Citation
Replacement facility for Denver Stapleton Airport

Material Information

Title:
Replacement facility for Denver Stapleton Airport
Alternate title:
Thesis: replacement facility for Denver Stapleton Airport
Creator:
Brinkman, Mark
Language:
English
Physical Description:
92, [26] leaves : illustrations, charts, facsimiles, maps (some color), color photographs, plans (some color) ; 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Airports -- Planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Airport buildings -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Airport buildings ( fast )
Airports -- Planning ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

General Note:
At head of title: Thesis.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Mark Brinkman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
13775704 ( OCLC )
ocm13775704
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1986 .B738 ( lcc )

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Full Text
The thesis of Mark Brinkman is approved.
Principle Advisor
*
Advi sor
University of Colorado at Denver
May 20, 1986
*• 4


MARK BRINKMAN
THESIS: REPLACEMENT FACILITY FOR DENVER STAPLETON AIRPORT UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
Final Submittal May 16, 1986


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1) GENERAL INTRODUCTION (pg. 1 - 5)
Goals of Program
2) FIVE DESIGN CRITERIA (pg. 6 - 9)
1) Elastic, Flexible Character of Spaces
2) Long Term Flexibility — Overall Building Capacity
3) Efficient Circulation
4) 0rienting Passengers Within the Building
5) Orienting Passengers to their Surroundings
3)THE MODERN AIRPORT TERMINAL: A SEARCH FOR AN ARCHITECTURAL TYPE Four Typical Configurations (pg. 10 - 23)
DLinear Configuration
2) Pier Configuration
3) Satellite Configuration
4) Transporter Configuration
5) Combinations and Unit Terminals
4)MODERN AIRPORT CASE STUDIES: EXAMPLES OF TYPES (pg. 24 - 77) DLinear Confifguration (25 - 34)
Boston Logan Dallas/Ft. Worth
2) Pier Configuration (35 - 41)
Chicago O'Hare Denver Stapleton
3) Satellite Configuration (42 - 72)
San Francisco Los Angeles Hartsfield Atlanta Orlando
Bonn, W. Germany Paris
4) Transporter Configuration (73 - 77)
Dulles International
5)SITE: DENVER INT'N'L AIRPORT (REPLACING STAPLETON) (pg. 78 - 82) Location and proximity to Denver Access Road System Topography
Site for Sattellite Concourse Building
6)PLANNING PROGRAM (pg. 83 - 87)
Size and Location of Parking, Main Terminal Buildings Route and Distance of People Mover System
7)ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM (pg. 88 - 95) satellite Concourse Building Spatial Sizes, Qualities, and Relationships


8)PROJECT — A CONCOURSE FACILITY (pg. 95 - 100) Drawings and Model
APPENDIX
Climatic Data Code Information Bibliography


GENERAL INTRODUCTION:
Currently the seventh largest airport in the world by passenger volume, Denver’s Stapleton Airport is still in its infancy.
Historically from 1970, over 45% of all passengers travelling through Stapleton have been transfer passengers connecting to another flight, and in the last five years that number has been near 60%. The implications are clear: Denver is becoming an ideal location as an airline transfer "hub".
Since airline deregulation went into effect, we have experienced the advent of the "hub" system of air travel. Airlines now are centered in one or two cities across the country. All flights for these airlines then connect through the "hub" airports. By scheduling many aircraft to arrive and depart at the same general time, the hub airline can flood a gate area with passengers who can easily transfer to another departing flight of the same airline. In this way the
airlines keep more of the transfer passengers within their own airline.
_»
This also saves the airlines money, since they only need to use gate spaces during surge times; they can also centralize most of their service facilities to one "home base" and they can operate with less personnel than if they were scattered across the country.
Denver, for a variety of reasons, has become a prime candidate for use as an airline "hub," and, in spite of the inadequacy of the current facility, it is currently the hub for four different airlines. The reasons are easy to see. First, its strategic geographic location makes it ideal for use as a connecting point betweeen cities on the west coast and cities in the east and midwest. In addition, Denver has consistent good weather, with over 300 days of sunshine a day. This can make air travel easier and save the airlines costly airborne delays. And there is also the attraction that Denver enjoys as the
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gateway to the Rocky Mountains, a place majestic and mysterious to many other parts of the country, and revered as a holiday resort. While there are no statistics to prove this, all things in air travel being equal, it seems likely that the transfer air passenger would rather connect in Denver than in Atlanta or St. Louis, simply because of its geographic proximity to the mountains. Given that a new efficient transfer facility will be built here, one can only expect this attraction to grow, and Denver will inevitably attract many more airlines to use this as a home base.
In addition to the increasing number of transfer passengers, the 40% of origin and destination (0* D) passengers that use Stapleton represent a sizeable group too. The residential growth of the Denver metro area, as well as the increase in the high-tech industries of Martin Marietta and DTC has placed a high demand on the airport facility. As these areas continue to grow, and as Denver remains an attractive place to live, we can expect the 40% O&D passengers to remain constant even with the 100% rate of increase forecast for the next ten years.
Certainly the growth of Stapleton has not gone unnoticed. There have been attempts to expand the facility, but due to the way it was originally designed, these attempts have proven ineffective. In fact, the airport as it is now,actually precludes the ability to accommodate the quantum leap of growth that has already occurred, and it is certainly unable to accommodate the continued growth forecast for the next 10 - 25 years.
First of all, the runways are spaced too close together for simultaneous instrument landings. Under instrument conditions, aircraft navigate with radio signals that are transmitted from the base of the runway. As these signals leave the runway, they spread in a
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funnel-like way toward the approaching aircraft. If two parallel runways are too close together, as is the case in Denver, this spread can cause the signals to cross, making it possible for the aproaching aircraft to be misguided to the wrong runway. Flights arriving under instrument conditions at Stapleton are now forced to use one runway at a time, and in an airport that serves 28 million passengers a year, this inevitably causes delays.
But even if it were possible and practical to add another runway, the terminal facility itself has severe limitations in its ability to expand. The sprawled out terminal building has really reached the practical limits of its capacity to efficiently handle the circulation of people, baggage, and aircraft.
A master plan was developed by the City and County of Denver to expand the current facility in 1981, in which four alternative schemes were proposed. But in each of these schemes, the present terminal configuration proved to be a hindrance to efficient expansion. Even with a costly and complicated people-mover system retrofitted to the current terminal, the time required for passengers to get from one gate to another would still be too great to make this an effective transfer airport. The large distances between gates would increase walking distances, and would increase the minimum allowable time between transfers, and reduce the effectiveness of Denver as a transfer hub.
And not only would these delays cost the airlines, but the increased size of the footprint (the overall ground area covered by the building) would also make the gates harder to reach for aircraft. With the gate positions spread out as proposed, many gates become buried at the end of dead-end streets. Even with a complicated taxiway system, this would only cause additional costly delays for the aircraft in scrambling for takeoff and landing positions.
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The airlines pay. an average of $20.00 a minute for taxiway delays, and $40.00 a minute for airborne delays. The rent on gate positions is also fairly expensive, and through these and other complicated payment schedules, the airlines end up paying for most of the airport development costs. It is easy to see then that an expansion of the current facility, which would only cause more passenger and aircraft delays, would be inadequate.
Realizing this, another Airport Master Plan was initiated by the City and County of Denver for a new facility. Currently that master plan is being developed. This thesis is based on all available information from that plan at this time. Runway lengths and locations are determined by this plan. Major site decisions have also been determined by this plan. Taking these as givens, I propose to design a terminal facility to work together with this plan, its forecasts for future activity, and the real situation as I see it, assuming this to be a project to be completed in 1995.
GOALS OF PROGRAM
The goal of this project is to design an airport terminal facility to replace Denverys Stapleton Airport, and process the 50 million annual passengers it will receive in 1995. I would like to establish a workable program for the design of that facility. Given the overall scale of this project, many parts of the overall airport design will be dealt with on a planning basis; this project then becomes an "airport city," inside of which I will design in detail one part. Yet the size and placement of all the parts will be determined in acordance with the same overall concerns that guide the actual building design. Essentially, my focus will be on a gate concourse facility, but because of the scale of this airport, this facility will have at least some of
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the main terminal functions. I would like this project to provide a direction and a focus on certain concerns which can serve as a viable guide for the design of the actual facility.
First, I will establish my design criteria, then I will define the modern airport according to different types. Finally I will go through a case study which categorizes different real airports according to their generic type, and evaluates them according to my design criteria. Through this analysis, it should become clear what the best and most likely general configuration will be for the Denver airport, and further how this scheme can be carried out most successfully, by learning from the past.
My concerns and focus revolve around the following five criteria, which I will list now, and further define later:
1) the elastic flexible character of the spaces,
2) the long term flexibility and the ability to expand,
3) efficient circulation of people, baggage, and aircraft,
.S
4) the ability to orient passengers within the building, and
5) the ability to orient pasengers to their surroundings.
Given these criteria, I will concentrate on the last two, having the first three act as parameters inside of which I can explore possibilities of the last two.
I will pay attention to the civic concerns that are necessary in designing a major airport. The last two design criteria are ways that I can approach these concerns: the concerns of image and symbol; the concerns of community responsive design; and the concern of creating a comfortable, easily understood facility.
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FIVE DESIGN CRITERIA
1) ELASTIC, FLEXIBLE CHARACTER OF SPACES Modern airports are extremely high turnover facilities, with large peak loads of people, airplanes and baggage. These loads can vary in extremes from peak to off-peak periods, especially in a high-transfer hub facility such as Denver. The hub airline will load up gate positions for perhaps an hour and pack the passengers in during that time for transfer to another flight. Then all the hub aircraft leave, and the same gates often remain empty for an additional four hours.
Any architectural exploration into the design of a terminal facility must take this into account, and attempt to design a facility that accommodates the peak loads, but also functions during off-peak times without appearing deserted. Certainly the space needs to be large for the peak loads. But the possibility of partitioning should be explored, and there should be a certain attention to detail in these spaces that will give them a comfortable scale even when empty.
2)LONG TERM FLEXIBILITY -- OVERALL BUILDING CAPACITY
In addition to the changes in loading during peak hours,days , and months, there are also trends and changes in demand over long periods of time. In a growing high-transfer airport such as Denver°s, an increase in demand over time has to be planned for, and the terminal facility must be planned with the possibility of expansion in mind.
This expansion can occur in small percentages, or in major additions, and because of the inability to accurately predict the future, provisions should be made for both types of expansion. Space should be allotted for a possible doubling of capacity, while smaller increments of expansion should also be allowed to occur without any major
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disruptions in the overall airport plan.
3 EFFICIENT CIRCULATION
Modern transfer airports such as Denver also need to be efficient in three areas of circulation: the circullation of people, airplanes and baggage. Not only is efficiency measured in physical distance, but also in terms of the time it takes to get from one place to another. Because of the dollars that delays cost airlines, it is imperative that the airport minimize the time spent on the ground by both aircraft and transfer passengers. The facility must be an efficient processing station; a machine, with clear and unrestrained paths for passenger, baggage, and aircraft traffic flow. These paths should be segregated, and free from other activities. Aircraft on the apron should not have to deal with extensive busses, or other traffic, and passengers travelling through the concourse should not have to wade through other passengers waiting at the gates.
4)ORIENTING PASSENGERS WITHIN THE BUILDING
A major problem in modern airports today is disorientation. Large airports can be scary, confusing places. The passenger is often confronted with a myriad of signs, colors, symbols, and recorded messages, all there with the intent of telling him where he is and where he has to go. But all too often these messages become a blur of indistinct and annoying data, and everything appears monotonous. Gate 27 begins to look like gate 17, or gate 72, and concourse "a" looks like concourse "d”, not only in a strictly visual sense, but also in the overall relationship of the parts to the whole. This only causes stress in the passenger, makes airports undesirable places to be, and makes air travel an overall nuisance. The design of a modern transfer
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airport should explore what types of spaces lead to a quick sense of orientation for the transfer passenger, where there may need to be some ordering of spaces that will help in this regard, without relying on extensive signage and recorded messages. It is a difficult problem in a facilitiy of this size, but if spaces are properly ordered in a easily recognizable way, the overall complex can be reasonable, comfortable, and easy to understand. There should be some modulation in the size of the spaces corresponding to the varying number of passengers that use them. Areas at the base of long concourses obviously get more traffic than areas at the ends, and the circulation spaces within as well as the surrounding spaces should vary in size accordingly.
5)ORIENTING PASSENGERS TO THEIR SURROUNDINGS Transportation facilities in general, and airports in particular, are hubs and centers for a community. Even in a high-transfer facility such as Denver’s, there is a real need to express some relation to the community. This is a way of further orienting the passenger, so that Atlanta doesn°t look like Dallas, which looks like Denver, etc. In designing a replacement facility for Denver Stapleton, it is important to create a transportation center that works as well for Denver as it does for the airlines. This includes some expression that responds to the city and the local area, and an image that can be both a landmark to orient the transfer passenger and a welcome home or farewell to local passengers. There should be some attention paid to views of the facility on approach from the ground and some sense of a view to the city or surrounding area upon exiting the facility. Some sense of "gateway" is an obvious way of addressing this concern, but this doesn°t necessarily have to be a literal gate, it could be accomplished
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through building massing that lets the passenger know when he has arrived and when he has left Denver. As to orienting the transfer passenger, the building should have some presence from the ground and from the air that responds to its context, and in air travel terms, the context of Denver includes some expression of the Rocky Mountains. Certainly given the restrictions imposed by the size of aircraft, and the need for free and clear airspace near runways, let alone the fact that whatever form the building takes, it is likely that aircraft parking in front of it will partially obscure it, airport terminal buildings are limited in terms of expression. Yet they still have the opportunity to be expressions of their local areas. Certainly a row of barracks type buildings, with a mundane finish of aluminum siding as is the case in Atlanta, is an inadequate response.
In addition, an orienting element to the transfer passenger as well as to the local passenger could be a central space that acts as an organizing space as well as an amenity and attraction to visitors.
Good or bad, the Jetson’s type central lobby at LAX is one attempt to provide this, and is an instructive example. I would like to give the modern airport the care and concern in this regard as designers of train stations in the 1930*s gave their facilities, making them distinct and clear, if not somewhat monumental centers for a community.
Finally, I think that further orienting devices should be graphics. Maps, photographs and paraphenalia can be distributed throughout the facility to constantly remind the traveller where he is, possibly educating him as to the history of the area, or telling some interesting facts that he will retain and build upon in future visits. The building can be a sort of living magazine in this regard, and this should help make it a more comfortable, pleasant place to be.
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THE MODERN AIRPORT TERMINAL: A SEARCH FOR AN ARCHITECTURAL TYPE
In an architectural sense, the airport terminal building is a relatively new building type. It has emerged over the last 35 years as an expression of our increasingly mobile society. Together with the parking garage and the shopping mall, it has symbolized efficiency, convenience, mobility, and mechanized transportation. But as with these other building types, it has often become sprawling, confusing, extremely large, and impersonal. Modern airports can be so large that the planning of the facility is often on the scale of the planning for a new town. And as with a town, airports are dynamic structures of large proportions that will continue to grow in ways and at rates that are not entirely predictable. To design a modern airport terminal facility, one must be aware of the dynamic character of the building type — provisions must be made for expansion. And as with the planning of a town, if these provisions can be made in a systematic or rational way, the town will continue to function well at the higher level of use. With careful planning and a systematic building type, the modern airport terminal can remain understandable and comfortable no matter how large it gets.
Historically, the simplest and earliest configuration for an airport was a direct single building that would act as an interface between the passenger and the airplane. A single waiting room and ticketing area was housed in a small building with exits leading across a small apron parking area and into the aircraft. A facility like this could only accommodate a few aircraft at a time, and since ticketing and holding of passengers took place in one common room, dealing with security was also a problem. (fig. 1)
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As airports became more complex, they tended to follow each other’s example in building arrangement. Certain configurations emerged as types that most all modern airports fit into in some way. Four general types of airport configurationns emerged; these types, as typically referred to are:
1) linear,
2) pier,
3) satellite, and
4) transporter.
First I will define the basic type, and talk of inherent advantages and disadvantages. Second, I will cite different examples which correspond to the basic type, and then I will give a critical analysis of how they perform as airports, especially according to the criteria already discussed, i.e., for their relative ability to:
1) perform elastically during peak and off-peak times,
2) provide for long-term flexibility and expansion,
3) provide for efficient circulation both in distance and time of passengers, planes, and baggage,
4) orient the passenger within the building, and
5) orient the passenger to his surroundings.
Through this analysis I will show the type of design most appropriate to Denver’s situation, incorporating different aspects of different types to arrive at the best possible solution.
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LINEAR CONFIGURATION
As air travel became more popular, it became necessary to expand the airport terminal. The simplest way was to extend the terminal in a line — a single building housing all terminal facilities, with aircraft parked in a line along one side of the building. Passenger processing areas and drop off curbs were arranged in a line along the opposite side of the building, (fig. 2) This allowed for the introduction of concourses that could serve as barriers between secure and non-secure areas. The concourses lead to gate positions with separate holding areas, creating a secure zone on the air side of the terminal. Terminal facilities could also be grouped adjacent to gate facilities and the building essentially becomes a linear procession of several small terminals. Expansion is accomplished by a linear extension of the existing structure, and the building becomes a long narrow corridor, with airplanes on one side, automobiles on the other, and passengers in the middle. This system allows for ease of access and relatively short walking distances as long as passengers are delivered to the curb area corresponding with their departing gate. Because there is a direct integration of access to egress, the linear system is very effective for origin and destination airports. But as the passenger level reaches a million a year, the decentralization inherent in this scheme make it ineffective for use as a transfer airport. Walking distances become too great for interline transfer passengers, and the linear concept at this scale requires extensive sophisticated signage for the identification of airlines, gate positions and other activity centers.
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I
t
KEY
1 BOARDING DEVICE
2 PUBLIC CORRIDOR
3 DEPARTURE LOUNGE BECONO LEVEL
4 SECURITY FACILITIES B OPERATIONS
GROUND LEVEL
FIGURE 9-3. LINEAR CONCEPT


PIER CONFIGURATION
Pier configurations appeared in the 1950’s and have since become the most commonly used concept in the United States. In a pier configuration, aircraft are arranged around the axis of a pier and passengers are held in holding rooms directly adjacent to the aircraft, after being processed in a central terminal area and central security point at the base of the pier.(fig. 3) Because both sides of the pier are used, the concourse becomes double-loaded, and the overall building area is minimized. Also when the pier concept is applied on two levels and used in conjunction with passenger bridges, a direct connection to the aircraft can be realized. A two-level pier also simplifies the separation of airline services — providing separate curbs for ticketing and bag claim, as well as separate passenger circulation and service circulation to the aircraft. While two level schemes have been successfully introduced in linear and satellite configurations also, it is in the pier that they were first realized.
While the pier facilitated many functional advantages when it was introduced, the problems associated with its inflexiblity were soon encountered as air travel increased. The pier as a concept has serious limitations. It is limited in terms of passenger walking distances required without the use of people-moving devices, and any extension of the pier has to be planned so that it won’t interfere with taxiways on the airport grounds. Also, if two piers are used in a parallel fashion, the aircraft access to the interior side of the pier is essesntially a dead-end street, and any increase in the length of the piers would increase the traffic down this dead-end street and cause delays. In essence, piers are limited in size. As they become too long, they become inefficient in passenger and aircraft circulation, and a satellite configuration becomes a better alternative.
15


KEY
1 BOARDING DEVICE
2 PUBLIC CORRIDOR
3 DEPARTURE LOUNGE SECOND LEVEL
4 SECURITY FACILITIES
5 OPERATIONS GROUND LEVEL
I
FIGURE 9-4. PIER CONCEPT


SATELLITE CONFIGURATION
The satellite concept was originally introduced to improve airside flexibility by increasing aircraft maneuverability and parking space. This remains one of its chief advantages, as the airside functions of enplaning and deplaning are handled in a remote building that can be surrounded by aircraft and connected by a "concourse" below or above the apron that is generally a people-moving device.(fig. 4) When people moving devices are used, walking distances are kept to a minimum, and these systems prove ideal for large-scale transfer airports, since people and airplanes can move around quickly. Security is also easily handled since all passengers at the landside end must pass through a central checkpoint before proceeding to the airside satellite. Satellites can work to orient the passenger since he enters from the airplane into a small building that has a distinct relationship to a larger common terminal. Because satellites are often smaller buildings, common hold areas can be utilized, and the building can become much more flexible in the way hold room space is used.
Round satellite buildings, when the number of aircraft make them practical to use, can help establish quick orientation to the transfer passenger, since he can see at a glance all the other gate positions around the circle and quickly determine where he should go. Satellites can present problems in expansion, however. If planned for, a new satellite building can be built. But as satellites get quite large in some airports, and if demand increases only slightly, an entirely new satellite building is often costly and unjustified. As satellite buildings become large themselves, some provision should be made to expand the building to accommodate small increases in demand, without building an entirely new satellite concourse.
17


KEY
1 BOARDING DEVICE
2 PUBLIC CORRIDOR
3 DEPARTURE LOUNGE
4 SECURITY FACILITIES
5 AIRLINES OPERATION AREA
bio
/
FIGURE 9-5. SATELLITE CONCEPT


TRANSPORTER CONFIGURATION
In a transporter system the concourses and holding rooms have been eliminated and replaced with mobile lounges or buses that drive between the remotely parked aircraft and the central terminal/passnger processing area. This affords a minimum of building area to serve a maximum number of aircraft, and eliminates a lot of problems inherent in aircaft taxi-in and taxi-out operations.(fig. 5) In an architectural sense, it is easier for this type of building to become a memorable landmark for a community, because by being remotely located, it doesn’t have to conform to the geometry of the aircraft that it serves, and it is never obscured by aircraft parking in front of it. This type of airport is effective as an Origin and Destination airport, and is especially flexible in areas where high seasonal change in traffic occurs. During the busy season, more transporters can be utilized, and no increase in building area is needed. For large airports with a high percentage of transfer passengers, however, the transporter concept is ineffective because of the time it takes to get from the plane to the terminal and back to another plane. Generally speaking, it takes longer for a transporter mobile lounge to get from the airport terminal to the aircraft, than it would a late-arriving passenger walking down a concourse. And since in all present applications, the transporters always go from the plane to the terminal and from the terminal to the plane, it can take a frustratingly long time to transfer from one plane to another that is parked directly adjacent on the apron.
19


KEY
1 BOARDING DEVICE
2 RUBUC CORRIOOR
3 DEPARTURE LOUNGE A SECURITY FACILITIES S OPERATIONS
Page 82


COMBINATIONS AND UNIT TERMINALS
Over a period of time many airports have combined the methods mentioned above to handle various demand and site conditions. Large airports typically combine concepts to handle peak loads. When all gate positions are full, for instance, it may be possible in a pier-type airport to use transporters to service additional aircraft. Or if a transporter airport that is largely an Origin and Destination airport begins to experience some transfer traffic, it may extend its building in a linear way to accommodate the increase.
Major airports serving over ten million passengers a year often have one or more of these systems in a repetitive pattern. These become modules or units that can be reproduced to accommodate future growth. Piers, satellites, or linear units can all be used in this fashion with some systematic device used for their interconnection, usually a people-moving mass transit system. In each case the unit contains concourses and gate positions and at least some of the major terminal functions, generally enough to handle the transfer passengers without forcing them to return to the remotely located main terminal building.
Denver Stapleton currently serves about 28 million passengers a year, and is forecast to grow to over 50 million by 1995. The new
facility will inevitably be a unit terminal of some type, probably a
satellite configuration. For this thesis, I will design one unit terminal satellite concourse building, with the implication that the unit terminal will be repeated four, six, eight, or some number of times to accommodate the overall traffic expected in Denver in 1995.
The rest of the facility will be dealt with by an overall plan that
works together with the sattellites.
21


CD
CO
FIGUPE 9-7. CONCEPT COMBINATIONS AND VARIATIONS


MODERN AIRPORT CASE STUDIES:
EXAMPLES OF TYPES
The following are examples of airports arranged according to the concepts previously discussed. I will introduce each according to type and evaluate them based on the design criteria already established, and then make any additional observations that I feel will be useful in the design of an airport for Denver.
24


LINEAR CONCEPT: BOSTON LOGAN AIRPORT
Boston Logan Airport is essentially a linear airport with the addition of a single pier. The two linear elements are arranged back to back underneath a parking garage with convenient curb access. A common ticketing area serves both linear units as well as the pier concourse. This airport is very compact and efficient in terms of the effective use of the overall space. Typical of linear configurations, this terminal works well as an O&D airport. It is very efficient in terms of passenger walking distances for locals, who can park and drop off along the curb almost directly adjacent to the departing aircaft gate. But because of its compact size, this is one instance where a linear can also work as a transfer airport. This airport has over thirty gate positions, and still has been able to keep the maximum walking distance to 1500 feet.
25


Boston-Logan International Airport.
MPA South Terminal
rtmg design 1967
John Carl Warnecke and Associates / Desmond & Lord, Inc.
The 1.200-foot long building is arranged on seven levels providing 660.000 square feet of terminal space on the lower levels and 940,000 square feet of multistorey car parking above; incorporated is the equivalent of seven miles of single-lane roadway. Aircraft accommodation includes thirty-four gates where aircraft of any size can be handled. The compactness of the structure is based on maximum utilization of a limited site, considerations of passenger circulation, and the requirements of the tenant airlines. Conceptually, the terminal interface plan is hybrid, made up of a combination of the linear and the pier configuration. The two linear units which form the main body of the building are laid back-to-back and linked by a common ticketing hall from which the piers swing out. Walking distances range from a maximum of approximately 1,500 feet to a minimum of 200 feet.
Boston-Logan International Airport,
MPA South Terminal
Planungsbeginn: 1967
John Carl Warnecke and Associates/Desmond & Lord. Inc
Bei einer Lange von etwa 365 m und sieben Geschos-sen entfallen etwa 61 000 nr auf den in den unteren Geschossen angeordneten Terminalbereich und etwa 87000 m: auf eine die oberen Geschosse einneh-mende Garage, wiirde man aus den einzelnen Fahr-spuren aller im Inneren des Gebaudes anzutreffen-den Straiten ein kontinuierliches Band bilden, so kame man damit auf eine Lange von Liber 11 km. An den Flugsteigen konnen 34 Flugzeuge jeder beliebi-gen Grolte gleichzeitig abgefertigt werden. Die Kom-paktheit des Terminals ergab sich aus der Notwen-digkeit. das zur Verfiigung stehende Gelande maximal auszunutzen. aus Oberlegungen zum Passagier-fluB sowie aus den Forderungen der als Mieter auf-tretenden Flugesellschaften.
Vom Konzept her stellt der Terminal eine Mischung des Linear- und des Piersystems dar. Die beiden den Gebaudekern bildenden Lineareinheiten liegen Ruk-ken an Rucken und werden in der Mitte durch eine gemeinsame Schalterhalle, an die auch die Piers an-setzen, verbunden. Die groBte Gehwegentfernung be-tragt etwa 460 m, die kleinsteetwa 60 m.
[
1. Model of the terminal, overall view.
2. Terminal section showing at apron level deplaning road adjacent to baggage claim at secoTid level enplaning functions and cen ing space served by main enplaning road level and the multi-storey parking structure a
3. Model of the terminal, east side
4 Model of the terminal, vehicular entrance area
5. Rendering of the deplaning road
6. Rendering of the enplaning road
7. Rendering of the central enplaning lobby.
â– OH
â– â– â– â– 


. Modell des Terminals. Gesamtansicht.
. Schnitt durch den Terminal. Auf der Vorfeldebene Ie Ankunttsvorfahrt mit der Gepackausgabe, auf der iveiten Ebene die Abflugemrichtungen mit der zen-alen Wartezone, auf der dritten Ebene die Abflug-jrfahrt und schlieRlich daruber die mehrgeschossi-eG i.
M des Terminals, Ostseite.
Modell des Terminals, Zufahrtsbereich.
Zeichnung der Ankunttsvorfahrt.
. Zeichnung der Abfluqvorfahrt.
Zeichnung der Abflughalle.




2. Plans.
iecond level (enplaning), iround level (deplaning).
Fourth level.
Fifth through seventh levels.
Third level.
to ills. 8 to 12: 1 deplaning road, 2 baggage m, 3 inbound baggage, 4 offices, 5 operations as, 6 outbound baggage, 7 ticketing, 8 hold ms, 9 concessions, 10 mechanical area, 11 en-ling road, 12 parking.
2. Grundrisse. weite Ebene (Abflug).
'orfeldebene (Ankunft).
Vierte Ebene.
Funfte bis siebente Ebene.
Dritte Ebene.
lend -â–  den Abb. 8 bis 12: 1 Ankunftsvorfahrt, 2 jar abe, 3 eingehendes Gepack, 4 Buros, 5
riet____iich, 6 abgehendes Gepack, 7 Flug-
einschalter, 8 Warteraume, 9 Konzessionare, 10 •tnische Einrichtungen, 11 Abflugvorfahrt, 12 kplatze


LINEAR CONCEPT — UNIT TERMINAL: DALLAS / FT.WORTH
The Dallas/Ft. Worth International Airport is essentially a series of six linear unit terminals bent around a radius on either side of a main thoughfare highway. Parking is directly adjacent to the terminal and gate as in all linear concepts, although here it is separated into six different semi-circular structures adjacent to the six unit terminals. Although Dallas/Ft. Worth claims to be an efficient high-volume transfer airport, in actuality it is not. In fact the design can also make things difficult for the O&D passenger.
Because of the overall size of the facility and the use of the linear concept, it has become totaly decentralized. Airlines center around one of the semi-circular units, long distances from other airlines. If a transfer passenger has to connect through another unit terminal, he is confronted with a confusing and inefficient tramway system. Also, if a local passenger parks in the garage for his departing airline and returns on another airline, he is confronted by the same tramway system to get him back to his car that could be miles away. Finally, the fact that the highway and terminal configuration separates the two major runways makes it extremely impractical in terms of aircraft circulation. Airlines with gate and terminal facilities on one side of the highway must use the runway on that side or else they face serious taxiway delays moving around the entire complex.
30


DallBS/Fort Worth Regional Airport
Starting design: 1965; opening. 1973
itts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton (initial design); Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum / Brodsky. Hopf & Adler (final design)
Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport
Planungsbeginn; 1965; Eroffnung: 1973
Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratlon (erster Entwurf); Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum/Brodsky, Hopf & Adler (Ausfuhrungsentwurf)
c
The Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport is billed as the world's most thoroughly planned airport; it will also be the world s largest airport when completed in 2001.
The airport boundaries contain 17,500 acres midway between the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, about twenty minutes away by car.
Designed to include four primary north-south and two secondary northwest-southeast crosswind runways in the final stage, the initial construction consists of two primary and one crosswind. In the final stage the two inboard runways will be 13,440 feet long, the two outboard runways 20,000 feet long and the two crosswind runways 11,000 feet long. Maximum capabilities for simultaneous take-off and landings under instrument flight conditions were the major factor in the design of the airfield system.
In the original layout developed by Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton the highway axis was bridged by pairs of compact terminal units combined with garages. The re-examination of this concept by Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, with Brodsky, Hopf & Adler as joint venture architects, netted the suggestion to house the terminal facilities in semi-circular belts along either side of the highway and to place the parking in the spaces between the buildings and the road
The first phase of construction includes five terminal "*t with sixty-five gate positions. These facilities process approximately 10.5 million passengers i year.
Der Regionalflughafen Dallas/Fort Worth wird als der am perfektesten durchgeplante Flughafen der Welt bezeichnet. Nach seiner endgultigen Fertigstel-lung diirfte er auch der groBtesein.
Das etwa 7100 ha groBe Gelande liegt auf halbem Weg zwischen Dallas und Fort Worth, etwa 20 Auto-mi nuten von beiden Stadten entfernt.
Der Entwurf sieht fur den Endausbau vier Hauptbah-nen in Nord-Sud-Richtung sowie zwei Querwindbah-nen in Nordwest-Sudost-Richtung vor, Dieerste Bau-stufe umfaflt jedoch erst einmal zwei Hauptbahnen und eine Querwindbahn. Im Endausbau sollen die beiden inneren Hauptbahnen 4100 m, die beiden au-Beren Hauptbahnen 6100 m und die beiden Quer-windbahnen 3350 m lang werden. Das Hauptkrite-rium fur die Planung des Start- und Landebahnsy-stems war eine maximale Kapazitat unter Instrumen-tenflugbedingungen.
Nach dem ursprunglichen Entwurf von Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton sollte die zentrale SchnellstraBenachse paarweise von kompakten Terminaleinheiten mit integrierten Garagen uber-baut werden. Bei der Oberarbeitung dieses Entwurfs durch die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum/Brodsky, Hopf & Adler entwickelte sich dann die Idee, die Abfertigungseinrichtungen in bei-derseits der StraBe angeordneten Halbkreisbandern unterzubringen und die Parkplatze in den Freiraum zwischen Gebaude und StraBe zu legen.
Die erste Baustufe umfaBt funf Terminaleinheiten mit insgesamt 65 Flugzeugpositionen. Damit werden jahrlich etwa 10,5 Millionen Passagiere abgefertigt werden kdnnen.
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1. Plan of the Dallas/Fort Worth region. The airport is situated midway between the two cities.
2. Site plan of the airport. In the year 2001 the airfield will accommodate as many as 270 VFR aircraft movements per hour; this is equivalent to a take-off or landing every thirteen seconds. Extending four miles in its final stage of development, the passenger terminal complex will consist of fourteen semi-circular passenger terminals.
3. This perspective depicts the close relationship between aircraft and automobiles.
4. Site plan section. Bisecting the airport north-south, the spine highway is a multi-lane roadway with terminal connecting loops.
1. Plan der Region Dallas/Fort Worth. Der Flughafen liegt auf halbem Weg zwischen beiden Stadten.
2. Lageplan des Flughafens. Das Start- und Lande-bahnsystem wird im Jahr 2001 unter Sichtflugregeln eine Kapazitat von 270 Flugzeugbewegungen in der Stunde haben. Dies bedeutet, da(3 etwa alle 13 Se-kunden ein Start Oder eine Landung stattfinden kann. Der Passagierabfertigungsbereich wird dann eine Lange von 6,5 km haben und sich aus 14 halb-kreisformigen Gebaudeeinheitenzusammensetzen.
3. Diese Perspektive zeigt die kurze Entfernung zwischen Flugzeug und Auto.
4. Lageplanausschnitt. Die zentrale StraBe, die den Flughafen in Nord-Sud-Richtung teilt, ist mehrspurig ausgebaut und mit jedem Terminal fiber kreuzungs-fr"!' Cchleifen verbunden.




i. Si ircular module, section. Enplaning and de-ilar oads are situated one upon the other. The lirpori nas an automated transit system; computer-ontrolled, track-mounted units with one to twelve lassengers will transit an average trip of ten minutes rom embarkation to disembarkation, i. Semi-circular module, plan of first floor. Key: 1 larking. 2 enplaning road, 3 ticketing and waiting reas, 4 baggage claim.
. Each semi-circular module is formed by a succes-ion of spare sections of varying sizes adjustable to idividual airline needs.
. Rendering depicting the two level roadway system t left; upper level passenger enplaning/deplaning acilities at upper right; rapid transit system at lower ight.
. The interiorof the enplaning level (model).
0. Lower level roadway (model).
. Schnitt durch einen Halbring. Ankunfts- und Ab-ugvorfahrt sind auf verschiedenen Ebenen ange-rdnet. Unter dem Terminal verkehren computerge-teuerte Schienenfahrzeuge fur maximal zwolf Per-onen. Sie gewahrleisten eine durchschnittliche ahrzeit von zehn Minuten zwischen Ein- und Aus-tieg.
. ObergeschoBgrundriB eines Halbringes. Legen-!e: 1 Parkplatz, 2 Abflugvorfahrt, 3 Abfertigungs-nd Wartezone, 4 Gepackausgabe.
. Jeder Halbring besteht aus einer Folge von Seg-lenten, die in ihrer GroBe den Anforderungen der inzelnen Luftfahrtgesellschaften angepaBt werden 6nn- -
. Z jng. Links oben die Abflugvorfahrt, darun-ar .nkunftsvorfahrt. Rechts oben die Abferti-lungszone, darunter die computergesteuerte Bahn. l. Abfertigungsbereich im Modell.
0. Ankunftsvorfahrt im Modell.




PIER CONCEPT: OfHARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Currently the busiest airport terminal facility in the world, 0°Hare International Airport in Chicago is an example of the pier concept taken to its largest practical limits. Here, it is over a mile between the furthest gates. People moving devices would be impractical to install here, partially due to the fact that they weren't planned for, and partially due to the innate characteristics of the pier configuration, with its sprawled out footprint at this scale. Transfer passengers could have a hard time at this airport.
At least there has been some attempt here at orienting passengers within the building with the restaurant facility. The round form stands in contrast to the rest of the facility and acts as an organizing element. But even still it remains too small and obscure in relation to the rest of the facility, and while it can be seen from the other areas, it is still hard to reach once inside the building.
35


O'Hare International Airport
Str" “design: 1959, opening: 1963
C......_rphy Associates
O'Hare International Airport
Planungsbeginn. 1959; Erbftnung 1963
C. F. Murphy Associates
The terminal interface of the international airport of Chicago represents one of the first examples of pure pier configuration to be seen in the United States.
With almost fourteen million passenger enplane-ments in 1970, O’Hare International Airport became far and away the busiest single airport in the world, having about 8.5 per cent of the United States total. The airport is also the major transfer point for domestic inter-connecting airline routes.
The type of structure used and its modularity have made this airport more flexible as regards changing aircraft sizes and passenger numbers than other more monolithic solutions.
The multi-storeyed parking structure recently completed is reputed to be the world's largest, with space for approximately 9,500 cars.
Die Abfertigungsanlagen des internationalen Flug-hafens von Chicago stellen eines der ersten Beispie-le fur ein reines Piersystem in den Vereinigten Staa-ten dar.
Mit fast 14 Millionen abfliegenden Passagieren im Jahr 1970 ist O'Hare der weitaus betriebsreichste Flughafen der Welt; der Anteil am gesamten Flugbe-trieb der Vereinigten Staaten betragt dabei etwa 8,5%. Zugleich ist O'Hare der Hauptumsteigeplatz innerhalb des nationalen Flugnetzes.
Das verwendete Konstruktionssystem und dessen strenge Modulordnung verleihen dieser Anlage im Hinblick auf Anderungen der FlugzeuggroBen und Passagierzahlen eine gegenuber monolithischeren Komplexen wesentlich groBere Flexibilitat.
Das kurzlich fertiggestellte mehrgeschossige Park-haus gilt mit seinen 9500 Stellplatzen als die groBte Garage der Welt.


gsi%pS|SP
4 The terminal facilities seen from the souttieasi This view was taken shortly alter the opening ot the airpo't in 1W*3.
5. Interior ot the main building ot Terminal 3 f, Pin ot Terminal 3 plan of upper Horn Key 1 concourses, 2 hold rooms. 3 aircraft apron. 4 concession:,. b offices. 6 terminal building 7. Mam building ol Terminal 2 plan ol upper (loot (enplaning!
B Main building of Terminal 2 plan ot ground floor (deplaning)
Key to ills 7 and R 1 service road 2 inbound and outbound baggaui area 3 hag i.iqe r lam 4 d< planing t uib b enplanm i r eg, f, j, (.« «,r(t. ami ban pan- i lie t a 7 ofta*' I i ■■■(.■ • a, n w:, nng
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4 Blirk von Gudosten auf di. Ahfertigungsanlage Diesr Aufriahme entstand tend nacl. Eroffnung di F lug ha ten:
£>. Innenansich! oe Hauptgebaudes von Termina' 3.
6 Pier des Terminals 3, GrundriB des Obergescho ses Legendc 1 Gange. 2 Warieraume 3 Vorfeid, Konzessionare b Buros 6 Terminal
7 Hauptgr baude rie Terminals 2 GrundriB di Obergesc bosses (Abflugi
B Hauplgebaude dc terminals 2 Gruridrif: des Er gest tiosse. (Ankunltl
legenot zu den Abl 7 und 8 1 BelnebsslraBe. Snrlieitieieir >i lur ( in und ahqehende’ Gepack. (•<•!• • kausgabr 4 Ankunth vortatut *• Abtlugvr t«i**’r ( t ing-.r tie-nk aiv.*'• un i G'-pa*. kabfer gun 7 Bum B hnnze'■nari.ri fr Warlebereu f




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erminal area plan. Key: 1 enplaning road. 2 dealing road, 3 structural parking, 4 Terminal 1 (in-tational). 5 Terminal 2 (domestic), 6 Terminal 3 mest'c), 7 restaurant.
i. Aerial views of the airport. The terminal facilities centrally located within the runway system and round a recently completed structural garage for >ut 9.500 cars in a horseshoe configuration.
.ageplan des Terminalbereichs. Legende: 1 Ab-jvorfahrt. 2 Ankunftsvorfahrt. 3 mehrgeschossi-
1 Parkhaus, 4 Terminal 1 (international). 5 Termi-
2 (national), 6 Terminal 3 (national), 7 Restaurant.
3. Luftaufnahmen des Flughafens. Die im Zentrum ; Flugfeldes liegenden Abfertigungsanlagen um-tlieBen in Hufeisenform ein kurzlich fertiggestell-Parkhaus mit etwa 9500 Stellplatzen.
i-* hrrtfc ■ hi— ■- . i



PIER CONCEPT: DENVER STAPLETON
Another example of a pier configuration is Denver’s Stapleton International Airport, a familiar facility to many people in this community. The drawing included here shows one of the options proposed for the expansion of Stapleton resulting from the 1978 Master Plan. In this drawing it becomes easy to see some of the problems that are inherent in this scheme. First of all, the distance between the piers is too narrow, only allowing clearance for one aircraft at a time. Any time one of the aircraft backs up, pulls out, or pulls in, the whole lane is blocked to other aircraft. Second, the people mover system as proposed would be very costly, difficult to install, and of limited practicality. Not only are the distances travelled great, but it would also be very difficult to provide security checks along the many entrances to this loop. Finally it is easy to see how the spread of the footprint could cause taxiway delays for aircraft as they travel around the perimeter of the building to get between the runways and the gates.
Another charac teristic of Stapleton that is easy to see from these plans, is the lack of a recognizable organized form. The airport looks as if it developed over time without a comprehensive plan to accommodate growth. The arriving passenger has no immediate idea of where to go according to the building organization or form, but must rely on extensive signage. The airport lacks an overall organizing space or lobby area, and it is just as disorienting near the ticket counters as at the gates. Here again, the airport relies on extensive signage to orient the passenger. Finally, the approach and departure from the airport for local passengers is dismal and confusing, and again becomes a myriad of signs. The parking structure completely obscures the building, and no attempt has been made to bid welcome or farewell to local passengers.
40




SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
A very interesting example of a satellite concept is San Francisco’s International Airport. Here the satellite configuration is combined with a linear part that loops around a central parking area, providing a long curb on the inside of the loop for enplaning and deplaning passengers.
There is a good overall organization here. The parts and their relationships are easily understood. The formal approach with a destination also says something to the local passenger. There is a real sense of gateway here. If people movers are installed, this also can become an efficient transfer airport.
42



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San Francisco International Airport
Starting design 19( 7
San Francisco International Airport
Planungsbeginn 19C7
Carl Warriecke and Associates/Dreyfuss and John Carl Warnecke and Associates/Dreyfuss and dord Blacklord
r~zn uz
After completion ot the new facilities San Francisco International Airport will provide betweeneighty-eight and ninety-four aircraft positions and will handle twenty-three to twenty-five million passengers annually.
The design of the new terminal interface which includes a large part of the existing facilities is based on a combination of the linear and the satellite configuration. The gates of the main building provide quick access for commuter flights, while long distance flights are handled at the satellites, which are connected with the main building by bridges. The unified concept was chosen mainly to facilitate air-craft-to-aircraft interchange of passengers. The car park, at present accommodating 2.700 cars. will, when expanded to accommodate a total of 6,000. completely fill the space within the two-level access road (deplaning traffic will use the lower level and enplaning traffic the upper). The main building is linked to the satellites by bridges and tunnels. Baggage check-in and claim will be possible both in the main building and in the garage.
Nach Fertigslellung der neuen Einrichtungen wird der Internationale Flughafen von San Francisco 88 bis 9^ Flugzeugpositionen bieten und jahrlich 23 bis 26 Millionen Passagiere abfertigen konnen.
Der Entwurf der neuen Anlage, in die ein groBer Teil der bestehenden Einrichtungen nahtlos integriert ist, basiert auf einer Kombination des Linear- und des Satellitensystems. wobei die Positionen am Hauptgebaude fur Kurzstreckenfluge und die weiter entfern-ten Positionen an den irber Brucken erreichbaren Sa-telliten fur Langstreckenfluge bestimmt sind. Durch die Zusammenfassung alter Einrichtungen in einem einzigen Komplex soil vor allem das Umsteigen von Flugzeug zu Flugzeug erleichtert werden. Die Garage. die bisher 2700 Standpiatze bietet. wird nach der Erhohung ihrer Kapazitat auf 6000 Platze den ganzen Raum innerhalb des zweigeschossigen Vorfahrts-ringes - mit Ankunftsverkehr auf der unteren und Ab-flugverkehr auf der oberen Ebene - einnehmen. Die Verbindung zwischen Garage und Hauptgebaude stellen Brucken und Tunhels her. Das Gepack kann sowohl im Hauptgebaude als auch in der Garage auf-gegeben bzw. in Empfang genommen werden.


Plan of the San Francisco region. San Francisco lernational Airport is marked SFO'. The regional pid transit (BART), which was opened some years 10, will serve the airport when its south line is com-sted.
Model of the terminal area (first design version), iter on, an intra-airport passenger conveyor system II be installed; it will be connected with a branch the regional rapid transit south line on the roof of e car park.
5. Plan of the terminal area. Dark grey built-up sas = existing buildings, medium grey built-up aas = first stage of new construction, light grey lilt-up areas = second stage of new construction, ill. 4 the first design version is shown, in ills. 3 and the second one; in the meantime, the satellites ive been changed once again.
Terminal, level 3.
Te il, level 1 (enplaning).
Te tl, level 1 (deplaning),
sy to ills. 3 to 5; 1 deplaning road, 2 baggage aim, 3 parking, 4 customs facilities, 5 operations eas, 6 inbound and outbound baggage, 7 enplan-g road. 8 ticketing lobby, 9 satellites, 10 bridge bet-3en main building and satellite, 11 future passen->r movers, 12 mezzanine, 13 bridge between main tilding and car park.
Karte der Bay-Region; der internationale Flugha-n von San Francisco ist mit »SF0« bezeichnet. Spa-rwird die voreinigen Jahren in Betrieb genommene gionale Schnellbahn (BART) mit ihrer Siidlinie di-kt am Flughafen vorbeifuhren.
Modell des Terminalbereichs (erste Entwurfsver-on). Fur die weitere Zukunft ist die Einrichtung ei-sr Flughafenbahn geplant; sie soli sich auf dem Ga-gendach mit einer Abzweigung der Siidlinie der re-onalen Schnellbahn verknupfen.
â– 6. Grundrisse des Terminalbereichs. Die dunkel-auen Flachen bezeichnen die bestehenden Bauten, e mittelgrauen den ersten, die hellgrauen den zwei-n Neubauabschnitt. In der Abb. 4 wird die erste, in in Abb. 3 und 5 die zweite Entwurfsversion gezeigt; zwischen wurden die Satelliten nochmals veran-irt.
Ebene3.
Ebene2(Abflug).
Ebene 1 (Ankunft).
sgende zu den Abb. 3 bis 5: 1 Ankunftsvorfahrt, 2 epackausgabe. 3 Parkhaus, 4 Zollabfertigung, 5 Be-ieboK“r“ich. 6 Gepacksortierbereich fur ein- und )gr es Gepack. 7 Abflugvorfahrt, 8 Abferti-
jng_____e, 9 Satelliten, 10 Brucke zwischen Haupt-
ebaude und Satellit, 11 zukunftige Flughafenbahn, 2 Zwtschenebene. 13 Brucke zwischen Hauptge-aude und Garage.
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6. Section through car park.
7. Section through car park and main building.
8. Section through garage, main building and satellite.
Key to ills. 6 to 8: 1 garage access and egress, 2 future expansion, 3 pedestrian moving walks, 4 vehicular ramps. 5 enplaning road, 6 deplaning road, 7 ticketing lobby, 8 baggage claim, 9 baggage channel, 10 inbound and outbound baggage, 11 bridge between main building and satellite, 12 satellite, 13 operations areas, 14 future bridge level, 15 future transit system, 16 aircraft apron.
9 Rendering of a satellite.
10. Satellite, plan of ground floor.
11. Satellite, plan of second floor.
12. Satellite, plan of third floor.
13. Satellite, section.
'' Bridge between main building and satellite, sec-
s.
rvtry to ills 10 to 14 1 baggage handling. 2 nursery, 3 toilets. 4 concessions. 5 holding area 6 check-in, 7 mechanical equipment, 8 viewing terrace. 9 baggage channel, 10 moving sidewalks, 11 future passenger moving system
6. Schnitt durch die Garage.
7. Schnitt durch die Garage und das Hauptgebaude.
8. Schnitt durch die Garage, das Hauptgebaude und einen Satellites
Legende zu den Abb. 6 bis 8: 1 Garageneinfahrt, 2 spaterer Erweiterungsbau, 3 Rollsteige, 4 Autoram-pen. 5 Abflugvorfahrt. 6 Ankunftsvorfahrt, 7 Abferti-gungshalle, 8 Gepackausgabe, 9 Gepackkanal, 10 Ge-packsortierung. 11 Brucke zwischen Hauptgebaude und Satellit, 12 Satellit. 13 Betriebsbereich, 14 zu-kunftige Bruckenebene. 15 Brucke zwischen Hauptgebaude und Garage, 16 Vorfeld.
9. Zeichnung eines Satellites
10. Satellit, GrundriB des Erdgeschosses.
11. Satellit, GrundriB des ersten Obergeschosses
12. Satellit, GrundriB des zweiten Obergeschosses.
13 Satellit, Schnitt
14 Brucke zwischen Hauptgebaude und Satellit, Schnitte.
Legende zu den Abb 10 bis 14: 1 Gepackabferti-gung. 2 Kinderhort, 3 Toiletten, 4 Konzessionare. 5 Warteflache, 6 Abfertigungsschalter, 7 haustechni-sche Anlagen, 8 Aussichtsterrasse. 9 Gepackkanal, 10 Fahrsteige. 11 zukunftige Flughafenbahn.




BUILDINGS IN THE NEWS
New international air terminal will triple San Francisco's capacity for arriving passengers
The International Passenger Terminal now under construction al San Francisco International Airport will connect an existing terminal and the existing International Rotunda Conscious that arriving passengers will have spent a good many hours flying from the Far East, architects Anshen & Allen took care to design a baggage area that will be "earthlike" rather than ''planelike'' —an expansive skylighted atrium containing fountains and gardens centered on four large
baggage carousels. Several new works of sculpture will include, in a sense, the structure itself: sculptor David Bot-tini advised the architects and structural consultants PMB Systems Engineering on the design of the atrium's steel bents and tubing The Federal government joined in efforts to ease entry by establishing one-stop health, customs and immigration inspection The new terminal will accept 1,100 passengers an hour, three times the airport's present capacity.
Houston intends bus facility for both work and glamor
Houston has undertaken a major effort to expand and modernize public transportation in a city more than ordinarily dependent on and attached to the private car. When the city decided to build a new bus maintenance facility, therefore, it wanted to make a statement as well Architects Bernard lohnson Incorporated designed a sleek metal building with attention-getting red accents The larger of two intersecting semi-circular wings contains three concentric arches, with stalls for running repairs on the circumference,
rAcsrvw- f — — —


SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: LOS ANGELES INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Another example of a large-scale satellite airport is Los Angeles International (LAX). Handling 20 million passengers in 1975, this has consistently been the second busiest airport in the world. There is a recognizable order from the air; it is clear where the satellites are and where the main terminal building is. And while the satellites themselves lack an overall sense of unity, their oval shapes help orient the passenger quickly once inside. The people movers that connect these satellites are what make this work as a transfer airport.
47


Los Angeles International Airport
Starting design: 1957; opening 1961
rles Luckman Associates / Welton Becket and rw^ociates / Paul R. Williams and Associates
Los Angeles International Airport
Planungsbeginn: 1957; Eroffnung: 1961
Charles Luckman Associates / Welton Becket and Associates / Paul R. Williams and Associates
L
Conceptually, the terminal complex of this airport is purely satellite
The linear buildings on the edge of the central area hold ticketing and baggage facilities at lower level and airline offices at upper (airfield) level; the satellites contain lobby areas, restaurants, news-stands and other public accommodation.
Ticketing buildings are connected to their individual satellites by underground channels, approximately 420 feet long and twenty feet wide. Moving walkways located in some of the passenger channels provide added convenience for the air traveler. Cross chan-nelways linking each of the four southern satellites assist incoming passengers who may have to transfer to other airlines.
At present seventy-four aircraft positions are available. At most of the airlines at the airport, passengers enter or leave aircraft via telescopic jetways or loading bridges which enable travelers to reach the plane without stepping out of the terminal.
Handling over twenty million passengers annually Los Angeles International Airport ranks as the second busiest air travel center in the world.
Dem Terminalbereich dieses Flughafens liegt im Auf-bau ein reines Satellitenkonzept zugrunde.
Die linearen Gebaude am Rande des Kernbereichs enthalten auf der unteren Ebene Flugscheinschalter und Gepackabfertigungseinrichtungen sowie auf der oberen (Flugfeld-)Ebene Verwaltungsraume fur die einzelnen Fluggesellschaften; in den Satelliten sind Wartehallen, Restaurants, Zeitungsstande und ande-re offentliche Einrichtungen untergebracht Die Satelliten stehen mit den Abfertigungsgebauden liber etwa 130 m lange und 6 m breite Tunnels in Verbindung. wobei in einigen zur Erhohung des Komforts Fahrsteige installiert sind. Daruber hinaus sind die vier sudlichen Satelliten auch untereinander durch Tunnels verbunden, urn die Wege fur umstei-gende Fluggaste moglichst kurz zu halten. Gegenwartig stehen 74 Flugzeugpositionen zur Ver-fiigung. Bei den meisten Fluggesellschaften gehen die Passagiere iiber geschlossene Teleskopbrucken an Oder von Bord; sie miissen also dabei nicht ins Freietreten.
Mit iiber 20 Millionen Passagieren pro Jahr nimmt der internationale Flughafen von Los Angeles hinsicht-lich seines Betriebs den zweiten Platz in der Welt-ranglisteein.
J' 11 \ V._





an of Los Angeles showing the position of its airports. Los Angeles International Airport is ;ed LAX.
aster plan of the airport.
etch of the terminal complex Key: 1 parking, 2 ting, 3 satellite, 4 commuter terminal, 5 control r and administration building, 6 restaurant ling.
iction through a satellite and the corresponding ting building.
>uthern ticketing building seen from the road-
aving walkways in a channel connecting ticket-
luilding and satellite.
trial view of the southern satellites.
an von Los Angeles mit den vier Flughafen der t. Der internationale Flughafen ist mit LAX ge-izeichnet.
aersichtsplan des Flughafens.
lizze des Terminalkomplexes. Legende: 1 Park-
:e, 2 Abfertigungsgebaude, 3 Satellit, 4 Terminal
lokale Fluglinien, 5 Kontrollturm und Verwal-
isgebaude, 6 Restaurantgebaude.
ahnitt durch einen Satelliten und das zugehorige
irtigungsgebaude.
lick auf die Stra!3enseite des sudlichen Abferti-gsgebaudes.
ihrsteige in einem der Verbindungstunnel zwi-:n Abfertigungsgebauden und Satelliten. jft; hme der sudlichen Satelliten.
7


SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: HARTSFIELD ATLANTA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
The designers of the Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport set out to create the most efficient high-volume transfer airport in the world, and in many ways they almost succeeded. Currently, ATL serves 35 million passengers a year, and is rapidly approaching LAX and 0°Hare as the busiest airport in the world. Airlines have been quick to use Atlanta as a hub, and in general the facility has proven to be good for the airlines; chances are Atlantaqs airport will soon be the model of efficiency in modern airports.
The driving concept behind the design of the terminal facility was the distance that separated the two main parallel runways. In order to have simultaneous instrument landings on these two runways, a distance of 4300 feet was required. So the leftover space between the runways was made into long corridor-like satellite concourses, that are easy for aircraft to maneuver around. Underneath these concourse buildings is a people-mover connection system that transports passengers very rapidly from one concourse satellite to the next. This people mover system is essentially a long pier that extends from a remote main terminal building to these satellites. This arrangement makes it easy to perform security checks, for in spite of the fact that this is such a large facility, all passengers connect through a single checkpoint.
While this airport has been reasonably successsful in terms of efficient circulation, it is a dismal failure in many other respects. First of all, the overall configuration is monotonous and confusing.
The long corridor-like satellite concourse buildings do not lead to quick passenger orientation, and in fact, the way they are used in Atlanta, with a continuous width for circulation throughout, and with no expression of junctures, connections, or major spaces, it is hard to
50


imagine a building type that is innately more disorienting. Everything here looks the same. The complex as a whole also lacks a clearly recognizable order. Because the satellites are so large, they seem to be a monotonous series of buildings with no relationship to the main terminal, which is not even recognizable from the satellites. It is questionable as to whether the satellites should be so large. For expansion to occur, an entirely new satellite building must be built, and it may take a while for the demand to increase to a point that would justify such an expense. Finally, this airport gives little to Atlanta in terms of a recognizable center for the community. While the ground access works well in plan and while the building could function as a focal point, the overall expression is dismal and characterless. There is a conspicuous lack of a heart in this terminal.
Because of the similarities in function between Atlanta°s airport and the future airport in Denver, and since the immediate site conditions of the runways are similar, Atlanta is an instructive example for the designers of Denver*s new facility, and has been used as a model in the preliminary master plan drawings. It should be seen in its full light however, as a facility that is not without its flaws. If Denver is to have an airport that is responsive to its unique situation, the flaws of the Atlanta model should not be duplicated.
51




/. IP U \'E ABBREVIATIONS
LEGEND
= v FL oz
F'o.M A.r? :«•% 0: i V .Vrlt.M
UP XL k - M PI ‘V M .* t Arlim s
,, 4, ” * " V RC
- . * LAT
Srf V:T--.1T' Si'J C y ... , g„, ,
. â– % LH
DL 1VH
;VIV v.
f 4 ED
1 . B.mk (Currency Exchange) 2. Bar/Lounge 1] 6. Elevntor/Escaldtor 1 1 . Information m 1 8. Restaurant m 21 . Ticketing 28 ■ • .■
T! S3 7. First Aid 8. Georgia Visitors Center 9. Ground Transput lotion I 2. International f l, '1 Calling Assist. Center S3 1 7.Rost Rooms 1] 22. Traveler's Aid 29.
E o. Car Rental 4. Customs SO 0 1 8. Snack Oar m 23. Vending Area 30. = 31. Ptf.ce
a ^ oun<^ a 1 9. Shops (Gifts/Nev/s) 24. Amusements 32. TTY Vjcl.
m 5. Duty Fi Shop 1 1 0. Immigration I^15mhI m 20. Telnphones 25. Barber Shop' Cl oy $h ne 28.Ct.apel 33. Tv Chairs 34. co


NORTH
CCLTA
BY-PASS-TRACKS
\
c
o
N
C
o
u
in'
a
I
EASTERN AIRLINES QUARTER POINT TUNNEL—
NORTH TRACK (INBOUND)-
INBCONO*J STATION B
OUTBOUND STATION A
A

aj
SOUTH TRACK (OUTBOUND)—'
INBOUNO — STATION C
-OUTBOUND STATION B
T*
‘—OUTBOUND STATION C
VEHlClE
AREA
BOUND TIOH O
DELTA
EASTERN
EASTERN
LOCKHEED
BRANIFF
FRONTIER
NORTHWEST
OZARK
PIEDMONT
REPU3LIC
PLAN
/


SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: ORLANDO
An interesting example of a somewhat different approach to the satellite terminal concept is shown in the Orlando Airport. Here, the need for quick turnover was not as strong. Orlando is more of an 0 D airport and historically has always been that way. It has been more of a resort town, and especially since the advent of Walt Disney World, people come to Orlando to stay awhile. It makes sense then, that the airport is arranged more as an amusement park than a conventional transfer airport.
Here the overriding benefit of the satellite configuration is the separation of airside and landside, not the ability for high-speed transfer. By locating the satellites remotely, the terminal building becomes somewhat insulated from the noise and confusion of jumbo jets. And with interesting landscaping and a pleasant, easily understood overall layout, the facility becomes a large tropical park, with the people movers acting like safari tourbuses taking passengers between the gates and terminal building.
While these conditions in these extremes do not apply to Denver, there still is a large portion of O&D traffic here. The qualities in Orlando of pleasant, comfortable site design, of the constructive use of landscaping, and of the conscious attempt to give amenities to local passengers are just as important in Denver, and Orlando’s example should not be overlooked.
55




*:ns t-i«*-:’{*'r m - /;... iy kxm vuWS
a^y'-yg i-.V l«l IMltJ; y ~ ,4 IKi 5


ORLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Gates 40-49
Delta
Gates 50-59
Republic Air Florida
Gates 30-39
United
Northwest
Braniff
Airline Reservations
Atr Fior.da 800-432-6505
6'ar.iff 859-4540
Delta 849-6400
Eastern 643-7280
Northwest 351-3190
C:ark 826-6G50
Par.Am <22-0701
Piedmont 841-1632
Republic 851-4310
American A,rimes 896-2334
T A A 351-3855
United 859-0710
USA.rSOC-428 4322
Allegheny Comrr.uter 800-428-4412
Charter £51-6680
If you have any questions please contact
Tre Greater Orlando Aviation Authority Office of Community Relations Orlando international Airport Post Office Bo« 30004 Orlando. Florida 32862
Airside
All Gates Shops Newsstands Snackbars
Level 3
Tickets
Shuttles to Gates Shops
Restaurants & Lounges
Newsstands
Bank
Level 2
Bag Claim Rental Car Agencies Hotel Reservations Phones Taxis & Limousines
Level 1
Parking
Rental Car Parking &
Check-In
Buses
Shuttle to Gates 30-59 Shuttle to Gates 1-29
Gates 20-29
Eastern
USAir
Commuter
Charter
TWA
Air Florida Northwest United Republic
Delta
Braniff
Bag Claim for Above Airlines
Rental Car Agencies
Elevator Lobbies & Rental Car Check-In
PanAm
American
USAir/Commuter
Ozark
Piedmont
Bag Claim for Above Airlines
Rental Car Agencies
Elevator Lobbies & Rental Car Check-In
| Elevators, Escalators & Stairs


FAST FACTS _ ON
HH ORLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
World's Number One Tourist Destination Airport at Crossroads of Florida, designed to enhance the environment 24th busiest airport in U.S., 40th worldwide
Nearly 7 million passengers in 1980; average of 335 daily aircraft movements
1.5 million square feet enclosed; 48 aircraft boarding gates; 12 million annual passenger capability
$300 million initial investment, exclusive of property
7000 acres, among largest in world; terminal complex situated on 450 acres
Two runways, 200 and 150 feet wide by 12,000 feet long; ILS both north and south; all-weather capability south landings
2.6 miles of roadway, from entrance to exit Parking for 3,800 vehicles
250 Aviation Authority employees, plus 3000 airlines, ground support and tenant employees
22 concession shops in terminal; 6 themed restaurants; United Services Organization and International Visitor Services Centers
Permanent art collection by artists of international reputation
10 acres of carpeting; 3 acres of insulated glass walls and skylights; 377 public phones
$2 million plus landscaping project: 140 acres exterior, 1,880 sq. ft. interior; on-site greenhouse complex
15 mile interconnecting waterway system for retention, purification and irrigation
Underground fueling for aircraft from fuel tank farm with 3 million gallon capacity
Two automatically-operated people mover systems transport 32,000 passengers per hour over a length of 1,950 feet in 62 seconds at 28 m.p.h.
200 foot FAA Control Tower under development between existing people mover tracks
Customs and Immigration facilities in International Arrivals Building capable of processing 400 passengers per hour
Foreign Trade Zone/42 on 201 acres within developing Orlando Tradeport with airfield, highway, rail access; close to deepwater ports
Official State of Florida Tree Farm; wildlife sanctuary
Ample property reserved for mirror-design expansion of airport terminal to 96 boarding gates, 24 million passenger capacity annually.
Orlando International Airport, 6000 McCoy Road, Orlando, Florida USA 305/826-2000


-2-
0 3,800 covered and uncovered automobile parking spaces;
0 Staging and parking areas for buses (24), limousines and taxis;
° A 16-acre rental car "quick turn around" staging facility;
° An Automated Guideway Transit System (AGT); two, 1,950 foot elevated
gu i deways;
° A hydrant fueling storage and distribution system (system extends from
aircraft to tankers at Port of Tampa);
° Flood-control system with a 38,000 foot bypass canal LANDSIDE BUILDING - A three-level central building which houses:
FIRST FLOOR -Short term parking, rental car pickup and delivery,
4 elevator/escalator transfer lobbies, mechanical/-electrical plants, bus and courtesy parking, loading docks
SECOND FLOOR -Baggage claim and make-up, G0AA administrative offices, operations, AGT maintenance facilities and deplaning drives with taxi staging areas
THIRD FLOOR -Curbside check-in at entrance ticketing-, security,
AGT transfer lobby, concessions - including: banking, pharmacy, themed and clothing retail, news, gift, restaurant and lounge facilities, as well as enplaning drives
MEZZANINE -Skylight bordered restaurant and lounge areas and mechanical rooms.
AIRSIDE BUILDINGS - The two North and South Airside Buildings are two-level structures with passenger departure rooms, AGT transfer lobbies, concession, lounge and restaurant on the uppper level. The lower level has support and operations areas.
COST FUNDING - $300 million; 1978 and 1981 Airport Revenue Bond Issues, supplemented by Florida Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration grants.
AIRLINES - Twenty scheduled airlines operate from the Orlando International Airport and provide service to more than 60 cities within the U.S. International service is presently provided by charters.
... more


FACT SHEET FOR
THE NEW ORLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT COMPLEX
DESIGN CONCEPT - To develop a totally environmentally responsive terminal complex that has high passenger convenience features, low maintenance and operational costs, accommodates a high growth rate and still reflects the unique character of the Central Florida environment. It can accorrmodate 12 million passengers annually.
DESIGN CONSTRUCTION TEAM - Greiner Engineering Sciences, Inc. heads the project architectural and engineering team; Gilbane/MiTls & Jones, a joint venture, heads the Construction Management; with a Project Coordinator, an Authority employee, as liaison. Approximately 18-20 major and' sub-contractors complete the "El Equipo Team" responsible for the project. Construction began in the Fall of 1978; completion in the Fall of 1981.
FEATURES
° Two 12,000 foot existing runways;
° Landside terminal building (588,205 sq. ft. enclosed);
° Two Airside buildings (343,789 sq. ft. total enclosed) with 48 aircraft gates;
° Aircraft Parking Aprons (447,000 sq. yd.);
° A terminal roadway system (featuring triple level curbside access for the landside building);
-1-
...more


SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: BONN, W. GERMANY
A good example of a well-planned medium sized satellite transfer airport is the airport in Bonn, W. Germany. Here again the landscaping and the overall building layout has been consciously considered, resulting in a facility that really says something to the community.
The overall organization of this airport is easily recognized and understood, the tower in the center acts as a constant reminder of where you are in relation to the rest of the facility. The tower, along with the landscaping also acts as a processional gateway for local passengers. The geometry of the satellites is easily understood, and their circular nature helps give passengers a quick sense of where they are and where the other gates are. This is a beatifully realized plan, and while this is considerably smaller than the future facility for Denver, the concepts expressed here could also be applied on a larger scale.
61


Flughafen Koln/Bonn Flughafen Koln/Bonn
Starting design: 1962; opening: 1970 Planungsbeginn: 1962; Eroffnung: 1970
iuI Schneider-Esleben (project leader: Egon Schneider)
Paul Schneider-Esleben (Projektleiter: Egon Schneider)
The airport is located fourteen kilometers from Cologne and sixteen kilometers from Bonn.
As the terminal complex surrounds the parking space like a horseshoe, walking distances between aircraft and motor car are fairly short even though aircraft are serviced at satellites. Arrival and departure traffic flows are separated both at the curb and in the main building by different levels.
There are perhaps two features which mark this airport as unique: firstly, a decentralization of passenger processing facilities, ticketing, and baggage claim which tends to eliminate congestion and confusion; secondly, a system of international and domestic passenger traffic by level which, combined with individual satellite passport control, allows convenient interline transfer between domestic and international flights.
Each satellite has six enplaning/deplaning processing stations, so that at present twelve aircraft can be handled simultaneously, and twenty-four aircraft when the two additional satellites are finished. The airport is expected to handle three million passengers in 1975.
Der Flughafen liegt 14 km von Koln und 16 km von Bonn entfernt.
Da der Terminal die Parkplatze hufeisenformig um-schlieBt, sind die FuBwege zwischen Auto und Flug-zeug verhaltnismaBig kurz. obwohl die Abfertigung der Flugzeuge an Satelliten erfolgt. Ankunft und Ab-flug sind sowohl in der Vorfahrt als auch im Haupt-trakt des Terminals auf zwei verschiedenen Ebenen angelegt.
Zwei Merkmale machen diesen Flughafen beispiel-haft: die Trennung von Fluggastabfertigung, Bu-chung und Gepackausgabe, die Stauungen und eine Verwirrung des Fluggastes weitgehend ausschaltet, sowie die geschoBweise Trennung von internationa-lem und nationalem Fluggastverkehr, die in Verbin-dung mit eigenen PaBkontrollstellen in jedem Satelliten ein bequemes Umsteigen zwischen Auslands-und Inlandsverkehrermoglicht.
Jeder Satellit hat 6 Flugzeugpositionen, so daB heute 12 Flugzeuge und nach Fertigstellung der beiden zu-satzlichen Satelliten 24 Flugzeuge gleichzeitig abge-fertigt werden konnen. Im Jahr 1975 erwartet man etwa3 Millionen Passagiere.
Rosr,
6000'
2000 m



WSK'Oi)
in of the Cologne/Bonn region.
eneral view of the terminal complex from the
rial view of the terminal complex from the east, ivelopment plan of the airport. Key: 1 terminal, 2 ht zone. 3 heating plant, 4 petrol cut-off, 5 emer-.y power supply, 6 hangars for small planes. 7 , 8 fueling service, 9 flight kitchen, 10 opera-1, 11 control tower, 12 fire station, 13 helicop-14 existing terminal facilities.
an der Region Koln/Bonn.
ssamtansicht des Terminalkomplexes von We-
jftaufnahme des Terminalkomplexes von Osten. sneralausbauplan des Flughafens. tegende: 1 ninal 2 Frachthof, 3 Heizwerk, 4 Benzinabschei-5 romversorgung, 6 Hallen fur Kleinflug-je, len, 8 Tankdienst, 9 Bordkuche, 10 Be-ishof, 11 Kontrollturm, 12 Feuerwache, 13 Hub-auberplatz, 14 alte Abfertigungsanlage.
4

^ ^ 10
\j|7


5. The landside of the terminal complex seen aero the cooling pool.
6. The parking space in front of the terminal se from the enplaning road.
7. Main terminal, section.
8. Main terminal, plan of ground floor (deplaning).
9. Main terminal, plan of third and fourth floor.
10. Main terminal, plan of first basement.
11. Main terminal, plan of second floor (enplanim Key to ills. 8 to 11: 1 parking. 2 operations areas stores, mechanical equipment, 4 air intake tower, deplaning road, 6 baggage claim, 7 customs, 8 c fices, 9 service road. 10 enplaning road, 11 ticketn lobby, 12 pedestrian access to satellite, 12 intern tional flights, 14 restaurant.
5. Blick iiber das Ruckkuhlbecken auf die Lands? des Terminalkomplexes.
6. Blick von der Abflugvorfahrt in die hufeisenforn ge Parkplatzflache vor dem Hauptgebaude des Te minals.
7. Hauptgebaude des Terminals, Schnitt.
8. Hauptgebaude des Terminals, GrundriB des Er geschosses (Ankunft).
9. Hauptgebaude des Terminals, GrundriB des zwi ten und dritten Obergeschosses
10. Hauptgebaude des Terminals, GrundriB des t sten Untergeschosses.
11. Hauptgebaude des Terminals. GrundriB des t sten Obergeschosses (Abflug)
Legende zu den Abb 6 bis 11: 1 Parkplatze 2 B triebsbereich, 3 Lager und Technik, 4 Luftartsau turm, 5 Ankunftsvorfahrt, 6 Gepackausgabe 7 Zoli BLiros, 9 BetriebsstraBe. 10 Abflugvorfahrt 11 A fluphalle, 12 Briicke zum Satellites 13 Auslandsu' Steiger, 14 Restaurant.


60 m


Wf- .. 1 k.I Tv ’ V ir—
^ JL. il I 1 L f

12. The ticketing lobby on the second floor of the main building with access to Satellite C at the right. The arrivals and departures indicator board is prominently located
13. The ticketing lobby on the second floor of the main building. The curb is beyond the glass wall at the left and the aircraft apron is at the right.
14. 15. Information booths and offices above stand free of the primary structure as do the shops.
16. Satellite, section.
17. Satellite, plan of second floor.
Key to ills. 16 and 17: 1 pedestrian access to n building. 2 hold rooms (enplaning), 3 domestic planing, 4 international deplaning, 5 informatio immigration control points, 7 outbound baggage.
18. An apron level view of Satellite B.
19. Central area of Satellite B. Gates are cent! around the information kiosk.


-r>
16
~irrT-»—
»y »y
■t\ J^rr>orvrv»>>«J
mji.i "> mmiii . ^
T=r
3T
12. Abflughalle im ersten ObergeschoB des Haupt-gebaudes. Rechts der Zugang zum Satelliten C. Die Anzeigetafel fur Abfluge und Ankunfte hangt an ex-ponierterStelle.
13. Abflughalle Im ersten ObergeschoB des Haupt-gebaudes. Die Vorfahrt befindet sich links hinter der Glasfront, rechts liegt das Vorfeld.
14. 15. Die Informationskioske mit den daruberlie-genden Buros stehen wie die Laden frei im Raum.
16. Satellit, Schnitt.
17. Satellit, GrundriB des ersten Obergeschos Legende zu den Abb. 16 und 17: 1 Brucke, 2 Wi raum. 3 Ankunft Inland. 4 Ankunft Ausland. 5 Ii mation, 6 PaB- und Zollkontrolle, 7 Sortierbereic abgehendes Gepack.
18. Blickvom Vorfeld auf den Satelliten B.
19. Zentralbereich des Satelliten B. Die Flugsl gruppieren sich urn den Informationsschalter.
l


SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: PARIS
Another example of a satellite configuration on a small-to-medium scale is the Aeroport de Paris, Roissy-en-France, Aerogare 1. Because of the distribution of air traffic throughout the different airports around Paris, this airport was limited to a moderate scale. Even so, it was designed to be an efficient transfer airport, with satellites arranged radially around a circular central terminal building with parking above. This airport has very obvious organization to arriving passengers, and very convenient accessibility to departing passengers. Special attention has been paid to convenience: baggage can be checked and recovered directly by car, and pedestrian and vehicular traffic has been cleverly separated. No one has to walk any great distances or unusual paths.
68


roport de Paris, Roissy-en-France, Aerogare 1
irth sign: 1964; opening 1974
'oporl de Paris (P, Andreu, chief architect; F. Pre-t, P. Meyer, M. Gregoire, P. Prange, J. L Renucci, Tobin, H. Lazar)
e Aerogare 1 of the new Paris airport in Roissy-en-ince will be, when completed, one of the most ef-lent terminals in Europe. With a system of one-way craft traffic and taxi-through gate positions, air-ift movements around the seven satellites will be fluid as possible. Similarly, circulation flow-ough principles have been incorporated within : terminal interface itself: at no point does a pas-nger have to move round obstacles or retrace > footsteps. Baggage may be checked-in directly im automobiles in a drive-through process, or ecked-in by pedestrian passengers in a walk-rough arrangement. Enplaning and deplaning traf-is separated by level; between these levels is lo-ted a pedestrian transfers level which completely minates pedestrian and vehicular cross-traffic, tggage and pedestrian movement to and from sat-ites takes place below apron level allowing aircraft circulate without disturbances.
>on after opening this airport is expected to handle iproximately three million passengers per year due transfer of traffic from Orly and Le Bourget.
Aeroport de Paris, Rolssy-en-France, Aerogare 1
Planungsbeginn: 1964; Eroffnung 1974
Abroport de Paris (P. Andreu, Chefarchitekt; F. Pre-stat, P. Meyer, M. Gregoire, P. Prange, J. L. Renucci, Y. Robin, H. Lazar)
Der Aerogare 1 des neuen Pariser Flughafens in Roissy-en-France durfte nach seiner Fertigstellung zu den leistungsfahigsten Terminals Europas geho-ren. Mil Hilfe eines auBeren Rollbahnringes und Durchgangspositionen sollen die Flugzeugbewe-gungen an den sieben Satelliten so flussig wie mog-lich gehalten werden. Auch im Terminal selbst wurde auf einen ungehinderten Verkehrsablauf geachtet: Nirgendwo muB ein Passagier um ein Hindernis her-umgehen Oder seine Richtung umkehren. Das Ge-pack wird entweder vom Auto aus an Durchfahrsta-tionen Oder, falls man FuBganger ist, an Durchlauf-stationen aufgegeben. Vorfahrt und Abfertigungsein-richtungen fur Ankunft und Abflug verteilen sich auf zwei Ebenen; zwischen beiden liegt eine verbinden-de FuBgangerebene, die Kreuzungen zwischen Fahr-und Gehverkehr vollkommen ausschlieBt. Der Ge-pack- und Fluggastverkehr zwischen dem Hauptge-baude und den Satelliten spielt sich unter dem Vor-feld ab, um den Flugbetrieb auf dem Rollfeld nicht zu behindem.
Man erwartet fur die nachste Zukunft etwa 3 Millio-nen Fluggaste pro Jahr und damit eine betrachtli-che Entlastung von Orly und Le Bourget.
o
3000
1000 m


1. Plan of the Paris region showing Roissy-en-France, Le Bourgetand Orly.
2. Site plan of the airport Key: 1 Aerogare 1, 2 space for future terminals, 3 Autoroute A 1, 4 general aviation, 5 freight and operations zone.
3. Site plan of Aerogare 1.
1. PIan der Region Paris mit Roissy-en-France. Bourget und Orly.
2. Lageplan des Flughafens. Legende 1 Ai gare 1, 2 Platz fur weitere Terminals, 3 Autorc A 1, 4 allgemeine Luftfahrt, 5 Fracht- und Flue triebseinrichtungen.
3 Lageplan des Aerogare 1


Plans of Aerogare 1.
4. Section.
5. ce level.
6. _age service level.
7. Transfer level.
8. Enplaning level
9. Technical service level
10. Deplaning level.
11. Offices and visitors level.
12. Parking levels.
KABCDE F GHIJ
Plane des Adrogare 1.
4. Schnitt.
5. Betriebsebene.
6. Gepackebene.
7. Transferebene.
8 Abflugebene.
9 Technikebene.
10. Ankunftsebene.
11. Biiro- und Besucherebene.
12. Parkebenen.


if
Key to ills. 4 to 12: 1 Inbound and outbound baggage, 2 baggage access to satellites, 3 services, 4 concessions, 5 restaurant, 6 kitchen, 7 offices, 8 reserve space, 9 road, 10 pedestrian ramps, 11 ticketing and baggage check-in, 12 drive-in' baggage check-in, 13 parking access, 14 immigration and customs controls, 15 pedestrian tunnels to satellites, 16 baggage claim, 17 parking exit, 18 pedestrian walkway, 19 panoramic concourse, 20 visitors' terrace.
Legende zu den Abb. 4 bis 12: 1 ein- und abgeh des Gepack, 2 Gepacktransport zu den Satellite: technische Raume, 4 Konzessionare, 5 Restaurer Kiiche, 7 Buros, 8 Reserveflache, 9 StraBe, 10 F gangerrampen, 11 Flugscheinkontrolle mit Gepi abfertigung, 12 -Drive-In—Gepackabfertigung, Parkhauszufahrt, 14 PaB- und Zollkontrolle, 15 F gangertunnels zu den Satellites 16 Gepackj gabe, 17 Parkhausausfahrt, 18 FuBgangerweg, Aussichtsgang, 20 Besucherterrasse.
srirnlnii
E
G


TRANSPORTER CONFIGURATION: DULLES INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Dulles International Airport is really the only American example of a pure transporter configuration on a large scale. This is a government controlled airport, and it is perhaps this fact that allows the airport to work in spite of its functional disadvantages to other types of configurations. Generally speaking, this airport does not function well as a transfer airport. The transporter configuration inhibits transfer traffic by making passengers travel from the airplane by bus to the terminal, and then from the terminal by bus to the next airplane, even if the two airplanes involved are only 100 feet apart while parked on the apron.
The positive aspects of Dulles should not be overlooked, however. This is an architectural landmark, and works beautifully as an image for the area and a recognizable symbol for airports. This is probably one of the most recognized airports in the world, and that is no small accomplishment. Its familiarity is not due to its unusual character, but rather to the beauty and comprehensiveness of the entire scheme.
The need for an airport to be a landmark is important, and while Dulles fails in many respects as a practical transfer facility, its success in building expression is something to learn from, and look to when designing a new airport facility.
73


Dulles International Airport
Stalling design 1998. opening 1901'
E tan non
Dulles International Airport
Plariungsbeginn 1998, Etoflnung 19Gi‘
Eero Saarinen
Dulles International Airport was the first civil airport designed specifically to handle jet aircraft it is the primary example in the United States of a transporter operation
Although the overall dimensions and capacities ot aircraft have increased continuously since the beginning of the sixties, no serious difficulties of adjustment for the airport are to be expected. On the one hand the transporters used up to now . which can only be linked by means of auxiliary passenger stairs to aircraft of different height are exchangeable with transporters which are variable in height On the other hand the termina1 can easily be elongated by-adding further bays.
Dei Internationale Flughafen von Washington war der erstf Zivilflughafen der spezieli fur die Abterti gung von Dusenflugzeuaen gebaut wurde In den USA ist ei da1 wichtigste Beispiei fur die Verwen-dung vonlransportern
Obwohl seit dem Beginn der sechzigei Jahre die Di-mensionen und Kapazitaten det Flugzeuge standig gestieaen smd durtte es vorers! kaum zu ernsthat-ten Anpassungsschwierigkeifen auf dem Flughafen kommen Zum einen konnten die bisher verwende-ten Transpo-ter. die sich nur uber besondere Flua-gastbrucken an unterschiediich hohe Flugzeuge an-schlieRen lassen. durch hohenverstellbare Transports- ersetzt werden: zum anderen laBt sich der Terminal durch Hinzufugen weiterer Segments in einfa-cher Weise verlangern.


Plan of the eastern vicinity of Washington. The ulles International Airport is approximately twenty-x miles or thirty to forty-five minutes from the cen-r of the United States capital. Extensively-used /ashington National Airport may be seen at right.
. Aerial view of the airport from north.
.Site plan of the airport. Key: 1 terminal, 2-heli-ort, 3 aircraft stands. 4 hangars, 5 road access, 6 arking.
. Mobile lounges of Chrysler Corporation docked at te terminal.
, 6. The mobile lounges of Chrysler Corporation are 4 feet long, 16 feet wide, 17.5 feet high and carry pproximately 100 passengers. One end of the >unge is equipped to fit the terminal building dock, ie other end to fit the aircraft. Auxiliary passenger lairs must be used when servicing any aircraft with igh floors.
1. Plan des Gebietes ostlich von Washington. Der Internationale Flughafen von Washington liegt etwa 42 km bzw. 30 bis 45 Autominuten vom Zentrum der amerikanischen Hauptstadt entfernt. Rechts der stark frequentierte Washington National Airport.
2. Luftbild des Flughafens von Norden.
3. Lageplan des Flughafens. Legende: 1 Terminal, 2 Hubschrauberlandeplatz, 3 Flugzeugpositionen, 4 Flugzeughangars, 5 ZufahrtsstraBe, 6 Parkplatz.
4. Terminal mit angedockten Transportern der Fir-ma Chrysler.
5. 6. Die Transporter der Firma Chrysler sind bei einem Fassungsvermogen von etwa 100 Personen etwa 16,5 m lang, 4,90 m breit und 5,30 m hoch. Das eine Ende der Fahrzeuge ist fur den AnschluS an den Terminal ausgelegt, das andere fur den AnschluB an das Flugzeug. Bei der Bedienung von Flugzeugen mit groBen Einstiegshohen sind zusatzliche Flug-gasttreppen notwendig.




r. T lal building, section.
5.T_ lal building, plan of enplaning level.
5. Terminal building, plan of deplaning level.
I0, 11. The terminal building is 600 feet long and is :apable of being expanded, as designed by Eero Saarinen, to 1,800 feet.
I2. Passengers may be seen queuing for ticketing and baggage check-in. The enplaning road is at the 'ight. The pillar in the background conceals the single roof drain which can carry 12,000 gallons per minute. The water is collected in a man-made lake located nearthe airport entrance.
7. Terminal, Schnitt.
3. Terminal, GrundriB des Obergeschosses (Abflug).
3. Terminal, GrundriB des Erdgeschosses (Ankunft). Legende zu den Abb. 7 bis 9: 1 Ankunftsvorfahrt, 2 FuBgangerzugang, 3 Gepackausgabe, 4 ein- und ab-gehendes Gepack, 5 Parkplatz, 6 Zollabfertigung. 7 Gang, 8 Buros, 9 Konzessionare, 10 Abflugvor-fahrt, 11 Flugscheinschalter, 12 Wartebereich, 13 Transporterdocks, 14 Kontrollturm.
10, 11. Der Terminal von auBen. Die Lange des Ge-baudes kann nach der Planung von Saarinen von jetzt 180 auf 550 m gebracht werden.
12. Wartende Passagiere vor der Flugschein- und Ge ibfertigung. Rechts liegt die Abflugvorfahrt Die ze im Hintergrund verbirgt die einzige Ent-wasserungsleitung des Daches. Sie kann bis zu 45000 l/min abfuhren. Das Wasser wird in einem kunstlichen See an der Zufahrt zum Terminal gesam-melt


SITE: DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (REPLACING STAPLETON)
The site for the replacement facility for Denver Stapleton has been tentatively defined by the City and County of Denver and by Adams County in an area just northeast of the present facility, and just east of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. For this project I am using that same site, with some slight modifications to accommodate the inevitable extension of the runways eastward, to a configuration somewhat like what is shown here. Access roads to the facility are drawn in using the most up-to-date and reasonable assumptions at the present time.
For the purposes of this project, I have assumed that the Rocky Mountain Arenal has been largely decontaminated, at least to the extent that a large-scale open prairie park can be established there. This would provide a major amenity to the metro area, a large open space that can be a major state park, with golf courses and hiking trails, and incredible views into the city and towards the front range. This also provides a buffer for the airport to all the surrounding residential areas.
I am also assuming that the present airport facility has been converted into a major amusement park, on the scale of Disney World in Orlando. This is not out of the realm of possibility, and with the increased development that will occur after the completion of the new airport, it certainly will receive enough demand to justify.
A land-use plan is being developed for the area bounded in red, designating air cargo, airline service areas, hanger space, employee parking areas, and other service facilities. I will be concentrating on the Airport Terminal Area, which is the area bounded by the two main north-south runways, and 56th Avenue to the south, and 96th Avenue to the north. This is an area roughly one mile wide by five miles long.
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Essentially, the passenger entry and landside of the terminal will be at the south end of this area, and the airside will be at the north end of this area. There are some projections, however, that say this facility will eventually serve 100 million passengers a year. To accommodate those projections, one answer is to create a second main terminal area to the north, with a secure underground transport system connecting the two main terminals. For this project, I will show it planned in this way, and I will concentrate on one concourse building within this area.
While this site is not entirely flat, there are no major landforms with the exception of the two creekbeds that run diagonally across the site: First Creek at the south end and Second Creek at the north end. The needs of aircraft circulation will probably cause the airside of the terminal to be leveled off, but there may be some opportunity to take advantage of the natural landforms at the south end or landside of the terminal.
This site commands views into the city of Denver and toward the front range that are significantly better that those of the present facility. This should be exploited wherever possible, since these views are all part of what makes the airport a part of Denver.
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PLANNING PROGRAM
Because of the overall scale of this project, and the requirements for an architectural thesis, I will focus on a small part of the overall airport. Nevertheless, for this piece to work in the overall scheme, that scheme should be planned for in a sympathetic way. Especially in light of the criteria established for this project, it is impossible to ignore some of the larger elements, even if I am not able to deal with them in great detail. For these reasons, I am including this planning program as a guide and description of the assumptions used to get at my final project. This includes the placement of new access roads and the enhancement of existing ones, as well as the placement of the parking structure and the main terminal buildings. This will result in a land-use plan and site plan which characterize the surrounding elements in this airport project.
Basically, the airport terminal area is the five mile strip previously described: between the two main north-south runways, and between 56th and 96th Avenues. The main terminal will be accessed from the south, with a separate exit from 1-70. To use 1-70 as sole access to this facility would be a mistake, however, since it has already overloaded its traffic capacity. A new bypass will be constructed parallel to Third Creek, and it only seems to make sense that some access to the new airport come from this road. Initially, this suggests an access configuration similar to Dallas/Ft. Worth where a highway running between the two main runways can connect the access roads to the north and south. In order to prevent some of the problems of Dallas/Ft. Worth, I propose instead to allow for a doubling of capacity, and plan for a northern terminal mirroring the southern one. Then a transport system that is secure and underground can make the connection between the terminals. Chambers Road, 96th Avenue, and 56th Avenue all become secondary parkways to loop this area.
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SIZING OF SPACES
Sizes of spaces have been determined by using the forecasts for activity at Denver°s airport, as projected by the current master plan, in conjunction with extensive tables, charts, and formulas, established by the FAA, as well as through consultation with professionals, and through comparison of other facilities of similar capacity. I have set them as a starting point, and through the initial phases of the design of the facility, these sizes may adjust up or down considerably. I am also basing these overall sizes on the projections from the City and County°s current master plan. I am leaving provision, however for this overall capacity to double, and will show this increased capacity in the final project, with the second main terminal building placed at the north end of the site.
I have also made the assumption that I will use either four or six satellite concouse buildings. If, on closer examination of the site and the scale of the buildings, it seems that a different number of satellites is more appropriate in fulfilling my design criteria, this number will change accordingly, while maintaining the same overall capacity.
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PLANNING PROGRAM DENVER INTERNATIONANAL AIRPORT
(Replacing Stapleton)
Airfield Land Use 12550 Ac. 19.62 Sq. Mi.
Terminal Site Area 2340 Ac. 3.66 Sq. Mi.
Terminal Building 700,000 Sq. Ft.
Concourse Buildings 1,440,000 Sq. Ft.
Parking Structure 12,00C • spaces
(5300 short-term, 6700 long-term) (4,800,000 sq. ft. total) (960,000 footprint assuming five stories)
Total Number of Gates (1995 forecasts)
170 aircraft/hr./pk. day/pk.mo.
10% wide body w/45 min. turn time 75% narrow body w/30 min. turn time 15% general aviation/charter (170)(.10)/(1.33)+(170)(.75)/(2)+(170)(.15)
= 102 + 15% = 117.3
use 120 gates
Terminal Building
Passenger Level Lower Operational Level
area (sq. ft.) total 465,000 total 234,600
Concourse Satellite Buildings Passenger Level Service Level
area (sq. ft.) total 720,000 total 720,000
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PLANNING PROGRAM BREAKDOWN OF SPACES
TERMINAL BUILDING
Enplaning curb Deplaning curb 8800 lin. ft. 4400 lin. ft.
PASSENGER LEVEL area (sq. ft.)
Total Lobby Area 60,000
Food service areas 18,000
Ticket Counter Area 140,000 (3000 lin. ft.)
Bagage Claim Areas 120,000 (2500 lin. ft.)
Rental Car Counter 20,000 (400 lin. ft.)
Circulation @ 30% 107,400
TOTAL PASSENGER LEVEL 465,000
AIRPORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE LEVEL Baggage Makeup Area 160,000
Airport Services 35,500
Circualtion @ 20% 39,100
TOTAL SERVICE LEVEL 234,000
TOTAL TERMINAL SPACE 700,000
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QUALITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS OF MAJOR SPACES
(Planning Program)
PARKING STRUCTURE
Since the parking structure is likely to be the largest single structure on the airport grounds, careful attention should be paid to its site, size and overall massing, and its relationship to access, and egress roads. This structure probably more than any other, represents the opportunity to establish a relation to the community and form a gateway to and from the facility. I would like to look at the examples of San Francisco, Boston, Bonn, and Paris, as examples of making the parking structure work to enhance and clarify the overall building organization.
LOBBY SPACE
The lobby space should be a central organizer. It should have some expression and character that is different on the outside, as well as the inside, from all other parts of the facility. It should be easily seen and understood from other parts of the facility. It should act as a rest area for all passengers spending any amount of time at the airport. Restaurant and bar facilities should feed off the lobby directly. The lobby is aldo where a concentrated effort should be made to express the relation to the community. There should be some major views out, if at all possible, and there should be some graphic depiction of Colorado, Denver, or some other regional feature.


ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM
Part of the difficulty in establishing a working architectural building program for a problem of this nature, is the overriding desire to consider this a real project. I have certainly tried to maintain that vision throughout, and I have approached this project in as realistic a way as possible. Yet because of the overall scale of this project, I have been forced to concentrate on one part of the airport complex: the satellite concourse building. This is no small building and has a good deal of complexity of its own. But it can only work as a building if it is a modular part of an overall complex. Therefore, it is necessary to accept the planning parameters established in the planning program in order to understand this building, and how it fits into the "airport city" that I have created. Given the fact that this is being planned for a date ten, or even twenty years in the future, there will be changes and revisions necessary. I have alllowed for those where possible, but in the end, I am assumeing that certain conditions as specified in the site analysis and planning program exist. The satellite concourse building fits into this urban context.
Concourse buildings in general are the most thoroughly used parts of an airport facility. Especially in a high-transfer airport, the concourse may be the only part of the complex that a passenger experiences. In an airport the size of this one, the concourse begins to take on, to some degree, all of the functions of an airport. There are ticketing and bag-check facilities, and although these aren't as large as those in the main terminal, they nevertheless require the same attention as to their placement and relation to other spaces. Also, since these satellites will be quite large, and since they have a distinct relationship to an overall ground transportation or people mover system, there needs to be some sort of lobby or reception area at


this transfer point.
All the criteria already established apply to the concourse building as well as to the whole complex, and it may be useful to re-state them here:
1) the elastic flexible character of the spaces,
2) the long term flexibility and the ability to expand,
3) efficient circulation of people, baggage, and aircraft
4) the ability to orient passengers within the building, and
5) the ability to orient passengers to their surroundings.
Certainly the concourse facility is the most machine-like part of
an airport facility and it is the place where the high-speed transfer and interface between aircraft and passengers occur. Because of this, the need for efficient circulation is paramount; there should be no obstructions to the circulation paths of people and airplanes. Yet even in a concourse there is a need for some civic expression and some sense of knowing where you are in the world. There is no reason to deny the passenger this, especially the transfer passenger, who, due to some delay or mix-up, ends up spending a good deal of time in these concourses, and this may be his only experience of Denver. Because of this, I intend to explore the possibility of having outdoor courtyards, overlook areas, and large concession/restaurant areas. These areas may be decentralized in relation to the overall airport complex, but I present them in the organizing spaces for the concourses.


ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM
SATELLITE CONCOURSE BUILDINGS 4 SAT. SCHEME 6 SAT.SCHEME
Number of Gates 30 20
Space area (sq. ft.) area (sq. ft.
PASSENGER LEVEL
Holdrooms (25 (5 100,000 @ 3,000) @ 5,000) (20 (4 68,000 @ 3,000) @ 5,000)
Toilets 5,000 3,500
Concessions 5,000 3,000
Telephone 2,000 1,500
Ticket Counter (mis-connect) 14,000 9,500
Monitor viewing area 2,000 1,500
Bar 2,500 1,500
Coffee Shop 2,500 1,500
VIP Lounge 4,000 3,000
Circulation @ 30% 43,000 27,000
TOTAL PASSENGER LEVEL 180,000 120,000
SERVICE AND OPERATIONS LEVEL
Airport Services (fuel, clean, airline cargo) 60,000 40,000
Baggage Makeup 40,000 30,000
Airline Services (crew lounges, & ready rooms arranged by airline) 4 @ 20,000 80,000 3 @ 20,000 60,000
TOTAL SERVICE LEVEL 180,000 130,000
TOTAL CONCOURSE SATELLITE 360,000 250,000


ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM QUALITIES AND REALATIONSHIPS OF MAJOR AREAS
This program has been designed with the understanding that the Atlanta model of concourse satellite buildings is being used as the basic planning module. The efficiency with which the Atlanta airport processes airplanes is certainly worth striving for, or even surpassing. Basically, this system suggests that the concourse buildings be linear elements perpendicular to the two parallel runways, with a two-way street of aircraft between the concourse buildings.
This doesn't mean, however, that the Atlanta airport has to be duplicated in its entirety, and it is certainly not my intention to do so. I will accept the idea that linear buildings placed perpindicular to the runways represents an efficient way to process airplanes, but this doesn't mean that these buildings have to be totally regular or totally rectangular, on the exterior as well as the interior. What I will assume, though, for the purposes of this project is that the structure is actually two buildings that mirror themselves along the axis of the people-mover system. Because of that, I will design, in detail, one half of this mirror-image building, and then show on the site, how it works together with the other half in the urban design of the airport complex.
The circulation space as listed includes a lobby and courtyard spaces. If, after a few weeks of design, it seems that 30% is not enough allowance for all of this, I will increase the size accordingly. In general, I would like this program to remain flexible at first, since in fact, the actual size and number of gates is flexible and depends on some urban design considerations.
LOBBY SPACE
The lobby space should be a central organizer, it should have some expression and character that is different on the outside as well as


the inside from all other parts of the facility. It should be easily seen and understood from other parts of the facility. It should act as a rest area for all passengers spending any amount of time at the airport. Restaurant and bar facilities should feed off the lobby directly. The lobby is also where a concentrated effort should be made to express the relation to the community. There should be some major views out if at all possible, and there should be some graphic depiction of Colorado, Denver, or some other regional feature.
HOLD ROOMS
Hold room should be made as flexible spaces. Wherever possible, the opportunity to combine holdrooms should be utilized, as long as there is maintained a clearly understandable accessible route to the gate for waiting passengers. Because of the scale of holdrooms and their large swings in passenger loading levels, there should be aspects of the holdroom that help make it a comfortable space even while empty. Views out are essential, and a certain level of detailing also helps.
CIRCULATION CORRIDOR — CONCOURSE Concourse corridors, like holdrooms, have extreme variations in loading. Concourses also vary in loading according to their proximity to gate areas. The concourse corridor should be designed to handle more passengers in areas where the surge of traffic will be more extreme. This will also help orient the passenger, since the circulation corridor will be larger in areas where passengers will want to go, and smaller in areas where passengers will want to pass through. It may be possible to have views out from the areas of the concourse where passengers pass through, and views in to the areas where passengers travel to.


PROJECT SUMMARY
At the start of the design phase of this project, forcasts of future aircraft activity were made public, and these were significantly higher than the preliminary ones that were used in my initial program. In fact, they were calling for a facility to handle 1,000,000 aircraft, and over 100,000,000 passengers annually by the year 2010, virtually twice the 50,000,000 passengers that were planned for by 1995. In order to allow for this, I mi rror-i maged the? initial one-sided terminal complex, and created two terminals, one on either end of the north-south axis along which the terminal area was planned. This would allow for an eventual doubling of capacity, while maintaining the sealed satellite concourse system.
This also alleviated some of the ground access problems, since passengers could now come from the north along E-470 as well as from the south along 1-70. Buckley road then became the logical connector between these points and could be used as an airport service road between the two terminals, where rental car lots and other similar functions could occur. 96th avenue along the north side, and 56th avenue along the south side were allowed to remain as unobstructed throughways past the complex, and the direct airport access roads were then pulled back to allow for queing into the terminal area.
When it came to the runways, I knew the configuration I had was not the way it. would actually be, but it was the best and only-configuration I could use. Taking the runway layout as published in the June 1985 report, I changed it only to deconflict the the runways, so that no two runways crossed. A ninth runway was added, and two of the runways were changed to a full 15,000 foot length to accomodate full future air travel needs including major .international service.
Immediately, then, this runway layout began to suggest buildable




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Full Text

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The thesis of Mark Brinkman is approved. Principle Advisor • Ptdvi sor University of Colorado at Denver 1'1ay 20 1986

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MARK BRINKMAN 'l THESIS: REPLACEMENT FACILITY FOR DENVER STAPLETON AIRPORT / UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE Final Submittal Hay 16, 1986

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1)GENERAL INTRODUCTION (pg. 1 5) Goals of Program 2)FIVE DESIGN CRITERIA (pg. 6 9) 1)Elastic, Flexible Character of Spaces 2)Long Term Flexibility -Overall Building Capacity 3)Efficient Circulation 4)0rienting Passengers Within the Building 5)0rienting Passengers to their Surroundings 3)THE MODERN AIRPORT TERMINAL: A SEARCH FOR AN ARCHITECTURAL TYPE Four Typical Configurations (pg. 10 23) 1)Linear Configuration 2)Pier Configuration 3)Satellite Configuration 4)Transporter Configuration 5)Combinations and Unit Terminals 4)MODERN AIRPORT CASE STUDIES: EXAMPLES OF TYPES (pg. 24 77) 1)Linear Confifguration (25 34) Boston Logan Dallas/Ft. Worth 2)Pier Configuration (35 41) Chicago O'Hare Denver Stapleton 3)Satellite Configuration (42 72) San Francisco Los Angeles Hartsfield Atlanta Orlando Bonn, W. Germany Paris 4)Transporter Configuration Dulles International (73 77) 5)SITE: DENVER INT'N'L AIRPORT (REPLACING STAPLETON) (pg. 78 82) Location and proximity to Denver Access Road System Topography Site for Sattellite Concourse Building 6)PLANNING PROGRAM (pg. 83 87) Size and Location of Parking, Main Terminal Buildings Route and Distance of People Mover System ?)ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM (pg. 88 95) satellite Concourse Building Spatial Sizes, Qualities, and Relationships

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8)PROJECT --A CONCOURSE FACILITY (pg. 95 100) Drawings and Model APPENDIX Climatic Data Code Information Bibliography

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION: Currently the seventh largest airport in the world by passenger volume, Denver9s Stapleton Airport is still in its infancy. Historically from 1970, over 45% of all passengers travelling through Stapleton have been transfer passengers connecting to another flight, and in the last five years that number has been near 60%. The implications are clear: Denver is becoming an ideal location as an airline transfer "hub". Since airline deregulation went into effect, we have experienced the advent of the "hub" system of air travel. Airlines now are centered in one or two cities across the country. All flights for these airlines then connect through the "hub" airports. By scheduling many aircraft to arrive and depart at the same general time, the hub airline can flood a gate area with passengers who can easily transfer to another departing flight of the same airline. In this way the airlines keep more of the passengers within their own airline. This also saves the airlines money, since they only need to use gate spaces during surge times; they can also centralize most of their service facilities to one "home base" and they can operate with less personnel than if they were scattered across the country. Denver, for a variety of reasons, has become a prime candidate for use as an airline "hub," and, in spite of the inadequacy of the current facility, it is currently the hub for four different airlines. The reasons are easy to see. First, its strategic geographic location makes it ideal for use as a connecting point betweeen cities on the west coast and cities in the east and midwest. In addition, Denver has consistent good weather, with over 300 days of sunshine a day. This can make air travel easier and save the airlines costly airborne delays. And there is also the attraction that Denver enjoys as the 1

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gateway to the Rocky Mountains , a place majestic and mysterious t o many other parts of the country, and revered as a holiday resort. While there are no statistics to prove this, all things in air travel being equal, it seems likely that the transfer air passenger would rather connect in Denver than in Atlanta or St. Louis, simply because of its geographic proximity to the mountains. Given that a new efficient transfer facility will be built here, one can only expect this attraction to grow, and Denver will inevitably attract many more airlines to use this as a home base. In addition to the increasing number of transfer passengers, the 40% of origin and destination (Oi D) passengers that use Stapleton represent a sizeable group too. The residential growth of the Denver metro area, as well as the increase in the high-tech industries of Martin Marietta and DTC has placed a high demand on the airport facility. As these areas continue to grow, and as Denver remains an attractive place to live, we can expect the 40% O&D passengers to remain constant even with the 100% rate of increase forecast for the next ten years. Certainly the growth of Stapleton has not gone unnoticed. There have been attempts to expand the facility, but due to the way it was originally designed, these attempts have proven ineffective. In fact, the airport as it is now,actually precludes the ability to accommodate the quantum leap of growth that has already occurred, and it is certainly unable to accommodate the continued growth forecast for the next 10 25 years. First of all, the runways are spaced too close together for simultaneous instrument landings. Under instrument conditions, aircraft navigate with radio signals that are transmitted from the base of the runway. As these signals leave the runway, they spread in a 2

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funnel-like way toward the a pproaching aircraft. If two parallel runways are too close together, as is the case in Denver, this spread can cause the signals to cross, making i t possible for the aproaching aircraft to be misguided to the wrong runway. Flights arriving under instrument conditions at Stapleton are now forced to use one runway at a time, and in an airport that serves 28 million passengers a year, this inevitably causes delays. But even if it were possible and practical to add another runway, the terminal facility itself has severe limitations in its ability to expand. The sprawled out terminal building has really reached the practical limits of its capacity to efficiently handle the circulation of people, baggage, and aircraft. A master plan was developed by the City and County of Denver to expand the current facility in 1981, in which four alternative schemes were proposed. But in each of these schemes, the present terminal configuration proved to be a hindrance to efficient expansion. Even with a costly and complicated people-mover system retrofitted to the current terminal, the time required for passengers to get from one gate to another would still be too great to make this an effective transfer airport. The large distances between gates would increase walking distances, and would increase the minimum allowable time between transfers, and reduce the effectiveness of Denver as a transfer hub. And not only would these delays cost the airlines, but the increased size of the footprint (the overall ground area covered by the building) would also make the gates harder to reach for aircraft. With the gate positions spread out as proposed, many gates become buried at the end of dead-end streets. Even with a complicated taxiway system, this would only cause additional costly delays for the aircraft in scrambling for takeoff and landing positions. 3

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The airlines pay. an average of $20.00 a minute for taxiway delays, and $40 . 00 a minute for airborne delays. The rent on gate positions is also fairly expensive, and through these and other complicated payment schedules, the airlines end up paying for most of the airport development costs. It is easy to see then that an expansion of the current facility, which would only cause more passenger and aircraft delays, would be inadequate. Realizing this, another Airport Master Plan was initiated by the City and County of Denver for a new facility. Currently that master plan is being developed. This thesis is based on all available information from that plan at this time. Runway lengths and locations are determined by this plan. Major site decisions have also been determined by this plan. Taking these as givens, I propose to design a terminal facility to work together with this plan, its forecasts for future activity, and the real situation as I see it, assuming this to be a project to be completed in 1995. GOALS OF PROGRAM The goal of this project is to design an airport terminal facility to replace Denver's Stapleton Airport, and process the 50 million annual passengers it will receive in 1995. I would like to establish a workable program for the design of that facility. Given the overall scale of this project, many parts of the overall airport design will be dealt with on a planning basis; this project then becomes an "airport city," inside of which I will design in detail one part. Yet the size and placement of all the parts will be determined in acordance with the same overall concerns that guide the actual building design. Essentially, my focus will be on a gate concourse facility, but because of the scale of this airport, this facility will have at least some of 4

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the main terminal functions. I would like this project to provide a direction and a focus on certain concerns which can serve as a viable guide for the design of the actual facility. First, I will establish my design criteria, then I will define the modern airport according to different types. Finally I will go throug h a case study which categorizes different real airports according to their generic type, and evaluates them according to my design criteria. Through this analysis, it should become clear what the best and mos t likely general configuration will be for the Denver airport, and further how this scheme can be carried out most successfully, by learning from the past. My concerns and focus revolve around the following five criteria, which I will list now, and further define later: l)the elastic flexible character of the spaces, 2)the long term flexibility and the ability to expand, 3)efficient circulation of people, baggage, and aircraft, ' 4)the ability to orient passengers within the building, and S)the ability to orient pasengers to their surroundings. Given these criteria, I will concentrate on the last two, having the first three act as parameters inside of which I can explore possibilities of the last two. I will pay attention to the civic concerns that are necessary in designing a major airport. The last two design criteria are ways that I can approach these concerns: the concerns of image and symbol; the concerns of community responsive design; and the concern of creating a comfortable, easily understood facility. 5

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FIVE DESIGN CRITERIA 1) ELASTIC, FLEXIBLE CHARACTER OF SPACES Modern airports are extremely high turnover facilities, with large peak loads of people, airplanes and baggage. These loads can vary in extremes from peak to off-peak periods, especially in a high-transfer hub facility such as Denver. The hub airline will load up gate positions for perhaps an hour and pack the passengers in during that time for transfer to another flight. Then all the hub aircraft leave, and the same gates often remain empty for an additional four hours. Any architectural exploration into the design of a terminal facility must take this into account, and attempt to design a facility that accommodates the peak loads, but also functions during off-peak times without appearing deserted. Certainly the space needs to be large for the peak loads. But the possibility of partitioning should be explored, and there should be a certain attention to detail in these spaces that will give them a comfortable scale even when empty. 2)LONG TERM FLEXIBILITY -OVERALL BUILDING CAPACITY In addition to the changes in loading during peak hours,days , and months, there are also trends and changes in demand over long periods of time. In a growing high-transfer airport such as Denver0s, an increase in demand over time has to be planned for, and the terminal facility must be planned with the possibility of expansion in mind. This expansion can occur in small percentages, or in major additions, and because of the inability to accurately predict the future, provisions should be made for both types of expansion. Space should be allotted for a possible doubling of capacity, while smaller increments of expansion should also be allowed to occur without any major 6

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disruptions in the overall airport plan. 3)EFFICIENT CIRCULATION Modern transfer airports such as Denver also need to be efficient in three areas of circulation: the circullation of people, airplanes and baggage. Not only is efficiency measured in physical distance, but also in terms of the time it takes to get from one place to another. Because of the dollars that delays cost airlines, it is imperative that the airport minimize the time spent on the ground by both aircraft and transfer passengers. The facility must be an efficient processing station; a machine, with clear and unrestrained paths for passenger, baggage, and aircraft traffic flow. These paths should be segregated, and free from other activities. Aircraft on the apron should not have to deal with extensive busses, or other traffic, and passengers travelling through the concourse should not have to wade through other . passengers waiting at the gates. 4)0RIENTING PASSENGERS WITHIN THE BUILDING A major problem in modern airports today is disorientation. Large airports can be scary, confusing places. The passenger is often confronted with a myriad of signs, colors, symbols, and recorded messages, all there with the intent of telling.him where he is and where he has to go. But all too often these messages become a blur of indistinct and annoying data, and everything appears monotonous. Gate 27 begins to look like gate 17, or gate 72, and concourse "a" looks like concourse "d", not only in a strictly visual sense, but also in the overall relationship of the parts to the whole. This only causes stress in the passenger, makes airports undesirable places to be, and make s air travel an overall nuisance. The design of a modern transfer 7

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airport should w hat types of spaces lead to a quick sense o f orientation for the transfer passenger, where there may need to be some ordering of spaces that will help in this regar d , without relying on extensive signage and recorded messages. It is a difficult problem in a facilitiy of this size, but if spaces are properly ordered in a easily recognizable way, the overall complex can be reasonable, comfortable, and easy to understand. There should b e some modulation in the size of the spaces corresponding to the varying number of passengers that use them. Areas at the base of long concourses obviously get more traffic than areas at the ends, and the circulation spaces within as well as the surrounding spaces should vary in size accordingly. S)ORIENTING PASSENGERS TO THEIR SURROUNDINGS Transportation facilities in general, and airports in particular, are hubs and centers for a community. Even in a high-transfer facility such as Denver's, there is a real need to express some relation to the community. This is a way of further orienting the passenger, so that Atlanta doesnt look like Dallas, which looks like Denver, etc. In designing a replacement facility for Denver Stapleton, it is important to create a transportation center that works as well for Denver as it does for the airlines. This includes some expression that responds to the city and the local area, and an image that can be both a landmark to orient the transfer passenger and a welcome home or farewell to local passengers. There should be some attention paid to views of the facility on approach from the ground and some sense of a view to the city or surrounding area upon exiting the facility. Some sense of "gateway'' is an obvious way of addressing this concern, but this doesnt necessarily have to be a literal gate, it could be accomplished 8

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through building massing that lets the passenger know when he has arrived and when he has left Denver. As to orienting the transfer passenger, the building should have some presence from the ground and from the air that responds to its context, and in air travel terms, the context of Denver includes some expression of the Rocky Mountains. Certainly given the restrictions imposed by the size of aircraft, and the need for free and clear airspace near runways, let alone the fact that whatever form the building takes, it is likely that aircraft parking in front of it will partially obscure it, airport terminal buildings are limited in terms of expression. Yet they still have the opportunity to be expressions of their local areas. Certainly a row of barracks type buildings, with a mundane finish of aluminum siding as is the case in Atlanta, is an inadequate response. In addition, an orienting element to the transfer passenger as well as to the local passenger could be a central space that acts as an organizing space as well as an amenity and attraction to visitors. Good or bad, the Jetson's type central lobby at LAX is one attempt to provide this, and is an instructive example. I would like to give the modern airport the care and concern in this regard as designers of train stations in the 1930's gave their facilities, making them distinct and clear, if not somewhat monumental centers for a community. Finally, I think that further orienting devices should be graphics. Maps, photographs and paraphenalia can be distributed throughout the facility to constantly remind the traveller where he is, possibly educating him as to the history of the area, or telling some interesting facts that he will retain and build upon in future visits. The building can be a sort of living magazine in this regard, and this should help make it a more comfortable, pleasant place to be. 9

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THE MODERN AIRPORT TERMINAL: A SEARCH FOR AN ARCHITECTURAL TYPE In an architectural sense, the airport terminal building is a relatively new building type. It has emerged over the last 35 years as an expression of our increasingly mobile society. Together with the parking garage and the shopping mall, it has symbolized efficiency, convenience, mobility, and mechanized transportation. But as with these other building types, it has often become sprawling, confusing, extremely large, and impersonal. Modern airports can be so large that the planning of the facility is often on the scale of the planning for a new town. And as with a town, airports are dynamic structures of large proportions that will continue to grow in ways and at rates that are not entirely predictable. To design a modern airport terminal facility, one must be aware of the dynamic character of the building type --provisions must be made for expansion. And as with the planning of a town, if these provisions can be made in a systematic or rational way, the town will continue to function well at the higher level of use. With careful planning and a systematic building type, the modern airport terminal can remain understandable and comfortable no matter how large it gets. Historically, the simplest and earliest configuration for an airport was a direct single building that would act as an interface between the passenger and the airplane. A single waiting room and ticketing area was housed in a small building with exits leading across a small apron parking area and into the aircraft. A facility like this could only accommodate a few aircraft at a time, and since ticketing and holding of passengers took place in one common room, dealing with security was also a problem. (fig. 1) 10

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As airports became more complex, they tended to follow each otherqs example in building arrangement. Certain configurations emerged as types that most all modern airports fit into in some way. Four general types of airport configurationns emerged; these types, as typically referred to are: l)linear, 2)pier, 3)satellite, and 4)transporter. First I will define the basic type, and talk of inherent advantages and disadvantages. Second, I will cite different examples which correspond to the basic type, and then I will give a critical analysis of how they perform as airports, especially according to the criteria already discussed, i.e., for their relative ability to: 1) perform elastically during peak and off-peak times, 2) provide for long-term flexibility and expansion, 3) provide for efficient circulation both in distance and time of passengers, planes, and baggage, 4) orient the passenger within the building, and 5) orient the passenger to his surroundings. Through this analysis I will show the type of design most appropriate to Denver9s situation, incorporating different aspects of different types to arrive at the best possible solution. 12

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LINEAR CONFIGURATION As air travel became more popular, it b ecame necessary to expand the airport terminal. The simplest way was to extend the terminal in a line --a single building housing all terminal facilities, with aircraft parked in a line along one side of the building. Passenger processing areas and drop off curbs were arranged in a line along the opposite side of the building. (fig. 2) This allowed for the introduction of concourses that could serve as barriers between secure and non-secure areas. The concourses lead to gate positions with separate holding areas, creating a secure zone on the air side of the terminal. Terminal facilities could also be grouped adjacent to gate facilities and the building essentially becomes a linear procession of several small terminals. Expansion is accomplished by a linear extension of the existing structure, and the building becomes a long narrow corridor, with ai.rplanes on one side, automobiles on the other, and passengers in the middle. This system allows for ease of access and relatively short walking distances as long as passengers are delivered to the curb area corresponding with their departing gate. Because there is a direct integration of access to egress, the linear system is very effective for origin and destination airports. But as the passenger level reaches a million a year, the decentralization inherent in this scheme make it ineffective for use as a transfer airport. Walking distances become too great for interline transfer passengers, and the linear concept at this scale requires extensive sophisticated signage for the identification of airlines, gate positions and other activity centers. 13

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( ---------------------------------------------------TERMINAL KEY 1 IOARDINO DEVICE 2 ,UILIC CORRIDOR 3 DE,ARTURE LOUNGE IECOND LEVEL • SECURITY PIACIUTI!S I OPERATIONS GROUND L!VEL FIGURE 9-3. LINEAR CONCEPT 7

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PIER CONFIGURATION Pier configurations appeared in the 19509s and have since become the most commonly used concept in the United States. In a pier configuration, aircraft are arranged around the axis of a pier and passengers are held in holding rooms directly adjacent to the aircraft, after being processed in a central terminal area and central security point at the base of the pier.(fig. 3) Because both sides of the pier are used, the concourse becomes double-loaded, and the overall building area is minimized. Also when the pier concept is applied on two levels and used in conjunction with passenger bridges, a direct connection to the aircraft can be realized. A two-level pier also simplifies the separation of airline services --providing separate curbs for ticketing and bag claim, as well as separate passenger circulation and service circulation to the aircraft. While two level schemes have been successfully introduced in linear and satellite configurations also, it is in the pier that they were first realized • . While the pier facilitated many functional advantages when it was introduced, the problems associated with its inflexiblity were soon encountered as air travel increased. The pier as a concept has serious limitations. It is limited in terms of passenger walking distances required without the use of people-moving devices, and any extension of the pier has to be planned so that it interfere with taxiways on the airport grounds. Also, if two piers are used in a parallel fashion, the aircraft access to the interior side of the pier is essesntially a dead-end street, and any increase in the length of the piers would increase the traffic down this dead-end street and cause delays. In essence, piers are limited in size. As they become too long, they become inefficient in passenger and aircraft circulation, and a satellite configuration becomes a better alternative. 15

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: .. .. • • • • • . . KEY , IOARDING DEVICE 2 PUIUC CORRIDOR 3 DEf'ARTURE LOUNGE SECOND LEVEL SECURITY fACIUTIES I OPERATIONS GROUND LEVEL TERMINAL CURB FIGURE 9-4 . PIER CONCEPT • ' 1 l

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SATELLITE CONFIGURATION The satellite concept was originally introduced to improve airside flexibility by increasing aircraft maneuverability and parking space. This remains one of its chief advantages, as the airside functions of enplaning and deplaning are handled in a remote building that can be surrounded by aircraft and connected by a "concourse" below or above the apron that is generally a people-moving device.(fig. 4) When people moving devices are used, walking distances are kept to a minimum, and these systems prove ideal for large-scale transfer airports, since people and airplanes can move around quickly. Security is also easily handled since all passengers at the landside end must pass through a central checkpoint before proceeding to the airside satellite. Satellites can work to orient the passenger since he enters from the airplane into a small building that has a distinct relationship to a larger common terminaL Because satellites are often smaller buildings, common hold areas can be utilized, and the building can become much more flexible in the way hold room space is used. Round satellite buildings, when the number of aircraft make them practical to use, can help establish quick orientation to the transfer passenger, since he can see at a glance all the other gate positions around the circle and quickly determine where he should go. Satellites can present problems in expansion, however. If planned for, a new satellite building can be built. But as satellites get quite large in some airports; and if demand increases only slightly, an entirely new satellite building is often costly and unjustified. As satellite buildings become large themselves, some provision should be made to expand the building to accommodate small increases in demand, without building an entirely new satellite concourse. 17

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' . ( .:, ' KEY . EVICE 1 BOARDING I I I I 2 ftUBLJC LOUNGE DEPAATU ITIES ! SECURITY AREA l5 AIRLINES :+ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I SATEl..Lin: CONCEPT FIGURE 9-S. Pa e 8 1

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TRANSPORTER CONFIGURATION In a transporter system the concourses and holding rooms have been eliminated and replaced with mobile lounges or buses that drive between the remotely parked aircraft and the central terminal/passnger processing area. This affords a minimum of building area to serve a maximum number of aircraft, and eliminates a lot of problems inherent in aircaft taxi-in and taxi-out operations.(fig. 5) In an architectural sense, it is easier for this type of building to become a memorable landmark for a community, because by being remotely located, it doesnqt have to conform to the geometry of the aircraft that it serves, and it is never obscured by aircraft parking in front of it. This type of airport is effective as an Origin and Destination airport, and is especially flexible in areas where high seasonal change in traffic occurs. During the busy season, more transporters can be utilized, and no increasein building area is needed. For large airports with a high percentage of transfer passengers, however, the transporter concept is ineffective because of the time it takes to get from the plane to the terminal and back to another plane. Generally speaking, it takes longer for a transporter mobile lounge to get from the airport terminal to the aircraft, than it would a late-arriving passenger walking down a concourse. And since in all present applications, the transporters always go from the plane to the terminal and from the terminal to the plane, it can take a frustratingly long time to transfer from one plane to another that is parked directly adjacent on the apron. 19

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KEY 1 BOARDING DIVlCI 2 ,UBUC CORRIDOR 3 DIPART\JRI LOUNGI 4 SECURITY 'ACIUTIIS I OPERATIONS I I , , DD I , " . • I I iAEtfi_QN. __ ---------__ ;_ ---------------------SV-. ,,,' ,------: :----------D DOD DOD ERMINAL _ ____,/CUR 8 "'---FIGURE 9-6. TRANSPORTER CONCEP'l' Page 82 . . , j l l

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COMBINATIONS AND UNIT TERMINALS Over a period of time many airports have combined the methods mentioned above t o handle various demand and site conditions. Large airports typically combine concepts to handle peak loads. When all gate positions are full, for instance, it may be possible in a pier-type airport to use transporters to service additional aircraft. Or if a transporter airport that is largely an Origin and Destination airport begins to experience some transfer traffic, it may extend its building in a linear way to accommodate the increase. Major airports serving over ten million passengers a year often have one or more of these systems in a repetitive pattern. These become modules or units that can be reproduced to accommodate future growth. Piers, satellites, or linear units can all be used in this fashion with some systematic device used for their interconnection, usually a people-moving mass transit system. In each case the unit contains concourses and gate positions and at least some of the major terminal functions, generally enough to handle the transfer passengers without forcing them to return to the remotely located main terminal building. Denver Stapleton currently serves about 28 million passengers a year, and is forecast to grow to over 50 million by 1995. The new facility will inevitably be a unit terminal of some type, probably a satellite configuration. For this thesis, I will design one unit terminal satellite concourse building, with the implication that the unit terminal will be repeated four, six, eight, or some number of times to accommodate the overall traffic expected in Denver in 1995. The rest of the facility will be dealt with by an overall plan that works together with the sattellites. 2 1

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CD \...1..1 COMBINATIONS v A R I A T I 0 N s PIER ..-... . . •• ... I II @ SATElliTE LINEAR TRANSPORTER FIGUPE 9 -7. CONCEPT COMBINATIONS AND VARIATIONS

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MODERN AIRPORT CASE STUDIES: EXAMPLES OF TYPES The following are examples of airports arranged according to the concepts previously discussed. I will introduce each according to type and evaluate them based on the design criteria already established, and then make any additional observations that I feel will be useful in the design of an airport for Denver. 24

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LINEAR CONCEPT: BOSTON LOGAN AIRPORT Boston Logan Airport is essentially a linear airport with the addition of a single pier. The two linear elements are arranged back t o back underneath a parking garage with convenient curb access. A common ticketing area serves both linear units as well as the pier concourse. This airport is very compact and efficient in terms of the effective use of the overall space. Typical of linear configurations, this terminal works well as an O&D airport. It is very efficient in terms of passenger walking distances for locals, who can park and drop off along the curb almost directly adjacent to the departing aircaft gate. But because of its compact size, this is one instance where a linear can also work as a transfer airport. This airport has over thirty gate positions, and still has been able to keep the maximum walking distance to 1500 feet. 25

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BostonLogan Int e rnat i onal Airport . MPA South Terminal rlmg des1gn 1967 John Carl Warn ec k a nd Assoc1a1e5 I D e s m ond & Lord . In c The 1 . 2 00f ool long bud dm g i s arranged on s e v en l evels p rovidmg 6 60.000 s qu are feet of t er m inal sp ac e on the l ow er lev p l s and 940 ,000 square f eel of multi store y ca r par kmg above ; i ncorporated is th e e qu i v alent o f sev en m iles of s i ng lelane roadway . A i rcraft a ccommoda t1on m cl ude s t hirty-four g ate s where craft of an y s1ze ca n b e hand led . T he c o mpa ctness o f the st r ucture is b a sed o n max1mum ut ili zat i o n o f a hm i t ed S i t e , cons i deratiOn s of passenge r ci rcu lat1on , and the r e qu i rem e nts of th e t enant airlines . Conceptua ll y , t he terminal i n terface p lan is h yb n d , m a de up o f a combmati o n o f t he li near an d the p ier c o nfig uration. Th e two l inear un1ts w h i c h form t h e mai n body o f th e b u i ldmg are la id ba ckto ba c k an d l i nk ed b y a co m mon t i c keti n g hall f r om wh i ch th e p iers sw i ng o ut. W alking d i stan c e s range from a max1 mum of approxi mately 1 , 500 f eet to a m i n imum o f 200feet. Boston Logan Int ernational A irport, MPA South Terminal P l an ungsbegmn . 1967 Joh n C arl W arn ecKe a nd Asso c iates / Desm ond & L ord . I nc Be1 e i n er Lang e von etwa 36 5 m und sieben Ges cho s s en entf alle n et w a 61 00 0 m ' auf den in d en unte ren G esch ossen ange ordnet en T e rm 1 nalbereich und et w a 8 7 000 m ' a u f e i n e d ie oberen Geschoss e e i n n eh m end e G ar age. w u rd e man a us d en e i nze ln e n Fahr sp ur e n a ll e r i m l n n er e n des G e baudes anzut re ff en d en S t raBe n ein kont i nu ie r l i ch e s Band b il d e n , s o k a m e ma n dam1t auf e i n e Lang e von uber 11 km . An d e n F l ug s 1e1gen kb nn en 34 F l ugzeug e jede r b elie b i g en G r oBe g l e1chzei t i g a bge fert1g t werd en. D ie Ko m pakthei t des Term i n a ls erg ab s i ch aus de r N ot w en d lgKe it. da s zur Verfugu n g steh e nde Geland e maxi ma l a uszunutzen . aus Oberle g ungen zum Pass ag i er flu B s o w i e a us d e n Forderungen d e r a ls M i eter auf tretenden F l ugesellschaft en. Vom K o nzep t h e r stellt der Term i nal e ine M i schung de s Linearu nd des P i ersyst e ms dar. Die be i den den Geba u d ekern b li denden Lineare i nheiten liegen Auk ken a n R ucken und werden i n der M i tte durch e ine geme i n same S c halterhalle , an d i e su ch d i e P i ers an setze n , v erbu nd e n . D ie g ri:iBte Gehwegentfernung betragi e t w a 4 60 m . die kleinste etwa 60 m . [ 1 . Mode l of the termi nal, overall v i ew . 2 . Term i na l sect i o n show i ng a t apro n level depl an i ng road ad j a ce n t to baggag e c l a 1 m a t s ec o)ld level en pl a ning funct i o ns a n d cen ing spa c e served b y mai n enplaning roa d level and the multi -sto r e y park i ng s tructure a 3 . Model of the term i na l , east sid e . 4 . Mode l of the term inal. vehicula r e nt r ance are a . 5 . R en d eri ng of the d epla n ing roa d . 6 . R en der i ng of th e e np l a n i n g ro ad 7 . R en deri ng of the central enp l a h i ng lob:, )'.

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: 11"& . Modell des Term rnals . Ges amtansi cht. . Schmtt durch den Termrnal. Auf der Vorfeldebene i e Ankunftsvorfahrt mrt der Gepackausgab e , auf der N e rten E bene dre Abflugernrichtungen m it der zen a le n Wa rtezone. auf d e r dntten E be ne dre Abflug )rfahrt und schlr e fllr c h daruber dre mehrgeschossi e G M des Termrn a l s , O s tse r te . M odell des TE>rmmal s . Zufahrtsberc r c h . Zerchnung d e r A n ku n tt s v o rfahrt . Z erchnunq cJ,, , A b llu qvorfahn Z e rchnunq dnr Ahl l u qhnllP 4 6

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9 _....-I I I I I I --. -. --

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2 . Plans . iecond lev e l ( iround level enplaning) . Fourth level (deplan i ng). Fifth throu h Th ird seventh levels . to u I s . 8 to 12 m , 3 inbound b . 1 deplan i ng road as 6 aggage 4 . 2 bagg • outbound b • off1ces 5 age ms , 9 concess i o aggage , 7 ticke . operat i ons 1'"g road 12 ns, 10 mecha tmg , 8 hold ' parkmg . nlcal area , 11 en. 2 Grundr i sse . w e iteEbe ' o rfeldebene ( Abflug). Vierte Ebene (Ankunf1) . F . ne. unfte b i s s i ebe Dntte Eb nte Ebene ene . l e . nr' Abb . lal ab : 8 b1s 12 : 1 A r iet. he, 3 emgehende s 2 . -6 pa k ' e mschalter ' a W abg ehendes G c . . 4 Bures , 5 _10 Ei, . arter aume , 9 K epa ck, 7 Flug kp hitze . nncht ungen , 11 onzession are. 10 Abflugvor1a hrt • 12 L 12 / l ----/

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LINEAR CONCEPT -UNIT TERMINAL: DALLAS / FT. WORTH The Dallas/Ft. Worth Internat i onal Airport i s e s s e ntia lly a series o f six linear unit t e r minals ben t around a radius on either side of a main thoug h fare hig hway. Parking is directly adjacent to the termina l and gate as in all linear concepts, although here it is separated into six different semi-circular structures adjacent to the six unit terminals. Although Dallas/Ft. Worth claims to be an efficient high-volume transfer airport, in actuality it is not. In fact the design can also make things difficult for the O&D passenger. Because of the overall size of the facility and the use of the linear concept, it has become totaly decentralized. Airlines center around one of the semi-circular units, long distances from other airlines. If a transfer passenger has to connect through another unit terminal, he is confronted with a confusing and inefficient tramway system. Also, if a local passenger parks in the garage for his departing airline and returns on another airline, he is confronted by the same tramway system to get him back to his car that could be miles away. Finally, the fact that the highway and terminal configuration separates the two major runways makes it extremely impractical in terms of aircraft circulation. Airlines with gate and terminal facilities on one side of the highway must use the runway on that side or else they face serious taxiway delays moving around the entire complex. 30

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Dallas/Fort Worth Reg ion al Airport Startmg design : 196 5 : openmg . 197 3 ' tts Abbett M c Carthy Stratlo n (m it1al des ign) : Hellmuth. Obata & Kassebaum I Brodsky . Hopf & A d ler (lmal design) The Dallas / Fort Worth Regional Airport is billed as the world' s most thoroughly pla n ned a i rport : it w i ll als o be the world' s largest airport when completed in 2001 . The airport bounda ries contain 17,500 a cres m i dwa y between t he citie s of Dallas and Fort Worth , abou t twenty m i nute s awa y by car. Des i gned to include four primary north-south and two secondary northwest-southeas t crosswi nd r un ways in the f inal stag e , th e initial construction con s i sts of two primary a nd one crossw i nd . In the f inal stag e the two inboard runways w i ll be 13 , 440 fee t long, the two outboard runways 20 , 000 feet long and the two crossw i nd runways 11,000 feet long. Ma xi mum capabilities lor s i multaneous take-off and landings under instrument flight conditio ns were the major factor in the des ign of the a i rfield system . In the original la yout developed by Tippetts-Abbett McCarthy-Stratton the highway ax is was bridged by pairs of compact term i nal units combi ned with ga rages . The re-exam i nation o f this concept by Hell muth, Obata & Kassebaum, w ith Brodsky , Hopi & Ad le r as joi nt ventur e archi tects , netted the suggestion to house the term i nal facilities in sem i-ci rcular be lts along either s ide of the highway a nd to place the parking in the spaces between the bu il d i ngs and the road. The first phase of construction includes five term inal . ....., w i th sixty-f ive gate posit ions. These fac ilities pro cess approxi mately 10.5 m ill ion passengers ..,.,, 1ear . •.._.I', \ I ( I 6000' I ' I ,_ . 2000m / ------------Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport Planungsbeg i nn : 1965 : Erbffnung : 197 3 Ttppett s -Abbe ttMcCarthy Stratton (erster Entwurf) : Hellmuth , Obata & Kassebaum / Brod sky. Hopi & Ad ler (Ausfuhrungsentwurf ) Der Regionalllughalen Dallas/Fort Worth wird als der am perfektesten d urchgeplante Flughafen der Welt beze i chnet. Nach sei ner endg u lt ige n Fert i gste l lung durfte er auch der groBt e sein . Das etwa 7100 ha groB e Gelande liegt auf halbem Weg zw i schen Dall a s und Fort Worth . etwa 20 Auto m i nuten von be i den Stadten entfernt. Der Entwurf sieh t fu r den Endausbau vier Hauptbah nen i n NordSud-Richtung sow ie zwe i Ouerwindbah nen in Nordwest Sudost-Richtung vor. D ie erste Bau stule umfaBt jedoch erst e i nma l zwe i Hauptbahnen und eine Querw indbahn. lm Endausbau sollen d ie be i den inneren Hauptbahnen 4100 m , d ie be iden iiu Beren Hauptbahnen 6100 m und d ie be iden Quer windbahnen 3350 m lang w erden . Das Hauptkrite rium fUr d ie Planung des Start und Landebahnsy stems wa r e ine maximale Kapazitiit unter lnstrumen tenflugbed ingungen. Nach dem urspru nglichen Entwurf von Tippetts Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton sollte d ie zentrale SchnellstraBenachse paarwe ise von kompakten Terminale i nheiten mit integrierten Garagen Ober baut werd en . Be i de r Oberarbeitung d i eses Entwurfs durch die Arbe i tsgemeinschaft Hellmuth . Obata & Kassebaum / Brodsky . Hopi & Adle r entwickelte sich dann d ie Idee , d i e Abfert igungse i nrichtungen in be i derse i ts der StraBe angeordneten Halbkre isbiindern unterzubringen und die Parkpliitze in de n Freiraum zwischen Gebiiude und StraBe zu legen. D ie erste Baustufe umlaBt fOnt Term i naleinheiten m it insgesamt 65 Flugzeugpo sitionen . Dam i t werden jahrlich etwa 10 , 5 M illi onen Passag i ere abgefert igt werden konnen . 2 c:::_.__ -..:.::1"/ .. . -. r "'7 , • I z ---

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1 . Plan of the Dallas / Fort Worth region . 1 he airport is situated midway between the two c i ties . 2 . Site plan of the airport . In the year 2001 the airfield will accommodate as many as 270 VFR aircraft move ments per hour : this i s equivalent to a take -oH or land ing every th i rteen seconds . E xtending four miles in its final stage of development . the pass e nger ter m i nal complex w i ll cons ist of fourteen semi-circular passenger term i nals . 3 . Thi s perspect ive dep icts the close relationship between a i rcraft and autom o b t le s . 4 . S i te plan sect i on . B isec t i ng the a i rport north south . the spine h i ghway i s a mult i l ane roadway with term i nal connect i ng lo ops . 1 . Plan der Region Dallas/Fort Worth . Der Flughafen liegt auf halbem Weg zw i schen be l den Stadten . 2 . Lageplan des Flughafens . Das Startund Lande bahnsystem wird i m Jahr 2001 unter S i chtflugregeln e ine Kapaz i tat von 270 Flugzeugbewegungen in der Stunde haben . D ies bedeutet . daB etwa aile 13 Se kunden ein Start od er e ine Landung stattf i nden kann . Der Passag ierabfertigu ngsbere ich w i rd dann e ine Lange von 6 . 5 km haben und sich aus 14 hal b kre isformigen Gebaudee i nhe i ten zusammensetzen . 3 . D iese Perspektive zei gt d i e kurze Entfernung zwi schen Flugzeug und Auto . 4 . Lageplanausschnitt . D i e zentrale StreBe , die den Flughafen in Nord -Sud-Richtung teilt , i st mehrspur i g ausgebaut und mit j edem Terminal uber kreuzungs "' -:hlei fen verbu nden . 4 m -L==3

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I ( \ ) . / ---..... _ _ ... ;':'.::. .... ............ ::.. .............. :-;_,

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.......................... .............. .--1 ULriS " 0 ' s , ircula r m odule , section . Enplaning and de> l a r oads are situated one upon the other. The 1irport nas an automated transit system ; computer ontrolled . track-mounted units w ith one to twelve oassengers will transit an average trip of ten minutes rom embarkat ion to disembarkation . : . Sem i-circular mo dule , plan of first floor. Key: 1 > arking, 2 enplaning road , 3 ticketing and waiting f eas. 4 baggage cla im. . E ach semi-circula r module is formed by a succes ion of spare sections of varying sizes ad j ustab l e to 1 d ivrdual airline n eeds . . . R endering depicting the two level roadway system t left ; upper level passenger e nplaning/deplaning acilities at upper right; rapid transit system at lo w er i g ht. . T he interior of the enplaning level (model) . 0 . Lower level roadway ( model) . . Schnitt durch einen Halbring . Ankunfts -und Ab ugvorfahrt sind auf versch i edenen Ebenen ange • r dnet. Unter de m Term i nal verkehren computergeteuerte S c h i enenfahrzeuge fur maximal zwolf Per onen . Si e gewahrleisten e ine durchschnitt l ic he ' a hrze r t von zehn Minuten zwischen Ein-und Aus tieg . . Oberge s chorlgrundr i(l eines Halbr i nges . Leg en l e : 1 Parkplatz . 2 Abflugvorfahrt , 3 Abfert igungs > n d Wartezone . 4 Gepa ckaus gabe . . Jede r Halbring be ste ht aus einer Folge von Seg nente n, d i e in ihrer G rorle den Anford eru ng e n d e r inze lne n Luftfahrtgesells ch aften angeparlt werde n ' z , J ng . Lrnks ob e n die Abflu g vorfahrt , darun er . nku nft svo rfah rt. R echts oben die Ab fertirung szone, darunter dte computergesteu e rte B ahn . 1 . Abf ert i gungs b e r eich t m Modell . 0 . Ankunf tsvorfah rt tm M o d e ll . 8 9

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PIER CONCEPT: O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Currently the busiest airport terminal facility in the world, 0Ha r e International Airport in Chicago is an example of the pier concept taken to its largest practical limits. Here, it is over a mile between the furthest gates. People moving devices would be impractical t o install here, partially due to the fact that they werent planned for, and partially due to the innate characteristics of the pier configuration, with its sprawled out footprint at this scale. Transfer passengers could have a hard time at this airport. At least there has been some attempt here at orienting passengers within the building with the restaurant facility. The round form stands in contrast to the rest of the facility and acts as an organizing element. But even still it remains too small and obscure in relation to the rest of the facility, and while it can be seen from the other areas, it is still hard to reach once inside the building. 35

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O'Hare International A i rport de s i gn : 1959; opening: 1963 C . . . ... _rp hy Asso ciat e s Th e t erminal inte rfac e of the internat i ona l airport of Ch icago repres ents one of the f irst examples o f pu re p ier configuration to b e seen in t he United Sta tes . With a l most fourteen m illi on pa ssenger enplane ments in 1970 , O 'Hare International Airport becam e far and awa y the bu siest s ingle a irport in the world , having abou t 8 . 5 per ce nt of the United Sta tes total. Th e a i rport is also the ma jor transfer point for d o mesti c inter-connecting a i rli ne ro utes . Th e type of structure us ed and its modulari ty have made th i s a irport more f lexible as rega rds chang i ng aircraft s izes and pa ssenger numbers than other more monolithic solut ions . The multi -storeyed pa rk i ng structure recently com pleted is reputed to be t he worl d ' s larg est, w i th space for approximately 9 , 500 cars . -.-,/ _.. .. ./ -----------N 600 I I 200m O ' Hare Internat i onal Airport Planungsbeg i nn : 1959; Erbffnung 1963 C . F . Murphy A ssociates D ie Abfert igungsanl ag en des intern alional en Flug hafens von Ch i ca g o stel len e ines d er erst en B eispie le fUr ein reines Piersystem in d en Vere i nigte n St aa ten da r . M it fast 14 M i llionen abfl ie gend en Passag ieren im Jahr 1970 is t O ' Hare d er w eit aus betriebsre i chste Flughafen de r Welt ; d er Ant eil am ge samten Flugbe trieb der V ereinigten S taaten betragt d abe i e twa 8 , 5 % . Zugleich ist O ' Har e d er H aupt ums teigeplatz innerhalb de s nationalen Flug netzes . Da s verwend ete Konstrukt i onssystem und de ssen strenge Modulordnung ve rleihen diese r An l age im Hinbli c k auf Anderungen der F lugze uggriiB en und Passagierzahle n e ine gegen t'iber monol i th ischeren Komplexen wesentlich groBere Flex i bilitat. Das kt'irzlich fert i ggestellte mehrge s chossig e Par k haus gi l t mit sei nen 9500 Ste ll pl atzen a ls d i e groBte Garage de r Welt. \ l p I [I I 0 li I ll I I L L-\ ........ ......._,_ -..... < ---.._; ---I ------J I I I ' -/

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' 4 Th t lc rnl'rWI fa : 11111" !>Prn Ire 11 IIH 1 v , , .. 1ak• • &four11 af! P I ! he op•n'll( l of til• i!IIOC>'flll l!J :;:i 5 . fnl('llc)l of thl ma.n htJI!dmp oil c • 1 n11nal :i 6 P1f'1 of lprm,nal 3 rtan of unp. fi t • ' " Krl' 1 con2 hot e l 3 a11c rat: ""''"' 4 c.on c'. E. l(rrnlll iol IJtllfd,np 7 M il" ' buil<11n9 ot lr'""'""' ;• ,,,,., ol uppr flo c " (prtplilfll!lp1 8 M t 1'' ' l ulldlflf 1 <•f l t rrntrtdl c,f orounrl flocJf (df'pldll 11\;l KP y 1( 1 7 a ttd f; 1 ''''< t rn, • , ' Jfi!• ( J irrtl H'td OUtll,l\llld l>.i( J (Jilllf (llt'il J t111 1 1•'1' ( 4 kn1gung anlagE' Aulnilhm• Prrf',f i tlod t-:11;! moc l . Erof nurrg d o Flu haf('fl' !:> Inn d1•. v o r 1 rm , na ' 3 6 lf'rrlllnills 3 . Grundr1ll dP S Ob!'rQl!SCho Lf'm•nd, 1 2 Want ' Hum,. 3 Vorle! d . f , lprm>fliJI 7 Hil unlut l>nll'h rir 1 !'rrnrnnl• 2 Grurr drrft d o 01>"1\. W'C I A I>IIu 11 H ch I , .,n,.nal• 2 G IUndrrf : E r Qt'' ( hp•,c..( (Alll,lJI,:tl lt•\1• II( • < 111 c1to Atol 7 '"'1 !1 t bHflebss!ra lt'H • , lt n ( II• lin,; rahw tll'n'1"' (1' 1 t. \,qt,, , ,,t A flugvc f .1 l' '" , ,., ,, . tilt, Gr p k.atJ er q "' .• , f •t-(Ht/( •,,,, ,.,

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6 ( .. I ,. ., " . , ' J '../ ! e hh ' I .. e 3 60' !----'-20m ..
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' erm1nal area plan . Key: 1 en plan1ng road . 2 de ,,ng r0ad , 3 structural parking, 4 T erminal I (1n-1at10nal) . 5 T e rm1nal 2 (do me s t ic ) . 6 T e rm1nal 3 m est•c). 7 restaurant. I . Aendl v1ews of the a 1 rport . The t erminal facilitieS cen rally located w1thin the runway system a nd round a recently completed struc tural garag e for JUt 9 . 500 cars 1n a hor seshoe conf1gura tion . . ageplan des T e rm1na lbere1chs. L egende: 1 Ab 2 A nkun fts vorfahrt , 3 mehrgeschossi ; Parkhaus . 4 Terminal 1 (1nternat1onal). 5 Termi-2 (n atiOnal). 6 Ter m inal3 (nat1onal) , 7 Restaurant. l . Luftaufnahmen des Flug hafe ns. D1e im Zentrum ; Flugfel des l1egenden Abf ertigungsanlagen u m llieBen in Hufe 1senfo r m ein kurzlich fert l gges teii P a rk h aus m i t etwa 9 500 Stellplatzen. 2

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PIER CONCEPT: DENVER STAPLETON Another example of a pier configuration is Denver9s Stapleton International Airport, a familiar facility to many people i n this community . The drawing included here s h ows one of the options proposed for the expansion of Stapleton resulting from the 1978 Master Plan. In this drawing it becomes easy to see some of the problems that are inherent in this scheme. First of all, the distance between the piers is too narrow, only allowing clearance for one aircraft at a time. Any time one of the aircraft backs up, pulls out, or pulls in, the whole lane is blocked to other aircraft. Second, the people mover system as proposed would be costly, difficult to install, and of limited practicality. Not only are the distances travelled great, but it would also be very difficult to provide security checks along the many entrances to this loop. Finally it is easy to see how the spread of the footprint could cause taxiway delays for aircraft as they travel around the perimeter of the building to get between the runways and the gates. Another charac teristic of Stapleton that is easy to see from these plans, is the lack of a recognizable organized form. The airport looks as if it developed over time without a comprehensive plan to accommodate growth. The arriving passenger has no immediate idea of where to go according to the building organization or form, but must rely on extensive signage. The airport lacks an overall organizing space or lobby area, and it is just as disorienting near the ticket counters as at the gates. Here again, the airport relies on extensive signage to orient the passenger. Finally, the approach and departure from the airport for local passengers is dismal and confusing, and again becomes a myriad of signs. The parking structure completely obscures the building, and no attempt has been made to bid welcome or farewell to local passengers. 40

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I D 0 D 0 D I : o I I I ] I AICTYPE NO G.ClS 8 77 7 16 B 7.C7 e 8 757 16 8 707 2 1 1 6 DC 2 8 TOTAl 100 . 0 r><:t?TI C:... Pco FVSEPeopo"' ..... 11 l t 1-..lA.L Cx (""A.I"-...\"'_.t t '-J Pc..;,r I I C AL.l I N 'll1 l'll "WJWII:IO fiiC f tliiiiiCD t • ,,. • l •UT\ UICJIO "._.I'X.L !IIIli •nr:JO I) fS r • ... l ... . I , , -... . . ... . . . ... \ S TAPLETO N INTERNATIO NAL A IRPORT DENVER, COLORADO TERMINAL COMPLEX OEVELOPMiiiiNT ALTERNATIVE A

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SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT A very interesting example of a satellite concept is San International Airport. Here the satellite configuration is combined with a linear part that loops around a central parking area, providing a long curb on the inside of the loop for enplaning and deplaning passengers. There is a good overall organization here. The parts and their relationships are easily understood. The formal approach with a destination also says something to the local passenger. There is a real sense of gateway here. If people movers are installed, this also can become an efficient transfer airport. 42

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San Francisc o lnlprnatronal Airport S t a rtrng 1!l(-Carl Willlll:t k t an d and
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Plan of the San Franc isco region . San Francisco ternat i onal A irport i s marked ' SFO '. The reg ional p i d transit (BART), wh ich was opened some years 10. will serve the airport when its south line is com eted . Model of the termi nal area (first des ign vers ion). 1 ter on, an intra-airport passenger conveyor system II be installed ; it w ill be connected with a branch the reg ional rapid transit south line on the roof of e car park . .S. Plan of the terminal area . Dark grey built-up eas = ex i sting bu ildings. medium grey built-up eas = first stage of new construction, light grey lilt-up areas = second stage of new construction. ill . 4 the f i rst des i gn version is shown, in ill s. 3 and the second one ; in the meant i me , the satellites !Ve been changed once aga in. Terminal, level3. Te tl, l evel1 ( enplan ing). Te tl. level1 (deplan i ng) . ly to tll s . 3 to 5 : 1 deplaning road , 2 baggage aim , 3 parking, 4 customs facilities, 5 operations eas, 6 inbound and outbound baggage , 7 enplan g road. 8 ticketi ng lobby, 9 satellites , 10 bridge bet :!l!n main bu il ding and satellite , 11 future passen tr movers, 12 mezzanine, 13 bridge between main 1 ilding and car park . Karte der Bay-Reg ion; der internationale Flugha n von San Francisco ist mit SFO" bezeichnet. Spa r wird d i e vor einigen Jahren in Betrieb genommene g ionale Schne ll ba hn ( BART ) m i t ih rer SOdl i n i e dikt am Flughafen vorbe i fOhren . Modell des Term inalbereichs (erste Entwurfsver :>n). Fur d ie weitere Zukunft i st d ie Einrichtung ei lr Flughafenbahn gep lant ; sie soli sich auf dem Gagendach mit e iner Abzweigung der S Odlini e der re ona len Schnellbahn verkmipfen. -5. Grundrisse de s Terminalbereichs . D i e dunkelauen Flachen beze ich nen d i e bestehenden Bauten, e m tttelgrauen d en ersten . die hellgrauen den zwe i n Neubauabschnitt. In der Abb. 4 wird d i e ers te, i n ln Abb. 3 und 5 die zweite Entwurfsversion gezeigt ; zwischen wurde n die Satelliten nochmals veranlrt. Ebene 3 . Ebe ne 2 (Abflug) . Ebene 1 (Ankunft) . !gende zu den Abb . 3 b i s 5 : 1 Ankunftsvorfahrt. 2 epackausgabe . 3 Parkhaus . 4 Zollabferttgung, 5 Be t ebch.oroich . 6 Gepacksort ie rbere i ch flir e in-und )gE es Gepack . 7 Abflugvorfahrt. 8 Abferti Jn!, .. -.. e . 9 Satelltten . 10 Brucke zw ischen Hauptebaude und Satell1t. 11 zukunfttge Flughafenbahn, 2 Zwtschenebene . 13 Bru cke zwischen Hauptge aud e und Garag e . 3 / / / / / / / .' / / ' ,_ , 0 , ' / ) / ) / --r--[j ' ' ) / / 4 I ' / / 00' r---l l 5 200m ,-----..., I r. ( , I i I I ' I , . • L _/ ; ( '

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8 6 . Sect i on through car park . 7 . Sect ion through car park and ma in bu il d i ng . 8 . Sect i on through garage , ma in bu il d i ng and sa tel lite . Ke y to ills . 6 to 8 : 1 gara ge acces s an d egress . 2 future ex pansion, 3 pedestrian mov ing w alks , 4 veh i cular r amps . 5 enplaning roa d . 6 d eplaning road , 7 t icket ing lobby , 8 baggag e claim , 9 baggage> chan n el , 1 0 in b ound and outbound baggag e . 11 brid g e betwe en mam bu il dmg and satellite , 12 satell i t e , 13 ope rations a-ea s . 14 future bridge level , 15 future tra nsi t system , 1 6 aircraft apron . 9 . Rend erin g of a sat ellite . 10. Sate l l i te . plan of ground floor. 11. Satell i te. plan of second floor. 12. Sate lli t e . plan of third floor. 13. Satell 1 t e , sec t ion. • • 'Bri dg e betw een ma i n build ing and sat e llit e . see-s . ""'Y to ill s . 10 t o 14 . 1 baggag e hand l i ng , 2 nurse ry . 3 to1 lets . 4 con cess1ons . 5 holdmg a rea . 6 check -in . 7 rTlE'C han i cal equ ipment, 8 vie w1ng t errace . 9 bagga ge> channe l . 10 m oving Side walks. 11 future> pas senger m ovm g syst e m . j t. -.... _--r; . . , =•=--6 . Schn i tt durch die G arage . 7 . Schn itt durch d ie Gar ag e und da s Hau ptgeba u d e . 8 . Schn itt durch d ie Garag e , da s Hauptgebaude und einen Satell i t en . Legend e zu d en Abb . 6 b i s 8 : 1 Garagene infahrt. 2 spater er Erw eiterungsbau , 3 Roll ste ige , 4 Autoram pen . 5 Abflugvo rta hrt. 6 Ankunft svo rtahrt , 7 Abfert i gungshalle, 8 Gepackaus gabe . 9 Gepack ka nal. 10 Ge pack so rti erung . 11 B r u cke zwi schen H auptgeb iiu d e und Satel lit . 12 Sat ellit. 13 B e tr ie bsbere i ch , 14 zu kunftige B rucke n ebe ne. 15 B rucke zw isc he n Haupt gebaud e und Garag e . 1 6 V orteld . 9 . Zeichnung e i nes Sat elli t en . 10. Sat el l i t , Grund rill des Erdgeschosses . 11. Sat ellit , Grund rill des ersten Obergeschosses . 12 . Satellit, Grund rill des zwe i t en Obergeschosses. 13. Satell i t , S chni tt. 14 . B ri.ick e zw isc h e n Hauptg eba ude u nd Sat ellit . Schnitte . Leg e nd e zu den A bb . 10 bis 14: 1 Gepa c kabf e rti gung. 2 Kind erhort . 3 Toi lette n . 4 Konzes si onl!re. 5 Warteflach e , 6 Abferti gungs sch alte r . 7 haustechni s c h e Anlagen . B Aus sic hts terr a sse . 9 Gepiickkan al . 10 Fahrst eigc . 11 zuk un fl ige Flughaf e nbahn . 16 30m

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i. .... -!l j' I I I II_.=:;_7_;;;:--;4--,..--': __ ----"' ' . .. ,.. .• f .I i 6 I I ' . '• 6 J,' • ' / " / "....___ --. ""' ' 6 ----:..-: ( \ I ' ' G 90 30m

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BUILDINGS IN THE NEWS New international air terminal will tripl e San Francisco's capacity for arriving passengers The Int ernational Passenger Terminal now under constru c tion at San Franc isco Int erna tional Airport w ill connect an existing terminal and th e existing lntPrnational Rotunda. Conscious that arr i ving pas sengers will have spent a good m any hours flying from t h e Far East, architects Anshen' & All en took care to des i gn a baggag e area that will be "earthli ke " rather than " p lanelike" -an expansive skylighted atrium contain ing f o unta ins and gar dens cen t e r ed on four l arge bagg age carousel s . Several new works of sculpture will include , in a sense . the struc ture itse lf : sculptor Da v id Bot tin i advised the a rchitects and stru c tural consultants PMB Systems Engineering on t he design ' of the atrium's steel bents and tub ing . Th e F ederal gove rnment joi ned in efforts to ease entry by establishing one-stop health, c u s t oms and i mmigra tion inspect ion. The new ter minal will a cce pt 1 , 100 passen gers an hour , three times the airport ' s present capaci ty. Houston intend s bus facility for both work and glamor Houston has unde rtaken a major effort t o exp a nd and mod ern ize publ ic tra nsportation in a city more than ordina r ily dependent on and attached to th e pri v ate car . When the city decided t o build a new bus ma intenance facility, there fore , it want ed to make a stat e m P nt as wf'll ArrhitPcts B p rnard J o hn son I n orporatec! designed a m e tal bui ld ing w i t h a tt entiongPtting r ed ac cPnt s . The lar g N of two int pr SPcting sPmi-circular wings contains three concentric with stall s for running r epairs on ttw orcumferencP ,

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SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: LOS ANGELES INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Another example of a large-scale satellite airport is Los Angeles International (LAX). Handling 20 million passengers in 1975, this has consistently been the second busiest airport in the world. There is a recognizable order from the air; it is clear where the satellites are and where the main terminal building is. And while the satellites themselves lack an overall sense of unity, their oval shapes help orient the passenger quickly once inside. The people movers that connect these satellites are what make this work as a transfer airport. 47

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--------------------------------------Los Angeles International Airport Starting design : 195 7 ; opening : 1961 rles Luckman Asso ciates I Welton Becket end I Paul R. Williams and Associates Conceptually , th e terminal comple x of this airport is purely satellite . The linear b uildings on the edg e of the central area hold t i cketing and baggage facilitie s at lower level and a i r li ne off ices at upper (ai rfield ) leve l; the satel lites conta i n lobb y areas . restaurants . news-stand s and other public accommodation . Ticketing bu ildings are connected to their individual satellites by underground channel s , approximately 420 feet long and twenty feet w i de . Mov i ng wa lkways located in s ome of the passenger cha n nels prov i d e added conven i ence for the air traveler . Cross chan nelways li nk ing each of the fou r southern satellites assist incom ing passengers who may have to transfer to othe r a i rlines . At present seve nty-four a ircraft positions are availa ble. A t most of the a i rlines at the a i rport , passen gers enter o r leave aircraft v ia telescopic jetways or loading bridges which enable travelers to reach the plane without stepping out of the term i nal. Handling over twenty million passe ngers annua lly Los Angeles Int ernational Airport ranks as the se c ond busiest air travel center in the wo rld . N ;\ I . .' 1: \' I '\ \' Los Angeles International Airport Planungsbeg i nn : 1957; Eri:iffnung : 1961 Charle s Luckman A ssociate s I W e lton B ec k e t end Associates I Paul R. Will i ams and Associates Dem Terminalbereich d ieses Flughafens liegt im Auf bau e i n reines Satellitenkonzept zugru nd e . D i e l i nearen Gebaude am Rande des Kernbere i chs enthalten auf der unteren Eben e Flugsche i nschalter und Gepackabfert i gungse i nr i chtungen sowi e auf der oberen (Fi ugfeld)Eben e Verwa l tungsraume fur d i e e i nzelnen Fluggesellschaften ; in den Satelliten s i nd Warteha ll en . Restaurants , Zei tungsstande und ande re i:iffentl i che Einri chtungen untergebracht. D i e Sate ll iten stehen m i t den Abfertigungsgebauden uber etwa 13 0 m lange und 6 m breite Tunne l s in Verb i ndung . wobe i in e i n i gen zur Erhi:ihung des Komforts Fahrsteige installiert sind . Daruber hinaus sind die vier sudlichen Satelliten auch unt ereinander durch Tunnels verbunden . um die Weg e fur umstei gende Fluggaste mi:iglichst kurz zu halten . Gegenwart i g stehen 74 Flugzeugpos i t i onen zur Ver fugung . Be i den meisten Fluggesellschatten gehen die Passag i ere uber geschlossene Teleskop brucken an ode r von Bord ; sie mussen also dabe i nicht ins Freie treten . M it uber 20 Millionen Passag ieren pro Jah r n immt der internationale Flughafen von Los Ange les h i nsichtlich sei nes Betriebs den zweiten Platz in der Welt rangliste ein . '---r ! ' ., ' I 1 [

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an o f Los Angeles show1ng the posit ion of its a1rports . Los Ange les International Airport is . ed LAX . 1ster plan of the airport . . etch of the terminal com p lex . Key: 1 parking, 2 t i ng , 3 satellite , 4 c ommu ter terminal , 5 control r an d administratiOn bui l d in g , 6 restaurant li ng . ! Ction through a sate llite and the correspond i ng t i ng building. 1 uthern ticketing bu il d i ng seen from the roadJvi ng wa lk ways i n a channel connecting t icke t IUildtng and satell ite. 1rial v ie w of the southern satellites. an von Los Angeles m i t den vier F l ughafen der t . Der i nternat i ona l e Flughafen ist mit LAX ge IZei chnet. >ersichtsplan des F lughafen s . dzze des Terminalkomplexes . Legende : 1 Park :e, 2 Abfertigungsgebaude , 3 Satellit , 4 Term i nal l oka l e F lu g lini en , 5 Kontrollturm und Verwai ISgebaude , 6 Restaurantgebaude . ;hnitt durch e i nen Sat elliten und das zugehbrige 1 rt igungsgebaude. l ick auf die Straf3ense i te des sudlichen Abfertigsgebaudes . 1hrsteige i n einem der Verbindungstunnel zwi m Abfert i gungsgebauden und Satelliten . Jft: hme der sudlichen Sate l liten . 3 3 ;j il 3 I II I 7

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SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: HARTSFIELD ATLANTA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT The designers of the Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport set out to create the most efficient high-volume transfer airport in the world, and in many ways they almost succeeded. Currently, ATL serves 35 million passengers a year, and is rapidly approaching LAX and 0Hare as the busiest airport in the world. Airlines have been quick to use Atlanta as a hub, and in general the facility has proven to be good for the airlines; chances are AtlantaQs airport will soon be the model of efficiency in modern airports. The driving concept behind the design of the terminal.facility was the distance that separated the two main parallel runways. In order to have simultaneous instrument landings on these two runways, a distance of 4300 feet was required. So the leftover space between the runways was made into long corridor-like satellite concourses, that are easy for aircraft to maneuver around. Underneath these concourse buildings is a people-mover connection system that transports passengers very rapidly from one concourse satellite to the next. This people mover system is essentially a long pier that extends from a remote main terminal building to these satellites. This arrangement makes it easy to perform security checks, for in spite of the fact that this is such a large facility, all passengers connect through a single checkpoint. While this has been reasonably successsful in terms of efficient circulation, it is a dismal failure in many other respects. First of all, the overall c onfiguration is monotonous and confusing. The long corridor-like satellite concourse buildings do not lead to quick passenger orientation, and in fact, the way they are used in Atlanta, with a continuous width for circulation throughout, and with no expression of junctures, connections, or major spaces, it is hard to 50

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imagine a building type that is innately more disorienting. Everything here looks the sam e . The complex as a whole also lacks a clearly recognizable order. Because the satellites are so large, they seem to be a monotonous series of buildings with no relationship to the main terminal, which is not even recognizable from the satellites. It is questionable as to whether the satellites should be s o large. For expansion to occur, an entirely new satellite building must be built, and it may take a while for the demand to increase to a point that would justify such an expense. Finally, this airport gives little to Atlanta in terms of a recognizable center for the community. While the ground access works well in plan and while the building could function as a focal point, the overall expression is dismal and characterless. There is a conspicuous lack of a heart in this terminal. Because of the similarities in function between Atlanta0s airport and the future airport in Denver, and since the immediate site conditions of the runways are similar, Atlanta is an instructive example for the designers of Denver's new facility, and has been used as a model in the preliminary master plan drawings. It should be seen in its full light however, as a facility that is not without its flaws. If Denver is to have an airport that is responsive to its unique situation, the flaws of the Atlanta model should not be duplicated. 51

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\ \ " / / 1,410 m ..._ ' ' I

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I I N O R Ttl PARKI NG TICI(TING I I ... I_P,_u"_ N_w_a_N_.I I ol w 0 ""--------= lf1'hTAUY ELR0 A O W&Y SOUTH t'AAKIHG LEGEND LH FL oz r:;;'1 1 . 6. Elovator/Eocal•tor E•c h;m':Je) 2 . O , u / Loun ge ... f•IJ.'I ''.•' UP X L PI 7 . First AiL! t•,. 1.: o.!.!o h r,., RC LAT i-.-t.: ._,1 h;.._., 8 . Gcor9 i a Vis1t01 s Center l ' ... !.:.. r SN .. . ... : LH !",- • . . ,:-, .. ,•1 : ..... . . 4 . 9 . G round ....... , .. . 1 o . T r DL \ VH • ,_.. _ n N\V ••• • !,, ... : 1 ED INTERNATIONAl CONCOURSE <;(tJfliiY C•U I • I'(IUtl m111 . lnlormotion !"(k112. 1 nl•rnatoonal t LJ Calltnu Cct1t e r 13. Lockers [il' s 14.LostAnJFound j f . . " t. ...... -[11]16. Re>lacuant rn 17 .'Ro>l H
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,.AATA IM TEA H \T I Df4_ A _ L _ _ 1 ' d . COHCC'U!'IS 1 I C'I"E':TIOti 0 NORTH IHIIOUfotO ST .\TIO H A CELT A OUTI'\OUMD STATIOH A 0 DELTA EASTERH PLAN EASTEAH AIRLINES OUAATEII POIMT TUHHEL IH!IOUHD STATI0:1 C OUT!IOUHD STATION 8 IHBOUHD STATIOH 0 UTBOUHO STATIOH C EASTERN LOCKHHD ' r--.----D •Rf':T IO N I l I ; r . .,-:! \ .;; . I :; • 0 j OUTIIOUHO STAT10 M 0 SRMUFF f!lOfiTIEA HOATHWEST OZARK P1ED)'0HT i1EPU3LIC ?[ S

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SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: ORLANDO An interesting example of a somewhat different approach to the satellite terminal concept is shown in the Orlando Airport. Here, the need for quick turnover was not as strong. Orlando is more of an 0 D airport and historically has always been that way. It has been more of a resort town, and especially since the advent of Walt Disney World, people come to Orlando to stay awhile. It makes sense then, that the airport is arranged more as an amusement park than a conventional transfer airport. Here the overriding benefit of the satellite configuration is the separation of airside and landside, not the ability for high-speed transfer. By locating the satellites remotely, the terminal building becomes somewhat insulated from the noise and confusion of jumbo jets. And with interesting landscaping and a pleasant, easily understood overall layout, the facility becomes a large tropical park, with the people movers acting like safari tourbuses taking passengers between the gates and terminal building. While these conditions in these extremes do not apply to Denver, there still is a large portion of O&D traffic here. The qualities in Orlando of pleasant, comfortable site design, of the constructive use of landscaping, and of the conscious attempt to give amenities to local passengers are just as important in Denver, and Orlando9s example should not be overlooked. 55

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Gates 30-39 United Northwest Bran i H " " f lor. d • 2 r i nd-! 6 S 9 -4S40 C..e-l a & H 7 2 80 fll"l\f\>t:U 351-)19 0 Oar k 826 6 0 50 Pan.:.,-, .c-"--<-----PanAm Ame r i c a n o------'-<:-'1---,---USAir/Commuter Ozark P iedmont Bag Claim f o r Abo v e A irlines Rent a l C a r Age nc i e s Elevator L o b b i es & Rental Car Che c k -In

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FAST FACTS ON --S-_ ORLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT --World' s Number One Tourist Destination Airport at Cross roads of Florida, designed to enhance the environment 24th busiest airport in U.S., 40th worldwide N e arly 7 million passengers in 1980; average of 335 daily aircraft movements 1 . 5 million square feet enclosed; 48 aircraft boarding gates; 12 million annual passenger capability $300 million initial investment, exclusive of property 7 000 acres, among largest in world; terminal complex situated on 450 acres T"v o runways, 200 and 150 feet wide by 12,000 feet long; I LS both north and south; all-weather capability south landings 2.6 miles of roadway, from entrance to exit Parking for 3,800 vehicles 250 Aviation Authority employees, plus 3000 airlines, ground support and tenant 22 concession shops in terminal; 6 theme d restaurants; United Services Organization and International Visitor Ser vices Centers Permanent art collection by artists of international reputation 1 10 acres of carpeting; 3 acres of insulated glass walls and skylights; 377 public phones $2 million plus landscaping project: 140 acres exterior, 1,880 sq. ft. interior; on-site greenhouse complex 15 mile interconnecting waterway system for retention, purification and irrigation Underground fueling for aircraft from fuel tank farm with 3 million gallon capacity Two automatically-operated people mover systems trans port 32,000 passengers per hour over a length of 1,950 feet in 62 seconds at 28 m.p. h . 200 foot FAA Control Tower under development between existing people mover tracks Customs and Immigration f a cilities in International Arrivals Building capable of processing 400 passengers per hour For eign Trade Zone/42 on 201 acres within developing Orlando Tr a d eport with airfield, highway, rail access; close to deepwater ports Official State of Florida Tree Farm; wildlife snnctuary Ample property reserved for mirrordesign expansion of airport t ermina l to 96 boarding gates, 24 million passenge r capacity annually. Orlando In t ernational Airport, 6000 McCoy Road, Orlando, Florida USA 305/826-2000

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-2-o 3,800 covered and uncove red automobile parking spaces ; 0 Staging and parking areas for buses (24), lim ousines and taxis; 0 A 16-acre rental car "quic k turn around" staging f acility; 0 An Automated Guideway Transit System (AGT); two, 1,950 foot e l evated guideways; o A hydrant fueling storage and distribution system (system extends from aircraft to tankers at Port of Tampa); o Flood-control system with a 38,000 foot bypas s canal LANDSIDE BUILDIN G -A three-level central building whic h houses: FIRST FLOOR -Short term parking, rental car pic kup and delivery, 4 elevator/escalator transfer lobbies, mechanical/electrical plants, uus and courtesy parking, loading docks SECOND FLOOR -Baggage claim and make-up, GOAA administrative offices, operations, AGT facilities and deplaning drives with taxi staging areas THIRD FLOOR -Curbside check-in at entrance ticketing, security, AGT transfer lobby, concessions -including: banking, pharmacy, themed and clothin g retail, news, gift, restaurant and lounge .facilities, as well as enplaning drives MEZZANINE -Skylight bordered restaurant and lounge areas and mechanical rooms. AIRSIDE BUILDINGS -The t w o and South Airside BuiTaings are two level structures with passenger departure rooms, AGT transfer lobbies, concession, lounge and restaurant on the uppper level. The lower level has support and operations areas. COST FUNDING $300 million; 1978 and 1981 Airport Revenue Bond Issues, supple m ented by Florida Department of Transportation and Feder al Aviation Administration grants. AIRLINES Tv1enty scheduled airlines operate from the Orlando International Airport and provide service to more than 60 cities witl1in the U.S. International service is presently provided by charters . . . . more ---

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l FACT SHEET FOR THE NEW O RLANDO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT COMPLEX DESIGN CONCEPT -To develop a totally environmentally responsive terminal complex that h as high passenger convenience features, low maintenance.and operational costs, accommodates a high growth rate and still reflects the unique character of the Central Florida It can accor.modate 12 million passengers annually. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION TEAMEngineering Sciences, Inc. head s the project architectural and engineering team; Gilbane/Mi}ls & Jones, a joint venture, heads the Construction with a Project Coordinator, an Authority e mployee , as liaison. Approximately 18-20 major and sub-contractors complete the 11El Equipo Team11 responsible for the project. Construction began in the Fall of 1978; completion in the Fall of 1981. FEATURES o Two 12,000 foot existing runways; o Landside terminal building (58 8,205 sq. ft. enclosed); o Two Airside buildings (343,7 8 9 sq. ft. total enclosed) with 4 8 aircraft gates; 0 Aircraft Parking Aprons (447,000 sq. yd.); 0 A terminal roadway system (featuring triple level curbside access for the landside building); -1-... m ore --. ---. . . ---

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SATELLITE C ONFIGURATION: BONN, W. GERMANY A go od example of a well-planned medium sized satellite transfer airport is the airport in Bonn, W . Germany. Here again the landscaping and the overall building layout has been consciously considered, resulting in a facility that really says something to the community. The overall organization of this airport is easily recognized and understood, the tower in the center acts as a constant reminder of where you are in relation to the rest of the facility. The tower, along with the landscaping also acts as a processional gateway for local passengers. The geometry of the satellites is easily understood, and their circular nature helps give passengers a quick sense of where they are and where the other gates are. This is a beatifully realized plan, and while this is considerably smaller than the future facility for Denver, the concepts expressed here could also be applied on a larger scale. 61

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Flughafen Koln/Bonn Startmg de sign : 19 6 2 ; o peni n g : 197 0 1ul S c hn ei d er -E sleben (proje ct lea der : Egon S chneider) Th e airport is located fo urteen k il ometers from Cologne and s 1 xte en k il ometers from Bonn . As the term inal complex surrounds th e par king space like a horse sh o e , wal king d ist ance s betwe en a irc raft and motor car are fairl y short even though a i rcraft ar e serv iced a t satell i te s . A rrival and dep ar ture traff ic f lows are separated bot h at th e curb an d in the main building by d ifferent levels . There are per haps two feature s which mark this a i rport a s un i qu e : f irstly . a decentra lization of pass en ge r processing fa cili ties , t icketing , and ba ggag e cla i m w hich te nds to eliminate congestion and co n fus i on ; second ly , a system of intern ational and do mestic pa ssenger traffic b y leve l wh i ch , combi ne d w ith indi v idu a l sate lli te pas sport cont rol , allows co n ven ient interline transfer between domestic and in ternat i onal fl ights. Each satell ite has six enplaning/deplan i ng proces s i ng stat i ons , so tha t at present twe lve aircra ft can be hand led simultaneous ly , and twenty-four a i r c raft whe n the two additi ona l satell i tes are finished . Th e a i rport is expe cted to handle three mill i on passe n gers in 1975 . Flughafen Koln / Bonn Planun gsbeg i nn : 19 6 2 ; E rbffnung : 1970 Paul Schne i der-Es le ben (Projektlei t e r : Eg on S c hne ider) Der Flugha fen liegt 14 km von Koln und 16 km von Bonn entf er nt. Da d er Term i nal die Par kplat z e hufe i senform i g um schlief3t, s i nd d ie Fuf3wege zw isc hen Aut o und Flug z eug verhaltn ismaf3ig kurz . obwohl di e Ab fertigung der Flugzeug e an Satel liten erfolgt. An k un tt und Ab f lug s ind sow ohl in d er Vorfa hrt al s auch im Haupt tra kt des Tenmi nal s auf zwe i verschiedenen Ebenen a ngelegt. Zwei M erkmale ma chen d iesen Flugh afen be i spielhaft: d ie Trennung von F l uggastabf ertigung. Buchung u nd Gep ac kausga be , d ie Stauungen und e ine Verw i rrung de s Flugga stes wei tgehend ausschaltet , sowie d ie ge sc hof3weise Trennung von internationa lem und na ti onalem Fluggastver kehr , di e i n Verbin dung m it e i genen Paf3kontroll stellen in jedem Sa tell iten e in bequemes Umste i gen zwi sche n Auslandsund lnl andsverkehr ermog licht. Jede r Sate lli t hat 6 Flugzeugpositionen , so da B heute 12 Flug zeu ge und nach Fertigstellung der be i den zu satzl ichen Sate lli ten 24 Flugzeuge glei chze i t i g abge fertigt w erden konnen. lm Jahr 1975 erwartet man etwa 3 M i llione n Passag iere . 6000' 2000m N (j Rosr.

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m o f the Cologne /Bonn region . ene ral view of the terminal complex from the rial v ie w of the term inal complex from the east. tvelopment plan of the a1rport . Key: 1 term i nal . 2 ht zone . 3 heating plant , 4 petrol cut-off, 5 emer power supply , 6 hangars for small planes , 7 , 8 fueling service , 9 fl1ght kitchen . 10 opera ' 11 control tower. 12 fire station, 13 helicop14 exist i ng terminal facil1t1es. an der Region Kbln /Bonn. des Term i nalkomplexes von We -Jftaufnahme de s Term1nalkomplexes von Osten . des F l ughafens . Legende : 1 ninal 2 Frachthof , 3 Heizwerk , 4 Benzinabschei-5 romv erso rgung , 6 Hallen fur K lein flug-Je, len. 8 Tankd1enst . 9 Bordku c he , 10 BeIShof . 11 Kontrollturm. 12 Feuerwache. 13 Hub auberplatz , 14 alte Abf ert1gungsanlage . "' 4

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,.:;.' .. t; j . ---5 5. The lands i de of the term i nal complex see n a ero the cool i ng pool. 6 . The par king space in front of the term in a l se. 6 from th e enplaning road . 7 . M ain term i nal , sect ion. B . Ma in te rmi nal, plan of ground floor (dep l a nmg) . 9. Ma in termina l , plan of th i rd and fourth floor. 10. Ma in terminal , plan of first basement. 11. Ma i n term i nal , p lan of second floo r (enp l anin1 Key to ills . B to 11: 1 park i ng , 2 operat ions a reas store s . mechan i cal equipme nt, 4 air intake tower. d eplan i ng road , 6 baggag e cla i m , 7 cust oms , B c fice s , 9 service road , 10 e n p l an i ng road , 11 t i cke t•• lobby , 12 pedestrian a ccess to satellite . 1 2 i n tern t ional fl i ghts , 14 restaurant. 5 . B lick uber da s Ruckkuh l becken auf doe La ndse o des Term i na l komplexes . 6 . Bl ick vo n d er Abf lugvorfahrt in di e hufeo senforn ge Par kplatzflac he vor d em Hauptgebiwde de s TE m i nal s . 7 . H auptgebiwde des Term i nals , Schnitt . B . H auptg ebiwde de s Term i nals . Grundroll d es E r ges chosses (Ankuntt) . 9 . Hauptgebiwd e des Term i nals , Grund ri ll des zw 1 te n und dri tten Oberges chosses . 10. Hauptge ba ud e des Term i nals. Grund n13 de s E sten Un ter geschosses. 11. Hauptgebau d e des Term i nals . Grundrol3 d e s e sten Obe rgesch osses (Abf l ug ) . Leg ende zu den Ab b . B bis 11: 1 Park pla ze 2 B trie bsbere ich. 3 Lag er und Tech nik, 4 Luhansau tu rm, 5 Ankun tt s vorfahrt , 6 Gepackausga . 7 Zol1 Buros . 9 Betriebs stral3e . 1 0 Abflugvort a rt 11 1.. flu phall e . 12 Brucke zum Satelli t en . 13 A uslandsu• st eiger , 14 Restaurant

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. . \ 180 ' 60m 10 ' 8 . I .... . -"'f . ..:. ... / .... . ..... ' f I::. ( . , , I ---.. 9 \_.-----'' ---

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13 12 . The ticket ing lobby on the second floor of the ma i n buildi ng w ith acces s t o Satell i te C at the r ight. The arrivals and departure s ind i cator board is prom inently located . 13. The ticket i ng lobby on th e second floor of th e main bu i ld ing . Th e curb is beyond th e glas s wa ll a t the left and the a1rcraft apron is at the right. 14 , 15 . In format ion booths and off1ces above stan d free of t h e primary structure a s do th e shops . 14 16 . Sate llite , section . 17 . Sate llite, plan of second floor. Key to ills . 16 and 17: 1 pedestrian access to n bu i ld i ng , 2 hold rooms (enplaning) . 3 domestic planmg , 4 inte rnationa l dep l aning . 5 informatio immigration control po i nts , 7 outbound baggage . 16 . An apron level view of Satell ite B . 1 9 . Centra l area of Satellite B . Gate s are cent! around the information k i osk .

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6'' 2 17 ---.-... 34 2 !4 . • A ' ' --9 . ' 6 4 ./ 6 3 4 6 " . 2 '-. • .. " I 18 12. Abflughalle im ersten Obergeschof3 des Haupt gebaudes . Rechts der Zugang zum Satell i ten C . 01e Anzeigetafel fur Abfluge und Ankunfte hangt an exponlerter Stelle . 13. Abflughalle i m ersten Obergeschof3 des Haupt gebaudes . Die Vorfahrt befindet sich li nks hinter der Glasfront , rechts lieg t das Vorfeld. 14, 15 . Die lnformationskioske mit den daruberl i e genden B uras stehen w ie die Laden I rei i m R aum . 16. Satell it , Schnitt . 17 . Satell1t , Grundrif3 des ersten Obergescho! Legende zu den Abb . 16 und 17: 1 B ruck e , 2 Wi raum. 3 Ankunft Inland . 4 Ankunft Ausland . 5 11 mation. 6 Paf3und Zollkontrolle, 7 Sort1erbereic abgehendesGepack. 18. Blick vom Vorfeld auf den Satelliten B . 1 9 . Zentralbere1ch des Satelli t en B . Die Flugsl gru ppieren sich um den lnformationsschalter.

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SATELLITE CONFIGURATION: PARIS Another example of a satellite configuration on a small-to-medium scale is the Aeroport de Paris, Roissy-en-France, Aerogare 1. Because of the distribution of air traffic throughout the different airports around Paris, this airport was limited to a moderate scale. Even so, it was designed to be an efficient transfer airport, with satellites arranged radially around a circular central terminal building with parking above. This airport has very obvious organization to arriving passengers, and very convenient accessibility to departing passengers. Special attention has been paid to convenience: baggage can be checked and recovered directly by car, and pedestrian and vehicular traffic has been cleverly separated. No one has to walk any great distances or unusual paths. 68

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roport d e Paris, Rolssy-en-France , A lHogare 1 t rti , ;ign: 1964 ; open i ng . 1974 report d e Par is (P. And reu , chief a rchitect ; F . Pre \ , P . Meyer, M . Grego ire, P . Prange , J . L. Renucci , "'ob in, H . Lazar) e Aerogare 1 of the new Paris airport in Ro i ssy-en mc e will be , when completed , one of the most ef t en t terminal s in Europe . W i th a system of one-way craft traff i c and taxi-through gate positions , a ir Itt movements around the seven satellites w il l b e f lu i d as possible . S i milarly , circulation flow ou gh principles hav e been incorporated within ! te r mina l interface itself : a t no point does a pas nger have to mov e round obstacles or retrace ; footsteps. Baggag e may be checkedin d i rectly •m automobiles in a drive-through p rocess , or ecked-in by pedestrian passengers in a walk r oug h arrangement. Enplaning and dep laning traf. is separated by level ; between thes e levels is lo ted a pedestrian trans fen; level wh i ch completely m i nates pedestrian and veh i cular cross-traffic . 1ggage and pedestrian movement to and from sat ites takes place below apron leve l allowing aircraft circulate withou t d isturbances . 10n after open i ng th is a irport is expected to han dl e t proximately three milli on passengen; per year due transfer of traffic from Orly and Le Bou rget. Aeroport d e Par is , Ro lssy-en-France, Aerogare 1 P lanungsbeginn : 19 64; Eri:iffnung : 1974 Ae roport d e Paris (P. Andreu , Chefa rchi te k t ; F . Pre stat , P . M eyer , M . Gregoire. P . Prang e , J . L. R enucc i , Y . Rob in , H . Lazar) Der Aerogare 1 des neuen Pariser Flughafens in Rois sy-e n F rance durf1e nach sei ner Fertigstellung zu d en le i stungsf ahi gsten Terminals Europas ge hi:i ren . M i t H i lle e i nes iiuBeren Ro llbahnri nge s und Durchgangspos itionen sollen d ie Flugzeugbewe gungen an d en sieben Satelliten so fluss i g wie moglich gehalten werd en . Auch im Te rminal selbst wurde auf e i nen ung eh i nderten Ver kehrsablauf ge achtet : N i rgendwo mu B ein Passagie r um ein H i ndern i s her umgehen od e r seine Richtung umkehren. Das Ge piick w ird entwed er vom A uto au s an Durchfahn;ta t i onen oder , fa lls man FuBgiinger ist, an Durchlauf stationen aufgeg eben . Vorfahrt und Abfert i gungse i n r i chtungen fUr Ankunft und Abflug verte i len sich auf zwe i Ebenen ; zw ischen beiden l iegt e ine ve r b inden de FuBgiingerebene , die Kreuzungen zwi schen Fahrund Gehv erk ehr vollkommen aussc hlieBt. Der G epiicku nd F luggastverkehr zwischen dem Hauptg ebiiude und d en Sate lliten sp i el\ sich unter dem Vor feld ab , um den Flugbe t rieb auf dem Rollfeld n i cht zu behindern . Man erwartet fUr die niichste Zukuntt etwa 3 M illionen Fluggaste pro Jahr und damit e ine betriichtl i che Entlastung vo n Orly und Le Bourget. ----------...... \ I I I I N 3000 1 000m

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---------------------------------------------------1 . Plan of the Par is reg i o n sho w mg Ro iss y-en-Fra nce , Le Bourge t and Orly . 2 . Site plan of the a i rport . Key : 1 A e rogare 1 , 2 space for future terminals. 3 Aut o rout e A 1 , 4 gen eral avia t i on , 5 fre ight and operations zone . 3 . Site pl an of Aeroga r e 1 . ' 1 . P lan der Region Par is mit Ro issy-en Fra nce , Bourget und Orly . 2 . Lagep lan des Flug hafens . Le gende 1 A 1 gare 1 , 2 Platz fi.ir we1 tere Term1na ls . 3 Autorc A 1 , 4 allgemeine Lu ftfahrt , 5 Frachtund tnebse innchtun gen . 3 . Lageplan des A erogare 1 .

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Plans of Aer ogare 1 . 4 SP.r.t i o n . ce lev el. 5 . age service lev el. 67. Tran sfer lev e l level 4 8 . Enplaning e lev el. 9 Techni cal servlc l . lamng leve . I 10 . Dep d VISitors leve 11 Offices an 12 . Park i ng levels . Plane des "r A" ogare 1 . 4 . Schnitt. 5 Betriebsebene . s : Gepackebene . 7 Transferebene. a : Abfl ugeben e . 9 . Technikebene. 10 Ankunftsebene. 11. Biiround Besucherebene . 12. Parkebenen . 150' f>Om 5 B 7 A \ \ \ D

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F Key to ills . 4 to 12: 1 Inbound and outbound bag gage , 2 baggage access to sate ll i tes . 3 serv i ces , 4 concessions , 5 restaurant , 6 k i tchen , 7 offices , 8 re serve space , 9 road , 10 pedestr i an ramps, 11 ticket i ng and baggage check in, 12 ' drive-in ' baggage check-i n , 13 park i ng access, 14 i mm i gration and cus toms controls , 15 pedestrian tunnels to satellites , 16 baggage claim , 17 parking exit , 18 pedestrian wa l k way, 19 panoram i c concourse , 20visi tors ' ter race . Leg e n d e zu den Abb . 4 b i s 12: 1 ein u n d abger des G e p a c k . 2 G epac ktran sport zu den Sat e l lite' te c hn isc he R iwme, 4 Konzes s ionare , 5 Restaurer Kuche , 7 BLiros , 8 Reserveflache , 9 Stral3e, 10 F gangerrampen , 11 F l ugsche i nkontrolle mit Gep i abfertigung , 12 Drive-ln-Gepackabfert igu ng , Parkhauszufahrt , 14 Pallund Zollkontro ll e , 15 F gangertunnels zu den Satelliten, 16 Gepack< gabe , 17 Parkhausausfahrt , 18 FuBgangerweg , Aussichtsgang, 20 Besucherterrasse . K G

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TRANSPORTER CONFIGURATION: DULLES INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Dulles International Airport is really the only American example of a pure transporter configuration on a large scale. This i s a government controlled airport, and it is perhaps this fact that allows the airport to work in spite of its functional disadvantages to other types of configurations. Generally speaking, this airport does not function well as a transfer airport. The transporter configuration inhibits transfer traffic by making passengers travel from the airplane by bus to the terminal, and then from the terminal by bus to the next airplane, even if the two airplanes involved are only 100 feet apart while parked on the apron. The positive aspects of Dulles should not be overlooked, however. This is an architectural landmark, and works beautifully as an image for the area and a recognizable symbol for airports. This is probably one of the most recognized airports in the world, and that is no small accomplishment. Its familiarity is not due to its unusual character, but rather to the beauty and comprehensiveness of the entire scheme. The need for an airport to be a landmark is important, and while Dulles fails in many respects as a practical transfer facility, its success in building expression is something to learn from, and look to when designing a new airport facility. 73

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DuiiPs lnlcrnattonal A irport il'ltn\' opfrHnq 19(,;• E ln tE'r'latl o na : A trport thE' c•vli a11 P C'rl sp c tft call t o handl J et atrcraft 1 1 tltf' pnmary example tn th Untted of a tran!>p ortel ope ration Although t h ovPra ll d tmenstons and of atrcra . ha •e mcreasPd contmu ouSI) s.nce th e b eg.n n •ng of t e S IXties n 0 senous difftc u l 1es of ad JUS ment for th e a tr p o n ar to b e expectPd O n the o m and the t ranspoes us ed up t o now. w h1ch can on!y b e II ked b) m ans of auxiliar) passenge r sta 1 s o a trc ra of d •ff rpnt hetgh t a re excr.ange ab l c w n tra'lsponers whtch arE' vanable m he •ght O n t hE' o her hand t hE' t erm1na ' can eas i ly b e elong ate d by addmg furthe• bay!>. ---------.. ----------.---...........-l n tPrnalional A tr port rH J [ r\lf'rni'ICI .. D f't tnt (': n altOflclf rlugllaf('n V O'l Wasl ll n g t UII Will dft PrSIF Ztv tt'l uglti!f( n df'l sp,•Zt!'ll f ut dtP A b pr, pung v0n Du5"''lflugzeugf n 9 tJau l wurde I n Of'n U Sll tSt ec da ' w•chtlgsll B e•sptf'l fu 1 dte Verwendu"''g von 1ra'lspone rn Obwo .1 sell aem B Pgmrt dPr SE'Chz tgr• Ja re dt' D•menstcnen u .d Ka azllal rt d 1 Flugzeu gtstanatg gest1eger s1na aurltf vNPrs! kaum z u erns rat t en .A.'lpassungsschwtengk • t <'l auf d m Flug ti!fen komme•, Zum el'lE'"'' konnt n a •" btshE'r verwe'ld te, 1ra'lspo 1 er dt s i ch nut uber besonder Flug gastbrucken a untersch•edl,ch hohe Flugzeug an s c hlteBen la s sen . durch hbh12nverstellbare Transpor t • e r se:zt werd e zum anderen la B t sich der Termt na l durch Hmzufugen w 11e re r Segment 1 n etnfa cher W e i se erlangern

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. Plan of the eastern v icini ty of Washington . The ulles International Airport i s approx i mately twenty x m i les or thirty to forty-f ive minutes from the cen r of the United States capital. Extens ivel y used /ash i ngton National A i rport may be seen a t r i ght. . A e nal v i ew of the a i rport from north . . S ite p l an of the a i rport . Key : 1 term i nal , 2 . heli ort , 3 a i rcraft stands . 4 hangars , 5 road access, 6 arking . . Mo brl e l ounges of Chrys l er Corporat i on docked at 1e term in al. , 6 . The mob i le lounges of Chrysler Corporat ion are 4 feet l ong , 16 feet w i de , 17. 5 feet h igh and carry pprox i ma t e l y 100 passengers . One end of the ,unge i s equ i pped to f i t the terminal bu i ld i ng dock, 1e other end to fit the a i rcraft . Aux i liary passenger l a irs must be used when servicing any a i rcraft with i gh floors . I /, N I f-....... .......__, , ____ ' --......__ ...... I ' / \ I I l 3000' ' \ I 1000m 1 . Plan des Geb ie tes ostlich von Wash i ngton . Der i n ternat i onale Flughafen vo n Wash i ngton liegt etwa 42 km bzw . 30 bis 45 Autominuten vom Zentrum der amerikanisc h en Hauptstadt entfernt. Rechts der stark frequentierte Was h i ngton Nat i onal Airport . 2 . Luftbi ld des F l ug h afens von Nord e n . 3 . Lageplan des Flugh afens . Leg e nde : 1 Terminal . 2 Hubschrauber l ande plat z , 3 F l ugze u gpos i t i onen , 4 F l ugzeughang ars , 5 Zu fahrts s tral3e, 6 Park platz . 4 . T erm inal m i t angedoc kten T r a nsporte rn der F ir ma Chrysler . 5 , 6 . D i e Transporter der F i rma C hrysl er sind b ei e i nem Fassu n g svermog en von etwa 100 Person e n etwa 16 , 5 m lang , 4 ,90 m bre i t und 5 , 30 m hoch . Das e ine Ende der Fahr zeuge ist fur den AnschluB an d e n Terminal ausge l egt , das andere fUr den AnschluB an das Flugzeug . Be i der Bedienung von Flugzeugen m i t grol3en Einstiegshohen s ind zusatzliche Flug gasttreppen notwend i g . ; , 3 .------.... ...._ I \ \ 4 5 6

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r . T 1al building, sec ti on . !. T _ _ 1al bui lding , p l an of enplan i ng level. bu ilding, plan of deplaning level.
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SITE: DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (REPLACING STAPLETON) The site for the replacement facility for Denver Stapleton has been tentatively defined by the City and County of Denver and by Adams County in an area just northeast of the present facility, and just east of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. For this project I am using that same site, with some slight modifications to accommodate the inevitable extension of the runways eastward, to a configuration somewhat like what is shown here. Access roads to the facility are drawn in using the most up-to-date and reasonable assumptions at the present time. For the purposes of this project, I have assumed that the Rocky Mountain Arenal has been largely decontaminated, at least to the extent that a large-scale open prairie park can be established there. This would provide a major amenity to the metro area, a large open space that can be a major state park, with golf courses and hiking trails, and incredible views city and towards the front range. This also provides a buffer for the airport to all the surrounding residential areas. I am also assuming that the present airport facility has been converted into a major amusement park, on the scale of Disney World in Orlando. This is not out of the realm of possibility, and with the increased development that will occur after the completion of the new airport, it certainly will receive enough demand to justify. A land-use plan is being developed for the area bounded in red, designating air cargo, airline service areas, hanger space, employee parking areas, and other service facilities. I will be concentrating on the Airport Terminal Area, which is the area bounded by the two main north-south runways, and 56th Avenue to the south, and 96th Avenue to the north. This is an area roughly one mile wide by five miles long. 78

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Essentially, the passenger entry and landside of the terminal will be at the south end of this area, and the airside will be at the north end of this area; There are some projections, however, that say this facility will eventually serve 100 million passengers a year. To accommodate those projections, one answer is to create a second main terminal area to the north, with a secure underground transport system connecting the two mai n terminals. For this project, I will show it planned in this way, a nd I will concentrate on one concourse building within this area. While this site is not entirely flat, there are no major landforms with the exception of the two creekbeds that run diagonally across the site: First Creek at the south end and Second Creek at the north end. The needs of aircraft circulation will probably cause the airside of the terminal to be leveled off, but there may be some opportunity to take advantage of the natural landforms at the south end or landside of the terminal. This site commands views into the city of Denver and toward the front range that are significantly better that those of the present facility. This should be exploited wherever possible, since these views are all part of what makes the airport a part of Denver. 82

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.............. .r

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PLANNING PROGRAM Because of the overall scale of this project, and the requirements for an architectura l thesis, I will focus on a small part of the overall airport. Nevertheless, for this piece to work in the overall scheme, that scheme should be planned for in a sympathetic way. Especially in light of the criteria established for this project, it is impossible to ignore some of the larger elements, even if I am not able to deal with them in great detail. For these reasons, I am including this planning program as a guide and description of the assumptions used to get at my final project. This includes the placement of new access roads and the enhancement of existing ones, as well as the placement of the parking structure and the main terminal buildings. This will result in a land-use plan and site plan which characterize the surrounding elements in this airport project. Basically, the airport terminal area is the five mile strip previously described: between the two main north-south runways, and between 56th and 96th Avenues. The main terminal will be accessed from the south, with a separate exit from I-70. To use I-70 as sole access to this facility would be a mistake, however, since it has already overloaded its traffic capacity. A new bypass will be constructed parallel to Third Creek, and it only seems to make sense that some access to the new airport come from this road. Initially, this suggests an access configuration similar to Dallas/Ft. Worth where a highway running between the two main runways can connect the access roads to the north and south. In order to prevent some of the problems of Dallas/Ft. Worth, I propose instead to allow for a doubling of capacity, and plan for a northern terminal mirroring the southern one. Then a transport system that is secure and underground can make the connection between the terminals. Chambers Road, 96th Avenue, and 56th Avenue all become secondary parkways to loop this area. 83

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SIZING OF SPACES Sizes of spaces have been determined by using the forecasts for activity at Denver0s airport, as projected by the current master plan, in conjunction with extensive tables, charts, and formulas, established by the FAA, as well as through consultation with professionals, and through comparison of other facilities of similar capacity. I have set them as a starting point, and through the initial phases of the design of the facility, these sizes may adjust up or down considerably. I am also basing these overall sizes on the projections from the City and County0s current master plan. I am leaving provision, however for this overall capacity to double, and will show this increased capacity in the final project, with the second main terminal building placed at the north end of the site. I have also made the assumption that I will use either four or six satellite concouse If, on closer examination of the site and the scale of the buildings, it seems that a different number of satellites is more appropriate in fulfilling my design criteria, this number will change accordingly, while maintaining the same overall capacity. 84

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Airfield Land Use Termina l Site Area Terminal Building Concourse Buildings PLANNING PROGRAM DENVER INTERNATIONANAL AIRPORT (Replacing Stapleton ) 1255 0 Ac. 2340 Ac. 19.62 Sq. Ni. 3 . 66 Sq. Ni. 700,000 Sq. Ft. 1,440,000 Sq. Ft. Parking Structure 12,000 spaces (5300 short-term, 6700 long-term) (4,800,000 sq. ft. total) (960,000 footprint assuming five stories) Total Number of Gates (1995 forecasts) 170 aircraft/hr./pk. day/pk.mo. 10 % w i d e body w/45 min. turn time 75% narrow body w/30 min. turn t ime 15% general aviation/charter (170)(.10)/(1.33)+(170)(.75)/(2)+(170)(.15) = 102 + 15% = 117.3 Terminal Building Passenger Level Lower Operational Level Concourse Satellite Buildings Passenger Level Service Level use 120 gates area (sq. ft.) total 465,000 total 234,600 area (sq. ft.) total 720,000 total 720,000 85

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Enplaning curb Deplaning curb PASSENGER LEVEL Total Lobby Area Food service areas Ticket Counter Area Bagage Claim Areas Rental Car Counter Circulation @ 30% TOTAL PASSENGER LEVEL PLANNING PROGRAM BREAKDOWN OF SPACES TERMINAL BUILDING AIRPORT OPERATIONS AND SERVICE LEVEL Baggage Makeup Area Airport Services Circualtion @ 20% TOTAL SERVICE LEVEL TOTAL TERMINAL SPACE 8800 4400 area (3000 (2500 (400 lin. ft. lin. ft. (sq. ft.) 60,000 18,000 140,000 lin. ft.) 120,000 lin. ft.) 20,000 lin. ft.) 107,400 465,000 160,000 35,500 39,100 234,000 700,000 86

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QUALITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS OF MAJOR SPACES (Planning Program) PARKING STRUCTURE Since the parking structure is likely to be the largest single structure on the airport grounds, careful attention should be paid to its site, size and overall massing, and its relationship to access, and egress roads. This structure probably more than any other, represents the opportunity to establish a relation to the community and form a gateway to and from the facility. I would like to look at the examples of San Francisco, Boston, Bonn, and Paris, as examples of making the parking structure work to enhance and clarify the overall building organization. LOBBY SPACE The lobby space should be a central organizer. It should have some expression and character that is different on the outside, as well as the inside, from all other parts of the facility. It should be easily seen and understood from other parts of the facility. It should act as a rest area for all passengers spending any amount of time at the airport. Restaurant and bar facilities should feed off the lobby directly. The lobby is also where a concentrated effort should be made to express the relation to the community. There should be some major views out, if at all possible, and there should be some graphic depiction of Colorado, Denver, or some other regional feature.

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ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM Part of the difficulty in establishing a working architectural building program for a problem of this nature, is the overriding desire to consider this a real project. I have certainly tried to maintain that vision throughout, and I have approached this project in as realistic a way as possible. Yet because of the overall scale of this project, I have been forced to concentrate on one part of the airport complex: the satellite concourse building. This is no small building and has a good deal of complexity of its own. But it can only work as a building if it is a modular part of an overall complex. Therefore, it is necessary to accept the planning parameters established in the planning program in order to understand this building, and how it fits into the "airport city'' that I have created. Given the fact that this is being planned for a da5e ten, or even twenty years in the future, there will be changes and revisions necessary. I have alllowed for those where possible, but in the end, I am assumeing that certain conditions as specified in the site analysis and planning program exist. The satellite concourse building fits into this urban context. Concourse buildings in general are the most thoroughly used parts of an airport facility. Especially in a high-transfer airport, the concourse may be the only part of the complex that a passenger experiences. In an airport the size of this one, the concourse begins to take on, to some degree, all of the functions of an airport. There are ticketing and bag-check facilities, and although these arent as large as those in the main terminal, they nevertheless require the same attention as to their placement and relation to other spaces. Also, since these satellites will be quite large, and since they have a distinct relationship to an overall ground transportation or people move r system, there needs to be some sort of lobby or reception area at n o

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this transfer point. All the criteria already established apply to the concourse b uilding a s well as t o the whole complex, a nd it may be usefu l to r e s t ate t h e m here: l)the elastic flexible character of the s paces, 2)th e long term flexibility and the ability to expand, 3)efficient circulation of people, baggage , and aircraft 4)the ability to orient passengers within the building, and S)the ability to orient passengers to their surroundings. Certainly the concourse facility is the most machine-like part of an airport facility and it is the place where the high-speed transfer and interface between aircraft and passengers occur. Because of this, the need for efficient circulation is paramount; there should be no obstructions to the circulation paths of people and airplanes. Yet even in a concourse there is a need for some civic expression and some sense of knowing where you are in the world. There is no reason to deny the passenger this, especially the transfer passenger, who, due to some delay or mix-up, ends up spending a good deal of time in these concourses, and this may be his only experience of Denver. Because of this, I intend to explore the possibility of having outdoor courtyards, overlook areas, and large concession/restaurant areas. These areas may be decentralized in relation to the overall airport complex, but I present them in the organizing spaces for the concourses.

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ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM SATELLITE CONCOURSE BUILDINGS Number of Gates Space PASSENGER LEVEL Holdrooms Toilets Concessions Telephone Ticket Counter (mis-connect) Monitor viewing area Bar Coffee Shop VIP Lounge Circulation @ 30% TOTAL PASSENGER LEVEL SERVICE AND OPERATIONS LEVEL Airport Services (fuel, clean, airline cargo) Baggage Makeup Airline Services (crew lounges, & ready rooms arranged by airline) TOTAL SERVICE LEVEL TOTAL CONCOURSE SATELLITE 4 SAT. SCHEME 30 area (sq. ft.) 100,000 (25 @ 3,000) (5 @ 5,000) 5,000 5,000 2,000 14,000 2,000 2,500 2,500 4,000 43,000 180,000 60,000 40,000 4 @ 20,000 80,000 180,000 360,000 6 SAT. SCHEME 20 area (sq. ft.) 68,000 (20 @ 3,000) (4 @ 5,000) 3,500 3,000 1,500 9,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 3,000 27,000 120,000 40,000 30,000 3 @ 20,000 60,000 130,000 250,000

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ARCHITECTURAL BUILDING PROGRAM QUALITIES AND REALATIONSHIPS OF MAJOR AREAS This program has been designed with the understanding that the Atlanta model of concourse satellite buildings is being used as the basic planning module. The efficiency with which the Atlanta airport processes airplanes is certainly worth striving for, or even surpassing. Basically, this system suggests that the concourse buildings be linear elements perpendicular to the two parallel runways, with a two-way street of aircraft between the concourse buildings. This doesnt mean, however, that the Atlanta airport has to be duplicated in its entirety, and it is certainly not my intention to do so. I will accept the idea that linear buildings placed perpindicular to the runways represents an efficient way to process airplanes, but this doesnt mean that these buildings have to be totally regular or totally rectangular, on the exterior as well as the interior. What I will assume, though, for the purposes of this project is that the structure is actually two buildings that mirror themselves along the axis of the people-mover system. Because of that, I will design, in detail, one half of this mirror-image building, and then show on the site, how it works together with the other half in the urban design of the airport complex. The circulation space as listed includes a lobby and courtyard spaces. If, after a few weeks of design, it seems that 30% is not enough allowance for all of this, I will increase the size accordingly. In general, I would like this program to remain flexible at first, since in fact, the actual size and number of gates is flexible and depends on some urban design considerations. LOBBY SPACE The lobby space should be a central organizer, it should have some expression and character that is different on the outside as well as

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the inside from all other parts of the facility. It should be easily seen and understood from other parts of the facility. It should act as a rest area for all passengers spending any amount of time at the airport. Restaurant and bar facilities should feed off the lobby directly. The lobby is also where a concentrated effort should be made to express the relation to the commun5.ty. There should be some major views out if at all possible, and there should be some graphic depiction of Colorado, Denver, or some other regional feature. HOLD ROOMS Hold room should be made as flexible spaces. Wherever possible, the opportunity to combine holdrooms should be utilized, as long as there is maintained a clearly understandable accessible route to the gate for waiting passengers. Because of the scale of holdrooms and their large swings in passenger loading levels, there should be aspects of the holdroom that help make it a comfortable space even while empty. Views out are essential, and a certain level of detailing also helps. CIRCULATION CORRIDOR -CONCOURSE Concourse corridors, like holdrooms, have extreme variations in loading. Concourses also vary in loading according to their proximity ... to gate areas. The concourse corridor should be designed to handle more passengers in areas where the surge of traffic will be more extreme. This will also help orient the passenger, since the circulation corridor will be larger in areas where passengers will want to go , and smaller in areas where passengers will want to pass through. It may be possible to have views out from the areas of the concourse where passengers pass through, and views in to the areas where passengers travel to.

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PROJECT SUMMARY At the start of the design phase of this forcasts of future aircraft activity were made and these were significantly higher than the preliminary ones that were used in my initial program. In fact, they were calling for a facility to handle and over 100,000,000 passengers annually by the year 2010, virtually twice the passengers that were planned for by 1995. In order to allow for this, I mirror-imaged the initial one-sided terminal complex, and created two terminals, one on either end of the north-south axis along which the terminal area was planned. This would allow for an eventual doubling of capacity, while maintaining the sealed satellite concourse system. This also alleviated some of the ground access since passengers could now come from the north along E-470 as well as from the south along I-70. Buckley road then became the logical connector between these points and could be used as an airport service road between the two where rental car lots and other similar functions could occur. 96th avenue along the north and 56th avenue along the south side were allowed to remain as unobstructed throughways past the complex, and the direct airport access roads were then pulled back to allow for queing into the terminal area. When it came to the runways, I knew the configuration I had was not the way it would actually be, but it was the best and only. configuration I could use. Taking the runway layout as published in the June 1985 report, I changed it only to deconflict the the runways, so that no two runways crossed. A ninth runway was and two of the runways were changed to a full 15,000 foot length to accomodate full future air travel needs including major international service. Immediately, then, this runway layout began to suggest buildable

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\ I I

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. I

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areas between the two north-south runways designated as the terminal area. The airspace zoning as defined by the FAA has very specific height restrictions along the approach areas to the runways. these begin to look like the diagram on the following If all the buildable space was used in this the space would begin to resemble the ziggaurut type forms shown here. In addition, there is an overall height restriction of 150 feet for the entire airport complex. From this I tried to group the corridor-like concourse buildings within these areas. Starting with the Atlanta model, this became a series of eight corridor-type buildings connected by mass transit underneath. These were arranged in groups of two to fit in the buildable areas already defined. Immediately, it became clear that there would be a great advantage if these clusters of two were somehow combined into one building with the same gate capacity. This d allow for greater centralization and consolidation of passenger services and and would shorten transfer passenger travel time by making less stops on the mass transit system. So, progressively, I tried a series of configurations as shown in the following diagrams, each with the same overall capacity of sixty gates, and found that the "X" configuration the best. for all the criteria that I had established. The central arrec:\ of the " : -:II could become a major orientation arrea and a major passenger service and amenity.center. Each leg of the concourse could then become a gateway and a grand promenade, either to and from Denver or to and from another flight. Also, by ballooning out II.., II ,., I was able to shorten passenger walking distances, as well as provide a major central area replete with outdoor courts to help people be aware of where they are in relation to the natural

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habitat and elements. In the final maximum passenger walking distances have been limited to 900 feet. When it came to the design of the actual building I wanted to try and stay with local materials and colors, and use them in a way that is expressive of the area in which it i.e. Denver, and the entire rocky mountain region. Concrete was the obvious choice for a local building material that could be expressive of the local area. because this is a major muti-billion dollar civic the use of concrete makes more sense than other building materials because most of the money spent on the project will be locally spent. Working with those assumptions as guidelines, I wanted to use concrete in a way that would allow for a certain lightness inside, that is often not a part of concrete structures. I did not think that it would be appropriate that a facility of this nature should be heavy or oppressive, it should be a celebration of lightness and optimism. I looked at the concrete structures of and of Tange, and I looked at other airport the ones included in this book, a• well as the Pan-Am terminal at Kennedy airport and the Riyahd terminal in Saudi Arabia. The Riyahd terminal began to suggest something close to what I was after, and although that was done with steel trusses, I tried to think of ways the same type of effects could be achieved in concrete. I came up with a system of interconnected hyperbolic parabaloids, which is in effect a high-tech groin vault. When used as I have in this interconnected way, the concourse corridor began to have a cathedral-like quality, with the barrel-vaulted ceiling, and a soaring clerestory lightness, yet done in a very modern, in fact high-tech way. The nature of these hypar roofs allow them to be extremely thin-shell concrete, the major portion of the thickness being the insulating tile

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that hangs underneath. With an overall thickness of between six to eight inches over the entire thirty foot span, the entire roof system begins to appear to float on the pin joint connections at the tops of columns. The diagonal thrusts of these roofs is then resolved with copper-sheathed cables strung across the bay, and in the center aisle, diagonally tel form a of ":-:"t::!s down the len1:;,th of the corriclor. Throughout the concourse corridor, I tried to establish a fitting sense of proportion for the type of space that it wanted to be; in section the center aisle is a golden rctangle, and the side aisle is a square; the holdroom space is a golden rectangle and the VIP lounge space is a double square. Throughout the building I tried to use materials that were expressive of the region. The columns are a sand-colored concrete with alternating red granite and copper accents. On the roofs, the concrete was colored, to give an overall patterning that is distinctively southwestern and to enhance the nature of the roof forms that already appear to have a mountainous quality. The finestration was done in such a way so as not to overpower the already active areas outside and High-performance tinted glass is cut in large panels sealed with silicone mullions and connected at the joints with copper plates to a system of structural glass mullions behind. The panels and joints f into a series of ":-: "es that rei ter<:tte the motif established elsewhere in the complex. The entire complex becomes a series of interc:onnected ":-:"es, fn:lm the overc-:\ll of the buildings as they are configured on the site, to the modulated scale of the roof system in the concourse, to the cross bracing of the cables in the interior, and down to the patterns in the carpet on the floor, the patterns of the glass and silicone mullions, and handrails, grates and grilles. Technically, the roof system requires some complex formwork. But

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because it is so the only need to be once, and the building can be using a method a bay-by-bay system the forms can be reused over and again. The in the allowed me to segment the columns and maintain the yet keep the of these columns down to a level. By doing this the columns can become quite at the ground level, and to sprout to a wider diameter towards the the span becomes and the are also So this central becomes a forest of columns that mushroom outward as they go upward. With to space planning in the I to allow a maximum of flexibility within which specific airlines could adapt to theiF peculiar The outside bay was given to the aircraft, and while for the purposes of this project, I established specific gate positions, these are flexible and can move according to future changes in the aircraft sizes and aircraft mix. I tried to the loading bridge into the architecture by having it fit into a protrusion that holds emergency exit/service stairs and bolts on to the existing system. The mezzanine level is basically presented as tennat finish space. It is assumed that this will be VIP lounges, but this could also be airline offices depending on the airline's preference. Concessions were then centralized in the two ends of the leg, two stories in the central area and three stories with an overlook in the smaller end area.

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PROGRAM BREAKDOWN DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT COMPLEX This is a phased development covering 36 square miles directlyeast of the Rocky Mountain Aresenal and northeast of the city of c lesigned to be A MIXED-USE TRANSPORTATION CENTER to ultimately serve the aircraft and over passengers forecasted annually by the year 2010. Conventional airport functions and services have been combined with major retail areas and hotel/office space on making this a 24-hour autonomous operation with no direct parallel anywhere in the wcwl d. Complex consists of two main terminal buildings with attached concourses and major retail areas above, and three satellite concourse buildings with retail and hotel/office space above. A mass-transit system links the entire complex along a north-south axis of approximately 4 1/2 miles. Total of 240 gates; 60 gates per satellite. 12,000 feet and two at feet for full Nine runways, Seven at international service. SATELLITE CONCOURSE FACILITY :11 shaped!, 15 in eac:h of the four 1 e1]S of the 11:-: 11, and with essentially identical service/retail spaces in each leg. The building is designed as a generic concourse. It is assumed that tenant airlines will have certain preferances as to how the spaces are used, and allowances for individual tenant finish have been made. The Hotel/Office space occupies the upper floors of the center of the 11 >: 11 !' and shar-es an atr i urn spac:e vJi th the trest of thf? concourse building. Other than a suggested massing and basic floor the hotel space was not designed. Schematic layouts were however, and the building as presented has approximately 300 rooms of mixed with conference/meeting rooms occupying the 44,000 square foot lobby floor. A major s.f.) restaurant has been planned for the upper floor; this c:ould be 3, or even 4 different restaurant facilities. The object of this thesis was not to fully develop this central area, but rather to suggest possible uses for it.

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BREAKDOWN OF SPACES AIRPORT CONCOURSE COMPLEX SATELLITE CONCOURSE BUILDING Spaces shown are for one or 1/4 of entire building Number of Gates SpacE? SERVICE LEVEL Mf?chan i cal Roorns (4 at 2200 s.f. ea.) Bagqage Transfer and Makeup Dffices Tenant finish space Total Service Level CONCOURSE LEVEL Total holdroom space Minor concessions/telephones Special Food Makeup Toilet F\ooms Ticket Counter Cmis-connect) Lobby/Transit Station Ci 1'-cul at ion Total concourse level MEZZANINE LEVEL VIP/Proprietary space 10:) t..-a i 1
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HOTEL/OFFICE Lobby Floor Upper level Restauraunt Hott'.:l F
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FIG. 4 • SOLAR CHART-DENVER LONG 104 so'w ELEVATION 5280 FT. 15 ------------

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• • • 40• NORTH LATITUDE PLAN OF SOLAR ANGLES FIG. 3 14

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• FIG.1 • HEATING AND COOLING CHART, DENVER, COLORADO Q ;:::: ::>::;NORMAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS NORMAL COOLING DEGREE DAYS -SUN ANGLE 12 DATA SOURCE: U .S. WEATHER B U REAU 19411!170 , DENVER

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CODE INFORMATION The Denver Building code does not have a section on airports. The NFPA does, and the city and county of Denver is in the process of adapting certain portions of this code into the Denver Building Code. But the NFPA code is not expressly clear in many areas and often requires interpretation. In general, the procedure to follow, and the procedure that I followed in the design of this building, is to break the overall airport down into its component parts and apply the denver building code to those parts. A restaurant facility then must meet the criteria for restauraunt facilities, etc. The FAA also has certain principles around which airports must be designed, most notably the building height restrictions in relation to the runways and approach areas. A 1000 foot wide clear zone must bee maintained around runways, and additional bulk plane restrictions apply in the two directions off the edge of this clear zone. These restrictions are shown graphically in the diagram presented in the summary section of this repoort. information. Please see this section for further

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end of the semester. Currently this report is being evaluated by the airport planners, and it is assumed that one of the configurations presented here will inevetably b e what is used. AIRPORT PLAN : STAPLETON I NTERNATIONAL AIRPORT City and County of Denver, May 1981 This report was a summary of the master plan developed for Stapleton using the current facility and expanding it. I will use this information to help round out my estimates as to spaces required for different activities, as this report is significantly more detailed than the forcasts so far presented for the new facility. PLANNING AND DESIGN OF AIRPORTS, SECOND EDITION Horonjeff, Robert, 1974 This is largely a technical book on runway design and pavement engineering, but there is also one chapter devoted to the planning of terminal buildings. There is good information here on circulation patterns, and on planning gate positions for airplanes. AIRPORT TERMINAL BUILDINGS Federal Aviation Administration, 1960 This is a very simplified diagrammatic book about circulation patterns through airports, and the planning of spaces required according to passenger demand. Although the actual figures in this book are probably obsolete, the diagrams are very clear and may be useful in my project.