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Urban housing in Ethiopia

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Title:
Urban housing in Ethiopia policies and new directions
Creator:
Tesfaye, Elizabeth
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English
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93 leaves : ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Housing -- Planning -- Ethiopia ( lcsh )
Housing -- Planning ( fast )
Ethiopia ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 46-49).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Urban and Regional Development, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Elizabeth Tesfaye.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16734047 ( OCLC )
ocm16734047
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LD1190.A78 1987 .T464 ( lcc )

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Full Text
ve
URBA
N HOUSING IN ETHIOPIA: POLICIES AND NEW DIRECTIONS
By
Elizabeth Tesfaye
A pa
oer submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirement for the degree of Masters of Urban and Regional Planning
University of Colorado, Denver, 1987
I


CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgments ..................................... i
I. Introduction ................................... I
II. Current Housing Policies ....................... 6
III. Housing Construction and Distribution in Addis
Ababa ......................................... 16
IV. Problems Affecting Housing Supply and
Distribution .................................. 24
V. Current Status of Housing in Addis Ababa .... 32
VI. Conclusions and Recommendations ............... 38
Bibliography ....................................... 46
Appendix: Proclamations ............................ 50


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I should like to thank my advisors Drs. Herbert Smith, Daniel Schler and Bernie Jones for their guidance and persistent advice. My special thanks goes to Dr. Smith without whose help this paper would have not been easily c omp1e t e d .
I am deeply grateful to my special friends Dr. Aberra Molla, Dr. Peter Koehn and Rome for their friendship and critical criticism of the paper.
Last but not least, I would like thank my parents, Tsedu and Tesfu, by dedicating this work for their patience and understanding.


I. INTRODUCTION
Most towns that came into being in Ethiopia at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20t’n century were garrisons established as military and political quarters for the imperial army. Some of these settlements were later developed to administrative centers and the rest were transformed to commercial and market centers.
Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, was founded in 1889 as one of the series of garrison towns designed to serve as temporary headquarter for the army of Emperor Minilik II. The spacious and centrally positioned location, the temperate climate and abundant water and timber were among the main reasons for Addis Ababa to remain permanent. Addis Ababa gradually transformed itself to the country's largest establishment with diversified functions. Today Adtjis Ababa, with more than 1.4 million people, accounts for nearly one-third of the total urban population of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa is also the largest city in the eastern half of Africa between Cairo and Johannesburg.
The construction of the Djibuti-Addis Ababa rail road which reached Addis Ababa in 1917 has played a major role in modern urban settlement in Ethiopia. * In many cases they were a collection of few station buildings, but these
Akalou We 1de-Michae1, "Urban Development in Ethiopia (1889-1925)" Journal of Ethiopian Studies, XI (January, 1973), 1.


-2-
small settlements eventually formed the nuclei of many
important urban centers. The process of urbanization rapidly
accelerated during the brief period (1936-41) of the Italian
occupation. The decades following the Expulsion of the
Italian forces were marked by increasing growth in the number
as well as size of towns in Ethiopia.
An estimated 10.20 percent of the total population
resided in the 322 "localities that are accorded an urban
status by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development" in 2
1984. With an annual growth rate of 5.5 percent, the urban
population in 1986 is estimated to be 10.44 percent of the
3
total population. Nearly 40 percent of the urban population of Ethiopia lives in Addis Ababa and Asmara.
Asmara, with a population of 275,400 is the second largest! city in Ethiopia. Other towns are much smaller than Addis Ababa and Asmara both in size and population. There were ten urban settlements with a population of 50,000 to 100,000, and fourteen towns with a population of 25,000 to 50,000 in 1984.4
For the most part early urban planning efforts in Ethiopia can be described as a series of disjointed administrative and legal policies coupled with ineffective planning practices. Planned physical development was often impeded by the landed urban elite and the nobility who were frustrating planning practices by downright noncompliance with land use provisions in urban master plans.3 Moreover, urban development programs were obstructed by the shortage of
Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia, of the National Committee for Central Planning, Central Statistical Office, Census Supplement 1 (Addis Ababba: 1985), p. 2.
31 b i d . , p . 4 .
4 Ib id. , pp. 139-164.
5Peter Koehn and Eftychia Koehn "Urbanization and Urban Development Planning in Ethiopia," in Development of Urban Systems in Africa, ed. by R.A. Obudho and Salah El-Shakhs (New York: Preaeer Publishers, 1979) P. 226. 8


-3-
resources and skilled planners, uncontrolled spontaneous migration, incoherent urban policies, and lack of coordination among authorities.
The Ethiopian revolution of 1974 resulted in profound social and political transformation. The Provisional Military Administration Council (PMAC) or Deurg, introduced a series ; of radical reforms-nationa1ization of all rural and urban land, prohibition of tenancy, removal of the monarchy, and nationalization of financial institutions and foreign owned companies.^ The nationalization of urban land and extra houses, reordering the structure and functions of local governments and restructuring of financial institutions, are among the major reforms that have particularly impacted the urban areas.^
The housing situation is among the major urban problems to which the government has been giving notable attention. Housing policies and programs have been formulated and institutional base for an effective national and urban housing policy has been consolidated to tackle housing deficits and improve housing standards. However, despite improved performances and ambitious measures, efficiency and equity in the distribution of urban housing continues to fall a long way short of needs.
I will illustrate my points, throughout the paper, with reference to the city of Addis Ababa because more information and data concerning the housing situation are available.
Fred Halliday and Maxine Molyneux, The Ethiopian Revolution. (London: Verso, 1981), p. 99.
^World Bank, Ethiopia: Urban Development Project (Washington, D.C.,1982), p. 2.


-4-
On September 12, 1984 the 10th anniversary of the
Ethiopian revolution was celebrated and the Workers'Party of Ethiopia held its founding congress. Marking the occasion, the government unveiled a ten year (1984/85-1993/1994) economic and social development plan. In the plan, the government commits itself to "elaborate a national urban development and housing policy to guide the overall pattern
O
and tempo of the development of the nation's urban centers."
The ten year plan puts the annual need for housing
at 74,000 houses. Studies conducted by the Central Planning
Supreme Council (CPSC) indicate that the nation's housing
annual production during the period from 1976-1981 has been
9
below 10 percent of the ten year plan estimate. Studies show that only about 10,000 houses were built during the period between 1978 and 1983. The construction rate is falling a long way short of growing needs and does not even begin to tackle the substantial backlog or make much impression on replacement of obsolete and uninhabitable houses. It is evident that there is no possibility of meeting the housing needs during the coming decade.
In many ways, Ethiopia's urban problems are typical of many developing countries. However, the evaluation of the housing situation and urban planning process must take into the account the specific Ethiopian political as well as socio-economic circumstances.
This paper is not a comprehensive study of the present housing condition in Ethiopia. It is rather a
Workers' Party of Ethiopia, Guideline on the Economic and Social Development of Ethiopia, (19^4/85—1993/94, Draft (Addis Ababa, 1984), p. 95.
Metropolitan Housing Draft Report (Addis Ababa), p. 1


-5-
description and analysis of the main features of those aspects of social, political and administrative structures that have shaped the present urban housing policies and their consequences. In the concluding chapter major issues concerbing the country's housing development are identified and recommendations are made for dealing with these issues.


II. CURRENT HOUSING POLICIES
Following the 1974 revolution, a number of far reaching redistributive reforms and laws were enacted. In the urban sector the most important reform law was Proclamation No.47 of 1 9 75 , "Government Owner ship or Urban Lands and Extrp Houses Proclamation." Proclamation No. 47 along with Proclamation No.104 of 1976 "Urban Dwellers Associations Consolidation and Municipalities Proclamation" had the deepest effect on the present urban housing situation of Ethiopia .
Proclamation No. 47 of 1975
Immediately after Proclamation No. 47 was issued,
all urban land and rented dwellings were nationalized. All
underdeveloped land and nearly two-thirds of the houses in
Addis Ababa became government property. Article 3 of the
proclamation prohibits persons, families or organizations
from private ownership of urban land. The proclamation,
however, allows individual families to continue owning their
own dwellings and possess use rights for up to 500 square
meters of land. It also requires Ethiopia's 4.4 million urban
masses be organized into urban cooperative or "kebele"*
10
associations.
Proclamation No. 47 freed tenants from paying
•k
English equivalent: neighborhood
Proclamation No. 104 defines "kebele Association" as "any cooperative society of urban dwellers formed at the first level under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation."


-7-
house-owners debts and reduced the rent paid by low wage workers. In the capital city "almost 80 percent of the population benefited from a 30 percent reduction in rent."'' Article 20 authorizes the kebeles to collect rents up to Br.100** per month. Rents exceeding Br.100 are to be collected by the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MUDH). Under article 21 families who had no income other than the rent from their extra houses are entitled to monthly compensation from the MUDH or kebeles.
Article 22 states that cooperative societies of urban dwellers (kebeles) are to be established in each unit of urban area as determined by the MUDH. The functions of cooperative societies that are stated in article 24 include, execution of land use and building directives issued by MUDH, management of nationalized houses renting for less than Br.100 per month, construction of low cost houses, and construction and operation of services such as health, education, market, recreational centers and streets. In addition, the kebeles are responsible for the establishment of a judicial tribunal that hears and settles disputes over land and houses.
The proclamation authorized the establishment of Higher Cooperative Societies (keftegnas) in article 25 and Central Cooperative Societies (mekakelgnas) in article 26.
The higher cooperative society coordinates the functions of cooperative societies of urban dwellers stated in article 24. Furthermore, the higher cooperative society assists the MUDH
Georgi Galperin, Ethiopia: Population Resources Economy (Moscow: Progress Publisher, 1981), p. 93.
* *
One Birr is roughly Equivalent to U.S. $0.50


-8-
in processing applications submitted by persons, families
or organizations that have no urban land and seek to obtain
land for dwelling or business purposes. The proclamation also
requires the higher cooperative society "to assist the
ministry in changing the boundaries of areas so that the
cooperative societies of urban dwellers within the
jurisdiction of the higher cooperative society have as far
I 2
as possible equal holdings." In addition, the higher cooperative society is also required to establish a higher judicial tribunal.
The central cooperative societies of urban dwellers are composed of delegates of higher cooperative societies. Their functions include coordinating the functions of higher cooperative societies and establishing a central judicial tribunal composed of three members.
Proclamation No. 47 entrusts to the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing a considerable authority to plan the country's urban development and to coordinate the activities of the various government departments in implementing the proclamation. The planning, administration and implementation responsibilities that the MUDH is charged with are immense. Article 32 requires the ministry to initiate the establishment of kebeles at all levels and guide them to promote viable and feasible development activities that would satisfy the needs of urban dwellers. Under article 35 (1) the ministry is directed to introduce registers showing the list of urban dwellers and
1 2
Proclamation No. 47 of 1975, "Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation," Negarit Gazeta, No. 41 (July 26, 1975), Article 25 (2) (b).


-9-
number and condition of houses. Article 35 (2) gives the ministry the power "to widen, narrow and demarcate urban boundaries in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior and other concerned public authorities."
Article 36 authorizes the ministry to formulate and coordinate urban development plans and housing policies. Moreover, article 36 directs the ministry to ensure that the rents collected by kebeles are utilized for improving infrastructure and extending basic services in accordance with comprehensive plans and government directives. With regard to housing, article 36 assigns the ministry with the responsibilities of constructing low-cost housing units and providing essential services, setting and enforcing housing standards, and assisting urban dwellers to obtain loan for building and buying houses. The ministry is also responsible for providing landless urban dwellers with urban land for building houses.
Proclamation No. 104 of 1976
C on s o 1 i No. 104 r e s pon s the one defines dut ies
A decree known as "Urban Dwellers' Associations dation and Municipalities Proclamation" (Proclamation of 1976) charged urban dwellers' associations with ibilities for broad range of developments including s stated on proclamation No. 47. Proclamation No. 104 in great detail and specifies the functions and Of the kebeles, higher and central urban dwellers'


- 10-
associations. The contents of the decree are expressed in the preamble of the proclamation in the following way:
WHEREAS, it is necessary to consolidates the foundations laid by the Government Ownership of urban Lands and Extra Urban Houses Proclamation providing for urban dwellers to get organized kebele, Higher and Central Associations and run their own affairs, solve their own problems, and directly participate in political, economic and
social activities; ...............................
.....WHEREAS, it is believed that the organization
of the broad masses of urban dwellers in kebele, Higher and Central Associations enabling them to directly take over the municipal administration of urban centers will not only enhance the organizational set-up of the people but will also improve their due participation in development proj ect s ; . . . .
The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing is given the power and responsibilities or enactment of regulations regarding the establishment of the urban dwellers' associations at all level. The proclamation also givbs the ministry the authority to supervise municipalities in pon-chartered urban centers.


- ] ]
Impac
t of the reforms in the urban centers
The radical action taken by the government has succeeded in overcoming most of the obstacles to urban development and housing that prevailed during the previous administration. The nationalization of urban land greatly improved access to vacant land for housing construction and cleared the way for projects which can make a meaningful impact on the ever increasing problems of housing the low income families.
A monumental housing shortage developed, however, when housing construction which, for the most part, developed on investments of private savings and borrowing of landowners was disrupted without being replaced with a new system. This gap was supposed to be filled by the kebeles. However, due to an intensified political crisis at the time, the kebeles were unable to perform their duties as stated on proclamations No. 4 7 and No. 104.*^
People whose only source of income was the rent from extra rooms and houses that they owned were suddenly left with no income when the proclamation came into effect.
The t with
ask of paying compensation to these people in accordance article 22 of Proclamation No. 47 was over overwhelming
Deve 1
for the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Compensation payments in Addis Ababa alone, was to be made for about 50,000. At the time the overall housing situation was clearly overburdening for MUDH and the newly formed
1 3
See Koehn and Koehn, "Urbanization and Urban opment Planning in Ethiopia," op. cit., p. 232.
14,
Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York: Africana Publishing Company p. 89


- 12-
kebe1e s .
The implementation of Proclamations No. 47 and No. 104 has a considerable influence on the present urban forms and housing situation of Ethiopia. The public was encouraged to participate in house building activities. Though the kebeles, different types of housing schemes were introduced and special attention was paid to the housing need of the low income group.
However, despite a continuous effort to alleviate the problem, currently, an extreme urban housing shortage exists at all level. Deficiency in services and low quality conditions that were inherited from the previous administration still exist .
Proc Hou s Mini no t i of D Regu
Proc an i t r an 1 aw,
In February of 1986 the government issued lamation No. 292 of 1986, "Construction and Use of Urban es Proclamation No. 292/1986." at the same time, the stry of Urban Development and Housing issued legal ces containing three sets of regu1 ations-Standardization welling Houses Regulations, Sale of Urban Houses lations and Co-Dwelling Regulations.
The new proclamation evokes article 12 of lamation No. 47 of 1975. The article upheld the right of ndividual, family, or organization owning a house to sfer by succession sale or barter. According to the new all houses are to be sold or purchased from the


1 5
government alone.
Legal Notice No. 94 of 1986 "Co-Dwelling Regulations" is another effort intended to ease the ever increasing housing need of the urban masses. Individuals or families are allowed to gain an extra income by sharing their houses with co-dwellers. The "principal dwellers" do not necessarily have to be house owners. Individuals or families who are renting their dwellings from the kebeles or the government can also sublet to co-dwellers if they do so desire.
The "principa 1-dwe11er" and co-dweller are required to have their co-dwelling contract registered with the kebele in which the house is situated, "principal dwellers" who are subletting part of their rented house will have to notify the kebele or the Agency for Rented Houses about contract agreements with co-dwellers.
imp r r ema it w sh o r coul addr rate re so bu i 1
Whether this latest effort will make a notable ession on the mounting urban housing need of the country ins to be seen. But even if it does make an impression, ill be a temporary solution for a chronic urban housing tage problem. A permanent solution to remedy the problem d only be found with development of housing policies essing the root causes of the shortages, including high of urban growth, unemployment, limited financial urces of the urban population, shortage and high cost of ding materials.
of U
'^Proclamation No. 292 of 1986, "Construction and Use rban Houses Proclamation," Negarit Gazeta, No. 3 (February 17
1986) Article 10, p. 12.
'^Legal Notice No. 94 of 1986 "Co-Dwelling Regulations, Negarit Gazeta, No. 3 (February 17, 1986), Article 6, p. 17.


-14-
Conclus ion
Since the revolution of 1974 the Ethiopian government has shown a strong commitment to improve housing and living conditions for a wider section of the population. But despite the efforts and commitments in the part of the government, overcoming the mounting housing problems and meeting the needs of the urban masses will continue to be a very demanding and difficult process for a long time to come;.
Although progress in improving housing and living conditions seems to have been very slow, during the past twelve years, the government has managed to put in place the basis for effective urban housing policy. The important steps taken towards this directions are:
(1) nationalization of urban land
(2) nationalization of extra houses
(3) reduction of rent
(4) creation of urban dwellers associations (kebeles)
(5) setting up an effective administration structure
(MUDH, kebeles, Agency for the Administration of Rented Houses, etc.)
Public ownership of urban land secured the governments right to determine and regulate land use and


urban expansion . With termination of private ownership rights, speculation in land ceased.'^ The nationalization of urban land has greatly improved access to vacant land for housing construction and cleared the way for employment of effective approaches to meet the housing needs of the urban masses .
With appropriate resource support the kebeles can be essential instruments in organizing cooperatives and self help housing schemes and stimulating community participation in urban development projects. They can also play a vital
role
in effectively managing and distributing urban services
1 7
Koehn and Koehn, oj) . c i t . , p. 229.


Ill . HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION
IN ADDIS ABABA
Pre Revolution
According to a 1976 cencus, there were 93,385 buildings in Addis Ababa which contained 163,293 housing units. 92 percent of the housing units were residential and the rest were owned by businesses or i n i s t i t u t i o n s . About 60 percent of the houses in the city were rented.
TABLE 1
PERCENTAGE OF OCCUPIED PRIVATE HOUSING UNITS BY TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION, BY TYPE OF TENURE, IN ADDIS ABABA 1967
TYPE OF TENURE
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
Permanent Semi- Improvished Not Sum
premanent stated
Percentage according to type of construction
Owned 30.31 29.12 23.11 27.59 29.55
Rente d 60.36 59.79 48.93 5 1.72 59.88
Free 7.36 8.90 22.35 17.24 8.43
Other;/not stated 1.97 2.19 5.61 3.45 2.14
Total
100.00
100.00
100.00 100.00 100.00
Source: Municipality of Addis Ababa, Draft Report On Housing in Addis Ababa: Results From the Census of September 1967 (Addis Ababa, March 1972), pT 201.


Forty three percent of the housing units in Addis Ababa were specified as "permanent" construction in the 1967 housing census. About 55 percent were specified as "semipermanent" and 1.5 percent improvised.
Nearly 92 percent of the housing units in Addis Ababa in 1967 were built from "chika" (wood poles and earth)
96 percent had corrugated iron roofs and about 67 percent had 1 8
earthend floor.
With regard to services, about 87 percent of the housjng units in Addis Ababa were supplied with piped water in the late 1960s. 85 percent of the housing units had electricity service. Nearly 25 percent of the housing units in Addis Ababa had no toilet facilities in 1967. About 56 percent shared pit toilets and only six percent of the houses
1 Q
had flush toilets.
With the rapid growth of the city's population the problem of sewage had reached a dangerous level in the 1970s posing a serious hazard to the public health. During the mid 1970s, almost all the rivers and streams in Addis Ababa were considered to be polluted.
The number of residential units increased by 63,000 between 1967 and 1976. While this increase seems impressive, it is no where close to covering the backlog as well as the increase in need. The population of Addis Ababa had also increased by more than 416,000 during those same nine years . In 1972, a report based on a census data estimated that a
1 Q
Municipality of Addis Ababa, Draft Report on Housing in Addis Ababa: Results From the Census of September 1967, (Addis Ababa, March 1972), p. 3.
1 9
Ibid.


total of 144,000 new houses would be required between 1973 and 1977 to meet the housing need of the population of Addis Ababa.
Urban planning as a developed field adapted to the needs of the country's urban masses did not exist as a specialization in Ethiopia until the mid 1970s. Urban
planning had been limited, for the most part, to physical
_ 20 aspects.
Three master plans were prepared for Addis Ababa by Different groups of foreign consultants between 1956 and 1966. However, the master plans were ineffective in preventing haphazard building development, misuse of land and spoiling of the environment. The plans lacked the necessary legislative support. Furthermore. The plans did not give adequate consideration to the country's future economic development and its effect on Addis Ababa's future growth.
The dominance of land-ownership and housing by the few landed urban elite and nobility removed any incentive for improving property among the low-income majority. Prior
the 1974 revolution, less than 20 percent of the population
2 2
of Addis Ababa owned 80 percent of the urban land. Nearly two-third of Addis Ababa's households were renting in the early 1970s. Unchecked speculations in land perpetuated gross inequalities in distribution.
Urban policies generally were isolated programs that were mostly ineffective and usually falling short of achieving stated objectives. Lack of commitment, poor
Koehn and Koehn, o_p. c i t . , p. 223.
210 Weerasinghe, Future Development of Addis Ababa Capital of Ethiopia, (Addis Ababa, Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1972), pp. 19-20.
2 2
Galprin, oj>. c 11 . ,
p. 93.


coordination between various agencies, inefficiency in administration, planning and management of urban development programs characterized the urban governments in Ethiopia prior to the 1974 revolution.
Post Revolut ion
The current annual rate of population growth for
Ethiopia is estimated at 2.9 percent. The annual increase
for the urban areas is 5.5 percent of which 3.0 percent is
2 3
due to migration from the rural areas. The population of Addis Ababa has doubled in the last two decades-from 683,000 in 1967 to 1,423,000 in 1985. However, housing, urban services and infrastructure have been expanding in much slower pace than the steadily increasing urban population, creating a serious imbalance between needs and supplies.
Since their establishment in 1976, Urban Dwellers Associations (kebeles) have been playing a major role in Ethiopia's urban housing. Indeed, the services which they provide have made them an essential part of the country's economic and social life. In 1985, in Addis Ababa, there were 284 kebeles, 25 higher (kefitegna) kebeles, and five central (mekakelegna) associations About 90 percent of the law cost rented houses in the country's urban areas are administered by kebeles. The kebeles also collect rent, make compensation payments to former land lords, and maintain law and order in their jurisdiction. The Ministry of Urban Development and
Central Statistical Office, Statistical Abstract, (Addis Ababa, 1982), p.15.
24
Central Statistical Office, Census Supplement 1, op . c it . , pp . 93-105.
1982


-20-
Housing, through the kebeles, has been encouraging people to organize themselves in to cooperatives and participate in self-help , aided self-help and cooperative housing schemes.
Despite inadequate preparation, lack of coordination and systematic action, the kebeles have done the they could in the circumstances, to promote the housing s cheme s.
The Housing and Savings Bank (HSB) was set up in to promote and finance housing construction and housing opment projects. The bank loans money to housing cooperatives, and private individuals, and various institutions for the purposes of construction, acquisition of ings, housing improvements, and for repair and enance of community facilities. In additions, the bank isters special funds set up by the government and
1975
deve
dwe 1 ]. ma i n t adm i n
international institutions for low cost housing and other
d e v e 1
opment projects. Loan amounts range up to 40,000 Birr
for individual households and up to 45,000 Birr for member of a housing cooperative. According to a 1983 report by MUDH, the Housing and Savings Bank had financed about 36 percent of the 32,000 new houses that were constructed in Ethiopia between 1976 and 1981.
c r e d i Addis owner for s
Due to the high cost of land and inaccessibility of t, self-help scheme had not been a familiar practice in Ababa prior to the 1974 revolution. The government ship of urban land improved accessibility of vacant land ubsequent development. Government agencies constructed


some 2,200 low income houses between 1976 and 1982. During the same period , about 4,300 houses were built by the various housing cooperative in Addis Ababa.
However, considering the magnitude of the country's housing problems, the impact of the cooperatives on the housing scene has not been impressive. The housing coope r a tj i v e s are still in their formative stage and afflicted by a number of shortcomings. However, it is apparent by now, that with adequate development process, they have excellent potentials for solving some of the country's housing problem^.
Although the substantial reduction in rent has benefited a good number of the lower income households, the chronic shortage has forced many families into overcrowding the existing housing units. The efforts of the public sector have not been able to compensate for the decline of construction by the private sector. Over the past ten years new construction by the private sector. Over the past ten years new construction in Addis Ababa has been lagging far behind the growth in demand.
Furthermore, existing housing conditions are in need of extensive improvement (see Table 2). While the kebeles' performance in administering rental arrangements is generally good, maintenance of the housing stock is largely neglected posing a serious problem.^ Urban services are inadequate, although there has been an increasing government action and commitment in seeking to reach a wider section of
Emp1oyme nt
and

F r om the i a (Addis
Grass Roots: Accumulation, Ababa, 1982), p. 384.


-22-
the population with basic services, sanitation and clear
water. The inadequate, low quality conditions of sanitation
and health services are causing a growing concern . Despite
recent government efforts to alleviate the problems,
situations have been deteriorating rapidly. As a result,
malnutrition, high infant mortality rate and communicable
2 6
diseases are widely prevalent.
TABLE 2
CONDITION OF HOUSES IN ADDIS ABABA
Condit ions
Number of houses
To be demolished Requiring extensive maintenance Requiring limited maintenance In good condition Not stated
11,504
44,033
107,825
64,818
8,232
4 . 9
18.8
45.6 27.4 3 . 5
Source: "Metropolitan Housing Draft Report" (based on census by Urban Housing Registration 1978) (Addis Ababa, March 1984 ) , p. 25 .
In sum, the initial effect of the far reaching
26.
World Bank, Ethiopia: Urban Development Project (Wahington D.c., 1982), p. 4.


-23-
reforms on the country's urban structure had been tremendous. Given scarce resource, high rate of unemployment, low level of income and scarce skilled manpower, maintaining such ambitious measures is of course, a horrendously difficult task as no doubt painfully apparent to the Ethiopian government and the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Several constraints have attributed to the severity of the current urban housing problems. Some of these constraints are discussed in the next section.



-24-
IV. PROBLEMS AFFECTING HOUSING SUPPLY
AND DISTRIBUTION
Income
The extremely low level of incomes of the vast
majority of Ethiopia's urban population accounts in large
measure, for the problems of urban housing. Inflation, higher
taxes,|tight control of wage and salaries, and population
growth!have resulted in high degree of erosion in
affordability over the past decade. Real incomes of wage
earner? have fallen by about a third since the mid 1970s and
those of salaried workers have fallen even more.27 "Current
studied indicate over three quarters of Addis Ababa's
households have incomes below the absolute urban poverty
threshold of US$186 per capita per annum or B170 per hosehold „ 2 8
per month.
freeze i n c ome
(Wash i
Despite government effort to reduce inequality (pay on upper income salaries, 4%-7% pay increase on low salaries, rent reduction for low income groups), The
trend Of inequality has remained unchanged for the past ten years. Urban poverty has been increasing steadily and the situation for the low income group in the urban areas has worsened.
27
ILO/JASPA, ££. c it . , p. 219.
28World Bank, Ethiopia Urban Development Project ngton D.C., 1982), p. 6.


-25-
TABLE 3
DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME AMONG HOUSEHOLDS AND PERSONS IN ADDIS ABABA
ADDIS ABABA (HOUSEHOLDS) 1976
Income class (monthly)
Income
Household*
Less than $100 $ 100 - 299 $300 - 499 $500 - 999 $ 1 000 + Total (%) Numbe r
13.7 27 .8 14.1 20.3 24 . 1 100.0
41,515,198
52.0 29.2 6 . 2 4 . 9 2.4 100.0 243,840
Source: "The Structure of Employment and Earnings in Early Stages of Urbanization: The Case of Ethiopia"
Berhanu Abegaz (African Urban Studies No. 15. Winter 1983), p . 54 .
* Not stated; 5.2 percent


Unerap1oyme n t
As it is the case in many of the developing countries, it is difficult to obtain an adequate measurement of the urban unemployment structure in Ethiopia. However, many sources indicate that there is a high unemployment rate in the urban areas and that the problem is particularly acute in the city of Addis Ababa. According to a 1978 estimate made by the Central Statistical Office (CSO), the urban unemployment rate for those aged 15 and over was 19.7 percent. The CSO estimates also show that the urban economically active labour force represents about 13.5 % of the total economically active labour force.
The economy has not been expanding with sufficient rapidity to absorb new high school and university graduates. Lack of workable system to provide school drop outs with productive jobs and uncontrolled spontaneous migrations of people in search of jobs and improved conditions of life from the rural to the urban areas has resulted in considerable unemployment. In recent years, the problem of unemployment has also been aggravated by drought and mass migration of peasants into towns.
Savings and Investment
The majority of urban dwellers do not participate in formal savings schemes, and their access to normal credit


-27-
facilities is very limited. The level of domestic savings for
the 1980/81 period was 6.6 percent of Gross Domestic Product 2 9
(GDP). A target that was set by the government to raise domestic savings level to about 1 1 percent of GDP by 1985/86 has not been reached. Since there is no incentive for people to save for house building purpose, potential savings and private resources are not mobilized, and so far, have not led to productive investment in housing.
The proportion of housing investment in Gross National Products (GNP) currently accounts for just under 3 percent. This figure is far less than the 6 percent minimum target recommended by the United Nation for developing countries. It is the government's intention to gradually raise housing investment. However, in view of the several financial constraints that the government is facing, the UN minimum target for housing investment will not be easy to realize. (See Table 4)
With regard to mortgage loans, the Housing and Savings Bank (HSB) which was set up to promote housing construction through its loans to lower income groups, from the very beginning, has not been able to fulfill its original objectives.®® So far, HSB managed to serve largely the middle and higher income sector, not those in the lower income category who desperately need the financing and account for most of the housing deficit. (See TABLE 5)
World Bank, Economic Memorandum on Ethiopia (Washington, D.C., 198 1 ) , p. 33.
3 0
World Bank, Ethiopia: Urban Development Pnject (Washington, D.C., 1982), p.22.


-28-
TABLE 4
HOUSING ACTIVITY WITHIN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Year 1 . Fixed 2 . Housing 2. as a % 2 . as a
i nv e s t me n t (mill. Br.) inve stment (mill. B r. of 1 ) of G
1974/75 57 9.7 2 17.4 37.5 4 . 3
1975/76 509 . 5 143.7 28 . 2 2 . 6
1976/77 560.9 172.7 30.8 2.8
1977/78 545.4 183.7 33 . 7 2 . 8
1978/79 698.2 186.4 26.7 2.6
1979/80 854 . 0 192.0 22.5 2 . 5
1980/81 9 14.0 189.8 20.8 2 . 3
Sources: Metropolitan Hous ing Draft Report
* United Nation world target = 6%
The fact that personal income could not keep pace with inflation has increasingly made worse the situation for the lowest income sectors of the population. Many of the low income families and individuals do not have effective securities or regular earnings that qualify them to obtain loans from a bank for house building. And HSB, in its present


-29-
TABLE 5
HSB LOAN ADVANCES TO INDIVIDUALS
INCOME (birr/month) NO .OF BORROWERS (%) AMOUNT OF LOAN (%)
1976 1977 1978 1979-80* 1 980-8 1 1976 1977 1978 1979-80* 1980-8 1
Up to 100 1 . 5 0.5 2 . 5 2.0 -- 0.3 0 . 1 0.4 0.3 --
101-300 47.7 44.8 3 1.0 20.4 13.0 22 . 9 20.5 12.0 6 . 5 4 .4
301-500 24 . 2 25.2 25.3 23.8 25.1 22.6 23.1 18.9 14.5 14.3
501-700 10.7 8.2 12.0 12.8 15.2 13.5 10.6 12.3 10.9 11.4
7 01 and above 15.9 2 1.3 29.2 4 1.0 46.7 40.7 45.7 56.4 67.8 69 . 9
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1 00 100 100
Source: Metropolitan Housing Draft Report
*
an 18 month period


-30-
condition, is not in a position to accept their very limited financial resources. Studies indicate, only the highest 10 percent of income groups could afford to borrow from the bank at the current interest rate.
Construct ion
Materials
The continual scarcity of building materials such as cement and bricks has led to highly inflated cost of construction inhibiting building activities related to housing. The extreme shortage of building materials and high cost pf construction has caused decent housing to drift farther and farther away from the reach of the low income groups .
Generally, building material plants in Ethiopia are handicapped by low level of development and organization.
The existing plants are very few in number compared to the growing need ' Many of the building material plants are equipped with outdated machineries and most of them require extensive improvements. Almost all of the building material plants have comparatively high production costs.
Very little attention has been given to the expansion and improvement of building material industries during the past ten years. There is a heavy dependency on imported building materials and modern technology. Little progress has been made in utilizing traditional materials for the production of affordable as well as durable building
3 1
Metropolitan Housing Draft Report (Addis Ababa
1984 ) , p. 3 .


-3 1 -
materials. Stronger effort need to be made for the development of a building industry sector capable of producing reasonably priced and good quality building materials based on local resources.


-32-
V. CURRENT STATUS OF HOUSING IN
ADDIS ABABA
Housing programs and their development. 1975-1986 period
The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing charged with the responsibility of implementing the ambitious urban reforms of 1975 and 1976, Introduced new approach to the housing problem. Various alternative schemes of housing were promoted by MUDH, including self help, aided self help, cooperative housing, and government low cost housing and apartment s .
The self help scheme is intended for low income people who can not qualify for mortgage loans and do not meet the requirement to participate in aided self help schemes. Under this scheme, households are encouraged to organize themselves into self help cooperatives. Cooperative members are responsible for raising their own money to cover construction cost. Labour is shared by all of the members.
Under aided self help scheme individuals or families are allowed 200 square meters of lot for house building. Participants in this scheme are those low income groups with a monthly income between 100 and 200 Birr. The plans for the houses were provided by the ministry along with


-33-
3,500 Birr low interest loan for each house. The construction of the houses is supervised by MUDH. The ministry also provides skilled labour and technical assistance. The size of a house built under aided self-help scheme is 32 square meters and contains two rooms, a kitchen and a rest room.
People who organized themselves under cooperative housing scheme can obtain loans from the Housing and Savings Bank (HSB). The interest on the loans is nine percent and the monthly payments do not exceed one forth of the borrowers' incomes. MUDH provides land, house plans and site plan with out charge. Each housing cooperative is formed of about 20 households .
Government housings and apartments are generally built and owned by The Agency for Rental Housing Administration (ARHA). Most of the houses built by the agency are categorized as "low-cost houses". The apartments are constructed mostly for middle and higher income households. The agency uses its own crew to construct most of the houses and apartments.
The new initiatives and the various types of construction schemes resulted in an increase in the number of housing being built. However, as discussed in chapter III of this paper, the increased number of houses built under the different housing schemes has not made a significant impact on the housing scene. The rate of construction is lagging far behind the demands of the urban population. Housing construction rate in Addis Ababa has been 2,000-2,500 units


-34-
annually since 1975. The annual housing need in the city is estimated to he between 16,000 to 40,000, of which 85 percent accounts for the low income sector. ^
The government has designed and funded various types of public housing projects in the past decade.
However, government housing projects have not been effective instruments to combat the housing problem. The low income housing units are very few in number and access of the low income group to the houses very limited. Many of these houses are occupied by comparatively well off households who can afford the payments, not by the lower income households to whom they originally were intended. High cost of construction materials, inefficiency in resource utilization and inflation are some of the reasons that put most government built houses beyond the reach of the large portion of the urban population.
New Regulations
Current housing activities in Addis Ababa and other urban centers of the country are guided by Proclamation No. 292/1986, "the Construction and Use of Urban House Proclamation". The standard, sale and co-dwelling regulations introduced in Proclamation No. 292 are put into effect on all new construction activities undertaken after the issuance of the Proclamation in February of 1986.
The urban land reform that took place ten years ago
Demeke Berhanu, "Ethiopia: Urban Housing and a Design Guide Line for Climate" (Master's Thesis, The Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1986), p. 28.


-35-
allowed the occupation of land for the purpose of house building with out payment. To day, vacant urban land in urban centers has become scarce. In Addis Ababa, it is extremely difficult to find vacant land for house building with in reasonable access to the city
It appears that the Standard of Housing Regulation has been formulated, among other things, to address the problem of scarce urban land. The regulation limits the size of land to be allocated for dwelling houses to a maximum of 250 square meters, half the size of the area that was allowed in Proclamation 47 of 1975. The size and design of dwellings prescribed in the Standardization of Dwellings Houses encourage households and cooperatives to build vertically, i.e., multi-story buildings as opposed to single family dwellings, (see TABLE 6 ) The regulation also insists upon the use of locally produced materials.
Effective February 1, 1986, purchase and sale of
houses are to be conducted by the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Thus, Proclamation 292 of 1986 abolishes the right of owners to sale, barter, or transfer by succession which was allowed in article 12 of proclamation No. 47 of 1975. The implementation of this measure enables the government to effectively prevent speculation and illegal transfer of houses that have been widely practiced in recent year. The aim is, of course, to provide affordable prices for the urban mass by determining realistic levels of charges in relation to cost. However, while the regulation may benefit


the middle income households who have higher incomes and can afford to make house payments, affordable housing still remains far beyond the reach of the lower income sector.
The "Co-Dwelling regulation" is another measure introduced by the government in an effort to ease the housing shortage. The measure allows people to let out a room or some rooms in the house they own or rented from the government.
The co-Dwelling regulation only makes legal what many house owners have been practicing for the past ten years. It
TABLE 6
STANDARDS FOR HOUSES
Types St andards Size (sq.
Houses f c )r coopera- a) RH- 1 7 1 7
t ive or : 'ndividuals b) RH-37 37
c ) RH-54 54
d) RH - 7 0 70
Raw Houses For a) RH- 1 7 1 7
rent or s ; a 1 e b) RH- 1 9 19
c ) RH- 2 5 25
d) RH-50 50
Prefabricated a) PF-1H (Type A) 14-1 9
apartment : s b) PF-1H (Type B) 17-19
c ) PF-1S (Studio) 25-30
d) PF- 1 B 38-46
e ) PF-2B 46-57
f) PF-3B 60-70
None-Prefabricated a) RHA-45 45
Apartment : s b) RHA-55 55
c ) RHA-70 70
Source: Adapted from Legal notice No. 9 2 of 1986 "Standardization of Dwelling Houses Regulations", Negarit Gazeta No.3 (February 17, 1986) Article 4.


appears that people still prefer to co-dwell with a secret agreement amongst themselves, as they have already been doing, rather than going through the urban dwellers associations to sign a co-dwelling agreements. Many fear that the government may change policy and that they might loose a part of their house to a co-dweller. This Lack of confidence in government policy may prevent many house owners from participating in the co-dwelling arrangements. At present it seems unlikely that the co-dwelling concept would serve its intended purpose of helping to ease the housing shortage.


-38-
VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Cone 1
u s 1 o n
mid 1 E t h i o e s s e n ch a r g and h urban
The radical urban land and housing reforms of the 970's represented a considerable step forward in pia's urban development process. The reforms removed tial obstacles such as speculation in land and high rent es and introduced major drive to redistribute urban land ousing to the urban mass. Furthermore, the creation of dwellers association in 1976 represented a major step
towards developing a coherent set of housing and urban development programs at the grass root level. The establishment and restructuring of financial institution, particularly the Housing and Savings Bank was clear indication of the government's recognition of housing as an important element in the country's social and economic development plans.
The reforms did not, however, ensure the promised improvement in the living conditions of the urban masses. Implementation of the ambitious policies and strategies introduced through the reforms proved to be an extremely difficult and complex task for the implementing agencies, particularly The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Attempts to tackle growing housing deficits and improve services and infrastructure fell short of expectations. The


-39-
urban housing shortage is a persistence problem. In fact, overall housing conditions in Addis Ababa have become decisively worse during the past ten years. Despite efforts, the government has not been able to generate a range of housing options appropriate to the needs and resources of the urban population of which about 80 percent belong to the low income sector.
The housing cooperatives, particularly the self-help types for the low income households, have not succeeded in contributing to alleviate the ever increasing urban housing shortage. The number of houses constructed by the various cooperative societies remains insignificant. So far, the only ones that showed some degree of success have been the cooperatives formed by the middle income households. The little government housing efforts are inadequate in scale and, so far, their contribution to easing the intense housing problems has not been impressive.
The existing housing stock is in need of vast improvement. All the low cost rented housing (nearly 60 percent of all the housing stock in Addis Ababa) is managed by the kebeles. Many of these houses are not maintained well and they are rapidly deteriorating. According to a 1984 study, 30 percent of kebele houses are either to be demolished or need extensive maintenance. The large part of the rent collected for these houses is used for compensation payments to former owners who have no other income. Very little or no funds at all are available for maintenance.


-40-
With regard to service and infrastructure, while the provision of water supply and electricity are relatively good, sanitation remains persistent problem resulting in an increase in health risks.
By issuing the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation of 1986 and introducing the Standardization,
Sale and Co-dwelling regulations, the government affirmed its position as a major element in the distribution of housing. However, the control over the sale or transfer of private housing and prices which can be charged can do very little in insuring the availability of adequate and affordable housing for the urban population. In view of high demands from other sectors of the country's economy, currently, the government can Allocate only a very low priority to urban housing.
The urban housing problems in Ethiopia are not really very different from those which can be observed in manyj of the developing countries. However, the examination of the current housing situation in Ethiopia requires an understanding of the social, political, and economic framework within which the housing policies have been f o rmu 1 a t e d.
The country had to face enormous economic and political difficulties during the years immediately following the 1974 revolution. Armed conflicts in some regions and a series of droughts and famine left the country in serious economic crisis. The cost of military conflicts and relief and rehabilitation activities in drought affected regions was


-4 1 -
immense. In addition to the domestic problems, Ethiopia's economy was also adversely affected by the international Economic Crisis of the 1970's through oil-price rises and a drop in the price of coffee, Ethiopia's principal export.
High rates of inflation, falling commodity production, a substantial decline in foreign capital, and a drop in the investment rate following the revolution left the country's economy in a period of stagnation. Under these circumstances, it was extremely difficult for the Ethiopian government to concentrate its effort on formulating coherent policies that could effectively deal with the many problems in the various sectors of the economy.
The radical and ambitious urban reforms of the 1970's failed to recognize the severe limitations on the capacity of the country's financial and technical resources to effect implementation of the policies being introduced. An analysis of the past decade of housing construction in Ethiopia since the revolution of 1974 shows that none of the reforms introduced functioned perfectly. This failure is partly due to the inadequacy of planning and administrative measures, but mainly due to the fact that the resources for housing construction are strictly limited as priorities are devoted to other sectors in the national economy.
The government plans to construct a total of about 309,000 housing units in urban centers around the country during the 10 years plan period (1984/1985-1994/95). Of this, 269,000 units are an addition to the existing stock of


-42-
houses. 33 Moreover, 86 percent of these housing units are to be constructed through self-help programs.
In view of the limited potentials of Ethiopia's economy, however, the ambitious housing objectives outlined in the ten year plan will be extremely difficult to achieve. Although the criteria for defining needs and priorities is well established, it does not correspond to existing conditions and available human, material and technical resources. Today, two years into the plan period, housing construction activities are already lagging far behind the set targets in the ten year plan. And looking to the immediate future, the prospects do not seem to suggest that there will be any substantial improvements in the situation.
Sugge
stions and Recommendations
] .
appe a p r omo r e 1 ev t e n-y t e chn
Solutions to the urban housing problem in Ethiopia r to lie in the government's willingness and ability to te more intensive research, accelerated training and new ant approaches. Commitments such as the ones made in the ear plan need to be backed with adequate implementation iques and programs for urban planning.
2 .
d e v e 1 hous i local
The housing sector should be expanded through the opment of economically and socially sound and realistic ng programs which utilize a maximum of self-help and resources. Site and services and low cost housing
33
p . 96 .
Workers' Party of Ethiopia, oj>. c i t . ,


-43-
projects supported by the World Bank have shown a strong potential in reaching a much larger number of the lower income population than conventional types of housing projects. A similar approach, in a larger scale, to low income housing by the government could make a significant impact in reducing the housing problem.
3. Since the economic prospects of the country are
unlikely to allow the government to devote much finance for housing, it is imperative that means and ways to find other financial resources for the housing sector should be explored. There are tremendous hidden and unused resources in the hands of private people. A program under which interested individuals with private money can collaborate on house construction activities, under government supervision, is one possibility that the government of Ethiopia should look into as a potential resource for the housing sector. Such a measure not only helps to increase the housing supply, but also creates much needed employment opportunities.
4 Particular attention should be given to the needs
of the kebeles. The kebeles perform a vital role in Ethiopia's current urban development process, particularly in administering the vast number of low cost houses owned by the government. However, due to the lack of the necessary financial, technical and human resources, the kebeles are not able to properly maintain and upkeep the large number of


-44-
houses under their possession. A procedure should be established for channeling funds from the Agency for Rental Houses Administration (the agency which is responsible for administration of the higher and middle income rental houses) to the kebeles for the purposes of repair and upkeeping of houses and community facilities. The agency has a much larger income than the kebeles and a lesser number of houses to deal with. By making its resources available to the kebeles the agency could provide valuable assistance in saving the existing housing stock from rapid deterioration. In addition, programs should be formulated under which some of the low cost kebele houses can be sold to the tenants. Such programs can considerably reduce the financial and administrative burdens on the part of the kebeles.
5. j Financial institutions need to be expanded.
Realistic policies should be formulated so that the lower income sector can have access to long term loans at a reasonable interest. Furthermore, suitable programs must be developed to encourage and stimulate savings and expand the financing of housing.
6. More attention should be developed to expanding basic services and infrastructure. Stronger effort need to be made to reach more people with basic services, sanitation safe drinking water and health services. Programs for appropriate provision of essential services and


-45-
infrastructure should be developed correlated with the realities of local conditions, need, and available human and capital resources. And such programs have to be implemented with in the overall urban development policy.
7 .
1 o c a 11 suf f ic deve 1 o be dev effect t r ad i t re sour f o rmu1 deve1o the n a sector e f f i c i p r ov i d and st
Strong emphasis should be placed on utilizing y available building material resources. Self-iency in building materials is vital for the pment of stronger construction sector. Programs should eloped to expand research in the application of ive building techniques and in the use of local and ional materials which better serve the needs and ces of the mass. Efforts should be guided toward ating long-range and continuing programs for the pment of the construction sector as integral part of tional development plans. A well developed construction not only aids the housing efforts through greater ency and reduced construction cost, but it also es employment opportunities and contributes to strength ability of the national economy.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abegaz, Berhanu. "The Structure of Employment and Earnings in Early Stages of Urbanization: The Case Of Ethiopia. African Urban Studies, No. 15. (Winter, 1983), 41-58.
Amos Francic j. c. "A Development Plan for Addis Ababa." Ethiopia Observer, VI. NO. 1 (1962), 5-31.
Berhanu, Derneke."Ethiopia Urban Housing & A Design Guide Line for Climate." Master's Thesis, The Royal Acadamy of Fine Arts, 1986.
Central Statistical Office. Addis Ababa Manpower and Housing
Sample Survey-Dec. 1976. Statistical Bulletin No. 15.
Addis Ababa : August, 1977.
--. Ethiopia Statistical Abstract 1982. Addis Ababa:
1982.
--. Office of the National Committee for Central Planning. Census Supplement 1. Addis Ababa: September,
1985.
D r akali i s - Sm i t h , David. Urbanization, Housing and The
Development Process. London: Croom Helm, 1981.
Galpr}n, Georgi. Ethiopia: Population Resources Economy.
Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1981.
Gosh, Pradip K. Development Policy and Planning: A Third
World Perspective. West Port, Connecticut: Green Wood
Press, 1984.


Halliday, Fred and Maxine Molyneux. The Ethiopian Revolution London: Verso, 1981.
Hardoy, Jorge E. and David Satterthwaite. Shelter: Need And Response. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.
Horvath, Ronald J. "The Process of Urban Agglomeration in Ethiopia." Journal of Ethiopian Studies. VII, No. 2.
(July 1970), 81-88.
ILO/JASPA. Socialism From the Grass Roots: Accumulation,
Employment and Equity in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, 1982.
Koehn, Peter and Eftychia. "Urbanization and Urban
Development planning in Ethiopia." in Development
^f Urban Systems in Africa. Edited by R.A. Obudho and
Salah EL-Shaks: Preager Publishers, 1979. Pp. 215-241.
Lewin, A,C. Housing Cooperatives in Developing Countries.
Chicster: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.
Linn, Johannes, F. Cities in The Developing Countries.
Chichester: Oxford University press, 1983.
Metropolitan Housing Draft Report. Addis Ababa, 1984
Municipal of Addis Ababa. Draft Report on Housing in Addis
Ababa: Results From the Census of September 1967. Addis Ababa: March 1972.
Offic£ of the Population and Housing Census Commission.
Ethiopia 1984: Population and Census Preliminary Report


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Ot t aw
Addis Ababa: September, 1984.
ay, Marina and David. Ethiopia: Empire
New York: Africana Publishing Company,
in Revolut ion.
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Payne, Geoffery K. Urban Housing in the Third World. Boston:
Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977.
---. Low-Income Housing in the Developing World.
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1984.
Provisional Military Administrative Council. " Government
Ownership of Urban Land and Extra Houses Proclamation. No 47/1975" Negarit Gazeta. No. 41. Addis Ababa:
Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1975.
--. "Urban Dwellers' Associations Consolidation and
Municipalities Proclamations No. 104/1976" Negarit
Gazeta. No. 5. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing
Press. 1976.
--. "Regulation and Co-ordination of Public Financial
Operations Proclamation No. 1 6 3 / 1 9 79 . " Negarit Gazeta.
No. 12. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press,
19 79 .
---. " Construction and Use of Urbatl Houses Proclamation
No. 292/1986." Negarit Gazeta. No. 3. Addis Ababa:
Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1986.
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Washington, D.C., 1981.


APPENDIX



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Addis Ababa, 26th July, 1975
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NEGARIT GAZETA
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Murr nrt?+r* ®-at n*iiT n+AA*
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r/’A-th1? fftJTA ••■AM XlA.'WAV A*7Ad*J 1 f*l
Tent- h+*r rrt-A/n®o *r»T®or aa-a nxh-Avt-Min'S nztn xaaax n-»yv i
CONTENTS 19 7 6
Prodsmirion No. 47 o< 1975
Government Ownership of Urban Lands and
Extra Hpusas Proclamation................ Paje 200
PROCLAMATION No. 47 OF 1975
A PROCLAMATION TO PROVIDE FOR GOVERNMENT OWNERS .-HP OF URBAN LANDS AND EXTRA URBAN HOUSES
“ETHIOPIA TIKDEM"
WHEREAS, the standard of living, rights, honour and status of workers and toiling masses working in factories, industries and other fields of activity are determined by the extent to which the urban areas in which they liCc rffford opportunities of work and shelter;
WHEREAS, extensive areas of urban land and numerous bouses are in the hands of an insignificant number of feudal lords, aristocrats, high Government officials and capitalists, who, by abusing their political and economic power, have created artificial shortages in the supply of urban land, thereby inflating its value and obstructing the improvement of urban areas and of the quality of life of urban dwellers in their effort to perpetuate the system of exploitation;
WHEREAS, the concentration of urban bouses suitable both for dwelling and business purposes in the hands of a few individuals has not only enabled such people to carry on their exploitation of the many through house rent but has also led them to place themselves above the law and to evade their duty to pay taxes for a long time;
WHEREAS, the urban-dwelling workers and other toiling masses, forced to languish for a long time under the yoke of subjugation and oppression and used as mere instruments far the furtherance of the comfort and luxury of thej-uling class, can regain their rights as Ethiopians, that is, their Economic, political and social rights which should have been mgde equally available to them by their country but which were denied them far a long time, only when all the opportunities afforded by the urban center in which they live are open to them on the basis of equality;
-50-


If6 ‘•Pt* PH"! t'TC frS Tg +7 Igf 7. f. Negarit Gazeta _ No 41 — 26th July. 1975 — Page 201
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WHEREAS, the absence of control on rent of houses and the consequent soaring up of rents has rendered the lives of the masses of urban dwellers miserable;
WHEREAS, it is necessary to survey and plan our cities with the need for dwelling and working purposes erf the majority of city dwellers as the prime factor;
WHEREAS, until now. only that class of people who could produce as security their ownership title of urban land or house benefited from the facilities afforded by banks and insurance companies which the broad urban dwellers were denied, and it is now necessary to make such credit facilities available to such broad masses;
WHEREAS, it is necessary to lighten the burden of paying high house rents of the broad urban dwelling masses, provide them with the necessary credit facilities, and make available to them urban lands for the construction of both dwelling and busiuess houses, thereby improving their standard of living and creating for them the conditions to fruitfully work in confidence for their country, their families and themselves;
WHEREAS, it is necessary to build our urban areas on the basis of careful planning and study in order to utilize our resources in an economical manner, to improve th< conditions of cities, to protect urban dwellers from diseases and prevent illegal activities now prevalent in urban areas;
WHEREAS, it is necessary to do away with the inexhaustible court cases involving urban lands and bouses thereby saving valuable financial and human resources from wastage;
WHEREAS, it is necessary to provide help to those people in urban areas who cannot afford to have shelters of their c*vn;
WHEREAS, in order to bridge the wide gap in the standard of living of urban dwellers by appropriate allocation of disproportionately-held wealth and income as well as the inequitable provision of services among urban dwellers and to eliminate the exploitation of the many by the few, it is necessary to bring under Government ownership and control urban lands and extra urban houses;
NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance with Article 6 of the Definition of Powers of the Provisional Military Administration Council and its Chairman Proclamation No. 2/1974, it is hereby proclaimed as follows:
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1. Short Title
This Proclamation may be cited as the “Government
Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation
No. 47/1975".
2. Definitions
In this Proclamation, unless the context otherwise requires:
1/ “urban lands” shall mean all lands within the boundaries of a municipality or a town;
2/ “urban house" shall mean any house whether fully constructed or under construe boo intended for dwelling or business cr other purpose*.
3/ “extra house' 'shall mean an urban boose whether rented or used or otherwise owned, other than:
a) a single house required or occupied as a dwelling place by a person or family;


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KO.T6-A •
Negarit Gazeta — No. 41 — 26th July, 1975 — Page 202
b) home* required or occupied by an organization ai dwelling placet for its employees or persons under its responsibility;
c) bouses required for running the business of a person, family or an organization.
4/ “dwelling house" shall mean an urban house uwu for dwelling by- a person or family or the emplyees al an organization or persons under its responsibility.
5/ "business house” shall mean an urban house or space used for running the business of a person or family or an organization.
6/ “lessor" shall mean a person who or a family or an organization which rents out an urban land or house.
7/ “lessee” shall mean a person who or a family or an organization which pays rent for the use of an urban land or house.
8/ "co-dweller” shall mean a person who or a family ibich dwells with a lessor or lessee in the same dwelling house and pays rent to the lessor or lessee.
9/ “tenant" shall mean a person who or a family or aa organization which pays rent gives any other consideration for the use of urban land, for a limited or unlimited time, irrespective of the use to which such land is put
10/ “rent" shall mean the money or other consideration paid to a lessor for the use of an urban land or house.
11/ “holding in antichresis" shall mean an urban land or house held by the lender or other person agreed to in the contract as security for a debt
12/ “use-right” shall mean the right to personal use. but in respect of urban land, shall not include the right to transfer it by will, donation, mortgage or sale.
13/ “organization" shall mean any organization or association provided for in the Commercial Code or Civil Code and- shall include the body referred to in Art 398 of the latter.
14/ "co-operative society of urban dwellers” shall mean a co-operative society to be established under Chapter V of this Proclamation.
15/ “Minister’ ’shall mean the Minister of Public Works and Housing.
16/ “Ministry” shall mean the Ministry of Public Works and Housing.
17/ “dispute involving urban land and bouse” shall mean a dispute over the ownership, succession, possession, lease or use of urban house and shall include disputes over the possession of urban laml.


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1K KC t-rc 96 ArATfi +7 UfSl <». r. v«l"« Gazeta — No. 41 — 26th July, 1975 — Page 203
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CHAPTER n URBAN LANDS
3. Government Ownership of Urban Lands
1/ As of the effective date of this Prodam shoo, all urbai> lands shall be the property of the Government.
2/ No persoa, family or organization shall bold urban land in private ownership.
3/ No compensation shall be paid in respect of urban lands.
4. Prohibition of Transfer of Urban Land
1/ No urban land may be transferred by sale, antichresis, mortgage, succession or otherwise.
2/ Any transfer of urban land by donation, succession, lease, sale or otherwise made as of Tahsas 11, 1967 shall be null and void.
5. Site of Holding
1/ Any person or family may, in accordance with directives issued by the Ministry, be granted the possession of urban land upto 500 square meters for the purpose of building a dwelling house. Upon the death oI the holder the wife or husband or children shall have the right to use the land.
2/ Where an organization applies to the Ministry to be granted urban land for building a dwelling or business house the Ministry may, on being satisfied of the need, grant such land in sizes to be determined by it
3/ The Ministry shall determine the size of urban land held before the .effective date of this Proclamation by a person, family or an organization for the purpose of building dwelling houses for his or its employees or for building business houses.
6. Urban Tenant’s Holding
1/ The relationship between landowners and tenants on urban land is hereby abolished. The tenant shall be free from payment to the landowner of rent, debt or any other obligation.
2/ Subject to Article 4 (2) and within the limit of the size mentioned in Article 5 (1), the tenant shall have possessory right over the land he holds.
7. Granting ol Rights of Possession or Priority
1/ Subject to Article 4 (2) and within the limit of the size mentioned in Article 5 (1) any person who or family which does not own a dwelling house shall have possessory right over the land which he or it holds before the effective date of this Proclamation.


M
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UT HI W* PM 9S IB IBIS! 9. f. Negarit Gazeta — No. V; :6th July, 1975 — Page 204
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<{.+?¥ ®f.9- n?A4.V^ A"l/A+AJ?-- A^T
s—tty min a. If/ AlJt a+AO l *JAAO i mf.f XrCJ^t St*. rc-tD- u-W't; •*?.•>* «o*»/*'+ n°r®Av®-
ta^r’iy a+ a*r<:®- j?.iFaa ■ ii <*mV> •»'>'»/"* n°T®Af®- o”ip£t I ®*” ®,
It l ftvm a» AATA-MAC I
S/ A^jf a+Ao i iaao ®^r Jtc?+ nhm a* m fiV tAf+it o-a* y ttr* •
2/ Subject to Article 4 (2) aod within the limit c( the sze men booed m Article 5 (1), any penes who or family which hai paid in full or in putt before the effective date of thit Prodonaiioo the porchaae price of an urban land but don sot own a dwelling how (hall have priority over the poeanrios of auch !«*<
3/ Subject to Article* 4 (2) and 5 (2), as organization which own* urban land before the effective date of tbia Proclamation shall have possessory right over such land. Wheic such organize boo baa paid in full or in part tbe purchase price of urban land, it shall have priority over the possession of such land.
8. Power of Taking and Expropriation
1/ Where a person, family or an organization fails to utilize his or its urban land within the period to be specified by the Ministry, tbe Ministry may take beck such land and put it to appropriate use.
2/ Tbe Ministry shall, by giving rrmpfnuti^i ju kind, expropriate for public purpose urban land held by a person, family or an organization.
9. Urban Land Rint
Any person who or family or organization which holds
urban land shall pay rent to be fixed by the Government.
10. Ownership of Trees in Urban Areas
Trees on urban lands other than those on lands within the
limit of the size mentioned under Article 5 Qian be
Government property.
CHAPTER ni URBAN HOUSES
11. Dwelling and Business Houses
1/ Any person or family may own only a angle dwelling house in any urban area of hit choice.
2/ Any organization may own bouses for tbe purpose of housing its employees or persons under its responsibility. the number and size of which shall be determined by the Government.
3/ Any person, family or organization may own business houses the number and size of which shall be determined by the Government taking into account the condition and type of business.
4/ Any person, family or organization shall pay taxes on his or its dwelling or business hc*a« at rales to be determined by the Government!
12. Transfer of Urban Houses
1/ Any person, family or organization may use his or its own house or transfer such house by succession, sale rr barter. However, in case of sale the Government shall have right of pre-emption.


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NVgarit Gazcu — No. 41 — 26th July, 1975 — Page 205
2/ No right in ownership of urban houses acquired as of Tahsas 11, 1967 shall be effective unless validate by the Ministry. In validating such right the Ministry «h«ll ascertain that the acquisition does not contradict the purposes of this Proclamation.
13 . Government Ownership of Extra Homes
1/ , Subject to Article 11 (1), (2) and (3), all extra booses within the boundaries of a municipality or town shall, on the effective date of this Proclamation, be Government property.
2/ Any person who or family or organization which owns an extra house shall have the obligation to notify, register with and hand over to the Ministry such extra house within 30 days from the effective date of this Proclamation.
14, Houses Taken from the Government
1/ Urban houses which belonged to the Government or which were enemy property or houses built with funds raised by the public or obtained from the Government and were donated, sold at depressed prices or transferred to a person, family or an organization under similar circumstances shall, on the effective date of this Proclamation, be Government property. The foregoing provision shall also apply to said houses which have since been transferred to third parties.
2/ Where the house mentioned in the above sub-article has been transferred to another and where the purchase price paid for it is unreasonably low compared to the actual price, the Minister may permit the transience having no extra house to retain the ownership of such house upon payment of the difference.
3/ ' Where the house mentioned in sub-article (1) of this Article has been transferred to another and where the purchase price paid for the house is roughly equal to the actual price, the Minister may permit the transferee having no extra bouse to retain the house.
4/ Where a person who had acquired a house belonging to the Government by donation or by paying a depressed price and has sold such house and the house is not taken by the Government under sub-artiqles (2) and (3) of this Article, such person shall pay to the Ministry an amount equal to the price he obtained from -he transacti >n.
15. Houses Owned by Minors
Any urban house which a minor living with his parent, guardian or tutor has leased out or which is capable of being leased shall be Government property. However, where the parent does not own an urban house, the minor may exercise the right given under Article 11 (1).


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mf.r ®*n. ArAm nn*»AAnT xn a+7 «»aa /AchntA •
mn®AJt- Mfr AA+/H- fVfT I
g/ At* ha*™* T7 xrc a+7 nn*»AhT
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Ii n®A* A-rf r**TA/ a+ i mtr
v»rtt n.T r/M aaa^ na+n»*mTr ®jsr n*»h«-fT /it®- tTt hAnxc®- i7M>n pc +ant),iji mtr fin at trr h+it i +nAi{®-hAA®- W tu“ih •
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Nej»rit Gucu — No. 4I — 26th July, 1975 — P»je 206
16 AifAi to Rtposuts Own Houst
1/ Where t penoa bu hie own urben house but reeides under any irringement in hi urban house that ot another, such person may repossess his house Likewise, a person who owns more than one urban house may repossess the house at his choice. However, where the Ministry ascertains that the house is necessary (or business purposes or that the house is capable o( accommodating more than one family, this sub-article
/ shall have no application and such house shall be Government property.
2/ Any person who has one or more business houses held in antichresis by another may. where he has no other business house, repossess the house of his choice upon producing a licence for the business he wishes to undertake. However, where the Ministry ascertains that such house cannot be used as a business house, this sub-article shall have no application and such house shall be Government property.
3/ Any person or family shall have the right to evict his or its co-dweller by giving the notice mentioned in sub-article (4) of this Article.
4 Any person who decides to exercise his right under sub-article (1) or (2) of this Article shall give 6 months' notice to'the person occupying the house.
5/ Subject to Article (20) (4) and Article 21 (2). (3). and (4), the lessee shall continue to pay rent to the Government or to the co-operative society of urban dwellers pending the handing over of the house.
6/ Where a person or family leaves for business purposes the urban area of his or its habitual residence and if such person or family has a dwelling house of his or its own in such urban area, the Ministry or the cooperative society of urban dwellers shall, where the person or family so requests, provide such person or family with a comparable dwelling house or commensurate bousing allowance. The Ministry, shall take over the administration of the dwelling house of said person or family and upon the return of the person or family to the place of his or its habitual residence hand it over to its owner.
17. Houses Held in Antichresis
1/ Upon the effective date of this Proclamation, all contracts of antichresis Involving urban houses are hereby abolished.
2/ Where the lender in a contract of antichresis has, by the use to which be had put the house or by tba rant which he has received, obtained an amount equivalent to or more than the amount of the loan, the borrower shall be free from his debt.
3/ Where the lender in a contract of antichresis Involving an urban dwelling or business house which is rever-tible to the owner or is liable to be Government property under sub-article (1) or (2) of Article 16 has not obtained from such house an amount or service equivalent to or more than the amount of the loan, - sue!i lender shall be entitled to claim the difference from the borrower.


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Ncgarit Gazeta — No. 41 — 26th July, 1975 — Page 207
18. Payment of Compensation lor Extra Houses
1/ The Government shall pay- (air compensation in respect of houses transferred to Government ownership under this Proclamation.
2/ Where advance rent for the period after Nehasie 1, 1967 has been paid before the effective date o( this Proclamation, the amount of such rent shall be substracted from the compensation payable under sub-article (1) of this Article.
3/ No compensation or damage shall be due in respect of houses transferred to Government ownership under Article 14 (1).
19. Expropriation of Houses
The Government may, by paying compensation, expropriate for public purpose an urban house held by any person, family or organization.
CHAPTER IV RENT
20. House Rent
1/ No person, family or organization except the Ministry or co-operate societies of urban dwellers may, as of the effective date of this Proclamtion. obtain income from urban land or house rent.
2/ The relationship between lessor and lessee is hereby abolished as of the effective date of this Proclamation. However, the lessee — lessor relationship shall continue with the Ministry or with the co-operative society of urban dwellers in accordance with sub-article (5) of this Article.
3/ Where a contract of lease made before .lie effective date of this Proclamation expires before Tahsas 22, 1968, the Ministry or the co-operative society of urban dwellers may renegotiate the lease with the lessee.
4/ Until a rent control regulation is issued tfe rent of urban dwelling and business houses not exceeding S 300 shall as of Nehasie 1, 1967, be reduced
by the following percentages :-
a) monthly rent of upto $ 25 . .. .'...50%
b) monthly rent of above $ 25
but not exceeding $ 50 .............40%
c) monthly rent of above 5 50
but not exceeding S 100 ............30%
d) monthly rent of above $ 100
but not exceeding $ 150 ............25%
e) monthly rent of above $ 150
but not exceeding $ 200 ......... .20%
f) monthly rent of above S 200
but not exceeding $ 300 . J.........15%
5/ The rent and the administration of urban dwelling and business houses which under sub-article (4) of this Article rent at the rate of:
a) upto 5 100 per month shall be the responsibility of co-perative societies of urban dwellers.


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IIS '•pt* PH"! t*TC 91 A>rx IB IBIS! *» r. Negarit Gazeta — No. 41 - 26th July, 1975 — Page 2(*
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b) above $ 100 per month shall be the retpoosibility of the Ministry
6/ The reals collected by co-operative societies of urban dwellers shall be utilized for purposes beneficial to the dwellers.
7/ The rents collected by the Ministry shall be utilized for the improvement of the lives of all urban dwellers sod of urban areas.
21. Organization! and Fwnilitt under Special Consideration
1/ The Government shall, where it considers it necessary, Provide budfets to religious, educational or health or similar orpznzatioru whose urban house has been transferred to the Government.
2/ Where the Ministry ascertains that s person or family has oo income other than the rent be or it used to collect from his or its extra house which has been transferred to the Government under this Proclamation, the Ministry or the co-perative society of urban dwel-'srs shall, until the person or family earns income by working, pay such person or family an amount upto Two Hundred and Fifty (250) Dollars per month.
3/ Where the Ministry ascertains that a minor or his parent has no income other than the rent which the minor used to collect from his extra house which has been transferred to the Government under this Proclamation, the Ministry or the co-operative society of urban dwellers shall, until the minor attains majority or earns income by working, pay such person an amount upto Two Hundred and Fifty (250) Dollars per month.
4/ Where the Ministry ascertains that the monthly net income from work, pension and from other sources of a person or family whose extra house has been transferred to the Government under this Proclamation does not exceed Two Hundred (200) Dollars the Ministry or the co-operative society of urban dwellers shall pay him or it an amount up to One Hundred (100) Dollars per month.
5/ Payments under sub-articles (1), (2), (3) and (4) of this Article shall be made by the Ministry and the do-operative society of urban dwellers from the rent which is collected under their respective responsibilities. The payment to which a person, family or an organization is entitled under this Article shall not exceed the amount of income from rent
Payments made under this Article shall be deducted from the compensation to be paid by the Government for extra houses taken by it. The total of payments made under this Article may nor exceed the amount of compensation
Where advance rent has been collected before the effective date of this Proclamation, such rent shall be deducted from the amount payable under sub-articles (1), (2), (3) and (4) of this Article.
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CHAPTER V
CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES OF URBAN DWELLERS
22 Establishment of Co-operative Societies of Urban Dwellers
There shall be established a co-operative society of urban dwellers in each unit of urban area as determined by the
Ministry.
23. Membership of Co-operative Society of Urban Dwellers
Any urban dweller may become a member of a co-operative society of urban dwellers. However, a person who was a lessor before the effective date of this Proclamation may not have the right for the first one year period to elect officials of the co-operative society of urban dwellers and to be a member of the judicial tribunal, executive committee or public welfare committee of the society.
24 Functions of Co-operative Societies of Urban Dwellers
The functions of a co-operative society of urban dwellers shall be the following:
1/ to follow and execute land use and building directives to be issued by the Ministry;
V establish a judicial tribunal composed of three members;
3/ to set up. with the co-operation of the Government, educational, health, market, road and similar services necessary for the area;
4/ to collect urban land and house rent amounting upto $ 100 per month per house or per piece of land using the receipt form issued by the Ministry and to undertake the administration and repairs of such houses;
5/ to deposit the rents It collect with a Peoples’ Homing and Savings Bank In ah account opened by the Mlnis-
'try;
6/ to preserve, by establishing a public welfare committee, all public and Government property within the area and in particular to ensure, with the co-operation of Government authorities, the protection of the welfare and lives of the people in the area;
7/ to expend, in accordance with directives issued by the Ministry, the rents it cdUects and the subsidy it obtains from the Government for the building of economical houses and the improvement of the quality of life of urban dwellers tat the area;
8/ to draw up its internal regulations consistent with the requirements of this Proclamation, which shall be effective upon the approval of the Minister.
25 Establishment of Higher Co-operaHve Societies of Urban Dwellers.
1/ There shall be established, depending on the size and population of the urban area, a higher co-operative society of urban dwellers.


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2/ The fuoctiooi oJ â–  higher co-operative society of urban dwellers shall be:
a) to co-ordinate the funeboes of co-operative eocie-Oea of urban dweller* carabao ad in Arbdc 24,
(1). (3). (4), (5), (6), (7) md (I);
b> to nml the Mmiitry in *•**•"I*"t the booadariet of area* *o that oo-oparalh* aocMe* af art— dweller* within the jtoiadintiua of the high* cooperative aocaety have as far a* poeabir aqaal boidinfi;
c) to co-operate with and awit the Minimry â–  pro-ceaaing applicaticn* mbotitted to the Matty by any person who or family or organimlicn which hat no urban land end seek* to obtain inch land for dwelling or buainat* purpoaes;
d) establish a higher judicial tribunal composed of three members.
26. Establishment of Central Co-operative Societies of Urban
Dwellers
1/ rbere shall be established, itep—uting go the dee and population of the urban area, a central co-peraliva society of urban dwellers which shall be r«w«p~.< of delegates of higher co-operative tocieue* of urban dwellers.
2/ The functions of central co-operative societies of ntban dwellers shall be:
a) to co-ordinate the functions of higher co-operative societies of urban dwellerr, and
b) to establish a central judicial tribunal composed of three members.
27. Judicial Tribunals
1/ The judicial tribunal to be established under Article 24 (2) shall,
a) have first instance jurisdiction to hear aad decide disputes involving urban land or bourn arising between urban dwellers.
b) not have jurisdiction to bear criminal cams and dispute* arising between the co-operative society and urban dwellers.
2/ The higher judicial tribunal to be established msder Article 25 (2) (d) shall:
a) hear and decide on appeals from judicial tribunals and such decision shall be final.
b) have first instance jurisdiction to bear and decide disputes involving urban land or bourn arising between co-operative societies of urban dwellers, and between co-operative societies of urban dwellers and urban dwellers.
c) not have jurisdiction to hear criminal cam.
3/ The central judicial 'tribunal to be established under Article 26 (2) (b) shall:
a) hear and decide on appeals from dnrisiom of a higher judicial tribunal in its first instance jurisdiction and such appellate decision shall be final.


IK IIIS 'tPC* jn'l t*rc 9| Tgfgl Af*. Negim Gazeta — No 41 — 26th July, 1975 — Page 211
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b) have first instance jurisdiction to hear and decide disputes involving urban land or house arising between higher co-operative societies of urban dwellers, provided that such decision shall be appealable to the Minister whose decision shall be final.
c) not have jurisdiction to hear criminal cases.
4/ In urban areas which do not have higher and central co-operative societies of urban dwellers, persons and organizations appointed by the Minister shall act as higher and central judicial tribunals until such time as they are replaced by such tribunals.
28. Procedure of Judicial Tribunals
1/ Judicial tribunals established under this Proclamation shall follow the rules of procedure issued by the Minister.
2/ The decision of a judicial tribunal shall be effective fifteen days after the date of decision unless barred on appeal.
3/ An appeal from a decision or order of a judicial tribunal shall be made within fifteen days of the date of
decision.
4/ The decision or order of a judicial tribunal shall be executed by the executive committee of the corresponding co-operative society. Where the executive committee is unable to execute the judicial decision or order, the judicial tribunal shall execute said decision or order by directly ordering the Police.
29. Contempt of Judicial Tribunal
Where a person, in the course of a judicial tribunal proceeding, insults, threatens, holds up to ridicule or in any -manner disturbs the tribunal, the tribunal may summarily punish such person with imprisonment upto 30 days or fine upto Two Hundred Fifty (250) Dollars.
30. I1 lira vires Decisions of Judicial Tribunals
No person who has exhausted his right of appeal at the judicial tribunals may lodge an appeal to the ordinary courts of law. However, where the Minister ascertains from an application submitted to him that the judicial tribunal’s decision is ultra vires, the Minister shall review the case and decide it under this Proclamation. The decision of the Minister shall not be subject to appeal.
CHAPTER VI
POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE MINISTRY
31. Implementation of this Proclamation
The Ministry shall have the power to implement to provisions of this Proclamation.


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32. Establishment of Co-operative Societies of Urban Dwellers
1/. The Ministry shell, in cn-oystfun with the Ministry
ot Interior tad other oremse! Pubik Authorities, eetehUsh et ell levels oo-opersjjve sorieties at arben dwelkn under condirtons which feriltrsle urban development end conform with the needs of urban dwellers.
2/ The Minster shell, et leest et the level of higher cooperative society of urban dweOert, deeifnite one person who shell advise and otherwise assist co-operative societies of urban dwellers.
33. Publicizing of the Proclamation
1/ The Minister shell notify end explain to the public the provisions and purposes of this Prodemstian through the mess media.
2/ In particular, the Minister shell notify the public of " the termination of the relationship between lessor end leasee and of the contract of antichresis, end of the con tin nation of the leaeee — lesacr relationship with the Ministry or the co-operative society of urban dwellers sad shall explain the oooditians under which such .odeties shell be established.
3/ The person H>«ign«i~t by the Minister «b»n help in . the establishment of co-operative societies of urban dwellers by calling aaaembiies of urban dwellers and explaining the purposes and intentions of this Proclamation.
34. Temporary Power of the Minis*? to Preside over ludiciel
Tribunals
1/ The penona designated by the Ministry shall preride over the judicial tribunals until such time as the judicial tribunals are well organised and fully opsnQouaL However, no such person who baa praridsd over a case heard at a lower judicial tribunal may do the same at a higher leveL
2/ The said persona shall rataHish the offices of judicial tribunals and shall assist in organizing the records of the offices.
33. Establishment of Registers end Delimitation of Urban
Boundaries
1/ The Ministry shall establish at all levels registers showing the list of urban dwellers, number end oondition of houses.
2/ The Minister shall have the power to widen, narrow and demarcate urban boundaries in co-operatsoo with the Minister of Interior and other q.noarnnl Public Authorities.
36. Improving the Lives of Urban Dwellers
1/ The Minister shall, in co-operation with the hftnlemr of Finance, Planning Comminian, National Bank and other concerned Public Authorities, assist urban dwellers to procure loans far the putpom af building or
\ buying their own dwelling bouMe.
2/ The rents orflected by the Mmfctry shall, in accordance with comprehensive urban development plans and directives issued by the Government, be utihred for providirg services to urban dweOcn.


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3/ The Ministry shall ensure that the rents collected by a co-operative society are utilized for providing services to the urban dwellers in accordance with comprehensive urban development plans and directives issued by the Government. _
4/ The Ministry shall be responsible for the overall administration of urban lands and urban houses belonging to the Government.
5/ The Alinistry shall, by issuing urban development plans and building economical houses, provide essential services to urban dwellers.
6/ The Ministry shall, in co-operation with the Ministry of Interior and co-operative societies of urban dwellers, provide landless urban dwellers with urban land for building dwelling houses.
7/ The Ministry shall issue standards relating to urban houses and enforce the same.
8/ The Minister or the person or organization delegated by him shall fin the rents of houses not rented at the effective date of this Proclamation.
37. Rights of Inquiry .
The person designated by the Ministry shall have the right to inquire into and obtain contract documents and other information from Government offices, private, commercial and co-operative organizations and persons.
CHAPTER VII CESERAL PROVISIONS
38. Juridical Personality of Co-operative Societies
Each co-operative society of urban dwellers established at any level under this Proclamation shall have its own juridical personality.
39. Jurisdiction of Ordinary Courts of Law
Disputes under Article 17(3) and disputes involving urban houses pending in ordinary courts of law on the effective date hereof shall be heard in such courts.
40. Prohibition of Court Action
1 All cases involving urban land pending in the ordinary courts of law on the effective date hereof are hereby
annulled.
2/ No suit may be brought challenging the legality of any action taken pursuant to the provisions of this
< Proclamation.


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— No. 41 — 26th July, 1975 — Pt*e 214
41. Offences
Any person who, as of the date of the promulgation of this Proclamation, bums, damages, destroys, tampers with or puts out of use any house cr property, or disturbs the peace or obstructs the execution of this Proclamation or attempts to oosnmit any of these offences end any Government official or public servant who misuses or attempts to misuse the authority vested in him under the provisions at this Proclamation shall be punished under the provisions of the Special Penal Code Proclamation No. 8/1974, as amended.
42. Conflict with Other Laws
No law, regulation, practice or procedure, whether written or customary, shall, m so far as it is inconsistent with the provisions of this Proclamation, have force and effect in respect of situations provided for by this Proclamation.
43. Diplomatic Holdings
The status at urban lands held and urban bouses owned by diplomatic and consular representatives and international
organizations shall be determined in the future.
\
44. Houses to which this Proclamation Is not Applicable
This Proclamation shall not apply to urban houses owned by religious organizations which are used for conducting religious services.
45. Power to Issue Regulations
The Minister may issue regulations to give effect to the purposes and provisions at this Proclamation.
46. Effective date
This Proclamation shall enter into force as of 7th August, 1975.
Done at Addis Ababa, this 26th day of July, 1975.
THE PROVISIONAL MILITARY A DMINISTRA TTVE COUNCIL


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Proclamation No. 104 of 1976
Urban Dwellers’ Associations Consolidation
and Municipalities Proclamation................. Page 75
PROCLAMATION No. 104 OF 1976
URBAN DWELLERS’ ASSOCIATIONS CONSOLIDATION AND MUNICIPALITIES PROCLAMATION
“ETHIOPIA TIKDEM"
WHEREAS, it is necessary to consolidate the foundations laid by the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Urban Houses Proclamation providing fee urban dwellers to get organized in kebele, Higher, and Central Associations and run their own affairs, solve their own problems, and directly participate in political, economic and social activities;
WHEREAS, to make the urban dwellers’ associations already formed or to be formed more conscious and organized and to make sure that the Revolution will achieve its ultimate goal, it is necessary to give propeT revolutionary guidance to the mass organizations which the revolution has already created or will create by co-ordinating their activities and organization;
WHEREAS, it is believed that the organization of the broad masses of urban dwellers in kebele, Higher and Central Associations enabling them to directly take ovei the municipal administration of urban centers will not only enhance the organizational set-up of the people but will also improve their due participation in development projects;
WHEREAS, urban dwellers’ associations formed or to be formed in each kebele have direct oontact with the broad masses of urban dwellers and form the basis for their organizational set-up; and accordingly, the kebele associations have primary responsibility to organize the people and encourage their participation in both association and government initiated development projects so that their socialist political consciousness will be raised;
WHEREAS, further, this type of set-up will enable the people to run their own affairs and prevent wastage of their time by removing the involved bureaucratic red-tape and further facilitate the direct involvement of the people in the revolutionary process thereby gaining revolutionary experience;
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WHEREAS, accordingly, it baa been found necess. to consolidate the organizational set-up of urban dwellers’ associations formed at every level and to define by proclamation and regulations their powers and duties;
• NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance with Article 6 of the Definition of Powers of the Provisional Military Administration Council and its Chairman Proclamation No. 2/1974, it is hereby proclaimed as follows:
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL
1. Short Title
This Proclamation may be cited as the “Urban Dwellers’
Associations Consolidation and Municipalities Proclamation No. 104/1976”.
2. Definitions
In this Proclamation, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) “Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation" shall mean the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation No. 47/1976;
(2) “urban dwellers’ association" shafi mean any cooperative society of urban dwellers formed or to be formed at every level under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation;
(3) "kebele association" sh?U mean aay cooperative society of urban dwellers formed or to be formed at the first level under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation;
(4) “higher urban dwellers’ association” shall mean any association to be formed in accordance with Article 25 of the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation;
(5) “central urban dwellers’ association” shall mean any association to be formed in accordance with Article 26 of the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation;
(6) “council” shall mean the assembly of members of Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations representing the Policy Committee of every kebeie association pursuant to the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation aad this Proclamation;
(7) “congress" shall mean the assembly of members of
Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations representing the council of Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations established under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation; *
(8) “policy committee" shall mean a committee composed of persons elected to serve as leaders of urban dwellers’ associations formed at every level and constituted of members of executive, judicial, public safety and financial inspection committees in accordance with the internal regulations of such associations;


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(9) “Minister” or “Ministry* shall mean the Minister or Ministry erf Urban Development and Housing;
(10) “urban center" shall mean any place in which a municipality has already been established or which is designated as an urban center by the Minister in consultation with concerned Government offices;
(11) “charter” shall mean a delegation of power to a municipality to administer the urban center in wbich it is established being directly responsible to the Central Government;
(12) “Mayor” thall mean the official nominated by the Congress and appointed by the Government in accordance with Chapter 5 of this Proclamation to head the administrative branch of Municipalities;
(13) “stray animal or lost property” shall mean any animal or property not under the charge of any person. The phrase "stray animal” shall also include animals under the charge of any person but wandering at large in public places designated as such by municipalities;
(14) “private tree" shall mean any tree located within the area ailoted in private possession to a family, individual or organization in accordance with Article 5 of the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation.
CHAPTER 2
URBAN DWELLERS’ ASSOCIATIONS : COMMON PROVISIONS
3. Legal Personality
Urban dwellers’ associations formed or to be formed at every level shall have legal personality of their own.
4. Qualifications for Election
(1) Any Ethiopian to be elected to the Policy Committee of any urban dwellers’ association established under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation shall satisfy the"following requirements:
(a) that he is of the broad masses and accepts the Ethiopian National Democratic Revolution Programme;
(b) that he is esteemed by nearby dwellers for his integrity and bardwork; that he gives precedence to the interests of the broad masses over his private interests;
(c) that be is not serving a sentence of imprisonment or has not been convicted of misase or waste of public property or breach of trust;
(d) that he has not been deprived of his civil rights by a court of law;
(e) that be has no mental disease; and that be is not addicted to alcohol and dangerous drugs;
(f) that be is not less than 21 years of age.
(2) The General Assembly, Congress or Council of urban dwellers’ associations formed or to be formed under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation shall carefully examine that persons it elects to serve the association as officials satisfy the provisions of sub-trade
(1) above.


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(3) Any Ethiopian, to be eligible to elect members ot the Policy Committee of urban dwellers’ associations to be fomjed under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation, shall satisfy the following requirements:
(a) that he has attained 18 years of age at the time of election;
(b) that he has no mental disease;
(c) that he is not serving a sentence of imprisonment;
(d) that he has not been deprived of his civil rights by a court of law.
5. Term of Office of Association Leaders and Conditions for their Bemoval
(1) The term of office of leaders of urban dwellers’ associations elected at every level shall be fixed in accordance with the model internal regulations issued by the Minister.
(2) Leaders elected by the'association shall, before they are removed from office, be informed in detail of the faults Jiey have committed and shall be afforded enough time and opportunity to present their defence. Members shall, as far as possible, be always guided by the principle of criticism and self-criticism.
(3) The procedure for the removal from office of association leaders shall be as laid down in the. model internal regulations issued by the Minister.
Powers and Duties Common to Associations
Subject to the provisions of Chap:ers 3, 4 and 5 of this Proclamation, urban dwellers’ associations shall, in addition to their powers and duties under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation, have the following powers and duties:
(1) to enable the broad masses of urban dwellers to administer their own affairs;
(2) to develop the ideology of the broad masses m line with the philosophy of Hebrettesebawinet with a view to enabling them to struggle against feudalism, imperialism and bureaucratic capitalism and their influence;
(3) to assist and encourage the formation of women’s and other associations necessary for the effective accomplishment of its objectives;
(4) to enhance the development of the community by making the people participate in the activities of the associations and government initiated projects;
(5) to establish, in cooperation with the concerned institutions. people’s shops and other services, and encourage and give the necessary assistance for the establishment of cot age industries and other cooperative societies by mobilising the community;
(6) to rent and construct houses in accordance with the ma-tcr-plan and hou-ing policy issued by the Ministry or any office or organization delegated by the Ministry;
(7) to encourage dwellers who want to build their own houses by getting organized in associations;
(8) to assist in the drafting of articles of association foe associations r.iablished to accomplish its objectives and ratify and enforce the same in accordance with powers conferred on it.


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Negarit Gazeta — No. 5 — 9th October, 1976 — Page 79
7. Movie o/ Operation
' (1) As kebele. Higher and Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations are, in their organizational set-up, broad mass organizations, they shall fol’ow the principle of democratic centralism. The associations shall, therefore, ensure that in their operations, power flows properly from lower to higher and from higher to lower bodies in accordance with the philosphy of Hebreue-sebawinet. The following shall be the principal directives:
(a) the members who run the various activities of associations at all levels shall be elected by the general assembly of the association;
(b) associations at every level shall have the duty to aubmit from time to time their work programmes and report of their activities from lower to higher and from higher to lower bodies. Lower bodies shall, moreover, have the duty to observe and enforce the decisions given by higher bodies of the association;
(c) every decision of associations shall be given by majority vote. The number of votes required to constitute a majority shall be determined by the internal regulations of the association.
(2) The kebele. Higher and Central Urban Dwellers' associations shall follow economical, simple, efficient, trustworthy and public service oriented revolutionary method of work. It shall be the revolutionary duty of association leaders and members to curb the practice of bribery, undue advantage and influence and strictly control and expose them with a view to making them condemned by the society.
(3) No salary or allowance or any other payment may be paid to association officials, except for those who work full time as Mayors, Heads of Urban Centres or members erf standing committees cf Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations as the case may be.
CHAPTER 3
KEBELE URBAN DWELLERS' ASSOCIATIONS
8. Number of Members of Policy Committee
The number of members of every Kebele Policy Coinnvrtee shall be not less than fifteen (IS).
9 Powers and Duties
Every urban dwellers’ association formed at kehc'r level shall, in addition to those specified in Article 6 of ihis Proclamation, have the following capacity, power; and duties:
(1) to collect in accordance with the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation on its own responsibility with receipts prepared by the Agency for the Administration of Rented Houses and expend on kebele activities the rent of urban land and houses within its jurisdiction and run the general administration and maintenance of «".ch houses;
2


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/Air> ®*rt«ThA A7APA Negarit GazeU — No. 5 — 9th October. 1976 — Page 80
(2) to open an account in the Housing and Savings Bank and deposit therein, or where there is no Housing and Savings Bank, deposit in trust in any other bank designated by the Housing and Savings Bank or, where there is no such other bank, in Municipalities or, where there are no Municipalities, in Government treasuries, the rent and other contributions and revenue the association collects;
(3) to pay living allowance to those dwellers within its boundaries who, in accordance with Article 21, subarticles (2), (3) and (4) of the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation, are entitled thereto; provided that where any dwellers entitled to living allowance have from among the houses they have handed over to the Government, any house the (monthly rental) value of which exceeds One Hundred (100) Birr the association shall:
(a) pay the whole of the required living allowance from the accounts of the Agency for the Administration of Rented Houses; or
(b) pay the living allowance from the rent it has already collected and demand re-imbursement from the Agency for the Administration of Rented Houses;
(4) to establish and co-ordinate, in co-operation with the Higher Urban Dwellers' Association, and in accordance with the directives issued by it, such educational, health, market, recreational, road construction and other similar facilities as are necessary for the community;
(5) to construct, in cooperation with the Higher Urban Dwellers' Association and in accordance with the directives issued to it, low cost houses to the community; and organize activities with a view to improving the living conditions of the community;
(6) to preserve and maintain non-private trees and forests within the jurisdiction of the kebele; fell, mow and sell trees and grass in accordance with directives issued by the Central Urban Dwellers’ Association except, demarcated trees, forests and grass, and expend the proceeds therefrom for the purposes of the activities of the association;
(7) to develop forest resources, protect the soil from erosion and beautify the urban centre:
(a) carry on afforestation-to replace felled trees, in unutilized areas, along street sides and around residential areas;
(b) encourage the observance by private possessors of the directives specified in (a) above, and give any assistance where necessary ;
(8) to protect any public or Government property within its jurisdiction;
(9) to conduct educational activities on hygiene and cleanliness; and take the necessary measures to ensure the cleanliness of the kebele;
(10) to eradicate illiteracy within the kebele;.
(11) to prevent the placing of undue obstacles on roads within the boundary of the Kebele and immediately remove same where they have been placed;


Iff t S >P** P*"l t'TC 6 ••fthi.r JJB *1 IfRfi 7f*- Negarit Gazeta — No. 5 — 9th October. 1976 — Page 81
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(12) to keep i proper register of boom located within the kebele;
(IS) to keep a proper register at the aumber of residents living within the kebele;
(14) to keep a register ol births, massages and deaths within the kebele;
(15) to cooperate with the Ministry at Commerce and Tourism on matters pertaining to prioe control;
(16) to assist, in cooperation with the Postal Service Authority, the extension of postal service to the people;
(17) to cooperate with the concerned office in matters relating to the collection of Government taxes, fees and other revenue;
(18) to contribute to the Higher Urban Dwellers’ Association at least fifteen percent of the fund it retains after paying living allowances to persons entitled thereto; the amount of such contribution shall be determined by the Higher Association having regard to the income from rents of the association;
(19) to establish a judicial tribunal of three members;
(20) to establish a public welfare committee in order to fulfill its duties under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation; and to ensure and protect effectively the welfare of the community. The kebele association mav mobilize the community for this purpose.
10. Powers and Duties of the Public Safety Committee
(1) The members of the public safety committee shall jointly or severally have the following powers and duties;
(a) to submit to the appropriate authority in cooperation with nearby dwellers any criminal held in flagrante delicto;
(b) to produce warned persons in accordance with orders legally issued by the executive committee or judicial tribunal of urban dwellers’ associations;
(c) to enforce the decisions and orders of the judicial tribunal;
(d) to protect public and government property within its boundary;
(e) to carry on guarding and security activities in accordance with directives issued by the Ministry of Interior;
(2) Members of the executive committee of associations jointly or severally or residents of the kebele delegated in writing by such committee may exercise the duties specified under sub-article (1) of this Article.
11. Powers and Duties of Judicial Tribunal
Judicial tribunals of kebele dwellers’ associations shall, in addition to those specified in the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation, have jurisdiction to hear and decide the following:
(1) Civil Jurisdiction;
With the exception of cases falling under Article 15 (2) of the Civil Procedure Code and the Labour Proclamation No. 64/1975 and disputes to which the Central Government is one of the parties:


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1K ti HC 8 ItB ♦“» IflfSfl *»• r. Negarit Gazeta — No. 5 — 9th October, 1976 — Page 82
(a) any disputes involving pecuniary claims oi up to Five Hundred (500) Birr or any disputes on property of a value of up to Five Hundred (500) Birr;
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(b) disputes involving claim* of rents and service charges on houses and lands within the boundary of the kebele;
(d) any civil cases where the parties to the dispute give their consent to its jurisdiction.
(2) Criminal Jurisdiction:
Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-article (1) of Article 33 hereof as to the penalty:
(a) offences under Articles 471, 543, 544, 548, 552, 571, 583, 608, 625,626, 649,650, 652,653, 661; of the Penal Code;
(b) any offence under Article 439 of the Penal Code where the offence specified therein is committed against it;
(c) offences under the Code of Petty Offences of the Penal Code excluding traffic violations and offences under Articles 733, 738 - 743 inclusive, 746 -756 inclusive, 758, 759, 765, 767, 776, 783, 786, 787, 789-791 inclusive, 817-820 inclusive;
(d) any offences under the Code of Petty Offences specifically enumerated under Sub-article (2) (c) of this Article where the complainant Government Office refers the case to the judicial tribunal;
(3) in addition:
(a) the judicial tribunal of the kebele association may examine in detail the means of livelihood of the person who submits any application to get any kind of free services in court or Government offices and grant certificate thereto;
(b) the judicial tribunal of kebele associations shall cooperate to serve court summons to parties to a dispute and witnesses through the kebele association of which the persons so summoned are residents.
12. Scope of Jurisdiction
The Judicial Tribunal of kebele associations shall have the
powers specified in Article 11 of this Proclamation where:
(1) the parties to the dispute are residents of the kebele
or associations within the kebele, or
(2) the property, the matter or the. offence which is the cause of the dispute is located or committed within the kebele; or
(3) the defendant is a resident of the kebele.


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CHAPTER 4
HIGHER URBAN DWELLERS’ ASSOCIATIONS
13 Establishment of Association
(1) More than one ksbtle aieodatint located in an area defined by {uidelinea isnied by the Minietry ahall together form Higher Urban DweUeo’ Aaaociation.
(2) In urban centers where Higher Urban Dwellen’ Aaso-ciattoni cannot be formed, ktbeU aasociatkms »h»n additionally perform the duties of such associations.
(3) In urban centers where a kebelt aaaociation performs the duties of Higher Urban Dwdkrs' Association, the general assembly of such association shall elect a Special Judicial Tribunal of from three to five members to bear appeals against decisions given by the Kebelt Judicial Tribunal. Decisions given by judicial tribunals thus established shall be final. Members of the Special Judicial Tribunals may not serve as members in any other functions of Policy Committees.
14. Membership Mandatory
Kebelt associations located within areas demarcated for the establishment of Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations have the duty to become members of such Higher Associations.
15. Number and Election of the Members of Councils
(1) Tbe Policy Committee of every kebelt association shall elect at least one of its members to represent it in the Higher Association. Tbe number of representatives shall be based on the number of kebelt associations which art members of the Higher Association.
(2) Where ktbele associations perform duties of Higher and Central Urban Dwellers' Associations or where Higher Associations perform duties of Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations, as the case may be, a representative of the Ministry may participate as member of the Policy Committee, or of the Council.
16. Operations of the Association
Tbe association shall carry out its activities through its Council and Policy Committee.
(1> Council:
The number of members of tbe Council of tbe association may not be less than 26.
The Council shall:
(a) elect and discharge members of the Policy Committee of the association, and establish tbe judicial tribunal of the association. Tbe members of the judicial tribunal of the association shall be not less than three and not more than five;
(b) examine and approve tbe budget of the association
and supervise its accounts;
(c) elect from among its members at least two members to represent it at the Central Urban Dwellers’ Association;
»•


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(d) elect from among its members from three to five members and establish a Special Judicial Tribunal to hear appeals against decisions of the judicial tribunal of the association in urban centers where Central Urban Dwellers Associations are not established. hiembers of the Special Judicial Tribunal may not be members of the Policy Committee of the association;
(e) supervise the proper implementation of the powers and duties conferred on the association under this proclamation.
(2) Policy Committee
The number of members of the Policy Committee of the association and their detailed duties shall be prescribed in its internal regulations.
17. Powers end Duties of Higher Urban Dwellers' Association
The association shall, in addition to those specified in
Article 6 of Chapter 2 of this Proclamation, have the following powers and duties:
(1) to ensure, in co-opera'icn with the Central Urban Dwellers’ Association, that associations within its boundary have as far as possible equal holdings and adequate income;
(2) to give the necessary assistance, in consultation and collaboration with the Ministry, wh*n any family, individual or organization having no urban land applies to the Ministry for such land for the construction of dwelling or business houses;
(3) to study and implement methods with a view to giving better services to the community by coordinating the financial and manpower resources of the kebele associations within its boundary;
(4' to coordinate the activities of the public safety committee within its boundary and within neighbouring associations;
(5) to assist kebele associations to give better service to the community by coordinating their acitvities with respect to the collection of rent and maintenance of houses;
(6) to establish and supervise places where stray animals and lost property may be kept;
(7) to devicnate and supervise, in consultation with the Central Urban Dwellers’ Association, livestock marketing centers within its boundary;
(8) to study and implement methods with the view of establishing cooperative societies, people’s shops and the like and giving better services to the community by coordinating the kebele associations in the vicinity;
(9) to subsidize the activities of kebele associations within its boundaries from the fund it acquires from the Central Urban Dwellers’ Association and from contributions it collects;
(10) to operate and coordinate, in cooperation with Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations, social service programmes;
(11) to contribute to the Central Urban Dwellers’ Association one-thud (1/3) of the fund it acquires pursuant to sub-article 18 of Article 9 hereof.


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18. Judicial Tribunal of Higher Urban Dwellers' Association
The judicial tribunals established by Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations shall have the following jurisdiction:
(1) to hear appeals against decisions of judicial tribunals of kebele associations, which decisions thus rendered shall be final.
(2) to hear and deride on first instaaoe, dispute* between kebele associations and between kebele associations and dwellers relating © urban lands and bouses, subject to the provisions d Article 11 hereof.
CHAPTER 5
CENTRAL URBAN DWELLERS’ ASSOCIATIONS
19. Establishment of Association
(1) Where more than oce Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations are formed within the boundary of any urban center they shall establish a Central Urban Dwellers’ Association and take over the administration of the urban center.
(2) In urban centers where Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations are not established, the Higher Urban Dwellers’ Association shall perform the duties of such Central Urban Dwellers' Associations.
(3) In all urban centres where Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations are not established, the Kebele Association shall perform the duties of Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations.
20. Membership Mandatory
In urban centers where Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations are to be formed. Higher Urban Dwellers' Associations are obliged to be membtrs of such Central Urban Dwellers’
Associations.
21. S’umber and Election of Members of Congress
(1) Every Higher Association shall elect at least two members from among members of its Council to represent it at Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations. The number of representatives shall be based on the number of Higher Associations which are members of such Central Associations, provided that their number may not, in any urban centre, be less than 30.
(2) In chartered urban centres, the concerned Ministries and offices shall delegate one member to the Congress.
(3) In non-chartered urban centers, the representatives of the Ministry and the Ministry of Interior shall participate in the Congress as members; other Ministries and offices shall participate in the Congress when necessary.
(4) In chartered urban centers, representatives of each Ministry shall only participate in the meetings of the Cong-ess but shall not have the right to vote or to be elected as officials of the administration.
22. Operations of the Association
The association shall carry on its activities through the Congress, the Standing Committee and the Administrative Section of the urban center.
(1) The Congress
The Congress of the urban center shall be the assembly of members represented in accordance with Article 21 hereof.
The Congress shall:


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(a) tupervise the effective impiementatioo of the powers and duties conferred on Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations under Article 23 hereof;
(b) give recommendations to the Government on matters relating to the development and expansion of urban centers;
(c) . determine the schedule for the meetings of the
Congress provided that regular meetings of the Congress may not exceed four times annually;
(d) elect the mem ben of the Standing Committees of the Central Association; the number of Standing Committees may not exceed the atnnbcr of Higher Associations;
(e) submit to the Government for appointment as mayor or head of the urban center a list of three nominees from among its members, the Government shall appoint one of the nominees as mayor or bead of the nr ban center and dismiss the same;
(f) define the job descriptions of all higher officials; dismiss same from their jobs; provided that where dismissal of the mayor or the bead of the urban center is involved, it shall submit its recommendations to the Government;
(g) establish a judicial tribunal of from three to five members;
(h) approve the budget of the urban center and supervise its implementation;
(i) appoint auditors and approve or reject their
reports;
(j) submit through the Ministry for determination by the Government land rents and service charges, taxes, charges and fees in chartered urban centers;
(k) have the power in chartered urban centers to issue and amend laws pertaining to, the administration of the urban centre, the maintenance of the property of municipalities, and security and public health;
(l) issue regulations for the effective implementation of its powers and duties;
(m) the mayor or bead of the urban center shall be the chairman of the Congress.
(2) Powers and Duties of the Standing Committee
The Standing Committee of the Central Association shall when the Congress is not in session, supervise the proper implementation of the powers of the Congress under sub-article (1) of Article 22 hereof.
( 3 ) The A dministrative Section
(a) The mayor or the bead of the urban center shall run the Administrative Section of the urban center as the bead thereof. The mayor or the head shall be responsible to the Congress and the Standing Committee;
(b) The mayor or the head of the urban centre shall submit to the Council for appointment the higher officials of municipalities;
(c) The mayor or head of the urban center shall have the power to hire and dismiss any employee other than those higher officials appointed by the Congress.


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(d) The conditions for the employment, dismissal and promotion at the employees of the municipalities shall be prescribed in laws or regulations issued by the Congress in consultation with the Government.
23. Powers and Duties of the Association
Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations shall, in addition to
those specified in Chapter 2 hereof, have the following
powers and duties:
(1) to collect and allocate charges and rents which, in accordance with the various legislations previously in force, and regulations to be issued under this Proclamation, are due to Municipalities, and collect taxes in accordance with the policy of the Government relating to taxes;
(2) to lay out, close and maintain main streets, squares, bridges, resorts, parks and public gardens;
(3) to insure that sewerage systems and houses are built properly and according to plan;
(4) to organize and prepare for public use water and electric supplies, grand market places, cemeteries, abattoirs, drainages, public baths, theatres, and public halls;
(5) to provide, in cooperation with the concerned Government offices, adequate transport services throughout the urban center;
(6) to organize and supervise fire brigades, ambulance services, and garbage trucks;
(7) to take the necessary measures to ensure public health and hygiene in urban centres;
(8) to perform, in accordance with directives issued by the Ministry works relating to large scale maintenance and demolition activities; to decide the width, propenety and construction of any new road; and generally to supervise that any work done by or under private individual is not contrary to the requirements of public health and safety;
(9) to operate and coordinate social service programmes in collaboration with the concerned Government offices and agencies;
(10) to demarcate, in consultation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Settlement, large forests located within the boundary of urban centers and supervise their proper up-keep; and also to issue, the necessary directives concerning undemarcated trees in accordance with subarticle (7) of Article 9;
(11) to put into effect all the powers and duties conferred on municipalities by various laws and regulations pie-viously in force to the extent that they do not generally contravene this Proclamation and the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation, and also to perform the duties expected of municipalities;
(12) to insure, in consultation with the Ministry, that the Higher Associations in Urban Centers have equal holdings;


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*!*• tPd* PH"! ♦‘■TC g o»t\htr gfl ♦*» TBfgB *»• r. Negarit Gazeta — No. 5 — 9th October, 1976 — Page 88
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(14) to give the necessary financial support from the revenue erf municipalities, to development projects run by Higher and kebele associations;
(15) to protect, in collaboration with the Ministry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources, minerals like quarries and sand within the boundaries of urban centers, and to insure that the same are used to the development and expansion of urban centers.
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24. Judicial Tribunal of Central Urban thvellers’ Association
Judicial tribunals of Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations shall have the following powers and duties:
(1) to hear and decide appeals against decisions of Higher Urban Dwellers’ Associations given on first instance;
(2) the decisions on appeals of the judicial tribunal of Central Urban Dwellers’ Associations shall be final.
CHAPTER 6
PROVISIONS AND PROCEDURE COMMON TO JUDICIAL TRIBUNALS
25. Scoptoj Application
(1) The provisions of this chapter shall apply mutatis mutandis to all judicial tribunals established under this Proclamation.
(2) Judicial tribunals are public tribunals; therefore, any dweller of the kebele who is present at the hearing has the right to comment and forward his views on the case at hand, provided however, that the judicial tribunal shall have the power and responsibility to render its own independent judgement based on law and justice.
(3) Judicial tribunals established at every level shall only follow the procedures laid down in this Proclamation.
26. Time and Place of Hearing
Any judicial tribunal may hold hearings in the office of the association or in any other place and time which it deems suitable for holding hearings; provided that the time of hearing shall, as far as possible, be after working hours.
27. Procedure
(1) With the exception of cases on appeal, judicial tribunals established at every level shall have jurisdiction to bear a case only where such case has been examined in advance and referred to it by the executive committee of the association. All decisions or orders shall be given in the name of the association.
(2) No member of judicial tribunals may hear on appeal any case which he has previously heard at the first instance.
(3) The tribunal may hold hearings when more than half the members thereof are present
(4) Where a case cannot be decided by majority because of lack of quorum of the Tribunal, the Chairman of the association may co-opt one of the members of the Executive Committee to hear the case.


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28. Production of Evidence
(1) Any judicial tribunal may require evidence to be produced before it and examine witnesses as may be necessary for the determination of the case.
(2) Any person, office or organization shall have the duty to appear before the tribunal and produce the required evidence on time when summoned pursuant to sub-article (1) of this Article.
29. Option not to Entertain Case
fitly judicial tribunal shall have the option not to entertain or decide a case where the following conditions obtain:
(1) the defendant in good faith, pleads guilty and appo-logises before the tribunal or the association and on his own initiative makes good the damage he caused; or
(2) the plaintiff or the appellant has withdrawn his charge or appeal.
30. Change of Venue
Where in accordance with sub-articles (2) and (3) of Article 12, the places where the defendant resides and where the offence was committed do not coincide and where the judicial tribunal finds the kebele in which the defendant resides more convenient for the enforcement of the punish-ment and it is ascertained that it would not delay the determination of the case, it may transfer the case to the judicial tribunal of the kebele in which the defendant resides.
31. Transfer to Regular Courts and Concurrent Offences
(1) Where in the course erf first instance or appeal proceedings any judicial tribunal finds that it has no jurisdiction to hear the case, it shall order the transfer of the case to a regular court having jurisdiction. The court to which any case have been thus transferred shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide such case.
(2) The court to which the case has been transferred in
accordance with sub-article (1) of this Article, shall, adhering to the penal provisions prescribed in this Proclamation, give decisions including on the charges against the defendant before the tribunal.
(3) Where any regular court gives decisions pursuant to sub-article (2) of this Article and where it deems that its decision will be better executed through kebele Associations, it shall transfer the execution of its decision to the Judicial Tribunal of the kebele Association of which the defendant is a resident.
(4) Where the offences committed fall within the jurisdiction partly of the judicial tribunal and partly cf the regular court, the regular court shall have jurisdiction to hear all of the offences together.
32. Giving of Judgement
Any judicial tribunal shall register:
(a) the charge and supporting evidence against the defendant; and


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(b) the defences produced by the defendant; and shall give judgement thereon.
33. Power to Impose Penalties and Give Rollings
(1) Where any judicial tribunal find* the defendant guilty in cases it hears under this Proclamation it may impose, according to the gravity of the /offence, any one of the following penaltiess
(a) warn the offender;
(b) order the offender to nfalce a public apology to the injured person or association;
(c) publicize the offender’s shameful act;
(d) impose fines of up to Three Hundred (300) Birr;
(e) impose a sentence of imprisonment of up to three
(3) months;
(f) impose a sentence of hard labour of up to fifteen (15) days;
(g) order the offender to compensate the injured party.
(2) In civil suits under this Proclamation:
(a) where the defendant is tound guilty, the tribunal may order him to make an immediate payment of the fine imposed, or to effect payment within a fixed period of time or to do or to refrain from doing a certain act;
(b) where the tribunal is certain that the plaintiff instituted the suit with intent to cause undue inconvenience to the defendant, it may order the plaintiff to pay damage to the defendant.
34. Repeated Offences
The tribunal may impose more than one of the penalties referred to in Article 33 (1) on any offender who is proved to be guilty of committing:
(a) repeated, or
(b) concurrent offences.
35. Non-compliance
Where any person ordered to perform compulsory labour by a tribunal fails to comply with such order, the tribunal may impose a sentence of up to three (3) months imprisonment or a fine of up to Three Hundred (300) Birr.
36. Execution of Decision
Tribunals shall execute their decisions through the kebele Public Safety Committee or the local police.
37. Appeal
(1) Any party may appeal within fifteen (15) days from the date of decision by the tribunal;
(2) The tribunal shall give a copy of its judgement and the evidence to the party appealing; and in cases where this is not possible, the chairman of the tribunal or a member he delegates must appear in person and explain the matter to the appellate tr'.unal.
38. Decisions on Appeal
The Higher or Central judicial tribunal may reverse, confirm, vary or remand the case with guidelines to the kebele or Higher Judicial Tribunal, as the case mav be.


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39. Additional Evidence
The Higher or Central Judicial Tribunal may, where « finds it necessary, admit additional evidence during the appeal, provided that where any party to the dispute intentionally or negligently failed to produce any evidence during the bearing at the first instance, such party may not produce at the appeal stage any additional evidence be did not produce initially.
CHAPTER 7 SPECIAL PROVISIONS
40. Transitory Period
(1) Powers of the Minister
(a) Subject to the provisions of this Proclamation, the Minister shall have the power to issue regulations regarding the establishment of Higher and Central Urban Dwellers' Associations.
(b) Until the issuance of a Proclamation enabling self-administration to municipalities in non-cbartered urban centers, the Minister, being subrogated to the powers conferred on the Ministry of Interior by various laws and regulations previously in force, shall have the powers to supervise municipalities as the head thereof.
(c) In urban centers where Higher and Centra! Urban Dwellers’ Associations cannot be formed, the Minister shall issue directives regarding the conditions whereby ktbele associations may take-over the administration of municipalities.
(d) The Minister shall study ways and means by which urban centers become self-sufficient; and where, considering their population and economic activity h» finds that they are competent to administer themselves, he shall propose to the Government that they be chartered.
(e) The Minister shall prepare model articles of association to Associations formed or to be formed under this Proclamation and the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation.
(f) Where the Minister ascertains that members of policy committees and especially pf Judicial Tribunals of Urban Dwellers’ Associations f"rr.ed or to be formed at any level cannot conduct their duties in their extra time only, he shall. taV ng into consideration the load of work of the associations, allow the members to suspend their regular work and work for the association instead for not more than eight (8) working hours a week. Any Government Office, organization or employer receiving notice from the Minister in accordance with this, has the duty to comply with the order
(g) Powers and duties conferred on the Minister and the Ministry of Public Works and Housing by the Government Ownership of Urban Land- an J Fxtra Houses Proclamation and other laws are conferred on the Minister and the Ministry by this Pioda-mation.


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(2) Chartered Urban Centers
All urban centers which had charters prior to the promulgation of this Proclamation shall be deemed to have been granted Charters upon the establishment of congresses in accordance with chapter 5 of this Proclamation.
(3) Right to elect and be elected
The following urban dwellers shall neither have the right to elect or be elected for a period of one year from the date of issuance of this Proclamation, as members of the policy committee, the council, or the congress of urban dwellers’ associations formed or to be formed under this Proclamation and the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation:
(a) any person or husband and wife who, before the promulgation of the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation, had a monthly income from house rent of more than Fifty (50) Birr or any person who, having no income of its own from work, is dependent on such persons;
(b) any person or husband and wife who, before the promulganon of the Public Ownership of Rural Lands Proclamation, had more than ten (10) hec-
-tares (X of a gas ha) of land or any person who, having no income of his own from work, is dependent on such persons;
(c) subject to sub-article 3 (a) and (b) above, any person or husband and wife whose property has been nationalized in accordance with the various Proclamations, Directives and Orders issued by the Provisional Military Government or any person who, having no income of his own from work is dependent on such persons.
41. Conflict with other Laws
(1) No law, regulation, practice or procedure written or customary, in so far as it is inconsistent with the provisions of this Proclamation shall have force or effect in respect of situations provided tar by this Proclamation.
(2) In respect of urban dwellers’ associations only, the following Articles of the Urban Lands Rent and Urban Houses Tax Proclamation No. 80/1976 are hereby repealed or amended:
(a) Article 5 and Article 13 which provides for the obligation of the Ministry of Public Works and Housing;
(b) Article 14 (2) is deleted and replaced by the following Article 14 (2):


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14. (2) “Dwelling houses whose estimated annual rental value is up to Three Hundred (300) Birr are exempt from tax for a period of one year from the effective date of this proclamation. After ooe year, however, the conditions of tax payment shall be determined in accordance with Urban Dwellers’ Associations Consolidation and Municipalities Proclamation No. 104/1969".
42. Offence]
Any person who contravenes or obstructs the implementation of this Proclamation or regulations issued under this Proclamation or who violates this Proclamation shall be punished in accordance with the Pena] Code.
43. Jurisdiction of Regular Courts
(1) Subject to sub-article (3) of this Article no regular court shall, as of the effective date of this Proclamation, have jurisdiction to entertain any suits which fall within die jurisdiction of the Judicial Tribunal of Urban Dwellers’ Associations under this Proclamation.
(2) A case instituted in a regular court before the effective date of this Proclamation shall, even if it falls within the jurisdiction of the judicial tribunals of Urban Dwellers’ Associations undeT this Proclamation, be decided by the regular court handling the case.
(3) In urban centres where kebele judicial tribunals are not established, civil and criminal cases falling within the jurisdiction of judicial tribunals under this Proclamation shall be heard by the regular courts and the regular procedure shall apply; provided that as of the date of notification to the court by the Minister of the establishment of the judicial tribunal, such court shall only decide cases already instituted and shall cease to entertain cases falling under the jurisdiction of the judicial tribunal.
44. Effective Date
This Proclamation shall come into force as of the 9th day of October, 1976.
Done at Addis Ababa, this 9th day erf October, 1976
THE PROVISIONAL MILITARY ADMINISTRATION COUNCIL


Acn ArA+V f~rc c
45th Year — No. 3

aaa Ann i +7 jgfes 7. r. Addis Ababa, 17th February, 1986
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CONTENTS 19 8 6
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Proclamation No. 292 of 1986 Construction and use of Urban
Houses Proclamation..................... .... Page 9
Legal Notice No. 92 of 1986
Standardization of Dwelling Houses
Regulations...................................... Page 13
Legal Notice No. 93 of 1986
Sale of Urban Houses Regulations................. Page 15
Legal Notice No. 94 of 1986
Co-Dwelling Regulations.......................... Page 16
PROCLAMATION No. 292 OF 1986
A PROCLAMATION TO PROVIDE FOR THE
CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF URBAN HOUSES
"ETHIOPIA nKDEM”
WHEREAS, it is found necessary to encourage the broad-masses of urban dwellers to construct their own dwelling houses and to organize themselves, more extensively, into housing cooperatives;
WHEREAS, it is essential to regulate the use of urban houses and to make their construction commensurate with existing economic realities by prescribing appropriate standards;
NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance with Article 5 (6) of the Redefinition of Powers and Responsibilities of the Provisional Military Administrative Council and the Council of Ministers Proclamation No. 110/1977, it is hereby proclaimed as follows:
1. Short Title ..
This Proclamation may be died as the “Construction and
Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986”.
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2. Definitions
In this Proclamation, unless the context requires otherwise:
1) “urban land” shall have the mining given to it in the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation No. 47/1975;
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A) fh'MVTPF'A *77nAA9 AA-A Aunt /tCg+Al «•) «*7*J/"p*t 2) “urban centre" aball have the meaning given to it in the Urban Dwelien’ Auociatiooi and Urban Admlnls* tration Proclamation No. 206/1981;
3) “urban bouee" meant any house or structure whether fully constructed or under construction by. the Government, housing cooperatives, urban dwellers' associations and other mass organizations, government and private organizations as well as individuals, for dwelling, business or other purposes;
4) “dwelling house” means an urban house fully constructed or under construction for dwelling purposes;
5) .“housing cooperative” means a voluntary association . legally formed by individuals by pooling together
resources, labour and know-how with a view to con-structuring dwelling houses and infrastructure related thereto;
6) "infrastructure" means water, electricity, road or telephone facilities for the use of a bousing cooperative or cooperatives;
7) "centre” means an area reserved in accordance with the master plan for social services, government and mass organization offices, economic, financial and trade centres;
8) “standard” means the criteria prescribed by the Minister, by regulations, to determine the manner of construction and the size of dwelling houses;
9) “urban administration” means an organ that has assumed the administration of an urban centre in accordance with the Urban Dwellers' Associations and Urban Administration Proclamation No. 206/1981;
10) “minister” or “ministry” means the Minister or Ministry of Urban Development and Housing, respectively;
11) “person” means any natural or juridical person.
3. Urban Land Use
The Minister shall taking into consideration the size of the construction intended and other related development activities, by directives, allocate and determine the size ot urban land for purposes of:
a) centre;
b) urban bouse;
c) common local recreation and other facilities.
4. Construction of Dwelling Houses
Dwelling bouses may, in accordance with this Proclamation, be constructed by the following:
a) the Government;
b) housing cooperatives;
c) urban dwellers’ associations and other mass organizations;
d) government and private organizations; and
e) individuals.


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5. Powers and Responsibilities of Urban Administration
Any urban edminiatratian shall have the following powers
and respond bill ties:
1) to allot urban land and issue building permit in accordance with standards prescribed by the Minister;
2) to construct urban houses in accordance with directives issued by the Minister;
3) to give assistance to housing cooperatives;
4) to encourage individuals in their endeavour to construct dwelling houses;
5) to ensure that the construction at houses is carried out m accordance with the permit issued; and to take measures, as provided for in Article 7 of this Proclamation, in cases where the construction of houses does not conform with the permit
6. Standards For Urban Houses
1) The Minister shall issue different types of standards for the construction of dwelling houses.
2) The Government, housing cooperatives, urban dwellers' associations and other mass organizations, government and private organizations or individuals construct dwelling houses only in accordance with the standards prescribed by the Minister.
3) The construction of urban bouses and the use of urban land for purposed other than dwelling, shall be in accordance with directives issued by the Minister.
7. Construction without Permit
' 1) Any urban house constructed without permit or in violation of standards or directives issued by the Minister shall be either confiscated or demotiahed by order of the Minister.
2) Where an order is given for a boose to be demolished, in accordance with sub-article (1) of this Article, and the owner fails to comply with such an 8. Rights on an Urban House
1) Notwithstanding other laws to the contrary, any person shall have the following rights on an urban house he or it owns;
a) to use;
b) - to transfer by succession;
• c) to mortgage;
d) to sell, subject to'Article 10 of this Proclamation.
2) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article (1) of this Artidet donation or sale at « share on a dwelling house may be made only bowwu co - owners or co-possessors.
9. Validation of Ownership of Urbm Houses
1) Right of ownership of an urban bouse acquired from Tahsas 11. 1967 to Nchase 1, 1967 «h»T1 not be effective unices validated by the Ministry.


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2) Right of ownership or possession of art urban house acquired from Yekatit 3, 1977 to the date of entry into force of this Proclamation, shall not be effective unless validated by the Minister.
10. Sale of Urban Houses
1) Subject to sub-article (2) of Article 8 of this Proclamation, any urban house offered for sale shall be bought only by the Government, unless the Council of Ministers Issues different directives.
2) The provisions of sub-article (1) of this Article shall be applicable to any sale of a right on a dwelling house by a member of a bousing cooperative unless such sale is governed by the provisions of sub-article (2) of Article 8 of this Proclamation.
3) The Government may sell its urban house to any person; where the sale relates to a dwelling bouse, it shall be made in accordance with registration priorities.
4) The Government, where it offers a dwelling house for sale, shall add only administrative and other costs to the purchase price or to the price determined under
* sub-article (5) of this Article, as the case may be.
5) The Minister may, in consultation with the appropriate government offices, form in urban centres committees for the determination of the price of urban houses and issue directives to same.
6) Where a person decides to sell an urban house or to transfer a right thereon, as the case may be, he shall appear in person or present a power of attorney acceptable to the Minister.
7) Any payment required by law upon the sale of urban houses or of rigths therecn, shall be borne by the person offering the bouse lot sale or any right thereon or buying the bouse from the Government.
11. Judicial Sale
Judicial sale of urban houses shall be made in accordance with the provisions of this Proclamation.
12. Co-Dwelling .
Any individual or family may, in accordance with regulations issued by the Minister, allow a co-dweller in the dwelling house he or it owns or has rented.
13. Assignment of Lease Prohibited
The right at lease on an urban bouse owned by the Government and used far business at office purposes shall not be assigned without the prior consent of the Minister.
14. Hon-A p plica bilily
This Proclamation shall not apply to :
a) urban bouses constructed by the Government for special purposes; and
b) urban bouses of diplomatic missions, consulates or international organizations.


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1K IC 'tPth- PM t~rC f f*»*fc* I ♦> UfffS 7. r. Negarit Gazeta — No. 3 — 17th February, 1986 — Page 13
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15. Repeal
t) Article 12 at the Government Ownenhip ol Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation No. 47/1975 is hereby repealed.
2) No law. practice or procedure whether written or customary, shall, in so far as it is inconsistent with the provisions of this Proclamation, have force and effect in respect of matters provided for in this Proclamation.
16. Penally
Any person who violates the provisions of this Proclamation or regulations issued hereunder or obstructs the implementation thereof shall be punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the penal law.
17. Power to Issue Regulations
The Minister may issue regulations, directives or orders necessary for the effective implementation of this Proclamation.
18. Effective Date
This Proclamation shall come into force as of the 1st day of February, 1986.
Done at Addis Ababa,*&is 17th day of February, 1986.
THE PROVISIONAL MILITARY ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL
LEGAL NOTICE No. 92 OF 1986
REGULATIONS TO PROVIDE FOR STANDARDIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION OF DWELLLNG HOUSES
“ETHIOPIA TIKDEM”
1. Issuing Authority
These Regulations are issued by the Minister of Urban Development and Housing pursuant to authority vested in him by Article 17 of the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986.
2. Short Title
These Regulations my be cited as the “Standardization of Construction of Dwelling Houses Regulations No. 92/1986".
3. Definitions
In these Regulations: “dwelling house”, “centre”, “infrastructure”. “standard", “urban centre”, “urban land", “urban administration” or “Minister” shall have the meaning given to them in the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986.


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1K H 'tPA* PUn t~TC C f*l** I aw* 9- r. *'8“™ G*"* — No. 3 — 17th February, 1986 — Page 14
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4. Standards for Dwelling Bouses
The following standard* tor construction of dwelling houses are prescribed :
Type of House. Standards Size of House in Square Metres
1. Houses for coopera- a) RH — 17 17
tives or individuals k) RH —37 37
c) RH —54 54
d) RH —70 70
2. Row Houses for ■) RH —17 17
rent or sale b) RH —19 19
c) RH —25 25
d) RH —50 50
3. Prefabricated ») PF — IH 14 — 19
Apartments b) (Type A) PF—IH 17 — 19
<0 (Type B) PF —IS 25 — 30
d) (Studiol PF —IB 38 — 46
e) PF —2B 46 — 57
f) PF —3B 60 — 70
4. Non-Prefji)ricwtod •) RHA — 45 45
Apartments b) RHA —55 55
c) RHA — 70 70
5. Construction of Dwelling Houses
1) Any dwelling house shall be constructed only in accor-• dance with the standards prescribed in Article 4 of
these Regulations.
2) Apartments shall be constructed as determined by the Minister on the basis of the level of the urban centre and the centre indicated in the master plan.
3) The construction, of dwelling houses shall, in as much as possible, be carried out by using locally produced materials and in such a way that minimizes foreign exchange components.
6. Sale or Rent of Dwelling Houses
The Government shall, in accordance with the prescribed
standards, construct dwelling houses and sell or rent same
to housing cooperatives or individuals.
7. Duties of Urban Administration
Any Urban Administration shall:
1) maintain urban lands reserved for use of centres according to the master plan;
2) carry out. by undertaking the necessary study, construction works on urban lands reserved for centres;


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Negarit Oazeta — No. 3 — 17th February, 1986 — Page 15
3) verify that the neceaaary infrastructure is laid down in areas where extensive construction of dwelling houses is carried oat;
^ 4) construct infrastructure falling within its responsibility.
8. Allocation of Urban Laid for Dwelling Houses
The Minister may allocate urban land upco 250 square metres by taking into consideration :
1) the size of the dwelling boose;
2) the level of development of the urban centre; and
3) the peculiarities of the surrounding.
9. Effective Dale
' These Regulations shall come into force as of the 1st day of February, 1986.
Done at Addis Ababa, this 17th day of February, 1986.
TESFAYE MARU Minister of Urban Development and Housing
LEGAL NOTICE No. 93 OF 1986
REGULATIONS TO PROVIDE FOR SALE OF URBAN HOUSES.
“ETHIOPIA TEKDEM”
1. Issuing Authority
These Regulations are issued by the Minister of Urban Development and Housing pursuant to authority vested in him by Article 17 of the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986.
2. Short Title
These Regulations may be cited as the “Sale of Urban Houses Regulations No.‘ 93/1986".
3. Definitions
In these Regulations :
1) “Proclamation” means the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986.
2) “Urban House”, “Housing Cooperative’’, “Person”, “Minister” or “Ministry” shall have the meaning given to them in the Proclamation.
4. Conditions for the Sale of Urban Houses Any urban house :
a) registered with Urban Dwellers’ Associations or a certificate of ownership has been issued far by the Ministry; or
b) lawfully constructed or under construction, with at least its foundation completed, after the promulgation of the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation No. 47/1975;
may be offered for sale.
5. Purchase and Sale of Business Houses
1) The Ministry shall, in consultation with the appropriate government office, buy business houses or offices offered for »ale.


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fPM 2) The tale of bnatneai bourn or offices by the Ministry aball be in accordance with priority of registration; provided that preference thill be given to a buyer who agrees to employ the worken.
3) The principle laid down in tub-article (2) of thU Article shall apply in cites where the house it offered for rent.
6. Determination of Price
The price of a house to be bought or sold by the Government shall be determined by the Committee referred to in sub-article (5) of Article 10 of die Proclamation on the basis of specifications and bill of quantities as well as on the current cost of construction and the location of the boust.
7. Registration Fee and Valuation Charges
Any person, upon offering an urban house or a right thereon for sale, shall pay a registration fee and charges for valuation of the house.
8. Issuance of Registration Card
Any prospective buyer of an urban house shall, upon registration in accordance with directives issued by the Minister, be issued with a card indicating the order of priority.
9. Payment
1) The Ministry shall make immediate payment of the price of an urban house upon delivery to it of same.
2) The Ministry shall, upon selling an urban house, deliver such house to the buyer upon receipt of the full price thereof.
10. Effective Date
These Regulations shall come in» force as of the 1st day of February, 1986.
Done at Addis Ababa, this 17th day of February, 1986.
TESFAYE MARU Minister of Urban Development and Housing
LEGAL NOTICE No. 94 OF 1986 REGULATIONS TO PROVIDE FOR CO-DWELLING
“ETHIOPIA HKDEM”
1. Issuing Authority
\
These Regulations are issued by the Minister of Urban Development and Housing pursuant to authority vested in him by Article 17 of the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986.
2. Short Title
These Regulations may be cited as the “Co-Dwelling Regulations No. 94/1986”.
3. Definitions
In these Regulations :
1) “Principal Dweller” means an individual or a family owning, or possessing on rent from the Government, a dwelling house and intending to co-dwell with another individual or family therein on his or its own initiative and free will.


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92-
Negarit Gazeta — No. 3 — 17th February, 1986 — Page 17
2) “Co-Dweller" means an individual or a family that co-dwells, or shares a dwelling house, with a principal dweller on payment to the latter.
4. Permissibility of Co-Dwelling
1) Any individual or family owning a dwelling bouse may allow a co-dweller therein.
2) Any individual or family possessing a dwelling bouse on rent may allow a co-dweller therein.
3) No individual or family shall be obligated to allow a co-dweller without his or its own initiative and free will.
5. Principle
1) Co-dwelling derives from a contract made between a principal dweller and a co-dweller.
2) Without prejudice to the other provisions of these Regulations, co-dwelling relations shall be governed by the contract mutually agreed upon by the parties.
6. Registration of Co-Dwelling Contracts
> 1) Any principal dweller shall present:
a) the co-dwelling contract; and
b) a written statement indicating the name, former address and the family-size of the co-dweller;
to the Urban Dwellers’ Association of the kebele in which the house is situated.
2) Any contract of co-dwelling shall be registered with the Urban Dwellers’ Association of the kebele in which the bouse is situated.
3) A principal dweller pressing the house on rent shall, upon making a coctfcr. of oo-dwelling, notify the Agency for the Administration of Rented Houses or the Kebele Urban Dwellers’ Association concerned, as the case may be.
7. Non - Transferability
The right to co-dwelling is not transferable.
8. Payments by Co-dweller
1) Any co-dweller shall make payment to the principal dweller in accordance with the contract of co-dwelling.
2) The amount of payment by the oo-dweller shall be in conformity with the directives issued by the Minister.
3) The payment to be made for such facilities as water, electricity and telephone shall be as stipulated in the co-dwelling contract.
9. Repairs
1) Unless otherwise stipulated in the contract:
a) the oo-dweller shall be liable tor the ordinary repair expenses of the part of the dwelling house and facilities alloted for his exclusive use.
b) the oo-dweller shall not be liable for the repair and maintenance of the parts of the dwelling house be shares with the principal dweller.
2) The co-dweller shall not bp liable for the repair and • maintenance of defects doe to old-age or force
majeure.
3) Where the principal dweller pmirases the dwelling house on rent, the conditions of liability for repair shall be agreed upon by the parties taking the contract of lease entered by the principal dweller into consideration.


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10. Termination of Contract
1) A contract of oo-dwelling made lor a definite period shall terminate u at right oo the expiration of the period agreed upon without the necessity at giving notice.
2) A contract of co-dwelling made for an indefinite period shall terminate:
a) on the last day of a three-month written notice by the principal dweller; or
b) anytime upon decision by the co-dweller.
The period of notice by the principal dweller shall begin to run from the day when the notice was received by the co-dweller.
3) Where the co-dweller, upon receipt of written notice, fails to perform his obligations for making payment or repair, if any, the contract shall terminate as of the time specified in the notice; provided that the period
‘ of notice shall not be less than a month's time.
4) Where the contract of co-dwelling is made between a principal dweller possessing the house on rent and a co-dweller the contract of co-dwelling shall terminate together with that made between the principal dweller and the owner of the bouse.
5) The contract may terminate at any time upon agreement by the parties.
11. Renewal of Contract
1) Where, at the expiration of a contract of co-dwelling made for a definite period, the co-dweller continues in the enjoyment of the dwelling house with the knowledge and without the opposition of the principal dweller the contract shall be deemed to be renewed for an indefinite period.
2. The rights and duties of the principal dweller and the co-dweller for the further duration of the contract shall be governed by the provisions of the previous contract.
12. Disputes
1) Any dispute arising out of or in connection with a contract of co-dwelling shall be adjudicated by the Judicial Tribunal of the Kebele Urban Dwellers’ Association in which the house is situated.
2) Appeal from the decisions of the Judicial Tribunal of the Kebele Urban Dwellers’ Association may be lodg'd with the Judicial Tribunal of the Higher Urban Dwellers’ Association.
13. Effective Date
These Regulations shall ocme into force as of the 1st day
of February, 1986.
• Done at Addis Ababa, this 17th day of February, 1986.
TESFAYE MARU Minister of Urban Development â– ad Housing


Full Text

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FAYE URB N HOUSING IN ETHIOPIA: POLICIES AND NEW DIRECTIONS By Elizabeth Tesfaye A pa er submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirement fo the degree of Masters of Urban and Regional Planning University of Colorado, Denver, 1987

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Ack owledgments I. Introduction CONTENTS II. Current Housing Policies III. Housing Construction and Distribution in Addis Ababa IV. Problems Affecting Housing Supply and Distribution V. Current Status of Housing in Addis Ababa VI. Conclusions and Recommendations Bibliography Appendix: Proclamations Page i 6 16 24 32 38 46 50

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I should like to thank my advisors Drs. Herbert Smith, Daniel Schler and Bernie Jones for their guidance and persiltent advice. My special thanks goes to Dr. Smith withe t whose help this paper would have not been easily completed. I am deeply grateful to my special friends Dr. Aberra Mella, Dr. Peter Koehn and Rome for their friendship and c l itical criticism of the paper. Last but not least, I would like thank my parents, Tsedu and Tesfu, by dedicating this work for their patience and understanding.

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I. INTRODUCTION Most towns that came into being in Ethiopia at the end of t e 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century were gar isons established as military and political quarters for the "mperial army. Some of these settlements were later developea to administrative centers and the rest were transfor ed to commercial and market centers. Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, was founded 1n 1889 as one of the series of garrison towns designed to serve as temporary headquarter for the army of Emperor location inilik II. The spacious and centrally positioned the temperate climate and abundant water and timber were amo f g the main reasons for Addis Ababa to remain permanent . Addis Ababa gradually transformed itself to the largest establishment with diversified functions. Today Ababa, with more than 1.4 million people, accounts[for nearly one-third of the total urban population of Ethio ia. Addis Ababa is also the largest city in the eastern alf of Africa between Cairo and Johannesburg. The construction of the Djibuti-Addis Ababa rail road whi h reached Addis Ababa in 1917 has played a major role in Jodern urban settlement in Ethiopia. 1 In many cases they wer 1 a collection of few station buildings, but these I 1Akalou Welde-Michael, "Urban Development in Ethiopia Journal of Ethiopian Studies, XI (January, 1973),

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-2-small iettlements eventually formed the nuclei of many import nt urban centers. The process of urbanization rapidly accelerated during the brief period ( 1936-41) of the Italian The decades following the Expulsion of the Italia1 forces were marked by increasing growth in the number as well the total population in the 322 "localities that are accorded an urban status by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development" in 1984.2 With an annual growth rate of 5.5 percent, the urban popula ion in 1986 is estimated to be 10.44 percent of the total Nearly 40 percent_of the urban population of Eth opia lives in Addis Ababa and Asmara. Asmara, with a population of 275,400 is the second largesJ city in Ethiopia. Other towns are much smaller than Addis jbaba and Asmara both in size and population. There were t i n urban settlements with a population of 50,000 to 100,000 , and fourteen towns with a population of 25,000 to 50,000 1984.4 For the most part early urban planning efforts Ethiopl,a can be described as a series of disjointed admini trative and legal policies coupled with ineffective planni g practices. Planned physical development was often impede by the landed urban elite and the nobility who were frustr with 1 urban ting planning practices by downright noncompliance 5 nd use provisions in urban master plans. Moreover, evelopment programs were obstructed by the shortage of Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia, the Committee for Central Planning, Central Census Supplement I (Addis Ababba: 1985), p. 2. 3Ibid., p. 4. 4rbid., pp. 139-164. 5 Peter Koehn and Eftychia Koehn "Urbanizatidn and Urban ent Planning in Ethiopia," in Development of Urban Systems ed. by R.A. Obudho and Salah El-Shakhs (New York: Preager P u b 1 s h l e r s , I 9 7 9 ) P • 2 2 6 .

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-3-resour es and skilled planners, uncontrolled spontaneous migration, incoherent urban policies, and lack of d . I . h . . coor 1nat1on among aut or1t1es. The Ethiopian revolution of 1974 resulted 1n profou d social and political transformation. The Provisional Military Administration Council (PMAC) or Deurg, introduced a series of radical reforms-nationalization of all rural and urban and, prohibition of tenancy, removal of the monarchy, and na ionalization of financial institutions and foreign owned ompanies.6 The nationalization of urban land and extra housest l reordering the structure and functions of local govern ents and restructuring of financial institutions, are among he major reforms that have particularly impacted the I 7 urban areas. The housing situation is among the major urban problel s to which the government has been giving notable attentton. Housing policies and programs have been formulated and institutional base for an effective national and urban housinf policy has been consolidated to tackle housing deficii s and improve housing standards. However, despite improv d performances and ambitious measures, efficiency and equity in the distribution of urban housing continues to fall a long way short of needs. I will illustrate my points, throughout the paper, with r ference to the city of Addis Ababa because more inform tion and data concerning the housing situation are availatle. 6Fred Halliday and Maxine Molyneux, The Ethiopian Revo ution. (London: Verso, 1981), p. 99. 7 W o r 1 d B a n k , -=E:.-:t::..:h:..:....::i-=o:....Pr::....::i-=a::....::..: -=e:....c=-t-=(Was1 ington, D.C., 1982), p. 2.

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-4On September 12, 1984 the lOth anniversary of the Ethioptan revolution was celebrated and the Workers'Party of Ethiop a held its founding congress. Marking the occasion, the government unveiled a ten year ( 1984/85-1993/1994) econom c and social development plan. In the plan, the government commits itself to "elaborate a national urban develoJment and housing policy to guide the overall pattern and te po of the development of the nation's urban centers."8 The ten year plan puts the annual need for housing at 74, 00 houses. Studies conducted by the Central Planning Suprem Council (CPSC) indicate that the nation's housing annual production during the period from 1976-1981 has been 9 below 10 percent of the ten year plan estimate. Studies show that o ly about 10,000 houses were built during the period betwee 1978 and 1983. The construction rate is falling a long w y short of growing needs and does not even begin to tackle the substantial backlog or make much impression on replacement of obsolete and uninhabitable houses. It is evident that there is no possibility of meeting the housing needs during the coming decade. In many ways, Ethiopia's urban problems are typical of many developing countries. However, the evaluation of the housing situation and urban planning process must take into the account the specific Ethiopian political as well as socio-economic circumstances. This paper is not a comprehensive study of the present housing condition in Ethiopia. It is rather a 8workers' Party of Ethiopia, Guideline on the Economic and Development of Ethiopia, ( Draft (Addis baba, 1984), p. 95. 9 Metropolitan Housing Draft Report (Addis Ababa), P 1 •

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-5-descri tion and analysis of the main features of those aspect of social, political and administrative structures that shaped the present urban housing policies and their conseq ences. In the concluding chapter major issues concer ing the country's housing development are identified and recommendations are made for dealing with these issues.

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-6-II. CURRENT HOUSING POLICIES Following the 1974 revolution, a number of far ing redistributive reforms and laws were enacted. In the sector the most important reform law was Proclamation No.4 of 1975, "Government Owner ship or Urban Lands and Houses Proclamation." Proclamation No. 47 along with No.104 of 1976 "Urban Dwellers Associations Consblidation and Municipalities Proclamation" had the deeptst effect on the present urban housing situation of Ethil pia. Proc amation No. 47 of 1975 Immediately after Proclamation No. 47 was issued, land and rented dwellings were nationalized. All developed land and nearly two-thirds of the houses in Ababa became government property. Article 3 of the amation prohibits persons, families or organizations private ownership of urban land. The proclamation, er, allows individual families to continue owning their own wellings and possess use rights for up to 500 square meters of land. It also requires Ethiopia's 4.4 million urban masses be organized into urban cooperative or "kebele"* 10 associations. Proclamation No. 47 freed tenants from paying * English equivalent: neighborhood 10Proclamation No. 104 defines "kebele Association" as "any cooperative society of urban dwellers formed at the first level under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation."

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-7-house-owners debts and reduced the rent paid by low wage wor ers. In the capital city "almost 80 percent of the pop lation benefited from a 30 percent reduction in rent." I I Article 20 authorizes the kebeles to collect rents up to Br.IOO** per month. Rents exceeding Br.IOO are to be col ected by the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MU H). Under article 21 families who had no income other tha the rent from their extra houses are entitled to monthly ensation from the MUDH or kebeles. Article 22 states that cooperative societies of urb n dwellers (kebeles) are to be established in each unit of J rban. area as determined by the MUDH. The functions of societies that are stated in article 24 include, exe1bution of land use and building directives issued by MUDH, man gement of nationalized houses renting for less than Br.IOO per month, construction of low cost houses, and con truction and operation of services such as health, edu ation, market, recreational centers and streets. In add.tion, the kebeles are responsible for the establishment of judicial tribunal that hears and settles disputes over lan and houses. The proclamation authorized the establishment of Higper Cooperative Societies (keftegnas) Central Cooperative Societies (mekakelgnas) article 25 and in article 26. The higher cooperative society coordinates the functions of coo erative societies of urban dwellers stated in article 24. Fur hermore, the higher cooperative society assists the MUDH II . Gl . Eh .. P 1. R a t opu esources (Moscow: Progress Publisher, 1981), p. 93. ** One Birr is roughly Equivalent to U.S. $0.50

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-8-in applications submitted by persons, families or drganizations that have no urban land and seek to obtain for dwelling or business purposes. The proclamation also req the higher cooperative society "to assist the min'stry in changing the boundaries of areas so that the societies of urban dwellers within the jur'sdiction of the higher cooperative society have as far as equal holdings." 12 In addition, the higher society is also required to establish a higher jud.cial tribunal. The central cooperative societies of urban dwellers are composed of delegates of higher cooperative societies. The'r functions include coordinating the functions of higher coo erative societies and establishing a central judicial tri composed of three members. of to Proclamation No. 47 entrusts to the Ministry rban Development and Housing a considerable authority lan the country's urban development and to coordinate the activities of the various government departments in implementing the proclamation. The planning, administration and implementation responsibilities that the MUDH is charged with are immense. Article 32 requires the ministry to initiate the establishment of kebeles at all levels and guide them to promote viable and feasible development activities that would satisfy the needs of urban dwellers. Under article 35 (I) the ministry is directed to introduce registers showing the list of urban dwellers and 12Proclamation No. 47 of 1975, "Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation," Negarit Gazeta, No. 41 (July 26, 1975), Article 25 (2) (b).

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-9-number and condition of houses. Article 35 (2) gives the ministry the power "to widen, narrow and demarcate urban boundaies in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior and other aoncerned public authorities." Article 36 authorizes the ministry to formulate and co9rdinate urban development plans and housing policies. MoreovJr, article 36 directs the ministry to ensure that the rents ollected by kebeles are utilized for improving infras ructure and extending basic services in accordance with c mprehensive plans and government directives. With regard to housing, article 36 assigns the ministry with the respon ibilities of constructing low-cost housing units and provid.ng essential services, setting and enforcing housing stand a and assisting urban dwellers to obtain loan for buildi g and buying houses. The ministry is also responsible for providing landless urban dwellers with urban land for building houses. Procla ation No. 104 of 1976 A decree known as "Urban Dwellers' Associations Consolidation and Municipalities Proclamation" (Proclamation No. 104 of 1976) charged urban dwellers' associations with responsibilities for broad range of developments including the ones stated on proclamation No. 47. Proclamation No. 104 defines in great detail and specifies the functions and duties f the kebeles, higher and central urban dwellers'

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-10ass ciations. The contents of the decree are in the pre mble of the proclamation in the following way: WHEREAS, it 1s necessary to consolidates the foundations laid by the Government Ownership of urban Lands and Extra Urban Houses Proclamation providing for urban dwellers to get organized kebele, Higher and Central Associations and run their own affairs, solve their own problems, and directly participate in political, economic and social activities; ............................ . . . . .. . WHEREAS, it is believed that the organization of the broad masses of urban dwellers in kebele, Higher and Central Associations enabling them to directly take over the municipal administration of urban centers will not only enhance the organizational set-up of the people but will also improve their due participation in development projects; .... The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing is given the power and responsibilities or enactment of reg lations regarding the establishment of the urban dwe lers' associations at all level. The proclamation also giv s the ministry the authority to supervise municipalities 1n on-chartered urban centers.

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-I I-Impact of the reforms 1n the urban centers The radical action taken by the government has succeeded in overcoming most of the obstacles to urban development and housing that prevailed during the previous administration. The nationalization of urban land greatly improved access to vacant land for housing construction and cleared the way for projects which can make a meaningful impact on the ever increasing problems of housing the low families. A monumental housing shortage developed, however, when housing construction which, for the most part, developed on in estments of private savings and borrowing of landowners was disrupted without being replaced with a new system. This gap was supposed to be filled by the kebeles. However, due to an intensified political crisis at the time, the kebeles were unable to perform their duties as stated on proclamations No. 47 and No. 104.13 People whose only source of income was the rent from extra rooms and houses that they owned were suddenly left ith no income when the proclamation came into effect. The task of paying compensation to these people in accordance with article 22 of Proclamation No. 47 was over overwhelming for the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Compensation payments in Addis Ababa alone, was to be made for a out 50,000.14 At the time the overall housing situation was clearly overburdening for MUDH and the newly formed 13see Koehn and Koehn, "Urbanization and Urban Development Planning in Ethiopia," op. cit., p. 232. 14Marina and David. Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York: Africana Publishing Company), p. 89.

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-12-kebeles. The implementation of Proclamations No. 47 and No. 104 as a considerable influence on the present urban forms and housing situation of Ethiopia. The public was encouraged to participate in house building activities. Though the kebeles, different types of housing schemes were introduced and special attention was paid to the housing need of the low income group. However, despite a continuous effort to alleviate the problem, currently, an extreme urban housing shortage exists at all level. Deficiency in services and low quality conditions that were inherited from the previous administration still exist In February of 1986 the government issued Proclamation No. 292 of 1986, "Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986." at the same time, the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing issued legal notices containing three sets of regulations-Standardization of Dwelling Houses Regulations, Sale of Urban Houses Regulations and Co-Dwelling Regulations. The new proclamation evokes article 12 of Proclamation No. 47 of 1975. The article upheld the right of an individual, family, or organization owning a house to tra sfer by succession sale or barter. According to the new law, all houses are to be sold or purchased from the

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-13-15 government alone. Legal Notice No. 94 of 1986 "Co-Dwelling Regulations" is another effort intended to ease the ever increasing housing need of the urban masses. Individuals or families are allowed to gain an extra income by sharing their houses with co-dwellers. The "principal dwellers" do not necessarily have to be house owners. Individuals or families who are renting their dwellings from the kebeles or the government can also sublet to co-dwellers if they do so desire. The "principal-dweller" and co-dweller are required to have their co-dwelling contract registered with the kebele in which the house is situated. "principal dwellers" who are subletting part of their rented house will have to notify the kebele or the Agency for Rented Houses about contract agreements with co-dwellers. 16 Whether this latest effort will make a notable impression on the mounting urban housing need of the country remains to be seen. But even if it does make an impression, it will be a temporary solution for a chronic urban housing shortage problem. A permanent solution to remedy the problem could only be found with development of housing policies addressing the root causes of the shortages, including high rate of urban growth, unemployment, limited financial reso rces of the urban population, shortage and high cost of building materials. 15Proclamation No. 292 of 1986, "Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proclamation," Negarit Gazeta, No. 3 (February 17, 1986) Article 10, p. 12. 16 Legal Notice No. 94 of Ne arit Gazeta, No. 3 (February 17, 1986 "Co-Dwelling Regulations," 1986), Article 6, p. 17.

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-14-Conclusion Since the revolution of 1974 the Ethiopian government has shown a strong commitment to improve housing and living conditions for a wider section of the population. But despite the efforts and commitments in the part of the gov rnment, overcoming the mounting housing problems and meeting the needs of the urban masses will continue to be a v ry demanding and difficult process for a long time to com Although progress 1n improving housing and living con itions seems to have been very slow, during the past the government has managed to put in place the bass for effective urban housing policy. The important steps towards this directions are: (I) nationalization of urban land (2) nationalization of extra houses (3) reduction of rent (4) creation of urban dwellers associations (kebeles) (5) setting up an effective administration structure (MUDH, kebeles, Agency for the Administration of Rented Houses, etc.) Public ownership of urban land secured the gov rnments right to determine and regulate land use and

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-ISurba, expansion . With termination of private ownership I 7 righ,s, speculation in land ceased. The nationalization of urbam land has greatly improved access to vacant land for I hous'ng construction and cleared the way for employment of effejtive approaches to meet the housing needs of the urban mass.s. With appropriate resource support the kebeles can be essential instruments in organizing cooperatives and selfhelp housing schemes and stimulating community participation in urban development projects. They can also play a vital role in effectively managing and distributing urban services. I 7 Koehn and Koehn,.. cit., p. 229.

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-16-III . HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION IN ADDIS ABABA According to a 1976 cencus, there were 93,385 buil ings in Addis Ababa which contained 163,293 housing unit . 92 percent of the housing units were residential and he rest were owned by businesses or inistitutions. About 60 p rcent of the houses in the city were rented. TABLE I ERCENTAGE OF OCCUPIED PRIVATE HOUSING UNITS BY TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION, BY TYPE OF TENURE, IN ADDIS ABABA 1967 TYPE OF TENURE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION Permanent SemiImprovished Not Sum premanent stated Percentage according to type of construction Owned Rented Free Other/not stated Total 30.31 60.36 7 • 3 6 I • 9 7 100.00 2 9. I 2 59.79 8.90 2. 1 9 100.00 23. 1 1 2 7. 59 29.55 48.93 51 . 7 2 59.88 22.35 1 7. 24 8. 4 3 5. 6 1 3.45 2. 14 100.00 100.00 100.00 Source: Municipality of Addis Ababa, Draft Report On Housing in Addis Ababa: Results From the Census of September 1967 (Addis Ababa, March 1972), p. 201.

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-17-Forty three percent of the housing units in Addis Abab were specified as "permanent" construction in the 1967 hous ng census. About 55 percent were specified as "semiperm nent" and 1.5 percent improvised. Nearly 92 percent of the housing units 1n Addis Ababj 1n 1967 were built from "chika" (wood poles and earth) 96 p rcent had corrugated iron roofs and about 67 percent had eart end floor.18 With regard to services, about 87 percent of the hous ng units in Addis Ababa were supplied with piped water in tne late 1960s. 85 percent of the housing units had service. Nearly 25 percent of the housing units in A 1dis Ababa had no toilet facilities in 1967. About 56 percjnt shared pit toilets and only six percent of the houses had lush toilets. 19 With the rapid growth of the city's population the probjem of sewage had reached a dangerous level in the 1970s posi g a serious hazard to the public health. During the mid 1970 , almost all the rivers and streams in Addis Ababa were cons"dered to be polluted. The number of residential units increased by 63,000 betw en 1967 and 1976. While this increase seems impressive, it i no where close to covering the backlog as well as the incr ase in need. The population of Addis Ababa had also incr ased by more than 416,000 during those same nine years In 1972, a report based on a census data estimated that a 18Municipality of Addis Ababa, Draft Report on Housing in Addis Ababa: Results From the Census of Se tember 1967, (Addis Ababa, March 1972), p. 3. 19Ibid.

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-18-total of 144,000 new houses would be required between 1973 and 77 to meet the housing need of the population of Addis Ababa Urban planning as a developed field adapted to the needs of the country's urban masses did not exist as a speci lization in Ethiopia until the mid 1970s. Urban plannng had been limited, for the most part, to physical 20 Diffe 1966. Three master plans were prepared for Addis Ababa by groups of foreign consultants between 1956 and the master plans were ineffective in preve ting haphazard building development, misuse of land and spoil.ng of the environment . 21 The plans lacked the necessary legislative support. Furthermore. The plans did not give dequate consideration to the country's future economic development and its effect on Addis Ababa's future growth. The dominance of land-ownership and housing by the few landed urban elite and nobility removed any incentive for i proving property among the low-income majority. Prior the 1974 revolution, less than 20 percent of the population 22 of Addis Ababa owned 80 percent of the urban land. Nearly two-third of Addis Ababa's households were renting in the early 1970s. Unchecked speculations in land perpetuated gross inequalities in distribution. Urban policies generally were isolated programs that w re mostly ineffective and usually falling short of achieving stated objectives. Lack of commitment, poor 20 Koehn and Koehn, ..E. cit., p. 223. 21o Weerasinghe, Future Development of Addis Ababa ca ital of Ethio (Addis Ababa, Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1972), pp. 19-20. 22G l . a pr1n, ..E. cit . ' P 93.

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-19-coordi ation between various agencies, inefficiency in admini tration, planning and management of urban development programs characterized the urban governments in Ethiopia prior the 1974 revolution. Post R volution The current annual rate of population growth for Ethiopia is estimated at 2.9 percent. The annual increase for th urban areas is 5.5 percent of which 3.0 percent is due to migration from the rural areas.23 The population of Addis tbaba has doubled in the last two decades-from 683,000 in 196 to 1,423,000 in 1985. However, housing, urban servic s and infrastructure have been expanding in much slower pace than the steadily increasing urban population, creating a serious imbalance between needs and supplies. Since their establishment 1976, Urban Dwellers Associ tions (kebeles) have been playing a major role in Ethiop'a's urban housing. Indeed, the services which they made them an essential part of the country's social life. In 1985, in Addis Ababa, there were eles, 25 higher (kefitegna) kebeles, and five central legna) 90 percent of the law cost houses in the country's urban areas are administered les. The kebeles also collect rent, make compensation paymen s to former land lords, and maintain law and order their jurisdiction. The Ministry of Urban Development and 23central Statistical Office, Statistical Abstract, 1982 (Addis Ababa, 1982), p.l5. 24central Statistical Office, Census Supplement I, cit., pp. 93-105.

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-20through the kebeles, has been encouraging people to themselves in to cooperatives and participate in self help , aided self-help and cooperative housing schemes. Despite inadequate preparation, lack of coor ination and systematic action, the kebeles have done the best they could in the circumstances, to promote the housing sche es. The Housing and Savings Bank (HSB ) was set up in 1975 to promote and finance housing construction and housing deve opment projects. The bank loans money to housing coop ratives, and private individuals, and various inst tutions for the purposes of construction, acquisition of dwel]ings, housing improvements, and for repair and . I f . f '1' . I dd. . h b k o n a t e an admi isters special funds set up b y the government and inte institutions for low cost housing and other deve opment projects. Loan amounts range up to 40,000 Birr for 'ndividual households and up to 45,000 Birr for member of a ho sing cooperative. According t o a 1983 report by MUDH, the ousing and Savings Bank had financed about 36 percent of the 2,000 new houses that were constructed in Ethiopia betw en 1976 and 1981. Due to the high cost of land and inaccessibility of credit, self-help scheme had not been a familiar practice in Addis Ababa prior to the 1974 revolution. The government ownership of urban land improved accessibility of vacant lan d for subsequent development. Government agencies constructed

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-21-some 2,200 low income houses between the samJ period about 4,300 houses 1976 and 1982. During were built by the various housing cooperative in Addis Ababa. However, considering the magnitude of the country's housing problems, the impact of the cooperatives on the housing scene has not been impressive. The housing coopera,ives are still in their formative stage and afflicted by a nu,ber of shortcomings. However, it is apparent by now, that wi h adequate development process, they have excellent potenti ls for solving some of the country's housing problem Although the substantial reduction 1n rent has benefit d a good number of the lower income households, the chronic shortage has forced many families into overcrowding the exi ting housing units. The efforts of the public sector have no been able to compensate for the decline of constru tion by the private sector. Over the past ten years new con truction by the private sector. Over the past ten years n w construction in Addis Ababa has been lagging far behind the growth in demand. Furthermore, existing housing conditions are 1n need of extensive improvement (see Table 2). While the kebeles' performance in administering rental arrangements is generally good, maintenance of the housing stock is largely neglected posing a serious problem.25 Urban services are inadequate, although there has been an increasing government action and commitment in seeking to reach a wider section of Socialism From the Grass Roots: Accumulation, in Ethic ia (Addi s Ababa, 1982), p. 384.

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-22-the po ulation with basic services, sanitation and clear water. The inadequate, low quality conditions of sanitation and he lth services are causing a growing concern . Despite recent government efforts to alleviate the problems, situat ons have been deteriorating rapidly. As a result, malnut ition, high infant mortality rate and communicable diseas s are widely prevalent.26 TABLE 2 CONDITION OF HOUSES IN ADDIS ABABA Condit ons Number of houses % 0 I Re:uirtng limited 107,825 In goot condition 64,818 44,033 18.8 45.6 27.4 3.5 Not stated 8,232 ______ ! ___________________________________________________ _ Sourcer "Metropolitan Housing Draft Report" (based on census by Urban Housing Registration 1978) (Addis Ababa, March 1984), p. 25. In sum, the initial effect of the far reaching 26 World Bank, Ethiopia: Urban Development Project (Wahin ton D.c., 1982), p. 4.

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-23-refo ms on the country's urban structure had been tremendous. Give scarce resource, high rate of unemployment, low level of imcome and scarce skilled manpower, maintaining such ambi! Jious measures is of course, a horrendously difficult task as no doubt painfully apparent to the Ethiopian gove nment and the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Seve ,al constraints have attributed to the severity of the curr nt urban housing problems. Some of these constraints are disc ssed in the next section.

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-24IV. PROBLEMS AFFECTING HOUSING SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION Income The extremely low level of 1ncomes of the vast majority of Ethiopia's urban population accounts in large I measure, for the problems of urban housing. Inflation, higher taxes, tight control of wage and salaries, and population growth have resulted 1n high degree of erosion in afford bility over the past decade. Real incomes of wage earnerf have fallen by about a third since the mid 1970s and t h o s e f s a 1 a r i e d w o r k e r s h a v e f a 1 1 e n e v e n m o r e .27 " C u r r e n t studie indicate over three quarters of Addis Ababa's househ lds have incomes below the absolute urban poverty thresh,ld of US$186 per capita per annum or Bl70 per hosehold " 2 8 per mo th. Despite government effort to reduce inequality (pay freeze on upper income salaries, 4%-7% pay increase on low income salaries, rent reduction for low income groups), The trend f inequality has remained unchanged for the past ten years. Urban poverty has been increasing steadily and the situat on for the low income group in the urban areas has worsen d. 27 ILO/JASPA, ..E. cit., p. 219. 28world Bank, Ethiopia Urban Development Project (Washi gton D.C., 1982), p. 6.

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-25-TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME AMONG HOUSEHOLDS AND PERSONS IN ADDIS ABABA ADDIS ABABA (HOUSEHOLDS) 1976 lncomelclass % % Income Household* (month y) Less t Jan $100 13. 7 52.0 $I 0 -299 27.8 2 9. 2 $3 I 0 -499 14. I 6.2 I $5 0 -999 20.3 4.9 $I 00 + 24. I 2.4 To al ( %) 100.0 100.0 Number 41,515,198 243,840 Source. "The Structure of Employment and Earnings in Early Jtages of Urbanization: The Case of Ethiopia" BerhanJ Abegaz (African Urban Studies No. 15. Winter 1983), p. 54. * Not tated; 5.2 percent

PAGE 29

Unempl countr of the many s -26-As it is the case 1n many of the developing it is difficult to obtain an adequate measurement unemployment structure in Ethiopia. However, indicate that there is a high unemployment rate in the urban areas and that the problem is particularly acute 1n the city of Addis Ababa. According to a 1978 estimate made by the Central Statistical Office (CSO), the urban unempl rate for those aged IS and over was 19.7 percen . The CSO estimates also show that the urban econom"cally active labour force represents about J3.5 % of the to al economically active labour force. The economy has not been expanding with sufficient rapidi to absorb new high school and university graduates. Lack o workable system to provide school drop outs with produc ive jobs and uncontrolled spontaneous migrations of people 1n search of jobs and improved conditions of life from the ru al to the urban areas has resulted in considerable unempl In recent years, the problem of unemployment has al o been aggravated by drought and mass migration of peasan s into towns. Saving and Investment The majority of urban dwellers do not participate in formal savings schemes, and their access to normal credit

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-27-facilit 'es is very limited. The level of domestic savings for the period was 6.6 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).2 ' A target that was set by the government to raise domesti savings level to about I I percent of GDP by 1985/86 has not been reached. Since there is no incentive for people to save for house building purpose, potential savings and private resources are not mobiliied, and so far, have not led to productive investment in housing. The proportion of housing investment in Gross Nationa Products (GNP) currently accounts for just under 3 percent. This figure is far less than the 6 percent minimum target 'ecommended by the United Nation for developing countri s. It is the government's intention to gradually raise h using investment. However, in view of the several financi 1 constraints that the government is facing, the UN minimum target for housing investment will not be easy to realize. (See Table 4) With regard to mortgage loans, the Housing and Savings Bank (HSB) which was set up to promote housing constru tion through its loans to lower income groups, from the ver beginning, has not been able to fulfil l its original objectires.30 So far, HSB managed to serve largely the middle and higrer income sector, not those in the lower income categor who desperately need the financing and account for most of the housing deficit. (See TABLE 5) 29 World Bank, Economic Memorandum on Ethiopia (Washington, D.C., 81), p. 33. 30world Bank, Ethiopia: Urban Development Priject (Washin. ton, D.C., 1982), p.22.

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-28-TABLE 4 H O USING ACTIVITY WITHIN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Year I . Fixed 2 . Housing 2 . as a % 2 . as a % investment investment of of GNP* (mill. Br.) (mill. B r. ) 1 974/75 579.7 2 I 7. 4 37 . 5 4. 3 1975/76 509.5 143.7 28.2 2. 6 1976/77 560.9 I 7 2 . 7 30.8 2 . 8 1 977/78 545.4 18 3. 7 33.7 2 . 8 1978/79 698.2 186.4 26.7 2.6 1 979/80 854.0 19 2. 0 22.5 2 . 5 1980/81 914.0 189.8 20.8 2.3 Sources: Metropolitan Housing Draft Report * United Nation world target 6% The fact that personal income could not keep pace with in lation has increasingly made worse the situation for the lowest income sectors of the population. Many of the low income families and individuals do not have effective securities or regular earnings that qualify them to obtain l oans from a bank for house building. And HSB, in its present

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-29-TABLE 5 HSB LOAN ADVANCES TO INDIVIDUALS INCOME (birr/month) NO.OF BORROWERS (%) AMOUNT OF LOAN (%) 1976 1977 1978 1979-80* 1980-81 1976 1977 1978 1979-80* 1980-81 Up to 100 I. 5 0. 5 2.5 2.0 0. 3 0. I 0.4 0.3 101-300 47.7 44.8 3 I. 0 20.4 13.0 22.9 20.5 12.0 6 . 5 4.4 301-500 24.2 2 5. 2 25.3 23.8 25. I 22.6 2 3. I 18.9 14.5 14.3 501-700 I 0. 7 8 . 2 I 2. 0 12.8 I 5 . 2 13.5 I 0. 6 12.3 I 0. 9 I I. 4 701 and above I 5. 9 2 I. 3 29.2 4 I. 0 46.7 40.7 45.7 56.4 6 7. 8 69.9 Total 100 I 00 I 00 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Source: Metropolitan Housing Draft Report --------'IC-a-n -1-8 o-n

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-30condi ion, is not in a position to accept their very limited resources. Studies indicate, only the highest 10 perce t of income groups could afford to borrow from the bank at the current interest rate. I The continual scarcity of building materials such as ce ent and bricks has led to highly inflated cost of consttuction inhibiting building activities related to housibg. The extreme shortage of building materials and high cost b t construction has caused decent housing to drift fartht r and farther away from the reach of the low income group Generally, building material plants Ethiopia are handirapped by low level of development and organization. The are number.co1mpa1red to the g nee . any o t e p ants are equip ed with outdated machineries and most of them require extenkive improvements. Almost all of the building material .have comparatively high production costs. Very little attention has been given to the expan and improvement of building material industries durint the past ten years. There is a heavy dependency on impor ed building materials and modern technology. Little progr ss has been made in utilizing traditional materials for the p oduction of affordable as well as durable building 31 l't Housing Draft Report (Addis Ababa, Metropo an _ _ 1984), p. 3.

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-31-mater'als. Stronger effort need to be made for the devel prnent of a building industry sector capable of produ ing reasonably priced and good quality building mater'als based on local resources.

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-32-V. CURRENT STATUS OF HOUSING IN ADDIS ABABA Housing programs and their develJpment. 1975-1986 period _____ j ______________________ _ 1 The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing charg d with the responsibility of implementing the ambitious urbanlreforms of 1975 and 1976, Introduced new approach to the housing problem. Various alternative schemes of housing were by MUDH, including self help, aided self help, coope ,ative housing, and government low cost housing and apartments. The self help scheme is intended for low income people who can not qualify for mortgage loans and do not meet the to participate aided self help schemes. Under this scheme, households are encouraged to organize thems lves into self help cooperatives. Cooperative members are responsible for raising their own money to cover cost. Labour is shared by all of the members. I Under aided self help scheme individuals or families are allowed 200 square meters of lot for house I . building. Participants in this scheme are those low income groupl with a monthly income between 100 and 200 Birr. The plans for the houses were provided by the ministry along with

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-333,500 Birr low interest loan for each house. The construction of the houses is supervised by MUDH. The ministry also provides skilled labour and technical assistance. The size of a house built under aided self-help scheme is 32 square meters and contains two rooms, a kitchen and a rest room. People who organized themselves under cooperative housing scheme can obtain loans from the Housing and Savings Bank (HSB). The interest on the loans is nine percent and the monthly payments do not exceed one forth of the borrowers' incomes. MUDH provides land, house plans and site plan with out charge. Each housing cooperative is formed of about 20 households. Government housings and apartments are generally built and owned by The Agency for Rental Housing Administration (ARHA). Most of the houses built by the agency are categorized as "low-cost houses". The apartments are constructed mostly for middle and higher income households. The agency uses its own crew to construct most of the houses and apartments. The new initiatives and the various types of construction schemes resulted in an increase in the number of housing being built. However, as discussed in chapter III of this paper, the increased number of houses built under the different housing schemes has not made a significant impact on the housing scene. The rate of construction is lagging far behind the demands of the urban population. Housing construction rate in Addis Ababa has been 2,000-2,500 units

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-34-annually 1975. The annual housing need in the city is estima ed to be between 16,000 to 40,000, of which 85 percent accoun' s for the low income sector.32 The government has designed and funded various types • f public housing projects in the past decade. Howeve government housing projects have not been effective instru ents to combat the housing problem. The low income housin units are very few in number and access of the low income group to the houses very limited. Many of these houses are oc•upied by comparatively well off households who can afford the payments, not by the lower income households to whom t ey originally were intended. High cost of constriction materials, inefficiency in resource utilization and in,lation are some of the reasons that put most government built houses beyond the reach of the large portion of the urban population. Current housing activities Addis Ababa and other urban centers of the country are guided by Proclamati n No. I 292/19,6, "the Construction and Use of Urban House Proclamation". The standard, sale and co-dwelling regulations introdjced in.Proclamation No. 292 are put into effect on all new co activities undertaken after the issuance of the Pr clamation in February of 1986. The urban land reform that took place ten years ago 32Demeke Berhanu, "Ethiopia: Urban Housing and a Design Guide Line for Climate" (Master's Thesis, The Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1986), p. 28.

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-35-allowed the occupation of land for the purpose of house buildin with out payment. To day, vacant urban land in urban centers has become scarce. In Addis Ababa, it is extremely difficu t to find vacant land for house building with in reasona,le access to the city It appears that the Standard of Housing Regulation has bee] formulated, among other things, to address the problem of scarce urban land. The regulation limits the of land to be allocated for dwelling houses to a maximum of 250 squ re meters, half the size of the area that was allowed in 47 of 1975. The size and design of dwellings prescriBed in the Standardization of Houses encoura1 e households and cooperatives to build vertically, i.e., multi-story buildings as opposed to single family dwellin s. (see TABLE 6 ) The regulation also insists upon the use houses locally produced materials. Effective February I, 1986, purchase and sale of re to be conducted by the Ministry of Urban Develop ent and Housing. Thus, Proclamation 292 of 1986 abolish s the right of owners to sale, barter, or transfer by success"on which was allowed in article 12 of proclamation No. 47 f 1975. The implementation of this measure enables the gov rnment to effectively prevent speculation and illegal transfe year. of houses that have been widely practiced in recent aim is, of course, to provide affordable prices for the urb n mass by determining realistic levels of charges in relatio to cost. However, while the regulation may benefit

PAGE 39

-36-the middt e income households who have higher incomes and t make house payments, affordable housing still rema1ns ar beyond the of the lower income sector. can The "Co-Dwelling regulation" is another measure introduc! d by the government in an effort to ease the housing shortage The measure allows people to let out a room or some rooms in the house they own or rented from the government. The co-D elling regulation only makes legal what many house owners h ive been practicing for the past ten years. It TABLE 6 STANDARDS FOR HOUSES Ty{les Houses f 0 r cooperative or 1ndividuals Raw Houses For rent or Prefabri
PAGE 40

-37-appea s that people still prefer to co-dwell with a secret agreejent amongst themselves, as they have already been doing rather than going through the urban dwellers assocjations to sign a co-dwelling agreements. Many fear that the g vernment may change policy and that they might loose a part f their house to a co-dweller. This Lack of confidence in go ernment policy may prevent many house owners from parti ipating in the co-dwelling arrangements. At present it seems unlikely that the co-dwelling concept would serve its inten ed purpose of helping to ease the housing shortage.

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-38-VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Concl sion The radical urban land and housing reforms of the mid 1970's represented a considerable step forward Ethiopia's urban development process. The reforms removed essential obstacles such as speculation in land and high rent char es and introduced major drive to redistribute urban land to the urban mass. Furthermore, the creation of urba dwellers association 1976 represented a major step towards developing a coherent set of housing and urban programs at the grass root level. The esta lishment and restructuring of financial institution, part'cularly the Housing and Savings Bank was clear indi ation of the government's recognition of housing as an impo tant element the country's social and economic deve opment plans. The reform s did not, however, ensure the promised imprJvement in the living conditions of the urban masses. Impl1mentation of the ambitious policies and strategies intr duced through the reforms proved to be an extremely diff cult and complex task for the implementing agencies, part cularly The Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. Attempts to tackle growing housing deficits and improve serv ces and infrastructure fell short of expectations. The

PAGE 42

-39-urban housing shortage is a persistence problem. In fact, overall housing conditions in Addis Ababa have become decisively worse during the past ten years. Despite efforts, the government has not been able to generate a range of housing options appropriate to the needs and resources of the urba help population of which about 80 percent belong to the low sector. The housing cooperatives, particularly the selffor the low income households, have not succeeded 1n c ntributing to alleviate the ever increasing urban var1 the the shortage. The number of houses constructed by the societies remains insignificant. So far, ones that showed some degree of success have been ooperatives formed by the middle income households. The litt e government housing efforts are inadequate in scale and, so far, their contribution to easing the intense housing prob ems has not been impressive. The existing housing stock is in need of vast impr vement. All the low cost rented housing (nearly 60 percdnt of all the housing stock in Addis Ababa) is managed by t 1 e kebeles. Many of these houses are not maintained well and are rapidly deteriorating. According to a 1984 stud 30 percent of kebele houses are either to be demo]ished or need the paym nts to former litt e or no funds extensive maintenance. The large part of collected for these houses is used for compensation owners who have no other income. Very at all are available for maintenance.

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-40With regard to service and infrastructure, while the rovision of water supply and electricity are relatively good sanitation remains persistent problem resulting in an incr[ase in health risks. By issuing the Construction and Use of Urban Houses Proc1 amation of 1986 and introducing the Standardization, Sale and Co-dwelling regulations, the government affirmed its posi ion as a major element in the distribution of housing. Howe er, the control over the sale or transfer of private houstng and prices which can be charged can do very little 1n insuring the availability of adequate and affordable housing for ihe urban population. In view of high demands from other sectl lrlsoocaftethoenclyounatvryer'ys economy, currently, the government can r low priority to urban housing. The urban housing problems in Ethiopia are not reall y very different from those which can be observed in many of the developing countries. However, the examination o f the urrent housing situation in Ethiopia requires an undelstanding of the social, political, and economic framkwork within which the housing policies have been form lated. The country had to face enormous economic and poli ical difficulties during the years immediately following the revolution. Armed conflicts 1n some regions and a serif s of droughts and famine left the country in serious econpmic crisis. The cost of military conflicts and relief and tehabilitation activities in drought affected regions was

PAGE 44

-41-imme se. In addition to the domestic problems, Ethiopia's econ my was also adversely affected by the international EconJmic Crisis of the 1970's through oil-price rises and a drop in the price of coffee, Ethiopia's principal export. High rates of inflation, falling commodity production, a subs antial decline in foreign capital, and a drop in the 1nve tment rate following the revolution left the country's econ my in a period of stagnation. Under these circumstances, it w s extremely difficult for the Ethiopian government to conc,ntrate its effort on formulating coherent policies that effectively deal with the many problems in the various sect rs of the economy. The radical and ambitious urban reforms of the 1970 s failed to recognize the severe limitations on the capa.ity of the country's financial and technical resources to effect implementation of the policies being introduced. An anal sis of the past decade of housing construction in Ethiopia since the revolution of 1974 shows that none of the refoJ ms introduced functioned perfectly. This failure is partl y due to the inadequacy of planning and administrative measures, but mainly due to the fact that the resources for I hous'ng construction are strictly limited as priorities are de•or d 309,(!)00 to other sectors in the national economy. The government plans to construct a total of about housing units in urban centers around the country duri g the 10 years plan period ( 1984/1985-1994/95). Of this 269,000 units are an addition to the existing stock of

PAGE 45

-42-houses.33 Moreover, 86 percent of these housing units are t o be constructed through self-help programs. In view of the limited potentials of Ethiopia's econo y, however, the ambitious housing objectives outlined in the ten year plan will be extremely difficult to achieve. Although the criteria for defining needs and priorities is well established, it does not correspond to existing conditions and available human, material and technical resources. Today, two years into the plan period, housing construction activities are already lagging far behind the set targets in the ten year plan. And looking to the immediate future, the prospects do not seem to suggest that there will be any substantial improvements in the situation. Suggestions and Recommendations I. Solutions to the urban housing problem 1n Ethiopia appear to lie in the government's willingness and ability to promote more intensive research, accelerated training and new relevant approaches. Commitments such as the ones made in the ten-year plan need to be backed with adequate implementation techniques and programs for urban planning. 2 . The housing sector should be expanded through the development of economically and socially sound and realistic housing programs which utilize a maximum of self-help and local resources. Site and services and low cost housing 33workers' Party of Ethiopia, cit., p. 96.

PAGE 46

-43-proje ts supported by the World Bank have shown a strong potenJial in reaching a much larger number of the lower incomJ population than conventional types of housing proje ts. A similar approach, a larger scale, to low income housing by the government could make a significant impac in reducing the housing problem. 3 . Since the economic prospects of the country are unlik ly to allow the government to devote much finance for housi1g, it imperative that means and ways to find other finan,ial resources for the housing sector should be explo ed. There are tremendous hidden and unused resources in the h nds of private people. A program under which interested with private money I . . . . d can collaborate on house un er possi ility that the government government supervision, is one of Ethiopia should look into as a otential resource for the housing sector. Such a measu e not only helps to increase the housing supply, but also 4 of th reates much needed employment opportunities. Particular attention should be given to the needs kebeles. The kebeles perform a vital role Ethio ia's current urban development process, particularly in addinistering the vast number of low cost houses owned by the g vernment. However, due to the lack of the necessary finan ial, technical and human resources, the kebeles are not able o properly maintain and upkeep the large of

PAGE 47

-44-hous s under their possession. A procedure should be esta lished for channeling funds from the Agency for Rental Hous s Administration (the agency which is responsible for admi istration of the higher and middle income rental houses) to t e kebeles for the purposes of repair and upkeeping of hous s and community facilities. The agency has a much larger than the kebeles and a lesser number of houses to deal with. By making its resources available to the kebeles the agen y could provide valuable assistance in saving the ex1s ing housing stock from rapid deterioration. In addition, prog should be formulated under which some of the low cost kebele houses can be sold to the tenants. Such programs can 1onsiderably reduce the financial burdens on the part of the kebeles. and administrative 5 . Financial institutions need to be expanded. Real1stic policies should be formulated so that the lower incoJ e sector can have access to long term loans at a reas nable interest. Furthermore, suitable programs must be deve oped to encourage and stimulate savings and expand the f I f h 1na c1ng o ous1ng. 6. More attention should be developed to expanding services and infrastructure. Stronger effort need to be made to reach more people with basic services, sanitation safe drinking water and health services. Programs for appr0priate provision of essential services and

PAGE 48

-45-infrastructure should be developed correlated with the realities of local conditions, need, and available human and capital resources. And such programs have to be implemented with in the overall urban development policy. 7. Strong emphasis should be placed on utilizing locally available building material resources. Self sufficiency 1n building materials is vital for the development of stronger construction sector. Programs should be developed to expand research in the application of effective building techniques and in the use of local and traditional materials which better serve the needs and resources of the mass. Efforts should be guided toward formulating long-range and continuing programs for the development of the construction sector as integral part of the n tional development plans. A well developed construction sector not only aids the housing efforts through greater efficiency and reduced construction cost, but it also provides employment opportunities and contributes to strength and stability of the national economy.

PAGE 49

-46BIBLIOGRAPHY Berhanu. "The Structure of Employment and Earnings in 1arly Stages of Urbanization: The Case Of Ethiopia. No. IS. (Winter, 1983), 41-S8. Amos Jrancic j. c. "A Development Plan for Addis Ababa." Ethiopia Observer, VI. NO. ( 1962), 5-31. ' ----------------. Berharru, Demeke."Ethiopia Urban Housing & A Design Guide Line Climate." Master's Thesis, The Royal Acadamy of Fine Arts, 1986. Centr1 1 Statistical Office. Addis Ababa Manpower and Housing Sample Survey-Dec. 1976. Statistical Bulletin No. IS. Addis Ababa : August, 1977. Ethiopia Statistical Abstract 1982. Addis Ababa: 1982. ----Office of the National Committee for Central Planning. Census Supplement 1. Addis Ababa: September, 198S. David. IDevelopment Process. London: Croom Helm, 1981. ' ------------------Galpr1n, Georgi. Ethiopia: Population Resources Economy. I --------------------------------------Ioscow: Progress Publishers, 1981. Gosh, Pradip K. Development Policy and Planning: A Third ----------------------------------------West Port, Connecticut: Green Wood Press, 1984.

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-47-Halli ay, Fred and Maxine Molyneux. The Ethiopian Revolution. 1ondon: Verso, 1981. Hardo , Jorge E. and David Satterthwaite. Shelter: Need And Response. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1981. J. "The Process of Urban Agglomeration VII, No. in 2 • ILO/J SPA. Socialism From the Grass Roots: Accumulation, Employment and Equity in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, 1982. Koehn Peter and Eftychia. "Urbanization and Urban revelopment planning in Ethiopia." in f Urban Systems in Africa. Edited by R.A. Obudho and alah EL-Shaks: Preager Publishers, 1979. Pp. 215-241 Lewin A,C. Housing Cooperatives in Developing Countries. hicster: John Wiley & Sons, 1981. Linn, Johannes, F. Cities in The Developing Countries. hichester: Oxford University press, 1983. Metro olitan Housing Draft Report. Addis Ababa, 1984 Munic"pal of Addis Ababa. Draft Report on Housing 1n Addis baba: Results From the Census of September 1967. Addis: March 1972. Offic of the Population and Housing Census Commission. thiopia 1984: Population and Census Preliminary Report.

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-48-ddis Ababa: September, 1984. Marina and David. Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution. ew York: Africana Publishing Company, 1978. Payne, Geoffery K. Urban Housing in the Third World. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977. --------. Low-Income Housing in the Developing World. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1984. Provisional Military Administrative Council. " Government Ownership of Urban Land and Extra Houses Proclamation. No 47/1975" Negarit Gazeta. No. 41. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1975. "Urban Dwellers' Associations Consolidation and Municipalities Proclamations No. 104/1976" Negarit Gazeta. No. 5. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press. 1976. "Regulation and Co-ordination of Public Financial Operations Proclamation No.l63/1979." Negarit Gazeta. No. 12. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press, I 9 7 9. " Construction and Use of Houses Proclamation No. 292/1986." Negarit Gazeta. No. 3. Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1986. Stre ten, Paul. First Things First: Meeting Basic Human Need in The Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank, 1981. Turn r, Alan, ed. The Cities of the Poor. London: Croom Helm, 1980.

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-49United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation. R port of A mission To Ethiopia. GF/TUTH/76/01, June ) 9 76. Weeraslnghe, 0. . Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press, White. Gordon, Robin Murray and Christne White, eds. B f l ighton, Sussex: 1983. Wolde-ichael, Akalou, "Urban Development 1n Ethiopia ( 1889l i25)." XI (January, 1f73), 1-16. Workerb ' Party of Ethiopia. Guideline on the Economic and I -----------------------------World s cial Development of Ethiopia. (1984/85-1993/94) . Draft dis Ababa: Government Printer (unofficial translation, 84). ank. Economic Memorandum of Ethiopia. No. 3552b-ET, ashington, D.C., 1981.

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APPENDIX

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r " Mo+\" , ........... c Stda YearNo . .&1 _ NEGARIT A4.tl Anti dt,.h II +1 Ilfft ' ,., .Addia .u.he, Z6tla July' 197 5 I •• •• GA.ZETA • • Rl•-c• •• rtlf.• •• II I R'IJIJ"! •.:f'.U.i! Atl-Mc I.C'J _.,nc n.+ r•IIJ It c M/Um ct. ,.. !'-.,..,., 11?'1 ....... ,...,.,,...,. 'f"' f.,rJ . . . 1A' If ,,.A;""" 11.11 (lOll ) CONTENT! 1 9 7 6 Proclamatioo No. -47 d. 191S OoYernment Ownenhip ol Urban L&Dds llld Extra H\)UMI Proc l amation . . . . . . . . ... Paae 200 4'"o1'C M /IIfn ' ,.. PROCLAMATION No. -47 OP.. 197S f'b ' 1'?'1 n.+ ,_.,.,.,....,. A PROCLAMATION TO PROVIDE FOR GOVERNMENT . ::, ':_,.. .,...,,.,,. ..,.",. n-t 1"f.+ 1 "'-14-tl +t J\14..Uof'" •ll1' R-t.1"Fo R+l\ff. f""l-.,..,...,c+ ,.,_,,...,. f'b.,..,CD< , 1\l.c'i R"'otll+flfl" Pll'r ll.'rlCD< Ml-1\CD< f).e U.'lf I (1111\'! .--(111 I _,6C1-MCDMCD< M 'rCIJ-1-11,.-l-flmCD< f_.'i"C'i f"' CJWNERSriiP OF URBAN LA.."mS .-\ND E:.XTRA URBAN HOUSES "ETIDOPIA TIIIDEM" WHEREAS , the standard of livin&, riJbu, hooour and atatus ol workers and toiliD& musea workina in factories , in dustries and other fields of activiry are determined by the exten t to which the urban areas .in whic:h they lit e IUord opportunitie s of work and aheltcr ; n.-ll')t 1 fD"tl1' A-fltt\"fP'Ii f'?fl'l-'i n.+l-R'r WHEREAS, ext.elllive areas of urban land and numerous 'f ..,:..., f?'M;ta'i 11\A.,fl-fl R• c ia! lhonqes in the supp l y of urban land , thereby inflatina its nt'tr-n• 11 f'b+., fl:l' J\'rl+ n.-tt:mc f'b.,.., value and obstructina the improvement of urban areu and of fl;l' 'P.i"J I Rm .. Nl1fRif 1"'C the qualiry of life of urban dwellers in their etfon to perpetuate '+ 1\b+.,CD< 1\-fltt-'>). t'h+., the system of exploitation ; .-1(11'A. htt:+\" J\1 .. -4--l-I WHEREAS . the concentration of urban houaes IUitabl e Ar-r &I t'*!J11\_,I\,. ll"'tl CD' f'b both for dwellina and business pu.rpoaes in the bands of a few .,..., fL'I' R'l'
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-51lfi t.."t-."'tl"' +'1'C Iif +1 ,., Negar i t Gazeta -No. 4 1 26th July . J97S Page 201 11fL.."t-h.t-1-"\I-+'1'1'C h.t-1-11f1.timM't;l 11 1 rh-t"7 m1111 11Mtt"S 11-l;:t-/If. I WHEREAS. the absence of cootrol on rmt of houses and the consequent soaring up of rents has rendeced the lives of the masses of urban dweUers miserable ; WHEREAS, it is necessary to survey and plan our cities with the need for dwdling a nd working purposes o( the maj o of city dwellers as the prime factor; h+'l" 1 11111f-;)> t'h+"7 mlf11 ,.,.'1 tf 111_,. t110P'tf lll:C') 11T"\1 1\tiO+ffl h't I htt.IJ 11L.."t-ht'l1'tto':f'a' hll.'t1f.t-'tfl t..,l'tfJP'f ftiO WHEREAS_. until _ now , only _ that class of people who could htt:l\ R.+t; fl;.t-'PMt; fl (I • produce as the1r ownership utle of urban land or house . ,. m.,. from the fac i l i ties afforded by banks and insurance f"t:fl\ 11 11-lf). l {I.LIII fh1-"7 mlf11 t.U't') m,.;"t companies which tbe broad urban dweUers were denied , and it f11l:C " A"ll\--l1\"l"lT.."t-l1flt103Ffto'i f.IJ')'),. ft1011 is now nece ss ary to make sucb credit facilities available to sucb ,.11-l-mlf11 h't\f1Tm t."7l:l"l 1 broad masse s ; 11h-t f"t 'llm') ilL mlf11 t'h.tt. WHEREAS, it is necessary to lighten the burden or paying 'ifh,. 11"7 1 I hflLII1.4D''t t'11l:C /JCJC:t"'i 1\tiOfltf,. higb bouse rents of the broad urban dwelling masses, provide 1\tiO tf R..."t-tiOP'tf fl:t" l1t10fltn.."tthem with the necessary cred i t facilities , and make available to f).(!'aJo"} 1;1" 11"7?1"?1" 1\ flit 1 I\ all). i 1\fl.-tilll"'i them urban lands for the c onstruction of both dwelling and 1\t-0. !lA 1\"7 l:t."l 1 busiue ss houses , thereby i m p r ovi ng their of living and c reating for t bem the .;:ondi ti n ns t o fruitfully work in confidence h-t'l" 'fn 11/J.,l:'i n•rc;.."t-"7l:t."l t'll for their c o untry. their familie s and themsdves; l/.-1: fl"t'111 rloflm•l "\f. "')JC.m-1\ ! t'h+ WHEREAS, it is necessary to build our urban areas on .,., 11:t-J 1\"'t'l"?f A i hl17i;tfl"7.1l')'i Oh1-"7 tbe basis o( careful p l lilll i ng and study in order to utilize our .l.'J ID1' -t"Jilr.''f fl"l1'4-•l-f""l.ffl'fl\ in an econom i cal manner, to improve tbt coodition s t••lf).'t O'f'""'t 1 of citie s. t o protect urban dwell e rs from d i seases and prevent fl;f"'i fL: r t.tf;f" ll'f.Ct: fl.f'f l1h-l\ iUega.l ac itivit i es now prevalent in urban areas; ,l'llh-t-llw"711+.! t'l\.f\ID hctu; 0"7il+t.r U11-l-'i WHEREAS. it is nece!>Sary to do w i th the inexhaus7, .IIJ:.C'Jh") fl.,l:t."' 1 t i ble court c ases involving urban lands and howes thereby saving cflr "7f.t..ft,' ,.m1.f fl.f'l"f. financial and h um an re s ources !rom wastage ; II .. ) Mlttl.. 1. 6C.II;f")P'f oeflm• r ftt10 .1ft10C 1 WHEREAS. it is ne.xssary to provide help to those people i i n ' urDa!l areas who .: annot afford to bave of tbeir OWD; . f11d 01 mlf11 C11t)flA film-') U11 .11.1 JC.v,. h'll\"lt'r-.:t h'J'."'Il. 11"71.. \'.HEREAS. Ul on!er to bridge the wide gap in the stan111..A 1111-' J'flaJo't hot:f-J;"' 1\"7-l-t-t.fl l dard o f living of urban uweUers by appropriate allocation or disproporti o n a tely-held wealth and income as weU as the inequit fiAlt•t'i 1111.1\m--f>C.f>lt lit. 11"7 able pr o \ i sion of service s amon& urban dwei.Jcn and to elimi-l:t."l '}JC fhr.., fl;J'i fl. or t'Df<'J"lP'r ')11 nate the of the many by the few, it is necusary to G.f-"">JC.Uj"> "ll:t.'t hflLII'l. llt101f). r , bring under Government O"''fler sl)i p and control urban lands and 1\fl I•Jlf..C 1..C"l1'i fl\.+ extra urban houses; P'AffJ't II Ol(l'} OIDffJw-+'TC f , ' ,.. NOW, THEREFORE, in acrordance with Article 6 of the i tiOu•l.r htt.U f"thi'lltD ;lm-'f:'PA 11 Definition of Pow . ers of the Provis i onal Military Administration Council and its Chairman Proclamation No. 2 /1974, it is here-I M J y.:, fh-t-"71 fl:t"'i R..."t-, .. ,..,P'or ftiJ"'Gl-M':f +"''C '} . .,-. l -t11h-1\.m+ll .e'f"\1\ • f ,.;tt-"71111 11.11 f"tfflmm-Oili' +c n u m-h1' 1 i .1 _!jh.,..., fl;f" "lfl-l-11..,H;>K 11.-l-m,e,. Oh he<" aJo(l'f f"7.1"S ..... • 1 / • f . .,.., R..."t"71\+ 1"u•c.,. !fl+ m.e,. O:f ,.C 1\f. fl\ 1\DI''I t.f I m,e,. 1\1\.1\ M 1\ ..,,....... f"taJo" R.-l-• t l • R..."t-• "71\-l •-u) ' 'tt: R.IJ-1'111 m.e,. "1M11 ,.,.'1 t1 h"'ttfl hJ'IfiD' h}Ot: Dl'fltl R..."tby proclaimed as foUows : I . Short Tit!L CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This Proclamation may be cited as the "Government Ownership of Urban I...ands and Extra Houses ProclamatiOn No. 47 jl97S" . 2 . In this Proclam'ltion , unle s s the COilten otbenriJe requims : I 1 "urban lands" shall mean all lands within the boundaries ol a municipality or a tcwn; . 2 / "urban bouse" shall mean any boule whether fully coostructcd or nnda COO$!IUCtioa !nlellded for dv.oellins or busiDes.s or other pwposea. 3 / "extn houae' 'shall meea ID nrb&D h
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-521K' I! I r ;Jt-l;Jtl"1 f"'1'C !1-+-Ii•f-H_'_ _r_._N_e,_an.t_G_azc_ta __ No_._" .... l --2-6th-Jul_'f__'_97_.s_ .. '.•-2-0l I .,.,. b) required or occupied by ID arpnlutioe (lf'"f A•'ftf n.+ h.,_, as dwelliDJ places for ita employees or penoaa . •t-r hflf• I •t-r Wider ill relpqDiibility; ) n.-tMI I 11\fl'fl .,.,_ AI"' c) boules requind for rvDDiq tbe baliDeas cl 1 -l"'tf 0.-l-01\l-I penoa. family at 1D orpnizatiea. 1ft. "''W A.,ll'tlf+ •t.r fA'I'W f-tfrt ftl.,._, n.+ • I/ f f-trtl n.+ • .,A+ n.-trHl et.r 1A l)ofl •t-r et.r r'lf''f -tr tf f-!J ""'""' f\.1)-• . 1;/ f,.l"'tf n.+ • .,A+ f\.-tr'loflt 1r\r'lofl r"r .ttl-+ f-tmWO+ "'.,.., n.+ . f"'"' "'.,.., (t;t' • 11 r • .,tt hh.,._, fl;t-•t.r n.+ f\.of-Ml11Mofl e,.,-• ' '! I • .,tt+ )lftlLA n. ... r'lofl I Mofl •t-r "'.,.., tt? •t-r na.,.., + r-r.m....,. • . . lf•t.llA • ..,tt+ ,,.,t,. n.+ J\ofle f'f I. et.r IL-tr'lofl •t-r 1Ar'lofl • j / • .,A+ )lftlLA et-r MA111--lr.rr'lm n.-tl'lofl 1 1AMl •t-r fh r fl;l-I A-ter'lt et.r 1\A-teiU 1.fl f\.-l-•t-r J\1A111--l-0-tfA f""f.m w T , r .h.t-1- • ..,A+ fh.,.., (1;1-, .,.,. "'.,.., n.+., h..,htf+ 11Hofl .,.,. TW ... • t-rt:t- • ..,A+ 064 ol'l t .,,.,. o• A 0-tm+I'ICD-1\CD ,.,.,, rh n.+ .,.,. fh.,.., (l;t' • T r,.m....,. --n+ • ..,A+ fh.,.., fl;l-') ., .. I Ofltn;t' I 064 .,11111') et.r r'II"T') 01A r-mw --n+ • • • .,A+ • -n..w: J.l.., "'M.v-r of16C .... "''C rfU f-t-Ahof-CD• • I I • fh-t.., f1oflt.+ .,10C • .,A+ ott."' "'"'!-1; ,.,.t.+ r""f.lt"'" -,., oc ! 1 / • ••u.11+c • .,A+ fl"'t-'i tn.+'f ""f.tll+c . . :;:,/• ••u.n-tc • .,A+ rn.+"f ""f.tll-tc . . ' ! I • "'.,.., fl:t-'i n.+ hchc' • .,A+ Oh.,.., 0.-l-1\1-I MCD-lft') I fi-Jf;l'') I •t-r f,.m....,.., --n+ f""f.,.Ah+ hchc • "'"-"',. fh.,.., fl:t-1-rt:M hchcr • -41 " dwelliD1 bowe" lhaD !DID ID art1111 bousefor dwclliD1 by 1 periOD or family or 1M tlllplyeea cl • orpniz.atioll IIDda ill r.pouibili.ty. .S I "busineu boule" aball. mea ia 1ftul or sp.:e Ullld for nmnin& tbc butinea cl 1 penclll or family or 1D arpa.iudCIL 6 1 "lessor" abaD llle&ll 1 pengD wllo or 1 fiiDily or u arpoiutioc whidl renta out u urnan lllld or bowc.. 7 I "1-" aball -1 pengD'wbo or 1 family or • arpnizati011 •bidl pays reDt for .the use ol u urbaa land or howe. I I "co-dweUa" aball meu 1 per1011 wllo or 1 family 4hich dwells with 1 leseor or lessee in the same dwellina bouse and pays I'Cilt to tbe 1cuor or leuee . 9 / " ICDIDt" UWl IDOID I penCIIl wbo or I family or U arp.Dizati011 wbic:h pays I'Cill Jive. IDY adler COIWdultiOII for the use ol urbu IADd, for 1 limited or unlimited time, of tbc use to which such land is put . 101 "rent" shall mean the mooey or otber c:a:ISideratiCllt paid to 1 ltssor far the I&IC olu arb111 laDd or hOIIIC. 111 "hold in& in uticbrtsis" sball IDCIII ID artJ.D !aDd or house htld by the leader or otber perSOII a&fUd to in the contract as security for 1 debt 12/ ' 'ule-right" sball mean the ript to per:sou1 use, but in rnP"t of urbu !aDd, aball not include the rip to triDSfer it by will, dclllati011. martp&e or sale . 13 1 sball mean any arpoiz.ati011 or ..ciatiOII providtd for in the Commercial Code or Civil Code an.t:I sball uiclude tbc body referred to in Art. 398 of the latter . 1-4/ "c o-operative society of urb&D dweUen" aball meu 1 ce>-operative society to be eatabllibed Wider Chapter V ol this Proclamaliaa . 151 "Minister' 'sball meaD the Ministet of Public Worb and H ou.sill&. 16 1 "Ministry" shall mea the Minislry of Public Worb and Hou.sill&. 17 1 "dispute in•olving urb&D !aDd and bouse" iohall meu I dispute OY'U the ownership, succCssi011, poesessioa, lease or use ol urban bouse and shall include disputea over the posaesai011 of urban lllld.

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-53'K' l!r t.;Jt+ .;JtL"' .....-c !fl dl,.t\.!Jt ft') ct.,., " 'e&ar' t GautaNo . 41 -26th Jul y , 1975-Page 203 I lU\ h.,.., fl;f-.t I ftt fl;M ,_.,.,,...+ I 1/!1-u MttR.)o ft') 'f.,.r: f'tl+-r fl;ff .. ,.,,...,. Hll+ II'S:A • t/Erf..r 1\+Ml • "tMil .,.,. f1l fl;f-') R"tA 'lt\IHI+t.)o t\ .. 11f Jr\1-l-A.,. • r/ h.,.., 11;1-._.., • I I f1l fl;f-M .. hAhl\e I 1,/lftl+-r fl;:f-t\.11''1' I 1\..1'11' .,.,. 06_. I\J1t 1 n.-cn .,.,. ... 1\..+ J\1-'fA,. • 1 / ;M"'f,... !I ft') it. ,.. '1.,.r: f'tl+.,., I ;:f-fltll";ti t I 1 R'iii"P ,,_,. RM . f+1.l1 +"f .,.,. •• +11U\ • . & I ;f.. m') 1'\t\.,.IDI'I') I i / 1\+l'lil .,_,. .,Mil 1\ .. 'rtf f\olo ,.,... f r-tJ•I\• Mh A,.tl.)o ,_.,. ( M.(Ctl f'tl+-7 fl;f-'"'l.ktl# R"t/ID .p,. ,.,_tf .. .,.l.)o R,f.tt;f-1\..l'l•liD-,f.'fl\1\ • \.f.lf:l"• 1\. .. + f?.'f -!1'1-l-... ,.,. 1111. ... ,.,. nu;:t-• ++h+• , .. '".,.,. -il+ .r.tr J.-PA• I I / 1\ .. trtf 1\-l-,.,_,. 1\ ... P'tl 1\-l. f_P'U fl;f-"H.I'Ime-t\J..-1\h-l-'"'l.k ML't1.t.,., f\J'MR.)o .. m)o') R'"'l.a.fl F .. .,.l-l 01-tt.:f-1\..l'lm• ,t.'fl\1\ • r/ U h.,.ID<"'ir Rk.)o I 1\-P'/,f 1\.)o ,.,. 1\U't-+.,'f .. 'rtf 1\-l-.. "'"' ..... 1.,1\1'1-0 I RI\+1'1-R .,.,. f+ fH f1t 'i' fl;:f.. m') R'"'l.kil# fAJI'IttA • I I M h.,.., fl;f-"PI'IIJf ,f.tt;+-I i ! flt\cl'l.)ol; nh.,.., -PI'IIJf ..-tthA '"..,. LC!l.A • Ah.,.., 1!1\Cil-l-h'"'l. t\.1\ "'"-Uor h"7')1Jf....,. 6_. tt 11'S:.A • r.J rAH A" I ')o-tl A (I) f+f.t11• 21\')1.+ 11''r ')D-1'1 (6) 0+,.1\ +• f.f.ff;:f-.. m, OIH• +-r (l;f-u. f,f.tt;f-.. fl .. 1-'r t.'tl\ • -I I fl-',:f' :t-1:-U ,.,_,. .. il-l-1'11\ .. l'lmol-1 i / h-ID'fllir ou f'tlM fl;t-'""" R.-tl'l-0 I .,_,. .,Mil M f,.'rtl 1\-l-ht\. .. I ')o-il (I) f+l.t11• "' ll''r ')o-/1 (I) R+ 'rMl+• fU;:t.. m') Rfl;:f-e< U..f.f.ff:t' .. il.)o lftrl•• • CHAPTER D URBAN LANDS 3 . Governme"t of Ur"-L4Nb I I As of the effcc tive date of this Proclaml!ioo, all urb&r• lands shall be the property of the Govenuncnt. 2 / No persoo . family or orpn.izatioo shall hold urban land i n private ownership . 3 / No compensation shall be piid in respect of urban lands. 4. Prohibitio" of TrGIISfer of Urban lANI s . 6 . I I No urban land may be transferred by sale, antichres is, mortgage , succession or otherwise. 2 1 Any transfer ol urban land by dooatioa, su.cc:ession, lease , sale or otherwise made as of Tahsas 11, 1967 s hall be null and void. Siu of Holding 1 / Any person or family may, in accordance with dircctives issued by the Ministry, be granted the possessioa of urban land upto 500 square meters for the purpo!e of building • dwellin& howe. Upon the death ol the holder the wife or husband or children shall have the ri ght to use the land . 21 Where an organizatioo appli es to the Ministry to be granted urban land for building a dwellin g or businea how.e the Ministry may, on being satisfied of the need, grant such l.10d in sizes to be determined by it. 3 1 The Ministry shall determine the size or urban land held before the .effective date or this Proclamation by a persoo . family or an organization for the purpoee of building dwellillg howes for his or its employees or for building businea.s howca . Urban TeMIIt's Ho l d i"g 1 / Tile relationship between landowners and tenants on urban land is hereby abolished. The tmant sh,all be free from payment to tht. landowner of rent , debt or any other obligation. 2 / Subject to Article 4 (2) and within the limit of the size mentioocd in Article S ( 1), the tmant shail ha v e right over the land he halda. 7 . GranW.g of Rights of POJ.Sessll'" or Priority 11 Subject to Article 4 < 2 > and within the limit ot the size mentiooed in Article S ( 1) any penoo who or family which doea not own a dwdlin& hOUJC shaD ha-.. poueuary ri&tU over the land whic:h be or it hoida beforo the effoctiYC date of this Proclam•tioo.

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-54-, If f!l )_.,6-l-_.,tl"' .....,C !i .. ., !ifft ' ,., Neprit Gueta -No . .1; Z6th July, 1975 ... 204 11 u nt+-7 1'.::1-A_.. .. + o ... h-r-.,, 11h.I.A ,.,..,. ntU\ ..,.,\"..,. R.-t"of'l .,.,. "'"".,. ,_'f61 R.-l-hA.A• ftJ\')ttJr I')D-11 J\')+Jr (I) , .. tf'f RJ\')ttJr n J\')+Jt (I) 11-t-Ah+• .. m., 1111.u-1'.::1-ft.tf.::l-.,_'fl.t'A • r/ fiJ\')ttJr I ')Doll J\')ttJr (I) M' 11J\1ttJt .,.,.n J\1+Jt (I) lf'f t.tJ nt+-7 1'.:1" ,,... t:c 11f';t"ID• ff.tf;t' --n-l-1-'f l.t'l\ I J\14. ,.,-,.. .. .,.,+ hft.t--u n-h-r-"' 11h.I.A 11 lfoft fhLA '"71\"Cl't_-fl-tt?" :t.t'-JJ ,., l..t'l\ • S . I ftt....., 1'.::1-..,1\f' M-•".t' I I/ ftl.,..., fl;l-ffH R.-tMI I .,MHl .,,_,. .t'C 'l.tL •n"' llo\t'I\ID f';I-ID• 1 -A(I 11-•".t' J\11 11-MID 'PW ftiHI"-A • 11 nR.+Mi t 11.,Mio(lt .,.,. ,.,.,., nt +-7 1'.:1" _,.,,..-} Aflt1fo(l Ml\1/t-'f A'"tt'A r-unLA11D-j\,111 M"m 1'.:1" ..., "-.,II .to ,. """ • I I Mh...-, 1'.::1-t '"t'ifiD,. IL-t"o(l I "ft\(to(l : .t'C;E--l-fi!HCDfttM fl.::l-_,.,,.,+ fl'"'tiDIHQ)o ..,..,1..-l-fh.,.., 1';1-• I 1 11h....., hAl\ •II, IIM+hh-1 11h.,..., ..... , l'i h+m+fl• ff\;1-.. m, ID-"l. r-t+hh-'""=" ,,.,.,,....+ 1-(11..-l-• IJ. l f,.P'6f fl.+'." f,..,-t.! R.-l-lll\,.!1f 1 i / fl.-tflo(l tllf.,. "tt\rto(l 11'"7 . .-C'I'fl-lJ\').t' h-t'"t o(I;F r.-t:tf R.-1-A.'f/.(1) .e'flll\ • 11 ..,., "f P' + 11 '"'!. t1J M ,_"'I.+ J\ ') .t' .t'C A w .,_,. 11;)11.1-H fl9''f A..,'f t.l f-tl11 11.-l-A. If l.tJ>o t.'f"l\ • r./ J\').t' R.-tflo(l l "ft\(to(l l 1"'1.-tiJ• _,.,,....+ l1'"'t1DMID_.,I..'t-, .. ,.,t.l R.-1-1\.'fl.tiJo """" • I/ ..,m).') ..,,.,,....+ 11-ttiJIIS'• .-wl.-1-1 '"t'if ..,. .-r:t.f fl.-1-.,,_,. .-P'tf R.-1-ftltiJo IL-t M1 I "tAMI "toflC 11 !It ftt....., R.-1-I I I "1 .t' fl..,. {lo(l j ., ""of1 (IJ ,.,. .t'C :f+ 11 h.,.., fl. ir f-tn+,. .,,. t.U'H fl..)-f"ttD (.il I fDI'if1' .,.,. r-tt• 1' ""-il-l 4)o:: ur:,. hili _,..,,..,.:, . r"t'fr --n+ f 'fl..""" 2/ Subject to At1icle " (2) ud widliD die limit af tbl Ilia IIICiltiaDed ill Al1icle 5 ( l ) • .., periCII ... Cll' laaWy wllidl bu paid ill t.u or iD bl6n tbl af dli.a Pmd••tjm tbl parc:haa price af c art.A 1aDd but don • on a dwllliq r.clhall hat priOrity eMf till ..-siCIII oliUCb lad. 3/ Subject to Aniclel 4 (2) aad 5 (2), 111 orpaiutiaa whil:b owu utbu liiDd before till dhctiw daa at tbla Proclamation lhal1 ha"t poueuory ript a.-IUCb land . Wheu: sudl orpnizatioa ba& JIW ill fiiD or ia put tbe purclwe price o( urt.a land , it lhall bat priority oer the poueuioa !aDd. 8 . of TIIIWtr tlltd Ezproprillliofl 1/ Where a pcrtoa, family or an orpnintjm faila to utiliu his or ita urban !aDd withiD the period to be specified by the Ministry , the MiDistry may take t.ct such !aDd aod put it to appropriate 2i Tbe Ministty ahall, by CC111pe!1Sabcm iD killd, r .tpi"Oilliale for pahlit: parpaec urbu lmd beld bJ a penoll, family .or u orpnizacioa . 9 . UrhiUt LtlNJ Rlflt AIJy penon wbl) or famil; • or orpninrion wiDch bolda urban lud U.All pay reut to be hed bJ the Guw•w 10. Ott11vrship of Trl'!l ;,. Urbolt ArHI Tree& oo urban laDd1 OCher tlwl thole 011 laDds witbill the limit ol the size mentioned UDder Anicle S shall be Government property. CHAPTER ni URBAN HOl ' SES II . and BwifiUS 1/ Any pcrsoo or family ma' OWD oalJ a sillale dwelliDa .howe in any urban area ol bis choice . 2 / AIJy orpniuti011 may own bouaa far the purpoec ol housing its employees or pel10lll its respoasibi lity. the number and size ol wbicb shall be determiDed by the 3 / AIJy persoo , family or orp.o.iz&ti011 may OWD houses the number and size ol wbicb shall be dctemli ned by the Governmen t t.lkiaa into acc:ouat the conditioo and type ol business. 4 / AIJy penon, family or orpzlizalioa &hail pey taue 011 his or its dwelli11g or busilleu at ru. to be determ!Jied by the GOYU'DIDe:nf. 12. of UrbiUt Hou.us 1 I An y person. family or organization may UIC his or its own house or transfer such house by sua:essian , sale cr barter . However , in case of sale the Government shall have right or' pre-emptioo .

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1/ 1i ... ., ct .. r-. 't.r-t: "'.,..., ' } R.+ fiH R.+flof'l I 1Mof'l I tltf.r-1 -a.. ttAU-tA+ ntl+-tC • r-tJU:t\'r f-!.11 oK4: R.-lo 1-U hAfin'l-n 1,r-t: f-')1P'-l-')of'lt.+ • If -n'ff; l R.+M'I I 11\M'I •t-r-le\ ..., f-'tl.l n,.k" ,_P'/,1 R.+ ,.., .... hAfin+ +1 't.r-t: ...., .. (\1' e\-tl ft# I Mll-w1of'l'i' I 11J'1 AAn+ • I h_,1J + M+•M. fL ... 'f J ,..+ •W -ti:'P n.at1fof'l -r-n...,1P'+ ,.,,of'l R1A R.+flll':f -r-1Mil':f -r-nlltn.:l--r-n.,,.-11Jm') Mil+\" ., _, r+Jt -r-n+-11111-v-1;1-r-tnmn.+':f ;.u hA,.n+ .,.., , .. .,1P'-f-• t-11 .,o-n "'I'll+\" tr':f n+ n. ... ':f t-'r t.•A • ')Doll (I) .. f+tltM. fl..} '1'11+11' .-rt f-tl\e\<1. '1'11+\"..-r' • .,., ,. nlfof'l hR. ... _, -'C +-11JI1J'S ttAIMfi n.+ ttA.A• e\_.,1P'-l-tn...., -tth-K 1\J'Kfie\-l-. • f/ 1D-Il (I) .. r+•M• 'n,.lo f-Me\L . ..,., .. 111Hl hR.-tr ., .,..._.,11J'S n..., rn. .. ., Aft-;"A-l-• II n• "'......,., n.+ h_,1P'+ n11 tn? w n.,,.._.m., Mil+\" .,_, •ll.c.n-li''P +m+_,. ntt.v-')o-Il (i) . (r) •uot.+ h11CID-IA+et.(t l'll'Q .;,..., r-hLA 11.:1' J\Ant. Jll e\Attl\ m') I'IAUI'\ (tiD-f+IH R.-l-I J •t-r-hAM1.• ,.:; r-t ere 1\Atte\ J-m1 IAUfl fl•. f-t./tlf,.flbo •t-rA.,ItW.' r-t'fA .. "'.,.., n.+ ,...,1,...+ if'rr ff,.ft-f'h.,.., R.+ hM• e\Atat\ 'fAUn .. fl• Ii n')o-11 A1+Jr (I) -a+--,. ........ -55GazetaNo. 41 -26th July, 19'lS P.,e 20S 2 / No right iJJ ownership of urbu houses acquired u of Tahsas II, 1967 shall be effeeuve unleu validate by the Ministry . I.a validatinasucb ript the Ministry aba1l ucertai.D that the acquisiuoa does not c:oatndict tbe purpJeoes of this Proclamatioa. 13. ()wi'IQsltip of Eztro Ho.ue:r 1 1 , Subject to Article 11 {1 ) , ( 2) aDd ( 3), all extra bOGieS witbio the bouodaries of a munic:ipality ex towD ahall, on tbe etfoctiYC date of thia Proc:lamatioa , be Govent mcmt property . 2 / pel"SSOI who ex f.amily ex orpoizatioa whi<:b OWD& an extra houae aba1l have the obUptioa to D04ity, regisw with and hand over to the Ministry suc:h extra bouse witbiJJ 30 da)'l from the effective date of this Proc:lamatioo . 14 . Houses Talcen from the f / Urban howes whic:h belonged to the Governmeot or whic:b were enemy property or howes built with funds raised by public: or obtaioed from the Government and were donated , sold at depressed prices ex traos ferred to a persoo, family or :.111 organization under > i milar shall, on the cUec:tive date o( this Prodamatioo, be Govc:rumcnt propert)' . The fongoiJJg provisioo sh.all also apply to said houses which have since *n transferred to third parties . 2 / Where the house mentiooed iJJ the above sub-article has t-D transferred to aoother and where the purchase price paid for it is unreasooably low compared to the actual price, the Minister may permit the traos fcrTee haviJJg oo exua bouse to retain the ownenbijl of sucb house upo11 payment of the differeace. 3 / Where the meotioaed ,in sul>-artic:le (I) o( this Article has beea transferred to aoother &lid where the purchase price paid for the is roughly equal to the actual price , the Mioister may permit the trans fetrce having no extra bouse to retain the bouse . 4 / Whue a persoc who had acquired a boUse beloog!ng to the Got.-ernment by donation ex by paying a depres sed price aod has sold suc:b bouse aod the house is not takcll by the Government uncler (2) aod ( 3) o f this Article, such person shall pa y to the Mini&try an amount equal to the price he obtaioed from •he transacu •D. IS. HtiiHI!S Own ed . b y Mi110T3 Any urban house which a mio.or living with his parent; guardian ex tutor has leased out ex whic:h is capable of being l eased be Govemmeot property . where the parent does not OWD ao urban house , the minor may . exucise the right given under Article 11 ( I

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-56D • o.+ M.,..,."" 1 11' '-ft. rttM o.+ """.. ,.," R.+ R.+MI .,_,. 11\MI •.l1A -It 1 .,_,. rttM R.+ R.+ .,.,. 1AI\of'l •.r.-r.-cm• n.+ A.,..,.l\n of'l+ 1'\1\ .. • R.-tr A.,.P'I.I 1\ll "1. .,..,}1 .,.,. n.+rtofl """ .f lt'"7tiLC r-r.'fA .,.11}1 -r.t.ll-ti /I.;J1-r 1-U 1D-ll • R.-tr1,. .,.11P'-l • . 1 / rtm f+IH .,,_,. hJ. f: Rt'lf f.,.l"/.1 IL+ 11\fiJ (lm• I A." 1 o.+ ftJI.to 1\-r.,..,t-m ,.,, .,,..,_.,.c.mm n.-t: --a+ 1\1\m • tr'r,. 11.11 n.H+ I\'"71MA r'"7t.'fl\ -tr}') -r.t.n-t< fl.lt.:J1'f t.u 1o-n I R.-tr')r _.,1 P'+ t.•CII"I\ • . r. ntt.u no-n (t) '"7nln 1+-tl n-nm+ ll.i'MI .,.,. 1Mofl nt. 11M+ f'"7J.,-t.co-') +ht-1-MM+.. ' 1'\1\ ..• '-ntt.u n1o-n (i) .,.,. (I) .,..., 1.+ •.lh+'"f 11.-lt 1\.,..,.1\n f1.LA1 -nr .,..,. n.,. n.-tr1 "'""'' ,..,. •c 1." .,llm't+of:l /t.fl''"' • RJ\1f'lt I' 10oll "1f'lt (I) M" J\1+1t l'i 1o-n *''•"' (I) r (t) • M (I) r+1.u1• J\11.+ mn+ lf'r +ht-tl n.-tt1 Mtttithn rn.-tr1 A-r.tn-t-4-,.,.,. Ah+'1 tl"f M-nt+ ..,.,nc • n.+n-n ,.,.,. 1M-n ,.h.,l+ Mt h-t'rcn+ h.,.., rl\•+ ,,.,. r+ttmt. "'""'" n-r.'rcn+ h+-t f6-t\o .,.'r/.1 n.+ '""" hlf' ' n-A+• ,,.,. f"h 11+ n.+ ft.,.ht-r+ 'f1c .,n -1\J.,.Ah+ -r.t.n-t4-.,.,. M oflt+ "MOi-fR.-tr't M+'l.itC +thll Ul. "ttlln.m nco u-•.:f-.,..,."J"J'f .,.'r/.1 n.+ , 1 .,.,. •"'-Mnm n-r..,.Ann+ 'LtL n.-tr1 -•tt 1nthn'" • !It P\11: M+llfo M'f I J/ 1-11 hA'iO+ ., R.-1-'t R1..,.Ah+ I 1.11: t•A.t-"1.t-... • It n•l\.t-n..,..,., r•'r&l n.+ 1 .,.,. n.+ fllf' M'lt i1R.-tr .,,.,. 11T• .,..,. hltnl.,,. 11Hof'l +•"1"1'1 .,_,. flllf.RA1' lf'r h+1T 1 +O'ItfD' h6'1• • I Rlll\.t' f+IH , .. 'r&/1 .,.,. -P'tl n.+ ni'\1+Jt 11 'to-n ;,.,+w (I) .,,.,. (I) .,..., 1.4-MftR.-tr ,.,_.1\h .,.,.. nr-r.•tn,. n.ti'., """'d)o ,., M.f1 +-"1"1'1 1'W II\1T +teo-') .f\..1'\ofl ,.,nhLA -.o-. r+mn+ • Neprit Gaz.etaNo. 41 -26th July, 197S....:.. Paac 206 I 6 . Ri1l11 to RtposulJ Ow11 HoiiM I 1 Where a penoll. bai bil own urbu house but relides IIDder any arn.apman ill 111 urban house that of anocher, 111eh pcnoll may bil bouse. Likewise , a penoo who owus more than oae W'bul house may repouess the bouse ol Ilia c:boic:c. However, where the Ml.llistry ucenai.lls thai the bouse is oeceuary for bu&ioess pul"pC*S or that the house is capable ol KC0111!1lodati.llg more . tlian ooe fiDiily, this sul>-article 51\all have no applicati.:>n and such house shall be Government property . 2 1 Any person who has one or more houses held in antichresis by another may. where he bas no other business house . repossess the house of his choice upon producing a licence for the business he wishes to undertake . However. where the Ministry that such house cannot be used a.s a business house. this sul>-article sh:ill have no application 1.11d such house shall be Govern111ent property . 3 / Any person or family shall have the ricbt to evict his or it! co-dweller by Jivillg the notice mentioned i n sul>-article ( 4) of this Article . 4 / Any penon who decidh to exm:ise his ri&ht under sul>-article ( I) or ( 2) ol this Article shall give 6 months' notice to"the penon oc:cupying the house . S / Subject to Article ('20) (4) 1.11d Article 21 (2), (3), and ( 4), the lessee shall c ootinue to pay rent to the Go.emmen t or to the aoc:iety of urban dwellers pending the handing over of the house . 6 / Vt'here a person or family leaves for busineu purp05es the urban area of his or its habitual residence and if such penon or family has a dweUillg house of h i s or i a OWIL in such urban area , the Ministry or the cooperative society ol urban dwellers shall, where the penon or family so request&, provide rucb person or family with a comparable dwe!Ung house or commen surate bousina allow1.11c:e. The M i nistry, shall take o.er the administratioo of the dwelling howe of said penon or flnilly and upon the return ol the person or family to the plAce ol his or its habitual rosldence hand it over to ita owner . . 17. HoiL1eJ Hrld in A lllichr•siJ 1 / Upon tbe effecti.e date ol this Proc:IIDiation, all con tracts ol1.11tichrnis lnvolvina urban houaea are hereby abolished . 2 / Where the lender ill a c:ontriiC! of azuic:htwia hu, by the .1&11 to which Ill! had put !he h01111 ar by dll r.t which be bas rec:ciYed, obtal.ned 1.11 IDIOUDt equivalent to or men th1.11 the amount of the Ioiii, tbe borrower shall bl frM from Ilia debt . 3 / Where the lender In a c011tnt:t of 1.11tlc:brftia lnvolvina an urban dwelling or busineu bou.M which is rever tible to the owner or is liable to bl Oovcmmen t petty under aul>-artlcle (I) or (2) of Article 1 6 hu not obtained rrorn such house an nmoun t or IICrvlct equivalent to or mnre than the amount or the 101.11, -lender be entitled to claim the difference from the borrowu .

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-571Jr lfl ;J""J i!Ji !it +1 't. ,., Nc:garit Gazeta No. 41 -26th July, t97S -Pap 207 ; 1 ... t .. '1-ct:-::f M-hLA 1 18 "'"' 1 / oe&Pt+ 1\+CD/.1} n.+'f ....,.,,....+ 1 / T'be GOYmUnent shall pay fair compensation in RS-...trn.Cit") tt"f • J*l o1 howes traalfmed to Gowtnmcat owncnhip If i .+1 't. ,. . OM 1\1\CI)o 1." Wldu this Proclamation. Ajr:(. hoee-tlfiz OL-l-f+hLI\ h.&ll Ort.U 2 / Wbere advance rent for the period after Nehasic I, Al!_+Jr ')()otl A1+Jr (i) oe&Pt-lo 1\+CDll} R.+'f 1967 hu been paid before the effective date of hl"thLA tt"f • this Proclam&tioo, the amount of such rent shall be r / o i A1+Jr II 01o-ll Jr\1+Jt (i) oe&Pt+ I\+• substnctec! from the compensation payable Wider th. R.+'f tt"f ,.,_,. h."f& 1'\l-hLA,. • article (I) ol this Article . Ill fh.J-, n.+ 1\mlHI MA"7h--l-M.,M+.)t 1 3 / No compeos&tion or damap shall be due in rcapect 1 OR.+/\ofl .,,_,. f+flf fh.,.., ol houses to Government ownership under I Article 14 (1). n.+ _..,.,,....+ 1\mltofl Jr\1A"71\--l-1\_,'PA f"Uil LA CD-1\.tn fl"f R.iz') 1\.•llt:-I-'filA • 19 . ExJWoprwti+Jr 111o-n "''+Jt j..,..l+ tDI-,. hh+., )'Pt9''f f...,ofl ,....t-.,...,flC :JC 1-+1'1\A • r / f,U 1'\'Pl-11L-l-f+f.l1 .,1'1"m-r •A 1."• h;t-...,..,,.... II +1 !ifH ' ,.. r-uA.)t hi!') tDI-,. fh+., )'P tr_l-f...,ofll-l,....t-.,...,flC h+ht-f. :JC Jr\4.1l l'\.,.t'l"7 1-'fi\A • 1 / fl-&t-1 f"ttDtl') f. 1ofl MhtD"' h.t-1/f• hrf oflC MI-11A1" fh_,.., R.+'f'i' .. ,.... t'f R.+'f h.t-1-tJ)thl\ i ... ., oFih+l\• oem') ++1!l.A • 11,' fltDC Mh. oflC ! 11-+ 1 h / OtDC oflC 111\t. Mh Y oflC floe+ 1 th / l1tDC h! oflC fll\t. Mh if oflC o!) n-+ ' oef 11tDC hU ilt: 111\.f. Mh oflc 11oe+ 1 &Pi l1tDC h,H:-1 oflC 01\t. Mh ., oflC f noe+ 1 l / OtDC h.f oflC flllt.Mh (f oflC 1\"thtt:hn-+ 1 '(;/ fltt.U Jr\')+Jt ')o-Il Jr\1+Jt 11+-1\h+ar _.,.. l-1-fltDC I II/ )\tlh if oflC f"tht-f. fh+_, oe1\l.)l )m..,. The Government may, by paying compeasatioo, expropriate _ for public purpoee an urban house held by any person. family or organization. 20 . H ous e Refit CHAPTER IV RENT 1 . ' No person . family or organization except the Ministry or co-oper at e soci eties of urban dwellers may , as of the effective date ol this Proclamtion. obtain income from urban land or house rent. 2 / The relationship between lessor and lessee is hereby abolished as ol the effective date of this Proclaaation. However. the lessee lessor relationship shall coa tinue with the Ministry or with the co-operative so ciety of urban dwellers in accordance with ( S) ol this Article . 3 / Whuc a contract ol. lease before .he effective date ol. this Proclamatioo exptre. before Tahsu 22, 1968, the. Ministry or the C()-Qpcl'ative society of urban dwellers may renegotiate the lease with the lessee . 4 / Until a rent control rcgulatioo is issued t!ic rcat of urban dwelling and business houses not exceed.ing S 300 shall u of Nehasie I, 1967, be reduced by the following pcrc:cntaps:-• a) monthly rent of upto S 2S .... ..... SO% b) monthly rent of above S 2S but not exceeding S SO ...... .•.... 40o/c c) monthly rent of above S SO but not exceeding S I 00 ...... . . ... 30 o/c d) monthl y rent of above S 100 but not cxceed.ing S I SO . ....... . . . 2S % c) month ly rent of above$ ISO but not exceeding S 200 .. ... ..•... 20% f) monthl y rent of above $ 200 but not exceed i ng S 300 .... .... . . . IS% 5 / The rent and the administration of urban dwelling and business houses which under snf>.:uticle ( 4) of this Article rent :11 the rate of: a) upto $ 100 per month shall be the responsibility ol co-perative societica ol urban dwellers.

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. It/ hif .ftC 04\,t. fh-t-t .-'( t.1 1\.f".'f • ,.,. .. 1\+'f . fi\-Hi Aft-t41.C ,.,_ .. ft.,_t. ft-K • 1 nh-t-t f1-flt+ "'"' -t1nc ,.,_nnn n• rAtt•ut...., n.,_mw +1f1C U. • 11 1 tn-K ,.,_nnnn• nt-t-t _ )oC -!11'11'1 t; Ah.,.., •.t-1-l-,_..,..A. • II I ,_,..,.,.., ... .t'C!-+'f'i 1Anf''f I il Jl:.,.., R.+ A.,.•ntn+ ,.,,.,'r+ 1 r+ruc+ 1 'Pfl..f' •,t.r .,._1\ftl, tl1A.11P-l-A.,_t\1' _,..,,.-+ Vm'i 1\_.,.4 M1 ,.,_'" nl+ • 1\-l-r-t•tnn+ 1\.,.t\ofl .,.,. 1AMI h."-,t. nn.,.+c A-'rt1 rh.A• .. ",. h-tt.?1m n-,.l+ 1n. Mlh.n1 .t-tn rh+., M-nt+ -t"''nc A-+-41. l1 U! .. .,. 'lrll) -nc r/iM-t 1\,._ r.,.etnn+ AtlttA -m') 11\1-lfl .. .,.,. hl\il nn-M>c --t4U1 1n. ttl.? n-,.."'+ 1n. .,,.,. 1\ttl\ .. m., llllh l.tt\ .t'lll .,.,. fh+., .. t r'W'It+ .,..,nc ",..,.,.,.t1 t llh U! ( ,..,. 'lrll) -nc I: ttl •A• . If ,.,..t.nn+ I\.,. n-o .,,.,. 1An-n n1 .,.,. n-t-111\,t. ,.,_, 7T• r•c 1n.• hU .. .,. ) -nc r-t,t.RA.1' -tf). hi"l.?1tn •,t.r fh-t., f1ofll-'t--Y"''OC h•c Mh if (J\')1: -+) ofiC • OJt.U fl')D-ft (J) ((I) I (r) I )\t; .,,.,. rh+-t ,.., t+ ""' .,..,nc r-u1.c1• O;)t\L ... h.,_nnnn• 10. tr'r AI\+ n-o 1 "., flofl .,.,. 1\I:Cl--'t-f.,_hLI\ID-,. 1') Hofl h h. 1-10. h.,_ 1TID--m') t\.OA1' 1\,t.'f.l\,. • 11 ntt."• .. __.,+ ,.,_,_,., Ah+., 1\-l-h.,_hLI\ID-tt"'f .,..,.,.1( 1-tr'il\ • m.,"" ..,.. 1\1\il h.,t\tniD-... .., t\.01\1' 1\t-l-1\,.. 1 ,t.u ""l-nL+ r+•fl1. t'JA OJt.tJ O')o-l\ "' ... (i) I (I) ! 1 (I) ,.,_,,+ h-!,1.l11D-++ t;"l( 1-tf'i" • -58Neprit GautaNo . 41 -26th July, 1975-P .. 201 b) abo-it S I 00 pa-moath shaD be the reapoasibility ol the MiDis try . 6 1 Tbc reots collected by co-.raliw sotictica of urbu ctweiJm lllall be utilized for purpciiCI t.Dielcia! to the dwellcn . 7 I Tbc reoa collected by tbe Nililcry IbiD be utillz.ed for the imprawmcot ol tbe ol all vt1a dwellers -s ol urbu areas. 21. Or,_,;t.Mio,., Mil F..ul llltUT Sp-articlc:s (I), (2), (3) and (4) Article .

PAGE 63

1'11+., 'Pt,.'f P'i-.,10C''f I 11• "''" .,..,oc-'f I . o-r.•M• fh+., hM\ ..,. ... ., "'"'"' .,10C''f • ft I m*"' )'Pt,.'f P''-.,10C 1\llh-'f I fh-t., fh.,.., )'PtfD'f f1ofll+ .,..,oc 1\llA 1\.,.tn t.'f'lA • ,u 1\h'-" (ICDo nlJ: ... tl•l\11: , .... ,. 1.11 -o;r: n:..,,. ,-11. , ... ,..ofl-l 1\. (.CD-1\,':ft-.f" • ,_, 71'1-t ' '"''" tt•r-t 1 fiJf.f" fih1fofl 1.11H 1'0.+ ta.,_-t A• •tr1 1\t.'fA,. • fll fli+_, )'Pt,.'f f1ofll-l-P't-_,10C -t"JilC I fh1'., P't-.,..,oc ,.,h.,."• I IMh-t., ""'-+ 1\tn.+-4>,. ... Mn.+ 1\IP'-C .,t t'.,_l'lm CD-') ,.,.tf M-th-t" OP't'lf. 1-1,1D-A II.C:;JA • t i ,.n+ Jt\ll'l-1 11\-+ n:c.r.-li'H ltt,..,l\ • ,;.')"JP'l ;JC: n.--tllOC 1\"tJilR.• t'.,_lliL r?-+1 fo)-f"UC:.J-I fm.'i I f10f I f,.111: ,.. .... ,,."•'1\-+1 Jt\11\"Jh-.,.'f ltt .. .,l\ • 1.tR'P'f RIDC n -oc r"th'-'-rh-t., n.+'i Psi-A • ffl..,.-li'Ji" tn.fo'l'l Mt-tJf1.C't' 1'1'i' f.t't.h.JfA • 6/t'"IO._ fi'IOI'IOID-1 h.6-f. Om1fl11f fiJII'fdl O.f tt t'•mll 111h "'-.,"' 111' !n+,.tfJA • . I/ r1-nt+ .,"\RC n+lt-dllrl.Jo t'h+., hAA CDtl'l' f"'1..1'f.+1 "Y'i'f..,..,,. Ut1Hlt; ,_ 1..,,..+ 1-nt+ .-mn.fo'i" o+l\t.f" h ... 1.,JU+ ;JC n.-+llRC fi\MR.• "-1tofl 1.11 lh,t.CD-1-r1+"l'l hnc 11.C:JA • t.un P'• tl.,liLA,. tlh1fof1 lt"Y . .-fr ,_ .. , •• II rt1n._ n"tMnn• tt.•.t'i n-t11 t .. nr1.tt.• n.,_,,.,"'..,. --1 ,1\hlln.• "-11oft r•mll n.+ "'4. '-A-1-'i u-•i' f'"'I.I'I'"'IA-11-C:JA ., 1 1 .,..,n._ ,...,Ln f+h+t\ r•tt1' 1oft ftlltfJA • n.Ut ,... .,.. ... ".. . 16 t fh-t., t'1-nt+ P'd-..,..,f1c IU'1.,tttt,. 1 1/ h.,..,..,. n4-+'i' Pl11.m1fl1--ntt+ rh+-; .,1r1C +mtJf''f t'"'1..1"f.R-l h'i!-ttf fh ,.., .,., .t1l'f t'"l-nt+ "''-.,..,nc 1-tttt..,A ., -59Neprit GuetaNo . 41 -26th July, 197S-Pap 209 CHAPTER V CO-; to preKrve. by estabUsblna a public • elfare c01M11ltee, all public and OOYernment property Within the area and in part i cular to ensure, with the C()oo()perltioa of Government authorities, the P"*Ction of the welfare and lives of the people In the lllU; 7 1 to expend, In accordance with dllu:tlves issued by the Ministry, tbe rents It add tbe subsidy It obtailil from the OOYernmtllt f the buildlnl of economicll houaes and the imptovetllent of the quality of life aC urbe ill the II'U; 8 t to dtaw up ltl Internal repati0111 COGJlatent with 1M requlranenb of this ProclamaU011, which shall be ef fectl" upoo tbe apprOYal of the Mln!Jtar . 25. EstGbli.shitultt of Hl,her Jocltltts of UrbiJII I 1 There shall be established, depcpdl11s oa the size aDd population . of the urban hisher co-operatift society of urban dwellets.

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-60-'1 K" m '"'"+ f"o1'e !I ,.,.A. II'" urn ' r. NCJ&Iit ou.cca -No. 41 26tb Iwy, ti.?! -,. 210 If lh4:+\' ftt.t1 ,.tfl''f "'"ne ot111e I-III M.,...K"ft R1D-Il ,.., ... (I) I (t) I (I) I (6) (It I) M' (I) : f+m+ll-+1 fbM t•tfl''f f'HII.+ ,-4--MOe 1 I Oh4:+" f"HII.+ -MOe --J\.1' M1'J n+JCA _m, r+-"'mt Ul-A"fl:l.-r 0.,11'_, 1'-r -tlll-H-1 I I,.,...,. fb+"f Ill: fA.A• n.+..MI I -rA M'l •w •w "-"" n.+ -,-n f-"l1•A• 111--ttll-K "'4. Am• _,e o--tthei' R-+l'lftC floho I [' f'ft+ AIM+ lh-0+ h4:+'1' 1'1' , . ., .. 111 rA , "'""" ,.tfl''f f"H''I.+ "'"ne . ' Mf:,"r I . M•'t• M:-K. -nit+ M:+'l' ftt+"'' t•tfl''f -t'\Oe +•tt,_'f f"f.1'f. o+ "'..,., '"""" ., ... oe fltof-.., t'f't,.'f f1of11.+ ., ... (lc f"f.h+Ae+-rile • ut t'llt+-7 r1-nt.+ .,.., l nc +111C • J ,.n+ AIM+ fh-O+ Jr1-t .. ft I a\4:CI: f1tfl''f I 11 no-n ,._,..,1' (I) rh t'f'tfl"f f4:CI: Jl"')') I . I Rt'f'tfl''f .-tthA f"f.tl\-+1 "'"'"' rtl-fl n.+ th bl:hc:"'f o-:t-tl ,._,.,. "•A1 Jr.fl• • I t•,X• ltllft )\14.,.,. 0.,10'-fl ot'f'tfl''f -tthA Mt"f•') hChC A_,f+ P'A"'1 fll ..,. . 11 M1•x-u .,.o-n (I) <-> 4=+'1' fh-t1 t'f'tfl''f 11'')1 I 1 nh+., Wtfl''f 4:CI: Jr., r+•M he he Jr.U • ,._,.,. fAm• f.,.Q-1.'1' • I OM., Wtfl''f M-nt.+ .,..,OC''f .... hA 1 "'....,.,. Rh+_, 'r'f'tfl''f f1-nt.+ "f10Cfl IWtfl''f -tthA f"f.t"fiD") ftt+_, rt?fl o.+ th hr.hc o-:t-tl &\.,..,..., I"'A"11 Jr.A• • .t./ fiD');tA lin ll_,f+ P'A"'') ffl__, • r n,..,..,lt n no-n <1> (t\) """" t'f'tfl''f f4=CI: Jl"H I ut ftl+"f t'f'tfl''f Jr,., o-x -tl f+•M hche hU • fflm• ..... f.,. • 2/ n. fwlctioaa a COOplntiw r:t art1a d1Pellen. 2/ 1'be funclioas of central oo-operati ICICietiea r:t wt.. dwdlen shall be : • ) to c:o-ordizwe tbe fwlc1ioaa r:t bip. tive societies urbu dwellln; ud b) to es1ablish a ceatral judicial tribual .. 1 •' of lhree members . 27. JwliciiJI TribUMIJ 1/ The judicial tribunal to be esmhlisbed UDdlr ...,... 24 (2) shall, a) bave tint illltaDcc to .._ ... dlcils. diapulel illvolvitla urt.a lad or bcal lrilillc '*""-urt.a dweDen. b) DOt have jmildictkla to hear criiDiDal c-. .S dispu• arisin& betwee tlie co-operuiw __, ud \ll'ba ct.eDen. . 2 / . The hip judicial tribwaal to be eltabtilbld ...... . Artic:le 2S (2) (d) sball: a) heir ud decide Oil appeal& trc. judicill tritoab ud such docisioa s.ball be bal. b) haw tint ioatuce jurisdictiaa to .._ .a dlcidc dia,putes illvolvitla urbu Wid or llaaa ariliq between CXH>perative socict* d art.a clweDin. and between societies r:t art.a dwd-len and urban dweUen . c) nOt have jwisdictioo to bear c::riaaiaal calM. 3 / The ceotral judicial tri buoal to t. establisiMod lllldar Article 26 (2) (b) shall : a) hear and decide oa appeals froiD dlc:ilialls r:t i higher tribunal in its first ioataDCc jllris dictioo aDd such appellate dec:ilic.a &hall be final.

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A// nM:-t\" n..,., -'1hA ftlofo., G.+ hehc!n• UJf A••""J P'Ann J.A• • R'"t ,_.,'I'J. 0-ttfl-k-. t.?IA • l'"ttfl-k-f•.at.'l' W'iA • da f•"JlA hll A.,f-l-P'A"'') fA..,-• t / h.,._, ftl.,.., M -flf_+ .,..,nc .,,. llm.:l'l\t. nt+., '!" f ... oflt.-l-.,..,11C hM li'H M .t:t.ll f'"tathAm-".,. .,,_,. tt:t-+ .,,.,. Am.:l'l\1-"'i A•P't--l-P'AtrJ"J t.'i /.'fA • I 1f')'t,.'f 1 .. I I f rltt.u h•:t-•P't.l-1f'H''f -ltn-k-r P'c-t+ .. ,.t1 nf-h+A P't-:fm-1 lh'iCD-'1"" • 1 / 1f')'),'f. f'"tflm--l-_,,_,. -l-M1f ll,_.,'I'S teA;f-11. 1111..,.41: h!?; +1 OM _,.L" f'il.'fA • I t ! 11""'" 11-tflm-+ .,,.,. .'t-M1f itf ,r..,q'S f'"t+CR• +1 1.tl m-11-r 'l-),.';f f'"tflm-l-.,,.,_ -l-M1f '1""-l-rt-lt'"!,-t n tt-1\,_., f.CD-'IA • fP't-Mh.ft t>-t-t• co-l'la. m,r.,l-J.tt1f hP't-111-1\., .P[A 11'Hm-?"1\..111 R+ •r? R.,lf1f mf,r })\tJtt1 .tiiLt\ ..,,.. 'II : f J.t' jf')') 111\0I'f:LC.: I 1f')')CDo P"!tID'"t 11'"t1h'i'CD-1R+ 1.tl P't,., 1\.,tl'ihA I flll."fl I l f41f'i .,.,.1\1\f. • fll--}-RL1.DD ..,-,,-(lCD-1\t. Mh P'l\1\ +1 f'"'f..I.C/1 )V>'t--l-mt.,. Mh (u-1\-l-attfo '/,-\ oflC II,. .t: /.II 11 '"7. 'fA 11 If oft titt-operative societies d. urban dwellers, per&OG.S and organizations appointed by tbe Minist.cr shall act as higb<-..r and central judicial triblina!s until sud! time as they are replaced by such tribunals . 211. Procedure of Judic ial Tri/lunaJ1 1 / Judiciai tribunals established under this Procl.unation follow the of procedure issued by the MiniJiu. 2 / The decisioo ol a j udicial tribunal sball be effecti ve fifteen days after the date ol docistoo unleas barred on appnl. 3 1 An appeal from a decision or order ol a judicial tribu nal be made within fifteen days ol the date ol clccisioo. 4 / The decis io n or order of a j udicial tribunal shall be cx.:cuted by the eJtCCutive committee of the carres pooding co-o per ative society . Where the exec utive committee is unable tc:o execute the judicial dccisioo or order , the j udic i al tribunal shall execute said dcci or order by directl) ' o rdering the Police . 2 9 . Contemp t of I uJicial Tribunal Wbere :1 person . in the course ol a judicial tribunal proceed i ng, i n s ult s, thn:atens , holds up .to ridicule or in any -manner disturbs the tdbuoal. tho: tribunal may summarily punish such person with imprisonment upto 30 days or line. upto Two Hundred Fifty (250) Dol lars . 30. l'IJr a Decisions of ludi• itJ/ Tribunals No perwn who has exhausted his righ t of appeal at the j udicial tr i bunals may lodge an appeal to tbe ordinary courts ol law . However , where the Minister ascertains from an application s ubmitted to him that the judicial tri bunal's deci$ion is ultra tbe Minister s hall review tbo case an d decide it under this Proclkation . The decision of the Minister not be sub j ect t o appeal . CHAPTER VI PUWERS AND DUTIES OF THE MINISTRY 1 'l')f.') f.,ll11..1.f" P'A.nl') 1 31. of this ProclaniDtion 1-11 u-11: fi"71JL1.r The Ministry shall the power to implement to pre>-t.'it.'fA • vi>ions of thi s Pr oclamati oo .

PAGE 66

I N \() I E a!f ht R.. , .r; jli .E af 'hfH i!. Ht1H ttH I i!fi; !i ! Jt !lH t j J1 !f) -J111 t!i IU ! r f t Ji1! I , , f ... i I : ,,11 '11 1f1" ltH 11 '1 .JijJI It 1 111 .J 'I lJ .. J i -1 JR .s, j11 ul 'i j U t• i ; I H 1 • j J 1 .
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11r tnr t+ _,"'"' .,....,.c '!li r / nh.,.., )1't,.':f P't--11n..; h.t-t. -')1P'-l-Omol-o\o\CD-Mh ,':f b.t-1-l-O'"tfCD"JID' --tf _,. f'111l-l-P't--!10C -tll'f.l-1 M "'lh-+ "')-4.,CD-A 11-C;Jl\ • l i .,_ f'h-t-1 fl:f",'f')'l ,_,..,P'-l-') f'h.,..,. 001\M-l-• To I 1\ h .,..,.':f T"., n., + f' 1 "'.._v-,. t,.u hA'IO+ +') Ol.-l-+Cfl n.+ r-t fh-t.,., n.+ r-t,.l\h+ he he o-t lltr n.+'f t.:t' II\ • '!I I hll M-,11: I i / hA'i'n+ .,.., 'l..,.t" o,.f.nl;f 1+ fh-t..,., ,."+ r-t,.l\h+ hchc UJC!I.A • 1 / l"u P'l\"11 ,.,.l+ f"tCDI\1.. 'f'') ih;J'f!)-l-1\-?CD,. -,'l:fCD-'),. hll I 'i'C_, n.of'f ... A1-63Negarlt Gazcta -No. 41 26th July , 1 97S Paac 213 3 / The Ministry shall ensure that the rents coUected b; a co-operative society are utilized for providiDg services to the dweUers in accordance with compreheosive urban development plans and directives issued by the Government . _ 4 / The Ministry shall be responsible for the overall administration of urban lands and urban houses belonging to the Government. S I The .:Ministry shall . by isslliDg urban development plans and building economical houses, provide essential services to urban dweUers. 6 , The Ministry shall , in co-operation with the Ministry of Interior and co-operative societies of urban dwel lers. provide landless urban dweUers with urban land for building dwelling howes. 7 1 The Ministry shall issue standards relating to urban houses and enforce the same. II/ The Minister or the person or organization delegated by him shall fiJt the rents of houses not rented at the effective date of this Proclamation . 37 . Rights of [fUiuir y The person deggnated by the Ministry shall have the . right to inquir e into and obtain contract documents and other information from Government offices , pri v ate, commercial and organiLations and persons . CHAPTER VII GE.'VERAL PROVISIONS 38 . Juridica.J PersonDlity o f Societies Each co-operative society of urban dweUers established at any level under this Proclamation shall have its own juridi cal personality . 39 . Jur isdiction of Ordinary Courts of LaW Disputes under Article 17 and disputes involviDg urban houses pending iD ordinary courts of law on the effective date hereof shall be beard in sw::b courts . 40. Prohibition of Court Action 1 : All cases involving urban land pending iD the ordinary courts of law on the effective date berea( are hereby annuUed . 2 / No suit may be brought challenging the legality of any ICiti011 taken pursuant to the provisioas d. this Procl.amatioo.

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-64If! ).;7C:.'t -"""'f-pC 'I"',."-!i +') Ilfft ' ,.. Neprit GazctaNo . 4 ! 26th July, 197.5 -Pap 2 1 4 ...., ,_,.r: n.+ .,.,. nu\ I 1-4.'t 11-l.fl I ILI.fl I IRI\Jl" I .,.,. Jl\')4.tn 11-1.1 .,.,. H-hl. lrP:t-1'-'IJ.fl .,.,. H-hl. .,.,. n-n\'..,. J.• o\t. JI\')4,._.A IM'ht\ .,_,. t\ M'hA H-hl. I U4.u-r-_,.,\'..,-llt\P'A"'') • ,. ,...,.,,.,,... n.,.flm• I"' A "' .,,.,. lt\Milofl f.,.m+,.. •t.i-1\ m+,. f.-til. -n\'..,-fl• RAJ f•')1.t\\' ,.. 1 .lt1 ....,c S /IIfft ' ,.. M.,lf' lf'lr R.,.l-)11• ,..,.l..'t • 'II h"""'f .lti'f ,;7C Mt\CD-I . . .,')1\'CD-,. .lt1 I 1-')ofll f.,.t\,..1. )lU'C:.C .,.,. P't r.,.u,. R.tn Vohf f.U') f-t.l'l.') htr) llt.'tl. .,. 'r I r,\ Th-'"7-th t.tt:l','f I t.ttf'co f4. I f .. ')fl.o\ I .,,.,. f)l. ')-tc ftr) fh.,.., ll:l' .,.,. ')oflt.+ )ir fMH.Vo ftr) n.+ •U+ t.•MA • "I IL.f.'f I notl1.,tt+ 1o01.+ Rlf). rM-+ n.+'f "" t.U ).'t llt.tt 1...,-• 'A I P'A"'') 1 -!I # '"., R-!.1'1 t\.,tiL A,. 1-')Cl'f') t.'fo\A • 1 J. , M-t.Artn+ ..,., 1 t.U Mtf\1\. l +') !ifft ' ,.. 1.,.t:: fA'i t.lf A • 41 . OffltWJ penoG wbo, u ol tbe 11m of the pramulptioa o1 this Proc:lamaliaa. bums , damap, deslroys, tampers with or put1 out ol 1111 uy bouse or prc!plrty , or diatarbl the peace or obatnlcta the c:a:eauioa ollhia Prndlll!aliaa or adlrmpts to .caDJDit aay ol thlle olfiDGel aad uy ollcial or public JCrVUt wbo JDIIu. aa=p11 to lllilllll die lllthr6ity waled ill him liDdlr till pnm.i0111 ol this Proclamalioa lhall be puAiJhed aDder die proriaiau ol tbe Special PeDal Code Pioclamalioa No . 1 / 1974, 11 ameaded. 42 . Collfli&t witll OU.. lAws No law, re&WaliOD, pnctice or proc:ellurc, wbether wria.ea C\&Stolllary. ahall, ill 10 fll u it ia inn:laliltcDt with the provisions ol this Proclamaliaa. haw farce aad cffec:t ill rapoct ollitum0111 prcMded for by this Proclamalioa. 43 . Diplomtltic Holilinrs The atatw ol urbu luds beld &ad urtu oned by diplomatic aad OCIII.IUlar repraellWivw ud bltentaliocal orpniz.atioas lhall be iA the tature. I 44. Horu1s to which lhJ.s Is rtOI Applicable Thia Prcx:lam.alioa lhall Dot apply to llrillll bousea oned by relipous orpu.iutiCIIII which ue Uled for eoaductin& relisious IUYices. 4.5. to r-The Minister may issue re&Ulatioas to liw eUec:t to the purposes llld prOYisious ol thia ProcllaMIJOD. 46. ElftctiVI "" Thia Proc:lamatioa ahall Ollta' iAto force as ol 7th Aupt, 197.5. DaDe at Addis Ababa, this 26th day ol1uly, 197.5. THE PROVISIONAL MIUTARY ADMINISTJU TIJIE COUNCIL

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" M:ll-t'i' ,_ol-....... c I I 36dl YMr -No. S • • NEGARIT t..U t.ntl •taht,. 11 ...., ' ,. . Addis Abella. Oc1obc:r, 1976 \ • • • •• ,:JtLllJ GAZETA . I' ;ttL"' .. I , ;t I • ..-.. ,, • • 81•-c• •• • • ,4-. t 01.tLI'f •?U'f. flll-t.V.C u:-t A.
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-66-n 1-u ih11n-rt-1\-1 1-41-l-1\-J\, 4.1.:1"• f.,.CDieflnCD-1 fttc:tlt-C\ CD""' •U: Jn.,-r4-+ 1.tlCD-1 Rh1'* J\1Vqh1'i' ih111l'1,. Mof'lf',!:t-'!CP-0""':1" fhof'lf" H J\14.of'l'\,. 1'\1\VI'\l-1\CD-I nt-+ n CD-') I A"'"J'i' -f-"'qC Rih"''i' 01.1of'l .,CD-"1-l-1\1'\1."1. lf'r I'\ I\ +1T I f Ill'! CD;1-1.t-'! lli'\+41-C '-C.,.,'i' fl\.of' P'l\"1 1\,._CDi'l') QCD"JID' ......,C ,., I ,..avl+ ,.,,h+A• • c.M II.'P'/: fhl'., "''..,Ot-+ .,m'ihtf'i' R.+'f ......,c 't. ,._ .. dlflA1\.m+n • u.+ .!.._ I\ 1\'?11-fl 1\.1\ -l-c1-r f'"tf(lmCDo Oof'C II l.tJ J..f''J: 111'\1' I 61 fl,.,.., n.+ .,"+ f'h+.,., fl;f•'i' n.+ foe')'?J"-l-11.,/:l"' fCII"'fD" +""rt: 't. r. 1 i ! "f'tlt'., ..,..,OC ..,11+ Oh-t-'7 1':1-'i' n.+ 'P;t: oeu>l-l-nt1.l:(CD-tof.'r fh+., ,..,of'll+ P't...,..,o.: teD-• f', ccNOI\. _.,..,IIC ..,1\-l Oh-t-., f';f-'i' n.+ -avl-l n-:t:-tf 1.l'K Cllf.r" rh+., .,..,nc r . i rh-t., .,..,nc• '"'"+ nh-t-'7 fl;f''i' n.+ U -avl+ f''"t .,..,OC I \m:l'l\f. fhfo.., .,..,OC ..,1\-l-Oh .,.., f';f''i' ll.+ n .,.avl+ ..,..,nc • 1 ccf.,...,hc+ • .,11+ nh+., 1':1"'1 0.-l-h'f'f.-'1 OH. U h'P'/: ,..u>lol-)\114')4. ') fof' ""' .,..,nr. f P't l"'"t -t noemhA nt-f'.., ..,..,oc 1D'll1' ,.., 11'-+ hi'fA-'f l .,.he n.+• "'fll+ nh-t--7 f';f''i' n.+ "'" 'f:'i' OtlU .,.avl+ ft1 .,..., t'Pt,.'f .,..,Ot--l• foo-,hco)o O""'CII hA rh.,.., .,..,nc CD-1\-r f'"t 'J"f.. 1\IJ/r':f I .I f'P't-h""'t-f. l"""t.:t -,A+ 0,..+4'-tf 1.1q :fOJ--•,..l+ fh.,.., t'P tf''f _,..,11C RP't--tt+ J\')4.1111"11\-f+;.. lm-T fP't I f'ih11of'l f1')Hof'l +.f"'"'t tt••t:t'i' 1f1't f'"t11'n-lo' \.;.. • WHEREAS, accordingly, it has beea found to cOGIOlidate the organiz.ational set-up ol urt. dwellers' associ•tioas formed at every level and to define ., proclamatioa and re&UJatioas their powers and duties ; NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance with Article 6 ol the Deinitioa ol Powers of the Provisional Miitary Adminisuatioa Council and its Chairman Proclama.tioa No . 2 / 1974, it is hereby proclaimed as follows : 1 . Short CHAPTER 1 GENERAL This Proclamation may be cited as die "Urban DweUers' Association:. Consolidation and Mllllil:ipalitiea Proclama tion No. 104 ,' 1976 " . 2 . In this Proclamation , unless the con tell otherwise requires : (I) " Government Ownership of Urba Lands and Extra Houses Proclamatioa" shaU meaa the Government Ownersh i p of Urban Lands and &tra Houses Procla mation No. 47 / 1976; (2) " urban dweUers ' association " shal mean any coope rative society of urban dwellers flllllled or to be form ed at every level under the GovenaJent Ownership of Urban Lanch and Extra Houses froclamatioc; (3) association" sb,aU mun aay cooperative ciety of urban dweUers formed or to be formed a t the first level under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Exb'a Houses Proclamalioa; ( 4) "higher urban dweUen' assoc i atillll" shall mean any association to be formed in acconbnce with Article 2S of the Government Ownership d Urban Lands and Extra Houses ProcWilation ; ( S) ' " central urban dweUers' assoc ialillo" shaU mean any association to be fonned in acconl:ance with Article 2 6 ol the G ov ernment Ownership d Urban Lands and Extra Houses ProcWilation ; (6) "council " shall mean the assembly of members of Higher Urban DweUers ' Assoc ialion s representing the Policy Committ ee of every kebde associati o n pur suant to the Government Owilenliip of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamatioa ad this Proclam atio n ; I ( 7) "c ongress " shaU mean the asseably ol member s ol Central Urban Dwellers' Assoc ialioa s representing the council of Higher Urban Dwellas ' . Associations esta blished under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclaation and this Pro cWilatioa ; (8) " policy committee" shall mean a alltlmittee composed of persons elected to serve as leaders of urban dwel lers' associations formed at lr\-el md cOilstituted of members ol executive, judicill. public and financial i nspec:tioa commiueJ ia -=rdllllcc with the internal of sueh u.socillioas;

PAGE 71

-671/ c-u,ll+a .,.,. c-u,ll-tO 1A+ ftl.,.., !k" n.+ -ull+c •u--un-te t• 1 11 .,A+ hAv.., n.+ t'+H r-n+ •w -un-k--MJ , .. 1'.,,..,... .. n.+':f n ...... he h+1 o('IA-M•nt• I"U t• I .,A+ t-.,.t: n.+ AI\ ."" ..,.M'! _.,.,,..,..._ lftr t'+"-nM h.,.., Ull+4.t:c .._.,.,,..,..._ t'-tflm• ,,....."1., 1: tCD-I Ill .,-til• .,A+ IH'tt"'lf• h+P'f ott:.u ..... l+ n.+':f') t't-n r4U: Ot-be ..... +Cfll 0_.,.,,....,.._ t""t11',. 11AP'A"'1 t• I J\.,M .,_,. .,o('ll-l-"7A-l-'lAO.+ t'l\. ft• """" •M," ?"'l+ .. • • "'M t'""ll\• 'lAO.+ VA• tal: lftr n.+l-R-tflt."llf• t'fh'lfo{l ,_ t'+a'\ ...... ,..., I t'"l• 1A-l-Rh+1 fl:t''i' n.+ , .. A" .. .,.l+ AJ\11: R.+flo('ll "IA(Io('l ,.,_,. A"IA ,_,.?-R+l\tnCD-h•• CD-1)'1' t'-t1'S o-1\.:"fo . Mh_,.., "'7'10&-+ ft11A ' a ,.,." ... ,... ,.,.,. t'h+-7 . t'ih"l t.tr&-'f'PA• II Ar,e.... o-l:J•Fl 1 if h+1 fl:f"'i' n.+ OtlU .,..,. .... .,.,. t'tl+-7 l""'ne A.,.t.C 11-t-t AllA lftr t'-t.,.l1' f'--l-f'kl'! t'-th+A-+'J u-1:t-,l-t.tre r;f-A I r ' t'I\L• .,., '"-+,.kn oflAt-'! J\oflf"ol-t'-t ... OA I lA) .... • R:t':t'tHr RAMR.m-n.t: t';f-... I h"IA ff ... ,.... t'ttLe:1 fh'lfofl ..... ,. t'-tltl .. .t:f8 I ) J:A •e+ 0)\P'e 111-f-7t-1'S ,.,_,. Rih 1fo('l 1ofll-l-lA A"lllofl n-1A1A'i' 0-"711h') .,_,. J\,..,-l-•'JJ.:A IA+Lli.R.:"f-1 ) ofiAt-'! -ofl-1:., 1A+1LL I . r> '"",.t: -:t-•h ,....,.,. '"'""+ 1 ,..;."'"'" L t'At. 1'i' .,.,:,. t.-n'i' 1 1 hthf "".t: ,.,.:,. • If fl;f-'i' 0.-l-RtlU .. .,. .... .,.,. ,..,_" ... :,. -"710&-+ "'"' ....,he+ 21'11 .,.,. t-he n.+ -71 f-t-etll. t.• fiF'f RtLll "'""A" .,o-tl "'""A" i t'+.,.A r;.""+' .t:'J_,ou-l-.. ,'i'lfm-1 0'1") I • ........ .. , ... ( 9) "MiDiatc:r" or "Ministry" ab:all meaD the Minister at MiDiltry d. Urban l)ewJopment and Housing; (I 0) "urbln ccater" ahall meaD Ill)' place ill which a muniap.lity lw alrclldy been tl!Jtabliabed at which is desig IWed u an urban cen&er by the Minister ill CODSU.!tatioa with cooCCI"Ded Govenlmeo1t offices; ( 11) "chlrter" ahall mean a deleplion ol power to a muDicipali ty to .tm.illister the urbal ccatcr ill which it is ea.blisbed bein1 directly rtlpOQ&ible to the Central Government; (12) "Mayor" ahall the olficial nominated by the Coogea and appointed by the Government ill accordance with ChapceT S cl this Proc:l1mation to bUd the ldminiRrative brmch cl Mllllicipllities; ( 13) "atray animal or 101t property" ahall mean any IDi.mal 'at property not the clwp cl any person. The plnse "stray arumal" shall also iDclude IDimals under the charge ol any penoo but wandering at large in public places deaienated a such by municipalities; (1-4) "private tree" shall mean any tree located within the area alloted ill private possession to a family, indivi dual at atpniz&tion ill with Article S of the Govmunent Ownership cl Urban Lands and Extra Housea Proclamation . CHAPTER 2 URBAN DWELLERS' ASSOCIATIONS : COMMON PROVISIONS 3 . Legal PersoM!ity Urban dwellers' associations formed or to be formed at every level shall have legal personality of their own . 4 . Qlmlificatioi'IS for El•ction ( 1) Any Ethiopian to be elected to the Policy Committee cl any urban dwellers' association established under the Government Ownership of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation shall uti.sfy thi following requirements : (a) that he is of the broad masses and acupts the Ethiopian Natiollal Democratic Revolution Prop-amme; (b) that he is eateemed by nearby dwellers for his integrity and hardwork ; that lie gives precedence to the interests ol the broad masses over his prj va!t interests ; (c) that he not se!"Ving a senl!ence of imprisonment at las not been coovicted ol misase or waste of public property or breach of trust ; (d) that be has not been deprived of his civil rights by a court ollaw; (e) that he has no mental disease ; and that he is not llddicted to alcohol and dJgerow drugs; (f) that he is not less than 21 ' )'ea.rs ol age . (2) The General Assembly, Concress or Council of urban dwellers' associations formed or to be formed under the Government Ownership ol Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamatioo shall carefuDy examine that penons it elects to serve the asso ciation as dficials satisfy the provisions ol sub-article (1) above.

PAGE 72

r .. A'P''i nh+., ll:f"'i f'L+ ,.,. fh-t•., .,..,oc fP't-1\llfl lt-t-t' 1\111\+ f-t•C1' ll.+f"k1'1! f"th_,. "i+ t .,"'.11\-l-t.crCO:f'A I ,.c-. ..,., 61:...,• '\•l-''"'",..' -'"",.t: ,.:f'.,h m,.,. fl\.1\0+ 1 ) CD')lA IIIC+ O"P'C 1\l-f.,,t,1'S I ,) llflo(l-1:') 1l\.,.1LL • ,.,..,he fP't-1.H.'i hP't. l'll\"tCD1.4-0lI i / Rf1.t.'K• ,.,,,.t.m-+ fh.,.., .,..,Ot-+ fP't. Hllfl') O"tfCDIYJID' '\,t, ,.,.1.+ ,t,lf'iA • 1 / cl.,..,R"-,.,.,.t.m-+ P't-hP't. h•CD OL+ tllfClfC ).').t 1\ifcD'i Dl'hl\hf:fCD-19" 7.1U+CO' Ofla11,ll:'r"'f . ..,*!l:r"lJ f),lt•Hlm'} O"'lflt'llOr: f?;( 1.o',..i't lt.:P:fc; ..,..,nt . . .,. r'"'nt.;J :H'i Mtt.'I1,CD') C..:P,;J-fODt'lm r ! 'i. • cn,t.'r f"''.,CDhMD-trnl''/., ll. r CDf.r . . p:,-:.+ f"'/.1WtfiU1 fhl"7 Tll1'i fO.-f''f 1\W tC..: ;rll.t'l. Oo••hIA. II.} f11DI''t.'i f'"7ht t' 1-: '!,i t-Y..,IIC: i Y.t-f t . f\!ftv-1 0. (loop• t.:} '"7..t.l\1'..,.., f"10t..;J-:J-+ f 'JI\'"'19-':r;") P't-Itt. {I..,'PA. j ID' _,..,Ot-+ _ 1.1ofl O"tfH;(6,'.0l-j l.fl. f•OI l-'. Ot-(lmtDo P'l\"11 DDIP/.l 1.:t-'i J I -68Ne&arit Gazeta -No. S -9th October, 1976 Page 78 (3) Any Ethiopian, to be eligible to elect membeo of the Policy Comm i ttee of urban dwellers' associations to be forTQed under the Government Ownership of Urban Lallds and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Pn> cl:unation, shall satisfy the follt?Wing requirements : (a) that he bas attained 18 years ol age at the time of election ; (b) that he has no mental disease ; (c) that be is not serving a sentence of imprisonment ; (d) that he has not been deprived of his civil rights by a court of law . S . of of Assn ciatwn uadus aNi Conditions for their l.?emovaJ (I) The tenn of office ol leaders of urban dwellers' asso ciations elected a t every level abaU be bed i.n accord ance with the model i.ntClllal regulations issued by the Minister . ( 2) Leaders elected by the association a ball, before they are removed from office, he informed i.n detail of th• f ault& .hey have committed and ahall be afforded enough time and opportunity to ! present their defence . shall. as . far as pa;sible, be always euided by the princip l e of cri •icism :llld telf-critic i a . ( 3) The p!'ocedure for the removal from office ol usoci a tion leader s shal l be as laid down in the,. model inter nal regulations issued by the Millister. Powers and Duti n Common to Assocl atio•u Subject to the pr o visions of Cbap;en 3, 4 and S of this Proc l :unation, urban d wellers' assoc i ations shall . i.n addition to t heir powers and duties \lllder Gt. v emmen! Owner sh ip o f Urban Lands iltld Extra Howes Proclamanoo , have the f o llowin g and duties : ( 1) to enatlle the broad masses o( urban dwelleo to ad m i nister their own affain; ( .:) to develop the ideology of the brood in line with the phi\o<;0phy o{ "'ith a vie..w to enabl i ng them to s truggle against feudalism . impe r ialis m an u bureaucranc capit alism and their innuence ; (3) to assist and encourage the formation of women's and o t her associations f o r the effective a.ccom plishment of its objectives; ( 4) to the devel0pment of the cOOllilunity hy mak ing the pJ.Tticipate i n the o{ the a,;-.oci:.:.io ns anJ government initiated pr oj e cts ; (5) to e > tablish . i n cooperation with the co ncerned i nstitutio n>. people 's and other ser"ices, wd en :•'tt r J g e an J 2ivc the :.sing the co nummity; ( 6 ) to rclll a nli cy i"ued by the o r any office o r orga nization de l e gateJ by the Min:>try ; (7) tv encour a g e dwclkr< "ho wan t to bu ilu their own h o u,c> by gct:ing organiuJ i n as.ocia tion s; ( 8) to a,
PAGE 73

-69II 11-k:f" I I t f+QA. 1 fh4:+,.\" f}\m_...l\,. fh.,..;, )1't'lOMt-tlf• a.1fll'! -11\"lfCDo -m') f.,6M't II\') a..,..,+ f_,.h-tl\ -an Mn+ • 111\H.U,. 01 h;t-l-M,_ 0-!.111 _.1\" ...,,<-., •.,... .,.,=ti ,..,..tl l'l-f"'th.,.tr+ \"lfCDo • ) M10t-ofi'J f-t ftlm.-4-+ t.llh-l-h:f""f ,_11\"A • ) f"'!.1"F-+ .,1nt-+ nt1.timh:f"l-M .,_ fP't. 1'C-tt. ,.,... t.MlfCDo • )\').._.,_,. fO;t-l-t.tth-'f fOI\1-.t'llof-J\I\4.m-') MhO C\" f-L1t.r "ll.;t-AM:fm- • ,.,1nc ,..,.,.""*-+ nt: • fl:rl oflA""\ID' CD(I') 0.,1 Ot.ofl ,..,.II.UI ,_tDMA • 1/ +nil. 1 ft.m.,...l\t. fh..,.., I .10t-."t O.l.1fofl MA"lh-+ 1\f.. ,_,.,.&Pl..,. l"tf'f 1 +1\A 1 J\il t:,_or 111:. -h+A • "J-fl r-1.1\lla' _.,1\)f ,,.fll'lh-+ t.ll4-t "') H11: ,..f"'mC'i .,;J/11' f.,"'Ot-1: Dfltf''fc; t llh-':J> t.ofl f' :f''f ., 1. ;to ) • • r t ".,,..,,<--"" 1.ti.t':fm-t nh1tll't+ 1 nh .f.., '/f.r) + tD ,_,. OJ\ m _...I\ t. .,.., ll c ta "7. -t """., nra..,.+c r.:f I J\OA tDt.r 1\.1\ _,c;:fm-r "tf + • . P"M M+OI\. fh..,..., 't•tf'"f _,10t-+ s 1 M1'0<-t.-u 1'1-t-t -nlf+ t fh..,..., )•tf'"f .,..,ne fP't-,.,.t-c 1'1-t -t t.llh-l-oft If+ ht.P' to t. r M I 1\ HI .earc; A • I J ,..J,.,c; .,...,I'IC I I fltll.l 1 n+h11. 1-t.:JI' .,,..:r=m-r rh..,.., 'tcrtsP'f .,joe f"'th..,.h-."t l-h-;tI P'A"'1'i Mile t.':" i f fh.t.t. 1\+:.f M..,.-"1-e I . Ef;t.l\lf"f OhAh-ID'tl1' Oh..,._, .IlK 1\+. fh..,..., (l,;t-\" 1\i-h.t.t. fl. ;)ltL., + o.-(\o(l l'lofl "+ n 11.m-.,:..,11c "1 1 tD-1:\ • ff\H')f-m+-1\1\ AII..,.II.I.C'i 1'1\" .rtt.h.,.A I ) 2 • I Neaarit Gazeta-No. S -9th October, 1976 -Page 7 . Mode of Opera/ion (1) lubele, Higher uad Central Urbua Dwellers ' ciations are , in tlieir organiz.ational set-up, broad mass organiz.ations, they &hall fo!.:Ciw the principle of democratic centralism . The shall, there fore , en.sw-e that i n their opera tions, power flows pedy from lower to higher and from higher to l ower bodies in accordance with the philosphy of Htbrttte•bawinet. following shall be the prin cipal d irec tives : (a) the members who run the variou5 activitie s of usociatiODS at all levels shall be elected by the general assembly ol the association ; (b) associations at every level shall have the duty to .ubmit from time to time their work progr ammes IDd report of their activities from lower to higher uad from higher to lower Lower bod i e s ahall , moreover, have the duty to observe and en force the decisions given by high.er bve!'llmen t 0 •.<-ner sbip of Urban La:1ds and Extra H 0us e s Pr.:..::1am:•::r;u on its own re sponsit-iiity rec e i pts rrepard b:. the Agency for the Administrat i o n of Re nte:! a ,,J expend on lcebele activities therent of urt>an _ hou s es wit h i n its jur i s di cti on and run the ,eneral adw iDistratioa uad main1en'l!lce of ••1 ch houses;

PAGE 74

11 .hfK. . rttntan..., -t'i"• t 111. "'-IWI nn.+'f M 1111 '*m'1 II'Jh r nMn+ P''U-II'Jh-R"'!. .tJA• M -t'i...,_ II'Jh II'Jh OM Rf O-YH.7J(' 11.+'f R,..,.,,_ .... Tf n.+'f RAU-/ilf'r"'A I r/ OhAir •M' )•t Atr). Rb.,.-, -l-c4= 11.+ 1\'Jf'K" fl 'JD-il J\')f'K" II r M I f,.-t-,l.t/ AnA A.bLI\lf• A"'!.111 )•t ,q. f'"ti.CiilfCD") AnA • bW AnA mi-t )•tl'l--'lbA A,..,.,,_ .... n.+'f ,.ttbA blf ofle f"'!.RA'P . rh.,e.t. 111. f"'!.fti1'S A'J.t-n.+ ttl\lf• v n.+'f M+,t.c fD"P n..,.tt1 +'rileD") 1\RA I A I bttnttn• Aftlr') fb. t-i. n.+'f J\tl-t-,1-C )\ ') "--t-tt• t.m 1 fb.,.-, ).t,.'f "'71Re :Je R,.,.ttb R"'!.l'lm• 118118/.f 118111t+ AJ\ttf'llltrJo M ,.1r.LA'H-'J r+r-ue+ 1 fm.'i '1'0;1' 1 f1f1/l 1 fll8')1.t' P't-'i f,.III'I,..M MA1h" """ I .f'ili"f'lofl,e.A • '{;/ fb.,.-, ).t.,.'f '"MOe :Je fl.,.,. O"'!.l'lm• ,.,.tJ' ll.httf'IO.trJo d:JA I 11 J.,nll.• hAA CD-11-r M1"F-MA IAtr). :f., 11.t(f')c; "fC'J t.')hf'lhf'IA • -71 A'"t.f'1WID"ilftrJo 1\m;l'l\t. -71fle III"'CD") ,.,.1.1 R,.h+A 'tA-t-hi\,.. . 'f'i ..,e Rll-t-f'e lf&:'f')c; "fC') A,.ll''l'l O'if 11l A,.m.,.,-t.'fiiA 1 f,/ 1.')') Vofl+ A"'7,Re I IJID'U )\ fb-t-"'7CD-') trJoO+ A"'71f'I"A I ) 0-t-.flm-lf&:'f ,.+h llf. fltr). (1;1-,.'f I 11,_ 't1.R'f 4C'i nn.+'f 1\ttf'lll ll+hA+l-'i )\')4,-J-h,.. .f'.r.t:;JA I ) t.lf:l' P'e fl"'!.1"F-Mt. RL f.A (V) fi",.Ah-tzo}o IIDIID/..f',.'f .f'fl ;t-A • 1\liL 1\1. ft.tnr-"'7li lftrJo') g-,to t.fllfiA J II hAir •tl-r f'"'1.1'fCD-') "'7')'J'trJo')g-fiMfofl mt.r-foe')"'P'-l-uofl+ t.mofl;I'A • 1/tmt.)('J'i tiMM+ 1\mf'ln.)o +r-ue+ f'flll.trJo K"4-l-U4.mfl.)o AliLI\'J.tDo') e,.Jf u-,.. MAJ JJ rdlt.,.H? bf'IJII.CD-.f'ii111"14A 1 U/ rf'nii.CD-hAA ......,. ,..,.. _,,,.'f 1\t. +'Ill /Atr) ,.l'l'ihA )\'),t.U1 t.MMA I h-t-U r ."" .. ). ,li..,,A 1 .. -70-Neprit GazotaNo. S -9th Oclober, 1976Paac 80 (2) to opea aa account in the Houain& aad Saviap Baak ed deposit therein, or wbcre there is ao Housing aad Savings Baak, d.epo&it in trust in aay oCher baak de &igaated by the Housing . aad Savings Baak or, where there is no such other bank. in Municipalitiea or, where (here are ao Municipalitiet, in Government treasuries, the rent and other c:ootributioru aad reYeDue the ci.atioa (3) to living allowance to those dwellers within ita boundaries who, in &CGOI'danoe with Article 21, subartitles ( 2), ( 3) aad ( 4) the Government OwDer sbip of Urban Lands aad E.xtn Howes Proclamation, are entitled thereto ; provided that where any dwellen entitled to living allowance lave from amoq the houses they have handed over to the Government , my bouse the (monthly rea tal) value of which exceeds One Hundred ( 100) Birr the auoc:iatioa shall : (a) the whole d. the required living allowance from the accounts ol. the Agency for the Admini stration of Rented Howea ; or (b) pay the living allowance Jm the rent it hu al ready collected aad demand re-imbursement from the Agency for lbe Admi.ni.stratioa of Rented Houses ; ( 4) to establish aad co-diaate, iD with the H i gher Urban Dwellers' AJsociatioa, aad in accord ance with the directives iss\led by it, IIICh educational, health, market, recreational, rC*l c:oastructioa and other similar fac:ilities as are aeceaaary for the ammunity; (S) to construct, in cooperation with the Higher Urban Dwellen' Association and in accordance with the direc tives issued to it, low c:o&t houses to tile community; and activities with a view to improving th e living cond.i tions of the community ; (6) to preserve and maintain non-private trees and forests within the jurisdiction of the ktbtlt; feU, mow and sell trees and grass in accordance with directives issued by the Central Urban Dwellers' Association except , de marcated tree&, forests and grass, aad expend the ceeds therefrom for . the pUJPOIC$ of the activities of the association; ( 7) 110 develop forest resources, protect the soil from si.oa and \leautify the urban centre : (a) carry on afforestationto rep l ace felled trees , in unutilized areas, along street sides and around residential areas ; (b) encourage . the observance by private possess.ors of tl!e directives specified in (a) above, and give any assis ta.nce where necessary ; ( 8) to protect any public or Government property within its jurisdiction; (9) to coolluct educational activities oa hygiene and clean liness; and take the necessary measures to ensure the cleanliness of the ktbtlt; ( 10) to eradicate,illiterac:y w i thin the ktbtlt;. ( 11) to prevent the placing of undue obstacles oa roads w i thin the boundary of the Kebe l e and immed iately remove same where they have been placed ;

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. I -711Jt' 'I' .7tL"' +'-1'C -nhl,. fl'" Neprit GazetaNo. s 1976 Pa,e at Ill n-t. -to P'Anrl'i .,...,flC J 1/zi 1'0:1' 11-r.-t Ml\-l-t-r.h..,.I\CD-.,._,flCii P'A."'') 1-'r lr-'I'A I . ) hAttflflCD-:JC R.,..,.flRC ,_,.Itt-CD') ]:I\ "t'f') 1\ ..,_.,.I\ h _,.CD-1'11\P' A nJ') M .. lil I ) Rih1 DI'IPl+ hh.,.., ..,...,oc 11-r. -t ..,,.,. Jl'"t-t n-r.l'lm• -l-M1f DD1Pl-l-.,.LI\'LI'=t="t l'l"'f M .. lofl I ) 1l'"t't1 CD-Iak'i -l-M1f MilLAr I RhA.h-' M1'1--l-"t fih1foflli fQII')1P'-l1ofll ... 'f r.,.mo_. 1 ) nc All.,.41.c n-r.•M..,. _,l+ AllLI\1.dJ-') f'I'R:I"i f"':l' .,.-,qc Mh'i•')• H.U O')o-ll I .,.., 11-r.-t Mh-'f o.,. " .,,.,. .,.,. t.11cu-t>-r.-t MIDMif..,. ,.,.n.-.cu-1\Jhli•> l-1\h- • ' II 1 r 1l'1-t !I'A."'')'i .,..,11c 1 fl:l"i n.+ .. h..,..,./\h.,...,. n.,. t ,.,.n,.. ..,...,nc 'lf'J't Mh.,.h+1 'Mf"'f 1\.,.ll"'l-l-li 1\QIIGJ(J') !I'A."'') 1-'rl'I'A. I I I ofl..n.c 1--41I .ofl..n.c P'C"t-l-ih1 .... 'TC (I) 1 rP""".,."' 1--41-...-rc "'76M'e..,. .. h.,.hlrttt iD1'r'f "'"" r-r.nn+1 4Q,.C I (12) to . keep J proper resister ci baa. loc:&tod within the lcebele; 0 !I) to keep a proper resister ci tbe -ber ci residents liviD& within th!e Jcebele; ( 1 o4) to keep a resister ol birlha, J1W1i1Fs aDd deaths with ill the kebele; (IS) to ooopente with the MiDisUy ciCcmmerce a.nd Tour ilm c.a matten pertaining to price a:etrol; (16) to usist, ill cooperatic.a with the Posul Service Autho rity, the e:nension of po5tal service to the people ; (17) 10 coopente with the coocerned office ill matters relatin& to the cellection ol taxes, fees and other revenue ; (18) to contribute to the Higher Urbu Dwellers ' Associa lion at least fifteen percent ol .the fund it retains alter paying living allowances to pencas entitled thereto; the amount ol such c:cotribulil:ll shall be deter milled by the Higher Association having regard to the income from rents of the associatillll ; (19) to establish a judicial tribunal o( three members ; (20) to establish a public welfare committee in order to ful . Ill its duties under the Gove111111e11t 0-.'llersb i p of Urban Lands and Extra Houses Proclamation and this Proclamation ; and to ensure and protect effectively the . welfare of the community . The. lcebele association mav the community for this purpose. 10 . Powers and Dut ies of the Public Safety Committee (I ) The members of the public safety coatmittee shall jointly or severally have the following powers md duties : (a) to subm it to the appropriate authority in coopera tion w it h nearby dwellers , any criminal held in flagrante delicto; (b) to produce wan t ed persons in accordance with orders legally issued by the executive committe e or judicial tribunal of urban ,dftllers' associati ons; (c) to enforce the decisions and orders of the . judic ial tribunal; (d) to protect public and governman property v.ithin its boundary; (e) to carry on guarding and security activities in tccordance with directives issued by the Mi!Wtry of Interior ; ( 2) Me!Dbers of the executive committee of associations jointly or severall y or residents of the lubele de l ega ted in writing by such comm itt ee may exerci s e the du ties specified under sub-article (I) oC this Article . I I . Powers and Duties of ludiciJJJ Tribund( Judi cial tribunals of lcebele dwellers' mociatiom shall, in addi t i on to those specified in the Gove111111ent Owner ship of Urban Lands and Extra Hou ses Proclamation, have jurisdJC lion to bear and decide the following : (I) Civil Jurisdiction : With the except i on of cases falling UDder Article IS (2) of the Civil Procedure Code and the Labour Procla matioo No . 64 / 1975 and dispute to which the Central Government is one ol the partie s:

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-7211r '1'1 t.711'.+ .711."1 f"1'C .. 1\hlr fll +1 ' r. Neprit Gazeta -No. 5 -9th October, 1976 Paae 82 u J\1\h lA..., f'111fof1 he he •tA-.,..., J\1\h ofle .,,.. ...,,. nofll+ hehe I A O+OMD' hAA CD-M' M.1')'. (l :Jot' l':f1 rh.kt.'i' o.-mr_. M t ....-l-1 .,,..,.,_ I .h) ofl,h.C .1.., Ol\1+Jr i1tUffil I i1tUif!$ I i1tUif!i I i1tUUI , i1tUiffi I 1 11tvun 1 11tuu" ,...,.l+ M.+cn-+1 hc\':f I ) .,,.-!f. n,.,.t+ ,...,t+ .,1 'f...,,. If 0.-tlA I .... OtLU l\1 ... Jr ir 1D-l\ l\1+Jr (i) J\11-.,.mO ... lf'r I u) 0lA'f .,._..._ .1.., +re I I I I I I If$ I I lfn I lf!ti I If! I lf!ll lf!t I r+.-Ah .... -l-') 1 A OID')lA'f _,..._ .1.., +"'re ifii. f+.-Ah +• CD1lA O+OA. 1\'')'t "f. th'i' "'*"'e u•r 1 hif0J Mh Jf'r i"""ht-"" l\1\Lo\1. n-r.tn u+ 1.11. rHr .,r;lfc-r 0.-l-f"tflm• _.,.1.1 ++llJ O"t're f+OA. .,10C Oh-A 'lilt-A • II hAA J .,10e 1l'1't OtLtJ l\') ... Jr !i ,...A"J1 f"t'rl(J)o I , 1 / ""it-t'it.l':ti nr'f r•o"' tt't.l'l-.,.,. o+o"' h A •mo M.1'1-ftr). CD,.,.. If h he IM.:.,(J)o ')oflll-.,.,. w.r. fl.+ f"t 1"f Cl)e CD,_,. f1' Lf.,..&J)o 0 ... 0 a\,CI)e h AA •ll1' I f"!t )\')f.lf) I ID.f.,. I r/ 1-hl\if. O+OA..u-hAA '11' tt'il'. flft J\11. t (a) any disputes involving pecwlilry claims of up to Five Hlllldred (500) Birr or uy disputes OD property of a value of up to F'ne Hlllldred (.500? Birr; (b) disputes involving claims ofreab IDd lei'Vice clwaea oa hou.Je1 and Iandi withiD tbe bowlduy of the fc) suits baed on Articles 1212, 1218, 1219, 1220, 1221 , 1225, 1226, 1245 and 1246 of the a...u Code; (d) any civil cases where the partia to the dispute give their consea.t to its jurisdiccion . (2) Criminal Jurisdiction : Without pre j udice to the of sub-&rtic.Ie ( 1) of Article 33 hereof u to the penalty: (a) offences UDder Articles 471, 543, 544, 548, 552, S71,583,608,625,626,649,650,652,653,661; of the Penal Code; (b) any offence under Article 439 ol the Penal Code where the offence specified therein is committed against it; (c) offences under the Code of Petty Offences the Penal Code excluding traffic violatiOClS and offen ces under Articles 733 , 738743 inclusive , 746-7S6 inclusive, 7S8, 759, 765, 767, 776, 783, 786 , 787, 789 791 inchuive, 817820 inclusive; (d) any offences under the Code o( Peny Offences specifically enumerated under Sui>article ( 2) (c) of this Article where the complainant Government Office refers the case to the judici al tribunal ; (3) in add itioo : (a) the jwlicial tribunal of the kebek association may examine in detail the means of livelih ood of the person who submits any application to get any kind of free services i n court ex Government offices and grant certificate thereto; (b) the judicial tribuoal of kebele associatioos shall cooperate to serve court summoos to parties to a dispute and witnesses through the asso ciation of which per sons so s ummoned are residents . 12. Scope of Jurisdiction The Jud i c ial Tribunll of assoc iations shall ha v e the powers specified in Art i cle II of thi s Proclamation wher e : (I) the parties to the disput e are residmts of the or a.ssociations within the _ kebe ie; or (2. ) the property. the maner ex offmce which is the cause of the dispute is located or t.OIDIIIitted within the or ( 3) the defendan t is a rea.idcnt of the

PAGE 77

-73,:JK"' f'I1'C -1\hl,. n .., IIRI',. Neprit Oueta -No. 9th October , 1976 13 CHAPTER <4 IUGHER URBAN DWEU..ERS ' ASSOCIATIONS I I 13 AuocWtion 111.1_..... ,.,.,, -•t+ M1t: •rU J."flll. M1"F hA1f:' Rt\1-ftrt f+RA. R,.IM b4:-t-\' .,..,.., -t1RC ,.._,It-• , ( 1) More dw! oae uiHI. ueorietjcw located iD PD area delined by raidelinea israed by diJ MiDiacry ah.ell ther form Hiper Urbu DweiJia' Allociadoo . (2) lA 1ll'bu CCDtl:n wt.re Hiper Urba Dwellen ' c:iatiODJ OUIDot be formed, /i!IW, MJociatioas &hall lddilioully perform tbe dutia llldl .aoc:iatiaaa. 1fg1 \' tt'&r'f A.H ... fllf• 1-'ftr h-t-P'f f+RA..-t1RC an -t1RC +"'t'IC U:fl • r/ +RA.e--t1RC b+-'1 -t1 C -t1f'IC h+'P'f fMo f+RA.eo 11'1' fl\m.., ...U r-r, tf. bf'll+ J\hb A,.M• Allh"'f 1trR+ E1 11'1' ---l+ ,.,.tttt-• ..,, ,., ... "'.,. ,_at'll' ..,, "" Jr.'f OM A,." "-r,-t A'IA I r I t A'IAt+ 1t.:fo M,..,.,. t rtt.,.., .,..,nc n-r.ttt,.n+ .. 'I' r-r.1"f. f+RA. _,"''RC ""r ,,..,., .,,_:J-"""If • J& I f-r""hC+ Ml\+ o(ltt+'i I II f+RA. ..,.._nc fP'I--",." _,.._RC _.ft1' f"'f.•hAID'') A1t: """ -ejft 1-AttA • rell.h-'f ..,.,+ -t1nc. ""A n-r.11.,... r+nA. 11n,e.+ ..,.....c ,..,. ,.,.,.u-t.,. 1-lf'iA • If J ... nA. .,..,ne fbM tt' J,.':f, .,..,nc ,,.,. M'.-t'l'• .,..,ne "'.,.., .,..,ne .,.., .. e .. ':f u-tr ", .,., ... ,. ".,'* .,.,. ,_.,he+ .,. .. j"A 11'1" 1-'fi\A • D f "-" I r-u'tu• n_.,he+ ,... ",." 111.-t A-,tt.r.t+ t_.; • 1 / ,_.,he+ 1 •• i, _.,he+ Mh"'f ....,e hn .,ttl fi\O+f" • I U) fP',&. A,." "-r,-t ,_,.C"'A• bP',&. lfl'iofl:J'A I ftt:ef:' 11'11 Itt .. .,A I f"l'\h-':f 4"-'rC,. hr'll.:fo Mnll bA,.ll+ f_,1-RA1' 1-lf'iA I A) ,.e,.f! f .f\.1\R-1,. 1 ""Ill?"'-fh..,.., tt't9'':f .,..,nc .. ,..,. f-r.•hfr+') R.nll u-A+ """'"':f ._,.tthA,_,.C"'A I (3) 1D urbu oeatl:n where a .aociatioa performa die dutiee Hiper Urban Dwdiln' Allociatioa , tbe Jtllen!Uiallbl y of such IIIOciatiaa &hall eleot a Special Judicial Tribunal from three to 6Ye members to hear appeals apinst dec:isioos si'l'llll by the K'be / ' Judicial Tribunal. Decisions liven by judicial tribunals thus eetablisbed shall be linal . Members ol tbe Spec:ial Judicial Tribunals a.ay not serve • members iD PDY . other functiODJ ol Policy Camminees. 11<4. Memboship Mtllldatory Kebel. e.uoc:iations located within area demarcated for the establishment of HiJber Urban DweUcn' Associatiocs ha v e tbe duty to mell!ben of 5UCh HiJber .AJsociatioo.s. IS . Nwmber 111111 Ekct ion of 1M Mmaiwr1 t11 CoWICII.r ( 1) 'The Policy ec-m.i-ol .-y bbet. ......:ialiaa lhall eJect at least ooe of ita membcn to represent it iD the Higher Asaociatioo. 1be 111Dber ol represent& tivea shall be based 011 the number of ubele associa tions which en memben ol tbe lfilber Association. (2) Where lcekle usoc:iations perform duties of Hi&}ler PDd Central Urban Dwdlers ' ASMICiatioas or wbere Hi&}ler Associations perform dutiea ol Central Urban DweUm' Associatioas , as the cue aaay be, a represen tative of tbe Ministry may pll'!iapate u member the Policy Ccmmittee, tbe ec.mcil . 16. Op.rlllio111 of 1M AuocUulon 1be usoclatioo &ball carry out ita ll:tivftiea 1hrou&h ita Coaracil PDd Policy CAmmittee. (1)-COIII'tCil: 1be number of memben ol tbe CGaDcil of tbe ciation may not be lesa dw! 26 . The Council &hall: (a) elect tDd dlscharae members the Policy Committee of the associ ation , PDd .ublisb the j udi cial tribunal ol tbe Tbe members of the judicial tribunal ol tbe aaociatioa shall be not leu than three tDd not IIICft dw! live; (b) examine ud apprOYe tbe badF tbe .aociatioo and 5Upervise its ac:c:ou.nta; (c) elect from IDIOilllb memhen at least two mem bers to reprereDt it 11 tbe Catre1 Urban Dwcllen ' .AIIocialioc;

PAGE 78

) fh+_, _,'\RC rfllf• h+'Pl-u-tr '11'11 '" "'lf•'t nt-.,1\"S ,,_,,. Mh 1\,.11+ 1\I'JA-l-ltrR+ A f. '11"')1 h.,.tthlr .,.Ctn I t'Af. 'II"')') "f'IA-'f t'P't-1\,.t-e ll-t-t MA MIT.,_,. I ) Rtt.U .-u.ol-l-f+c'lm--l-P'll. "''t'l +11\C':fo R-1.111 RP't-1\1-.,.'PI\:f .. , 1\,.t-C ll-t-t I f Ito 1\,.t-C ll-t-t MA-l-ofllfol-'i 1fC1tC .,..., a.-l.')ofl 1-tiJ(l'iA " Ill t'h+., "'7'\RC P'II.IIJ')'i ....,f'IC l nJu 1 i 0+3""" f"th+t\Cit' P'AIIJ')'i +.,1\C t-t; l.A I i f tn..+l\1-fh+., "7'\0C ;JC r.DDDDt} h ! OhAir f"t1"f.-l-"l1RC''f oem') hAA'i llt 'lit 11-C.?II." fh+_, ll;f' fh.t\CD-1\.+('lfl I .,t\c'lfl t1Jf.,. .t:c:E-+ tiJ,_,. "'' P'tl 1\.-l.,.!p.tl f"tt•fl• (l;f' h1Jtc'lmCD-I ;JC OoeDDtthC'i llDD•r-f'l Oft Ol\iiL111.CD-u-tr 1-ll1tll. I t l CD-l\1' f"t ,,.+, r""n"' .,..,nc-'.f t'nrt t''l-11.11-l-ll"ltl+flflC fll\'"al\ltCD-m1ffl t'+'l"A MA.,ir':i. t'"t"'i'll-l-1 Iff.. 1\1'1+ OP't-1 ""' lat-1\11. I 1 / co-tl1''i 01-\.+ ..,..,nc-l-CD-1'11' t'"t1'T-+ r fih1fofl ,...,n+ ll"'l..-t .,...,f'IC''f 111+1\flt-11.• 'ft! tl.t-1-0DD(\fl(lfl'j 01\.+'f 1'1'i .f: f.,.llh, _,!'\Ot-+ +f'lflldt' f+7f fl l\111..,/rt-lh 1.15.10 hJ,. 1-ll1tA I 1 / h'>M t1Jt-r 1-P.c:+ $. I 1-'*IIJmt-11. I f,/ tn:f'l\1-\'h+"'7 ..,..,OC ;JC llDDDDt} h Rhll.lr cv-1'11' fl1111 f"'l..4'Crl-h1H'f t'"''..fo n+. 1 P'tt.t-t-t1Jtllill. 1 t..foiiJmt-11. 1 Jf tm..+"tm-tl,1fof1 f-t?l't\ MA''Ifl•r +llt\.sP'f R"lilr-1\0C t'1fll-l-P'tj"'llr.''f f,lt1fO ""-''fli fDUIIMr oli') OIO')'Jt:' hfmlj' llP't-1\1-h1/tiD•I\. f-.C;J/:I.tt i / fM"l h"'1.11TCD-f1111 .fi 1: ;J h "'UIII iiO CD-DD 'P nt 11\. fr CD-il '1' II "'1..1 "f. f r O h. _,11lt--1 fiP't-:fCD-oef.'l"tf C.ll;.l" f.{liiJ/:1.1 I/ t'h+., .,..,nc ;JC 1101'+1\ flC ,., ... Rt-'1! MA.,fro-l-P't-S"'f') ll"ath..J!II. I 'lll+f'lflt-A I !if 1\'P;f: if ')D-ll .,.u.ol-l-i"t11"f'CD-,.,Hfl 1\.flco-') 1/3 fll\m..+ll.f. ..,..,nc _.,&--II.C.;;•\ • -74Negarit Gazeta-No . S -9th October , 1976 Page 84 (d) elect from among its members from three to five members and establish a Special Judicial Tribunal to hear appuls against dec isi011s of the judicial tribunal of th e association in urban center1 where Central urban Dweller1 Auodatioos are not esta blished . of the Special Judicial Tribll!la! may not be member's of the Policy Commit:ee of the assoc i ation; (e) supervise the proper implementation of the pc> wers and duties conferred on the associati on un der this proc l amation . (2) l'ul icy Comm itttt The number of members of the Palicy Commi"ee of the assCY.i ation and t heir deta i led duties shall be prein its i nternal regu latiotu . 17. Powers e nd Duties of Urban Association The association shall. in addition to !hose specifieJ in Article 6 of Cha p t er 2 of thi s Pr oclamiltion , ha, e the fol lo wing powers and duties: (I) to en sure , in cCH>perl'icn with !he Central Crban Dwellers' Ass.ociation, that ass.ociations w ithin its boun dar y hav e as far as equal holdings a.cd ade q uate inco!!le ; (2) to give the necessd!)' in consultation and collabora tion w ith t he Ministry , any family . in dividual or organization ha, ing no 1.!rbm land applies to the Ministry for such lmd for the of dwelling or business houses; ( 3) to s tudy and imj>lement methods ,.;t h a view to giv ing better servic e s to the c o mmunity by c oord i nating the financial and :nmpower resowces of the kebelt association s v.ith i n its boundary; ( 4' to cooJdinat.: t he activities of the pub lic safety c o m m itte e v.ithin its boundary and trithiu neighbouring assoc i ations; (S) to ass ist kebelt associations to give be"er to the community by coordinating thri r acitviti e s with re spect to the collectio n of rent and maint l'naoce o f hou ses; (6) to establish and supervise pla ces stray animals and lost prope rty may be (7) to and i n with the Cen t ral Crban Dv.ellers' Assoc iation, livestock market ing centers within its boundary; (8) to s tudy and implem ent met hods "'ith the view of e sta blis hing cc>Ppcrati, e pct>ple's s h ops the l ike :1nj !!i' ing ser.ices to the communi!") b y coordio :lting the a s ,o.: iatio n io the vicinity; (9) to >ub; (10) to operate and in CO
PAGE 79

-751Jr ;Jtl"' ......,.C DDflhl,-fjJ of'1 Negarit GuetaNo. S -9th October, 1976 Paae SS !J I fh.,.., .,"OC 1 18 lwdicial TribuMl of Hirher Urb411 DwJ/lerl .,10C 'ft"'l't f'"th The ju dicial tribunals established by H iJber Urban Dwel I"' A"'') f.t; l'fA ! len' Associations shall have the followinJ jurUdiction: 1 / 01.111\. .,"OC 71"., f.,.CDI'\).T1 (I) to hear appeals against dec:isio:u of j udicial tribu.n&la ... .,.. of lcebele associations, which decisions thus rendered 0 1"Jih fiA I Of."Jih shall be final. f.lf'i'A I . (2) to hear and decide oo iDstaDce, diaputa between I} nri.u Oh1+Jr IIi fi )\11.-tmO+ lcebtlt usoc: i ations and between ktbtlt auoc:iatioas lf,:OI 0-f'OI\. .,"Ot-+ DDt-ahA )\ 1-\t.l-9" 0-f'OI\. .," and dwellers relating to urban !aDds and bowcs, 1Ul>o n4-+c; DDt)hA fh..,.., fl;J-Cj ject to the provisions ol Article 11 hercol . n.+ hChC ODD;f:DDtf """"' f.tiJil'iA • l 1\,-n+ r l't. lt.m:l'l\f. fh..,.., .77"nt-+ !If I I 1/ h_,."1 hAA m-rt1' .,_..,Itt+ .,....,.t-:fo: 01\f. lam:l'l\f. fh..,..., "710C fh .... f.lhOI'\-P l tllT"'"" fh .... ..., O"''f."fh-llftiJ h-fl'""'f .,..,oc fhm:l'l\f'> ..,..,llc f 'i tiJ-r,&o, I r t h .,.If fh_,.., 'l'l"tf''f "'"'OC 0"7 f. ':f ll: !:tiJ• h-t'l"if Ut\-f+Of\.tD "'110C fhm:l''lf. ., tl-r'} -t"lll!. 1.Cfl f,IP/.A st f I hill\ + "l.ll..:f" fl,\OOlf). I 1\daJI'I\f, fh-t-"'1 '1'PtJP'f "'i"tOC 11"'1.**9"1l:ft1J\'"'1.11 1 M>t-7,' fh l'"'' .,1nc f"m:J''IV. "''",ill: h'IA fODlf'} hi'l IJ:ftiJ-" fi 1 rrJ c o.;r hlli'l'f -!lttl'i' >.(1Dt.t.'l' 1 i / fhfi:-t-'1 .,..,oc hl7D•'ftJt.-l-DD tlA o"m.4-'lr, ..,..,nc m-rt'l' f"'i.mhl'\--'l-1 fl.. 11'1 u-/\-1-f.AtlA :: fl• :,r fh•n:J>t-,f, "''"'OC MA hot:l'l1 ., .,...'l'l. 'If f-l•ODW/..,. f.lfCjt\ " lf'i9" fl• ;t-:far O"'''irw ?" h l"'' fl.lf'} h@ "''HI f/\ r9" • fj1I""c. n:fllll:ftiJ-h-t'1"1 h"lll-fl fl\f(J}o rt l!'':fCj DDP'tf 0.-f''f 119"llC 0.1: MA f"''.lf). ), ..,.tDt"){'-';f P r / ;FC_,.C 'lA..,.fllllftiJh.,.'l"'f fMC .... Po1.C ..,.tDitl''f f9"hC 0.+. Mtt-'f tr3m-"""""fl:: f't.lr'f "'l.tl'l-tci'i' ITDI"'tf O..f'f ll"'l.lr1 n-1-1.ti. fl9"hC 0.-f: f.'I HI'\" f f ;J!f-'I'C fl_,.(lll}:fiD-h-t-'l"'f _,.tDt)f"'f o.+. (1-flM t:ro fODfltn llf'1 7t "'19"H 'f m-ITDoflr • J, fl"'t. """"r.L , l"'t-ar'} f"'J.J'Ilth..1.1D-09"hC 0.-f: l ... "l. tiJ-'i' Oh1'"'1e>-hct:A '1 i / he o.+ 1 f .,....,(IJ-9"hC n.+ OtlU h'f';E->.1+Jr ODU• f_,.IDhl'\-ol-Mlrf f"'l. •J'Hl-'1-)tiJ-• CHAPTER S CENI"RAL URBAN DWELLERS ' ASSOCIATIONS 19 . Establishment of AssociaJion (I) Where more than ooe Highet Urban Dwellers ' Asso ciations are formed within the boundary of any urban center they shall establish a Central Urban Dwellers ' As5-0Ciation and take over the ldministration of the ur b an center . (2) In urban cen t ers where Central Urban Dwellers ' Asso ciations are not es tablis hed, the Higher Urban Dwel lers' Association shall perform the duties of such Cen tral Urban Dwellers ' Associations . ( 3) In ill urban centres where Higher Urban Dwell en' soc iations arc not establi.s.hed , the lCtbtle Assoc i atioo shall perform the duties ol Central t:rban Dwellers ' Associati o ns . 20 . Membership Mandat or y In urban centers where Central Urban Dwellers' Associa tio ns are to be formed . H igh er Urban Dwe U ers' Associations are obliged to be membtrs o! •u.ch Central Urban DweUets ' A ssociJtions. 2 1 . Numbe r and E ltction of Mtmbtrs of Congrtl1 (I) Every Higher Association shall elect at lent two mem bers from among members ol its Council to repre se11t it at Central Urban Dwellers' Assoc i ations . The num ber of representatives shall be based on the number of H i gher Associations which are members ol such Cen tral Associations , provided that the ir number may not, in any urban centre , be less than 30 . (2) In chmcred urban centres, the concerned Ministries and o ffices s hall de lega te one membe r to the Congress . ( 3) In non-chartered urba n centers, the representatives ot the M inis try and t he Ministry of Interior shall partici p Jt e in the Congress as members ; other Ministries and offi ces shill par t icipat e in the Congress when necessary . ( 4) In chartered centers, repre sent atives of each Ministry shill onl y partic i pa t e in the meeting s of the cot have t h e r i ght to vote or to be el ected as offic i als of the administration . 2:!. O perations of the Associ ation The associJtio n car ry on its ac tivities throug h the C ongr e ss, the S : and i n g Co mmittee and the Administra tive S e c ttoo o f the urban center . (I) Tlte Co n g re ss The Congre s s of the urban ceoter sh all be the assem bly of member s represented in acco rdance with Arti cl e 21 here o f . The Congress shall :

PAGE 80

• -76• ,1' ft ;JtL"' f"'"rC _.llhl,. 6flf'') !Jffi ,,,., Neprit Gaz.etaNo. S -9th Octobec, 1976.-Pqe 86 u CIH.U h1+K' rr 1\hm;l'ltl-_,"\Ot--1-f-fol'ltn-+ P'AIIJ')'i +1flC''f 01..1'1 RP't. ttl-UIIJmt.A I 1\ f'b-fo.,.'f't ... '11''1\'A n1..,.1\ .b-1-1-41-M.,.l.,.l I\_.,1P'-l-ml\41 I+C I}. I ilh rbC 0.-tt f1.1'10MIRM 1.tL 1-ell'iAJif'rr -1.n't' 1\oflM o,.,._,. .. 1\,. 1.tL Ottl---ctl\1' fl\0-l-r J J fhm;l-"1-"1. 111.-t hflh-'f ,_.,.C .. 1\ I "'1. 111..-t Mh-'f ofllf-l-_,'1 ru.+ ofllf-l-J\1-0A'I'f" I ) h-tthh-.,,. 1\h.,.., rl\+ -ctn 1\lf:.,.-l-1\....,.,,.,_,. I+CilA • _.,.,,.,-l-r J\14. h'ti:ll •t-r fh+_, 'lf.f't J\').4,11') 1-J(_,A • htlv,-t.r ll'l'i oft ;fo A I ht Allh hllh-'f lh-R+ 'll"t1 1"._ 1'1) w...,,..,.,.'f't v-h-f P't-1'iA I hP't-,. fl'l'iofl;f'A I lf'r,. h')-f:fl') ,.,_,. fh.,..., 1r-M h,.l:ofl P't-m-1\..,l'l'io+ .... .,., mltR-1 1\_.,.,,.,_,. !+CflA 1 1 ) f'b-f1'1m-') o:t+ 1-l.-l-M 1 OP't-u. .,-f.tfiiJmt.A 1 ) M.+C''f 1-""CIIJA I !U:?A -r 1-'f''IA I ) :Fc+c O+l'liiJlfm-""-'K n.+':f fll:t-'i "'" A1h--l-h.t-1-;fohll I 1of1C'i
PAGE 81

.\ -771K" t.:>t+ ;JtLIIJ I I f•ll'i' f.f'lf''lf' n.+'f') OT't') o,...cct+ .. .,l:t."' 1 1 h.,.., ft.rl,,-o l'ltt"ttr> ... " 1 .-.nt-+ 1 :J'itit f1R1 fl:J'9''f 1 fl:J'9''f 1 ".f I m11ofl f"tllOilflrtlfCD-'f't .,,,:.:+ J I1U h"t,..fth;J'lfco-,.,...,.,,...+ ,.,...t1 O.+".f n-.,.11oc n-1\CD-h.,.., ,.,,.,.."'If M A. "'lh-+ ,.._?. 1\ _, 1: I. "'I I 1/ "'"+ M..? _.Mh.t I l'l,.flol\')11 I ,..h. 'I f'':f-1 _,lf;J)':."K" ,...f"JmC I 1M h.,._, m. ,...t-9'".f J\l'lLI\1.CD-') _,1:1."1 I I f"tllm..., .,...,..tf 0-ti.,.A. :J'I\1\-lf.,l.ll'i' ,..,,.1\hi: . ,...t-,".f") ,.L,_,. I f.,'i'lfCD-'),. J\.4.11 IID')'JI: l'lC fliiDIIDtt he in .. .,..., CD-hA.A. CD-I'l-r ,..,_ 1'f. :J'I\1\-l-r..r ':f') IIDhfiA. I fl"t111 Dl'.f"JtnC I }\')o4,u-,. OJ\1+K" D ')D-11 .,..P't.+ M A..,. hllfr ".f l'l II L 1\ 1.. (J)•') _._ t f _, CD-IIJ + I I I f.U')') M'1:'1 fh.,.., fl:J''i' +ctt: O..f".f'J J\1'1; l:ll'l O+l:'f" A.f. A f. ih t ".f'i 1. ') (l ".f 1\ ,;_,II .7 'If fl.-f ".f f.,. (l"' :feD-') ,...A."'')'i' +"'llC flP't-Ill--,tpA, I h.,II,;J'If fl.+ ':ff" _.L1.f" I !1/ .:>C fliiDDDt}hC Oh+_, CD-11'1' f'"t1'f. .,10t-+ -m') ,f.Jf;J' )\').It, 'i t-:fCP-_, (' l."' I (d) Tbe CCGditiaas for the employment, dismissal and promoti011 aldie of the municipalities aha1l be pral2ibcd in 1awa or n:p!ations issued by tbe Coqra1 in IXIIIIU!aaion with the Government. 23. Powers and Duties of tltt Associlltion Central Urban Dwcllcn' AsSociations &hall, in addition to those speci1ied ill try, tiJa! thr. Higher Assoc ia tions in Urban Centers have equ.J holdings ;

PAGE 82

!t.l fh+'"7 '"7'10t-+ =t=_,l, f6A-l-P't-f'l-. '"711-follOC 1 Il l.,.:nr n.11 h'"ti,,.CD-10. r-t-o.\. . . A '"tiM fA'"7-l-P't-f'l-hll 1\C-4;1-I !1;/ h"''l fCD-fJ A'"7-1-;JC {Joe.,. flOC Oh-t'"7 hAA CD-IlT f'"'t 1"f.-l-'J J\')I..I..")'LJ' I h'/I"'P I fD1tllc'IA-+'J Dltffi t h.,.'"7 A'"7-1-J\'1-4-CD-1\-'"71; I. "'I • 1 rh.,..., '/!"')., 1 rh.,.., '11"'1., f'"'th.,. A CD-)..>A IIJ') f.. 'r I. 'P A I i f ... 'i' fh-t_, _,'10C OoeJ:ootf n+t.n-hche'f "" ,.,.1'1 m-+1 M".f .f.c'IIIJA 1 If hmbf.lt.f. fh.,_., -"1'1:-IC 'II"H Of.. f""t.c'lmCD-fOil(;Q.t.?\" f..ll''iA I (l.(-(lo}o 'II"'H9'"f ftDA .(-').?'t9''f'l P''l l .,.} I I i / J\1 fv-).;t-CD-nn.u a>-ilT ,.,.ooflh-t:-l-OH.U 'lfH 1' -fo "t .f. I!' 'II\" (.1 'lf'H9''.f fihlffl 'lf119'"f 'i=fiD-" MH. u,. .,ti=far,. n"fh--t: lt.f. ,., . .,,. f+Oi\.ID-o+ om-"" -l"f-1-m'lfl r-fl m+ oefl-1.f.'r t.'PA " IJ''r,. 'lf' Ha> OihiJ'I ,.,._,t.-t ft-fl. .,, fll''l fD"hm+ P'AIIJ'J'I llfln+ • f./ l..t.)f . '11"1.,9''f f'"'th.,.A-+ ,..., nn.u r-t 1..'1110>-'J fi;J= I.,CI)o • t I fOD(Ifi"'7J 'l.tl'i" I 'II"H n.+ tf..'l" fiDI'c'l f"U fll\-0'lOD.,.CD-{l;f-'1 'ttl t\.c'lf,. f..'f 1\A •ttrr 'l.H.ar OT;J=ft Dl'ffi') Mol-f-.11''1 • '/1"').,9''f 1 . i / f+t.O llAIJ''I 1111-t+C O.,'i"TCD-'1" U)f f-fo 'lfH 111.(-'J 1-o4f.. ft.,H P'A IIJ') f"t'ri.CD-I ll '"'t 1-o4 f. -foiiJC .f c'l. + c fl fl + • .,'l=ftD-'1" ,,_.,. ol-Mlf f'"'tTitftLCD-ilr I l / '"7'1jfCD-f" '/!"')_, MA f.DI' '"1CD-' helle l..t.K flJ.f. ll.f.'fA'I"• f./ 'lf'U hllh-'f D1tt'ahA h"'J_,'il Olt.f. h.,. , "f. I 'lf'H CD-t\.IPf,. f. l-It A • . i / f'll"'l't..,. II flh-l11ft,....,_ It ;t-:fCD-M11 1 + h 'J fiA-& ftD1ttDI'I1 IA.,.;J=tt J\') l..ll' l A.+ Dlt')OC hP't-ll'"'t f D1tllhA IIIlA 1-ltf.') J\1Uf.. t\.1'1 f.'filA • -78-Negarit Gazeta-No. 5 -9th October , 1976-Page 88 ('13) to coordinate the development pro jects operated by Higher Urban Dweller s' Associations . (14) to give the necessary financial suppol"it from . the revenue of municipalitie s, to projects run by Higher and kebe/e associatioos; (15) to prot ect, in coll aborati on with the Ministry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources, m inerals like quarries and sand within the boundaries ol urba,n centers, and to insure that the same are used to the development . and expansio n of urban centers . 2 4 . Judi cial Tribunal of Central Urban bwellers ' Association Judicial tribunals of Central U rban D wellers' Associations shall have the f ollowing powers and duties : (I) to hear and dec i de appeal s against decisions of Higher Urban Dwell ers' Associati ons given on first instance ; (2) the decisions on appeals of the judicial tribunal of Central Urban Dwellers' Associati o ns shall be final . CHAPTER 6 PROVISIONS AND PROCEDURE COMMON TO J U DICLo\L TR.lBuNALS 25. Sea,. cf .d pplication (I) The provbio!U of this chapter shall apply mutatis mutandis to all judicial tribunals establi s hed under this Proclam atio n . (2) Judicial tribunals are public tri bunals; therefore, any dweller of the kebele who is present at the hear ing has the right to co mment and forward his views on the case at han d, provided howe ver, that the judicial tribu nal shall have the power and responsibilitv to render its own independent judgement based on. law and j u stice . (3) Judicial tribunals established at every level shall only follow the proce dures laid down in thi s Proclam ation. 26 . T ime and Place of Hear ing Any judicial tribunal may bold hearings in the office of tbe assoc iati on or in any other place and time which it deems suitab l e for holding hearings; provided that the time of bear ing shall, as far as possible, be after work ing hours . 27. Procedure (I) With the exce ption of cases on appeal, j udicial tribu nals establi . shed at every level shal11 have jurisdiction to bear a case only where such case has been exam i ned in advance and referred to it by the execu ti v e rommittee of the association . All dec isions or orders shall be given in the name of th e association. (2) No member of jl!dicial tribunals may hear on appeal any case whi ch he has previously at the first instance. (3) The tribunal may hold hearings wben more than half the members t!'ereof are (4) Where a case cannot be decided by majority be cause ol lack of quorum of the Tri bunal, the Chair man of the association may co-opt one of the mem bers ol the Executive Committee to hear tbe case .

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-791A"'I'Jf ;JN'I .....,C ..-nhl,. flf +1 ,,,., Negarit Gaz.ctaNo. S-9th October, 1976Page 89 ' If J J\'M.+Cofl M,..mf_. 1 1/ '"7'i=f..r 'II"J') f.f'lnl\+1 -Mt. " ....... , ,.,_ .fflLA"M-"t rflhC''f'i '"7fllJf"'f r\'"7 f-l-•t.r 1\,..mf_. t.l-'111 • If .,'i:fm-r 1'1• I R.ol-.,,_,. Rllll h'J+A" 'JD-fl J ,..IPlT 'II"J')..-1\.mt-• ,.,.mr+m-1,. '"7fllJf 01.n• ,..,_. 11..:'-1-'r'CO:I'A • II I 'MJ"t Ml\'"7f-l-I Mh-1-h--l-faJ :J'f',.. .,'i:fm-,-'II"J') lt.ft. .,_,. 0-Mf. 'If. ••'lk 'lf.l'l'f' t.'f'IA I J/+hil'IF-ft.., Afl'i O'f'duced before it and e.umiDe witllesses as be oeCe:ssary for the determination ol the case . (2) Any person, office oc sha1.1 have the duty flo appear before the tribunal and the required evidence oo time when 5UIIliDOiled pursuant to sul>article ( 1 ) of this Article . 29. Option rwt to Entertain Case f.Jly judicial tribunal shall have the option oot to entertain or decide a oase where the following conditions obtain: ( 1) the defendant in good faith, pleads guilty and appologises before the tribunal or the association and 011 his own initiative makes good the damage he caused; or (2) the plaintiff Or the appellant has withdrawn his charge or appeal. SO. Change of Venue Where in accordance with 5Ul>-articles ( 2) and ( 3) of Article 12, the places where the defendant resides and wliere the offence was committed do DOt coiDcide and where the judicial tribunal finds the in which the defendant resides more convenient for the enforcement of the punishment and it is ascertained . that it would not delay the determination of the case, it may transfer the case to the judicial tribunal of the Jcebele in which the defendant re&ides . 1 1\"., n;,..J:ootf l.t.'lf nt. 31. 1fl'S f.t.Jf hfl "7f-l-h)!DDt. OM 1-.l!f. Transfer to RegUlar Courts and ConcWTent Offences ( 1 ) Where in the course of first instance oc appeal proceed ings any judicial tribunal finds that it has no juri.sdic .tion to hear the case, it shall order the transfer of the case to a regular court having jurisdiction . The court to which any case have been thus transferred shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide such case . hi" A IIJ). 011,e If 'r 1'1.11 1" m-h fl. I" A 11J). r\ "'l L .. R.-l-l\1.11.-t'll\ff. flfA • ff.C n.-t: r r .,. ... ""-"-r1 ., 'l m-'l,. -M.e "M 1\DDtll(l") P'AIIJ1 ,etr t.'l'A • OtLU 1t1+Jt" 01D-fl 1t1+Jt" J hfl ,.,. lfCDlr\-l-R.-l-RtLU m-fl1' f-tDDr\h -t:-l-1. ,_.lfJ-l-ODDhTA -thllif. nt1 ')m-0-thMR-l-'l-.l!.e m-1'11 • II RtLU 1t1+Jt" 01o-fl "lt14'Jt" I DDIPt.+ "7'i:f m-r n.-r m-1'11 l'l.i\1' m-l'a1m-n..,. 71"11 R4'l11\. "71RC I\.L1.V" f"'l 'fA DDlf).') fm-f'a1CD-'} "lt.t'-1.V" ..,.h l'aif. 1\"t.'rCR-l+01\. ..,'\RC 1f')') 1\Jfl _,.'IALm-t."f'IA " l fT.t1.--l-1111)!1\-"f RhLII f4'01\. 1f., P'lllfJ') J OhLA 1.-J'I" R.-lP'AifJ") trtr 1'1.1'S n.+ v-tr'>vlA-"f-f..,f-lP'AifJ'} "lti\CD-• !) I J ""m-1'\ 1 "{llf)'f' I i"''i:fm-'r 1\"'}') I I OTMir-'I.e f-tlflCD-') hfl'i DD1.'Jk1 '"7fll'lf" 'li't'i (2) The court to which the case has been transferred in accordance with sul>-article (I) of this Article, shall, adhering to the penal provis i ons prescribed in this Proclamation , give decisions including on the charges against the defendant before the tribunal . (3) Where any regular court gives decisions pursuant to sul>-article ( 2) of this Article and where it that its decision will be better executed through Associations , i t shall transfer the execution of its d eci sion to the Judicial Tribunal of the lcebele Associatio n of which the defendant is a resident ( 4) Where the o f fences committed fall within the juri sdic tion partly of the judicial tribunal and partly cf t h e regular c o urt, the re[!'Ular couh shall have jur isdiction to hear all of the offences together . 32 . Giving of Judgement Any judicial tribunal shall regi s ter : (a) the . charge and supportirig evidence agaio.st the defendant; and

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1/.::f'il 1+<0,_.., f"IIV+'k -Mh.l'f''f P -thn-l-,'i"CO;f-A • 1r 1 , .. ofl,.., ,,...nm+ P'A"'., 1 &f -,,.-1 ..,-11"11 Otf.U 1\'"7. If "'t 11111: A +M iF-'1'<4--t-'i' lf'i" 1\.1 'S htf.U R.:f"J .. "'+"f -"t"!hA hofl 1.-l-0).14-A.+"JG)o ,'filA u) tlm1+4!1 -"tim+ 1 1\) I "JMiofl .,,_,. _,..,OC OJ. I.Mf. ,__.c.+ .,,11. 1 m) J.ft<4-t ,..If).') OM.llllf, _,,.m .. I _ ,...) t"tl+ ,....,. ilc o-v.cn tnHofl ........ I ilh t"tl-l-me O'"ti.Ctl DD_."'+ 1 h P't. J.,.fl-l-+'t fAOI\m c'\) mn 1 I} 1\"t:f"fd)o f +'f 01\f, A._,."JQ)o 1-'fi\A • -7'i':f 'lf'')1 f"Jf...+ P't. c'\Q)o Mh V'll+ me mf,'r Mh rf --oc 0"7J.Cll 1-+ "'A • 01 1 f(l)oftk . ..,.,;r:f-,. 11"11 Q)oftk(l)o"J n+o 1\Q)o r mlfil .-:..., lt,.-t mf,'r Ohtt:h-Tl\.il )t-,tJM+ fill. • I _ M t 111\,_..,'l'S t i /'7'i':fl.,.,. .,.,., 'li"HtD-Q)oflk Ot'lmn+ +'t G)ol\'1'1 f,"Jll'S ft'7-l>l11 f.l-1\A • l}'li"HIIf' f,"Jll'S tt"U+CO• m11 Q)oflk(l)o1'i' '711 foollm+ J f,U flf,lf') f."JfO {lill'\fll.Q)o mf,'r 1.1\-f"'l,mhi\Q)o MA {l"'l,Q)o ii"H fl?A f,'i"CO;f-A• 1 J.mflfl1 1 Q)o .,,,. fJtta?l\f, 11"11 Of,"Jll'S f+lOI\ 1 Q)ol'\k (\.1PC1fl I 1\J?fifA mf,'r ,.?C h1f.IJ-k;J-CD-1\.,.01\G)o mf,'r ot'i'm-11"11 A.Ah(l)o 1-':fl'tA • -80-Negarit GazetaNo. 5 -9th October, 1916 -Page 90 33 . (b) the defences produced by the defendant; and shall give judgement thereon. Powtr to Impose Penaltks and Give Ridings ( I ) Where any judicial tribunal Iinck the defendant guilty io cases it hears under this Proclamation it may impose, aa:ording to the grav i ty of the pffence , any one of the following penaltie s:, (a) warn the offender; (b) order the offender to rdake a public apology to the i njured per son or (c) publicize the offende r's shameful act; (d) impose fiDes of up to Three Hundred (300) Birr ; (e) impose a sentence of imprisonment of up to thr ee (3) months; (f) impose a sentence of bard labour of up to fifteen (15) days; (g) order the offender to compensate the injured party . (2) In civil UDder this Proclamation : (a) where the defendant ts tound g-uilty, the tribunal may order h i m to make an imme diat e payment of the fioe imposed , to effect payment w i thin a . filled period of time or to do or to refrain from doing a cer tain act; (b) where the tr ibunal is certain that the plaintiff instituted the suit with intent t o cause undue inconvenience to the defendant, i t may order the plaintiff to p ay damage to th e defendant. 34. The trib unal may impose more than on e of the penalties referr ed to io Article 33 (I) on any offender who is proved to be gu ilty of commi tting : (a) repeated, or (b) concurrent offences . 35. Non compliance Where any person ordered to perform compuls ory labour by a tr ibunal fails to comply with s uch order, the tribunal may impose a s entence of up to three (3) months imprisonment o r a fioe of up to Three Hundred (300) Birr. 36 . E xecution of Tribunals shall execu t e their decision s through the Publ ic Safety Committee or the local police . 37 . Appeal (I) Any party may appeal within fifteen (15) days from the date of decision by the tribunal; (2) The tribunal shall give a copy of its judgement and the evidence to the party appeali ng ; and i n cas es where thi s is not possible . the chairman of the trib unal o t a member he delegates must appear in person and ex plain the matter to the appellate una! . 38. on Appeal The H i gher or Central judicial tribunal m ay reverse, confinn, vary or remand the case with guidelines to the bbele or Higher Judicial Tribunal, as the case mav be .

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81 1K' U -'tl."' .....,C .. flhl,. lil +1 ,,,., Nepth Gazeta -No. 5 9th October , 1976 Page Cl l .,\ , flt\+aL.,(. . .,fll)l' f '"m:l'l\1-11"'l1 t-11'J'S n-tfl.,n+ 1.t1. IT'l" ta1'fm-.,.a..-,6 .,fllJI' A-h-7+ t.l-1\l\ • IT'l",-+h&.ta6 CD'J') n-'f..-61 1-l)l' R"''.;f-f.R+ 1.tl. _,ill)fm-') AJ ... Cofl 1\.'fll. 11\nJmC 1"1\nJ'} 1-'i '-"A • m) hm:l'l\f. .,..,Ot.i' O.,f.'f h+'f"'f f+OI\. _,"10&.-l-f_,H;J1, fl.-1:1 M"'l.lhltO-l-t.r'i-t DDDDtf fronJA• 411>) h+'f"'f &.ltf(l)-') f"'l.'fft O-}-'} '-fmCj ') f..ih1f11 ofltJ;f-:fCD-Cj h.fl'i"'l. "-1 :f (Do &. It f 'l fl '"I M Jl J!. 4 -fl +. 11' 11 :f •'l h-t-1"1 :Fc+c 1\DD">'?P':i-"'"-o f+Cill\ • Ul} RtLU "'f'f:Cj 0111'_, (l;JCj -l-C'f. fl.-}--tv l.:t-flf f./.)l'ID fl.,.ltlt--1Cj fl"'l.ltlttn>--}.,..,0/.r r"'l.tr"> -+JIJ!.t f ,.,-o H:J]{A • .l) R.,'i":fCD-9" 1.{.'/f f.,.!f:ltoo-rof.r fh1"l .,..,nt..•r roil'l' fl"t-"tiD 1•"'1. -t O lftf . r 11'11 "11'1-l-.,..., llt-=fm'l OlCtt: 1.1L -fl;f r\.L1. . ,... f"lPffl ttt. . ?'Jm l"t-o•tl-"flft ":r: flfi9"'H hrt9"'} • r fl"t(I•H'f 1.1L ht1Df.Ol1 l"t-:fm-f'flf +Dl-l"t-'If f .';f 1\A 11 flllt19" oav• l. l-f"U.M.;. DDt\'-hl ff. t.l'lm-"l'l:fCD-9" furr'}"'l "-1 0.-l1-c: 'tnf. 9" ool'}.•fll'l f"lllflC .. ;f-"ftfl:t" . 1'1) nh+., (l;J"c; -l-ett: n .-l-M''f..-'l 01\."'"':f ,n1'f I)P't'l fl.-l--ttfll-C:'i" "'l.ti'I /.C fNimDl1"1\nJ'l'l +"lfiC flllU +l'l'l';tA rt 39 . Addit i oMI E v idence The Higher or Ceatral Iuclicial Tnbunalmay, where it fin& it DOCeSsary, admit additiooal evideDce duri'lg th e a ppeal, provided that wbe 111y to !be dispu t e in tentionall y or negligently failed to produce my evidence d uring the hearing at the first instance, &UCh party ma y not prod uce tbe appeal state any addiliollal evide nce h e did oot produce initiall y . CHAPTER 7 SPECIAL PROV IS I O N S 40 . TriiTISitory Period ( 1) Powers of the Minister (a) Sub j ect to the pcavisi0116 of thi s Proclam ation , the Mini s ter shall have the pow to issue r e gulations regard i ng the establishmen t of Higher an d Ce n tral Urban Dwellers ' Assoc ia tions . (b) Until the issuance of a Proc l amation self. admini str a ti oo to municipalitie s i n nonver the adminis trati o n o( muni cipalities . (d) The Mi n ister shall 5 tud y wa y s a n d me ans b y which u r ban cen t e rs become s elf-s ufficient; and where , co n siderin g their populati on ar:d econ .. !:lic activity ht finds tha t the y ar e c 0 mpe :eut t o a dmini ster them s e lves , h e shall t,_. th e G overnmen t th a t th ey be charte r ed . (e) The M i nister shall pre par e mod e l articl e s ciation t o As soc ia tions f ormed or t o be formeJ un d er this P roclamau oo and the O wner s h i p o f Urban Land s and Extra Hou<;('' Proclam a ti oo . (f) Where th e M i nister a s c ertain s th a t o ! policy committees and espec i al!y of T r. bunals o f Urban D w elle rs ' or to be fo rm ed at any l e vel' cann o t the i r dut i es in their extr a time only, h e s h J!l. tal 'ng into cons i deratio n the lood o f work: , , f the ciati o ns, allow the me mbers t o s u >peod !he i r re gular work: and work: f o r th e ass('('i:;t:o n in>t• Jd f o r n ot more than eight (8) "w•:k. Any Offi c e , org:oni7.J ti;n rec e i v i ng not i ce from the M i ni
PAGE 86

If :J=e . e ti'Wfmh+..-':f 1 ,. A'P:E-hentn+ ,..., nul-:J=e+e h+..-':f Rtlll A'P:E-A,.ll+ .. ,. ,.he n.+ :J=e+e J\1/.+c'l"' lfm-'-"mt.A • r / , .. ,.t.'f'li , .... "., --n+ 1 A'P:E-hCD"'OT +') 1.,.t: 'J-+ 1. f...,_h+h-+ fh+-7 )'PtJP':f Rtt.ll ., P;f"'i' +elf: a.+ A'P:E-,.,.t.+ n.,'i':f I U'K ,.,,.,. fh+., )'Ptr':f .,..,nt-+ rl"'t-A-t-e fl'"t-t ,,..,h e+ ,,.he n.-1-Allh-':f1 ll,.,.t.1'fi hA A1 .. If>• •--<., ""il+ AMir'f V) fh +'"7 (1 ;f"'i' -1-efi: R.-l-h 'P :Eo h,. m-"1-11 h II + f 'i" f"t11"fm-ff\.-1-h.t-f. 1fl hh , ... ofle (j) 01\f. f)Ol. ..,1\c'lil 11Jf.,. llA'i' -t 11-l-t 11J ,_,. h,. P' tool-r "fJ1"f,. f1 fl M mtt.u-'M'h+ r'"t+-41-e .,fi:f J,. "7Miofl I . 1\) _"-_... r.:hrHt h,.m-"1-11 htl+Y:,. h! ;JI71') fOI\m -t:.+ 111\etl-l-f)Ol. "71\c'lofliiJf.,.. llf\'i' '"ttl+ 1 11Jf.,. h,.P't--1-f"t11"f11Jo f1fl ftf.t;'{.IIJo fl)tlll 1'1'h+ P'e l_,'i':fm-r ..,Mofl I dt) tlll 01o-t1 1: (v) "fi (11) r+ -::111 h+m-"1 f.+mn+ lf'r f1.tlf'E IIJ :f"f.t.'t .,,.., P' -1-I111J"' :fm-A' A f. h 'P .,:f I ,_,.. t ffl.l-,,_,. -1-Mtt':f f)Ot.CD-1 l + 11J 1-.l-.lf ofl tlofl-1-H "'M. + 1\1\ If: f +IIJ c'l _,,..:,:..,.,-"71\c'lofl ,.,,_,. 111\fi '"ttl+ 1 ,. h-P't-+ f"t11"ftD-f1fl ftf. "' ..,. mttu 1'1'h+ P'e .,,..;,: t "711flofl • I f.ll "1": hll.h-':f .l-.1':f ;Je Ml\m-I l""fi ...,. .l-11 J 1.')ofl I f+fl-1. 1\u>t.C ,.,,.,_ P') P'e"t-1-If) f.u>t-0+ f) Uoh-f.U') h'P"I": f"t,+t.') hlf) f.ll') A'P:ER 1\h-l-+L"'"t )ol-hf.'r (..,.,-I I} rhf'""" )'Pt,':f') _,1Rt.+ R..,__.l\h-1-ofl:J=j ftt+-7 (l;f" h.t-f.'i' fh+-7 R.+ 1ofle h'P:Ef-1le " ,. . f'"th+h--1,_.,,..,.':f nttv CDf.,. v) M' tll\P't.'i' R.-1-'"ttll-te 11.:f' rftf.).,.,..,. !r 1 . !I (I) R'"th+I\IIJo h-4-tl l (I) ++h.,.AA I -82 GuetaNo . .5 _:.,9th October, 1976Pace 92 (2) Chartered Urban Ceuten All urban centers which had cbanlo prior to tbe pro. mulptioo of this Proclamatioo shall be deemed to have been granted Charters upoo the establishment d. coogre..<5e5 in ac:cordance with cbaptrz .5 of this Proclamatioll. ( 3) Right to elect and be elected The following urban dwellers . shall neither ' have tbe right to elect or be elected for a period of ooe year from the date of issuance of this Proclamation, as mem bers of the policy committee, the council, or the con gress of urban dwellers ' associations formed oc to be formed tinder this Proclamatioo and the Govcmment Ownership of U r ban l..aDds and Extra Howes Procla mation : (a) any person or husband and wife wbo, before the promulgation c:l. the Governmen t Ownership o( t.:rban Lands and Extra Howes Proclamation , had a mootbl y inoome !rom bouse rent o( more than Fifty (50) Birr O any person wbo, baW!g no income o( i ts own from wort, is dependent oo EUCb penons ; (b) any person or husband an4 wife who, before the pl'omulgation of the Public Ownenhip of Rural LaDds Proclam a tion , had more than ten ( I 0) bee -tares (J( of a gasha) of lan d or :10y penoo wh o, having no income c:l. his own from work, is dt;pen dent oo such penons; (c) subject t o sub-article 3 (a) and (b) above, an y person or husband and wife wba&e property bas been natiooalized in accordance with the various Proclamations , Directives and Orders issued by the Provisiooal Mwtary Government or any per iOn wbo, having no income o( hi s own frtm work is depc:oden t on such penon.s. 41. Conf li c t wi t h other Law1 ( 1 ) No law, regulation, pc.:tice or procedure written or customiry, in so far as it' is iDconsislen t with tbe pro . vi5lons of this Proc l amatioo shall have force or effect i.o respect o( situations provided !0 by this . Proclama tion. (2) In respect o( urbm dwellen' UIOciatioos only, the following Articlea o( the UrbeD l..aDds Rent and Urban Houses Tax Proclamatiqa No. 80/1976 are repealed or amended : (a' Article 5 and Article 13 which providei for the obligation c:l. the Ministry c:l. Public W Ob and Housing; (b) Article 14 (2) ia deleted and ,placed by the fol Iowina Article 14 (2): .

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-83..,.:t-'f• ""h rr -oc flf''). 1\+'f 1-IJ OP't-ltl-h'PI\0-l-'Lt& M ,,..... 'Lt& h"ffiC .,, 1-lf''ilr • ,__.., OM -n Mofl"-Oh.,._, t"t"'f -t1nt-+ MII;JK 1\+'f .....-rc ifl/ lJlflfl ' -1Pl-l-1-e(l •• . I . ,..,, ntt.u ,.IPt+ remltl-f{l'ihA A'P:(.'t f"'{l (14D-OCD't't.Aii' -*""' -IPl+ . • I 1\+'f I OH.u-A 'toft" O'to-tl A 'toft" r f+...,Ah+4D-+mil-t 1-IJ hK'iO-l-oft') 't.,.t: -t'ilf ..,-1\-l-OH.U ...,1Pl-l Ah.,.., .,'Ptl''f -710t-+ 'lr1? ,.
PAGE 88

ttCfl ArtW-'1 f"1'C f! tt4.ll ttnq f"lof:ol1 .., Ilftl• r-. 4Sth Year -No. 3 Addis Ababa, 17th Fetn.y, 1986 '1. ;J & .T • • • • NEGARIT .. ,;JtLlfJ •• .. . GAZETA ,lt.,... , ;J 0.60 01.1L1'! •:J-U.'t. t.C1 r-r.tta+e'f r'tlc n.+ 1'1-o"n. K"ihl.+ n.+ .,.mllflf:.,+ f'•IIJ trta? .,.., ...-rc 1lt411 (1031) ., .... •. ,.. •-rc lf2l1IIffc'tl ' ,.. .,.., n.+ l!m;w 1K" If f'ih1 M:A -Yll:J-att-t1"C ' ,.. 'rtrtl n.+ ,.,e-t+ ,..,.n . . '"' rr f'ih1 -tll:t-fDtl +rc ' ,.. . fh.,..., n.+ 111411" 1. ').fi • • . • • • 1 K" f'ih1 -tll;l-fDfl • . • • • • • • • 1K" !I "":E-.. .,c ,,,. . Ah.,..., n.+ Am;w f'CDIIJ c A.+f-lrf -H-t.r • f'h.,.., .,,t ih11>fl .... ., f-trt1 n.+ )\') 4.1Pt-r)\')-\u-f" n.,.m'i1ll -h 0-trtl n.+ M-fll+ P't-. "tOC .YOl:I-:J-+ Alll-4\1. If'( 0_,1"-lrJ .,..., R.+ Am;+r UU.11 .Y1:l1 M' f'n.+ hl11t-tr f'A.Iltr-t ttwJ )\')4.__,.m., -tt:l1 -Mn. n_.,> 1 •:J-U.'t. t.C1'K" rhC M P'Atrr'W )\')1.1'i 1'\.,.fJJI'I') OfJJIIJfJJ-+PC ifi/!Iffi ,,,.. A')+K-.,.,.l+ htt.ll • . I 1\1.,-C Gll I u ftl.,., n.+ AIPt-C'i Atn.i'W 1121 /IJIII ,.,.. -t.nh-A.m+ll 1-;F/lA • II I f'rA-A1q.fi M +c1-f-f-t/1\mfJJ. ltAif., O+C n u ......,.. . I f'h.,._, fl:Jf'h...-n fl?'i n.+ ,_,., P'-l-'Hil-lA-Y1:l1 n•nJ• +reM/ IJfn •. ,. . ..wr f'-h\tn..., +c::-J.f-I-PIA I CONTENTS 1 9 8 6 Proclamation No. 292 of 1986 Coo.struction and use d. Urblln Houses Proclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pa,e 9 Legal Notice No. 92 d. 1986 Standardization ol DweUiD& Howes Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . P&F 13 Lega l Notice No. 93 of 1986 Sale of Urban Houses Regulatious . . . . . . PIJD 1 S Lega l Notice No. 94 of 1986 Co-Dwelling Regulatious . . . . . . . . . . Pap 16 PROCLAMATION No. 292 OF 1986 A PROCLAMATION TO PROVIDE FOR THB CONSTRUCfJON Al'ffi USE OF URBAN HOUSES ''ETHIOPIA TIIIDEM" WHEREAS, it is found necessary to cocourage the broad d. urban dwellers to cou.sttuct their own dwelling b.ooses and to organize t\Jem s elves, moce exteasively, into housing cooperatives ; WHEREAS, it is es&ential to rceulate the use of urban houses and to make their construction
PAGE 89

-!:D, • X ,:JtL"' Me r rtt-t+ I fl ,, ,., Nepnt CillltllNo. 3 17th February, 1986Paae 10 I/ hM Rh.,.., Rh.,.., 1\tl -MI.C . ...-c lfi/IJtrtr ,,,.: r+Am..., • . +6-f-cftt.;.., n.-l.,h+. n_,.,,.._.,. • a-'l'tl n.+ Moat+ ,-do t OM.., . RM-'lfo t R_,.,P';f-1!'1' )\'4,Uor R1Mofl ofou'C+ lh+ tf.r ,.,. .,4\ 4\...,.t, f 4\P'do •u-4\1\1\ ,.,_,_. O..'fo •M-tl.'fodohfC I 1/ _.,.tl n.+• .,h+ lh+ .,,. ltJ. lA . A_.,.tl ,.,_,_. ftt.,.., O..'fo . 1/ t11L.'fo f"Hlt+ P'do .,A+ 1M tt':fo Rdol\f..,. • 6--+:f"'f..,_, O,:Jdo R.,fl.,.'lRC ,,. 'l'tl O.+':fo' A,.P'do..,.,. hO.oHI ,:JC f"'11H ,,. Jl..,.:f"C Rih1 f1.,.1PC..,:t• I I/ Jl..,_;f"C .,A+ A,.'rtl n.+ P'do •u-,.,_ ... hn.oHJ _,c r+11n ffD'II • r--od-+ • .,,. 1/ .,A+ Rfl.t"..,. t ,..,.,,.....,. ,.P'tl n.+ t fih'lf'l1! 1\'/0..'fot fJl.fl'r-t t f
PAGE 90

-86,11 II ;tL"' Me r ftt-t:+ I...., IlfiJ ' r-. Neprit Gaeta-' 17th February, 19&6 r• u "'f'i...,-f'hM All-MU: f-th+ACDo ,, J II f'hM f';f-fR.+ U'1: -ttll* 0-t f•"'CDo ll;f-14C1: -.,1.+ -tam I ' 1/-ttll* 0-YJID"'CDo _...,1.+ rh.,.., R.+ I r/ 1\,.crt,f R.+ f"'Mll.+ _,..,OC 1:;tt: .-tam+ J I/1Mo(l R..,. 1Pt,,'f") f.-cr t,f R.;t-:fCD-') 'M,IP".,01..+'.+'+ I '(;/ O+f'lmCDo fR.+ IJ'1: .,...,1.+ R.il otr'J ..-.fiiJmC 1 h.,.f'lmCDo ro.+ P'&o .U'1: ID'"'P o.+ .,...,c.,. I\.1'S ott.:u A1+A" 1 .,...,1.+ .,.,fl.., i_ . Mh..,.., R.+ ll;M4C1: I i / "'ttll# M,.crt,f R.+ J\IPU :r ... A If ll;M4C1: /IDIIJA • If 0DD')1P'+ • o-c.-t! R.+ f"'Mll.+ _,..,OC • Oh..,.., 't.,t,'f _,..,OC'i 01\t\-'f ih'Jffl'! .fo'f t flDD')"'IP':f'''1 tDf,,. 0"71\ f'lo(l f"'taP&o o.+ "'ttll# ,..,.CI)o nn 4C1: o-aPI.+ o(l,il= W'i'A. • r/ o.+ ota.,.+c -t'i':f,.,. f'hM o.+ "' ... &oCt; fh..,.., fl;f-Am:J'W "'ttll* O"'t/IDIIJCDo _.,_tf _.IPI.+ f.lf'i'A. • I • o-p>&-:,0 t'lltDDhAhlt-I . 1 /IAR.+ P'&o U1: .,,. ll;f-14C1: ID'"'P •f.r "'ttll# /ID"'.,_, 0.-Jill f+aP&o rh.,..., R.+ O"'ttll* ol"M'Jf ,_/.faA. IDf.v-1-LCftA. • 1/ flH.U A1+A" 11Nl A1+A" I _..,1.+ )\14.LCll f+f'lmR+1 R.+ f'IA'Jo('ll.-11 Q+Mff' _...,1.+ III.LI.(I f"'t.-Ah.,...,. rh.,..., R.il'} !LCftA I_,_,...,.,. MA'Jo('ll.-11 f.mf,:J'A.• I flh.,..., R.+ 11.1-lA I 1/ fltWt-'f ih')'f flA.II f.,._Ah+ flc.-ctt (ICDo Oh.,..., R.il 11.1-f"'th.,.ll-+ .fo'f f.c.-"-:f'A I u) ro-mw 1 A) ,.,CDo/.ll I da) 0, ll+'i ,., llJ'1f J .-) flH.U A1+A"! -.,1.+ fo-11'1' .• 1/ OH.U A1+A" 11Nl A1+A" I flc.-ctt -c.-t,l R.+ hl\11: 011.1-flf). 1Mfl'f Rfl AR.+t-l" .,_ fl,f.Jf:f' flft'+ hll''t J\14-AAACDo o(l!F f&-1\-1 I:C'II' Oil . tft;f-.,.r-R'lii"'P A.lll+o\A.tt: f,'f-II.A. • I ! f'h.,..., R.+ .. ! II h;M-tP' II +'t !Jtfn -t.r-. )\llh .tdat\ I ..., 11m ' r-. t:l.fl "'.,..., o.+ fiH 1Af'lo(l' R.+f'lo(l .,_ 0-ttll -K ttA.M+A+ Oll++C Af.A'i'A+r- • . . I . 5. PO't!IWI lftl R'lpOI'LflbUitia 1 Urban Admlnl.strotion AZJ.y urban edmiDiltratlac lhal1 have tbe fallowina powers ad rapoDI!billtiea: 1) to allot urban lud Uld luae baildlaa Permit In accordance with lltalldarda preec:n'bed by the Mlnlatcr; -2) to tMia illued by the Minina'; 3) to give assista!\Ce to houllng coopentives; 1 4) to enoouraae illdividuala In their eodeavour to 0011-ltruct d-Ding bouses; S) to ensure that the 00111tructioo r1 houses is carried out in aooardance with the pmnit issued; IDd to take measures, as provided for in Article 7 of this Proclamation, ill cues where the cooatruciioo of houses does not oonform with the permit. 6. StandDrds For Urban Hou.ru 1 ) The Minis1er shall issue diffeot types r1 staodardl for the COD&tructioo r1 dwelling howes • 2) The Government, housing cooperatives, mban dwells' associatioos and other m.1111 orp.nizatioos , government 11id pivate orpnizatioos or Individuals CClllstruct dwelling houses only In accordance with the standards prescribed by the MiDiiter. 3) The constructioa of urban houses and the use of mba Jmd for other thaD dwelling. aball be In accordance with directives bmed by tbe Minis=. 7. Construction without Permit 1) Azly urban howe ooaatructcd without permit or in violati011 of ataDdards or directives i.aaaed by the Minister ahall be either OQD'i"''fed or by order of the Minister. 2) Where an order is gifor a hoale to be demoliahed, in acxordanoe with subticle ( 1) ol this Artide, BDd the OWDe:l' faila to comply with suCh an order , the apurban administration llhaD. dcmoliah the bouse and charge aD expeo..e& to the owner . 8 . Ri1hts on Qll UrbQII Hou.re 1) Notw i tllstanding Other lllWI to the 0011trary, penoo shall have the followia& riptl 011 111 urban bouJe be QC it OWIII : a) to use; b) -to transfer by 'DCC""sion ; C) to mortJIIF; d) lo ICll, subject lO ol thia ProcllimaticxL 2) N otwitbstandiDa the proriliaaa r1 sUb-article 0 ) 'd. this Artitkr dODatiOD or ale cl • lhlre 011 a dwellius howe maY be m.do ODly coOWDCD or pouesson. 9 . Ylllidtulon of Ow1tersldp .o{ Ur&.a BOIIH8 1} Riaht ol ownership ol an urbla hoaae acquired from TWas 11. 1967 to Nelwe 1, 1967 ahall Dot bo effective unlea validated by the Ministry. •

PAGE 91

-87,Jii II );Jt+ ;Jii"' t"-'rC r ftt-t+! ... , !ift-!' ,.,Negarit Gazeta --No. -17th l ebruary, 1986Page 12 .. ----------------rJ hftl-t+ r +'J ct.,.. 1.,.r: f.IJ M'lo Mh -tA'iR-l-1.1i t:l.tl fh....., n.+ O'Hil.-l-)ol-.,,_,. n 1-fi:J' f1H "7Mofl I n.-tl'\ofl .,.,. R1.ttl-k-ttAU-+1\-l-fltl#C 'Hil.-l-)-11 1\1." 'ii\W. • . . I fh....., n.+ M_.,lf+'i M,..ll"'l' 1 i/ fH.tJ A'Pl-A,+Jt $ 'Jo-11 A'J+Jt I n+ 11tr 1 f1.ttt+e'f n.+ r-tM ,.,..t1 Mt11"1 Rtl#C -t'ilf.,..,. f+l.R fh....., n.+ f1.11f.,. _.,.,,...,_ ofl;f= f.lf'iA • t1 n.+ f"H''l.-l-P't--71RC A'l• . RH.IJ A'Plo A'J+Jt $ 'Jo-ll A'J+Jt I ,.,t.+ h1.LJt,...,. ott#c • o.....-t1 n.-11 ltf-11\ ..,.., 1\,.ll"'l' R1.LA"70-l-1.1i fH.IJ A'J+Jt ')'o-il A'J+Jt i f.lf'i"A • r/ ,..,.,,...,. r1u.,.., rh....., n.+ ".,. 1\..lf'l' f.'fltA I '111aw-f,.'r tl R.ol-') f1.,..1\holl'\..11') o,.,1it :,.,..,. -th-tA ,..,t.+ W'iA • 1/...,.,P'-l-bllflf(llo ,....-tl R.+'f ,..tthA 1'\.11"'1' R.-11 O-t11f0-l-'P ;J .,,_,. J\')1.)1<-ntW A'J+Jt 'J&ll A't+Jt ,..IPt.+ o-tml'\).,. ,_, ,..,. ,.,_Q.,.(.(IIo fAil-t-4S'..C'i Mr-'f ofl;r: 1Af'i A • h1.,..1\h:J'lf.,. ,.P't1 n.+'f ;Jc 0..--lthc 1.t"* fh.....,rn.+ , ,., ,.,_..,,., .. .,_'* nfh .....,.,. 1\Jf:.,. f.'fiM I ,.,.t,. Ul"'A • j'\(llo )\')1.)1<-fh....., n..,., .,.,. . nn.-11 111..., rf.rt:J' 1\,..ll" ... M'fl\.,. R"'t'J'lC 1'\..+cofl ..,,_,. 01.ttl-k-#fJM+ 11\.,. fmilA'i P'."''J fl.I+Cofl ofl;f= )CJ)o • -f,/ fhM n.+ ..,,.,. oh....., n.+ "" 11\ ,. TI 1'\..11"'1' 0'111Q ltf. 1110+ .11"7 f1.mi +.,. n..,., ..,,.,. on.-11 ,..,. 11\..., nll" m.,. ..,,.,. n.-111 h-'t"'IP'+ 01.,.,. ".,. ,..h LA ,_'rCO:J'A • Jf I fi.T tll\1.11"'1' fh....., R.ol-I n.+ f1.ll"'l' fh....., n.+ '111.P OH.u A'Pl-,.IP(.ol-1-Lr.-tA • 11 I ttl\ I 1.ttlok-01.1•"1.,. I.'Hl ,.1Pl.T "71\ Ml .,_,. R.-tl'\ofl Ot-{)o .,_,. 0-Mlt-f.,. ,..'rtl n.+ -ttl1flolf.'f#lA • r • rt1.t-1-r-tMM M,..,> 1 .,_,. O,.P't1 fl.ol-)ol-O-t1H ,_.,., P'-l-fh.,., n.+ y, 11\ fh.t-f. .-nolo 11\1.lll IJ't: Af.'f.,. • M,_,.l\h-t-mfh....., n.:t-I f;IJ A 'Plo ' U) ,..,.,,.+ 0-tl\f. f1.11Pt-..,.., fhM n.+ I l\'i A) I f.f')I'\..A .,.,. ftl.'Jofoe'i11'iA R fh....., fi.T I 2) Right of ownership 01' possession c:i an urban house acquired from Yeltatit 3, 1977 to the date of entry into force of this Proclamation, shall nat be effective unless validated by the Mi.nister . 10. of Urban Houses 1) Subject to sub-article (2) of Anicle 8 of this Procla mation , any urban bouse offered for ule shall be bought only by the Government, unless the Council of Min isters issues different directives . 2) The provisi011S of (1 ) ol this Anicle shall he applicable to any sale of a right on a dwelling hoUse by a member ol a housing cooperative unless such sale governed by the provisions of sub-article (2) of Article 8 c:i thiJ Proclamation. 3) The Govmunent may sell its urban house to any pusoo; where the sale relates to a dwelling house, it shall be made in accordance with registration priorities. 4) The Government. where it offers a dwelling house for sale, shall add only administrative and other C06ts to the purchase price or to the price determined under ' sub-article (5) of thiJ Article , as the case may be . 5) The M inis'" may, in consultatioo with the appropriate government offices, form in urban centres committee s for the determination df the price of urban houses and issue directives to same . 6) where a person decides to seD an urban bouse or to transfer a right thereon, as the case may be, he appear in perm or present a power of attorney accep table to the Minister . 7) Any payment required by law upon the sale of urban houses or of rigths thereon. shall be borne hy the per -100 offerin11 the house fer sale 01' any rigbt thereon or buying the house from the Government 11 . I ud icioJ S4/e Judicial sale of urban h011Se6 shall be made in accordance with the pro visi ons of this Proclamation . 12 . Co-Dwtlling . Any individual or family may, in accordance with regula ti<:as issued by the Minister, allow a co-dweller in the dwelling bouse he er it owns 01' has n:111ted. 13. A.uigNnent of Lease ProhibiiU The right of leaac 011 an urban bouse owned by the Govern ment and used for busineas 01' ctfice shall oot be eaianed without the prier caaaau d. the M'uiistet. 14 . Non-Applicability Thia Proclamation shall not apply to : a) urban oonstructed by the Government for rpecial purpclKs; and b) urban housea of diplomatic missioos, consulates international arpllizatiOilJ .

PAGE 92

-881A" Ir '-'t+ .;JtL"' f"'1'C r ftt-1:+ I fl liftS ' ,., Neprit OazetaNo. 3 17th February, 1986..:... Pap 13 U I f+'l'4-I II ftl.,..,., f1 ;f-t; +cevelopment and Housing pursuant to author ity ftSttd in him by Article 17 of the Coo.struc:tioo and ci Urban Houses Procl311lation No. 292/1986 . 2 . Short Title These Regulatioo.s my . be cited u the ''StaDdardiziiioo ol Coo.struction of RegulatiCJDS No. 92/1986". I 3 . Definitions In these Regulations : "dweDinc house", "centre", tructure" , "standard", "urban c:eotre", "urban l a nd", "urban admin istrati on " or " Minister " shall have the meaning given t o them in the Construction and Use of Urball Houses Proc:lama tioo No. 292/ 1986 .

PAGE 93

-89,,. D ..., ..... f""rC r f'tlof:+ I .., DftS ' ,.. Ne&arit OuetaNo. 3 17th Petnary, 1986Pace 14 I f-'fU 0.-lI 1.-l-M-" tuw Mh+A• ...... 1\A • fn.-tr ttJ.t+ fR.-Ir •m') (UW) 0-l+c ... I ,,_ -17 17 n-t10C R1 AMI R.+'f A!•-Yr 37 ,., __ 5C 5C _, __ .,. .,. I I Aft.H. •W A11 U / •17 A/•-U 17 ,.,. •M It R.+':f • J--2:5 2:5 _, __ -!0 ,. r ,...,..,,.."1'"7.. , , .,. -lh 14-19 R.+':f (U) A / + -lh 17-l.t I r (A) m / + 25-30 (ll-tr4.f-) ;+-1• 31-46 I. '0-'70 n.,..,IIJ"'1. o-tt-45 1'\MO. M Af.el'\--55 55 """' R..fo':f m /-?0 70 M•'r 1.1 R.-1I ' i/-t'i:fe-r" •trt.l R.-1-f"'7.1P&-4Do rut.ll "''+"" 1 o.,...u .. -n!F ,.., 'i. • llr•trt.l n.+ "'.,.., ..., -tll+e To\., o-.h+• 1./.'K "'lth-k....,.,.M .. -IPI.-1-W'iA. • r/ f"'7.1P&-4Do •m') 0"'7..-l-,...,. ,., .. 0"'7..f1'-G _., W'i• • I R.-1-Mf'l"i" M-,h/..f-1I _,.,,..+ q_,.... •.-l--r 1.1 n.+':f A•trt.l n.+ Mofll.-1--M fU.+ •W A1Ai'll'':f .,_,. II.I::J• • . I fh+-t 1'\h-MU: +"''IIC I fh+-t M+.UC I 1/lltl+-t• _,lt+C TU •.-l-A-t6hA ..,.. M:+ th-M II i\-t•hA o+Ma-th-M tt?f'l-1'\IILI\1. ..., 'l"i"-l-fOb+') f"nll;'-.,..,IIC 1h f 4. StiiNlllrds for Bowu The foUoolriD& ataadanJa b constn1etioo c1 dwelling houses are prescribed : I Type ol. Hooae. Standards Size of. House in Square Metres 1 . Houaes foe cooperaa ) RH-17 17 tives or individuala b) RH-37 37 e) RH-54 54 d) RH-70 70 2. Row Houses foe •) RH-17 17 reot ex sale b) RH-19 19. e) RH-25 25 d) RH-50 50 / 3 . Prefabricated •) PF-IH H-19 Apartments (Type A) b ) PF-IH 17-19 ( Type B) e) PF-IS 25-30 (Studio \ d ) PF-IB 38-46 e) PF-28 46-57 f) PF-3B 60-70 4. a) RHA -45 45 Apartments b ) RHA-55 e) RHA-70 70 . 5 . Construction of Dwelling Hou.su 1) Any dwelling house shall be ocmtructed only in accor -• dance with the standards pusaibed in Article 4 of these Regulatioos. 2} Apartmrnts shall be c:mstruct.ed as detenntned by th: Minister on the basis c1 the level c1 the urban and the centre indicated in the master pi.an. 3) The c:mstructioo. d dwell.iog houses shall, in as much as pouible, be carried out by using locally produced matecials aad ill such a way that foreign exchange oampooeots. 6 . SDJe or Rent of DwtJIUng Hou.su The Governmen-t shall. in aoocrdaoce with the prescribed ataadards, ocmtruct dwellina howes and sell ex reot same to housini cooperatives or individuals . 7 . Dllliu of Urban Administration Any Urban AdmiDiltratiall lball : 1) maintain urban llllds reeamd foe use of cec1.res 30C0rdint to the m.ter plan; 2) carry out. by undertaking the necessary study , coosl.ruc tioo works oo urban lands reserved for centres ;

PAGE 94

-90-r ftl-f:+ l...., Ilfcll ,., Neprit OazetaNo. 317th Petn.y, 1986-Pip IS r/ t,f 01\wells' Associations or a CCTtificate of awilenbip bas beell issued far by the Miltistry; or b) lawfully or under construction . With at least its foundatioo ocmpleted , after the mulgation d. the Government" Ownership d. Urban L111ds alld Ema Houses Proclamatioo No. 47/197S; may be offered far sale . . S . Purcluue and Sale ol Business Houses I ) The Ministry shaD, in OODSUltatim with the appro priate government office, buy business houses or offered for s ale.

PAGE 95

-911ir II "'""' f"1'C r f'tl-t+ I ... , ,, ,., Neprlt Guela -No. 3 17th Petnary, 1986-Pap 16 II n-t.tll-K A 'Ill• M.+cn-•ua 'II,.. f-t.h'l•t• RM111 tl.,. +h +A IA'iA 1 11,,. .. n., lir+'l f\-to+'I'C M'l'r tf>l.,.+t+ ,l'lm .. l\ • r/ n.., httt rrt.u "''+"" .,o-n "''..,"" I .. 1Pl+ ffW'I f.lf'iA • II M .. "' 1\CDfU" I -t'im-f" ,..,.,1-"+ ,.,.,. r-r. 'I(' mCDrh.,..., n.+ ., ;J 01\ .... 1\')ofolt ! ')()oil "''"'"" Pl-l-"'""-"' M•l'lt• 1fC1f "' • ,.m)o')'i 'P;J..., O.iz r-r.1'SR-l-') 1\MfL'i fCDt., fll.-l-""' R'71'iHfl J t M,-,.,,R.I'i M ,..,,.;.: I -t')'JfCD-9" 1'1• fh.,..., n.-11., nn.-11 fll CD-') Dll{lo}-l'l.lofoCfl ,,.,.1f1R.I'I f-tll ,,.;.: • fr1f111 "7lll)f M ... rtm+ "7')1JfCD-9" fh.,..., 0.-l-llOD"'If-l-r-r.LA., I'ICD--r.\ (lo}-" R-r.fCD"'CD---1.1 ,.1Pl-l-I'I. ... H1fl f
PAGE 96

-92 11 "'"'"+ rMA1H-M'hLA nt.1t: l'IAMl •u-O..,.Ml -.er 1.1 0.-l-H1' MlC' 1.r ... f"terC 1AM1 tiJI.r O..,.Ml ... II ..,ere M,.!J=Ir I if ,.er1.1 0.-l-1Mofl ,.,_,. O..,.Ml o.., •h'l' 111-"..,ere 1-l-itA • II .,,.,. 1Mofl .,.,. 0..,.1\(1 .. ,eef 1 o.+ -Mill"'"'ere 1-1-1\A • r.l nt,.l'\o A)fl"'h+'i n+c .., ,.,. 1AI'Iofl •u-o..,.l'lofl .,..11111-"'"'ere""' I IJIII1Pl., I Jr.-4111-'i .,.-4111-... GautaNo. 317th February ; 1986Page 17 2) "Co-Dftllcr" me.na 111 ind i vidual or a family that co dwells. or alwt4 a dwelling houle , with a principa l dweller on payment to tbe latt . . 4. PermluibiUty of Co-DweUing 1) Ally individual or f.amily ownina a dwelling house may allow a eo-dweller therein. 2) A1sy individual or family a dwelling bouse on reat may .now a OP-dweller 3) No ind i iidual or famfiy d!all be obligated to allow a c:o-dweDer without his or its own initi ative and free will . S . Priftdple 1) Co-dwelling derivel from a c:catract made between a principal dwe ller and • co-dwell. If rrt.u ft.h-1-"'''"l-2) Without to the other of these R.egulatian.s , co-dwelling relati0111 &hall be governed by the contract mutually agreed upoo by the parties . v-A_, .,.,,,_ ..,'t'l-OU4 lf• t"lR-,lftDo') 11.;1-fP'f •A ,.,.,. • i I M+ ,.,111 I Mill-• u) h.,..lllltt /U1CD-'t t A) f.,..lllltt't ll,. • Jr\t."t,.'lf'i fO..,.I\R-'t M it+ ofllf+ t +RI\ fh.,..., ..,1RC ..,,. lofl MO+' • ..,'ilf.,-fi.I\M:f-0._, R"t1'SR+ +01\ fh.,..., t'PI.fP':f '"""WC • t R.,.ht,.ftD-o.+l.,.4111A..,'t'C IU1 Mlll)\')U111RAh.t,.l-R. ... l tiJ,.,. ""'-,."h.,..,. r+n"-h.,..., t, ..,1RC .., ... tiJ.. AAR+ • I f -....+ MA.,...,.I\e\4-I r t .llll.tt+ ,.ofl+ • J i ..,'ilf.,-.,.4111-All._, •h'l' R.,.,.Ah.,..,. v-k:t' AMiltt ";J l-h4:1\A • .,..llll.t ro.+ MA1h-l-., -m'l "ttll# R"tftiJ"'CD-,.,.1.1 _...,l+ W'iA• t t\tD-'1 • A,.oflt,.:f-1 A,.fll'lir+ MA1h" ... 'f .,.411\t ,.m') RMAt+ •lr )\') 1-lf'iA • ltJ i OlD-A-R.,.Af 11-k;t-teA.,...Ah.,. Oll.,.,.CI U) .,..llllf. A"t1A1AR+ MA1h"+'f Mf.ll '>Ill. .W'iA• A) .,.41lf. hl'\41lf. ;JC O;Jt,. A.,_mWillf.-tr-'f c)t:fl+'i 1'1'i '>Ill. """"',. • n..,ct+ t1Jf.,. hAW 01\1-flll't ,.h'll+ ll'\o ..... "'I.P.'f ... + .,., 1'1'i .,.-4111-'>Ill. Jr\1-11"),. • r Y ll.lllltt o..,., .. hart v-k:t-,.,. I ll" r111.,.., rtt.t,..t •• n..,'K"Hofl .,.,.,.,. f..,.ll..,_R-l 1-lf'iA • 6 . of CA>-Dwelling COflb'acu , 1 ) Any principal dweller shell praent: a) the co-dwelling eon tract ; aad b) a written statane:nt indic atin g the name , f ormer .&hess and the fam.Dy-cize d. the co-dwell ; to the UrbaD Dwellen' Association of the kebel e in which the boose is situ:lted. 2) Any contract of co-dwdli.nJ shall be registed with the Urban DweUen ' Alsociaticlll ol. the ltebele in which the boose i.a situated. 3) A principal dweller the hoase on ren t sball , upon making a d. cdwelling. notify t he Agmcy foe the Adm.inistrati011 ol Rented Houses oe the Kebele Urban Dwellers' Aaociadon coocerncd , a.;; the cue. may be . 7 . Non Transferab ility The ript to oo-dwellillJ is not a--ferable. 8 . Payments by Co-dweUer 1 ) Any co-dweller &hall m.alte to the princi pal dweller in accordaDce with the c:altraet d. co-dwe llin g . 2) The amount d. payment by the eo-dweller &hall be in OOilfcrmity with the directiVt4 illued by the Minis ter. 3) Tbe payment kl be made fer IIICh facilities as water . electricity Qlld telepbooe &hall be aa stipulated i n t!le co-dwelling 0011tnct . 9 . RePQirs 1 ) Ullleas otherwi.ae atipulated in the 0011tract: a) the co-dweller aball be 1ilble for the ordinary repair expemea d. the pmt d. the dwellin& howe end facilitie. alloted for his uclusive UJe. b) the co-dwell &bAn DOt 1le Mble foe the aDd d. the pet&. d. the dwelling he &bani, with tbe prillc:ipel dwcliCir . . 2) The OCMhreiier lhll1 DOt tJ, 1ilble for the repair and maintenace d. dae to . old-ap . C. fcirce majeure. Where the itweller pauellel the dwellin& hoase oo rau; the' . caaditbla ol liability fer repair lhaD be aareecJ upon by tbe J*dea the 0011tract d. leaae entered by the dweller into consideratioD.

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-93/ , .. IS ... Mer"'* I...., Ilfll ' ,., Neprit GaetaNo.317th Pebrulry, 1986Pap 18 -II M•A _.l1'1 'LtL f+U, f.'-'lA t-lo ..... .,1\m,+-tl -llm-lo tlllLI\1. R•tt-f.,._tth+.-'LtL (U..A,. 1-ttt"'A • If 1\A+•IU 'lA f.f.U1 f1.'1Atolo .-AI u) Mil' R1.1\m• fP'll-l-.c fll"64= .,1\m,+-t/ f-At'll' ...., ' .,.,. tt) .,.,.,.., ...,.Jf..,. 'lA • f.ttt"'A • Mil' Ml\m• Ml\m'mC f*t:f.,.l...,. tt+411J tl\• ...., 1..,.1! W'iA. • r.l +411' ftJ4=/ .,.,. r-r.-tth+• hll't Mllm ,., 11.:1',.., )\.,UA'r Oll"cM: .,1\m')