Mammoth Gardens Market and East Colfax City Center

Material Information

Mammoth Gardens Market and East Colfax City Center
Alternate title:
East Colfax village core
Pitkin, Alex Clay
Physical Description:
300 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Marketplaces -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Central business districts -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Central business districts ( fast )
Marketplaces ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 102).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfullment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
General Note:
On cover Thesis design: East Colfax Village core.
Statement of Responsibility:
Alex Clay Pitkin.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13749552 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1986 .P58 ( lcc )

Full Text
East Colfax Village core
nAURARIA library

The thesis of Alex Clay Pitkin is approved.
Robert Karnj' Principle Advisor
fiOi VWn
Jeffery Shepperd, Commitee Chairman
University of Colorado at Denver Spring 1986,
Department of Architecture, Design and Planning.

"Its useful because its beautiful"
Antoine de Sai nt-E>:upery

The intent of this thesis is to establish a two block area of East Colfax, between Clarkson and Emerson, as a vital urban core. A place of typology, morphology and style as elements of urban spatial interest. The need for inclusion of historical precedent; precedent here refering to the understanding of existing form set within, yet requiring coherence with the urban fabric surrounding. Hence the Mammoth Gardens structure as an anchor for the project must be evaluated as a part of a system (structural and functional) and not as an entity, which it has failed as so often.
The functional system to be incorporated is within the parameters of mixed—use, but at the conclusion its design shall be of greater strategy and strength of will than merely the incorporation of mundane singular functions.
The need to recognize history as a living element, and not as sarcophagous with its inherent curse and embodiment of death surrounding equals in importance the immeadiate inclusion of functional preference.

1)Paolo Portoghesi,
"After so many years of functionalist practice, is it possible to establish whether or not this dogmatic application of a principle has had good results? In other words, does the programming of spaces for specific functions improve the liveability of these spaces and their relationship with the user?“l
The thesis in its end is a movement towards understanding qualities of urban space and responding with positive reflection. To put forth a theory of corrective measure, which can directly influence future developement along the East Colfax "strip".And with further investigation of local typologies may be applied as a process towards analysing the interaction of the pedestrian with the urban grid of this part of Denver as well as similar situations in American ci t i es.
The scope of the thesis project is to total approximately 250,000 square feet, including a theater, retail, bars and cafes, home/office combinations , rental apartments and parking. The arrival at this program is subordinate to Architectural form and the urban spaces created by the architecture, saying that the architectural space creates the sustained success of the project verses the programmed elements.

The city as a -form in history is the cross-roads of man's achievements. For it is in the city that our repositories of information, experiance, art and science are brought together to be experianced as a symbolic whole by the inhabitants of our's and future generations. Today at the symbolic center of our cities we find the need to reevaluate these crossroads that once served humanity as our cultural and social centers.The village square as a gathering place of people for special and unique events, of daily function and of social gathering is the true infrastructure and basis of cur cities.
In the Greek agora, the human body served as scale for the built environment. A comfortable walking distance, the tactile sensation of the Earthen floor and eyesight to the far ends of a market stall established those dimensions seen today as inadequate for the fast paced Americans.But today’s designers have failed to recognize the fact that the human body has evolutionally remained the same since before antiquity despite our technological and informational advancements. To celebrate technology as an end in its self is to cheat human kind, which brought this enigma forth to serve, not to overwhelm and be served. The body and mind as an integral

entity remain the origin of all sensory and perceived pleasures. Thus the challenge o-f the design thesis lies in its ability to improve the human condition, through physical ex i stance and delight and not only in its functional services.
To improve the Human condition within the city of Denver, strategies of spatial design for a modern city must be established. The first concept incorporated in all disiplines of design, but which has often gone neglected or abused, is contextual ism; or appropriatness and unique sense of place. The second concept to be incorporated is spatial ordering; responding to existing conditions in such a way as to direct or influence the future development of the American urban street form. Thirdly, the inclusion of history as precedent and history as a living element at the formative stages of development.
The city of Denver conotes certain images for different people, its rugged Western history matches the rugged landscape which surrounds the city. The modern image of Denver is one that is quite tame,one of buildings at a safe distance in the prarie rising to give challenge to the great peaks of the Rocky Mountains. So too I, at a safe distance, on paper ascertain

their failure to the humans they serve, and symbolically the needs of an urban core, that serves as capital for the West.
At the turn of the century, Denver's core was a solid base of stone buildings that jutted from the prarie as the Red Rocks of the Morrison foothills also rise. Each building conformed to Denver's urban grid similaraly to the uniformity of bedrock, but as any geologist will discover the uniqueness of one mineral from another, so too an Architect, or for that matter any person on the street could point out the discrepencies of each building. The buildings themselves were interpretations of historical precedent showing idiosyncracies of Denver's Western locale. Bas-reliefs were of mountain profiles, Buffalo, and the American Indian, replacing the cherubs and classical figures of the high Victorian and Neo-Classical movements from which they were derived. The true uniqueness of Denver lies in the canvas upon which it is set. The special quality of the light as it rolls up the prarie, with its golden base of Buffalo grass and wheat, to the Aspen covered Rockies, each in turn mimicking the semi—arid heat of the sun. The S t a te Cap i t a1 building shows the blending of history and

uniqueness o-f place by use of style and material. Out of its Neo-Classical form rises the gold for which the mountains were settled.
apturing and drawing forth metaphors from the Colorado landscape in the disiplines of architecture, urban design, and landscape design is the key to achieving appropriatness in Denver's built environment. To uniquely capture the spirit and "ruggedness" through form and material! and to understand the delicate ecosystem, retaining its balance through natural s e 1 e c t i o n A n cl f i n all y recognizing man’s systematic ordering upon the landscape, which lies at the heart of Denver’s as well as most American cities’ formation.
Man’s ordering upon the landscape is as timeless today as in the civil cations of antiquity. This urban ordering for Denver is the functional grid, which serves vehicular transportation better than pedestrian needs and desires. Solving the seperations created by zoning upon the urban fabric is no easy task.Zoning has supported the need for vehicular transportation to get from one zone to another increasing the barrier between our urban islands, and disjointing the fabric in such a way as to stagnate and overwhelm the pedestrian with excessive and

2)Krier, Rob,
R i :: z o 1 i , N. V. , N. Y. ,
overscale signage. This signage which is immeadiatly understood because of its syntax does not invite the viewer to discover -for his or herself in a manner which requires human interaction, i.e. questioning passerbyers or street venders haggling, unless one finds oneself lost in aisle A-l of a Target Department store.
The spatial requirements o the thesis, which is of some magnitude and of various functions, needs its own internal ordering system that must relate and respond to th existing spatial conditions surrounding.
"Any new building in a cit should be such that it fits into the general order of things and offers a formal response to existing spatial condi t ions, "a
The difficult aspect of responding spatially in an urban environment is due to the inherent dual nature of the space . Street fronts are seen as corridors of transportation arid public use The heirarchy between public street and private site is strongly manifested in shop fronts and older housing, yet is carelessly misinterpreted in most modern housing and high speed retailing, such as fast food restaurants.

The civic block
Alleys hence became a neglected scar on mast cities fabrics because they are seen as purely serice funtion oriented, a cause of misapplied zoning. Undenieahly most housing’s private functions view into these blighted service corridors as a back yard. It is one intention of my thesis to recognise the alley as not only servicing private garages and refuse which is serviced only once a week, but to establish the alley as internal semi-public space as open and unobstructed use for movement in the open air and subtle transition between the public and private heirarchy. This development of the internal service corridor as functional, habitable space establishes the notion that land is prescious as a commodity in the urban fabric, but transcends from pure ecological or environmental concern to aesthetic concern including the generail improvement of the socialogical and human condition.Issues of security and public to private seperation will become one of the major obstacles to overcome.
The need to reestablish order along East Colfax’s strip is called for in the Denver Planning commision's and Rogers, Nagel and Langhart sttidy. This study calls for the creation of villatge cores at intersections along East Colfax. The village cores

should serve as places of social interaction, points of destination tor pedestrian oriented activities, including those activities that generate 24 hour use and serve as links into the adjacent residential neigh b orhood.
As a place o-f -focus the village core must attract the attention o-f both the passerby from outlying regions in his automobile and the residents of the? neighborhood. The proximity of the site to downtown can aid in creating Denver’s Capital Hill region as a positive place to live. The drastic need to counter act the self destructive tendencies of the suburbs is imminent and timely with the current American trend of reevaluating our urban cares as the vital social and cultural centers they once were and continue to desire to be. only through the understanding of the forces that shaped the form of Denver's infrastructure can successful infiltration to the core occur. The scale and cohesiveness with which Denver's city Beautiful movement brought organization through its incorporation of architecture, urban design, and landscape design to not only the core but outlying regions as well should serve as example of design of social concern and consciousness.

Historical precedent in this thesis takes the form of the Mammoth Gardens structure at East Colfax and Clarkson and existing typologies from Denver and around the world.
By alligning the new elements of the thesis program with an existing historical condition an immediate sense of belonging, renewed links to qualities often associated with the past and the acknowledgement that our resources (physical, energy and learned) are depleting and can be played off of as conceptual ideas during design development. The social and cultural ties stimulated by the recognition of the living history and the general public’s ability to relate to and understand its formal implementation with the built environment is exemplar of urban renewal’s contribution to the reevaluation of Architectural symbology and morphology. Old quarters of Eastern , southern, and now Western cities have been captured and tangled with the new creating tensions of form, function, articulation, imagery, spatial ordering and macro/micro contexts.Where the "Modern movement" nigardly disregarded historical precedent and accomplishment the recent trends of Architectural style in the United States and aibroad have had the inherent tension best described by Paolo Portoghesi:

)Portognesi, AFJER_MODERN Ri zzoli , N.Y.
"The dramatic situation in which the architectural world finds itself today—divided between the necessity of breaking with its recent past and the temptation to draw from it the primary materials for bui1 ding i ts f uture".3
Having reviewed, studied and observed numerous facets of contextual ism, spatial ordering and historical precedent during the prethesis phase it is my hope that the design will reflect these issues and generate responsive urban forms. The context of Denver and Capital Hill specifically plays an important role in the imagery of design and hense appears as sketches or memory. In spatial ordering aside from the obvious needs of the exact site European Rationalists and Classical ordering systems have influenced my thought process due to the neglect they have recieved at this and other American universities. The desire to work with all urban space has interested me in the possibility of utilizing alley and service zones. Final 1y the hi story of Mammoth Gardens and its initial design intent must be understood and acknowledged before application of new design ideas. The Mammoth Gardens as an interesting and historical part of Denver has greatly influenced my desire to acknowledge and utilize older structures with new construct, i on.

Acknowledge the sense of scale of Capital Hill, establishing a pedestrian a ri en t ati on and revitalizing the residential stock (making the Colfax business corridor serve as a link into the residential adjacencies).
Establish a counter balance to
development along the Platte Valley and
e x t e r n a 1 t o D e n v e r , g i v i n g t h e c: i t y t h e
op por tunit y t o ex pan d mu11 i -•
chirectional1y and to acknowledge
e x i s; t i n g inf r a struc: t u r e s and ammeniti e s -
B y b r e a k i ng d own t h e 1i n ear strip feel of East Colfax, through notions of t he t own squar e wh i ch seek t o est.ab 1 i sh a p1 ace of destination and arrival, yet also acknowledging the street as a service and transportation corridor by having the project become a gateway to downtown Denver and vice--verse a gateway f a r A u r a r a b e y o n d
Working with i. n t h e d e 1 i c a t e b a 1 a nee o f t h e n e i g hi b o r h o o d n o t n e c e s s a r i I y o u s> t i n g "1 o w e r—e n d'1 v i t a 1 i t y and life that ma k es East Co1f ax wh at it is, an exciting place for viewing people. Pushing the problems to another part, of t h e c: i t y i s n ot t h e i n t. ent, but inst e a d coexisting as a vital aspect of life in Amer i c: a and t her eb y r ai s i n g the level of conscious under standi ng.
C o n t i n u i n g t h e t r e n d o f s a v i n g g o o d building stock in a revitalized manner through new functions and interaction in t he bui 11 en v i r onmen t.
How to bring order to a large scale m i x e d—u s e p r o. j e c t; a n d y e t r e t a i n the f ee 1 i n g of i n d i v i dua 1 i t y t h at cer t a i n functions desire. To have the project serve as a model for what may happen a1ong the 1ength of East Colfax; e c 1 e c t i s m i n u r b a n d e s i o n.

To arrive at a strong basis •for the program, one of s p a t i a 1 i n t e g r e t y b o t h quarti tat.i ve and qual itative, th e r eI at ionsh ip s bas i c t o t he heart of the project shall be a n a1i2ed and thei r o v erid i ng flier i t t o t h e f i. n a i p r ogr am ascertained. These issues shall be grouped and evaluated i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r r e 1 at t i. a n s h i p w i. t h t. h e t h e s i s p r o j e c: t a n d v i c e.v e r s a.
T h o s e p r e s s u r e s i n h e r e n t upan a11 archi tecture i n their subltey shell 1 be observed as humatn re 1 at i onshi ps,, physical r ea 1 at i on shi p s and et er n a 1 re 1 ationships. I use t.he term r e 1 at t. i a n s h i p v e r s e s K e v i n 5ch war kop f ' s t ermi nol ogy (factors) because I -feel the thesi s t heori es pr oposed shall q u e s t i o n a r r e i n f o r c e t h e s e pressures as equally as they i n f 1 u e n c: e t h e p r o. j e c t, s e t tin g u p s t r o n 13 e r a s c e r t a i n m e n t s a n d s cj 1 i. d i f y i n g t h e a o a 1 s o f t h e proj ect.. Not vi ewi ng these re3.ationships as absolute c o n s t !•- a i n t. s t h a t c a n w e a k e n the final program or intent of the thesis put forth! Mr.
SI c h w a r k o p f •’ s f o r m a n d direction of the relationship C s i c li a n a 1 y s i s i s v i e w e d at s correct and hence deserves whole credit for the form it t a k e s i n t h i s t h e s i s.

1Programmed activities of the project and their response to a n d r e 1 a t ion s h i p w i t h e i s t i n g act i vi t i es.
2» E i s t i n g 1 a n d use.
3. Qua! i ti es/desi res f or a c t i v i t i e s >>
Behavi or:
1.. P o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e asp e c t s upon the micro neighborhood.
2 u h ow w ill (3r agr ammed e .1 emen t s effect the behavior of its users.
1Sh a 11 i n t er ac: t i on b e iii a i m i 2 e d a r m i n i m i z e d.
2« i n t e r c o n n e c:: t i o n s b e t w e e n p u b 1 ic, p r i v a t e a> n d s e m i — p r i v a t e s p a c e s.
Attitudes and values:
1 .. E i s t i n g v e r s e s p o s s i b 1 e.
Demographi cs:
l.Is there an internal need and supportive requirement far t h e p r o g r a m a t t h e site.
1. p o s i t v e a n d n e g a t i v e.
User Groups:
1 . I n c 1 u s i o n s a n d e c 1 u s ions.
Hi story:
1. I n c 1 u s i o n o f h i s t o r y v i a t h e M a m m o t h G a r d e n s.
2. Hi stor i ca 1 richness of the n e i g h b o r h o o d.

1. Macro.
2. Micro.
Ci rct.t.1 ait. i on:
1. Pedestri am.
2.. Pub 1 i c tr an spar t at i on. 3.Street ana1ysis.
Support services:
1 Par k i ng „
2. Lit i 3. i t ies.
3.. Indi genous.
2Appropr i atriess.
3.. Quail i ty..
4E n e r g v e r -f e c t i v n ess.
5. Detai .1 s
1 „ Or i en t at i on s.
2. Topogr aph y.
3 „ V e g e t ai t :i. o n .
4„Recommendat i ons.
.1. F i g u r e G r o u n d .
2. Methods or Design Growth.
3. Quality of. a)Views.
fa ) E1 i m i r i a t s d s t r u c t u r e s.
Activity juxtapositions:
1.. E i s t i n g 1 a n d u s e.
2Programmed ascti vi t i es.

Typological/Morphological study:
1 - Physic:a 1 analysis ot -form. 2.Aesthetic judgement outside t. he r ea 1 m of phy sic a 1 necessity.
3A m e r i c a n u r b a n h o li s i n g types.
Cli mate:
1. (Senera 1 relati onshi p t a pr o.j ect
1. Genera1 re1 ationship to project.
1 „ Spec i f i c r el at i on sh i p t o s i t e „
2.. Va 1 ue or appropriat ness t o proj ect«
Political Forces.
1 „ N e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z .a t i o n s.
2. C i t y.

P r i nn a r y a c t i v i t y / u s e a f the East Col-fax strip is r e t ail (1 o w a n d m i d id 1 e e n d) with office and bussiness i nfused. Many of the bussinesses cater to the government workers, but their success is becoming more and more reliant on the s u i" r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n c: e s. N i g h t time acti vi t i es such as t he Ogden Theater, bars and restaur an t s and 1 at e n i g ht diners make East Colfax one of D e n v e rs f e w 2 4 h o u r p 1 a c: e s. Ascertai nments:
Competing w i t h ,, a n d e n h a n c: i n g , t h e e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f E a s t C o 1 f a x c a n help to reach a broader range of people. The inclusion of a medium size community theater c an serve t o ma k e t h :i. s p ar t of Denver an arts and e n t e r t a i n m e n t o r i e n t e d a r e a An after hours cafe will serve? t h i s c 1 i e n t e 1 e a 1 o n g w i t h ot h er a f f i c ioriad o s o f t h e night. One of East Colfax’s g r e a t e s t q u a 1 i t i e s i s s i m p 1 y the people and the people wathing that occurs; whether it is Govenor Lamm or a Ki 11 y’s v ag r ant t he ac t i on is a 1 ways there.. Cafes, niar ket s t h e a t. ers, a n d s p e c i a 3. t y s h o p s all contribute to an atmosphere for a village? core, a place to see and to be seen at.
T h e q u a 1 i t y o f b o t h t h e activities and the architecture whi ch houses them should be of the highest standards..
The intent of the thesis is to affect its surroundings in a positive manner, not to play off of existing negative images. The hopes of setting a canvas for East Colfax, where p e o p 1 e / u s e r s b e c o m e a n i n t e g r a 1 p a r t o f i t s la n d s c: a p e and by their i nteract i on learn to look af ter tfii s "place" as t heir o w nI n c r easing self esteem and hehavior is a c! i r ec t ef feet of the e n v i r o n m e ri t, i n t h is case man-made elements of the project. Humane environments can be created by consc i ent i ous ef for t.
M y i n i t i a 1 a 11 i t u d e s towards parts of East Colfax have changed somewhat from my first proposal. Variety and excitement must exist at. an urban core area such as the one I am proposing, but at the s a m e t i m e t h e h u m a n c o n d i t i o n must b e improved. The i n ter ac t i on of vagran t s, p a n h and .1 e r s, a n d p o r n o g r a p h i c st or es lowers t h e street’s q u a 1 i t y art a perce p t i v e and a est h etic 1ev e1; ap pear i n g as an area that sees fit to exp1oi t rat her t han an area of service.
T h e p r o g r a m m e d a c: t i v i t i e s a r e such that they increase interaction at not only the street level, but also incorporate the upper level residential. By i ntr oducing the notion of the homeowner and shopowner as a single

entity,, a persons convictions and responsi bi1i ti es to the a r e a a r e s t r e n g t hi e n e d.
At titudesand v alues
Tlie pro. j ect sha 11 enhance the area in question so as best to change people’s a 11 i t u d e s i n a p o s i t. i v e m a n n e r » A s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t both in Urban Design and Architecture can show a change of values at the problem area a n d h ave an i mmead i at e imp ac t b y d r a w i n g h i g h Demographics
I n c: 1 u s i a n o f h o u s i n g a n d office spaces as a part, of the home will gi ve the m:i. ed- use developement a sense of p e r m a n e n c e.. C u r r e n t t r e n d s show home buying in the area to be rising, with the age of h a m e o w n e r s 1 n c r e a s i n g a 1 s o,,
The inelusion of retail that s e r v e s n o t o n 1 y t h e cl e v e 3. o p e m e n t b u t s u r r o u n d i n g res :i d e n t i a 3. s t o c k c a n s u p p o r t the developement during ax slow current housing market., The i n c 1 u s i o n o f ivi ax m m o t It G ax r d e n s cis ax market place wi 13. aid to bring persons to the area, i n c rea s i n g t h e i r aw a r e n e s s desire to live in the area.
Peop1e"s percep t i ons of an area, and their relationship to that area can be ax 11 ered .. Today much animosity is generated towards t h e p r o j e c:: t site despite the man y amen i t i es of the urban environment. The intent of the t h e s is i si to h e i g h t e n people’s a e s t. h e t it:: v a 1 u e o f t h e c: i t y a n d ax r c h i t e c t u r e integrall y w i t h t h e f un c t. i on s th at serve t o cl r aw t h em initiall y.
A s>trong relationship I will explore i n the thesis i s t h e r e i n c: 1 u s i o n o f t 3t e workplace in the home. User groups become 24 hour inhabitants and true resi dents o f t. h e s i t e „ I r o n i c a 11 y t h i s not i on p 1 avs of f of the trend of V ict or i an homes b e i n g t.urned into office structures an d i ntr oduc es a h i erar c: h y af f la n c t i o r i x-j i t h i n t h e neighbor hood. Pr i mar y users of the homes will be white col lax r m i d d I e c: 1 a s s, b u t all c: 1 a s s e s and cultures will be users of i. h e p u b 1 i c f u n c: t i o n s,.

As Introduction. ...................................... 1
B: Early history and background. ................... 1
Cs Gol den years. ................................. 2
Ds Recent history. ................................... 4
As Recommendations ....................... 7
FOOTNOTES:............................................. 8
H .1 I I O t O S H ...MU. ................ UN .'WU...UWUUMH. a......
CREDI i S AND BIBLIOGRAPHY. ...... ..................... i

on t
The lumbering Mammoth Gardens building at 1510 Clarkson street far a greater part of its history., as today, lay v a c a n t, 0 n c e s e r v i n g t h e e it i t e C a p i t a 1 H i 11 n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d city of Denver as a source of varied entertainment it. was designed to be a place of focus, with activities to see, and at which to be seen. The physical scale of the building, its clean but stylish appearance, the nostalgia of its early past, and the notoriety of its recent past all combine to create the rich and colored tale of the Mammoth Gardens and give promise for a future.
E*r' 1 y Himtoryi
The dream of Albert Lewin, who was involved in the building of Lakeside amusement park, Luna Park (Manhattan B e a c h) , T h e W i n t e r G a r d e n, a n d t h e • f i r s t p u b 1 i c m a r k e t i n D e n v e r , w a s t o c r e a t e a n e n t. e r t a i n m e n t c o rn p 3. e x s e r v i n g Denver’s high ‘society and the general public. Downtown Denver had an outdoor entertainment complex "the Carnival Pavi lion" at. 712 17th street, built in 1881, of which the Mammoth skating rink (1883—1889), a swimming pool and the Adelaide Randal 1 Opera company (till 1887) were a part, but a year-round indoor complex was lacking,. In 1904 Albert Lewin and his company, "The Mammoth Amusement, and Investment Company" began development of the Mammoth Garden, whose name was probably derived from the former outdoor rink. Construction of the project was completed in 1907 when the title for the building was filed on May 9th 1907’.
The coritex t of Denver ’ s Cap:i. ta 1 Hi 3.3. nei ghbarhaod at the turn of the century was of the high Victorian style, done in massive stonework. Architect John Moremon emulated this context in his forms, details and materials for the Mammoth G a r d e n s s t. r u c t u r e.
The Mammoth Gardens served as a roller skating rink from 1907 to 1911 for the "carriage class" of Denver, other highlights of the gardens included two-stepping contests, g r a c e f u 1 s k a t i n g t o u r n a m e n t s (i n w h i c: h t w o g o 1 d m e d a 1 s w e r e awarded each at a value of $500, and which were not surpri z ingi y popular among the clientele) . Another possible use of the building may have been a bicycle velodrome.Thi s possibility is suggested by an historic photograph included

in the sup pi i mental section,, taken somewhere between 1909 and 1920 which .shows a bicycle racer painted upon the North tower. No written record of such use has been found, but the space could easily have served such ax function. As a si gn of the times the Gardens were closed on Sundays and an admission price of 10 cents was charged until 1909, when admission was raised to 15 cents. For novices to roller skating and "for those wishing to aquire mastery of the 1 i 111 e r o 11 e r s g e n 11 e m a n 1 e y i n s t r u c t e r s w i 11 b e f u r n :i. s h a d b y the rink management for a very small fee".i
Shortly after the Gardens were opened two building permits were issued to the Mammoth Rink company. One issued in May of 1907 lists a bid price of $22s000 and was for the piping and labor required to make the Mammoth Gardens capable of housing ice skating; the second permit issued by the building department in July was far a $10,000 addition to the South (East. Colfax Street frontage) face of the structure,. This addition initially held four ground level stores, lobby space for a second story hotel and a entry marquee and foyer for the Mammoth Gardens, From the period photograph by the Mile High Photograph company a sense of how the Mammoth Gardens complex related to the East Colfax streetscape and fit into the Denver city fabric as a whole can be felt. Trolley tracks indicate a link with other parts of Denver,, The new addition was built to the property line and although not elegantly juxtaposed to the Mammoth Gardens began to respond to the major pedestrian street, East Colfax,, and the neighboring bui lding on the same block. Awnings, art incorporated with the building (bicycle rider and female roller skater),, stylized street lamps and the elegant marquee all related to the pedestrian and form a tie t o t h e p r e d o m i n a n 11 e y r e s i d e n t, :i a 1 C a p :i t a 1 H i 11 c o m m u n i t y.
Soon after its ini ti al success the Mammoth Gardens was unable to 'sustain i tsel f as an entertainment complex. This :i. s d u e t o t h e g a r d e n ’ s i n a b i 1 i t y t o g e n e r a t e p r o f it. Ownership remained in the Mammoth Amusement and Investment Company’s hands, but it appears that only special events were held after 1910. Such events included marathon dances and walkathons, which were contests where the last remaining w a 1 k e r a r o u n d t h e i n d o o r i:: o u r s e w o n a c a s h p r i z e.
Between 1911 and 1935 the Mammoth Gardens structure housed a number of automobi1e oriented functions. The most intriguing of these was the 1911 to 1917 use of the gardens as a manufactureng plant for Oliver P. Fritchle7s electric

autos. Fritchle, an eccentric entrepreneur believed his electric autos were superior to the gasoline autos of the day; unfortunate! y the public: disagreed and after World War I his business -failed. A photograph -from this period shows a used car sign on the south side of the building adjoining.
01 h e r a u t. a m o b i 1 e r e 1 a t e cl u s e s 1 a t. e r -f i 11 e d t h e b u i 1 d i n g. t h e 1926 householder directory listed three companies operating within the gardens: The Black Electric Company, the Otis L. Ethridge Garage and the Mammoth Garage. The Sanborn maps at 1924 show a 140 car capacity -for the "garage". Later occupants, all automobile related, included the the Paul C. Douglas garage, from 1927 to 1929; the Rand Mcgill Motor company, -from 1929 to 1932; and the Mammoth Garage again, from 1932 to 1935..
Steve Lindsey, one of the Garden's last owners, also aludes in a Rocky Mountain News article to the operation of a still in the North tower during Prohibition. The man who anonamousley approached him said that the oders of the still process were covered up by burning rubber tires in the g a r a g e n e x t d a a r.
(3al duin Y«j»r« «::>* thw Mammoth
In 1935 the Colorado business direc:tory p 1 aces ownersinp of the Mammoth Gardens as belonging to the Rocky Mountain Amusement Syndicats. The Syndicate immediateiy began restoring the gardens to its -former functions and the installation of a new ice skating rink was completed on D e c e m b e r 13, .1935.. E a r 1 y i n 1936 o w n e r s h i p a g a i n c h a n g e d hands as Douglas County gambling entrepreneur 0.E. "Smiling Charlie" Stephens bought into the syndicate when his gambling monopoly was threatened by competitor Leo Barnes. The newly installed ice Hockey rink served as cover for his i 11 eg a .1 c a s i n o.
One of two building permits issued for the Mammor.h Gardens in 1936 was for the Rocky Mountain Amusement S y n d i c a t e a n d !< a y W,. I v e r s o n (p r e s i d e n t) f o r c o n s t r u c: t i o n o f a n i. c e r i. n !••■:T h i s 1 eg i t :i. m :l. t e b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e b y I v e r s on, w h o w a si f o r m e r 1 y t h e M a r q u e 1.1 e Li n i v s r s i t y a n d W i s c o n s a n University hockey coach, opened December 19, 1935 was used
for ice skating, hockey, ice polo, basket bawl 1 , wrestling and b o >: i n g.. A11 e r c o m p 1 e t i o r: J a c k D e m p s e v r a f e r e e d a t 1 e a s t o n e ti o i n g m a t c h d u r i n g t h i s s 1) o r t 1 i v e d v e n t. u r e..
The second permit issued in 1935 was to the Peterson company. This permit covered the secretive construction of what would might have become a notorious casino had it been comp 1 eted.. Newspaper art i c: 1 es of 1936 1 urrat i vel y descri bed

the space after the police uncovered the scam with superlatives such as "the perfect setup". Construction workers on the site said the job was so secretive that they never knew what they were building in the garden’s Southwest tower.. The elaborate system devised for serving Stephens’ customers sounds more like the script for a Hollywood "B" ffiovi e.
Patr ons o f t.he hockey mat ches wer e "scoped'' bef ore hei ng approac:hed as possi b 1 e gamta]. ing customers. A bar at the north end of the Gardens functioned as a place "where patrons would court the proper mood before being taken to the tables upstairs, "sa Two entrances for the casino., one •from the lobby and the other from the street., converged in a narrow cement corridor located between the gardens and the addition of 1907. The corridor inconspicuosly led to the salons at the top of a series of stair flights. At the top of the first stairway was a frisking nook to keep out potential enemies., gambling competitors and the vice squat.
A narrow corridor also led to an outside lookout vantage point... The second flight of stairs led to a large room above which served moderate betters; it contained a small bar, and games sueh as b 1 ack j acI: and cl i ce..
A third room was located up yet another set of stairs in the tower, which was formerly a utility space. A reporter of the period called it "the piece de resistance of tne casino, the crowning glory of Step hen s’ career".;! This room serviced "only the finest people" with high stakes gambling games, "super modern lighting effects" (never reali zed in the final construction) and a balcony where the patrons could view the hockey games below while remaining inconspicuous from the arena below._________
The actual final casino was never completed. When "Smiling Charlie?" began to run into financial snags construction was halted as he became unable to pay.. Soon after in 1936 the casino scam was uncovered when Stephens’ was indicted in a conspiracy to murder Leo Barries, his gambling competitor. Stephens served a five year sentence at the Canon City jail and thereafter was not a force in the C o 1 o r a d o u n d e r w o r 1 d .
Hockey and ice skating remained during this period, under the management of Joe Mohana, a Broadway theatrical promoter and Denver businessman of the Mammoth Amusement and Investment Corpora!ion between 1936 and 1939. But Denver
hockey was to be short-1ived, and in 1939 Irving i.. Jacobs
became manager for what would become the Garden’s longest period of success.

In 1939 a wooden floor was placed over the ice floor and the Mammoth Gardens prime -function was once again returned to roller skating,. Jacobs also introduced wrestling and basketball, hosting Denver’s first semi-pro basketball team, the "66ers". Consistant crowds attended all events with roller skating drawing 1000 to 1500 people on a good weekend. Basketball, and wrestling crowds drew 3000 to 4000
stat ioned at Lowery Air base ccur t i ng the 0envar bel1es, reached upwards of 3000 persons. Many marriges were? instigated by the dances as soldiers returned from World war'll to the girls they had left behind. Tom and George Z a h a r i a u s ( " B a b e11 D i d r i c k s o n ’ s h u s b a n d) p r o m o t e d t h e wrestling for Joe Mohana. Jitterbug contests, marathon dances and walkathons were a part of the Garden’s nighttime a 11 r a c: t :i. a n s, n o 1 o n g e r s e r v i n g D e n v e r ’ s 11 c: a r r i a g e c 1 a s s " ., but attracted the middle and lower classes after the shock of the Depression. The Gardens remained as exciting as evers a young boy once fell through the skylight to the floor below breaking his leg while attempting a sneak preview of h i s f u t u r e p u b e r t y.
On December 27th, 3.943, Irving and Mildred Jacobs, and Morris and Sam Si groan bought out the Mammoth Amusement and Investment Corporation. After continued success the Jacobs became sole proprieters of the Gardens on July IS, 1949. In 1949 a Denver Post air tide announced Jacob’s plan of “Remodeling to include the moving of the main entrance from East Colfax to Clarkson". Today this loss of identity of the M a m rn o t h g a r d e n s o n E a s t C o 1 f a c r e a t e s p r o b 1 e m e o f e x p o s u r e»
Shortly thereafter an August 3, 195.2, Irving Jacobs
passed away, leaving ownership to his wife, who soon followed Irving to the grave on July 14, 1953,. Ownership changed hands often, and the lack of solid new management led to Mammoth Gardens; becoming a sci /.ophrenic of -functions. Under Theresa Sigman, mother of Mildred Jacobs, and her daughter Anne Sigman Fine, events which were added to the traditional genre of sporting events; were one of Denver’s first televisi on broadcasts, which was of the U.S.C.- Notre D a m e R o s e B o w 3. a n d d r e w 4500 p e r s o n s. R e v i v a 1 rn e e t. i. n g s, h i g h school dances, poli ti cal conventions, walkathons, and Rock—n—RoI1 shows, a new phenomena in the 1950’s were held. James Brown and his band, the Fabulous Flames-, played a gig in i960 despite the fact that the suburbs were drawing crowds, away from the downtown Denver area.
Once again Mammoth Gardens closed its doors to the public, and on June 21, 1962 it became a warehouse for the
Colorado Mercantile Company.
. Popular dances , which attracted the soldiers

fi»c»nt Mi
W i t h t h e p r e s t i g a o f t h e r o c k ~ n - r o 11 e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p rising during the 1960’s,, small -fortunes were easily made via promotion. And so George Green o-f Hackensack, New Jersey saw investment opportunity in 1969 tor his son Stuart Green. Green purchased Mammoth Gardens for $185,000 and installed a $13,000 sound system. Stuart. Green, already a promoter, then set out to make the Gardens a Rockies Rock emporium, the central United States speculative answer to Bill Graham’s Mew York Fillmore East and his San Fransi sco Fill more West.
The incidence of rock shows and the inherent freedom of t h e e r a, w h i c h c 1 o a k e d a 11 t h o s e i n v o 1 v e d w i t h r e p u t a 1.i o n s, brought immediate complaints and calls to action by resi d en t s a nd own ers i n th e Capita1 Hill n eigh b or • h ood. Capital Hill was already seeing its demise as the major residential sector of Denver with the spread of suburbs. The neighborhood was also suffering from the invasion of pornography, the destruction of its building stock, and the rise of communal and welfare living. Indigents and transients of the new generation, wanderers often with little or no retepect for sense of place, added to the nei ghborhood’s prblems. The sale of drugs and violation of curfews brought the city council men of the district,Elvin caldwell and Edward Burke, and the District Attorney, Mike?
M cKev i11, t o squ are off against Mammoth G arden's owner Stuart Green and the Rocky Mountain News and Denver Post, who supported the Gardens.
S h o w s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t 1 i t i g a t i o i \ a s G t' e e i» b r o u g h t the most well known and popular bands of the era to the Garden structure. Mishaps continued to plague the operation of the emporiums there was a minor fire, fist-fights, and many arrests. In June of 1970, 33 youths were arrested, the e n t i r e D e n v e r p o 1 i c e d i v i s i o n ’ s v i c e s q u a d w a s c a 11 e d t o t h e district, and two police officers were assaulted at a
The problems caused Councilman Caldwell and Burke to w r i t a 1 e 11 e r s t o t \ i e n M a y o r M c N i c h o 1 s s t a t i n g t h a t "businessmen in the area are worried because their" trade is beginning to suffer" and “Nearby apartment residents are annoyed by noise emmanati ng from and around the Mammoth Gardens at all hours of the night,. Pedestrians are accosted, frightened, even robbed by young panhandlers and vagrants who ..jam the sidewalks. Curfew viol at ions and w:L desprsad use of iiiarijitanra and mar cot : cs are common inc! dents at she rock

The Mammoth Gardens was closed by order of the District Attorney in November of 1970, less than one year after its open!ng.
By now the notion of Mammoth Gardens being a poor business investment had been deeply instilled in residents and local bussinessmen. After five years of vacancy a young architect named Warren Bailey,, then associate with Victor Hornbein, saw greener pastures for the "Wooly Mammoth".
Using Seattle’s Pike Place Market and Los Angeles’ farmers’ market, as sucessful prototypes, Bailey applied the idea of a Denver market place to Mammoth Gardens. Randy Jobe inspired by Bailey, purchased the building under the assumption that federal and state supported financing would take the brunt of purchasing and renovation costs. Tom Morris became archi t.ect. i n char ge af t.he operati on and successfu. 1 East Colfax businessman John Hand was brought in as general manager.
The Garden’s market success was seen as relying upon its
n e w.f o la n d d i v e r s i t. y, w 11 h B a i. 1 y a n d h i s p a r t n e r s a s s u r i n g
that its diversity would be maintained by strong management. The Gardens were to consist of a mixture of weekend and permanent shops and displays. Pre-opening figures had 20 permanent and 70 weekend entreprenuers committed with room for more relying upon initial success. Weekend vendors were also to rotate to help control diversity, while their costs remained low at only $25 per space. Permanent vendors would be charged $100 a month plus 77. of the gross profit, an e x t r e m e 1 y s m a 11 c o s t c o n s i d e r i • i g t h e r i s i n g 1 a n d c o s t s o f Denver in the mid—1970’s. Functions of the venders were to be maintained at 307 for food, 107 for fine arts, 207 for handicraft, 207 for necessities, and 207 for mi seellanious. All vendors would go through a reviewing commitee of the persons involved before being accepted or rejected. A 120—seat theater also was diagrammed in the masterplan.
In 1976 the massive task of restoring the Gardens for its now function was begun.. To bring the building up to code an overhead fire sprinkler system was installed. This subsequently froze and burst, warping the wooden f1oor. To update the plumbing and reinstal1 the sprinklers was. a $7,000 setback, but government money was assuredly on the way and the costs of renovation were deemed essential for s lac cess. During renovation bits of the Garden’s past surfaced from under panelled walls and false floors. Bas-relief figure skaters and hockey players were ci scovered and restored as a part of the market.

Despite setbacks, the mar k el at Mammoth Gardens of: c-ned an September 25,, 1976 to large and exuberant crowds, with
weekend numbers reaching above 40,000 persons. The Gardens once again gained the graces of both the public and private sector and a strong future seemed assured.. Unfortunately., in May of 1977, less than a year after its grand opening, the Gardens were closed when financing failed to materialise.
The Colorado Economic Development Authority, which had guaranteed matching funding, backed out on the intrepid developers.
Not 1 osi revi tal i ze iT partnership Simonson and
sight of his architectural dream to â– tnirnoth Gardens, Warren Bai 1 ey r et ai nd hi s if the building in conjunction with Pete 31 e v e L. i n d s e y o f t h e IT a n i m o t ti G a rue n ' v.
Management and Development Corporation., Financing would
-i i
once i t
A new funding plan for the Gardens, which a community sports and convention complex with
again become a major obstacle to further development, r a m a i n s t o d a y would provide
restaurant, offices and small retail complex was proposed whic:h wo111 d use a %310, 000 Federa 1 gi~ant. f or renovation. The sale of "shareholding" concepts to any persons interested in investing would provide additional funds.. Private funding did, in fact, reach upwards of $3 million., and once again the venture looked promising as the numbers began to click.
Work was begun immediatly in 1977 with the wainscoting from the newly demolished Ghost Building being used in the r e s t a u r a n t. A1 s o i n c o r p a r a t e d i n t o t h e r e s t a u r' a n ts d e s i g n was one of the two maple floors from the initial Mammoth Garden's renovation of 1935. The new sports complex opened on October 5th, 1979, and enjoyed some success, hosting the Denver Avalanche's indoor soccer team along with neighbohood leagues and inter-city leagues of tennis, basketball, volleyball, badmihton, indoor running track and a proposed rooftop sundeck. Dance and exercise studios were also conducted in the adjacent Colfax addition. Govenor Lamm held a fund raising dinner in the Gardens and Channel 6 te1evisio 11 host ed a wine auction.
I n 19 3 O t h e G a r d e n s .. g, hasting lower key, and less
were used as a music tccessf ul pei for mer

i:har in
the past. Despite the less than successful concerts the Bardens remained afloat until .1.932 when nismanagement of both sports activities and concerts led to its demise-. The
43, i“)00 square f OQ t b u i i 1 d i n g' ir.> cl osur e w a a t cr i bu t. e d to 1 ack
of m. n agement ab . ] â– i i_ y i , f ood t hat w a C H escr i bed as " h or r ible"
by c o s t amor s and .7, | ic k of c: ash f L ow. Nos c o t* t h e c- CU !“•; CV, r s
f r c :i nv •es t ors wer Li f i 1 ed« A mi no 1 i i r 3 i n 1983 a 1 s O r a i s *3 f.; t h ;.v
cue , p i c ion of arso n 1 a g «"• i n i H sur c on i f :l r med.

Rwcarnmwnd«t. 1 arm s
Mammoth Gardens remains a vacant structure with vast, amounts o-f redevelopement money having been poured into its renovation over the last ten years. Problems which must be surmounted in making the Gardens a successful venture are a triple net $8,000 rent per month (adding up to $196,000 per year), and continued problems in the neighborhood. The two blocks to either side o-f the Gardens house pornographic related funlions and attract undesireable costumers. A severe shortage o-f secure parking -for such a large scale structure forces potential patrons to walk through a decayed n e i g h b o r h o a cl. Much mo r e d i -f f i c u 11 c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d stadiums in Detroit, Chicago and New York City, but the problem is one which must foe considered.
In order for Mammoth Gardens to have a long term survival rate basic changes to the physical character of the b v. i 1 d i n g m u s t o c c u r . B e s i d e s f i n cl i n g a t r u 1 y s u i t a b 1 e function for such a large structure the entrance sequence for the building should be reestablished at the Colfax facade, with the demolition of the 1907 addition being optimal. This is made difficult by the separate ownership of t h a t b u i 1. d i 11 g a n d t h e G a r d e n s.
In my thesis I will attempt; to address the problem of the physical barriers which plague Mammoth Gardens. My thesis is that architecture can improve the quality of people’s lives through the inclusion of history and h :i. s t o r i. c a 1 p r e c e ci e n t. T h a t M a rn n i a t h G a r d e n s c a n a n d s h o u I d b e r e i n t e g r a t e d w :i. t h i t s s u r r o u n ci i n g C a p :L t a 1 H :i 11 infrastructure as a public amenity and a part of the urban spatial fabric is seen as steming from this research.

1. Rocky Mountain News, January 17, 1909, pg. 3.
2. The Denver Post, June 9, 1939, Western History clipping File.
3. Ibid.


Republican, Feb, 11, 1909, pg. 8.
Republican, May, 10, 1904, pg, 12.
News, Dec,, 15, 1935, pg. 15,
Denver Post, Dec, 15, 1935, pg. 14.
Rocky Mountain News, Aug, 17, 1948, pg. 16.
RMN, March, 23, 1949, pg, 37.
RMN, April, 22, 1962, pg. 8.
RMN, Feb, 18, 1970, pg 16.
RMN, April, 30 1970, pg 56,
RMN, July 2 1970, pg. 8,
RMN, July 6, 1970, pg. 65.
RMN, July 19, 1970, pg. 8.
RMN, October 12, 1970, pg. 53.
Denver Post, April 9, 1939, pg. 15, section 1, RMN, August 17, 1948, pg, 16,
Denver Post, May 3, 1976, pg. 46.
The Denver Magazine, Vol. 6, #10, Sept. 1976, pg. RMN Trend, Oct. 3, 1976, pg. 2.
RMN, May 10, 1977, pg. 8.
RMN Journal, Jan. 15, 1977, pg. 15.
Rocky Mountain Bussiness Journal, Sept, 30, 1981, pg.3. Up The Creek, May 7, 1982, Pg,6,
Historic Denver, Vol. 12 #1, Nov/Dec. 1982, pg.4.
Life On Capital Hill, Vol, 11 #17, Nov. 3.
Life On Capital Hill, Vol. 11 #12, Aug, 1985, pg.2. Westword, Vol. 9 #1, Sept. 4-10, 1985, pg. 4.
1387 Denver Atlas, Plate 24. Block 139.
1924, 1974 Sanborns Atlas, Vols, 2,
Photo File, Western History Library, D.P.L.
Martin, Thomas, "Mammoth Gardens, A history of the Building, Owners, and Uses", 1982.
The Rogers, Nagel, Langhart Study, A revitalization
overview for East Colfax. 1985.

The Site
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Mater ial.s
The Capital Hill region has a number of stonework buildings of considerable detailing. Later structures incorporated brick and stucco as the major building components, still retaining a sense o-f permanence and strength in the home while allowing -for detail and interest. Newer materials are the prefabricated steel and wood units which sacrifice detailing (of merit) for ease in, and less expense of constr u c: t i o n.
I see? the ne}ed for today's architecture to relate to the past with compatible materials and quality of construction, along with an obvious need for energy conservation. My desire is to explore stonework in modern construction, seeking its sculpural potentials along with its historical correction and inherent energy saving attributes. Stones of certain qualities, indiginous to the Rocky Mountain area also give a sense of belonging and appropriatness when trying to convey a sense of place and i magery.
The thermal capacities and energy conservation capab i 1 i t. i es of the mater i al , i n i ts manufacture as well as in its built form make stone well suited to today's need for re-evaluating world energy con sump t. i on.

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This is a method used by Greek designers with superlative skill. Each new building, internally ordered around one axis, is so placed in relation to existing buildings that an angular volume of space is created which binds the two together. Coherence is maintained by the tension between buildings across the angular space. The elegance and beauty of the spaces created, as here in Camiros, and the endless variety of interrelationships between the internally disciplined buildings provide a principle for city design applicable to problems today.
When the Greek sensitivity gave way to the Roman love of order and logic, a new element was introduced in large-scale design, that of interlocking axes. Thus the five “new” fora of Rome, built one after the other by emperors, lie next to one another, with little or no space between. The central axis of each building was made exactly perpendicular to that of the one before, producing a system of cross axes that unified the whole. Because of their interrelationship, designs which in themselves are very formal and perhaps rather sterile create a dynamic over-all result.

During the medieval period, up to the fifteenth century, cities often grew around rectangular spaces. These gradually took form as individual buildings were built around their periphery. In Todi, Italy, an extraordinary result came about through the conception of two interlocking prisms whose corners overlapped to create a single intensive volume of space. The latter was strengthened and emphasized by the construction of two tall towers which contributed a vertical force at the point of juncture. This principle is seen in many forms in medieval cities.
In the later period of the Roman Empire, notably under Hadrian, a new freedom of design crept in, a return to large-scale site-planning based on a variety of angular relationships. The Romans developed a far greater variety of architectural forms than did the Greeks. Curved structures such as exedras, rotundas, and cylindrical colonnades offered a wide range of angular sub-axes which could interlock various parts of the composition. Thus, in Roman work, such as Hadrian’s villa, at left, it was curved building mass which bound together the various parts of a many-angled composition.

At the beginning of the Baroque period the ordering principle in the growth of the city of Rome was the establishment of lines of force which defined the tension between various landmarks in the old city. The interrelationship of these lines and their interaction with the old structures set into play a series of design forces which became the dominating element in the architectural work along them. Here the cohesive element is a line of force rather than a volumetric form.
Still a different concept is a line of force extending outward from the point of origin in the city and establishing an ordering principle that penetrates the adjacent land area. The Champs Elysees in Paris dramatically illustrates this. There, in the extension of the medievally conceived garden of the Tuileries Palace, we can trace the line of propulsion which thrusts farther and farther into the surrounding countryside. This first thrust was joined by a series of similar ones which set up a network of design systems that were capable of indefinite extension.
While there are many other modes of city growth, the six concepts just discussed arc basic themes which occur again and again.



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Sketching, Memory, and Architecture
George A. Hinds, FAAR

Looking at the past with an eye on the present is the essence of sketching. The present, in this case, refers to today's unresolved architectural problems confronting both the individual architect and the body of professionals involved in the art of architecture. The primary goals of sketching as a study technique include: (1) building up a reservoir of images (illustrations 1-8), (2) learning how and when symbolism has been successfully used architecturally in the context of the social and cultural history for which architecture was created (illustrations 21-30), and (3) studying successful design solutions for their reference value (illustrations 9-20). An additional benefit of sketching is that it improves one's sense of scale, proportion, and composition.
Architects throughout history have sketched in order to build up a reservoir of images. Palladio, Le Corbusier, and Louis Kahn sketched extensively throughout their lives. Palladio made three study trips to Rome between 1541 and 1554, and later traveled frequently in Italy until he was too old for further travel. He sketched not only antiquity but also contemporary architecture of the time. Palladio usually sketched in geometric projection, although he did do three dimensional sketches and also copied from sketch books of other architects, a common practice of the times.1 Corbusier, in his "Voyage to the Orient" of 1911, traveled with his sketch book, a practice he continued wherever he traveled in later years.2 In his early years, Corbusier had also sketched Notre Dame and in the museums of Paris. Louis Kahn had two extended study-travel experiences. He traveled first to the Mediterranean in 1928-29 and later to Italy, Greece, and Egypt in 1950-51, when he was a resident at the American Academy in Rome.3
Vincent Scully, in an essay on Michael Graves, describes sketching as a process by which the most successful of recent architects have derived forms. In short, memory is shaped by drawing and in turn helps determine forms that architects have used in their architecture.3
The above derivation of forms from images does not directly address the question of the message in architecture. The message must be clear and appropriate during this embrionic period of defining a new humanism. The rebellion against the modern
Design solutions using pediments as decoration. (Figures 1, 2, 3: origin of Renaissance pediments).
Temple in a house at Ercolano.
Temple of I'side, Tompei.

Building of Eumachia, Forum of Pompci. This ions not visible to Renaissance architects. However other examples of the triangular, curved, and broken pediments, in the forum of Trajan, were visible at that time.
movement has been expressed by some architects in the revival of elements from classical and Beaux Arts architecture. Today there is a conscious need to include an element of humanism in architecture, but many architectural elements are used only as props. They have become signs for the architectural elite and are devoid of a real symbolic meaning. A greater sophistication in the use of symbols and form-giving images is necessary in order to avoid sending empty or inappropriate messages. In order to be significant, symbols in architecture must not be too obvious in terms of popular understanding, nor can they be too precious or too elitist without becoming a sign. A sign, as opposed to a symbol, is so specific that it does not leave leeway for interpretation.
The word symbol, derived from Greek, translates to mean "putting together" or establishing a relationship between a work (in this case a work of art) and a viewer. Symbols are not always timeless. However, there are some symbols considered universal and timeless, such as the circle and triangle. Some symbols, such as the cross, are timeless but not universal and grow out of their original contexts and become cultural symbols. Two other types of symbols are group and personal symbols. An example of a group symbol would be the Barberini bees, used by Boromini and other architects who did commissions for the Barberini family in Italy. A personal symbol in art may be part of an artist's technique, not completely explainable, which conveys a personal message to the audience, such as that which distinguishes the music of Mozart from the music of Beethoven. The message conveyed by a personal symbol is important, and is partially determined by the storehouse of images that an architect has accumulated.
Along with group, cultural, and universal symbols there is another important architectural characteristic that constitutes a good building: beauty. Much has been written about beauty but Vitruvius defines it as order, arrangement, proportion, symmetry, propriety, and economy.5 Successful design solutions that are beautiful and convey appropriate symbolic meaning are valuable for sketching and analyzing. The study of successful design solutions, both contemporary and historical, is commonly pursued as a means of building up reference material for designing. When presented with an architectural design problem, one can either look to the past to search out
Palazzo Farnese in Piazza Far-nese, by da Sangallo, Michelangelo, and della Porta, c. 1513-49.
Palazzo Senatorio, Campidoglio, by Michelangelo, della Porta, and Rainaldi, 1564-1600. Decorative round, triangular, and broken pediments were used during the Renaissance to reinforce the lay-ering of a building and to establish scale.

related solutions from history, or one can be stimulated towards a solution by the memory of other designs that one has sketched. These "design cues" from history are numerous and continue to support the evolutionary quality of architecture.
Forum of Pompei. Louis Kahn may have sketched this part of the Forum of Pompei when he was a resident at the American Academy in Rome, before he designed the Kimbell Art Museum.
S. Maria Novella, by Alberti, 1456-70, Florence.
Casa di Raffaello, by Bramanti, built 1510, reconstruction drawing by Hofmann. As opposed to the fortress-like facade of the early Renaissance palaces, the base of this building gives dignity and diversity to the street level, while acting as a separation for the more formal piano nobile.
Fargo-Moorhead, by Michael Graves. (Sketch of Michael Graves' rendering by the author).
Casa di Fabio Rufo, First-Century Empire Pompeian house. The Roman aquaduct was probably the model for this Pompeian building.
Detail of Battistero, l lth-Uth Century, Florence.

S. Agnese on Piazzo Navona, by Borromini, 1652-57.
Cortile S. Carlino, by Borromini, 1634-41.
S. Giovanni Laterno, by Borromini, 1646-49. Interior space using similar space concept as Cortile S. Carlino.
Oratorio dei Fillippini, by Borromini, 1637-43, on the Piazzo Chiesa Nuova. The Oratorio was designed to tie in with the church and embrace the piazzo.
Palazzo Spada, by either Borromini or by Fra da Bitonto, 1635.

Palazzo Taverna, IStli Century.
Colosseum—second tier. 70-82 AD. This was visible to Renaissance and Parotiue architects and was firolud'ly a prototyf>e for the Palazzi Sinula and Taverna and the Scala Regia.
Colosseum-first tier, 70-82 AD.
Arch of Constantine, 312 AD.

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Palazzo Farnesc, by da Sangallo and Michelangelo, 1534.
/lrc/z of Titus, 81 AD.
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Palazzo Falconieri, by Borromini, 1640.
Tempio Malatestiana, by Alberti and Mateo de Pasti, 15th Century.
Fontana di Treve, by Salvi, 1732-40.

Denver typology/morphology studies:
Urban morphology at the Streetscape
A: Broadway at -first.
B:16th street mall.
8s Larimer Square.
Citywide movements o-f organization:
As Capital building.
Revitalization along East Colfax:
As Colonnade.
B: E-tour bon S quar e.
CsAlta Court.
Nei ghborhood:
As Vi ctorian.
Bs Bungalow.
C: Turriverei n .

Broadway at 1st Avenue:
Urban character is enhanced at this -four block region by diversity of function and forms. Unification at the pedestrian level is achieved through the introduction of street trees, street furniture,and building canopies. Variance in building height of the forms lends interest to the eye of not only the pedestrian but the strong automobile access route as well. Lacking in making this an overall strong urban context is residential stock at the street; something that wou1d be strong1y undesireab1e with the present one-way street condition.
General bussiness and retail facades serve as the backdrop upon which foreground elements, such as the Mayan theater, are then painted. Formal hierarchy is achieved in this urban microcosom.
Larimer Square: Denver Historic district, lower downtown.
Serves as example of successful contextual revitalization, and contemporary attitudes towards historisism. The individual success of the architectural elements i s strong1y related to the strength of the whole. Still has not captured the essence of a "place11 due; to the 1 ack of inbred housing stock, but is successful as a pedestrian oriented street.

<£> Barbara Froula Studio
16th Street Mall
I.M. Pei’s celebration of the suburban strip within the urban context. Relating to the
pedestrian with positive
c: har ac t er i st i c: s of t.he spac e w h i c h i n c: 1 u d e its a b i 1 i t y t o service side streets and the quality of the space when both occupied and not.

SKYLINE: United Bank.
"The modern image of the vertical city has exalted the â– frontal values of Architecture- but not the facades of buildings-projecting soaring volumes against the horizon.
The skyline working only in profile displays the result of the purely pragmatic-development of the • contemporary city. Seen from within, in the dimensions of living, the city loses that continuity it has in profile. It appears a fragmented and uneven organism, within the "ailments" of the urban fabric, today-" s imagination has rediscovered beautification, and aims more at the retrieval of the existing than the conception of the city of the future."
Lotus International #39 "Working the Gaps." pg. 3.
State Capital building:
Qlmstead’s unification/
City Beautiful plan evidences the Beaux-Arts ability to engage the three disiplines of Architecture, Landscape, and Urban Design at a grand scale, while retaining understanding at the pedestrian level. The siting and relationship of the Capital to the city was a tool of urban organization and human understandi ng at different levels: social, political, economic, and aspects. Hierarchy is achieved not only through spatial definition (solid: orthagonal form; and void), but via site lines and material (the gold dome) as well.

Bourbon Square:
East Colfax at Marion.
Colonnade Building:
Colfax at Marion.
The Alta Court:
East Col-fax at Lafayette.
Successful revitalizatiort of individual building stock which once blended with, and acted as a street, facade and urban backdrop. With the infiltration of set back buildings and general deterioration of the building fabric these structures now stand out as sculptural elements, or "jewels" in the decemated urban fabric. The very rythmatic facades, scale and intensive level of detailing, and the structures’ relationship to the street give these projects tremendous pedestrian ori entation.

The Alta Court
Complexity of interior space as a subtractive volume directs the function of the volumetric (positve), and allows focusing of views to the interior and exterior.

(he Turnverein:
16th at Clarkson
Adjacent structure to the Mammoth Gardens, serves as a scuptural, orthagonal element, â– for the scope o-f the project. Clean Romanesque -facades o-f the building relate well to the Gardens structure while detailing speaks o-f the romantic Western missionary style. The building is still in use and its function as an entertainment hall works well to form a complex for the entire block of the thesis proj ect.
Capital hill Bungalow:
Infill housing from the 1930's to 1950’s are single family in scale and character, while not evincing urban qualities or character. These bui1dings general 1y require frontage on al1 sides; their c.ompactness and resu 11ant deterioration of three sides gives a neighborhood, or streetscape less continuity and quality. Stronger relation to the pedestrian at the street and a greater sense of care for the alleyscape could free up more exterior space, and increase privacy for the resident, while creating a hierarchy of public, semi-public, and private spaces from the street. By treating the alley as a place of interest aind not of secondary function this new hierarchy can serve to clean the city and greatly increase the amount of open "useable" space verses a haven for indegents, garages, and waste which is only serviced one day i n seven.
Copical Hii1 Victorian:
Tne romantic Victorian era of architecture is a strong and vital element in linking Capitill Hill together as a residential neighborhood. Although impassible to emmulaite as a building type elements o-f the Victorian language should be encouraged as a means to tie the business and retail sector of Colfax into the residentiail of Capital Hill and Uptown on the Hill; similarely the way Mammoth Gardens worked to Lie into this turn of the century fabric. Avoiding crossing of understood "languages" becomes difficult .in this instance because so many of these structures serve as offices and no longer "work" in the neighborhood fabric.

Row houses with each house exhibiting a different character are typical in many North American cities. A more unique type is the row house group.
When a few contiguous lots, less than an entire block, are combined into a row house grouping, compositional rhythms emerge in the group. For example, in the Victor Fulkenau houses in Chicago, Louis Sullivan combined three nearly identical plans to get an A-B-A reading of the composition of three houses. In another group of row houses in Chicago, Frank Lloyd Wright combined four houses, in a single yet individualized grouping — AAAA.
Urban houses in North America
A study of typology
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An urban house form called flounder, half-house, orhalffloun-I der appears to be an accidental form but is actually a deliberate one with numerous examples in Old St. Louis, and Alexandria, Virginia.
The houses, whose “half” character resembles that of a flounder —a half split down the center of the back — always have the long wall set on the side lot line. They are usually two stories high with a halfgable (shed) pitched from the party wall into the lot.
In St. Louis, the form was discussed in a St. Louis Heritage report: “The mystery of the halfhouse or half-flounder design may never be completely solved but one probable explanation is that the half-houses vere built to shed roof rainwater to one side of the property.” Another explanation for the form relates to city taxes (although there are no specific mentions in the 1811, 1861 and 1871 ordinances). Taxes on a halfhouse were assessed at halfrate.
Rounder house

Double house or semi-detached pairs of houses occur frequently in Toronto. These houses are clearly urban: their nearly contiguous character (usually four feet apart) creates a boundary of public street space. The front and back facades are differentiated (public facade, backyard facade) while the walls perpendicular to the street are similar to the typical blind party walls of row houses. As George Baird has pointed out, “In the case of semi-detached houses ... the sides are differentiated between the party wall and the open side but are equivalent to one another.”

Althoug predominantly an urban phenomenon, the courtyard house also appears in rural settings as a free-standing house.
In America, many examples of free-standing courtyard houses may be found in New Mexico where they occur frequently as individual units of urban compounds that define the street walls of the cities. These houses have the characteristics of buildings commonly found in Spanish territories from Andalusia to Peru and Mexico. The main elements composing them are: the patio (pla-cita), which is approached from a wide entry portal (zaguay) having barred gates; a service courtyard sometimes attached to the house serving as a stable (corral) ringed by storerooms. For defense purposes, many early New Mexico courtyard houses had no windows or openings in the outer walls except for those located in the main gateway. Later, when Indians were not hostile, windows were cut into the outside walls.
Courtyard house

The continuous row of identical houses forming a repetitive wall of facades along the street is a unifying house type that is rare in North American cities. In 1519 when Thomas More wrote Utopia he described this type of house in his ideal city: “The houses be of fair and gorgeous building, and on the street side they stand joined together in a long row through the whole street without any partition or separation ... the houses be curiously builded after a gorgeous and gallant sort with three storeys one over another. The outsides of the walls be made wither of hard flint or of plaster, or with timber work. The roofs be plain and flat.” Examples of continuous row houses include the Gordon Block built in Savannah, Georgia in 1853, Scudders Row and John McDonough Row, also in Savannah. In New York, Colonnade Row, originally a row of nine houses, was built in 1833. Examples also exist in Buffalo, and Baltimore, Maryland.
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Continuous row houses

The camel back shotgun developed when an additional room was added to the single shotgun. This room addition almost always occured as a second story section sitting on the rear of the house because of city tax laws. While the city placed a higher tax value on two story houses, the camel back, because of its single story alignment with the street front, was regarded and taxed as a one story building.
Camel-back shotgun house
Double shotgun house
The plan of a single shotgun is one room wide usually with two openings in front. Double shotguns occur when two single shotguns arc joined. In the latter form there are usually four openings across the front.
Three bay single shotguns (three openings across the street-front) usually have a side gallery or an interior hallway.
Because of the close spacing of this type (usually four or six feet between house) a street front definition occurs in a block of shotguns. The street definition, and resulting definition of public and private realms, places the New Orleans shotgun type in the category of urban house.
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The shotgun house type is quite developed in New Orleans, but can be found in other states as well, especially Texas. The large square blocks of the New Orleans city layout and the narrow lot divisions conditioned the development of a house form with one room aligned behind another. The name derived from the idea that in the straight through floor plan a shotgun could be fired through the house unimpeded and emerge from the rear. It is interesting to note that superstitions developed concerning spirits moving in the same penetrating way through the house. In some cases a plan with shifting alignments of doors was purposefully made to prevent the penetration of evil spirits.
Shotgun house

The Father-Son-Holy Ghost house type (also known as the bandbox type) developed on the interior blocks of Philadelphia on lots sized 13’x20’. This building type dates from c. 1750. Each building has one room per floor and is three or four high. Some buildings on Manning Steet in Philadelphia have five levels: sub basement, kitchen at a half-level below the street, living room, bedroom and bathroom, bedroom. The stacked arrangement of single rooms of this building type makes it the vertical equivalent of the railroad or shotgun type.

Denver’s prarie climate and low latitude give the city an overall mild climate. The Rocky Mountains cause abrupit and dramatic weather-variations., especially in the Fall and spring seasons. The dry., and low humidity climate also strengthen my desire to work with the ecosystem for planting and landscaping •features.
For the purposes of this thesis project costs and financing are not considered as factors in controlling the design developement.

FIG. 1
normal heating degree days normal cooling degree days ------ SUN ANGLE

FIG. 4
LAT. 39°50'N L0NG104o50'W

General relationship o-f codes to thesis project:
Applicable code: Denver City and County building code. 1982
General guidelines to mixed use occupancy section 503.
A) General: When a building houses more than one occupancy,, eac:h portion af the b u i1d i n g shall c on f orm t o t h e requi rements for the acc:upancy housed therein.
E0 Requirements of s e p e r a t i o n s: 0 c. c: u p a n c v s e p e r a t ion s h a 11 b e p r o v i d e d between the various groups and d i v isi ons of occupan cies as speci f i ed i n table 5•-B C) Type of separations: Occupancy separations shall be v e r t i c a 1 , h o r i c o n t a 1 ,, o r b o t h; or as may be required to afford a complete separation between the var i. ous a c c u p a n c i e s i n t h e b u i 1 d i n g.
Gccupancy seperati ons sha11 be c 1 assed as 4--Hour, 3-Hour 2-Hour, 1—Hour Fire Resistive.
G e ner a1 codes app1ie ab1e t o of f ices, retail, dining and drinking establishments, and theaters.
0 c c: u p a n c y c 1 a s s i f i c a t i o n :
P r i n c; i p 1 e o c: c u p a n c y: G r o u p FDivision 2 Others:
o f f i c e sF—2 C h a p t e r 1 1 Dining and drinking,, F-i

Retai1,F-2 Chapter 11
Small Theater, B~1 Chapter 7
Parking Garages,G-3 Chapter 12
Ho u sing, 1-1 - 3 C h a p t e r 13
General codes -for F-2, retail and offices.
0 p e n i n g s i n e >; t e r i o r w a 11s.
Set b ac k r equ i r i ng protection of openings in exterior walls — 20" ■
Minimum ceiling height 7’
M a t e r i a 1 s o T c: o n s t r u c t i o n shall be type I non—combusti b 1 e.
M e z z anine tloors: No mezzanine floor shall cover more than 1/3 the area of a room.
Inner court walls:
Ex t er i or' open i ng r equi r ement. s app1y.
Ex its;: sect i an 3303,02, 20 T w o o r mor e e x i t s re quired when occupany load exceeds 30. Minimum width o-f exits shall be 3•’
Seperation: Exits shall be accesible in at least two
d i t f er en t
d i rect i ons. Mi ni mum d:i stance bet ween ex i t. s shall b e 25 •' . Maximum travel distance shall be ISO'; sprinkeled 200’.
Exit corridors: section
Mi n i mum a11owab1e w i d th 44" (3J“8"), required to have exits at each end when
t wo e x i t s a r e r e qui r ed except tor dead end corridors al 1 owab 1 e o-f 20 •’ .
Stairs: Section 3305 Minimum width 44" (3*-3");
tor occupancy load +50
3&"; tor
occupancy load --50
Two hour s t air e n c .1 o sure required5 section 3308
S k y 1 i g h t s: s e c t i o n 6 0 0 Max i mum s1z e i s 100 sq. 11. rnaximum aggregate area in rooms 25% ot room area sheltered by root.
Marquees, c anopies, etc.: e n t i r e 1 y s u p p o r t e d t r o m b u i 1 d i n g
m i n i m u m h e i g h t a b o v e w a 1 k is 8’ .
mi ni mum 2’ i nsi de curb I i r"i e.
drainage is towards the bui1di ng.

General requirements for small theaters B-i
B— 1 d e f i n e d a s a n a s s e m b 1 y building with a stage and an a c c u p a n t load 1 e s s t h a n 1,, 000»
G e n e r a 1 s t a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s:
Exits of at least 36" shall b e p r o v i d e d for' e a c: h s i d e o p e n i n g d i r e c 11 y o r b y passageway to a street or exit court.
A) Mi n i mum ei t st a i r wi dth of 2 ’ -6 "
B) 2 means of eggress.
C) Stairs need not be enc 1 osed
Slope of the main floor of the assembly room shall not exceed one in eight.
iiezzaniness If greater than 2.000 sq. ft. or more than 60’ in any dimension, shall p r av i de at 1 east 2 st a i rwavs t o t h e a d j a c en t f 1 oor b e 1 ow.
M i x e d o c e u p ex n c y e x i t r e q u i r e m e n t s s
For d etermi n i ng ex i t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a b u i 1 d i n g o r p o r t i o n t h e r e o f w h i c: h i s u s e d for more than one occupancy, t i " i e c a p ax c i t y s h a 11 b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e o c c u p ax n t load for the largest number of persons.
Requirements for a standby power source.
150' max i mum tr ave1 d i. s t a n c e t o a n e x i t. d o o r s, e x c e p t w h e n d e a d e n d a i s I e s then shall not exceed 20’; or when sprinkeled to 200'.
General requirements for housing H—3
I-I--3 defined s
Townhomes, cluster homes, r ow dwel1ings, and con n ected d w e 11 i n g s h o u s i n g m o r e t h a n 2 f ami 1i es.
S p e c i a i R s q u i r e m e n t s s
A) Not more than three
s t o r i e s i n h e :i. g h t w i t h e a c h u n i. t h o u s i n g i n d e p e n d e n t access to the exterior of the b u i 1 c.1 i n g i n t h a g r o u n d s t o r y.
B) Each unit shall be
s e p e r a t e d b y a 2 h o u r fire r e s i s t a n c e w a 11 , c o m m o rx u t i 1 i t i e s s h a 11 n o t b e p er rn i 1t ed i n t h e seper at i on wal 1 .
L i g n t s
A i 1 p o r t i o n s o f t h a building used by human occupants shall be provided w i t h ei t h er n at lir a 1 or art i f i c: i a 1 1 i ght. Required wi ndaws sha 11 apen on a c:our t., y a r d „ a r s t r s e t, e i t h e r directiy or through a porch at least 7 feet high and not. more than 7 feet deep, with at least two sides 50a open. The width of the courts or yards shall be at 1 east 3 feet when not mor e t han t wa stor ies h i g h and shall be increased in wi dth at the rat e of 6 inches f o r s a c h a d d i t i a rx a 1 sto r y. 7 rx e court, shall have a width at least 50% greater than otherwise requi red when the court is e n t i r e i s li r r ou n ded by t h e b u i 1 d i n g .

General Requirements -for parking structure G-3: section 1209.
1 ) A u t o m o b i 1 e p a r k i n g garages one tier in height shall provide a -floor surface c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n o n - c o m b u s t i b 1 e m a t e r i a 1 .
2) May be open or closed construction.
3) Mechani ca1 ventilation sha11 not be requi red when 2 or more sides are at least. 50 per cent open«
Li girt2
A11 p o r t i a n s o -f t h e b u i 1 d i. n g u s e d b y h u m a n o c c u p a n t s s h a 11 b e p r o v i d e d w i t h n a t u r a 1 or" a r t i f i c :i. a 1 1ight.
Venti1 ation:
The outside air supply and exhaust ventilation shall be p r o v i ded for a11 oc cup ied ax r e a s d u r i n g peri o d s o f occupati on.
S a m e ax s F - 2; m i n i m u m t w o ex i ts.
F i re prot e c t i on:
S h all b e s p r i n k 1 e d..
P r o h i b i t i o n s : T h e f a 11 o w i n g u s e s a r e p r o h i d i t e d
A > A u t o m o b i 1 e r e p a i r w o r k
E<) S ale a f g a s o 1 i n e o r oil
C) p a r k i n g o f b u s e s, trucks, etc.
D) R a r t i a 1 o r c o m p 1 e t e closing of required openings in exterior walls by any means.
Code requirements -for handicaped persons
The Denver Eiuilding code meets the requirements of the AMSI A117.1 19SO standards.
Except ions:
1) H 3 o c c u p a n c i e s
wher e ail sleeping facilities are on the second floor.
2) Mu11 i —stor y buildings not exceeding 3 stories will n o t r e q u i r e e 1 e v a t o r s t o
pravide axccessibi 1 ity if the provision of an elevator would represent two and one—half percent or more of the total constr uc ti an c ost without elevator„
Ramps2 The 1east possible
slope or t he max imum slope of
a new ramp shal 1 be 1:12.
Mi nimum w i d t h shall be 36"
D o o r w a y s 2 M i n i in u m w i d t h shall be 32" clear.
Entrances2 The pri nc:i p 1 e entrance to a building or facility shall be part of an accessible roLite and sha 11 c: o mpl y w i t h t h e above requirements. Such entrances shall be connected by an accessible parking and p assenger 1oad i n g cone(s), to public streets or sidewalks.
an d


Applicable document:The Denver City and County Zoning ordinance.
Division 19 B-4.
Division 8 R-4.
Uses by right (applicable to proj ect).
Dwelling multiple type Dwelling single unit Public park and or playground. Parking of vehicles.
Offices: permitted home occupations.
Any office in which chatels or goods,wares or merchandise are not commercially created, displayed, exchanged, stored or sold.
Open space:
1. Each residential structure of one to three habitable stories, twenty per cent of the area of the zone lot.
2. Each residential structure of four or more habitable stories, thirty per cent of the area of the zone lot.
Front:10 feet.
Rear: 5 feet.
Side: 30 feet.
Maximum gross floor area:
4X the zone lot.
Required parking:
1.5 spaces per unit.
Uses by right (applicable to proj ect).
Sale at retail.
Dwelling unit, multiple.
Off i ces.
Front: 10 feet.
Rear: 20 feet.
Side: 10 feet.
Terraces and balconies may extend 5 feet into the setback spaces.
Maximum gross floor area:
607. zone lot coverage.
Required parking and loading: Retail:200 sq. ft. per 100,000 sq. ft. of retail.
1 loading space for 15,000 to 50,000 sq.ft, of retail. Housing:1.5 spaces per unit.
1 loading space under 250,000 sq.ft.

The R.N.L. study and the Denver Planning Commission:
The conclusi ons reached by the R.N.L. group and
i n s t i g a t e d b y D e n v e rs ;ji anri rig commi ssion and p r i v a t. e s e c t o r g r o u p s, s u c h a s Col Pax on the Hill, address the East Co1fax commereia1 s t r i p a s a f r a g m e n t e d b o d y..
The need to cohesively pull together the imagery of the street along its length from the Civic Center to East High as a link between the downtown core and Denver’s strongest r e s :L d e n t i a 1 a r e a, C a p i t a 1 Hill. Tiu.' future hopes of r e d s v e 1 o p i n g C a p i t a 1 H i 11 a n d Uptown on the hill to their a r i gi n a 1 r e s i d e n t i a 1 f a r m arise from the strength of the oevelopment along East Colfax.
The key issues to ox trapo 1 at.e fram the p 1 an bolster the urban design goals of my thesis and serve as generative ideas to draw from in she design cievel opment - They a r :
1) Soci a 1 ar\ d n e i g h h o r h o o d
(1 e a n u p i s s u e s, 2) C a 1 f a x commerceal revitalization and
3) R e s i d e n t i a 1 r e i n f a r c: e m e n t and market augmentation, all r e v o 1 ring a r o u n d t h e n o t i o n of creating pedestri an oriented t i 11 ag e c eri ter s, wh i c: h wi 11 s> x t a n c! t h e i r s p h e r e o f i nf 3 uance along the length of East Col f ax ..
7he design of spacess d es i gn i n g p ub 3. i c an d
semi..public spaces so as to
e1iminate the potenti a1
c o n g r e g a t i o n p o i n t s o f
u n d e s i r a b 1 e s t r e e t a c t 1 v i 1; y.
Pub 1 ic iimprovements should i ncl tide both pedestri an 11" e a t m e n t s a n d t r a f f i c i improvements..
P e d e s t r i a n i m p r o v e m e n t s c a n i n c 1 u d e w i d e n e d a n d i rn p r o v e d s i d e w a 1 k s,, c u r b e x t e n s i o n s t r a f f i c: i s 1 a n d s, rn i d b 1 o e k c i"' o si s> w a 1 k s, 1 a n d s a p :L n g a 1 o n g
tIne street, and pedestr i an 1 i g h t i n g . Th e d e s i g n o f p e d e s t r i. a n t r e a t m e n t s s h o u I d ref 1ect the i ndividual character of each village center.
T r a f f i c i m p r o v e m e n t s; c. a i i i n c: 1 u d e i n t e r s e c t i o n d e s i g n , si h a r e d p a r k :i. n g ,, a n d i m p r o v e d t r a n s i t s t o p s.
C r e a t i o r i o f h i s t o r i c: d i ! •> t r i c t. s: c r e a t i n g d i s i. r i c t s a s a n i n c e n t i v e f o r p r e si e r v a t i o n a n d r e c o g n i t i o n of the historic character of t h e i"i e i gh bor h ood.
Reh ab i 1 i t. at i on p r og r a ms:: expanding rehabi1i tion programs for single family and m u 11 i f a m i 1 y h o u s i n g i nc3. udi. ng both owner-occup i ed and rental units.
Private sector groups:
C. 0. T. H. , Co 1 f ax on the Hill: is an organisation of buS:inessmer. whose interests lie in trie upgrading of East Colfax bussinesses, and the overall quality of the nei gi; bor hood. The i dea of s t r e n c t r i e n i n g L h e v a r i e t. y inherent, already on the East C o 1 f a x s t r i p w h i 1 e s t :i n. u 1 a t i n c a unifying texture? in order to create hea11hy re ta iI c omp et i t i. on i s a 1 so a c: on c ern .

colfax diversity -
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^kOPOSAL SUiviiv
Transportation: Despite the heavy traffic through the neighborhood, the design of the streets can be improved so that they will efficiently carry automobiles, while at the same time providing a comfortable and inviting environment for pedestrians. Emphasis will be placed on Pedestrian Improvements.
Revitalization oj Commercial Uses:
The commercial uses in the neighborhood will best be served by Reinforcing the Existing Diversity of both the Design Character and the Type of Businesses. There are two main types of businesses, those businesses which are oriented more to pedestrians and those which are oriented more to automobiles. < This distinction results in a diversity of design character and should be reinforced by establishing Village Centers, the areas which contain the businesses which are oriented more to pedestrians. These centers will be encouraged to develop their distinct design character and to attract uses which will serve both neighborhood residents and a regional market. One of these village centers will serve as the focus of a Demonstration Area, which will extend north and south into the neighborhoods and link the residential and retail uses. It will also create linkages between the neighborhoods and
serve as a target area for City assistance. The programs and momentum established in the demonstration area can then be extended into the surrounding areas, possibly initiating a second target area. Eventually these programs could extend throughout the entire neighborhood.
Those areas containing businesses which are oriented more to automobiles should be heavily landscaped. The landscaping should include a row of trees along the street, which will help lead the eye to the mature trees in the adjoining residential area and, therefore, help visually link Colfax and the neighborhoods. The landscaping will also help provide an attractive environment for pedestrians.
Revitalization of Adjoining Neighborhoods: The revitalization of the adjoining neighborhoods is, in part, dependent upon the revitalization of East Colfax, and vice versa. For East Colfax to meet its full potential as a retail area, it must be bordered by healthy residential neighborhoods. While Capitol Hill is a healthy residential neighborhood, it must be protected. Uptown, on the other hand, has lost much of its housing and must be re-established as a stable residential neighborhood. A major effort must be made to develop new Housing in Uptown and to protect existing housing in both neighborhoods. Efforts at providing new housing will be concentrated in the Demonstration Area.

Program elements:Mammoth Gardens existing structure
Food and apparel market .. Main Entry at East Colfax Bar/cate ............. ..
Bar/Cate mwir v.i ng lOO i~ «::> n iw
Dining area .................
Bar area ...............
Restrooms ..............
Manager 5s office .............
Kitchen .....................
Commissary ..................
Holding room ................
Wash room ...............
Changing room . .............
E x t er i a r d i n i n g ..
NOTE u on 1 y t:ht» e*w t «*»r- 4. car*- d ini r» q of
i«»h .w 1 .1 fc> m <::l w x g n mc:l f or tc
To t a 1
50, ooo sq. f t .
1 , 500 sq. ft.
4, B20.
5 b 320 sq. ft.
4 , ooo sq. ft.
600 sq. ft .
(2) 240 sq. f t .
100 sq. f t .
600 sq. f t .
400 sq. ft.
6 0 0 sq. ft.
ioo sq. ft.
SO sq. ft.
400 .SSi Its
4, 820’ sq. ft.
k mt «;•» f •k: H :i «u p r~ o j w<
P r o g r a m e 1 e in e n t s:
Specialty stores (4 at 1,000 sq.ft, each) .. 4,000 sq.ft.
1) Bakery
2) H a r d w a r e s t. o r e
Housi ng:
6 townhomes:
4 with offices ................ 12,000 sq. ft.
2 without ............................... . 3, 000 sq. ft.
12 Apartments (rental) ......................... i2a.000_sga.ftj.
Total 31,000 s q.ft.
NOTE! o Dur i r» gj cl
:J o r» m«« i miam h oi.4u» i ncg
In ** X 1
b i -r
ci **.•' 1 op ci .

Pr agr am E.1 emen t s:
1 '' I 6- a iZ t- 1 ih> «, *fc: :i n ‘j) c: p vm«::: :t. f. y y <::>»— 1H,JO O | > «. <::> p 1. <
Bar .......... , . ...... . . . ............. .
Bookstore „ ................................
Specialty store (apparel ) ... ..... .....
2 Townhome units with offices ..........
6 Rental apartments . ........
12,950 600 1.000 1,500
E3,000 9*000
sq.ft, sq.ft, s q.ft. sq. f t.
sq. ft. sg_. f t, sq.ft.
Pr ogr am lements;
Underground parking structure ................. 35,080 sq.ft.
Park/open space above ground ................ . - _4QJL000_sgijFti
T o ta1 75,080 sq.ft.
Parking garage
Parking for 150 cars ................... 30,000 sq.ft.
Ci rcui ati on space ...................... 5,000 sq. ft,
Guard booth ....................
T a t a 1 755,080 sq.ft.
l ... mt ii, h [>,, r cl a» n St: rue: t:uriw . « - . J. ■■■' / , ? \jO Sp. f C.

a im n 1*1 a v 11::
Audi ance sir'ea
W i t h c: i r c u 1 a t i o n Performance area * . Entry foyer . . .....
L. O i’ j L y . . a . w . ■ u » u «
Ticket office a ................ „
Goat ctiecfi aaaaaaaaaaaaaaauaaaaa
Restrooms ..............a a a . a a a
Concession counter . a .......* *.„
Storage* „ ....* *................
Projection room ................
A d m inistrative ..............
Dressing room ........ ........................*
B a throom ....... ........... ........
Lounge/rehearsal ...............................
Wor ksh op /storage ............
B a c k s t a g e (m i s c e i 1 a n e o us) .. . .
*jOu sq. 11
0 00 sq. ft
700 sq. f t
400 sq. f t
0 0 0 sq. ft
0 sq. f L
240 sq. ft
250 sq. T t.
i 00 sq. f t
50 sq. ft
300 sq. f t
200 sq. ft
400 sq. f t
6 0 s q. f t
3 0 C q. f t
400 «:r. '-i “ f t
•._} ‘._t _ 2 2 i. f c.
CT . '7 v~i -• 4 - •T t
Two Efedroom Unit:
Living Room ............................. 2:00 sq. ft.
Dini ng Room ...........................- 200 sq. ft.
Ki tchen . .............................. • So sq. f t.
Master Bedroom .......................... ISO sq. ft.
Master Bathroom ......................... &'-) sq. ft.
2nd Bedroom ...................... ...... i50 sq.ft.
Bath ...................................... 40 sq.ft.
Den ............................ ....... 100 sq.ft.
Circulation ............................. _i‘00_sgi.f t._
Tat st 1 1,100 sq.ft.

0 n e B e d r o o m Uni ts
Living room ........................ . . . .
Dining room ......................... . . „
Kitchen ......... .............. ......
Bedroom ..........................
Bath ..................................
Study .......................... ......
C.i rcul at i on .......................
1 otal
20 0 s q. f t
160 sq. ft
80 sq.ft
160 sq. ft
60 sq. ft
120 s q. f t
850 s q. f t
Thr ee Bedr oom un i t:
living room ............................... 200 sq.ft.
Dining room ................................. 200 sq. ft.
Kitchen ..................................... 120 sq.ft.
Master Bedroom .............................. 180
Master bathroom ............................... 30 sq.ft.
2nd Bedroom ............................... 160 sq.ft.
3rd Bedroom ............................... .160 sq.ft.
Bath .......................................... 60 sq.ft.
Study .................................... 120 sq.ft.
1/2 Bath albs serves office . . ... ....... _40_sa._f.ti
Tot a1 1,300 sq.ft.
Allowance for circulation ................. A3 0 _ s g«_ f t»_
T o t a 1 1,450 s q. f t.
Office for two persons
100 sq. ft. per person .................... 200 sq. f t.
Recepti on /secret ary .................... 100 sq.ft.
....................... 250 sq.ft.
Production room ......................... 300 sq.ft.
Storage general ............................... 50 sq.ft.
Small conference (library) . . .............. 150 sq.ft.
Circulation ............................... _i00_sgA.fti
Total 1,150 sq.ft.
Total square footage; for 3 bedroom town home unit with cannected office spaces
2,600 sq.ft.

FUNCTION: Private shelter.
1.Establishment of private to public hierarchy.
2.Spaces to serve as blank canvas for homeowners.
3.Private entries when possible.
USERS: private.
1. Located above retail and offices.
2. A11ey an d st reet f r on t ages, pr i vat e an d public s o n e p o t e n t i a 1 s.
*t>fr v^V-e- roor~
V-r W'Hn r
1. H i gh qua1it y mat er ials and d eta i1ing t a mateh surroundi n g urban -fabric.
2. Rental apartments should face high volume streets while homes face side streets.
3. Shared semi--public exterior spaces give more room fur
act i vi ti es and i ncrease tenent i nteract i onwhi le sma 11 er p r i v ate e t e r i o r s p a c e s s e r v e o n .1 y o c c u p a n t.
4.Inclusion of subsidized housing units to achieve diverse n e i g h b o r h o o d»

FUNCTION: M a r k e t f a r -f o o d ? r e t. a i 1 a n d e n t e r t a :L n m e n t.
1.M a. j or ent r y o f f East CaIfax.
.2. Open spaces.
3. Exterior and night I ight.i ng and advertising.
4. Communxcation with adjoining structures in project.
AD J ACENCIES: (ex t. er n a I )
1. Tur n ver e i n b u i 1 d i n g
2. Alley and str eet,
1) M a x i mum s t r e e t. a n d c o r n e r v i s i b L1 :l t y.
2) Highest quality of sevices and materials should be allowed far in the programming and ArchiLecture to create permanence and excellence at the village core.
3) Respect f or Arc:hi tectura 1 styling when renovat ing the ex ter i or

FUNCTION: Retail and offices.
1. L a r g e a m o u n t s o f s t r e e t g 1 a z i n g.
2. Unique and individual signage.
3. Pedestrian orientation in scale and protection
4. Well lit for night activity and security.
USERS: public.
1.Cl ustered for ease of pedestr i an.
2.. Center block location for maximum exposure whe "anchors" (theater and market) at corners are creating cross traffic.
3.Separate services at the rear where possible. QUALITATIVE ASCERTAINMENTS:
1) Shouid be high 1 y visible w ith_in the framework of the overa11.
2) Potential connection with housing above.

FUNCTION: 150 off—street parking spaces Tor all activities. PROJECT AREA: D.
1. .High level of night light, to disuade transients.
2. Use of indigenous plants and trees in park.
3. Use as a neighborhood interaction/'transition zone.
USERS: Public and Private.
1. Turnverein.
2. Project area A and B.
3. A11 e y a n d stree t from t a g e s..
1. Serve as green space i n the urban f abr i c:.
2. Low quality materials used for parking structure.
3. High quality 1 andscapi ng to serve the c ity.

FUNCTION: Social gathering space.
1.1ower Ii g hti n g 1ev e1s requi red t ar in terior.
2. Medium quality space required.
3. L a t e n i g h t a c t. i v i t y 2 o n e.
USERS: Public.
1.Shared lobby space with specialty functions.
2.Seperate service at the rear.
1 > Shou 1 cl be hi gh 1 y vi si bl e within the -f ramewark of the overaI 1.
2) Maximum separation -from housing should occur due to noise and 1 ate ni grit acti vi ty.
3) Should evoke positive image as a place to gather.
4) E x t e r i o r s p a c e s p r o v i d e d t o c r e a t e a s t r o n g e r r e 1 a t. i o n — ship to the street and maximize exposure.

FUNCTION: Revue, legitimate drama, and movie house. PROJECT AREA: C.
1. Mo light to internal performance area.
2. Well lit on all exterior spaces.
3. Minimum 20height in performance area.
4. H i g h q u a lit y s p a c: e..
1.Shared 1obby wi t h bar.
1) Corner visibility maximizes focus from external to the site.
2) Highest, quality of materials and services should be allowed for in the programming and architecture to create Permanence atnd ex ce 1 .i ence i n t he v i .i i age cen c er .
3) Strong vertical emphasis to attract visibility.
4) Signage and lighting are integral to this night time act ivity.
5) Relati onship of f oyer to exterior space is cr i ti caI far m a i m i z i n g p a t r o n s c o m f o r t.

This conclusion is perhaps the dominant piece of writing in the thesis, it begins to deseminate the research, design, emotional and finally qualitative aspects of the thesis at yet yet another point in its process. The fact that this conclusion is written by the person who designed is important for no desisions were made without my struggle and analysis to the final product or intent of this thesis.
This isn't an egotistical analysis on my part, I have no doubt in my mind that others could rehash, tear
into, turn out, praise or objectively critisize the thesis. I believe this interaction happened with my advisors ( Robert Karn and Jeff Shepperd ) who were instrumental in pushing the project perhaps further than I had assumed it could go hense my feelings that a thesis was a learning process and not a final product. This additude tends not to fit within the parameters of Modernist architectural theology: product and problem solving (aspects of architecture Idon't deny or despise). The problems which I desired to explore were far less metticulus and some perhaps unanswereable and all this when one tries to point out a problem where others tell there aren't, that functionalism and aesthetics can go hand in hand, but not always; hense making the Modern movement as dogmatic as any of its predessors and followers this doesn't mean architecture shouldn't practice or deny any form of theory (style) but attempt to study matters of greater magnitude in terms of the sociological, economical, ecological, and aesthetical; in other words human qualities. In my thesis I find both failure and success, the success is in acknowledging more time and thought must be acquired to analyse the problems I set out to explore, and so I think the success has summed up the failures, at least until the next conclusion.

Bacon, Edmund. Design of Cities. New York: The Viking Press, 1974,
Krier, Rob. Urban Space. New York: Rizzoli, 1979.
Norberq-Schultz, Christian. Meaning in 'western Arcitecture.New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975, Norberg-Schultz, Christian, Genus Loci, New York: Praeqer Publishers, 1935.
Portoqhesi. Paolo, After Modern Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1982.
Rudofsky, Bernard. Streets for People. Garden City , N,Y,; Doubleday & Co.,19c3.
Venturi, Robert, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1965. Wright, Frank Lloyd. Writings and Buildings. New York; Meridian Books, 1960. journals;
Lotus International #24, Revival of the Street, pg, 103-114, 1377,
Lotus International ,#39, "Working in the Gaps", pg. 3, pg, 82-34, 1932.
Lotus International #41, "The City as Dwelling Space", pg. 6-16, 1384,
Precis IV, "Compulsion Towards Movement", pg 17, pg 119. Columbia Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1984.
Technical Publications:
Denver Building Code. 1384,
Denver Zoning Ordinance. 1982.