Citation
The Mount Graham International Observatory

Material Information

Title:
The Mount Graham International Observatory
Creator:
Stine, Joel R
Language:
English
Physical Description:
114 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, folded plans ; 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Observatories -- Designs and plans -- Arizona ( lcsh )
Buildings ( fast )
Observatories ( fast )
Arizona ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 113-114).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Joel R. Stine.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13774931 ( OCLC )
ocm13774931
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .S76 ( lcc )

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Full Text


The Mount Graham International Observatory
An Archi tectu.rs.l Thesis presented to the College a-f Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver i n part ial f u.l -fill merit of .the requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture
Joel R. Stine Spring 1986


The Thesis of Joel R. Stine is approved.
person
Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver
December 6, 1985


TABLE OF CONTENTS
* Introduction
* Site
* Climate
* Program
* Codes
* Conclusion /
Drawi ngs
# Bibliography


PROJECT BACKGROUND
In 1980 the University of Arizona began to new astronami c.a. 1 observatary site. A si te was overcome the light pollution problems -facing cur telescope sites, to permit new ultraviolet, op i nfared, and submi11i meter wave observat i ons t
efficiently from a single site, and to permit
«
h i g h-r eso 1 ut. ion i mag i n g w i t h t he new gener at i orfs
search for a needed to rent optical ical ,
be conducted of large
telescopes.
Initial studies identified Mt. Graham, Arizona as a high-priority site for further investigation. Since that time studies have been conducted which show Mt. Graham to be a world class astronomical observatory site.
In 1982 the Smithsonian Institution asked the Coronado National Forrest officials to consider Mt. Graham for a future major astronomical facility. In 1984 the University of Arizona submitted a proposal to the Forest Service for the development of this astrophysical site. The proposal includes provisions for up to thirteen instruments to be built by organizations on a national and international level. Also included are support facilities such as a
.t .
dormitory, workshops, garage and utility buildings, and a visitor's center. In order to preserve the astrophysi ca1 qualities of the site, the approximately thirty acres which


the project cou.ld eventually occupy would be surrounded by a 3500 acre buffer area.
Additionally a base facility is planned tp be located somewhere between Safford and the bottom of Swift, trail.
This would serve as the operations center for day staff and house the administrative support staff. This site would also be considered for the visitors' center.
Full development is slated over a twenty and divided into three phases. Phase I (1986 include those facilities which are presently we11 defined, This phase is the project of this thesis and will be defined in the following section. Phase IT. will include projects currently in advanced stages of planning but dot yet approved. Phase III will include long range projects. A more detailed summary of the phased development is included in the programming section of this document.
year period, .... 1990) will


PROJECT SUMMARY
Mt. Graham International Observatory, Phase I
Loc ati on : P i n a1en o Mowntains, Gr ah am Count y, Fac i 1 i t y Descr i pt. i on;
* OSU/LJfi 8M Class Telescope
* UA/MPIFR Submillimeter Telescope
* Texas 5M Submillimeter Telescope
* LJA Two Meter Class Telescope
* Dormi t or y Bui1ding: (
- Dormitory
- Dining / Kitchen
- Library / Conference
* Support Building:
- Electrical / Mechanical Shops
- Texas Control Room
- LJA/MPIFR Control Room -• Computer Room
- Communications / Meteorological
- Kitchenette / Lounge
* Gar age Bui. 1 d i nq :
- Parking
- Shops
- Storage
* Generator Building (
Air i zona
( 4100 sf) ( 1500 sf) ( 1000 sf) < 700 sf)
12000 sf)
( 3000 sf)
( 8000 sf)
600 sf)
Tat a1 Appr oxi mate Size
13,900 sf


THESIS STATEMENT
The three major components of an astronomical observatory are humans, instrumentat i on , artd the environment. Each is crucial, yet the degree o-f success th â– facility will realise, depends as much upon their integration as on their individual merits. The role of the architecture in this facility will be to bring these components together into an integrated system, working toward common goals.
The architecture must perform two distinct functions. First, it must preserve the functional identity of each component. The astronomers, the instruments, and the site are all selected by rigorous evaluations. They all have characteristics which contribute to the goals of the observatory. And these functional qualities must be preserved.
In addition to functional qualities, each of the components also has needs which must be met in order to optimize their performance. Thus, the second function required of the architecture is that it act as a. catalyst, encouraging t.hese components to interact in a symbiotic manner. Qualities of one component (or more) would be targeted to the needs of another„ The role of the architecture is to provide the framework on which these




i interact i ons wi 11 occur ..
The goals on which these interactions are to be based are the •functional goals of the -facility. There is one major -functional goal: that the -facility provide the maximum ammount of prime observational time. This goal will manifest itself uniquely within each of the three components. For instance, it is of the utmost importance to the continued function of the facility that the surrounding f orrest remain int.act and undi sturbed. This; seemingly
unrelated goal is crucial in that the forrest guards the facility from the encroachment of light polluting developments. These goals will be defined further in the bodv of t h i s documen t „
Another concept that I wish to consider in this thesis will be the developement of an appropriate symbolism. I feel that the issue of function discussed above should take precedence. However, if the situation allows a degree of freedom I should like to use a symbolic gesture worthy of
Vi
the contribution astronomy has made to our society.
Historically, astronomy is one of our most anchient pursuits, showing up in the oldest records of almost every culture. It has captured mankind's imagination and has helped us to define our place in creation. It has led our quest for knowledge and it brought us into the age of science and technology.


Today, astronomy still captures our imagir
ation. Its
popularity with common -folk has grown tremendously as is born out by the deluge of media and entertainment centered on extraterrestrial themes. Space is just now becomming a •frontier -for physical exploration. And the achievements of astronomy are leading the way.
The observatory is the temple of astronomy. It is there that the secrets of the universe are revealed. It is where we stretch our senses to the sky. Such an image is appropriate to the architecture of the observatory. Additionally, the observatory represents that which makes us unique in our world, our quest for knowledge. In my mind, only the complexity of an organic form can impart such a human quality. I hope to capture the excitement, the dedication and the fulfillment derived from astronomical ob servati on.



SITE
LOCATION
Mount Graham, Coronado National Forest, Graham County, Arizona (see figure SI). Peak elevation: 10,720 ft.., latitude: 32.7 deq. N., longitude: 109.9 deg. W.
NT. GRAHAM ASTROPHYSICAL AREA (MGfifi)
MG A A
The area consists of approximately 3500 acres of high lying land in the High Peak area of the F'inaleno mountains. The boundaries are shown in figure S2„
The scale of the MGAA was chosen to permit a major astronomical development, principally on the higher peaks and knolls, and to provide an adequate buffer ione within which the existing environment of the area could be preserved. Furthermore, the area would allow control over activities which would be deleterious to the? observatory's mission. Such activities represent, a small fraction of the? present use of the Astrophysical area. It was not and is not intended to close the area to public access.
Potential Sites
A survey was completed on many sites within the MGAA •from which eleven potential astronomical sites were selected along with three potential sites for support, facilities.


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These sites are identified in figure S2.,
The potential astronomical sites are distributed on peaks or knolls above 10,000 ft. along two ridges:
1. The ridge running east-west from Emerald Peak.
2. The amphibolite ridge running approximately s out h f r om High P e a k»
The primary sites are defined as those which on the basis of topography (see below: SITE FACTORS, Telescope Location) appear to have the best chance of being excellent sites as far as astronomical image quality is concerned. These sites are:
Site 1) Emerald Peak - 10,471 ft.
Site 2) Hawk Peak - 10,627 ft.
Site 3) High Peak - 10,720 ft.
Site 4) Plain View Peak - 10,370 ft.
Site 5) 10,300 f t„
The secondary sites 6-11 have been rated slightly lower in astronomical potential either on the grounds of expected wind flow or simply of altitude. Some are logistically quite advantageous and they may turn out to be as good (or better) than the primary sites. It is, therefi to retain all sites until the completion of sir
Consistent with policy of minimising the effects of the observatory on the environment, the selection of sites will be such as to reduce the total developed area while ensuring
ore, intended te testing.



is ax Ion a the
that the image quality and other astronomical characteristics are not measurably inferior.
The logistical sites, 12-14, were identified as potential sites for support, faxcilities, dormitories, engineer's residence, etc. Each site location High Peak Road (FR 507) arid consistent with policy facilities located there would not be visible from the valley floor. Only one of these sites will be developed as a support site.
/
PHASE I SITE DESCRIPTIONS

Astronomical Site 3, High Peak - 10,720 ft., figure S3 This site has the main road, FR 507, going directly to it, and is thus the site which can be developed with the least change to the current status of the mountain. The site is good for sub-millimeter wave astronomy which requires maximum altitude and low atmospheric water vapor. For these reasons this site will accomodate the UA/MPIFR Sub-millimeter and the Texas Five Meter Sub-mi 11imeter telescopes planned for phase I. Also, a two meter optical/ in-fared «m be placed here in ph.M 1.
The location of the UA/MPIFR telescope on a secondary knoil at the NE end of the summi t area 1eaves an option for
placing a laxrge optical/infared telescope on the summit in
latter phases of development.


Fie,. S3


Fi4 S4




Logistical Site 12, Elevation - 10,470 ft The site is on a sparsely covered, fairly hillside sloping down to FR 507. It is locate junction of the Emerald Spring Road with FR 50 near the center of the most likely good observ This site seems to be the one out of the logistical sites with the least environmental 13 and 14 have both been found to lie in water 1 o c a 1 n a t u r a 1 s p r i n g s.
. , figure S4 steep
d close to.the 7, and so is
â– 
at.ary sites, th
ree
impact. Sites sheds feeding
SITE CHARACTERISTICS
Geo1oq y/Soils
Two dominant rock types are found in the area of the proposed sites. Banded amphibolite is found composing the topographic ridge which extends from High Peak, southwest to peak 10090. To the west of High Peak to Emerald Springs, the main rock type is porphyritic 1 eu.coqrani te.
No evidence of mineralization has been found in the project area. Lands bounded by the MGAA are expected to be withdrawn from mineral entry after the Mt. Graham Observatory Proposal is accepted.
A series of quaternary faults along the piedmont of the eastern Pinalenos will be studied to determine whether there is; a possibility of movement along these faults that could effect the proposed astronomical facilities by seismic
i


shaking (see EIS: sec. 6.2.1)
Soils of the project area are classified as frigid, sutahumid soils. They are thin and well anchored to moderate slopes, thereby having slight to moderate erosion potential (see EIS: sec 4.1). Soil testing will be conducted during phase I in connection with septic tank placement and road construction.
Geology and soils of the area are being studied as part of the EIS to ensure the preservation of unique and irreplaceable features.
Biol, o q v /E-iota n y
The 3500 acre astrophysical area, including all
observatory sites, is located within the Mt. Graham spruce-fir forest. The Mt» Graham spruce-fir community is the southernmost stand of subalpine conifer forest in North America. Because of its isolation, it is rich in insular animal species and subspecies. Of special consideration in this project is the status of the Mt. Graham spruce squirrel and the extent of habitat destruction caused by removal of tr ees.
Other unique habitats within the spruce-fir forest are?
the high elevation cienegas, and isolated cliff faces and talus slopes. The cienegas are catagorized as "wetlands" and are protected under federal regulations. The high elevation cienegas are the main habitats for the endemic


white-bellied vole and the western pocket gopher, and are heavily frequented by many bird species. The cliff faces and talus slopes provide hibernacula for the twin-spotted rattlesnake and other reptiles, and house? snails endemic to the Pinalenos.
Mt. Graham supports the densest population of bear in the? Southwest. Field studies have shown that be?ar frequent certain parts of the astrophysical area.
In addition, Mt. Graham supports several plant taxa occurring above 9000 ft. that have protection status by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Field study will continue in order to locate and identify these plants and other genetically distinct species so that biologically sensitive areas can be protected.
At the summit the average height of the treetops is
archeologi cal
fourty feet.
C u11 ural Resourses
The 14 potential sites for telescopes and facilities and their surroundings are being surveyed for and historical evidence. Field work will continue during the development of the sites. Steward Observatory (University of Arizona) will take all appropriate mitigation measures if any evidence is found.


SITE FACTORS
Te1 escope Locatipn
.... ........
In locating telescopes it is advantageous to select specific sites where:
1. C1oud/f og is minimum — to maximi ze viewing t i me -
2. Winds are steady and preferably low ( 27 mph)
— to optimise pointing and tracking accuracy.
3. The water vapor content above the telescope is minimum — to minimise atmospheric absorption especially at infared and submillimeter
wave!engths.
4. Light and other pollution is minimised — to maintain sensitivity.
F or opti c a1/i n fared te1 escopes "seei n g" or i mage sharpness is crucial. This can be degraded seriously by local turbulance in the air flow above and around the site. Criteria for selecting a site with good seeing are:
1. Unobstructed free air flow to the site in prevailing winds.
2. Good "drainage" of ground cooled air from the site at night.
3. Avoidance of heat sources (such as generators and buildings) in the air flow tc the site.
The general philosophy followed in choosing sites for



more detailed examination is to pi -ace the radi tel esc opes as high as possible and downwind of optical telescopes.
This avoids the problem of heat generated by the radio telescope facility spoiling the optical imaging of a nearby optical telescope.
The large optical telescopes are sited at the tops of the most prominent peaks. This allows the wind to flow around the peak as well as over it and produces better "seeing". Thus peaks are preferred to ridges. When the peak is large the best location is probably at the upwind edge of the uppermost, area.
These criteria have been followed in the positioning of the phase I facilities (see figure S3).
Obscurati on
Telescope siting will include measures to prevent obscuration by rock outcrops, summits, and surrounding trees. In some cases either trees may have to be topped,or telescopes raised, to provide viewing down to 15 degrees above the horizon. In some cases it will be necessary to provide a line of sight to another peak for calibration purposes.


Ground Leveling and Clearing
Ground preperation -for roads, telescopes, and support facility buildings will consist of some ground leveling and clearance of vegetation. The method of ground leveling will be determined by the physical characteristics of bedrock and thickness of overlying soils. Ground leveling and vegetation clearance procedures will include mi ti gait ions to prevent erosion and to ensure proper drainage.
A cleared cone of one tree length (50 ft.) will be needed to protect buildings from fallen trees and forest; fires, and to provide work space around buildings for maintenance and
repair.


SITE ACCESS
Descri ption
Access to lit . Graham is via Forest Road 507 and State Road 366 which begins at about, seven miles south of the city of Safford, Arizona on State Road 666. Forest Road 507, known as High Peak Road, is an extension of Stjate Road 366 at mile post 136.25 and ends at High Peak (see -fig. SI)
The attached table gives road milage distances -from Tuscon, the nearest ma jor ai r port.
Tuscon, j unct i on of I —10 *t I --19
Wilcox ' 78.5 mi.
J u n c t i o n I ~ 10 4- 666 M o r t h 90. 4
J un c t. i on 666 Mpr t h 4* SR 366 115.8
Ladybug Saddle 132.2
Pavement ends 136.7
High Peak t ur n o f f 137.1
High Peak 141.9
Ex i st i n q Road Cond i t :i. on s
State Road SR 366 - This road is also known as Swift Trail and could best be described as a recreational type roadway. The road varies from 18 to 34 -feet in width and is paved with a bituminous surface treatment. Irregular a11i gnments, steep s1opes, swi tchbac ks, and the absence of guardrails at critical locations are among the items in need of attention. These items become a concern when roads are



c
snow covered during the winter.
Forest F;oad 507 - The Forest Service has constructed this road -for their own use. Basicly, it is a wide rough dirt trail to the mountain top. It has a very steep slope at one point called "the wall" and needs to be realligned. Otherwise the remainder of the road needs to be redressed, and widened for safer positive transportation„
F: oad I m p r o v e merits
It is imperative that roadway improvement meet, the load and manuvering requirements for transporting telescope equipment and construction material; for construction and observatory schedules; and for facility access.
The phase I roadwork will focus on modification to the existing road. A steep, sharp switchback located 3.6 miles from the High Peak turnoff shall be improved prior to construct.ion. Other road improvements during phase I will be limited to short sections deemed unsatisfactory from an operational point of view.
In the final state (phase III), the road to the mountain top will be paved and will have two lanes with a shoulder on either side, proper in-slope? for storm water drainage, wider curves, and vehicle turn-outs,
Snow Removal
The observatory will assume responsibility for snow removal on FR 507, Due to the high altitude, FR 507


requires some level of snow removal from October through May. The very nature of an observatory requires routine daily access. Observing time on large telescopes is; allocated to astronomers in very breif segments. As little as one night may be all that is allowed for an observing run. Current planning involves the use of snowblowers, front end loaders equipped with snow plows, and motor graders to accomplish the task. Most snow removal equipment would then remove snow going down the
mountain.Simultaneously, a snow removal crew would begin going up the mountain. A tracked, over the snow vehicle
would be maintained at the base facility for assured access
1
to snow removal! equipment and for emergency situations.
Snow removal operations require the High Peak road to be clearly marked with road delineators.
WATER
Alt ernat i ves for Sudd1y
There are several water resources available on the mountaintop which could be utilised to provide a
satisfactory water distribution system to the
facilities. The existing natural springs which flow year
around are the most promising water source. I new water wells and catch basins to collect ru
observatory
n addition, noff water
should be considered. The mountaintop area receives about


thirty inches of precipitation annually. Rain is most prevalent during a period -from May through September. Due to high elevation, the winter precipitation is primarily in the -form o-f snowfall and occurs from October through April.
Rainfall and snowmelt in the summit area accumulates in several cienegas that serve as canyon headwaters for a number of perennial or near perennial streams. In addition, there are several springs such as Hawk Peak, Emerald, and Bearwallow which could be considered if they provide adequate flow and the communities presently using these springs are willing to negotiate the water rights.
Hater Demand
The water demand for the initial development of the observatory activities would be very low, even considering the construction requirements. During phase I the water supply to the observatory facilities will be by tank trucks procuring water from the city of Safford. It must be recognized that the observatory fatcility will be difficult to reach during the winter months. Thus the water storage tank, shall be sized to hold the water that would meet the demand for one month. Fire fighting reserves caxn be encroached upon during the winter at all sites except the dormitory.
The water supply shall be designed to provide per capita water consumption of 50 gallons per day.
The total


quantity being determined tor the estimated number at astronomers, support personnel, and visitors oh the mountaintop during the construction period and future oper at iona1 peri od s.
Additional mitigating measures will also be adopted to conserve waiter. This would be achieved by using low-water-use toilets, low-flow showerheads, and by inducing water-aware habits on the part of personnel occupying or visiting the faci1i ty.
Water storage for fire protection purposes shall be provided. The quantity of water storage shall be computed as required for light hazard classification, i.e. 500 gpm for 30 minutes duration at each site. Telescope buildings will have a Hal on Fire Protection System to protect the expensive and sophisticated electronic equipment located in specific areas. The remainder of all buildings will be protected with appropriate extinguisher or water protection systems.
On-site underground or at-grade concrete storage tanks
will be considered to diminish environmental impacts.
imp
WASTE DISPOSAL
Solid Waste
The solid waste consists primarily of paper trash, food
cartons, food, and used cans. The observatory
will equip


each building with a mechanical trash compactor, located
inside the building. This compacted waste and any other would be deoderized and moved to a dedicated, "bear proof" trash trailer. The trailer would be taken to the Safford sanitary land-fill and emptied as required. During phase I, on c. e a we e k will b e s u f f i c i e n t.
Sewaqe/Grav Water
field will 10 people on
The combination of septic tanks and drain best meet the needs of the facility. Assuming lit. Graham at all times, and a use rate of 100 gallons per day, a septic tank would need an approximate 1,600 gallons of capacity. The corresponding drainage field would be appropriately sized depending on soil percolation. This would be sufficient, for phase I.
Additionally, incinerating toilets will be installed to meet the demands of remote locations.
POWER
Initially the electric power to this facility will be generated locally by on-site diesel generators. Commercial power service will only be crucial to observatory operation over the long run. The three phase development provides sufficient time to prepare detailed construction documents and the subsequent construction of commercial power service.


E s t i rn a t e d P o w e r
D e m a n d (P h a s a I)
typ i ca1/peak demand (KW)
Telescope bui1di ngs 105/420
Equipment garage 20/80
Power distrib,, /generation 10/40
C o m m u n i c a t i o ri b u i 1 d i n g 10/40
Dormitory 20/80
Shops 30/120
T otal 195/780
j, (.
Site information a d ap ted from the Site Deve1 op men t P1 an
t
â– for the Mt. Graham I nter nat i anal Observatory Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 1985









<
i
*
CLIMATE
General Climatic Conditions
A study of all posible high altitude sites in the most cloud—free region of the continental United States has
s v
identified Mt. Graham as an excellent astronomical site. As
stated the first criteria of selection was location in a
relatively cloud-free region, the Southwest region.
This area is characterised by an inland desert continental
climate, with cooler, relatively dry winters, and a
thunderstorm season starting in early July and lasting until
September. This moist season is not ideal, yet it does
preserve the excellent conditions of long dry winter nights.
According to tree ring studies, the aridity of this area, has
/
been stable (with periodicities of a decade) fpr several centuries without any indication of a longterm trend. Thus, these conditions can be expected to continue wall into the future.
Cli mati c Sour ces
Climatic data on Mt„ Graham is insufficient as yet to give an accurate picture. However, enough data has been collected to show the conditions to be similar to those on Mt. Lemmon. Representative southern Arizona climatic conditions of the low-altitude desert are given by statistics for Tucson and Safford, which lies at the base of Mt. Graham.


!
Climatic Date*. T einperature
Mean Max. Min. and Extremes (deg. F) (Mt Lemmon ,9,150 -f t.)
r
100 Bo ko 40 to







i 5*r
i - m fv
jh 1. J % w #
â– * a;*-: 0 K
g| i '/ â– si

s


I B â–¡

J FMAMJJ ACx?NP 'I
* Large diurnal swings (25 - 30 deg. F)
* Generally mild temperatures
* Destinct local height variations (see -figure
-slight night inversion -treetop buffer (40 ft)
(
Degree Days (Mt Lemmon)
*




ID i u r n al 1 ampcra^g r e VariaTi'on
2m. above lih Graham som/nif"
+7
15 days , Dec. 1520-Tan 1151
+5
+4-
c,i + 1 o
-I
-2
-3
-4
-42,g>
-31.2
-35.&
-32
-28>.4

j______i_____i______i_____i______i_
6 % 10 noon Itv lb
»s
_l_______1______1-------1-------1------1--------------u
10 21 00 2. U- fc ? '0
i
hGoTT


Free i p i tat i on < hit Lemmon >
Average Monthly and Daily Max. (inches)
C

* Peak -from July to Sept, occurs with;
-increased cloud cover
■** 1 i /r i f i n n cj ‘I- pi K- wan nr
x i. iii i c 4. i i y wci tcri v o.u ur
-shorter nights


Snowfall (Mt Lemmon)
Monthly Avg. + Ma>. and Daily Max. (inches)
vJ PMAMvJsJ A6(?NP
est accumulation equals 7OX yearly total


Solar Radiation (Tucson)
Mean Daily Radiation (BTU /
J F M AMO 0 At? 0H
* Mt Graham lies within same isorad as Tucson
(+/~ 50 BTU/sq ft)
* Solar transmittance at MGAA is 22% greater than Tucson—Kreith Kreider
* Hours of direct solar radiation are altered by tree
obscurance (see -figure Cl)


A0 © 50'
32 NL .
i—i—i 90
bearing \> angles
J East 0° . . South 90° L
altitude angles


TABLE A2.6A Sola ion and Insolation Values for 32 Degrees North Latitude"
Date Solar time Solar position BTUH/sq. ft. total insolation on surfaces*
AM PM Alt Azm South facing surface angle with horiz.
Normal Horiz. 22 32 42 52 90
)an 21 7 5 1.4 65.2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
8 9 4 3 12.5 22.5 56.5 46.0 20J 269 56 118 93 175 106 193 116 206 1 23 212 1 1 t) 181
10 2 30.6 33.1 295 167 235 256 269 274 221
11 1 36.1 17.5 306 198 273 295 308 312 245
12 38.0 0.0 310 209 285 308 321 324 253
Surface daily totals 2458 1288 1839 2008 2118 2166 1779
Feb 21 7 5 7.1 73.5 121 22 34 37 40 42 38
8 4 19.0 64.4 247 95 127 136 140 141 108
9 3 29.9 53.4 288 161 206 217 222 220 158
10 2 39.1 39.4 306 212 266 278 283 279 193
11 1 45.6 21.4 315 244 304 317 321 315 214
12 48.0 0.0 317 255 316 330 334 328 222
Surface daily totals 2872 1724 2188 2300 2345 2322 1644
Mar 21 7 S 12.7 81.9 185 54 60 60 59 56 32
8 4 25.1 73.0 260 129 146 147 144 137 78
9 3 36.8 62.1 290 194 222 224 220 209 119
10 2 47.3 47.5 304 245 280 283 278 265 150
11 1 55.0 26.8 311 277 317 321 315 300 170
12 58.0 0.0 313 287 329 333 327 312 177
Surface daily totals 3012 2084 2378 2403 2358 2246 1276
Apr 21 6 6 6.1 99.9 66 14 9 6 6 5 3
7 5 18.8 92.2 206 86 78 71 62 51 10
8 4 31.5 84.0 255 158 156 148 136 120 35
9 3 43.9 74.2 278 220 225 217 203 183 68
10 2 55.7 60.3 290 267 279 272 256 234 95
11 1 65.4 37.5 295 297 313 306 290 265 112
12 69.6 0.0 297 307 325 318 301 276 118
Surface daily totals 3076 2390 2444 2356 2206 1994 764
May 21 6 6 10.4 107.2 119 36 21 13 13 12 7
7 5 22.8 100.1 211 107 88 75 60 44 13
8 4 35.4 92.9 250 175 159 145 127 105 15
9 3 48.1 84.7 269 233 223 209 188 163 33
10 2 60.6 73.3 280 277 273 259 237 208 56
11 1 72.0 51.9 285 305 305 290 268 237 72
12 78.0 0.0 286 315 315 301 278 247 77
Surface daily totals 3112 2582 2454 2284 2064 1788 469
Jun 21 6 6 12.2 110.2 131 45 26 16 15 14 9
7 5 24.3 103.4 210 115 91 76 59 41 14
8 4 36.9 96.8 245 180 159 143 122 99 16
9 3 49.6 89.4 264 236 221 204 181 153 19
10 2 62.2 79.7 274 279 268 251 227 197 41
11 1 74.2 60.9 279 306 299 282 257 224 56
12 81.5 0.0 280 315 309 292 267 234 60
Surface daily totals 3084 2634 2436 2234 1990 1690 370
"From kreider, J. F., and F. Kreith, “Solar Heating and Cooling,” revised lsted.,
TABLE A2.66 Solar Position and Insolation Values for Brees North Latitude" (Continued)
Solar Solar
Date time position BTUH/sq. ft. total insolation on surfaces0
AM PM Alt Azm South facing surface
angle with horiz.
Normal Horiz. 22 3 2 42 52 90
Jul 21 6 6 10.7 107JZ 113 37 22 14 13 12
7 5 23.1 100.6 203 107 87 75 60 44 1
8 4 35.7 93.6 241 174 158 143 125 104 1
9 3 48.4 85.5 261 231 220 205 185 159 2
10 2 60.9 74.3 271 274 269 254 232 204 f
11 1 72.4 53.3 277 302 300 285 262 232 t
12 78.6 0.0 279 311 310 296 273 242 7
Surface daily totals 3012 2558 2422 2250 2030 1754 45
Aug 21 6 6 6.5 100.5 59 14 9 7 6 6
7 5 19.1 92.8 190 85 77 69 60 50 1
8 4 31.8 84.7 240 156 152 144 132 116 3
9 3 44.3 75.0 263 216 220 212 197 178 6
10 2 56.1 61.3 276 262 272 264 249 226 9
11 1 66.0 38.4 282 292 305 298 281 257 10
12 70.3 0.0 284 302 317 309 292 268 11
Surface daily totals 2902 2352 2388 2296 2144 1934 73
Sep 21 7 5 12.7 81.9 163 51 56 56 55 52 3
8 4 25.1 73.0 240 124 140 141 138 131 7
9 3 36.8 62.1 272 188 213 215 211 201 11
10 2 47.3 47.5 287 237 270 273 268 255 14
11 1 55.0 26.8 294 268 306 309 303 289 16
12 58.0 0.0 296 278 318 321 315 300 17
Surface daily totals 2808 2014 2288 2308 2264 2154 122
Oct 21 7 5 6.8 73.1 99 19 29 32 34 36 3
8 4 18.7 64.0 229 90 120 128 133 134 1C
9 3 29.5 53.0 273 155 198 208 213 212 15
10 2 38.7 39.1 293 204 257 269 273 270 18
11 1 45.1 21.1 302 236 294 307 311 306 20
12 47.5 0.0 304 247 306 320 324 318 21
Surface daily totals 2696 1654 2100 2208 2252 2232 158
Nov 21 7 5 1.5 65.4 2 0 0 0 1 1
8 4 12.7 56.6 196 55 91 104 113 119 11
9 3 22.6 46.1 263 118 1 73 190 202 208 17
10 2 30.8 33.2 289 166 233 252 265 270 21
11 1 36.2 17.6 301 197 270 291 303 307 24
12 38.2 0.0 304 207 282 304 316 320 24
Surface daily totals 2406 1280 1816 1980 2084 2130 174
Dec 21 8 4 10.3 53.8 176 41 77 90 101 108 10
9 3 19.8 43.6 257 102 161 180 195 204 18
10 2 27.6 31.2 288 150 221 244 259 267 22
11 1 32.7 16.4 301 180 258 282 298 305 25
12 34.6 0.0 304 190 271 295 311 318 25
Surface daily totals 2348 1136 1704 1888 2016 2086 179
*1 litu/hr • ft1 = 3.152 W/mJ. Ground reflection not included on normal or 1
zontal surfaces.


Wind

* Median wind speeds have been measured on Mt graham and -found to be typically calm
9-11 rnph at 87 ft above the summit (8- 24 hr) -Similar to winds on Mt Hopkins (max. = 36 mph)
-high winds occur under otherwise unfavorable astronomical conditions
-direction is substantially confined to SW -trees shield low winds (see figure C2)




vj PMAMvJO A5(?NP
Mater Vapor
Radiosonde Estimates for Water Vapor on Mt Graham and Mauna Kea
* Data presented in mm of water
* Three classes: (IR observations)
-Exellent: 1/mm greater than 1 -Fair; 1/mm from .33 ta 1 -Poor: 1/mm less than .33


o.

* Mt Graham has appreciable excellent, conditions
FAIR.


Cloud Cover
Complete Clear Sky -for Sunrise (*/,, Ml Graham)
688K3Eii
vl PMAMJsJ A5 6>NI?
* Similar observations to other S. Ariz. observatory
sites (Mt Lemmon, Mt Hopkins, Kitt Peak)
-Mt Graham slightly cloudier in summer, clearer in winter — insignificant due to shorter more humid summer nights compared to excellent, long, dry, winter nights


Completely Clear Sky Conditions for Sunrise, Percentage Month by Month, for a 2 Year Period
May 1982 - June 1984
Graham Lemmon & Hopkins Kitt Peak 4m Kitt Peak 1.3m
Jan 50 46 48 42
Feb 52 41 44 37
Mar 43 40 38 36
Mean 48% 42 43 38
Apr 58 56 57 63
May 70 70 67 64
June 75 79 67 68
Mean 68% 68 64 65
July 22 27 28 22
Aug 9 17 22 17
Sept 22 26 33 40
Mean 18% 23 28 26
Oct 49 37 62 40
Nov 32 32 38 32
Dec 35 42 34 32
Mean 39% 37 45 35
Grand
Mean 43% * 43% 45% * 41%
Excluding
Summer 52% 49% 51% 46%
Obs#
643
1244
701
700


Dust Level in Feet Above Valley Floor
M
Dust Level
* Inversion layer carries dust and moisture
-dust increases light pollution (scattering) -reduces atmospheric transmittance -scratches delicate surfaces
* Solar heating causes inversion layer to rise
* Winter winds off the Pacific carry off particulates, dropping the dust level
I-4000
J F M AMJ 0 A5 <2 N i?






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Activity/ Scheduling • Special Needs 0
Behavioral Characteristics Design Characteristics \ s
Adjacencle u Finishes & Furnishings
Related Activity Sheets




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Related Activity Sheets

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Ralatad Activity Shaata


S p a c « >-» 4 4e (^>HOP ) Uaora Mt 6vkw[ Support OpEe/vnoN Staff
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S p a c o
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Actlvlty/Schedutlng
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Belated Activity Sheet*


S p a c o ^NefcAToE. SuiLplhka 6mhata Support Operations Staff (Maintenance only)
Group â– A* No. Rqd. f Sq. Ft. GOO
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Ralatad Activity Shaata


MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE
Man aqemerit qf_MG 10
The long term plan -for the MG 10 contains three levels •for management control designed to meet the needs of the g e ri er a 1 p u. b 1 i c , t hi e a stronomical c o m m u n i. t y o n M t. G r a h a m , and the management of specific research facilities. The correspond i ng management en t i. ties wou 1 d ber,
M t. G r ah a m As t roph y s i c: a 1 Ar e a Ma n a q eme n t C omm i 1.1 ee
(MGAAMC)
This would consist of one member of the public, one representative each from the Forest Service, Arizona Game and Fish Commission and two astronomers. This committee would monitor overall land and water use within the astrophysical area and would make recommendations to the Forest Service within the framework of the M6J.D use p e i" m i t /1 ea s e.
M tG r a h a m I n t e r n a t i o n a 1 0 b s e r v a t o r v Co u n i 1 (MG I CO
This group would consist of representatives of each astronomical user group according to their scale of investment on Mt. Graham. It would nominate two members to the MGAAMC and would be responsible for the good operation of the astronomical support facilities on Mt. Graham.
I n d :i. v i d u a 1 F a c i 1 i t y M a. n at q e tn e n t
This would be the responsibility of individual users


who would nominate representatives to the MGI DC.
M t;.. G r a. h a tn S u p p o r t. Op e r a t ions (M G 5 Q)
It is expected that the MGSO , monitored by the MGIOC, would be operated through Steward Observatory / University of Arizona. The staff would initially consist of a Site Superintendent and up to seven support staff, resident in the Mt. Graham area and having Mt. Graham as their primary work station. When the project is complete (phase III) the staxff may increase up to twenty. This staff should be responsible for axil maintenance work, utilities and logistical support at MGIO, as well as participate in some aspects of the development work.
St af f i nq Consider a11ons
The observatory staff on Mt. Graham would be divided into three main categories:
* Observatory facility maintenance staff (MGSO) (mainly dayt.i me)
* Night observing support staff at the telescope i nc1udi ng astronomers
* Telescope/instrument maintenance staff (mainly day t i me)
General observatory practice suggests the following guidelines as to staff numbers:
* An average of 1-3 astronomers per telescope
* Night time support staff of 0-2 per telescope


* Day support staff would be 1—5 per In each case the number would increase with th of the tel escope and i nstrumentati ort.
Regular day m a i n t e n an ce staff w i11 c ommut mountain. There are, however, occasions when emergencies require the presence of day staff some modest accommodations must be provided fo mountain (1-2 persons). All day staff will ex lunch at the observatory.
tel escope 1 complexity
3 t cd t h e :echni cal after dark so them on the ect to eat


SCHEDULING CONSIDERATIONS
S e a sona1 Factors
High atmospheric water vapor content and greater periods of cloud cover -from July through September will
limit ob ser va t i on t. i mes, esp ec i a 11 y f or IR an d Sub -mm
in the winter, however snow does not occur with appreciable cloud cover.
Phases o-f the Moon
new moon times to the most. sens i t i ve of observat i ons Length of Night
observing time than do summer nights. Of course Sub-mm
Schedttl i ng
Scheduling policies of individual telescopes will be determined by the management. It will be the individual management's responsabi1ity to inform the MGAASO of their schedule.
There are two common scheduling concepts;
telescopes. Snowfall may occassionally
The phases of the moon will impact scheduling, grantin
Winter nights provide as much as four hours more
telescopes can observe around the clock
* Night by Night or fractions thereof
-for visiting astronomers
/
typically 1-3 nights


astronomers
-typ. 2—3 -room board required * Remote observer operation
-astronomers stay at home
-resident observer performs observations -projects can be juggled to adjust to climate, priority, economics,.j -site accessabi1ity and economics can promote this type
Whichever concept is used the competition to obtain observing time is intense. Proposals must be submitted describing in-depth the project, its worth to astronomy, the astronomers credentials, his/her performance on past projects, access to other equipment, instrumentation needed, necessary seeing conditions, etc., etc, etc.
Astronomers '_Schedul1nq
If the astronomer can plan to arrive near the observation run.
I f urvf ami 1 i ar with a night early to check Whether or not he wi11 equipment on the night
is familiar with the equipment, he early afternoon on the first day of
the equipment, he will want to come out the equipment he needs to use. be able to check out the specific before depends on what is scheduled


•for that night. Astronomers are usually cooperative in -allowing another astronomer to watch.
Larger Telescopes will have a support staff who can assist you before and during your run, thereby eliminating the need to come a day ahead.
Generally astronomers will sleep during the morning an early afternoon following a run.
As well as a noon breakfast and evening supper, night staff will require a bored meal to consume during the night's run.


PROPOSED PUBLIC POLICIES
Campinq and Campfires
* Dispersed camping would be permitted throughout the MGAA.
* Open camp-fires would be prohibited within one quarter mile o-f the telescope facilities.
- Some chemicals in smoke are extremely harmful to telescope optics.
- Smoke and firelight can obscure observations.
•-Fire h a z a r d c o n t r o 1.
1
L i q h t;

* Vehicle headlights would be restricted within one quarter mile of the telescope -facilities. -Required to preserve the quality of
observati ons.
Access
* Winter access would initially not be permitted to the general public beyond the junction of FR507 with Swift Trail.
-To ensure public safety in heayy snows.
-To preserve the environment; snow currently closes off the mountain.
* Summer access would initially remain


unre s t r i c t e d
* No -fences of any kind will be erret:ted around the MGAA.
Hun t, i nq
* Mo explicit restrictions on hunting in the MGAA,
Pets
* Mo restrictions on pets brought into the MGAA beyand ex i st i ng Forest. Service regu 1 at i ons„
* Qbser ver s us i n g t h e obser vat or y f at ill t. i as will not be allowed to bring pets with them.
* Only pets used by visual or hearing impaired handicapped would be allowed inside observatory bui1di ngs.
Safety
* First aid supplies, oxygen equipment, etc., a person trained in multimedia first aid, and a. vehicle for transporting injured persons would be located at the MG10,
Radio Frequency Interference
* The MGIO will, by all means available, seek to ensure that the radio frequency field strength at High Peak does not exceed the August 1985 maximum existing field strength.
C a m p 11 a n c e W11 h P r o p o s e d R u 1 e s


* When noncompliance threatens public safety, environment., or the safety or effectiveness observatory instrumentation; The M310 staff
V
will attempt to persuade those in violation desist.
* In cases of persistant or flagrant violation rules, the MGIO will seek Forest Service assistance in stopping the activity in quest!on.
t h e of
to
of


IMAGE QUALITY
Telescope image quality is determined by three -factors:
* The Optics
* The Site Seeing
* T h e M a n-made Seeing
The Optics
Mis-f iguring, mis-focus, and misalignment o-f the optics in a telescope can seriously degrade the image quality (size) . These aflictions have a host o-f sources; they can be caused by thermal expansions, gravitational saggings, and by the limitations of mechanical accuracy. Solutions to these sources of inaccuracy range from the simple, such as thermal insulation, to the complex, for instance active optical adaptation.
The Site Seeinq
Site selection for astronomical telescopes is based on the following seeing factors: clear skies, steady and low winds, low water vapor, high altitude, minimal light and other pollutions, unobstructed free air flow, drainage of ground cooled air, favorable topography, and favorable vegetation. The following is a brief description of the inf1uence of each.
* Clear skies — to maximize veiwing time
* S t e a d y a n d 1 o w w i n d s - t o m a x i m i z $ p o i n t i n g


accuracy , mi nimize vi bration
* Low water vapor — to maximize atmospheric transmission at IR and sub-mm wavelengths
* High altitude — to minimize absorption
* Light pollution — to maximize optical resoluti on
* Chemical pollutants — can degrade sensitive o p t i c a 1 s u r f a c e s
* Unobstructed free air flow — to minimize turbulance thereby creating a continuous thermal field
* Drainage of ground cooled air — stabilizing
*
•*
loca 1 ambi. ent therma 1 condi t.i ons Favorable topography — that which beneficial wind flows and thermal c Favorable vegetation — encouraging winds and stable thermal condi tionfs
encourages urrents 1 ami nar
The Han-made Seeing
There are three factors responsible for man-made seeing. These ares
* Thermal inertia of massive components â– * Act i ve heati ng
* R a d i a t i o n c o o 1 i n g
, *
Thermal inertia is consequential to large masses which may be in thermal contact with the telescope or its


.
atmospheric window. This includes masses such as the telescope chamber floor, the mirror, the telescope yoke, and the mountain top. Large thermal inertias prevent these objects from following the ambient air temperature. Heat transfer between these masses and the ambient air will give rise to thermal currents which impair the seeing. These elements can actively cooled to correspond to ambient or thermally isolated so as not to interact with the ambient. Another solution is to alter the thermal properties of the surface of the mass", so as to encourage shorter lag times.
Active he atin g can be i n t roduced by e1ect r on i c s, people, and leakage from conditioned areas (some of the more obvious sources). These sources must be thermally isolated or actively cooled to ambient. In design all energy consuming elements, biological or mechanical must be identified as culprits.
Radiation cooling results from the exposure of telescope, building, and site to a low radiation temperature sky. It so happens, that prime observing conditions, those of low cloud cover and water vapor, also are characterized by a low, sky radiation temperature. The more energy an object radiates to the sky, the more it conducts from the surrounding ambient air. This cooling of the air gives rise to thermal currents which degrade the seeing. The rate at which an object will radiate to the sky can be[reduced by



air,
reducing its infared emissivity. This is a siT-face characteristic and thus can be adjusted by a surface treatment. The most common treatment in practise is to wrap the surface in aluminum foil.
TEleBCDpe dc„,BS often act as tcape foe ho, especially when equipped with wind screens. This can give rise to large thermal currents, which degrade the seeing.
The new corotating domes, used with alt—azimuth mounts (see Programming, Alt-Azimuth Mounts), have a slit whose proportions are much larger with respect to the telescope chamber. Thus these domes are relatively very open allowing the inside air temperature to follow the ambient quite closely. The wide slit has a disadvantage in that winds are allowed to enter much more easily. Wind screens at the slit would help to block these, yet they would also promote heat
facility f<
stratification as pointed out above. The MMT
.ty faced
with this problem decided to skip the wind screens and deal with the wind in the optical support system.


:;e
Alt-Azimuth Telescope Mount
This return to the days of William HerscNel1 (173E
1822) (see figure AA1) was made possible by the rapidly developing di g i tail computer techndlogy. For gjeneratioris
serious astronomers have used the equitorial mount, which allows the telescope to track a star with a silmple, .steady rotation about, a polar axis (see figure A A3) . The alt-azimuth mount resembles that for coin operated binoculars at every scenic overlook. To follow a star the telescope must swing up or down about a horizontal axis ' (altitude), while simultaneously pivoting around a vertical axis (azimuth). Not until the modern computer have these motions been obtainable in a smooth and calculated fashion. One advantage is that the mounting system needs to support only the altitudinal axis, resulting in a cheaper, more compact mount that is able to support a larger telescope. Another advantage lies in the ability to use a| compact corotating structure. Such a structure is cheaper and allows greater flexibility in instrument location and thereby greater flexability in scheduling and Use of the facility.
The Soviet 6M telescope at Vilnius was the first large, modern telescope to use the alt-az mount, although they did not use a corotating structure. The Multiple Mirror T e 1 e scope (M M T) a t M t. H o p k i n s , A r izon a u s e s tjh e a 11 - a z


mount and a corotating structure as well (see and AA4).
figures AA2


















ALT-AZIMUTH P&I6N WITH dOKOXlXiIKJ6 ^UZTURE-
MULTIMIRROR TELESCOPE
18 m. EFFECTIVE APERTURE


E&UlftfRIAL MtfUNf (PAUOMAR) Z7


MEDICAL PROBLEMS AT HIGH ALTITUDE
Medical problems at high altitudes include a number of uncomfortable symptoms and a few potentially dangerous conditions. All of these ailments result from a lack of oxygen in the blood, due to the reduced atmospheric, pressure at high alti tud e.
Aclimatis ation is the body's process of adapting to the conditions of reduced oxygen. The body will:
* Increase the respiratory rate and volume
* Increase the blood pressure within the lungs
* Increase the number of oxygen carrying red blood cel Id
* Increase the cardiac output
* Increase the bloods ability to del
* D e c r e a s e t h e t i s s u e s d e p e n d e n c e o n These adaptations all happen at different time Generally about SOX of the ac1i mat i z at i on is complete within ten days, and 95X at 6 weeks.
H i g h a 11 i t u d e i s n o t d a n g e r a u s f o r t h e h efi the heart must work harder at. lower altitudes keep up with the respiratory system.
Acclimatization can be achieved in one of
* Going to high alt. and spending thjt days in 1 i g h t a c t i v i t. y
iver oxygen oxygen seales.
art. In fact in order to
three ways: e first few


* Going to an intermediate altitude for 2 - 6 days, and then on to higher alt.
* Climbing 500 - 1000' per day with an occasional rest day.
There is evidence to suggest;
* People over 25 are less likely to suffer from altitude sickness.
* Physical fitness does not give any protection.
* There are no known pharmacological, aids.
Acute mountain sickness will show symptoms of headache, dizziness, memory loss, confusion and a. decreased mental acuity. Prompt treatment is important, and consists of oxygen and transportation to lower elevations.
Nutrition often goes astray at high altitudes due to reduced appetites. Inadequate nutrition and dehydration can be responsible for much of the fatigue and weal;ness experienced at high altitudes.



ANTHROPOMETRICS
Anthropometries is the study of human body dimensions on a comparitive basis. In the design process it can be used to define the interface between the human body and the various components of interior space.
- Can a ep t s of Ap p 1 i c at i an
* There is no average man
* Reach-type situations, use the 5th percentile (957. of pop. is larger)
* Clearance-type situations, Use the 95th percentile (957. of pop. is smaller)
* Some cases require adjustable design.
* Personal sense of space requires Human separations dependent upon social [conditions, (see figure )
-I inti mate distances contact --'1,8"
-Lovers, family, very close friends -Personal distances 18" - 4'~0"
-Protected area, "at" arm's length" -Social distances 4' - 12'
-Close phases co-workers', social gather i ngs
-Far phases formal, strangers,
Boss/subordina[te,
10' can ignore










-Publie d i stance: 12' -- 25 ' —Noni nvo1vement begins, -Publie -figures



1








Figure 2-2. Graphic illustration of the distance zones suggested by Hall, The Hidden Dimension, 1966.


MISCELLANEOUS STRUCTURAL BODY DIMENSIONS

Adult Male and Female Miscellaneous Structural Body Dimensions in inches and Centimeters by Age and Selected Percentiles
A B c D E F G
in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm
men I^Ap) WOMEN 36.2 91.9 32.0 81.3 47.3 120.1 43.6 110.7 68.6 1 74.2 64.1 162.8 20.7 52.6 17.0 43.2 27.3 69.3 24.6 62.5 37.0 94.0 37.0 94.0 33.9 86.1 31.7 80.5
^ MEN D) WOMEN 30.8 78.2 26.8 68.1 41.3 104.9 38.6 98.0 60.8 154.4 56.3 143.0 17.4 44.2 14.9 37.8 23.7 60.2 21.2 53.8 32.0 81.3 27.0 68.6 30.0 76.2 28.1 71.4
l ..
SHOULDER
BREADTH
IF
0
D
W 0
a
jj MIDSHOULDER HEIGHT SITTING
BUTTOCK-TOE
LENGTH
98 HUMAN DIMENSION/ANTHROPOMETRIC TABLES


4
FUNCTIONAL
BODY
DIMENSIONS
Adult Male and Female Functional Body Dimensions in Inches and Centimeters by Age, Sex, and Selected Percentiles
A B c D E F
in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm
yv^ MEN 38.3 97.3 46.1 117.1 51.6 131.1 35.0 88.9 39.0 86.4 88.5 224.8
^p) WOMEN 36.3 92.2 49.0 124.5 49.1 124.7 31.7 80.5 38.0 96.5 84.0 213.4
MEN 32.4 82.3 39.4 100.1 59.0 149.9 29.7 75.4 29.0 73.7 76.8 195.1
5) WOMEN 29.9 75.9 34.0 86.4 55.2 140.2 26.6 67.6 27.0 68.6 72.9 185.2

100 HUMAN DIMENSION/ANTHROPOMETRIC TABLES


PROJECTED 1985 BODY DIMENSIONS
Adult Male and Female Projected 1985 Body Dimensions in Inches and Centimeters by Sex and Selected Percentiles
Weight A B c D E F G
lb kg in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm
y^i’ MEN 3J^J) WOMEN 215.4 97.7 165.1 74.9 47.6 120.9 42.8' 108.7 61.3 155.7 55.7 141.4 74.3 188.6 68.0 172.8 34.4 87.4 31.7 80.6 34.1 86.5 31.3 79.6 7.5 19.1 5.9 14.9 39.0 99.0 36.0 91.5
MEN D) WOMEN 143.7 65.2 104.5 47.4 41.5 105.5 38.0' 96.5 53.7 136.5 48.4 122.9 66.2 168.2 60.0 152.3 29.3 74.3 26.7 67.7 30.1 76.4 27.4 69.5 5.7 14.5 4.1 10.4 34.8 88.5 32.0 81.2
H I J K L M N 0
in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm
yi^\ MEN IJSp) WOMEN 23.7 60.3 21.4' 54.3 18.8 47.8 17.4 44.2 21.7 55.1 20.7 52.7 25.7 65.4 24.4 62.0 20.8 52.9 18.4 46.8 11.7 29.7 10.7 27.1 27.4 69.6 24.8 63.1 16.6 42.2 16.4 41.6
MEN _J WOMEN 20.5 52.1 18.4' 46.7 15.9 40.4 14.9 37.8 18.3 46.4 17.2 43.7 22.2 56.4 21.0 53.3 17.5 44.4 15.2 38.6 8.3 21.0 7.6 19.2 23.9 60.6 21.3 54.2 13.5 34.4 13.9 35.4
o
HO
X0
2o
>°
§!
3o
UJO
<0
0
0
H°
x0 O0 uj 0 ID CD tun
3o
DO
oo
n
wo 0 0 0
<&
CD
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
§!
S3
O>0
OD
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
V
THUMB TIP REACH
^â–¡â–¡csoooooac^]
SHOULDER
BREADTH
(^ooaoi^
THIGH
CLEARANCE
BUTTOCK POPLITEAL « LENGTH
fooaaacvj
1C3C30;

BUTTOCK
KNEE
LENGTH
AicPa â–¡$) ^ HIP ^ BREADTH
'Data estimated from regression equations.
102 HUMAN DIMENSION/ANTHROPOMETRIC TABLES


WORKING
POSITIONS
Adult Male Working Positions in Inches and Centimeters and by Selected Percentiles*
A B c D E F G H
in cm 22.8 57.9 13.0 33.0 48.1 122.2 34.5 87.6 95.8 243.3 16.4 41.7 58.2 147.8 30.5 77.5
in cm 18.8 47.8 10.1 25.7 37.6 95.5 29.7 75.4 84.7 215.1 12.C 31.2 49.3 125.2 26.2 66.5

A
MAXIMUM
BODY
.BREADTH
B
MAXIMUM
BODY
DEPTH

r
G CRAWLING LENGTH
*A and B from Damon, Stoudt, McFarland, The Human Body in Equipment Design. C through H from Human Fscxn
104 HUMAN DIMENSION/ANTHROPOMETRIC TABLES


SEATING
Backrest
Reference
Plane
Backrest Seat
Reference
Point
SIDE VIEW
WORK OR SECRETARIAL CHAIR
PLAN VIEW
SOURCE
.PANERO-* ZELNIK
. WOODSON-’CONOVER
CRITICAL WORK CHAIR MEASUREMENTS
C
SEAT
WIDTH
B
SEAT
DEPTH
SEAT
HEIGHT
D E
C.L. OF BACKREST HEIGHT
FROM SEAT BACKREST SURFACE HEIGHT
ANGLE OF TILT OF ANGLE
SEAT OF
SURFACE BACKREST
in cm in cm in cm in cm in cm degrees degrees
1 CRONEY 17 43.2 13.5- 15 33.6-38 1 14 19 356-48 2 5-7 5 12 7-190 4- 8 10 2-203 0°-5° or 3°-5° 95-115°
2 DIFFRIENT 16 406 15- 38 1 136- 34 5- 9- 22.9- 6- 15 2- 0°-5° 95°
min. 16 40 6 20.6 523 10 25.4 9 22.9
3 DREYFUSS 15 38.1 12- 30.5- 15- 38 1- 7- 17 8- 5.1- 12.9- 0-5" 95°-105°
15 38.1 18 45 7 11 27.9 8 203
4 GRANDJEAN 15.75 40.0 15.75 40.0 14.9- 20.8 37.8- 52.8 7.9- 11.8 20- 30 3-5° Adjustable
IT-
19
43.2- 15.5- 39.4- 14- 356- 8- 19.2- 6- 15.2-
48.3 16 40.6 20 50.8 10 25.4 9 22.9
38.1 12- 30.5- 15- 38.1- 7- 17 8- 6- 15 24-
15 38 1 10 45.7 10 25.4 8 20.32
0°-5°
95°-105°
3-5’
2a
(1) John Croney. Anthropometries for Designers, p 147; (2) Niels Ditfrient el al.. Humanscale. Guide 2B; (3) Henry Dreyfuss. The Measure of Man. Sheet O. Dwg 2; (4) Etienne Grandjean, Ergonomics of the Home. pp. 126. 127; (5) Authors; (6) W.E. Woodson and Donald Conover, Human Engineering Guide for Equipment Designers, p 2-142 (see Selected Bibliography for additional information).
The top diagram shows the more critical measurements to be considered in the design of the typical work or secretarial chair. To function properly, its design must be responsive to human dimension. Anthropo-metrically, the two most important measurements are buttock-popliteal length and popliteal height. Provision for support of the lumbar region by proper location of a backrest is essential for a successful design.
The element of sitter comfort, however, is an elusive quality that defies translation into simple dimensions. This factor alone, in addition to the considerable variation in human body size, demands the exercise of a great deal of personal judgment in establishing proper chair dimensions. Currently used recommendations may vary, but they all work and are generally responsive to anthropometric requirements. For the most part, they are also within reasonable range of each other. The authors felt it would be interesting, therefore, in addition to stating their own dimensional suggestions, to present in the form of a chart recommendations from a variety of respected sources. It should be recognized, however, that the primary intent of the data presented is to provide the designer with a basis for initial preliminary design assumptions and mockups—not a final design solution.
It is also suggested that the reader refer to Part A, Section 4, and the following pages of this section for additional information related to the theoretical aspects of chair design. A good deal of that is applicable to all chair types.


C/i£. DISPLAYS
The need to include a visual display component as part of an individual workstation is not uncommon. In most 'ases the display takes the form of le kind of computer readout ar-.„..gement. Whatever the nature of the display, the distance between it and the eye and the height and angle of the display is an important consideration. In certain cases displays must be observed from a standing position, in others from a seated position. The workstation must also accommodate people having a wide range of body sizes. The drawings on this and the next page will explore some of the basic visual and anthropometric factors involved.
Distance of Display from the Eye
Through the process of accommodation, the mechanism of the human eye will automatically focus the eye on the display at the required distance. Most sources place the minimum distance from viewer to display between 13 and 16 in, or 33 and 40.6 cm; the optimum distance between 18 and 22 in, or 45.7 and 55.9 cm; and the maximum dis-"*:e between 28 and 29 in, or 71.7 I 73.7 cm.
THE STANDING MALE VIEWER / WORKSTATION DISPLAY
It should be noted, however, that the ranges cited are approximations and vary with the size of the display material and lighting. Moreover, the nearest point to which the eye can focus moves further away from the eye with age. At age 16, for example, it is less than 4 in, or 10.2 cm, away, while at age 40 it is over twice that distance away. By comparison, however, the furthest point to which the eye can focus shows relatively little change over the years. Accordingly, the maximum range of 28 to 29 in, or 71.7 to 73.7 cm, is limited more by the size of the characters and the reach limitations related to the workstation counter or controls. The usual reading distance for printed material is about 18 in, or 45.8 cm.
Viewing Angle
As a general rule for optimum viewing, ght line from the bottom of the dis-y to the eye of the viewer should form an angle of not more than 30° with the standard horizontal line of sight. In cases where a seated ob-
THE STANDING FEMALE VIEWER/WORKSTATION DISPLAY
son iMTPnmn QPArc/nrrQiriM QTAwnAn: ic


THE SEATED MALE VIEWER/WORKSTATION DISPLAY
Upper Visual ^ Limit
Limit of Color r0s Discrimination
^ Max. Eye Rotation
Standard 0= Sight Line
Normal Sight Line
95TH PERCENTILE FEMALE 5TH PERCENTILE FEMALE
THE SEATtO FEMALE VIEWER/ WORKSTATION DISPLAY
server is to function at the workstation for an extended period of time, he would, after a while, assume a more relaxed position, causing his head to rotate downward a few more degrees. The 30° could therefore be increased to 33°.
Height of Display
Ideally, the height of the top of the display should relate to the eye height of the viewer. The great variability in eye height measurements and in certain cases the size of the specific display may make this difficult. One solution to make the display within reach and within the visual field of the smaller viewer is to increase his eye height by means of a raised platform. Safety precautions, such as a railing, should be provided to prevent accidents. The platform should be movable so that it can be relocated at such times that the workspace is to be used by a taller viewer. Another solution, although more costly, is to develop an adjustable arrangement, whereby the display panel may be raised or lowered to suit individual eye height. Where a seated viewer is involved, the problem is less difficult. The variation in the eye heights of the tall and short seated viewer above the seat surface is much less than that of the eye heights above the floor of tall and short standing viewers. The difference in eye heights of the latter is about 12 in, or 30.5 cm, while the difference between eye heights of the former, as indicated by the drawings, is less than 6 in, or 15.2 cm. Accordingly, the problem of making the display within reach of the visual field of the smaller seated user can be solved quite easily by the use of a chair with an adjustable seat height.
Display Angle
Where possible, the angle of display should place the viewing surface perpendicular to the normal line of sight.
Controls
Controls should be placed within reach of the smaller viewer and located so that the body movement necessary for operation of the controls will not obstruct visibility.
in cm
A 28-29 71.1-73.7
B 18-22 45.7-55.9
C 13-16 33.0-40.6


The top drawing indicates side clearance requirements for a table tennis installation within a residential environment: 48 in, or 121.9 cm, is the absolute minimum, while 72 in, or 102.9 cm, is preferred. The bottom awing indicates the clearances re-, ired at either end of the table. In a close-up position, the player usually functions within 24 to 36 in, or 61 to 91.4 cm, of the edge of the table. An overall clearance between the edge of the table and the wall or nearest physical obstruction—between 84 and 120 in, or 213.4 to 304.8 cm—is suggested. The smaller figure should be regarded as an absolute minimum, and the larger figure as the preferred clearance. The latter, however, may be difficult to provide in terms of the room size required! The extent of clearance is a function of the size of the players and the intensity and skill with which the game is played. What must be considered is not only the space required for low-key volleying but the space required, for example, to chase a strategically placed ball, return it, decelerate, and ultimately stop, all in enough time to avoid colliding into the wall at the rear or side of the
laying area.
in cm

A 48-72 121.9-182.9
B 60 152.4
C 30 76.2
D 6 15.2
E 36 91.4
C 84-132 213.4-335.3
54 137.2
60-96 152.4-243.8
I 24-36 61.0-91.4
RESIDENTIAL TABLE TENNIS REQUIREMENTS
RESIDENTIAL TABLE TENNIS REQUIREMENTS/ REAR CLEARANCE ZONE
256 INTERIOR SPACE/DESIGN STANDARDS


Abbreviated Checklist for Accommodating Physically Disabled People
Prepared by Bill Deno, Office of Facilities Planning, University of Colorado, Boulder
"Usable limits" provided In this checklist will provide functional access to buildings and use of facilities foe most people with physical disabilities. These limits do not necessarily meet applicable design criteria chat may be legally binding. Uheruver possible, facilities should be provided that go beyond the standards provided in this or any ocher guideline.
Item Usable llmlcs
Dimen sion; 11/Operac tonal
• Wheeled. > 1 r travel paths. 36" or more in wldch.
• Two wliec ! Lchairs to pass. 60" or more.
• 180° turn In a wheelchair. At least 60" diameter clearance.
• Stations iry occupied wheelchair space. 30" x 48" or more.
• Whee lclw air reach - fronc approach. IS” to 48” above the floor.
• Mice lche ilr roach - side approach. 9" to 54" above the floor.
• flan oi f reach over a desk In a wheelchair. 17" to 24" across.
• Items projecting into a travel apace. No more than 4" If beeween 27" and 80" above the floor.
# Operation of controls, handles, pulls, etc. With one hand withouc tight grasping, pinching, or twisting.
• Openings ) on travel path surfaces. No more chan 1/2" unless ramped.
• Openln g! t on travel paths. No more chan 1/2” wide.
• Slope ol E travel paths. No eteeper chan 1:20 (52). (Short runs of steeper grudes are negotiable. Provide rest areas.)
• Cross-si Lopes of travel pachs. No steeper than 1:50 (22). (Tilted paths of any lenech are difficult to negotiate.)
• Entranci : ramps, curb ramps. No steeper than 1:12 (8-1/32). (Shore runs or steeper grades are negotiable.)
Exterior 1 Facilities
• Parking signs. Reserved, svmbol of access, free-standing sign.
• Parking stall. Ac least 36" cravel aisle required on either side of car or van.
• Parking quantities and locations. Wlien provided, a reasonable number, buc no less than two located close to an accessible entrance.
• Passenger loading rones. Signed, vlch curb ramp, to entrance walk.
• Ramp configuration (includes curb ramps). Ac least 36" wide, no more than a 30 foot run to
a level resting space of at least 60"; at least a 60" level space top and bottom; hand-.rails on both sides with ac least a 12" extension.______________________________________
3. Building Entrances
a Door widths. 24" - Impassable; 30" - extremely difficult; 32" - usable; 36" - accessible.
. Kaneuve ring clearances (ac pull side). 12" to 24" on latch side of door.
• Thresholds. No more than 1/2" high; up to 1" can be negotiated bv some.
• Doors 1 n series (vestibules). At lease 8U" between two doors in series; 4d" plus width of door Is better.
• Door op ening torces. Reasonable or add assisting openers.
4. Stairs and Handrails
• Treads and risers. No less than 11" creads, no greacer chan 7" risers. Minimum nosings; open stairs doc recommended.
a Handrail configurations. 32" to 34" above tread. Id extension beyond
top riser, Id" plus trend width extension beyond bottom riser, 1-1/2" dlamctur, 1-1/2" clearance from wall. At least one side should he con t lnuous ; both sides preferred.


Item
Usable Limits
5.
Elevators
Gene ral. Serve all flooru of building that have essential programs. Public, automatic, push button operation (no keys).
Lobby Acc< iss . Call buttons no higher than 48" above the floor. Hall lantern Indicators with both visual and
audible signals. Raised floor numbers on door Jambs at each floor. a.L .4 _ 1 / Oil 1 ' . i 1 â–  1 ... ' '
control button no more than 54'* above Che floor. Emergency control Items at bottom of panel.
Self leveling and protective door reopening device. Tactile numerals and operating Instructions.
6. Toilet Rooms
• Entrance. 32" door usable, 36" door preferred. Privacy screens undesirable; at least a 42" path around required.
• Toilet st alls. 36" or 60" In width; at least 60" in depth. 32" clear opening to enter. A lavacory within Is desirable.
• Crab bars i. 32" to 34" above the floor; both sides of 36" stall; v.c. side and rear of 60" stall.
• Hater Closets. Top of seac height 17" to 19" above floor; vail mount preferred.
• Urinals. No more than 17" from lip to floor.
• Lavatorie !S. No less than 2 7" clearance beneach; no more chan 34" to cop edge. Insulate hoc water supply line and drain. Provide lever-type control handles.
• Towel dia ipensers, mirrors, etc. Lower edge or operable part no wore chan 46" above floor. Full length wall mirrors recommended.
7. Drinking Fountains
• Location. No closer than 24" to intersecting walls. Recess alcoves no less chan 30" wide.
• Configuration. Spouc opening no higher than 36" above floor. Water flow as parallel to front as possible. Lever or push-button controls.
8. Public Telephones
• Configuration. Clear access, 54" or less to coin slot.
9. Miscellaneous
• Showers. Padded seats, grab bars, hand held shower units, anti-scald device, usable controls within reach.
• bathtubs. Movable seac, grab bars, usable controls wlchin reach.
• Signage. Symbol of access, contrasting letters to background of sufficient size, tactile letters. Location and identification of accessible facilities.
• Floor surfaces. * Stable, firm, slip resistant. Carpet and pad securely fastened with n firm feel.
• Ho s 1 de n t lal kitchens. Lowered sink and work surfacu with kneehole, front controls for range, storage cabinet to replace unusable shelves In wall cnblnets.


BUILD .[MG CODES
Building codes are designed to provide regulations on construction which will ensure occupant safety. Policy in The Coronado National Forest is to abide by the Uniform Building Code. Graham county also abides by this code with
no additions.
The following pages contain a capsulized list of pertinent information from the 1985 code edition. It has been divided into seven categories: v
-- A3.1 owab 1 e f 1 oor area
- Fire resistive requirements -- Exterior wall openings
- A11owab1e bui1di ng height
- Allowable occupant loads
- E>: i t. requi rements
- Miscellaneous requi rements
The project contains building types which fall into five different occupancy categories. Each category requires, a separate code search:
B2s Machine and electrical shops, control rooms, computer: rooms
B4: Telescope chambers, instrument rooms H4s Vehicular repair garages Mis Vehicular parking (enclosed)
Rls Dormitory, library, kitchen, dining


Group B2
I. Floor Area
Construction type (table 5c) â–¡ccupancy type (table 5a)
Basic allowance area (505a)
Added stories increase (505b) Side(s) seperation increase (50 V-N
B2
8000 sf 8000 s-f 8000 sf 24000 sf
Fire Resistive Requirements (table 17a)
Constrnet:i on type V-N
Exterior bearing walls none
Interior bearing walls none
Exterior non-bearing walls none
Structural frame none
P e r m a n e n t p a r t. i t i o n s none
Shaft enclosures 1 hr
Floor - cei1ing/f1oors none
Roofs - cei1ing/roofs none
Exterior doors and windows sec
Openings in Exterior Wall (table 5a)
Less than Less than Less than
5 ft from property line: 10 ft from property line: 20 ft from property line:
not permitted protected
4. Building Height
Allowable stories (table 5d) Fire sprinkler increase (507) Total allowable stories Maxi mum height (table 5d)
40 ft
5. Occupant Loads
Occupancy group B2
Sq. ft. per occupant 100
6Ex it Re qu i rement s
Minimum exits required
(table "33a) occ. Id. if 30 =
Additional exits required *""*
(3303a) 2 for l- floor
Required exit width (3303b) feet > occ. Id
n
. /50


Corridor widths (3305b)
Dead end corridor limit (3305e) Corridor construction (3305g)
Bt a i r way wi d t h (3306b)
Stairway landing depth <3306g) Stairway to roof (3306o)
Exit signs required (3314a)
Other Requirements
Occupancy seperations
Enclosure of vertical openings
Light (05 sec, chaps.7,9 12)
Ven t i1 at i on (o5 sec, ch.7,9 12)
Sanitati on
Fire extinguishing system required
> 44"
< 20 ft none
> 36"
> 36"
4 or more stories none
none
> 2 floors
= 1 hr
hab. rms. get nat.= 0.1 f1.area or
\ • *5*
nat.= 0.2 fl. area mech.=5cfm>15cfm/P
> 4 air chgs./ hr.
min. lwc (1/sex if
> 4 employees)
yes for > 1 story
Fire warning system
none


Group B4
1. Floor Area
C o n s t r net :i. o n t y p e (table 5 c ) Occupancy type (table 5a)
Basic allowance area (505a)
Added stories increase (505b) Side(s) separation increase (506a) T o t a 1 a 11 o w a b 1 e a r e a
V-N
B4
12000 sf 12000 sf 12000 sf 36000 sf
Fire Resistive Requirements (table 17a)

C a n s t r u c t i o n t y p e V-N
Exterior bearing wa11s none
Interior bearing walls none
E x t e r i o r n o n - b e a r i n g w a 11 s none
S t r u c: t u r a 1 f r a m e none
Permanent parti t i ons none
Shaft e? n c: 1 o s u r e s 1 hr
I- 1 oor - cei 1 i ng/f 1 oors n on e
R o o f s -- c e i 1 i n g / r o o f s none
E x t e r i o r d o o r s a n d w i n d o w s sec
203
3. 0 p e ri .i n g s i n El x t e r i o r W a 11 (t a b 1 e 5 a)
• I
Less than 5 ft from property line: not permitted
Less than 10 ft from property line:
Less than 20 ft from property line:
4n ;Bul ldi ng Hei ght
A11owab1e stor ies (tab1e 5d) XL
Fire spri n k1er i ncrease (507) 1
Tota1 a11owab1e s t or i es 3
Max i. mum hei ght (tab 1 e 5d) 40 f t
0 c c u p a n t L o a d s
Occupancy group - B4
S q» f t,, p e r o c: c u p ant 100
Elx :i. t Requi rements
Mi ni mum ex i t.s r equired
(table 33a) occ. Id. > n ii in
Additional exits required
(3303a) 2/ fl - , if occ.>10
Required exit width (3303b) feet 2 occ . ldT/50


C or r i cl a r w i d t. h s <3305b) '
Dead end corridor limit (3305e) Corr idor construction (3305g) Stairway width (3306b)
Stairway landing depth <3306g) Stairway to roof (3306o)
Exit signs required (3314a)
> 44"
< 20 f t none l 36"
> 36"
4 or more stories no
Other Requi r emeri t s
0ccupanc:y seperations
E n c 1 o s u r e o f v e r t i c a 1 openings
n one
'•t-V
> 2
= 1 Hr
Light <05 sec, chaps.7,9 12)
hab. rms. get nat.; 0.1 f1.area or .
Ventilation (o5 sec, ch.7,9 12)
nat.= 0.2 fl. area inec h. =5c f m > 15c f mV P > 4 air chgs./ hr.
Sanitat i on
min. Iwc (1/sex if > 4 employees)
Fire e xt i n g u i shi n g
system required yes for > 1 story
Fire warning system none


Full Text

PAGE 1

( I LBYIIL e•B ,.._ , ..... _...._ ..... : ; ; : , . I LOBL Tlf• ...... llhcnr•-41:11< • -, ......... 11,.._ .. ]1_ 7 ........ L ll• I U&H•I• .......... 11 ..... , ........ , _ .:a.... ... ... -a--.c-..llec/aHIII ... ., ............ • •c--.... .......... ,_ ........ leii.TI BLBYDtea LBYBL P••ll. ........ HilL IBCTtel r;-I I J.

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The Mount Graham International An Architectur2l Thesis presented to the Cr.Jllege of Design and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of Architecture Joel R. !:!pr i ng 1986

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The Thesis of Joel R. Stine is approved. Commi ttee Ch-i'person ---------------------------Principal Advisor University of Colorado at Denver

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TABLE OF CONTENTS * Introduction * Site * Climate * Program * Codes * Conclusion I * Bibliography Drawings

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In 1980 the University of Arizona began to search for a new astronomical observatory site. A site was1nReded to OV\:':)1-c:ofm'-' thL"' l :i. ght poll ut :i. on p1ob 1 r:nv:;; f .3.c :i. nq c• ... u ... n:?nt opt i c;;,d. telescope sites, to permit new ultraviolet, optical, infat-Pd <':\nd s.;ubmi ll imetE:'I ''lave to b'iD efficient1y from a single site, and to permit high-resolution imagirg with the new generatiot of large Initial studies identified Mt. Arizona as a high-priority site for further investigation. Since that time stud:ie<.:;:. COnducted shoW r"!t. (3r-:':l.!lal\i to hto! a world class astronomical observatory site. In 1982 the Smithsonian Institution asked the Coronado Forrest officials to consider Mt. GraTam for a future major astronomical facility. I n 1984 t T e University o-F rw i su.bmi ti::.E'c! <). to the Fo1r::::st ffie:Tv .i. CC) -F cw t-... c., d -n e 'I ("" PCT'Pn t C'f t •. ,l r.: :: ,,. t .Of.1j C",., l """ 1. t: l J p 0 ) or c !'") )<:::::)] ., t ,_._ \::.:: Y ••• , _J t-.1 • I . , -' -.\ -:> , I I 1 -> .L • .::.:\ --'., ... \I t I t\ } , \ __ ,. C:. , includes provisions for up to thirteen instruments to be built by organizations on a national and intermational 1 Also included are support fdcilities such as a workshops3 garage and utility buildings, anc! a visitor's center. cp .. of the :::;ite, the appt-o:::i.m<:\tely tllitty

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I the project could eventually occupy would be by a 3500 acre buffer area. Additionally a base facility is planned to be located This would serve as the operations center for day staff and house the administrative support staff. This s;it.El also be considered for the visitors' center. Full development is slated over a twenty year period, and divided into three phas8s. Phase I (1986 -1990) will include those facil1ties which are presently well defined. This phase is the project of this thesis and Will ba dPfined in the following section. Phase II include projects currently in advanced stages of planning but not yet Phase III will include long range projects. in the programming section of this document.

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Mt. Graham International Observatory, Phase I Location: Pinaleno Mountains? Graham County, Arizona Facility Description: * OSU/UA 8M Class Telescope ( 11 1 00 sf) * UA/MPIFR Submillimeter Telescope l. eiOO sf) I * Texas 5M Submillimeter Telescope 1000 sf) * UA Two Meter Class Telescope 700 sn * Dormitory Building: ( 12000 sf) --Dc:1rmi tc:wy -Dining I Kitchen Library I Conference * Support Building: ( sf ) -Electrical I Mechanical Shops Texas Control Room UA/MPIFR Control Room Computer F:oom -Communications I Meteorological -Kitchenette I Lounge * Garage Building: 8000 sf) Parking * Generator Building .S ........ .. ?...L Total Approximate Size: 1:3,900 sf

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The three major components of an astronomical Each is crucial, yet the degree of sLccess the facility will realize, depends as much upon their integration as on their individual merits. Th,i! rule'2 of thE:) architecture in this facility will be to bring these components together into an integrated system, working toward common goals. The architecture must perform distinct functions. First, it must preserve the functional identity of each component. The astronomers, the instruments, and the site are all selected by rigorous T! .. ,ey c:\J 1 characteristics which contribute to the goals of the observatory. And these functional qualities must be In addition to functional qualities, each of the components also has needs which must be met i optimize their performance. Thus, the second function encouraging these components tc interact in a symbiotic Qualities of one component (or more) would be targeted to the needs of anothPr. Th e r-ol t:::) of the ar-chitectur-e is to providP the framework on which these

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interactions will occur. The goals on which these interactions are to be based are the functional goals of the facility. is; one major functional that the facility provide the maximum ammcunt of prime observational time. Th i !s g ClC:1.l i l 1 manifest itself uniquely within each of the three component !3. For instance, it is of the utmost importance to the cDntinued function of the facility that thb surrounding forrest remain 1ntact and undisturbed. This; s;;-!E'mir,;_Jly unrelated goal is crucial in that the forrest guards the facility from the encroachment of light polluting devel C:lpment!::;. These goals will be defined further in the bodv of this document. Another concept that I wish to consider in this thesis will be the developement of an appropriate symbolism. I feel that the issue of function discussed above should take However, if the situation allows a degree of freedom I should like to use a symbolic gesture worthy of I the contribution astronomy has made to our society. Historically, astronomy is one of our most anchient culture. It has captured mankind's imagination and has us-, to our pl.:-::\ce in .. quest for knowledge and it brought us into the age of science and technology.

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astronomy still captures cur imagination. Its popularity with common folk has grown tremendously as is bern out by the deluge of media and entertainment centered on extraterrestrial themes. Space is just now •becomming a frontier for physical exploration. astronomy are leading the way. And the achievements of The observatory is the temple of astronomy. It is there that the secrets of the universe are revealed. It lS where we stretch our senses to the sky. Such an image is appropriate to the architecture of the observatory. the represents that which us unique in our world, our quest for knowledge. In my mind, only the complexity of an organic form can such a human quality. I hope to capture the excitement, the dedication and the fulfillment from astronomical observation.

PAGE 11

Mount Graham, Coronado National Forest, Graham County, Arizona (see figure 81). Peak elevation: 10,720 ft. latitude: 32.7 deg. N., longitude: 109.9 deg. W. AH0.tL.Jj_S T R Qf:.!:J..Yf-iJ C.1!:)L _fi A _Llj..fifU .. MGM\ The area consists of approximately 3500 acres of high lying land in the High Peak area of the Pinaleno mountains. The boundaries are shown in figure 62. The scale of the MGAA was chosen to permit a major astronomical development, principally on the higher peaks and knolls, to provide an adequate buffer zone within which the existing environment of the area could be Furthermore1 the area would allow control over activities which would be deleterious to the observatory's mission. Such activities represent a small fraction of the present use of the Astrophysical area. It was not and is not intended to close the area to access. P 9J.:..t?.r"1Luu_.i .. :t.g_<.. A survey was completed on many sites within the MGAA from which eleven potential astronomical sites were selected along with three potential sites for support facilities.

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-Churchu , , ' J ' -\nzona • • ...-Cic y , ' I I I \ ;:, Jadr aDDr l oe Stand r-n.•.AE O R DEPOSIT I T \ \ ,. .. , Dos ""> l'a C .r j Fr I C f l )011 .. ., .... , 186 • 1 Flagstaff 0 L C Ht•tCA• ARIZONA Phoentx 0 A r avaipa Tucson 0 Wilcox

PAGE 13

,, ' ' / . / j . _./ ,

PAGE 14

These sites are identified in figure 52. The potential astronomical sites are distributed on peaks or knolls above 10,000 ft. along twa ridges: 1. The ridge running east-west from Emerald Peak. 2. The amphibolite ridge running approximately south from High Peak. The primary sites are defined as those which on the basis of topography (see below: SITE FACTORS, Telescope Location) appear to have the best chance of being excellent sites as far as astronomical image quality is concerned. These sites are: Site 1) Emerald Peak -10,471 ft. Site 2) Hawk Peak Site 3) High Peak 10,627 ft. 10,720 ft. Site 4) Plain View Peak -10,370 ft. Site 5) 10,300 ft. The secondary sites 6-11 have been rated slightly lower in astronomical potential either on the grounds of expected wind flow or simply of altitude. Some dre logistically quite advantageous and they may turn out to be as good (or better) than the primary sites. It is, therefore, intended to retain all sites until the completion of site testing. Consistent with policy of minimizing the effects of the observatory on the envircnmertt, the selection of sites will be such as to reduce the total developed area while ensuring

PAGE 15

that the image quality and other astronomical characteristics are not measurably inferior. The logistical sitesj 12-14, were identified as potential sites for support facilities, dormitories, engineer's residence, etc. Each site location is along the High F'<;?ak ( F.H 507) i'M1d consi stemt with pol. icy facilities located there would not be visible from the floor . Only one of these sites will be developed as ..:1 support site. Ast-r-onomical Site 3, High F'eii:\k-10,720 ft., figure This site has the main road, FR 507, going directly to it, and is thus the site which can be developed with the least change to the current status of the mountain. The site is good for sub-millimeter wave astronomy which requires maximum altitude and law atmospheric water vapor. For these reasons this site will accomodate the UA/MPIFR Sub-millimeter and the Texas Five Meter Sub-mi limeter telescopes planned far phase I. Also, a two meter optical/infared will be placed here in phase I. The location of the UA/MPIFR telescope on a secondary knoll at the NE end of the summit area leaves an option for placing a large optical/infared telescope on the summit in latter phases of development.

PAGE 17

flq. 54

PAGE 18

Logistical Site 12, Elevation 10,470 ft., figure 54 The site is on a sparsely covered, fairly steep hillside sloping down to FR 507. It is located close to.the junction of the Emerald Spring Road with FR 507, and so is near the center of the most likely good observatory sites. This site seems to be the one out of the three logistical sites with the least environmental impact. Sites 13 and 14 have both been found to lie in watersheds feeding local natural springs. ogv/Soi 1 ?.. Two dominant rock types are found in the area of the proposed sites. Banded amphibolite is found composing the topographic ridge which extends from High Peak southwest to peak 10090. To tl-1e west of Hi PE":!ak to Emer al d the main rock type is porphyritic leucogranite. No evjdence of mineralization has been found in the Lands bounded by the MGAA are expected to be withdrawn from mineral entry after the Mt. Graham Observatory Proposal is accepted. A series of quaternary faults along the piedmont of the eastern Pinalenos will be studied to determine whether there is a possibility of movement along these faults that could effect the proposed astronomical facilities by seismic

PAGE 19

shaking (see EIS: sec 6.2.1) Soils of the project area are classified as frigid, subhumicl soils. They are thin and well anchored to moderate slopes, thereby having slight to moderate erosion potential (see EIS: sec 4.1). Soil testing will be conducted during phase I in connection with septic tank placement and road construction. Geology and soils of the area are being studied as part of the EIS to ensure the preservation of unique and irreplaceable The 3500 acre astrophysical area, including all observatory sites, is located within the Mt. Graham spruce-fir forest. The Mt. Graham spruce-fir community is the southernmost stand of subalpine conifer forest in North America. Because of its isolation, it is rich in insular animal species and subspecies. Of special consideration in this project is the status of the Mt. Graham spruce squirrel and the extent of habitat destruction caused by removal of trees. Other unique habitats within the spruce-fir forest are the high elevation cienegas, and isolated cliff faces and t.::3.lus slopes. The cienegas are catagori:z.ed as "wetle:mds" and are protected under federal regulations. The hiqh I -elevation cienegas are the main habitats for the endemic

PAGE 20

white-bellied vole and the western pocket gopher, and are heavily frequented by many bird species. Tt .. :e cliff faces and talus slopes provide hibernacula for the twin-spotted rattlesnake and other reptiles, and house snails endemic to Pinal enos. Mt. Graham supports the densest population of bear in Field studies have shown that bear frequent certain parts of the astrophysical area. In addition, Mt. Graham supports several plant taxa occurring above 9000 ft. that have protection status by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Field study will continue in order to locate and identify these plants and other genetically distinct species so that biologically sensitive areas can be protected. At the summit the average height of the treetops is !: ourt y f <'2f::!t .• The 14 potential sites for telescopes and facilities and their surroundings are being surveyed for archeological and historical evidence. Field work will continue during the development of the sites. Steward
PAGE 21

In locating telescopes 1 . -,_ is advantageous to select specific sites where: 1. Cloud/fog is minimum --to maximize viewing 2. Winds are steady and preferably low 27 mph) --to optimize pointing and tracking accuracy. 3. The water vapor content above the t.el E!s;cope is; minimum to minimize atmospheric absorption especially at infared and submillimeter wavelengths. 4. Light and other pollution is minimized --to maintain sensitivity. For opt i c<:!l I i r,f ared tel esc opes 11 St:!t:!i ng 11 ori sharpness is crucial. This can be degraded seriously by local turbulance in the air flow above anJ around the site. Criteria for selecting a site with good seeing are: 1. Unobstructed free air flow to the site in prevailing winds. 2. Good "drai ne:1ge 11 of ground coaled ai from the site at night. 3. Avoidance of heat sources (such as generators and buildings) in the air flow ta the site. The general philosophy followed in choosing sites for

PAGE 22

rnot'" E? d :i. 1 ,3m :i. n <:\ t :i. Dn i s> t CJ p 1 !'!:; the ,, .. i::\d i l.!l t 1 (2SC: op as high as possible and downwind of optical telescopes. This avoids the problem of heat generated by the radio telescope facility spoiling the optical imaging of a nearby optical telescope. The large optical telescopes are sited at the tops of the most prominent peaks. This allows the wind to flow around the peak as well as over it and produces better 11 ng 11 .. Thus peaks are preferred to ridges. I.A!hE?n the peak is large the best location is probably at the upwind edge of the uppermost area. These criteria have been followed in the positioning of the phase I facilities (see figure 83). 0 s.c .::!:}.j_qrl_ will include measures to prevent obscuration by rock outcrops, summits, and surrounding In some cases either trees may have to be topped,or telescopes raised, to provide viewing down to 15 degrees abCJve tiH::! hew i z on. In sonH? cases it wi 11 be r .. to provide a line of sight to another peak for calibration I

PAGE 23

---lso ,_.,. ,_.,. Ground preperation for roads, telescopes, and support facility buildings will consist of some ground leveling and clearance of vegetation. The method of groun 1 eve:l i ng w1 11 be determined by the physical characteristics of and thickness of soils. Ground 1 i nt.J and prOcedureS Will inClUdP mitigatiOnS to prevent erosion and to ensure proper drainagE. A cleared zone of one length (50 ft.) will be needed to protect buildings from fallen and forest fires, and to provide work space around buildings for maintenance and repair.

PAGE 24

9JJ"E ACC ;.3? S Access to Mt. Graham is via Forest Road 507 and State Road 366 which begins at about seven miles south of the city of Safford, Arizona on State Road 666. known as High Peak Road, is an eYtension of State Road 366 e:l.t mile pos-,t 1:::6.25 c!nd ends at High PE!cd:: (set:? fit;t. The attached table gives road milage distances from Tuscan, the nearest major airport. Tu.<.:.;con9 junction of I-10 + I-19 Wi l em: Ladybug Sadd 1 ends High Peak turnoff 1-l:i. gh __ .E; .. ... .. P n 0 78. 5 rni • 90. ll!:i.D 1.32.2 136.7 j :.:::7. 1 :1.4.9 State Road SR 366 This road is also known as Swift Trail and could best be described as a recreational :ype r oad!tJC:\ y. The road varies from 18 to 34 feet in and is paved with a bituminous surface treatment • Irre!]Ul e:tt" • :tll i gnm;,=:nts, str:!!t?p .1 Slt'!i k::;, C:l.nd of guardrails at critical locations are among the items in n0ed of These items become a concern when roads are

PAGE 25

snow covered during the winter. Forest Road 507 -The Forest Service has constructed this road for their own use. Basicly, it is a wide rough dirt trail to the mountain top. It has a very steep slope { at one point call eel "the I!'Jc:d.l" C:l.nc:l needs to be :i gred. Otherwise the remainder of the road needs to be redressed, and widened for safer positive transportation. r o_Y.,_ill..!J. t :s It is imperative that roadway improvement meet the load and manuvering requirements for transporting telescope equipment and construction material; for construction and observatory schedules; and for facility access. The phase I roadwork will focus on modification to the A steep, sharp switchback located 3.6 miles from the High Peak turnoff shall be improved to ccmstrw:::t i c:m. Other road improvements during phase I will be limited to short sections deemed unsatisfactory from an operational point of view. In the final state (phase III), the road to the mountain top will be paved and will have two lanes with a on either side, proper in-slope for storm water c1r.:d.nage, wider cw-ves, anc:l turn-outs. !1 o l:'i.__f;__m o v The observatory will assume responsibility for snow removal on FR 507. Due to the high altitude, FR 507

PAGE 26

requires some level of snow removal From October through The very nature of an observatory requires routine daily a.ccess. t.:i.me or1 1.::\t-ge :i.::,; allocated to astronomers in very breif segments. {\Si l i t t 1 as one night may be all that 1 . c:' -' allowed for an observing Current planning involves the use of snowblowers, front end loaders equipped with snow plows, and motor graders to accomplish the task. Most snow removal would then remove snow going down the mountain.S1multaneously, a snow removal crew would begin going up the mountain. A tracked, over the snow vehicle would be maintained at the base facility for assured access to snow removal equipment and for emergency situations. Snow removal operations require the High Peak road to bP clearly marked with road delineators. There are several water resources available on the mountaintop which could be utilized to provide a i sf ac:tory d i str i bu.t ion system to t:.he obsel" vatot"y f<:1ci 1 i ties. The existing natural springs which flow year around are the most promising water source. In ti on, I new water wells and catch basins to collect runoff water should be considered. The mountaintop area receives about

PAGE 27

thirty inches of precipitation annually. Rain is most prevalent during a period from May through September. Due to high elevation, the winter precipitation is primarily in ' the form of snowfall and occurs from October through April. Rainfall and snowmelt in the summit area accumulates in several cienegas that serve as canyon headwaters for a number of perennial or near perennial streams. In addition, there are several springs such as Hawk Peak, Emerald, and Bearwallow which could be considered if they provide adequate flow and the communities presently using these springs are willing to negotiate the water rights. The water demand for the initial development of the observatory activities would be very low, even considering the construction requirements. During phase I the water supply to the observatory facilities will be tank procuring water from the city of Safford. It must be recognized that the observatory facility will be difficult to reach during the winter months. Thus the water storage tank shall be sized to hold the water that would meet the demand for one month. Fin:::) fighting encroached upon during the winter at dormitory. rC:\n bE! all s1te:; e:-:cept I . The water supply shall be designed to provide per the capita water consumption of 50 gallons per day. The total I

PAGE 28

quantity being determined for the estimated number of astronomers, support personnel, and visitors OQ the mcluntai. ntop during thf-.? ccJnst.r-uct ion period and operational periods. Additional mitigating measures will also be adopted to conservE> t.-Jater. This would be achieved by_using low-wateruse toilets, low-flow showerheads, and by inducing wateraware habits on the part of personnel occupying or visiting the facility. Water storage for fire protection purposes shall be prcJvi ded. The quantity of water storage shall be computed as required for light hazard classification, 1.e. 500 gpm for 30 minutes duration at each site. Telescope buildings will have a Halon Fire Protection System to protect the expensive and sophisticated electronic equipment located in specific: E•.rea.s. The remainder of all buildings will be protected with appropriate extinguisher or water protection systems. On-site underground or at-grade concrete storage tanks will be considered to diminish environmental impacts. YJ AS T E .__Q_J.,.E.9 S P1 '=. ?o l.i.fLJ..lJ as t The solid waste consists primarily of paper trash, food car tons, food, and used c:.:.<.ns. The observatory will equip

PAGE 29

each building with a mechanical trash compactor, located inside the building. This compacted waste and any other The trailer would be taken to the Safford sanitary landfill and emptied as required. Dur1ng phase I, once a week will be sufficient. The combination of septic tanks and drain field will best meet the needs of the facility. 10 pt::op l e on Mt. Graham at all and a use rate of 100 gallons per day, a septic tank would need an approximate 1,600 gallons of capacity. The corresponding drainage field would be appropriately sized depending on soil percolation. . 1111 s would be sufficient for phase I. Additionally, incinerating toilets will be installed to meet the demands of remote locations. Initially the electric power to this facilitywill be generated locally by on-site diesel generators. Comm;!r cia l power service will only be crucial to observatory operation over the long run. The three phase development provides suf f i c :i. ent time to deta.l 1 ed ccmstruct ion documents; and the subsequent construction of commercial power service.

PAGE 30

::::J.J;.i_tn i:l't..r.-L .. .. ... _:U_ typical/peak demand (KW) Telescope buildings 105/420 Equ.ipment Power distrib./generation CclitHnun i c:-:::d: ion bui 1 d i I'll,;) ' Dorrni tot-y Shops:; 20/80 10/<'l.(l :to; .. q.o 20/80 ]..91 195/780 S i t c:2 i n f o ,, .. mE\ t :i. on a cJ .::\ p t f:? d f ,,. o rn t. h e fu .. ....... .J!!! .. .. . . f or. t ('2 .t1.t..o:.G r a .b&J.!l......l. n t e r:n.i:li ... tf!.n.? 1 .. ....9 1:1 .. s E r v "!.tgr.: .. Y Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 1985

PAGE 31

\;i.fli'.lP.L.fLL ... .t:;;J., ... Lm .fi!J;J._LS!J .. f::lJ .. :tJ:...<2.!l ... A study of all posible high altitude in the most cloud-free region of the continental United States has ' identified Mt. Graham as an excellent astronomical site. As stated the first criteria of selection was location in a relatively cloud-free region, the Southwest region. This area is characterized by an inland desert continental climate, with cooler, relatively dry winters, and a thunderstorm season starting in early July and lasting until i:.1f2ptember ... This moist season is not ideal, yet it does preserve the excellent conditions of long dry nights. to tree ring s;tuc:lies, thf2 o f .this <:.
PAGE 32

I ( \ Temper atLlre Mean Max. Min. and Extremes (deg.
PAGE 33

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec I year 924 840 787 534 403 132 50 78 201 462 609 840 -5860

PAGE 34

])iurn le. m pe rnfiJ f'" e. V O.('\ o. t\o n ,.., 2m. above. Mr. Cr ra ha rY1 15 "'Dtc.lq&O -:fan \9<&1 +" .\ +5 +4-3t1. -+3 I oc OF-• -+2. 35.Co • +1 0 31 -I • -2 ;/ • • -4 • ... •

PAGE 35

I PresipitatioQ < Mt Lemmon) Average MoMlhly and Daily Max. nights

PAGE 36

Sng_'!.'l f all Monthly Avg. __ .. * Drifts up to 5 * Forrest accumulation equals 70% yearly total

PAGE 37

lies Wl hin same i,?arad a_ Tucson (+/-50 BTU/sq ft) at MGAA is 22% greater than der direct soL:tr radiation are by tree (see figure C1)

PAGE 38

' •

PAGE 39

fABLE A2.6b Sola wn and In solatio n Values for 32 Degrees North Latitude" Solar Solar BTUH/sq . ft. total insolation on surfacesb Date time I position South facing surface AM PM A It Azm angle with horiz. Normal Horiz . 22 32 42 52 90 65.2 0 0 0 0 1 1 jan 2 1 7 5 1.4 1 -9'3-186-1-1-623-,,.,. 8 4 TT.S so.s-s't19 3 22.5 46.0 269 118 175 193 206 212 181 10 2 30 .6 33.1 295 167 235 256 269 274 221 11 1 36. 1 17.5 306 198 273 295 308 312 245 12 38. 0 0.0 310 209 285 308 321 324 253 Surface daily totals 2458 1288 1839 2008 2118 2166 1779 Feb 21 7 5 7.1 73.5 121 22 34 37 40 42 38 8 4 19.0 64.4 247 95 127 136 140 141 108 9 3 29 . 9 53.4 288 161 206 217 222 220 158 ' 10 2 39 . 1 39.4 306 212 266 278 283 279 193 11 1 45.6 21.4 315 244 304 317 321 315 214 12 48.0 0 . 0 317 255 316 330 334 328 222 Surface daily totals 2872 1724 2188 2300 2345 2322 1644 Mar 21 7 5 12.7 81.9 185 54 60 60 59 56 32 8 4 25.1 73.0 260 129 146 147 144 137 78 9 3 62.1 290 194 222 224 220 209 119 10 2 47.3 47 .5 304 245 280 283 278 265 150 11 1 55.0 26.8 311 277 317 321 315 300 170 I 12 58.0 0.0 313 287 329 333 327 312 177 Surface daily totals 3012 2084 2378 2403 2358 2246 1276 Apr 21 6 6 6.1 99.9 66 14 9 6 6 . 5 3 7 5 18.8 92.2 206 86 78 71 62 51 10 8 4 31.5 84. 0 255 158 156 148 136 120 35 9 3 43.9 74.2 278 220 225 217 203 183 68 10 2 55.7 60.3 290 267 279 272 256 234 95 11 1 . 65.4 37.5 295 297 313 306 290 265 112 12 69. 6 0.0 297 307 325 318 301 276 118 Surface daily totals 3076 2390 2444 2356 2206 1994 764 May 21 6 6 10.4 107.2 119 36 21 13 13 12 7 7 5 . 22 . 8 100.1 211 107 88 75 60 44 13 8 4 35.4 92.9 250 175 159 145 127 105 15 9 3 48.1 84.7 269 233 223 209 188 163 33 10 2 60.6 73.3 280 277 273 259 237 208 56 11 1 72.0 51.9 285 305 305 290 268 237 72 12 78.0 0.0 . 286 315 315 301 278 247 77 Surface daily totals 3112 2582 2454 2284 2064 1788 469 6 12.2 110.2 131 45 26 16 15 14 9 jun 21 6 7 5 24.3 103.4 210 115 91 76 59 41 14 8 4 36 . 9 96.8 245 180 159 143 122 99 16 9 3 49.6 89.4 264 236 221 204 181 153 19 10 2 62.2 79.7 274 279 268 251 227 197 41 11 1 74 . 2 60.9 279 306 299 282 257 224 56 12 81.5 0 . 0 280 315 309 292 267 234 60 Sur fdce daily totals 3084 2634 2436 2234 1990 1690 370 "'From Kreid e r, J. F., and F. Kr eith, "Solar Heating and Cooling," revised lsted., -. . ' . ' ! l , ' :•: . : TABLE A2.6b Solar Position and Insolation Values for ,;rees North Latitude0 (Continued) Solar Solar Date BTUH/sq. ft. total insolation on surfacesh time position South facing surface AM PM A It Azm angle with horiz . Normal Horiz. 22 32 42 52 90 j .ui2. L !-6 -_6_ _lO...L _lll__ 17 27 14 13 12 7 5 23.1 100.6 203 107 87 75 60 44 1 8 4 35.7 93.6 241 174 158 143 125 104 1 9 3 48.4 85.5 261 231 220 205 185 159 -10 2 60.9 74.3 271 274 269 254 232 204 5 11 1 72.4 53.3 277 302 300 285 262 232 E 12 78.6 0 . 0 279 311 310 296 273 242 i Surface daily totals 3012 2558 2422 2250 2030 1754 45 Aug 21 6 6 6.5 100.5 59 14 9 7 6 6 7 5 19.1 92.8 190 85 77 69 60 50 1 8 4 31.8 84.7 240 156 152 144 132 116 3 9 3 44.3 75.0 263 216 220 212 197 178 6 10 2 56 . 1 61.3 276 262 272 264 249 226 9 11 1 66.0 38.4 282 292 305 298 281 257 10 12 70.3 0.0 284 302 317 309 292 268 11 Surface daily totals 2902 2352 2388 2296 2144 1934 73 Sep 21 7 5 12.7 81.9 163 51 56 56 55 52 3 8 4 25.1 73.0 240 124 140 141 138 131 ') 9 3 36.8 62 . 1 272 188 213 215 211 201 11 10 2 47.3 47.5 287 237 270 273 268 255 14 11 1 55.0 26.8 294 268 306 309 303 289 H 12 58.0 0.0 296 278 318 321 315 300 17 Surface daily totals 2808 2014 2288 2308 2264 2154 122 Oct 21 7 5 6.8 73.1 99 19 29 32 34 36 3 8 4 18.7 64.0 229 90 120 128 133 134 10 9 3 29.5 53.0 273 155 198 208 213 212 15 10 2 38.7 39.1 293 204 257 269 273 270 18 11 1 45.1 21.1 302 236 294 307 311 306 20 12 47.5 0.0 304 247 306 320 324 318 21 Surface daily totals 2696 1654 2100 2208 2252 2232 158 Nov 21 7 5 1.5 65.4 2 0 0 0 1 1 8 4 12 . 7 56.6 196 55 91 104 113 119 11 9 3 22 . 6 46.1 263 118 173 190 202 208 17 10 2 30.8 33.2 289 166 233 252 265 270 21 11 1 36.2 17.6 301 197 270 291 303 307 24 12 38.2 0.0 304 207 282 304 316 320 24 Surface daily totals 2406 1280 1816 1980 2084 2130 174 Dec 21 8 4 10.3 53.8 176 41 77 90 101 108 10 9 3 19.8 43.6 257 102 161 180 195 204 18 10 2 27.6 31.2 288 150 221 244 259 267 22 11 1 32.7 16.4 301 180 258 282 298 305 25 12 34.6 0 . 0 304 190 271 295 311 318 25 Surface daily totals 2348 1136 1704 1888 2016 2086 179 bt Utu/hr • ft2 = 3.152 W / m2 • Ground rcllcction -no; included o n normal or I zontal surfaces.

PAGE 40

* Median wind speeds have been measured on Mt graham and found to be typically calm 9 11 mph at 87 ft above the summit (8-24 hr) -Similar to winds on Mt Hopkins (max. = 36 -high winds occur under otherwise urlfavorable astronomical conditions -direction is substantially confined to SW -trees shield low winds (see figure C2)

PAGE 41

-----1---------1---1--t----r------1-------t ------1-------------------------------1 1--r------1-----r--t---3o I ---1 --r-----15 ------..-=-= --= -I ------1------. v = = = = = = = =-= =-= =-= _-_ ---------V . . --. ----: '= r--+ ... -v ---t---1--_ __ --_ . -------1--1--t-1 --i---+-- • . --. --.. -----------_ltv '0 1-r--. V . v . s ---f---1-v 4--------1-------... --------I---ro t 2. (

PAGE 42

on Mt Braham and Mauna Kea Oata presented in mm .of water Three ( IR -E}{el.lent: greater from .33 toJ f M A M U J A o 0 . N rP Graham has appreceiable excellent. cond.ticns

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observations to other: 8 . Ariz. observatory sites
PAGE 44

Completely Clear Sky Conditions for Sunrise, Percentage Month by Month, for a 2 Year Period May 1982 -June 1984 Graham Lemmon 81 Hopkins Kitt Peak 4m Kitt Peak 1.3m Jan 50 46 48 42 Feb 52 41 44 37 Mar 43 40 38 36 Mean 48% 42 43 38 Apr 58 56 57 63 May 70 70 67 64 June 75 79 67 68 Mean I 68% 68 64 65 July 22 27 28 22 Aug 9 17 22 17 Sept i2 26 33 40 Mean I 18% 23 28 26 Oct 49 37 62 40 Nov 32 32 38 32 Dec 35 42 34 32 Mean I 39% 37 45 35 Grand Mean ! 43% . 43% 45% • 41% Exclulding 52% 49% 51% 46% Obs# l 643 1244 701 700

PAGE 45

transmittance r ' ,:,; , surfaces " ' . f l---t---l.--+--+-+----t-.....;....j._-+-,:;......J--f--+-t---11 l t J f . M AMJ J Ae> 0 N-Il/

PAGE 47

. Space Group tfo. Rqd. Sq. Ft.. • I • . bOO Ac tlvlty/ S !:h• dullng Behavioral Characterlatlca o CSTAff MEALS 0 'Soxeb ME.AL.S Ai (:a\-\\ o 1/oJ B L. A':. Rec-REA110t4AL Sl'.ll (. : T.V. Ad)1cancltU I era • Au.. • (t>-tor Speclel Needa • l 1 o EM'PANfi.\oN To '35 (PAA.ose m) • -set..F FAC.I l.\T\eS r-oR N\t:lwr FRIOQt Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga M \C. \IE Tl'lA9\ Rel1ted Activity Sh1eta

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. Space Group . ' Ooc.M' Ho. Rqd. I Actlvlly/6c hedullno Behavioral Charaelerlatlca Ut era Sq. Ft. 3oo • Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga Related Activity Sheela

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Space I Group Ho. Rqd. Sq. Ft • . . , r rooo Actl•lty/f chadullng o AU... B o heY I o rC h a r . • c te rIa t1 c • o l.ot-lf! t-l'-E.'S oF Z5 o lNOI\11 ' 0 . 3 AdJacanclee o A
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Space Group Ho. R qd. Sq. Ft • . . . -/0 140 A. c. thlly/6 c hedulln; Behlvloral Characterlatlce AdJacencies , • ' "' ,H •• ' ,1 u •• ,. Specl•l Na•d• • TO '50 <'J T'o o BuFFEfZGP 'D.t.'l''nME Characterletlce 0 0 ?.ooM SE.P READI N(:a 'ttES1 Flnl•h•a & Furnlahlnga Related Activity Sheeta '• ':.._• • 0 ,r' 1 I 0 U 0 o • • __

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Space tO\L.6TS Group Uo. Rqd, ., z , ).i Behewloral Charecterlatlc• o KIT'-ItEi 0 u •• ,. o K1 STAfF • t.. I uc..e Sq. Ft.. tJ Flnlahea & Furnllhlnga Related Acllwlty Sheela •'

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'. B Nl!.o u •• ,. .... S P • c 0 PPORj UU .. t:'! '-4 • l'fr. 51.APPOit'( Of'EV.l\ON -;:M't ELE4il
PAGE 53

Group Ho. R qd. r Actlvlty/8 hedullng Speclll Need1 o Behavioral Charecterlatlce Ad)ecenclee Flnlahea a Furnlahlnga Related Activity Sheela

PAGE 54

Group Ho. Rqd, .. 1 Ac:ll•llyn c:hedullng Beha•lora Characterlttlc:e Adjacanc:l 1 S q, Fl.. ,_I .. zoo u. •r• • t:>F • Special Needa Flnl•h•• & Furnishing• Related Activity Sh•eta

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Group Ho. Rqd. Sq. ft.. ' . , \ ... :, 1; zoo Acllvttyn chadullng •Sc.HE.DIUI.EP Win-\ IOMT." Bahavlora Cheraeterlatlca ' ) Adjacencl e \ TO UA./Mf'\FR \t>Mt. Spacial Naed1 Chareeterlatlca e 2. 'Si'A"nON5 • FoFc:' 5 Flnllhae a Furnlahlnga .. '5,.AT\'-Related Activity Sheet•

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I Uo. R qd. Sq. Fl. t J,.oo Speclll Needa HR.. C..t.IMA\E P••lgn Cherect.erlatlea • FLeXI&. Behevloral Charaeterlatlee I . " 0 7E)(AS Koof'1 • J MPIFR C.ONn

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Space Bl.ltL.t'INQ Group Ho. Rqd. Sq. Ft. I ' • 1 250 Behavioral ,.;haracterlatlc:• " I ' u •• ,. • Mr. S1"-'f1= • StAFf • • TO • Po 4o I(LJ paelgn Ch•rac:tulatlca I Flnlahea & Furnlahlnga Aalated Activity Sh••t•

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Space t_uPPoRT Oro up Ho. Rqd, Sq. Ft. . . \ l L.O ActiYily/Sc hedullng Z4 BohaYiorel Characterlatlca • • (s') Adjacencla • Ll f. UA(MPI fl' • NEAt u •• ,. • U. cF l'eXAC:. -5TAFf I • a: ' • • Mf.' C:lllAAAf-1 Spacial Naeda • • Siov6 .ToP • I Characterlallca ' • Flnlahaa & Furnlahlnge lhlatad Ac:liYity Sheela •'

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Space '8utU?tNQ u •• ,. Group Ho. Aqd. Sq. Ft.. . ) ; -z Actlvlty/G chedullng Spacial Neede . Behavioral Characterlatlce peelgn Charact.rletlca \ I • EASY iO 'LeAN ... ' ' I • . Flnlahea & Furnlahlnge • CCN-rROL-• l.EAAM 1'-fl LE K\'f'-Hf,NEl\E. ' (.1:) t.oRCFa Related Activity Sheela .

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Group No. Rqd. Sq. Fl. l I o lt.f N.J.. t..1..,1... Behevloral Charecterlttlce " ' ' o Mus-r H "'"E 1t> SoT"Ut ere Mr. Special Need• •H\c:t"' SNOW & lf'D\.o)H S'-Of'S 1'\U'.t .AS FOSS. • Avo•r> ootM•r'*"' AAA: • Exe.!t.I.ENT fow • AVOI'O TGLE.1LOPE • ANQ SCWE.R. • S*W • peelgn C!uracterlttlct • ' • tN SNow • Mut.iiPt.E • SPAC-e \LIFT tc.A,... 2.' t.to 1-6RAOt: 11:.. I-VAN -o KePr .!2.• F Flnlahea & Furnlthlnge Releted Activity Sheela

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Space 6Ar'Y) Group Ho. Rqd. Sq. Fl.. OA'ftiME • 7-' t>f! SuVf'Oftr VE"\CLE • OF 'SAf\.1 BehtYioral Characterlttlct /' I Adjecancltt f .. '/. . ! Ut ere MI. SrAFf . pealgn Characterlttlc• MA.lt-.l'TENANLIC: •l e"=' FoR SNO\..W • Flnl•h•• & Furnlthlnge Related Activity Sheela ' ,,

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u. era MT. Group Ho. Rqd. S q, Ft. ,-, t !_ I o Aclhlty/G I hedullna Behavioral Characlarlatlc• 5MAU.. rTE"iS VCHIUE; \\EMS c 1'l> Son4-cf.\-\oP f 'STAFF special N .. d. PKt'::l-:) • fo2.\( L1Fr ss Characterlatlca Flnlahea A Furnlthlnge Related Activity Sheats .. ... •"1'' ol, ,..,.., • ,1 ---_.. ------:!.'.:.

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Space .. 8uu .. Group Ho. Rqd. Sq. Ft. r Behevlora Characterlatlc:e " I AdJec:enc:l•• • AvotO • A.vo\0 • ut' .. • tt:> .. t ............... .. L . M; '6AA\\AM SufFOftf StAFF (f'tVdNTENANC. Special Needa • AA\.f ACJ,.;':b &'t ' lMvAc--r • 10 • 'DSM4ND' pealgn Charec:t.rlatlca • A-BATEMENT ' • 8-T' ... IF "NGA'n+ leAPS I U4M'04t"i" . P.tDr&:.T'\eri . e fot ,._WIT\DN oF AtLE APPEl:' (lAP 1"0 Kw l'BAI<.) . \. • Flnlahea & Furnlahlnge Releted Ac:llvlty Sheela

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The long term plan for the MGIO contains three levels for management control designed to meet the nebds of the general public, the astronomical community on rt. Graham, and the management of specific research facilities. The corresponding management entities would be: .. .Lt.l..f;!D.Elt!GJ... Tl1 :i. ':oi lf-lou.l d c:: on s-, :i. t of on f:? iilf':)tnb er Df t l .. p l i c '! representative each from the Forest Service, Arizona Game and Fish Commission and two astronomers. This. cornmi t tee would monitor overall land and water use within the astrophysical area and would make recommendatifns to the Forest Service within the framework of the MGIJ use This group would consist of of each j astronomical user group according to their scale of investment on Mt. Graham. It would nominate tro members to the MGAAMC and would be responsible for the gobd operation of the astronomical support facilities on Mt. Graham. This would be the responsibility of individual users

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who would nominate representatives to the It is expected that the MGSO , monitored by the would be operated through Steward Observatory I University o-f Ar i 2 on<::1. The staff would initially consist of q Site Superintendent and up to seven support staff, in I;Jork st.atic>n. When the project is complete * Night observing support staff at the telescope including astronomers * Telescope/instrument maintenance staff (mainly daytime) I General observatory practice suggests the following guidelines as to staff numbers: * An average of 1-3 astronomers per telescope * Night time support staff of 0-2 per telescope

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* Day support staff would be 1-5 per telescope In each case the number would increase with the complexity of the telescope and instrumentation. Regular day maintenance staff will commute to the I mountain. There are, however, occasions when technical emergencies require the presence of day staff dfter d3rk so some modest accommodations must be provided for them on the mountain (1-2 person?) All day staff will expect to eat lunch at the observatory.

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High atmospheric water vapor content and periods of cloud cover from July through September will limit observation times, especially for IR and Sub-mm te J. Snowfall may occassionally limit 'ccessability in the winter, however snow does not occur with appreciable cloud cover. ..... The phases of the moon will impact scheduling, granting n ew moon times to the most sensitive of observctions Winter nights provide as much as four hours more observing time than do summer nights. Of coursE Su.b-mm telescopes can observe around the clock. fu;_t\.9 . . \;l.v.linn Scheduling policies of individual telescopes will be determined by the management. It will be the individual management's responsability to inform the MGAASO of their :::;r.::hed u l E! .. There are two common scheduling concepts: * Night by Night or fractions thereof -for visiting astronomers -typically 1-3 nights I

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-typ. 2-3 astronomers -room board * Remote observer operation -astronomers stay at home -resident observer performs observations -projects can be juggled to adjust to climate, priority, economics ..• -site accessability and economics can promote this type Whichever concept is used the competition to obtain observing time is intense. Proposals must be submitted describing in-depth the project, its worth to the astronomers credentials, his/her performance on past projects, access to other equipment, instrumentation needed, necessary seeing conditions, etc., etc, etc. If the astronomer is familiar with the equipment, he can plan to arrive near early afternoon on the first day of the observation run. If unfamiliar with the equipment, he will want to come a night early to check out the equipment he needs to use. Whether or not he will be able to check out the specific equipment on the night before depends on what is scheduled

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for that night. Astronomers are usually in allowing another astronomer to watch. Larger Telescopes will have a support staff who can assist you before and during your run, thereby eliminating the need to come a day ahead. Generally astronomers will sleep during the morning and early afternoon following a run. As well as a noon breakfast and evening supper, night staff will require a boxed meal to consume during the night's run.

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i * Dispersed camping would be permitted throughout the MGAA. * Open campfires would be prohibited within one Lig)Jj: s quarter mile of the telescope facilities. Some chemicals in smoke are extremely harmful to telescope optics. Smoke and firelight can obscure observa.ti ons. -Fire hazard control. * Vehicle headlights would be restricted within one quarter mile of the telescope facilities. -Required to preserve the quality of observat i c1r1s. * Winter access would initially not be permitted to the general public beyond the junction of FR507 with Swift Trail. -To ensure public safety in snows. -To preserve the environment; snow currently closes off the mountain. *Summer access would initially remain

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r unn:.\•s;t:.r-i ct. eel. *No fences of any kind will be erre-ted around the MGAA. !:!.\::UJJ;:.t.n..9. * No explicit restrictions on hunting in * No restrictions on pets brought into the MGAA beyond existing Forest Service regulations. * Observers using the observatory facilities will not be allowed to bring pets with them. * Only pets used by visual or hearing impaired handicapped would be allowed inside observatory buildings;. * First aid supplies, oxygen etc., a person trained in multimedia first a1d, and a vehicle for-injt..t.rr::."'!c:l pE:rsclrts:; would be located at. the MGIO. 8 i::\ cl :L.9 .. -.E __ J_!lt. L i .-f:.L.JJ_<;_Q.. *The MGIO will, by all means available, seek to ensure that the radio frequency field strength at High Peak does not exceed the August 1985 maximum existing field strength. an

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* When noncompliance threatens publia safety, the environment, or the safety or effectiveness of observatory instrumentation= The MGIO staff • I will attempt to persuade those in violation to desist. * In cases of persistant or flagrant violation of rules, the MGIO will seek Forest Service assistance in stopping the activity in question.

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Telescope image quality * The Clptics * The Seeing ] • C" • :::> * The Man-made Seeing determined by three factors: Misfiguring, misfocus, and misalignment of the optics in a telescope can seriously degrade the image quality These aflictions have a host of sources; they can be caused by thermal expansions, gravitational saggings, and by the limitations of mechanical accuracy. Sol uti ems to these sources of inaccuracy range from the simple, such as thermal insulation, to the complex, for instance active optical adaptation. Site selection for astronomical telescopes is based on the following seeing factors: clear skies, steady and low low water high minimal light and other pollutions, unobstructed free air flow, drainage of ground cooled airj favorable topography, and vegetation. The following is a brief description of the influence of each. * Clee:1.r skies to maximize veiwingltime * Steady and low winds --to maximize pointing

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accuracy, minimize vibration * Low water vapor to maximize atmospheric transmission at IR and sub-mm wavelengths * High altitude --to minimize absorption * Light pollution -to maximize optical rescl lut ion * Chemical pollutants -can degrade sensitive opt:i. c:a.l SUI' .. f * Unobstructed free air flow t . o turbulance thereby creating a continuous thermal field * Drainage bf ground cooled air stabi 1 :i.zing local ambient thermal conditions * Favorable topography --that which encourages beneficial wind flows and thermal currents * Favorable vegetation --encouraging laminar winds and stable thermal condition& There are three factors responsible for man-made * Thermal inertia of massive components * Radiation cooling Thermal inertia is consequential to large masses which may be in thermal contact with the telescope or its

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atmospheric window. This includes masses such as the telescope chamber floor, the mirror, the teles-ope yoke, and the mountain top. Large thermal inertias prevent these objects from following the ambient air temperature. Heat transfer between these masses and the ambient air will give rise to thermal currents which impair the seei g. These elements can actively cooled to correspond to or thermally isolated so as not to interact with the ambient. Another solution is to alter the thermal properties of the surface of the mass so as to encourage shorter lag times. Active heating can be introduced by electronics, people, and leakage from conditioned areas (some of the more obvious sources). These sources must be thermally isolated or actively cooled to ambient. In design all energy consuming elements, biological or mechanical must be identified as culprits. Radiation cooling results from the exposure of telescope, building, and site to a low radiation temperature sky. It so happens, that prime observing conditions, those of low cloud cover and water vapor, also are characterized by a low, sky radiation temperature. The more energy an object radiates to the sky, the more it conduc:s from the surrounding ambient air. This cooling of the •ir gives rise to thermal currents which degrade the seeing. The rate at which an object will radiate to the skv can be reduced by

PAGE 76

reducing its infared emissivity. This is a surface characteristic and thus can be adjusted by a surface treatment. The most common treatment in practise is to wrap the surface in aluminum foil. Telescope domes often act as traps for ho air, especially when equipped with wind screens. This can give rise to large thermal currents, which degrade seeing. The new corotating domes, used with alt-azimuth mounts (see Programming, Alt-Azimuth Mounts), have a slit whose proportions are much larger with respect to the telescope chamber. Thus these domes are relatively very open allowing the inside air temperature to follow the ambient quite closely. The wide slit has a disadvantage in that winds are allowed to enter much more easily. Wind screens at the slit would help to block these, yet they would also promote heat stratification as pointed out above. The MMT facility faced with this problem decided to sk1p the wind screens and deal with the wind in the optical support system.

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This return to the days of William (1738 developing digital computer technology. Fot ions serious astronomers have used the equitorial mount, which allows the telescope to track a star with a simple, steady rotation about a polar axis
PAGE 78

mount and a corotatiog structure as well (see igures AA2 and AA4l. (

PAGE 79

t:_(.=. . . .. . . f R ?L. f L-l-I:;, . L,(; '?LOPE. __ --. • . ; . MULTIMIRROR TELESCOPE 18m. EFFECTIVE APERTURE ' i I

PAGE 80

' '

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.... .E.B.Q!;!!:-.:.M. ... Jji __ .. . .I.!:J.Q.S. Medical problems at high altitudes include a number of uncomfortable symptoms and a few potentially dangerous c:onrji t.ions. All of these ailments result from a lack of oxygen in the blood, due to the reduced atmospheric pressure at high altitude. Aclimatization is the body's process of adapting to the conditions of reduced oxygen. ThE' body ll.: * Increase the respiratory rate and volume * Increase the blood pressure within the lungs * Increase the number of oxygen carrying red blood * Increase the cardiac output * Increase the bloods ability to deliver oxygen * Decrease the tissues dependence on oxygen These adaptations all happen at different time scales. Generally about 80% of the aclimatization is complete within ten days, and 95% at 6 weeks. High altitude is not dangerous for the heart. In the heart must work harder at lower altitudes in order to keep up with the respiratory system. Acclimatization can be achieved in one of three ways: * Going to high alt. and spending the first few days in light activity

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* Going to an intermediate altitude days, and then on to higher alt. 2 6 * Climbing 500 1000' per day with a n occasional rest day. There is evidence to suggest: * People over 25 are less likely to suffer from altitude sickness. * Physical fitness does not give any protection. * There are no known pharmacological aids. Acute mountain sickness will show symptoms of headache, memory loss, confusion and a decreased mental acuity. Prompt treatment is important and consists of oxygen and transportation to lower elevations. Nutrition often goes astray at high altitwdes due to reduced appetites. Inadequate nutrition and dehydration can b e responsible for much of the fatigue and weakness experienced at high altitudes.

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B An rics i * Rea=h-type use ihe ( 95:.r: of pop. s l argp,-: *Cleat a.nr"' type=> cit.tJ."'.tiuns t.t' the 95th ((?'Y{. uf pop. i-sr-pe-at i one-: rlf"pr_nrlpn+ upo1 <-i.Jc i. ctl ( f i gt r c Cln '' t i em , • (ii rt nt.<-H+ 8" -f-'et-sonc;! dis ar ce. 18" !.f.' 0" -Proi ct. o:=!d "a"': um <; et"'.Jth" -c; or j i:\ 1 I i c-: L::HI : !::: ll. ' 1 7 ' 10' Cc:
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( -Pu.b 1 .i. c: d .L 12' -Noninvolvement begins, --Pu.b 1 i c f i gur .. f2S

PAGE 85

FAR PHASE CLOSE PHASE 4 ' 0 " 2 ' 6 " 2 ' 6 " 1 ' 6 " FAR PHASE CLOSE PHASE CLOSE PHASE F'"'n PHASE Figure 2-2. Graphic illu !ration of the distance zones suggested by Hall , The Hidden Dimension, 1966 .

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MISCEL STRUCTU DIMENSIO nd Female Miscellaneous Structural Body Dimensions in Inches e and Selected Percentiles in em 36. 2 91. 9 32 . 0 81. 3 30. 8 78 . 2 26 . 8 68 . 1 D MIDSHOULDER HEIGHT SITIING 98 HUMAN Dl B c in em in em 47.3 120.1 68 . 6 174.2 43.6 110.7 64 . 1 162 . 8 41. 3 104 . 9 60 . 8 154.4 38. 6 98 . 0 56 . 3 143 . 0 in 20 . 7 17 . 0 17.4 14 . 9 0 E em in em 52 . 6 27.3 69.3 43 . 2 24.6 62.5 44 . 2 23.7 60 . 2 37.8 21.2 53.8 F in em 37.0 94 . 0 37.0 94.0 32.0 81.3 27.0 68 . 6 ' 0 D 0 0 D 0 t-D :I:D CJD UiD ():I: D wD >D wo 0 0 0 0 0 G in em 33.9 86. 1 31.7 80. 5 30. 0 76 . 2 28.1 71.4

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FUNCTIONA BODY DIMENSION Adult Male nd Female Functional Body Dimensions in Inches and Centim ters by Age, Sex, and Selected Percentiles i n 38 . 3 WOMq N 3 6 . 3 32.4 WOMEEN 2 9 . 9 A I THUMB Tip REACH EXTE OED I c:u:::> D THUMB TIP REACH A B C 0 em in em in em in em 97 . 3 46 . 1 117 . 1 51.6 131. 1 35. 0 88 . 9 92 . 2 49 . 0 12 4 . 5 49 . 1 12 4 . 7 31. 7 80. 5 82 . 3 39.4 100 . 1 59 . 0 149 . 9 29. 7 75.4 7 5 . 9 3 4.0 86.4 55 . 2 1 40 . 2 26. 6 67 . 6 B BUTTOCK HEEL LENGTH C)c::lc:::JC)c::::Jc::::lc:::Jc:::lc::Jc::IQ 100 HUMAN DIMENSIOI'J/ ANTHROPOMETRI C TABLES E i n em 39. 0 86.4 38. 0 96 . 5 29. 0 73.7 2 7 . 0 68 . 6 F in em 88.5 224 . 8 84. 0 213 .4 76 . 8 195.1 7 2 . 9 185 . 2 7f 0 D 0 0 ::x:D oD c(D wD a:o Q.D -o u..a:o ..JO c(g 2o 1-o a:D D 0 0 0 0 +

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PROJECTED BODY DIMEN Female Projected 1985 Body Dimensions in Inches by Sex and Selected Percentiles A 8 42 .8. 108 . 7 55 . 7 141.4 41. 5 105.5 53 . 7 136 . 5 104 . 5 47.4 38.o 96 . 5 48.4 122 . 9 H J in em in em in em 6 0 . 3 18 . 8 47.8 21. 7 55.1 17.4 44 . 2 20. 7 52 . 7 15 . 9 40.4 18 . 3 46.4 18.4 . 46 . 7 14 . 9 37. 8 17 . 2 43 . 7 D THUMB TIP REACH 0 0 0 0 0 0 wo o cno uo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 • Data estimated from regression equations. 102 HUMAN DIMENS ION / NTHROPOMETRIC TABLES c 68 . 0 172 . 8 66 . 2 168 . 2 60.0 152 . 3 K in em 25.7 65.4 24.4 62 . 0 22 . 2 56.4 21. 0 53 . 3 31.7 29. 3 26. 7 in 18.4 17 . 5 15 . 2 80. 6 31. 3 74 . 3 30. 1 67 . 7 27. 4 L em in 52.9 11.7 46 . 8 10 . 7 44.4 8.3 38. 6 7.6 BUTTOCK KNEE LENGTH 79.6 76.4 69 . 5 M em 29. 7 27 . 1 21.0 19 . 2 5 . 9 14 . 9 5 . 7 14 . 5 4 . 1 10 . 4 N 'in em 27.4 69 .6 24 . 8 63. 1 23 . 9 60. 6 21.3 54 . 2 L SHOULDER BREADTH G n em 99.0 36. 0 91.5 34. 8 88.5 32. 0 81.2 0 in em 16 . 6 42.2 16.4 41. 6 13 . 5 34.4 13 . 9 35.4

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WORKING POSIT! ng Positions in Inches and Centimeters Percentiles* in 22 .8 13.0 em 57 . 9 33 . 0 in 18 . 8 10 . 1 em 47 . 8 25 . 7 E PRONE LENGTH c 48.1 122 . 2 37.6 95 . 5 8 MAXIMUM BODY DEPTH 34 . 5 87 . 6 29 . 7 75.4 G 95 : 8 16.4 58.2 243 . 3 41. 7 147 . 8 84 . 7 12 . 3 49 . 3 215 . 1 31. 2 125 . 2 C KNEELING LENGTH H 30. 5 77 . 5 26.2 66.5 0 CJ .... 0 0 oirlS20 UJ UJ 0 z:x:o ::.:: D 0

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d SIDE VIEW I WORK OR CHAIR PLAN VIEW CRITICAL WORK CHAIR MEASUREMENTS B c 0 E F G C.L. OF BACKREST ANGLE OF HEIG HT TILT OF ANGLE SOURCE sf., SEAT SEAT FRO M SEAT BA CKRES T SEAT OF WITH DEPTH H EIGHT SURF ACE HEIGHT S URFA CE BACKREST in em in em in em in em in ern d egrees degrees -13. 5 33 . 6 -143 5 . 6 5 -12.7-4 -10. 2 0" 5 1 CRONEY 17 43 . 2 15 38 . 1 1 9 48. 2 75 1 9 . 0 8 20 . 3 or 95 " -115" 3" 5 -----2 DIFFRIENT 16 40 . 6 1538 . 1 13. 6 3 4 . 5 -g . 22. 9 6 15 2 0" 5 " 95 " m i n . 16 40 . 6 2 0 . 6 52. 3 10 25 . 4 9 2 2 . 9 ----------3 DREYFUSS 15 3 8 . 1 1 2 30 . 51 5 -3 8 .1717. 8 5 . 1 12. 9 0" 5 95 " -105" 15 38 . 1 1 8 4 5 . 7 11 27 . 9 8 20 . 3 4 GRANDJEAN 15. 7 40 . 0 ' 15 . 75 40 . 0 14. 9 3 7 . 8 7 . 9 20 3 " 5 " Adjus tab le 20 . 8 52. 8 11.8 30 5 P ANERO 17-43 . 215 . 5 39 . 4 1435 . 6 8 1 9 .26 15.20" 5 95 " 105 " ZEL NIK 19 48 . 3 16 40 . 6 20 50 . 8 10 25.4 9 22. 9 -WOODSON 15 38 . 1 12 3 0 . 5 1538. 1 7 17. 8 6 15 . 24 6 CONO VER 15 38 . 1 1 0 45 . 7 10 25.4 8 20 . 32 3 " 5 " 20" (1) John Croney , Anthr opo !ne tr ic s lor D e s i g ners. p 147; (2 ) N i els DiHrien l et at .. Humanscale , Gu i de 2B; (3) Hen Dreyfuss. The M easure o f Sheet 0 , Dwg . 2 ; (4) Etie n n e Grandj ean. E rgonom ic s of the H ome. pp . 126, 127; (5) ry A uthor s ; (6) W.E. Woodso and Donald Con o ver . Human Engi neer i ng Guide lor Equi pment D esigners , p . 2 -142 (see S elec ted B ibliograph y f or ddil i onal in lormatio n) . . . 1 SEATING The top d i agram shows the more crit ical measurements to be considered in the design of the typical work or secretaria l chair. To function properly, its design must be responsive to human dimension. Anthropo metrically , the two most important measurements are buttock popliteal length and popliteal height. Provis ion for support of the lumbar region by proper location of a backrest is ess en tial for a successful design. The element of sitter comfort, however , is an elusive quality that de fies translation into simple dim en sions . This factor alone , in addition to the considerable variat ion in human body size, demands the exercise of a great deal of personal judgment in es tablishing proper cha ir dimensions . Currently used recommendations may vary, but th,ey all work and are gen er ally responsive to anthropometric re quirements. For the most part, they are also within reasonable range of each other. The authors felt it would be intere stin g , therefore , in addition to stating their own dimens iona l sugges tions, to present in the form of a chart recommendations from a variety of re spected sources . It should be recog nized, however, that t h e primary i nt ent of the data presented is to provide the designer with a basis for ini tial prel imi nary design assumptions and mockups not a final design solution . It is also suggested that the reader re fer to Part A, Section 4 , and the follow ing pages of this section for addit ional information related to the theoretical aspects of chair design . A good deal of that is applicable to all chair type s .

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•.:;.. DISPLAYS The need to include a visu al display component as part of an indivi dual workstation is not un • ommon . In most the display the form of 1e kind of comp ter readout ar . .Je ment. What e v r the nature of the display, the distrnce between it and the eye and the reight and angle of the display is an portant consid eration. In certain ca es displays must be observed from a tanding position, in others from a sea ed pos ition. The workstation must al o accommodate people having a wi e rang e of body sizes. The drawing s on this and the next page will exp l re some of the tors involved . Distance of Displa from the Eye Through the proces of accommoda tion, the mechan ism , f the human eye will automatically focLs the eye on the display at the distance . Most sources place the distance from viewer to displa between 13 and 16 in, or 33 and 40 . 6 em; the optimum distance betwe en 18 nd 22 in, or 45.7 and 55 . 9 em ; and t e maximum dis-::e between 28 a d 29 in, or 71.7 173 . 7 em . It sho uld be noted, owever, that the ranges cited are ap roximation s and vary with the size of he display mate rial and lighting . Mor over, the nearest . poini to which the I eye can focus moves furth er the eye with age . At age 16, fore ample , it is less than 4 in, or 10. 2 c , away , while at age 40 it is ov er twi ce that distance away . . By however , the furthest point to wh1ch the eye can focus shows relativ ly little change over the y ears . Ace rdingly , the max imum range of 28 t 29 in , or 71. 7 to 73 . 7 em, is limit ed m re by th e size of the characters and he reach limita tions related to the orkstation coun ter or controls . Th distance for printed 18 in, or 45 . 8 em. Viewing Angle usual reading aterial is about As a general rule for ptimum viewing, ght line from the ottom of the dis . J to the eye of viewer should form an angle of nCDt more than 30 with the standard I orizontal line of sight. In cases where a seated obI c e u C\1 .; f'-.. .::. . S ('II <0 a:i <0 1: Ol 'Qj I Ql >w 95TH PERCENTILE MALE Upper Visual Limit Norma l Sight Line v '$ .::. .: ('II CXl 0 <0 .J:: Ol 'Qj I Ql >w THE STANDING MALE VIEWER /WORKSTATION DISPLAY Normal Sight Line e u CXl N <0 .: .; <0 1: Ol 'Qj I Ql > w Normal Sight Line e u 0 C'l ! c ('II;; w 95TH PERCENTILE FEMALE 5TH PERCENTILE FEMALE THE STANDING FEMALE VIEWER/WORKSTATION DISPLAY

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Normal Sight Line E . Joo. l.UO c:i ----3'-(") 95TH PERCENT LE MALE 5TH PERCENTILE MALE THE SEATED MALE VIEWER I WORKSTAT I ON D I SPLAY Upper B j {715 Visual ==== Limit C Limit of Color ' D i scrimination % M a x . Eye , Rotation I Normal Sight Line 95TH FEMALE 5TH PERCENT ILE FEMALE THE SEATE9if-EMAL.E DISPLAY server is to function at the workstation for an extended period of time, he would, after a while, assume a more relaxed position, causing his head to rotate downward a few more degrees. The 30 could therefore be increased to 33. Height of Display Ideally, the height of the top of the dis play should relate to the eye height of the viewer . The great variability in eye height measurements and in certain cases the size of the specific display may make this difficult. One solution to make the display within reach and within the visual field of the smaller viewer is to increase his eye height by means of a raised platform . Safety precautions, such as a railing, should be provided to prevent accidents. The platform should be movable so that it can be relocated at such times that the workspace is to be used by a taller viewer . Another solution, although more costly, is to develop an adjust able arrangement, whereby the d is play panel may be raised or lowered to suit individua l eye height. Where a seated viewer is involved , the problem is less difficult. The variation in the eye heights of the tall and short seated viewer above the seat surface is much less than that of the eye heights above the floor of tall and short standing viewers. The difference in eye heights of the latter is about 12 in, or 30 . 5 em, while the difference between eye heights of the former, as i ndicated by the drawings , is less than 6 in, or 15 . 2 em. Accordingly , the problem of mak ing the display within reach of the visual field of the smaller seated user can be solved quite easily by the use of a chair with an adjustable seat height. Display Angle Where possible, the angle of disp lay should place the viewing surface per pendicular to the normal line of sight. C o ntrols Controls should be placed within rea<;h of the smaller viewer and lo cated so that the body movement nec essary for operation of the controls will not obstruct visibility . in em A 28-29 71.1-73.7 B 18-22 45.7-55.9 c 13-16 33 . 0 40 .6

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The top drawing indicates side clear ance requirements a table tennis installation within residential en v iron ment: 48 in, o 121. 9 em, is the absolute minimum, while 72 in, or 182.9 em, is prefe 1red. The bottom awing indicates t e clearances re-. ired at either end of the table . In a close-up position , t l e player usually functions within 24 o 36 in , or 61 to 91.4 em, of the edg of the table. An overall clearance be ween the edge of the table and the wall or nearest physi cal obstruction-between 84 and 120 in, or 213.4 to 31. 8 em-is sug gested . The smaller figure should be regarded as an ab olute minimum, and the larger figur as the preferred clearance. The latte r , however , may be difficult to provide in terms of the room size required The extent of clearance is a function of the size of I the players and and skill with which the gam is played . What must be considere is not only the space required for lpw-key volleying but the space require(l, for example , to chase a strategical! placed ball, return it, decelerate , a d ultimately stop , all in enough t ime to avoid colliding into the wall at the r ar or side of the laying area . in em I A 48-72 121. 9 182.9 B 60 15 . 2.4 c 3 0 76 . 2 D 6 15 . 2 E 36 91.4 I: 84-132 213.4-335. 3 54 137 . 2 60-96 152 .4-243. 8 I 24-36 I 61.0-91.4 I 256 INTERIOR SPACE / DESIGN STANDARDS Zone I Line of Wall Or Obstruct io n RESIDENTIAL TABLE TENNIS REQUIREMENTS F Min . Clearan ce from Edge of Table to Wall H I I ;:: Active Playing I r ) Zone -t Line of Wall Or Obstruction G One Half of RegulationS i ze Table 0 RESIDENTIAL TABLE TENN I S REQU I REMENTS/ REAR CLEARANCE ZONE

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Chccld lac for Physically Diaahlcd People Prepo cd by 11111 Ocnu, Office oC University of Colorado, Boulllo•r "U•nble li• ts" rrovidud in this checklist vill provit.le functional occess to buildings nml use of hcilitiea oc:_ moat people with phydcal dlsabllitles. limits do not m••t:t ap11licable e!iign crlterla thwt IIIDY be leKally binding. IJhero:wr poasiblu, fadlit1u ahuuld be provided thJ c go beyond the atandarda provided in thia or any other guideline. tem l. Dimension 1/0peratiooal • 1r travel IHith!i. • 1\.lo lch.:1irs tu pass. • 11!0 cu n in .:1 wheelchair. • Stationary occupied 1.1heelchair space. • trent • Wl1cclch.lir ruach-l:ddc approach, • of reach over "desk in a wheelchair. • projecting into a space. I • Operation of controls, handles, pulls, etc. • Openind • • Slope o on path on travel pathH. patha. • Cross-slopes of travel paths. I • Entrance ramps, curb ramps. 2. Exterior Facilities • signs. • Parking stall. • Parking quantities and locations. • loading zont!s. • Ramp co figuration (includes curb ramps). 3. a Door wJ!dths. I • clearances (at pull side). • Thresh ltis. • 4. Stairs at d • and risers. • Handrail configurations. Usable Limits )b" or in width. bO or more. At least bO" diameter clc.:1rance. 30" x 48" or 1">" to 48" above the floor. 9" co 54" above the floor. 17" to 24" across. No more than 4" if betvet!n 27" and 110" the fluor. With one hand without tight grasping, pinching, or cvist1ng. No more than 1/2" unless ramped. No more than l/2" vide. No ateeper 1:20 (54). (Short rw1a of ateeper grudea are negotiable. Provide rest areas.) No steeper than 1:5 (Tilted paths of any length are difficult to negotiate.) No steeper than 1:12 ( 8-1/3%). (Short runs o i steeoer .:1re ne2otiable.) Reserved S)'lllbol of access, tree-standing s im. At least 36" travel aisle requireti on either side of car or van. When provided, a reasonable number, but no less than two 1 oca ted close to an access iblt! ent ranee. Signed, 1.1lth curb ramp, to entranct! walk . At least 36'1 wide, no more than a 30 foot run to a level 11pace of at least 60"; least a 60" level space top and bottom; hand-.rails on both sides vith at lease a 12" extension. 24" -impassable; 30" -extremely difficult ; 32" )6" -nccessible. 12" to 24" on latch side of door. No oore than 1/2" high; up to 1" can be bv some. At between cwo doors in series; 4 d plus widrh of t.loor is better. Ri!asonOJ h!c or atlj both !lfdc.-!1 pnfern•d.

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' l Elevators I • Cene ral. • Lobby Ace • Elevator Cab 6. Toilet Rool En t ranee., • Toilet stalls. • Grab ban. Oater Cl sets. • Urinals. I e Lavacori s. • Towel d1 'pcnsers, mirrors,_ etc. 7. Drinkin F l un tains • Location! I a Configuricion. 8. Public Tellphones • Confisurhion. 9. Mis ce 11 anecpus • • Bac hcubst • Signage. • floor su faces. • ltc s i de n t ... I k i t chen. Usable Limite 561 rve all loon of bul'li.I.Ltig that have c sscn t1a programs. Public, button o eration (no ke s). Call buttons no higher than 48 above the iloor. H&ll lantern indicators with both visual and audible signals. Raised floor numbers on door smbs at floor. Cab liize at least 6d' long by 5 deep. Highest control but ton no than 54 ) I above the floor. Emergency control items at of panel. Self leveling and protective ltoot reopening device. Tactile numerals and operating 1.n s true t ions. 32" door usable, J6" door preferred. Privacy acrvt:na undesirable; at least a 42" path around required. 36" or 60" in vidth; at least 60" in depth. 32" clear opening to enter. A. lavatory within is desirable. 32" to 34 ' . above the floor; both sidl!s, of 36 " stall; v .c. side and rear of 60" stall. 'Iop of seat height 1711 to 1911 above iloor; vall a10unt preferred. No more than 17" from lip to No less than 2 7" clearance beneath; no more than 34" to top edge, Insulate hot water supply line and drain. Provide lever-type control handles. Lower edge or part no 111ore than 4811 above floor. Full length wall mirrors recommended. No closer than 24" to intersecting walls. Recess alcoves no less than )0" vide. Spout opening no higher than )6:' above floor. Water flow as parallel co front as possible. Lever or push-button controls. Clear access, 54" or less to coiri slot. Padded seats, grab bars, hand held shower units, anti-scald device. usable control s IJithin rcnch. Movable grab bars, usable controls reach. Symbol of accl!ss, contrasting lettl!rs to back ground of sufficient size, tactil e letters. Location and identification of accessible r ac i 1 it !e s. Stable, firm, sllp resitnnt. Cnrp.!t and puu securely fascenoJ n firm feul. sink and work sudacl! \l ith lulcl!hulc, front controls for storage cabinet to replace unus11ble shelVt!s in wall cnhinc ts.

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BUI LDING CODES Buildi n g codes are designed to provide regulations on which will ensure occupant safety. Policy in The Coronado National Forest is to abide by the Unifor m Bui. ding Code. Graham county also abides by this code with no dditions. Th e following pages contain a capsulized list o f information from the 1985 code edition. bee1 divided into seven categories: Allowable floor area Fire resistive requirements Exterior wall openings Allowable building height Allowable occupant loads Exit requirements Miscell aneous requirements It has The project contains building types which f all into five different occupancy categories. code search: Each category requires. a 82: Machine and electrica l control room s 84: Telescope i nstrume n t rooms H4: V ehicular repair garages M l : Vehicular parking (enclosed) Rl: library, dining

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. Floor An::a Construction type (table 5c) Occupancy type occ. ld./50

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Corridor widths (3305b) Dead end corridor limit (3305e) Corridor construction (3305g) Stairway width (3306b) Stairway landing depth (3306g) Stairway to roof (3306o) Exit signs required (3314a> 7. Other Requirements Occupancy seperations Enclosure of vertical openings Light (05 12) Ventilation (o5 12) Sani tati c:m Fire extinguishing system required Fire warning system > 44" < 20 ft none 4 or more stories none none > 2 floors = 1 hr hab. rms. get nat.= 0.1 fl.area or . C..\AL \ . nat.= 0.2 fl. area > 4 air chgs./ hr. min. 1 we < 1 h;e>: if > 4 employees) yes for > 1 story none

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Construction type (table 5c) O ccupancy type
: tf= , i en-i nt:;J vJall s E;tl'"t...tc:t ul'-fr-amE? Perman ent p artitions S h a-ft c: l e!:> Floo r -ceiling/floors R oofs c eiling/roofs Exterior door s and windows Less than 5 ft from property line: L e s s than 1 0 ft from property line: less than 20 ft from property line: Allowable stories
Required exit width (3303b) v--1\l B4 12000 sf 1.2000 sf 12000 sf 36000 sf V-1\1 nonf? non!:::> none nonr? none l h rncmt-:? none sec :22(>3 ncr\: permit l 3 40 ft 100 occ. 1 d. > 50 = 2 2/ f 1 .• i f oc c . > 1 (l feet ld7150

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i cl cw i c:J t h ( Dead end corridor l imit (3305e) C orridor construction (3305g) Stairway width C3306b) Stairway landing depth (3306g) Stairway to roof (3306o) siqns requ i red (3314a) 7 . Other Re4uirements Occupancy seperations Enclosur e of vertical openings Light (05 sec, chaps.7,9 1 2 1 Ventilation Co5 sec, ch.7,9 tat : i . em Fire extinguishing !5'/'=it.em red Fire warning system 12) 2 44" 20 ft nonF. 2 2: II 2 :3611 4 or more s tories no none ).. ::-2 F u:x>'l.. '? ::::i 1 ti hab. r ms. get nat.= 0 . 1 fl. o r . A'l2..\\r \C\.At--;. nat.= 0.2'fl. area 4 air c hgs./ hr. min. 1. w e ( :L / se>: i f 4 emp 1 oyeEs) yes for > 1 story nonE?

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Construction type
l::. 1'"uc:tur a l + r arne Permanent partitions Floor -ceiling/floors Roofs-ceiling/roofs Ex terior doors and windows
1 t:.' a > Additional exits require d . ( F\:e qu. i re d e:d t width < 33o::=::b) v--1\1 f-14 51 (H) sf 5100 sf :::; 100 sf 15300 s f V-1\1 none none none none none 1 hr none' none ' sec 22< ):3 4 hrs 2 hrs 1 ht1 1 2 50 ft H4 200 occ. ld. > 30 = 2 2 for 1 floor feet > occ. ld./50

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widths (3305b) Dead end corridor limit C3305e) construction C3305g) width (3306b) Stairway landing depth (3306gl to (3306o) Exit sign s (3314a) 7. Other Occupancy seperations Enclosure of vertical o p enings Light (05 sec, chaps.7,9 12> Ventilation (o5 sec, ch.7,9 San i ta.t ion Fire extinguishing Fire warning system 12) > 44" < 20 ft none > 36" > 36'' none none H4 1'11 = 1 hr > 2 f 1 = 1 t w habitable rms. get nat.= 1/T. O fl. M?.:r;.A fl. mech.= 5cfm > \Sc.f"""/ a:.c... > 4 air chgs./ hr min. 1\I'J.c. < I /se:-: > 4 . emp 1 oyees) yes, for > 1 story none

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type
Requirer e xit width C3303b) V -1\1 . 1 v 1 1 1000 1000 1000 3000 V N nonf? n one none none none 1 hrnone f s;+ sf lhr << 3 ft) 1 1 2 5 0 ft Ml 200 occ. l d . > 3 0 -2 2 f m 1 f l oar-feet > occ. l d./50 . ,

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Corridor widths (3305b) Dead end corridor l imit C3305e> C D l'-1 ''' :i. ci CJI'' C: Dl' l t.t'-U C: t : i C l rl ( :3 ) Stairway width (3306b) Stairway landing depth <3306g) Stairway to roof (3306o) E::< : i . t. s i •:Jil r equ i n2cl C:0314a) 7. Other Requ.rements Occupanc' seperations of vertica l openings Light chaps.7,9 12> Ventilat'on (o5 sec, ch.7,9 12) San i . tat i m Fire extnguishing syste n t -equi > 44" < 20 +t n o n' > 36" > 36" n o n e none M l H4 = 1 h I"' > 2 f loor-s = 1 none none n o n e none none

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roup R1 Construction type
perty <<3'') Less than 10 ft from property Lt?SE:; than 20 ft fr-om property 4. Building Height Allowable stories

PAGE 106

F Ventilation (o5 sec, ch.7,9 12) !:3ani em Fire extinguishing system required Fire warning system fef?t ace. ld.l50 44" s 20 ft 1 hr 3611 36" 4 01'" more =,tories yes none ) 2 l't.oot.. S = 1 hr rms.=0.1 fl.area b t h s • = ' 1 • 5 sf nat.= 0.2 fl. area or mech. = 2 5 chgs.lhr 2 I f 1 oo1r I 1. 0 for fl. area > 1 smoke det.. I room

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. . In conclusion I think the design was quite successful in terms of the original thesis. The functional identity of the three major components was preserved and through the architecture they complement each ather. The environment has been kept as pristine as possible • . Its astronomical qualities are preserved. buffer the more interferring artificial systems from the sensitive instruments. Also, it provides, as the architecture allows, a scenic retreat for the astronomer. The h u man component is cared for throughout the The compact nature of the design provides both service and astronomic personnel with easy access to any desired functional element. This i s important to the human operation; especially in the busy, but stormy winter months. Attention has been given to relaxation as well as intense The human interface with the telescopes is convenient, yet it does not interfere with the delicate operation of the instruments. As far a symbo lic gesture, one was chosen which is complementary to the original goal of operational function,:::\1 j_ty. It was noted that Astronomy is one o f man's windows on the large scale aspects of his universe. The change of scale involve d is incomprehensible without the use of models, such as mathematics. It was decided to attempt

PAGE 108

to help the astronomer bridge to a higher scale through the arch i t E:c tt.w e. This was accomplished on many levels. The decision to condense the program to a single structure was partially adopted in order to: a) seperate the astronomer from an everyday world, which includes the automobile, and b) allow the astronomer to develop a feeling of global commitment by encouraging interaction with from around the globe. The bridge serves to seperate the project from its earthly bounds. Also, it leads one's eye out to the p<:moram:i. c view, which tends to give that "top--of .. l cl" feeling, expandin g ones sense of scale. Finally, the expanding levels of the structure, reaching out toward the telescopes and beyond, is meant to expand one's horizons toward the stars. This e:-:p.:msion culminates in the Star Dome where one has an omnipitent view.

PAGE 109

Andy Bruce Bohannon, Phd. AF'f4S Dept. University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 NOAO Tuc<:;;c:m, AZ 8:5726 Sue tkQuirk Information S pecialist Steward Observatory University of Arizona Tucson, AZ

PAGE 110

602-621-2041 Sue National Climate Center Arizona State University Phoenix, AZ 602-965-6265 John Ratje, Phd. Steward Observatory University of Arizona AZ 85721 602-621-7662 Carrie Templi U.S. Forest Service Coronado National Forest Safford, AZ 602-428-4150 J.T. Williams Smithsonian Institution MMT Mt Hopkins, AZ 602-746-0461

PAGE 111

Nf:?VillE! "Nick" F'hd. Steward Observatory University of Arizona L.au.r-'"' y Yu 1 E? Coor-d:i.r .. tD.tur Steward Observatory Un1versity of Arizona AZ

PAGE 112

Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1975 Wi J. 1 i r.ilmr..,;, ,J. r. . "Opt i ems f cw "'-f),r i z oncl Cl b 1". v a. t o y , 11 n_t, ...... !;) .. :L . J .. .... P b .. rd.C.Y. , No .. 5 36 < Ap ,, .. :i. 1 1 9B 4 ) l.-\lool fe, Nevi 11 r:::!. 11lvlt. Inform.::it ion, 11 t=:r . . !;t.f. ..... ..!:.b . .S? ... ...... , 1\1 Cl • 6 ( ,J an . 1. 9 8 5 )