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Significance of historic preservation to the economy of a community

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Title:
Significance of historic preservation to the economy of a community
Creator:
McGrath, Diane
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Language:
English
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59, [4], 37, [7] leaves : illustrations, maps ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Historic districts -- Economic aspects ( lcsh )
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration ( lcsh )
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Diane McGrath.

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University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15535035 ( OCLC )
ocm15535035
Classification:
LD1190.A78 1986 .M31 ( lcc )

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Full Text

Significance of Historic Preservation to the Economy of a Community
by
Diane McGrath
Prepared in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
PCD 972
Independent Study Thesis Preparation
for
Herbert H. Smith, AICP Assistant Dean/Professor
As An Exit Requirement for A Masters Degree of Urban and Regional Planning
College of Design and Planning A+P University of Colorado
LD
1190
A78 August, 1986
1986 M3136
c. 2



U1S700

// /?7T
/ftt
/V3/36
CL. 4


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statement of Purpose and Overview of the Study i
Introduction 1
Historic Preservation in America 4
Economics of Preservation 11
The Community The Developer
Pre-Designation Evaluation 45
Concluding Comments 52
Bibliography
Appendix - Historic District Development
Guidelines for Breckenridge, Colorado
Date Due


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I gratefully acknowledge the patient support of Assistant Dean Herbert H. Smith, without whose encouragement and counsel this thesis would not have been possible.


STATEMENT AND OVERVIEW
Statement of Purpose Overview of the Study


Can the designation of a historic district or the promotion of a^historical image be an important factor in the economic well-being of a community? This study reviews the findings of official historic districts and historical communities all over the United States with well-established systems of site specific landmark preservation. During the research for this study, information has been gathered from numerous sources - telephone and personal interviews, speeches at seminars and conferences, newspaper and magazine articles, reports and studies, and public record. A methodology for evaluating the potential economic impacts of historic preservation on a community developed during the analysis of the information. The intuitive information obtained from personal interviews has provided a view of the impacts of a historic district as perceived from within the communities.
During analysis of the information it was possible to determine that, generally, the existence of a historic district or of historical landmark sites has contributed to the prosperity of the towns. While, depending on the perspective, the impacts can be seen as negative or positive, the majority of the information indicates that if the community and developer are willing to tolerate the tedium necessarily involved in processing historic properties there are direct positive results. However, the indirect positive results are even more far-reaching and compounding in the community, as well as regionally.


If the community determines that they could benefit from establishing a historic preservation program or district, a model historic district development guide is provided to help insure the preservation of the historic buildings and promote the development of appropriate new structures. The model included in this report was written for the town of Breckenridge, Colorado. As an appendix to the Breckenridge Development Code, it guides all development within its National Historic District.


INTRODUCTION
What does preservation mean to a community?


In September, 1983, at the University of Denver Law Center, many planners, developers, financiers, economists and preservationists attended a seminar, entitled "Profitable Preservation" and sponsored by the Colorado Historical Society, to discuss the effects of preservation on Colorado communities. On the dais that day were several Denver preservation notables, and a surprise guest — Mayor Federico Pena. His presence added credibility to the notion that, even in a city as rapidly growing as Denver, preservation is a viable economic tool for development.
Mayor Pena focused his comments on the progress Denver has experienced since preservation efforts such as Larimer Square had been developed. He did not speak, though, of dollars and cents, or profit and loss, but rather of those intangible, difficult to perceive results of preservation development.
"Preservation is about the quality of life.
It is not anti-change. It is about preserving the quality of our city and neighborhoods such that we retain a human scale, and diversity of buildings. All of which add up to an environment that is visually stimulating and which provides a sense of stability to old and young alike. Where would we be without symbols and links to our past? Undistinguishable from other cities - without character and depth."
Denver, like most Colorado cities, is rich in history and is learning to capitalize on its history to attract tourists - and to provide a better environment for those who live there.
1


One of the major planning functions of many communities, is the preservation of arts historic structures, which may or may not involve historic district designation of a specific area. Planners in government must also be concerned with conservation of resources - natural and man-made. A report by the U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development recently pointed out that historic structures represent an enormous investment in materials, labor and time. Historic preservation could be called "urban conservation" and it is an excellent way to recover the worth of past investments. Additionally, encouraging new business development within rehabilitated areas spares government a portion of the cost of duplicating the infrastructure in underdeveloped areas.(1)
Preservation is an effort always embroiled in debate. The controversy lies in the fact that consciously, and aggressively, preserving the history of a town must be a community decision. Arriving at this decision involves many people and the impacts of this decision will be different for each of them. It will be a nuisance to some and a pleasure to others, a way of preserving the quality of life to one and inexpedient to another, but it must be a community commitment. The success of any municipal preservation program depends on effective communication, tremendous effort, cooperative negotiation, the interest and support of the community, and the sensitive leadership of


local administrators and officials who are also committed to
the preservation effort.
3


FOOTNOTES
1 Bruce K. Chapman, "The Growing Public Stake in Urban Conservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 9.


HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN AMERICA
What do Americans think of historic preservation?
Is our heritage something we want to preserve?


Town officials usually respond to the opinions and enthusiasm of the electorate when establishing goals for the community and regulations to attain them. If preservation becomes a priority of the public it will become a goal of the government and, the development regulations of the town will likely reflect that. Government has at least as much interest in historic preservation as it has in new construction these days because these reminders of society's past are important to a community's identity, roots and sense of continuity. Local government is also interested in fiscal responsibility and it has been proven that urban conservation is not just a romantic indulgence in nostalgia. It is a visible statement of the American values of frugality, good craftsmenship and community responsibility.(1)
Often, however, in our "throw-away" society, preservation is not taken seriously as a valid alternative to new construction. Since the Industrial Revolution, new has been good and old has been bad. Progress meant change and the more of it the better.(2) It is not hard to understand why Americans find preservation and maintenance so difficult a concept to grasp. It has not been that long since half of the United States was known as "the great frontier". Much of our national character still emanates from that sense of vast, unexplored lands just over the horizon. We haven't built our cities over and over on the same site, as the Romans did and haven't by necessity


confined our populations into dense cities as the Europeans do because of a shortage of land. Americans have always had the ability to move, rather than maintain. One citizen from a small resort town in America, originally from Norway, expressed it this way, "Europeans scoff at Americans for tearing down the old and rebuilding... it is not out of sentimentality or emotion (that Europeans preserve their historic structures), but respect for their past and commitment to their future." (3) Americans have grown to prefer the new, because we admire innovation. Even our common household appliances prove the point. It's much less expensive to replace a worn out toaster, than to have it repaired.(4) And so it is with the buildings which make up our cities - why go to the effort, energy and expense of maintaining and preserving the structures when they can be replaced with new structures?
When preservation initially began in America early in this century, it was seen as a harmless pastime that, though a somewhat frivolous pursuit, gave the retired and affluent something to do. However, through the years this effort, and the number of people involved, have increased tremendously. It now includes economists, planners, artists, first-time home buyers, and developers, among others. Those original preservation enthusiasts looking for pleasant diversions are only a small portion of the group now. The preservation movement is rapidly gaining momentum, and supporters, as planners in all fields realize that it
5


makes good economic sense. This growing endorsement is due to the fact that the sensitive reuse of old buildings has proven repeatedly to be financially and environmentally profitable. Though the validity of preservation development as a financial alternative to new construction is a concept many in the business community still hesitate to fully accept, some developers are pioneering the field and doing very well. It makes equally good sense from the perspective of city government, as communities try to redevelop the central city and expand the tax base. When done well, preservation can mean profits for business and tax dollars for government.(5)
Clark Strickland, Regional Director of the western states office of The National Trust for Historic Preservation in Denver, claims that "rehabilitation costs less" than new construction.(6) Its economic value is further evident when we consider that "a historic district (or image) is a very important marketing tool." Many large companies such as Coca Cola, AT&T, and IBM have used the history and nostalgia theme in their sales campaigns recently. It was a time more geared to the human scale, communities oriented toward people and not cars, buildings that were architecturally interesting without being intimidating, structures on a scale that did not dwarf the individual. In an effort to explain the attraction to America's past in our high-tech world of today, John Naisbett, author of Megatrends says "people always look for
6


humanistic counterbalances to technological innovation."(7) The personal scale of past styles, and the link to a time when craftsmenship was important, balance a sometimes overwhelming world of machines. Developers are beginning to realize that people often find greater contentment in the comfortable scale and friendly texture of restored urban districts than they do in the midst of new buildings that almost seem intended to make ordinary people feel unimportant.(8)
There are no precise ways to measure the effect or define the significance of historic preservation on a community. This study examines statistics, and while these give an outline, the clearer picture is drawn primarily by observation of the direct, and the indirect, results of historic preservation. Of course, there are the obvious measurements such as improved crime rate, increased business and social activity, larger crowds of retail customers, and an increase in the number of improvements to private property. Intuitively, one could say that when these things occur the town will be more attractive to tourists, which will improve the economy as well. Supporters of preservation use words like community pride, sense of history, continuity, charm and character to describe the effect, but these are all intangible and give only a feeling for what occurs, rather than conclusive evidence of a benefit received. Describing community pride will not satisfy those who want proof of economic benefit resulting


from historic preservation prior to committing their resources to the effort. Research has shown, though
Aj
' that;
from increased tourist income to expanded property tax revenue, given enough time and the right combination of factors preservation can result in an improved economy.
But, whether we believe the research that claims preservation improves the economy of communities or not, the importance of these historic buildings as limited resources should be expressed and understood. Like rare birds on the verge of extinction, our heritage is also endangered, as every year more of these resources disappears The loss is usually so gradual that a community may not notice until it is too late.
If ill-considered demolitions and relocations of structures are allowed to occur the economies of many communities would suffer because they depend heavily on their historic image for business. Without their historical homes and businesses, each would become just another suburb.(9)
Historic preservation has been successful for social reasons to some extent. Today, when a return on investment depends upon the speed with which a building is constructed and its economy of labor and materials, our economy has produced an abundance of houses which lack character and detail in their architecture, are located in neighborhoods without any sense of neighborhood, and are
8


void of simple amenities such as trees, sidewalks, and porches; and commercial buildings which are larger than human scale, with an architectural style that is intimidating, repetitive and boring. Restoration of older neighborhoods built in a simpler time, when craftsmenship rather than speed was important, have given people a sense of time, place and continuity - important social considerations. In addition to the social benefits, preservation and adaptation have contributed substantive economic benefits by providing jobs, stimulating business activity, and revitalizing downtown areas.(10)
The importance of the preservation of our history was illustrated in San Francisco when, after twenty years of deliberation, San Franciscans decided to designate their cable car system as a National Historic Landmark even though it represented an operating loss to the city. They recognized that the cable cars, for which their city is so famous, were worth millions of dollars in good will, publicity and tourism. More importantly, they are a source of community pride and identity.
The Old Santa Fe Association in Santa Fe, New Mexico, established in 1926, has been charged with preserving and maintaining the ancient landmarks, historical structures and traditions of Old Santa Fe, guiding its growth and development, "while sacrificing as little as possible of the unique charm which is the priceless asset
9


and heritage of Old Santa Fe."(11) This has had the effect of preserving the quality of life for its citizens, as well as providing a stable tourist-based economy.


FOOTNOTES
1 Bruce K. Chapman, "The Growing Public Stake in Urban Conservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 9-13.
2 Wes Uhlman, "Economics Aside", Economics Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 5.
3 Personal interview with Olav Pedersen, citizen of Breckenridge, March, 1982.
4 Dennis Holder, "And Now, From the Friendly Folks on Madison Avenue", Historic Preservation, (August, 1984), p. 29.
5 Uhlman, op. cit.
6 Telephone conversation with Clark Strickland, Regional Director for the National Trust For Historic Preservation, Western States,, August 31, 1983.
7 Holder, op. cit.
8 Chapman, op. cit. p.9.
9 Strickland, op. cit.
10 Thomas D. Bever, "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation", Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, (May, 1978),
p. 1.
11 Gerreld L. Pulsipher and John E. Rosenow, Tourism - The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, (Nebraska: Century Three tress, 1979), pp. 45-46.


ECONOMICS OF PRESERVATION
The Community The Developer


Three important developments over the last ten to fifteen years have heightened the awareness of historic preservation in the United States. Preservationists are becoming more and more sophisticated in their appreciation for the built environment as a whole, rather than its individual parts. Where in the early preservation years the preservation and restoration of one building at a time was seen as the goal, now the saving of entire neighborhoods has widened the scope of preservation activity. Districts were formed to protect each landmark building within its boundaries and to maintain the purity of their history in the context of a neighborhood.(1)
The second, and probably most important, change which occurred was the realization that with rapidly growing inflation and the energy shortages plagueing the United States, preserving already existing buildings and adaptively re-using them was an economically sound development tool. Historic buildings were found to be important resources that could provide the missing link in making a development proposal financially feasible. This awareness was not the result of any far-sighted thinking on the part of developers, but because statistics and feasibility studies began reporting the success of early preservation developments. Developers and local governments became aware that rehabilitation and restoration of these resources resulted in rising property values, increased private
11


investment, a broader local and state tax base, the creation
of new businesses and jobs, and increased tourism.(2)
The increases in cost of new construction, have made existing buildings better buys when analyzed on a cost performance basis. When the expense of constructing a structural frame is compared to the purchase of an existing one in an old building part of the value of a historic building is realized. The same obvious value is discovered with comparison of the other elements of construction. The construction loan term can be shortened because of the reduced amount of construction time, which is a loan cost savings. The lengthy and costly development review process can often be minimized in a community committed to preservation.(3)
Finally, it was discovered that preservation cured many of the ills of downtown blight areas. Preservation is now not only seen as a development tool, but also as an effective urban renewal element. It has revitalized downtown business areas, redeveloped housing stock, had a positive effect on the growing crime rate, rekindled community pride and helped to make our urban areas centers of activity and attention again.(4) These are all ingredients that enhance the quality of life.
12


The Community
Tourism
The tourist industry is booming in America. Even during the recent years of economic recession, travel and tourism was on the rise. This is probably due to the fact that people are working harder, longer hours, and they need recreation to counteract the stress which is so common with today's technological, highly competitive jobs. Another reason that travel has become so popular could be that there are more interesting places to visit. Cities all over are marketing themselves as resort areas to funnel some of the tourist dollars into their communities. Some cities, though are observing the trend before deciding to become a tourist resort. A few have decided that opening their towns up to the tourist is too high a price to pay for additional revenue. Many of the cities which are promoting tourism successfully, though, have gone through the process of establishing their downtowns as historic districts, or have committed themselves to preserving their individually significant structures and are promoting their historic image.
The process involves cooperation and communication among the citizens, a great deal of volunteer help, researching historical information on the town and buildings, obtaining certification from the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and then beginning to restore the


town's buildings, streets, walkways, and parks. Quite often public improvements precipitate private improvements.
Once the town is committed to preservation and is convinced it will attract tourists, money is usually appropriated for initial improvements to town-owned property to get the ball rolling. Then little by little, property owners begin to make improvements, minor at first, and then, when the profits accrue, more elaborate restoration projects are undertaken. These activities may take place in the context of an entire district, or in isolated rehabilitated historic structures, and will attract the number of tourists necessary to have a positive effect on the revenues of the town.
Communities which have developed their tourist industry and based it on the area's unique assets will also be good places to live because the tangible ties to their heritage provide cultural roots for their citizens.(5) Communities which allow their historic buildings to be demolished and replaced with copies of historic styles, lose their sense of place and, consequently, their sense of community. This mistake, if allowed to continue, will produce nothing more than theme parks, attractions which tourists tend to visit only once. If a community is to profit economically from the promotion of its historic buildings, it must provide a place people want to come back to, a place where people can get a glimpse of the origins of the community. Without this, its an experience much like
14


beginning a story in the middle of the book - unsatisfying, and not worth repeating.
The west is just catching up with the "historic preservation-tourist revenue" concept which is so prevalent in the eastern United States. Most eastern states consider their heritage important, and historic buildings resources to be cultivated and protected. The state of Virginia, for instance, considers their historic buildings, sites, and districts to be unique features of the scenic, recreational and cultural facilities of the state, which project a positive image and are the source of much of the state's income. Preservation is a major tool for urban revitalization and provides the basis for the state's tourist industry.(6)
In the Executive Summary of "Managing a Resource: The Public's Investment in the Preservation and Development of Virginia's Historic Landmarks", 1982, it is claimed that "while it will ever remain true that dollars and cents cannot begin to measure the educational, aesthetic, and patriotic value of this resource, Virginia's historic buildings and archeological sites are nevertheless an active economic factor and an irreplaceable capital asset, contributing significantly to local employment and prosperity and to local and state government revenues".


Property Values
Increasingly, developers have been able to leverage their short term financial needs with government's ability to look at the larger picture and reap the long term rewards of increased property value. Governments have discovered that giving up a small revenue source now, may be the final piece to the financial puzzle for a development that, over the years, will become a solid revenue source for the city or state and in addition will be the catalyst for other revenue generators, such as employment, housing and the tourist industry.
The correlation between historic designation and property value is an interesting and complex issue. It would be difficult to deny that there is a relationship between these two elements. The prestige alone is enough to garner a higher price tag, but just the opposite may result when expenses are incurred for facade maintenance of a landmark structure. Cities often require that the building facades be accurately restored and maintained in return for leniency in the density and/or restoration of the rest of the site. Landmark status appears to exert mixed effects on property values.
In seven separately conducted landmark studies concentrating on the relationship of historic designation to property value, three found property values significantly increased when historic designation was a factor. The other
16


four determined, 1) that designation can incur reductions in property values? 2) that the impact varies by building, market, federal tax provision variables, etc.; 3) that the influence was difficult to document, and; 4) that the direct influence is minor, but numerous subjective variables which increase property values are indirectly affected by historic designation.(7) These studies examined districts in Virginia, Washington, D.C., Texas, Georgia, Washington,
Illinois, Missouri, and New York. In one of the studies which found that historic status has a positive market influence, it was determined that even unrestored buildings in the historic district of Alexandria, Virginia, were worth approximately two and a half times similar buildings outside the historic district. The same pattern appeared in Washington, D.C., where the value of unrestored buildings in the historic Capitol Hill area were approximately four times higher than those outside the area.(8) In 1977, the National Trust for Historic Preservation commissioned an analysis of the market values of residential properties in the Georgetown historic district compared with those in the rest of the District of Columbia. The study concluded that, in all categories of properties analyzed, not only was there a considerable difference in value, but that the difference widened each year as those buildings within the district increased in value by almost one and a half times that of the buildings outside the district. It was noted that there
17


were comparable historic district-property value relationships observed in other cities:(9)
Houses in the Winston-Salem (North Carolina) historic district sold for double the price of comparable homes located elsewhere in the city.
In St. John's Church Historic District (Richmond, Virginia) restored houses sold for considerably more than physically similar properties located just over the district's boundaries.
Since the Old Towne section of Portsmouth (Virginia) was declared aOhistoric district, residential buildings there increased in value at a rate more than double that of the average of such properties in Portsmouth as a whole. Houses within the district sold for three to four times more than comparable structures located elsewhere in the city.
Similar "wel1-above-average-to-extraordinary" property-value increases were evident in other historic areas, including Philadelphia's Society Hill, New Orleans' Vieux Carre, and the historic districts in Annapolis, Maryland, and Charleston, South Carolina.
Hamilton, Inc. in 1979 for the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation examined property value trends in the historic districts of Alexandria's Old Town (Virginia), Galveston's Strand (Texas), Savannah's National Landmark area (Georgia) and Seattle's Pioneer Square (Washington). Through comparison of property selling prices from within and outside these areas it was concluded that "significant increases in the real estate value of properties in the historic districts occurred and that sales figures reflect direct link between location in an historic district and a higher value."(10)


LANDMARK DESIGNATION. PROPERTY VALUE, AND PROPERTY ASSESSMENT FLOW CHART OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS
-- - ... . . .. . r_ , ..
Landmark Factors Affecting — Property Value Variables Influencing Presence/Strength of Landmark Factors - Property Value —►•Appropriate Assessment Procedures Impact
1. Landmark prestige, protection, etc should be factored in selecting comparables.
2. In identifying landmarks, note if properties are individually designated or are part of an historic district.
Landmark status imposes: Property current/highest and best economic use: The further the divergence, the greater the practical significnace of landmark's redevelopment restrictions. Property Alteration Potential: Properties with a greater likelihood of facade and other changes are more susceptible to regulatory costs. 1.Assess landmarks at their current not highest and best use.
A1 teration/Demolition Restrictions —► Decreasing 1 Property Values ->
Regulatory Costs 2.Factor regulatory-related costs. •
Regulatory Process: Regulatory
costs are influenced by the scope/ efficiency of the landmark regulatory review procedures.

Facade Physical Characteristics: Properties with hard-to-maintain 3.Factor special facade and property maintenance costs.
facades are more prone to facade outlays.
Source:
David Listokin, Landmark Preservation and the Property Tax (New York Landmarks Conservancy, 1982)


The annual report of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation referred to designation's price effect as one evidence of preservation's benefits and listed numerous elements of influence. Among those were prestige and protection. Historic designation is often marketed as one of a property's special qualities and at least some buyers are willing to pay a premium for the distinction. To some degree this is due to the fact that the area is protected to a higher degree than areas outside the district from demolition, urban renewal, higher densities, non-conforming uses, and so forth. Additionally, there is a certain guarantee that any development in the neighborhood must be compatible architecturally relative to scale, form, proportion, design and detail to the historic structure in the neighborhood and the district.
However, an interesting, but potentially damaging cycle occurs once a historic site or area has been identified. Public interest in the site makes it well-known and desirable. This very desirability and recognition of the site as being a prime location, provokes changes in the the zoning laws to allow higher and larger buildings in the area, and on that site. This will eventually lead the property owner to consider demolition of the historic building or site which fostered the importance of area in the first place.(11) Cities must take care to discourage this from happening by allowing historic property owner to


receive the same return on his investment as others in the area.
There have also been cases where decreasing property values have been documented when governmental restrictions on alterations and demolitions have impeded a landmark owner's ability to modernize the structure. "The landmark owner may lose income if he is unable to bring (the) interior space up to the standard of buildings that compete with it for tenants, and to increase its operating efficiency through periodic renovation."(12)
Even though in some cases there may be a strong demand for development in its established older areas, complete rejuvenation is not always inevitable and when it does occur, it does not necessarily assure that an area's future will be bright. Examples of such failed districts are Gas Light Square in St. Louis and Underground Atlanta in Georgia. There must be a spirit of commitment and cooperation among the property owners, as well as government, for preservation to positively affect revenues. All property owners gain when all reinvest, but when some do not reinvest in their property they experience an unearned gain in value as a result of the investments of neighboring owners. Those property owners that did reinvest will receive a lower rate of return on their investments because of the adverse environmental influence of the unimproved neighboring property.(13) The problem is that each owner
21


would have a better rate of return by doing nothing, provided that the other property owners reinvested; and each would have a worse rate of return by reinvesting, provided that the others did nothing. So, if the property owners are thinking in quantitative, rational terms, each will continue to do nothing. There is no incentive to reinvest without assurance that the others will do the same.(14) This is where community commitment and trust come into play. The owners must feel confident that investment in their property is part of an overall community plan for improvement and the investment can be recouped in a reasonable period of time.
It is very important at this point that some entity provide the leadership and continuity to keep the momentum going and the goals in mind, whether it be the local government or a citizens' group.
A number of actions can be taken to encourage private investment in historic sites:
1. Survey landmarks and educate the public to their value;
2. Initiate both local and state legislation to support preservation;
3. Fund capital improvements;
4. Establish nonprofit corporations or preservation foundations;
5. Lease or acquire landmarks, and in some cases participate in ventures with private developers;
6. Use incentive zoning and tax relief to promote preservation;
22


7. Develop design guidelines and preservation criteria;
8. Prepare comprehensive preservation plans.(15)
Though research indicates that creation of a
historic district or promotion of a historically accurate image has an influence on the economic success of an area, this does not necessarily mean that success is guaranteed. Negative conditions may exist in the neighborhood which have an equally strong influence which will offset the positive effects of historic designation. The buildings might be in such a delapidated condition that they are not attractive to investors, or adverse environmental influences, such as traffic, air pollution, and noise, may exist that detract from the investment picture.(16) Also, for the benefits of preservation to occur, it may require that other factors be in play. For instance, the historic district in Telluride, Colorado, has significant potential, but probably will not create the hoped for demand without a larger rental room base, improvements to the ski area and better access to the town.(17) In these situations the potential for profit still exists, but as in all cities, preservation is merely a part of the plan for economic improvement, not the whole plan, and in some cities it plays a bigger role than in others. Just as the character of each city is unique, the plan to preserve it will also be unique.
For every report of diminishing value with historic designation, there are many others which claim that
23


the value of any historic structure is enhanced with designation.
The Harris Street Group, a planning consulting firm hired by the town of Breckenridge, Colorado, to write its comprehensive plan, said, in the Historic Resources Section of the "Breckenridge Resource Base" document:
In every historic district studied, both land values and new construction have increased above the average for the area. It seems that this was stimulated by the town's demonstration of confidence in the area through establishing a district as well as the fact that property owners within the district know that they are all equally regulated by the same rules which are intended to protect the district as a whole. The towns have also recognized a distinct increase in tourism, resulting from interest in the restored historic buildings. In a tourist-based economy such as (Breckenridge's), we cannot afford to waste this valuable asset.
The value of a historic district or neighborhood as an initiator of economic activity is evident when we look at the statistics of the Pioneer Square Historic District on Seattle's waterfront. Between 1969 and 1976, this district experienced a 114 percent increase in assessed valuation, while the citywide average was only 79 percent and the number of businesses nearly doubled in the district between 1974 and 1977.(18) The major increases in property values and the number of new businesses have promoted social and economic stability for not only Pioneer Square, but have promoted a growing residential population in the outlying neighborhoods. The economic improvements occurring as a result of Pioneer Square have helped to diversify Seattle's


economy as well.(19) Once again residents are proud to be a part of Seattle. The city has become special because no other city can duplicate its unique history.(20)
In an article entitled "A History of Pioneer Square", Arthur M. Skolnik, Washington State conservator and state historic preservation officer, states that:
"The economic benefits are obvious. The tax base of Pioneer, which was next to nothing, is now high. We used to refer to a 450 percent increase in the tax base. Now it would be possible too cite a 1,000 percent increase. The revenue is generated in many ways and forms — property, sales, and liquor taxes; increased employment; improved transit support; an untold amount of tourist dollars; and so forth. What began as a philanthropic gesture became one of the most important economic generators in Seattle's recent hard times. The impact of all this has been not only citywide, but regional. In short, preservation has been an economic benefit for individuals, the city proper, the metropolitan area and the entire state of Washington."
The Portland Press reported that the experience in
Bath, Maine, serves as an example of successful
revitalization of a small town based principally upon
historic conservation. Between 1976, when designation of
their historic district took place, and 1979 twenty-two new
businesses opened, the first in eighteen years.(21) The
well-known success of Savannah, Georgia's Historic District
is due primarily to their Historic Savannah Foundation which
has promoted the restoration of more than 800 buildings and
the reclamation of nearly three square miles of downtown
property. Their restored homes, shops and squares draw


increasing numbers of tourists each year, who in turn bring
millions of dollars into the city's economy.(22)


Summary
A study by Raymond, Parish, Pine and Weiner for the New York Landmarks Conservancy in 1977 examined whether historic designation impacted on the economic value of property. They examined prototypical blocks within three historic districts in New York City and selected comparable blocks in adjacent areas outside the historic districts.
They concluded that designation "did not exert a quantifiable, independent effect", but that the "intangible or subjective benefits of historic designation appear to be real". Historic district designation drew the communities together, attracted new families, promoted stability and created a sense of pride. Their study concluded that designation improves the social fabric of a community, which in turn strengthens the property values.(23)
One of San Francisco's most popular tourists spots is Ghiradelli Square. Developed in 1964, it was one of the first of the large marketplace-type projects to be built from an old factory. Since then many old factories, schools, train depots, post offices, etc. have been transformed into centers of activity, not only in San Francisco, but across the country.(24)
The preservation efforts in Galveston, Texas, have produced the Strand Historic District, which contributes as much as $13.5 million annually in tourist dollars. The


initial motivation was to preserve their historic buildings and promote an appreciation of them, but those efforts have also stimulated their downtown business and extended their tourist season into the winter months. For a city which until recently existed primarily on its summer economy, the increase in winter business has had a stabilizing effect on the community.(25)
Particularly on the east coast, it is generally recognized that well-maintained historic districts and neighborhoods attract tourists and ancillary businesses, which adds to the economic welfare of the community by revitalizing the central business district. This in turn enhances the town's special ambiance and the civic pride of the residents. In a report of the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior, an economist analyzed a number of rehabilitiation and conservation projects in communities as diverse as Boston,
Atlanta, Dallas, Denver, Savannah, Pittsburgh, and Burlington, Vermont and concluded that they had generated economic benefits often equal to or greater than those derived from new construction. Benefits such as higher employment due to the labor-intensive nature of rehabilitation, savings in building and demolition costs, shorter completion time of construction, and fewer delays caused by community opposition were typical.(26)
28


The Developer Government Regulation
For the most part, local government was appreciative of the changes occurring in their neighborhoods and allowed the developers a somewhat restrained freedom to make "improvements" as they saw fit. However, some of the improvements were improper or inaccurate attempts at restoration which had the effect of adding icing to the icing. Buildings were restored to styles and time periods they had nothing to do with. Additions were made which were overwhelming and distracted from the original historic structure. Decorative trim was added to buildings to give them the "gingerbread" look. Some pretty horrendous transformations have taken place in the name of preservation. Partly this was due to inexperience, ignorance, and a good deal of greed was involved much of the time. Once they realized what was happening to their historic communities, local governments began regulating restoration projects, providing expertise and historic data when available. Citizen's commissions were formed to guide and sometimes regulate historic projects. As more people became involved, more regulations were adopted and this meant additional red tape and costly time lost for the developer. The initial financial advantage of preservation projects still exists, but they are not so great an
29


advantage for the developer as they once were. However, in 1976 the Federal Government sweetened the pot.
Section 2124 of the Federal Tax Reform Act of 1976, revised 1981, The Economic Recovery Tax Act and the 1984 Tax Reform Act provide major tax incentives for rehabilitation by owners of commercial or income-producing historic structures by allowing the owner a 25 percent tax credit and amortization over sixty months of any capital expenditure incurred in the rehabilitation of a certified historic structure. This would be one which had been documented and certified by the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be a structure significant to the city, state, or nation. The economics of this provision have been very attractive to some developers and can make the difference between demolition and new construction, or saving and restoring a building with a past. From 1976 to 1979, 753 rehabilitation projects representing $424 million in investment funds were certified to receive tax benefits.(26) Further, the Trust estimates that
credit-aided private investment totalled $8.18 billion between 1982 and 1985. More than 3,000 projects representing more than $2 billion of private investment were approved for tax credits in both 1984 and 1985. Also, since 1981 local economies have experienced a $5.65 billion increase in wages and nearly $16 billion in increased retail sales as a result of historic rehabilitation projects.(27)
30


The tax credit incentives proved to be a significant benefit.
Rebecca Waugh, Director of the Breckenridge Historic Commission in Colorado, reported, in a July, 1984 article for the Summit County Sentinel Newspaper, that "developers can receive as much as one dollar back (from) every four dollars spent to renovate a (historic) building...this federal tax incentive is reason enough for many (property owners) to...save their structures." States also encourage preservation through their own tax incentives. Techniques such as property tax abatement, income tax relief, local levies, and grant-in-aid programs have been used by many states to provide additional incentives to the developer. The National Park Service administers the grants-in-aid program, which funds local historic surveys, activities and projects, the National Register, the Historic American Buildings Survey, the Historic American Engineering Record, the Inter-Agency Programs, and the Surplus Federal Properties Act.(28) The National Trust for Historic Preservation is responsible for the Grants to the National Trust to facilitate public participation in the preservation of historic properties.(29) The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has programs that encourage preservation such as the community development block grants, the Section 8 existing housing program, the Title I home improvement loan program, the urban reinvestment task force, the urban


homesteading design program, and the comprehensive planning assistance program.(30)
An advertisement in Preservation News , January,
1986, for the Sybedon Corporation, reads, "Buildings, too, improve with age. Especially if they're 40 years old or older." This real estate development and investment company has found that the tax laws make rehabilitation very profitable. Through financing techniques such as outright purchase, joint venturing, tax exempt bonds, financing and project syndication development companys have provided the capital necessary to give many historic district properties an opportunity for development.
Frequently, though, the complicated procedures, numerous regulations and number of approving agencies involved have discouraged perspective preservationists. The developer is in the position of being required to satisfy both local, Federal, and often state regulations, before being allowed to take advantage of the incentives or to develop his property. Visionary developers are willing to endure the tedious task of preservation to produce a building of beauty and character that will generate not only short term profits for the developer and the neighborhood, but most importantly long term profits. As an added incentive to developers and property owners, some local governments have granted limited, short-term property tax relief for restoration projects in the form of tax abatement
32


ordinances. The city freezes the tax base at the current unrestored level for a period of time, typically several years, and at the end of that time taxes the property at its restored value. The confidence with which they are able to do this is due to the fairly predictable increase in property values, accompanied by higher property tax assessments that typically occur with preservation developments.
Tax increment financing is another method of providing financial incentive to the developer. The difference, or increment, between the unrestored and restored tax revenue allocation is used for reinvestment in the property or bonds, secured by the increment, are used for the redevelopment with no increase in taxes and no use of city revenue.(31) Once a local government is committed to preservation, it is important to establish a development atmosphere that attracts the sincere and innovative developer. Open, direct negotiation between the developer, the local government and the local lending institutions can make the difference in developing a project which is a success from all points of view.
Restrictions on demolitions have the most significant effect on the economics of a project. The intensity of use which a developer is able to place on a property creates the site's potential income and value, i.e. all other things being equal, the higher the intensity, the
33


greater the potential income and value. One of the major governmental elements in establishing and maintaining a historic district and landmark status are restrictions on demolition.
It goes without saying that demolition of any landmark status structure is absolutely prohibited, and in most historic districts it is extremely difficult to obtain a demolition permit for other structures within the district as well. The thought being that, if not currently capable of landmark status, all structures will eventually be, at least, considered historic structures and each of them adds an important element to the unique character of the district, neighborhood or community. The determining factor is usually whether the structure is significant to the history of the community. For instance, is it connected to an important event or person locally or nationally, or was it always a part of the fabric of the community?
Restricting demolition of structures on a site adversely affects those projects whose profitability would be increased by demolition of one or more of the existing structures and replacement by a higher intensity of use.
The most serious consequences occur when the structures are in a delapidated state of repair or when their square footage is far below that allowed by zoning on other vacant sites in the community. Historic designation of the site or structure can drastically lower its potential value to a
34


developer because it disallows replacement by more profitable use.
One mechanism communities have used to improve the attractiveness of historic preservation to potential developers when demolition is a threat, is the process called transfer of development rights. This offers an advantage to both the developer and the city by allowing him, or her, to receive reasonable compensation based on the zoning rights of the property, but allows the city to preserve the historic nature of their district and community.
The city first establishes their Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) program. The program will recommend that density rights allowed by zoning on all sites within the historic district or neighborhood, or only those which contain historically significant structures, be amended. In the case of vacant sites, an allowable lot coverage would be established which would maintain the character of the existing district or neighborhood, and excess density over the amount allowed by zoning would have to be placed in an area, or areas, designated by the city outside the district or neighborhood. Those sites which contain historic structures would receive the same lot coverage allowance, except that it would be reduced by the amount of square footage in the existing structure(s). One of the most controversial aspects of TDR programs has been
35


the selection of those areas in the city which will be allowed to receive the extra density. Typically, these have been the downtown business areas where high densities are already envisioned and more complex infrastructures are planned. It may seem that this gives the property owners in these areas an advantage over other property owners in the city in additional development rights, but, in theory, they must pay a fair price for the right to develop this additional square footage. Appraisers are just beginning to understand the intricacies involved in assessing the value of development rights in a historic district. The potential value of a property is not an easy thing to assess for any property, but particularly those within a historic district or neighborhood. Its success is dependent upon so many people and events.
Peter D. Bowes, MAI, another speaker at the "Profitable Preservation" seminar, stated that designation will actually diminish the value of designated historic property due to the restrictions which will be placed on its development. Any preservation restriction is an encumberance on historic district property, and encumberances devalue property. He does acknowledge, however, that in the real estate and retail markets, location is everything and a location in a historic district or neighborhood implies elitism with the attendant higher price tag.(32)
36


Preservation easements have been utilized by some communities when, due possibly to the depalidated condition of the building, it is feasible to preserve only the facade of a historic building. These are agreements between the property owner and the government, or private preservation organization, giving that agency a perpetual right to approve or disapprove alterations to the property, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of the facade and allowing the property owner to make alterations as necessary to the interior. Real estate appraisers consider these easements encumberances against the property with the corresponding devaluation. However, such an easement may contribute additional prestige to owning such a property, much the way that official landmark designation has been shown around the country to stabilize and often improve property values with historic districts or neighborhoods. Developers are more willing than ever to incorporate preservation easements into their projects because the charitable gift deduction for the donation makes an attractive additional tax feature.(33)
One of the main problems with restrictions placed on development within a historic district or neighborhood is that they are never the same from one city to the next, from one district or neighborhood to the next, or even from one building to the next. Because so many subjective elements are involved in determining the appropriateness of a project, it is impossible to predict with any certainty the conditions and restrictions that will be placed on the


development of the project. The ambiguity of restrictions on landmark alteration and demolition makes the assessment of a historic property's potential value very difficult to determine. Development standards have been established by local preservation regulating bodies and by the National Trust, but these standards are merely guidelines to help determine whether the project is appropriate for the historic area, or inappropriate and the development should be prohibited. These restrictions create uncertainties for the developer which lead to the big debate of historic preservation - profitable or costly? And this debate resulted in development of TDR districts to balance the profit and loss, or distinction and "damages", caused by historic designation. Transfer of development rights programs have become an effective method for historic districts and neighborhoods to maintain the character of their communities and has made development within historic districts and neighborhoods more attractive to developers.
The uncertainty of the restrictions still create problems for the developer, but if the community establishes a cooperative atmosphere for development, the developer will see through the difficulties to the potential profits.
Sally G. Oldham, vice president of Langelier Historic Properties in Washington, D.C., claims that "tax credits have been the major reason for the boom in rehabilitation projects."
The adaptive re-use of old and


historic buildings comprises a large portion of those projects. Buildings that have outlived their usefulness have, in the past, been demolished and replaced with skyscrapers or new structures with contemporary architecture and construction techniques. However, the success of some enterprising developers in "turning threatened structures into productive and profitable second-hand roses" has prompted others to seek out abandoned buildings, or those that are being under-utilized, as candidates for rehabilitation projects. Concern that America is slowly losing the visual links to our heritage, has been the catalyst in many cases, but the advantages offered through federal tax incentives make these projects even more attractive. In 1980, the Department of the Interior approved $346 million worth of rehabilitation projects for tax breaks and three years later this figure had jumped to $2.2 billion worth. Obviously, the attraction of investment in rehabilitation projects has increased enormously. This increase is due in part to the fact that the scope and size of the projects are more ambitious than in the past.
In Los Angeles, California, a developer by the name of Wayne Ratkovich has successfully restored several large mixed-use buildings. Ruthann Lehrer, director of the Los Angeles Conservancy, says Mr. Ratkovich's "projects have shown that quality restoration is good for the city's quality of life as well as for businessmen’s pockets."
Those developers who are sensitive to the city's ethnic and


architectural resources will have enormous success. Mr. Ratkovich states he is "in business to build environments pleasing to people...(and his) reward is money."(34)
Herbert McLaughlin, AIA, of the firm Kaplan and McLaughlin in San Francisco, California, in an article prepared for Preservation Press entitled, "Preservation Costs and Commercial Buildings", compares the developer's costs in San Francisco of new construction (Table 1) versus rehabilitation (Table 2). He concludes that the costs of rehabilitation, when carefully done, are almost half what it costs for new construction.
40


Summary
A review of the research has shown that, though some developers allege that historic designation results in immediate decreased property value, and in some instances this is undoubtedly the case, the long term effects of historic designation on a community are the indirect, but dramatic benefits which occur subtley over a period of years. While difficult to document and quantify, these benefits are obvious to those well-acquainted with the communities in which they occur.
Quite often this is where the controversy emerges in a community. The citizens are presented with a decision which may have a significant cultural, economic and emotional effect on the town - whether to establish a historic district or to promote the historic image of the community. They try to predict what effect prservation and designation will have on their own community by examining its effect on other communities. This almost always falls into the comparing of "apples and oranges", due to the difficulty in finding similar case studies which have identical initial demographics, economic catalysts, regulations, neighborhoods, personalities and so forth. Communities are left to make their determination based upon the intuitive "evidence" obtained from personal interviews of the effects which have occurred indirectly as a result of preservation and designation in other communities. They


can be fairly certain, from the evidence of the majority of other cities, that if the community and property owners are committed to, and have a plan for historic preservation and designation, that it will have positive affects on the city.
For some members of the community this may not be enough.
Some estimate of the degree of beneficial impact may be required before the entire community feels the historic preservation and designation concept will be profitable and prudent to pursue.
Sample land value increases from other communities with similar demographics, development potential, and economies, should be examined by communities considering the designation of a historic district, or of individual buildings and promotion of the historic image, to estimate the economic impact of that designation.
Research indicates that when certain factors are in place the desired improvements in the economy will occur.
The rate at which this occurs is dependent upon the intensity of these factors and varies from community to community. The following two tables from Herbert McLaughlin, AIA, in San Francisco indicate that new construction costs almost twice that of preservation and rehabilitation. All of these factors exist in San Francisco, though, and come from a well-established intensity of commitment. Communities must examine their
42


situation to determine if the following factors exist or have potential:
Community commitment
Community enthusiasm
Sufficient number of significant historic properties
Financial community interest
Favorable economy
Favorable demographics
The next section suggests a methodology for communities to determine whether a historic preservation program would be an appropriate and beneficial addition the their economic development plan.


TABLE 1_______________________________________________
Costs of New Construction for 15 to 20 story Downtown
Building
cost/gross sq.ft.
Property acquisition Demolition Basic building Tenant improvements $ 3.00 .15 38.00 8.00
Subtotal (hard costs) $49.15
Interim operation (3 years) Architectural and legal fees Interim cash flow Marketing and financing real Developer overhead Interim financing Developer profit 2.70 2.60 estate fees 2.70 1.00 6.60 6.00
Subtotal (soft costs) $21.60
TOTAL $70.75
TABLE : 2
Typical Costs of Renovation
cost/gross sq.ft.
Acqui sition $ 9.00
Front-end renovation 2.50 Basic Building renovation 10.00 Tenant finishes 8.50
Subtotal (hard costs) $30.00
Vacant buildings cost (interim operating costs, taxes, insurance, etc. for 1.6 years) $ .80
Architectural, engineering and legal fees 1.60
Net interim income (1.00)
Marketing costs, leasing and financing fees 2.50
Developer's overhead .50
Interim financing 2.50
Developer's profit 3.00
Subtotal (soft costs) $10.90
$39.90
TOTAL


FOOTNOTES
1 Managing a Resource; The Public's Investment in the. Preservation and Development of Virginia1s Historic Landmarks, A Report of the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission (State of Virginia, 1982), pp. i-iii, 1-4.
2 Ibid.
3 Charles N. Tseckares, AIA, "Adaptive Office Space in Old Buildings", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation,
(Preservation Press, 1976), p. 76.
4 Managing a Resource: The Public's Investment in the Preservation and Development of Virginia's Historic Landmarks, op. cit.
5 Gerreld L. Pulsipher and John E. Rosenow, Tourism - The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, (Nebraska: Century Three Press, 1979), pp. 45-46.
6 Managing a Resource: The Public's Investment in the.
Preservation and Development of Virginia's Historic Landmarks, op. cit~I
7 David Listokin, Landmarks Preservation and the Property Tax, Assessing Landmark Buildings for Real Taxation Purposes, Center for Urban Policy Research and the
New York Landmarks Conservancy, (Rutgers University,
1982) pp. 27-52.
8 Ibid.
9 Ibid.
10 Ibid.
11 Giorgio Cavaglieri, FAIA, "Plus Factors of Old Buildings", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976) p. 53.
12 Listokin, op. cit.
13 Otto A. Davis and Andrew B. Whinston, "Economics of Urban Renewal," Law and Contemporary Problems, vol. 26, no. 1 (Winter 19~6l): 105-117.
14 Otto A. Davis and Morton I. Kamier, "Externalities,
Information, and Alternative Collective Action," The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditure, The PPS System, Joint Economic Committee Compendium, 91st


Cong., 1st sess., vol. 1 (1969), 67.
15 Weiming Lu, "Public Commitment and Private Investment in Preservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 35.
16 Dudley S. Hinds and William E. Lockard, Jr., Ph.D., "Historic Zoning Considerations in Neighborhood and District Analysis," The Appraisal Journal, (October,
1983) , 487-488.
17 Correspondence from John M. Wilhelms, MAI, of the Bishop Appraisal Group, Inc., Colorado Springs, Colorado, October, 1984.
18 Gordon L. Binder, John Clark and Claudia Wilson, Small Seaports - Revitalization Through Conserving Heritage Resources, The Conservation Foundation, (1979), 31.
19 Wes Uhlman, "Economics Aside", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 7.
20 Livability Digest, vol. 1, no. 1, (Fall, 1981), pp. 10-13.
21 Ibid, p. 32.
22 Pulsipher, op.cit., pp. 250-251.
23 Listokin, op. cit., pp. 42-43.
24 Sace Davis and Jonathon Walters, "The Boom in Born-Again Buildings," Historic Preservation, (August,
1984) , 18.
25 Livability Digest, op. cit., p. 10.
26 Preservation News, (December, 1979), p. 2.
27 Preservation News, (April, 1986), p. 2.
28 Richard C. Mehring, "Grants-in-Aid for Historic Preservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), pp. 97-99.
29 Truett Latimer, "Government Assistance in Preservation Financing: The State Sector", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 99-101.
30 George A. Karas, "HUD Programs to Support


Preservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), pp. 104-107.
31 William G. Seline, "Tax Increment Financing: A Key Preservation Tool", Economic Benefits
of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 49.
32 Listokin, op. cit.
33 Richard J. Roddewig and Jared Shlaes, MAI, "Preservation Easements Reconsidered: An Alternative Approach to Value", The Appraisal Journal, (July, 1984), pp. 326, 347.
34 Michael Webb, "A Hard-nosed Developer Proves the Experts Wrong", Historic Preservation, (April, 1984), p. 2 3 .


PRE-DESIGNATION EVALUATION
Determining the desirability of historic preservation for a community


There are several methods available when
estimating the potential economic value of a historic area to a community. One method is the comparison of the area's socio-economic characteristics before designation and projection of improvement (or effect) for sometime after designation has occurred. The comparison of before and after should examine such elements as neighborhood populations, household income, educational level, crime rate, housing rehabilitation frequency, and property values. Examination of economics and statistics only doesn't give a complete picture when studying the effects of something so subjective. Another method is through the interview process to obtain the intuitive and observable, but difficult to document, perception of community vitality before and the changes which have occurred as a result of historic preservation.
I have chosen a combination of these methods in developing a list of questions for community self-examination. The community leaders and planners, both professional and volunteer, should answer these questions honestly and with no thought to personal gain. The group may be a task force or ad hoc committee formed for this purpose. Once the committee has all the background information necessary to make decisions, public meetings should be conducted to hear from the community at large. In some areas it may be wise to perform house-to-house surveys to gather public opinion. In any case, it is most important
45


that these issues be well-understood and that the decisions
are made from community consensus. If not, the lack of community support will create controversy each time a development project involving a historic structure, or any structure within the historic area, is being reviewed. The issue of whether historic preservation is a benefit or detriment to the community will be debated fruitlessly each time also. Before successful rehabilitation development and new construction can take place there must be a community resolution of this issue.
The following questions initiate social, economic, and cultural investigation which should provide the information necessary for a community to determine whether a serious historic preservation program has sufficient support and, therefore, the potential for success:
Are the community's natural and man-made resources unique?
Do its older buildings provide a visual link to the community's past?
Does the community have the attitude that new is better; that as soon as something ages beyond the current national preferences for style, it must be modernized or replaced?
If found to be desirable, would the community or area qualify for entry on the National Register of Historic Places? Are there enough sites of significant historic value to justify a historic district or should the community devote its efforts to the designation of individual landmarks?
Is the community prepared for the changes which will occur with the hoped-for increase in tourists?


Is the community prepared for the capital improvements necessary to provide services to the increased visitor population?
If it is determined that the community must increase its water and sewage treatment capacity, are there sufficient existing revenues to fund the improvements? Or will it be necessary to commit future tax dollars for the improvements?
Will it be necessary to increase the community's capacity for solid waste disposal?
Is the current flood and storm drainage system adequate for the anticipated growth? If necessary can these improvements be funded with existing revenues? Will it be necessary to commit future tax dollars?
Will it be necessary to increase the capacity of utility systems such as power, gas, and communications?
How will historic preservation effect existing housing? Will it create a demand for additional housing?
Will historic preservation protect the aesthetic values and character of the community?
Will the preservation program directly or indirectly preserve public views and vistas? Or will they be lost? Are the guidelines written to discourage projects which destroy important vistas?
Will encouraging rehabilitation save energy?
Does the community consider this important to the overall well-being of the town?
Will the preservation program have a detrimental impact on the quality of public services such as fire and police protection, schools, parks, recreation facilities, and road maintenance?
Will the community commit future tax revenues to improve these services?
Will the road capacity handle the additional vehicular movements caused by the increase in visitor population? What will be the effects on the existing parking facilities? Will it be necessary to construct additional facilities?
Are the existing transportation systems adequate ^


for the expected increase in visitors?
Will the increase in traffic create undesirable circulation patterns? Will the increase be acceptable to the community at-large?
Will the increase in population, both permanent and visitor, have adverse impacts on the environment? Are these impacts mitigable?
Will preservation and an increased population create ecological deterioration in the area? Are there habitats, plant life, animal life, water sources, or other fragile environments that will be endangered due to the increased intensity of uses?
Will the water and air quality, and noise pollution be degraded passed acceptable limits?
Is the financial community involved and committed to the success of the community's historic preservation program?
Has the community examined the effects on other communities through written studies and documentation of the economic, demographic and social impacts historic preservation has had on these areas? Have these impacts been reviewed for applicability to their community? Are the negative impacts acceptable? Do the positive impacts outweigh the negative?
Is the community willing to avoid the temptation of short-term profits, which are available with every new development?
How will the community maintain control of the development pressure which will certainly come?
Will the community establish guidelines for rehabilitation and new construction within the historic district, which are restrictive enough to allow denial of projects that will have a negative impact on the historical integrity of the area? Will these guidelines also encourage appropriate rehabilitation and new construction?
Will it be necessary to provide incentives to encourage development within the district? Will these incentives include increased density?
Should some system be established for transferring density from within the historic area to outside


its boundaries?
Considering the existing and projected market conditions, is the historic preservation program economically feasible?
Will the program and its related activities require the expenditure of public funds in excess of the expected public revenues generated by the program?
If, after this examination is complete, the community determines that designation and/or preservation will be beneficial, the following should be accomplished:
1. Inventory of all historic structures gathering as much information as possible on each site or structure.
2. Establish a district boundary. Structures within should express a unity of architectural period and styles.
3. Develop goals and a plan for preservation.
4. Historic District Development Guidelines should be adopted which preserve the visual harmony of the area, particularly with regard to new construction.
5. Educate the reviewing board in the use of the Guidelines.
6. Establish the incentive program if one is necessary.
49


7. Develop various financial programs with
the local banking community and keep these updated.
50


SUMMARY
Part of what will determine the success of the district is the existing economic atmosphere of the community and whether the preservation and rehabilitation of historic buildings is viewed by the financial community as a valuable and viable contribution to the city's stability.
If it can be shown that designation will, in the short and long term, have a significant effect on the city's economic well-being, then not only the financial community, but the development and business communities will endorse the district with enthusiasm.
Examination of the community's resources, economic structure, and enthusiasm for development and change will form an overall picture of the community's future. It is important for the community to determine how to gain the most benefit from each resource and how to preserve those resources for future citizens of the community. The quality of life exists in a delicate balance - care must be taken to improve and maintain it .
51


CONCLUDING COMMENTS


In looking back over the information presented, and indeed the opinion of the majority of those informally interviewed and from whom an overall understanding was received, it is clear that historic preservation programs do have a significant effect on communities and there is the perception, at least, that this effect is beneficial.
The evidence uncovered indicates that property appraisers, those charged with the duty of quantifying the effects, have yet to concur on the formulas to be used when estimating the property value of a historic site. This is due to the widely varying ranges of local, state and Federal restrictions, and, also the ranges of support. Generally, it appears to be true, though, that while historic preservation does impose encumbrances, or restrictions, on a property, it is those very encumbrances which provide the distinctiveness that adds value to the property. This complex issue, with so many interrelated causes and effects, must be taken on a case-by-case basis. Location and community attitude appear to be the most influential effects on historic property value.
The documents researched repeatedly stressed the importance of certain factors to the success of local preservation efforts. The overall quality of the historic area and the individual sites within it is the number one element to a successful program. Whether the area is to be commercial or residential, or a combination of both, its
52


location — proximity to established areas, accessibility, and access to transportation systems — is the second most important factor. Finally, and in some ways this element is the most important, community enthusiasm and support have been shown to make the difference between failure of a superb historic resource, and the success of a mediocre historic area.
The negative effects of historic preservation were identified as primarily two — the added regulatory costs for developers and the added costs to government of providing services for the increased visitor and permanent population.
The direct and most obvious positive effects appeared as increased sales and property taxes and increased property values. The abundance of positive effects were identified as indirect results of preservation, but none the less important. Frequently, the participators in preservation view the high community self-esteem which develops from a preservation program to be the primary result and all the rest, which occurs as a result, to be side benefits. They cite the importance of community spirit to avoid the temptation of individual, short-term, profits, which defeat the efforts of all.
The research conducted with this study confirmed what I initially suspected, that historic preservation can be a significant factor in the economic well-being of a
53


community. However, I was intrigued with the amazing number of issues which effect the final results. Also, it was interesting to discover that time is such an important element, that preservation successes do not occur overnight, and that consistent, dedicated effort over a long period of time is the overwhelmingly important factor.
54


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Baker, Russell. "An Epidemic of Quaintness". Historic Preservation, 1983. p. 60.
Basquin, Susan. "A Tourist Detraction?". Preservation News, January, 1986. National Trust for Historic Preservation. p. 1.
Bever, Thomas D. "Economic Benefits of Historic
Preservation". Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, United States Department of the Interior,
May, 1978. p. 1.
Binder, Gordon L., John Clark and Claudia Wilson. Small
Seaports - Revitalization Through Conserving Heritage Resources. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation, 1979. 76 pp.
Cavaglieri, Giorgio, FAIA. "Plus Factors of Old
Buildings". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Chapman, Bruce K. "The Growing Public Stake in Urban
Conservation". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Davis, Otto A. and Morton I. Kamier. "Externalities, Information, and Alternative Collective Action".
The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditure.
The PPS System, Joint Economic Committee Compendium, 91st Congress, First Session. Volume I, 1969. p. 67.
Davis, Otto A. and Andrew B. Whinston. "Economics of Urban Renewal". Law and Contemporary Problems. Volume 26, Number 1, Winter, 1961. pp. 105-117.
Davis, Sace and Jonathon Walters. "The Boom in Born-Again Buildings". Historic Preservation, August, 1984.
p. 18.
Ditmer, Joanne. "Aspen Losing Its Character". The Denver Post, Housing Section G, August 19, 1984. p. 34.
Editor's Column. Preservation News, February, 1984. p. 4.
Harris Street Group. "Breckenridge Resource Base". Town of Breckenridge, 1976. 108 pp.
Hinds, Dudley S. and William E. Lockard, Jr., Ph.D.
"Historic Zoning Considerations in Neighborhood and


District Analysis". The Appraisal Journal. October, 1983. pp. 485-497.
Holder, Dennis. "And Now, From the Friendly Folks on
Madison Avenue". Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, August, 1984. p. 29.
Karas, George A. "HUD Programs to Support Preservation". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings.
National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Latimer, Truett. "Government Assistance in Preservation Financing: The State Sector". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Listokin, David. Landmarks Preservation and the Property Tax, Assessing Landmark Buildings for Real Taxation Purposes. Center for Urban Policy Research and the New York Landmarks Conservancy. Rutgers University, 1982. pp. 27-52.
Livibility Digest. Volume 1, Number 1. Fall, 1981. pp. 10-13.
Lu, Weiming. "Public Commitment and Private Investment in Preservation". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Mehring, Richard C. "Grants-in-Aid for Historic
Preservation". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 p.
Preservation News. April, 1986. p. 2.
Preservation News. December, 1979. p. 2.
Pulsipher, Gerreld L. and John E. Rosenow. Tourism - The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Nebraska: Century Three Press, 1979. 279 pp.
Roddewig, Richard J. and Jared Shlaes, MAI. "Preservation Easements Reconsidered: An Alternative Approach to Value". The Appraisal Journal. July, 1984. pp. 325-347.
Seline, William G. "Tax Increment Financing: A Key
Preservation Tool". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.


Tseckares, Charles N., AIA. "Adaptive Office Space in Old Buildings". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Uhlman, Wes. "Economics Aside". Economic Benefits of
Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.
Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission. Managing a
Resource: The Public's Investment in the Preservation and Development of Virginia's Historic Landmarks.
State of Virginia, 1982. 54 pp.
Webb, Michael. "A Hard-nosed Developer Proves the Experts Wrong". Historic Preservation, April, 1984. p. 23.
Wilhelms, John M.,
MAI. Correspondence, October, 1984.


APPENDIX
Breckenridge Historic District Development Guidelines


Once a community is committed to preservation, standards should be established to meet the community goals and to guide the development of not only the historical resources, but compatible new construction within the historic district. These guidelines should include a section describing the history of the community to give a basic rationale for the design standards and to help develop an appreciation for the town's past. It must be made clear that the community expects new buildings to be designed with respect for its history. Indiscriminate building, without regard for the community's history or the character of its historic buildings and neighborhoods will eventually result in the loss of these valuable assets.
A discussion of the architectural styles found in the town should be included to help designers build compatible new structures. The definition of compatibility should discuss elements of scale, form, finestration, proportions, materials, landscaping and site planning.
When historic buildings were originally constructed they were products of their time, using the most modern styles and materials available. Our contemporary buildings must be products of their own time or they lose their integrity. They can blend into our historic neighborhoods if they are designed with sensitivity to the past.(1)
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The intention of the document should be to provide a guide, not standards which will restrict creative solutions to design problems. It is the nature of historic districts or neighborhoods that almost all development situations are unique. Guidelines have the flexibility to allow unique solutions in a proactive rather than a reactive approach. In other words, the standards will not try to regulate every possible scenario, but will provide essential criteria to be examined for building in harmony with history.
The development and use of design guidelines will avoid the tendency to construct a theme park. When one new building after another is built as a replication of a past style, the actual history of the community is confused with the false history created by new copies of old buildings.
The character and integrity of the community is lost when its history is reduced to entertainment. History can be made appealing, but it can also be made confusing by adding the inaccuracies of new construction.(2) Even with a set of guidelines for development in its historic district, Breckenridge, Colorado, had a tendency to allow new buildings which replicated historic styles when it first began restricting what was built in its historic district.
It is a temptation which must be avoided. As several of these were built, the town became aware of their obvious inappropriateness beside the original historic buildings.
The new guidelines, included in this study, clarify the
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difference between copying exact styles and borrowing the proportions and scale of the past to combine them with the techniques and style of today in creating buildings which are a product of their own time, but which also blend peacefully with the old.
Nantucket, Massachussetts, a town heavily dependent on tourism for its livelihood, is struggling to keep from becoming a theme park. The nostalgia attraction for tourists was a very important element in their city planning. Nantucket's quaintness is well-known, and in an effort to make the most of it, the town "improved" many of its downtown streets by making them of cobblestones as one of their old original streets is. Many feel this, as well as fake gas lamps and other decorative items, have produced a theme park city with streets which are uncomfortable and inconvenient to travel. The difference between an authentic historic town and a theme park is that you can absorb everything there is to see in a theme park in one day, where it may take years to learn all there is to know about a real historic town. A town dependent on tourists is, of course, more interested in encouraging return visits.(3)
A continuity in approved standards of development must exist when design guidelines are in effect or the temptation for short-term profit creates inappropriate development - typically large, tall, square and covered with ornamentation.
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According to some observers, Aspen, Colorado, though it also has design guidelines, has approved many new additions to old structures which are insensitive and "new" Victorian-style buildings which overwhelm the authentic historic buildings.(4) Many longtime residents of Santa Fe, New Mexico, feel their city has been sacrificed to the tourist. One of the first towns to implement development guidelines, Santa Fe has always been looked upon as the model.(5) But as with most things, the tools are only as good as the artist who uses them. We must begin to see our historic structures as non-renewable resources to be carefully nurtured and protected.
Design guidelines provide the tools which allow this to happen, but those who use them must keep the goals of the community in mind. The city which considers its history one of its most significant assets, will have the protection and development of its historic structures and neighborhood as one of its primary goals.
The following Historic District Development Guidelines were developed for Breckenridge, Colorado, to guide all development within their historic district. It is included as a model for other communities. It was established to develop the community's unique character and to keep it from becoming just another suburb in the mountains.
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Once the historic district or neighborhood is established, self-monitoring of the progress and effects of preservation should be conducted periodically to help the community update their plan, project the future effects on the community, and determine whether their goals are being met.


FOOTNOTES
1 "Breckenridge Resource Base", Harris Street Group, (1976), pp. 80-85.
1 Telephone conversation with Clark Strickland, Regional Director for the National Trust for Historic Preservation, Western States, (August 31, 1983).
2 Editor's Column, Preservation News, (February, 1984), p. 4.
3 Russell Baker, "An Epidemic of Quaintness", Historic Preservation, reprinted from The New York Times,
(1983), p. 60.
4 Joanne Ditmer, "Aspen Losing its Character", The Denver Post. Housing Section G, (August 19, 1984).
5 Susan Basquin, "A Tourist Detraction?", Preservation News. National Trust for Historic Preservation,
(January, 1986), p. 1.


TOWN of BR EC KEN RIDGE
Department of Community Development - 1984
HISTORIC DISTRICT


BRECKENRIDGE HISTORIC DISTRICT GUIDELINES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I LIST OF ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I I INTRODUCTION 1
I I I DISTRICT MAP 2
I V HOW TO USE THESE GUIDELINES 2
V HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE 3.4
V I HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE ARCHITECTURE 6 12
V I I GENERAL HISTORIC DISTRICT GUIDELINES 13-17
VIII GUIDELINES FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION 18-28
I X GUIDELINES FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 29 36
X BIBLIOGRAPHY 37
XI APPENDIX
- Index
- Cultural Survey
- List of Agencies
- Preservation Incentives - to be Developed
- Transfer of Development Rights within Historic District - to be Developed




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This document has been written and compiled by DIANE McGRATH with assistance from:
LESLI EVERS, Breckenridge Community Development
REBECCA WAUGH, Breckenridge Historic Commission, Coordinator HETTY HARMON, Breckenridge Community Development
MARY JEAN LOUFEK, Breckenridge Community Development
CHRISTINE PFAFF, State Historical Society of Colorado
JOHN HUMPHREYS, Breckenridge Community Development, Director JON GUNSON, Architect BRECKENRIDGE TOWN COUNCIL BRECKENRIDGE PLANNING COMMISSION
This document draws freely from information published by the State Historical Society of Colorado and by the United States Department of the Interior and the Town wishes to gratefully acknowledge their contribution.


INTRODUCTION
In 1980, the Department of the Interior, National Park Service, designated Breckenridge as a National Register Historic District for its major historical contribution to America's present, because a significant part of America's past has been preserved here. Until recently, this had not been an active preservation effort, but the result of almost no growth between 1917, when World War I began, until the opening of the ski area in 1960, when the latest boom in the Breckenridge economy began.
Breckenridge is an outstanding example of an 1800's Colorado mining boom town with each of its phases of development still intact. The settlement, camp, and town periods of growth, as well as their progression, are evident in the many log cabins, simple clapboard, false-front buildings and the more elaborately detailed buildings.
The Town has recently confirmed its decision that designation as a National Register Historic District is a significant benefit to Breckenridge. It is a benefit individually, due to tax incentives provided for restoration and a certain amount of prestige that goes along with owning, living in or operating a business from a historic building. And also mutually, because Breckenridge has something many other ski resort areas do not have — Character. This is one of the Town's major attractions. Its historical integrity and its natural setting make it a resort unlike any other. Because of this the Town has made a commitment to preserving that character through careful preservation of our historic structures and sensitive design of new buildings. These guidelines were developed to accomplish that goal.
Objectives of these guidelines:
Reinforce the character of the historic area and protect its visual elements;
Improve the quality of growth and development;
Protect the value of public and private investment, which might otherwise be threatened by the undesirable consequences of poorly managed growth;
Preserve the integrity of the historic area by discouraging the construction of buildings that duplicate historic styles;
Indicate which approaches to design Breckenridge encourages as well as those it discourages;
Provide an objective basis for the decisions of design review;
Serve as a tool for designers and their clients to use in making preliminary design decisions;
Increase public awareness of design issues and options.
The charm of Breckenridge lies in its sense of history and its sense of community - and the knowledge that the character, which has taken over one hundred years to develop, is an honest reflection of our past. Breckenridge has always been a rough Town, built for function, not elegance. We hope to maintain the integrity of this character through application of these guidelines.
These design guidelines should function as a filter, to screen out designs that are obviously inappropriate for the District, and focus on protecting the essential visual characteristics of the District so as not to restrict creativity. This approach to design guidelines, which encourages contemporary design in a historic district actually broadens the range of design options that might be appropriate. From a visual standpoint, it can be argued that designs which duplicate historic styles are more compatible, because they certainly will have elements that are similar to those that already exist on the street. However, from the standpoint of historic interpretation, they are inappropriate because they confuse us, and our visitors, about the history of the life of the community. In addition, the new versions of historic structures are often technically inaccurate, and they cause even more confusion about what building styles were like in the past.
The challenge lies in meeting the needs of a first-class resort while still maintaining the original character of the Town. The architect's skills are the critical factor in achieving a good relationship between the modern functional requirements of a resort and the design features of our older buildings.


HISTORIC DISTRICT MAP
HOW TO USE THESE GUIDELINES
It is important to understand that these guidelines were written to express the standards of appropriateness which Breckenridge encourages, not to design buildings. They were also written so that we all have a common understanding with which to interpret devel-opment proposals.
Step One - Guidelines
Read these guidelines to help you understand what design criteria is used. If you are constructing a new building within the Historic District, Sections VII and VIII, contain the guidelines to follow in planning your project. If your project incorporates an existing historic structure in some way, Sections VII and IX are the guidelines to follow.
Step Two - Meet with Town Staff
Discuss your proposal with a staff member of the Community Development Department. They will be able to alert you to any initial concerns and see that you are headed in the right direction.
Step Three - Meet with Historic Commission Coordinator
It is important to discuss your project with the Historic Commission early in your planning process. The Breckenridge Historic Commission Coordinator can help you a great deal in determining what is significant about your building or site with regard to its historic character. If you are constructing a new building, research the history of the area with the Breckenridge Historic Commission and specifically the block where you are building. This will give you a sense of the character there and enable you to design sensitively to the surroundings. If your project incorporates an existing historic structure, our Development Code requires that a Cultural Survey be done. This includes an inventory of the building's historic and architectural significance and the current physical condition. This can be requested from the Breckenridge Historic Commission.
Step Four - Pre-Application Conference for Development Code Permit
File a formal application for your project and follow through the Development Code Process.


HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE
During the late 1850's, with the nation in financial crisis, many men set out from the cities for the western territories in search of gold and a new beginning.
In the summer of 1859, a group of prospectors led by General George Spencer found gold along the Blue River near where the town of Breckenridge is located now. They built a crude fort of block houses just north of the current Town and called it Fort “Mary B", after the first white woman to cross the Continental Divide into the Blue River Valley. The remains of this fort now lie somewhere beneath the rock piles.
The Ute Indians, who had lived in the valley for many years, were considered somewhat a threat by the first prospectors, and some believe this is the reason Fort “Mary B" was built. In time, however, the pioneers realized that the Indians meant no harm and the Town grew outside the Fort as well.
In the hope of securing a Federal Post Office, the residents decided to name the town after the Vice President of the United States, John Cabell Breckinridge. A post office was assigned to the town in 1860, but soon after it was constructed, the Vice President broadly expressed his sympathies for the South and the Confederate cause and, indignantly, our pro-Union community changed the spelling to Breckenridge.
The first miners along the Swan River, French Creek and the Blue River used the very basic methods of picks, shovels, and pans to collect the gold from the land. Many of the miners lived in the early mining camps of Breckenridge, Lincoln City, and Parkville in the 1860's. They divided the stream beds into parcels or “placers" and ownership was established. The miners built sluices and long toms for placer and later hydraulic mining, which was faster and more effective, but left the hillsides scarred after a high pressure stream of water was used to erode the hill and wash the dirt and gold downstream.
Throughout the 1860's, small, but productive mining camps were established on the north side of Farncomb Hill, then down Georgia Gulch to Gold Run and Delaware Flats. As the search for placer gold increased, new gulches were explored and given names such as French, Georgia, Galena, American, and Humbug. The area was so rich in minerals that a single pan of dirt often yielded two to twelve dollars in gold.
3
Then the miners began to trace the ore back to its source in the hills, and lode mining began in Breckenridge. However, the individual miner couldn't compete with the large corporate lode mining operations because of the enormous costs involved with this method of mining, and so many of the miners went to work for the large corporate mines. At one time, these large mines in Summit County produced more gold than any other county in Colorado.
By 1880, there were 2,000 residents in Breckenridge, along with eighteen saloons and three dance halls. It was during this boom period that most of the Town's ornate, false-front buildings were built, but only a few of these remain today.
The extension of the Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroad in 1882 brought many more people to Town and accelerated the development of mining as well. Its narrow gauge track came from Denver, over Kenosha Pass, across South Park to Como and then over Boreas Pass down into Breckenridge. This was the highest through-line, narrow gauge railroad in the country with steep grades that would defy even today's standard gauge trains. At the Boreas Pass summit, there was a section house, the highest Post Office in the United States and there are still remains of the Farnham Spur, the ore tipple that served the 730 Mine and the Warrior's Mark Mine just below timberline on the west side of Boreas Pass and Baker's Tank about midway up the grade where it was used by the steam engines to take on water.
One of the most fantastic gold discoveries was the "Wire Patch," located on Farncomb Hill northeast of Breckenridge, where the gold was in the very rare form of beautifully crystallized wire. The area was extensively mined, with mines dotting the hillside, and on a Saturday afternoon in July, 1887, the Town erupted with excitement over the discovery of a huge 156 ounce gold nugget by Tom Groves and Harry Lytton. When they brought their nugget into town, friends named it “Tom's Baby" because of the affectionate way they carried it. Tom Groves became an overnight celebrity with numerous parties held in his honor. It is even claimed that the popular drink “Tom & Jerry" was introduced at one of these affairs and named after the brothers, Tom and Jerry Groves. Not long after this, however, Tom Groves faded into obscurity and, strangely enough, so did “Tom's Baby". The whereabouts of the nugget remained a mystery until in 1972,


after painstaking research, Mark Feister, author of Blasted, Beloved Breckenridge, found the nugget in a simple wooden box hidden away in a United Bank of Denver safety deposit box.
Of all the mining techniques used here, the gold dredging operations were the most destructive. These dredge or gold boats were used on the Swan, the Blue and French Creek from 1900 until mining ceased in 1942 during World War II. Only the rock piles are left of these beautiful river valleys. In Breckenridge, the dredges were always discussed with mixed emotions. In a time when little else was happening here, the dredge mines provided jobs and a steady economy, but those who lived here watched with sadness as the machines destroyed the river valleys. The remains of these dredges can be seen near the Swan River Road, near Lincoln City south of French Creek, and near Breckenridge going east on French Creek, as well as along the Blue River north of Breckenridge.
The population of Breckenridge has fluctuated greatly over the years, reaching its peak at 2,000 or more in the 1880's and dropping over the years until the early 1960's when the ski area was developed. From that time, there has been a steady increase in the permanent population as well as the tourist population.
Several of these early immigrants became notable Colorado characters. Father John L. Dyer, a pioneer Methodist clergyman, was the founder of the first church in Breckenridge, Father Dyer Church, which is now located at the corner of Briar Rose Lane and Wellington. He began the mining town of Dyersville in 1880, which is just east of Breckenridge off of Boreas Pass Road, and he preached in all the local mining camps while carrying the mail and gold over the mountain passes on snowshoe and on foot. His son, E.F. Dyer, became a judge in Breckenridge and was later killed in his own courtroom in Granite, Colorado, during the Lake County Cattle War.
Barney L. Ford was a former slave who actively supported Negro rights and made a fortune in the hotel and restaurant business in Breckenridge, Cheyenne, and Denver, after a lucky strike while mining near Breckenridge. He eventually served as a member of the Colorado General Assembly and his wife was the first Negro woman listed in the Denver Social Register. Recently, a hill and a gulch just east of Breckenridge were officially named after him. Barney Ford's Breckenridge home remains in excellent condition at the cor-
ner of Main and Washington Streets. Both Ford and Dyer are honored in the Colorado Hall of Fame with stained glass windows in the State Capitol.
Edwin G. Carter, another from Breckenridge who left his mark on the state, was an internationally known naturalist. He created his own museum in Breckenridge by collecting one of each bird and animal species in this region, which eventually became the nucleus of the Denver Museum of Natural History. The Carter Museum building still stands at 111 North Ridge Street.
Though the Breckenridge area was extensively mined, ranching was also an important part of the economy. Quite often, these ranches were on land which had once been purchased for dredging operations, but never used. The town even boasted one dairy farm. In the early 1900's, Chris Cluskey pastured his cows on his field at the foot of what is now Ski Hill Road and provided milk for Breckenridge families.
After President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration order to cease all mining operations in 1942 because of "the war effort", the town of some 200 people was barely able to hold on during those lean years. Then, late in the 1950's, Breckenridge began its latest boom period when it was rediscovered and developed for skiing and mountain home investments. The Peak 8 Ski Area was built and as it grew to include many new miles of trails, the name was changed to the Breckenridge Ski Area.
The history of Breckenridge tells of an area known for severe hardships, but offering the opportunity of great wealth. The three previous booms - all in pursuit of gold - took an enormous toll on the natural environment and the people as they became more aware of the high price they paid for their economic survival. But happily today, we are finding that the destruction and desolation left by the dredge boats is not irreversible. Lately, several unique projects have reclaimed these areas with great success. Kingdom Park, built by the Town, is an excellent example. The comprehensiveness of the Breckenridge Master Plan, adopted in 1978, and the Town's commitment to improve and maintain the environment, both natural and manmade, have brought about a reversal of the previous course of Breckenridge development, from calculating to sensitive. Sensitive to the environment and sensitive to the historic character - which makes it also sensitive to the future. It is hoped that this Historic Guide will help to nurture that sensitivity.
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THE HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE ARCHITECTURE
The vernacular architecture and the grid pattern layout of blocks and streets in Breckenridge form a fairly typical setting for a mining boom town. The buildings were designed from memory, mail order catalogs, and photographs in old magazines of building styles seen in the cities, but adapted here to the materials available, skills of the carpenter, and affluence of the owner. Evidence of the revival styles found here are another result of the eastern influences. The streets were designed wide enough to accommodate the maneuvering of horse and wagon and for social events. Main Street and Lincoln Avenue were the primary commercial areas, with the residential area to the east, on the hillside. The area to the west of Main Street was reserved for light industry and lower class residential.
What makes Breckenridge unique with regard to its architecture is the presence of buildings which illustrate each of the Town's three phases of development. The settlement, camp and town phases can vividly tell the history of an area when they are preserved as successfully as they are in Breckenridge. In other boom towns, the early buildings have long since been destroyed to make room for newer, grander buildings which are evidence of the prosperity of the town. As recounted on the preceeding pages, Breckenridge changed very little between 1920 and 1960, which has left the community's history intact.
Settlement Phase (1859 - 1870, Breckenridge)
This phase is characterized by log cabins, crude street layouts, small populations, limited access to the outside and few town amenities. With the opportunity to get rich quick, buildings were constructed swiftly and placed near the mineral deposits.
Camp Phase (1870 - 1880, Breckenridge)
The second phase occurred when the settlement populations grew larger and more substantial deposits were found. Sawmills were set up, frame buildings appeared, formal streets were laid out, city governments were established, and some amenities were available.
6


Town Phase (1880 - Present, Breckenridge)
The third phase of development occurred when a camp became a center for transportation, supplies or because of the location of mining property. The architecture became more elaborate, and a feeling of permanence evolved through use of brick and stone. This phase is ongoing and with the influence of the ski boom, we are adding still another phase.
Though the architecture consists mainly of vernacular style created by local craftsmen, there are the obvious influences of the popular Victorian era styles and the Greek, Gothic, Italianate, and Romanesque revival styles. The Victorian era took years to evolve in the east, but in the rugged, transient west, the influences of the Victorian era on the architecture occurred during a relatively short period of time - 1880 to 1920.
The following examples of the settlement, camp and town phases, broken out by uses - residential, commercial, institutional and utilitarian - illustrate Breckenridge vernacular architecture. The influences of the pure, formal styles are quite evident in the later phases.


Camp Phase
Carter Museum, 1875, 111 N. Ridge St. - hand hewn logs, metal roof, second floor evident, porch is added at a later date.
Town Phase
Otterson House, 1882, 100 N. High St. - good example of vernacular architecture with Italianate detail -diamond shape jigsaw pieces made locally, fence probably shipped in on railroad, local architect, bay window, balloon frame.
8


COMMERCIAL
Settlement Phase
Hyde Real Estate, 1863, 105 N. Main St. - original log structure, lap siding and Greek revival features were added in the 1870's with development of the sawmill in Town. Greek revival style is evident in the detail above the window.
Camp Phase
Skinny Winter/Gallery, 1880, 123 S. Main St. - typical two-story, false-front structure, store front on first floor, residence on second. Intermediate cornice, with Greek revival detail on the windows. The Gallery first floor facade has been altered within the last 15 years.
9


Town Phase
Summit County Investment building, 1885, 120 S. Main St. - stone construction, cornice pressed tin trim with Italian detailing (1907). Windows are Greek revival.
10


INSTITUTIONAL
Schools Colorado Mountain College, 1908, 103 S.
Harris St. - Romanesque detailing on the cornice and around the windows.
Town Phase - During this phase, with the Town more permanently established, the institutional buildings were built.
Churches
St. Mary's, 1881, 109 S. French St. -gothic detailing above windows, dripstone, also some Italian detailing.


Government
Buildings
Summit County Courthouse, 1908, 208 Lincoln Ave. - combination of architectural styles, Greek revival windows, pediments, and is very symmetrical which is typically Greek, copola on top is of French influence.
Barns/Sheds
__________UTILITARIAN
Camp & Town Phases - These utilitarian buildings appeared after the residences were established.
Batcheller Barn, 1892, 250 S. High St. - horse barn on first floor with residence on second floor. The first level is constructed of hand-hewn logs and the second level is board and batten siding.


“GENERAL HISTORIC DISTRICT GUIDELINES
NATURAL SETTING
1) Guideline: The views of the mountains should be protected.
Our mountains are one of the most important parts of our environment, therefore new development in the area should not obstruct these views.
2) Guideline: The natural setting of the buildings should be maintained.
Where the buildings are not store front buildings set at the sidewalk, they typically have yards, walks, fences and landscaping. This setting should be maintained as it plays a role in the overall significance of the buildings.
13


Looking East
SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
Guideline: The grid pattern of the original town should be preserved.
The Town developed in a traditional grid pattern with the Main Street as the commercial core, residential on the east side and light industry on the west. The streets were laid out at right angles to one another with no consideration given to topography. This formal street pattern should be maintained within the District.
Guideline: The physical and visual access to traditional community focal points should be preserved.
Major features such as the Blue River, the mountains, the Courthouse, Main Street and the churches have traditionally served as community focal points and the views to these sites from public places should not be obscured.
14


MANMADE ELEMENTS
5) Guideline: The visual integrity of area boundaries should be protected and a transitional or buffer area outside the District boundary encouraged.
The Historic District is visually coherent and its boundaries are fairly distinct. The integrity of these boundaries should be maintained, but outside these boundaries, transitional-style buildings which reflect their neighbors both within and outside the District are encouraged. In those situations when no area exists outside the District for the transitional architectural style, it may be allowed within the District boundaries.
6) Guideline: The duplication of historic styles is strongly discouraged.
New buildings should be compatible with the older buildings, especially in terms of other guideline criteria. New buildings should also be a product of the present and not a false product of the past. Imitations confuse the record of our history.
15
Duplication such as this is discouraged


Full Text

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A + P LD 1190 A78 1986 M3136 c . 2 Significance of 'Historic Preservation to the Economy of a Community: by Diane McGrath ;::::::::--Prepared in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for PCD 972 Independent Study Thesis Preparation for Herbert H. Smith, AICP Assistant Dean/Professor As An Exit Requirement for A Masters Degree of Urban and Regional Planning College of Design and Planning University of Colorado August, 1986

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/J-rP J-:D /17% jt?%'6 /o/31r36 U18?oo 6964?23 / . ... ' . . , .. .. ' ' 'I . . •

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Statement of Purpose and Overview of the Study i Introduction 1 Historic Preservation in America 4 Economics of Preservation 11 The Community The Developer Pre-Designation Evaluation Concluding Comments Bibliography Appendix -Historic District Development Guidelines for Breckenridge, Colorado Date Due I ' I 45 52

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I gratefully acknowledge the patient support of Assistant Dean Herbert H. Smith, without whose encouragement and ounsel this thesis would not have been possible.

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STATEMENT AND OVERVIEW Statement of Purpose Overview of the Study

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Can the designation of a historic district or the promo ion of a nhistorical image be an important factor in " onomic well-being of a community? This study reviews the of official historic districts and historical ities all over the United States with well-established s of site specific landmark preservation. During the ch for this study, information has been gathered from us sources -telephone and personal interviews, es at seminars and conferences, newspaper and magazine es, reports and studies, and public record. A methorology for evaluating the potential economic impacts of histo ic preservation on a community developed during the is of the information. The intuitive information ed from personal interviews has provided a view of the impacj a historic district as perceived from within the commurn t1 es. During analysis of the information it was possible ermine that, generally, the existence of a historic historical landmark sites has contributed to the rosperity of the towns. While, depending on the pers ective, the impacts can be seen as negative or posi majority of the information indicates that if the and developer are willing to tolerate the tediJ m necessarily involved in processing historic properties there are direct positive results. However, the d. I t 1 f h. d 1n 1 ec pos1t1ve resu ts are even more ar-reac 1ng an comp,unding in the community, as well as regionally.

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If the community determines that they could benef t from establishing a historic preservation program or distr ct, a model historic district development guide is provi ed to help insure the preservation of the historic build ngs and promote the development of-appropriate new strucJures. The model included in this report was written for t 1 e town of Breckenridge, Colorado. As an appendix to the B eckenridge Development Code, it guides all development withi its National Historic District.

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INTRODUCTION What does preservation mean to a community?

PAGE 9

In September, 1983, at the University of Denver nter, many planners, developers, financiers, ists and preservationists attended a seminar, entitled "Prof'table Preservation" and sponsored by the Colorado ical Society, to discuss the effects of preservation orado communities. On the dais that day were several preservation notables, and a surprise guest --Mayor Pena. His presence added credibility to the notion that, even in a city as rapidly growing as Denver, prese vation is a viable economic tool for development. Mayor Pena focused his comments on the progress Denver has experienced since preservation efforts such as Larimer Square had been developed. He did not speak, though, of dollars and cents, or profit and loss, but rather of those inta gible, difficult to perceive results of preservation development. "Preservation is about the quality of life. It is not anti-change. It is about preserving the quality of our city and neighborhoods such that we retain a human scale, and diversity of buildings. All of which add up to an environment that is visually stimulating and which provides a sense of stability to old and young alike. Where would we be without symbols and links to our past? Undistinguishable from other cities -without character and depth." Denver, like most Colorado cities, is rich in hist J r y and is learning to capitalize on its history to attract tourists -and to provide a better environment for those who live there. 1

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One of the major planning functions of many is the preservation of historic structures, comm whic may or may not involve historic district designation of a specific area. Planners in government must also be concerned with conservation of resources -natural and I man-made. A report by the u.s. Secretary of Housing and UrbaJ Development recently pointed out that historic struJtures represent an enormous investment in materials, laboj and time. Historic preservation could be called "urbl n conservation" and it is an excellent way to recover the jorth of past investments. Additionally, encouraging new Jusiness development within rehabilitated areas spares I gove,nment a portion of the cost of duplicating the infr structure in underdeveloped areas.(l) Preservation is an effort always embroiled in deba e. The controversy lies in the fact that consciously, and aggressively, preserving the history of a town must be a I t d h . d 1 commun1 y ec1s1on. Arr1v1ng at t 1s ec1s1on 1nvo ves many people and the impacts of this decision will be different for ach of them. It will be a nuisance to some and a plea ure t o others, a way o f preserving the quality of life to o r e and inexpedient to another, but it must be a comm rnity.commitment. The success of any municipal pres r vat1on program depends on effective communication, tremendous effort, cooperative negotiation, the interest and support of the community, and the sensitive leadership of 2

PAGE 11

local administrators and officials who are also committed to the P ' eservation effort. 3

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FOOTN,TES 1 K. Chapman, "The Growing Public Stake in Urban Conservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old *uildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Preservation Press, 1976), p. 9.

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HISTORIC PRESERVATION IN AMERICA • What do Americans think of historic preservation? Is our heritage something we want to preserve?

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Town officials usually respond to the opinions and enthusasm of the electorate when establishing goals for the and regulations to attain them. If preservation a priority of the public it will become a goal of ernment and, the development of the town will l"kely reflect that. Government has at least as much historic preservation as it has in new ction these days because these reminders of society's e important to a community's identity, roots and sense f continuity. Local government is also interested in fiscal responsibility and it has been proven that urban is not just a romantic indulgence in nostalgia. It is visible statement of the American values of frugal"ty, good craftsmenship and community responsibility. (1) Often, however, in our "throw-away" society, is not taken seriously as a valid alternative t o n e construction. Since the Industrial Revolution, new has been good and old has been bad. Progress meant change and the more of it the better.(2) It is not hard to unders and why Americans find preservation and maintenance concept to grasp. It has not been that long since 1 alf of the United States was known as "the great frontier" . Much of our national character still emanates from t rat sense of vast, unexplored lands just over the horizon. We haven't built our cities over and over on the same site, as the Romans did and haven't by necessity 4

PAGE 15

confin, d our populations into dense cities as the Europeans do bee use of a shortage of land. Americans have always had the ab'lity to move, rather than maintain. One citizen from a small resort town in America, originally from Norway, expres ed it this way, "Europeans scoff at Americans for down the old and rebuilding ••• it is not out of sentimJntality or emotion (that Europeans preserve their histor c structures), but respect for their past and comm itment to their future." (3) Americans have grown to prefer the new, because we admire innovation. Even our common household appliances prove the point. It's much less expens've to replace a worn out toaster, than to have it repairid.(4) And so it is with the buildings which make up our ciJies -why go to the effort, energy and expense of mainta 'ning and preserving the structures when they can be replac d with new structures? When preservation initially began in America early in this century, it was seen as a harmless pastime that, though a somewhat frivolous pursuit, gave the retired and afflue t something to do. However, through the years this effort, and the number of people involved, have increased tremendously. It now includes economists, planners, artist , first-time home buyers, and developers, among others. Those original preservation enthusiasts looking for pleasant diversions are only a small portion of the group now. preservation movement is I rapidly gaining momentum, and su,porters, as planners in all fields realize that it 5

PAGE 16

makes ood economic sense. This growing endorsement is due to the fact that the sensitive reuse of old buildings has proven repeatedly to be financially and environmentally profit le. Though the validity of preservation development as a f'nancial alternative to new construction is a concept many i the business community still hesitate to fully accept, some developers are pioneering the field and doing very w ,ll. I t makes equally good sense from the perspective of cit government, as communities try to redevelop the centra city and expand the tax base. When done well, preser can mean profits for business and tax dollars for goViernment.(S) Clark Strickland, Regional Director of the western states office of The National Trust for Historic Preser ation in Denver, claims that "rehabilitation costs less" an new construction.(6) Its economic value is furthe evident when we consider that "a historic district very important marketing tool." Many large compan'es such as Coca Cola, AT&T, and IBM have used the and nostalgia theme in their sales campaigns recent It was a time more geared to the human scale, communities oriented toward people and not cars, buildings that were architecturally interesting without being intimidating, structures o n a scale that did not dwarf the . d. . d l . 1 ff . . 1n 1v1 ua . In an e ort to expla1n the attract1on to America's past in our high-tech world of today, John Naisber , author of Megatrends says "people always look for 6

PAGE 17

humanis ic counterbalances to technological innovation."(?) of past styles, and the link to a time when cr ftsmenship was important, balance a sometimes overwhel ing world of machines. Developers are beginning to realize people often find greater contentment in the comfort ble scale and friendly texture of restored urban distric s than they do in the midst of new buildings that almost seem intended to make ordinary people feel unimpor ant.(8) There are no precise ways to measure the effect or define e significance of historic preservation on a communi This study examines statistics, and while these give an outline, the clearer picture is drawn primarily by of the direct, and the indirect, results of histori preservation. Of course, there are the obvious measure ents such as improved crime rate, increased business and social activity, larger crowds of retail customers, and an incr ase in the number of improvements to private Intuitively, one could say that when these things occur t e town will be more attractive to tourists, which will im the economy as well. Supporters of preserv use words like community pride, sense of history, continuity, charm and character to describe the effect, but these are all intangible and give only a feeling for what occurs, rather than conclusive evidence of a benefit received. Describing community pride will not satisfy those who want proof of economic benefit resulting 7

PAGE 18

from istoric preservation prior to committing their resou ces to the effort. Research has shown, though, that from 1ncreased tourist income to expanded property tax reven e, given enough time and the right combination of facto s preservation can result in an imRroved economy. But, hether we believe the research that claims prese vation improves the economy of communities or not, the impor ance of these historic buildings as limited resources shoul be expressed and understood. Like rare birds on the verge of extinction, our heritage is also endangered, as every year more of these resources disappear, The loss is usual y so gradual that a community may not notice until it is to late. If ill-considered demolitions and relocations of struc ures are allowed to occur the economies of many commu .ities would suffer because they depend heavily on their historic image for business. Without their historical homes and businesses, each would become just another subur .(9) Historic preservation has been successful for social reasons to some extent. Today, when a return on depends upon the speed with which a building is constt u cted and its economy of labor and materials, our an abundance of houses which lack in their architecture, are located in . I . ne1ghborhoods w1thout any sense of neighborhood, and are 8

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void of imple amenities such as trees, sidewalks, and human sc le, with an architectural style that is intimida ing, repetitive and boring. Restoration of older neighbor built in a simpler time, when rather t an speed was important, have given people a sense of time, place and continuity -important social consider In addition to the social benefits, preserva ion and adaptation have contributed substantive economic benefits by providing jobs, stimulating business activity, and revitalizing downtown areas.(l0) The importance of the preservation of our history was illustrated in San Francisco when, after twenty years of delibera lion, San Franciscans decided to designate their cable ca system as a National Historic Landmark even though it repre,ented an operating loss to the city. They recognizJ d that the cable cars, for which their city is so famous, Jere worth millions of dollars in good will, publicitJ and tourism. More importantly, they are a source of commu ity pride and identity. The Old Santa Fe Association in Santa Fe, New Mexico, stablished in 1926, has been charged with preservi and maintaining the ancient landmarks, historical structur I s and traditions of Old Santa Fe, guiding its growth and development, "while sacrificing as little as possible of the unique charm which is the priceless asset 9

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and herit ge of Old Santa Fe."(ll) This has had the effect of preser ing the quality of life for its citizens, as well as provid'ng a stable tourist-based economy. ID

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FOOTNCTES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Eruce K. Chapman, "The G r o wing Public Stake in Urban Conservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old !uildinqs, National Trust for Historic Preservation, !Preservation Press, 1976), p. 9-13. \ es Uhlman, "Economics Aside", Economics Benefits of lreserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic lre servation, {Preservation Press, 1976), p. 5. Fersonal interview with Olav Pedersen, citizen of Sreckenridge, March, 1982. I . II • Holder, And Now, From the tolks on Madison Avenue", Historic Preservation, JAugust, 1984), p. 29. ihlman, op. cit. Telephone conversation with Clark Strickland, Regional IDirector for the National Trust For Historic Preservation, Western States,, August 31, 1983. iolder, op. cit. Chapman, op. cit. p.9. ttrickland, op. cit. 'ii'homas D. Bever, "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation", Heritage Conservation and Recreation rervice, U . S . Department of the Interior, (May, 1978), P 1. L. Pulsipher and John E. Rosenow, Tourism -The pood, the Bad, and the Ugly, (Nebraska: Century Three Press, 1979), pp. 45-46.

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,ECONOMICS OF PRESERVATION • The Community The DeveloJ)er

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T h ree important developments over the last ten to fifteen years have heightened the awareness of historic preslrvation in the United States. Preservationists are beco ing more and more sophisticated in their appreciation for !he built environment as a whole, rather than its indi idual parts. Where in the early preservation years the preservation and restoration of one building at a time was seen as the goal, now the saving of entire neighborhoods has idened the scope of preservation activity. Districts were formed to protect each landmark building within its bouniaries and to maintain the purity of their history in the ontext of a neighborhood.(!) The second, and probably most important, change whic occurred was the realization that with.rapidly growing inflation and the energy shortages plagueing the United Stat s, preserving already existing buildings and adaptively re-u ing them was an economically sound development tool. Hist,ric buildings were found to be important resources that could provide the missing link in making a development propbsal financially feasible. This awareness was not the resul t of any far-sighted thinking on the part of developers, but because statistics and feasibility studies bega. reporting the success of early preservation developments. Developers and local governments became aware that rehabilitation and restoration of these resources resulted in rising property values, increased private 11

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inve,tment, a broader local and state tax base, the creation of n w businesses and jobs, and increased tourism.(2) The increases in cost of new construction, have made existing buildings better buys when analyzed on a cost rmance basis. When the expense of constructing a tural frame is compared to the purchase of an existing one 'n an old building part of the value of a historic buil ing is realized. The same obvious value is discovered comparison of the other elements of construction. The cons ruction loan term can be shortened because of the .ed amount of construction time, which is a loan cost sa vi The lengthy and costly development review process be minimized in a community committed to pres rvation.(3) Finally, it was discovered that preservation cured many of the ills of downtown blight areas. Preservation is now only seen as a development tool, but also as an effective urban renewal element. It has revitalized down business areas, redeveloped housing stock, had a posi effect on the growing crime rate, rekindled comm nity pride and helped to make our urban areas centers of activity and attention again.(4) These are all ingrJdients that enhance the quality of life. 12 -z n '

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The Community Tourism The tourist industry is booming in America. Even the recent years of economic recession, travel and touri sm was on the rise. This is probably due to the fact that people are working harder, longer hours, and they need recreation to counteract the stress which is so common with todats technological, highly competitive jobs. Another reas n that travel has become so popular could be that there are lore interesting places to visit. Cities all over are mark,ting themselves as resort areas to funnel some of the tour st dollars into their communities. Some cities, though are bserving the trend before deciding to become a tourist reso t. A few have decided that opening their towns up to the •Ourist is too high a price to pay for additional reveJue. Many of the cities which are promoting tourism succlssfully, though, have gone through the process of estaJlishing their downtowns as historic districts, or have comm1tted themselves to preserving their individually sign1ficant structures and are promoting their historic . I The process involves cooperation and communication amons the citizens, a great deal of volunteer help, resetrching historical information on the town and buildings, obtaining certification from the National Trust for listoric Preservation, and then beginning to restore the 13

PAGE 26

town' buildings, streets, walkways, and parks. Quite often improvements precipitate private improvements. Once the town is committed to preservation and is convinced 1 attract tourists, money is usually appropriated for 1 improvements to town-owned property to get the ball g. Then little by little, property owners begin to make 'mprovements, minor at first, and then, when the s accrue, more elaborate restoration projects are aken. These activities may take place in the context entire district, or in isolated rehabilitated historic ures, and will attract the number of tourists ary to have a positive effect on the revenues of the town. Communities which have developed their tourist ry and based it on the area's unique assets will also d places to live because the tangible ties to their ge provide cultural roots for their citizens.(S) ities which allow their historic buildings to be demol'shed and replaced with copies of historic styles, lose sense of place and, consequently, their sense of ity. This mistake, if allowed to continue, will e nothing more than theme parks, attractions which tourists tend to visit only once. If a community is to profil economically from the promotion of its historic buildlings, it must provide a place people want to come back to, a J place where people can get a glimpse of the origins of the Without this, its an experience much like 14

PAGE 27

beginning a story in the middle of the book -unsatisfying, and n l t worth repeating. The west is just catching up with the "historic prese vation-tourist revenue" concept which is so prevalent in the eastern United States. Most eastern states consider their heritage important, and historic buildings resources to be cultivated and protected. The state of Virginia, for insta ce, considers their historic buildings, sites, and distr'cts to be unique features of the scenic, recreational and c r l ltural facilities of the state, which project a posit, ' ve image and are the source of much of the state's incomr . Preservation is a major tool for urban revitjlization and provides the basis for the state's touri t industry.(6) In the Executive Summary of "Managing a Resource: The P blic's Investment in the Preservation and Development of Vilginia's Historic Landmarks", 1982, it is claimed that "whi+ it will ever remain true that dollars and cents canner begin to measure the educational, aesthetic, and patri tic value of this resource, Virginia's historic buildt'ngs and archeological sites are nevertheless an active econo ic factor and an irreplaceable capital asset, contr'buting significantly to local employment and and to local and state government revenues". 15

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Property Values Increasingly, developers have been able to their short term financial needs with government's to look at the larger picture and reap the long term of increased property value. Governments have disco ered that giving up a small revenue source now, may be the final piece to the financial puzzle for a development that, over the years, will become a solid revenue source for the city or state and in addition will be the catalyst for other revenue generators, such as employment, housing and the tourist industry. The correlation between historic designation and ty value is an interesting and complex It be difficult to deny that there is a relationship n these two elements. The prestige alone is enough to a higher price tag, but just the opposite may result when xpenses are incurred for facade maintenance of a rk structure. Cities often require that the building s be accurately restored and maintained in return for cy i n the density and/or restoration of the rest of Landmark status appears to exert mixed effects on propelty separately conducted landmark studies conce trating on the relationship of historic designation to propelty value, three found property values significantly incrersed when historic designation was a factor. The other 16

PAGE 29

four J etermined, 1) that designation can incur reductions in t hat the impact varies b y building, provision variables, etc.; 3) that the influ nee was difficult to document, and; 4) that the direct nee is minor, but numerous subjective variables which 1ncrease property values are indirectly affected by historic ation.(7) These studies examined districts in Virgi ia, Washington, D.C., Texas, Georgia, Washington, Illin is, Missouri, and New York. In one of the studies whichlfound that historic status has a positive market influrnce, it was determined that even unrestored buildings in thk historic district of Alexandria, Virginia, were worth appro imately two and a half times similar buildings outside the h'storic district. The same pattern appeared in Washi gton, D.C., where the value of unrestored buildings in the h'storic Capitol Hill area were approximately four times than those outside the area.(8) In 1977, the al Trust for 'Historic Preservation commissioned an analyfis of the market values of residential properties in the historic district compared with those in the rest f the District of Columbia. The study concluded that, in al categories of properties analyzed, not only was there iderable difference in value, but that the difference d each year as those buildings within the district increased in value by almost one and a half times that of the b hildings outside the district. It was noted that there 17

PAGE 30

were omparable historic district-property value relatJonships observed in other cities:(9) Houses in the Winston-Salem (North Carolina) historic district sold for double the price of comparable homes located elsewhere in the city. In St. John's Church Historic District (Richmond, Virginia) restored houses sold for considerably more than physically similar properties located just over the district's boundaries. Since the Old Towne section of Portsmouth (Virginia) was declared a nhistoric district, residential buildings there increased in value at a rate more than double that of the average of such properties in Portsmouth as a whole. Houses within the district sold for three to four times more than comparable structures located elsewhere in the city. Similar "well-above-average-to-extraordinary" property-value increases were evident in other historic areas, including Philadelphia's Society Hill, New Orleans' Vieux Carre, and the historic districts in Annapolis, Maryland, Charleston, South Carolina. Hamil on, Inc. in 1979 for the Advisory Council on Historic Prese lvation examined property value trends in the historic distr'cts of Alexandria's Old Town (Virginia), Galveston's Stran (Texas), Savannah's National Landmark area (Georgia), and S Pioneer Square (Washington). Through compa ison of property selling prices from within and outsi areas it was concluded that "significant incre ses in the real estate value of properties in the ( histo ic districts occurred and that sales figures reflect a direct link between location in an historic district and a highej value."(l0) 18

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' Landmark Facto r s Affecting __... Property V alue LANDMARK DESIGNATION, PROPERTY VALUE, AND PROPERTY ASSESSMENT FLOW CHART OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS Variables Influen c ing Presence/Strength of Landmark Factors Property Va 1 ue Assessment Procedure s Impact -----------------------------------------------------------------Landmark status instills: Prestige Protection Other supports LaRdmark status imposes: Alteration/Demolition. Restrictions Regulatory Costs Facade-maintenance S ource: Designation Type: Area-wide prestige; protection, etc. , afforded onl y by distr ict as opposed to i ndiv idual property des i g nation. Property Type: Residential properties may b e more prone to prestige, protective influen ces. Property current/highest and best economic use: The further the divergence, the greater the prac tical significnace of l andmark's redevelopment restrictions. Property Altera t ion Potential: Prop erties with a greater likelihood of fa cade and other changes are more susceptible to regulatory costs. Regula tory Process: Regula tory costs are influenced by the scope/ efficiency of the l andmark regulatory review procedures. Facade Physical Characteristics: Properties with h ard-to-maintain facades are more prone to facade out l ays. Increasing Property Values Decreas in g Property Values ! .Landmark prestige, protection, etc s hould be factored in selecting comparab 1 es. 2.In identifying landmarks, not e if properties are individually designated or are part of an historic district. l .Ass ess landmarks at their current not highest and best u s e. 2 . Factor regulato .ry-related costs. 3 .Factor special facad e and property main tenance cos t s. lJavid Listo kin, L andmark Preservat i o n and the Property Tax (New York Landmarks Conservancy, 1982) '

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The annual r eport of the Advisory Council on Histor'c Preservation referred to designation•s price effect as one evidence of preservation•s benefits and listed s elements of influence. Among those were prestige and tection. Historic designation is often marketed as one of a property•s special qualities and at least some buyers are willing to pay a premium for the distinction. To some d ' gree this is due to the fact that the area is protected to a higher degree than areas outside the district from d molition, urban renewal, higher densities, non-co forming uses, and so forth. Additionally, there is a certaih guarantee that any development in the neighborhood must b r compatible architecturally relative to scale, form, propor ion, design and detail to the historic structure in the ne'ghborhood and the district. However, an interesting, but potentially damaging cycle ccurs once a historic site or area has been Public interest in the site makes it well-known and debirable. This very desirability and recognition of th . lit b . . 1 . k h . h e s1 e as e1ng a pr1me ocat1on, provo es c anges 1n t e the zo ing laws to allow higher and larger buildings in the area, rnd on that site. This will eventually lead the properl y owner to consider demolition of the historic building or site which fostered the importance of area in the f1. L , st place.(ll) C't' k d' 1 1es must ta e care to 1scourage this f lom happening by allowing historic property owner to 20

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receive the same return on his investment as others in the area. There have also been cases where decreasing y values have been documented when governmental tions on alterations and demolitions have impeded a k owner's ability to modernize the structure. "The k owner may lose income if he is unable to bring (the) 'nterior space up to the standard of buildings that competl with it for tenants, and to increase its operating efficiency through periodic renovation."(l2) Even though in some cases there may be a strong demand for development in its established older areas, e rejuvenation is not always inevitable and when it cur, it does not necessarily assure that an area's be bright. Examples of such failed districts Light Square in St. Louis and Underground Atlanta in Georgi • There must be a spirit of commitment and cooper tion among the property owners, as well as ent, for preservation to positively affect revenues. gain i value as a result of the investments of neighboring owners Those property owners that did reinvest will receiv a lower rate of return on their investments because of the adverse environmental influence of the unimproved neighboring property.(l3) The problem is that each owner 21

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woul have a better rate of return by doing nothing, provtded that the other property owners reinvested; and each have a worse rate of return by reinvesting, provided that the others did nothing. So, if the property owners are thinling in quantitative, rational terma, each will continue to d r nothing. There is no incentive to reinvest without assurance that the others will do the same.(l4) This is h I . . d . 1 Th w ere commun1ty comm1tment an trust come 1nto p ay. e ownef J s must feel confident that investment in their property is p rt of an overall community plan for improvement and the investment can be recouped in a reasonable period of time. I . I h. h d t 1f very 1mportant at t 1s po1nt t at some ent1ty prov1 e the leadership and continuity to keep the momentum going and the in mind, whether it be the local government or a . . I I c1t1zens group. A number of actions can be taken to encourage private investment in historic sites: 1. Survey landmarks and educate the public to their value; 2. Initiate both local and state legislation to support preservation; 3. Fund capital improvements; 4. Establish nonprofit corporations or preservation foundations; 5. Lease or acquire landmarks, and in some cases participate in ventures with private developers; 6. Use incentive zoning and tax relief to promote preservation; 22

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7. Develop design guidelines and preservation criteria; 8. Prepare comprehensive preservation plans.(lS) Though research indicates that creation of a hist,ric district or promotion of a historically accurate imag has an influence on the economic success of an area, this does not necessarily mean that success is guaranteed. conditions may exist in the neighborhood which have ually strong influence which will offset the positive ts of historic designation. The buildings might be in such a delapidated condition that they are not attractive to investors, or adverse environmental influences, such as traf ic, air pollution, and noise, may exist that detract from the investment picture.(l6) Also, for the benefits of preservation to occur, it may require that other factors be in play. For instance, the historic district in Telluride, ado, has significant potential, but probably will not e the hoped for demand without a larger rental room bas , improvements to the ski area and better access to the In these situations the potential for profit but as in all cities, preservation is merely a par of the plan for economic improvement, not the whole plaj , and in some cities it plays a bigger role than in oth rs. Just as the character of each city is unique, the plan to preserve it will also be unique. For every report of diminishing value with his oric designation, there are many others which claim that 23

PAGE 36

the value of any historic structure is enhanced with designation. The Harris Street Group, a planning consulting hired by the town of Breckenridge, Colorado, to write comprehensive plan, said, in the Historic Resources Se tion of the "Breckenridge Resource Base'' document: In every historic d istrict studied, both land values and new construction have increased above the average for the area. It seems that this was stimulated by the town's demonstration of confidence in the area through establishing a district as well as the fact that property owners within the district know that they are all equally regulated by the same rules which are intended to protect the district as a whole. The towns have also recognized a distinct increase in tourism, resulting from interest in the restored historic buildings. In a tourist-based economy such as (Breckenridge's), we cannot afford to waste this valuable asset. The value of a historic district or neighborhood as an initiator of economic activity is evident when we look at h e statistics of the Pioneer Square Historic District on Se tle's waterfront. Between 1969 and 1976, this district ex erienced a 114 percent increase in assessed valuation, citywide average was only 79 percent and the nu e r of businesses nearly doubled in the district between The major increases in property values an the number of new businesses have promoted social and ec nomic stability for not only Pioneer Square, but have promoted a growing residential population in the outlying nei,ghborhoods. The economic improvements occurring as a result of Pioneer Square have helped to diversify Seattle's 24

PAGE 37

economy as well.(l9) Once again residents are proud to be other ci y can duplicate its unique history.(20) In an article entitled "A History of Pioneer Square", Arthur M. Skolnik, Washington conservator and state h'storic preservation officer, states that: "The economic benefits are obvious. The tax base of Pioneer, which was next to nothing, is now high. We used to refer to a 450 percent increase in the tax base. Now it would be possible too cite a 1,000 percent increase. The reven,ue is I generated in many ways and forms --property, sales, and liquor taxes: increased employment: improved transit support: an untold amount of tourist dollars: and so forth. What began as a philanthropic gesture became one of the most important economic generators in Seattle's recent hard times. The impact of all this has been not only citywide, but regional. In short, preservation has been an economic benefit for individuals, the city proper, the metropolitan area and the entire state of Washington." The Portland Press reported that the experience in Bath, M ine, serves as an example of successful revital'zation of a small town based principally upon histori conservation. Between 1976, when designation of their h 'storic district took place, and 1979 twenty-two new busine s opened, the first in eighteen years.(21) The well-kn n success of Savannah, Georgia's Historic District is due rimarily to their Historic Savannah Foundation which the rec]amation of nearly three square miles of downtown propertJ . Their restored homes, shops and squares draw 25

PAGE 38

increasi g numbers of tourists each year, who in turn bring millions of dollars into the city's economy.(22) 26

PAGE 39

Summary A study by Raymond, Parish, Pine and Weiner for the New ork Landmarks Conservancy in 1977 examined whether historic designation impacted on the economic value of property They examined prototypical blocks within three historic districts in New York City and selected comparable blocks i adjacent areas outside the historic districts. They con luded that designation "did not exert a quantifi ble, independent effect'', but that the "intangible or benefits of historic designation appear to be real". Historic district designation drew the communities togetherj attracted new families, promoted stability and created a sense of pride. Their study concluded that designatlon improves the social fabric of a community, which i n turn trengthens the property values.(23) One of San Francisco's most popular tourists spots is Ghira elli Square. Developed in 1964, it was one of the first of the large marketplace-type projects to be built from an ld factory. Since then many old factories, schools, train depots, post offices, etc. have been transfer ed into centers of activity, not only in San Francisc, but across the country.(24) The preservation efforts in Galveston, Texas, have produced the Strand Historic District, which contributes as much as 13.5 million annually in tourist dollars. The 27

PAGE 40

initial m tivation was to preserve their historic buildings and promo e an appreciation of them, but those efforts have also stim lated their downtown business and extended their tourist s into the winter months. For a city which until rec ntly existed primarily on its summer economy, the increase winter business has had a stabilizing effect on the commu Jity.(25) Particularly on the east coast, it is generally recognize that well-maintained historic districts and neighborh,ods attract tourists and ancillary businesses, which add to the economic welfare of the community by revitalizing the central business district. This in turn enhances Jhe town's special ambiance and the civic pride of the residJ ints. In a report of the Heritage Conservation and Recreatio Service of the u.s. Department of the Interior, an econom'st analyzed a number of rehabilitiation and conservatJon projects in communities as diverse as Boston, Atlanta, dallas, Denver, Savannah, Pittsburgh, and BurlingtoJ , Vermont and concluded that they had generated economic enefits often equal to or greater than those derived f om new construction. Benefits such as higher employmen due to the labor-intensive nature of rehabilit tion, savings in building and demolition costs, shorter c mpletion time of construction, and fewer delays caused by community opposition were typical.(26) 28

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The Developer Government Regulation For the most part, local government was appr ciative of the changes occurring ifr their neighborhoods and llowed the developers a somewhat restrained freedom to make "improvements" as they saw fit. However, some of the impr,vements were improper or inaccurate attempts at rest,ration which had the effect of adding icing to the icin . Buildings were restored to styles and time periods they had nothing to do with. Additions were made which were over helming and distracted from the original historic stru ture. Decorative trim was added to buildings to give them the "gingerbread" look. Some pretty horrendous tran formations have taken place in the name of pres Partly this was due to inexperience, igno a good deal of greed was involved much of the time Once they realized what was happening to their hist ric communities, local governments began regulating rest ration projects, providing expertise and historic data whenjavailable. Citizen's commissions were formed to guide and ometimes regulate historic projects. As more people beca e involved, more regulations were adopted and this mean additional red tape and costly time lost for the deve]oper. The initial financial advantage of preservation projJcts still exists, but they are not so great an 29

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adva tage for the developer as they once were. However, in 1976 the Federal Government sweetened the pot. Section 2124 of the Federal Tax Reform Act of 1976 revised 1981, The Economic Recovery Tax Act and the 1984 Tax Reform Act provide major tax incentives for rehaiilitation by owners of commercial or income-producing hist0ric structures by allowing the owner a 25 percent tax cred1t and amortization over sixty months of any capital expe,diture incurred in the rehabilitation of a certified hist ric structure. This would be one which had been docu ented and certified by the National Trust for Historic Pres rvation to be a structure significant to the city, stat , or nation. The economics of this provision have been very attractive to some developers and can make the diffJrence between demolition and new construction, or savil g and restoring a building with a past. From 1976 to 753 rehabilitation projects representing $424 million in 1 jvestment funds were certified to receive tax benefits.(26) Further, the Trust estimates that cred t-aided private investment totalled $8.18 billion betw.en 1982 and 1985. More than 3,000 projects repr senting more than $2 billion of private investment were appr ved for tax credits in both 1984 and 1985. Also, since 1981 local economies have experienced a $5.65 billion increase in wages and nearly $16 billion in increased retail sale! as a result of historic rehabilitation projects.(27) 30

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The incentives proved to be a significant bene Rebecca Waugh, Director of the Breckenridge Hist Commission in Colorado, reported, in a July, 1984 arti the Summit County Sentinel Newspaper, that "developers can receive as much as one dollar back (from) ever four dollars spent to renovate a (historic) buil ing ... this federal tax incentive is reason enough for many {property owners) to ••• save their structures." States also encourage preservation through their own tax ince1tives. Techniques such as property tax abatement, income tax relief, local levies, and grant-in-aid programs havejbeen used by many states to provide additional ince tives to the developer. The National Park Service admidisters the grants-in-aid program, which funds local hist ric surveys, activities and projects, the National Regi ter, the Historic American Buildings Survey, the H ist,ric American Engineering Record, the Inter-Agency Prog,ams, and the Surplus Federal Properties Act.{28) National Trust for Historic Preservation is responsible the drants to the National Trust to facilitate public part'cipation in the preservation of historic The for prop,rties.(29) The Department o f Housing and Urban Devell o pment {HUD) has programs that encourage preservation such as the community development block grants, the Section 8 ex'sting housing program, the Title I home improvement loan program, the urban reinvestment task force, the urban 31

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home teading design program, and the comprehensive planning assi tance program.(30) An advertisement in Preservation News , January, 1986 for the Sybedon Corporation, reads, "Buildings, too, impr ve with age. Especially if they're 40 years old or olde ." This real estate development and investment company has Jound that the tax laws make rehabilitation very prof table. Through financing techniques such as outright purc•ase, joint venturing, tax exempt bonds, financing and project syndication development companys have provided the . I 1 h . d' cap1J a necessary to g1ve many 1stor1c 1str1ct propert1es an o portunity for development. Frequently, though, the complicated procedures, nume ous regulations and number of approving agencies invo ved have discouraged perspective preservationists. The deve oper is in the position of being required to satisfy both local, Federal, and often state regulations, before bein1 allowed to take advantage of the incentives or to deve1op his property. Visionary developers are willing to the tedious task of preservation to produce a building of beauty and character that will generate not only shorJ term profits for the developer and the neighborhood, but •ost importantly long term profits. As an added ince tive to developers and property owners, some local gove nments have granted limited, short-term property tax reli1 f for restoration projects in the form of tax abatement 32

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ordi The city freezes the tax base at the current unre level for a period of time, typically several year , and at the end of that time taxes the property at its rest red value. The confidence with which they are able to do t is is due to the fairly predictable' increase in prop rty values, accompanied by higher property tax asse sments that typically occur with preservation developments. Tax increment financing is another method of prov'ding financial incentive to the developer. The diff,rence, or increment, between the unrestored and restored tax revenue allocation is used for reinvestment in the roperty or bonds, secured by the increment, are used for redevelopment with no increase in taxes and no use of revenue.(31) Once a local government is committed to p eservation, it is important to establish a development deve oper. Open, direct negotiation between the developer, the ocal government and the local lending institutions can make the difference in developing a project which is a succ ss from all points of view. Restrictions on demolitions have the most sign'ficant effect on the economics of a project. The intensity of use which a developer is able to place on a propJrty creates the site's potential income and value, i.e. all Jther things being equal, the higher the intensity, the 33

PAGE 46

r the potential income and value. One of the major mental elements in establishing and maintaining a ic district and landmark status are restrictions on It goes without saying that demolition of any landml rk status structure is absolutely prohibited, and in most istoric districts it is extremely difficult to obtain a demolition permit for other structures within the district as 1. The thought being that, if not currently capable of dmark status, all structures will eventually be, at least, considered historic structures and each of them adds an im. ortant element to the unique character of the distr'ct, neighborhood or community. The determining factor ally whether the structure is significant to the the community. For instance, is it connected to an im ortant event or person locally or nationally, or was it alLays a part of the fabric of the community? Restricting demolition of structures on a site ely affects those projects whose profitability would reased by d emolition of one or more of the existing ures and replacement by a higher intensity of use. The most serious consequences occur when the structures are in a relapidated state of repair or when their square footaF e is far below that allowed by zoning on other vacant sites in the community. Historic designation of the site or can drastically lower its potential value to a 34

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develpper because it disallows replacement by more profihable use. One mechanism communities have used to improve the tiveness of historic preservation to potential pers when demolition is a threat, is the process caller transfer of development rights. This offers an to both the developer and the city by allowing him, r her, to receive reasonable compensation based on the rights of the property, but allows the city to ve the historic nature of their district and ity. The city first establishes their Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) program. The program will recombend that density rights allowed by zoning on all sites withih the historic district or neighborhood, or only those which contain historically significant structures, be In the case of vacant sites, an allowable lot cover ge would be established which would maintain the charaj ter of the existing district or neighborhood, and exces density over the amount allowed by zoning would have placed in an area, or areas, designated by the city e the district or neighborhood. Those sites which h istoric structures would receive the same lot coverage allowance, except that it would be reduced by the amounr of square footage in the existing structure(s). One of the most controversial aspects of TDR programs has been 35

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the s flection of those areas in the city which will be allow d to receive the extra density. Typically, these have been he downtown business areas where high densities are alreal y envisioned and more complex infrastructures are plann d. It may seem that this gives the property owners in these areas an advantage over other property owners in the city 1n additional development rights, but, in theory, they must ay a fair price for the right to develop this addit onal square footage. Appraisers are just beginning to under tand the intricacies involved in assessing the value of de elopment rights in a historic district. The potential value of a property is not an easy thing to assess for any property but particularly those within a historic district I I or net'ghborhood. Its success is dependent upon so many peopl and events. Peter D. Bowes, MAI, another speaker at the "Prof! ' table Preservation" seminar, stated that designation will ctually diminish the value of designated historic prope ty due to the restrictions which will be placed on its I devell p ment. Any preservation restriction is an encum erance on historic district property, and encum•erances devalue property. He does acknowledge, howev r, that in the real estate and retail markets, locat1on is everything and a location in a historic district or ne1ghborhood implies elitism with the attendant higher price tag.(32) 36

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Preservation easements have been utilized by some commu ities when, due possibly to the depalidated condition of th building, it is feasible to preserve only the facade of a istoric building. These are agreements between the propenty owner and the government, or private preservation organ'zation, g iving that agency a perpetual right to appro e or disapprove alterations to the property, thereby guara teeing the preservation of the facade and allowing the prope ty owner to make alterations as necessary to the Real estate appraisers consider these easements en cum against the property with the corresponding deval However, such an easement may contribute additional prestige to owning such a property, much the way that fficial landmark designation has been shown around the to stabilize and often improve property values with histor'c districts or neighborhoods. Developers are more than ever to incorporate preservation easements into their rejects because the charitable gift deduction for the donation makes an attractive addi tiona! tax feature._ ( 33) One of the main problems with restrictions placed lopment within a historic district or neighborhood is ey are never the same from one city to the next, from trict or neighborhood to the next, or even from one determining the appropriateness of a building to the I 1 d are.l.nr o .l.n proJecf , 1t 1s impossible to predict with any certainty the conditions and restrictions that wil l be placed on the next. Because so many subjective elements 37

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development of the project. The ambiguity of restrictions on lajdmark alteration and demolition makes the assessment of a Jistoric property's potential value very difficult to deter line. Development standards have been established by local preservation regulating bodies and by the National Trust, but these standards are merely guidelines to help deter ine whether the project is appropriate for the his to or inappropriate and the development should be pr ibited. These restrictions create uncertainties for the d veloper which lead to the big debate of historic prese vation -profitable or costly? And this debate resul ed in development of TDR districts to balance the profi and loss, or distinction and "damages", caused by designation. Transfer of development rights have become an effective method for historic districts and neighborhoods to maintain the character of their communities and has made development within historic districts and neighborhoods more attractive to developers. The uncertainty of the restrictions still create for the developer, but if the community establishes rative atmosphere for development, the developer will ough the difficulties to the potential profits. Sally G. Oldham, vice president of Langelier Histor'c Properties in Washington, D.C., claims that "tax creditl have been the major reason for the boom in rehabifitation projects." The adaptive re-use of old and 38

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buildings comprises a large portion of those projecJs. Buildings that have outlived their usefulness have, 'n the past, been demolished and replaced with skyscrJpers or new structures with contemporary architecture and cojstruction techniques. However, the success of some enterp developers i n "turning threatened structures into p and profitable second-hand roses" has p r o mpt others to s eek out abandoned buildings, or those that a under-utilized, as candidates for reha b i projects. Concern that America is slowly federa tax incentives make these projects even more approv d $346 million worth of rehabilitation projects for $2.2 billion worth. Obviously, the attraction of investment in reh ilitation projects has increased enormously. This in part to the fact that the scope and size of the rejects are more ambitious than in the past. In Los Angeles, California, a developer by the n a me of Wayn e Ratkovich has successfull y restored several large 'xed-use buildings. Ruthann Lehrer, director of the Los Angeles Conservancy, says Mr. Ratkovich's "projects have shown that quality restoration is good for the city's of life as well as for businessmen's pockets." Thos e d velopers who are sensitive to the city's ethnic and 39

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arch'tectural resources will have enormous success. Mr. Ratk vich states he is "in business to build environments plea ing to people .•. (and his) reward is money."(34) Herbert McLaughlin, AIA, of the firm Kaplan and McLa Francisco, California, in an article prep red for Preservation Press entitled, "Preservation Cost and Commercial Buildings", compares the developer's in San Francisco of new construction (Table 1) versus reha ilitation (Table 2). He concludes that the costs of reha ilitation, when carefully done, are almost half what it costs for new construction. 40

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Summary A review of the research has shown that, though some derelopers allege that historic results in immedia e decreased property value, and in some instances this is undoubtedly the case, the long term effects of histori designation on a community are the indirect, but dramati benefits which occur subtley over a period of benefit are obvious to those well-acquainted with the communi ies in which they occur. Quite often this is where the controversy emerges in a The citizens are presented with a decision which may have a significant cultural, economic and emotionA l effect on the town -whether to establish a histori1 district or to promote the historic image of the communiuy. They try to predict what effect prservation and designa ion will have on their own community by examining its eff ct on other communities. This almost always falls into th comparing of "apples and oranges", due to the difficu ty in finding similar case studies which have identic 1 initial demographics, economic catalysts, regulat'ons, neighborhoods, personalities and so forth. Communi ies are left to make their determination based upon the int itive "evidence" obtained from personal interviews of the 1ffects which have occurred indirectly as a result of preserv,tion and designation in othe r communities. They 41

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can e fairly certain, from the evidence of the majority of cities, that if the community and property owners are and have a plan for historic preservation and desi nation, that it will have positive affects on the city. For some members of the community this may not be enough. Some estimate of the degree of beneficial impact may be feels the historic requtred before the entire community concept will be profitable and Sample land value increases from other communities with similar demographics, development potential, and econ mies, should be examined by communities considering the of a historic district, or of individual builfings and promotion of the historic image, to estimate the economic impact of that designation. Research indicates that when certain factors are in place the desired improvements in the economy will occur. The late at which this occurs is dependent upon the inte sity of these factors and varies from community to nity. The following two tables from Herbert McLa ghlin, AlA, in San Francisco indicate that new cons ruction costs almost twice that of preservation and reha ilitation. All of these factors exist in San Fran•isco, though, and come from a well-established inte sity of commitment. Communities must examine their 42

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situ tion to determine if the following factors exist or Community commitment Community enthusiasm Sufficient number of significant historic properties Financial community interest Favorable economy Favorable demographics The next section suggests a methodology for ities to determine whether a historic preservation m would be an appropriate and beneficial addition the their economic development plan. 43

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TABLE 1 I Costs of New Construction for 15 to 20 story Downtown Building cost/gross sq.ft. Property acquisition Demo ition Basic building Tenart improvements Subtotal (hard costs) operation (3 years) Arch'tectural and legal fees Inte im cash flow Mark ting and financing real estate fees Deve oper overhead financing Developer profit Subtotal (soft costs) TOTAL TABLE 2 Typiqal Costs of Renovation renovation Basic Building renovation Tenart finishes Subtotal (hard costs) VacaJ t buildings cost (interim operating costs, taxes, insurance, etc. for 1. 6 years) Arch tectural, engineering and legal fees Net income Marketing costs, leasing and financing fees Develope r ' s overhead financing Deve1oper's profit Subtotal (soft costs) TOTAL $ 3.00 .15 38.00 8.00 $49.15 2.70 2.60 2.70 1.00 6.60 6.00 $21.60 $70.75 cost/gross sq.ft. $ 9.00 2.50 10.00 8.50 $30.00 $ .80 1.60 {1.00) 2.50 .50 2.50 3.00 $10.90 $39.90 44

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FOOTN TES a Resource: The Public's Investment in the, Preservation and Development of Virginia's Historic A Report of the Virginia Historic Landmarks (State of Virginia, 1982}, pp. i-iii, 1-4. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 bid. Eles N. Tseckares, AIA, "Adaptive Office Space in Buildings", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old . din s, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Preservation Press, 1976}, p. 76. Managing a Resource: The Public's Investment in the reservation and Develo ment of Vir inia1s Historic andmarks, op. cit. L. Pulsipher and John E. Rosenow, Tourism -The ood, the Bad, and the Ugly, (Nebraska: Century Three ress, 1979}, pp. 45-46. ana in a Resource: The Public's Investment in the reservation and Development of Virginia's Historic op. iavid Listokin, Landmarks Preservation and the Property ax, Assessing Landmark Buildings for Real Taxation urposes, Center for Urban Policy Research and the New York Landmarks Conservancy, (Rutgers University, 982} pp. 27-52. Ibid. ll?i2 Ibid. iorgio Cavaglieri, FAIA, "Plus Factors of Old Economic Benefits of Preserving Old @uildings, National Trust for Historic (Preservation Press, 1976} p. 53. istokin, op. cit. tto A. Davis and Andrew B. Whinston, "Economics of Urban Renewal," Law and Contemporary Problems, vol. 26, o. 1 (Winter 1961): 105-117. [tto A. Davis and Morton I. Kamier, "Externalities, nformation, and Alternative Collective Action," The , nalysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditure, The PPS ystem, Joint Compendium, 9lst

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I Cong., 1st sess., vol. 1 (1969), 67. 15 Weiming Lu, "Public Commitment and Private Investment in Preservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 35. 16 Dudley s. Hinds and William E. Lockard, Jr., Ph.D., "Historic Zoning Considerations in Neighborhood and District Analysis," The Appraisal Journal, (October, 1983), 487-488. 17 Correspondence from John M. Wilhelms, MAI, of the Bishop Appraisal Group, Inc., Colorado Springs, Colorado, October, 1984. 18 Gordon L. Binder, John Clark and Claudia Wilson, Small Seaports -Revitalization Through Conserving Heritage Resources, The Conservation Foundation, (1979), 31. 19 Wes Uhlman, "Economics Aside'', Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 7. 20 Livability Digest, vol. 1, no. 1, (Fall, 1981), pp. 10-13. 21 Ibid, p. 32. 22 Pulsipher, op.cit., pp. 250-251. 23 Listokin, op. cit., pp. 42-43. 24 Sace Davis and Jonathon \'lal ters, "The Boom in Born-Again Buildings," Historic Preservation, (August, 1984)' 18. 25 Livability Digest, op. cit., p. 10. 26 Preservation News, (December, 1979), p. 2. 27 Preservation News, (April, 1986), p. 2. 28 Richard c. Mehring, "Grants-in-Aid for Historic Preservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), pp. 97-99. 29 Truett Latimer, "Government Assistance in Preservation Financing: The State Sector", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings, National Trust for Historic Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), p. 99-101. 30 George A. Karas, "HUD Programs to Support

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Preservation", Economic Benefits of Preserving Old National Trust for Historic Preservation, !(Preservation Press, 1976), pp. 104-107. 31 William G. Seline, "Tax Increment Financing: A Key Preservation Tool", Economic Benefits of Preservinq Old Buildinqs, National Trust for Preservation, (Preservation Press, 1976), lP 49. 32 op. cit. 33 Richard J. Roddewig and Jared Shlaes, MAI, "Preservation Easements Reconsidered: An Alternative !Approach to Value", The Appraisal Journal, (July, 1984), pp. 326, 347. 34 Webb, "A Hard-nosed Developer Proves the !Experts Wrong", Historic Preservation, (April, 1984), tp. 23.

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PRE-DESIGNATION EVALUATI.ON • Determining the desirability of historic preservation for a community

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There are several methods available when ating the potential economic value of a historic area community. On e method is the comparison of the area's -economic characteristics before designation and proj,ction of improvement (or effect) for sometime after desijnation has occurred. The comparison of before and afte' should examine such elements as neighborhood ations, household income, educational level, crime rate, housing rehabilitation frequency, and property values. Exam'nation of economics and statistics only doesn't give a comp ete picture when studying the effects of something so subjtctive. Another method is through the interview process to o tain the intuitive and observable, but difficult to docu ent, perception of community vitality before and the chanbes which have occurred as a result of historic presl rvation. I have chosen a combination of these methods in oping a list of questions for community examination. The community leaders and planners, both ssional and volunteer, should answer these questions honestly and with no thought to personal gain. The group may t e a task force or ad hoc committee formed for this purp se. Once the committee has all the info, mation necessary to make decisions, public meetings shoulld be conducted t,o hear from the community at large. In some areas it may be wise to perform house-to-house surveys to gather public opinion. In any case, it is most important 45

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that thes e issues be well-understood and that the decisions are made from community consensus. If not, the lack of cornm rnitY support will create controversy each time a project involving a historic structure, or any within the historic area, is being reviewed. The issur of whether historic preservation is a benefit or to the community will be debated fruitlessly each time also. Before successful rehabilitation development and new onstruction can take place there must be a community ution of this issue. The following questions initiate social, economic, and ultural investigation which should provide the info mation necessary for a community to determine whether a . I h. h f . f' ser1ous 1stor1c preservat1on program as su 1c1ent support and, therefore, the potential for success: Are the community's natural and man-made resources unique? Do its older buildings provide a visual link to the community's past? Does the community have the attitude that new is better; thatas soon as something ages beyond the current national preferences for style, it must be modernized or replaced? If found to be desirable, would the community or area qualify for entry on the National Register of Historic Places? Are there enough sites of significant historic value to justify a historic district or should the community devote its efforts to the designation of individual landmarks? Is the community prepared for the changes which will occur with the hoped-for increase in tourists? 46

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Is the community prepared for the capital improvements necessary to provide services to the increased visitor population? If it is determined that the community must increase its water and sewage treatment capacity, are there sufficient existing revenues to fund the improvements? Or will it be necessary to commit future tax dollars for the improvements? Will it be necessary to increase the community's capacity for solid waste disposal? Is the current flood and storm drainage system adequate for the anticipated growth? If necessary can these improvements be funded with existing revenues? Will it be necessary to commit future tax dollars? Will it be necessary to increase the capacity of utility systems such as power, gas, and communications? How will historic preservation effect existing housing? Will it create a demand for additional housing? Will historic preservation protect the aesthetic values and character of the community? Will the preservation program directly or indirectly preserve public views and vistas? Or will they be lost? Are the guidelines written to discourage projects which destroy important vistas? Will encouraging rehabilitation save energy? Does the community consider this important to the overall well-being of the town? Will the preservation program have a detrimental impact on the quality of public services such as fire and police protection, schools, parks, recreation facilities, and road maintenance? Will the community commit future tax revenues to improv e these services? Will the road capacity handle the additional vehicular movements caused by the increase in visitor population? What will be the effects on the existing parking facilities? Will it be necessary to construct additional facilities? Are the existing transportation systems adequate 47

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for the e xpected increase in visitors? Will the increase in traffic create undesirable circulation patterns? Will the increase be acceptable to the community at-large? Will the increase in population, both permanent and visitor, have adverse impacts on the environment? Are these impacts mitigable? Will preservation and an increased population create ecological deterioration in the area? Are ther e habitats, plant life, animal life, water sources, or other fragile environments that will be endangered due to the increased intensity of uses? Will the water and air quality, and noise pollution be degraded passed acceptable limits? Is the financial community involved and committed to the success of the community's historic preservation program? Has the community examined the effects on other communities through written studies and documentation of the economic, demographic and social impacts historic preservation has had on these areas? Have these impacts been reviewed for applicability to their community? Are the negative impacts acceptable? Do the positive impacts outweigh the negative? Is the community willing to avoid the temptation of short-term profits, which are available with every new development? How will the community maintain control of the development pressure which will certainly come? Will the community establish guidelines for rehabilitation and n e w construction within the historic district, which are restrictive enough to allow denial of projects that will have a negative impact on the h i s torical integrity of the area? W ill t hese guidelines also encourage appropri a t e rehabilitation and new construction? Will it be necessary to provide incentives to encourage development within the district? Will these incentives include increased density? Should some system be established for transferring density from within the historic area to outside 48

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its boundaries? Considering the existing and projected market conditions, is the historic preservation program economic ally feasible? Will the program and its related activities require the expenditure of public funds in excess of the expected public revenues generated by the program? If, after this examination is complete, the comrnu ity determines that designation and/or preservation will I e beneficial, the following should be accomplished: 1. Inventory of all historic structures gathering as much information as possible on each site or structure. 2. Establish a district boundary. Structures within should express a unity of architectural period and styles. 3. Develop goals and a plan for preservation. 4. Historic District Development Guidelines should be adopted which preserve the visual harmony of the area, particularly with regard to new construction. 5. Educate the reviewing board in the use of the Guidelines. 6. Establish the incentive program if one is necessary. 49

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7. Develop various financial programs with the local banking community and keep these updated. so

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SUMMARY Part of what will determine the success of the distri t is the existing economic atmosphere of the commun ,'ty and whether the preservation and rehabilitation of historic buildings is viewed by the financial community as a I valuable and viable contribution to the city's stability. If it an be shown that designation will, in the short and long t rm, have a significant effect on the city's economic well-bj ing, then not only the financial community, but the ment and business communities will endorse the distri t with enthusiasm. Examination of the community's resources, economic structure, and enthusiasm for development and change will form a j overall picture of the community's future. It is important for the community to determine how to gain the mroessotubrctneesfit from each resource and how to preserve those for future citizens of the community. The quality of lif exists in a delicate balance -care must be taken to improv and maintain it . 51

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CONCLUDING COMMENTS

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have In looking back over the information presented, deed the opinion of the majority of those informally iewed and from whom an overall understanding was ed, it is clear that historic preservation programs do significant effect on communities and there is the tion, at least , that this effect is beneficial. The evidence uncovered indicates that property appraisers, those charged with the duty of quantifying the effec s, have yet to concur on the formulas to be used when esti ating the property value of a historic site. This is due to the widely varying ranges of local, state and Federal restrictions, and, also the ranges of support. Generally, it a ears to be true, though, that while historic vation does impose encumbrances, or restrictions, on a prop rty, it is those very encumbrances which provide the d isti ctiveness that adds value to the property. This issue, with so many interrelated causes and effects, m ust e taken on a case-by-case basis. Location and comm nity attitude appear to be the most influential effects on historic property value. pres The documents researched repeatedly stressed the ance of certain factors to the success of local efforts. The overall quality of the historic area and the individual sites within it is the number one element to a successful program. Whether the area is to be commercial or residential, or a combination of both, its 5 2

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locat on --proximity to established areas, accessibility, and a cess to transportation systems is the second most impor ant factor. Finally, and in some ways this element is s t important, community enthusiasm and support have been shown to make the difference between failure of a supert historic resource, and the success of a mediocre histo ic area. The negative effects of historic preservation were ident1fied as primarily two --the added regulatory costs for d velopers and the added costs to government of provi,ing services for the increased visitor and permanent The direct and most obvious positive effects appeared as increased sales and property taxes and increased I property values. The abundance of positive effects were ident fied as indirect results of preservation, but none the less important. Frequently, the participators in presetvation view the high community self-esteem which I . develops from a preservation program to be the primary resul and all the rest, which occurs as a result, to be side benefits. They cite the importance of community spiri to avoid the temptation of individual, short-term, profi s, which defeat the efforts of all. The research conducted with this study confirmed what initially suspected, that historic preservation can be a rignificant factor in the economic well-being of a 53

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ity. However, I was intrigued with the amazing number ues which effect the final results. Also, it was sting to discover that time is such an important t, that preservation successes do not occur overnight, at consistent, dedicated effort over a long period of time s the overwhelmingly important factor. 54

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ,_, _

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BIBLlOGRAPHY Baker, Russell. "An Epidemi c of Quaintness". Historic Preservation, 1983. p. 60. Basquin, Susan. "A Tourist Detraction?". Preservation 1986. National Trust for Historic p. 1. Bever, Thomas D. "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation". Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, United States Department of the Interior, May, 19 7 8. p. 1. Binder, Gordon L., John Clark and Claudia Wilson. Small Seaports -Revitalization Throuqh Conserving Heritage Resources. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation, 1979. 76 pp. Cavaglieri, Giorgio, FAIA. "Plus Factors of Old Buildings". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp. Chaprran, Bruce K. "The Growing Public Stake in Urban Conservation". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp. Davis, Otto A. and Morton I. Kamier. "Externalities, Information, and Alternative Collective Action". The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditure. The PPS Syst em , Joint Economic Committee Compendium, 9 l s t Congress, First Session. Volume I, 1969. p. 67. Davis, Otto A. and Andrew B. Whinston. "Economics of Urban Renewal". Law and Contemporary Problems. Volume 26, Number 1, Winter, 1961. pp. 105-117. Sace and Jonathon Walters. "The Boom in Born-Again uildings". Historic Preservation, August, 1984 • . 18. Ditmel , Joanne. "Aspen Losing Its Character". The Denver Housing Section G, August 19, 1984. p. 34. Column. Preservation News, February, 1984. p. 4. Harril s Street Group. "Breckenridge Resource Base". Town of Breckenridge, 1976. 108 pp. Hinds, Dudle s. and William E. Lockard, Jr., Ph.D. "Histor1c Zoning Considerations in Neighborhood and

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istrict Analysis". The Appraisal Journal. October, t983. pp. 485-497. Holdel. , Dennis. "And Now, From the Friendly Folks on $adison Avenue". Historic Preservation. Preservation iress, August, 1984. p. 29. George A. "HUD Programs to Support Preservation". Economic Benefits of Preservin Old Buildin s. 1ational Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation lress, 1976. 164 pp. Latim r, Truett. "Government Assistance in Preservation inancing: The State Sector". Economic Benefits of reservin Old Buildin s. National Trust for Historic lreservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp. Listo in, David. Landmarks Preservation and the Property Tax, Assessing Landmark Buildings for Real Taxation Fur oses. Center for Urban Policy Research and the ew York Landmarks Conservancy. Rutgers University, 982. pp. 27-52. Livibtlity Digest. Volume 1, Number 1. Fall, 1981. 10-13. Lu, W 'iming. "Public Commitment and Private Investment in Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Euildinqs. National Trust for Historic Preservation. . Press, 1976. 164 pp. Mehrimg, Richard c. "Grants-in-Aid for Historic treservation". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 p. Presetvation News. April, 1986. p. 2. PreseJvation News. December, 1979. p. 2. PulsiJher, Gerreld L. and John E. Rosenow. Tourism -The Good the Bad and the U 1 . Nebraska: Century Three ress, 1979. 279 pp. Rodde ig, Richard J. and Jared Shlaes, MAl. asements Reconsidered: An Alternative '{alue". The Appraisal Journal. July, ll>P. 3 2 5-3 4 7 • I "Preservation Approach to 1984. Seline, William G. "Tax Increment Financing: A Key *reservation Tool". Economic Benefits of Preserving Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation. Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp.

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Tseck res, Charles N., AIA. "Adaptive Office Space in Old Economic Benefits of Preserving Old National Trust for Historic Preservation. 1976. 164 pp. Uhlmary., Wes. "Economics Aside". lj:conomic Benefits of Old Buildings. National Trust for Historic Preservation Press, 1976. 164 pp. Virgi ia Historic Landmarks Commission. Managing a The Public's Investment in the Preservation .nd Development of Virginia's Historic Landmarks. 'tate of Virginia, 1982. 54 pp. Webb, Michael. "A Hard-nosed Developer Proves the Experts rong". Historic Preservation, April, 1984. p. 23. Wilhelms, John M., MAI. Correspondence, October, 1984.

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l APPENDIX Breckenridge Historic District Development Guidelines

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Once a community is committed to preservation, stan9ards should be established to meet the community goals and J o guide the development of not only the historical reso lrces, but compatible new construction within the historic district. These guidelines should include a sect'on describing the history of the community to give a basi ratio nale for the design standards and to help develop an a for the town's past. It must be made clear that the community expects new buildings to be designed with resp ct for its history. Indiscriminate building, w ithout rega d for the community's history or the character of its h ist ric buildings and neighborhoods will eventually result in t e loss of these valuable assets. A discussion of the architectural styles found in the J own should be included to help designers build comp tible new structures. The definition of compatibility shou elements of scale, form, finestration, p rop rtions, materials, landscaping and site planning. When historic buildings were originally cons ructed they were products of their time, using the mos t styles and materials available. Our contemporary buildings m ust be products of their own time or they lose thei integrity. They can blend into our historic neig if they are designed with sensitivity to the p ast.(l) 55

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The intention of the document should be to provide a g ,ide, not standards which will restrict creative sol,tions to design problems. It is the nature of historic dis ricts or neighborhoods that almost all development sit ations are unique. Guidelines have-the flexibility to all w unique solutions in a proactive rather than a reactive apploach. In other words, the standards will not try to reg late every possible scenario, but will provide essential cri eria to be examined for building in harmony with history. The development and use of design guidelines will avot d the tendency to construct a theme park. When one new buifding after another is built as a replication of a past sty e, the actual history of the community is confused with the false history created by new copies of old buildings. The character and integrity of the community is lost when its history is reduced to entertainment. History can be mad appealing, but it can also be made confusing by adding the inaccuracies of new construction.(2) Even with a set of gui elines for development in its historic district, Bre kenridge, Colorado, had a tendency to allow new bui dings which replicated historic styles when it first begj n restricting what was built in its historic district. It t s a temptation which must be avoided. As several of these were built, the town became aware of their obvious inatpropriateness beside the original historic buildings. The new guidelines, included in this study, clarify the 56

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renee between copying exact styles and borrowing the rtions and scale of the past to combine them with the iques and style of today in creating b uildings which are product of their own time, but which also blend pea efully with the old. Nantucket, Massachussetts, a town heavily dent on tourism for i t s livelihood, is struggling to from becoming a theme park. The nostalgia attraction for ourists was a very important element in their city p l a ing. Nantucket's quaintness is well-known, and in an its o wntown streets by making them of cobblestones as one of original streets is. Many feel this, as well as gas lamps and other decorative have produced a t park city with streets which are uncomfortable and inca venient to travel. The difference between an authentic historic town and a theme park is that you can absorb e ver thing there is to see in a theme park in one day, where i t ay take years to learn all there is to know about a real mor interested in encouraging retu r n visits.(3) A continuity in approved standards of development mus exist when design guidelines are in effect or the tem,tation for short-term profit creates inappropriate dev,lopment -typically large, tall, square and covered ornamentation. with 57

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According to some observers, Aspen, Colorado, thoug it also has design guidelines, has approved many new to old structures which are insensitive and "new" Victo ian-style buildings which overwhelm the authentic histo ic buildings.(4) Many longtime residents of Santa Fe, New M xico, feel their city has been sacrificed to the touri One of the first towns to implement development guide ines, Santa Fe has always been looked upon as the model (5) But as with most things, the tools are only as good as the artist who uses them. We must begin to see our histo ic structures as non-renewable resources to be caref lly nurtured and protected. Design guidelines provide the tools which allow this happen, but those who use them must keep the goals of th community in mind. The city which considers its histo its most significant assets, will have the prote tion and development of its historic structures and neighborhood as one of its primary goals. The following Historic District Development Guide ines were developed for Breckenridge, Colorado, to guide all development within their historic district. It is inclu estab toke mount a model for other communities. It was to develop the communi ty • s unique character and from becoming just another suburb in the 58

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Once the historic district or neighborhood is establ shed, self-monitoring of the progress and effects of preser should be conducted periodically to help the commun'ty update their plan, project the future effects on the co unity, and determine whether goals are being met. 59

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FOOTN TES 1 1 2 3 4 5 "Breckenridge Resource Base", Harris Street Group, (1976), pp. 80-85. conversation with Clark Strickland, Regional for the National Trust for Historic Western States, (August 31, 1983). Column, Preservation News, (February, 1984), I , . 4. ussell Baker, "An Epidemic of Quaintness", Historic reservatio , reprinted from The New York Times, ( 11983), p. 60. Jjoanne Ditmer, "Aspen Losing its Character", The Denver ,ost, Housing Section G, (August 19, 1984). usan Basquin., "A Tourist Detraction?", Preservation ews, National Trust for Historic Preservation, J anuary, 1986), p. 1.

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TOWN of BRECKENRIDGE Department of Community Development -1984 HISTORIC DISTRICT I

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-------------BRECKENRIDGE HISTORIC DISTRICT GUIDELINESTABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I I INTRODUOION I I I DISTRIO MAP I V HOW TO USE THESE GUIDELINES 2 2 V HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE 3 4 V I HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE ARCHITEOURE 6-12 V I I GENERAL HISTORIC DISTRIO GUIDELINES 13-17 V Ill GUIDELINES FOR NEW CONSTRUOION 18 28 I X GUIDELINES FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 29 36 X Bl BLIOGRAPHY 3 7 X I APPENDIX -Index Cultural Survey List of Agencies Preservation Incentives to be DeveloJ:e(f -Transfer of Development Rights within Histoi"ic District -to be Developed

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This document has been written and compiled by DIANE McGRATHwith assistance from: Development REBECCA WAUGH, Breckenridge Historic Commission , Coordinator HETIY HARMON, Breckenridge Community Development MARY JEAN LOUFEK, Breckenridge Community Development CHRISTINE PFAFF, State Historical Society of Colorado JOHN HUMPHREYS, Breckenridge Community Development, Director JON GUNSON, Architect BRECKENRIDGE TOWN COUNCIL BRECKENRIDGE PLANNING COMMISSION This document draws freely from information pub lished by the State Historical Society of Colorado and by the United States Department of the Interior and the Town wishes to gratefully acknowledge their contribu tion .

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--INTRODUCTION-----------------------------------------------In 1980, the Department of the Interior , National Park Service , designated Breckenridge as a National Register Historic District for its major historical contribution to America ' s present, because a significant part of America's past has been preserved here. Until recently , this had not been an active preservation effort, but the result of almost no growth between 1917, when World War I began, until the opening of the ski area in 1960, when the latest boom in the Breckenridge economy began . Breckenridge is an outstanding example of an 1800's Colorado mining boom town with each of its phases of development still intact. The settlement , camp , and town periods of growth , as well as their progression , are evident in the many log cabins, simple clapboard , false-front buildings and the more elaborately detailed buildings. The Town has recently confirmed its decision that des ignation as a National Register Historic District is a significant benefit to Breckenridge . It is a benefit indi vidually , due to tax incentives provided for restorat i on and a certain amount of prestige that goes along with owning, living in or operating a business from a historic building. And also mutually, because Breckenridge has something many other ski resort areas do not have Character. This is one of the Town's major attractions . Its historical integrity and its natural setting make it a resort unlike any other. Because of this the Town has made a commitment to preserving that character through careful preservation of our historic structures and sensitive design of new buildings . These guidelines were developed to accomplish that goal. Objectives of these guidelines: Reinforce the character of the historic area and protect its visual elements; Improve the quality of growth and develop ment ; Protect the value of public and private invest ment, which might otherwise be threatened by the undesirable consequences of poorly man aged growth; Preserve the integrity of the historic area by discouraging the construction of buildings that duplicate historic styles; Indicate which approaches to design Brecken ridge encourages as well as those it discour ages; Provide an objective basis for the decisions of design review; Serve as a tool for designers and their clients to . use in making preliminary design decisions ; Increase public awareness of design issues and options. The charm of Breckenridge lies in its sense of history and its sense of community and the knowledge that the character, which has taken over one hundred years to develop, is an honest reflection of our past. Brecken ridge has always been a rough Town , built for function , not elegance . We hope to maintain the integrity of this character through application of these guidelines. These design guidelines should function as a filter , to screen out designs that are obviously inappropriate for the District, and focus on protecting the essential visual characteristics of the District so as not to restrict creati vity . This approach to design guidelines , which encour ages contemporary design in a historic district actually broadens the range of design options that might be ap propriate . From a visual standpoint, it can be argued that designs which duplicate historic styles are more compatible, because they certainly will have elements that are similar to those that already exist on the street. However, from the standpoint of historic interpreta tion, they are inappropriate because they confuse us, and our visitors, about the history of the life of the com munity. In addition, the new versions of historic struc tures are often technically inaccurate, and they cause even more confusion about what building styles were like in the past. The challenge lies in meeting the needs of a first-class resort while still maintaining the original character of the Town. The architect's skills are the critical factor in achieving a good relationship between the modern functional requirements of a resort and the design features of our older buildings .

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---------------------------HOW TO USE THESE GUIDELINES-HISTORIC DISTRICT MAP It is important to understand that these guidelines were written to express the standards of appropriateness which Breckenridge encourages , not to design buildings. They were also written so that we all have a opment proposals. Step One Guidelines Read these guidelines to help you understand what design criteria is used. If you are construct ing a new building within the Historic District, Sections VII and VIII , contain the guidelines to follow in planning your project. If your project incorporates an existing historic structure in some way, Sections VII and IX are the guidelines to follow. Step Two-Meet with Town Staff Discuss your proposal with a staff member of the Community Development Department. They will be able to alert you to any initial concerns and see that you are headed in the right direction. Step Three Meet with Historic Commission Coordinator It is important to discuss your project with the Historic Commission early in your planning process. The Breckenridge Historic Commission Co ordinator can help you a great deal in determin ing what is significant about your building or site with regard to its historic character. If you are constructing a new building, research the history of the area with the Breckenridge Historic Commission and specifically the block where you are building. This will give you a sense of the character there and enable you to design sensitiv ely to the surroundings. If your project incorpo rates an existing historic structure , our Develop ment Code requires that a Cultural Survey be done. This includes an inventory of the building's historic and architectural significance and the cur rent physical condition. This can be requested from the Breckenridge Historic Commission. Step Four Pre-Application Conference for Development Code Permit File a formal application for your project and follow through the Development Code Process. 2

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-HISTORY OF BRECKENRIDGE----------------------------3 During the late 1850's , with the nation in financial crisis, many men set out from the cities for the western territories in search of gold and a new beginning. In the summer of 1859, a group of prospectors led by General George Spencer found gold along the Blue River near where the town of Breckenridge is located now. They built a crude fort of block houses just north of the current Town and called it Fort "Mary B", after the first white woman to cross the Continental Divide into the Blue River Valley. The remains of this fort now lie somewhere beneath the rock piles. The Ute Indians, who had lived in the valley for many years, were considered somewhat a threat by the first prospectors , and some believe this is the reason Fort " Mary B" was built. In time, however , the pioneers realized that the Indians meant no harm and the Town grew outside the Fort as well . In the hope of securing a Federal Post Office , the resi dents decided to name the town after the Vice Presi dent of the United States, john Cabell Breckinridge. A post office was assigned to the town in 1860, but soon after it was constructed, the Vice President broadly ex pressed his sympathies for the South and the Con federate cause and , indignantly , our pro-Union community changed the spelling to Breckenridge . The first miners along the Swan River , French Creek and the Blue River used the very basic methods of picks, shovels , and pans to collect the gold from the land. Many of the miners lived in the early mining camps of Breckenridge, Lincoln City, and Parkville in the 1860's. They divided the stream beds into parcels or "placers" and ownership was established . The miners built sluices and long toms for placer and later hydraulic mining, which was faster and more effective , but left the hillsides scarred after a high pressure stream of water was used to erode the hill and wash the dirt and gold downstream . Throughout the 1860's , small, but productive mining camps were established on the north side of Farncomb Hill, then down Georgia Gulch to Gold Run and Dela ware Flats. As the search for placer gold increased, new gulches were explored and given names such as French , Georgia , Galeria, American, and Humbug. The area was so rich in minerals that a single pan of dirt often yielded two to twelve dollars in gold . Then the miners began to trace the ore back to its source in the hills, and lode mining began in Breck enridge. However, the individual miner couldn't com pete with the large corporate lode mining operations because of the enormous costs involved with this method of mining, and so many of the miners went to work for the large corporate mines. At one time , these large mines in Summit County produced more gold than any other county in Colorado. By 1880, there were 2,000 residents in Breckenridge , along with eighteen saloons and three dance halls. It was during this boom period that most of the .Town's ornate, false-front buildings were built, but only a few of these remain today. The extension of the Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroad in 1882 brought many more people to Town and accelerated the development of mining as well . Its narrow gauge track came from Denver , over Kenosha Pass, across South Park to Como and then over Boreas Pass down into Breckenridge. This was the highest through-line , narrow gauge railroad in the country with steep grades that would defy even today's standard gauge trains. At the Boreas Pass summit, there was a section house , the highest Post Office in the United States and there are still remains of the Farnham Spur , the ore tipple that served the 730 Mine and the War rior's Mark Mine just below timberline on the west s ide of Boreas Pass and Baker's Tank about midway up the grade where it was used by the steam engines to take on water. One of the most fantastic gold discoveries was the "Wire Patch," located on Farncomb Hill northeast of Breckenridge, where the gold was in the very rare form of beautifully crystallized wire . The area was extensive ly mined, with mines dotting the hillside, and on a Saturday afternoon in July, 1887 , the Town erupted with excitement over the discovery of a huge 156 ounce gold nugget by Tom Groves and Harry Lytton. When they brought their nugget into town, friends named it "Tom's Baby" because of the affectionate way they carried it. Tom Groves became an overnight celebrity with numerous parties held in his honor. It is even claimed that the popular drink " Tom & jerry" was introduced at one of these affairs and named after the brothers , Tom and jerry Groves . Not long after this , however, Tom Groves faded into obscurity and, strangely enough , so did "Tom's Baby" . The wherea bouts of the nugget remained a mystery until in 1972 ,

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ner of Main and Washington Streets. Both Ford and after painstaking research, Mark Feister, author of Blasted, Beloved Breckenridge, found the nugget in a Dyer are honored in the Colorado Hall of Fame with simple wooden box hidden away in a United Bank of stained glass windows in the State Capitol. Denver safety deposit box . Edwin G. Carter, another from Breckenridge who left his mark on the state, was an internationally known Of all the mining techniques used here, the gold dredgnaturalist. He created his own museum in Breckening operations were the most destructive. These dredge ridge by collecting one of each bird and animal species or gold boats were used on .... a...-n . d ..--------1-------i-n-this-region, hieh-eventttaHy-beeame-t.fte--nl:lelel:ls ot------Frenc Cree rom 1900 until mining cease In the Denver Museum of Natural History. The Carter during World War II. Only the rock piles are left of h d these beautiful river valleys. In Breckenridge , the Museum building still stands at 111 Nort Ri ge Street. dredges were always discussed with mixed emotions. Though the Breckenridge area was extensively mined , In a time when little else was happening here, the ranching was also an important part of the economy. dredge mines provided jobs and a steady economy, but Quite often, these ranches were on land which had those who lived here watched with sadness as the ma once been purchased for dredging operations, but chines destroyed the river valleys. The remains of these never used. The town even boasted one dairy farm. In dredges can be seen near the Swan River Road, near the early 1900's , Chris Cluskey pastured his cows on his Lincoln City south of French Creek , and near Breckfield at the foot of what is now Ski Hill Road and providenridge going east on French Creek , as well as along ed milk for Breckenridge families. the Blue River north of Breckenridge. After President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration The population of Breckenridge has fluctuated greatly order to cease all mining operations in 1942 because of over the years , reaching its peak at 2,000 or more in the " the war effort", the town of some 200 people was 1880's and dropping over the years until the early barely able to hold on during those lean years . Then , 1960's when the ski area was developed. From that late in the 1950 ' s , Breckenridge began its latest boom time , there has been a steady increase in the permaperiod when it was rediscovered and developed for skinent population as well as the tourist population. ing and mountain home investments . The Peak 8 Ski Several of these early immigrants became notable Col Area was built and as it grew to include many new orado characters. Father john L. Dyer , a pioneer miles of trails , the name was changed to the BreckenMethodist clergyman , was the founder of the first ridge Ski Area . church in Breckenridge , Father Dyer Church , which is The history of Breckenridge tells of an area known for now located at the corner of Briar Rose Lane and Wellsevere hardships, but offering the opportunity of great ington. He began the mining town of Dyersville in wealth . The three previous booms all in pursuit of 1880 , which is just east of Breckenridge off of Boreas gold took an enormous toll on the natural environ -Pass Road, and he preached in all the local mining ment and the people as they became more aware of camps while carrying the mail and gold over the mounthe high price they paid for their economic survival. tain passes on snowshoe and on foot. His son , E . F . But happily today , we are finding that the destruction Dyer , became a judge in Breckenridge and was later and desolation left by the dredge boats is not irreversikilled in his own courtroom in Granite , Colorado , durble . Lately , several unique projects have reclaimed ing the Lake County Cattle War. these areas with great success. Kingdom Park, built by Barney L. Ford was a former slave who actively supthe Town, is an excellent example. The comprehenported Negro rights and made a fortune in the hotel siveness of the Breckenridge Master Plan, adopted in and restaurant business in Breckenridge, Cheyenne, 1978 , and the Town's commitment to improve and and Denver, after a lucky strike while mining near maintain the environment , both natural and manBreckenridge. He eventually served as a member of the made , have brought about a reversal of the previous Colorado General Assembly and his wife was the first course of Breckenridge development, from calculating I to sensitive. Sensitive to the environment and sensitive Negro woman listed in the Denver Socia Register. Recently, a hill and a gulch just east of Breckenridge to the historic character-which makes it also sensitive were officially named after him. Barney Ford's Breck-to the future. It is hoped that this Historic Guide will en ridge home remains in excellent condition at the corhelp to nurture that sensitivity. 4

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The vernacular architecture and the grid pattern layout of blocks and streets in Breckenridge form a fairly typi cal setting for a mining boom town. The buildings were designed from memory , mail order catalogs, and phocities, but adapted to the materia s available, skills of the carpenter, and affluence of the owner. Evidence of the r eviva l styles found here are another result of the eastern influences. The streets were designed wide enough to accommodate the maneuvering of horse and wagon and for social events . Main Street and Lin coln Avenue were the primary commercial areas, with the residentia l area to the east, on the hillside. The area to the west of Main Street was reserved for light indus try and lower class residential. What makes Breckenridge unique with regard to its architecture is the presence of buildings which illus trate each of the Town 's three phases of development. The settle ment , camp a nd town phases can vividly tell the history of an area when they are preserved as suc cessfully as they are in Breckenridge . In other boom towns , the early buildings have long since been de stroyed to make room for newer , grander buildings which are evidence of the prosperity of the town. As re co unted on the preceeding pages, Breckenridge changed very little between 1920 and 1960 , which has left the community's history intact. Settlement Phase (1859 1870, Breckenridge ) This phase is characterized by log cabins, crude street layouts, small populations , limited access to the outside and few town amenities. With the op portunity to get rich quick, buildings were con structed swiftly and placed near the mineral de posits. Camp Phase (18701880 , Breckenridge) The seco nd phase occurred when the settlement populations grew larger and more substantial de posits were found . Sawmills were set up, frame buildings appeared , formal streets were laid out, city governments were established , and some amenities were available . 6

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7 Town Phase (7880-Present, Breckenridge) The third phase of development occurred when a camp became a center for transportation, sup plies or because of the location of mining proper ty. The architecture became more elaborate, and a feeling of permanence evolved through use of brick and stone. This phase is ongoing and with the influence of the ski boom, we are adding still another phase. Though the architecture consists mainly ofvernacular style created by local craftsmen, there are the obvious influences of the popular Victorian era styles and the Greek, Gothic, ltalianate, and Romanesque revival styles. The Victorian era took years to evolve in the east, but in the rugged, transient west, the influences of the Victorian era on the architecture occurred during a relatively short period of time 1880 to 1920 . The following examples of the settlement, camp and town phases , broken out by usesresidential, commer cial, institutional and utilitarian-illustrate Breckenridge vernacular architecture. The influences of the pure , for mal styles are quite evident in the later phases. Settlement Phase Klack Cabin, 1860's, 209 S. Harris St. typical log construction .

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Town Phase Otterson House, 1882 , 100 N . High St. good example of vernacular architecture with ltalianate detail -diamond shape jigsaw pieces made locally, fence probably shipped in on railroad , local architect, bay window, balloon frame . Camp Phase Carter Museum , 1875 , 111 N . Ridge St. hand hewn logs, metal roof, second floor evident, porch is added at a later date. 8

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COMMERCIAL 9 Settlement Phase Hyde Real Estate, 1863 , 105 N . Main St. original log structure, lap siding and Greek revival features were add ed in the 1870's with development of the sawmill in Town. Greek revival style is evident in the deta il above the window. Camp Phase Skinny Winter/Gallery, 1880, 123 S . Main St. -typical two-story, false-front structure , store front on first floor, residence on second. Intermediate cornice, with Greek revival detail on the windows. The Gallery first floor facade has been altered within the last 15 years.

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Town Phase Summit County Investment building, 1885, 120 S . Main St. stone con struction , cornice pressed tin trim with Italian detailing (1907) . Windows are Greek revival. 10

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11 INSTITUTIONAL Town Phase-During this phase, with the Town more permanently established , the institutional buildings were built. Schools Churches Colorado Mountain College, 1908, 103 S. Harris St. Romanesque detailing on the cornice and around the windows. St. Mary's, 1881, 1 09 S. French St. -gothic detailing above windows, dripstone, also some Italian detailing.

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Government Buildings Summ i t County Courthouse, 1908 , 2 08 Lincoln Ave. combination of architectural styles , Greek revival windows, pediments , and is very sym metrical which is typically Greek , copola on top is of French influence. UTILITARIAN Camp & Tow n Phases -These utilitarian buildings ap peared after the residences were established. Barns/Sheds Batcheller Barn , 1892 , 250 S . High St. horse barn on first floor with residence on second floor. The first level is constructed of hand-hewn logs and the second level is board and batten siding . 12

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-GENERAL HISTORIC DISTRICT------GUIDELINES 13 NATURAL SETIING 1) Guideline: The views of the mountains should be protected. Our mountains are one of the most important part of our environment, therefore new develop ment in the area should not obstruct these views. 2) Guideline: The natural setting of the buildings should be maintained. Where the buildings are not store front buildings set at the sidewalk, they typically have yards , walks , fences and landscaping. This setting should be maintained as it plays a role in the overall significance of the buildings.

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Looking East SETTLEMENT PATTERNS 3) Guideline: The grid pattern of the original town should be preserved. The Town developed in a traditional grid pattern with the Main Street as the commercial core, resi dential on the east side and light industry on the west. The streets were laid out at right angles to one another with no consideration given to top ography . This formal street pattern should be maintained within the District. 4) Guideline: The physical and visual access to traditional community focal points should be pre served. Major features such as the Blue River , the moun tains, the Courthouse , Main Street and the churches have traditionally served as community focal points and the views to these sites from public places should not be obscured. 14

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15 MANMADE ELEMENTS 5) Guideline: The visual integrity of area boundaries should be protected and a transitional or buffer area outside the District boundary encouraged. The Historic District is visually coherent and its boundaries are fairly distinct. The integrity of these boundaries should be maintained, but outside these boundaries , transitional-style buildings which reflect their neighbors both within and out side the District are encouraged . In those situa tions when no area exists outside the District for the transitional architectural style, it may be al lowed within the District boundaries . 6) Guideline: The duplication of historic styles is strongly discouraged. New buildings should be compatible with the older buildings , especially in terms of other guide line criteria. New buildings should also be a product of the present and not a false product of the past. Imitations confuse the record of our history. Duplication such as this is discouraged.

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THE BLOCK Guideline: The unity of the block (as seen from alley to alley) should be viewed as a single entity and strengthened. The blocks are an important unifyi ng feature of the Di s tri c t and when vi s ual cohesivenes s occurs , it should not be interrupted. 16

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17 COLOR 8) Guideline: The colors of the buildings should be compatible with the District. Modest color schemes are preferred and should be reminiscent of subtle Victorian style colors. Develop a color scheme that ties the building ele ments together. BUILDING DETAILS 9) Guideline: Building elements like brackets and porches should be functional. Porches should actually shelter entrances ; brackets should actually support something, rather than being ornamental only. PARKING 10)Guideline: Parking areas should not be visible from the street. Whenever possible parking areas should be placed to the rear and/or screened with landscaping. Large parking areas should be broken up with landscaped areas.

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NEW CONSTRUCTION The primary concern for new construction within the H(storic District is the compatibility of the new struc ture to the character of the District. Compatibility does not imply a copy of historic style , k:IFe-that-enhaAees-tfle-Qi-stFi a-A-+s----contemporary or a true product of its own time. That --, -\ "time" refers to the period in which it is constructed . To determine the compatibility of a new structure with it's surroundings the following elements of design should be considered scale, form or shape , height, proportion, visual patterns , setbacks, materials, build ing details , landscaping and site work. These guidelines cannot guarantee design excellence , but they can focus attention on those special visual and spatial qualitie s that our Historic District was estab lished to protect. Definitions: 1. Scalethe general feeling of mass and size of the building as it relates to that of other buildings , ele ments and the human being. 2. Form or Shape -refers to the typical elevation variation and roof design . 3. Height -the size of the building mea s ured from the existing grade to the highest point of the build ing . 4. Proportion -the comparative size and s hape re lationships between various exterior elements of a building. 5. Visual Patterns -refers to the relationship of building facade elements and the site characteris tic s along the streetscape . 6. Setbacks -the distance between the buildings and the property lines. 7. Materials -the construction method , materials , textures , patterns and colors on the building ex terior. 8. Building Details-the smaller , secondary features of a building as opposed to the elemental structure itself . 9. landscaping and Site Work -the types of plants (the character created) and the design layout which are a strong visual feature of a block . 18

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19 SCALE Scale has been determined as one of the most impor tant elements of design in the Historic District . Main taining the characteristic human scale of the District is a primary contributing factor to the charm and atmos phere of the area. 11) Guideline: The height, width, length and general mass of the building should not be appreciably greater or smaller than other buildings in the neighborhood. It is important that new structures do not over whelm the historic buildings. 12) Guideline: The building should respond to the need to maintain the human scale. New build ings should continue to use the human being , and the a s sociated scale , as a basis for de t e rmining structure size , as was done historically in Town. This building is obviously out of place in the neighborhood.

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Notice that the window proportions of the two historic buildings are similar. FORM AND SHAPE The shape of a building , particularly the roofline , is one of the most imposing architectural features of a build ing. It is most important that they reflect not only their neighborhood , but also their function and location. 13) Guideline: Building components, including win dows and porches, should be similar in size and shape to those already along the street. While duplication of historic style is discouraged , a contemporary approach which is sympathetic to the older form is desired. 14) Guideline: The style, scale, and proportions of the roofline should reflect those of the neighbor hood and those of the historic style. The shape of the roof has a large impact on the character of a structure. Those styles which were popular in the 19th Century and are still in use to day , such as high gable , high hip , shed and gam brel, are more appropriate. 20

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21 HEIGHT Heights are an important factor in the visual continuity for the District and individual blocks as they relate to human scale and historic vistas. 15) Guideline: The height of new buildings should be within the range of heights already found along the block. Heights of new buildings should not overwhelm or create a strong focal point to the block , but should look like another piece of the puzzle , a compatible addition to the block. In those areas where no existing historic buildings are located, the height shall be as stipulated in the Land Use Guidelines. 16) Guideline: Primary facades should be one or two stories high and should maintain the alignment of porch and roof lines. Rear portions may be higher if appropriate. This allows the visual continuity along the streetscape with regard to the horizontal alignment of porch and roof eaves. 17) Guideline: Generally, when viewing the Town as a whole, the heights should reflect the land con tours along the valley with taller buildings located on the mountain slopes and one to two story buildings in the downtown area. The hillsides form a backdrop for the taller buildings, minimizing their height, but their facades should still reflect the human scale . This building overwhelms its neighbors. The affects of the new addition to the rear are minimal on the historic building in front.

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18) Guideline: The ratio of the width and height of the building, especially the front facade, should be in harmony with the neighboring structures. This includes the horizontal, vertical or non directional emphasis of the building. The predominant visual element in the Historic District is the strong verticality of lines. It is impor tant that this be maintained because of its pro found influence on the acceptability of a building within the neighborhood. This should not be con strued to mean an extreme design , but one that recognizes this element on the block and pro vides a sensitive response. 19) Guideline: The proportion of width to height of the windows and doors should be similar to other buildings on the street. These details are extremely important to the ac ceptability of a building within a block and its neighborhood . 20) Guideline: The amount of facade devoted to wall surface as compared to that devoted to openings should be compatible within the neighborhood and with the function of the building. This element has a big affect on the appearance of a building and whether it is acceptable in the streetscape or looks out-of-p lace . This refers also, particularly in the commercial area , to the dif ference between the proportion of windows to wall surface on the first and second floors. Large display windows on the first floor are a strong visual feature along Main Street and this element should be emphasized . rr PROPORTION Proportion refers to the overall shape of a building and also the relationship of the size of various exterior elements of the building. rt.OcR MOLDIN<:t:> A FE.. AL16NED \VIN[X)\\15, OP-lENTE:D "'l:.R:J ICA L l..:( 22

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VISUAL PA TIERNS 23 Window frames , the top of shop windows, sign band s and the division between first and second floor align horizontally along the block and strengthen the visual continuity of the block . Other elements such as en trances , windows, building width and the spaces be tween buildings form various patterns which further strengthen the continuity. 21) Guideline: Maintain the visual continuity of win dow frames along the block . This includes the second story windows as well as the display win dows in commercial buildings. The horizontal lines of the street s cape s hould determine those of a new building , though they will differ from block to block and from res iden tial to commercial area. 22) Guideline: Maintain the clear distinction be tween first floor and upper floors. U s e of horizontal moldings, awnings , and s ign bands to emphasize this distinct ion should be considered. New buildings in the commercial area should continue to use large areas of glass on the f irst floor to emphasize the store front character o f the street . 23) Guideline: Maintain the pattern created by upper-story windows and also their vertical and horizontal alignment. Windows of a similar size and shape should be used , and other facade element s that establi s h the same sort of pattern should be incorporated . The s hapes of upperlevel windows repeat , form ing a pattern continued throughout the block ; these windows often align vertically as well as horizontally. 24) Guideline: When there is a distinct pattern of recessed entrances facing the street this pattern should be maintained. The primary entrance for each building is usually oriented toward the street and in the commercial area they are typi cally recessed . In the residential areas the entrance is usually connected to the street by a sidewalk and is emphasized by a porch framing it. !!=:== FLCOF..

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25) Guideline: Maintain the pattern created by the width of the buildings and spaces between. In the District , whether residential or commer -----------=crar;tfie lots typ1cally nave a 25 foot w1am, --=o = r---------------------------------------multiples of the 25 foot width , and this forms a distinct pattern of spacing along the streets . In the residential areas buildings are clearly separated from one another by side yards of ap proximately the same dimensions so that there is a perceived regularity of spaces between build ings. Buildings along some blocks in the commercial area have few spaces between them as most are built out to the side lot lines . This gives the effect of a continuous "wall" of store fronts along the street. Other blocks in the commercial area have a more residential appearance with side and front yards , but these elements tend to be consistent by block. The width of the buildings , particularly front facades , should vary little from block to block to strengthen the pattern of buildings and spaces . IT IT n u 2 4

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25 SETBACKS Typical setbacks differ from block to block, as well as from residential to commercial use, but as a general rule are compatible with the original function of the building and its neighborhood. 26) Guideline: Maintain the typical setback of build ings and the alignment of facades along the block. No new buildings should project beyond the typi cal setback line for the block. In those areas where no typical setback line is evident, the set backs should be compatible with the use. In a historically residential area which now accommodates commercial uses, as in certain Main Street and Ridge Street blocks , the original setback line should be maintained to avoid overwhelming the historic structures. If this is abused the character of the street changes and we are no longer emphasizing the historic struc tures, which is the purpose of the District , but rather we are making a visual statement that in dicates our historic buildings are not as important as our contemporary buildings. The residential area setbacks are emphasized with yards, whereas the commercial area setbacks are generally built out to the sidewalk, which creates a uniform alignment of facades that gives the entire block a strong edge . If one building must be set further back than the others, use walls, fences, or other screening at the typical setback line to maintain the alignment. 27) Guideline: Maintain yard space, especially that of front and side yards visible from the street. This occurs in the residential areas and in areas which were historically residential , but now accommodate commercial uses. The alignment of setbacks is reinforced by small front and side yards that may be defined by trees or fences. Thi s should be reinforced when build ing new structures .

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MATERIALS If not carefully selected with respect to their com patibility in the neighborhood , materials can be a very distracting rather than unifying element. 28) Guideline: Maintain the present use of building materials in the District. The District is predominantly clapboard with some brick. These materials and their final ap pearance should remain essentially the same as the historic structures. Some flexibility with regard to color and texture of the brick and to the treatment of the wood siding may be allowed if it is compatible within the neighborhood . Contemporary design interpretations using these historically compatible material s is encouraged . 29) Guideline: Roofing materials should be compati ble in pattern, texture, and color with the District. Our steeply pitched roofs, which function in this high snowfall area , are a prominant feature in the District. Materials such as wood sawn shingles , metal or asphalt shingles are dominant and it is im portant that new construction use the same or similar materials and colors as was historically used. BUILDING DETAILS The details of more contemporary style buildings can be an offensive contrast if not carefully considered with the adjacent buildings. 30) Guideline: Non-historical, small scale ornamen tation should relate to the visual characteristics of the neighboring buildings. Avoid the use of non-functional or ornamental bric-a-brac . 26

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27 LANDSCAPING Landscaping design can have a strong unifying effect on the neighborhood and the presence of plant mater ial gives a groomed appearance to the District. 31) Guideline: Maintain the alignment and spacing pattern of street trees. Where a pattern has developed in the spacing of trees on a street , new landscaping should con tinue the pattern. 32) Guideline: Maintain a clear separation between the sidewalk and the site. When front yards separate the sidewalk from building facades, these should be maintained and incorporated in the site design.

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33) Guideline: Where vacant sites occur along the street, reinforce the otherwise consistent side walk edge. The use of fences , hedges , trees, walls and other screens can reinforce the visual alignment be tween sites and the street and create a strong edge. 34) Guideline: Landscape improvements should be used to define and separate various uses and circulation patterns. Landscape treatment is an effective tool in separating conflicting uses and in defining pedes trian paths. 35) Guideline: Landscape improvements should be used to modify or minimize the effects of weather on the individual sites. Effective use of landscaping can actually reduce a building's winter heat loss by blocking the wind while still allowing the building to be warmed by the sun. The landscaping can also shade the building from summer sun. This vacant lot disrupts the visual continuity along Main Street. 28

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---GUIDELINES FOR--------------------------------------------------------------29 EXISTING BUILDINGS The following guidelines are designed to help in dividual property owners formulate plans for the resto ration, rehabilitation, and use of historic buildings with in the Historic District consistent with the intent of the Secretary of the Interior's "Standards for Rehabilita tion" and the Town's preservation efforts. Specific information on rehabilitation and preservation technology may be obtained by writing the Technical Preservation Services Division, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, U.S. Department of the In terior, Washington, D.C. 20243 or to the State Historical Society of Colorado office. REST ORA liON To reproduce the appearance of a building exactly as it looked at a particular moment in time; to reproduce a pure style either interior or exterior. This process might include removal of later work or the replacement of missing earlier work. 36) Guideline: A reasonable effort should be made to use a building for its original intended pur pose or provide a compatible use that will re quire minimum alteration to the property and its setting. If the proposed use requires that substantial alterations be made to the building or its setting, a different location should be chosen for the pro ject that is more suitable for the uses intended. 37) Guideline: Installation of protective or code required mechanical systems or reinforcement for structural stability should be concealed so as not to intrude or detract from the building's aesthetic and historical qualities. Any additions of mechanical equipment should be installed in the rear of the building and be ad equately screened. 38) Guideline: Extensive research and knowledge of historical construction techniques may be re quired to accurately restore the building as it looked at a particular moment in time. There are photographs available through the Breckenridge Historic Commission which may show the appearance of the structure through the years.

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39) Guideline: Any alterations or additions to a historic building should not destroy any signifi cant historic architectural or cultural material. Also, the design should be compatible with the size, scale, color, material and character of the -existing building, neighborhood or environ ment. The original materials, facade and details should be maintained and not obscured by painting previously unpainted surfaces or covering them over with new materials . The shape of original window and door openings should be maintained. 40) Guideline: Whenever possible new additions or alterations to structures should be done in such a manner that if such additions or alterations were removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the structure would be unim paired. This would include the addition of a porch or an air-lock entry which will not structurally change the building . 41) Guideline: Extensive research and knowledge of historical construction techniques may be re quired to accurately reproduce the building's unique features. Historic photographs of the existing building and the cultural history can usually be found through the Breckenridge Historic Commission. 42) Guideline: All buildings, structures, and sites should be recognized as products of their own time. Alterations that have no historic basis and which seek to create an earlier appearance are discouraged. An alteration which duplicates another period of time is inappropriate because it confuses the his torical record of the structure . REHABILITATION The process of returning a property to a state which makes a contemporary use possible while still preserv i ng those portions or features of the property which are significant to its historical, architectural and cultural values . Rehabilitation includes adaptive reuse of the buildin and maor or minor additions. The original building in front has been s uccessfully rehabilitated . 30

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31 PROTECTIVE MEASURES To sustain the ex i sting form through measures of weather resistance and structural stability. This process is usually temporary in nature to protect the building from further deterioration , usually in anticipation of major restoration work. 43) Guideline: An analysis of the actual or antici pated threats to the building should be made prior to any work performed. Through research, observations , and use of con sultants, an analysis of the building ' s condition can be determined prior to any work performed . 44) Guideline: Protective measures should be ac complished in such a manner that they detract as little as possible from the building's ap pearance. Protective measures might include treating the existing wood, in which case you would not want too much discoloration of the existing material. 45) Guideline: If reinforcement is required to establish structural stability, this work should be concealed wherever possible so as not to de tract from the aesthetic and historical quality of the building. Structural supports should be installed in the interior of the building and be concealed as well as possible.

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... -ADDITIONS TO HISTORIC STRUCTURES A compatible addition to a historic structure can be ac complished by adding to the rear of the historic struc ture or by using a small connecting passageway bet ween the historic and the new building . All additions should follow the New Construction guidelines as well. 46) Guideline: Additions to buildings should visually appear secondary to the original structure and should not overwhelm it by size or ornamentation. Additions should also be compatible with the overall character of the historic structure and the District. The additions should be totally compatible in size with the existing structure or be clearly distinguishable from the existing structure. 47) Guideline: The visual alignment and setback of the original structure should be maintained. Any addition to a historic structure should not protrude out towards the street to disrupt the ex isting alignment along the streetscape. 48) Guideline: When adding height to a building where the adjacent buildings are a similar height, the addition should be set back from the facade. The Town has already seen the pressures of de velopment in the Historic District. This usually means more density on the site, but by keeping the additions set back from the facade the integri ty of the District is still maintained as viewed from the street. 49) Guideline: Additions to historic structures should be distinguishable from the original architecture, while also being compatible with the overall character of the historic structure and District. The existing architecture of the building should not be imitated as this will cause confusion to the viewer, but the design should complement the old through consideration of the elements dis cussed in New Construction ; scale, proportion , form, materials, etc. 32

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33 SO) Guideline: Alterations or additions should not destroy the significant details of the structures. Many of the Town ' s historic structures have de tails that are very unique since they were hand crafted adaptations from the eastern details and these details should be maintained and com plemented where possible . 51) Guideline: Addition of a dormer should be com patible in size, shape, and type to the ones found on the existing structure or in the sur rounding area. The addition should not overwhelm the existing facade of the structure and should be the same roof type as the ex i sting roof . 52) Guideline: Building elements (such as porches, decks, exterior stairways) should be compatible with those in the neighborhood and the struc ture itself. New building elements should not be added if they overwhelm the existing structure or hide the important architectural details of the structure . 53) Guideline: The primary entrance pattern should be maintained when adding onto a historic structure. The location of the existing front door to a struc ture should remain unchanged. 54) Guideline: Alterations to the environmental context or setting of historic buildings should be kept to a minimum. New additions and expanded parking should be located unobtrusively with the least amount of alteration to the historic landscape features .

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SOLAR APPLICATIONS Solar applications may include the installation of solar collectors or the addition of a greenhouse to minimize energy costs and make the structure more comfortable . 55) Guideline: Solar collectors and greenhouse rooms should be installed in such a way as not to alter the appearance of the historic structure as viewed from the street. The solar collectors should not substantially alter the existing roof lines, and wherever possible , the solar applications should be integrated into the building . A greenhouse addition to a historic building should not be visible from the street. MOVING OF HISTORIC STRUCTURES The moving of structures is part of the historical development of any mining community and still occurs today . Structures can be moved if proper precautions are taken to insure the safety of the structure and , of course, historically significant structures should be relocated within the Historic Distr ict. 56) Guideline: The moving of a historic structure should accommodate the best use of the struc ture and should be moved to a location with the appropriate historic context and setting with regard to the different periods of development in the community. A store front building should not be moved to the High Street residential area, for instance. The Town has established areas within the District where it would be appropriate to relo cate buildings. 34

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57) Guideline: A historic structure can be moved on-site, however, the visual alignment of the streetscape should be maintained. Some of the historically residential str uctures are being used as commercial structures today and therefore would function better if moved closer to the main circulation of the pedestrian traffic . These structures may be moved forward, but a formal yard setting should be maintained . DEMOLITION Demolition occurs when the original fabric of the struc t ure is destroyed . The U .S. Department of the Interior i nterprets this as removal of more than 25 % of the original exterior walls . 58) Guideline: Demolition of significant or con tributing historic structures is strongly discour aged in the Breckenridge Historic District. Every effort should be made by the applicant to avoid demolition of any significant historic struc ture as verified through the Cultural Survey process by the Breckenridge Historic Commission . The applicant must apply for a Demolition Permit through the Development Code and the applica tion shall be reviewed by the Planning Commis sion. If demolition is inevitable, the Town strongly en courages that all efforts be made to relocate the building to an appropriate site within the Historic District instead of demolition. In order to qualify for a tax credit through the IRS, 75 % of the existing exterior walls must be left intact. These exterior walls can be reinforced on the interior if the walls are not structurally 35 sound.

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59) Guideline: In limited situations, demolition of 60) Guideline: Demolition of later additions which components of historic complexes may be approvide significant evidence of the history and proved with the overall rehabilitation of the pridevelopment of the historic building is discourmary structure. aged. This type of demolition may be approved if 1) the Historic buildings were often added onto to meet component is a secondary structure or feature the needs of the owner and these additions have lacking special historic , engineering and /or arbecome pa.rt of the development of the Town. ------------=c ' l1ifeaural srgnrficance; 2) tnecompune n duec:--------------,6..,.1 ' ) G...-u ' Kfeline: Application or emo il .,..,•o=-=n=--o=r-a=------not compromise a major portion of the historic historic structure should be accompanied by a building and; 3) persuasive evidence is presented Development Permit and a Building Permit for to show that retention of the component is not the site. technically feasible. Land should not be cleared for speculation pur poses . Chances are the site will remain vacant for awhile if definite plans have not been made for the site . SECONDARY STRUCTURES Breckenridge's secondary structures were usually con structed as barns and today are generally used for storage or can be converted for residential or commer cial uses. Fences are also considered secondary struc tures and can be as important architecturally to the site a s an actual building . 62) Guideline: The secondary structures should be maintained on-site whenever possible. Most of the barns were quite well -built and can be adapted to use as a dwelling or for commer cial use . Some of the wrought iron and picket fences are unique to the area and their presence usually in dicated a more affluent family. 36

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-.BIBLIOGRAPHY---------------------------------37 Briscoe , Maphis , Murray & Lamont , Inc. , Ronald Straka , Gage Davis & Assoc. , Historic Preservation Commission . Design Review Guidelines. Town of Georgetown , Colorado , 1979 . City of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Architectural Design Review Guidelines. Santa Fe, New Mexi c o , 1981. Cole , Barbara and David Cooper. Building in Telluride: A Handbook for Builders , Property Owners , Archi tects and Developers . Town of Telluride, Colorado , 1980. Community Services Collaborative . Grand junction Downtown Commercial Renovation Des ign Guide lines. Grand junction, Colorado : Downtown D e ve lopment Authority, 1982. Community Services Collaborative . Standards and Design Gu i delines of Central City , Colorado . Central City , Colorado , 1981. Downi ng/Leach & A s soc. Design Guidelines for Old Town Fort Collins . City of Fort Collins , Colorado , 1981. Downing/Le ac h & Assoc., Preservation Services , Inc . , Barber & Yergensen . Design Guidelines Handbook for Manitou Springs , Colorado . Manitou Springs, Col orado , 1981. Fiester, Mark. Blasted , Beloved Breckenridge . Boulder , Colorado : Pruett Publishing Company, 1973. Harris Street Group. Breckenridge Historic/Architec tural Guide, 1977 . Harris Street Group. Breckenridge Resource Base, 1976. Hill, Eri c A s sociates , Plann ing Consultants , Muldawer and Patterson , A.I.A. Historic Preservation Plan, Savannah, Georgia. Savannah , Georgia : Hous i ng Authority of Savannah. M cKee, Har l ey. Guide to Terms Commonly U sed i n Descr i bing Historic Buildings . Rochester , New York , 1970 . Morton, W . Brown , Ill and Gary L. Hume, U . S . Depart ment of the Interior , Heritage Conservation & Recreation Servi ce , Technical Preservation Services Division . The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Preservat i on Projects. Washington , D.C. , 1979 . Saylor, Henry H. Dictionary of Architecture . New York , New York : john Wiley and Sons, 1952. State Historical Society of Colorado. A Guide to Historic Architectural Styles. Denver , Colorado. State Historical Society of Colorado . Good Neighbors , Building Next to History , Design Guidelines Hand book. Denver , Colorado, 1980. Stoehr, Eric C. Bonanza Victorian Architecture and Society in Colorado Mining Towns. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 1975. Town of Crested Butte, Colorado. Design Guidelines for Architecture and Landscape Architecture in Crested Butte. Crested Butte , Colorado, 1979 . Town of Crested Butte, Colorado. "Zoning Ordinance," 1982.

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-----------------------------------APPENDIXItem Additions/Alterations Architectural Design Color Demolition Doors/Entrances Height History Landscaping Materials Relocation Restoration Roof Site Plan Use Windows Guideline Numbers 9, 13 , 36 , 37, 39 , 40, 41, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53 , 54, 55 5 , 6, 7, 8 , 9, 11' 12, 13 , 14, 15, 16 , 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 , 50, 51' 52, 53 , 54, 55 8 , 28 , 29, 39 58, 59 , 60, 61, 62 13 , 19, 20, 24, 39, 41' 49 , 53 11, 15, 16, 17 , 18 , 48 38, 58 2 , 27, 31' 32 , 33 , 34, 35 , 54 , 62 28, 29, 39, 49 56 , 58 43, 44, 45 , 50, 51' 54, 58, 59, 60, 62 14, 29 , 55 1 , 2, 3, 4 , 7, 10 , 25, 26, 27, 32, 34, 47, 54, 56, 57, 62 36, 56 13 , 19 , 20, 21' 22 , 23, 39, 41, 49, 51

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CULTURAL SURVEY From Breckenridge Resource Base, The Harris Street Group, 1976 HISTORIC RESOURCES When considering the basic resources of Breckenridge , most of us would probably agree that land , minerals , water and recreation should be on the list. In addition, however , and high on the list should be our historic resources, which are every bit as critical and far more unique to the community than those which might first come to mind . Many towns have plenty of land and water, and some towns have recreation potential as well , but few can combine these resources with a history which is as colorful , rich and varied as that of the Breckenridge area. It is true that when taken individually most of our historic buildings are nothing more than a fairly average representation of a typical Colorado mining town of the 19th century. They were not designed by famous architects but rather by simple miners and mer chants trying to provide shelter for their families in the harsh mountain environment . Consequently , very few of them are especially unique or outstanding examples of some particular style of architecture, however, we must recognize that from a historical standpoint each building and historic site adds a page to the story of Breckenridge . Some of them have state and even na tional significance, adding entire chapters to the tale: while others remain silent, their past long since forgot ten. Yet each is critical to the whole, and for every page that is lost , our history becomes less meaningful. We must further recognize that unlike such resources as timber and water our historical resources are nonrenewable ; once destroyed, they are gone forever. Certainly we can imitate the old buildings, even to the extreme of exact duplication , but somewhere in the process the meaning and the feeling and the authentici ty of history will be lost . This does not mean that progress in the form of new construction should be held back, but rather that it must be carefully planned and designed to fit harmoniously with our historic buildings and thereby create a sensitive blending of the old and the new . In today's "progressive" society the terms conservation and preservation are often looked upon as catch phrases to be used only by obstructionists. However, in a town such as Breckenridge , with a rich and colorful history as well as a dynamic and promising future , a recognition of the past provides a foundation upon which to build for that future , while, at the same time , adding a feeling of continuity and permanence to the general character of the Town . "We must respect and protect our history in order to h a ve a f uture worth remembering . " In support of this philosophy, there are a number of programs which can add significantly to the apprecia tion and preservation of our historic resources and thereby benefit the entire community. Breckenridge may not be able to claim the oldest , big gest o r best of any historic architecture. What we can claim , however, are buildings that are i nterwoven with a history which is both special and un i que. Therefore , a historic analysis program for Breckenridge must be custom tailored to insure that the evaluation criteria will be relevant in terms of our local values and cir cumstances . The analysis must also be as objective as possible to i nsure fair and unbiased treatment of all buildings within the district. To establish such a pro gram , the following elements are considered to be essential : Historic Values In the evaluation of our buildings from a historical point of view, we must recognize the importance of history in the context of the Town and not simply on a state or national level. Breckenridge was operating on a much smaller scale than Denver or Washington , D.C. and , therefore , cannot be expected to compete with them or any other town for historic prominence. Remarkably, we do have one or two buildings which are of historic value in a state and possibly a national context, and naturally their importance should be recognized accordingly; however , they should not be allowed to minimize the importance of other buildings to our local history .

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The history of many structures may not be readily known, and yet they might still be regarded as historic simply because of age alone . The mere fact that they were a part of the original community and have somehow survived for seventy-five to one hundred years should at least make them worthy of some consid eration. On the other hand , we must try to be objective in the evaluation and not try to exaggerate the impor tance of-a uilding-simply because s
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Architectural Significance What we may define a s historic buildings in Breck enridge might not receive the same attention in other communities . In the New England states for example , federal and colonial architecture is revered, but these styles went out of vogue long before the history of Breckenridge began. This does not mean that our architecture is any less significant, it is just more recent. Even among western towns , Breckenridge has very few outstanding examples of the popular Victorian styles . However, Breckenridge was never built up to the scale of Denver or Leadville or Georgetown and should , therefore , not be evaluated on the same criteria . In addition, historic photograph s show that many of our best architectural examples have been destroyed , and yet some still remain and are worthy of recogn i tion . It is, t herefore , important t hat our building s not be judged against a national or state standard but rather by comparing buildings of a similar period and stylistic in fluence against each other. We must recognize , how ever , that simply because a building is old or histor i cally valuable does not necessarily mean that it is ar chitecturally significant. It is, therefore , a neces s ity tha t each structure be evaluated as objectively as possible. To assist in this evaluation, it is recommended that the committee request the assistance of local architect s and others knowledgeable in the his t oric s tyles as well as good design principles. The following criteria may be helpful as a means of evaluation for architectural sig nificance: a . Is it unique or one of a few examples in the Town of a particular architectural s t y l e or period? b . Is it the work of a well-known or locally impor tant architect or master bui lder ? c. Is it an architectural curiosit y or picturesque work of particular artistic merit for the area? d. Does it display interesting, eyecatching or unique detailing? e. Is the quality of craftsmanship particularly well executed? f. Does the building display particular styles , material s or methods of construction which are unique or no longer in use? g. Can it be duplicated today or is it likely to be? h . Has the integrity of the original design been re tained or has it been altered? i. Is it or could it be an important element or v i s ual feature in the c haracter of the neigh borhood? (Either alone or in conjunction with similar buildings in the neighborhood?) j. Does it tend to identify, lend character or gi v e flavor to the neighborhood or Town? k . Does it contribute to the archite c tural continuit y of the street or area? I. Is it particularly plea s ing or does it have a uniqueness that inspires imagination , creativity and enjoyment? (Do people like to draw it , photograph i t or paint it?) m . Does the building simply display good qualitie s of s cale , proportion and general design? n . If it were gone, would the Town be the poorer for it? Based on the above criteria , evaluate the arch i tectural significance of the building to Brecken ridge : 1 . Notable The building is one of the best ex amples in the Town of a particular stylistic influence . It may be the work of a known architect or craftsman , but in a ny case th e quality of detailing and craftsmanship should be excellent as well as the scale , proportion , materials and overall design. 2 . Average Although not an outs tanding exam ple of a particular style , the building is in character with the other buildings in the area , displaying appropriate materials and compati ble scale , proportions and general design . 3 . Low The building has little archite c tural design value , and most of the materials u sed are inappropriate, but the appearance, scale and proportions of the structure do not seri ously detract from adjacent buildings . 4. None Due to incompatible scale, propor tions , materials and/or general design , the building is inappropriate to the area and de tracts from surrounding architectural values .

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____......._ ..... -.. The current physical condition of a building is impor tant to the historic analysis because , for economic reasons, we must be realistic in our evaluation of buildings for their continued use or potential re-use in the community. Obviously, if a building is so badly de terioratecLthat 's_a_signi.ficanLfire_hazarcLto its oc cupants or surrounding structures, and if it is econom ically infeasible to restore it to a safe, habitable condi tion, it may be more practical to remove it and make way for new construction . The exception to this line of reasoning would be a building whose historic value and/or architectural significance rates so high that rebuilding and renovation is desirable regardless of the physical condition. If this situation exists, there must be a special urgency to do whatever is necessary to insure that it will be preserved. In this respect, preservation does not mean that our historic architecture should be placed in "moth balls" or kept as period museums. To the contrary, if they are to survive, we must adapt these old buildings to our current needs and allow them to serve productive, contemporary uses, demonstrating their continued value as an integral and viable part of the community. For the purposes of this historic analysis, the evaluation of physical condition requires not only a knowledge of building construction and fire hazards but also a knowledge of what is required to restore, rehabilitate or to adapt the building, as appropriate. For these reasons, it is recommended that the evaluation be assisted by building contractors or architects who are familiar with this type of work, as well as the Building Official and District Fire Chief . As with historic value and architectural significance , the physical condition must be evaluated for each building individually and not on a basis of comparison with its neighbors or the other two areas of the analysis. The following criteria may be helpful in the evaluation procedure but are not intended to include all of the means by which to judge the physical condition of a building: a. Does the building have a durable foundation such as stone , brick or concrete? b . Does the roof appear to be in good repair and weather-tight? c . Are the eaves and the ridge of the roof straight or sagging? d. Are the exterior walls in good repair and of sound material? e. Are the walls plumb and straight? f . Are there signs of uneven settling such as zig zag cracks and doors or windows that look dis torted or do not fit their frames? g. Can the structure be adapted to a new use -----withoo which contribute to its significance? h . Is the building unsightly due to its present phy sical condition and state of repair? i . In its present condition, is the building a hazard to the health and safety of the community, ei ther in terms of fire potential or structural soundness? j . Is rebuilding and restoration to its original condition economically feasible or has it slipped too far? k. Is continued maintenance in its present condi-tion economically feasible? Based on the above criteria, evaluate the physical condition of the building : 1. Good Completely sound in appearance; all structural elements straight and plumb with no signs of settling; well-maintained in regard to paint, windows, trim, etc. 2. Fair Structurally sound in appearance; the ridge, eaves and walls straight and plumb, however, in need of some minor repairs such as cracked or broken trim and siding, as well as protective maintenance such as painting of walls and trim. 3. Poor Showing signs of being structurally un sound; sagging ridge and/or eaves with some walls out of plumb; poor foundation with indi cations of uneven settling; showing definite signs of neglect with holes , open cracks and/or missing material over small areas of the trim, walls or roof; possibly some cracked or broken windows. 4. Very Poor Very dilapidated in appearance; showing definite signs of structural problems, with sagging roof, walls and/or trim; large holes , open cracks and/or large areas of miss ing material on the walls, roof or other parts of the structure ; showing signs of rot on roof, around windows and at the foundation; possi ble damage by storm, fire and/or vandalism .

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Composite Evaluation Based on the preceeding criteria of historic values, ar chitectural significance and physical condition, three separate, independent and objective evaluations will have been made for each building within the Historic District. In order to construct an objective assessment of the overall importance of the building as an historic resource, it is necessary to somehow combine these three categories into one composite evaluation for each building . We must first examine the categories and determine whether or not they are of equal importance . This should actually be done by input from the evaluation committee, but for sake of example, it is suggested that for Breckenridge the primary area of concern might be historical followed by architectural and then physical condition. Now a point of value must be assigned to each category and each level of evaluation, so that they are weighted according to their overall importance in the analysis. Again this can be determined by the com mittee , but it is suggested that the following weighting of numerical values is appropriate for Breckenridge : Historic Value State/Nation 8 Local 6 Average 4 None 0 Architectural Significance Notable 6 Average 4 Low 2 None 0 Physical Condition Good 3 Fair 2 Poor 1 Very Poor 0 By totalling the scores for the three categories , we can arrive at a composite evaluation for each building which is an indication of its importance as a historic resource to the community. Once again the totals re quired for each designation can be adjusted by the committee if necessary : Group A (13 17 points) Group B (8 -12 points) Group C (4 7 points) Group D (0 3 points) These are buildings which are ir replaceable and have the highest value as historic resources for Breck enridge. They represent our historic heritage and should be protected from any major change or alteration ; exacting restoration and proper maintenance should be encouraged. Under no circumstances should they be allowed to be demolished or re moved from the community. This category includes buildings which should be retained if at all possible. They are significant as a historic resource and contribute to the character of the community. Pro per renovation, restoration , and/or maintenance should be encouraged. Any alterations or remodeling should be carefully controlled , and demoli tion or removal from the Town should be discouraged . Although these buildings are not essential to the character of the Historic District, they should only be replaced by something clearly more suitable , as per the Historic Guide . Renovation or remodeling should be encouraged , if necessary, to help make the building more of a visual asset to the community. Due to a lack of sufficient positive values , these buildings are not con sidered to be a supportive part of the Historic District and are, therefore , eligible for clearance and reconstruc tion.

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The following is a list of agencies that will be able to assist in the planning of your project : BRECKENRIDGE HISTORICAL COMMISSION Coordinator : (303) 453 9022 Box 745, Breckenridge , CO 80424 HIGH COUNTRY BUILDING INSPECTION (Town-Contracted Building Inspectors) Office : (303) 453 1585 Box 45, Breckenridge , CO 80424 RED, WHITE & BLUE FIRE DEPARTMENT Chief : (303) 453 2474 Box 1705 , Breckenridge , CO 80424 AGENCIES STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF COLORADO Office : (303) 866 3394 1300 Broadway , Denver , CO 80203 TOWN OF BRECKENRIDGE , COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT Office : (303) 453 -2251 Box 168 , Breckenridge , CO 80424