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Higher education's response to computer education needs in landscape architecture

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Title:
Higher education's response to computer education needs in landscape architecture
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Sabine, Bobbi Jones
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English
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1 volume (unpaged) : illustrations ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Landscape architecture -- Study and teaching (Graduate) ( lcsh )
Computers -- Study and teaching (Graduate) ( lcsh )
Computer literacy ( lcsh )
Computer literacy ( fast )
Computers -- Study and teaching (Graduate) ( fast )
Landscape architecture -- Study and teaching (Graduate) ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for thesis research and programming, Master of Landscape Architecutre, College of Architecture and Planning.
General Note:
Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility:
Bobbi Jones Sabine.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
26666149 ( OCLC )
ocm26666149
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1989m .S22 ( lcc )

Full Text
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HIGHER EDUCATION'S RESPONSE TO COMPUTER EDUCATION NEEDS
IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
BOBBI JONES SABINE
University of Colorado at Denver Graduate Scliool of Arcliitecture and Planning Landscape Arcliitecture and Urban Design Program Master of Landscape Architecture May, 1939

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HIGHER EDUCATION'S RESPONSE TO COMPUTER EDUCATION NEEDS
IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
ABSTRACT
This paper summarizes the current computer-related course requirements and facilities in accredited landscape architecture programs, and educators' attitudes and opinions about the use, adequacy, and role of computers in their programs. Presented next is an overview of current uses of computers in landscape architecture practice, and a discussion of future trends and new developments.
Provided next is a sampling of employer expectations of computer knowledge/proficiency; and an exploration of some of the problems, needs, and opportunities of the industry, with regard to computer uses.
The conclusion will include recommendations for basic minimum computer ski 11s that should be taught in landscape architecture programs, and suggested guidelines for courses,
faculty, and facilities.


THESIS COMMITTEE
Committee Chairman: Academia:
Professional Firm: Government:
Service Industry:
Scott A. MacCormacK, MLA HOH and Associates, Inc.
Greg Jameson
University of Colorado at Denver
Harry Garnham, MLA, Director University of Colorado at Denver
Carol Adams, MLA Design Workshop, Inc.
Joanne Cody
National Park Service, TWE
Daniel Rahin, MLA LANDCADD, Inc.


INDEX
I. INTRODUCTION: THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
II. EXISTING LITERATURE
III. METHODOLOGY
IV. THE SCHOOLS: A SURVEY Requirements & Offerings Faculty Program Changes Hardware and Software Self-perceptions/Adequacy The Role of the School as Educators See It
V. WHAT'S OUT THERE: THE STATE OF THE ART Computer Aided Design and Drafting Information Management Systems Digital Retouching/Video Imaging/Painting Laser Videodiscs Animation Networks Soon To Come. . . or Already Here?
VI. EMPLOYER AND INDUSTRY FEEDBACK Employer Expectations Current Uses Employee Proficiency Effect on Hiring Effect on Pay Employer Problems Current Equipment and Software Employer Wish-list The Role of the School as Employers See It Input from a Software Producer
VII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Minimum Skills for Graduates Recommended Courses & Content Hardware and Software Faculty Requirements
APPENDIX A - ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX B - SCHOOL SURVEY RESPONSES
APPENDIX C - MAILING LIST OF ACCREDITED PROGRAMS
APPENDIX D - GLOSSARY OF TERMS
APPENDIX E
SAMPLE CAD DRAWINGS


I. INTRODUCTION: THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
Wien, in 1967, my college dropped the computer class requirement from tlie landscape architecture program, I was mildly surprised hut not very concerned, since I wasn't "into" computers anyway and didn't see how they really related to landscape architecture. Since that time, my perspective on this issue has changed greatly.
In the summer of 1988, I enrolled in an AutoCAD class, out of curiosity and a desire to do something productive between semesters. Even though the class (Introduction to Computer Applications in Architecture) was intended for architecture students, I found the program easily adaptable to landscape design applications. By the end of the semester, I was completely sold on this versatile new tool. I enrolled in the next course in the sequence and began to use the computer in my other classes as well. It helped me organize my analyses, keep track of data, and experiment with multiple iterations of solutions. It allowed much more precision in drafting and layout of the final products. I became concerned that other students in the landscape architecture program had not been introduced to this tool, and most would probably go through the program without any exposure to computers at all. I wondered if
similar situations were occurring in other schools.


The lack of computer education in my program seemed to me
to be a real deficiency. The more I learned about the versatility and capabilities of this tool, the more concerned I became about the apparent hesitancy to include it in the program, despite the inevitability of its dominance in the not-too-distant future.
I began this research in order to determine how other schools were dealing with this issue, to formulate an opinion as to the adequacy of that response, and to suggest minimum standards for computer education in landscape architecture programs. It is my hope that this collection of information will stimulate some action toward the integration of computer education into landscape architectural education.


II, EXISTING LITERATURE
Although much lias been written about computers and landscape architecture m recent years, very little is to be found tbat relates specifically to computers in landscape architectural education. A search for related literature was made in the following libraries:
1. UCD Architecture and Planning Library
2. Auraria Campus Library
3. Denver Public Library
4. University of Denver Library
5. University of Denver Law Library
6. Colorado School of Hines
7. University of Northern Colorado
6. Government Publications Libraries, CU and DPL
9. Uncover {article cross-reference access)
10. "Facts" (UCD library reference access)
11. Encyclopedia (similar to above)
12. "Metro Denver Facts"
13. InfoColorado
14. Boulder Public Library
1 5. Broomfield Public Library
16. Louisville Public Library


17. Red Rocks Community College
18. Front Range Community College
19. Pikes Peak Community College
20. Pueblo Community College
21. Regis College
22. Pikes Peak Library System, Colorado Springs
This search resulted in only one reference related to computer education in landscape architecture, and that was an article called "The Programming Language Landscape" which had nothing to do with landscape architecture. I then contacted
A. S. L. A. ' s national headquarters in Washington, D. C. , and received a few suggestions from them regarding articles in professional publications.
The only notable piece was Mark von Wodkte's article for Landscape Architecture magazine's computer issue (July/August, 1988), with a discussion of reasons why our educational programs should promote the assimilation of computers into our professional programs. In this piece, entitled "Integrating Computer Applications in Higher Education," von Wodtke makes several points.
"...Better tools have the potential of expanding capabilities. " An investment in education is needed to teach future professionals to use new tools and compete effectively in
an increasingly technological marketplace.


"Electronic media offer additional potential for all types of creative thinking. " In addition to data base manipulation, we can write, draw electronically, use computer models, and capture and alter images on videotape and disks. Von Wodtke adds, "We are wasting resources when we only train technicians. " "Practitioners also need opportunities to learn." We are facing a rapid and inevitable change in media in this profession. Even recent graduates may have missed the opportunity for an introduction to computers, and schools need to open their doors to professional workshops. Community training programs can also generate revenues that help pay for maintaining and upgrading facilities.
"Application software and data bases need to be further developed and refined for the landscape architectural profession." Colleges are appropriate places for applications research. Students could be instrumental in developing data bases, symbol libraries, and special applications programs. Subsidized research can also help generate revenues.
Von Wodtke concludes, "...many of these tools could be productively used to better understand, protect, and enhance our environment. .. Effectively managing this change can help the profession better address the significant environmental and
design problems of our time.


III. METHODOLOGY
It seemed at tills point tliat tlie next best way to obtain information on tbis seemingly obscure subject was to collect it myself. Three specialized surveys were developed to gain information from the schools, landscape architecture firms and public agencies, and software developers. The surveys were developed using examples of survey techniques developed by a journalism professor, and further refined after review and comments by the committee members.
Because of the focus of this paper, the most emphasis was placed on the school survey. All schools offering accredited Landscape Architecture programs were asked to provide information about program requirements, recent changes or trends, facilities now in place, expectations for the future, self-perceptions, and opinions on what the role of the school should be in computer education.
Design firms and public agencies were asked for information on type of system in use, current uses/applications, percent literacy and proficiency of employees, amount and type of training necessary, effect of computer skills on employability & earnings, wish list/predictions for future uses, and opinions on
what the role of the educational system should be.


The servlce/design industry for software was asked for
information about their products and product acceptance, current problems, their opinion as to the role of the schools and users, impending developments and their predicted impacts, predictions for new applications, and predictions for future increased use/dependence on computers.
The school survey was sent to the 47 schools offering accredited landscape architecture programs: 36 responded. The employer survey was sent to approximately 30 private firms and government agencies across the country: six responded. The design industry survey was sent to six software program designers: one responded. The information from these surveys
was then compiled and analyzed. Due to the rate of response from the employers and software designers, only the school survey has been included in its entirety. All the individual responses are summarized in Appendix B.
In addition to the survey collection and compilation, I also attended numerous computer-re 1ated lectures and demonstrations at the November 1988 A.S. L. A. annual meeting in Seattle, Washington. Additionally, in the spring of 1989, I worked a three-month internship at a landscape architecture and planning firm, assisting in the development of a video-image library and learning about several new types of programs. I am still a long way from being an expert on this complex subject, although these activities added to my base of knowledge about computer applications and widened my perceptions about the range
of possible applications.


IV. THE SCHOOLS: A SURVEY
What are Landscape Architecture students actually toeing offered, in terms of computer education today? A survey was conducted to find out what the accredited programs are offering and/or requiring as of the 1968-69 school year, and to explore trends and opinions of Landscape Architecture educators concerning this issue.


SURVEY: COMPUTERS IN L. A. EDUCATION
Name of the school
Address:______________
Your name and title:
Type of progam: BS BLA BSLA MLA OTHER
What computer-related classes does your school offer?
COURSE # CR TITLE REQUIRED? yes no
yes no
yes no
yes no
Are they taught by a full-time instructor(s)? YES NO
Approximately what percentage of your fulltime faculty has sufficient worKing Knowledge
to use computers in any capacity? 0 10 25 50 75 90 100
Approximately what percentage of your
full-time faculty is computer-proficient? 0 10 25 50 75 90 100 Have the computer requirements in the program
heen changed in recent years? YES NO
If so, how?____________________________________________________
Has there heen any recent discussion or plans to change the computer requirements at your school? YES NO
If so, why?____________________________________________________
How do you feel your school's current program probably compares to what other schools are doing, with regard to computers?
POOR BELOW AVG AVG ABOVE AVG SUPERIOR DON'T KNOW
Do you feel the current computer-related
requirements are adequate? YES NO
If no, explain:________________________________________________
What do you feel the role of the school should be in providing computer training?______________________________________________
(over)


Approx, area (sq. ft.) of computer facilities: What types of hardware are in use?______________
When was the last upgrade?_________
What types of software are in use?
When was the last upgrade?
Do you feel the facilities are adequate?
YES NO
If no, explain:
How many individual terminals are available to students?
How many students use the facilities in an average term/semester?
Do you think the students feel that
the facilities are adequate? YES NO
Are there any plans to change or upgrade
the facilities? YES NO
How do you feel the will encounter in a POOR BELOW AVG
How do you feel the schools now offer? POOR BELOW AVG
present facilities compare to what students professional office when they graduate?
AVG ABOVE AVG SUPERIOR DON'T KNOW
present facilities compare to what other
AVG ABOVE AVG SUPERIOR DON'T KNOW
Would you like to receive the results of this survey? YES NO Any other comments:
If syllabi of computer classes are available, please include copies. Please use attached postpaid envelope to return to: Bobbi Jones Sabine, 960 Forest Street, Denver, CO 80220-4449


SURVEY SUMMARY
Note: Not all respondents answered every question, so the
total number of responses will vary.
RESPONDENTS
Out of 47 programs accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects, a total of 3a eventually responded to requests for information. The surveys were sent out with a personalized cover letter accompanying each one, and a stamped envelope for the return of the questionnaire. The initial survey was sent out in November of 1936, with a follow-up to non-respondents in April, 1969.
The following pages summarize the individual responses to the survey and the trends suggested by those responses. For a question-by-question breakdown with all of the individual
responses, please refer to Appendix B.


REQUIRED CLASSES
When asked what computer-related courses were required in their landscape architecture program, 11 schools indicated that no computer classes were required. Of the remaining 27, 11
required one class, 7 required two classes, and 9 required three or more classes. The levels of the classes ranged all the way from freshman to graduate level. Much of the emphasis was on engineering and technology courses, as well as graphics and general introductory-type classes.
Without exception, all required courses were taught hy full-time faculty. Number of course credits ranged from 1 to 7, with most courses worth 3 credits.
CLASSES OFFERED, NOT REQUIRED
21 schools offered elective courses or workshops, with the emphasis on CAD, graphics, and GIS. All hut two schools used
full-time faculty to teach these courses.


FACULTY PROFICIENCY
When asked for the approximate percentage of faculty ahle to use computers in any capacity, the 37 estimates ranged from 15/ to 100/., with a 73/ average. Estimates of faculty rated as "proficient" ranged from 0/ to 90/, with a 40/ average.
CHANGES IN COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS
11 of 38 schools indicated "no change" in computer requirements recently. Only one school eliminated a computer requirement. 26 added electives and/or required courses, and, additionally, many are incorporating computers into other existing classes. One school now requires its students to purchase their own computers.
RECENT DISCUSSION OR PLANS FOR CHANGE.
Five schools indicated that there had not been any recent discussion. The 33 that answered "yes" expressed a broad range of issues.
The most frequent topics of discussion were: how to integrate computers into design whether to add required courses requiring computer classes at an earlier level funding and the need to continually upgrade adding computer graphics capabilities
expansion of existing facilities


SELF-PERCEPTION COMPARED TO OTHER SCHOOLS (RE: COMPUTERS)
Respondents were asked to rate themselves as to now tney thought tney compared to otner schools, with regard to computer requirements in their programs.
Schools rated themselves as follows:
1 - Don't Know (Ball State)
7 - Below average (Arizona, Auhurn, U. Colo./Denver,
Mich. State, Oklahoma, Wash. State, W. Virginia)
13 - Average (Ark., U. Cal./Davis, Cornell, Fla. , Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, N. C. State, Penn. State,
Syracuse, Utah, U. Virginia, U. Wash.
9 - Above average (CNY, Georgia, Guelph, Idaho,
U. Mass. , Mississippi, Oregon, Rutgers, VPI)
2 - Above average to superior (Louisiana, U. Mich. )
4 - Superior (Cal Poly, Cal State, Illinois, Ohio)
All of the schools that rated themselves "above average" or "superior" have increased their courseworK in this area recently.


ADEQUACY OF CURRENT REQUIREMENTS
11 schools felt current requirements were adequate, but most of them qualified those "yes" responses. Some of the comments:
"Yes, considering the new courses we are planning. "
"Yes, barely. "
"Yes, today. . . "
24 said that current requirements were not adequate. Some of the needs cited:
- integration into the rest of the curriculum
- research into efficiency and effective use
- use of computers to assist in instruction
- faculty commitment
- expansion into different areas
- more proficiency in more areas
- literacy of all students
The rest responded with "yes and no" or "not sure," citing the need for more workstations and better trained faculty.
Using his PERSPECTIVE GRAPHICS program, Mark Lindhult has produced a dot matrix image on a video monitor (left) that provides the framework for a freehand sketch (right) traced from a print of that image. Courtesy of Mark Lindhult, Nicholas Dines, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Source: LATIS, Computers in Landscape Architecture I


THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL
This question elicited many enthusiastic and wordy responses. There seemed to he general agreement on two main issues: All students should he shown what is available and
should have the opportunity to develop skills with which they can integrate computer use into design.
Other areas respondents felt the school should he involved in were:
Applications research Training for faculty
Developing networks for students to tap into Opportunities for in-depth study of special applications
None of the schools mentioned as a role providing training for members of the local professional community.
FACILITIES
The size of the computer labs varied widely, from 100 square feet to over 7500 square feet, according to the respondents. The average size was about 1450 square feet.


TYPES OF HARDWARE IN USE
IBMs and Macs seemed to be running nearly neck-and-neck as the leading type of equipment used. Most school Had some version of at least two different brands of equipment, including IBM-compatibles, Compaq, Tandy, Intergraph, Sun, Victor, Apple, and others not specified. These are being used in conjunction with mice, digitizing tablets, scanners, printers, plotters, video cameras, and laser printers.
Some schools had not upgraded equipment since 1966, while others said they were upgrading "continuously. "
TYPES OF SOFTWARE IN USE
Basic for every program was some version of CAD and at least one word processing program. About two-thirds had a GIS-type program, and about half had some type of video-imaging program. Many had special application programs for engineering, irrigation, and other technical applications. Other programs mentioned included spreadsheets, plant selection, desktop publishing, project scheduling and management, statistics, and data base programs.
Nearly all the schools indicated that the software had been upgraded within the last six months, and several responded that
upgrades were "ongoing" and "continuous.


ADEQUACY OF FACILITIES
Only eight respondents felt that the existing facilities were adequate, and a few of them qualified their "yes" answers with remarks like "for now. . . "
Of the 27 who said facilities were not adequate, the majority indicated that they needed updated research-quality hardware, more workstations, more hours of access for students, more copies of software, more advanced technology, and more space. Some spoke of the need to expand the stations into the studios.
STATION TO STUDENT RATIOS
Ohio State came in at the top of the range for station to student ratios, with a claim of 60 terminals for 70 students using them in an average semester. At the other end of the spectrum, several schools indicated that each terminal was being used by 20 or more students during the semester.
On a weighted average, schools were providing 1 terminal
for every 4. 8 students.


PERCEPTIONS OF ADEQUACY
Respondents were asked if they thought the students felt that the facilities were adequate. There were 26 "no" responses and only 9 "yes" responses.
PLANS TO UPGRADE FACILITIES
Eight schools had no immediate plans for changing or upgrading the facilities. Thirty indicated that they did have pi ans.
FACILITIES COMPARED TO PROFESSIONAL OFFICE
Respondents were asked how they felt the present facilities compared to what students will encounter in a professional office. They rated themselves as follows:
1 - Don't Know (Ball State)
1 - Poor (W. Virginia)
2 - Below average (UCD, Oregon)
13 - Average (ArK. , City College NY, Cornell, Florida,
111., Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, U. Mass. , Mississippi, N. c. state, Oklahoma, U. wash. )
1 - Average to above average (Georgia)
10 - Above average (Arizona, Auburn, U. Cal. /Davis,
MSU, Penn. , Rutgers, Syracuse, Texas A&M, Virginia, Wash. State)
10 - Superior (Cal. Poly, Cal. State, Guelph, Harvard,
Idaho, Louisiana, U. Mich., Ohio, Utah, VPI)


FACILITIES COMPARED TO OTHER SCHOOLS
Respondents were asked how they felt their facilities compared to what other schools offer. They rated themselves as follows 3 - Don't Know (Ball State, U. Cal./Davis, U. Mich. )
l - Poor (W. va. )
9 - Below average (CNY, UCD, 111., Iowa, Kansas, MSU,
Oklahoma, Oregon, Wash. State)
10 - Average (Arizona, Arkansas, Cornell, Florida,
Kentucky, N. C. , Syracuse, Utah, U. Virginia,
U. Wash. )
1 - Average to above average (U. Mass)
6 - Above average (Auburn, Georgia, Idaho, Miss.,
Penn., Rutgers, Texas A&M, VPI)
1 - Above average to superior (Louisiana)
5 - Superior (Cal. Poly, Cal. State, Guelph, Harvard,
Ohio)
CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions based on the information obtained from this survey will be presented at the beginning of Chapter VII.


V, Mrs OUT THERE: THE STATE OF THE ART
"STATE OF THE ART": the current level of sophistication of a developing technology, as of computer science.
- Webster's Hew World Dictionary Second College Edition
Webster's choice of "computer science" as the best example of this term is no accident. Computer science is the fastest developing technology around. Why? Because in this age of information, more and more people are discovering how extremely useful computers can be.
In about the past ten years, landscape architects have also been beginning to use this tool, and in the past two or three years, our Knowledge and range of applications has been progressing with leaps and bounds. This chapter will give a brief overview of some of the more frequently used applications
and some of the latest developments.


COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING AND DESIGN.
Since the first Apples and other PCs were introduced in the mid 70s, programmers have been busy at work designing and refining CAD-type applications. With the release of AutoCAD and its many related cousins came an option offering freedom from the drafting board. Drafting could be done with much more precision and (after the initial entry of data) less toil, not to mention the flexibility to make changes without completely redrafting the working drawings.
Soon specially modified CAD programs like LANDCADD and LANDSOFT appeared, tailored for landscape and planning applications. As time went on, users discovered that they didn't need to keep doing preliminary work on tracing paper, tbat they could do the same sketching and doodling and moving things around on a computer screen.
A client’s residence drawn by a Chicago architecture firm, using AutoCAD.
Source: SIGNAL: Communication Tools for tbe Information Age


The computer has truly come into Its own as a design tool. It is just like a circle template, or a T-square, or a reference hook on plants or irrigation systems, or a set of technical pens, or a calculator; except it is all of them rolled into one. It never runs out of erasers or drafting dots, and it never miscalculates areas because of being tired, and it remembers all the parameters it was told when the design process was begun. It uncomplainingly accomodates experimentation with a dozen different layouts or spacing, and will even check one's spelling for accuracy, if asked to. It allows easily-made comparisons to facilitate choices between alternatives.
CAD programs are constantly being improved, revised, and updated. Each new release has more options than before, and many are becoming more user-friendly and usable with less technical training needed. With the release of AutoCAD's version 10, designers now have three-dimensional viewing at their fingertips, with the ability to quickly and precisely draw and redraw 3D of complicated objects from any point of view
3D drawing of SI00,000,000
Pasadena Powers project. Drawing courtesy of Brandow and Johnston Associates, Los Angeles CA, created using Auto PI: Structural i’2.5 from Acuware Inc.
Source: CADalyst, February 1989


INFORMATION MANAGEMENT/GIS SYSTEMS
Scores of government agencies Jumped on the computer bandwagon when Geographic Information Systems (GIS) appeared. Finally there is evolving a relatively logical, systematic, uniform, and organized way to record, store, and retrieve the massive amounts of geographic data accumulating in government records across the land.
Basically, a GIS is any computerized method of storing, retrieving, and manipulating maps and other geographic data.
It's a system which allows a user to select and organize information in order to solve problems or answer questions, with the end product being maps or reports that support and explain solutions. One GIS software producer, Environmental Systems Research Institute, describes GIS as "a collection of hardware, software, and the most important element: people."
GIS systems allow for the storage of many types of data relating to land and land use: soil types, vegetation, zoning, viewsheds, watersheds and drainage systems, altitude, property ownership, population distribution, et cetera. All are stored as one of three types of data: points, arcs, or polygons.
Points represent objects on the ground that occur at a single location, such as buildings or water tanKs. Arcs are linear features, 1iKe contour lines, streets, or waterways. Polygons are areas 1iKe land parcels or political boundaries.


Selected "layers" of this information can be combined and
used to construct McHargian-type analysis, on any scale desired, as long as the database from which to draw it exists or can be constructed.
DIGITAL RETOUCHING/VIDEO IMAGING/PAINTING
These are all names for the process of taKing a photographlike image and altering it.
Video capture is a process by which single frames from a video are selected and "frozen" as still pictures, which then can be altered. Another method is to input photographs of an existing site into the computer by scanning them, converting the information into digital data, then loading the image into the computer as pixel-by-pixel blocks of color. Host computers display the images in 512 by 512 lines of resolution: it can be more. With AT&T's TARGA and TIPS packages, up to 16 million colors can be displayed.
Once an image is in the system, it can be changed. Images of plants, benches, or buildings can be "pasted" in to see what a proposed design might look like. Roads or sidewalks can be "painted" in. A designer may select from colors already in the image to "paint" with several shapes of "brushes, " Plants can be shown at different stages of maturity. A cloudy sky can be
changed to a vivid blue.


The products from this process particularly appeal to the
non-design-professional client, because the result actually looks like a photograph and can be easily read and understood, unlike a plan or schematic diagram. The new image can be viewed directly on the computer screen, or can be output to a printer to make a hard copy.
Although the output from this process is not yet to the point of being perfectly realistic, it is a wonderful tool for expressing concepts in a medium that is close enough to reality to be very useful.
LASER VIDEODISCS
Laser videodiscs have been available to consumers since 1976, but only recently have landscape-related applications been developed. The plastic-coated platinum discs (8 or 12 inch diameter) can hold 30 minutes of motion-sequence playing time or 54,000 still images, such as a slide collection. The images can be accessed from a computer or a videodisc player's keyboard, read by a low-power laser beam within the player. Players come in several levels of sophistication, selected on the basis of the application to be used. Images can be displayed on standard television screens or on video monitors: naturally, the better the monitor, the better the image.
There are three main categories of applications. Databank-based instruction is used for learning to identify items like


plants, with images of details like individual leaves. (One
program, Planterbox, has 9000 plant images. ) Skill tutoring programs are "how-to" lessons, with some that are interactive and responsive to input from the user. Decision-making/problem-solving programs present problems that require input from the user and respond with the results of the decisions made.
The advantages: storage is compact. Image retrieval is fast. There are no problems with dust, humidity or temperature, and the plastic coating prevents scratches or smudges from frequent handling. The disadvantages: they are expensive and time-consuming to produce, with a master copy running around $2000 and copies $10 to $25 each. A complete workstation may cost as much as $8000 to set up; less if you already have a good computer, monitor and printer.
In 1983, MIT developed a videodisc program called Surrogate Travel, mapping the streets of Aspen. Viewers could tour the town by using a Joystick to steer themselves around the streets. Real estate companies are using videodiscs to give customers "tours" of properties. The U. S. Army, Defense Mapping Agency, and U. S. G. S. are using the technology for mapping projects. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has produced discs to teach insect and plaint disease identification.


ANIMATION
Computers can even allow a viewer to "walk through" a space three-dimensional ly. By changing the viewpoint from which the objects are looked at, and showing a series of "slides" as one progresses through the space, you can create a moving picture to show the effects of flying around or through a site. While time-consuming to produce, this technique is very effective in presenting ideas in a manner which is realistic and easy to comprehend.
NETWORKS
No longer does the stereotypic computer user necessarily work in isolation in a darkened room. Today there is a myriad of information networks to which one can connect almost as easily as picking up a telephone.
Modems are a means of connecting computers to public networks, through telephone connections. They allow a user to tap into "bulletin boards" and communicate with other users through an electronic mail system. This can be very advantageous, but at the same time, it can be a potentially serious problem.
The advantages are many. New discoveries like software or shortcuts can be shared. Information such as finished drawings can be transmitted instantly across the country to be plotted at


the receiving office. Users have access to all kinds of
resources, such as looking up sources for technical information in library catalogues.
But a major disadvantage exists in that "viruses" hidden in shared software can be transmitted through networks without the knowledge of the receiving party. These glitches can destroy information, breach security, or seriously affect system operations.
Horizontal networks can be set up within a school, for example, to connect terminals in dormitory rooms with others around campus, like the library or the design school. In fact, the first electronic campus in the United States is now in existence in an unexpected corner of the country: Northwest Missouri State University has placed a terminal in every office and dorm room, and linked them all together in a network. The entire system of 2000 Digital Equipment terminals was set up at a cost of less than *3 million.
SOON TO COME. . . OR ALREADY HERE?
Faster, more powerful equipment is being developed all the time, as software becomes more sophisticated and users demand faster processing and a broader range of applications.
A new MAC program called Electronic Map Cabinet is available which contains a map of the United States. You may select an overview of the entire U. S. , zoom down to the level of


counties, or all the way down to city streets in all the Standard Metropolitan Statislcal Areas (SMSA - fair sized cities and environs). The cartography is based on public domain GIS-type data.
Electronic Map Cabinet
S200 from Highlighted Data, P. O. Box 17229, Washington Dulles International Airport, Washington,
D C. 20041; 703/533-1939
The outline of a country (or state or city) doesn't change much from year to year. No need then to redraw its profile each time you need a base map if you could pull out a blank one to the size you wanted. Stockpiling all the thousands of blank ones into a tidy and manageable place has been the obstacle to this great idea. Even most map libraries don't have that kind of room.
The Electronic Map Cabinet solves this problem by storing a continuous map of the U. S. on a Macintosh-readable CD-ROM disc.
You can then enlarge the lines to the scale you desire. It will zoom in from an overview of the United States down to the level of counties and further down to a cbse up of city streets in all the SMSA (Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas — fair size cities
and environs). It does this in "vectorgraphics" which means that it will hold its resolution sufficiently to be printed out in clean crisp ink-like lines on a laserprinter. The image can be manipulated later by the usual Mac paint tools — words, tints, or additional lines added — and filled out into a real custom made map.
The underlying cartography is based on public domain government data. The maps you see now in newspapers and weekly magazines are almost all constructed in this manner. You'll need a Mac, HyperCard, CD-ROM driver, and a LaserWriter to make this work. It's not a toy.
— Kevin Kelly
Source: SIGNAL: Communication Tools for the Information Age


An IBM-compatible program called Boeing Graph converts
tables of data into three-dimensional graphs.
Boeing Graph
Version 4.0; IBM compatible, 512K required. Will run on B/W or CGA monitors or with Hercules or EGA graphics adaptor. $395 from Boeing Computer Service, P. O. Box 24346/Mail Stop 7A-32, Seattle, WA 98124-0346; 800/ 368-4555
Numbers stun; pictures illuminate. If you have ever tried to present numerical information visually, you know how difficult it can be.
This program turns tables of data into exquisite three-dimensional graphs. You can choose among 32 different types of three-dimensional graphs, 15 types of two-dimensional graphs, and almost endless points of view. Graphs can be rotated, moved vertical'y and horizontally, repainted, and labeled as you choose. The program drives plotters and will use dot-matrix and laser printers.
Source: SIGNAL: Communication Tools for the Information Age
A few progressive design firms are now moving toward integrating different types of computer applications. Someday soon, a CAD-based plan, complete with road layouts, building dimensions, and plant specifications, will be input into a video program, and will be translated into a photographic-type perspective image.
"Ray-tracing" programs have Just become available. These will not only correctly cast shadows, but given the reflectivity of the building or ground surfaces, will generate reflections on them of other objects around them to create images with photo-like realism.
AUTODESK, Inc., has a package called VoiceCAD which allows the user to input by voice up to 500 commands (depending on
If you present scientific or financial information to people, this is an exquisite tool. It's also a lot of fun to play with.
—Birrell Walsh


which release number is in use). They claim increased productivity, reduced input time, and reduced key entry errors. The program will even recognize multiple users: the voice patterns are digitized and stored under individual log-on identification codes.
"Intelligent retrieval" makes it possible to look at a file without having to first load the software it was created on.
For example, to see a spreadsheet created in a Lotus program, you used to have to load in the program before you could see the file, because most software programs have their own methods for storing and retrieving work you've done. Intelligent retrieval recognizes what program format the data was stored in, and knows how to display it on the screen. This type of feature is called a hard-disk management program, and is offered by Lotus ("Magellan") and Travelling Software ("Viewlink") and will probably be added to most future versions of operating systems.
A program called "Tornado Notes" allows you to type random information like appointments, phone numbers, notes, etc., then helps you find it later. This type of application is called a PIM, or Personal Information Manager.
You can also use your computer like a fax machine with the installation of a fax board, although you still have to type or scam in information to be sent.
One of the developments coming at the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center is a move toward computer map-making. "In 1991,"


says Merle E. Southern, chief at the center, "we'll he heavily revising under the new game plan. " They will use high-speed pneumatic drawing machines called photo plotters. This will enable revisions of rural maps to he done every 10 years or less, instead of the present average 15 or 20 years.
As new needs are identified, new software and equipment is being developed all the time. One can only speculate at what will he available in the coming years to assist landscape architects in responding to an also increasingly broad range of design problems.
COMPACTED GRAVEL
o
METAL BOLLARD LIGHT
Lighting detail by Donna Butz, University of Massachusetts
Source: LA Computer News, Summer "88


VI, EMPLOYER AND INDUSTRY FEEDBACK
To get a feeling for what is happening in the field, a range of professional organizations and software producers were surveyed and/or interviewed. The size of the firms or agencies varied from 10 to 5000 employees: the locations ranged from the east coast to the midwest to nationwide.
Originally this was intended to he as comprehensive as the school survey, hut the response to this survey was surprisingly poor, although the surveys were nearly identical in length and format, with only six responses to thirty questionnaires mailed. I chose then to strengthen my focus on the schools, instead, hut felt that what I had received already was worth including in summary form. Although it should he noted that the size of this sample is not large enough to he statistically significant, many of the responses were similar enough to suggest that trends may exist in these areas.
The following pages summarize the responses.


EMPLOYER EXPECTATIONS
The type and level of computer skills sought by both the public and private sectors was fairly similar. Both placed knowledge of operating systems high on the list, while drafting skills seemed least important overall.
For private Industry:
High priority - Operating systems
3D simulation
Medium priority - Word processing
Information management (including GIS)
Spread sheets
Exposure to programming
Video imaging
Low priority
Drafting
For public agencies:
High priority
Operating systems
Word processing
Information management/GIS systems
Medium priority - Spread sheets
Data bases
Low priority
Drafting
Video imaging
3D simulation


CURRENT USES
Respondents were given a checklist of the following categories of applications, and asked which were used in their firm or agency.
design
drafting
graphics/presentations
information management systems (including GIS) word processing/secretarial applications hookkeeping/bi11ing video imaging electronic mail other
Both the public and private sectors indicated current use in all of these types of uses, with an emphasis on information management, word processing, and bookkeeping. Computer use in marketing was also mentioned, as well as desktop publishing.
Aerial View of proposed ski run at Peppermint Ski Area in California. Courtesy of the U.S. Forest Service, Landscape Management Program. Simulation prepared with the PERSPECTIVE PLOT computer graphic program.
Source: LAT1S, Computers in Landscape Architecture I


EMPLOYEE PROFICIENCY
In both sectors, employers indicated that from 25/ to 75/ of employees were able to use computers in some capacity, witli 10/ to 60/ of the employees considered to be "proficient. "
There did not appear to he any correlation between the percent of proficient users and the size or type of organization.
EFFECT ON HIRING
"Do we prefer applicants with computer skills?" asked the managing partner of a small east coast firm. "I would say it is mandatory at this point. " Only one respondent from a large public agency said it made no difference. Most comments were to the effect that it definitely increased an applicant's chances of being hired.
EFFECT ON PAY
This was an area in which opinions seemed to be fairly equally divided. One private firm responded, "The computer is a tool: the more proficient you are, the more valuable you are,"
while another felt there was no effect at all. The public sector was similarly split, with the same types of comments coming from both sides: from "Can move into higher demand, computer-related positions easier," to "No effect."


EMPLOYER PROBLEMS
Computer-phobia is a problem. Many people are unwilling or uninterested in learning to use computers. The process seems too complicated and bard to understand. New developments come up so quickly and so often, it seems impossible for anyone but a specialist to keep up.
Most employers agreed that training in school helped. Some of the effects mentioned:
"Much less start-up time, more willingness on the part of the employee. "
"Increased willingness to learn. Less computerphobia, "
"(They) understand how a computer works - word processing or CADD or whatever: the more the new employee knows of CADD, imaging, database, etc., the less I need to teach, the faster they come on-line. "
"At least they're literate and can then learn our applications more easily."
"None have had any (training), as yet. "
Training time can be a significant expense for employers. Estimates of training time varied from one week to seven months, with the differences being the types of systems and applications being taught. The average training time estimated by private firms was about 225 hours (5-1/2 weeks). The average for public
agencies was about 800 hours (16 weeks).


"People wlio once were intimidated by computers now see that it's not that bad," says Denver-based Terry Melnick, who runs an electronic "bulletin board" for computer users. "Those who once said, 'over my dead body' when you mentioned computers, now you couldn't take their computers away. "
FUNKY WINKERBEAN________
AND MR. DAUIDSON IS HERE FROM THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE. TO HELP l)S WITH OOR GOAL OF MAKING EUERO MEMBER OF OOR STAFF COMPUTER U7ERME.
Tom Batiuk
THAT'5 RIGHT / THERE ISN'T ANfrWE 1 CANT TEACH TO USE A COMPUTER /
FIFTH* BUCKS SAOS THE COACH PROVES HIM A LIAR !
NQ! NO! HO' THAT'S TOTALLY UJ&OHG //
I DON'T UNDERSTAND... I'M DOING TOST WHAT MOO TOLD ME...
maobe There '6 something
WRONG WITH THE COMPUTER '
OH. SURE., BLRCIE HE!
\
BflTiuK-


CHANGING TECHNOLOGY
Most employers agreed tnat it was difficult to Keep up with technology.
Comments included:
"In such a rapidly changing technology, everyone has trouble - including the vendors!"
"Hard to keep up in areas of training, equipment, visual simulation software. "
"Hard to Keep up in areas of cost and training."
CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE
IBMs or IBM-compatibles seem to be the equipment of choice
for most applications except word processing.
Equipment mentioned:
IBM PC compatibles with 286 XT IBM, Apple, Macs, clones IBM PC-based 386 system IBM PC-RT system Data General DGMV 8000
Software mentioned:
AES
Arclnfo AutoCAD COGO
DBase III Desktop Publisher Engineering software LandCADD Lotus Lumena MOSS
Proprietary software RIO
Symphony Targa Timber1ine Timeline Topas
Ventura Publisher
Word
Wordstar
WP50


PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT SYSTEM
Only one employer was nappy witn his current system. Complaints included:
"CAD is better suited to architectural applications than landscape - too orthagonal."
"Need a landscape package deeper than LANDCADD. "
"Need one platform for all the L.A, applications."
"MOSS is too unfriendly and difficult to edit data. "
"Takes too long to train employees. "
"Don't have enough hardware. "
EMPLOYER WISH-LIST
Private firms expressed a wjsh for better connectivity and integration of different systems. They also asked for sharper output at less cost. Public employers wanted more capacity for visual imaging and an easier-to-understand process for input and editing.
Some of the specific "wishes" mentioned included:
"One system, inter-related, with landscape software and sharp, inexpensive output, for all scales of design."
"Video imaging, visual simulation."
"Replace MOSS with a GIS system more understandable. "
"More visualization work, 3D modeling capacity. "
"Easier input of preliminary design work.


THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL AS EMPLOYERS SEE IT
Employers across the board agreed that students should have a worKing understanding of computer systems and applications. They felt, overall, that computer literacy should be one of the basic skills taught, along with its integration into the design process.
Comments included:
"The computer is merely a tool, but as essential as a T-square. Teach it as part of a basic skills package. "
"It should provide training as a corollary to design and other technical skills. The computer is only another tool."
"Exposure to any CADD - integrated with design, as well as one semester beginning CADD, optional: advanced CADD, programming, dbase of some sort. "
"Be computer literate - broad exposure - then we'll train on specific software. "
"Provide basic word processing, spread sheet, and CADD training. Students should be proficient in the use of the software. "
Simulation of oil and gas structures on selected landscape setting. Courtesy of U.S. Forest Service, Landscape Management Program, Washington, D.C. (PERSPECTIVE PLOT)
Source: LATIS, Computers in Landscape Architecture I


INPUT FROM A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER
Derrill Williams is President of OBELISK, Inc., maKer of CADscape. He feels that landscape architecture firms lag behind government agencies when it comes to product acceptance and use, and that there "seems to be a hesitation across the board (teachers, students, professionals)" when it comes to using and teaching computer applications in schools.
According to Mr. Williams, the role of the schools should be to "provide general education, including varied software applications, to allow the student to choose what's right for him or herself, when the time comes for them to purchase a system (or to use one, depending who they work for). Education should also include hardware, with respect to components as well as operation. "
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VII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
HOW WELL IS EDUCATION MEETING INDUSTRY NEEDS?
Most of the accredited programs expressed a desire to provide more computer education to their students, but lacked funds and equipment to do so. They agreed that computers are becoming an essential design tool which should be integrated with the design process rather than simply taught separately, but many felt that they fell short of actually doing so.
Employers indicated that students (as potential future employees) should have a basic understanding of operating systems and exposure to a range of applications, to enable the employers to train them more quickly on specific applications.
It is my conclusion that at this time, not enough of the 47 accredited landscape architecure programs are looking ahead to the future and effectively providing the computer education that tomorrow's landscape architects will need, not only to be competitive for jobs, but to be able to make use of computers effectively in design applications beyond merely as technicians.
One way to address this issue uniformly would be for the A.S.L.A. national accreditation committee to reevaluate the need for computer education and spell out in their program standards specific requirements for coursework in this area. This chapter
will suggest some guidelines.


WHAT ARE THE MINIMUM SKILLS THAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT?
Based on a synthesis of the information gathered in these surveys and research, it is my conclusion that graduates of accredited Landscape Architecture programs should have skills in each of the following seven areas.
1. They should have a awareness of the range of potential appl ications.
2. They should have an understanding of the different types of hardware configurations and how they function.
3. They should have an understanding of basic operating systems, file creation/manipulation concepts, and "help" menus.
4. They should be proficient on at least one type of word processing program.
5. They should have the ability to produce at least simple drafting on an AutoCAD-type system.
6. They should have had a hands-on opportunity to experiment with video imaging/simulation and "paint" programs.
7. They should have an understanding of the capabilities
and information retrieval process for GIS systems.


REQUIRED COURSES
To accomplish the goal of acquiring these minimum skills, two specifically computer-related courses should be required in accredited L. A. programs (both at the undergraduate and graduate level), in addition to incorporating computer use into engineering, technology, and other courses.
The first course should be an introductory class illustrating the range of current applications ("this is how it works"). The second should be a computer-based design studio which applies two or more computer applications integrated with design problems ("this is how you can use it").
PROPOSED COURSES
I. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS AND DESIGNERS.
This course will introduce students to the range of computer applications now available to the design profession, specifically as they apply to landscape architecture.
Students will learn about basic hardware configurations and their differences. They will acquire an understanding of what operating systems are and how they work. They will have an opportunity to work with different types of applications, including word processing, drafting and design, video-imaging,
and GIS systems.


By the end of the class, students will be able to create
store, edit, and print written documents; draft and plot drawings; will have had hands-on experience in working with a video-imaging system to generate a visual simulation; and will have used a GlS-type system to retrieve and select data.
II. COMPUTER-BASED DESIGN STUDIO.
This course will emphasize the integration of computer systems as a design tool. During the semester, students will use a computer-based approach to studio problems, integrating tow or more different computer applications into their solutions and presentations.
In addition to these courses, the school should maKe continuing education courses and seminars available to the professional community, and should encourage progressive firms to make internships available to interested students.
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
At least one work station should be provided for every four students enrolled in computer classes. Additionally, all students, even if not enrolled in computer classes, should have access. Students should have an opportunity to work with both IBM-based and MAC-type systems. All software should be updated on at least an annual basis, or as often as updates are
avai1able.


FACULTY REQUIREMENTS
All of the faculty in an accredited Landscape Arcliitecture program sliould have, at a minimum, an awareness of tlie current state of computer teclmology as it applies to Landscape Architecture; at an optimum, tlie ability to use several types of applications tnemselves and encourage their use and integration into the design process at all levels.
In terms of requirements for tbe faculty member who will bave tbis teaching assignment, one of tbe full-time faculty should bave proficiency in tbis area, because of tbe increased chances to encourage integration with other classes and because of tbe increased availability of tbe professor to tbe students. However, tbis seems unlikely at tbe present time, due to tbe scarcity of applicants now qualified both in tbe area of computer applications and in other subjects.
Despite tbe current trend of these courses being taught by full-time faculty, in my opinion, it would be perfectly acceptable and Just as desirable to make use of adjunct or part-time faculty in tbis position. Adjuncts bave tbe advantage of an ongoing contact with tbe "real” world and tbe freedom from administrative concerns which allows a concentration on tbe subject at band. A desirable person to teach a class in tbis subject would be someone actively working with computer systems in a progressive design firm who can be persuaded, in addition,
to teach part-time. Tbis background would facilitate not only


the teaching of real-life applications with up-to-date technology, hut the demonstration of how computers are, in fact, integrated into the design process.
Candidates could he evaluated with the following checklist:
Communication skills (speaking, writing, extemporaneity, ability to communicate enthusiasm for the subject) Organization (thought process, preparation, presentations) Presence (self-confidence, poise, authority)
Interpersonal ski 11s (openness, listening skills, interest in others)
Education (the "documented credibility" of degrees) Experience (teaching, practical - a demonstrated knowledge of the subject through varied experience and exposure)
In addition to the faculty member with teaching responsibi1ity, the labs should be staffed full-time with a lab coordinator who is responsible for scheduling student lab assistants, maintaining equipment in good working order, and arranging for the updating of software. This person should also develop and maintain working relationships with representatives of major computer equipment and software manufacturers, in the interest of keeping abreast of current developments and in cultivating
grant and assistance programs.


Additionally, student lab assistants should toe availatoie for one-on-one assistance at all peaK Hours of use, during evening and weekend Hours, and toy special request,
IN CLOSING. . .
"It is estimated tHat between 20 to 30 percent of landscape arctoitectural firms are now using CAD; toy 1991, more ttoan 90 percent of all landscape architects will probably toe using microcomputer-based CAD systems. "
- Mark LindHult in
Landscape Architecture magazine
July/August 1988
I wish that I could communicate the sense of urgency that I feel to all the schools that are still hesistant to incorporate computers into their programs. Educators need to move forward aggressively and decisively, to help today's and tomorrow's landscape architects develop the skills that will take them beyond toeing mere technicians. We need to get to the point where computers can help us in fundamental design processes, expand our creativity, and help us offer innovative and sound
solutions to complex environmental problems.


APPENDIX A:
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Society of Landscape Architects. Landscape Architecture Accredited Programs. ASLA publication, Washington D. C. , September 1988. Listing of accredited programs, including names and addresses of contact persons. 12 pp.
Becker, Carlisle. Computer Systems for a Small Office.
Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, pp. 106-il4. Applications, evaluating software and hardware, uses in office and project management and production, and how to help staff become proficient.
Cohn, David. Beyond Cost and Speed: Tomorrow We'll Have To Juggle Several Applications At Once. CADalyst Magazine,
February 1989, p. 7. An architect discusses the value of using state-of-the-art equipment in terms of efficiency and creativity.
Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture. Directory 1988-1989. CELA publication, 1988. Additional source for names and addresses of persons/programs in Landscape Architecture. 65 pp,
Danahy, John W. and Wright, Robert. Exploring Design through 3-Dimenslonal Simulations. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1986, pp. 64-71. Advantage in using computers to augment traditional design approaches and examples of simulations that are possible.
Dangermond, Jack and Kill pack, Charles. Mapping for the Future. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, pp. 46-51.
New uses for Geographic Information Systems.
Dentry, Ed. Rocky Mountain News article, Feb. 17, 1989. USGS
topographical maps - availability and methods of production.
Itami, Robert M. Cellular Worlds - Models for Dynamic Conceptions of Landscape. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, pp. 52-57. Use of cellular automatons in landscape analysis and simulations.
Kelly, Kathleen, ed. Computers in Landscape Architecture I - An Introduction to Microcomputers. Landscape Architecture Technical Information Series 8, ASLA, May 1985. A guide to design professionals interested in the application of computers in their work. 30 pp.


Kelly, Kevin, ed, SIGNAL; Communication Tools for the Information Age. Harmony Books, 1988. A WHole Earth Catalog of books, software, video, and other media relating to recent developments in communication. 230 pp.
Lindhult, Mark S. Redefining Professional Roles in -the CAD Era. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, page 128. A discussion of prospects for change in the practice and roles of landscape architects and structure of LA firms with the increased use of computer technologies.
Lindhult, Mark S. The Road Beyond CAD. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, pp. 40-45. Physical developments in computer technology now being used by LA firms.
Milburn, Ken. CAD: Designs on Business. Personal Computing, April 88, pp. 108-124. New uses and applications for CAD, new developments in software and equipment, and a "sampler" listing of some of the CAD packages available, with a discussion of six of them in the article.
Naisbitt, John. Megatrends: Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives. Warner Books, Inc. , New York, 1984. Chapter 8 (pp. 211-229), "From Hierarchies to Networking" offers a powerful prediction of the establishment of information networks as a means of communication, creating linkages between an infinite number of individuals, and allowing the selection of specific information as quickly and efficiently as possible.
Orland, Brian. Video Imaging: A Powerful Tool for visualization and Analysis. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, pp. 78-88. Applications for video use, selecting a system, and speculation about future developments and appl ications.
Rocky Mountain News Supplement. The Computer in Your Future. February 1, 1983. A guide to available options in personal
computers. 16 pp.
Sabine, Gordon. The Folks in the Newsroom. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA,
1977. A source for examples of surveys and interview techniques. 40 pp.
Schmieman, Susan. New Applications for Laser Videodiscs. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1988, pp. 58-63. Using videodiscs and laser videodisc players for presentations, plant identification, and other visual applications.
Swartz, Mim. Computer puts tips at fingertips. Rocky Mountain News article, March 19, 1989. Jay Melnick and his electronic
bulletin board service.


Taylor, Mildred G. How To Write a Research Paper. Pacific Books, Publishers, Palo Alto, California, 1974. A step-by-step handbook for the writing of a research paper. 55 pp.
Von Wodke, Mark. Integrating Computer Applications in Higher Education. Landscape Architecture Magazine, July/August 1966, pp. 90-96. Integrating computers into Landscape Architecture curricul a.
Illustrations by Mark Linhult and Nicholas Dines, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Source: LATIS, Computers in Landscape Architecture I


APPEHDIX B:
SCHOOL SURVEY RESPONSES


RESULTS OF SCHOOL SURVEY
The following is a question-by-question breakdown of the school survey results. All undergraduate and graduate schools offering an A.S. L. A. -accredited Landscape Architecture program as of 1998-89 were asked to participate, including those with a "provisional" status, that is, re-accreditation pending, depending on an interim reevaluation. All but seven of the schools responded, including one where the respondent wouldn't fill out the survey, but took the time to write a letter explaining that he didn't have the time. This page contains a list of all the accredited programs, with a three-letter code assigned to each school to identify each in the summary of the results, which is presented on the following pages.


LIST OF ACCREDITED PROGRAMS
UAZ - University of Arizona BLA
ARK - University of ArKansas BLA
AUB - Auhurn University BLA
BSU - Ball State University BLA, MLA
CPS - California Polytechnic State University BSLA
CSP - California State Polytechnic University BSLA, MLA
UCB - University of California at Berkeley MLA
UCA - University of California at Davis BSLA
CNY - City College of New York BS in LA
CSU - Colorado State University BSLA
UCD - University of Colorado at Denver MLA
COR - Cornell University BS, MLA
FLA - University of Florida BLA
GEO - University of Georgia BLA, MLA
GUE - University of Guelph BLA, MLA
HAR - Harvard University MLA
UID - University of Idaho BLA
UIL - University of Illinois BLA, MLA
ISU - Iowa State University BLA
KSU - Kansas State University BLA, MLA
KEN - University of Kentucky BSLA
LSU - Louisiana State University BLA, MLA
UMA - University of Massachusetts MLA
MSU - Michigan State University BLA
UMI - University of Michigan * BLA
MIN - University of Minnesota BLA
MIS - Mississippi State University BLA
NCS - North Carolina State University MLA
OSU - Ohio State University BLA
OKU - Oklahoma State University « BLA
ORE - University of Oregon BLA
UPN - University of Pennsylvania MLA
PSU - Pennsylvania State University BS in LA
PUR - Purdue University BSLA
RID - Rhode Island School of Design BLA
RUT - Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey BS
SNY - State University of New York BLA, MLA
TAM - Texas A&M University BLA, MLA
TTU - Texas Tech University BLA
TOR - University of Toronto BLA
USU - Utah State University BLA, MLA
VP I - Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University BLA, MLA
UVA - University of Virginia MLA
WSU - Washington State University BSLA
UWA - University of Washington BLA, MLA
WVU - West Virginia University BSLA
WIS - University of Wisconsin BSLA
«
Provisional


SCHOOLS RESPONDING
NAME AND TITLE OF RESPONDENT:
UAZ - Michael T. Deeter, Program Leader
ARK - John V. Crone, Director
AUB - Brian J. LaHaie, Assistant Professor
BSU - Omar Faruque, Professor
CPS - Walter Bremer
CSP - Timothy R. Day, Assisstant Professor UCB - NO RESPONSE
UCA - Rafael Rios, Peer Advisor for Landscape Architecture CNY - Amy Gavaris, President Student Chapter ASLA CSU - NO RESPONSE
UCD - B. Sahine, President Student Chapter ASLA COR - Peter Trowbridge
FLA - Lester L. Linscott, Associate Professor GEO - Scott S. Weinberg, Professor
GUE - Susan Krys, Lecturer and Computer Coordinator HAR - Anonymous
UID - Toru Otawa, Assistant Professor & Co-Director of GIS Lab
UIL - Gary Kesler, Assistant Professor
ISU - Paul F. Anderson, Associate Professor
KSU - Kenneth R. Brooks, Graduate Coordinator
KEN - Horst Schach, Program Chair
LSU - Jack N. Haynes, Research Lab Dir. , & Prof. Daniel Earle
UMA - Mark Lindhult, Associate Professor
MSU - Anthony M. Bauer, Program Coordinator
UMI - Terry J. Brown, Associate Professor
MIN - NO RESPONSE
MIS - Calvin Bishop, Acting Department Head
NCS - Learning Resource Specialist
OSU - Douglas S. Way, Chairman
OKU - J. Parks Hammond, Assistant Professor
ORE - David Hulse, Assistant Professor in L. A.
UPN - NO RESPONSE
PSU - Timothy P. Johnson, Assistant Professor in LA PUR - NO RESPONSE RID - NO RESPONSE
RUT - Michael P. Sherman, Ph. D. , Associate Professor SNY - Richard Hawks, Chair TAM - Edwin Hoag, Interim Head
TTU - Thomas Musiak (letter - "no time to respond”)
TOR - NO RESPONSE
USU - John Nicholson, Associate Professor VPI - Patrick A. Miller, Chair
UVA - W. T. Byrd, Chairman & Associate Professor, Div. of L. A.
WSU - James L. Sipes, Professor of Landscape Architecture
UWA - Sally Schaumann, Chairman
WVU - Charles Yuill, Associate Professor
WIS - NO RESPONSE


WHAT COMPUTER-RELATED CLASSES DOES YOUR SCHOOL REQUIRE?
NO. /CR. /COURSE TITLE:_______________FULL-TIME INSTRUCTOR:
UAZ - 402/4 Landscape Planning yes
ARK - ARCH5643/3 Architectural Computer Applications yes
or GEOG4523/3 Computer Mapping yes
and LARC2113/3 Design Graphics yes
AUB - AR121/3 Computers in Architecture yes
BSU - 161/2 Design Communication (Mac & IBM) yes
262/2 Design Communication (Mac & IBM) yes
CPS - LA310/2 Computing for LAs yes
LA410/2 Spatial Information Systems yes
LA452/5 Regional Landscape Assessment yes
CSC110/3 Computer Literacy yes
CSP - LA512/9 Methods & Applications in L. A. yes
LA602/6 Landscape Design & Natural Processes yes
LA331/4 Landscape Construction yes
LA333/5 Landscape Construction yes
UCA - 181/4 Regional Planning yes
CNY - None
UCD - None
COR - LA310/4 Site Construction yes
LA311/4 Site Engineering yes
FLA - COC3111/3 Intrc to Computers yes
GEO - None
GUE - None required hut computers integrated into many classes HAR - Used in Planning Methods, Hydrology, Drawing yes
UID - 385/3 GIS Primer yes
UIL - Several yes
ISU - LA361/4 Landscape Inventory & Analysis yes
LA453/2 Construction Documents yes
KSU - LAR460 Microcomp. Applications in L. A. I yes
KEN - LA901 Regional Planning yes
LSU - LA3000/3 Introduction to Mini computers yes
UMA - None
MSU - UP410/3 Computer Applications yes
CPS100/4 Intro to Computers yes
UMI - NR588/4 Site Engineering yes
NR579/4 Land Use Planning & Design L. A. I yes
NR690/4 Landscape PIanning/Analysis L. A. IV yes
NR688/4 L. A. Ill yes
NR590/4 L. A. II yes
MIS - CS1103/3 Basic Computer Concepts and yes
Applications (also, several LA courses use computer as part of course)


WHAT COMPUTER-RELATED CLASSES DOES YOUR SCHOOL REQUIRE? (cont.) _______MO, /CR. /COURSE TITLE:____________FULL-TIME INSTRUCTOR;
NCS - None
OSU - ENG294/3 Intro to Computers yes
LA694/5 GIS/Image Processing (grads only) yes
LA750/7 Design/CAD Studio (grads only) yes
LA750/7 Design/Planning GIS Studio (grads) yes
LA447/7 Senior Design (CAD) yes
LA322/5 Layout Construction (Comp Aided Instr) yes
OKU - None
ORE - LA361/4 Site Analysis yes
LA408/3 CADD Workshop yes
LA440/3 Intro to Landscape Planning yes
LA515/3 Computers in Landscape Arch, (for MLA) yes
PSU - ARCH381/3 Arch. Computer Graphics yes
RUT - 250/ Computer Graphics for L. A. yes
SNY - LSA527 & 621/3 Regional Studios yes
LSA330/2 Site Analysis yes
LSA442/2 Site Grading yes
LSA611/2 Land Research & Analysis yes
TAM - None
USU - LAEP304/5 Computer Applications in L. A. yes
CS150/4 Basic Programming or yes
CS170/4 Computer Science Fundamentals yes
VPI - LAR2124/5 Intermediate L. A. Technology yes
LAR4024/5 Advanced L. A. Technology yes
UVA - None
WSU - None
UWA - LAUP270 Intro to Comp, in Design & Ping (BLA) yes
LARC504 Regional Planning (MLA) yes
WVU - None


WHAT COMPUTER COURSES ARE OFFERED. BUT NOT REQUIRED?
________HO. /CR. /COURSE TITLE______________FULL-TIME INSTRUCTOR
UAZ - 599/3,4 CAD Independent Study n/a
BSU - 382/3 Computer-Aided Design (Intergraph) yes
582/3 Computer-Aided Design (Intergraph) yes
CNY - 512-1, 522-2 yes
UCD - ARCH 6640/3 Intro to AUTOCAD no
ARCH 6641/3 AdV. AUTOCAD no
LA 6641/3 LANDCADD no
GEO - 406/5 Intro to CAD yes
346/5 Computer Graphics yes
GUE - Have weekend workshops taught hy TAs no
UID - 299/2 Computers in Landscape Architecture yes
490/3 Computer-aided Regional Landscape Planning yes ISU - DS201/3 Intro to Computer Graphics in Design yes
LA490/2 Indep. Studies in Computer Applications KSU - LAR741 Microcomp. Applications in L. A. yes
LAR710 Microcomp. Applications in L. A. II yes
KEN - Computer Graphics yes
LSU - 7395/3 Intergraph Minicomputers - CAD & GIS yes
7396/3 ERDAS on Minicomputers yes
UMA - ED597A/3 Computers in Env. Design yes
LA691/1 Intro to CAD yes
LA691A/3 Advanced Computer Applications yes
MIS - EG2613/3 Computer Graphics yes
NCS - ARC492/3 Micro Computer App. to Arch. yes
UD592/2 Electronic Imaging for Graphic Design yes
PD415/3 Micro Comp. App. to Design yes
OKU - LA4990/2 or 3 Microcomputers in Landscape Arch. yes
RUT - 450/ Computer Aided Drafting yes
TAM - LAND450/3 Comp. Appl. in L. A. yes
LAND689/3 Computers in L. A. yes
VPI - LAR4114/3 Landscape Perceptions & Assessment yes
UVA - ARCH542/3 Computers for Architecture yes
WSU - ARCH496/3 Computer Applications ID-/3 Computer-Aided Design CS-/- numerous programming, etc. wvu - rm 180 - Intro CAD yes
LA 265 - Elements of GIS yes


APPROXIMATELY WHAT PERCENTAGE OF YOUR FULL-TIME FACULTY HAS SUFFICIENT WORKING KNOWLEDGE TO USE COMPUTERS...
_______ IN ANY CAPACITY?___________________PROFICIENTLY?
UAZ 100/ 25/
ARK - 7 5/ 50/
AUB - 50/. 10/
BSU - 100/ 50/
CPS - 60/ 50/
CSP - 90/ 7 5/
UCA - 100/ 7 5/
UCD - 75/ 0/
COR - 25/ 25/
FLA - 7 5/ 7 5/
GEO - 2 5/ 10/
GUE - 15/ 10/
HAR - 100/ 10/
UID - 90/ 7 5/
UIL - 75/ 50/
ISU - 35/ 2 5/
KSU - 75/ 50/
KEN - 7 5/ 10/
LSU - 75/ 25/
UMA - 100/ 25/
MSU - 50/ 10/
UMI - 100/ 50/
MIS - 100/ 25/
NCS - 25/ 10/
OSU - 90/ 50/
OKU - 75/ 75/
ORE - 100/ 75/
PSU - 100/ 90/
RUT - 7 5/ 90/
SNY - 50/ 25/
TAM - 7 5/ 7 5/
USU - 90/ 50/
VP I - 100/ 75/
UVA - 35/ 25/
WSU - 100/ 10/
UWA - 100/ 25/
WVU - 2 5/ 10/


HAVE COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS IN YOUR PROGRAM CHANGED RECENTLY?
UAZ
ARK
AUB
BSU
CPS
CSP
UCA
CNY
UCD
COR
FLA
GEO
GUE
HAR
UID
UIL
ISU
KSU
KEN
LSU
UMA
MSU
UMI
MIS
NCS
OSU
OKU
ORE
PSU RUT SNY TAM USU VP I UVA
WSU
UWA
WVU
Yes - computer course in second year, elective.
No.
No.
Yes - more courses that use computers nave been planned. Yes - more courses required.
Yes - more.
No.
Yes - tnese are new courses.
Yes - eliminated computer requirement from program.
Yes - added some.
Yes - nave Intro course now: 1/3 Word Processing,
1/3 Spreadsheet, 1/3 Database.
No.
Yes - used to nave a broad intro class, but now try to integrate into many classes Instead.
No - for required courses, but it has found its way into many additional courses.
Yes - restructuring of new curriculum.
Yes - looking for innovative ways of integrating computers into courses.
No.
Yes - first course required for BLA, recommended for MLA, Yes - adding computer graphics course & construction.
Yes - added new courses.
Yes - integration into courses.
Yes - emphasis changed from programming to applications. Yes - three workshops at beginning of fall are required, and they are used in more classes.
Yes - Basic Computer Concepts & Applications is now required in the LA Department.
No.
Yes - increased contact at both undergraduate and graduate 1 evel s.
Yes - more availability of microcomputers for student use and more integration of microcomputer use in classes.
Yes - more integrated into media and design parts of curriculum.
No.
Yes - the two courses were approved and are now offered. Yes - more courses required.
Yes - we stress AutoCAD as a "required" elective.
Yes - 304 is a new course.
Yes - students are required to buy a computer.
Yes - from offering coursework in L. A. to incorporating it into particular classes.
No.
No.
No.


HAS THERE BEEN ANY RECENT DISCUSSION OR PLANS TO CHANGE THE COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS IN YOUR PROGRAM?
UAZ
ARK
AUB
BSU
CPS
CSP
UCA
CNY
UCD
COR
FLA
GEO
GUE
HAR
UID
UIL
ISU
KSU
KEN
LSU
UMA
MSU
UMI
MIS
NCS
OSU
OKU
ORE
PSU
RUT
SNY
TAM
USU VP I
UVA
WSU
UWA
WVU
Yes - update of tools for professional & research.
Yes - more lower level work.
Yes - to include computer graphics.
Yes - to incorporate them in design.
No.
Yes - more integration.
Yes - because classes offered in computers do not meet our needs.
No.
Yes - discussion of integrating computers into program, per advice of accreditation committee.
Yes - more graphic projects
Yes - enhance graphic capabilities.
Yes - added required course.
Yes - ongoing, re issues and fund allocations.
Yes - possibly requiring an overview course which includes programming.
No.
Yes - we're always looking at ways to make our students more computer-proficient.
Yes - increased demand among students and employers for computing skills - but no requirement exists because of lack of funding for hardware and software.
Yes - introduce computer literacy and competency at an earlier time.
Yes - we want to use it more and need more equipment.
Yes - require students to purchase computer, add advanced undergraduate courses.
Yes - more integration into courses.
Yes - to provide choices and to expand into a focus area elective consisting of five courses.
No.
Yes - we are considering requiring all LA/LC students to have their own computers.
Yes - computer skills are felt to be necessary to be productive as a designer.
Yes - keep at cutting edge.
Yes - to use microcomputers more in the curriculum.
Yes - rapid changes in capabilities of the tool.
Yes - to integrate into studio courses better.
No.
Yes - need to continually upgrade.
Yes - major expansion, adding 50 PCs, new grad program in Architectural Communication, requiring computer literacy for all incoming students.
Yes - new course requirements.
Yes - want to integrate computer use into curriculum, not offer separate computer course.
Yes - increased sophistication in hardware and software and increased demand.
Yes - not adequately meeting needs of students.
Yes - perceived need to teach more.
Yes - new emphasis on CAD.


HOW DO YOU FEEL YOUR SCHOOL'S CURRENT PROGRAM COMPARES TO
OTHERS, WITH REGARD TO COMPUTERS?
UAZ - Below average
ARK - Average
AUB - Below average
BSU - Don't Know
CPS - Superior
CSP - Superior
UCA - Average
CNY - Above average
UCD - Below average
COR - Average
FLA - Average
GEO - Above average
GUE - Above average
UID - Above average
UIL - Superior
ISU - Average
KSU - Average
KEN - Average
LSU - Above average to superior
UMA - Above average
MSU - Below average
UMI - Above average to superior
MIS - Above average
NCS - Average
osu - Superior
OKU - Below average
ORE - Above average
PSU - Average
RUT - Above average
SNY - Average
TAM - Undergrad, below; grad, above
USU - Average
VPI - Above average
UVA - Average
wsu - Below average
UWA - Average
WVU - Below average


DO YOU FEEL THE CURRENT COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS ARE ADEQUATE?
UAZ - No - computer needs to be Integrated into every course in the curriculum. Need for research into efficiency and effective use.
ARK - No - we need more time on training end to balance theoretic approach.
AUB - No - understanding of basic computer applications isn't enough.
BSU - Yes - considering the newer courses that are planned.
CPS - Yes.
CSP - Yes.
UCA - No - because what we learn in class we learn because we need it for that class; we do not have a class strictly on computers.
CNY - Yes.
UCD - No - none.
COR - No - needs integration into studio courses
FLA - No - need to expand in three areas; 1) CAD, 2) GIS,
3) Visual imagery.
GEO - NO.
GUE - No - but can't do more without more workstations.
HAR - Yes and no - the increased demand for terminals (which are now in the studio) has created some short-term logistical problems.
UID - No - need more hands-on time and more assistants.
UIL - Yes and no - yes, in terms of what our students know about computing, but no in terms of our use of computers to assist in instruction.
ISU - No - not every student can get the exposure and practice they want, because of the lack of funding.
KSU - Yes - barely.
KEN - No - need more integration with studios.
LSU - Yes - we offer elective options and independent study for those wanting to go beyond basics.
UMA - No.
MSU - Yes and no - they are adequate in terms of objectives but inadequate in terms of resources and faculty commitment.
UMI - Yes.
MIS - No - we must become more proficient in graphics, CADD, and database management.
NCS - Yes.
OSU - No - more will be done at undergraduate level.
OKU - No - the curriculum needs to provide an opportunity for "computer literacy" and Journeyman skills.
ORE - Yes.
PSU - No - not closely tied to studio work - seen as a "special area. "
RUT - Yes, today. . .


DO YOU FEEL THE CURRENT COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS ARE
ADEQUATE? (cont. )
SNY - No - not enough in required courses in construction and design and graphics.
TAM - No - goal is to have all students literate.
USU - No - still not enough time to cover both GIS and CAD adequate 1 y.
VPI - Yes.
UVA - Yes and no.
WSU - No - because there were no faculty members proficient with computers in the past, very little was offered.
UWA - Not sure - we would like our MLA students to go further and have all our BLA students use at least one spatial analysis program.
WVU - No.
Drawing by USU graduate student Michael Ferrara
Source: Sitelines, a LANDCADD, Inc. publication


WHAT SHOULD THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL BE IN PROVIDING COMPUTER
EDUCATION?
UAZ - Applications and researcli. Colleges or universities should provide a preliminary course for tine next few years - then students will be coming into college with computer basics.
ARK - Without some training, more creative endeavors are
I United.
AUB - More emphasis needs to be placed on training faculty to use the software (and hardware). Faculty needs to be supported financially in their efforts to update their computer skills. Also, the school must recognize computer development as important in the promotion and tenure criteria.
BSU - More as a tool to design than for drafting or communication.
CPS - The school should be at the cutting edge.
CSP - As much as possible, tools, teaching tools, and auto-tutorials.
UCA - We should at least be introduced to all the available
programs and shown how landscape architects can use them.
UCD - School should teach students to teach themselves through basic knowledge of hardware and operating systems, and an introduction to a range of currently available software.
COR - Provide a working knowledge and skill development.
FLA - The university should provide computer basics. The
college should provide CAD. Interdepartmental should provide QIS and Visual Imagery.
GEO - Should require all students to have a working knowledge of CADD.
GUE - Present philosophy of integration is appropriate - need
also to have all faculty up-to-snuff on basic applications and equipment so they can write funding proposals, etc., to upgrade systems for the benefit of students.
HAR - It should be a part of any coursework which can be more efficiently handled on the computer - "catch-up" courses or tutorials should be available for the computer
II literate.
UID - Basic literacy and creative use of new computer technologies.
UIL - We will have to provide training specific to land design graphics. The question is, can we do this in a manner to also help teach design principles? In other words, computer proficiency becomes a by-product of learning design.
ISU - Experience in applications specific to the profession: construction, graphics/CAD, GIS,
KSU - Provide theory, practice, and application experience in use of computers as a tool to design & planning decision-making.
- Fully active.
KEN


WHAT SHOULD THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL BE IN PROVIDING COMPUTER
EDUCATION? (cont. )
LSU
UMA
MSU
UMI
MIS
NCS
OSU
OKU
ORE
PSU
RUT
SNY TAM USU VP I
UVA
WSU
UWA
WVU
Provide basic introductory courses in LA applications: provide a network for students to tie into with own computers.
It needs to be applied as a tool in design. .. must be an integral part of tbe design process.
To provide a basic understanding of computer applications in tbe profession and to give those interested students an opportunity for more in-depth study of various applications.
To provide unlimited access to computers to all our students, with general training provided by the university and special courses in specific schools.
We must begin to provide all of our graduates with the basic computer skills as they apply to our profession. We are moving as fast as possible to provide students with the new basic tool that will be required of future professionals. It's the new "magic markers" that no one can be without.
Training should be the role of the school.
Students need to be proficient in CAD/image processing and GIS technology.
Basic introduction to microcomputers for all students, provide equipment for use, provide opportunity for high level independent work
Education in the appropriate use of the tool, facility and dexterity in its use, future trends.
Teach its use as any other design tool.
School should mandate one course such as Computer Graphics for L. A.
Only in areas special to landscape architecture.
Make all students computer-literate.
Should lead the profession in computer applications.
I don't feel the computer is a panacea. How the computer is used in the curriculum is important (i. e. , I don't want to educate computer technicians, rather, landscape designers. ) We have made the explicit decision not to have a separate computer course, but rather to incorporate computer use into all appropriate courses.
Keep abreast of current technology, but not leaping overboard toward equipment that might immediately become obsolete.
We should provide a basic understanding of the principles and methods of how computers can be used in landscape architecture.
Varies with degree program.
Should mimic state of the art.


APPROXIMATE SIZE OF COMPUTER FACILITIES
UAZ -ARK -AUB -CPS -CSP -UCA -CNY -UCD -COR -FLA -GEO -GUE -HAR -UIL -ISU -KSU -KEN -LSU -UMA -MSU -UMI -MIS -NCS -OSU -OKU -ORE -PSU -RUT -SNY -USU -VPI -
UVA -
1200 sq ft in two areas.
1000 sq ft.
1500 sq ft.
2 2000 sq ft each.
1200 sq ft.
250 sq ft.
550 sq ft.
500 sq ft in Mac lab and 250 sq ft in IBM lab.
310 sq ft.
1500 sq ft.
450 to 500 sq ft.
1600 sq ft, air cond. , special wiring, high security locKs 1500 sq ft in three areas 750 sq ft.
300 sq ft/Dept. , 1200 sq ft/College.
225 sq ft.
200 sq ft.
4000 sq ft.
2400 sq ft.
800 sq ft.
800 sq ft.
300 sq ft.
7, 774 sq ft.
3000 sq ft.
1000 sq ft 1000+ sq ft.
100 (?) sq ft.
800 sq ft.
500 sq ft.
1200 sq ft.
900 sq ft/micro & terminal lab, 450 sq ft/computer graphics lab.
1000 sq ft.
TOTAL: 46,488 square feet in 32 schools responding.


TYPES OF HARDWARE IN USE:
LAST UPGRADED:
UAZ -
ARK -AUB -
BSU -
CPS -CSP -UCA -CNY -UCD -
COR
FLA
Imagewriters,
10
Macintosh IIs, Interpro workstations, 8 Macintosh SE. IBM PC-ATs. We add machines every year.
1986
1988
4/89
' 88 '88.
Zenith XT-types and IBM XT, plotters, dot matrix printers, digitizing tablets, and mice.
ATs and PCs.
Mac Plus, SEs, IIs, LaserWriters, plotters, video cameras, scanners 14 Intergraph workstations (VAX),
20 IBM PCs, 2 Macintosh and IBMs and Macs.
Mac IIs, Laserwriters, scanners, 11/88
4 IBM PC/XTS, 3 IBM PC/ATs. mid-1988
8 IBM compatibles on local area network, Kurta and Cal comp digitizers, printer, 2 plotters, 15 MACS,
laser printer. Fall '88
IBM AT XTs and MAC Ills 1988
IBM PS2/50, IBM PCs, IBM XTs, Mac IIs, Compaq 386s, IBM
Mainframe, Intergraph room with 8 VAX stations
GEO
GUE
HAR
UID
UIL
ISU
recent
1989
IBM
IBM-compatibles, 8 CAD stations (286 & XTs),
4 PCs networked (used for plant selection data base & word processing), digitizing tablet, drum plotter, laser printer. Addt'l for faculty use.
IBM PC/XT/AT/PS2, Mac +/SE/II, Sun ongoing
2 IBM 4341s, 10 IBM PCs, 3 IBM PC-ATs, Victor 9000,
3 DG-30, Calcomp digitizers, tablets, touch pads, image recorder, plotters, printers, HP LaserJet II, mice; video recorder, camera and monitors.
IBM XT/AT/RT and PS/2, Apple SE, Mac II, Sun Fall '88
Dept. : 5 MS/DOS computers (l IBM XT, 2 Zenith 159,
1 Zenith 386) and 1 Apple HE, 3 tablets, 5 dot matrix printers, 1 color printer, 1 small pen plotter.
College: 3 XTs, 2 model 50s, 2 386s, 1- Mac SEs 1988
KSU - MS-DOS PC-compatible systems.
KEN - Terminals, digitizer, plotter
LSU - IBM, Intergraph, Apple lie, Macintosh Plus
UMA - ATs, Compaq 386s, Mac, Mac II
MSU - IBM Model 50 PS2, Epson printer, digitizers,
HP plotter.
UMI - Zenith, Apple, Macs
MIS - Zenith 240 w/plotter, digitizers & CADD system, Mac IIs w/laser printer, Mac SE w/printers.
NCS - Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, Macintosh II, LaserWriters, plotters, photo typesetters.
OSU - NCR 386 machines, Compaq 386 & 286, IBM ATs, Apple SEs, MAC IIs
1/89
1987 continuous
1989
1988 1988
Fall '88
Fall '88
continuous


TYPES OF HARDWARE IN USE/LAST UPGRADED (cont. )
OKU - IBM XT/640K RAM, 128K EGA, printer 1986
ORE - IBM PCS, MAC PCS.
PSU - Mac SEs & IIs, Vax minicomputer. Fall 88
RUT - 12 Mac IIs w/ n. d. (6 more by next year), 3 laser printers, 4 dot-matrix printers, 2 E-size plotters,
1 scanner, 1 film printer, 1 video capture w/VCR & camera. 1987
SNY - IBM PC/AT/PC2, Mac + 1989
TAM - IBMs, Macs, Tandys. 1989
USU - IBM compatibles, Apple compatibles
VPI - Primarily IBM-compatibles witb special equipment.
we are moving toward Mac IIs. 4/89
WSU - IBM & compatibles, laser printers (HP & NEL),
HP plotters, video projectors, dot matrix printers now
UWA - Mac SEs, IBM, Mainframe for SPSS 1988
WVU - PCs, XTs, 386S 1988/89
Three typical Microcomputer System
Illustration credits: Mark Gionet, MLA
plotter
Source: LATIS, Computers in Landscape Architecture I


SOFTWARE IN USE
PROGRAMS LAST UPGRADED:
UAZ - AutoCAD, GIS Map package, Wordstar/Word-
perfect, Dbase, SASS, Plant Select, continuously
ARK - AutoCAD v, 10, Microtecture, MegaCADD Prof,
Design Board 3D link, CADPLAN, MICROCAD,
Vectrix Paint, CADallac, SELS, SPSS, ProKey,
Lotus 123 & Symphony, DBase III, Real Estate and Lighting programs, various tutorials, and Volkswriter word processing, 1969
AUB - CAD, GIS, word processing, spreadsheets,
page layout, image processing 4/89
BSU - IDGS, DIM & AMOD on Intergraph, and various
2D &3D software on Mac II & IBM PC 1988
CPS - Word processing, spread sheet, database, communications, CAD, drawing, HyperCard, plant selection, GIS, desktop publishing,
statistics. continuously
CSP - ArcInfo, AutoCAD, LandCADD, Lotus 1-2-3,
Multiplan, various word processing and bit-mapped programs
UCA - All MAC software and other programs such as Filevision,
CNY - CAD, 3-D Modeling, Word processing,
Desktop Publishing, Project Monage, Dec, '88
UCD - AutoCAD v. 9, LandCADD, WordPerfect, some MAC, 1/89
COR - LANDCADD, AUTOCAD, DRAFIX, 1988
FLA - AutoCAD, DesignCAD, VersaCAD, Intergraph (all), GEOMAX, TIPS, all Microsoft, WordPerfect, Wordstar, Lotus 1-2-3,
D-Base IV, Newlmage, LandCADD, Excell, all major MAC software, Multiplan, Toro, Rainbird. recent
GEO - AutoCAD, LandCADD, Paint programs, Engineering
software, Plant selection, 1989
GUE - AutoCAD v. 10, PCPaint, Site Engineering, WordPerfect, WordStar, Lotus, DBase+, SPANS (GIS), LandCADD,
AutoShade, Ventura Desktop Publishing, TARGA HAR - Pascal, word processing, drawing, CAD, GIS, etc, ongoing UID - AUTOCAD ver. 10, Megacad Professional, Pencad, Pendraw,
Comarc GIS System, Arch Info GIS v, 5, 0, Calpas 3 prof. & educational packages, Lotus 123, WordStar, PCWrite, Landsoft, Grafplus, BMRS, Archsoft, Lumina Professional, BCD Videolink, Omnicom "Ideas" (interactive video), Volkswriter, Coursebuilder, PC Paintbrush, LANDCADD v2. 6, Newsmaster, Pagemaker v3.0. All software is available to students and faculty of the
College. 1/89
UIL - Autocad, LandCADD, Microsoft Word, Lotus 123,
RBase System V, AutoShade, MAD Analysis, Dr. Halo,
TIPS, MFE
1989


SOFTWARE IN USE (COnt. )
ISU -
KSU -
KEN -LSU -
UMA -
MSU -
UMI -
MIS -
NCS -
OSU -
OKU -ORE -PSU -
RUT -SNY -
PROGRAMS
LAST UPGRADED:
Word processing, GIS, CAD, Paint, D, B. M. S. ,
Spreadsheet, Road alignment, Cut/Fill,
3-D modeling 4/89
CAD, GIS, Spreadsheet, DataBase, Business Graphics, Project scheduling & management,
Word processing, Statistics Fall 88
CAD 1987
CAD, GIS, word processing, desktop publishing, spreadsheets, data bases, graphic design, video image capture/manlpulation, project management, etc. 11/88
CAD, spreadsheets, word processing, graphics, stat, DEMS, GIS 1989
AutoCAD, LandCADD, CAPS, Microsoft Word, Lotus 123,
RBase 2000
Apple Shareware - most graphics, spreadsheet, business applications
AutoCAD, Symphony, SuperCal, AppleWrlte,
WORKS, Microsoft
MacDraw, MacDraft, MacPaint, PagemaKer,
Freehand, MacWrite
AutoCAD, LandCADD, Panacea, ERDAS,
ATT Image Capture, MAP
Word processing, spreadsheet, database AutoCAD, WordPerfect, Cadvance, Lotus 123, Dbase MacDraw II, Model shop, Excel, Microsoft Word,
HyperCard.
MacPaint, MacWrite, MacDraft, Full Paint,
Pixel Paint, VersaCAD for Mac, Excel,
Videoworks II, Express (Quark). 1986
AutoCAD, LandCADD, PagemaKer, MegaCADD, MAP,
and several word processing programs. 1989
1988
continually
Fall '88
Fall '88
continuous
1987
Fall '88
USU - CAD, GIS
VPI - CAD, LandCADD, New Perspectives, RIO, LUMENA, plus a variety of technology, word processing, and spreadsheet-type programs 4/89
WSU - CAD, Database, Desktop Publishing, VersaCAD,
Lotus 123, word processing, graphic software. 1989
UWA - Everything.
WVU - CAD, GIS.


DO YOU FEEL THE FACILITIES ARE ADEQUATE?
UAZ - No - we require update on Hardware: computers, at least some 386 types, video manipulation.
Yes.
No - it is not possible to keep up, given time lag of state university procurement procedures.
Yes - for now.
Yes - but we plan 24 hour access with one computer terminal for each two students.
No - too small, need more.
No - we do not nave enough space or computers to meet the
ARK
AUB
BSU
CPS
CSP
UCA
demand.
UCD - No - need more IBM-type terminals with some 386-types and independent workstations, modems, updates on current software, additional software, video-imaging system, paint packages, geographic information-type software.
COR - Yes.
FLA - No - need to expand workstations into studios. Also limited by number of copies of software.
GEO - No - need to expand facility.
GUE - No - need at least 15 workstations for the teaching studio
if a class is to be taught in the computer studio.
HAR - Yes and no - there are never enough people or equipment, but we're not hurting.
UID - No - station/student ratio must be increased.
UIL - No - need more workstations to accomodate more students.
ISU - No - to have a required computer course, we need about 12
AT-compatibles and 600 sq. ft. additional space.
KSU - No - need more stations and more advanced technology.
KEN - No - not enough equipment.
LSU - No - need a CAD Mac lab, electronic mail, a network infrastructure, and more computers.
UMA - No - more hardware needed.
MSU - No - space and money are limited. Students are demanding more access because more are proficient in the use of computers. We also need to get into video simulation.
UMI - Yes.
MIS - No - we need more space and more computers to run the CADD systems and table plotters.
NCS - Yes.
OSU - No - still building toward full undergraduate teaching f aci 1 i ty.
OKU - No - we need more computers and hardware in the program.
ORE - No - more terminals are needed.
PSU - No - need more space and computers.
RUT - Yes.
SNY - No - not enough machines, lack sufficient software copies.
TAM - No - being expanded.
USU - No - as long as the university provides computers for free, there will always be a shortage.
VPI - Yes.
WSU - No.
UWA - No - would like a studio just for our exclusive use.
WVU - No - we need research-quality hardware.


STATION TO STUDENT RATIOS FOR AN AVERAGE TERM OR SEMESTER
TERMINALS STUDENTS USING RATIO
UAZ - 32 50 1. 5 to each terminal
ARK - 20 50 2. 5 to each terminal
AUB - 40 80 2 to each terminal
BSU - 54 120 2. 2 to each terminal
CPS - 40 200 5 to each terminal
CSP - 30 "hundreds H 10 + to eacli terminal
UCA - 11 250 23 to each terminal
CNY - 7 -
UCD - 8 65 8 to each terminal
COR - 5 40-60 about 10 to eacli terminal
FLA - 40 + 50 + 1. 25 to each terminal
GEO - 3 40 13 to each terminal
GUE - 12 90 7. 5 to each terminal
HAR - 60 + 300 + 5 to each terminal
UID - 10 200 + 20 to each terminal
UIL - 22 120 5. 5 to each terminal
ISU - 6 120 20 to each terminal
KSU - 15 100 6. 7 to each terminal
KEN - varies 25
LSU - 40 200 5 to each terminal
UMA - 40 350 8. 75 to each terminal
MSU - 6 45 7. 5 to each terminal
UMI - 12 60 5 to each terminal
MIS - 9 60 6. 7 to each terminal
NCS - 30 310 10. 3 to each terminal
OSU - 60 + 70 + 1 + to each terminal
OKU - 1 in program 10-30 avg 20 to each terminal
(20 additional in the rest of the college)
ORE - 30 200 6. 7 to each terminal
PSU - 20 100 5 to each terminal
RUT - 12 24 2 to each terminal
SNY - 200 +
USU - 60 120 2 to each terminal
VP I - 5 104 20 to each terminal
UVA - 25 17 . 7 to each terminal
WSU - 20
WVU - 20 30 1. 5 to each terminal


DO YOU THINK THE STUDENTS ARE THERE
FEEL THAT THE FACILITIES CHANGE OR
ARE ADEQUATE? FACILITIES
UAZ NO YES
ARK YES NO
AUB NO YES
BSU YES YES
CPS YES YES
CSP NO YES
UCA NO NO
CNY - YES
UCD NO NO
COR YES YES
FLA NO NO
GEO NO NO
GUE - YES
HAR - YES
UID NO YES
UIL YES YES
ISU NO YES
KSU NO YES
KEN NO YES
LSU NO YES
UMA NO YES
MSU NO NO
UMI YES YES
MIS NO NO
NCS YES YES
OSU NO YES
OKU NO YES
ORE NO YES
PSU NO YES
RUT YES YES
SNY NO NO
TAM - YES
USU NO YES
VP I NO YES
UVA YES & NO YES
WSU NO YES
UWA NO YES
WVU NO YES


HOV DO YOU FEEL THE PRESENT FACILITIES COMPARE TO WHAT STUDENTS WILL ENCOUNTER IN A PROFESSIONAL OFFICE WHEN THEY GRADUATE?
UAZ - Above average
ARK - Average
AUB - Above average
BSU - Don't Know
CPS - Superior
CSP - Superior
UCA - Above average
CNY - Average
UCD - Below average
COR - Average
FLA - Average
GEO - Average to above average
GUE - Superior by far
HAR - Superior
UID - Superior
UIL - Average
ISU - Average
KSU - Average
KEN - Average
LSU - Superior
UMA - Average
MSU - Above average
UMI - Superior
HIS - Average
NCS - Average
OSU - Superior
OKU - Average
ORE - Below average
PSU - Above average
RUT - Above average
SNY - Above average
TAM - Above average
USU - Superior
VP I - Superior
UVA - Above average
WSU - Above average
UWA - Average
WVU - Poor


HOW DO YOU FEEL THE PRESENT FACILITIES COMPARE TO WHAT OTHER SCHOOLS NOW OFFER?
UAZ - Average
ARK - Average
AUB - Above average
BSU - Don't know
CPS - Superior
CSP - Superior
UCA - Don't Know
CNY - Below average
UCD - Below average
COR - Average
FLA - Average
GEO - Above average
GUE - Superior
HAR - Superior
UID - Above average
UIL - Below average
ISU - Below average
KSU - Below average
KEN - Average
LSU - Above average to superior
UMA - Average to above average
MSU - Below average
UMI - Don't Know
MIS - Above average
NCS - Average
OSU - Superior
OKU - Below average
ORE - Below average
PSU - Above average
RUT - Above average
SNY - Average
TAM - Above average
USU - Average
VP I - Above average
UVA - Average
WSU - Below average
UWA - Average
WVU — Poor


APPFUMY
su 1 unyiA
HAILING LIST OF ACCREDITED PROGRAMS
C*3


HAILIHG LIST OF SCHOOLS WITH ACCREDITED L. A. PROGRAMS
UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS:
Arizona, University of. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Michael Deeter, Chair School of Renewable Resources - Herring Hall University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721 602 621-1004
Arkansas, University of. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - John Crone, Program Director School of Architecture - 108 Vol Walker Hall University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701 501 575-2701
Auburn University. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Chair
Department of Architecture - School of Architecture & Fine Arts Auburn University
Auburn, AL 36849 205 826-4516
Ball State University. (BLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Noel D. Vernon, Chair College of Architecture and Planning Ball State University
Muncle, In 47306 317 285-1971
California Polytechnic State University. (BSLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Gerald Smith, Dept. Head School of Architecture and Environmental Design California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 805 546-1319
California State Polytechnic University. (BSLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - John Lyle, Chair School of Environmental Design California State Polytechnic University Pomona, CA 91768 714 869-2684
University of California at Davis. (BSLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Mark Francis, Master Advisor Department of Environmental Design College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University of California at Davis Davis, CA 95616
916 752-6223


City College of New York. (BS in LA)
Urban Landscape Architecture Program - M. Paul Frledberg, Dir.
School of Architecture and Environmental Studies
City College of New York
138 th Street and Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031 212 690-4110
Colorado State University. (BSLA)
Department of Recreation Resources and Landscape Architecture -Merlyn Paulson, Program Chair College of Forestry Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523 303 491-6591
Cornell University. (BS)
Landscape Architecture Program Coordinator Cornell University 230 East Roberts Hall Ithaca, NY 14853
Florida, University of. (BLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Herrick H. Smith, Chair College of Architecture University of Florida 331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, FL 32611 904 392-6098
Georgia, University of. (BLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Darrell Morrison, Dean School of Environmental Design University of Georgia 609 Caldwell Hall
Athens, GA 30602 404 542-1816
Guelph, University of. (BLA)
School of Landscape Architecture - Walter H. Kehm, Director University of Guelph
Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1 519 824-4120, Ext. 3352
Idaho, University of. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Department - James Kuska, Chair College of Art and Architecture University of Idaho
Moscow, ID 83843 208 885-6272
Illinois, University of. (BLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Vincent Bellafiore, Head College of Fine and Applied Arts University of Illinois
214 Mumford Hall, 1301 W. Gregory Drive Urbana, IL 61801 217 333-0176
- Peter Trowbridge, Program
607 255-4487


Iowa State University. (BLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Albert Rutledge, Chair College of Design, Room 146 Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011 515 294-5676
Kansas State University. (BLA)
Department of Landscape Archltecure - Dennis Law, Acting Head College of Architecture and Design Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506 913 532-5961
Kentucky, University of. (BSLA)
Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Horst Schach, Program Head
University of Kentucky - Agriculture Science Center North Lexington, KY 40546 606 257-3485
Louisiana State University. (BLA)
School of Landscape Architecture - Dr. Neil G. Odenwald, Dir. Louisiana State University, College of Design Building Baton Rouge, LA 70803-7020 504 388-1434
Michigan State University. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Anthony M. Bauer, Program Coordinator
Department of Geography Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824-1221 517 353-7880
Minnesota, University of. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - David G. Pitt, Chair Institute of Technology and College of Agriculture University of Minnesota 205 North Hall, 2005 Buford
St. Paul, MN 55108 612 625-8285
Mississippi State University. (BLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Calvin T. Bishop, Acting Head College of Agriculture and Home Economics Mississippi State University, P. O. Drawer MQ Montgomery Hall, Room 100
Mississippi State, MS 39762 601 325-3012
Hew York, State University of. (BLA)
Faculty of Landscape Architecture - Richard S. Hawks, Chair College of Environmental Science and Forestry State University of New York Syracuse, NY 13210
315 470-6541


OHIO State University. (BSLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Douglas S. Way, Chair School of Architecture, Ohio State University 136B Brown Hall, 190 West 17th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 614 292-6263
Oklahoma State University. (BLA - Provisional)
Landscape Architecture Program - Dr. B. Dean HcCraw, Interim Head
Dept, of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture Oklahoma State University Agriculture Hall, Room 360
Stillwater, or 74076-0511 405 624-5414
Oregon, University of. (BLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Ronald Lovlnger, Head School of Architecture and Allied Arts University of Oregon 216 Lawrence Hall
Eugene, OR 97403 503 686-3634
Pennsylvania State University. (BS in LA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecure - Neil Porterfield, Head College of Arts and Architecure Pennsylvania State University 210 Engineering Unit D
University Park, PA 16802 814 865-9511
Purdue University. (BSLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Donald J. Molnar, Chair Dept, of Horticulture, Purdue University Horticulture Building
West Lafayette, IN 47907 317 494-1326
Rhode Island School of Design. (BLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Colgate Searle, Head Division of Architectural Studies Rhode Island School of Design 2 College Street
Providence, RI 02903 401 331-3511
Rutgers (State University of New Jersey). (BS)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Steven Strom, Chair Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey Blake Hall, Cook College, Box 231 New Brunswick, NJ 08903
201 932-9317


Texas A&H University. (BLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Dr. Edwin Hoag, Interim Department Head
College of Architecture and Environmental Design
Texas A&H University
321 Langford Architecture Center
College Station, TX 77643-3137 409 845-1019
Texas Tech University. (BLA)
Dept, of ParX Administration and Landscape Architecture -Thomas MusiaK, Chair
College of Agricultural Sciences, Texas Tech University P. 0. Box 4169
LuhbocX, TX 79409 806 742-2858
Toronto, University of. (BLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Edward H. Fife, Chair University of Toronto, 230 College Street Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1 416 978-6788
Utah State University. (BLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning -Richard E. Toth, Head
College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Utah State University
Logan, UT 84322-4005 801 750-3471
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (BLA) Landscape Architecture Program - Dr. Patrick Miller, Chair College of Architecture and Urban Studies Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 202 Cowglll Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061 703 961-5506
Washington State University. (BSLA)
Dept, of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture - Dr. H. Paul Rasmussen, Chair
College of Agriculture and Home Economics Washington State University Johnson Hall 149
Pullman, WA 99164-6414 509 335-9502
Washington, University of. (BLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Sally Schaumann, Chair College of Architecture and Urban Planning University of Washington 348 Gould Hall, JO-34 Seattle, WA 98195
206 543-9240


West Virginia University. (BSLA)
Landscape Architecture Program - Steven B. McBride, Chair Division of Resource Management College of Agriculture and Forestry West Virginia University
P.O. Box 6108, 1140 Agricultural Sciences Building
Morgantown, WV 26506-6108 304 293-2141
Wisconsin, University of. (BSLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Evelyn Howell, Dept. Chair
School of natural Resources
College of Agricultural and Life Sciences
25 Agriculture Hall, University of Wisconsin
1450 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706 608 263-7300


GRADUATE PROGRAMS:
Ball State University. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Ronald Spangler, Chair College of Architecture and Planning Ball State University
Muncie, In 47306 317 265-1971
California State Polytechnic University. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - John Lyle, Chair School of Environmental Design California State Polytechnic University Pomona, CA 91766 714 669-2664
University of California at Berkeley. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Randolph Hester, Chair College of Environmental Design University of California at Berkeley 202 Wurster Hall
Berkeley, CA 94720 415 642-4022
University of Colorado at Denver. (MLA)
Landscape Architecture and Urban Design Program - Harry
Garnham, Program Director
School of Architecture and Planning
University of Colorado at Denver
1200 Larimer Street - Campus Box 126
Denver, CO 80204-5300 303 556-2755
Cornell University. (MLA)
Landscape Architecture Program Coordinator Cornell University 230 East Roberts Hall Ithaca, NY 14853
Georgia, University of. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Richard Westmacott, Graduate Coordinator School of Environmental Design University of Georgia 609 Caldwell Hall
Athens, GA 30602 404 542-1816
Guelph, University of. (MLA)
School of Landscape Architecture - Walter H, Kehm, Director University of Guelph
Guelph, Ontario, Canada NIG 2W1 519 824-4120, Ext. 3352
Harvard University. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Linda Jewell, Chair Harvard Graduate School of Design, Harvard University 409 Gund Hall, 48 Quincy Street
Cambridge, MA 02138 617 495-2573
- Peter Trowbridge, Program
607 255-4487


Illinois, University of. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture - Terence Harkness, Graduate Coordinator
College of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Illinois 214 Humford Hall, 1301 W. Gregory Drive
Urbana, IL 61601 217 333-0176
Kansas State University. (HLA)
Department of Landscape Architecure - Kenneth R. Brooks, Graduate Program Coordinator College of Architecture and Design Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506 913 532-5961
Louisiana State University. (MLA)
School of Landscape Architecture - Dr. Daniel W. Earle, Jr. , MLA Program Coordinator
Louisiana State University, College of Design Building Baton Rouge, LA 70803-7020 504 386-1434
Massachusetts, University of. (MLA)
Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning -Meir Gross, Department Head
University of Massachusetts, Hills North 109 Amherst, MA 01003 413 545-2255
Michigan, University of. (MLA - Provisional)
Landscape Architecture - Kenneth J. Polakowski, Chair School of Natural Resources University of Michigan Dana Building, Room 2532
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1115 313 764-9315
North Carolina State University. (MLA)
Landscape Architecture Dept. - Deborah W. Dalton, Acting Head School of Design, North Carolina State University P. O. Box 7701
Raleigh, NC 27695-7701 919 737-2206
Ohio State University. (MLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Stephen R. Drown, Chair, Graduate Studies Committee
School of Architecture, Ohio State University 136B Brown Hall, 190 West 17th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 614 292-6263
Pennsylvania, University of. (MLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning - Anne Whiston Spirn, Chair
Graduate School of Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania 119 Graduate School
Philadelphia, PA 19104 215 898-6591


Hew York, State University of. (MLA)
Faculty of Landscape Architecture - Richard S. Hawks, Chair College of Environmental Science and Forestry State University of Hew York
Syracuse, HY 13210 315 470-6541
Texas A&M University. (MLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Dr. Edwin Hoag, Interim Department Head
College of Architecture and Environmental Design
Texas A&H University
321 Langford Architecture Center
College Station, TX 77643-3137 409 645-1019
Utah State University. (MLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning -Richard E. Toth, Head
College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Utah State University
Logan, UT 64322-4005 601 750-3471
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (MLA) Landscape Architecture Program - Dr. Patrick Hiller, Chair College of Architecture and Urban Studies Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 202 Cowglll Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061 703 961-5506
Virginia, University of. (MLA)
Division of Landscape Architecture - Warren T. Byrd, Jr. , Chair School of Architecture, University of Virginia Campbell Hall
Chariottesvllle, VA 22903 604 924-3957
Washington, University of. (MLA)
Dept, of Landscape Architecture - Sally Schaumann, Chair College of Architecture and Urban Planning University of Washington 346 Gould Hall, JO-34 Seattle, WA 96195
206 543-9240


APPESDIX D:
GLOSSARY OF TERMS


MISS FEATHERBEE
Leila Cabib
YOUR BACKGROUND IN COMPUTERS /HOW MUST BE REALLY / DO HELPFUL FOR ^ YOU YOUR NOYEL./f MEAN? BRUCE
•V»v
well, since you do
ALL THESE COMPUTER INSTRUCTION MANUALS. YOU CAN WRITE YOUR NOVEL FROM A SOPHISTICATED TECHNOLOGICAL ANGLE/
BUT, IVY... JUST BECAUSE I MAKE ALL THAT TECHNICAL STUFF EASIER FOR THE LAYPERSON TO GRASP..
DOESN'T NECESSARILY MEAN I UNDERSTAND A WORD OF IT
GLOSSARY OF COMPUTER TERMS
Source: LATIS, Computers for Landscape Architecture I
Algorithm: A rule or method, generally mathematical, for determining an unknown, given certain other information.
Auxiliary Storage/Memory: A means of storing data and programs outside of *he relatively small amount of memory available in the computer itself (FtAM, q.v.). Usually disk or magnetic tape.
Bit: The smallest unit of memory, generally organized into groups called "bytes” (q.v.). The name is an abbreviation of "binary digit.” A bit is always either a “1” or a "0".
Byte: A “word” consisting of several bits (q.v.). Computers are characterized by, among other things, the number of bits in their bytes since this affects the speed with which a machine can process information. Most microcomputers suitable for office applications used 8 bits per byte until 1983. 16 bit microcomputers are becoming more commonplace and some 32 bit machines are on the market.
CAD: Computer Aided Drafting. See Henderson article. Also Computer Aided Design. CADD is Computer Aided Design and Drafting.
CAI: Computer Aided Instruction. See Breeden article.
CBT: Computer Based Training. See Breeden article.
Chip: A tiny wafer of silicon (usually) onto which one or more electronic circuits are photoetched. When the chip has been encased in a protective coating and connected to the system of which it is a pari, it is called an Integrated Circuit (1C). A microcomputer’s operating system (q.v.) exists in one or more IC’s.
Compiler: A program used in microcomputers to translate high level languages, such as BASIC, Pascal, and FORTFtAN which use ordinary words and symbols, into machine language.
CP/M: Control Program for Microprocessors. The operating system (q.v.) for many 8-bit microcomputers. Programs developed on one CP/M system are generally compatible with other CP/M based systems.
CPU: Central Processing Unit. See Ervin article.
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube. Used to display information as in a television or computer terminal.
Cursor: A lighted rectangle or line on a CRT (q.v.) indicating the next position at which inputted data will appear.
Data Base: A body of information, not necessarily computer based.
DBMS: Data Base Mangement System. Any system for the efficient use and upkeep of a body of data.
Default: Default values, default equations, etc. are those which the computer, or program, will use in the absence of any other instructions.
Digitizer: A device which converts graphic information, such as topographic contours, into cartesian coordinates, which the computer can store and process as digital information. Usually a pad or larger flat surface and a pen-like sensor to “read" the material on the pad. Most can only read in two dimensions, such as the x and y coordinates of a map. Some can interpret the x, y, and z coordinates of three dimensional objects.
Disk: A circular platter, incorporating magnetic material either in a thin coating (floppy disk, q.v.) or beneath a protective coating (hard disk, q.v.), used as an auxiliary medium for the storage (q.v.) of information.
Diskette: See Floppy Disk.
Disk Drive: A device by which the computer gains access to (“reads”) information on a disk and puts information on the disk ("writes”) for storage. The drive for hard disks (q.v.) in microcomputer systems is often called a “Winchester” type drive.
DOS: Disk Operating System. See Operating System.


AMD THE UJHOLE THING iUAE CAUSED &Q WOO MORONIC. PIECE OF
JUNK a
Dumb Terminal: A computer terminal with little or no inherent capacity to perform calculations or store results, which is connected to a larger computer system.
Error Trap: A programming device for catching a user’s mistakes, and calling attention to them, before they have a chance to do any damage. See Schmieman article.
Floppy Disk: A thin, flexible platter, coated with magnetic material, used as an auxiliary storage medium (q.v.) with microcomputers. Also diskette. Usually 5.25 inches in diameter. The IBM standard is 8 inches, and 3.5 inch diskettes are becoming common. Floppy disks also vary in whether they are single or double sided, and single or double density. These variables affect the storage capacity of a disk, but the disk drive and operating system determine which kind of disk can be used with a particular machine.
GIS: Geographic Information System. A special purpose DBMS (q.v.) specifically for use with geographically based data. Typically has some mapping capabilities.
Gremlins: See Phantoms.
Hard Copy: Any form of computer output which can be used and moved independently of the computer. Generally printed on paper by a printer or plotter. However, photographs and slides of video displays can also be considered hard copy.
Hard Disk: A non-flexible disk in which the magnetic material is permanently sealed, making it less subject to error and loss of data. Hard disks also have between ten and fifty times the storage capacity of floppy disks (q.v.).
Hardware: The physical components of a computer—the computer itself, the CRT, keyboard, disk drives, printer and other peripherals. Sometimes refers to the chips as well. As distinguished from software (q.v.).
Integrated Circuit: See Chip. Abbreviated “1C.”
Integrated Software: A set of programs which can be used together to incorporate the results of each into a final integrated product, such as a report which includes charts developed by a spreadsheet program (q.v.).
Joystick: A handle or lever used to control the relative location of a figure or cursor by directly transmitting x and y coordinates to the computer without using the keyboard. See also "Mouse” which performs the same function in a different way.
Kilobyte: One thousand and twenty four (1024 or 210) bytes. A unit of diskette and computer capacity. Abbreviated “K” as in 64K.
Language: A system of terms and symbols, as well as rules for using them (syntax). Computers work in “machine language” which is expressed in binary digits, or bits. Microcomputers have interpreters built into them to permit the use of “high level” languages, such as BASIC, which use English-like expressions.
Megabyte: Approximately one million (1,000,000) bytes. A unit of computer and disk capacity. Abbreviated “M” as in 5M.
Menu: A list of programs or commands available for use which appears on the computer monitor on command or in response to certain events such as turning on the computer.
Menu Driven: A software system which is menu driven permits the user to see what commands or programs are available for use without reference to a printed manual, and to use them without regard to any predetermined sequence.
Modem: A MOdulation/DEModulation chip or device that permits the transmission of computer based information over telephone lines, modulating it to be compatible with telephone transmission at the sending end and demodulating it again at the receiving end.
Monitor, Video Monitor: See CRT and Ervin article.


Mouse: A hand held device used to control the position of the cursor on a screen by sensing relative motion in the x and y axes. See also Joystick.
MS/DOS: Micro Soft/Disk Operating System. An operating system (q.v.) for microcomputers. It has become the dominant operating system for 16-bit systems, especially the IBM pc.
Operating System: A “master program” which controls operation of the whole computer system and allows “applications” programs to be run. CP/M and MS/DOS are operating systems.
PC: Personal Computer. Refers both to the IBM model introduced in 1982 and generally to relatively small (e.g. 64K) microcomputers suitable for home use.
Perhipheral: Used as a noun, refers to equipment used in conjunction with a computer, e.g. a printer or plotter.
Phantoms: The explanation usually given for extraordinary system behavior (e.g. losing access to files which are nonetheless listed in the directory) which, after careful checking, cannot be attributed to any known flaw in hardware or software. Such behavior must, of necesity, have a logical explanation, but after a certain point it’s just not worth looking for it any further. Also known as gremlins.
Pixel: The smallest unit of visual information in a graphic display. The better the resolution of the graphic display, the more pixels it will have. The name is a shortening of “PICTure ELement.”
Plotter: A device for graphic output from a computer, using a pen or stylus to draw on paper. Many use several pens for different colors, line weights, etc.
Printer: A device for printed output from a computer, either directly as letters and symbols (so-called letter quality printers) or in patterns or dots which form letters, symbols, lines, shades of gray, etc. (dot matrix printers).
Prompt: A symbol (such "A.”, or a rectangle) or a menu which indicates that the system is ready to receive data or a command. A request for information from the computer.
RAM: Random Access Memory. The memory used by the computer to actually process instructions and information, as well as to hold information being processed. It is an integral part of the processing unit of the computer itself. The size of the RAM in a computer is expressed in bytes, e.g. 64 kilobytes or 64K. Access to any byte in RAM is truly random: the time it takes to get to any byte or piece of information is the fastest possible and does not depend on the location of the last item the computer was dealing with.
Touch Pad. A small tablet used to manipulate the cursor and other items on the screen by translating the touch and movement of a finger on the tablet into commands or x- and y-coordinates.
Touch Screen: A CRT (with the appropriate operating system, q.v.) which performs the same function as a touch pad (above) directly. Available in Apple’s Macintosh.
User Friendly. An ungainly, but very descriptive, term for programs and operating systems which are designed to be used by people who are not necessarily specialists in computers or any specific computer language. User friendly programs accomplish many of the tasks that programmers used to do automatically, ask questions to remind the user what to do next and to prevent errors and loss of data, include menus, and use English or English-like terms to communicate with the user. Byte Magazine has suggested the term “easy software" as an alternative.
Raster: A “scan line” on a CRT or any other device which scans from left to right for display or input of graphic data.
ROM: Read Only Memory. Instructions or programs for the computer which cannot be changed by the user, (e.g. an operating system q.v.) usually incorporated in the computer in the form of chips (q.v.) or IC’s.
Smart Terminal: A computer terminal with some inherent calculation and/or storage capabilities, as well as the capacity to operate interactively with a larger system.
Software: Programs, or bodies of instructions to the computer, including the computer’s operating system (q.v.). These exist only as electronic impulses and are therefore not "hard." See also Hardware.
Spreadsheet: The generic term for a program which manipulates data in columns and rows, such as quantity take offs and standard bookkeeping tasks. Some can be used for more complex calculations, as for matrix algebra.
Sub-routine: A set of instructions, or miniprogram, that the computer can be instructed to use while running a larger program.
System: An aggregate of dynamically interconnected things and/or processes. A system does not necessarily include or refer to computers.
Utility: A program, which must be called up by the user or by a program to operate, to perform some basic chore, e.g. checking to be sure the disk drive is operating properly, getting a blank disk ready to receive information or instructions, copying files onto another disk, etc.
Vector: A quantity having both magnitude and direction. Given one endpoint within a set of coordinates, a line can be defined as a vector, as in Lindhult’s PERSPECTIVE GRAPHICS.
Windowing: Displaying more than one set of data on the CRT (by means of appropriate software).
Zooming: The electronic analog to a zoom lens. Compare illustrations on pages 7 and 40. Especially useful in GIS’s (q.v.).


APPENDIX E:
SAMPLE CAD DRAWINGS


« * »■
M m â– 
% I
HARDSCAPE SCHEDULE
3CC-BT-SK PAW BRJCK HtXO
LAVA BOULDERS (see os seeled)
lAS^CTOM* robuslo M2'
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As this excmple shows, CADscope produces very high quality aid extremely accurate landscape plais. Don't be fooled by the bw pnee. CAD software does not have to be expensive to be productive. CADscope is simply the offordcble CAD alternative.
[xclusive Londscxpe Designs I
CADscape
OBCLISf. inc. 1
U225 »ort* Silt, ley SattsdiU, a S5210
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SYMBOL SCHEDULE
symbol COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
◄ 90—OEG PCF-UP 12'—RAD
120-DEC POP-UP tf-RAE
< ISO-DEC POP-UP lr-RAD
< 240-DEC pop-up \i-m
© 360-DEC POP-UP tf-MD
90-DEC MCRO-SPRAY 7-PAD
<3 180-DEC 14 CRO-SPRAY 7'-RAD
© 360-DCG MICRO-SPRAT 7 -RAD
• DRIP EJ4T7ER
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0 Par-10-PVC ADAPTOR
-> PITER
PRESSURE REGULATOR
S 1* ELEORC VALVE
3 PRESSURE VACUUM BREAKER
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9W 40 1* PVC MAIN LN[ St>f 200 PVC (see as shewn)
s/y poly
mcw-siwr valve
DR P VALVE
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As this example shows, CAOscape produces very high quoity and extremely occuate irngotion plans. Don't be fooled by the low price. CAD software does not have to be expensive to be productive. CADscape is simply the offordoble CAD alternative.
Exclusive Landscape Designs by
CADscape
OBtUSI, ti>c. 1
(325 North MIA fay SatUNih. a 95260
(U2) MM»W And
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