with the natural sands and soils of the site. Phasing of development in this area might be as follows: 1. Construct road, parking lot, trail, and entry sign/ exhibit. 2. Construct study bench area. (Funds for a feature such as this might be raised through an appeal to a local service or fraternal organization -i.e. 'The Kiwanis Amphitheater' -or as a memorial fund). J, Construct nature center building. 4. Resurface road and parking lot with asphalt and trail with more durable material (gravel, crushed limestone, etc.) if increased visitation makes it advisable. 184

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2. Study Benches The study bench area provides a gathering place for school classes or environmental groups where they can meet either before or after going on the trail. It might be used for an environmental lecture, a place to assemble notes, or simply as a resting or lunching place. There are ten 6-foot benches arranged in a semi-circle before a wooden platform where a group leader might stand. Each bench will seat three people; thus a class of JO could be accommodated. The benches as drawn consist of wooden 4 x 4s attached to steel brackets mounted on 6-inch pipe supports. 2. STUDY BENCHES 185 I : I II /I i\ .i.f r :! /"'} . I : \ .' I:' . , l\ . i ,I \ \ ;L,! '\\. : / )' .I l i !' I if _t; :i \'

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J, Signage Signage is of two types: the entry sign/exhibit and interpretive trail signs. The entry sign/exhibit is a two-sided sign protected by a small roof. On the side visible to entering vehicles, it simply announces 'Red Wing Sanctuary" and identifies the ownership/management of the Aiken Audubon Society. The exhibit side, which is viewed by hikers beginning the nature trail, shows a diagram of the trail and points out major features of the site ecosystem. It also informs visitors of rules and restrictions and warns of safety hazards along the trail. SIDE IS ee. f'li!OM t.m!lt.IN.S. ---z____. 186 3. SIGNAGE: ENTRY SIGN/ EXHIBIT

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Interpretive trail signs serve many purposes. They may point out to the visitor which direction to go, points of interest along the trail, general information regarding the ecosystem, hazard warnings, or encouragement to stay on the trail to protect the natural environment. Trail signs should be simple, made of durable material, and printed in a manner that will discourage vandals. They should be of a size and color that will not detract from the natural scene and placed so that they do not interfere with appealing views. If they are associated with a brochure or guidebook, they should be numbered to correspond to the printed matter. Verbage should be kept to a minimum. Places where interpretive signs would be appropriate are shown as 'points of interest' on the Concept Plan on page 181. 3. SIGNAGE: INTERPRETIVE TRAIL SIGN 187

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4. Stairs and Bridges The trail begins by crossing Spring Creek at the northwestern corner of the site. Two options are suggested: Option One: Bridge Over Sewer Line A wooden footbridge could be built over the sewer line structure. Currently there is evidence of children crossing by walking on the sewer pipe. This dangerous situation could be discouraged by constructing a bridge. Also, the entire structure could be made more aesthetically appealing through careful design. If access for the handicapped is desired, the bridge could be approached by a ramp at each end; if not, stairways would suffice. The bridge would afford a good view of the creek bed and the marsh site since it is a relatively high structure. Access to the creek bed (a return to the trail as proposed on the concept plan) could easily be accomplished from the west side of the stream since there is already a trail down the bank a short distance south of the sewer pipe. No stairway would be necessary to negotiate the bank there. It would be necessary to work cooperatively with the City Public Works Department and Leigh Whitehead Engineers (who designed the sewer structure) to plan and implement the bridge. Existing structure is probably adequate to support pedestrian traffic (re: conversation with James O'Shea, landscape architect, 1M

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4. BRIDGE OVER SEWER LINE (option one) 189

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on April 15, l98J), Possibly costs could be shared with the developer of the properties to the west and north of the study site since the bridge would in effect connect those properties. Option Two: Stairway to Creek Another option is to leave the sewer structure as is and build a stairway down the east bank of Spring Creek immediately south of the sewer line. Since the bank is loose soil which easily erodes, the stairway would have to be tied back structurally into the bank and the slope revegetated and riprapped as necessary to hold the soil. If handicapped access is desired, a ramp would be necessary rather than a stairway. The writer has been unable to ascertain how much water flows through Spring Creek in time of flood and whether there is danger of flash flooding. Careful consideration must be given to these factors before planning a handicapped access to the creek bed. At the base of the stairway or ramp, a bridge would be built to cross the creek. Perhaps the least expensive and most practical design would be a simple boardwalk (without railings) which is attached to anchored cables so that it would float when the stream floods. This would necessitate maintenance in repositioning the bridge after flooding but would avoid damage to a fixed structure. A similar bridge could be used downstream at the other crossing point shown on the concept plan. 190

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. ._ ...... . ,_ -----"""""".'1. .... 4. STAIRWAY TO CREEK !option twoJ 191 ! . i / ' ' ' .; . t '\''" .;; ' '.' . ; \\ L {." y_ i./' . "-...,----,. -/ ' .

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5. Trail to Riverbank Viewpoint Along Spring Creek about half way across the site, there is a promontory on the west bank. A trail can be built which switchbacks up the bank from the creek bed; thus no stairs are needed. Upon reaching the top of the bank, there is a good view in all directions. From the viewpoint, the trail goes west to show the visitor the new pinon-juniper plant community and to link with the neighborhood bordering the site. 5. TRAIL TO RIVERBANK VIEWPOINT 192

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6. Trail Through Willows The trail through the willows offers an opportunity to experience the vegetative cover of the site. It is a cool, shady, intimate place, a sharp contrast with the open meadow beyond. This trail brings the visitor to the centroid of the site without travers-ing the highly eroded southern portion, a place where human feet would increase the erosion and trail maintenance would be difficult. 6. TRAIL THROUGH WILLOWS 193

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7 Trail to Mormd Viewpoint This portion of the trail follows the tributary stream in a northerly direction. In those areas which are perpetually damp or which experience periodic flooding, the tread must be raised to maintain a dry walking surface. Two ways that might be done are illustrated on the opposite page. It is imperative in either method that there be drainage trenches along the sides of the trail. Rock or log culverts may be necessary to allow water to pass across the trail. // ' ' I . . ----------,...-........-m .. 7. TRAIL TO MOUND VIEWPOINT 4.94

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Fill made from excavated material 12"r= Cover with gravel, chips, or sawdust 2'-3' Minimum excavation VVidth necessary to take care of drainage (illustration from Trail Planning and Layout, National Audubon Society, 1971) 1 RAISED TREAD TREAD MATERIAL J6" MIN. WIDTH COMPACTED FILL TRENCH (illustration from Trails Management Handbook, National Park Service, 1983) 2 TURNPIKE BUILT-UP TRAILS FOR WET AREAS 195

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8. Bog Boardwalk After leaving the mound viewpoint, the trail crosses the edge of the bog parallel and adjacent to Academy Boulevard. Here the ground is too wet for either raised tread or turnpike trail construction; hence a boardwalk is necessary. The boardwalk may be supported either by logs or by dimension lumber as shown below. The walking surface may be flush as shown on the opposite page or have a rail at the edge as in the illustration below. (illustration from Trails Management Handbook, National Park Service, 1983) BOARDWALK USING DIMENSION LUMBER 196

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\\ \ \ \ 8. BOG BOARDWALK 197

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9. Ridge Trail Along Bog As mentioned in the analysis, there is a ridge at the north edge of the bog. A trail along this ridge has several advantages: 1. It permits viewing the bog without penetrating the delicate ecosystem. 2. The views of Pikes Peak in the distance are outstanding if one walks the trail toward the west. J. The trail will be much less expensive to construct than a boardwalk. At the west end of the ridge, another short boardwalk will be necessary to traverse the edge of the bog. This structure could be identical to that described on pages 196 and 197. 198

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9. RIDGE TRAIL ALONG BOG 199

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10. New Plant Communities Three new plant communities are suggested: l. Nountain shrub community along north edge of site. 2. Pinon-juniper community in southwest corner of site. J, Willows between boardwalk and Academy Boulevard. Mt. Shrub Community The mountain shrub community on the north bank will serve several functions: 1. The plants will stabilize the slope at the edge of the site and prevent water erosion. 2. Plants will provide a visual screen and a 'buffer zone' between the natural area and the commercial strip along Pikes Peak Avenue. J, The mountain shrub community provides an opportunity for the visitor to view and study another of the regional ecosystems. 4. Plants will provide additional wildlife cover and forage. Since the mountain shrub community is native to the adjacent woodland ecosystem, it is well-suited to the sunny southfacing bank where it will be planted. When established, no irrigation will be required. However, for the first two or three seasons, additional water will be necessary. One method of providing this might be to bury 'leaky pipe' (perforated black rubber hose) about six inches below the surface. This method is relatively inexpensive to install, easy to operate, avoids vandalism, 200

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will provide maximum efficiency of the water used, and can be left in the ground when no longer needed. Plants suitable for use in this are: Gambel 's Oak Rocky Mountain Sumac Wild Rose Mountain Mahogany New Mexican Privet Bitterbrush Serviceberry Snow berry Skunkbush Sumac Buffalo berry Planting should be accomplished as shown in the diagrams below: :::::011..-\t-:1 PocKE:T MUS\ BE -A-AT '5ET PLANT:) \N POCKET5 ON 5\-0P 10. NEW PLANT COMMUNITIES 201

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Community This planting will serve similar purposes to those of the mountain shrub conuiJ.uni ty. However, the nature of the pinon-juniper community is more open. Thus, the natural grasses and forbs that are now growing on the site can be left on this slope with the pinon pines and junipers planted in clumps. Suitable species for this planting are: Pinon Pine Rocky Mountain Juniper One-Seed Juniper Soapweed (Yucca Glauca) Irrigation will also be necessary for this planting for two or three seasons and might similarly be accomplished using 'leaky pipe'. Plants should be installed as shown in the diagrams on page 201. Willows The purpose of this planting is to provide a screen between busy Academy Boulevard and that portion of the trail which comes closest to it (the boardwalk). Since the area where the willows are to be planted is perpetually wet, no irrigation will be necessary. The suggested species is the native Peachleaf Willow. Cuttings can simply be poked into the ground and they will root and grow. Since willows grow rapidly, the screen will quickly become established at little expense. 202

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* CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATE Road and Parking Lot Area I EntrY Road 400 lin. ft. 24 ft. wide @ $200,000/rnile (gravel surface) Parking Lot 1060 sq. yds. @ $13/sq. yd. (gravel surface) Receptacles -3 @ $300 each Entry Sign/Exhibit -1@ lump sum of $2000 Timber Parking Barriers 220 lin. ft. @ $6.50/ft. Nature Center Building1200 sq. ft. @ $60/sq. ft. (wood frame const.) Site Work 10% of net construction cost Sewer Line 150 lin. ft. of 4" line@ $20/lin. ft. Watei' Line 400 lin. ft. of 2" line@ $18/lin. ft. I Stud1 Benches Benches 10 6-ft. wooden benches@ $500 each Platform Deck 40 sq. ft. @ $8/sq. ft. Trail Trail i mile 4 feet wide; 1200 sq. yds @ $12/sq. yd. cement surface) Boarqwalk 150 lin. ft. 4 ft. wide; 600 sq. ft. @ $8/sq. ft. Trail Signs 14 @ $250 each New Plantings Mountain Shrub Community -1.2 acres@ $6500/acre Pinon-Juniper Community -1.2 acres@ $6500/acre Willows .08 acres@ $6500/acre 'Leaky Pipe' Irrigation 3,000 ft. @ $4/ft. * $15,000 14,000 900 2,000 1,400 $33,300 $72,000 7,200 3,000 7,200 $89,400 $5,000 300 $5,300 $14,400 4,800 3,500 $22,700 $ 7,800 7,800 500 12,000 $28,100 Prepared with assistance from James O'Shea, Landscape Architect, National Park Service. Based upon National Park Service 'Class C Estimate'; does not include planning, construction supervision and contingencies.

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Stairs and Bridges Option One Decking over existing sewer line support 70 lin. ft. 4 ft. wide@ $28/sq. ft. Railings 140 lin. ft. @ $16/lin. ft. $ 7,800 2,200 Stairways -2 wooden stairs, l at each end of bridge 96 sq. ft. of stair @ $35/sq. ft. 3,300 Option Two * Stairway to creek -railroad tie steps; 144 ties @ $20 each Footbridge over creek 30 ft. wooden bridge 6 ft. 180 sq. ft. @ $28/sq. ft. 2 concrete abutments -3 cu. yds. @ $300/cu. yd. Second Footbridge 30 ft. wooden bridge 6 ft. wide 180 sq. ft. @ $28/sq. ft. 2 concrete abutments -3 cu. yds. @ $300/cu. yd. Summary of Costs $13,300 $3,000 wide 5,000 900 $8,900 $5,000 900 $5,900 Option One Option Two Road and Parking Lot Area Nature Center Study Benches Trail New Plantings Stairs and Bridges $ 33.300 89,400 5,300 22,700 28,100 19,200 $198,000 $ 33.300 89,400 5,300 22,700 28,100 14,800 $193,600 Notes: This estimate is based upon costs to the federal government on a nationwide basis. Costs will be less when a local contractor is hired. Costs will be much less if donated materials and/or labor can be secured. * This estimate is based upon conceptual plans; when detailed design is done, a more specific estimate can be prepared. Calculated estimate; not based upon NPS 'Class C Estimate'.

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TEST OF HYPOTHESIS HYPOTHESIS: NATURAL AREAS IN THE ROCKY FRONT RANGE CITY WILL REFLEGr AND ENHANCE THE 'GENIUS lOCI I IF ECOLOGICALLY AND CULTURALLY SOUND DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND/OR MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ARE APPLIED. A conclusion drawn in the research is that the quality of ]ife within the city is enriched by enhancing the natural areas that are already there (see page 61). The design solution does just that. Based upon a landscape derived from the natural habitat of the region (see Fairbrother, page 58), the site design provides a flexible structure within which the man-nature dialogue can !progress. The degree of naturalness and the degree of influence by man are in keeping with the stated functions of the site in the urban ecosystem. The potential of the site has been exploited to become meaninsful natural 'place' for the residents of Colorado Sprlings. The essential elements of the genius loci of the front range are all present -the mountains, the prairie, and the big blue sky. The site design optimizes man's awareness and enjoyment of these: mountain views are preserved with trail and viewpoints oriented toward them, the prairie ecosystem is protected and all major features are made available for man to see, and the open sky magnifies the wide open spaces symbolic of the American West. There is opportunity to view the complexity of the small against the backdrop of the large (the essence of 'place' on the front range, see page 57). Red Wing Sanctuary will indeed reflect and enhance the genius loci! 204

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I I I I Ill\ I 1111111 I II )111/111 LIST OF REFERENCES

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LIST OF REFERENCES l. Barlow, Elizabeth. 1981. "Urban Wilds," In Urban Open Spaces, ed. L. Taylor. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. pp. 118-119. 2. Fairbrother, Nan. 1974. The Nature of Landscape Design. 3. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 243 pp. Laurie, Michael, 1979. Nineteenth Century." Chichester, New York, and Sons. pp. 37-63. "Nature and City Planning in the In Nature in Cities, ed. I. Laurie. Brisbane, and Toronto: John Wiley 4. Fairbrother, The Nature of Landscape Design. 5. marx, Leo. 1964, The Machine in the Garden. New York: Oxford University Press. 386 pp. 6. Tobey, George B. 1973. A History of Landscape Architecture. 7. New York: Elsevier North Holland, Inc. 273 pp. Dubas, Rene. 1980. Scribner's Sons. The Wooing of Earth. 178 pp. New York: Charles 8. Eckbo, Garrett. 1964. Urban Landscape Design. New York: 244 pp. McGraw-Hill. I 9, David; Soergell, Kenneth II; and Zube, Ervin. 1979. "Trees in the City." In Nature in Cities, ed. I. Laurie. Chichester, New York, Brisbane, and Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 205-229. 10. Laurie, "Nature and City Planning in the Nineteenth Century." 11. Marx, The Machine in the Garden. ! 12. Nash, Roderick. 1975. "Qualitative Landscape Values: The ! Historical Perspective." In Landscape Assessment: Values, Perceptions, and Resources, ed. E. Zube, R. Brush, and J. Fabos. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. pp. 10-17. 205

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13. Huth, Hans. 1972. Nature and the American. University of Nebraska Press. 240 pp. 14. Pitt, Soergell, and Zube, "Trees in the City." 1.5. Laurie, "Nature and City Planning in the Nineteenth Century." 16. Dubas, Rene. 1978. The Resilience of Ecosystems. Colorado: Colorado Associated University Press. Boulder, 29 pp. 17. Whyte, William. 1970. The Last Landscape. 414 pp. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. 18. Halprin, Lawrence. 1981. "The Collective Perception of Cities." In Urban Open Spaces, ed. L. Taylor. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. pp. 4-6. 19. Dubas, The Wooing of Earth. 20. Jackson, John B. 1970. Massachusetts Press. Landscapes. The University of 160 pp. 21. Dubas, Rene. 1966. Environmental Improvement. Washington, D.C.: The Graduate School, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 22. Shaman, Joseph. 1971. Open Land for Urban America. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press. 168 pp. 23. Leopold, Aldo. 1949. A Sand County Almanac. London: Oxford University Press. 226 pp. 24. Simonds, John. 1978. Earthscape. New York: McGraw-Hill. 33.5 pp. 2.5. Tankel, Stanley. 1963. "The Importance of Open Space in the Urban In Cities and Space: The Future Use of Urban Land, ed. L. Wingo. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. pp • .56-71. 26. Shaman, Open Land for Urban America. 27. Pitt, Soergell, and Zube, "Trees in the City." 28. Gill, Don and Bonnett, Penelope. 1973. Nature in the Urban Landscape. Baltimore: York Press. 204 pp. 29. Sudia, Theodore. 1971. Man, Nature, City (Urban Ecology Series). Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 21 pp. 206

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30. Robinette, Gary. 1972. Plants, People, and Environmental Quality. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 139 pp. 31. Simonds, Earthscape. 32. McHarg, Ian. 1971. Design With Nature. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. 197 pp. 33. Barlow, "Urban Wilds." J4. McHarg, Ian. 1970. "The Place of Nature in the City of Man." In Challenge For Survival, Land, Air, and Water for Man in Megalopolis, ed. P. Dansereau. New York and London: Columbia University Press. pp. 37-55. 35. Stainbrook, Edward. 1968. "Human Needs and the Natural Environment." In Man and Nature in the City, ed. J. Gottschalk. Washington, D. C.: Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U. S, Dept. of the Interior. pp. 1-6. 36. "Human Needs and the Natural Environment." 37. McHarg, "The Place of Nature in the City of Man." 38. Muir, John. (date and publication unknown) Quote appears in John Muir National Historic Site, California. Washington, 1 D. C.: National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 39. Strong, Ann. 1965. Open Space for Urban America. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Urban Renewal Administration. 154 pp. 40. Dubos, The Wooing of Earth. 41. Houston, David R. 1979. Understanding the Game of the Environment. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Forest Service, : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 174 pp. I 42. Sudia, Theodore. 1976. The City as a Park (Urban Ecology Series). Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. 22 pp. 43. Simonds, Earthscape. 44. Dubos, The Wooing of Earth. 45. Fnberg, Per. 1979. "The Parklands of Scandinavian Cities." In Nature in Cities, ed. I. Laurie. New York, Brisbane, and Toronto: John Wiley and pp. 327349. 207

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46. Halprin, "The Collective Perception of Cities." 47. Tobey, A History of Landscape Architecture. 48. Dubos, Rene. 1272. Schribner's Sons. A God Within. 318 pp. 49. McHarg, Design With Nature. 50. McHarg, Design With Nature. 51. Dubos, The Wooing of Earth. New York: Charles 52. Manning, Owen. 1979. "Designing for Nature in Cities." In Nature in Cities, ed. I. Laurie. Chichester, New York, Brisbane, and Toronto: John Wiley and Sons. pp. J-J6. 53. Manning, Owen, "Designing for Nature in Cities." 54. Fairbrother, The Nature of Landscape Design. 55. Whyte, The Last Landscape. 56. Fairbrother, The Nature of Landscape Design. 57. Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press. 58. Whyte, William, The Last Landscape. 59. Tregay, Rob. 1979. "Urban Woodlands." In Nature in Cities, ed. I. Laurie. Chichester, New York, Brisbane, and Toronto: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 267-295. 60. Gill and Bonnett, Nature in the Urban Landscape. 61. McHarg, Design With Nature. 62. Manning, "Designing for Nature in Cities." 6J. Fairbrother, The Nature of Landscape Design. 64. Fairbrother, The Nature of Landscape Design. 65. Fairbrother, The Nature of Landscape Design. 208

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66. 67. 68. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. Project Team, Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments. 1983. (Draft) Analysis of the Natural Systems: Estimates of Land Capability in the Pikes Peak Region. 183 pp. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. 1974. Environmental Resources Study for Teller and El Paso Counties. Colorado, Summary Report, Fort Collins, Colorado: Resource Planning Associates, Inc. 35 pp. Project Team, PPACG, Analysis of the Natural Systems: Estimates of Land Capability in the Pikes Peak Region. Livingston, Russell; Klein, John; and Bingham, Donald. 1976. Water Resources of El Paso County, Colorado. Denver, Colorado: Colorado Water Conservation Board. 85 pp. Spring Creek Drainage Study. 1968. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Lincoln DeVore Testing Laboratory. 24 pp. Whitehead, Leigh. 1981. HHP Company Subdivision Drainage Report and Plan. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Leigh Whitehead and Associates. 3 pp. Larsen, Lynn. 1981. Soil Survey of El Paso County Area, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: Soil Conservation Service, U. S, Dept. of Agriculture. 212 pp. Resource Planning Associates, Inc., Environmental Resources Study for Teller and El Paso Counties, Colorado, Summary Report. Loeffler, Chuck. 1982. Taking a 1ook at Urban Wildlife. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Colorado Division of Wildlife. 42 pp. Trembly, Terrence. 1974. Environmental Resources Study for Teller and El Paso Counties. Colorado. Part C; vegetation. Fort Collins, Colorado: Resource Planning Associates, Inc. 138 pp. Mutel, Cornelia. 1976. From Grassland to Glacier, An Ecology of Boulder County. Colorado. Boulder, Colorado: Johnson Publishing Company. 169 pp. Project Team, PPACG, Analysis of the Natural Systems: Estimates of Land Capability in the Pikes Peak Region. Winternitz, Barbara. 1982. "Wildlife Species List." in Taking a 1ook at Urban Wildlife, by C. Loeffler. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Colorado Division of Wildlife. pp. 17-22. 209

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79. Evans, Francis. 19 56. "Ecosystem as the Basic Unit in Ecology," Science, 123:1127-1128, June 22, 1956. 80. Marr, John. 1961. Ecosystems of the East Slope of the Front Range in Colorado. Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado Press. 1}4 pp. 81. Project Team, PPAOG, Analysis of the Natural Systems: Estimates of Land Capability in the Pikes Peak Region. 82. Lautenbach, William. 1974. Environmental Resources Study for Teller and El Paso Counties, Colorado, Visual Resources. Fort Collins, Colorado: Resource Planning Associates, Inc. 83. March, Dennis and Mary. 1971. A Preliminary Analysis of the Rampart-Deckers-South Platte Recreation Area, Its Use and Abuse. Englewood, Colorado: Wildlife-2000. 84. Green, Bryn. 1981. Countrvside Conservation. London: George Allen and Unwin. 553021 210