Citation
Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory

Material Information

Title:
Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory
Creator:
Snyder, Edward P
Language:
English
Physical Description:
82, [35] leaves : illustrations, charts (1 folded), maps (1 columns, some folded), color photographs, plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Arboretums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
Arboretums ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 97-99).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Edward P. Snyder III.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13238170 ( OCLC )
ocm13238170
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1985 .S65 ( lcc )

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2250


HISTORICAL
FARM
ENTRANCE FEE
COLLECTION
STATON
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MEADOWS
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U S. FOREST SERVICE
REGION X
DENVER. COLORADO
US AMrfV ENGINEER DISTRICT
OMAHA
CORPS Or ENGINEERS _______OMAHA. NEBRASKA______
SOOTH PLATTE RIVER
CHATFIELD LAKE. COLORADO FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN
APPENDIX "•* TO TMt HAITI* PLAN
GREEN MEADOWS
COUNITV
DESIGN MEMORANDUM NO PC-ID CAPP B> PLATE 14
1

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1 :



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Piney Creek alluvium
Fox Hills sandstone
Louviers alluvium
Laramie formation
Dawson arkose
Slocum alluvium s - pediment deposits st - equivalent fill terrace along large streams
Eolian Sand
Post-Piney Creek alluvium
Pierre shale Younger loess
Verdos alluvium
CHATFIELD
GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS
VEGETATIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN prepared by
Colorado State Forest Service
Geological formation data taken from U.S. Geological survey published reports, Bulletin 1121-L and Professional Paper 421-A by Glenn R. Scott,
Fig. 2.4b - Chatfield Resevoir area, soils distribution.
26


SERVICE CONK CTION SOUTHWEST U TFO
CHATMClO-jNt
SERVICE CONNECTION SOUTHWEST METRO
SERVICE CONNECTION I1 PUBLIC SERVICE CO. |
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SERVICE CONNECTION PUBLIC SERVICE CO
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.SERVICE CONNECTION |
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RESEREO'R
SERVICE CONNECTION ,PJBJC SERVICE CO
SERVICE CCNNECTIO' MOUNTA N STATES TEufRHONE CO
SERVICE CONNECTION PUBLIC SERVICE CO
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I PUBLIC SERVICE CO
SERVICE CONNECTION
DENVER *‘"--
' /platti / can^o*
LEGEND
---BC— BURIED TELEPHONE CABLE
---AC-- AERIAL TELEPHONE CABLE
---p---- ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION
---S--- SANITARY SEWER
---w--- WATER DISTRIBUTION
---C--- NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION
U. 8. ARMY ENQiNECR OI8T8ICT. OMAHA cow** or iNomccM
OMAHA. MCWWABAA
SOUTH PLATTt PlVtP
CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADC
MASTER PLAN
EXISTING UTILITY PLAN

PLATE K
design MEMORANDUM no pc-id
[service CONNECTION MOUlliTA’N
(states TELEPHONE ccu4u'-


WIND SPEED (MPH)
CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADO MASTER PLAN
Fig. 3.2b - Wind velocity by month u s armyWe^ine*RTTd^strk:t, omama
CORPS OF ENGINEERS OMAHA, NEBRASKA
OCT 1972
50


Chatfield
(^Arboretum
Conservatory
An Architectural Thesis presented to The College Of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver
In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Architecture
Edward P. Snyder HI Fall, V985


The Thesis of Edward P. Snyder 111 Is approved
Harrison Phillips,
Advisor
Faculty Advisor
University of Colorado at Denver Fall 1985


Contents
1. Introduction
Project description................................................2
preface............................................................3
Historic Overview..................................................3
Thesis Statement...................................................6
Final design drawings Thesis conclusions
2. Site Analysis
Site Background....................................................9
Location and adjacencies .........................................10
Description.......................................................12
Existing conditions................................................M
Vegetation and wildlife.......................................... 17
Perceptual conditions.............................................19
Soils.............................................................23
Slope Exposure....................................................28
Drainage..........................................................30
The Hildebrand farm...............................................32
3. Climatic Analysis
Climatic analysis.................................................42
Climatic Design Parameters........................................58
Design fx cold and snow...........................................59
4. Natural Lighting and energy
Day lighting goals/ energy efficient strategies.................. 66
Artificial lighting cost control/sun and glare control............71
5. Program
Functional relationship matrix and diagrams.......................77
User function matrix..............................................81
Spatial Inventory.................................................82
7. Building Codes........................................................95
B. Bibliography.........................................................109
9. Appendix.............................................................112


List of figures
2.1 a Regional location map................................................ 10
2.1 b Area map showing proposed future development area..................... 11
2.1c Site plan............................................................ 15
2.2a proposed site development plan by H.O.H.............................. 16
2.2b Land and vegetation Inventory map..................................... 17
2.3 Perceptual conditions analysis diagram.................................22
2.4a Soils distribution map............................................... 26
2.4b Vegetative Inventory map...............................................26
2.5a Slope exposure map....................................................28
2.5b Site drainage map......................................................29
2.6 Utilities and service locations map....................................30
2.7a Hildebrand Farm site survey map.......................................32
2.7b Hildebrand Farm-plan of buildings and key to photographs...............33
3.1 Effects of landscaping on the climatological sheath....................48
3.2a Wind rose for the Chatfleld Public Use Area...........................49
3.2b Wind velocity by month.................................................52
3.3a Sun angles for Denver................................................ 53
3.3b Solar access angles....................................................54
3.3c Plan of solar angles.................................................. 55
3.3d Solar chart for Denver................................................56
3.3e Site tree planting for solar access.................................. 58
List of Tables
3.1 a Mean and extreme temperature summary..................................43
3.1 b Temperature and precipitation- Kessler station.........................44
3.2 Precipitation data.....................................................46
3.3a Mean and extremes of winds............................................47
3.3b Hourly wind speed and direction........................................48
3.4a Sunshine and cloud data............................................... 51
3.4b Solar angles and positions.............................................52
3.5 Heating and cooling chart............................................. 57
3.6 Climatic conditions summary........................................... 64


Introduction


Project Description
The Chatfield Arboretum site has been under evaluation by the Denver Botanic Gardens since 1976 for use as a center for the study of trees and shrubs adaptable to the (tacky Mountain area Small private collections, primarily of evergreens, had been attempted In the Denver area before, but no large scale, scientifically oriented collection existed within 500 miles. Commissioned by the Denver Botanic Gardens In 1978, A master plan for the site by Harmon, 0‘donnell & Hennlger Associates, Inc., suggested a phased development, and that an extended period of time (20 years) will elapse prior to completion of all presently projected facilities.
The Arboretum, as presently envisioned, would comprise outdoor synoptic experimental gardens, a small visitors center, and would include the stabilization and reuse of the existing historic farm structures.
Based upon this master plan, The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory project then departs significantly In the development of a comprehensive architectural program.
Located within the 350 acre site of the Chatfield Arboretum In Jefferson County, the Conservatory will comprise a 35,000 square foot winter gar den and botanic display and development facility for the enjoyment, entertainment and education of the public. Simultaneously, the Conservatory will serve as an enclosed synoptic experimental garden. It will accomodate the introduction and year round research, development, and display of non-Indigenous vegetative and woody plant materials for their eventual adaptation to the Colorado environment Included will be facilities for the support and maintenance of the substantial planned exterior vegetative displays and grounds.
The following sections serve to further articulate the background and thesis upon which this project is based as well as define parameters for design.
I


Preface
The development of the enclosed Wlntergarden evolves from distinctive lineage. From the orangeries and exotic vegetation hothouses of the early nineteenth century to the later Wlntergarden and public promenade, the glass house has demonstrated the traditional flexibility of this pure and utilitarian form.
This section will serve to demonstrate the evolution of the urban umbrella, from glazed hothouse to public arcade. It will identify the the concepts leading to the development and broader use of this aesthetically and emotionally appealing form. In conclusion, the thesis will further explore and articulate the substantive issues that supply these utilitarian envelopes with their ability to be a positive and pleasurable influence on the perceptual feelings and moods of their inhabitants.
Historic Overview
'When subsequent improvements in communicating heat, and in ventilation, shall have rendered the artificial climates produced, equal or superior to those which they imitate, then will such an appendage to a family seat be not less useful in a medical point of view, than elegant and luxurious as a lounge for excerclse or entertainment in inclement weather. Perhaps the time may arrive when such artificial climates will be stocked with appropriate birds, fishes and harmless animals... but this subject is too new and strange to admit of discussion, without incurring the ridicule of general readers."
John Claudius Loudon, 1817
Early in the Nineteenth Century, both in Europe and America, a predominantly economic Interest In non-indigenous fruits, exotic vegetation, and later palm trees, provided a stimulus for intensive botanical research. This pursuit required the creation of specialized environments to allow for the year round cultivation of delicate imported species. Such botanical explorations were supported not only by the public and private gardens and conservatoria which appeared in profusion at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but by the virious horticultural societies which had emerged simultaneously for the purpose of developing non-indigenous species and
2


the exchange of seeds.
Although the early-NIneteenth-Century Baroque, geometrical garden proclaimed the human spirit's domination of nature through a tightly maincured organization, The interior, hot house garden began first to respond to the changing tastes of the public towards the more natural and picturesque in both art and architecture. These new picturesque gardens, although but a contrived synoptic collection of nature, attempted to approximate, In an organized fashion, the superficially casual predlMotions of a natural environment. With the introduction of alien fruits, flowers and vegetation, and the development of a unique architectural form to shelter them, an artificially homogenous environment, now allowed the creation of an exotic, mood stimulating, faraway landscape.
Since mid-Nineteenth Century aristocratic taste still dominated garden design, the extensive European parks which had been cultivated for centuries, were still part of the privilege of the aristocracy, and it is here that the most elaborate and costly glasshouses are found. Although but prototypical and seminal examples of the later urban umbrella, the pure and ambiguous volumetric nature of these lightweight, transparent structures began to suggest that there was considerable latitude In their employment as both vegetative hot houses and public promenade. However, because of the difficulty and expense in producing glass of sufficient size and quantity, it was only after the middle of the century that these gardens and conservatoria, as an adjunct living space and public amenity, ended their dependency upon aristocratic patronage, and came within the means and access of ordinary people.
Illustrating the broad appeal and flexibility of these unique garden structures were two conflicting aims that paralleled each other in their design and construction. One was the development of functional buildings, the other the creation of impressive architecture. While historicism was not avoided in attempts to apply "architecture" to this pure and utilitarian form, the functional requirements of minimal structural member cross section and thin skinned translucent envelope, often reduced the most functional of conservatories to an awe-inspiring architecture of the volumetric. The finest examples combined only the elemental and sinuous beauty of curvilinear glass stretched over delicate structural webs of wrought and cast iron.
3


In spite of these architectural predictions, conservatories and wintergardens remained a genre unto themselves, simultaneously requiring articulation in materials best suited for the translation of light energy to an interior space. Thus, in ideal form, they precluded the use of traditional masonry structural systems usually required for buildings of large internal volume and substantial free span.
Although the picturesque and exotic historicist styles were considered frivolous exceptions to the previously mentioned classic rules, It was clear that an attempt was being made to functionally integrate the conservatory as a public space, into the architectural vocabulary. The defense of the many individualistic aesthetic expressions of conservatory form was in the pleasurable and buccolic environment these spaces afforded to people, which in an evolving hierarchy of use, tended to subordinate the welfare of the plant collection. Further, exotic styles for other buildings were to become a popular curiosity later in the course of of an eclecticism which embraced architecture as a whole.
While it eventually proved impossible to fulfill both aims, the architecture of glass houses, as well as general architecture, moved between these two extremes throughout the nineteenth century.
The early examples of glass houses and conservatoria then impress us chiefly with their consistent functionalism. They demonstrate that the connection between pure function and the raw beauty of structural expressionism was recognized as far back as the beginning of the nineteenth century (though "functionalism" as a consistent movement with a definite program, did not appear until the twentieth century).
With the later employment of iron and glass technology in arcades and exchanges, conservatories, exhibition halls and concourses, the mid-nineteenth century search for quality in pomp and show, bombast and shear size produced breathtaking enclosed spaces. As the facade dwindled into irrelevance, an architecture of the inside emerged. Now there was the enclosure of people en masse, not for a specific ritual as in a cathedral or theatre, but to provide the greatest freedom 'under one roof - a phrase which links socio-economic ideas of fraternity in the free market with the engineering brilliance required for the literal accomplishment of this shelter. 2-
4


The functionally utilitarian green house then, had given birth to the great congregating space covered in glass and steel. Even in its evolution, This form retained its most fundamental characteristic of creating the unique perception of interior space as being neither outside nor really inside, and appropriately , became the most important built contribution to urban culture in the nineteenth century.
While plants In early glasshouses were arranged according to botanical principles, a desire to create an illusion of scenery later took its place. The extension of the greenhouse concept to shelter public spaces came to be predicated upon aesthetic enjoyment rather than interest in botany. These "stage-sets" of a private paradise fulfilled a growing desire of the nineteenth century for make believe and self deception. A love of everything exotic which was also reflected in the furnishings of middle class houses and apartments, was one of the many indications of the rejection of social reality symtomatic of the industrial revolution.
Typifying the mood and associations these vast, light filled spaces were capable of eliciting was the widespread cultivation of the palm tree. If it was the most outstanding and memorable plant among the exotic vegetation raised in these interior garden environments, it was surely because The palm had become a cultivated symbol of the longing for exotic and romantic faraway places. This love of everything strange and exotic answered a continuing human need for maintaining a close communion with natural processes; a need which had already expressed itself in the gardens of the eighteenth century, and was now part of the architectural vernacular. Often cultivated with a variety of strange and exotic imported species, these new spaces tried artificially to recreate a lost purity in their attempt to capture the requirements of nature in architectural form.
"Some of these gardens have winding walks, fountains and even plots of grass and ponds of water, so that the only difference between them and the real garden is, that glass intervenes between the summit of their trees and the sky; and nothing can be more delightful when there is frost and snow upon the ground outside, than to enjoy the genial warmth and verdant beauty within.”
John Claudius Loudon, 1878
5


Thus, the Interior garden had become a land of Illusion, a comfortable place of soothing refuge from the civilized world, and their enclosures simultaneously echoed both the simplistic beauty as well as the functional complexities Inherent In nature. This longing for an earthly paradise enclosed from the elements, which appears universal If not subliminal, has shown Itself again today with winter gar dens and atria once more being Incorporated Into contemporary architecture.
The Thesis
As demonstrated In the previous section, conservatories had come to harbor associations grounded in nineteenth century feelings of the romantic and picturesque represented in nature. These associations coupled with the increasingly sophisticated technology of Iron and glass during the nineteenth century combined to extend the function and use of the conservatory to public meeting, recreation and exhibition space.
The origin of my interest in the architecture of glass houses, despite the basis of their initial development, was not in the first place a scientific one. I was fascinated by the juxtaposition of growing and man-made forms, and by the idea of enclosing nature in a glass case to create an artificial paradise.
Sensitive articulation of this union will support the contention that man made creations can have a just and defendable place in nature if they strive to achieve a dialog of coexistence with, rather than domination over, the forces of the natural environment
The sheer volume as well as articulation of such an interior wintergarden can produce both exciting and positive emotional response from those who traverse and occupy its space. Further, an interior garden facility can serve by displey and function to promote an appreciation for the symbiotic yet precarious relationship man maintains with nature. The conservatory, as nature's house, and as a part of man's built environment, clearly occupies a unique position and advantage in developing this
6


relationship and dialog, which is substantially a measure of the moods and perceptions these spaces are capable of generating.
In developing this relationship, great potential exists in such Interior spaces for creating working and recreational environments that can, because of their proximity to garden processes as well as strongly developed exterior views and landscaping, serve to obscure the perception of being contained within an inside space. This spatially perceived "freedom” within an architectural spacs, described in the previous section, is the requisite element in generating these favorable perceptions and moods and Is fundamental In the creation of a building as "place".
The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory then Is founded upon the thesis that architecture must be a conveyor of ideas, the central function of which Is the mood It induces or Its "atmosphere" - whereby physical forms have the capacity to reflect mental conditions. In the case of the wintergarden, the ability of these structures to Internally accomodate an "outside" environment and by necessity, enclose large volumes of space, serves to make them repositories of ambiguous psychic experience. The functional requirements of light and volume in the articulation of such spaces allows them a strong exterior expression of intent, and Imbues them with the ability to psychically prepare the visitor for an aesthetic experience of foliage and galleries within.
The predominant desipi issue then is finding the mood. Far from being a design generator based on naive manipulation of an inventory of historicist models, mood is founded on the belief that architecture depends In part on Intellectual aid emotional associations to imagery, and in part on empathetic response to form appropriate to the total program of the building To Beaux Arts theory, predominantly concerned with composition, this approach Is viewed as the development of "character", which describes the expressive and symbolic content of architecture. Beaux Arts architects adjusted their associations with the outwardness of what was correct and appropriate, consequently, the character appropriate for a given commission depended in part on historical and cultural allusion.
Clearly then the capacity of architecture to elllclt emotional involvement is a function of Its ability to draw upon a reservoir of meaning contained in universally experienced cultural archetypes.
7


These associations are empathetic, and depend on interrelated kinesthetic and psychic responses to architectural elements and their combinations. These kinesthetic responses are imagined (and sometimes actual) bodily actions to building forms and to building environments. The forms may either force bodily action upon us directly, or merely suggest this action. 5-
The Chatfleld Arboretum Conservatory will utilize imagery that clearly expresses its historical associations with plant husbandry while simultaneously expressing its purpose as a “people" place. The articulation of this flexible facility will reflect Inevitable compromises in Internal environmental conditions; those which are best for botanic endeavors against those most favorable for human comfort. In conjunction with Its expressed scientific purpose, the conservatory will simultaneously invite visitation and use by the public.
It has been demonstrated that the glass house conservatory had become the repository of new experiences: perception of architectural space coupled psychically and klnesthetlcally with its representation of a verdant outside world. Even as a form In transition, from vegetative display to people display, the glazed envelope garden carries with it primal associations with nature and the outside world that depend upon a developed base of historical allusion.
The Chatfleld Arboretum Conservatory then, is intended to be a vehicle for exploring the nature of such spaces as they relate to the pleasurable sensory perceptions and illusions created through large scale introduction of garden to an enclosed architectural volume. Successful development of the conservatory will grow out of not the physical but rather the psychological point of view with reference to the effect of architectural forms on the mind and feelings. It Is suggested that the forms and their physical dispositions, together with the associative recall of past monuments, have the potential for favorably affecting our moods and perceptions. Further, that the strongest relationship between architecture and nature can be created through Introduction of garden into architectural space.
8


Section References
1. The Greenhouse companion by John Claudius Loudon, 1824. From:
Glass Houses and Winteraardens of the Nineteenth Century. Stefan Kopplekamm Rizzoli Books, 1981
2. Architecture of the Western World: Edited bv Michael Raeburn Orbis Publishing, London, 1980
3. Encyclopaedia of Gardening, by John Claudius Loudon, 1878. From:
Glass Houses and Winteraardens of the Nineteenth Century: Stefan Koppelkamm, Rizzoli Books, 1981
Master plan Report for the Chatfield Arboretum Prepared for
The DenverBotanic Gardens, Inc. By: Harman, O'donnell & Henninger Associates,
Inc. Denver, Colorado, 1978
4. Bernard Maybeck, Palace of the Fine Arts, San Fransisco, California. From: William H. Jonty, American Buildings and their Architects.
Anchor Press, 1976 5
5. William H. Jordy, American Buildings and their Architects.
Anchor Press, 1976


Design Drawings








South


Section A


East






Thesis Conclusions
The design of the conservatory building expresses both successful adherence to, ss well as departure from, the original Intents and goals of the thesis project.
Initially, the concept had been to depart in program from the traditional, single purpose glass house and to instead orchestrate the addition of a range of public amenities that would strengthen the attraction of the conservatory throughout the year and in this the design is sucessful. However, the ability of a variety of differently programed spaces to Interact both spatially and functionally with the large wlntergarden has been unavoidably tempered as a result of the necessity of zoning public areas for differing hours of use and to reduce off-hour supervision by conservatory personnel.
Thesis objectives were overly focused on the micro considerations of interior environment design and the capacity of such a spaces to ellicit favorable emotional reactions and associations. It was concluded that the sensitive handling of larger scale issues would contribute as much If not more so to elliciting these favorable responses.
Closer examination of and consideration towards the constraints and opportunities offered by the large open site and the existing access, required pulling back somewhat from the micro considerations of building design in favor of examining more thoroughly the sensitive placement of the building on the site and its relationship to approach, parking, and entry es well as its scale and massing.
Clearly, building design does not begin at the front door and consequently conservatory siting and massing, as designed, reflects an increased awareness that the larger scale aspects of a design problem must be sucessfully addressed prior to working through the details that undeniably contribute much towards achieving the desired psychological responses examined and deliniated in the thesis section. Further, that more sensitive treatment of these Issues can serve to set up in advance for the visitor, a favorable peceptual field, a bases of experience that the building can then reinforce through the subtleties of sensitive interior articulation and design.


Site Analysis


Site background
Denver Is recognized as a regional center for educational and cultural programs within the Rocky Mountain States, and the Denver Botanic Gardens serves to respond to these types of needs. The Denver headquarters at York Street, however, has limited space for expansion and diversification of educational and research programs. When the Chatfield site became available, it was seen as an ideal location for testing and demonstrating species of native and Introduced woody plants suited to dryland conditions.
An Arboretum close to Denver centralizes research needs within an established scientific and educational framework. In addition to the professional community, both tourists and residents of the Denver metropolitan area, will benefit from the lasting scientific and asthetic amenity of the park like collections. 1 •
From the trustees statement of purpose:
The Chatfield Arboretum of the Denver Botanic Gardens is intended to be planned and developed as a permanent collection basically of trees and shrubs gathered with the broad purpose of providing information and pleasure to the public. The collection of plants will include native and introduced species from as large a range of habitats as possible, and will include dangered and exotic species.
Educational programs will be conducted which could range from classes to tours to experimental trials of various plants and scientific research in botany, horticulture, ecology, and related areas.
The historic Hildebrand farm buildings will be restored as a reminder that long range environmental changes have occured and will continue to do so - from the development of virgin prairie to productive farmland through and beyond the 20th Century urbanization. 2-
The information contained in the following sections originates from site analysis studies by Harmon, O'Donnell & Henninger Associates, Inc., Planning Consultants, and is contained in the preliminary, 1978 MasterPlan for the arboretum.
9


The Denver Botanic Gardens is faced with a two-fold challenge, First to meet the problems inherent in the development of a new arboretum; and second, to create an arboretum on a semi-arid, essentially treeless site. Most arboreta in this country have been established in heavily forested areas but the Chatfield site does not provide this advantage. Few arboreta have the added responsibility of historic stewardship; the Chatfield Arboretum will contain a historic farmstead.
Cnil field Arboreium ^ Denver Botanic Cardens v
Location and adjacencies
The Chatfield Arboretum is located in Jefferson County, Southwest of Denver. State Highway 75 serves as the eastern boundry of the property, and Deer Creek Read crosses the northern edge, leading up Deer Creek Canyon into the hogbacks. (Fig. 2.1)
The Site Is located within a tract of land owned by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as part of of the Chatfield Resevoir Project. Although a total of 700 acres has
Fig 2.1a - Area plan
10


been acquired through a long term lease, only 350 acres of this has been designated as the Chatfield Arboretum. See Fig 2. la
The site is within the boundries of land acquired by the Corps to contain the probable maximum flood control pool of the nearby Chatfield Resevoir. This maximum flood would be expected to occur less than once in 500 years.
Notable cultural features near the site are the Martin-Marietta complex adjacent to the south on Colorado 75; the Johns-Manville corporate head- quarters across Deer Creek Road to the north; and the Chatfield Resevoir and Recreation Area across Colorado 75 to the east.
Housing developments extending from Denver are beginning to encroach upon the property to the north with Deer Creek Road serving as a physical barrier.
Fig. 2.1b. - Vicinity map


Description
lying at the base of the hogback ridges fronting the foothills of the Colorado Rockies, The slightly rolling terrain is typical of the high plains extending eastward from the mountains into Kansas. Before settlement, the native grasslands and sagebrush of the semi-arid plains were broken only where intermittant streams gave rise to riparian vegetation.
The major natural feature of the site is Deer Creek, which flows eastward across the site from Deer Creek Canyon. Deer Creek is marked by a stand of mature cottonwoods and other flood plain trees and shrubs.
The Chatfield Arboretum site contains a pioneer farmstead, The Hildebrand Farm, dating from the mid 1800's, which was recently admitted to the National Register of Historic Places. Downstream from the farmstead, Deer Creek School was built facing the river. The one room school was closed in 1950 after more than 75 years of service. Across the creek a second farm, the Green Farm, was settled in later years. The farms were continuously occupied until the Corps of Engineers purchased the land for the Chatfield Resevoir. Part of the mandate from the Board of Directors is to maintain stewardship of these historic areas.
12


Existing Conditions
The Major Cultural features within the site are the existing Farmsteads and the new facilities constructed by the Corps of Engineers.
The Hildebrand Farm, detailed later, contains one farm house and various sheds the condition of which varies from usable to poor. The Green Farm includes two farmhouses, one of fairly recent vintage and one large two story barn which appears to be sound. The old school house has been moved to Its present location by the Denver Botanic Gardens and placed on a new foundation. The school play-ground equipment remains in the original location.
The Corps has constructed several improvements on the site. A restroom facility has been constructed near the relocated schoolhouse with a tile leeching field to the northwest. Adjacent to these two buildings a new asphalt parking lot for about 65 cars has been constructed. A two lane asphalt roadway enters the site from Deer Creek road to the parking lot, while an asphalt pathway has been constructed along the banks of Deer Creek to bridge the Creek southeast of the schoolhouse.
14


t
' t
The Denver Water Board has a waterline running through the site, and maintains an access road on permanent easement from South Carr that extends south across the site to exit on Colorado 75. They have stipulated that they be able to use this road at all times. Because of their frequent use of the road, no attempt will be matte to incorporate it into arboretum uses. Additionally, The Water Board has certain requirements involving rooting depth of plants used within their right-of-way and any plants within this area would have to be approved by them.
15


Fig. 2.2a - A proposed Site development scheme from the 1978 Master Plan showing potential parking and arboretum display arrangements. (Courtesy, Harmon, O'Donnel &. Henninger Associates,Inc.)
16


Vegetation and Wildlife
The site has been farmed continuously for over 100 years. Cultivation and grazing have eliminated most, if not all, examples of original native grassland vegetation. Changes in vegetation, cultivation of the land, and encroachment of city development have also affected the species of wildlife found within the area. Vegetation growth reflects the semi-arid nature of the site. The optimum growing season for native plants is March through August and early spring moisture conditions favor cool season vegetation.
Existing Vegetation falls into three broad categories:
Farmed Land
Rangeland
Riparian
1. Farmed land: Areas which were under dryland or irrigated cultivation until recently. Introduced weeds and grasses have taken over most of the fields. Low shrubs have grown up along previous fencerows.
2. Ranoeland: Occurs on steeper slopes. May contain some native species, but has in the past been heavily overgrazed by cattle and/or sheep. Includes south-facing dry slopes with a dryland vegetation type.
3. Riparian: Includes flood plain riparian thickets (scrub growth along Deer Creek) and flood plain cottonwood biome - riparian canopy and understory trees and shrubs.
Fig. 2.2b
17


Wildlife in the Chatfield area correlates to vegetation types. Farmed land and rangeland support rangeland game; the Deer Creek flood plain supports riparian species. In addition, Deer Creek has been known to support a sporadic trout population during wet cycles. The hogbacks near the site are inhabited by coyote who use the site as a hunting area.
Typical Rangeland game:
Pheasants
Mourning doves
Cottontails
Meadowlarks
Red winged blackbirds
Various rodents
Rattlesnakes
Typical riparian mammals:
Mule Deer White tail deer Skunk Raccoon Muskrat Beaver Red fox Mink
The area is rich in bird life; the Denver Field Ornithologists have compiled a list of almost 200 species known to the general area as either permanent residents or migratory species.
Typical potential bird species include:
Canopy Middle Elevation Ground and b
Dwellers Dwellers Dwellers
Herons Orioles Towhees
Owls Goldfinches Chats
Hawks Robins Warblers
Yellow Warblers Peewees Catbirds
Redstarts Woodpeckers Scrub Jays
Yireos Chickadees Kingfishers
Kingbirds Flickers Thrushes
Starlings Sparrows
Wrens Juncos
18


Perceptual conditions
The major cultural features within the site are the existing farmsteads and the new facilities constructed by the Corps of Engineers.
Perceptual conditions relate primarily to noise and views. Colorado 75 and Deer Creek Road provide sources for traffic noise that are of course louder towards the roads; Colorado 75 to the southeast is elevated adjacent to the site causing highway noise to carry into the site.
ChiifcU Artyrtijm Wf Dmwfctmic Girdens*
Views from the site are blocked in the middle ground on three sides: a ridge north-northeast blocks views towards Denver; Colorado 75 blocks views of the Chatfield Resevoir from all but the southern boundry of the site; and the hills along the southern edge of the site block most views to the south and southeast. Long-range views to the west provide vistas of the hogbacks, and occasional views of the second range and peaks to the south. These views are most pronounced from the vantge of the hills along the south edge of the site.
19


Views within the site tend to focus upon the trees along Deer Creek canyon and the buildings of the farmstead.
Desirable views from and across the site should be maintained. These include views from the entrance and existing access road of the schoolhouse and farm buildings, as well as views of existing riparian vegetation.
20


Views west from within the site into the hogbacks and front range are considered extremely desirable, while Certain parts of the property boundry should be screened. The western boundry should be screened against prevailing winds and views from farms and other buildings to the west.
The boundry adjacent to Colorado 75 should be buffered from views of the highway to attempt to reduce the imput of highway noise. Views from within the site across the Denver Water Board's access road should be screened.
/
21


V iew of Johns • Manvilli at base of Hogback
Obstruction of View
Viewof Second Range Peaks through Deer Creek Canyon

Entrance to Chatfieid Lake
1 mile to Wadsworth [ 4 miles to McClellan F Smiles to Littleton
View ot Warren Peak & Goat Mountain through Canyon in Hogback
3 miles lo Waterloo
Fig. 2.3 - Perceptual conditions analysis
22


Soils
The soils characteristics of the Chatfleld Arboretum have been analyzed and detailed in a report prepared by the Golden, Colorado office of the Soils Conservation Service. The soils identified below have been rated according to their their specific characteristics in regards to moisture retention, permiability, and susceptability to erosion.
In General, the soils are deep enough to permit tree rooting, have acceptable moisture, assuming water is available, and do not have severe chemical imbalances.
Some soils do indicate that erosion could be a problem if the soil is exposed, however, The nature of Arboretum development would preclude substantial cultivation of the soil as is typical in farm use. The fact that the arboretum has experienced successful farm use in the past suggests that the soils are suitable for arboretum plantings.
Flatland soils:
4 A- Table mountain sandy loam (overflow range soils). Site Coverage: 30$
Deep, well drained soil occuring in flood plains, fans and terraces, formed in non calcerous, loamy alluvium; subject to occassional flooding, slope: 0-2$
Permiability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Medium
Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more (deep)
Erosion hazard: Slight
9 A- Nunn Clay Loam (Clayey foothills soil). Site coverage: 20$
Cool, deep, well drained soil formed in calcareous loamy mixed alluvium deposited on terraces, fans and uplands. Suited for furrow and border irrigation. Somewhat difficult to till as tillage pans form easily when soil is wet. Slope: 0-2$
Permiability: Slow (0.60-0.20 in./hr.) Surface runoff: slow.
Available water capacity: High
Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more (Deep)
23


Flatland Hillside Flood Plain
8B 67A
Fig 2.4a - Soils distribution
24


14 A Denver Clay Loam ( Clayey foothills soils) Site coverage: 20$
Deep well drained soil on uplands and high terraces formed in Calcareous, clayey alluvium. Moderately alkaline. Firm and very difficult to till because of heavy clay surface and subsoils. High shrink- swell potential.
Slope: 0-3$
Permiability: Very slow
Available water capacity: High
Effective rooting depth: 60 Inches or more (Deep)
Erosion Hazard: For water: Slight; For wind: Moderate
Hillside Soils
8 B - Altvan gravelly sandy loam (Overflow soils). Site coverage: 5$
Deep well drained aluvlum soil underlain by cobbly sand and gravel. Neutral to slightly alkaline.
Slope: 3-5$
Permiability: Moderate Available water capacity: Moderate Effective rooting depth: 20-40 inches
24 C Renohill - Midway complex (Clayey and Shaley foothills soils): 2$
Moderately deep well drained soils on side slopes and convex ridges formal in calcareous clay loam. Underlying layer moderately alkaline. Moderate shrink swell potehtial.
Slope: 5-9$
Permiability: Slow (0.06-0.20 in./hr.) Surface Runoff: Moderate Available water capacity: High Effective rooting depth: 20-40 inches Erosion Hazard: Moderate
25


26 C Helctt Clay (Clayey foothills soil) Site coverage: 10*
Deep well drained soil on side slopes and upland ridges formed in Calcareous clayey aluvium. Moderately to srongly sloping.
Slope: 5-12*
Permiability: Yeryslow. Surface Runoff: Rapid
Available water capacity: High
Effective rooting depth: 60 inches
Erosion Hazard: For water: moderate. For wind: slight.
53 D Yoden - Midway Complex (Cobbly foothills soils) Site coverage: 2*
Shallow to moderately deep soils, well drained on crest slopes and knobs. Moderately steep to steep gravelly soils formed in cobbly calcareous loamy aluvium, stratified and highly variable. Surface horizons neutral, substratum slightly to moderately alkaline.
Slope: 15-60*
Permiability: Moderate to slow Available water capacity: Moderate Effective rooting depth: 20-40 inches Erosion hazard: For water: High. For wind: slight.
67 A Critchell Gravelly Sandy Loam (Sandy Foothills Soils)
Deep, well drained on high terraces formed in non-calcareous cobbly, gravelly coarse sandy loam alluvium; Stratified and variable in thickness. Neutral. Slope: 0-3*
Permiability: Moderate. Surface runoff: Slow Available water capacity: Moderate Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more Erosion Hazard: Slight
27


Flood plain soils:
2 A Ustic Torrifluvents ( Overflow Range soils)
Deep, well-drained, loamy soils occuring in creek beds; high water table or overflow subject to flooding. The texture is extremely variable.
Slope: 0-21
Permiability: Moderate to rapid (0.60-20.00 in./hr.)
Available water capacity: Low to moderate Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more Erosion hazard: Severe
Slope Exposure
The Arboretum site is basically a flat basin, sloping towards Deer Creek in the center and towards the Chatfield Resevoir to the east. Colorado 75 creates a high artificial berm across this natural slope. Percentages of slope within the site have been broken down into three major categories (Fig. 2.5a).
Over 8%-. Moderately steep to steep - presents a potential erosion problem, oportunity for site overlook. May limit equipment operations.
0&-38: Level to slightly
sloping - presents few limitations to to buildings or operating equipment.
3&-8&: Gently sloping -presents few limitations to buildings or operating equipment.
28


The direction a slope faces determines the amount of sun and wind exposure, which in turn affects the amounts of moisture the soils retain. Differences in exposure and moisture conditions will in turn influence the types of species which should be planted on the slopes. Slopes within the arboretum site tend to turn inwards facing Deer Creek.
The basin shape of the site tends to promote accumulation of a cool air pocket centered on the creek as air currents moving down Deer Creek Canyon are trapped by the highway berm. Some turbulence could be expected to occur as this cool air moves up and over the highway berm. Seasonal prevailing winds from the northwest would be deflected and channeled by the hogback to create a Venturi effect entering from the west.
North facing (11 $): Exposed to winter winds; shaded from the sun.
East facing (2%) : Protected from winter winds; receives morning sun exposure.
South facing (131): Protected from winter winds; receives maximum overall sun exposure
West facing (The berm along Colorado 75): Exposed to winter winds; receives afternoon sun exposure.
29


Drainage
Drainage within the site follows a sheet pattern towards Deer Creek. Some distinct swales and artificial drainage ditches remain from field cultivation but these only carry storm runoff. There is a north facing wet slope at the southeast corner of the site indicating either springs or seepage from a farm resevoir south of the site.
While storm runoff increases during the spring when the creek carries snowmelt runoff, parts of Deer Creek remain dry during the summer months. The maximum high water elevation of the Chatfield resevoir flood pool Is the dark outline that generally follows the perimeter of the site as shown in fig. 2.5b. As the elevation decreases the probability increases that overflow flooding might occur.
30


The Hildebrand Farm
At the request of the Denver Botanic Gardens, Long - Hoeft Architects of Denver, performed a buildings analysis survey upon the existing sructures within the historic Hildebrand Farm. In consideration of The Botanic Garden's desire to maintain these buildings, as well as their potential contextual impact upon future development, the following section provides an overview and documentation of the existing conditions.
The first settler of the Hildebrand Farm built a log house along the north shore of Deer Creek by the early 1860's. There were good reasons for settling in this location. Deer Creek provided water for drinking, for bathing, for cleaning and for irrigation of the land. Mature trees existed on the site adjacent to the house; they provided protection for the house from the harsh winter winds.
Around 1866, Frank Hildebrand and his wife Elizabeth acquired this land, and developed it into a very workable farm. Many different structures were built, all at different stages of the Farm's development, but they were not haphazardly placed on the site.
Like the earliest settler's desire to shelter the house, the Hildebrands constructed many of their buildings so they were oriented away from the prevailing northwesterly winds. The important "triad" for any farm, the stable, milking barn, and wagon shed are clustered together so as to block the wind with their entries facing the south and east. The pole shed is also oriented away from the northwest, thereby protecting the cattle from the wind while feeding at the hay manger and field barn.
All of the structures on the Hildebrand Farm are constructed of wood. Although stone is plentiful in this area because of the site's proximity to Deer Creek Canyon, the material was only used for the foundations of some buildings. Wood was the primary building material because it was readily available and easily worked. Wood frame construction provided for good ventilation, an important factor in designing structures for animals, hay, and grain. And when it was found that a present structure no longer functioned adequately for a growing farm operation, wood frame construction allowed flexibility for expansion. See Figs. 2.7a - 2.7b. (Long - Hoeft Architects, Hildebrand Farm Historic Structures Report. 1980).
32


TP OF ENGINE EPS conP 0F ENGINEERS
100 0 100 200
scale feet
Fig. 2.7a Drawings and property descriptions of tracts *331 and 361 obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
33


1. Farmhouse
2. Summer Kitchen
3. Bunkhouse
4. Outhouse
5. Stable
6. Milking Barn
7. Carriage Barn
8. Hay Manger
9. Field Barn
10. Pole Shed
11. Outhouse
12. Windmill and Well
13. Granary
14. Blacksmith Barn
15. Chicken House
16. Garage
17. Ice House
18. WoodShed
19. Well and Pump House
20. House Trailer
Fig. 2.7b - Hildebrand Farm, Plan of buildings and key to photographs.
34


Illustration 1a The I880's addition is to the left and the original log house is at the right of the photograph. Note the solid railing along the north porch. It is believed that it was added when the west porch was constructed.
Illustration 1b The west porch is attached to the west 1880's addition. The west porch has exposed rafter tails, a concrete foundation, and a solid railing.
35


Illustration 1C Another view of the west porch and the south facade of the 1880’s addition. Tne window on the house closest to tne corner is a casement window and is believed to be a later change.
Illustration 1d . The back yard is extremely overgrown. Part of the framework of the grape arbor is visible here. It is directly over the door to the cellar and aided in shading the door and keeping the cellar cool in summer.
36


Illustration 1e The 1880's east addition is visible here. The porch has been altered since first constructed. A dormer window on the second floor allowed natural light into the bedroom.
Illustration 1f Casement windows on the second floor have four lite sashes and match the appearance of the four over four double-hung windows below them on the first floor.
37


North Elevation
n_ru------1___i
o 4 a 12
Scale Feet
ff
r
Building Section
Sea I e
12
Feet
38


NOFVTH ELEVATION
EAST ELEVATION /fiv


40
SOUTH ELE.VAT1 ONyy-v


Section References
1 â–  Masterplan Report for the Chatfield Arboretum.
By Harmon, O’Donnel & Henniger Associates, April 1978 (Unpublished)
2- From The Board of Trustees, Denver Botanic Gardens,
Statement of Purpose - Chatfield Arboretum-
Golden Area Soils Survey: Soils report for the Chatfield Arboretum. Colorado Office of Soils Conservation Service, Golden, Colorado.
Main office: 964-0292; Tom Priest, Soils Director: 964-0480
Hildebrand Farm Historic Structures Report:
Long-Hoeft Architects, Denver, Colorado: September 1984
Interview: Ray Nielson, Jefferson County Planning Department 1700 Arapahoe Street, Golden, Colorado. 80419. tel. 277- 8699
41


Climatic Analysis


III. Climate
Climatic conditions exert significant Influence on the design of buildings. Significant structural failures are associated with wind and floods, either in isolation or in combination. Additionally, in the case of Denver, snow and its accumulation is an important factor.
While the buildings of early man clearly demonstrated a structural and asthetic development that responded to the requirements of nature, These considerations have, until fairly recently, become an increasingly regressive trait in the articulation of man's built environment.
The rediscovered significance of building climatology has grown out of economic necessity and is principally concerned with the operating costs of buildings. Especially important are the heating, airconditioning, ventilation and lighting systems selected to temper climatic variations, as they all invlove substantial energy input. These will be examined in the lighting and energy sections.
Despite the capacity of increasingly sophisticated mechanical equipment to modify the climate of interior spaces, it remains the task of the architect to examine in detail, the range of climatic conditions affecting a proposed scheme. The development and incorporation of appropriate design responses to climatic parameters often requires a combination of energy conserving strategies. Thus, a broad range of environmental conditions are examined. As land use planning progresses from macro to micro-scale, details of solar radiation, temperatures, precipitation, local winds and slope directions assume Increasingly greater importance.
The following sections serve to define the character of Denver's unique climate. Additionally, assessments are made at the conclusion of each section that begin to suggest broad parameters for design.
42


Temperature
Located on the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains, Denver is characterized by the mild interior continental climate typical of the high, semi-arid plain. The area experiences mild seasonal temperature differentiation, a significant diurnal temperature swing, and low levels of precipitation and humidity. Extemes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5 or 6 days are a rarity and the resulting mild weather and high level of solar radiation, contribute substantially to Denver's pleasant and desirable climate.
Dry, high plains air and pedominantly clear skys, result in a diurnal temperature swing that Is normally greater than the winter to summer swing, which ranges from a monthly mean of 29.9*F. in January, to 73'F. in July. Occasional Chinook winds help to moderate winter temperatures. The average yearly temperature is mild at 50.2‘F.
Table 3. la provides the average Denver temperatures for the remainder of the year while Table 3.1b , describes the conditions closer in proximity to the Arboretum site. (Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and Solar Energy).
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY l°FI DENVER, COLO.
Normal Degree Days
Dally Maximum Dallv Monthly Record Record 90° F and 32°F and
Mooch Minimum Mean Hlp.h Low (Heating) (Coollnft) above below
Jan 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1088 0 0 30
Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 â– *02 0 0 27
Mar 50.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 869 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 85 - 2 525 0 0 13
Hay 70.3 43.6 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2
Jun AO. 1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 0 748 15 0
Auft 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sep 77.7 47.A 62.8 97 20 120 54 2 1
Oct 66.A 37.2 52.0 88 3 408 5 0 9
Nov 53.3 25.4 39.4 79 - A 768 0 n 25
Dec 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 50. 1 JO/. -30 6016 625 32 162
* Lean tha n one half. Soul ca: Department of Coanerce, 1977
Table 3.1a
43


The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory is intended to function as a year-round facilllity. Given the differing program requirements of both large scale enclosed vegetative displays and associated public and personnel support areas, interior temperature fluctuations are expected and will be allowed to occur in response to the differing needs of each area. However, the necessity for the transmission of large quantities of solar radiation throughout the year through the botanic display envelope will necessitate high volume ventilation to prevent overheating during the warm summer and early fall months.
Ventilation problems involve air transfer and are linked with wind and temperature studies. The problems encountered in buildings of large internal volume are particularly difficult to study due to vertical variations in the internal microclimate and the high intensity forces created by the introduduction of solar radiation and requsite space conditioning equipment. Design goals will be to examine the requirements and methods for conditioning such botanical envelopes and to explore the contributions of natural and low energy conditioning strategies.
TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION NORMALS AT KASSLER STATION, JEFFERSON COUNTY COLORADO (Elevation 5495 feet)*
Month Mean Temperature (°F) Precipitation (inches)
January 32.7 .72
February 35.0 .93
March 40.0 1.62
April 49.6 2.75
May 58.2 2.90
June 67.9 1.51
July 74.0 1.42
August 72.7 1.48
September 65.4 1.22
October 55.0 1.33
November 41.9 .95
December 35.9 .58
ANNUAL 52.4 17.41
*Data from climates of the States-Colorado, U.S. Dept, of Commerce
Table 3.1b
44


FREEZE DATA AT KASSLER STATION*
Freeze threshold Temperature °F Mean date of last spring occurance Mean date of first fall occurance Mean no. days between dates
32 5-12 10-09 150
28 4-27 10-15 171
24 4-15 10-28 196
2C 4-07 11-05 212
16 4-01 11-11 224
*Data taken from Climates of the States-Colorado, U.S. Dept, of Commerce, Environmental Data Service, Climatography of the United States No. 60-5. Data in the above table are based on the period of 1931-1960.
Table 3.1b
Precipitation
Lying in the semi-arid rain shadow of the Rocky mountains, Denver's dry, semi-arid environment Is subject to a mean annual precipitation of less than 15.6 inches. The greatest precipitation occurs in spring, during the months of April, May, and June although heavy thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months. Winter months are normally the driest and from November to March, precipitation usually falls as snow. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and has been recorded in every month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24 hour snowfalls recorded are 39.1 and 19.4 inches respectively. See precipitation data, tables 3.1a and 3.2. (Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and SolarEnerav)
45


DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA (inches) DENVER, COLORADO
Month Total Precipitation Mean Number * of Dav9 with Precipitation ^,.01 Inch Snow Mean Number a of Days with Snow 1.0 Inch
Mean Monthly Maximum Monthly Minimum Maximum 24-hour Monthly Mean Maximum Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Feb .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 8 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.25 9 9.6 29.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.55 10 1 . 5 13.6 *b
Jun 1.93 4.69 o.io 3.16 9 TC 0.3 0
Jul 1.78 6.41 0.1 7 2.42 9 n.o 0.0 0
Aug 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 o.o 0.0 0
Sep 1.13 4.67 1° 2.44 6 1.9 21. 3 *
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.05 1.71 5 3.8 31 . 2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 5 7.6 39.1 2
Dec 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.38 5 6.5 30.8 2
Total 15,51 7.31 I* 3.55 88 59.9 39.1 18
* Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day. SOURCE: U. S. Department of Coomerce, 1977
b*Denotea leas than one-half. cT"»notee a trace of precipitation
Table 3.2
Despite the Denver area's generally mild conditions, it's altitude and proximity to winter storms generated In the nearby mountains, requires the structural consideration of potentially significant snow loads, lightweight, membraneous roofing systems involving substantial free spans are more subject to possible failure than conventional systems.
Given the requirements of a flexible program for interior arrangements, especially within the large display area, structural systems and roofing skin elements must be carefully evaluated In terms of their need for support as well as the impact such support will have upon the qualities of the interior space.
Low levels of precipitation , coupled with the significant water requirements of a botanic facility suggest that provision be made for the collection and storage of rainwater and snow runoff. Such considerations present the possibility of underground cisterns supplying a functional storage pond within the display area. Contextually appropriate, such an addition could potentially supply a further amenity to the conservatory.
46


Wind
Wind speed affects all the functional requirements conditioned by climate, consequently, wind data is a key variable in modifying the impact of both temperature and precipitation.
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall. The highest average wind speeds have been recorded in March and April at 10.1 mph and 10.4 mph respectively. Prevailing winds are from the south while stronger winds generally originate from the northwest and can range up to 56 mph. However, sustained winds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver.
Wind speed and direction are important in so far as they combine with outside temperatures to effect desired temperatures within a building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is functioning.
Mean and Extremes of wind are shown In table 3.3a and 3.3b. figs. 3.2a and 3.2b indicate predominant wind direction and frequency of occurence on a monthly basis. (Denver Planning Department. Planning with Climate and Solar Energy)
Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Associated with Maximum
Jan CM Oh S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NW
Mar 10.1 S 53 NW
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 SW
Jun 9.2 S 47 S
Jul 8.5 S 56 SW
Aug 8.2 S 42 SW
Sep 8.2 S 47 NW
Oct 8.2 S 45 NW
Nov 8.7 S 48 W
Dec 9.0 S 51 NE
Annual 9.1 s 56 NW
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1977
Table 3.3a Mean and Extremes of Winds. Denver, Colorado
47


AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.h.) AND DIRECTION AT DENVER
Table 3.3b
tetl l*»((«l 0.1. HMtlMr Ivtmu
UuitM Vlnrf DpnioM 0*nv«r, ilmilM* at or M«r Nolo Poor Offlco
With any substantially glazed, thin skinned envelope, the potential of strong winds requires careful consideration of glazing materials as well as module dimension. In calculating wind loads, account must be taken of the gustiness, the power of which increases in proportion to the buildings height. Introduction of a gust factor is equal to adding a saftey factor in design. Outside pressure on windward and lee sides of a building can vary (at the same height). Maximum outside pressure occurs on the windward side, minimum on the lee side. Pressure variations occur as moving air accelerates over the top of the building, while vortices can form on the lee side, trapping pollutants at ground level.
EFFECT OF LANDSCAPING ON CLIMATOLOGICAL SHEATH
WINDBREAK WINDBREAK ANDCANOPY
Fig. 3.1
Climate parameters are subject to change in the climatological sheath surrounding a structure. Temperature along a sunlit facade on the lee side can be considerably higher than temperature on the shaded windward side. Air velocity within this sheath is affected by the shape of the building, and In different locations can be both higher and lower than than the free air velocity. Pressure gradients occur which can change direction of air currents and reverse planned ventilating airflow through the building.
48


Fig. 3.2a - Wind rose for the Chatfield Public Use area. Numbers show the percent of time the wind is blowing from the direction shown.
49


Sunshine duration and Cloud cover
Sunshine duration Is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to create distinct shadows. As a result of Denver's altitude and high percentage of clear days, the area receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days (10-30$ cloud cover) and 117 cloudy days (80-100$ cloud cover). The greatest amount of solar radiation occurs in July with the least in December.
The Public Service company of Colorado established two solar radiation measurement sites in Denver early in 1977. Part of an extensive southwestern network, these stations provide solar radiation data to public utilities who use the the information for heating load calculations and for the design and evaluation of solar energy projects. Spectrolab SR-75 pyranometers are used to measure hemispheric radiation and although the period of record Is short, the data quality appears to be excellent.
Table 3.4a shows solar radiation data (Denver Planning Department, Planning with Climate and Solar energy).
MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA
Denver, Colorado ______
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number of* Clear Days Number of* Partly Cloudy Days Number of* Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 5.5
February 71 8 9 11 5.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 5.0
July 71 9 16 6 5.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 a 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 5.3
December 68 11 10 10 5.3
Total 70 115 132 118 5.3
Table 3.4a
^Monthly cocala are rounded to the nearest whole day SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977.
51


SOLAR POSITION AND INTENSITY;
SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS* FOR 40° N LATITUDE
Solar Tine A.M. Solar Position Direct Normal Irradiation, Etuh/aq ft Solar Heat Cain Factors, Btu h/sq ft Sol ar T lme P.H.
Al t. Azimuth N NF • SF S SW W MV Hor.
SlfMyER 5 4 2 117. 3 21 10 21 20 6 1 1 1 1 2 7
A 14 A 108 4 156 47 162 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
June 21 7 26 0 99 7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
A 37 6 90 7 266 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 153 4
9 48 8 80 2 262 33 113 192 161 45 31 31 31 201 3
10 59 A 65 A 272 35 62 145 148 69 36 35 35 237 2
11 69 2 6] 9 276 37 40 BO 1)6 88 41 37 37 260 1
12 73 5 0 0 27A 38 38 41 7] 95 71 6) 38 267 12
Half Da v Totals 242 714 1019 810 31) 197 181 180 1121
WINTER 8 5 5 53 0 88 2 7 67 83 69 3 2 2 6 4
9 16 0 61 9 217 9 10 135 205 151 1? 9 9 39 3
Dec 21 10 20 7 29 4 261 16 14 1)3 232 210 55 16 14 77 2
11 25 0 15 2 279 16 16 56 21 7 242 120 16 16 103 1
12 26 6 0 0 2A6 17 17 18 177 253 177 18 17 1 1 3 12
Hal Da v Totals 49 54 380 831 781 273 50 49 282
Total aolar heat gaina for DS (1/8 In.) aheet glass. Baaed on a ground reflectance of 0.20
Renrlnted from ASHP.AF "Handbook of Fundamentals. 197?
EFFECT OF DATE ON SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40° N LATITUDE
Solar Time Winter Solstice Dec. 21 Equinoxes (Mar. 2l/Sept. 21) Summer Solstice (June 21)
Altitude Azimuth Alt itude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth
4:00 a.m. — __ 0. “ -121.3“
5:00 a.m. — — — — 4.2“ -117.3“
6:00 a.m. — — 0. • -90.0“ 14.8“ -108.4“
7:00 a.m. 0. 0 -58.7° 11.4“ -80.2“ 26.2“ -99.7“
8:00 a.m. 5.5s -53.0“ 22.5“ -69.6“ 37.4“ -90.7°
9:00 a.m. 14.0“ -41.9“ 32.8° -57.3“ 41.9“ -80.2“
10:00 a.m. 20.7“ -29.4“ 41.6“ -41.9“ 59.8“ -65.8“
11:00 a.m. 25.0“ -15.2“ 47.7“ -22.6“ 69.2" -41.2“
12:00 noon 26.5“ 0.0“ 50.0“ 0.0“ 73.4“ 0.0“
SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES (in feet per one foot of obstruction]
40° N LATITUDE
Solar Time Level Ground 52 S* Slope 5X N Slope 5Z W Slope 52 E S lope
Winter 10:00 a.m. 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.5
Solstice 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4.7 4. 7 3.5
Equinoxes 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1
9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5
Summer 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
Solstice 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2
7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9
* Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance.
Table 3.4b
52


zenith
Fig. 3.3a - Sun angles for Denver: 40° North Latitude
53


noon
LA'ruOE SEASON SUNRISE SUNSET AZIMUTH ALTITUDE LATITUDE SEASON sunrise! sunse’ AZM JTH AJT > 03£
SO" WINTER 9:00 4:00 129°-33' lo"-30' 3 5" winter 7:70 , „ 53 l’S’-O' 3ic-:o-
Summer 4:00 9-00 S1"-3C S3"-3C’ summer U-SO 7:13 Sl"-30'
45" winder 7:40 -■20 124"-30' 2T-3C 30" winter 7-.00 5:00 117“-3 O' oe’-so'
SUMMER 4:20 7x0 55"-30' S3’-30' SUMMER 5.00 | 7-00 S2°-30' 93" 3C
* 40" winter 7:30 4:30 121"- O' 26°-30' 25" winter 6:50 1 5:10 ::6"-30' 4:’-30'
SUMMER 4:30 7:30 SS"-0' 73"-30' summer 5 10 6:50 39»-3C 53°-3C'
note • these latitudes cover the continental united states, hours indicated are standard time.
AZIMUTHS ARE AT SUNRISE AMO SUNSET, NOON AZIMUTHS ARE ALLAYS 130". MOON ALTITUDES ARE Gl/EM, ALTITUDES AT SUNRISE AMO SUNSET ARE ALWAYS 0*.
Fig. 3.3b Solar access angles
54


Fig. 3.3c - Plan of solar angles
55


LAT. 39°50'N L0NG104o50'W
ELEVATION 5280 FT.
350 N ,0
061
s
0 J-v
Fig. 3.3d - Solar chart for Denver


HEATING DEGREE DAYS. BASE 65* F COOLING REGRFE DAYS
Degree days
The concept of degree days Is useful for determining a buildings energy requirements. Degree day figures help predict energy demand by revealing peak periods of space heating and air conditioning within a facility. Table 3.5 indicates that the highest heating demand occurs between December and January (1040 heating degree days). Degree days based on 65#F. are computed as follows:
Max. temp for the day = 50*F. Min. temp for the Day = 30*F.
Sum = 80° /2 = 40*F.
Degree day base = 65#F.
4Q'F._________
= 25 degree days
k200
\o 65
200
70*
•00
-aoo
NORMAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS NORMAL COOLING DEGREE DAYS SUN ANGLE
Table 3.5-Heating and cooling chart (Source: U.S. Weather Bureau, 1941-1970)
57
SUN ANGLE


Climatic design parameters
1. Slopes east of south are preferable, similar to orientation requirements.
2. A close relationship between building and nature is desirable and possible. Unilateral buildings can be developed with relatively free formations
3. The large range of thermal conditions requires the favorable utilization of radiation and wind effects as well as protection from them. Breeze utilization during warm periods is important.
4. Grouped shade trees are desirable, especially in proximity to south and southwestern elevations exposed to low, strong, summer afternoon sunshine. Tree utilization or placement should not, however, block prevailing S-SW summer breezes. Evergreen trees are best for wind protection, deciduous trees for shading purposes. Tended or un-tended lawn or grassy areas near the structure are useful for radiation absorption.
SITE TREE PLANTING FOR SOLAR ACCESS
MATURE HEIGHT OF CONIFERS NOT TALL CONIFERS AND
10-15' HERE EXCEEDING MATURE DECIDUOUS ALLOWED
HEIGHT OF 35' HERE HERE
Fig. 3.3
58


5. Buildings should open to the S-SE and be more closed on westerly sides. Deck areas, greenhouse and public areas, should be located on the S-SE side.
6. Elongation of the E-W axis is preferable with the optimum shape being 1:1.6.
7. Sol-air orientation of 17.5° east of south secures a balanced distribution. Provision for adequate cross ventilation is necessary.
8. Medium colors are best, with dark colors left to recessed areas protected from the summer sun; light colors on roof surfaces.
Design Hazards of cold and snow
Snow: a mixture of Ice and air; a semi-solid form of water
1. In cold country, the most rigid restraints on design are imposed by changes in the density of water, not just freezing temperatures alone.
a. Water expands as it freezes, producing forces powerful enough to crack rocks walls and pavement; to tear shingles from roofs and to force foundations out of the ground.
2. Fresh fallen snow Is lightweight and Insulatlve.
a. Ice crystals interlock with each other, entrap air and become immobile.
b. Eventually, the sharp crystaline points evaporate, and the air in their centers is filled with recondensed ice (sublimation).
c. At this point the ice becomes slippery and unstable, since the snow crystals are no longer interlocked. The snow then slides off roofs or avalances down hillsides.
59


3. Downward movement of snow on a pitched roof is determined by a number of factors. Among these are:
a. Quantity and quality of snow
b. Temperature of the air and roof surface.
c. Steepness of roof slope
d. Coefficient of friction of roofing material
4. Wet or icy snow tends to stick to rough surfaced roofs of low slope, while loose dry snow tends to slide from slippery, unobstructed roofs of high slope angle. Depending upon slope and weather conditions, snow can stick to the most slippery of roofing materials.
As weather conditions change, Snow and ice can slide from sloping roofs. Although ice dams may restrain snow, ice and water on the roof, once a large enough mass has accumulated, warming weather can cause it to break free, creating danger or damage to the areas below. Ice dams and icycles can break off and bounce into lower sections of the building and this Isa more frequent cause of building collapse than roof failure in deep snow areas.
Ice dams are the most serious and common maintenance problems for sloped roofs. They can prevent shedding of snow from even very steeply pitched roofs. As Snow is melted by radiant heat from the sun or by convection from the buildings interior, ice dams of as little as three inches near the roof edge, can back water water up nine feet on a 4:12 pitch. Resultant hydrostatic pressure can cause a conventional roof to leak.
In locations of significant daily temperature swing through the freeze point, the most effective way of controlling ice dams is to use a warm roof with additional insulation (R-30 min.) so that the escaping building heat melts the snow at a slower rate. A common maintenance mistake when ice damming occurs is to remove the snow a few feet back from the edge of the roof. Since the dam is caused by melted water's contact with cold air, partial snow removal merely changes the point at which the ice dam forms.
60


a. A sloping roof should either be completely shoveled or not shoveled at all.
b. Insulation thickness should be reduced at the roof edge, in order to create a natural temperature gradient. Building heat should be carried out to the roof edge, even in cases where the roof extends out over unheated decks and balconies. This makes water at the eave line is less likely to freeze. Additionally, Snow melt from a warm roof must not be allowed to drip onto a unheated roof.
e. At least the lower ten feet of all pitched roofs should be underleryed with an Impermeable membrane. This membrane should be carried up the slope above the top of the largest anticipated ice dam to assure water tightness. Side walls that abutt the roofline should be similarly protected.
5. Fences, chimneys and other protuberances in the roof plane should be located at the ridgeline or highest portion of the roof. An alternative is to bring them through the sidewalls away from the roof slope. There are no restrictions on flat roof placement.
a. If a chimney or vent must be located at or near the eave line, it should be heavily reinforced, and completely waterproofed. It should assume a knife-like shape to encourage snow to slip around it.
b. The tops of vents should be high enough above the roof so that snow will not plug their openings.
c. Driplines at roof edges should be beyond balconies and decks, and balconies and entrances below eaves should be protected by overhangs.
d. Overhead electrical and telephone lines should never be led into the building under sloping eaves where sliding snow can sever them. Underground utility services are a more practical alternative in snow areas.
61


6. Flat roofs (slopes of 1 /2" per foot or less) eliminate ice damming, sliding snow and icycle formation. Simultaneously a flat roof takes advantage of the insulating properties of snow. A flat roof can be satisfactory almost anywhere in snow country except in those locations without exposure to wind or sun. Even under these conditions, it is potentially more practical to increase the structural strength of the roof than to make the roof steep enough to shed significant snow accumulations.
A Flat roof should slope slightly toward interior drains, which should be brass with copper pipe. The heat of the building effectively keeps the drain free of ice as they are protected from extreme cold by the blanket of snow on the roof.
7. Condensation is often mistaken for leakage in buildings. Condensed water vapor can become trapped within the insulation of wall and roof cavities and freeze in cold weather. Its control is effected by preventing warm moist air from coming in contact with cold surfaces. Since the roof and walls of a building retain humidity as well as heat, an uninterrupted vapor barrier must be created on the Interface of the outer walls and ceilings to seal in warm moist air and prevent it from reaching cold surfaces having temperatures below the dew point.
8. Windows and glazings present a major challenge to the designer in cold areas. Since metal is an excellent conductor for bringing cold inside (cooling warm inside air below the dew point), metal frames often appear to leak with deposited condensation. Under more severe conditions, interior surfaces of metal framed windows can become heavily encrusted with Ice.
a. One solution is to separate interior and exterior sections of window frames with plastic sheet to create a thermal break between the sections
b. Nonmetalic window frames substantially eliminate the problem.
c. Condensation on the window glass itself can often be controlled by mounting the Inner face of the glass flush with the inner face of the wall
62


9. Foundation design is a function of the freeze thaw cycle. When the ground outside a foundation freezes, the entrapped moisture expands, forcing the surface upward. When the ground thaws, it sinks back.
a. The designer must insulate the entire foundation perimeter to prevent the ground underneath from freezing. At the same time, Foundations must be sunk far enough into stable soil so that they can withstand freeze - thaw cycle forces.
b. Foundation insulation should be carried below the actual freeze/thaw layer so that heat escaping from the building affects the surrounding ground as little as possible.
c. Foundations can be coated with a slippery material so that the frozen earth cannot adhere to the building, and the ground can rise and fall around It without damage.
d. Pipes should be placed in trenches below the actual frostline and brought into the building inside the insulated footing line.
e. Sewage lines should slope steeply until they reach a disposal site below frostline.
63


DENVER, CO TEMPERATURE (F) ON 21ST 1 DAY OF
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
DAILY MAX DBT 40.7 43.1 52.1 65.0 71.2 81.3 85.5 82 .2 69.2 65.5 48.9 45.6
DAILY AVE DBT 27.8 31.1 39.0 51.6 59.5 68.1 72.6 69 .3 56.6 50.9 36.5 33.7
DAILY MIN DBT 15.2 20.8 26.2 38.8 47.6 54.8 59.2 57 .3 44.9 37.8 25.6 23.4
DAILY MAX DPT 17.1 22.0 24.7 32.2 43.5 51.8 50.5 51 .8 42.9 31.1 24.9 21.5
DAILY AVE DPT 8.9 15.3 18.1 25.1 36.4 44.7 44.5 44 .9 37.8 24.9 18.5 14.2
DAILY MIN DPT 0.7 8.6 10.6 16.9 28.1 36.4 36.9 36 .2 31.5 15.7 11.2 7.4
DAILY MAX WBT 30.6 33.2 37.3 45.9 53.1 59.3 60.2 59 .4 52.2 45.8 36.8 33.9
DAILY AVE WBT 21.9 25.8 31.0 39.8 47.7 54.7 56.3 55 .6 46.9 39.7 29.7 27.1
DAILY MIN WBT 12.6 18.5 23.2 33.5 41.5 49.4 51.2 51 .4 40.8 33.0 22.5 19.8
NORMAL DAILY SOLAR RADIATION (MONTHLY AVG) BTU/SQ FT(DAY)
J F M A M J J A S 0 N D
HORIZONTAL 840. 1127. 1530. 1879. 2135. 2351. 2273. 2044. 1727. 1300. 883. 732.
SO VERTICAL 1440. 1551. 1572. 1344. 1147. 1114. 1130. 1277. 1535. 1616. 1424. 1327.
HEATING DEGREE DAYS BASE i 55F 6416.6
COOLING DEGREE DAYS BASE 1 55F 967.1
COOLING DEGREE DAYS BASE 78F ET* 144.9
WINTER DESIGN DBT 99. 0% -5.0
97. 5% 1.0
SUMMER DESIGN DBT / COINCIDENT WBT 1% 93.0 / 59.0
2. 3 e 91.0 / 59.0
5% 89.0 / 59.0
SUMMER DESIGN WBT 1% 64.0
2. C.O, 3 9 63.0
C.O, •J ^ 62.0
\ TOTAL HEATING HOURS (LESS THAN 68F) I-V 79.1
HEATING I 40.2 HEATING II 8.7 HEATING III 7.1 HEATING IV 9.5 HEATING V 13.5
0, "o HUMIDIFICATION HOURS VI.A + VI.B 4.5
0. 0 TOTAL COMFORT HOURS (SHADING REQUIRED) VII 9.3
q, "o DEHUMIDIFICATION HOURS VIII 0.0
% TOTAL COOLING HOURS (GREATER THAN 78F ET*) IX - XVII 7.1
o 0 PASSIVE COOLING HOURS IX - XIV 7.1
COOLING IX 0.0
COOLING X 0.0
COOLING XI 3.1
COOLING XII 0.0
COOLING XIII 1.5
COOLING XIV 2.5
% VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS HOURS IX + X + XI 3.1
% MASS EFFECTIVENESS HOURS X + XI ♦ XII + XIII 4.6
% EVAPORATIVE COOLING EFFECTIVENESS HOURS XI + XIII + XIV + VI.B 8.2
% HOURS BEYOND PASSIVE EFFECTIVENESS VIII + XV + XVI + XVII 0.0
DEHUMIDIFICATION VIII 0.0 DEHUMIDIFICATION AND COOLING XV 0.0 DEHUMIDIFICATION AND COOLING XVI 0.0 COOLING XVII 0.0
Table. 3.6 - Climatic conditions summary
64


Section References
Planning with Climate and Solar Energy. Prepared by the Denver Planning Department (Undated).
Mechanical and Electrical Eguioment for Buildings. 6th edition. William McGuinness etal. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1980
Climatic Design. Donald Watson, FAIA, and Kenneth Labs.
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983
65


Natural Lighting


Lighting
I. Lighting accounts for about 20$ of the total electrical energy consumption In the United States each year and up to 35$ of the electrical use In office buildings. Office buildings are characterized by daytime use patterns, long hours of lighting use, relatively high lighting levels, and high I nstal I ed watts per square foot, which results In lighting being the single largest energy consumer In the building. (See Typical Energy Budget Chart, Page 33.)
A. Reductions In lighting energy consumption are thus essential elements of a national energy program to reduce our dependence on non-renewable and politically vulnerable energy sources.
B. Energy conservation practices can provide Improved visual performance and visual comfort while producing substantial energy savlngs.
I. Four different elements In this process can be Identified:
a. Selection of efficient lighting systems and components over less efficient products.
b. Improved lighting design practice which eliminates wasteful energy use.
c. Improved operation and maintenance of lighting systems.
d. A return to a partial reliance on natural lighting techniques.
II. Natural lighting serves several Important functions.
A. Visual power In defining and Identifying space and In articulating circulation patterns.
B. Pragmatic uses to offset electrical lighting requirements.
C. Natural lighting techniques should Include both diffuse light from the sky (daylight) and direct radiation from the sun (sun I Ight).
I. Additionally, sldellghtlng (reflected light through windows) and topi IghtIng (skylights) should be considered.
D. Four major Issues must be confronted before daylIghtlng practice can be Implemented.
1. Analysis and design techniques.
2. ThermaI/11 I urn Inatlon tradeoffs.


3. Sun and glare control.
4. Lighting controls.
E. A full array of sun control solutions Is available and should be considered. They Include:
1. Exterior architectural appendages.
2. ExterI or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, blInds.
3. InterI or sun control devices such as shades, drapes, blInds.
4. Heat absorbing and reflective glasses and films.
a. It Is the opinion of experts In the field that daylIghted offices may require highly transparent windows which Incorporate operable climate management devices such as shades, blinds, and selective films to control excessive solar gain.
5. It seems likely that office occupants will close shades and blinds to reduce excessive heat gain or glare for thermal or visual comfort. They may not be so likely, however, to operate these devices to achieve energy savings. In particular, devices that have been closed In the afternoon to reduce summer heat gain may not be opened the following morning to realize dayllghtlng savings.
F. In designing spaces which are to be naturally lighted. It Is Important to consider that quality of light rather than greater Intensity Is the objective. Some guidelines which should be considered are:
1. Task areas: The lighting level should provide proper Illumination for the task to be performed. In adjacent nonworking areas, lower lighting levels are acceptable.
2. Nontask areas: General lighting surrounding task location needs an average lighting of approximately one-third the level of task IIghtIng.
3. Noncrltlcal lighting: In areas where casual visual tasks occur, a lighting level of approximately one-third the level of general lighting Is needed.
a. The efficiency of any lighting system Is directly affected by the reflectivity of Interior surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, floors and furniture.


b. In general, the designer can select I Ight colors whIch reflect and contribute to the general visual comfort of a space.
Task Areas Footcandles on Tasks
OFFICE
General 100
Drafting 150-200
Accounting 150
Conference 30
Restrocm 30
Elevators, Stairs, Corridors 20
Lobby 50
EXTERIOR
Building 15-30
Parking 1-2
Levels of Illumination
4. To reduce glare ftom uncomfortably bright light sources or reflections:
a. Reduce source brightness by dimming.
b. Relocate source outside field of vision.
c. Reduce reflectance of surfaces surrounding task.
d. Shield sources with baffles, screens, etc.
e. Select sources which distribute light away from the angle of glare and the angle of reflected glare.


Natural Lighting
Commercial buildings present many opportunities for the use of dayllghtlng. Since commercial building design decisions are ultimately concerned with economics. It Is Important to establish the basis for significant cost savings using dayllghtlng.
A. The fact that most commercial buildings have high daytime occupancies the high lighting levels required during the daylight hours Is the key factor In considering dayllghtlng as an energy-efficient strategy.
B. One of the most powerful reasons f or I ncorporatl ng daylight design In buildings Is that, when properly used, daylight provides a lighting quality In arch ItecturaI spaces rarely equaled by artificial systems.
1. Daylight through windows can enhance modeling effects, reduce celling reflections and provide diurnal time orientation by contact with outdoor conditions.
2. Window openings also can provide visual rest when used In work environments.
3. Dayllghtlng can complement artificial lighting. The following rules for dayllghtlng can be used:
a. Design art IfIclal IIghtlng to f II I In areas of room where desired II lumlnation levels cnnot be achieved by dayllghtlng (e.g., near walls opposite windows, areas without access to outdoors).
b. When dayllghtlng Is sufficient, lighting fixtures should be switched or dimmed to lower Illumination levels or be turned off.
c. Use neutraI-coI or InterI or surfaces to avoid color rendering distortion when artificial lighting Is used with day IIghtlng.
d. Admit day I Ight from two or more room sides to avoid sharp contrast between dayl Ight and adjacent wal I surfaces.
e. Admit daylight from high locations at least one-half room depth, that are away from occupants' I Ine-of-sIght.
f. Use transparent Interior partitions (or upper part of partitions, transoms) to transmit daylight to Interior spaces.
g. Avoid sharp-cornered openings which can create high brightness ratios and glare. To lower brightness ratios, splay Jambs and slope light wells.


h. Baffle dayllgh+tng openings so that view of sky Is shielded from occupants In most viewing positions.
I. Use large-scale elements (e.g., horizontal overhangs, deep reveals, or flne-mesh screen, drapes, or blinds). Exterior shading devices can mitigate any unwanted "greenhouse” effects.
J. Horizontal overhangs can be used to project reflected ground-light Into rooms. Concrete, white gravel, white pavers, water, etc., are better ground reflectors of IIght than asphalt or grass.
k. Enhance daylight by using reflectors or topiIghtIng In areas without view (e.g., clerestorles, light shelves) to project daylight deep Into Interior spaces. Use roof coverings with high reflectances to Increase quantity of light admitted by clerestories, and other top-lighting devices, and to minimize heat gain effects of summer sun angles.
l. Use Interior finishes with high reflectances to maximize effectiveness of both daylight and artificial lighting and to soften contrast with sky.
m. Do not use Iow-transmIttance glass (l.e., tinted glass, glass-block) adjacent to clear glass, open door, or open window.


Energy Conservation
I. The energy can and should
consumed by a building during use Is a variable which be control Ied.
A. Some factors which should be considered In the design of a bu11dlng are:
I. Functional Factors
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Building location Building size and function Floor area per person
Size of processing equipment and appliances Building operating schedules
2. Environmental Factors
a. Lighting comfort levels
b. Thermal comfort levels
3. Envelope Factors
a. Orientation of building
b. Shape of bu11d i ng
c. Mass of building
d. Wall and roof Insulation value (U-value)
e. Glass area and location
f. Reflectivity of skin (walls, roof, glass)
g. Skin shading or screening
4. Air Conditioning System Factors
a. System controls
b. Air conditioning system design character!stIcs
c. Air conditioning equipment selection and efflcl
d. Heat recovery and recycling
e. Natural (outside air) ventilation provisions
ency
Energy Source Factors
a. Availability of reclalmable waste heat (One of the most efficient ways to make use of Internal heat gains Is to recover heat generated by lighting systems and use it to supplement mechanical heating systems.)
b. Energy-source selection Electrical System Factors
a. Electrical power utilization efficiencies
b. Energy-source selection


7
Additional Considerations
a. What Is the major supply/demand problem of the utility company ?
b. What alternative energy sources are available?
c. What Is the utility rate structure and how will it affect energy use?
d. How will building operation schedules affect energy use?
B. Some other energy use questions which must be answered by the designer are:
1. Is the building going to be Internally or externally dominated? (Buildings with high surface-to-volume ratios (houses, small commercial) are externally dominated; bu 11 dIngs w I th low surface-to-volume ratios tend to be Internally dominated.)
2. How will climate affect building energy use?
3. Is the building type predominantly passive or active in nature?
4. Is the primary problem energy demand or consumption?
5. Are there sources of reclalmable waste heat available?
6. What energy concepts enhance the project's priorities?
7. Is there a process within the building that has special energy features or energy effects?
Choosing a particular concept should come after some analysis, and should be evaluated In terms of Its effect on the energy meter.
II. Energy conserving design can have a deleterious effect on safety in buildings. Some considerations for which compensating design features or equipment must be provided Include:
A. Openings for cross-ventlIatlon and dayllghtlng purposes will tend to disrupt fire development In rooms. Where ventilation Is sufficient and fuel load sma I I, fires can be of short duration with relatively low tempertures due to Infiltration of cooler outdoor air.
B. Tightly sealed buildings with few openings tend to reinforce fire development by creating smokey, hot destructive fire conditions of prolonged duration.


C. External solar shading devices (e.g., egg crate, sculptured block, expanded metal) can restrict emergency escape and access to buildings by fire fighters.
D. Locating buildings on steep slopes to take advantage of beneficial microclimate effects can restrict fire apparatus access. For example, buildings at the edge of cliffs or other steep grades may restrict access to only one side.
References: Egan, M.D., Concents In Building FI resafety.
John Wiley 4 Sons, 1978 Lerup, L. et a|.. Learning From Fire: A Fire
Protection Primer for Architects. National Fire Prevention 4 Control Administration, 1977


skin and mechanical capital costs $/sf
6 7 8 9
annual.operating energy cost $1000/Vr
9 8 8 3
T- T“ T“ T-
r- r T \ \ T* 11'-6 BUILDING HEIGHT
1 V 13'-6 BUILDING HEIGHT
v* ^>•75$ WINDOW/25$ WALL
0^^ 25$ WINDOW/75$ WALL
V 5' HORIZONTAL OVERHANG
s / A 5' VERTICAL FINS
/ 5' SOUTH OVERHANG/E-W FINS
/ / / _ 5' OVERHANG WAFFLE
—7 / ONE TWO-STORY BUILDING
r ONE TWO-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION
Ns > / THREE TWO-STORY BUILDING
/ r THREE TWO-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION
capital vs energy costs
COMPARISON OF SKIN AND MECHANICAL COST AND ANNUAL ENERGY OPERATING COSTS
FROM ENERGY IN DESIGN: TECHNIQUES THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS


A i BUILDING A ENVELOPE
Typical Energy Budget
A. Building Envelope 10.5%
1. Walls + Windows 9.0%
2. Roof, Floor + Skylights 1.5%
B. Building Contents 39.5%
3. Occupants 2.5%
4. Appliances 5.0%
5. Elevators,Motors,Fans+Misc 15.0%
6. Water Heating 5.0%
7. Ventilation 12.0%
C. Lighting Systems 50.0%
8. Task + Gen'l Illumination 48.0%
9. CXitdoor + Special 2.0%
D. Total Energy Budget 100.0%


Program


V. Program
The Chatfleld Arboretum Conservatory program represents a framework for the Development of the arboretum site to best meet the needs of public display, scientific and educational research, Historic Stewardship, and administrative and maintenance functions. It is a synthesis of the purposes of the arboretum; the demands of the site, the facility requirements and the potential needs of future users. As a preliminary step, functional relationships were determined and related to the site.
Site:
1. Access to the site Is soley vehicular. Vehicular circulation within the site will form a loop system with parking for 200 cars and will be segregated from the core areas. The small, strategically located, existing parking lot adjacent to the school house will be removed; supplanted by new more sensitively designed perking area Interfaced within a "loop" circulation system that would be integrated with the existing access road Parking for up to 300 cars may eventually be required based on the figure of 1000 visitors during peak hour (see fig. 5.4). In addition, parking for busses and recreational vehicles is required. 18 Busses will be accomodated A tramway using electric powered vehicles has been considered by the Denver Botanic Gardens for future use.
This would parallel selected portions of the pedestrian system, making the site and the conservatory more accessible for those unwilling or unable to walk from parking or through the entire arboretum. The system would also provide a convenient mode for guided tours. However, it is held that Implementation of any such system would not occur for several years.
77


2. The Hildebrand farm will serve primarily as a museum of pioneer life and of the early years of the 20th century. Light uses will be incorporated In the main farmhouse depending on the expanding needs of both the conservatory and the arboretum; these spaces could serve as additional meeting rooms for public lectures, and classrooms.
3. The existing restroom shelter constructed by the Corps of Engineers Is to be removed, Visually unappealing and Inappropriately located, the building's function will be supplanted by Improved facilities In the new conservatory building.
4. The Denver Botanic gardens wants a caretaker to reside on the premises; the larger house on the Green Farm would be used for this purpose.
Conservatory:
The conservatory Is Intended to form a transition point from parking and arrival, to a site encompassing pedestrian circulation system linking exterior display areas (See Fig. 2.2a, p.16). The conservatory's fundamental purpose will be to accomodate three primary functions:
I. Provision of a base facility for the administration, development and support of
exterior arboretum displays and grounds. Administrative and maintenance operations form a functional core for the arboretum. The restored school house
and Hildebrand farm add to and extend this core along riparian areas adjacent to
Deer Creek.
Administration needs include office space and library space. 600 square feet has been allocated for employee facilities including office space requirements for a total of 10 administrative and maintenance employees. The library and book storage will require approximately 1500 square feet.
78


Close linkages with both Interior and exterior experimental displays will facilitate maintenance, and support disemination of Information as well as experimental samples of Introduced vegetation to the public.
Parking for administrative and maintenance employees, Including visiting researchers, could be accomodated by 25 spaces.
Maintenance needs would Include nursery space and propagation areas, vehicle maintenance and storage, equipment maintenance and storage, and employee facilities. Nursery space would require approximately three acres with a portion of this space accrued to the conservatory gardens. In addition, greenhouse and lath house space needs would be assumed by the conservatory structure. A total of 20,000 square feet have been allotted for these functions.
Vehicle maintenance and storage will require approximately 4000 square feet.; None of the existing barn structures are assumed to be adequate for these needs except potentially as overflow storage. Additional outdoor, screened storage areas will be required for Irrigation equipment. Primary space needs Include:
1. Administrative offices, Information and reception
2. Maintenance and grounds personal offices
3. Employee support facilities, lounge, computer rooms, and storage
4. Vegetation sales, cutting and potting areas
5. Grounds maintenance equipment, storage and repair
2. The conservatory will serve in the creation of a Winter gar den environment for the enjoyment, entertainment and education of the public with functional design emphasis placed on wintertime use. The major use of the conservatory will be to present botanic and experimental displays in a temperate and humanly comfortable environment that parallel and synopslze those occuring within the considerable extent of the arboretum grounds.
Displays and public circulation will be an integral part of the 20,000 square feet allotted for the conservatory greenhouse.
Anticipating the need for an auditorium and or multi-purpose space, the
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conservatory will have the potential to accomodate more flexible display needs, increased library needs and to provide a flexible meeting space for up to 200 persons; 4000 square feet is required.
Administrative functions as well as educational and recreational areas are to bear separate but distinct relationships with display areas in order to strengthen the relationship and contact between living, working and recreational spaces to their pastoral garden context Primary spaces required:
1. Year round interior sample and experimental demonstration gardens
2. Related display and exhibit spaces
3. lounging, reading and contemplative areas.
3. Auditorium/ theatre - lecture hall
4. Class room(s)
5. Horticultural accessories and gift shop
3. The conservatory will accomodate the importation, research and experimentation on non-indigenous woody and vegetative plant materials for the purpose of introducing them to the Colorado landscape environment, the landscape proffesslon and the home gardener.
Experimental plantings will be integrated to test the suitability of introduced species of less certain performance under local conditions. Because of the adverse nature of pre-existing environment of the arboretum site, protection and year round display of less hardy species will be accomplished by incorporating them into interior displays.
Laboratory space needs encompass 1000 square feet. These spaces ore required to be flexible; either expanding into classroom spaces or in turn, serving as classrooms. Primary spaces required:
1. Exterior and tempered interior experimental garden areas
2. Private research/office spaces
3. Library and reading areas
4. Workrooms
5. Yisiting and resident researcher support areas
6. Plant sales/ research interface with public inquiryf Information)
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Full Text

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c 0 L •• 16 I> 2 1 22 u G .. G I Fig. 2.6 -Utilities location map A.U tN 'Ul "Jw:uJ 1 !% , 31 N .. 2 1 THi a .. .. IIt8 CDNTitACT N D MDDirlCA, ION NO LEGEND -!:c -B URIED TELEPHONE C.O.BLE -AC -.O.ERtAL TEL EPHONE CABLE P ELECTRIC.O.L DISTRIBUTION -sS.O.NIT.O.RV SEWER -w-WATER D ISTRIBUTION G -N.O.TURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION U . a . AIIIMY ENOI NIEEIII O laTIIIICT, OMAHA. DQit,-a D, CHDINEitlta DNA .... Hlt8 .. AaK.A SOUTH "'-ATT[ ... lvtllt ............. CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORAD O PLAN UTIUTY PLAN ..... DESIG N I.IEI.IORANDUM NO PC-10 P ATC &:: 0 ----.:::r---

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2250 I z Q. w OU'l _Iii) Q. g >m w 2000 z z w oo w UJ > w w wo Q. a.. 0 a:W 0 g ::>W ...J w w w (/) :>I > > "-(/) w w ::r < z z z Q. w w 0 0 w 0 C> w w a: wz 1750 Q. Q. (/) Cl. (/) I') CDO 0 0 < < "-_I ...J ::r ...J ::r 0 w w Q. w Q. > > w w > 0 0 w 0 (/) 0 z w w (IJ U') (/) (/) w 0 < < "(/) "-1500 ::r ::r 0 < 0 z Q. Q. ::r < z Q. z U') 0 0 0 0 (/) z ::> (IJ a: UJ I') UJ 0 ...J _I :t: z z Cl. z Q. \5 C> \5 UJ UJ 0 UJ 0 1250 CD ID u CD u z z 0 1000 U') > ...J < ::> z z 1M < 500 250 _________ 19_8_0 _________ 19_8_1 ________ _JI962 CALENDER YEAR DESIGN , 1983 1984 1985 SOUTH PLATTE RIVER CHATFIELD LAKE, COLORADO MASTER PLAN VISITATION CURVE AND F'ACILITY DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE U . S . ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT OMAHA CORPS OF ENGINEERS OMAHA, NEBRASKA OCT. 1972 EMO . NO . PC -I D PLATE 2 0 75 1 6

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Chatfield <:.Arboretum I r , n 1 !_ • ' , I . •"."l r---. -<. ') • . .. ---1 .. -... -. .. -----------. I . . .... i I I .................. l r-----"----L ------------11 ---... -.,_An Architectural Thesis presented to The College Of Design and Planning University of at Denver In Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture Edward P. Snyrer Ill Fall, l985 i

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The Thesis of Edward P. Snyder Ill Is approved Faculty Advisor University of COloraoo at Denver Fall 1985

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Contents 1. I ntroduct ton Project description ...................................................................................... 2 prefo .......................................................................................................... 3 Historic Overview ......................................................................................... 3 Thesis Statement .......................................................................................... 6 Flnel design t-awlngs Thesis conclusions 2. Site Analysts Site Baoround ............................................................................................ 9 LOC8tlon end adjecencles .............................................................................. 10 Description ................................................................................................... 12 Exlstlno conditions ....................................................................................... 1 'I Vegetation end wildlife ................................................................................. 17 PerceptU81 conditions .................................................................................... 19 Soils .............................................................................................................. 23 Slope Exposure ............................................................................................. 28 Drelneae ........................................................................................................ 30 The Hlldebrend farm .................................................................................... 32 3. CllllltiC Analysts Cllmetlc enelysis ........................................................................................... 42 Climatic Desi(Jl Parameters ......................................................................... 58 Design for mld and snow ............................................................................... 59 4. Natural Lighting end energy Day pls/ enerw efficient strategies.......................................... 66 oost mntrol/sun Rl glare mntrol................................. 71 5. Proor• Functional relationship matrix Sld dlev-arns ............................................ 77 User function matrix ................................................................................... 61 Spetlel Inventory .......................................................................................... 82 1. Building Codas ................................................................................................ 95 8. Bibliography ............................................................................................... I 09 9. Appendlx ......................................................................................................... ll2

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L 1st of figures 2. 11 Regional location map ................................................................................... I 0 2. I b Area map showing proposed future development orea .. . ... ....... ............... ...... II 2.1c Site plllt ........................................................................................................ 15 2.21 proposed site development plan by H.O.H ................................................... 16 2.2b land 8lld vegetation Inventory map .............................................................. 17 2.3 Perceptuel cond1t1ons 81181ys1s d18Jr81Tl ...................................................... 22 2. 4e Soils distribution map ................................................................................ 26 2.1b Veget8t1ve Inventory map ............................................................................ 26 2.58 Slope exposure map ..................................................................................... 28 2. 5b Stte dr81nage map ......................................................................................... 29 2.6 Ut111t1es 8lld service locations map .............................................................. 30 2. 71 H11dabr81ld Farm site survey map ............................................................... 32 2. 7b H11dabrmd Farm-plm of bu11dlnos llld lcey to photoTephs ........................ 33 3. 1 Effects of 18r'ldsc8ptno on the clfmatolOJ1cal sheath ...................................... 48 3.21 Wind rose for the Chatfield Publtc UseAree ............................................... 49 3.2b Wind velocity by month ................................................................................ 52 3.38 Sun angles for Denver ................................................................................. 53 3.3b Solar access angles ....................................................................................... 54 3.3c Pl8fl of solar angles ...................................................................................... 55 3.3cl Solar chert for Denver ................................................................................. 56 3.3e Site tree pl81"1ting for solar access ............................................................... 58 List of Tables 3. 11 Mean 8lld extreme temperature summary ........................... .... .. .... ......... ...... 43 3. I b Temper8ture llld preclpltotion-Kmsler st8t1on ......................................... 44 3.2 Precipitation d8ta ............................................................................................ 46 3.3a Mean end extremes of winds .......................................................................... 47 3.3b Hourly wind speed 8lld direction .................................................................. '48 3.11 Sunshine and cloud data ................................................................................ 51 3.1b Solar angles end positions ............................................................................ 52 3.5 Heat1ng and aD ling chart .............................................................................. 57 3.6 Climatic conditions summary ....................................................................... 64

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Introduction

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Project Descrtptton The Chatfield Arboretum site has been under evaluation by the Denver Botanic eardens since 1976 for use as a center for the study of trees and shrubs adaptable to the Rocky Mountain area Small private rollectfons, primarily of evergreens, h((l been attempted in the Denver area before, but no large scele, scientifically oriented rollect1on existed w1tflln 500 miles. Commissioned by the Denver Botanic 68nBls In 1978, A master plan for ttl8 stte by Harmon, O'mnnell & Hennigar Assooiates,Jnc., suggested a phased revelopment, ll'ld that on exterxEd perioo of time (20 years) will elapse prior to completion of all presently projected factllt1es. The Arboretum, es presently envisioned, would axnprise outcmr synoptic experimental gardens, a small visitors center, and would include the stabi11zation and reuse of the existing historic farm structures. Based upon this master plan, The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory project then departs significantly tn the development of a comprehensive architectural prcgram. Located w1tflin the 350 acre site of the Chatfield Arboretum In Jefferson County, the Conservatory will mmprise a 35,000 foot wintergarden and botanic display and development fm:llity for the enjoyment, entertzlinment 51d eduartion of the public. Simultaneously. the Conservatory wtll serve as en enclosed synoptic experimental garden. It will eccomooate the intrOOUction and year round research, development, and d1spllt( of non-indigenous vegetattve and wll,' plant materials for their eventual adaptation to the Coloram environment Included will be facilities for the support and maintenance of the substantial planned exterior vegetative dtsp16YS and grounds. The following sections serve to further articulate the background and thesis upon which this project is based as well as anine parameters for design.

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Preface The development of the enclosed Wlntergar03n evolves from distinctive lineage. From the orargrles and exotic vegetation hothouses of the early nineteenth century to the later Wlntet Q81'1En end public prom8flD, the aless house has demonstrated the traditional flexlb1Hty of this pure and uti11tarlen form. This section will serve to demonstrate the evolution of the urban umbrella, from glezed hothouse to public arcade. It wm Identify the the concepts leming to the development end broader use of this aesthetlcelly 8f1d emotionally appealing form. In conclusion, the thesis will further explore and articulate the substantive Issues that supply these utilitarian envelopes their ability to be a positive and pleasurable influence oo the perceptual feelings and moo:ts of their inh8bitents. Historic Overview 'When subsequent improvements In communiC8t1ng heat, 8lld in ventilation, shall h8ve re.1del ed the artificial climates prOOuced, equal or superior to those which they imitate, then w111 such an appendage to a family seat be not less useful In a medlcel point of view, than elegant and luxurious ss a lounge for excerclse or entertainment In Inclement wecrther. Perhaps the time moy arrive when such artificial climates will be stoclced with appropriate birds, fishes and harmless animals ... but ttlls subject Is too new 8lld strange to oomlt of dlscussioo, without incurring the ridicule of general reemrs. • John Claudius loumn, 1817 1. Early In the Nineteenth Century, both In Europe end Americe, a premminantly economic Interest In non-Indigenous fruits, exotic vegetatloo, 8lld later palm trees, provtcEd a stimulus for intensive botanlcel 'Ch. This pursuit required the cretrt.ion of speclaltzed environments to allow for the year round of dellcete Imported species. SUch botanlcel explorations were supported not only by the public and private gardeltS and conservatoria which appeared in profusion at the beginning of the nineteenth century, but by the horticultural societies which had em8f'\1ld simultaneously for the purpose of developing non-indigenous species and 2

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the exchange of seeds. Although the early-Nineteenth-Century BarOCjue, geometrical garden proclaimed the human spirit's oomination of nature through a tightly maincured organization, The interior, hot house garden began first to respond to the changing tastes of the public towards the more natural and picturesque in both art and architecture. These new picturesque gardens, although but a contrived synoptic collection of nature, attempted to approximate, In an organized fashion, the superf1clally casual pred1llctlons of a natural environment. With the introouction of alien fruits, flowers and vegetation, and the development of a unique architectural form to shelter them, an artificially homi)Jenous environment, now allowed the creation of an exotic, mood stimulating, far landscape. Since mid-Nineteenth Century aristocratic taste still oominated garden design, the extensive European parks which had been cultivated for centuries, were still part of the privilege of the arlstoc:rocy, and It Is here that the most elaborate and costly glasshouses are found. Although but prototypical and seminal examples of the later urban umbrella, the pure and ambiguous volumetric nature of these lightweight, transparent structures began to suggest that there was considerable latitude In their employment as both vegetative hot houses ond public promenade. However, because of the difficulty and expense in prooucing glass of sufficient size and quantity, it was only after the middle of the century that these gardens and conservatoria, as an adjunct living space and public amenity, ended their dependency upon aristocratic patronage, and came within the means and access of ordinary people. Illustrating the broOO appeal and flexibility of these unique garden structures were two conflicting aims that paralleled each other in their design and construction. One was the development of functional buildings, the other the creation of impressive architecture. While historicism was not avoided in attempts to apply "architecture" to this pure and utilitarian form, the functional requirements of minimal structural member cross section and thin skinned translucent envelope, often reduced the most functional of conservatories to an awe-inspiring architecture of the volumetric. The finest examples combined only the elemental and sinuous beauty of curvilinear glass stretched over delicate structural webs of wrought and cast iron. 3

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In spite of these architectural predilictions, conservatories and wintergardens remained a genre unto themselves, simultaneously requiring articulation in materials best suited for the translation of light energy to an interior space. Thus, in ideal form, they preclured the use of trooitional masonry structural systems usually required for buildings of large internal volume and substantial free span. Although the picturesque and exotic historicist styles were considered frivolous exceptions to the previously mentioned classic rules, It was clear that an attempt Wf!S being made to functionally integrate the conservatory fiS a public into the architectural vocabulary. The defense of the many individualistic aesthetic expressions of conservatory form was in the pleasurable and buccolic environment these spoces afforded to people, which in an evolving hierarchy of use, tended to subordinate the welfare of the plant collection. Further. exotic styles for other buildings were to become a popular curiosity later in the course of of an eclecticism which embraced architecture as a whole. While it eventually proved impossible to fulfill both aims, the architecture of glass hou385, fiS well os general architecture, moved between these two extremes throughout the nineteenth century. The early examples of glass houses and conservatoria then impress us chiefly with their consistent functionalism. They demonstrate that the connection between pure function and the raw beauty of structural expressionism was recognized as far back as the beginning of the nineteenth century (though "functionalism" as a consistent movement with a definite program, did not appear until the twentieth century). With the later emplayment of iron and glass technoloqy in arcades and exchanges, conservatories, exhibition halls and concourses, the mid-nineteenth century search for quality in pomp and show, bombast and shear size produced breathtaking enclosed spaces. As the facade dwindled into irrelevance, an architecture of the inside emerged. Now there was the enclosure of people en masse, not for a specific ritual as in a cathedral or theatre, but to provide the greatest freedom 'under one roof -a phrase which links socio-economic iooas of fraternity in the free market with the engineering brilliance required for the literal accomplishment of this shelter. 2. 4

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The functionally utilitarian green house then, had given birth to the great congregating space covered in glass and steel. Even in its evolution, This form retained its most fundamental characteristic of creating the unique perception of interior space as being neither outside nor really inside, and appropriately , became the most important built contribution to urban culture in the nineteenth century. Wh11e plants tn early glasshouses were arranged according to botanical principles, a desire to create an illusion of scenery later took its place. The extension of the greenhouse concept to shelter public spaces came to be predicated upon aesthetic enjoyment rather than interest in botany. These "stage-sets" of a private paradise fullfilled a growing desire of the nineteenth century for make believe and self deception. A love of everything exotic which was also refiected in the furnishings of middle class houses and apartments, was one of the many indications of the rejection of social reality symtomatic of the industrial revolution. Typifying the mood and associations these vast, light filled spaces were capable of eliciting wHS the widespread cultivation of the palm tree. If it was the most outstanding and memorable plant among the exotic vegetation raised in these Interior garden environments, it was surely because The palm had become a cultivated symbol of the longing for exotic and romantic faraway places. This love of everything strange and exotic answered a continuing human need for maintaining a close communion with natural processes; a need which had alreac:ty expressed itself in the gardens of the eighteenth century, and was now part of the architectural vernacular. Often cultivated with a variety of strange and exotic imported species, these new spaces tried artificially to recreate a lost purity in their attempt to capture the requirements of nature in architectural form. "Some of these gardens have winding walks, fountains and even plots of grass and ponds of water, so that the only difference between them and the real garden is, that glass intervenes between the summit of their trees and the sky; and nothing can be more delightful when there is frost and snow upon the ground outside, than to enjoy the genial warmth and verdant beauty within." John Claudius Loudon, 1878 3. 5

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Thus, the fnterfor garren tai become a lend of 111usfon, a comfortable pla of soothing refuge from the civi11zed world, end their enclosures simultaneously echoBd both the simplistic beauty 8S well es the functional complexities inherent in nature. This longing for en earthly per8d1se enclosed from the elements, which appears univarselif not sub liminal, has shown itself again with wintergardans and atria once more be1ng 1ncorpor8ted 1nto contemporery erch1tecture. The Thesis As demonstr8ted in the previous sectfon, cmserv8tories hsi arne to herbor essoci8tions grouncEd in nineteenth century feel1ngs of the romentic end picturesque represented fn nature. These esso:fetfons coupled with the increasingly sophfstfceted technolOJY of fron end glass during the nineteenth century combined to extend the function end use of .the conservatory to public meeting, recreation and exhibition spt. The orfgin of my Interest in the architecture of glass houses, despite the basis of their Initial development, wes not in the first plm:e a scientific one. I was f85Cinated by the juxtaposition of !TOWing end man-mo forms, and by the ite of enclosing nature in a glass case to create en artificial paradise. Sensttlve art1culat1on of thfs union wm support the contention that man mo creations can have a just end O!fendable pls:e in nature if they strive to Edlieve a dfalo;J of coexistence with, rather than mmfnatfon over, the forces of the natural environment The sheer volume es well es articulation of such an interior wintergarren am prtlfuce both excftfnQ end positive emotional response from those who traverse and occupy Its space. Further, en interior garden can serve by displav end function to promote en tsppreciat1on for the symbiot1c yet procartous relat1onship man maintatns with nature. The conservatory, as nature's house, and as a part of man's built environment, cleerly occupies a unique position ond 8dvMt81J8 in developing this 6

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relationship end which Is substantially a measure of the miDis end perceptions these spcms ere capable of In OO'Ieloplng this relationship, great potential exists In such Interior speces for creating working end recreattonel environments that can, bec8use of their proximity to gorOOrl processes as well as stronQJy OO'Ieloped exterior views and Jaudscaping, serve to obscure the perception of being contained within an spa. This spatially perceived "freemm" within an architectural space, described In the previous section, Is the requisite element In generatlno these favorable perceptions and miDis end Is fundamental In the creation of a building as "place". The Ch8tfleld Arboretum Conservatory then Is founcEd upon the thesis that architecture must be a conveyor of Ideas, the central function of which Is the men! It Induces or Its "atmosphere" whereby physla5l forms M'le the to reflect mental conditions. In the case of the wintergar00r1, the ability of these structures to Internally accomroete an "outside" environment and by necessity, enclose large volumes of spa, serves to m81ce them repositories of ambiguous psychic experience. The functional requirements of light end volume In the articulation of such spr1C8S allows them a strong exterior expression of intent, and Imbues them with the 8bntty to psychically prepare the vlsttlr for an 68Sthetic experience of foliage and galleries within. The premmlnant eign issue then is finding the men!. far from being a 005ign generator based on naive manipulation of an Inventory of historicist milE Is, men! is founded on the belief that In pert on Intellectual and emotional essx:letlons to Imagery, end in part on empathetic response to form appropriate to the total pro;r8fll of the butldlng 4. To Beeux Arts theory, pred:mlnently concerned with composttton, this eppna:h Is viewed as the of which describes the expressive and symbolic content of architecture. Beaux Arts architects fljjusted their 8SStCiations with the outwardness of whet was correct and appropriate, consequently. the charecter appropriate for a olven commission depenO!d In part on historical and cultural allusion. Clearly then the of architecture to el11ctt emotional Involvement Is a function of Its abiltty to drew upon a reservoir of meaning contained In universally experienced cultural M'Chetypes. 7

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These assreiat1ons are empathetic, and depend on interrelated kinesthetic and psychic responses to m-chitecturol elements Md their combinotions. These kinesthetic responses are 1m8Q1ned (and sometimes b0011y EK:t1ons to bu11d1no forms and to building environments. The forms either force bcxl1ly lEt ion upon us directly, or merely sucpst this l:dioo. 5. The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory wtll ut111ze imagery that clearly expresses its historical essooiations with plant husbandry while simultaneously expressing its purpose a people The artlculat1on of this nexlble fEK:I11ty w111 renect inevitable compromises in internal enviroomentalalnditions; those which are best for botanic endeevors ag8inst those most for humM comfort. In conjunction with its expressed scient1fic purpose, the conservatory wfll simultanmusly invite visitation and use by the public. It has been monstrated that the house cmservatory had become the repository of new experiences: perceptioo of architectural sps:e coupled psychically 8fld k1nesthet1cally with its representatfon of a venmt outside world. a form In transition, from vegetative disp to people disp the glazed envelope gard3n carries with 1t primalessso:iations with nature and the outside world tMt depend upon a developed historical allusion. The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory then, is intended to be a vehicle for exploring the nature of such sps;es they relate to the ple8SUrable sensory perceptions and illusions creeted through large scale intrOOuction of garden to en enclosed architectural volume. Stxx:essful development of the conservatory w111 grrJN out of not the physical but rather the psychola;Jical point of view with reference to the effect of architecturCII forms on the mind Clnd feelings. It is suooested thCit the forms and thetr physical dispositions, to;Jether wtth the assrelat1ve recall of monuments, have the potential for favorably affecting our maoos and perceptions. Further, that the strongest relationship between architecture and noture can be created through 1ntr00l.lction of oartBI into architectural spm:e. 8

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Section References 1. The Greenhouse companion by John Claudius Loudon, 1824. From: Glass Houses and Winterqardens of the Nineteenth Century, Stefan Kopplekamm Rizzoli Books, 1981 2. Architecture of the Western World: Edited by Michael Raeburn Orb is Publishing, Lonoon, 1980 3. Encyclopaedia or Gardening, by John Claudius Loudon I 18 78. From: Glass Houses and Winteraardens of the Nineteenth Century: Stefan Koppelkamm, Rizzoli Books, 1981 Master p Jan Report for the Chatfield Arboretum Prepared for The DenverBotanic Gardens, Inc. By: Harman, O'donnell&. Henninger Associates, Inc. Denver, Colorai:l, 1978 4. Bernard Maybeck I Palace of the Fine Arts, San Fransisco, california. From: William H. Jorcty, American Buildings and their Architects. Anchor Press, 1976 5. William H. Jordy, American Buildings and their Architects. Anchor Press, 1976

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Design Drawings

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r ... .... • .. , . , . .. • , . r .. : ,. ... .. ' , ' ,, ' ,. . .. , J ... ' ... . . • . .jll. ' .. . . -..' \

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Site Plan Scale r : IOO'

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\ / \\ l .... I ""1,'1 'i . \ .. ,). . l ... -'; . . l '---------"',(_ _---------I t ----Floor Plan Scale 1/16": r ---------

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l North ----------------

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L __ Section A 0-l I

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I I I I I I Section B East

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. . J r ,. -

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Thesis Conclusions The design of the conservatory bu11dlnQ expresses both sua:essful to, as well as departure from, the ortgtnaltntents end pls of the thesis project. I niU8lly, the concept hm been to depart In prl:g"am from the single purpose glass house end to inste8:1 orchestrate the of a range of public amenities that would strengthen the attrection of the conservatory throughout the yetr and In this the design Is sucessful. However, the ability of a variety of differently proyamed spa::es to lnterect both spatially 8fld functionally with the large wtntef9l'l'den htJs been unavotdclbly tempered DS 8 result of the necessity of zoning pub11c erees for differing hours of use and to reduce off-hour supervision by mnservatory personnel. Thesis objectives were overly focused on the micro considerations of interior environment and the CBJMEity of such a SJl8C8S to e111cit favorable emotional res:tlons and associations. It was conchd!d that the sensitive hand11ng of larger scala issues would rontrtbuta as much If not more so to e111c1ting these favorable respouses. Closer examlnstlon of and oonsi!Eratlon towards the constraints and opportunities offered by the large open sits and the existing sxess, required pulling bid. somewhat from the micro considerations of building design in favor of examining m(l'e thoroughly the sensitive placement of the building on the site and its relationship to appr08Ch, parking, and entry es welles its scale and massing. Clearly, bu11d1ng design mas not begin at the front ODr and consequently conservatory siting and massing, as designed, reflectS an increased awareness that the Jerger scale aspects of 8 design problem must be sucessfully aaressed pri(l' to work.lnQ thrOUQh the 03ta11s that ui"KEnlably contribute much towards achlevlntJ the desired psychological responses examined and deliniated in the thesis section. Further, that more sensitive treutment of these Issues can serve to set up in ,CI(Wance for the visitor. a favorable peceptual field, a bases of experience that the building can then reinforce througtl the subtleties of sensftfve Interior articulation and design.

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Site Analysis

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Site background Denver Is reco;Jnized as a regional center for educational and cultural programs within the Rocky Mountain States, and the Denver Botanic Gardens serves to respond to these types of needs. The Denver at Yorlr: Street, however, has limited for expansion and diversification of educational and research programs. When the Chatfield site became available, it was seen as an ideal location for testing and demonstrattng species of native and lntrocluced wocn.; plants suited to dryland conditions. An Arboretum close to Denver centralizes research needs within an established sclentlf1c and educational frameworlr:. In OOdltlon to the professional community. both tourists and residents of the Denver metropolitan area, will benefit from the lasting scientific and asthetic amenity of the park. like collections. 1 From the trustees statement of purpose: The Chatfield Arboretum of the Denver Botanic Gardens is intended to be planned and developed as a permanent collection basically of trees and shrubs gathered with the broad purpose of providing information and pleasure to the public. The collection of plants will include native and introcluced species from as large a range of habitats as possible, and will include dangered and exotic species. Educational programs will be conducted which could range from classes to tours to experimental trials of various plants and scientific research in botany. horticulture, ecol()Jt, and related areas. The historic Hildebrand farm buildings will be restored as a reminder that long range environmental changes have occured and w111 continue to do so-from the development of virgin prairie to procluctive farm land through and beyond the 20th Century urbanization. 2. The information contained in the following sections originates from site analysis studies by Harmon, O'Donnell & Henninger Associates, Inc., Planning Consultants, and is contained in the preliminary, 1978 MasterPlan for the arboretum. 9

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The Denver Botanic Gardens is foced with a two-fold challenge, First to meet the problems inherent in the development of a new arboretum; and second, to create an arboretum on a semi-arid, essentially treeless slte. Most arboreta in this country have been established in heavily forested areas but the Chatfield site does not provide this advantage. Few arboreta have the actEd responsibility of historic stewardship; the Chatfield Arboretum will contain a historic farmstead. Location and adjacencies 1-70 Deer Creek Rd. Chatfield. e Arboretum Chatfield Reservoir Recreation Area Fig 2.1 a -Area plan The Chatf1eld Arboretum is located in Jefferson County, Southwest of Denver. State Highway 75 serves as the eastern boundry of the property, and Deer Creek Road crosses the northern edJe, leading up Deer Creek Canyon into the h()Jbacks. (Fig. 2. I) The Site Is located within a tract of land owned by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as part of of the Chatfield Resevoir Project. Although a total of 700 acres has 10

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Hildebrand Farm Visitor's Center Deer Creek Green Farm Arboretum 350 Acres Fig. 2. 1 b. Vicinity map been ocquired through a long term lease, only 350 acres of this has been designated as the Chatfield Arboretum. See Fig 2. 1 a The site is within the boundries of land ocquired by the Corps to contain the probable maximum flood control pool of the nearby Chatfield Resevoir. This maximum flood would be expected to occur less than once in 500 years. Notable cultural features near the site are the Martin-Marietta complex adjacent to the south on Color!rl:l 75; the Johns-Manville corporate head-quarters across Deer Creel< Road to the north; and the Chatfield Resevoir and Recreation Area across Colorado 75 to the east. Housing developments extending from Denver are beginning to encroach upon the property to the north with Deer Creel< Road serving as a physical barrier. 11

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Description lying at the base of the ho;Jbock ridges fronting the foothills of the Coloraoo Rockies. The slightly rolling terrain is typical of the high plains extending eastward from the mountains into Kansas. Before settlement, the native grasslands and sagebrush of the semi-arid plains were broken only where intermittant streams gave rise to riparian vegetation. I. ' . ' .:0 The major natural feature of the site is Deer Creek, which flows eastward across the site from Deer Creek Canyon. Deer Creek is marked by a stand of mature cottonwoods and other flood plain trees and shrubs. The Chatfield Arboretum site contains a pioneer farmstead, The Hildebrand Farm, dating from the mid 1800's, which was recently admitted to the National Register of Historic Places. Downstream from the farmstead, Deer Creek School was built facing the river. The one room school was closed in 1950 after more than 75 years of service. Across the creek a second farm, the Oreen Farm, was settled in later years. The farms were continuously occupied until the Corps of Engineers purchased the land for the Chatfield Resevoir. Part of the mandate from the Board of Directors is to maintain stewardship of these historic areas. 12

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Existing Conditions The Major Cultural features within the s1te are the existing Farmsteads and the new facilities constructed by the Corps of Engineers. The Hildebrand Farm, detailed later, contains one farm house and various sheds the condition of which varies from usable to poor. The Green Farm includes two farmhouses, one of fairly recent vintage and one large two story barn which appears to be sound. The old school house has been moved to 1ts present locat1on by the Denver Botanic Gardens and on a new foundation. The school play-ground equipment remains in the original location. The Corps has constructed several improvements on the site. A restroom facility has been constructed near the relocoted schoolhouse with a tile leeching field to the northwest. Adjacent to these two buildings a new asphalt parking lot for about 65 cars has been constructed. A two lane asphalt roadway enters the site from Deer Creek road to the parking lot, while an asphalt pathway has been constructed along the banks of Deer Creek. to briliJe the Creek. southeast of the schoolhouse. 14

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• The Denver Water Board has a waterline running through the site, and maintains an access raoo on permanent easement from South Carr that extends south across the site to exit on Colorooa 75. They hove stipulated that they be able to use this road at all times. Because of their frequent use of the road, no attempt will be made to incorporate it into arboretum uses. AcXiitionally, The Water Board has certain requirements involving rooting depth of plants used within their right-of-way and any plants within this area would have to be approved by them. 15

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Fig. 2.2a -A proposed Site development scheme from the 1978 Master Plan showing potential parking and arboretum display arrangements. (Courtesy, Harmon, O'Donnel & Henninger Associates,lnc.) 16

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Vegetation and Wildlife The site has been farmed continuously for over 1 00 years. Cultivation and grazing have eliminated most, if not all, examples of original native grassland vegetation. Changes in vegetation, cultivation of the land, and encroochment of city development have also affected the species of wildlife found within the area. Vegetation growth reflects the semi-arid nature of the site. The optimum growing season for native plants Is March through August and early spring moisture conditions favor cool season vegetation. Existing Vegetation falls Into three braoo categories: Fig. 2.2b 1. Farmed land: Areas which were under dryland or irrigated cul tivation until recently. Introduced weeds and grasses have tal
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Widlife in the Chatfield area correlates to vegetation types. Farmed land and rangeland support rangeland game; the Deer Creek flood plain supports riparian species. In ocld1t1on, Deer Creek has been known to support a sporadic trout population during wet cycles. The hogbacks near the site are inhabited by coyote who use the site as a hunting area. Tyoical Rangeland game: Pheasants Mourning doves Cottontails Meailwlarks Red winged blackbirds Various r!XEnts Ratt 1 esnalces Tyoical rioarian mammals: Mule Deer White tail deer Slcunlc Raccoon Muskrat Beaver Red fox Mink The area is rich in bird life; the Denver Field Ornithologists have compiled a list of almost 200 species known to the general area as either permanent residents or migratory species. Typical potential bird species 1ncluoo: Canopy Dwellers Herons Owls Hawks Yellow Warblers Redstarts Vireos Kingbircls Middle Elevation Dwellers Orioles Goldfinches Robins Peewees Woo::lpeckers Flickers Starlings Wrens Ground and bush Dwellers Towhees Chats Warblers Catbirds Scrub Jays Kingfishers Thrushes Sparrows Juncos 18

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Perceptual conditions The major cultural features within the site are the ex1st1ng farmsteads and the new fccilities constructed by the Corps of Engineers. Perceptual conditions relate primarily to noise and views. Colorado 75 and Deer Creek Road provide sources for traffic noise that are of course louder towards the raoos; Colorado 75 to the southeast is elevated adjccent to the site causing highway noise to carry Into the site. Views from the site are blocked in the middle ground on three sides: a ridge north-northeast blocks views towards Denver; Colorado 75 blocks views of the Chatfield Resevoir from all but the southern boundry of the site; and the hills along the southern edge of the site block most views to the south and southeast. Long-range views to the west provide vistas of the hogbccks, and occasional views of the second range and peaks to the south. These views are most pronounced from the vantge of the hills along the south eQ;Je of the site. 19

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Views within the site tend to focus upon the trees along Deer Creek canyon and the buildings of the farmstead. Desirable views from and across the site should be maintained. These include views from the entrance and existing access raoo of the schoolhouse end farm buildings, as well as views of existing riparian vegetation. 20

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Views west from within the site into the hogbocks and front range are considered extremely desirable, while Certain parts of the property boundry should be screened. The western boundry should be screened against prevailing winds and views from farms and other buildings to the west. The boundry adjacent to Coloraoo 75 should be buffered from views of the highway to attempt to reduce the imput of highw
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of •gback i I I View ol Johns at baseol Hogback " Voew of Warren Peak & Goat Mountain through Canyon U1 Hogback Fig. 2.3 -Perceptual conditions analysis Jmllesto Water ton :..__ -S\ ' .... \ 2: -Entrance to Chatfield Lake '-' 1 mile to Wadsworth! 4miles to McClellan f' 5 miles to Lot tieton 22

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Soils The soils charocterlstlcs of the Chatfield Arboretum have been analyzed and detailed in a report prepared by the Golden, Colorado office of the Soils Conservation Service. The soils identified below have been rated according to their their specific characteristics in regards to moisture retention, permiability, and susceptability to erosion. In General, the soils are deep enough to perm it tree rootIng, have acceptable moisture, assuming water is available, and oo not have severe chemical imbalances. Some soils oo indicate that erosion could be a problem if the soil is exposed, however, The nature of Arboretum development would preclude substantial cultivation of the soi I as is typical in farm use. The fact that the arboretum has experienced successful farm use in the past suggests that the soils are suitable for arboretum plantings. Flatland soils: 4 ATable mountain sanay loam (overnow range soils). Site 30% Deep, well drained soil occuring in flc.OO plains, fans and terraces, formed in non c:elcerous, loemy alluvium; subject to occessional flooding. slope: 0-2% Permiability: Mooarate Available water capacity: Medium Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more (deep) Erosion hazard: Slight 9 ANunn Clay Loam (Clayey foothills soil). Site Cool, deep, well drained soil formed in calcareous loamy mixed alluvium deposited on terraces. fans and uplands. Suited for furrow and border irrigation. Somewhat difficult to till as tillage pans form easily when soil is wet. Slope: 0-2% Permiability: Slow ( 0.60-0.20 in./hr.) Surface runoff: slow. Available water capacity: High Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more (Deep) 23

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Soils H:= 88 67A Fig 2.4a -Soils distribution 24

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14 A Denver Clay Loam ( Clayey foothills soils) Site coverage: 20jg Deep well drained soil on uplands and high terraces formed in Calcareous, clayey alluvium. Mroerately alkaline. Firm and very difficult to till because of heavy clay surface and subsoils. High shrink-swell potential. Slope: Permiability: Very slow Available water capacity: High Effect1Ve root1ng depth: 60 1nches or more (Deep) Erosion Hazard: For water: Slight; For wind: Mroerate Hillside Soils 8 8 -Altvan gravelly loam (Overflow soils). Site coverage: Deep well dra1ned aluvlum sotl underlain by cobbly sand and gravel. Neutral to slightly alkaline. Slope: Permiabtllty: Mroerate Available water capacity: Mcderate Effective rooting depth: 20-40 inches 24 C Renohill -Midway complex (Clayey and Shaley foothills soils): Mroerately deep well drained sons on side slopes and convex ridges formed In calcareous clay loam. Underlying layer mcderately alkaline. Moderate shrink swell potentiesl. Slope: Permiability: Slow (0.06-0.20 in./hr.) Surface Runoff: Mcderate Available water capacity: High Effective rooting depth: 20-40 inches Erosion Hazard: Moderate 25

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26 C Heldt Clay (Clayey foothills soil) Site coverage: 1 Olf: Deep well drained soil on side slopes and upland riciJes formed in Calcareous clayey aluvium. Moderately to srongly sloping. Slope: 5-12lf: Permiability: Very slow. Surfoce Runoff: Rapid Available water capacity: High Effective rooting depth: 60 inches Erosion Hazard: For water: moderate. For wind: slight. 53 D YodenMidwft{ Complex ( Cobbly foothills soils) Site coverage: Shallow to moderately deep soils, well drained on crest slopes and knobs. Moderately steep to steep gravelly soils formed in cobbly calcareous loamy aluvium, stratified and highly variable. Surfoce horizons neutral, substratum slightly to moderately alkaline. Slope: Permiability: Moderate to slow Available water capecity: Mcxi!rate Effective rooting depth: 20-40 inches Erosion hazard: For water: High. For wind: slight. 67 A Critchell Gravelly Sandy Loam (Sandy Foothills Soils) Deep, well drained on high terraces formed in non-calcareous cobbly, gravelly coarse sandy loam alluvium; Stratified and variable in thickness. Neutral. Slope: Permiability: Moderate. Surface runoff: Slow Available water capacity: Moclerate Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more Erosion Hazard: Slight 27

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Flood plain soils: 2 A Ustic Torrifiuvents ( Overflow Range soils) Deep, well-drained, loamy soils occuring in creek beds; high water table or overflow subject to flooding. The texture is extremely variable. Slope: 0-2lf: Permiability: Mooarate to rapid ( 0.60-20.00 in./hr.) Available water capacity: Low to mCKErate Effective rooting depth: 60 inches or more Erosion hazard: Severe Slope Exposure The Arboretum site is basically a flat basin, sloping towards Deer Creek in the center and towards the Chatfield Resevoir to the east. Coloraoo 75 creates a high artificial berm across this natural slope. Percentages of slope within the site have been broken down into three major cat8(Jlr1es ( F1g. 2.5a). "'-" Prevailing .-:J Winds"' I 1 Fig 2.5a Slopes 0% -3-8% ,OilerS% Olf:-3%: Level to slightly sloping presents few limitations to to buildings or operating equipment. Gently sloping presents few limitations to buildings equipment. or operating OVer 8lf:: Moderately steep to steep -presents a potential erosion problem. oportunity for • ,_:--J: • site overlook. May limit -co' f'.ll" equipment operations. Prevailing Swnmer Winds 28

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The direction a slope faces determines the amount of sun and wind exposure, which in turn affects the amounts of moisture the soils retain. Differences in exposure and moisture conditions will in turn influence the types of species which should be planted on the slopes. Slopes within the arboretum site tend to turn inwards facing Deer Creek. The basin shape of the site tends to promote accumulation of a cool air pocket centered on the creel< as a1r currents mov1ng oown Deer Creel< canyon are trapped by the highway berm. Some turbulence could be expected to occur as this cool air moves up and over the highway berm. Seasonal prevailing winds from the northwest would be deflected and channeled by the hcgbock to create a Venturi effect entering from the west. North focing Exposed to winter winds; shared from the sun. East facing ( : Protected from winter winds; receives morning sun exposure. South facing ( 13:i:): Protected from winter winds; receives maximum overall sun exposure West focing (The berm along Coloraoo 75): Exposed to winter winds; receives afternoon sun exposure. 29

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Drainage Drainage w1thin the site follows a sheet pattern towards Deer Creel<. Some distinct swales and artificial drainage ditches remain from field cultivation but these only carry storm runoff. There is a north facing wet slope at the southeast corner of the site indicating either springs or seepage from a farm resevoir south of the site. Fig 2.5b While storm runoff increases during the spring when the creek. carries snowmelt runoff, parts of Deer Creek remain dry during the summer months. The maximum high water elevation of the Chatfield resevoir flood pool Is the dark outline that generally follows the perimeter of the site os shown in fig. 2.5b. As the elevation decreases the probability increases that overflow flaooing might occur. 30

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The Hildebrand Farm At the reQuest of the Denver Botanic Gardens, Long -Hoeft Architects of Denver, performed a buildings analysis survey upon the existing sructures within the historic Hildebrand Farm. In consideration of The Botanic Garden's desire to maintain these buildings, as well as their potential contextual impact upon future development, the following section provides an overview and OOcumentation of the existing conditions. The first settler of the Hildebrand Farm built a log house along the north shore of Deer Creel< by the early 1860's. There were I})X1 reasons for settling in this location. Deer Creel< provided water for drinking, for bathing, for cleaning and for irrigation of the land. Mature trees existed on the site adjacent to the house; they provided protection for the house from the harsh winter winds. Around 1866, Frank Hildebrand and his wife Elizabeth acQuired this land, and developed it into a very workable farm. Many different structures were built, all at d1fferent stages of the Farm's development, but they were not haphazardly placed on the site. Like the earliest settler's desire to shelter the house, the Hildebrands constructed many of the1r bu11d1ngs so they were or1ented away from the preva1llng northwesterly winds. The important "triad" for any farm, the stable, milking barn, and wagon shed are clustered ti)Jether so as to block the wind with their entries facing the south and east. The pole shed is also oriented away from the northwest, thereby protecting the cattle from the wind while feeding at the hay manger and field barn. All of the structures on the Hildebrand Farm are constructed of wood. Although stone is plentiful in this area because of the site's proximity to Deer Creek Canyon, the mater1al was only used for the foundat1ons of some bu1ld1ngs. Wood was the primary building material because it was readily available and easily worked. WocxJ frame construction provided for I})X1 ventilation, an important factor in designing structures for animals, hay, and grain. And when it was found that a present structure no longer functioned adequately for a growing farm operation, wocxJ frame construction allowed flexibility for expansion. See Figs. 2.7a-2.7b. (Long-Hoeft Architects, Hildebrand Farm Historic Structures Reoort, 1980). 32

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'f? Or ENGINEeRS COtr!! Or ENGINEEflS ASS CAF MONUMENT _, ,• t:J' N HILOEBflANO RANCH :5./t!JJ .JCRES HILOEfJRANO RANCII vErFEflSON CtJtJNTY, Ca SECTIONS 3 !14 COR. . " /0 N47._L.5'-O?T OtJ. \5.. BtrASS CA? TO UNO REBAR o SET STAKE I T.4CI( . • N..f3'=00"E .z 6. ()(). • CAL CULATEO ANGLE ?OINT Lf/NC IN CENTERLINe OF DEEtr CREEl( 0 MONUMENT (FOUND) NOTES: Or IS A LINE rtrOM C.O.E. MONUMENT B TO C().. MONt!Mclr'T C-1 riH!CN lS Nd? ''E 100 0 1''= 100' e-" 100 Swa Fig. 2. 7a Drawings and property descriptions of tracts #331 and 361 obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 33 200 feet

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I. Farmhouse 8. 2. Summer Kitchen 9. 3. Bunkhouse 10. 4. Outhouse 11. 5. Stable 12. 6. Milking Barn 13. 7. Carriage Barn 14. 13. • ........... . . ' . .... _. 0 Hay Manger 15. Field Barn 16. Pole Shed 17. Outhouse 18. Windmill and Well 19. eranary 20. Blacksmith Barn 0 20 .00 60 Scale Feet Chicken House Garage Ice House Wood Shed PTo,eoCI Hortn Site Plan B7 Key To Photographs Well and Pump House House Trai Jer Fig. 2. 7b -Hildebrand Farm, Plan of buildings and key to photographs. 34

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Illustration ___lg_ The 1880's OOdition is to the left and the original leg house is at the right of the photograph. Note the solid railing along the north porch. It is believed that it was 8lfu:l when the west porch was constructed. Illustration ...1tL. The west porch is attoched to the west 1880's oo:Jition. The west porch has exposed rafter tails, a concrete foundation, and a solid railing. 35

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Another view of the west porch and the south facade of the 1880's rne w1noow on tne neuse closest to tne corner 1s a casement w1noow ano 1s believed to be o loter chonge. Illustration ....1Q_ The back yard is extremely overgrown. Part of the framework of the grape arbor is visible here. It is directly over the door to the cellar and aided in shading the door and the cellar cool in summer. 36

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Illustration ...1._ The 1880's east OO::lition is visible here. The porch has been altered since first constructed. A oormer winci:lw on the second floor allowed natural light Into the bedroom. _1_f_ winoows on the second floor have four lite sashes and match the appearance of the four over four oouble-hung winoows below them on the first floor. 37

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North Elevation 0 4 8 Scale Feet Building Section Scale Feet 38

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1-""' 1-t:::-= I-''-'-.__ = t--NOR • .TH E.LE.VATION !A'•I'-""

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WEST E.LE.VATION \/+"'-a• -------------------------------------------------...... ::: __ _.:>-.::.=-:-=:_-------.:___ -------------------.-.---------------. ---SOUTH E.LE.VATION Y-t'•l'a'

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Section References 1 Masterplan Report for the Chatfield Arboretum. By Harmon, O'Donnel & Henniger Associates, April 1978 (Unpublished) 2 From The Board of Trustees, Denver Botanic Gardens, Statement of Purpose-Chatfield Arboretum. Golden Area Soils Survey: Soils report for the Chatfield Arboretum. Colorf!OO Office of Soils Conservetion Service, Golden, Colorado. Malo off1ce: 964-0292; Tom Pr1est, So11s Director: 964-0480 Hildebrand Farm Historic Structures Report: Long-Hreft Architects, Denver, Colorado: September 1984 Interview: Ray Nielson, Jefferson county Planning Department 1700 Arapahoe Street, Golden, Colorcm. 80419. tel. 2778699 41

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Climatic Analysis

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Ill. Climate Climatic conditions exert significant lnfiuence on the design of buildings. Significant structural failures are associated with wind and flcxxis, either in isolation or in combination. M:litionally, in the case of Denver, snow and its occumulation is an important factor. While the buildings of early man clearly demonstrated a structural and asthetic development that responded to the requirements of nature, These consllilratlons have, until fair Jy recently, become an increasing Jy regressive trait in the orticulation of man's built environment. The rediscovered significance of building climatology has grown out of economic necessity and is principally concerned with the operating costs of bui I dings. Especially important are the heating, airconditioning, ventilation and lighting systems selected to temper climatic variations, as they all invlove substantial energy input. These will be examined in the lighting and energy sections. Despite the capacity of increasingly sophisticated mechanical equipment to mooify the climate of interior spaces, it remains the task of the architect to exomine in detail, the range of climatic conditions affecting a proposed scheme. The development and incorporation of appropriate design responses to climatic parameters often requires a combination of energy conserving strategies. Thus, a braoo range of environmental conditions are examined. As land use planning progresses from macro to micro-scale, details of solar rocliation, temperatures, precipitation, local winds and slope directions assume Increasingly greater importance. The following sections serve to define the character of Denver's unique climate. Additionally, assessments are made at the conclusion of each section that begin to suggest broad parameters for design. 42

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Temperature Located on the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains, Denver Is characterized by the mild interior continental climate typical of the high, semi-arid plain. The area experiences mild seasonal temperature differentiation, a significant diurnal temperature swing, and low levels of precipitation and humidity. Extemes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5 or 6 days are a rarity and the resulting mild weather and high level of solar roolatlon, contribute substantially to Denver's pleasant and desirable climate. Dry, high plains air and paoominantly clear skys, result in a diurnal temperature swing that Is normally greater than the winter to summer swing, which ranges from a monthly mean of 29.9•F. in January, to 73•F. in July. Occasional chinook winds help to winter temperatures. The average yearly temperature is mild at 50.2•F. Tab.le 3. 1 a provlres the average Denver temperatures for the remainder of the year while Table 3.1 b , describes the conditions closer in proximity to the Arboretum site. (Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and Solar Energy). MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY 1FI DENVER, COLO. Normal Days lli!an Number ol lVS Doily Honthlv P.ecord Record lla.oe Of 90F and )2f and "'.Dnth Maximum Minimum High Low (Heating) (CoollnR) above below Jon 4J.S 16.2 29.9 72 -25 0 0 30 Feb 46.2 19.4 32.8 76 -30 002 0 0 27 Mar 50.] 23.8 37.0 84 -11 8M 0 " 27 Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 85 -2 525 0 0 13 >lav 3 43. h 57.0 96 22 253 0 * 2 Jun An. I 51.9 66.0 Jn4 30 AO 110 5 0 Jul 87.4 5A. h 73.0 )04 41 0 15 n Aug 85.8 57.4 71.6 101 0 2nA 9 n Sep 77.7 47. A 62.8 20 120 54 2 I Oct 66. A 37. 2 52.0 88 3 5 0 9 Nov 5). 3 25.4 H.4 79 A 0 n 25 nee 46.2 !A. 9 32.6 74 -1 A 1004 0 0 29 Annual 64.0 36.2 50.1 10/o -ln 6016 625 32 162 * lA•u• than one half. Source: Depart11ent of Caanercr, 1977 Tab1e 3_1a 43

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The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory is intended to function as a year-round foclllllty. Given the differing prcgram requirements of both large scale enclosed vegetative displays and associated pub I ic and personnel support areas, interior temperature fluctuations are expected and will be allowed to occur in response to the differing needs of eoch area. However, the necessity for the transmission of large quantities of solar radiation throughout the year through the botanic display envelope w111 necessitate high volume vent11atlon to prevent overheating during the warm summer and early fall months. Ventilation problems involve air transfer and are linked with wind and temperature studies. The problems encountered in buildings of large internal volume are particularly difficult to study due to vertical variations in the internal microclimate and the high intensity forces created by the introduduction of solar radiation and requsite space conditioning equipment. Design goals will be to examine the requirements and methods for conditioning such botanical envelopes and to explore the contributions of natural and low energy conditioning strategies. Month January February March April May June July August September October November December ANNUAL TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION NORMALS AT KASSLER STATION, JEFFERSON COUNTY COLORADO (Elevation 5495 feet)* Mean Temperature (F) Precipitation (inches) 32.7 35.0 40.0 49.6 58.2 67.9 74.0 72.7 65.4 55.0 41.9 35.9 52 .4 .72 .93 1.62 2.75 2.90 1. 51 1.42 1.48 1.22 1.33 .95 • 58 17.41 *Data from climates of the States-Colorado, U.S. Dept. of Commerce Table 3.1 b 44

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Freeze threshold Tern erature F 32 28 24 2C 16 FREEZE DATA AT KASSLER STATION* 5-12 4-27 4-15 4-07 4-01 Mean date of first Mean no. days fall occurance between dates 10-09 150 10-15 171 10-28 196 11-05 212 11-11 224 *Data taken from Climates of the States-Colorado, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Environmental Data Service, Climatography of the United States No. 60-5. Data in the above table are based on the period of 1931-1960. Table 3. I b Precipitation Lying in the semi-arid rain shOO)w of the Rocky mountains, Denver's dry, semi-arid environment Is subject to a mean annual precipitation of less than 15.6 Inches. The greatest precipitation occurs in spring, during the months of April, May, and June olthough heavy thundershowers ore not uncommon during the warm summer months. Winter months are normally the driest and from November to March, precipitation usually falls as snow. Snowfall averages 59.9 inches per year and has been recorded in f!Nery month except July and August. The maximum monthly and maximum 24 hour snowfalls recorded are 39. 1 and 19.4 inches respectively. See precipitation data, tables 3.1 a and 3.2. (Denver Planning Office, Planning with Climate and SolarEnergy) 45

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Jan Feb Mar Anr May Jun Jul Au'-Sep Oct Nov Dec Total Total DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA !inches) DENVER, COLORADO Precl ita cion !'lean a Snov l"'onthlv Monthly Maximum of Oavs ... tch !ionthly mum Hint mum 24-hour Prec LDitacion >-.01 inch Mean l"'onthly .h! l.U 0.01 I. 02 8. 4 2]. 7 . 67 I. 66 0.01 1.01 6 0 J I. 21 2. 89 0. J] I. 48 A 12.6 29. 2 I. 9] 4. 17 0.0] J.n 9 9.6 2.q.] 2. 64 7. Jl 0,06 ], 55 10 1.5 I J. h I. 9] 4. 69 0.10 ].16 9 TC 0.1 I. 78 6. 41 0.17 2. 42 9 o.o o.o I. 29 4. 47 0.06 ]. 4] 8 n.n 0.0 l.IJ 4. 67 r< 2. 44 6 ).q 21.) l.JJ 4. 17 0.05 I. 71 5 J. A ]I. 2 o. 76 2.97 0.01 I. 29 5 7. 6 .1 0. 4] 2 .A4 0,0] I. JA 5 6. 5 JO. A 15.51 7. ]I rc ). 55 88 9 19 .I Mean N'UDiber a of nays with Snov 1.0 lnch 2 2 4 ] "" 0 0 0 . 1 2 2 18 a Honthlv totala are rounded to the nearest whole day. b•Oenotea lea a than one-half. SOURCE: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1q77 cTn•.,otea a trace of preclpltatlon Table 3.2 Despite the Denver area's generally mild conditions, it's altitude and proximity to winter storms generated In the nearby mountains, requires the structural consideration of potentially significant snow loads. lightweight, membraneous roofing systems involving substontiol free spons ore more subject to possible foilure than conventional systems. Given the requirements of a flexible program for interior arrangements, especially within the large display area, structural systems and roofing sl
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Wind Wind speed affects all the functional requirements conditioned by climate, consequently, wind data is a key variable in modifying the impact of both temperature and precipitation. Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall. The highest average wind speeds have been recorded in March and April at 10.1 mph and 10.4 mph respectively. Prevailing winds are from the south while stronger winds generally originate from the northwest and can range up to 56 mph. However, sustained winds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorOOd along the foothills west of Denver. Wind speed and direction are important in so far as they combine with outside temperatures to effect resired temperatures within a building at the time heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment is functioning. Mean and Extremes of wind are shown In table 3.3a and 3.3b. figs. 3.2a and 3.2b indicate predJminant wind direction and frequency of occurence on a monthly basis. (Denver P Ianning Department P lannina with Climate and Solar Enerav) I Maximum Direction Month Mean Wind Prevailing Wind Speed Associated with Speed (mph) Direction Recorded (mph) Maximum Jan 9.2 s 53 N Feb 9.4 s 49 NW Mar 10.1 s 53 NW Apr 10.4 s 56 NW May 9.6 s 43 sw Jun 9.2 s 47 s Ju1 8.5 s 56 SW Aug 8.2 s 42 SW Sep 8.2 s 47 NW Oct 8.2 s 45 NW Nov 8.7 s 48 w Dec 9.0 s 51 NE Annual 9.1 s 56 NW SOURCE: U.S. of Commerce. !977 Table 3.3a Mean and Extremes of Winds. Denver. Colorado 47

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AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m. p. h.l AND DIRECTION AT DENVER "'"-'ntaln JAN rEB KAR APR HAY JUN JL'l AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL Standard n-o• ""b' 00• .. h t: ..h ,,. •h .. b .. h :' .. b :,, l!'h " .. ' .. h :, ... h ,,. ... h "' ... h "' 1 ' I 2 69 ' 69 I n I • I I 6 J ' '' ' ' 1 I ' I ' I ' I 0 ' J ' ' ' 1.00 ' I 1 ' " ' 6 ' I u I ' J I 6. 6.1 ' ' ' ; ' ' ' ' I ' ' . 6 ! Hl<1 I ' 1 I 69 ' 6 8 I 6.8 I 6 ' ' I 9 ' I I ' ' I ' I .. ' : I I . I 6 I 7.2 ' ' I 6 ' I • I I I ' I 1.1 . I ' • ' • ' I I I 1.1 I . S:OO I 1 I ' I I ' ' I 6.1 I ' I ; I I I ' I I l ) I ( . 6:00 I I J I 6.8 I ' 8 I 61 I ' I ' l I i I ' ") ' ) ' ' ' ' \ ' . 1:00 I 7. I 6.8 I '9 I ... I ; I l '.IJ.r I 1.' ; 1.• ) 6 ' e-oo u ' 1.0 I 1.0 I 6.9 I • I I I I I. I ' (. . I I . I ' > ' 9.00 1.7 I i.] I I ' I • I 6. ' 6 I I ' ' I ' ' I • ' ; I • ' 10-00 I 1.7 ' 1.6 I A.O ' 8.0 ,, 7.6 " 'I II I ,, I . I. 0 ' ' ' I ; ; ' I ' ' 11 I 8.0 I 9.2 ;, 8 1 "' ' ' "' " J " I ' "' I " • l (. I ' I I . \ ' .r ' .. 17 I 8. J '' .1.R ' 9.1 ,, 9 . :,[ 9 :.( ' l ,,, ' 1 ' 'li : ',[ ' I / ' , " 8.2 ... I 00 ' ' I ,, 95 jf " 1 ,, 10 ? ;I{ ' ;.( ' ' :,[ I I :• ,, 1 ,, ' . ' 8 ' l. )0 ,,, ' J .. , 10 1 ,, ,. 'I! ll ' "' 10 ' ,[ ' ,, 8 ' .. ' ' ; .[ ' I ' .. J J J.OO II[ ' I II[ 10 l .. " :,[ IG i ,,, " 6 .. I<• 2 " I ,, ; ' "' I • ,, ' ; " 4 ' i .r "' 2 ,,, II ' ,, 11 10 .. 10 I ,, ' ' ' r 1 '' ' . " . 5 ' ' •,f 'I !I:Oll ., • • ;;( 9.1 " II I "' 11.1 "' 10 8 ., 10 I " ' . ,; ' ' .,, ! ' "' 1 .. • /jj 94 6:00 ,, ).) .r • J ' 10.1 r. 10 6 hl 10 I ,, 10 I ' ' 0 ' ,, 1.1 ' • ' ' .,, R.i ' I I J ,, 1.7 ,, 0 I .,, 9.) ,,, 9 " 9 I ' I " 2 ' 6 I • • i •,[ ,, '"" I 1.1 I 6.1 ' I ' ' 8 • " ' . ... • I ' I ' ' 6 .. • I ' ' I 6 ' 0 . I.J 9:00 I 1.1 I 6.9 I 1 I " I I " I I I I ) I 2 I r ' ) I I • I } 0 r \ ' c 10:00 I 1.1 I 6.0 I 6 9 I 1 . I I I ' ' ' I 6.0 I ,, 6 I ' ' I 7.2 i I "' II :00 I I 2 I 6.8 I 6 ' I ' I I ... I 6.1 I ' ' I I . 6 I 6 . I I ' I I 6 ' 11:00 I 1.1 I 6.9 I 6.9 I 1.0 I 6.1 I b.l I 6.5 I u I 6.l I 6 ' I I I ) ' I b ' C.t• a.vrc•• D.l. 11-tMr IVTeeu Table 3.3b a.e.c&.-ef VIM ••-• a.t•••r. roort., •lft•U-u ot ..... Po.1 Offic• With any substantially glazed, thin skinned envelope, the potential of strong winds reQuires careful consideration of glazing materials as well as mooule dimension. In calculating wind loads, account must be taken of the gustiness, the power of which increases in proportion to the buildings height. lntrocluction of a gust foctor is equal to 001ing a saftey foctor in design. Outside pressure on windward and lee sides of a building can vary (at the same height). Maximum outside pressure occurs on the windward side, minimum on the lee side. Pressure variations occur as moving air accelerates over the top of the building, while vortices can form on the lee sioo, trapping pollutants at ground level. EFFECT OF LANDSCAPING ON CLIMATOLOGICAL SHEATH D D WINDBREAK Fig. 3.1 Climate parameters are subject to change in the climatological sheath surrounding a structure. Temperature along a sunlit focade on the lee side can be considerably higher than temperature on the shaded windward side. Air velocity within this sheath Is affected by the shape of the building, and In different locations can be both higher and lower than than the free air velocity. Pressure grooients occur which can change direction of air currents and reverse planned ventilating airflow through the building. 48

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w N NUMBERS IN /o s Fig. 3.2a -Wind rose for the Chatfield Public Use area. Numbers show the percent of time the wind is blowing from the direction shown. 49

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Sunshine duration and Cloud cover Sunshine durat1on is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to create distinct shadows. As a result of Denver's altitude and high percenta;}e of clear days, the area receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually, Denver averages 115 clear days ( 10-30:f: cloud cover) and 117 clouliy' days ( 80-1 OO:f: cloud cover). The greatest amount of solar radiation occurs in July with the least in December. The Publ1c Service company of Coloraoo established two solar radiation measurement sites in Denver early in 1977. Part of an extensive southwestern network, these stations provide solar rooiation data to public utilities who use the the information for heating loaj calculations and for the design and evaluation of solar energy projects. Spectrolab SR-75 pyranometers are used to measure hemispheric radiation and although the per too of record Is short, the data quality appears to be excellent. Table 3.4a shows solar radiation data (Denver Planning Department, Planning with Climote and Solar energy). MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA Denver, Colorado Percent of Poadble Number of• Honth Sunshine Clear Dayo January 72 10 February 7l 8 H&rch 70 8 April 66 7 Hay 65 6 June 7l 9 July 7l 9 August 72 10 September 74 13 October 73 13 November 66 11 December 68 11 Total 70 115 Table 3.4a Number of4 Partly Cloudy Number of• Hean Sky Dayo Cloudy Dayo Cover (Tentho) 10 ll 5.5 9 11 5.8 10 13 6.0 10 13 6.1 12 13 6.2 13 8 5.0 16 6 5.0 14 7 4.9 9 8 4.4 10 8 4.4 9 10 5.3 10 10 5.3 132 118 5.3 &Monthly totals are rounded to the nearest whole day SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1977. 51

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SOLAR POSITION AND INTENSITY; SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS* FOR 40 N LATITUDE Solar Solar Posh ion nirect Solar Heat Gain Facton, Btuh/!lq ft Solar Nof"''\al Time Irradiation, Time A.Jif, Alt. Azialuth Btuh/aQ ft N .. . SF 5 5" " "" Hor. p .H. SITK"fER 5 •. 2 117 .J 21 10 21 6 1 1 1 1 2 7 10." 15& &7 1&2 151 12 12 12 12 J? 6 Juneo 7 26.0 99.7 211 J7 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 ?7 5 " J7 •• 90.7 2&6 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 151 • 9 &8. 8 80.2 262 )) 111 192 161 &5 ]1 ]1 11 201 J 10 59." 65.R 272 H h2 105 1'" 69 J5 15 217 2 11 69.2 &1.9 276 17 /,0 RO 116 AA &I 17 17 2&0 1 I 2 7J.I 0.0 27R 1R 1R &I 71 95 71 &I 18 I 2 HaJ f Dav Tot all 2&2 n• 1010 810 lll 197 IAI 180 1121 \liNTER A 5. 5 51.0 88 2 7 67 R1 &9 1 2 2 6 • 9 10.0 ol. o 217 9 10 115 201 151 12 9 9 10 1 nee 21 10 20. 7 29 .• I o I• Ill 2J2 210 55 10 I• 77 2 11 25.0 15.2 170 16 16 56 217 202 I 20 I 6 I 6 IOJ I 12 •• n. o 2RO 17 17 JR 177 251 I 77 I A 17 111 I 2 Hair Dav Total 11 &9 5& JAO I R11 7AI 27] 50 .9 I 2A2 •Total aohr heat aalna for OS (1/ft ln.) ahPet 111aa11. Baaed on a 1round rellectancP of 0.20 Rel"lrinteod (rol'l ASHRAF. "llandhook nr FunctamPntal !1, ]Q72 EFFECT OF DATE ON SOLAR ANGLES FOR 40 N LATITUDE Winter Solstice Equinoxes Summer Solstice Dec. 21 (Mar. 2l_L_Sell_t. 211 (June 21) Solar Time Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth Altitude Azimuth 4:00 a.m. ------0. . -121. )" 5:00 a.m. ------4.2 -117.)0 6:00 a.m. ---0. 0 -90.0" 14.8" -108.4" 7:00 a.m. 0. . -58.7 11.4 -80.2" 26.2" -99.7" 8:00 a.m. 5.5" -53.0" 22.5" -69.6" 37.4" -90. 7" 9:00 a.m. 14.0 -41. 9" 32.8. -57.3" 41. 9" -80.2" 10:00 a.m. 20. 7" -29.4" 41.6" -41. 9" 59.8" -65.8" 11:00 a.m. 25.0" -15.2" 4 7. 7" -22.6" 69. 2" -41. 2 12:00 noon 26.5" o.o 5o.o• o.o 73.4" o.o SHADOW LENGTHS FOR SELECTED SLOPES AND TIMES lin feet per one foot of obstruction J 40 N LATITUDE Winter Solstice Equinoxes Summer Solstice Level 5% S* 5% N 5% w 5% E Solar Time Ground Slope Slope Slope Slope 10:00 a.m. 2. 7 2.4 3.0 2.8 2. 5 9:00 a.m. 4.0 3.5 4. 7 4.7 3.5 10:00 a.m. 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 9:00 a.m. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5 9:00 a.m. 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 8:00 a.m. 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.2 7:00 a.m. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.9 * Slope is downward to the south at a rate of 5 feet per 100 feet of horizontal distance. Table 3.4b 52

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I zenith I I I I I Fig. 3.3a -Sun angles for Denver: 40• North Latitude 53

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--_.. "( ,.. ----// I I I / / I / Winter Solar Path * .J' •. .:..71 Ti.JQt: I 22 JECEMBE:R SUNRISE / Summer Solar Path * :.'J• L.:.TIT'..:CJE I 22 Ji.JNE / / L:..:r:-u:;:: 1 !Svf"RISE SUNSET :;a• I .'/I NT I 9:JO 4;00 ' . ! 4:00 s:oo 45" 7:1.0 SUMMER 4:20 * 40 WINT!::R I 7:30 4:]Q SUMMER /,:]0 7:]0 / / / AZIMU:HI :..LT.T'JC E I 12 9"-]:J' i 16-]!J 51'-JG' SJ"-JG' 12:.•-JQ' 2i"JG' 5 5)0' I s a•-Ja 121•-a 1 26"-Ja !Js•-o 1 7J•-Jo ., \ SUNSt:'7 __ __,_ --HORIZOr. LATITUJE '-J'JR•xk'J'Jc=T I T-:;:) I , 1 I .__ 1 ..... ..1 I I,. I -.J-.J'J s• WI 7:'1J .. ..,,., I ,, s-o I SUM1"1ER ' .. sa -:-: ::J i . u ' .. J.J JG" WINTER ! 7 :o I ..... ,... 117"-JO' ! 25'-JIJ' ' s.:o 7 JO 52"-JO'I 13]" JC' 2 5" .vi NTER l 5:50 I 5 10 J :s•-JO' I i.. 'JC' SUMMER I 5 10 i 6 50 I 89"-JC'I 5]"JC' NOTE. T!-iESE LATITUDES COVER THE UNITEJ STAT!::S. HO\.iRS INJIC-lT':) TIM':. AZIMUTHS ARE AT SUNRISE ANO SUNS::T, .::.:..'I.:..YS 180". '1::.1:--J :..:_TIT'J::IES ARE ALTITUDES AT A,';) SJNSET ;:.RE J•. Fig. 3.3b Solar access angles 54

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N 4 40 NORTH LATITUDE I Fig. 3.3c Plan of solar angles 55

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LONG 104 501W ELEVATION 5280 FT. 0 N Fig. 3.3d So lor chort for Denver CJ) --0 56

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Degree davs The concept of regree days Is useful for
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Climatic design parameters 1. Slopes east of south are preferable. s1m11ar to or1entat1on reQuirements. 2. A close relationship between building and nature is desirable and possible. Unilateral buildings can be developed with relatively free formations 3. The large range of thermal cond1t1ons reQuires the favorable utilizat1on of rad1ation and wind effects as well as protection from them. Breeze utilization during warm periros is important. 4. Grouped shade trees are desirable, especially in proximity to south and south-western elevations exposed to low, strong, summer afternoon sunshine. Tree utilization or plocement should not, however, block prevailing s-sw summer breezes. Evergreen trees are best for wind protection, deciduous trees for shading purposes. Tended or un-tended lawn or grassy areas near the structure are useful for radiation absorption. SITE TREE PLANTING FOR SOLAR ACCESS IIOT EXCEEDING DECIDUOUS AND MATURE HEIGHT OF CONIFERS NOT TALL AND lD-15' HERE EXCEEDING MATURE DECIDUOUS ALLOWED HEIGHT OF 35' HERE HERE Fig. 3.3 T I 60' ! 58

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5. Buildings should open to the S-SE and be more closed on westerly si005. Deck areas, greenhouse and public areas, should be located on the S-SE side. 6. Elongation of theE -W axis is preferable with the optimum shape being 1: 1.6. 7. Sol-air orientation of 17.5• east of south secures a balanced distribution. Provision for adequate cross ventilation is necessary. 8. Medium colors are best, with dark colors left to recessed areas protected from the summer sun; light colors on roof surfaces. Design Hazards of cold and snow .s.rurt: a mixture of lee and alr; a sem1-solld form of water 1. In cold country, the most rigid restraints on design are imposed by changes in the of water. not just freezing temperatures alone. a. Water expands as it freezes, producing forces powerful enough to crack rock.s walls and pavement; to tear shingles from roofs and to force foundations out of the ground. 2. Fresh fallen snow Is lightweight and lnsulatlve. a. Ice crystals interlock with each other, entrap air and become immobile. b. Eventually, the sharp crystaline points evaporate, and the air in their centers is filled with ice (sublimation). c. At this point the ice becomes slippery and unstable, since the snow crystals are no longer interlocked. The snow then slides off roofs or avalances oown hillsides. 59

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3. Downward movement of snow on a pitched roof is determined by a number of factors. Among these are: a. Quantity and quality of snow b. Temperature of the air and roof surface. c. Steepness of roof slope d. Coefficient of friction of roofing material 4. Wet or icy snow tends to stick. to rough surfaced roofs of low slope, while loose dry snow tends to slide from slippery, unobstructed roofs of high slope angle. Depending upon slope and weather conditions, snow can stick. to the most slippery of roofing materials. /4s weather conditions change, Snow and ice can slide from sloping roofs. Although ice dams may restrain snow, ice and water on the roof, once a large enough mass has accumulated, warming weather can cause it to break free. creating danger or damage to the areas below. Ice dams and icycles can break off and bounce into lower sections of the bulldlng and this Is a more frequent cause of building collapse than roof failure in deep snow areas. Ice dams are the most serious and common maintenance problems roofs. They can prevent shea:1ing of snow from even very steeply pitched roofs. As Snow is melted by radiant heat from the sun or by convection from the buildings interior. ice dams of as little as three inches near the roof edge, can back. water water up nine feet on a 4: 12 pitch. Resultant hydrostatic pressure can cause a conventional roof to leak.. In locations of significant daily temperature swing through the freeze point, the most effective way of controlling ice dams is to use a warm roof with additional insulation ( R-30 min.) so that the escaping building heat melts the snow at a slower rate. A common maintenance mistake when ice damming occurs is to remove the snow a few feet beck. from the edge of the roof. Since the dam is caused by melted water's contact with cold air, partial snow removal merely changes the point at which the Ice dam forms. 60

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a. A sloping roof should either be completely shoveled or not shoveled at all. b. Insulation thickness should be reduced at the roof edge, in order to create a natural temperature gradient. Building heat should be carried out to the roof eQ;le, even in cases where the roof extends out over unheated decks and balconies. This makes water at the eave line is less likely to freeze. M:litionally, Snow melt from a warm roof must not be allowed to drip onto a unheated roof. e. At leost the lower ten feet of all pitched roofs should be underleyed with an Impermeable membrane. This membrane should be carried up the slope above the top of the largest anticipated ice dam to assure water tightness. Side walls that abutt the roofline should be simi Jar ly protected. 5. Fences, chimneys and other protuberances In the roof plane should be located at the or highest portion of the roof. An alternative is to bring them through the sidewalls f!!Nfl'( from the roof slope. There are no restrictions on flat roof placement. a. If a chimney or vent must be located at or near the eave line, it should be heavily reinforced. and completely waterproofed. It should assume a knife-like shape to encourage snow to slip around it. b. The tops of vents should be high enough above the roof so that snow will not plug their openings. c. Drip lines at roof edges should be beyond balconies and decks, and balconies and entrances below eaves should be protected by overhangs. d. Overhead electrical and telephone lines should never be led into the building under sloping eaves where sliding snow can sever them. UmErground utility services are a more prCtical alternative in snow areas. 61

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6. Flat roofs (slopes of 1/2" per foot or less) eliminate ice damming, sliding snow and icycle formation. Simultaneously a flat roof takes advantage of the insulating properties of snow. A flat roof can be satisfactory almost anywhere in snow country except in those locations without exposure to wind or sun. Even under these conditions, it is potentially more proctical to increase the structural strength of the roof than to make the roof steep enough to shed significant snow accumulations. A Flat roof should slope slightly toward Interior drains, which should be brass with copper pipe. The heat of the building effectively lceeps the drain free of ice as they are protected from extreme cold by the blanlcet of snow on the roof. 7. Conoonsation is often mistalcen for lealcage in buildings. Conoonsed water vapor can become trapped within the insulation of wall and roof cavities and freeze in cold weather. Its control is effected by preventing warm moist air from coming in contact with cold surfaces. Since the roof and walls of a building retain humidity as well as heat, an uninterrupted vapor barrier must be created on the Interface of the outer walls and ceilings to seal in warm moist air and prevent it from reoching cold surfaces hoving temperotures below the dew point. 8. Windows and glazings present a major challenge to the designer in cold areas. Since metal is an excellent conductor for bringing cold inside (cooling warm inside air below the 00w point), metal frames often appear to leak with ooposited conoonsation. Under more severe conditions, interior surfaces of metal framed wlnoows can become heavily encrusted with Ice. o. One solution is to separate interior and exterior sections of window frames with plastic sheet to create a thermal brealc between the sections b. Nonmetalic window frames substantially eliminate the problem. c. Condensation on the window glass itself can often be controlled by mounting the Inner face of the glass flush with the Inner face of the wall 62

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9. Foundation design is a function of the freeze thaw cycle. When the ground outside a foundation freezes, the entrapped moisture expands, forcing the surface upward. When the ground thaws, it sinks back. a. The designer must insulate the entire foundation perimeter to prevent the ground underneath from freezing. At the same time. Foundations must be sunk far enough into stable soil so that they can withstand freeze-thaw cycle forces. b. Foundotion should be CeJrried below the freeze/thew layer so that heat escaping from the building affects the surrounding ground as little as possible. c. Foundations can be coated with a slippery material so that the frozen earth cannot adhere to the building, and the ground can rise and fall around 1t without d. Pipes should be ploced in trenches below the octual frost line and brought into the butld1ng Inside the insulated footing line. e. lines should slope steeply until they reach a disposal site below frost line. 63

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DENVER, CO TEMPERATURE (F) ON 21ST DAY OF: J F H A K J J A s 0 N DAILY MAX DBT 40.7 43.1 52.1 65.0 71.2 81.3 85.5 82.2 69.2 65.5 48.9 DAILY AVE DBT 27.8 31.1 39.0 51.6 59.5 68.1 72.6 69.3 56.6 50.9 36.5 DAILY MIN DBT 15.2 20.8 26.2 38.8 47.6 54.8 59.2 57.3 44.9 37.8 25.6 DAILY MAX OPT 17.1 22.0 24.7 32.2 43.5 51.8 50.5 51.8 42.9 31.1 24.9 DAILY AVE OPT 8.9 15.3 18.1 25.1 36.4 44.7 44.5 44.9 37.8 24.9 18.5 DAILY MIN OPT 0.7 8.6 10.6 16.9 28.1 36.4 36.9 36.2 31.5 15.7 11.2 DAILY MAX WBT 30.6 33.2 37.3 45.9 53.1 59.3 60.2 59.4 52.2 45.8 36.8 DAILY AVE WBT 21.9 25.8 31.0 39.8 47.7 54.7 56.3 55.6 46.9 39.7 29.7 DAILY MIN WBT 12.6 18.5 23.2 33.5 41.5 49.4 51.2 51.4 40.8 33.0 22.5 NORMAL DAILY SOLAR RADIATION (MONTHLY AVG) BTUISQ FT(DAY) J F M A M HORIZONTAL 840. 1127. 1530. 1879. 2135. SO VERTICAL 1440. 1551. 1572. 1344. 1147. HEATING DEGREE DAYS BASE 65F COOLING DEGREE DAYS BASE 65F COOLING DEGREE DAYS BASE 78F ET* WINTER DESIGN DBT SUMHER DESIGN DBT I COINCIDENT WBT SUMMER DESIGN WBT \ TOTAL HEATING HOURS (LESS THAN 68F) I-V HEATING I HEATING II HEATING III HEATING IV HEATING V \HUMIDIFICATION HOURS VI.A + VI.B J 2351. 1114. \ TOTAL COMFORT HOURS (SHADING REQUIRED) VII \ DEHUMIDIFICATION HOURS VIII J 2273. 1130. \ TOTAL COOLING HOURS (GREATER THAN 78F ET*) IX KVII \ PASSIVE COOLING HOURS IX XIV COOLING IX COOLING X COOLING XI COOLING XII COOLING XIII COOLING XIV \ VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS HOURS IX + X + XI % MASS EFFECTIVENESS HOURS X + XI + XII + XIII A s 2044. 1727. 1277. 1535. 6416.6 967.1 144.9 99.0\ -5.0 97.5\ 1.0 1\ 93.0 2.5\ 91.0 5% 89.0 1\ 64.0 2.5\ 63.0 5% 62.0 %EVAPORATIVE COOLING EFFECTIVENESS HOURS XI +XIII +XIV+ VI.B \ HOURS BEYOND PASSIVE EFFECTIVENESS VIII + XV + KVI + KVII DEHUMIDIFICATION VIII DEHUMIDIFICATION AND COOLING KV DEHUMIDIFICATION AND COOLING XVI COOLING KVII Table. 3.6 Climatic conditions summary 0 N 1300. 883. 1616. 1424. I 59.0 I 59.0 I 59.0 40.2 8.7 7.1 9.5 13.5 0.0 0.0 3.1 0.0 1.5 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 D 45.6 33.7 2J.4 21.5 14.2 7.4 33.9 27.1 19.8 D 732. 1327. 79.1 4.5 9.3 0.0 7.1 7.1 3.1 4.6 8.2 o.o 64

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Section References Planning with Climate and Solar Energy, Prepared by the Denver Planning Department (Undated). Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 6th edition, William McGuinness et al. John W11ey & Sons, Inc. 1980 Climatic Design, Donald Watson, FAIA, end Kenneth Labs. McGraw-Hill Company, 1983 65

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Natural Lighting

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Lighting I. Lighting accounts tor about 20% ot the total electrical energy consumption In the United States each year and up to 35% ot the electrical use In ottlce buildings. Ottlce buildings are characterized by daytime use patterns, long hours ot I lghtlng use, rei atlvely high I lghtlng levels, and high Installed watts per square toot, which results In I lghtlng being the single largest energy consumer In the building. (See Typical Energy Budget Chart, Page 33.) A. Reductions In I lghtlng energy consumption are thus essential elements ot a national energy program to reduce our dependence on non-renewable and pol ltlcally vulnerable energy sources. B. Energy conservation practices can provide Improved visual performance and visual comfort while producing substantial energy savIngs. I. Four different elements In this process can be Identified: a. Selection ot efficient I lghtlng systems and components over I ess efficient products. b. Improved lighting design practice which eliminates wasteful energy use. c. Improved operation and maintenance of I lghtlng systems. d. A return to a partial reliance on natural lighting techniques. II. Natural I lghtl ng serves several Important functions. A. VIsual power In defining and Identifying space and In articulating circulation patterns. B. Pragmatic uses to offset electrical I lghtlng requirements. C. Natural I lghtlng techniques should lncl ude both diffuse I lght from the sky (dayl lght) and direct radiation from the sun (sun I I ght) • I. Additionally, sldellghtlng (reflected light through windows) and topl lghtlng (skyl lghts) should be considered. D. Four major Issues must be confronted before day I I ghtl ng practice can be Implemented. I. Analysis and design techniques. 2. Therma I I II I um I nat I on tradeofts.

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3. Sun and glare control. 4. Lighting controls. E. A full array of sun control solutions Is available and should be considered. They Include: 1. Exterior architectural appendages. 2. Exterior sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bll nds. 3. Interior sun control devices such as shades, drapes, bl lnds. 4. Heat absorbing and reflective glasses and films. a. It Is the op In ton of experts In the f lei d that dayl lghted offices may require highly transparent windows which Incorporate operable cl lmate management devices such as shades, blinds, and selective films to control excessive solar! gal n. 5. It seems I Ike I y that offIce occupants w II I close shades and bl lnds to reduce excessive heat gain or glare for thermal or visual comfort. They may not be so likely, however, to operate these devices to achieve energy savings. In particular, devices that have been closed In the afternoon to reduce summer heat gain may not be opened the following morning to real lze dayl lghtlng savings. F. In designing spaces which are to be naturally lighted, It Is Important to consider that quality of light rather than greater Intensity Is the objective. Some guidelines which should be considered are: I. Task areas: The lighting level should provide proper II lumlnatlon for the task to be performed. In adjacent nonworking areas, lower I lghtlng levels are acceptable. 2. Nontask areas: General lighting surrounding task location needs an average I ightl ng of approximately one-th lrd the I evel of task llghtl ng. 3. Noncritical lighting: In areas where casual visual tasks occur, a I lghtlng level of approximately one-third the level of general lightIng Is needed. a. The efficiency of any I lghtlng system Is directly affected by the reflectivity of Interior surfaces, such as walls, cell I ngs, f I oors and turn I ture.

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b. In general, the designer can select light colors which ref I ect and contr t bute to the genera I vI sua I comfort of a space. Footcand1es Task Areas on Tasks OFFICE General 100 Drafting 150-200 Accounting 150 Conference 30 Restrocm 30 Elevators, Stairs, Corridors 20 Lobby 50 EXI'ER!O:R. Building 15-30 Parking 1-2 levels of Illumination 4. To reduce glare from uncomfortably bright light sources or reflections: a. Reduce source brightness by dimming. b. Relocate source outside field of vision. c. Reduce reflectance of surfaces surrounding task. d. Shield sources with baffles, screens, etc. e. Select sources which distribute I lght away from the angle of glare and the angle of reflected glare.

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Natural Lighting Cammer cIa I bu II d I ngs present many op portun 1 tIes for the use of dayllghtlng. Since commercial building design decisions are ul tlmately concerned with economics, It Is Important to establIsh the basis for significant cost savings using dayl lghtlng. A. The fact that most commercial buildings have high daytime occupancies the high I lghtlng levels required during the dayl lght hours Is the key factor In considering dayllghtlng as an energy-efficient strategy. B. One of the most powerful reasons for Incorporating dayl lght design In buildings Is that, when properly used, dayl lght provides a I lghtlng quality In architectural spaces rarely equaled by artificial systans. I. Daylight through windows can enhance modeling effects, reduce ceiling reflections and provide diurnal time orientation by contact with outdoor conditions. 2. Window openings also can provide visual rest when used In work environments. 3. Day I I ghtl ng can com pi ement art If I cIa I II ghtl ng. The following rules for dayl lghtlng can be used: a. DesIgn art If I cIa I I I ght I ng to f I I I In areas of room where des I red II I um I nat I on I eve Is cnnot be achieved by dayllghtlng (e.g., near walls opposite windows, areas without access to outdoors). b. When dayllghtlng Is sufficient, lighting fixtures should be switched or dimmed to lower II lumlnatlon levels or be turned off. c. Use neutral-color Interior surfaces to avoid color rendering distortion when artificial I lghtlng Is used with day I I ghtl ng. d. Admit daylight from two or mere room sides to avoid sharp contrast between daylight and adjacent wall surfaces. e. Admit dayl lght from high locations at least one-halt room depth, that are away from occupants' line-of-sight. f. Use transparent Interior partitions (or upper part of partitions, transoms) to transmit dayl lght to Interior spaces. g. Avoid sharp-cornered openings which can create high brightness ratios and glare. To lower brightness ratios, splay jambs and slope I lght wei Is.

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h. dayllghtlng openings so that view of sky Is shielded from occupants In most viewing positions. I. Use I arge-scal e et EIT!ents (e.g., horizontal overhangs, deep reveals, or fIne-mesh screen, drapes, or blinds). Exterior shading devices can mitigate any unwanted "greenhouse" effects. J. Horizontal overhangs can be used to project reflected ground-! lght Into rooms. Concrete, white gravel, whlte pavers, water, etc., are better ground reflectors ofl lght than aspha It or grass. k. Enhance dayl lght by using reflectors or topl lghtlng In areas without view (e.g., clerestories, I lght shelves) to proJect dayl lght deep Into Interior spaces. Use roof coverings with high reflectances to Increase quantity of I lght admitted by clerestories, and other top-lighting devices, and to minimize heat gain effects of summer sun angles. I • Inter I or f In I shes wIth hIgh ref I ectances to maximize effectiveness of both day! lght and artificial I lghtlng and to soften contrast with sky. m. Do not use low-transmittance glass (I.e., tinted glass, glass-block) adJacent to clear glass, open door, or open wIndow.

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Energy Conservation I. The energy consumed by a building during use Is a variable which can and should be control led. A. Some factors which should be considered In the design of a bu I I d I ng are: I • Funct I ana I Factors a. Building location b. Building size and function c. Floor area per person d. Size of processing equipment and appl lances e. Building operating schedules 2. Environmental Factors a. Lighting comfort levels b. Thermal comfort levels 3. Envelope Factors a. Orientation of building b. Shape of building c. Mass of building d. Wal I and roof Insulation value
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7. Additional Considerations a. What Is the major supply/demand problem of the uti II ty company? b. What alternative energy sources are aval fable? c. What Is the uti I lty rate structure and how will it affect energy use? d. How w I I I bu II dIng operatIon sc hedu I es affect energy use? B. Some other energy use questions which must be answered by the designer are: 1. Is the building going to be Internally or externally dominated? (Buildings with high surface-to-volume ratios (houses, small commercial) are externally dominated; buildings with Ia surface-to-volume ratios tend to be Internally dominated.) 2. How will climate affect building energy use? 3. Is the building type predominantly passive or active in nature? 4. Is the primary problem energy demand or consumption? S. Are there sources of reclaimable waste heat aval fable? 6. What energy concepts enhance the project's priorities? 7. Is there a process within the building that has special energy features or energy effects? Choosing a particular concept should come after some analysis, and should be evaluated In terms of Its effect on the energy meter. II. Energy conserving design can have a deleterious effect on safety In buildings •. Some considerations for which compensating design features or equipment must be provided Include: A. Openings for cross-ventilation and dayl lghtlng purposes will tend to disrupt fire development In rooms. Where ventilation Is sufficient and fuel load small, fires can be of short duration with relatively low tempertures due to Infiltration of cooler outdoor al r. B. Tightly sealed buildings with few openings tend to reinforce fire development by creating smokey, hot destructive fire conditions of prolonged duration.

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C. External solar shading devices (e.g., egg crate, sculptured block, expanded metal) can restrict emergency escape and access to buildings by fire fighters. D. Locating buildings on steep slopes to take advantage of beneficial mlcrocl !mate effects can restrict fire apparatus access. For example, bu II dl ngs at the edge of cliffs or other steep grades may restrict access to only one side. References: Egan, M.D., Concepts In Building Flresafety. John W II ey & Sons, 1978 Lerup, L. et at., Learning From Fire; A Fire Protection Primer for Architects. National Fire Prevention & Control Administration, 1977

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skin and mechanical capital costs $/sf 6 7 8 9 amual_ operating energy cost $1000/'yr -----------g ,.. ,.. ,.. ,.. 111-6 BUILDING HEIGHT 131-6 BUILDING HEIGHT 25% WINDOW/75% WALL 51 HORIZONTAL OVERHANG 51 VERTICAL FINS 5 1 SOUTH OVERHANG/ E-W FINS 51 OVERHANG WAFFLE ONE lW(}-STORY BUILDING ONE TW(}-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION 11-fREE TW(}-STORY BUILDING THREE TW(}-STORY BUILDING W/INSULATION capital vs energy costs CO WAR I SON OF SKIN AND MEa-tAN I CAL COST AND ENERGY OPERATING COSTS FROM ENERGY IN DESIGN: TEOfN IQUES 11-fE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF AROi ITECTS

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Typical Energy Budget A. Envelope 10.5% 1. Walls + Wirrla.Ys 9. 0% 2. Floor+ Skylights 1.5% B. Building Contents 39. 5% 3. Occupants 2.5% 4. Appliances 5. 0% 5. Elevators,MJtors,Fans+.r-1isc 15.0% 6. Water Heating 5. 0% 7. Ventilation 12.0% C. Lighting Systems 50. 0% 8. Task + Gen '1 Illumination 48.0% 9. C\ltdoor + 2. 0% D. Total Energy Budget 100.0%

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Program

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Y. Program The Chatfield Arboretum Conservatory pro;rarn represents a framework for the Development of the arboretum site to best meet the needs of pub lie dlsp lay, scientific and educational ch, Historic Stew8rdshlp, 80d ministrative and maintenance functions. It is a of the purposes of the arboretum; the of the site, the requirements and the potential needs of future users. As a preliminary step, functional relationships were mtermlned and related to the site. Site: 1. N:I::1Jss to the s1te Is soley vehicular. Vehicular circulation w1thln the site will form a loop system with for 200 cars and will be 58J"eglrted from the core areas. The smell, strateoically located, existing parking lot adjfl:eflt to the school house will be removed; supplanted by more sensitively designed perking area lnterfad w1thln a oop circulation system that would be lnte;J'ated with the existing access rDErl Parking for up to 300 cars may eventually be required based on the figure of I 000 visitors during peolc hour (see fig. 5.4). In 8li:lition, parking for busses and recreational vehicles Is required. 18 Busses wm be a:x:omOOated. A tramway using electric powered vehicles has been considered by the Denver Botanic eanEns for future use. This would parallel selected portions of the pedestrian system, maJclng the site 8nd the conservatory more accassib Je for those unwt1ling or unable to walk from parking or through the entire arboretum. The system would also provide a convenient for gullEd tours. However, It Is held that Implementation of any such system would not occur for severe! yecrs. 77

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2. The H1ldebrand farm w111 serve primarily as a museum of pioneer ltfe and of the early years of the 20th century. light uses will be incorporated in the main farmhouse depending on the expanding needs of both the conservatory and the arboretum; these sps:es could serve as additional meeting rooms for pub11c lectures, and classrooms. 3. The extsttng restroom shelter constructed by the Corps of Engineers is to be removed, Vtsuelly Md the building's functton wm be supplanted by Improved fm:tltttes In the new conservatory building. 4. The Denver Bot81llc gardens wants a caretaker to reside on the premises; the larger house on the Green Farm would be used for this purpose. Conservatory: The COIIS8I vatory ts tnterKEd to form t1 transttton point from parking tlnd arrive I, to a site encompassing pedestrian circulation system l1nlclng exterior display arees (See Ftg. 2.2a, p.16). The conservatory's fundamental purpose will be to tDmlcxmte three primary functions: I. Provtston of e btJse fecility for the mlnistrtltion, development Mid support of exterior arboretum dtsolavs anc:1 qr-ouoos. Administrative and operations form a functional core for the arboretum. The restored school house 8lld HIJdebrand farm 8dd to and extend this core aiOilQ riparian areas 8djlDmt to Deer Creelc Administration needs Include office space end library space. 600 square feet h8s been allocated for employee fm:lllttes Including office space r8Jtlrements for a total of 1 0 m lnistretive and maintenance emp Jayees. The library and book storDQB will require opproxlmately 1500 SQUtJra feet. 78

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Close linkages with both interior and exterior experimental displEtfS will faci11tate mainten8nC8, 8nd support d1semiMtion of information 8S well 8S experimental samples of introcluced vegetation to the public. Parking for administrative and maintenance employees, inchJding visiting reseerchers, could be fJDlmoirted by 25 speces. Maintenance needs would include nursery spa and propegetion areas, vehicle maintenance end storfiJB, equipment maintenance end storfiJB, end empl(}{ee facilities. Nursery space would require approximately three acres with a portion of this space cccrued to the conservatory gerdens. In greenhouse and lcrth house SPEa needs would be assumed by the conservatory structure. A total of 20,000 square feet have been alloted for these functions. Veh1c1e maintenance end storage will require approximately 4000 SQUare feet.; None of the existing barn structures ere assumed to be Ulquate for these needs except potentially as overflow storfiJB. Aal1tionel ouumr, screened storage areas will be required for irrigation equipment. Primary space needs includa: 1. Mnin1strative offices. 1nformet1on and reception 2. Maintenance and grounds personal offices 3. Employee supptrt facilities, lounge, axnputer rooms, Dnd stor6QB 4. Vegetation sales, cutting and potting areas 5. Grounds maintenance equipment, storage and repair 2. The amervcrtory wm Z'Ve in the crecrtion of a Wtntergerden environment for the enjoyment. entertainment and education of the pub11c w1th functional design emphasis placed on wintertime use. The major use of the conservatory will be to present botenic and experimentztl d1splltf5 in 8 tempenrte and humanly comfortable environment that parallel and synopsize those occuring within the considerable extent of the arboretum grounds. DisplEtfS and public circulation will be an integral part of the 20,000 square feet allotted for the conservatory greenhouse. Anticipcrting the need for an auditorium and or multi-purpose spcce, the 79

PAGE 100

mnservatory w111 have the potential to accomooate more flexible displ&,' needs, increased library needs 60d to provide a flexible meeting space for up to 200 persons; 4000 SQU8re feet is required. Administrative functions as well as educational and recreational areas are to bear sepll"ate but distinct relationships with in order to strengthen the relationship and contact between living, working and recreational sps:es to their pastoral garden context Primary sps:es required: 1. Yesr round interior sample and experimental demonstration garcmns 2. Releted displttf 8nd exhibit spaces 3. lounging, remtng and contemplative areas. 3. Auditorium/ theatre -lecture hall 4. Cless room( s) 5. Horticulturalacr:essries and gift shop 3. The mnservatory will aa:omooate the importation, research and exper1mentetion on non-indigenous wmty 6lld vegetative ploot meter1els for the purpose of 1ntroouc1nQ them to the Color81:1 landsc8pe environment, the landscape proffession and the home gardener. Experimental plantings will be integrated to test the suitabillty of intrcx1uald species of less certain performance under local conditions. Because of the llfverse nature of pre-existing environment of the arboretum site, protection end year round display of less species w111 be occomp11shed by Incorporating them into interior displays. LDboratory space needs encompess I 000 squere feet. These speces ere required to be flexible; either expanding Into classroom or 1n turn, serving as classrooms. Primary spaces required: I. Exterior and tempered interior experimental garden areas 2. Private research /office spaces 3. Library aOd rEHting areas 4. Work rooms 5. Visiting and resident researcher support areas 6. Plant sales/ reseorch interfBCe with public inquiry( Information) 80

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User Function matrix X Major relationship o MOOel"me relmionship -Minor relationship Function Parking COnservatory gard:ms Administration library Greenhouses lecture Hall Education Meeting rooms Experimental plantings Nursery Specialty gardens Synoptic gm-dens Fig. 5.2 -User function matrix :::1 c. a; J X X 0 0 X X X a en -en i 1i5 '-a -;; c ! i 0 '-a:: Ll.t Q. Users X X X X 0 X 0 X 0 0 0 0 X X 0 X 0 0 0 X 0 X X 0 0 0 X 0 X X X X 0 X X X X X X 81

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Fl2 1. Entry Vestibule 100 2. Reception court 200 3. D1rectors offtce 150 4. Mn1n1stration offices 500 5. Employee lockers 200 6. Jen1tor 100 7. Conference 250 8. 61ft shop 500 9. C8fe/rest8urent 2000 Ftg. 5.3 -Spatial relationships diagram Key: Public I. :: ] Administrotive k :< > l Mixed Ft.2 10. Kitchen 400 11. Restrooms 600 12. lounge 300 13. ltbrary 1500 14. lecture hall 4000 15. Class rooms 1000 16. Wintergarden 20000 17. Ma1nteMnce 4000 Total: 35,800 82

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Building Codes

PAGE 104

Rev. March 1983 i 4 • 10 SUPPLEMJ!:lfi'ARY INFORMATION 260. 4.10 .3 SLP BO'ILDING CODE CBECICLIS'r Project Name Chatfield Arboretum Conservatoryproject No. Thesis Location Jefferson County, Colorado Applicable Code Name Uniform Building Code, 1982 Code Check by Edward P. Snyder Date 5/2/85 SECTION 1. Fire Zone 2 • Occupancy Classification Group A, Division 3 601 Principal Occupancy A601 Others (Specify) B-1, Maintenance garage 701 B-2, Offices 701 B-2 Dining and Drinking 701 3. Occupancy Separation required A-3 to B-1 = 3 Hours Table 5-B A-3 to B-2 = N Hours Table 5-B to = Hours Table 5-B to = Hours to = Hours 4. Construction Type I Table 17-A

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Rev. March 1983 ( ' 4. 10 stJPPLBMBHTARY INFORMAT'IOH ( COnt 1 d) 4. 10.3 SLP BOILDIHG CODE CHECKLIST ( Cont 1 d) 5. Maximum allowable Basic Floor Area: Unlimited If adjacent to open area on two or more sides: If over one story: If sprinklered: 6. Maximum allowable height: Feet __ Stories I -Unlimited (II 12) for A-3 7. Fire Resistance of exterior wall (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type) 8. Openings in exterior walls: (See Occupancy Type and Construction Type) Not permitted less than 5 ft., protected less than 10ft. 9. Windows required in rooms: Window area required: 10. Enclosed or semi-enclosed courts -size required ____ _ 261. Table 5-C 5-D 5-D 5-A

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Revised March 1983 4. 10 SUPPLKMEHTARY IMP ORMATION ( Cont 1 d) 4. 10 .3 SLP EaJILDING CODE CllBCICLIST: ( Cant' d) 11. Minimum ceiling height in rooms: No portion less than 5'-0 7' guer SO% 12. Minimum floor area of rooms: 13. Fire resistive requirements: 4 Hours Exterior bearing walls sec. 1803a ---------------------------Interior bearing walls 3 Hours 4 Hours Exterior non-bearing walls -----------------------Structural frame 3 Hours Permanent partitions 1 Hours Hours Vertical openings ---------------------------------Floors 2 Hours Roofs (1806) 2 Hours Exterior doors 3/4 hr.-less than 20' setback Hours Exterior windows 3/4 hr.-less than 20' setback Hours Inner court walls Hours ---------------------------------Mezzanine floors (area allowed) _________________ H.ours 1/3 floor area max. coverage Roof coverings Class A or B Sec. 1806) Hours Boiler room enclosure _______________ 14. Structural requirements: Framework Steel, concrete or masonry 3 Hours Stairs Reinforced cone. or structural steel Hours Floors Non combustible fire resistive const.2 Hours 262. 17-A 17-A 17-A 17-A 17-A 17-A 17-A 1802b 1802b 1716 3204 1802 1805 1804

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Rev . March 1983 4. 10 SOPPLEMENTARY DIFORMAT:ION ( Cont • d) 263. 4.10.3 SLP BOTI.DDIG CODE CHJQ C!.:IST: (Cent' d) SECTION Where every part of roof structure is 25' Roofs above floor, non-comb. mat. Hours 1806 protected by sprinkler or resistive material Partitions Noncombustible, fire resistive Hours 1801 15. Exits: Occupancy load-basis (square feet per occupant) 0 ccupancy Type Basis Actual Load Offices 100 Kitchens (commercial) 200 Assembly(dining rm.) 15 Assembly (high concentration) 100 Number of exits required: Assembly areas so 2 offices 30 2 Minimum width of exits: 3ft. 33-A occcupant_ Floor area load -SF/Occupant Total width of exits in ft. shall be at least the total 3302 occupant load divided by 50, and divided equally among separate exits, and including a percentage of the occupant loads of adjacent floors. Exit separation arrangement: Exits will be accessible from at least two different 3318 directions. Minimum travel distance between fire exit doors shall be 25' apart minimum.

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Revised March 1983 /----._ \ ) , I 4. 10 SUPPLEMEHTARY INFORMATION ( Cont 1 d) 4.10.3 SLP BDILDDIG CODE CHECJCLIST: (Cont' d) Maximum allowable travel distance to exit 150' With sprinklers 200' Allowable exit sequence: 1/2 req'd exjts shall be located to be reached w/o going through entry vestibule. Exits from rooms may open onto adjpiojng or intervening rooms or areas provide the adjacent room is accessory to the area served and provides direct means of egress. Exit doors: Minimum width allowed 3 ft. Maximum leaf width allowed 4 ft. Width required for No. of occupants ( see min. width of exits -previous page) Exit corridors: Minimum allowable width 44 in. (3'-8") Required to have exit at each end of corridor? Yes (When 2 exits are req'd. except for dead end allowance. Dead end corridors allowed? Yes Maximum length 20' 264. SECTION 3303c 3303c 3304e 3304e 3303b 3305b 3305e 3305e

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Rev • March 1983 4.10 SUPPLEMEH'l'ARY INFORMATION ( Cont • d) 265. 4.10.3 SLP BUILDING CODE c::&:i5CKLIS"l' (Cont' d) , 6. SECTION Wall fire resistance required l hour 3305g Doors and frames fire resistance required: 3/4 hr. 3305h Stairs: Minimum width 44 in. (3' -8"'E)or occ. load of +50 3306b 36 in. For occ. load of up to 50 3306b For occ. load of Maximum riser allowed 7.5" 330/)c Minimum tread allowed 10" 3306c Are winders allowed? if reg'd run width is provided not 3306d more than 12" from side of stair where are narrowest. 6" min run@ any point req'd. Landings: Minimum size Dim. measured in direction of travel = width of sta1rway but not exceed1ng '-0" Maximum size run. 4'-0" Maximum vertical distance between landings 12 ft. Minimum vertical distance between landings ----Required height of rails ---------------Handrails: Required at each side? Yes ----------------Intermediate rails required at stairs 88" wide Yes Maximum width between int. rails Equal spacing Exceptions applicable 3306g 3306g 3306i 3306j 3306j 3306j

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I I 4.10 SUPPI.BMJntfA.RY INFORMATION (Coat I d) 4. tO .3 SLP BUILDING CODE CliBClCLJ:sr: {Cant' d) Height above nosing 30 34" Balusters required? Intermediate rail requirad7 -----------------------Maximum post spacing allowed. ________________________ _ Handrails return to wall at ends? Yes -------------------Handrails extend beyond stair 6" top and bottom Stair to roof required? Yes, if building is 4+ stories one stairway shall extend to roof w1th h1nged door. Stair to basement restrictions Provide barrier/signage to prevent persons from continuing to basement. Stair access to roof required? See above ------------------------Access to roof required? Stair enclosure required? __ Y_e_s _____________ Hours __ 1 ____ _ Exception: Enclosure shall not be required for a stairway, ramp or escalator serv1ng only one adJacent floor and nor connected w/corridors or stairways serving other floors. Horizontal exit requirements (if applicable) ________ _ Ramps: :-taximUEn slo .P! to use as exit 1 : 12 266. SEX...-riON 3306j 3306j 3306j 3306o 3306h 3309f 3307c Handrails required steeper than 1:15 same as stairways 3307e

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\ ' ) Exit signs required? :Coat' d) Yes at every req'd. exit occupant load of +30 Balcony rails? ------------------------------------------267. SECTION 3314a Where All unenclosed floor, roof openings and 1711 glazed s1des of sta1rs, ramps, land1ngs, Height required balconies, etc. 42" (3'-6") 1711 Balusters or intermediate rails required_" o.c. max. 17. Penthouses: .\rea limitations Height limitations ____________________________________ __ Use limitations ----------------------------------------Construction requirements 18. Parapet 'ills: Where required All exterior walls (see exceptions) 1709a Height 30" above where roof surface and wall intersects 1709b 19. Fire extinguishing systems: Sprinklers required when floor area exceeds 1. 500 sq. ft 'c.____;;3....;;8....;;0,;;2,;;b_ see section for details Dry standpipes required ______________________________ __ Location ----------------------------------------------

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\ I ( 4.10.3 Revised March 1983 4. 10 SUPPLKMENTARY INFORMATION ( Cont' d) (Cant' d). Number required ______________________________________ _ Number outlets required. ____________________________ __ Hose required ________________________________________ _ Siamese connections required -------------------------Wet standpipes required In bldgs. of 4+ stories Number required (hose run) 1 or more 4" st.pipes for 4 or more stories (100 ft. max. to any pt.in bld . Locationin public corridor within 10' to the opening of a req1d stairway on all floors Fire extinguishers required at ea. standpipe location 268. SECTION 20. Toilet roam requirements: Code utilized? Fixture count requirements: Men: Basis Actual Lavatories Water closets ---------------------------------------Urinals ____________________________________________ __ Women: Lavatories ------------------------------------------Water closets ______________________________________ _ Drinking fountain requirements ________________________ _

PAGE 113

Rev • March 1983 4.10 SUPPLEMENTARY DIP'ORMAT'ION (COntI d) 269. 4.10.3 SLP BUILDING CDDB CHBCICL'IST (Cant' d) SECTION Showers required? ______________________________________ _ Walls Hard, smooth, non-absorbant surfaces SlOb Floors 11 II II II II SlOb ---------------------------------------------------Compartments 3011 wide x(w.c.+2411)long = 14 sq. ft. Slla Handicapped requirements See handicapped ordinances (ANSI) Sll 2 1 • Skylights: Locations Min, 4 '-011 between units Separation. ____________________________________________ ___ Maximum size ---------------------------------------------Maximum aggregate area in room --------------------------Curb 22. Elevators and escalators: Maximum number in each shaft ---------------------------Ventilate penthouse? __________________________________ __ Machine room wall construction. ________________________ _

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Revised 1983 --\ I { 4.10 IMl'ORMAnOR (Coat'd) 270. < 4.10. 3 SLP BIJILDI'NG CODW c:::s:BCXLZS'f: (Cent' dl 23. Use of public property: Doors prohibited from swinging into city property? __ _ Marquees, canopies, eec.: Support from buildinq? ____________________________ __ Material restriction•--------------------------------Distance above walk __________________________________ _ Maximum distance of ext ens ion over walk:_ __________ _ heignt ______________________________________ __ Drainage ____________________________________________ ___ Other frOJections: Minimum height above "ground• --------------------Maximum allowable p!:'Oj ection ------------------------Bay window, porch, balconies -----------------------Cornices, etc. --------------------------------------24. Fire alarm: Required basis ______________________________________ ___ Type----------------------------------------------25. Emergency lights or ;ewer required ____________________ ___ 26. Access doors required in ecterior Wllls without openings?

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for Accol!llmdatinll Physically Dlsahled People Prepared by 1:1111 Denu, Office of Planning, University of Colorado, BouldL•r "U11able limits" provided in this checklist will provide functional access to buildings Rnd use of facilities most with physical disabilities. These limits do not necessarily applicable dc11ign criteria that lllilY be legally binding. Wherc-r facilitiell sh..,uld be provided that go beyond the standards provided 1n this or any other guideline. Item 1. Dimensional/Operational • travel pathll. • Two !chairs to pa,;s. • 11!0 turn in a • Stationary occupied wheelchair space. • r reach -front approach. • Wheelchair reach approach. • Range of reach over a c.lesk in a wheelchair. • Items projecting into a travel space. • Operation of controls, handles, pulls, etc. • on path • Opcningll on travel pathH. • Slope of travel paths. • Cross-slopes of travel paths. • Entrance ramps, curb ramps. 2. Exterior Facilities • Parking signs. • Parking stall. • Parking quantities and locations. • Passenger loading zones. • Ramp configuration (includes curb ramps). 3. Building Entrances • Door widths. • Maneuvering clearances (at pull side). • Thresholds. • Doors in series vestibules). • DOor openins rorces. 4. Stairs and Hilndrails • Treads and risers. • Handrail configurations. Usable Limits )fl" or 1110re in width. flO or more. At least flO" diameter clearance. 30" x 48" or more. l'i" to 48" above the floor. to 54" above the floor. 17" to 24" across. No more than 4" if between 27" and 80" above the floor. With one hand without tight grasping, pinching, or twistin • No more than 1/2" unless ramped. No more than 1/2" wide. No steeper than 1:20 (5%). (Short rwls of steeper grudes are negotiable. Provide rest areas.) No steeper than 1:50 (2i.). (Tilted paths of any length are difficult to negotiate.) No steeper than 1:12 (8-1/)i.). (Short runs of steeper grades are negotiable.) Reserved, symbol of access, free-standing At least 36" travel aisle required on either side of car or van. When provided, a reasonable number, but no less than two located close to an entrance. Signed, with curb ramp, to entrance walk. At least 36'1 wide, no more than a 30 foot I"Wl to s level res space of at lease 60"; at least a 60" level space top and bottom; hand-.rails on both sides with at least a 12" extension. 24"impassable; 30" difficult:; J2" us
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Elevators • General. Item • Lobby Access. • Elevator Cab 6. ToUet Rooms • Entrance. • Toilet stalls. • Grab bars. • water closets. • urinals. • Lavatories. • Towel dispensers, mirrors, etc. 7. Drinking Fountains • Location. • Configuration. 8. Public Telephones • Configuration. 9. Miscellaneous • Showers. • Bathtubs. • Signage. • Floor surfaces. • kt!sidential kitchens. Usable Limits Serve all floors of building that have programs. Public, automatic, push button operation (no keys). Call buttons no higher than 4811 abovt! the floor. Hall lantern indicators with both visual and audible signals. Raised floor numbers on door jambs at t!ach floor. Cab size at least 68" long by 5111 Highest control button no more than 54" above the floor. Emergency control items at bottom of panel. Self leveling and protective door reopening device. Tactile numerals and operating instruct ions. 32" door usable, 36" door preferred. Privacy screens undesirable; at least a 42" path around required. 36" or 60" in lrldth; at least 60" in depth. 32" clear opening to enter. A lavatory within is desirable. 3211 to 34" above the floor; both sides of 36" stall; w.c. side and rear of 60" stall. Top of seat height 17" to 1911 above floor; wall mount preferred • No more than 17" from lip to floor. No less than 27" clearance beneath; no more than 34" to top edge. Insulate hot water supply line and drain. Provide lever-type control handles. Lower edge or operable part no ntore th;m 4811 above floor. Full length wall mirrors recommended. No closer than 24" to intersecting walls. Recess alcoves no less than JO" wide. Spout opening no higher than 36" above floor. Water flow as parallel to front as possible. Lever or push-button controls. Clear access, 54" or less to coin slot. Padded seats, grab bars, hand held shower units, anti-scald device, usable controls within reach. Movable St!at, grab bars, usable controls within reach. Symbol of access, contrasting letters to b.lck ground of sufficient size, tactile letters. Location and identification of accessible f acili ties. Stable, firm, slip resistant. Carp.!t illld pad securely fastened with a firm feel. Lowered sink and work with front controls for rilllge, storage to replace unusable shelvt!s in wall cnbincts. 2.

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Bibliography

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Bib 1 iography History and Thesis Master Plan for the Chatfield Arboretum of the Denver Botanic Gardeos.Jn.Q. Denver, Colorado: Prepared by Harman, O'Donnell& Henninger Associates, Inc. Denver, Coloraoo: April, 1978 Glass Houses and Wjnteroardens of the Nineteenth Ceotur'i. Stefan Koppelkamm, Rizzoli, New York, 1981. Kew. Royal Botanic Gardens Gardens for Science and pleasure 1982 The cary Arboretum of theN Y Botanjcal Garden 1976 TbeCoyeredGarden, Kenneth London, Dufour, Philadelphia, 1963 Arr.OOes The History of Buildjo(Jl_ypes , Johann Friedrich Geist, 1936 Conference, Convention and exhibition Facjljtjes A Handbook of Planning Design and Managemnent. Fred Lawson, The Architectural Press, London 1981 Architecture of the Western World Edited by Michael Raeburn. Orbis Publishing, Lonoon, 1980 p.200-243 The Power of Plants Brendan Lehane, McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1974 Modern Gardens and the Landscape, Elizabeth B. Kassler The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 1984 (En Des . .tr SB 472 M6 1984) 4. Bernard Maybeck, Palace of the Fine Arts, San Fransisco, california. From: William H. Jordy, American Buildings and their Architects. Anchor Press, 1976 5. William H. Jordy, American Buildings and their Architects. Anchor Press, 1976 Site and Climate Master Plan for the Chatfield Arboretum of the Denver Botanic Gardens.Jn.Q. Denver, Colorado: Prepared by Harman, O'Donnell& Henninger Associates, Inc. Denver, Colorado: April, 1978

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Hildebrand Farm Historic Structures Report. Long-Hoeft Architects, Denver, Coloraoo: September 1984 PlanninQ with Climate and Solar Enerw prepared by the Denver Planning Office, City and County of Denver, Denver, Coloratl Climatic DesiWl.. Donald Watson ,FAIA and Kenneth Labs. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1983 Chatfield Arboretum Soils Survw, Go I den office of the Soi Is Conser vat 10n Service, Oolden Coloraoo Structural and System Design Concepts A Conservatory for a Botanic Garden. (Edward Larrabee Barnes). by Mildred F. Schmertz, Architectural Record, July 1979, pps. 89-96 Construct jon desh,;m for landscaoe Architects. AlbeE. Munson, P .E. ,L.A. Mcgraw-Hill Book Co. 1974 Garden Booms and Greenhouses, Jack Kramer, Harper & Row 1972 Frei Otto Tension structures, Conroo Roland, Praeger Publishers. N.Y. 1970 A yast space frame wraps New York's Convention Center Like a taut fabric Architectural Record, Mid-August 1980, pps. 47-57 Architects' (and Enoineers') Guide to Space Frame Design, Dr. Paul Gugliotta, Architectural Record, Mid-August, 1980, pps. 58-69 Jhe Era of Swoops and Bmows : Progressive Architecture. June 1980 pps. 1 1 0125 Burrell Gallery-Glasgow. Scotland. Architecture, Sept. 1984, p. I 02-107 Nachiko lshaihara Memorial Museum : Yamanashi City, Japan. / Architecture, Sept. 1984 pps. 136,37. Factory Building, South Wales, England. Architecture Sept. 1980 p. 174,75 "Una casa Natura1e"(A natural house) Abitare Oct. 1981. p.J4-21 Water-Lily House Sweden. Abitare, Nov. 1982 p. 62-65

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Horticultural References Selected papers jn Greenhouse and Nursery Enoineerino: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1983 Forest Tree Planting jn Arrid zones A.Y. Goor & C.W. Barney, Ronald Press Co. N.Y. 1968 and Wrnjy Vines of the Southwest Robert A. Vines, University ofTexas Press, Austin, 1960 Prarje Plants & their Environments J.E. Weaver, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 1968 Manual of the PI ants of Colorado H.D. Harrington, Sage Books 1954

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Appendix

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land Use Summary Table G.l.A. & Percent of Number of Nonbuilding Minimum lot Size Percent Use Type Units Acreage Parcel Density Area in OS Per Dwelling Unit of Site 1. CoiTITlercial (.250 FAR) 217,800 GlA 20.0 N/A 20% N/A 5.8% 2. Office/Research & Dev. (.500 FAR) 1,435,300 GlA 65.9 N/A 20% N/A 19.0% 3. Multi-family 129 minimum 7.6 17-20 du's/ac 30% None 2.3% 152 maximum 4. Townhouse 310 minimum 31.0 10-12 du's/ac 25% 3,200 s. f. 9.0% 372 maximum 5. Single F ami 1 y 403 minimum 115.2 3.5-5.0 du's/ac 40% 6,500 s.f. 33.3% 576 maximum 6. Single Family Cluster 89 minimum 17.8 5.0-8.0 du's/ac 30% N/A 5.1% 142 maximum 7. CoiTITlon Open Space* N/A 52.2 N/A N/A N/A 15.1% B. Right-of-way N/A. 26.1 N/A N/A N/A 7.5% 9. Schools N/A 10.2 N/A N/A N/A 2.9% Totals 931 minimum346.0 1,242 maximum

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ODP CHATFIELD GREEN Introduction The information contained in this report has been prepared for the Official Development Plan application (hereafter referred to as the 110DP .. ). for the Chatfield Green development. The application is for a change in zoning of 346 acres from A-2 to Mixed Use P.U.D. The Chatfield Green property is located in unincorporated southeastern Jefferson County, west of State Highway 75 and south of Deer Creek Canyon Road. The owner is First City Investment of Vancouver, British Columbia. The Applicant is Rob Trost, 4155 E. Jewell, Suite 606, Denver, Colorado 80222. The Planning Consultant is THK Associates, 40 Inverness Drive East, Englewood, Colorado. The Jefferson County's 11Planned Development Procedural Guide'' has been used as the basis for the format and topics submitted, to provide the necessary information to evaluate the ODP request. Land Use The 346 acres is proposed for a combination of office/research and development and commercial uses, with some residential uses proposed for the more rugged areas of the site. The land use is broken down as follows: 65.9 acres of office/industrial uses, 20 acres of commercial uses, 171.6 acres of residential uses, 10.2 acres for a school site with the remaining 78.3 acres in open space and right-of-way. The table on the following page indicates the land use types along with associated densities and intensities. The land surrounding this property includes; Chatfield Lake-State Recreation area to the northeast and east of the site, Denver Botanical Gardens Chatfield Arboretum to the northeast, with the historic Hildebrand Ranch to the north and west, zoned A-2 and the Huggins property zoned A-1 to the south.

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Project Concept The Chatfield Green development is proposed as a mixed-use project, which is intended to meet the demand in the southwest metropolitan area for high grade office/research and development uses, business and corrmercial needs generated by the employment center and the surrounding recreational areas, and to provide for nearby housing for employees of the office center. The development is to be planned as an integrated whole, to provide a full range of goods, services and potential jobs, along with housing in the same deve 1 opment. This wi 11 resu 1t in reduced necessity for commuting and attendant savings in energy use and air pollution. The 346 acre parcel will be planned in its entirety, integrating and buffering areas, utilizing an interconnected infrastructure system. This will result in a more visually appealing and functional land use pattern than may occur without a PUD approach. The project has been laid out with careful attention to the scenic foothills landscape and the unique setting surrounding the site. The existing topography and vegetation, along with the scenic views available at the site, have been considered in the planning of the project. The site will be deve 1 oped with the goa 1 of the preservation of the natura 1 beauty and character of the property, wherever possible. The site has been designed to function well within the context of the surrounding land uses. The proposed commercial area will be able to fill the needs of the users of the Arboretum and the Chatfield State Recreational Area. It will also function as a neiqhborhood shopping area for the office/industrial and residential portions of the project. The commercial area will be located along County Highway 75 for ready access of the highway and recreational users, and the potential users from the project itself. Proposed uses will inc 1 ude restaurants, banks, and other service oriented uses. The office/research and development areas are planned for the 1 ands surrounding Fairview Reservoir and just east and north of the proposed commercial area. The area surrounding the lake will be high quality office uses, principally research and development oriented. This area will serve the needs for office/industrial space in the Denver southwest market, as well as provide proximal locations to work for potential residents of the residential portion of the development. The residential portion of the project will be a combination of single fami 1 y detached homes and town homes, in a c 1 uster pattern which wi 11 enab 1 e preservation of interesting topography, vegetation, vistas and larger areas of open space. A small portion of the site, 7.6 acres, will be utilized for multi-family uses at a density of 20 dwelling units per acre. The multi-family area will serve as a transition zone between the office/industrial uses and the townhouses to the west. A school site of 10.2 acres is proposed within the residential portion of the project. The school site is centrally located to serve all areas planned for residential use.

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Open Space Concept The open space is planned to separate different land use parcels, with corridors of open space following the natural drainageways throughout the site. The drainageways will be maintained in as natural a state as possible, with improvement to be made only as necessary to preserve historic drainage flow and to accommodate pedestrian access. These open space corridors will link to other trail corridors on neighboring properties, pro viding excellent pedestrian access throughout the development and its environs. The pathway system will be integrated into the natural environment, with emphasis placed on providing visual access to scenic views and other areas of interest along the corridor system. Open space areas will also be preserved around both of the lakes, which will be connected to the network of open space corridors flowing over the site. These open space corridors, along with the lakes, cover 52.2 acres or 15.1% of the site. An additional 20 to 40% of each parcel will also be open space, which results in total open space over the entire site of from 35.1 to 55.1%. Landscaping wi 11 be of a natural type with minimal water and maintenance requirements. Existing vegetation will be preserved where possible and enhanced with native grasses and shrubs. A buffer will be provided along the northeast property boundary to screen and separate the development from adjacent properties. Wildlife and Vegetation The project site contains areas of 11lakes and marshes .. ! ecosystem around the reservoirs, with the balance of the property in the "plains grassland''! ecosystem type. There is no known unique vegetation on the site. There is a diversity of wildlife found on the site, though most of the site is designated as ''low to no wildlife significance112, with a portion designated as 11high wildlife significance"2 around Fairview Reservoir. This is primarily due to habitat for waterfowl found in this portion of the site. The area is designated as a .. Significant Wildlife Habitat .. for mule deer by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. Following is a list of wildlife species which would be likely to be found on the site. lu.s. Department of Interior Geological Survey Front Range Urban Corridor. 2Jefferson County Suitability Analysis Computer Printout.

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COMMUNITY DESIGN POLICY FROM LUPP II I. Spatial Clarity and Organization Paths 1. Paths (roadways, trails, etc.) will be designed to take advantage of the diversity in the landscape through which they pass. As the landscape changes, predominate features in it should be clearly seen from the paths. It is particularly important to create good views and vistas to landmarks. 2. The design of paths will expose the user of the path to the diversity of the surrounding landscape. 3. A visual boundary will be created between a roadway or trail and the surrounding landscape. The type of edger whether bold as a stone wall or subtle as in a gentle change in elevation, will be determined by the nature of the surrounding landscape and the character of the path itself. 4. Intersections between paths will be clearly defined with good visual warning of the intersection as one approaches it. 5. Different types of paths (roadways, trails, etc.) should come together at strategic points to allow travelers a number of different choices on how to reach a desired location. Landmarks 1. The design of future development and of redevelopment should preserve, enhance and take advantage of significant landmarks, whether they are distant mountain peaks and mountain fronts or small structures of local importance. 2. Where local landmarks do not exist, they should be built into the community through such devices as theme buildings and iocal greens to name just a few. Edges 1. Visable boundaries will be created between different activity areas, neighborhoods and districts.

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Community Design Policy August 29, 1983 Page 2 2. When possible, the boundary between two sub-areas should accommodate the functions which are common to both. This wili help to provide a clear transition from one to the other, rather than a barrier. 3. The width and/or transparency of edges between uses with different levels of impacts will increase in proportion to the degree of difference in the impacts, such as noise, visual obtrusiveness, and glare from lighting. 4. Open space will serve as edges between distinct commur:.ities. This open space should contair.. recreation opportunities for surrounding residents as well as providing conservation of natural resources su-:h as wildlife, views and vistas and agr icul tur al sites. 5. Use prominent natural features such as streams, ridges, or valleys to provide edges between districts and neighborhoods. Nodes 1. Nodes shall be developed to provide focal points for individual communities. 2. Nodes should be provided to create a regional scale hierarchy of focal points. The design of well-defined activity centers should act as these focal points for the surrounding community. 3. Areas suited for activity centers should be developed as nodes. 4. Concentrations of activities should occur at major intersections between paths. 5. To intensify activity within a node, its facilities must function in a cooperative manner attracting people to complimentary activities. If a node is large enough, sub-areas within it can function at different or overlapping parts of the day, ensuring activity during most of the day.

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Community Design Policy August 29, 1983 Page 3 6. The nodal function of existing activity centers should be enhanced or reinforced with new development or re-development if those existing centers are highly suited as activity centers. The full development of an activity center will be encouraged. Districts 1. Wherever a sub-area has a distinct positive Community character, planning shall preserve and enhance that character by providing that: a) clearly defined boundaries exist between the sub-area and other areas b) the new development forms are compatible with the functional and perceptual aspects of the area and are consistent with the long term development trends for the area 2. Within a given sub-area, any new project's design will encourage diversity of form as long as it relates to the positive central theme of the area. 3. Flow of non-essential or non-resident traffic movement through residential neighborhoods within a district will be restricted. Rather, such "traffic" will be directed to paths on the edges of neighborhoods or the district itself. Traffic movement through a neighborhood should be no more than that which is related to the activities within the neighborhood. 4. Districts of unique and diversified character, which relate to the development structure of urban cores, urban satellites, community centers, neighborhood centers, and rural centers will be provided as described in the activities center issue area. 5. Individual districts and neighborhoods should be developed or maintained in such a way that they fully express a particular "1 i festy le ". However, within a given community there should be many d;fferent such sub-areas.

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Community Design Policy August 29, 1982 Page 4 6. All districts will be providedwith a spatial focus. Typically this will be a node or landmark within the district. 7. All districts will have at least one node. II. Activity Centers 1. A regional activity center should be located in an area which has the potential for developing into an intensive multi-purpose center. 2. The site of a regional activity center should be accessible by major thoroughfare and served by high levels of public transportation service to the center and within the center. 3. Regional activity centers should be located such that adverse impacts on the environment are minimized. 4. Regional activity centers should not be located in close proximity to each other such that they compete for a limited amount of high intensity activities. (Not so critical for Employment dominated centers). 5. Regional activity centers should be located in areas which can be most effectively and efficiently provided with high levels of urban services and utilities. ... , . 6. The designation of regional activity centers should be based in part on the market potentials for such centers. 7. There should be a demonstration of local committment to the successful development of the center. (Implementation primarily through a designation in a Community Policy Plan>. 8. Activity Centers will be located as close to the center of their support population as possible. 9. use centers will be allowed as activity centers for employment and to provide commercial services up to the neighborhood level.

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Community Design Policy August 29, 1983 Page 5 III. Transportation A. Accessibility 1. The transportation system should be coordinated with regional, state and national transportation systems. 2. The transportation system should provide swift transportation and necessary capacity. 3. The transportation system should be planned and managed integrating and coordinating the provision of facilities across all major modes of travel (highway, transit, freight rail, airport, bicycle, pedestrian) and across all jurisdictions and transportation agencies in the region. 4. The Major Thoroughfare Plan should designate permanent transportation corridors that will be used to accommodate future transportation facilities with proper access controls. 5. Transportation facilities should be planned to be consistent with the anticipated level of travel demand, which is directly related to the population and employment forecasts and allocations. 6. The provision of transportation facilities should reflect a multiple use of facility right-of-way, integrating and coordinating several modes of transport, if possible. 7. Transit stations should be located to ensure accessibility and high system speeds. 8. To provide basic mobility to all inhabitants, special consideration should be given to the development of transportation services that will enhance the mobility of people that currently have low mobility; for example, low-income inhabitants or handicapped individuals.

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Community Design Policy August 29, 1983 Page 7 4. Alternative transportation projects and strategies should be evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness. 5. Tr ansporta ti on f acil i ties should be planned with particular care to minimize visual, noise and relocation disruption of existing neighborhoods. 6. Transportation facilities should be designed to minimize the amount of public recreation land disturbed. IV. Air Quality (Preliminary> 1. Emissions from land use activities, commercial, industrial, and mining, state and federal clean air standards. primarily must meet 2. Higher density developments should capitalize on energy efficiency by using clustering and common wall techniques thus Community Design Policy reducing energy consumption and indirectly improving air quality. 3. Spatial patterns of development should encourage less automobile use and more pedestrial activity, thus reducing air pollution from automobiles. 4. Restrict or prohibit the use of wood burning fireplaces and stoves in areas subject to inversions.

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Community Design Policy August 29, 1983 Page 8 V. Noise 1) Reduce noise levels for the proposed development to acceptable levels as defined by the following: (same as site suitability policies) Residential: Rural Residential Suburban Residential Medium Intensity Residential High Intensity Residential Very High Intensity Residential Commercial: Convenience Neighborhood Re-gional Industrial: Light Heavy Park Mineral Extraction Solid Waste Open Space: Neighborhood Communit County Regional Consenation Trails acceptable noise level LlO 55 c3 (;!.) LlO 60 dB(a) LlO 60 dB(a) LlO 65 dB(a) LlO 65 dB(a) LlO 70 dB(a) Ll 0 7 0 dB (a) LlO 70 dB(a) LlO 74 dB(a) LlO 74 dB (a) LlO 74 dB(a) LlO 74 dB (a) LlO 74 dB(a) LlO 65 dB(a) LlO 70 dB(a) LlO 70 dB(a) LlO 70 dB(a) LlO 50 dB(a) LlO 70 dB (a) 2) The pattern of land use should facilitate the dispersion of noise in the built environment, exhibiting a noise graduation pattern where high noise intensity activities are clustered together. * LlO indicates standard must be met 90 percent of each hour.

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9. Community Size Scenario 1 does expand the physical size of the community in terms of acreage above what is currently zoned. However, the intensity of the community in terms of population and square footage of commercial and industrial uses does not increase substantially. The resulting intensity at buildout is described below: 10. Network Size Population Housing Units Retail Square Office Square Footage Industrial Square Footage 171,500 59,132 7,595,000 6,002,000 8,946,000 Some increa3e in the size of service networks, e.g. reads, water and sewer lines will be necessary. -The eventual network size will be further studied by various service providers and discussed in future meetings. 11. Ratio of Open Space to Developed Land No major open space tracts are set aside in 1. Nc infill parcels and no strategic area parcels have open space incorporated into the design. The only park improvements expected in Scenario 1 would be a result of park dedication or fees in lieu of under the Land Development Regulation. The net effect over the existing situation would be a reduction in the ratio of open space to developed land. 12. Housing Tyi.e Most new residential development will be at densities that presume single family detached units. The effect of Scenario 1 will be to increase the proportion of single family units vs. multi-family units. The resulting ratio is expected to be 6: percent single family and 35 percent multi-family. The current zoning allows 60 percent single family and 40 percent multifamily. By limiting multi-family units, the opportunities for lower cost "affordable" housing are reduced. 13. The overall design consideration leads to a predominance of single family development. No special design consideration[ beyond current county regulations are proposed in Scenario 1. 14. and Down or Up-ZQning

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SOUTH JEFFCO STUDY AREA SERVICE PROVIDERS Water and Sanitation Districts SOUTHWEST METROPOLITAN WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Pat Fitzgerald 7677 Ken Caryl Road L i t t 1 e ton, Co 1 or ad o 8 0 1 2 3 WATER DISTRICT ATTENTION: Mr. St. Germaine, Chairman 4287 South Eldridge Morrison, Colorado 80465 HERRICK-DALE WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT (could not find any in for rna t ion ) PLATTE CANYON WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Patrick Fitzgerald 7677 West Ken Caryl L i t t let on , Co 1 or ad o 8 0 1 2 3 KEN CARYL WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Gerald Groothius 10579 Bradford Road Little ton, Co lorado 80127 GRANT WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Patrick Grant 1700 Western Federal Building Denver, Colorado 80202 SOUTHWEST PLAZA METROPOLITAN DISTRICT % Perl Mack Company ATTENTION: Samuel Primack, Pres. 1701 West 72nd Avenue Denver, Colorado 80221 SOUTHWEST SUBURBAN DENVER WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT % Orville N. Lewis 5179 Dudley Court Littleton, Colorado 80123 978-0661 . WILLOWBROOK WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Pam Spivey 4287 South Eldridge Morrison, Colorado 80465 LAKEHURST WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Marvin Matthews P.O. Box 26233 Lakewood, Colorado 80226

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1SOUTH J EFFCO STUDY AREA SERVICE PROVIDERS Page 2 LOCHMOOR WATER AND SANITAT:ON DISTRICT ATTENTION: Aaron Green 7600 East Road Harleauin Plaza S-#140 80111 773-9300 Fire Dist:::-icts BANCROFT FIRE PROTECTION DISTRICT A7TENTION: Eugene Carson 3301 South Field Street Lakewood, Colorado 80227 LITTLETON FIRE PROTECTION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Lee Dougherty 2255 West Lit-tleton, Colorado 80126 Park Districts FOOTHILL METROPOLITAN RECREATION AND PARK DISTRICT . ATTENTION: John J. 2200 Kipling Street Lakewood, Colorado 80227 NORMANDY ESTATES METROPOLITAN RECREATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Don Lombardi p. 0. BOX 1 0 4 5 Littleton, Colorado 80160 LEAWOOD METROPOLITAN PARK AND RECREATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Larry Mugler, Pres. 6249 South Fenton Littleton, Colorado 80i23 COLUMBINE KNOLLS-GROVE METROPOLITAN RECREATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Mrs. Marker P.O. Box 293 Littleton, Colorado 80160 School Districts R-1 SCHOOL DISTRICT ATTENTION: Bob Eckhardt 809 Quai 1 t Lakewood, 80215

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'SOUTH JEffCO STUDY AREA SERVICE PROVIDERS Roads and Transportation STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT ATTENTION: Richard Brasher 2000 South Holly Denver, Colorado 80222 REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: L. A. Kimball, Exec. Dir. 1600 Blake Street Denver, Colorado 80202 Other Lib r3. ry JEffERSON COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARIES ADMINISTRATION OFfiCE ATTENTION: William A. Knott, Director 10200 West 20th Avenue Lakewood, Colorado 80215 Planning Deoartments Planning Director BOW MAR PLANNING DEPARTMENT 4800 Red Wood Drive Littleton, Colorado 80129 Planning Director DENVER PLANNING DEPARTMENT 1445 Cleveland Place .Room 300 Denver, Colorado 80202 Planning Director LAKEWOOD PLANNING DEPARTMENT 44 Union Boulevard Lakewood, Colorado 80228 SERVICE. PRO 1 0 • 1 7 . 8 3. pmd

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SOUTH JEFFCO STUDY AREA SERVICE PROVIDERS Water and Sanitation Districts SOUTHWEST METROPOLITAN WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Pat Fitzgerald 7 677 Ken Cary 1 Road L i t t 1 e ton , Co 1 or ad o 8 0 1 2 3 MEADOWBROOK WATER DISTRICT ATTENTION: Mr. St. Germaine, Chairman 4287 South Eldridge Morrison, Colorado 80465 HERRICK-DALE WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT (could not find any information) PLATTE CANYON WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Patrick Fitzgerald 7677 West Ken Caryl Littleton, Colorado 80123 KEN CARYL WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Gerald Groothius 10679 Brad ford Road Littleton, Colorado 80127 GRANT WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Patrick Grant 1700 Western Federal Building Denver, Colorado 80202 SOUTHWEST PLAZA METROPOLITAN DISTRICT % Perl Mack Company ATTENTION: Samuel Primack, Pres. 1701 West 72nd Avenue Denver, Colorado 80221 SOUTHWEST SUBURBAN DENVER WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT Orville N. Lewis 5179 Dudley Court Littleton, Colorado 80123 978-0661 . WILLOWBROOK WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Pam Spivey 4287 South Eldridge Morrison, Colorado 80465 LAKEHURST WATER AND SANITATION DISTRICT ATTENTION: Marvin Matthews P.O. Box 26233 Lakewood, Colorado 80226

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CONCEPT PLAN CHATFIELD GREEN Jefferson County, Colorado OWNER: ARST CITY INVESTMENTS 777 HORNBY STREET 604-668-5777 c,to ROB TROST 4155 E. JEWEU. SUITE 606 DENVER. COLORADO 80222 303-759-8554 •nn Manh 1o400 March 1884

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... I .. ' l'' SU1gk' Ftlrnily A.r S 3 Ac .-,,. -'-111-----:""' Singk Femlty •' 10 t At ' , ... Lrlit u.c,. ;-. ,/ .. -\. '-l-.• ... Fsnuly 38.,. ...... To.,;nh.omes --... At, -\' \ I \ J CHATFIELD GREEN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT LEGEN:::l .. ORClS 6 FlOOR ARE A TOTAL ous U$[ GR AC OF LAND SC. FT FAR ous ' AC "''" "'"" 20.0 & 8 217,800 .25 1 R 6 D I OFfiCE I '"DUSTRIAL Q 18.0 ,_. 35,300 .&0 1 ... UL. 11-FAMil 'I' 7 .f 2.3 17 20 129 152 TOWN>