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Light and color

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Title:
Light and color effect on contemplative atmosphere
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Effect on contemplative atmosphere
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Sundarapura, Voraporn, de author
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English
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1 electronic file (unpaged) : illustrations (some color) ;

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Light in architecture ( lcsh )
Color in architecture ( lcsh )
Color in architecture ( fast )
Light in architecture ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
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"Post professional program."
Statement of Responsibility:
Voraporn Sundarapura.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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on10156 ( NOTIS )
1015683746 ( OCLC )
on1015683746
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LD1190.A72 1989m .S86 ( lcc )

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Full Text
LIGHT and COLOR
EFFECT ON
CONTEMPLATIVE ATMOSPHERE
by
Voraporn Sundarapura
Faculty Advisor
Professsor. Soontorn Boonyatikarn, D. Arch. Professor. Robert W. Kindig, A.I.A.
A Thesis Proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for
THESIS RESEARCH AND PROGRAMMING Degree of Master of Architecture Post Professional Program School of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado at Denver Fall, 1989


THESIS TITLE BY
ADVISOR ACADEMIC YEAR
LIGHT AND COLOR effect on Contemplative Atmosphere
Voraporn Sundarapura Prof.Robert W. Kindig
Prof. Soontorn Boonyatikarn Fall, 1989 and Spring ,1990
Accepted by School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Thesis Research and Programming.
( Prof.Robert W. Kindig )
airman
Committee Members:
.................... Member
( Prof.Soontorn Boonyatikarn )
...................... Member
( Prof.Phillip Gallegos)
Student:
(Voraporn Sundarapura)


RESEARCH


CONTENTS
Preface
Lighting Design
Factor in Visual Acuity
The Luminous Environment Visual Comfort Direct (discomfort) Glare
Lighting Structure
The Effect ofLight on Impressions of Activity, Setting or Mood
Luminance and Brightness
Luminous Ratios
Specific Lighting Techniques
Color
The Psysics of Color The Psychological Effectof of Color Color Response Contrast
Colorimetric Standards Ideal Design Concept Lighting Simulation in Case Study


Architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light. Our eyes are made to see forms in light; light and shade reveal th^se forms; cubes, cone, spheres, cylinders, or pyramids are the great primary forms which light reveals to advantage. Le Corbusier.
Human behavior and impressions of a space are cued by surfaced brightness. Unconciously our movements and minds seek out the light.
As mediums of design, each basic element in architecture as form, color, or texture are things that we as designers have to create an intuitive and practical design in order to achieve that concept. Certainly, as one of medium of design, light is spmelar to other elements. It is not only express itself but also influences on our perception of all other elements. Moreover, light guides our seeing, speeds our visual tasks, cues our behavior, and affects our attitudes.
Although lighting is one of the most dramatic and important elements in design, it is also one of the most confusing and sophisticated design. There can be many solutions to the same lighting problem, some will be dull and pedestrian while others will display ingenuity and resourcefulness. Light can be made to alter shape and color to distort or enhance, pick out or flatter, dramatize or minimize, to increase working efficiency.
The goal of LIGHTING is to create an efficient and pleasing interior. Because of the large number of interrelated factors in lighting no single design is the correct one and for this very reason it is not entirely desirable to solve a lighting problem with step-by-step technique. Every designer tries to create an intuitive and unigue design in order to establish mood and atmosphere in such a way that designer imagine. The problem is if only we do know exactly the result of effects we want and what we as a designer are trying to do is what really does happen.
In my study, I concerned only the effects of using lighting and color in A Place for Comtemplatlon
Serenity seems to be a main theme for a place for contemplation which are the stand point for the basic concept in desinging a retreat for artist, writing and musician.
By using Computer Simulation, we can cut down risky opportunities in creating atmosphere and can not communicate those concept design to somebodyelse.


LIGHTING DESIGN
In lighting design, organizing composition of light and color create brightnesses that pull the various parts of the design solution into satisfying and visually logical whole, Both the behavior and the judgements of visitor to an interior are cued by the brightness they perceive. That is why the composition of brightnesses is such a powerful instrument in design. With brightness and shadow alone the designer can create a compelling visual experience that is not only affective but timely.
The ideal lighting composition that leads space into unity and harmony should consider in 4 elements.
1. Framing : involves determining the most influencial vista. Because first impressions are the most lasting. This is the view from the entrance into the space.
2. Primary Focus must be established. The following are some qualifications for a primary focus:
A vertical space or object within the line of sight that provoked impact or appeal.
A surface or object whose mass dominants the architecture or the interior.
A particular special part of the interior design.
Such a primary focus provide a unifying center around which the visitor's visual experience will be organized. He/she will move toward this center and facing it.
3. Secondary Focus visually balance the primary one. One rule of thumb is to deal with bright vertical surfaces as if they had phisical weight. Attention will be drawn to the broadest and brightest surface as if it were heavier, and will establish thedirection of awareness and movement in the space. . . .
.... 4. Delight, in every lighting design ther“should be some kind of unexpected delight. It can be a special effect like the play of light and shadow or luminous art.1


Zone 2 The immediate surroundings ( areas adjacent to the visual tasks)
Diserable ratios 1/3 to equal to
task
Minimum acceptable ratio 1/5 to equal to task
'Zone 3 The general surroundings ( not immediately adjacent to task )
Diserable ratio 1/5 to5timestask
Minimum acceptable ratio 1/10 to 10 times task


THE LUMINOUS ENVIRONMENT
Background brightness patterns tend to become significant because they affect the general sense of spatial orientation that guides the occupant of a space.
Design of the luminous environment is concerned with 2 aspects of human sensory behavior:
1. The visual task of spatial orientation which requires the designer to be concerned with
a. The effect of light in defining the space
b. The structural enclosure
c. The activity
2. Detailed central task vision, which requires the designer to be concerned with the effect of light
a. In defining significant information centers
b. In assisting the accurate communication of visual detail required for acceptable performance of normal activities.
The balanced manipulation of these visual conditions should provide for the viewer1 need to judge distances and recognize relevant object, material, colors and forms. At the same time, this environmental balance should reflect the need to protect the occupant from glare and meaningless visual cues that may confuse his sense of orientation and purpose.
A viewer interprets the general environmental background largely through dominant brightness relationships. The subjective sensation of visual space is primarily a function of brightness pattern and pattern organization- The relationship of surfaces lighted or left in relative darkness. 2


Brightness Ratios
Visual Impact Focus-to-Background Brightness Ratio
Barely recognizeable contrast; negligible attraction power as a focal point 2:1
Minimum meaningful contrast as a focal point; marginal attraction power 10:1
Dominating contrast as a focal point; strong attraction power approaching 100:1


Glare zones are 0 to 45 and 45 to 90 tor reflected and direct glare, respectively. Therefore, a diffuser that emphasizes the 30 to 60 zone will be least objectionable on both counts.


Visual Comfort
For comfortable seeing over a long period of time, the general brightness of surfaces immediately surrounding the task should not differ appreciably from that task itself. For work areas, it is generally recommended that spatial brightnesses average no less than 1/10 and no more than 10 times the average brightness of the task. "Visual Comfort Probability ( VCP ) is an indication of the percent of populatio that may be expected to find a lighting system acceptable from a glare standpoint." 3
Direct ( Discomfort ) Glare
The factor involved in producing discomfort glare are
- luminance
- size
- position of each light source in the vision of field
- the adaptation level of the eye (background brightness)
Glare decreases rapidly as the brightness source is moved away from the direct line of vision and thusthe glare produced depends on its position in the feikJ of view.
The amount of discomfort glare produced by a sourcein inversely proportional to the background brightness. The sum of the individual glare source contribution is convertedto a criterian called" visual comfor probability ”.
With this condition, direct glare will not be a problem
- The VCP is 70 or more
- The ratio of maximum-to-average luminaire luminance does not exceed 5:1 (preferably 3:1) at 45, 55,65,75 and 85 degree from the nadir, crosswise and lengthwise
- Maximum luminaire luminances crosswise and lengthwise do not exceed.4


LIGHTING STRUCTURE
Light patterns structure our sense of space, our impressions, and consequently our actions. Therefore, the designer should become sensitive to the uses of sparkle, silhouette, focal emphasis, color tone, and other of spatial light. The designer must recognize that the correct use of these and other light structures is fundamental in satisfying some space- activity requirements, such as reinforcing attraction or attention, enhancing impressions of spaciousness, stimulating sensations of spatial intimacy or warmth.
The Effect of Light on Impressions of Activity, Setting or Mood
Lighting patterns seem to involve the communication of ideas or impressions. In this sense, lighting patterns can assist the designer in creating impressions of somberness, playfulness, pleasantness, tension and other qualities. The designer can also use light patterns to affect phychosocial impressions such as intimacy, privacy and warmth, these impression or moods are often fundamental in satis fying experience and activity requirements in a designed space. Lighting to enhance these impressions should be recognized as more than aesthetics it is a tool for influencing human behavior, performance, and productivity.
Whether the lighting is direct or indirect, the layout of luminaires can reinforce the sense of direction an enhance spatial perspective.


Brightness ratios affecting public-private Impressions
Impression Hodzontal-to-Background-Vertical Brightness Ratios
Tendency toward a social behaviorial pattern and 1 :1 to 100:1
active movement impression ol public space ( horizontal is brighter)
Tendency toward an Introspective behaviorial 1 : 20 to 1 :100
pattern and more relaxed movement-impression ( background verticals are brighter)
of privacy


LUMINANCE AND BRIGHTNESS
An object is perceived because light deriving from it enters the eye. The impression received is one of object brightness. Luminance is normally defined in term of intensity. Luminance is the product of illuminance and reflectance.
The sensation of vision is caused by light entering the eye. This light may be thought of as a group of convergent rays, each ray coming from a diffemt point in space and therefore carring differnt visual information. The composite of these rays comprises the entire visual picture that the eye sees and the brain comprehends. The individual rays differ from each other in intensity and chromaticity depending on the part of the viewed object from which they were reflected, the intensity of these cones of light determines and describes the perceived brightness of the object being viewed.
One methods to create the efficient lighting design is one that uses a minimum of electricity to deliver the maximum in meaningful brightness by using light reflectance in those important places when the eye should stop (primary focus). By doing this color contrasts between object and background are proper (40% difference) and the highly reflecting color is lighted. As an object and background, There are several kinds of contrasts that involve and chroma as well as value.
Additionally, backgrounds finished in the darker color would benefit from some texture.
Conversely, objects with a pale, highly reflecting should be smooth and shiny.
By maximizing these differences in the amount of reflected light , the designer will maximize brightness contrast and visual impact.


Factors In Visual Acuity
The three components of any seeing task are obviously the object or task, the lighting conditions, and the observer. Listed below are the variables affecting each of these three components. Based on the result of many investigations they can be categorized as of primary or secondary importance.
3 components
1. Task
Primary Factors
- Size
- Luminance (brightness)
- Contrast
- Exposure time Secondary Factors
- Type of object
- Degree of accuracy required
- Task; moving or stationary
- Peripheral patterns
2. The Lighting Condition
Primary Factors
- Illumination level
- Disability glare
- Discomfort glare Secondary Factors
- Luminance ratios
- Brightness patterns
- Chromaticity
3. The observer
Primary Factors
- Condition of the eyes
- Adaptation level
- Fatigue level Secondary Factors
- Subjective impressions; psychological reactions 5
LUMINOUS RATIOS
Visual performance increases with contrast (differnt in luminance between the object being viewed and its immediate surroundings). However, the difference between the average luminance of the visual field (task) and the remainder of the field of vision should be low to avoid the discomfort of large rapid changes in eye adaptation level.
Recommendations for maximum luminance ratio to acheive comfortable environment vary for different environments.


Recommened Maximum Luminance Ratios
( Comfortable Brightness Balance )
Ratios
1—► 1/3 (3:1) Task +adjacent surroundings
1—►1/10 Task + more remote darker surfaces
1-*M0 Task + more remote lighter surfaces
20— Luminaires + surfaces adjacent to them
40-1 Anywhere within normal field of view


Average figures for commercial interiors are presented in table below. To acheive these luminance ratios, it is obviously necessary to control carefully the reflectances of the major surfaces in a room.
Visual attention can be drawn by high brightnes.
This well known fact is used constantly in disdplaying merchandise. . . .
A 3:1 luminance ratio will be noticed but will usually not affect behavior or draw attention.
A 10:1 luminance ratio will attrao attention
and, if interesting, will hold it.
A 50:1 luminance ratio or large will highlight
the object thus illuminated, practically to the exclusion of all else in the feild of view. 6
Wall
Floor
Ceiling
Furniture
-50%
-30%
-80%
-35%


SPECIFIC LIGHTING TECHNIQUES
Highlighting: Highlighting is an acute technigue to attain
sharply compositional effect of brightness balances. These effects can be created to settle the space into unified and interesting by highlighting only specific objects and surfaces among very dim surrounding. This technique is used in benefit of dramatic effects which consider the effect Of contrast ( more than 5 times of the differenct amount of brightness on a featured object and brightness on background ). The effect of high contrast draws attention and determines the direction of movement in each particular space.
Besides this, highlighting technique is considered to be an efficiency in use technique because of the energy conserving: no wasting light on any surfaces other than visual target. The intense highlighting:
: reveals the piece's finest features : sculpts the 3-dimentional object with shade and shadow
: creates brightness that attracts the eye
Wallwashing: Wallwashing is created by washing a wall with
a sheet of brightness. This effect causes the direction of the destination in space. There are 4 effects occur with wallwashing:
:A directionality is created within the space. â– .Diverse objects on the wall are drawn together because the objects and the space between them are seen in the same light.
:Large quantities of gentle light, indirect light are bounced back into space.
â– .Texture of the wall seems flattened.
Silhouetting: Silhouetting is established by placing and
object between the viewer and the sheet of light. Conversely with highlighting technique, silhouetting causes the brightness area acts as a negative space( background ) and an object will be outlined by its high contrast in which draws attenion on the outlined figure of the object.
This technique can block visual glare, or magnify the importance of the featured object but it will wipe out the detail on the front of the object. Wallwashing technique are often used to produce this sillhouetting effect.


Backlighting: Backlighting is technique that diffuses light
through translucent materials. Backlighting is often achieved with indirect fixtures to increase the eveness of the flow of light.
Downlighting: The reason that makes this technique so
prevalent is because downlighted space appears to have light everywhere and there are no distinct brightness area that will distract the viewer attention. Because brightnesses appear only on horizontal surfaces which is out of the sight line, vertical surfaces are lighted only from the reflection of indirected light.
This technique makes viewer more comfortable because it minimizes direct glare but in the other hand all entire space seems to be bland and lacks of visual excitement or visual impact. This technique successfully use for high-ceilinged space{ no less than 9 feet).
Grazing: Grazing technique is created by the angle of
light source which usually selects in order to create visual impact with the texture of vertical surface. To create grazing relationship between the beam of light and the textured surface should be located in the ceiling 6-12 inches away from the vertical surface to be grazed.
The same as wallwashing, grazing is used to define a space by lighting one wall over the others which increase visual interest for a simple space by creating a rhythmic of patterns of texture and brightness like painting art.
Upllghtlng: Uplighting is normally used for emphasizing
somewhat interesting in up area. Or it is used as special effect for different kinds of atmosphere because uplighting is an unusual aspect of lighting (romantic, drifting or dreaming ).


COMPARISON OF LIGHTING TECHNIQUE
TECHNIQUE ENERGY EFFICIENCY EXPENSE DIFFICULTY CRITICAL DETAILS
First Owning
Front
Highlighting Highlighting: Short-lived lamp bulbs
Low-voltage incandescent 3 9 1 10 unless dimmed; may require
hand-focusing with each lamp bulb
change.
Wallwashing Remember to adjust set back
Incandescent 9 3 7 2 distances (high-output fluorescents)
Fluorescent 5 4 2 9 Be wary of color distortions (low-
HID 1 9 1 5 wattage HID).
Rear
Silhouetting Silhouetting: Donot silhouette
Incandescent 9 3 7 2 people.
Fluorescent 6 4 2 5
HID 1 9 1 4
Backlighting Backlighting: Do not cramp depth
Fluorescent 6 6 3 5 of lightbox.
Down
Downlighting Downlighting: Never put downlights
Incandescent 11 4 9 3 within 3 feet directly over seated
Fluorescent 7 7 3 3 persons.
HID 4 10 4 3
Grazing: Be flexible in adjusting for
Grazing projrction depth of textured finishes.
Incandescent 9 3 7 6
Up
Uplighting Uplighting: Space may seem soupy
Incandescent 12 4 10 2 & out-of-focus; uplight fixtures will
Fluorescent 7 5 3 4 silhouette against bright ceiling.
HID 5 11 5 4
1- most energy efficient, least difficult to do successfully 72-least energy efficient, most difficult to do successfully


COLOR
Color is vital to the creation of a lighting design because it allows you to control brightness. Brightness is a relative evaluation made in the mind ; an object appears as " bright", because the background next to it is " dim”. Therefore contrast should be seriously considered because contrast control how clear you can see the view or how well the object distinguishes from background. By choosing astute color can establish the brightness which produce people's impression.
THE PHYSICS OF COLOR
Color theory considers the spectral hues and their influence on one another, as well as their upon us.
Every color has 3 properties:
Hue refers to the name of a color family, the purity of such a color can be altered by changing either its value or chroma.
Value refers to the relative darkness or lightness of a color ( additions of black or dark gray to a color produces tones of value while additions of white produce tints of value.
Chroma refers to the purity of color. A high chroma color is almost totally undiluted.
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF COLOR Color Response
jtfGreerr. green are matter of life and death from the vital gleam
of lush foliage to the murk of mould and decay.
Green in nature's number one color, and in decorating terms it provides the means of bringing the outdoor in. Green has been vindicated by the later discovery that green light focuses almost exactly on the retina. This soothing quality cause seeing without fatigue. Green seems to be cooling, and it acts as an sedative.
Yellow. an intangible yellow is, quite literally, what lights up
our lives as both the rays of morning and evening sun and the most common form of artificial light, from incandescent bulbs. Yellow as one may note from sunlight, is cheerly, stimulating, and attention drawing. It is the most luminous color. It also influences over people become more active. True yellow is phychologically the happiest color in the spectrum, but people often shy away from it because it can be hard to handle. Both and orange are rapidly perceived which explains their prevalence in commercial packaging , an applications relating to emergencies and safety. This showiness may


prange:
jm
j00tm
â–  Gray. White:
persuade people that this is not a tit color to live with or that, as verified physiologically a little of it goes a long way.
has a simulating effect and should usually be used in reletively small amounts.
it is the supercolor of the spectrum- bold, imperative, provocative. It usually use in term of action or entertainment. Red's physical effect is such that exposure to quantities of its prompt the release of adrenalin into the bloodstream, quicken the heart rate and engenders a sense of warmth. To all ages and cultures, red's primary association is with blood. Rage, passion or courage- all's red is love and war. Red creates excitement. Red dares. Its use suggests confidence and has historically coincided with flourishing cultures. Red is excitingand stimulates the brain. Medium red suggests health and vitality; bright red often has amorous connotations. Red also has an aggressive quality and is frequently associated with violence and excitement, sedative and soothing
is reitful and warming but should be combined with orange, yellow, or gold because it can be depressing if used alone.
suggests cold and, like browm, is depressing unless combined with at least one liveier color, is cheerful, particularly when used with red, yellow, and orange.
as faint as a puff of smoke, or as deep as the night sky: blue has an incredible range, and so perenially popular we seem never have a surfeit of it. Blue make a room cool, peaceful and also release sense of infinity. It agrees so well with other colors that it function is the most nearly neutral of the primaries. Blue can stray toward either of their neibours in spectrum -green and violet- according to amount of yellow and red they contain. Blue makes room airy, chilly, spacious and calm. Also blue reduces excitability and therefore helps people to concentrate. It is both cooling and seductive but we use blue withcareless, it may produce melancholia.
Contrast


CONTRAST
Contrast of Hue
Light / Dark Contrast
Cold / Warm Contrast
Complementary Contrast
Simultaneous Contrast
Contrast of Saturation
Contrast of Exten tion


Contrast
The color phenomenons which might be occured from the effects of color influence on one another.
Color Shifting: "the shifting of color appearance makes the
matching of interior color risky unless the color matches are selected and installed under the same kind and wattage of light source."7
Metamerism: "two colors can appearto match under one
light source but refuse to match when both are light under another light source. Both colors will have shifted, but not in the same direction." 8
The Bauhaus colorist, Johannes Itten, isolated seven basic color contrasts:
1. Contrast of Hue when the 3 primary colors are used adjacent to one another, they deliver the strongest and the most vigorous effects. A background of shadow will cause them to appear paler or brighter.
2. Light f Dark Contrast: dark or unlighted surfaces and
colors appearto recede because their low reflectancy return less light to the eye, just as distance surfaces would do. Conversely pale and bright surfaces seem closer, because more reflected reaches the eye. In dark environment, if only wall is pale, that wall not only expands and advances, it may even seem to generate light by itself, that is , become a "secondary" light source.
3. Cool / Warm Contrast: warm colors next to cool ones
exaggerate each other. For example, when a warm-colored object is seen against a cool-colored background, the object seems warmer. To light these adjacent warm/cool surfaces, the designer should select a light source that reinforces both sides of the spectrum.
4. Complementary Contrast complementary colors are those that are diametrically opposed to each other on the color wheel. When they are placed side by side, they excite each other to maximum vividness. A complementary contrast is always a warm/cool contrast and should be lit as above.
5. Slmulateneous Contrast a pure chromatic color tends to push a neighboring color or and adjacent shadow toward its oppesite, or complementary color. This phenomenon is important because in any lighting plan, the gray areas of shadow reinforce the drama of an adjacent color that is lit.
6. Contrast of Saturation when an intense or pure color ia placed adjacent to the same color but in a diluted version, the viewer


experiences a contrast between dull and vivid. As saturation increases, color value shifts as well. To create impact, the designer should be sure to establish at least 4 steps of value difference between colors used for a target object and those used as backgrounds. This ensures that one color will be dark while the other is pale. One will absorb light while the other reflects it. For impact, concentrate the light on the reflective color.
7. Contrast of Extension certain colors have more power or impact on the eye. Two colors should be combined in proportion that bring their brilliance or impact into balance by a corresponding variation in the extend of surface covered by each color.
Colorimetric Standards
Measurements of color which are necessary for the
designers are
Temperature Kelvin . .measures the first
aspect, the color appearance. . ."9
Color Rendering Index ( CRI ) the general shift in the color of light affects effect color contrasts in a real environment The spefic color-rendering-characteristics of I ight source are very important, they can enhance or alter interior environment. The light source and the finish colors of an interior are mutually dependent on one another to create each of the several million discernible colors.10
Spectral Distribution Chart
profiles the exact colors that a light source emits and the relative intensity of each color emitted.lt can be useful in matching room finishes with the color of light that will come from the light source. . .11


IDEAL DESIGN CONCEPT
Peacefulness, serenity, calmness or tranquility seem to be kinds of mood in a place for contemplation. A serene ambience allows visitors to calm down, think besides this, the most important thing is to create something new.
In this study, I assumed some ideal space which based on simple form and by using symmetrical balance for planning. All kind of this form create sense of stable and serene, the main concept for contemplation retreat.
Once concidered a minor detail and often taken for granted, lighting is now recognized as one of the most powerful element in design. According to this reason, I decided to use lighting as a mojor catagory to accomplish all those concept in a contemplation place. Although lighting is one of the most dramatic and important element in design. There can be many solutions to the same lighting problem, some will be dull while others will display astuteness. There are differenent kinds of lighting techniques which give different kinds of mood and depend on how we are going to use them in such a way they work effectively.
In this case based on a place for contemplation, I have selected some specific lighting techniques concerned in my object as:
: Highlighting : Downlighting : Wallwashing : Backlighting : Silhouetting : Uplighting
Each technique has its own effect which established different interior delight. I have choosen different techniques for each particular space including different combination of each space as shown below.


FOCUS ZONE
MAIN SPACE ZONE
center of mind and established the focal point.
create sense of serenity and stability by using simple geometric form, the ambience is covered by sense of hush and reverent
to define a boundary of focal point impact and also adjust visual perception from one space to another
Main Entrance
to create sense of direction. It should be able to
- impress visitors
- feel comfortable
- encourage visitors to come through
- respectful
PLAN


PLAN


TRANSITION
HALL
SECTION
ENTRANCE


STATEMENT OF CONCLUSION
Finally, I have chosen 4 themes of different moods which are related to a place for contemplation. To create atmosphere for each particular space needs different technique as I have mixed them into 4 differnt combinations:
A Place for Concentration A Place for Searching A Place for Relaxing A Place for Mystery
After 2 times from former simulated experimentation and based on the lighting effect theory. I have made some recommendations in which identiy what kind of lighting technique will produce the feeling which may occur in a place for contemplation. As highlighting helps visitor to understand the movement or direction of that space and force visitor to concentrate on the object. As well as wallwashing create sense of direction. Upllghtlng make them feel relax and comfortable because of the glare problem. Silhouetting create some kind of obscure object which make visitor so curious and want to find out.
I realized that lighting is so powerful. It can create feeling in such a way that control visitor feeling-pleasing or gloomy. And it also can force or define the direction of movement, the successful lighting design can come over human feeling which is such a sensitive subject matter.


Approach 1
A Place for THINKING
• •-
PLAN
ENTRVNCE
9 Mood Technique
9 - Ambience Focus
9 Q O OJ Q. Quiet Tranquil Downlighting â–  Highlighting
9 9 -to- re c .2 o c 3 LL Simple and Plane avoid using lighting technique which might distract visitors' mind
nj Q_ cn c
U <75 c 2 uownngnung
Hallway Hall
- Uplighting Downlighting
c re
c LU
SECTION


Approach 2
A Place for SEARCHING
PLAN


Approach 3
A Place for RELAXING
Technique
Ambience Focus

-Uplighting Downlighting Uplighting
Highlighting
Hallway Hall

- Uplighting
' Uplighting
Mood
From the entrance along a broadwalk using uplighting to lift up this broadwalk and imagine that is the bridge which bring visitors from one place to another place. The level of illuminance inside space is almost the same both focus and surrounding also the illuminance is quite a bit dim in order to create intimacy.
SECTION


Approach 4
A Place for MYSTERY
Mood
Define sense of direction from the entrance til the focal point inside in which using highlighting technique with blue light in order to create moodof mystery. At the main space lighting ambience which will notdistract visitors’ attention is producedby using uplighting from the wall.
PLAN


DESIGN
COMPETITION


A Place for Contemplation Background
For centuries, man has had to confront the many complex issuses, changes and paradoxes of the age in which he lives. Now more than ever, life has taken on an incredibly accerated pace with the introduction of highly technological advancements in rapid transit, supercomputer, instant bank-teller and facsimile machines. For many, life at such a pace creates a rather impersonal state of existence. Man is more apt to lose sight of his individuality and frequently neglects the opportunity of attaining a broader sense of meaning in his life. Only after a departure from the main stream and everyday routine can man completely attend to physical, spiritual and psychological needs and values.
It has been the belief of many great philosphers, writers and entire cultures of people, that only through an extended involvement with NATURE can man simplify his existence, clarify his senses, and reduce life to its simplest terms. Then man may begin to contemplate life and all its beauties; contemplation being the highest expression of man's intellectual and spiritual life. It is spiritual wonder. It is gratitude for life, for awareness and for being. It is a unique and different experience for everyone.
The competition program is to design a place for CONTEMPLATION.... conceived in the form of retreat-where one is sheltered from the requirements, obligations, routine and clutter of everyday existence. It is to be a place of sabatical- for writers, musicians, artists and scholars- that allows for and encourages the quiet and patient search from the economically driven cinsumer-oriented values of our society. It is to be located in the lanscape, rural or urban on a site of student's choice. The choice of the site becomes an important issue in establishing an attitude toward the contemplative nature of the project.
And the design shall be communicated through the use of wood and its components.


THE SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS
General Office 400 s.f.
Living Accomodations for Caretaker
1,000 s.f.
Communal Dining Room 800 s.f.
Kitchen 500 s.f.
Common Room 1,000 s.f.
Library 500 s.f.
Billiard Room 650 s.f.
Gallery w/ Storage 1,500 s.f.
Mechnical 500 s.f.
Each of 22 Single Units w/ Bath (300 s.f.) 6,600 s.f.
as required Toilet Facilities
as required Miscellaneous Storage
Approximate program area 14,000 s.f


CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
FROM RIGID FORMALITY TO RELAXED CONTEMPLATION TERRAIN IS USED TO SCREEN THE PART OF THE RETREAT AND INTRODUCE THEM TO THE USERS AS THEY PROCEED THROUGH THIS TRANSITION.
FORMAL:
Strike GRID, strong geometric FORM represent rules of society, authority and obligation.
Entry and registration activities handles in conventional way.
COMMONS:
Distance and terrain indicate changes formal GRID is breaking apart, FORM relationship is less rigid, functional activities are less structured.
CONTEMPLATION:
Architecture changes from social to individual, TREEHOUSE Living promotes nature and a break from traditional freedom of activities from private to group.


FUNCTIONAL SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS INTEGRATES WITH
CONCEPT
PART 1 FORMAL:
Entry Hall General Office
Living Accomodations for Caretaker
Common Room
Billiard Room
Communal Dining Room
Kitchen
Linen
Storage
Mechanical
Toilet Facilities
PART 2 COMMONS:
Gallery w/ Storage Sclupture Exhibition Area Library
P A R T 3 CONTEMPLATION:
Residential Area (22 Units w/ Bath )
: Artists : Musicians : Scholars : Writers Common Area Central Performing Area


ISNTRANCE
StRVtCE
ENTRANCE
GROUND LEVEL
FORM,
ARCHITECTURE CHANGES THOM SOCIAL TO INDIVIDUAL, TREEHOUSE LIVING PRQM0Tt5—NATOSF~AND 'A BREAKrROM tradition FilEfCIOM Of ACTIVITIES FROM PRIVATE TO GRQtg._____________
STRIKE GRlb, STRONG GE< FORM REPRESENT RULES SOC*Ty/AUTHORITY AM OBLIGATION
ENTRY AND REGISTRAR© ACTIVITIES HANDLED IN CONVENTIONAL WAY 1
SITE PLAN
FROM RIGID FORMALITY TO RELAXED CONT EMULATION
TERRAIN IS USED TO SCREEN THE PART OF THE RETREAT AND INTRODUCE
THEM TO THE USERS AS THEY PROCEED THROUGH THIS .
TRANSITION
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
ENTRY LEVEL
PLAN


PLACE
S RETREAT IS TO BE LOCATED
i a wooded Site near boulder Colorado acent'jo a Lake chambers /
'the ROCKY MOUNTAINS l
storage
GAUERY
ENVIRONMENT
COMFORT CONOI YEAROUND
WINTER WIND SUMMER VENTIl EVAPORATIVE C
UMB*
COMMONS




BEAM 2
RESIDENTIAL
STRUCTURAL
DETAIL
Z7
COLUMN 6'k 6"


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bechtel, R.B. Man-Environment Interactions : Evaluations and Applications. Hutchinson & Ross,
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, 1974
Broadbent, G. Design in Architecture: Architecture
Human Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, London,
1973 Deborah T. Sharpe, The Phychology of Color and Design, Nelson Hall, Chicago, 1974
Flynn, John E., Arthur W. Segil, Garry R. Steffy.
Architectural Interior Systems. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, 1988
Giedion, Sigfried. SpaceTime. and Architecture.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1954
Gilliant, Mary & Douglas Baker. Lighting Your Home. Pathenon Books, New York, 1979
Goodrich, R.J. Design for Human Behavior-
Architecture and Behaviorial Sciences. Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1974
Healey, Deryck. Living with Color. Rand Mc.Nally&Company, Chicago, 1982
Halse, Albert O. The use of Color in Interior. Me Graw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1968
Smith, Fran Kellogg , Fred J. Bertolone. Bringing Interior to Light. Whitney Library of Design, New york, 1986
William, J. Me Guiness, Benjamin Stew. Mechanical and Flectical Equipment for Building. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Toronto, Canada, 1971
Zevi, B. Architecture as Space. Horizon Press, New York, 1974


1 Fran Kellogg Smith , Fred J. Bertolone, Bringing Interior to Light. (New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1986), 28.
2 John E. Flynn, Arthur W. Segil, and Garry R. Steffy, Architectural Interior Systems. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., 1988), 10-11.
3 Ibid., 36.
4 William J. Me Guiness, Benjamin Stew, Mechanical and Electical Equipment for Building. (Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1971), 888.
5 Ibid., 874.
6 Ibid., 907.
7 Smith, Bringing Interior. 100.
8 Ibid.
9 Me Guiness. Mech. and Elec.. 907
10 Ibid., 909.
11 Smith, Bringing Interior. 22.


Full Text

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LIGHT ANDCQLQR EFFECT ON CONTEMPLATIVE ATMOSPHERE by Voraporn Sundarapura Faculty Advisor Professsor. Soontorn Boonyatikarn, D. Arch. Professor. Robert W. Kindig, A.I.A. A Thesis Proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for THESIS RESEARCH AND PROGRAMMING Degree of Master of Architecture Post Professional Program School of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado at Denver Fall, 1989

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THESIS TITLE BY ADVISOR ACADEMIC YEAR LIGHT AND COLOR effect on Contemplative Atmosphere Voraporn Sundarapura Prof.Robert W. Kindig Prof. Soontorn Boonyatikarn Fall, 1989 and Spring ,1990 Accepted by School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Thesis Research and Programming. airman Committee Members: .................................... Member ( Prof.Soontorn Boonyatikarn) .................................... Member ( Prof.Phillip Gallegos) Student: •••••• 0 0 0 .,. •• 0 •••••••••••••••• ( Voraporn Sundarapura )

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R E S E A R C H

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Preface Lighting Design Factor in Visual Acuity The Luminous Environment Visual Comfort Direct (discomfort) Glare Lighting Structure The Effect oflight on Impressions of Activity, Setting or Mood Luminance and Brightness Luminous Ratios Specific Lighting Techniques Color The Psysics of Color The Psychological Effectof of Color Color Response Contrast Colorimetric Standards Ideal Design Concept Lighting Simulation in Case Study CONTENTS

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Architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light. Our eyes are made to see forms in light; light and shade reveal forms; cubes, cone, spheres, cylinders, or pyramids are the great primary forms which light reveals to advantage. Le Corbusier. Human behavior and impressions of a space are cued by surfaced brightness. Unconciously our movements and minds seek out the light. As mediums of design, each basic element in architecture as form, color, or texture are things that we as designers have to create an intuitive and practical design in order to achieve that concept. Certainly, as one of medium of design, light is smelar to other elements. It is not only express itseH but also influences on our perception of all other elements. Moreover, light guides our seeing, speeds our visual tasks, cues our behavior, and affects our attitudes. Ahhough lighting is one of the most dramatic and important elements in design, it is also one of the most confusing and sophisticated design. There can be many solutions to the same lighting problem, some will be dull and pedestrian while others will display ingenuity and resourcefulness. Light can be made to alter shape and color to distort or enhance, pick out or flatter, dramatize or minimize, to increase working efficiency. The goal of LIGHTING is to create an efficient and pleasing interior. Because of the large number of interrelated factors in lighting no single design is the correct one and for this very reason it is not entirely desirable to solve a lighting problem with step-by-step technique. Every designer tries to create an intuitive and unigue design in order to establish mood and atmosphere in such a way that designer imagine. The problem is if only we do know exactly the result of effects we want and what we as a designer are trying to do is what really does happen. In my study, I concerned only the effects of using lighting and color in A Place for Comtemplatlon Serenity seems to be a main theme for a place for contemplation which are the stand point for the basic concept in desinging a retreat for artist, writing and musician. By using Computer Simulation, we can cut down risky opportunities in creating atmosphere and can not communicate those concept design to somebodyelse.

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LIGHTING DESIGN In lighting design, organizing composition of light and color create brightnesses tnat pull the various parts of the design solution into satisfying and visually logical whole, Both the behavior and the judgements of visitor to an interior are cued by the brightness they perceive. That is why the composition of brightnesses is such a powerful instrument in design. With brightness and shadow alone the designer can create a compelling visual experience that is not only affective but timely. The ideal lighting composition that leads space into unity and harmony should consider in 4 elements. 1. Framing : involves determining the most influencial vista. Because first impressions are the most lasting. This is the view from the entrance into the space. 2. Primary Focus must be established. The following are some qualifications for a primary focus: A vertical space or object within the line of sight that provoked impact or appeal. A surface or object whose mass dominants the architecture or the interior. A particular special part of the interior design. Such a primary focus provide a unifying center around which the visitor's visual experience will be organized. He/she will move toward this center and facing it. 3. Secondary Focus visually balance the primary one. One rule of thumb is to deal with bright vertical surfaces as if they had phisical weight. Attention will be drawn to the broadest and brightest surface as if it were heavier, and will establish thedirection of awareness and movement in the space .... . . . . 4. Delight, in every lighting design thefshould be some kind of unexpected delight. It can be a special effect like the play of light and shadow or luminous art.1

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Zone 2 The immediate surroundings ( areas adjacent to the visual tasks) Diserable ratios 1/3 to equal to task Minimum acceptable ratio 1/5 to equal to task Zone 3 The general surroundings ( not immediately adjacent to task) Diserable ratio 1/5 to 5 timestask Minimum acceptable ratio 1/10 to 10 times task

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THE LUMINOUS ENVIRONMENT Background brightness patterns tend to become significant because they affect the general sense of spatial orientation that guides the occupant of a space. Design of the luminous environment is concerned with 2 aspects of human sensory behavior: 1 . The visual task of spatial orientation which requires the designer to be concerned with a. The effect of light in defining the space b. The structural enclosure c. The activity 2. Detailed central task vision, which requires the designer to be concerned with the effect of light a. In defining significant information centers b. In assisting the accurate communication of visual detail required for acceptable performance of normal activities. The balanced manipulation of these visual conditions should provide for the viewer' need to judge distances and recognize relevant object, material, colors and forms. At the same time, this environmental balance should reflect the need to protect the occupant from glare and meaningless visual cues that may confuse his sense of orientation and purpose. A viewer interprets the general environmental background largely through dominant brightness relationships. The subjective sensation of visual space is primarily a function of brightness pattern and pattern organizationThe relationship of surfaces lighted or left in relative darkness. 2

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Brightness Ratios Visual Impact Focus-to-Background Brightness Ratio Barely recognizeable contrast; negligible attraction power as a focal point Minimum meaningful contrast as a focal point; 10: 1 marginal attraction power Dominating contrast as a focal point; strong approaching 100 : 1 attraction power

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0 0 0 0 45 : reflected glare zone 0 . 30 60 : relatively free of both direct and reflected glare Glare zones are 0 to 45 and 45 to 90 tor reflected and direct glare, respectively. Therefore, a diffuser that emphasizes the 30 to 60 zone will be least objectionable on both counts.

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VIsual Comfort For comfortable seeing over a long period of time, the general brightness of surfaces immediately surrounding the task should not differ appreciably from that task itself. For work areas, it is generally recommended that spatial brightnesses average no less than 1/1 0 and no more than 1 0 times the average brightness of the task. "Visual Comfort Probability ( VCP ) is an indication of the percent of populatio that may be exfected to find a lighting system acceptable from a glare standpoint." Direct ( Discomfort ) Glare The factor involved in producing discomfort glare are -luminance -size position of each light source in the vision of field the adaptation level of the eye (background brightness) Glare decreases rapidly as the brightness source is moved away from the direct line of vision and thusthe glare produced depends on its position in the feild of view. The amount of discomfort glare produced by a sourcein inversely proportional to the background brightness. The sum of the individual glare source contribution is convertedto a criterian called " visual cornfor probability " . With this condition, direct glare will not be a problem The VCP is 70 or more The ratio of maximum-to-average luminaire luminance does not exceed 5:1 (preferably 3:1) at 45, 55,65,75 and 85 degree from the nadir, crosswise and lengthwise Maximum luminaire luminances crosswise and lengthwise do not exceed. 4

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LIGHTING STRUCTURE Light patterns structure our sense of space, our impressions, and consequently our actions. Therefore, the designer should become sensitive to the uses of sparkle, silhouette, focal emphasis, color tone, and other of spatial light. The designer must recognize that the correct use of these and other light structures is fundamental in satisfying some spaceactivity requirements, such as reinforcing attraction or attention, enhancing impressions of spaciousness, stimulating sensations of spatial intimacy or warmth. The Effect of Light on Impressions of Activity, Setting or Mood Lighting patterns seem to involve the communication of ideas or impressions. In this sense, lighting patterns can assist the designer in creating impressions of somberness, playfulness, pleasantness, tension and other qualities. The designer can also use light patterns to affect phychosocial impressions such as intimacy, privacy and warmth. these impression or moods are often fundamental in satis tying experience and activity requirements in a designed space. Lighting to enhance these impressions should be recognized as more than aesthetics it is a tool for influencing human behavior, performance, and productivity. Whether the lighting is direct or indirect, the layout of luminaires can reinforce the sense of direction an enhance spatial perspective.

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Brightness ratios affecting public-private Impressions lmpressAon HoAzontaHo-BackgroundVertical Brightness Ratios Tendency toward a social behaviorial pattern and 1 : 1 to 100: 1 active movement impression of pubUc space ( horizontal is brighter ) Tendency toward an Introspective behavloriaJ 1 : 20 to 1 : 1 00 pattern and more relaxed movement-impression ( background verticals are brighter ) of privacy

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LUMINANCE AND BRIGHTNESS An object is perceived because light deriving from it enters the eye. The impression received is one of object brightness. Luminance is normally defined in term of intensity. Luminance is the product of illuminance and reflectance. The sensation of vision is caused by light entering the eye. This light may be thought of as a group of convergent rays, each ray coming from a differnt point in space and therefore earring differnt visual information. The composite of these rays comprises the entire visual picture that the eye sees and the brain comprehends. The individual rays differ from each other in intensity and chromaticity depending on the part of the viewed object from which they were reflected. the intensity of these cones of light determines and describes the perceived brightness of the object being viewed. One methods to create the efficient lighting design is one that uses a minimum of electricity to deliver the maximum in meaningful brightness by using light reflectance in those important places when the eye should stop (primary focus). By doing this color contrasts between object and background are proper (40% difference) and the highly reflecting color is lighted. As an object and background, There are several kinds of contrasts that involve and chroma as well as value. Additionally, backgrounds finished in the darker color would benefit from some texture. Conversely, objects with a pale, highly reflecting should be smooth and shiny. By maximizing these differences in the amount of reflected light , the designer will maximize brightness contrast and visual impact.

PAGE 15

Factors In VIsual Acuity The three components of any seeing task are obviously the object or task, the lighting conditions, and the observer. Listed below are the variables affecting each of these three components. Based on the result of many investigations they can be categorized as of primary or secondary importance. 3 components 1. Task Primary Factors -Size Luminance (brightness) -Contrast Exposure time Secondary Factors Type of object Degree of accuracy required -Task; moving or stationary Peripheral patterns 2. The Lighting Condition Primary Factors Illumination level Disability glare Discomfort glare Secondary Factors -Luminance ratios Brightness patterns Chromaticity 3. The observer LUMINOUS RA T/05 Primary Factors Condition of the eyes Adaptation level Fatigue level Secondary Factors -Subjective impressions: psychological reactions s Visual performance increases with contrast (differnt in luminance between the object being viewed and its immediate surroundings). However, the difference between the average luminance of the visual field (task) and the remainder of the field of vision should be low to avoid the discomfort of large rapid changes in eye adaptation level. Recommendations for maximum luminance ratio to acheive comfortable environment vary for different environments.

PAGE 16

Recommened Maximum Luminance Ratios ( Comfortable Brightness Balance ) Ratios (3:1) Task +adjacent surroundings Task + more remote darker surfaces 1___...,0 Task + more remote lighter surfaces 20--... Luminaires + surfaces adjacent to them 40____.., Anywhere within normal field of view

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Average figures for commercial interiors are presented in table below. To acheive these luminance ratios, it is obviously necessary to control carefully the reflectances of the major surfaces in a room. Wall -50% Floor -30% Ceiling -80% Furniture -35% Visual attention can be drawn by high brightnes. This well known fact is used constantly in disdplaying merchandise .... A 3: 1 luminance ratio will be noticed but will usually not affect behavior or draw attention. A 1 0: 1 luminance ratio will attraCi attention and, if interesting, will hold it. A 50:1 luminance ratio or large will highlight the object thus illuminated, practically to the exclusion of all else in the feild of view. 6

PAGE 18

SPECIFIC LIGHTING TECHNIQUES Highlighting: Highlighting is an acute technigue to attain sharply compositional effect of brightness balances. These effects can be created to settle the space into unified and interesting by highlighting only specific objects and surfaces among very dim surrounding. This technique is used in benefit of dramatic effects which consider the effect of contrast ( more than 5 times of the differenct amount of brightness on a featured object and brightness on background ). The effect of high contrast draws attention and determines the direction of movement in each particular space. Besides this, highlighting technique is considered to be an efficiency in use technique because of the energy conserving: no wasting light on any surfaces other than visual target. The intense highlighting: : reveals the piece's finest features : sculpts the 3-dirnentional object with shade and shadow : creates brightness that attracts the eye Wallwashlng: Wallwashing is created by washing a wall with a sheet of brightness. This effect causes the direction of the destination in space. There are 4 effects occur with wallwashing: :A directionality is created within the space. :Diverse objects on the wall are drawn together because the objects and the space between them are seen in the same light. :Large quantities of gentle light, indirect light are bounced back into space. :Texture of the wall seems flattened. Silhouetting: Silhouetting is established by placing and object between the viewer and the sheet of light. Conversely with highlighting technique, silhouetting causes the brightness area acts as a negative space( background ) and an object will be outlined by its high contrast in which draws attenion on the outlined figure of the object. This technique can block visual glare, or magnify the importance of the featured object but it will wipe out the detail on the front of the object. Wallwashing technique are often used to produce this sillhouetting effect.

PAGE 19

Backlighting: Backlighting is technique that diffuses light through translucent materials. Backlighting is often achieved with indirect fixtures to increase the eveness of the flow of light. Downllghtlng: The reason that makes this technique so prevalent is because downlighted space appears to have light everywhere and there are no distinct brightness area that will distract the viewer attention. Because brightnesses appear only on horizontal surfaces which is out of the sight line, vertical surfaces are lighted only from the reflection of indirected light. This technique makes viewer more comfortable because it minimizes direct glare but in the other hand all entire space seems to be bland and lacks of visual excitement or visual impact. This technique successfully use for high-ceilinged space( no less than 9 feet ) . Grazing: Grazing technique is created by the angle of light source which usually selects in order to create visual impact with the texture of vertical surface. To create grazing relationship between the beam of light and the textured surface should be located in the ceiling 6-12 inches away from the vertical surface to be grazed. The same as wallwashing, grazing is used to define a space by lighting one wall over the others which increase visual interest for a simple space by creating a rhy1hmic of patterns of texture and brightness like painting art. Upllghtlng: Uplighting is normally used for emphasizing somewhat interesting in up area. Or it is used as special effect for different kinds of atmosphere because uplighting is an unusual aspect of lighting ( romantic, drifting or dreaming ).

PAGE 20

COMPARISON OF LIGHTING TECHNIQUE ENERGY EXPENSE TECHNIQUE EFFICIENCY First Front Highlighting Low-voltage incandescent 3 9 Wallwashing Incandescent 9 3 Fluorescent 5 4 HID 1 9 Rear Silhouetting Incandescent 9 3 Fluorescent 6 4 HID 1 9 Backlighting Fluorescent 6 6 Down Down lighting Incandescent 11 4 Fluorescent 7 7 HID 4 10 Grazing Incandescent 9 3 Up Uplighting Incandescent 12 4 Fluorescent 7 5 HID 5 11 DIFFICULTY CRITICAL DETAILS Owning Highlighting: Short-lived lamp bulbs 1 10 unless dimmed; may require hand-focusing with each lamp bulb change. Remember to adjust set back 7 2 distances (high-output fluorescents) 2 9 Be wary of color distortions (low1 5 wattage HID). Silhouetting: Donat silhouette 7 2 people. 2 5 1 4 Backlighting: Do not cramp depth 3 5 of lightbox. Downlighting: Never put downlights 9 3 within 3 feet directly over seated 3 3 persons. 4 3 Grazing: Be flexible in adjusting for projrction depth of textured finishes. 7 6 Uplighting: Space may seem soupy 10 2 & out-of-focus; uplight fixtures will 3 4 silhouette against bright ceiling. 5 4 1-most energy efficient, least difficult to do successfully 12-least energy efficient, most difficult to do successfully

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COLOR Color is vital to the creation of a lighting design because it allows you to control brightness. Brightness is a relative evaluation made in the mind ; an object appears as " bright", because the background next to it is " dim". Therefore contrast should be seriously considered because contrast control how clear you can see the view or how well the object distinguishes from background. By choosing astute color can establish the brightness which produce people's impression . THE PHYSICS OF COLOR Color theory considers the spectral hues and their influence on one another, as well as their upon us . Every color has 3 properties : Hue refers to the name of a color family , the purity of such a color can be altered by changing either its value or chroma. Value refers to the relative darkness or lightness of a color ( additions of black or dark gray to a color produces tones of value while additions of white produce tints of value. Chroma refers to the purity of color . A high chroma color is almost totally undiluted. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF COLOR Color Response Yellow. green are matter of life and death from the vital gleam of lush foliage to the murk of mould and decay. Green it! nature's number one color, and in decorating terms it provides the means of bringing the outdoor in. Green has been vindicated by the later discovery that green light focuses almost exactly on the retina. This soothing quality cause seeing without fatigue. Green seems to be cooling, and it acts as an sedative . an intangible yellow is, quite literally , what lights up our lives as both the rays of morning and evening sun and the most common form of artificial light, from incandescent bulbs. Yellow as one may note from sunlight, is cheerly, stimulating, and attention drawing . It is the most luminous color . It also influences over people become more active. True yellow is phychologically the happiest color in the spectrum , but people often shy away from it because it can be hard to handle . Both and orange are rapidly perceived which explains their prevalence in commercial packaging . an applications relating to emergencies and safety . This showiness may

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G(ay Whi te : Contrast p e rsuad e p e ople that thi s i s not a f i t color to live w it h or that , a s verified phys i o l og i cally a l i ttle of it goes a l ong way. has a s i mulating effect and should usually be used in reletively small amounts . i t is the supercolor of the spectrum bold , imperative , provocative . It usually use i n term of act i on or enterta i nment. Red's phys i cal effect is such that e x posure to quantities of its prompt the release of adrenalin into the bloodstream , quicken the heart rate and engenders a sense of warmth . To all ages and cultures , red's primary associat i on is with blood . Rage , pass ion or courage all's red is love and war. Red creates e x citement. Red dares . Its use s uggests confidence and has historically coincided w ith flourishing cul tures . Red is excitingand stimulates the brain . Med i um red suggests health and vitality; bright red often has amorous connotations. Red also has an aggress ive quality and is frequently assoc i ated with violence and excitement. sedative and soothing is reatful and warming but should be comb i ned w ith orange , y ell ow , or gold because it can be depress ing if used alone . s uggests co l d and, like browm , is depressing unless combined with at l east one liveier color . i s cheerful , particularly when used w ith red , yellow , and orang e . as faint as a puff of smo k e . or as deep as the night sky: blue has an incredible range, and so perenially popu l ar we seem never have a surfeit of it. Blue make a room cool , peaceful and also release sense of infinity . I t agrees so well with other colors that it function is the most nearly neutral of the primaries . Blue can stray toward either of their neibours in spectrum -green and viol etaccording to amount of yellow and red they contain . Blue makes room airy , chilly , spac i ous and calm . Also blue reduces e x citabili t y and therefore helps people to concentrate . It is both cooling and seductive but w e use blue w i t h careless , i t may produce melancholia .

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CONTRAST Contrast of Hue Light I Dark Contrast Cold I Warm Contrast Complementary Contrast Simultaneous Contrast Contrast of Saturation Contrast of Exten tion

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Contrast The color phenomenons which might be occured from the effects of color influence on one another. Color Shifting: "the shifting of color appearance makes the matching of interior color risky unless the color matches are selected and installed under the same kind and wattage of light source." 7 Metamerism: "two colors can appearto match under one light source but refuse to match when both are light under another light source. Both colors will have shifted, but not in the same direction." 8 The Bauhaus colorist, Johannes ltten, isolated seven basic color contrasts: 1 . Contrast of Hue when the 3 primary colors are used adjacent to one another, they deliver the strongest and the most vigorous effects. A background of shadow will cause them to appear paler or brighter. 2.Light I Dark Contrast: dark or unlighted surfaces and colors appear to recede because their low reflectancy return less light to the eye, just as distance surfaces would do. Conversely pale and bright surfaces seem closer, because more reflected reaches the eye. In dark environment, if only wall is pale, that wall not only expands and advances, it may even seem to generate light by itseH, that is, become a "secondary" light source. 3. Cool I Warm Contrast: warm colors next to cool ones exaggerate each other. For example, when a warm-colored object is seen against a cool-colored background, the object seems warmer. To light these adjacent warm/cool surfaces, the designer should select a light source that reinforces both sides of the spectrum. 4. Complementary Contrast complementary colors are those that are diametrically opposed to each other on the color wheel. When they are placed side by side, they excite each other to maximum vividness. A complementary contrast is always a warm/cool contrast and should be lit as above. 5. Slmulateneous Contrast a pure chromatic color tends to push a neighboring color or and adjacent shadow toward its oppesite, or complementary color. This phenomenon is important because in any lighting plan, the gray areas of shadow reinforce the drama of an adjacent color that is lit. 6. Contrast of Saturation when an intense or pure color ia placed adjacent to the same color but in a diluted version, the viewer

PAGE 25

experiences a contrast between dull and vivid. As saturation increases, color value shifts as well. To create impact, the designer should be sure to establish at least 4 steps of value difference between colors used for a target object and those used as backgrounds. This ensures that one color will be dark while the other is pale. One will absorb light while the other reflects it. For impact, concentrate the light on the reflective color. 7. Contrast of Extension certain colors have more power or impact on the eye. Two colors should be combined in proportion that bring their brilliance or impact into balance by a corresponding variation in the extend of surface covered by each color. Colorimetric Standards Measurements of color which are necessary for the designers are Temperature Kelvin aspect, the color appearance. " . .measures the first .. g Color Rendering Index ( CRI ) the general shift in the color of light affects effect color contrasts in a real environment The spefic color-rendering-characteristics of I ight source are very important, they can enhance or alter interior environment. The light source and the finish colors of an interior are mutually dependent on one another to create each of the several million discernible colors. 1 o Spectral Distribution Chart profiles the exact colors that a light source emits and the relative intensity of each color emitted. It can be useful in matching room finishes with the color of light that will come from the light source. . . 11

PAGE 26

IDEAL DESIGN CONCEPT Peacefulness, serenity, calmness or tranquility seem to be kinds of mood in a place for contemplation. A serene ambience allows visitors to calm down, think besides this, the most important thing is to create something new. In this study, I assumed some ideal space which based on simple form and by using symmetrical balance for planning. All kind of this form create sense of stable and serene, the main concept for contemplation retreat. Once concidered a minor detail and often taken for granted, lighting is now recognized as one of the most powerful element in design. According to this reason, I decided to use lighting as a mojor catagory to accomplish all those concept in a contemplation place. Although lighting is one of the most dramatic and important element in design. There can be many solutions to the same lighting problem, some will be dull while others will display astuteness. There are differenent kinds of lighting techniques which give different kinds of mood and depend on how we are going to use them in such a way they work effectively. In this case based on a place for contemplation, I have selected some specific lighting techniques concerned in my object as: : Highlighting : Downlighting : Wallwashing : Backlighting : SilhoueUing : Uplighting Each technique has its own effect which established different interior delight. I have choosen different techniques for each particular space including different combination of each space as shown below.

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Main Entrance P L AN FOCUS ZONE center of mind and established the focal point. ..---++--MAIN SPACE ZONE create sense of serenity and stability by using simple geometric form, the ambience is covered by sense of hush and reverent to define a boundary of focal point impact and also adjust visual perception from one space to another to create sense of direction. It should be able to impress visitors feel comfortable encourage visitors to come through respectful

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PLAN (j> &> RANCE

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FOCUS TRANSITION HALL ENTRANCE SECTION

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STATEMENT OF CONCLUSION Finally, I have chosen 4 themes of different moods which are related to a place for contemplation. To create atmosphere for each particular space needs different technique as I have mixed them into 4 differnt combinations: A Place for Concentration A Place for Searching A Place for Relaxing A Place for Mystery After 2 times from former simulated experimentation and based on the lighting effect theory. I have made some recommendations in which identiy what kind of lighting technique will produce the feeling which may occur in a place for contemplation. As highlighting helps visitor to understand the movement or direction of that space and force visitor to concentrate on the object. As well as wallwashlng create sense of direction. Upllghtlng make them feel relax and comfortable because of the glare problem. Silhouetting create some kind of obscure object which make visitor so curious and want to find out. I realized that lighting is so powerful. It can create feeling in such a way that control visitor feeling-pleasing or gloomy. And it also can force or define the direction of movement. the successful lighting design can come over human feeling which is such a sensitive subject matter.

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Approach 1 A Place for THINKING • • • • Technique Mood Focus • • Ambience • • Downlighting ..... Highlighting . Simple and Plane avoid using lighting • • technique which • • might distract visitors' mind Hallway Hall Downlighting i Uplighting SECTION

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Approach 2 A Place for SEARCHING Technique Mood • Focus Silhouetting Define sence of • Backlighting direction from the beginning (entrance ) • go directly straight to the focal opening which frames and • hides an obscure object behind. The atmosphere in this space should be dim, Ql the illuminance just u enough to see the nl a. (/) figure of that object. c .Q Highlighting So this kind of "iii ambience will make c nl visitors so curious t= Hallway Hall andtry to find out what is inside. Up lighting Uplighting PLAN Focal point SECTION

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• • • • • • • • • Focal point Technique Ambience Focus Uplighting Uplighting Downlighting Approach 3 A Place for RELAXING Mood From the entrance along a broadwalk using uplighting to lift up this broadwalk and imagine that is the bridge which bring visitors from one place to another place. The level of illuminance inside space is almost the r------'-------1 same both focus and surrounding also the illuminance is quite a bit dim in order to t------.--------i create intimacy. Hallway Hall Uplighting Uplighting SECTION

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• • • • • • • • • PLAN Focal point Approach 4 A Place for MYSTERY Technique Mood Ambience Focus Highlighting Define sense ot direction from the entrance til the focal Hall Uplighting Highlighting point inside in which using highlighting technique with blue light in order to creal moodof mystery. At the main space lighting ambience which will notdistract visitors' attention is producedby using uplighting from the wall. SECTION

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D E 5 I G N C 0 M PETIT I 0 N

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. •.; ... A Place for Contemplation Background For centuries, man has had to confront the many complex issuses, changes and paradoxes of the age in which he lives. Now more than ever, life has taken on an incredibly accerated pace with the introduction of highly technological advancements in rapid transit, supercomputer, instant bank-teller and facsimile machines. For many, life at such a pace creates a rather impersonal state of existence. Man is more apt to lose sight of his individuality and frequently neglects the opportunity of attaining a broader sense of meaning in his life. Only after a departure from the main stream and everyday routine can man completely attend to physical, spiritual and psychological needs and values. It has been the belief of many great philosphers, writers and entire cultures of people, that only through an extended involvement with NATURE can man simplify his existence, clarify his senses, and reduce life to its simplest terms. Then man may begin to contemplate life and all its beauties; contemplation being the highest expression of man's intellectual and spiritual life. It is spiritual wonder. It is gratitude for life, for awareness and for being. It is a unique and different experience for everyone. The competition program is to design a place for CONTEMPLATION .... conceived in the form of retreat where one is sheltered from the requirements, obligations, routine and clutter of everyday existence. It is to be a place of sabaticalfor writers, musicians, artists and scholarsthat allows for and encourages the quiet and patient search from the economically driven cinsumer oriented values of our society. It is to be located in the lanscape, rural or urban on a site of student's choice. The choice of the site becomes an important issue in establishing an attitude toward the contemplative nature of the project. And the design shall be communicated through the use of wood and its components.

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THE SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS General Office Living Accomodations for Caretaker 1,000 s.f. Communal Dining Room Kitchen Common Room Library Billiard Room Gallery w/ Storage Mechnical Each of 22 Single Units w/ Bath (300 s.f.) as required Toilet Facilities as required Miscellaneous Storage Approximate program area 400 s.f. BOO s.f. 500 s.f. 1,000 s.f. 500 s.f. 650 s.f. 1,500 s.f. 500 s.f. 6,600 s.f. 14,000 s.f.

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CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT FROM RIGID FORMALITY TO RELAXED CONTEMPLATION TERRAIN IS USED TO SCREEN THE PART OF THE RETREAT AND INTRODUCE THEM TO THE USERS AS THEY PROCEED THROUGH THIS TRANSITION. FORMAL: Strike GRID, strong geometric FORM represent rules of society, authority and obligation. Entry and registration activities handles in conventional way. COMMONS: Distance and terrain indicate changes formal GRID is breaking apart, FORM relationship is less rigid, functional activities are less structured. CONTEMPLATION: Architecture changes from social to individual, TREEHOUSE Living promotes nature and a break from traditional freedom of activities from private to group.

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FUNCTIONAL SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS INTEGRATES WITH C 0 N C E P T P A R T 1 FORMAL: Entry Hall General Office Living Accomodations for Caretaker Common Room Billiard Room Communal Dining Room Kitchen Linen Storage Mechanical Toilet Facilities P A R T 2 COMMONS: Gallery w/ Storage Sclupture Exhibition Area Library P A R T 3 CONTEMPLATION: Residential Area (22 Units w/ Bath ) :Artists :Musicians :Scholars :Writers Common Area Central Performing Area

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CONCEPT THEM J0 TH: USERS IIANSI1ION

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ENVIRONMENT 10 UUNO COMfOU CONO I 'l'fA.OUN O -WINTU WINO -SU-ER Vfl'llll -(V.Af'OV•IIVt C

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f(l I BEAM 2 BEAM 1 RESIDENTIAL STROCTUW. DETAIL

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Bechtel, A.B. Man-Environment Interactions : Eyaluatjons and APDiicatjons, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, 1974 Broadbent, G. Design jn Arcbijecture: Arcbijecture Human Sciences, John Wiley & Sons, London, 1973 Deborah T. Sharpe, The Phychology of Color and Design, Nelson Hall, Chicago, 1974 Flynn, John E., Arthur W. Segil, Garry R. Steffy. Archijecturallnterjor Systems, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New York, 1988 Giedion, Sigfried. Space,Tjme and Arcbijecture, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1954 Gilliant, Mary & Douglas Baker. Ughtjna Your Home, Pathenon Books, New York, 1979 Goodrich, R.J. Qesjgn for Human Behavjor, ArchUecture and Behayjorjal Scjences, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1974 Healey, Deryck. Uyjng wjth Color, Rand Mc.Nally&Company, Chicago, 1982 Halse, Albert 0. The use of Color jn Interior, Me Graw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1968 Smith, Fran Kellogg , Fred J. Bertolone. Brjngjng lntedor to Light, Whitney Library of Design, New 'york, 1986 William, J. Me Guiness, Benjamin Stew. Mechanical and Electjcal Egujpment for Building, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Toronto, Canada, 1971 Zevi, B. Arcbijecture as Space. Hodzon Press, New York, 1974

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1 Fran Kellogg Smith, Fred J. Bartolone, Brjngjng Interior to J.jgbt, (New York: Library of Design, 1986), 28. 2 John E. Flynn, Arthur W. Segil, and Garry R. Steffy, Architectural Interior Systems, (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold CompanJ Inc., 1988), 10-11. Ibid., 36. 4 William J. Me Guiness, Benjamin Stew, Mechanical and Electjcal Egujpment for Building, (Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1971), 888. 5 Ibid., 874. 6 Ibid., 907. 7 Smith, Brjngjng Interior, 100. a Ibid. 9 Me Guiness, Mech. and Elec, 907 10 Ibid., 909. 11 Smith, Bdngjng Interior, 22.