Citation
A mixed-use beach resort study

Material Information

Title:
A mixed-use beach resort study on the coast of the province of Rayong, Thailand
Creator:
Yusananda, Chompol
Language:
English
Physical Description:
145 leaves : illustrations (some color), maps ; 22 x 28 cm +

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Seaside architecture -- Designs and plans -- Thailand -- Rayong ( lcsh )
Resorts -- Designs and plans -- Thailand -- Rayong ( lcsh )
Resorts ( fast )
Seaside architecture ( fast )
Thailand -- Rayong ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 141-145).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Chompol Yusananda.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
20114341 ( OCLC )
ocm20114341
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1987 .Y87 ( lcc )

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Full Text

A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY
COAST OF THE PROVINCE OF RAYOIVIG, THAILAND.
A LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS PROJECT. CHOMPOL YUSANANDA
SPRING 1987
COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER


THIS STUDY WAS PREPARED AS THESIS PROJECT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER.
SUBMITTED BY Chompol Yusananda
ACCEPTED
Lauri R. Macmillan Johnson, Director
Jerry M. Shapins, Project Director, Principle Advisor, and Committee Chairman


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for their generousity and timely assitance in the preparation of this study.
Mr. David G. Cooper, a Senior Associate at HOH, who spent a lot of his valuable time helping me, his input and advises are expressed throughout this study.
Col. Anand Yusananda, my father, a director of the Royal Thai Army's Department of Civil Engineering, who supplied me with the topography maps that are not available to the general public, and various kinds of informations that increased accuracy of my study.
The Tourism Authority of Thailand in Los Angeles, California, who supplied me with general informations about tourism in Thailand, and specific datas concerning my study.
Mrs. Rendie Bejarachati, my mother, for her constant encouragement of my endeavors.
Pra Dulnyanarte Bejaracharti, my late grandfather, a man with great vision who encourages me with my ambition.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
The Client and Intention of Study......... 2
Focus of Study............................ k
The Planning and Design Process........... 6
Tourism Functional System................ 10
Thailand - a General Background.......... 15
Tourism in Thailand...................... 30
REGIONAL CONTEXT
Introduction to the Region............... 37
Existing Tourism Conditions.............. 39
Tourist Attractions...................... ^0
Existing Accomendations................. l±2
Recommendati ons........................
SITE ANALYSIS AND EXISTING CONDITIONS
Introduction to the Study Site..........49
Slope Distribution....................... 51
Hydrology and Drainage....................53
Vegetations.............................. 55
Geology.................................. 57
Seasonal Wind and Impact................. 59
Shoreline Study.......................... 61


Existing Roads and Utilities............ 63
Suitabilities Analysis.................. 65
Recommendations......................... 67
OVERALL PLANNING CONCEPT
Development Goals and Objectives........ 69
Planning Concept........................ 70
Development Area - Site Selection...... 73
Golf Course Planning - Site Layout..... 76
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
Development Phasing..................... 82
Developable Site........................ 84
A Case Study............................ 86
Application of the Case Study........... 92
The Planning Program.................... 95
PASTER PLANNING
Concepts for Development Areas......... 99
\
Landuse taster Plan.................... 117
SITE DESIGN
Site Design Standards.................. 121
Open Space and Activities.............. 132
Pedestrian Circulation................. 134


The Site Plan........................... 137
BIBLIOGRAPHY................................... 1^0


INTRODUCTION


2
the client and intention of study
The primary client for this project is the Eastern Development Co. Ltd. which is one of the largest developing companies in the province of Rayong. The company have its roots in this region since the begining, started as a small family business. Today, the company owned a substantial amount of land within the region, both inland and coastal areas. A big part of these land are being used as sources for fine sand suitable for making glass.
The company is not in the glass business but do sell a substantial amount of sand to many major glass producing companies in Thailand, and they also holds a big number of stocks from these companies. The Eastern Development Company also based its business on major real estate developing in the region and some in Bangkok. They are already owned and manageing a few beach resort loadging areas about 10 miles east of the study site of this project.
The Eastern Development Company have been very profitable from its businesses, and are looking for a strong potential for a major resort development on the land that they have already owned or feasible to purchase. I was approached by Mr. Jukkapun Kasikam, Director and General Manager, who asked me to do a study on the given area of about 2,3?2 acres that the company selected because they have already own a large portion of it, and the v/hole area would be considered feasible for a major development. By job is to study every potentials and aspects for a beach resort development, and analyse the given area for the best site or sites. The possibilities for site planning was left wide open to be based on the study and decisions that will be made along the process. The results of this study that would


3
be expected by fr. Kasikam is to be able to show an appropriate amount of land planning for a mixed use beach resort that would work well and contains certain elements suitable for a resort community that would likely be successful. All these studies should also be graphicly illustrated, and site plan should be completed enough to express its concept and objectives.



FOCUS OF STUDY
The province of Rayong is obviously in a state of constant flux and change toward tourism planning on its coastal areas. There are planning and design problems and opportunities at every scale from the region down to improving the existing tourist accomodations. The possibilities for a major development is wide open and could be studied extensively in many different aspects.
But since the amount of time available for this study is limited, only the major issues and objectives most important for the design will be studied at this time. It is neither possible to investigate only in the planning and implementation realm as a planning consultant might nor is it possible to approach the problems and opportunities only as a landscape architect avoiding the planning implementation and financial realities.
Both needed to be combined.
It must be immediately recognized that not all planning and design considerations could be brought into this study. It would not be possible.
Things were omitted by choice, availability, and others by accidents.
The primary focus of this study was to take the given study area and select a most appropriate amount of land on the most suitable ground for development of a beach resort planning. In doing so, one need to understand the basics of tourism planning which is to also study its functional system and apply it to this project. Other areas that should be studied are the existing tourism conditions, both m the country of Thailand and the region in which the study site of the project is in.


5
This was a design - based study and in reviewing relevant background data, only that information directly relevant to these design decisions was analyzed and utilized. That focus was necessary and will result in the most appropriate product possible given the practical constraints.


6
THE PLANNING AND DESIGN PROCESS
Following is the process used in this project that express the different steps and organization. The process itself was originally adapted and based on the typical tourism planning process often used in this kind of project. The process here was developed and adjusted due to many factors and appropriateness of this particular situation. It is briefly summarized by the order of steps from the begining to end, they are:
GOALS:
The goals were set in the begining to express the intention of the study.
It does not mean goals of the planning and design of this project, but rather what is to expect out of this study, from both myself and my client.
RESEARCH ALP ANALYSIS:
This project required at least a basic knowledge about tourism planning. Therefore, the tourism functional system was studied as the bases of how to approach the problem. Then, since the project area is unfamiliar to many people, a background about Thailand v/ould be presented and analyse its tourism conditions in general. At this stage, the region where the study site is located will be analyse to understand about its contents and how they will have certain impacts to this development. The last step in this process is to study the site physically, based on all of the available sources of information, to understand its opportunities and constraints. Then a final map of development suitability area for the study site will be the product to later be used for site selection.


7
CONCEPTS:
At this time, an overall goals and objectives were set for the development, and a general concept was selected based on the previous studies and on the most suitable site determined by the site analysis process.
PROGRAI,:
The program is normally developed or given before one can determine and set the concept for any development. But this study may be considered to be one of the different kind because a majority of the area of the study site are considered to be developable. Therefore, the concept, goals and objectives were set first to determine the amount of land needed most.
Then a general site was selected, and a program was developed based on the amount of land that needed to be planned for. Since the project is on a large area, a case study was applied to find a ratio for division of the total area for different land use that would be more appropriate.
iASTER PLAN:
The total area selected to be developed was divided into six different areas. Each of them contains different characters and uses. Different concepts for these areas were also set based on the overall concept for the development. Then, a land use master plan was produced to control the previous concepts and building heights. The division of this land use was also directly a result of the program for this development.


8
SITE DESIGN;
The final process is to design the site based on the different land use set and stated earier in the master plan. Here, different types of housing were designed directly related to the concepts for each of the six areas. The major issues also in the design are activity areas, pedestrian circulations, and planting schemes.


10
TOURISM FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM
Many factors are criticle in planning a resort development. Understanding of the basis will help one establish a strong foundation that will later in the process achieve primarily objectives of this type of planning, which is to properly makes decisions for the uses of the resource. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss one of the most important foundations of the resort planning, the Tourism Functional System, that it must encompass.
Tourism planning such as this beach resort development is concerned with the system of elements that are involved in tourism land use at the larger-than-site scale. It sets out to identify the tourism system and needed linkages between components of this system. Finally, it attempts to project concepts in which this system can function most appropriately for man within his realm of human ecology.
A beginning point of tourism planning is that of the functional tourism system. The fragmented approach to tourism tends to overemphasize the separateness of the structural elements, such as hotels, airlines, and advertising. Important as these elements are, they tend to confuse rather than help in identifying components important to tourism planning. Without attractiveness to lure travellers, the hotels, airlines and advertising would not be needed. From a regional planning point of view, it is difficult to organize planning on the basis of the structural elements alone.
) Through study of the functions of the structural elements, it v/as found
that they could be reduced to five major components, each one of which is
>


11
a mix of many kinds of public and private develojjrnent, different kinds of enterprises, and both physical and program development• V/ithin each component similar or related functions take place eventhough expressed differently m physical form or by different agents. Anyone charged with planning tourism must have knowledge of each of these components - not only their individual makeup but also their interrelationship. How they can be inter-grated, based on social, economic and environmental considerations, is the purpose of tourism planning.
IHFORMSTION
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PROMOTION ^uibfe fcfcS^PTIoN J>\*£CV\oM
ATTRACTION*
-TH\HG*STO SC£4t>o J.OR6-S TO -TKA.V&U e AT \ S> F ACT ION s.
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TOURAST^
^HAi«ACTe.H\ernc9.
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CULTURAL. TVCneJW^ ^EA^OMAtllY
TRAH^fOKTArioH
To ATTRACTIONS TO
wrrniM attractions
THE TOURISM FUHCTIOEAL
A dynamic system, made up of five very complicated and highly interrelated components.


The following introduces to these five components of the dynamic system that is very complicated and highly interrelated.
ATTRACTION: First Power
A v/ide variety of physical settings and establishments provide a lure for travellers to visit destination region. While almost anything at one time or another may become an attraction, the functional tourism system requires identification, planning and management of some physical attraction. Attractions, no matter who owns and provides them, not only lure visitors but provide for their participation. Attractions may be owned publicity, or nonprofit organizations.
While all components of the tourism system are important to its functioning, attractions provide the energizing power. However, attractions are not well understood and often are interpreted as only commercial attractions. In fact, attractions are the on-location places in regions that not only provide the things for tourists to see and do but also offer the lure to travel. Furthermore, economic impact, even though directly derived largely from commercial services and facilities, is dependent upon the attracting power of a region to lure travelers. Therefore, those regions comtemplating the new development or expansion of tourism need to place high priority on the planning and establishment of attractions.
SERVICES - FACILITIES
The most important functional category from an economic input sense


13
is that of the facilities and services, such as hotels, motels, restaurants, bars, retail sales and other services. Tourist spending on facilities and services provides the major economic input in most destination regions.
It is through the services and facilities for tourism that local economics get their first impact from tourism. Accommodations, food services, bars and retail sales are conspicuous business evidence of tourism development. Therefore, critical to the planning of tourism for a region is identification of the planning needs of the services - facilities sector.
TRANSPORTATION .
Linkage between places of residence and place of destination is a very important component. Although automobile and air travel tend to dominate most tourist travel, other models of transportation, such as boat, ferry, horseback, aerial tram and hiking, frequently are critical links of the transportation system. In the planning for tourist development, it is essential to consider travel modes for all people - movement throughout the circuit in order to reduce its friction as much as possible.
INFORMATION - DIRECTION
Increasingly, all those programs and physical developments that inform and direct tourists comprise a very important component of the functional tourism system. While informing and directing


are not the same functions, they are closely enough related to be included in one major category of tourism.
Communications of all types are becoming more and more important to link the consumer to the product. Simply, if tourists do not know about travelways, attractions, services and facilities, and do not know how to get to them, tourism does not occur. Certainly, the planning for tourism must include understanding of this essential component of information - direction.
TOURISTS
To say that the people - component of tourism is a major one is certainly an understatement. Without volumes of people which both the desire and the ability to travel, tourism cannot develop and thrive. Important planning considerations center around where they live, and what they prefer, what they regularly participate in and their expenditures. In order to plan properly for tourist development, it is essential to understand people as tourists or plans may miss projected goals.


Amverdam I. |f») St.Paul I. If'I


15
THAILAND - A GENERAL BACKGROUND
GEOGRAPHY
Thailand, formerly known as Siam, occupies 51^»000 square kilometers (198,500 sq. mi.) in the heart of main land Southeast Asia. The shape of the country has often been compared to the head of an elephant with its trunk extending down the Malay Peninsula.
Much of Thailand's history and politics are the result of its axial position in Southeast Asia. Although Thailand does not touch China or Vietnam, areas of both countries are within 100 kilometers of Thailand. Thailand has four topographical areas, they ares
* The rich agricultural central region is dominated by Thailand's most important river, the Chao Phraya. This river supports an extensive and highly developed network of canals and irrigation projects and has long been considered the "rice bowl" of Asia. It supports a concentrated rural population and, at its southeast edge at the of the Gulf of Thailand, is also the site of metropolitan Bangkok, industrial business, and cultural center. *
* The northeast region, the large Khorat plateau rising about 30^ meters (1,000 ft.) agove the certral plain, comprises roughly one-third of the country. Much of this land is poor and suffers from seasonal droughts or floods. The topography makes irrigation and control difficult, but planned irrigation and flood control projects


SOCIALIST REPUBLIC Of THE UNION OF BURMA
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF LA06
Indonesia
asean: are composed
OF SIX SOUTH-EAST ASIA COUNTRIES
THE KINGDOM OF THAILAND AND HER NEIGHBORS


17
on the tributaries of the Mekong River, on the Laotian border, have improved agricultural potential.
* Northern Thailand, primarily a region of mountains and steep river valleys, covers about one-quarter of the nation's area. The thickly forested mountains, running north and south, provide valuable timber while the narrow but fertile valleys, watered by the many rivers of the region, support intensive rice cultivation.
* The Southern region, a long sliver of land extending from central Thailand southward to Malaysia, is covered mainly by rain forest. Rubber and coconut cultivation and tin mining are the important economic activities in the region.
Thailand's tropical climate is dominated by monsoons, with high temperatures and humidity. Most regions have three seasons rainy (June-October), cool (November-February), and hot (March-May). Rainfall varies but generally is heaviest in the south and lightest in the northeast.


18
PEOPLE
Thailand's society is relatively homogeneous. More than 85% of the people speaks a dialect of Thai and share a common culture. This core population is made up of the Central Thai (36$ of the population), Thai-Lao (32%), Northern (8%), and Southern Thai (8%). The Tai language of the Central Thai is the official language, taught in school and used in government. Several other small Tai-speaking groups include the Shan, Lue, and Phutai. The largest minorities are the Chinese, about 8% of the population, and the Malay-speaking Muslims in the south, with 3%•
Other groups include the Khmer, the Mon, who are substantially assimilated with the Thai, and the Vietnamese. Smaller, predominantly mountaindwelling groups total about 500|000.
Thai society is predominantly rural and most heavily concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the center, northeast, and north. The urban population (15%) is concentrated in Bangkok. With one of the world's fastest growing populations, Thailand v/as ranked in 1975 as the 17th most populous country. Realizing the dangers posed for social and economic development by its rapidly expanding young population (median ate of 19) and its high dependency ratio, the government sponsored a successful family planning program. Largely as a result of this program, the annual population growth rate has declined dramatically from 3.1% in i960 to less than 2% in 1981. Life expectancy increased from 51 years in i960 to 62 years in 1979*


19
Universal free public education is being expanded from ^ to 7 years. Education is the largest item in the Thai budget, accounting for more than 20$ of the total. In 1979» 96$ of primary and 29$ of secondary school-age children were enrolled in school, and about 5$ were in universities or colleges.
The attention paid to education has also resulted in a substantially higher adult literacy rate. According to World Bank data, the adult literacy rate had risen to 86$ by 1976, as compared to 50$ only 20 years earlier.
Theravada Buddhism is the religion of more than 90$ of the Thai. The government pemits religious freedom, however, and many other religions are represented. Spirit worship and animism are also important in Thai religious life.


20
HISTORY
Southeast Asia has been inhabited by humans for more than half a million years. Recent archeological studies suggest that by ^000 D.C., communities in Thailand has emerged as centers of early bronze metallurgy. This accomplishment, together with the cultivation of wet rice, provided the impetus for social and political organization, hew evidence suggests that these early technological innovations may have originated in Thailand and other places in Southeast Asia, then transmitted to China, not vice versa as long believed. The Tai language links groups in southern China and modern Thailand. Strong evidence exists of migrations from southern China to Southeast Asia in the sixth and seventh centuries A.D., but earlier migrations, possibly from south to north, are less well understood. The early history of Thailand was a complex struggle for territory and pov/er among the Malay, Tai, lion, and Khmer peoples.
The Thai date the founding of their nation to the 13th century. According to tradition, in 1238 Tai chieftains overthrew the Khmer at Sukhotai, establishing the Tai Kingdom. At this time, the people in Sukhotai adopted the name Thai to distinguish themselves from other Tai-speaking people under the rule of foreign prices. After the political decline of the Sukhotai Kingdom with the death of its energetic King Ramkhamhaeng (Rama the Great), a new, centralized Thai Kingdom emerged in 1350 with its center at Ayutthaya on the Chao Phraya River. Rama Thibodi, the first ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, made two extremely important contributions to Thai history: the establishment


21
and promotion of Theravada Buddhism as the official religion and the compilation of the Dharmashastra, a legal code based on a Hindu source and on Thai custom. The Dharmashastra remained effective until the late 19th century. The Ayutthaya Kingdom had some contact with the West, beginning with the Portuguese in the 16th century, but relations with its neighbors in Southeast Asia were of primary importance until the 19th century.
Toward the end of the 18th century, Burmese armies overwhelmed the kingdom. Rama I, founder of the present ruling dynasty, was one of the leaders who eventually drove out the Burmese. He established the capital Bangkok, at its present location in 1782.
His successors, especially after the British victory in Burma in 1826, became increasingly preoccupied v/ith the threat of European colonialism.
It is a source of great pride to the Thai that theirs is the only country in South and Southeast Asia never colonized by a European


22
power. The Thai understood the necessity of flexibility and adaptability. Believing that "the strength of bamboo was its ability to bend with the wind," they adapted themselves to the pressures of foreign powers to preserve the nation's independence.
Rama III began the process of accommodating to Western power with negotiation of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the British in 1826. The United States began diplomatic exchange with Siam in 1833* More important steps in this direction were made by Rama IV, known in the West as King Mongkut, and by Rama V (King Chulalongkorn), who carried out a virtual revolution of modernization in the Thai Government during the last quarter of the 19th century. These monarchs combined diplomatic skill with recognition of the need to modernize the state structure, making it possible for Thailand to survive as an independent state.
European predominance in Southeast Asia was challenged in the 20th century by the Japanese When Japan struck at the Philippines and iialaya in December 19^1, it also invaded Thailand. Faced with overwhelming Japanese power, which quickly caused the collapse of Western forces in the area, Thailand acceded to Japanese demands. Although nominally allied with Japan during World War II, Thailand was effectively an occupied country.
The defeat of Japan was followed by an era of increasingly close relations with the United States, which had extended assistance to Thailand in the immediate postwar period. Thailand saw the


23
victory of communist forces on mainland China in 19*1-9 as a potential threat to its independence. It became an active participant, along with the United States, in efforts to check communist expansion in Southeast Asia. Since 1975* Thailand has served as a country of first asylum for hundreds of thousands of refugees from communist Indochina. For its humanitarian policies in this area, Thailand and especially the royal family have received acclaim from the international organizations supporting refugee relief.
The present monarch, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), and Queen Sirikit have four children, including one son, Prince Wachiralongkon, who was invested as crown price in December 1972. The royal family contributes time and energy to many social and development programs.
ECONOMY
Endowed with considerable natural resources, Thailand has demonstrated impressive growth in its domestic economy. Foreign trade and investment are an important part of the economy, and external conditions substantially influence the revenues of the Thai Government and the incomes of private citizens.
Agriculture has been the most important economic activity -nearly 80>i of the population live in rural areas. Among urban areas, only Bangkok has a population of more than 200,000. The


24
staple food crop is rice. Harvests are consistently larger than domestic consumption, and Thailand exports large quantities of food each year, the only developing country to do so. Other important crops for domestic consumption and export are manioc (the source of tapioca), corn, rubber, and sugarcane. Major nonagri-cultural exports are textiles, tin, and electronics.
Industry and the services sector are also important and have contributed to the consistently rapid growth of the Thai economy, which has averaged more than llfj annually over the past 30 years. After consideration of price inflation and population growth, the real per capita income of Thai citizens has grown at more than 3$
per year and is now estimated at more than $828 annually. This places Thaland well into the middle range of the developing nations.
The economy is managed within a free enterprise system. Government regulation of the domestic economy is exercised mainly through the banking system. Certain


25
controls are placed on exports of commodities, such as rice and rubber, that are considered to be of strategic importance.
A system of "promotion" for domestic and foreign investment includes tax incentives, favorable tariff treatment, and other benefits as agreed with the Board of Investment. Applications for promotion are reviewed for consistency with the 5-year plan for social and economic development. Objectives of the current plan include closing the income gap and alleviating the inequitable distribution of social services. The government seeks balanced economic growth by diversifying industrial production.
It promotes enterprises that will produce agricultural products, minerals, chemicals, mechanical and electrical equipment, and other products and services. It also promotes enterprises which will produce for export or which are labor intensive.
Social and economic treads include increasing urbanization, expansion of industrial activity at a faster rate than agriculture, and growth of incomes in service industries. These trends are often associated with growth and modernization, but they have also produced problems that the Thai Government recognizes and seeks to relieve. Bangkok faces housing problems and severe pressure on basic services, including water, energy, and trans-prot facilities. L'any observers have noted that the area of land under cultivation is unlikely to increase. Increases in incomes will be gained through greater productivity of the labor and land now in use and by development of industrial production. To meet the problems that development poses, a national planning agency


26
has teen established to set priorities. Budgetary resources alloted for implementation of the national plan have been increased in each of the recent annual budgets.
Tourism is an important growth industry. Thailand attracts travelers from all areas of the world, who come to visit the temples, purchase gems and handcrafts, and to enjoy the breaches and resorts.
Thailand's domestic economy is closely tied to its exports and is closely tied to its exports and is extremely sensitive to fluctuations in the international financial and commodity markets.
In recent years, high international interest rates and declining prices for many exports have slowed Thai economic growth.
Importing petroleum for more than 56$ of its energy needs, Thailand has been affected by skyrocketing prices. Large natural gas deposits have been discovered in the Gulf of Thailand, however, and a petroleum-based industry is now developing. These discoveries are reducing Thailand's dependence on imported fuels.
In its external relations, Thailand is a member of the ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) preferential trading arrangement but trades principally with Japan, the United States, the countries of the European Community, and Australia. Thailand also has concluded trade agreements with socialist countries, including the U.S.S.R., Czechoslovakia, and others. Agricultural


2?
commodities are the primary exports, and fuels are imported under these arrangements.
Foreign investment is important to Thailand. Multilateral financial institutions, such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and foreign governments provide official credits. Large-scale energy-related projects have been financed from abroad, including the development of gas resources in the Gulf of Thailand, the exploitation of lignite (brown coal) deposits in the northeast, and transportation and electricity supply throughout the country. Private investment is encouraged. Most important sectors of the economy are privately owned and operated, and the Royal Thai Government recognizes that the continued supply of new capital will be necessary to achieve further growth.
The Governemnt of Thailand recently has joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and has recently ratified tariff understandings achieved with the United States during the "Kennedy Round" of negotiations in 1979*
Thailand belongs to the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT) and continues to cooperate with the United States through a bilateral agreement on textiles. In its relations with the other ASEAN states, Thailand has concluded agreements to further develop cooperation in economic, trade, and cultural matters.


28
Although predictions are always difficult and the economy has encountered some problems (trade deficits and external debt), it is likely that the Thai economy will continue to grow at a strong rate and that recent trends will continue. Exports will increas and diversify, and industrial and service sectors will expand more rapidly than agriculture.
EOREIGli RELATIONS
Thailand's history of freedom from formal Western colonialism sets the country apart from its neighbors. Preservation of the nation's independence, through flexible and pragmatic diplomacy, continues to be the keystone of government policy.
Thailand's foreign policy includes support for ASEAII in the interest of regional stability and emphasis on the security relationship with the United States.
Thailand participates in internatioaland regionalorganizations.
It has developed increasingly close ties with most other Southeast Asian countries, especially with the other ASEAII states - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore. heetings of the ASEAil prime ministers are held annually, l^egional cooperation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters.
Since the Vietnamese occupation of Kampuchea in early 1979* Thailand's primary regional foreign policy concern has become its eastern frontier. In addition to the Vietnamese troops there,


29
hundreds of thousands of Khmer (native Kampucheans) and Indochinese refugees have crossed into Thailand from Kampuchea. Thai relations with its eastern neighbors will remain the country's most press-
.. ..j. .v. ...
ing foreign policy issue.


30
TOURISM I INI THAILAND
Tourism is considered to be one of the major industries in Thailand, although about 80$ of the economy is based on the agricultural products, because it generates over a billion dollars fro international tourists annually. Thr government is fully supports tourism in Thailand and promote it internation-lly through the Tourist Authority of Thailand that have the head quarter in Bangkok, and many offices in various major cities of the world. The number of internal tourists and international tourists have been increasing rapidly especielly in the past few years. Last year, the total number of international tourists increased 1 4$ over the total number in 1985» based on the annual report by the Tourist Authority of Thailand.
There are both international and domistic tourists travels throughout the various part of the Kingdom of Thailand. Domistic tourists are usually those of the weekend vacationers that tends to travel within a maximum driving time of about no more than 2 to 3 hours around their home cities. Many of these tourists are those in the city of Bangkok which have a population of about 5*5 million people. The number of domistic tourists is usually based on the economy and different time of year, but it is constant and easy to project. Therefore, this chapter v/ill focus on the international tourists v/ho have a great impact over the tourism and economy of Thailand.
The major number of tourists arrived in Thailand can be projected by the number of arrivals at Bangkok International Airport annually. Last year, the total number increased by 14$ over the number of 1985's, and sources of where these international tourists came from can be studied by the following:


31
The total number of tourists arrived at Bangkok International Airport in 1986 is 2,002,188 people. The majority of this number are the tourists from Eastern Asia and Pacific areas which have a total number of 682,536 people, increased 16$ since 1985- The tourists from the European nations have a total of 583,126 people, increased 21$; from the Americas were 228,492 people, increased 13$ » from the Southern Asian Countries were 204,725 people, decreased 5$ » 109,825 people from the Kiddle-East, increased 6$ ; and 13,482 people from the Africas, increased 22$.
fcost of the tourists who arrived by airplanes are the Japanese, 249,010 people, increased 15$ since 1985 J the Americans, 184,222 people, increased 15$ ; and 134,961 people from the European nations, increased 15$ also.
The average length of stay was studied from January to November of 1986, the average length is 6 days, increased from the past year, 1985, which had an average length of stay of 4 days.


32
The number of tourists who visits Thailand has been increasing since a small declined in 1983, and the rate is projecting to be even higher in the near future. The Tourist Authority of Thailand had also recently studied the major tourists's destinations of the following major general regions that are most popular. The results of the studies are:
BANGKOK
There were 73 hotels with 16,006 rooms which increased by 7 hotel establishments, or 1,123 additional rooms since 1983* The hotel guest arrival' length of stay averaged 2.71 days. The average occupancy rate of last year was 61.16%. The number of hotel arrival guests were 1.23 million divided into 88,000 Thais and 1.14 million international tourists. Most of the foreigners came from Japan,
Hong Kong, and United States of America. January was the peak month and June was the lowest month.
CHIANG MAI
There were 126 accommodation establishments of various types of lodging with 5,1S5 rooms which increased by 87 rooms since 1983.
The average length of stay of guest was 2.96 days. The average occupancy rate of last year was 52.197°* The number of guest arrival were 0-39 million divided into 0.25 Thais and 0.14 international tourists. Most of the foreigners came from the U.S.A., France, West Germany, U.K., Hong Kong and Singapore. November and December were the peak months and June and September were the lowest months.


MAP OF THAILAND SHOWING MAJOR TOURIST DESTINATIONS


34
PATTAYA
There v/ere 152 accomondations of various types v/ith 8,64-7 rooms which increased by 1,005 rooms from 1983* The average length of stay of guest arrivals was 3*99 days. The average occupancy rate was 4-8.13?$. The number of guest arrivals were 0.59 million divided into 0.16 million Thais and 0.4-3 million internal tourists. Most of the foreigners came from West Germany, the Middle-East, Hong Kong, U.K., Japan, and the U.S.A.. The peak season was in December and January, and the low season was in May and June.
PHUKET
Having the nuiYber of 96 accommondation establishments of various types with 2,878 rooms available, occupancy rate throughout 1986 v/as averaged 47*65/^* Total of guest arrivals was 0.23 million with average length of stay of 3*58 days. Of this number, 0.14 million v/ere Thais and 0.09 million were foreigners which comprised visitors from West Germany, United Kingdom, Malaysia, Australia, United States, and Singapore. December was the peak month and June was the lowest month.
HAT YAI
With an increase of 296 rooms over the year 1985» Hat Yai had a total of 4-,078 rooms available in 60 hotels, showing occupancy rates of 62.50?$. Hotel guest arrivals totalled 0.82 million; half of this number were Thais, and the other half were foreigners which mostly composed of visitors from Malaysia, 65?$, and visitors from Singapore 30?$. Their length of stay averaged 2.02 days. The peak season was from December to February, and the low is September.


35
SUNGAI KOLOK
There are hotels with 1,090 rooms available, increased by 2^-9 rooms since 198*1-. Occupancy rates in 1986 averaged 56.28%, and 1.27 days was the average length of stay for the guests which totalled 0.25 million. Of this number, 0.09 millon v/er Thais, 0.1A million were Malaysians, and 0.01 million were from Singapore.
There was no definite period for peak or low seasons, depending on the situations, occurrences or annual events. For 1986, the high season was from March to July, and the low season was from September to November.
In conclusion, the previous studies show the need for more accommendations except in Bangkok where a large number is already at its limits. There are already attractions throughout the country that draws these tourists, and there is a potential for beach resort developments to draw even more domistic and international tourists. Since the large number of domistic tourists are in Bangkok, the destination beach resort should not be too far away. The study site is about two hours away by driving, therefore, its potential is high, even for majority of the international tourists who mostly arrives at the Bangkok International Airport.


REGIONAL CONTEXT


37
INTRODUCTION TO THE REGION
The province of Rayong is located on the eastern part of Thailand. The southern part of the region is completely bordered by the ocean, a part of the Gulf of Thailand, l/ith a total area of about 1,388 square miles, it is composed of many towns, small and large, and a capital city called "The city of Rayong". This general region is about 120 miles from Bangkok, a major potential sources of tourist for this resort development, and about ^5 miles from another existing beach resort north-west of this region. Present population of 338,^81 pepple spread through the many communities within the region, and a largest number of this total population is in the City of Rayong. The major economy of this province is based on the farming and fishing industries where a large number of the population is composed of.
There are light industrial areas such as sand mines for glass factories, and a small natural gas refinary plant in the region. But they have little influrence over the environment other than the positive impact on the econoray.
The landscape in this region can be devided into two different types, those of the shore-line landscape which is composed of the white sand beaches with small rolling hills and salt tallerated plants, and the areas further inland with taller hills along with large plains and dense vegetation. i.uch of the areas where not in use for farming or other industries are left un-touched with natural environment. And most areas on the coast, since salty soils and high mixture of salt in the air is not suitable for farming, are remaining undeveloped. There are some development on the coast for fishing communities on the clam water bay areas, and some housing are starting to develop on the certain parts of the coast also.




39
EXISTING TOURISM CONDITIONS
An 0x1 s tins beach resort ^5 miles away from this region has already maximised its development capacity, and demand for resort homes and a general vacation resort is increasing rapidly from both internal and international tourists. This region is well aware of this matter and the local government are encouraging development for tourism on its coastal areas. At the present time, some development have been going on already and increasing rapidly. The existing attractions, one of the most importion factors m tourism functional system, will be studied and noted as. they will have influrence over the planning of this beach resort. The following will also list the existing lodging and the number of units available.


40
TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
There are many types of attraction in this region to be considered for potential tourists. The general types are those of the historic significance, religious significance, and the natural significance.
HISTORIC SIGl'lTPICAPOE ATTRACTIONS
A shrine of "king bint", a king v;ho lived about 200 years ago. his significance is highly respected by all people in regaining freedom back from Burma after only months of loseing a war, and Thailand have never again lose her independent up to today. This shrine is located near the City of Rayong.
The statue of "Cunthorn Pue", a famous poet whose writing is still widely used to study the basic of Thai language in school. It is ten miles on freeway 3 west of the city of Rayong, and five miles south of that freeway.
The statue of a navy admiral who is known as a father of the royal Thai's navy. It is located about 15 miles away from the city of Rayong along the eastern coast area.
RELIGIOUS SI GRIPI GAUGE ATTRACTIONS
"Pradue" temple, is famous for its unique reclining budda in the main building. The temple is in the city of Rayong.
Temple on a small island, one mile south of the city of Rayong. An ancient temple dated back to several hundred of years that have significance in its


41
architecture.
NATURAL ATTRACTIONS
There are several beaches and bay areas on the eastern coast east of the city of Rayon£ and mostly east of the study site that have already been established for tourism attraction due to their coastal location, and there are many existing lodging on these areas available for tourists that will be later listed.
"Sahat" island, a small island 20 minutes on boat away from the city of Rayong. There are a few lodges on the island and its cristle clear water and white fine sand beaches along with beautiful tropical island environment attracts tourists.
"Samed" island, a large island with about 180,000 acres is a major attraction for existing tourists because of its many beautiful beaches and tropical island forest. The forest on this island had been declaired a national forest since 1974 to preserve its unique environment and attractiveness for the island. The island contains many existing lodging on most of its many bay areas, the number and names of these lodges will be listed later. The island is about four miles from "Ban Pae", a fishing village 15 miles from the city of Rayong, or about 25 minutes on the charter boat.
"Vong Hill" cave, is significance in its beautiful geologic features inside the cave. The hill have a serie of about 60 connected different caves that are naturally formed. The site is about 35 miles east of the city of Rayong.


42
EXISTING ACCGMEIMDATIOIMS
The following is a list of all of the existing lodging facilities and units available at present time throughout this region. Please note that most of the lodging available at this time are in the form of bungalows, detached housing units that are rented per day, or rent by room per day.
HOTELS:
Room:
1. Rayongthani Hotel 117
2. Sirirodge hotel 45
3- Srifarh Hotel 36
h *~T • Hotel Rayong
Total hotel rooms : 250
DET/ ITCHED RENTING UNITS:
Units
1. Tubthong Bungalow 10
2. Chanpaen Villar 7
O J* National Flores Bungalow 7
4. 1 Iinlcaew Bungal ow 8
< Prompong Lodge 9
6. Chonikarn Lodge 6
7- hear Seaside Lodge 10
8. S.I.. Bungalow 4
9* hutput Bungalow 2
10. Premvadee Seaview Lodge 13


11. 12. 13. Koh Kaew Bungalow Rengthalae Lodge N.S. Land Bungalov/
14. Suan Soan Villa
15. Thipvareo Cottage
16. Pae Vill
17. Barn Pae Resort
CO Sinsmut Bungalow
19. Prakarang Resort
20. Amornphun Villa
21. Rungnapa Resort
22. Chawlae Cottage
23. Talae - Narm Lodge
24. Rienrom Bungalow
25. Pat Lodge
26. Crystal Sand Lodge
27. I.arsri Village
28. Sahamitr Land
29. I.ae-piem Bungalow
30. Phinnipa Villa
To tal
LODGIi.G ON "SALCD" ISLAND
1. "Pa Taeb" Bungalow
2. Sun Sand Bngalow
43
8
15
18
13
8
12
35
30
13
14 13 10
12
C
o
10
8
12
10
380
Units
35
20


44
3- 1! ark a Bungal or; 13
4. Uuei Bungalow 10
5- Glassy Sand Villa 15
6. Toie Villa 12
7- Bamboo Bay Inn 14
8. Sea Breeze Lodge 19
9. Tub Thong Bungalow 10
10. Samed Villa 27
11. Charlie Villa 10
12. Putta Bungalow 15
13. Tub Tim Bungalow 30
14. Tarntawan Lodge 15
15- Suvit Bungalow 13
16. Samed Resort 8
17. Vongdieon Resort 12
18. Vongdieon Villa 15
19. 3.K. Hut 12
20. Dome Bungalow 15
21. Rattana Lodge
Total Unit: 329
In conclusion, v/e can see that there are in the region 251 hotel rooms, and 709 rental units of any other kinds of housing that are already available. But these units are by far, do not meet the standard of any beach resort region. The bungalows are popular for the Thai tourist because they usually travel with many member of the family and friends, and since


^5
kitchen is available, they usually cooks themself. The available number of hotel rooms are of those of the hotel in or near the city of Rayong, and none are considered a resort hotel. The remaining of most of the lodging units are those of the small huts near the beaches that are cheaply built and rents are very low, and the detached housing units that are not well maintained, hut these units are usually filled up especially during the summer because they are affordable by majority of the Thai tourists, and there are also international tourists of the younger age groups who enjoy visiting the primative beach areas and does not need luxurious facilities.


k6
RECOMMENDATIONS
The following is a list of general recoramendations based upon the previous review of the region and its tourism conditions. These recommendations are far from complete, and are subject to review and evaluation. They also do not fully address the real planning complexities of the upcoming resort project. These are just the general comments about the region that may have influrence over the succession of the planning of this beach resort.
Involve the public: everyone including all local government, center in the city of Rayong, special interests and anyone willing to participate.
Accept the problem that both short and long range needs must be met. This requires establishing of the conceptual framwork for the longrange planning and will help prevent short-range mistakes that become long-range ni ghtmares.
At any scale of investigation for regional factors or complexities that will have impact or effects over the planning of this beach resort development, attempt to truely understand what the real problem is, not just the symtom of the problem. The solution then derived will be par more successful. Only when the real problem is understood can the real need be address.
Potential for tourism growth in the region can be higher if well promoted, business owners at the moment are doing it by themself. In


^7
the future, local government should be involved since much profit can be made for everyone, and it is also well supported by the tourists authority of Thailand.
Existing facilities and attractions should be considered and used as an ii.iportant factor of this beach resort's tourism functional system.
Environmental and social impact should also be studied by a specialist at the later stage before begining of constructions, to try to understand how much the new resort community will have influrence over these important areas, and are they positives or negatives.


SITE ANALYSIS
AIVID
EXISTING CONDITIONS


49
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY SITE
The study site have a total area of approximately 2,372 acres. It is located about 15 miles east of the province of Rayong along freeway number three.
The site is mostly undeveloped and existing environments are at natural conditions. The Eastern Development Company, owner of this project, owns a large portions of land within this study site that they are using certain areas for sources of glass sand. Other than that, the overall conditions of this site are untouched and very attractive suitable for a beach resort environment, especially its coastle area that is about 3*3 miles long.
The total area of 2,372 acres was studied based on all of the existing informations available at this time to determine and select the best location suitable to be developed for a beach resort community. The size of the development at this stage will not be determined, but mainly to find out and locate the most suitable areas within the study site. And based on most availability of suitable areas, the program and size of the development will later be determine.
Following are the results of the studies described different physical conditions about the study site based on existing informations and personal evaluations. They were studied to determine opportunities and constrains, each of them will be summarized at the end of this process to determine the overall suitabilities of the resort development.




51
SLOPE DISTRIBUTION
The study site contains a large portions with plains that are fairly opened. Slopes are vary but slightly changed from the north to south of the major portions of the plains v/ith about 100 feet vertically. The hills east of the site are mostly steep and may not be suitable for the development, but the foothill areas are very attractive and high enough to have a good view of the ocean.
Slopes are put in catagories from 2 per cent to over 30 per cent. A major development must consider slopes for proper drainages, therefore, the areas with at least 2 to 10 per cent slopes would be most appropriate. The development must also eliminate slopes that are too steep, because they will cost more to be developed and much problems may occures due to errosion.
The following map subdivided the site into slope catagories that will later be determined for the overall suitabilities.




53
HYDROLOGY AI\ID DRAINAGE
Being in a tropical rain forest climate region, general precipitation rate is also high in this area, with average annual rainfall of about 1204.^- mili-meters. These rainfalls are the major source of water in this region and naturally collected in the ponds near the foothills on the site. During the rainny season, the creek on the lower middle part of the site is always filled with water as it catches draining water from different surfaces, and flows into the sea. kany wet land areas are also within this study site, the were also created by the precipitation rates and based on their topogra-picle locations.
During the high precipitation season, water in the ponds and creek increases the levels rapidly, and therefore, those areas may be considered as the flood plains that any constructions should stay away from.


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A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY
For The Province Of Rayong. Thailand
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55
VEGETATIONS
The majority of the areas in this site are fairly opened and are composed of grassland on sandy soils. Coconut trees dominates vegetations in this coastal areas, but certain locations, where muddy soil were created, are densely covered by different kinds of plant. There are two major densely vegetated areas on this site, one on the western part and another on the hill areas. These areas creates greenbelts on the site and rich with wild lifes. They should be preserved if possible because they also make this site attractive, and provide a major greenary.
A small portions of land are used for rice fields, composed with wetland and opened. They could be used as a part of the development if necessary, and the soil is already rich for planting.
The following map illustrates the major vegetation areas. They will later be determined if certain zones should be preserved for a feature of this development.


A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY
For The Province Of Rayong, Thailand


57
GEOLOGY
Most of the soils on this site is very salty and only suitable for certain species of plant. The beach front areas are mostly covered with fine sand that create a loose surface, but deeper under these surfaces are more compact. Building constructions in this area may need to be foundated deeper and cost more to stablized. The remaining types of soil can all be suitable for constructions, but the hill areas are usually rocky with shallow dept of bedrocks.
Determinations for development suitability may need to consider the locations of the types of soil for planting potential. But most of the soil types are suitable for many plants that are native to this region because they are salt tallerated. Certain plant species that are not natively grown here may be introduced but should be planted on the organic clay areas because they have lesser mixture of sand and salt.


58


59
SEASONAL WIND AND IMPACT
There are three seasons in this region, rainny, cool, and summer. Wind changes direction due to the different seasons, and intensities are also different. The period of times and directions of wind, including intensities are:
A) The rainny season, from June to September, have the south-western wind that averaged about 9*2 knotts per hour, but can increased intensively during the storms that are typical in this season.
B) The cool season, from October to January, have the northern wind, average at about 5*3 knotts per hour.
C) The summer season., from February to May, have the north-eastern wind that average at about 10 miles per hour or 80 percent of maximum wind blow of about 25 miles per hours.
Since the peak season for the resort would be during the summer season, impact of summer wind to the study site was determined, and direct impact areas might be eleminated because it will also creates intense waves that are critide for boating and swimming.




61
SHORELINE STUDY
The height and times of waves in the ocean outside and on the beach area of the study site was studied by the Navel Department 40 miles east of this region. The study was done at the rate of every three hours with directions and intensities of wind.
The results of the study shows that 80 per-cent of the waves are about 1.5 feet high, and the waves of over 3 feet high have intensity of about 95 percent. The sea levels are as the following:
The beach of the study site is the result of long shore sand deposit, the largest sand deposit area is at the eastern part of the beach where it curves against the deposit direction, which runs eastward along the beach line.
Other types of sand deposits are the result of mainland surface drainages such as the creek and major drainage line along the foothills that runs to the sea. These overland flow drainages could result with a muddy deposits, but the flov/s on this coast are carried by the underwater current and deposits on the bottom of the sea on the other side of the hills east of the site, and leave the beach of this site with only the pure fine sand.
LOWEST LOW WATER
HIGHEST HIGH WATER
LEAN HIGH WATER LEAN SEA LEVEL MEAN LOW WATER
+5.4 FEET +1.8 FEET -0.0 FEET -2.1 FEET -6.2 FEET


A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY
For The Province Of Rayong, Thailand


63
EXISTING ROADS AND UTILITIES
So far, there is not a permanent paved road on this study site, but a few dirt roads that are used by the surrounding communities are evidenced due to the needs for fresh water from the ponds and access to the sea. There are paved roads around the study site that serves the existing communities, as shown on the Circulation map, they may be used as a connection to the project, and two of them are already connects to the freeway north of the site.
Major power lines are already reaches these surrounding communities. The proposed resort community may choose to connects its power lines to the existing ones, or generates the power by itself.


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A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY
Fop The Province Of Rayong, Thailand


65
SUITABILITIES ANALYSIS
Important physical factors to be used for determination of development suitability areas are, slopes, hydrology, types of vegetation, soil types, and direct wind impact areas. First, areas with most constrains from these studies were considered unsuitable and totally eliminated. The remaining factors were then put together to determine if certain areas are more or less suitable.
Since the remaining areas are considered developable, the numbering system was applied to determine for more or less suitabilities of the different areas. For each factor, numbers of 1, 2, and 3 were mapped for the areas that are considered to be more or less suitable. For example, 1 are least and 3 are most suitable areas. The maps of these factors were then overlaid together and numbers were added.
The result is the following Development Suitabilities map that have areas with different numbers. Areas with the least numbers are least suitable, and the areas with higher numbers are more suitable. These numbers were then put into three catagories, and they are to show the least and most suitabilities for this development. The areas where are unsuitable are also shown on the following map.


66
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67
RECOMMENDATIONS
The previous determinations for development suitabilities areas were only to show most and least suitable locations throughout the study sites. They do not mean or point out the areas that would need to be developed, but merely to show the general suitable areas that the site selection process could be located on.


OVERALL PLANNING CONCEP1


69
DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Based on the previous analysis process and the summary for amount of area most suitable for development, the planning of this beach resort should achieve the following goals and objectives:
1. To enhance existing amenities such as the beach and ocean, lakes and streams.
2. Create aditional amenities that more pleasing environment will be resulted from throughout the development area.
3* To increase values of land by maximize the use of those areas around existing and created amenities.
4. Create day and night activities as to provide facilities for land and water uses, and to provide every body with something to do as one of the attractions for this resort.
5- Create within the resort itself, difference areas or neighborhoods that have different characters and will attracts different kind of people and that may have uses at different times.
6,.Plan the resort by using maximum amount of land most suitable for the development, and divide the uses of these land by the ratio that is likely to be most appropriate and successful.


70
PLANNING CONCEPT
The first step of the planning process is to decide on the overall concept, and to first lay out the 18-hole golf course based on the golf course design principle in this report. After that, many major areas will be created on the most suitable land. These suitable areas have a total of 50^ acres to be planned for the first phase of development. Before the land use master plan can be developed effectievely and appropriately, this chapter will discuss the overall planning concept.
And after that, concepts for each of the different areas on the site will also be developed and discussed.
THE OVERALL CONCEPT:
1. To create an interesting and pleasing main access as a gateway into the development. This suggests that a right-of-way of about 150 feet wide should be provided so that there will
be enough room for larger road with a nice median in the middle.
2. For the areas inside the eight-shape golf course, the golf course is to be considered as a major amenity for the units within the sites, and by doing so will increase the value of the land stated as one of the development goals.
3- The main access road should connect directly to the beach front road. The beach front road takes only a portion in the middle of the whole beach front area to create an interesting and pleasing drive through. This is to also provide all-public beach use area on this part of the beach front on the other side of the road.


71
4. For some other parts of the beach front areas, the beach should be more private and isolated, seperate fromthe road that will create interesting and more valuable sites for hotel or condominium development. Since land values will be most expensive
on these beach front areas,certain sites should be permitted for construction of high-rise buildings that will not create too much constrains or block the view for other near-by sites.
5. Other than the main entry road into the development, another main road should be planned for to go through the second phase site that will also provide a circulation to and from the phase one development area. This will provide a second main access from another existing road west of the site that also connects to the freeway. By planning and construction of this road to
go through the second phase area at this time will help push future development of the second phase to be sooner and those land near the road will already be more valuable.
^Please see the following page for the conceptual diagram of this Overall Concept.


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73
DEVELOPMENT AREA - SITE SELECTION
How that the overall planning concept has been stated, at this time I will discuss the determination for general locations of the resort development.
First of all, the determination for location is to be related directly to the planning concept and the overall goals and objective. Based on the development suitability map, certain areas with most constrains are not to be used within the developable boundaries. The remaining areas are to be considered developable with more or less constrains. The largest most suitable area should be considered first, and those near by or next to it could be used as a part of the overall development. Access into the site should also be considered as to use the existing roads already connects to the freeway as a part of major access into the resort. With these two major considerations the existing road connected to the freev/ay that ended north of the middle part of the study site v/ill be used as a part of the major access into the development. The largest most suitable area is on eastern middle part of the study site with steep hills bordered the east part, the ocean by the south, and go as far as the creek on the west. Therefore, the resort development v/ill be selected to locate on this general area, and by using the existing freeway access road into the site. Based on the previous overall planning concept, the general area for the 18-hole "eight-shpe" golf course is to be located north of the development site to leave a major land between the golf course and the ocean for other developments. The access road v/ill go through the middle part of the gold course to provide a pleasant gate-way and a direct access into the golf course's club house off of the main access road. The main access road then runs directly to the


beach front road. The remaining ideas for location and she selection of the development can be directly related to the previous concept. Please note at this time that another road will connect north of the main access road to another existing road west of the study site and the most suitable land in between may be used as a part of this development or will be preserved for future use.
(See the following page for the map of the selected development site)


75
mum
A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY
Thailand


76
GOLF COURSE PLANNING - SITE LAYOUT
An 18-hole golf course is one of the major objectives for this beach resort development to provide a major activity as one of the attractions to bring people into the resort. A large number of Thai people enjoy the game of golf, and a large number of foreigners working in various international firms and embassies in Bangkok also plays golf. Along with these users, tourists from all over the world spend some times during their visits playing golf at many existing courses depending on where they are. It has been noted that a large number of Japanese tourists enjoy spending a lot of times playing golf in Thailand during their vacation because the green fee is much cheaper than in Japan, and there are more interesting golf courses throughout the country.
There are about seven golf courses in Bangkok area (116 miles from this project)., and two in the near by existing beach resort (50 miles away )• So, there is not any golf course within the 50 miles radious from this beach resort development and a planning of one here is likely to be very successful.
Beside the demand for a golf course in this region, a golf course itself could provide attractive open space for the whole development and create positive image. It will also provide a lot of attractive areas for residential development and pleasing view from various places on the site as a golf course will be considered here as another amenity in addition to the ocean.
The first stage of the planning process is to lay out the golf course general plan that will later be more carefully design by a golf course design specialist. Therefore it is appropriate for a landscape architect to work


77
on the planning of the golf course at this level by following the general design principal, and to provide the overall concei.it for the golf course that will work well with the overall planning concept for the whole resort development.
So, the goal of this level of golf course lay out is to determind the area for an 10-hole "eigh-shape" golf course that will take up much of the area to provide positive open space view to most of the residential development.
The "eight-shape" golf course is selected because it will leave two attractive spaces within the golf course that have potential to be planned for residential development.
THE PECULATION GOLF COURSE
In most cases, a regulation golf course has a par of 70, 71» 72, or occasionally 69 or 73- 1 any older courses built in the United States play to a total
par of 70. However, in recent years par 72 has become the standard of excellence in the minds of many developers and golfers. It should be stressed, however, that the si so and natural characteristics of a site determine what the total par should be; therefore, many courses are built outside the standard par 72. In many cases the golf course architect will determine that a shorter par 70 course may indeed be much better than a forced par 72 because it is more demanding and natural. Neither par nor total yardage should be the criterion of quality, for the objectives of the recreational development golf course should be that it is fair and enjoyable to play.
A regulation golf course comprises 13 holes with a combination of par 3s, 4s, and 5s, the sum of which equals pars 70 to 73* The standard mix for a par


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72 golf course is ten par 4s, four par 3s, and four par 5s• Par 71 courses
generally drop a par ^ and replace it with a par 3 or drop a par 5 and
replace it with a par h-. A par 70 golf course generally has either six
par 3s, eight par ^s, and four par 5s or four par 3s, twelve par ^s, and
two par 5s* A par 73 golf course generally has an additional par 5 in place of a par k. It is these combinations of pars which comprise what is considered to be the norm to qualify a course as "regulation" in the minds of golfers. However, it is neither total yardage nor par which determines the amount of area used, the quantity of lot frontage, and the cost of maintenance and control of the golf facility once it is built.
The needs of the project, the shape of the total property, and the physical characteristics of the site all have an influence on how and where the golf course architect, planner, and owner decide to lay out a regulation golf course.
'EIGHT-SHAPE" 113-HOLE GOLF COURSE WITH RETURNING HINES
This type of golf course will have a large amount of fairway frontage for real estate development and will consume a lot of area which is one of the goals set for the planning for this beach resort. In order to maintain in-trigrity of the golf holes and safety in the developed areas, a minimum distance of 150 feet from center line to boundary on both sides is necessary. The smaller frontage figure is a result of bringing more holes back to the club house area and concentrating the location of features, greens and trees in that area. The slight loss of frontage is more than offset by the increased and diverse play the course can accommodate.


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The "eight-shape" 18-hole with returning nines maximizes both the playing flexibility and the number of daily rounds because of the returning nines feature. V/ith seperate starting and finishing goles, golfers begining a game during peak golfing hours (8:00 am. to 10:15 am. and 12:30 pm. to 2:^5 pm.) can start on both nines and crisscross to the other nine two to two and one-quarter hours later. This manner of starting makes a maximum number of rounds possible, a faster round of golf, and gives the golfer the option of playing only nine holes. The course requires more maintainence men and mowers for early moring preparation because of the longer mowing and machinery transportation time due to the spread-out nature of the greens and trees.


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" *


PROGRAM
DEVELOPMENT


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DEVELOPMENT PHASING
The site with the total area of 7^0 acres will be selected for this development, but there are more areas that are considered most suitable, based on the previous site analysis process. Those areas may be saved at this time to be consider for future development. The following map shows the location of these areas that have a total of about 3^3 acres.


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DEVELOPABLE SITE
Using the largest portion of land most suitable for development from the suitability map, an 18-hole golf course was first laid out in the "eight-shape" form providing spaces in the middle that have potential for residential area (see golf course design section), by now we basically knows that the golf course takes up 256 acres, and the remaining most suitable ground in the large portions have a total of C07 acres. Leaving 303 acres on the west side of golf course for the second phase as future expansion area, that will leave 504 acres for present planning. The following chart illustrate these number in summary:
OVERALL SITE CONFIGURATION:
18-h'ole golf course = 256 acres
First phase development = 504 acres
Second phase development = 303 acres
Total developable area = 1,063 acres
SITE FOR FIRST PHASE OF DEVELOP!.jENT
18-hole golf course Land to be developed
= 256 acres
= 504 acres
Total
= 760 acres


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Therefore, determination for program development will be for 50^ acres of developable ground plus z$b acres of golf course.


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A CASE STUDY
It is not an easy task trying to develop or plan for the uses of the land over a thousand acres wiehout looking into some of the existing projects or similar developments that have already been sucessful.
Since my primary concern for this study is to plan and design most of the site for a beach resort development, selection of the case studies are those of the coastal resort developments. Many cases had been reviewed but one will be discuss here to give an overview and some factors will be applied as a model to my upcoming program development process.
KAANAPALI BEACH RESORT, ISLAND OF MAUI, HAWAII
The Kaanapali Beach Resort, owned, developed, and managed by Amfac,
Ltd., a billion-dollar Hawaii-based corporation, is located on the shores of west Maui. It was the first major destination resort established in Hawaii off Oahu and, with the opening of a golf course and the first two hotels in 1962, has served as a model of planning, marketing, and profitability.
By 1980,about 600 of the more than 1,000 acres had been developed or were under development, including construction of six hotels with a total of 3,700 rooms, seven sold-out condominium projects with a total of 1,300 units, 130,000 square feet of commercial space, 350 custom homes sites, two 18-hole golf courses, and an airstript served by a commuter airline. Plan for expansion continuing into the 1990's including the addition of two more hotels, three condominium projects, 17


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apartment sites, a neighborhood shopping center, two theme cultural attractions, a number of residential subdivitions, and an executive golf course.
THE SITE
The resort is 26 miles from the main airport on MAui at Kahului, approximately 100 miles from Honolulu on the island of Oahu, and three miles north of Lahaina, an old whaling port with a population of about 6,000 people. Lahaina was the first capital of Hawaii; its historic significance serves as a major attraction to the west coast of Maui.


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Kaanapali Beach is predominantly dry and sunny. Annual rainfall is 15 to 20 inches with an average of 355 days of sunshine and breezes. The project is bordered by three miles of sandy beach on the ocean side and sugar cane fields that reached up a gradual slope on the mountainous inland. The most intensively developed area of the resort proper immediately fronting on the beach is relatively flat and is bisected by the main high-way v/hich separates the sloping residential areas from the resort area.
PLAHHir-iG AllD DESIGN
When conceived in the late 1950s, the Kaanapali Beach Resort was intended to be a self-contained island resort, ultimately including all the recreational, commercial, entertainment, social, and medical facilities necessary. Provision was made to build residential apartments as a secondary land use, primarily for the limited number of local business executives.
Golf course were planned as important areas of open space and landscaping is profuse throughout. In addition to the beach and golf course, recreational facilities include 22 tennis courts scattered throughout the resort along with numerous other land and water-oriented activities typical of a major ocean resort.
The desired by somewhat weakely coordinated architectural image is tropical, relying on Hawaiian style rooflines, natural rock, and open air design. Arnfac maintains an architectural review committe of five


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experts who serve as advisors. The resort was already well established when zoning was introduced; consequently, urban development is permitted over most of the property. Public regulations stipulate a 12-story maximum height for buildings, setbacks from the ocean, special permits for construction seaward of the highway, landscaping requirements for parking lots, and public access to beach spaced at a maximum of 1,500 feet apart. Arnfac provided central water and sewer services, and is blessed with access to fresh water in and otherwise water-short area.
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE PROJECT
A. The success of the Kaanapali Beach destination is attributable
to climate, proximity to the town of Lahaina, ambience of resort, friendliness of local people, range of services, and amenities.
B. The concept of selling properties to help finance development limits the master developer's control over orchestrating resort development as well as quality of service.
C. Initial planning should consider many details, such as security, transportation, organizational responsibilities, and, ultimately, the potential for an increased number of permanent residents.
Poor control of signage and graphics, for instance, can seriously undermine the magic of an exotic resort atmosphere.
D. Ocean vistas are by far the prime values. The new Hyatt at Kaanapali offers ocean views in 90 percent of its rooms.
E. Growing resistance to "overbuilding" can result in a community opposing any further construction. While this is a typical and familiar problem to all developers, it is of particular concern in resort development because of the need for a return on the heavy front-end coasts of infrastructure.


PLANNING DATA - KAANAPALI BEACH RESORT
Land Use Information:
Site area: 1,055 acres
TOTAL UNITS___________________EXISTING 1980______________PLANNED
Hotel Rooms Condominiums Commercial Space Apartments Single-Family 3,?00 1,300 130,000 sq.ft. 350 5,700 2,500 700,000 sq.: 1,000 1,500
Total Planned 10,700 uni
Gross Density: 10.7 units per Parking Spaces: 1.25 units per acre space
Land Use Plan:
Land Use Acres Percent
Hotel 150 1U-
Condominium 110 10
Commercial 55 5
Single-Family 300 29
Apartment 70 7
Golf Course 370 35
TOTAL 1,055 100


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The previous case study at this stage will he directly related to as a model and guideline to develop a program for this beach resort development.
Since I aanapali Beach Resort is one of the most successful resorts in Hawaii and has been established for over 20 years, it is well Jen own and has been used as a model in many resort planning already. A program development can be very complicated, there are many different ways to determind the number of land use and so forth. And yet, some may not be so successful. Since tliis beacli resort development contains many factors that are similar to Kaanapali's, the program development will directly follow the most successful ratio interm of percentages of land use of l.aanapali' s.


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APPLICATION OF THE CASE STUDY
Kaanapali Beach Resort was planned on a total of 1,055 acres with 10,700 units plus 700,000 square feet of commercial space. The existing condition data in 1980 provided number of what has been successful verses the planned number. Those numbers and percentages are as the following chart.
Total site area = 1,055 acres
Existing 1980 Percent Built Planned
Hotel Rooms 3,700 64.9 5,700
Condominiums 1,300 52.0 2,500
Commercial 130,000 18.6 700,000
Apartment - - 1,000
Single-family 350 23-3 . A..1QQ
Total planned 710,700 units
Next is the amount of land planned for different uses verses percentage
of what had been built and amount of land actually used for development
other than the golf course.
Planned Acres Percent Built Amount of Land Used
Hotel 150 64.9 97-35
Condominium 110 52.0 57-20
Commercial 55 18.6 10.20
Single-family 300 23.3 70.00 '
Total s 615 38.2 234.75


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Out of 1,055 acres, 22 percents was used for development plus the golf course, and 38*2 percents was actually built out of the planned units. It may not seems much, but they devoted a lot of land to golf course which is one of their major attractions. Another large amount of land are also preserved to provide best features on the site and create pleasing environments.
After studying Kaanapoli's developed areas, a conclusion can be drawn that out of 23^.75 acres that had been fully developed, 41.4 percent is hotel, 24.3 percent is condominium, 29*8 percent is single-family, and 4-5 percent is commercial space. These percentages are the ratio of what have been successful in a beach resort development, and it is this ratio that will directly be applied to the upcoming program for this beach resort in the overall planning scheme. The ratio is listed in the following charts
A ratio for the planning program (based on the previous case study)
To determine average amount of land to be used per planned unit, the case study will once again be related to as a prototype. By using the existing
Hotel
Condominium
Single-family
Commercial
41.4 Percent 24.3 Percent 29*8 Percent 4.5 Percent
Total:
100.0 Percent


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units and amount of land used to construct them, one can determine the average amount of land to be planned per unit. The numbers are as following:
Units Acres Used Average Land Used/Unit
Hotel (rooms) 3,700 97-35 0.026 AC/1,133 F2
Condominium (units) 1,300 57.20 0.044 AC/1,917 F2
Single-family (units) 350 70.00 0.200 AC/8,712 F2


Full Text

PAGE 1

Y/,JSAfiANbA A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY ON THE COAST OF T .HE PROVINCE OF RAVONG1 THAILAND. A LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THESIS PRO..JECT. BY CHOMPOL VUSANANDA SPRING COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNNG UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER

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THIS STUDY WAS PHEPARED AS THESIS PROJECT IN PARTIAL FULFILLl'! ;ENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING, UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER. SUBf'U TTED BY Chompol Yusananda ACCEPTED Lauri R. Macmillan Johnson, Director Jerry K . Shapins, Project Director, Principle Advisor, and Committee Chairman Advisor, HOH Associates, I

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ACKNOWLDGMENTS I would li1c e to thank the following individuals and organizations for their generousity and timely assitance in the preparation of this study. Mr. David G . Cooper, a Senior Associate at HOH, who spent a lot of his valuable time helping me, his input and advises are expressed throughout this study. Col. Anand Yusananda, my father, a director of the Royal Thai Army's Department of Civil Engineering , who supplied m e vvi th the topography maps that are not available to the general public, and various 1dnds of informations that increased accuracy of my study. The Tourism Authority of Thailand in Los Angeles, California, v1ho supplied m e with general informations about tourism in Thailand, and specific datas concerning my study. r.:;rs. Rendie Bejarachati, my mother, for her constant encourag e ment of m y endeavors. Pra Dulnyanarte Bejaracharti, my late grandfather, a man \'tith great vision who encourages m e with my a mbition.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS I NTRODUCTION The Client and Intention of Study ....... 2 Focus of Study.......................... 4 The Planning and Design Process ......... 6 Tourism Functional System ............... 10 Thailand-a General Background ......... 15 Tourism in Thailand ..................... JO REGIONAL CONTEXT Introduction to the Region .............. 37 Existing Tourism Conditions ... .......... 39 Tourist Attractions ..................... 40 Existing Accomendations ................. 42 R econ1menda ti ons. • . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . 46 SITE ANALYSIS AND EXISTING CONDITIONS Introduction to the Study Site .......... 49 Slope Distribution ...................... 51 Hydrology and Drainag e .................. 53 Vegetations ............................. 55 Geology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Seasonal Wind and Impact ................ 59 Shoreline Study.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

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Existing Roads and Utilities . .......... 63 Suitabilities Analysis ................. 65 Recommendations ........................ 67 OVERALL PLAHNING CONCEPT Development Goals and Objectives ....... 69 Planning Concept ....................... 70 Development AreaSite Selection ...... 73 Golf Course Planning Site Layout ..... 76 PROGRAf j DEVELOPI ::N'T T Development Phasing ..................•. 82 Developable Site ....................... 8 4 A Case Study........................... 8 6 Application of the Case Study .......... 92 The Planning Pro gram ................... 95 ll.ASTER PLANNING Concepts for Development Areas ....... . • 99 \ Landuse Vaster Plan . ................... 117 SITE DESIGN Site Design Standards, ................. 121 Open Space and Activities .............. 132 Pedestrian Circulation ................. 1J4

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'rhe Site Plan .......................... . 137 BI BLI OGRAl=>tiY .................. .. .. . .. 140

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INTRODUCTION

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2 THE CLIENT AND INTENTION OF STUDY The pri mary clien t for t h i s project i s the Eastern Development Co. Ltd. which is one of the largest developing companies in the province of Rayong . 'l1he company have its roots in this region since the begining , started as a small family business. Today, the company ovmed a substantial amount o f land vvi thin the region , both inland and coastal areas. A big part of these land are being used as sources for fine sand suit a ble for making g lass. The company is not in the glass business but do sell a substantial a mount of sand to many Iflajor glass producing companies in Thailand, and they also holds a big n u mber of stocks from these companies. The Eastern Development C o mpany also based its business on major real e s tate developing in the region and s o m e in Bangkok. They are already owned and manageing a few beach resort loadging areas about 1 0 miles east o f the study site of this project. The Eastern Development Company have been very profitable from its businesses, and are looJcing for a strong potential for a major resort development on the land that they have already o vme d or feasible to purchase. I was approached by l'/ :r. JukJ
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be expected by f r. tasikam is to be abl e to sho w an appropriate a mount of land p lanning for a mixed use beach resort that would work well a n d conta ins certain elements suitable for a resort community that would J likely be successful. All these studies should also be graphicly illustrated, and site plan should be completed enough to e xpress its concept and objectives .

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FOCUS OF STUDY province of Rayong is obviously in a s t ate of constant flux and chang e toward tourism planning on its coastal areas. 'l1here are planning and desi& n problem s and opportunities at every scale from the region down to improving the existing touris t accomodations. The possibilities for a major develop ment is wide open and could be studied extensively in many different aspects. But since the amount of tim e available for this study is limited, only the major issues and objectives most important for the design will be studied at this time. I t is neither possible to investigate only in the pJ.anning and implementation realm as a planning consultant might nor is it possible to approach the problems and opportunities only as a landscape architect avoiding the planning implementation and financial realities. Both needed to be combined. I t must be immediately recognized that not all planning and design considerations could be brought into this study. It would not be possible. 'l1h i n g s were o mitted by choice, availability, and others by accidents. The prin:ary focus of this study v 1as to tak e the given study area and select a m o s t appropriate a mount of land on the most suitable ground for develop ment of a beach resort plann ing. In doing so, one need to understand the basics of tourism plarming vrhich is to also study its functional system and appl y it to this project. Other areas that should be studied are the existin g tourism conditions, both 1n the country of ThaiJ.and and the ret;ion i n which the study site of the project is in.

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Thi s was a des ign -based study and. ln rev1ew1ng re.ievant background data, only that information directly relevant to these design decisions was ana lyzed and utilized. That focus was necessary and will result in the most appropriate product possible given the practical constraints. 5

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6 THE PLANNING AND DESIGN PROCESS Follov.,ring i s the process used in this project that express the different steps and organization. 'J.lhe process itself was originally adapted and based on the typical tourism planning process often used in this kind of project. 'rhe process here was developed and adjusted due to many factors and appropriateness of this particular situation. I t is briefly summarized by the order of steps from the begining to end, they are: GOALS: The goals were set in the begining to express the intention of the study. It does not mean goals of the planning and design of this project, but rather what is to expect out of this study, from both myself and my client. Fi.ES.t;ARCH Al' i D AHALYSIS: This project required at least a basic tnowledg e about tourism planning. Therefore, the tourism functional system was studied as the bases of how to approach the problem . Then , since the project area is unfamiliar to many peo ple, a bad:ground about Thailand would be presented and analyse its tourism conditlons in general. At this stag e , the region where the study site is located will be analyse to understand about its contents and how they will have certa1n i mpac t s to this development. The last step in this process i s to study the site physically, based on all of the available sources of information, to understand its opportunities and constraints. Then a final map of development suitability area for the study site will be the product to later b e used for site selection.

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7 At this time, an overall c;oals and objectives were set for the development, and a general concep t was selected based on the previous studies and on the most suitable site determined by the site analysis process. PHOGRAl . . : The pro gram is normally developed or g1ven before one can determine and set the concept for any deve.lopment. Dut this study may be considered to be one of the different 1cind because a majority of the area of the study site are considered to be deve.lopab.le. Therefore, the concept, goals and objectl ves v1ere set first to determine the amount of land needed most. 'l1hen a c;eneral site was selected, and a program w a s developed based on the alllount oi' .land that needed to be planned for. Since the project is on a larg e area, a case study was applied to find a ratio for division of the tota l area for different land use that would be more appropriate. i AS PLA N : The tota l area selected to be developed was dlvided into six different areas. Each of them contains different characters and uses. Different concepts for these areas were also set based on the overall concept for the development. 'l'hen , a land use master plan vms produced to control the previous concepts and building heie;hts. The division of this land use a lso directly a result of the program for this development.

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8 The final process is to desib'TI the site based on the different land use set and stated earier i n the mas ter plan. Here, different type s of housinc; \ .rere designed directly related t o the concepts for each of the six areas. The inajor issues also in the design are activity areas, pedestrian circulations, and planting schemes.

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10 TOURISM FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM Many factors are criticle in planning a resort development. Understanding of the basis will help one establish a strong foundation that will later in the process achieve primarily objectives of this type of planning, which is to properly makes decisions for the uses of the resource. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss one of the most important foundations of the resort planning, the Tourism Functional System, that it must encompass. Tourism planning such as this beach resort development is concerned with the system of elements that are involved in tourism land use at the larger-thansite scale. I t sets out to identify the tourism system and needed linkages between components of this system. Finally, it attempts to project concepts in which this system can function most appropriately for man within his realm of human ecology. A beginning point of tourism planning is that of the functional tourism system. The fragmented approach to tourism tends to overemphasize the separateness of the structural elements, such as hotels, airlines, and advertising . Important as these elements are, they tend to confuse rather than help in identifying components important to tourism planning . Without attractiveness to lure travellers, the hotels, airlines and advertising would not be needed. Fro m a regional planning point of view, it is difficult to organize planning on the basis of the structural elements alone. Through study of the functions of the structural elements, it was found that they could be reduced to five major components, each one of which is

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11 a mix of .11any Jdnds of public and private development, different J ( inds of enterprises, and both physical and proc;ra:n developt.ten t . ':ti thin each corr iJo nent sititilar or related funct1ons p lace eventhouch expressed different l y 1n physica l fonn o r by different a gents. Anyone charGed •nl t!1 p.lanninc; touris . 1 have lmowlc d c;e of each of these not only t h eir individua l m akeup hut also tltelr lnterrelationship. l !0\'1 they can be inter era ted, l ; a sed o n social, econ o mic and e n vi ron men tal con c ldera tions, 1 s the purpose of touri c:Tt p lanninc;. \ Ot-1 61U 1'1:>:? Jo.."fl VIi'( IUR."-L se.A.SOHALI-r'( ,.HIHU.<:."To bo LUReS 10 FACT IONs. I -FACl L.ll \ S S root> 4 f"ft.O'blJe;Ts, TAAH5f't:>Rt"A.,-toH TO E. S. Wtt'HIH !\ dynamic s . .:stem , l!lad e up of five very conplicated and h i[_hl y interrelated components.

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1'he following in traduces to these five components of the dynamic system that is very com plicated and highly interrelated. ATTRAC 111 O P : ----pi rs t Pmer 12 A wide variety of physical settings and establishments provide a lure for travellers to visit destination region. While almost anything at one tim e or another may become an attraction, the functional touris m system requires identification, planning and manag e ment of some physical attraction. Attractions, no matter who o vms and provides them, not only lure visitors but provide for their participation. Attractions may be o vmed publiclly, or nonpro1'it organizations. all components o f the tourism system are important t o its func tioning, attractions provide the energizing power. However, attractions are not well understood and often are i nterpreted as only commercial attractions. In fact, attractions are the on-location places in regions that not only provide the thing s for tourists to see and do but also offer the lure to travel. Furthermore, economic impact, even though directly derived largely from commercial services and facilities, is dependen t upon the attracting power of a region to lure travelers. Therefore, those regions comtemplating the new development or expansion of tourism need to place high priority on the planning and establishment of attractions. SERVICES F ACILI 'ri ES The most important functional category fro m an economic input sense

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is that of the facilities and services, such as hotels, motels, restaurants, bars, retail sales and other services. Tourlst spending on facilities and services provides the major economlc input in most destination regions. 13 It ls throug h the services and facilities for tourism that economics get their first impact from tourism. Accommodations, food services, bars and retail sales are conspicuous business evidence of tourism There1'ore, critical to the planning of tourism for a region is identification of the planning needs of the services sector. TRAITSPORTATION Linkage between of residence and place of destination is a very important component. Although automobile and air travel tend to dominate most tourist travel, other models of transportation, such as boat, ferry, horseback, aerial tram and hiking , frequently are critical links of the transportation system. In the planning for tourist development, it is essential to consider travel modes for all people movement throughout the circuit in order to reduce its friction as much as possible. INFORi : JA'l'ION DI HECTION Increasingly, all t hose proGrams and physical developments that inform and direct tourists comprise a very important component of the functional tourism system. While informing and directing

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are not the sam e functions, they are closely enough related to be included in one major category of tourism. 14 Communications of all types are becoming more and more important to link the consumer to the product. Simply, if tourists do not know about travelways, attractions, services and facilities, and do not know how to get to them, tourism does not occur. Certainly, the planning for tourism must include understanding of this essential component of information -direction. TOURISTS To say that the people co mponent of tourism is a major one is certainly an understatement. V/i thout volumes of people which both the desire and the ability to travel, tourism cannot develop and thrive. Iwportant planning considerations center around where they live, and v1ha t they prefer, what they regularly participate in and their expenditures. In order to plan properly for tourist development, it is essential to understand people as tourists or plans m a y miss projected goals.

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, . Scombysund svoit A I T c E L A Sl. lUll A N T N rrllton do Cunho • . lUll ' G ou1h I . lUll c Eq .tfhatW. N I I I I I ' o I r A N TropiC o( Copflcorn ; 0 c , Amsrerdom I , lf1) StPoull. (f1) I I I . Coco• IA11u 1 E A N

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THAILAND -A GENERAL BACKGROUND GEOGRAPHY Thailand, formerly known as Siam, occupies 514,000 square kilometers (198,500 sq. mi.) in the heart of main land Southeast Asia. The shape of the country has often been compared to the head of an elephant with its trunk extending down the Malay Peninsula. 15 Much of Thailand' s history and politics are the result of its axial position in Southeast Asia. Althoug h Thailand does not touch China or Vietnam, areas of both countries are within 100 kilometers of Thailand. Thailand has four topographical areas, they are: The rich agricultural central region is dominated by Thailand's most important river, the Chao Phraya. This river supports an extensive and highly developed network of canals and irrigation projects and has long been considered the "rice bowl" of Asia. It supports a concentrated rural population and, at its southeast edge at the of the Gulf of Thailand, is also the site of metropolitan Bangkok, industrial business, and cultural center. * The northeast region, the large Khorat plateau r1s1ng about J04 meters (1,000 ft.) agove the certral plain, comprises roughly onethird of the country. Much of this land is poor and suffers from seasonal droughts or floods. The topography makes irrigation and control difficult, but planned irrigation and flood control projects

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-• • -. . MAP OF THAILAND ASEANCo I ndonesia ' .. •• .. .,. ./ ::.. '';Jill ., . ' ABEAN: ARE COMPOSED OF SIX SOUTH-EAST ASIA COUNTRIES THE KINGDOM OF THAILAND AND HER NEIGHBORS

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17 on the tributaries of the Mekong River, on the Laotian border, have i mproved a gricultural potential. Northern Thailand, primarily a region of mountains and steep river valleys, covers about one-quarter of the nation's area. The thickly forested mountains, running north and south, provide valuable timber, while the narrow but fertile valleys, watered by the many rivers of the region, support intensive rice cultivation. * The Southern region, a long sliver of land extending from central Thailand southward to Malaysia, is covered mainly by rain forest. Rubber and coconut cultivation and tin mining are the important economic activities in the region. Thailand's tropical climate is dominated by monsoons, with high temperatures and humidity. Most regions have three seasons: rainy (June-October), cool ( November-February), and hot (March-May). Rainfall varies but generally is heaviest in the south and lightest in the no rtheast.

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1 8 PEOPLE Thailand' s society is relatively ho m o geneous. More than 85% of the people speal cs a dialect of rrnai and share a common culture. This core population i s made up of the Central IJ'hai (36% of the population), ThaiLa o (32%), Horthern (3%), and Southern Thai W%). 11he Tai language of the Central Tha i i s the official language, taught in school and used in government. Several other small Tai-speaking groups include the Shan, Lue , and Phutai. The largest minorities are the Chinese, about 8% of the population, and the Malay-spealdng Muslims in the south, with 3 % Other groups include the Khmer , the Man, w ho are substantially assimilated with the Thai, and the Vietnamese. Smaller, predominantly mountaindwelling groups total about 500,000. Tha i society is predominantly rural and most heavily concentrated in the ricegrowing areas of the center, northeast, and north. The urban population is concentrated in Bangkok. With one of the world's fastest growing populations, Thailand was ranked in 1975 as the 17th most populous country. Realizing the dangers posed for social and economic development by its rapidly expanding young population (median ate of 19) and its high de pendency ratio, the government sponsored a successful family planning program. Largely as a result of this prog ram , the annual population growth rate has declined dramatically from 3iS in 1 96 0 to less than in 1 981. Life expectancy increased from 51 years in 1 960 to 62 years in 1 979

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Universal free public education is being expanded from 4 to 7 years. Education is the largest item in the Thai budget, accounting for more than of the total. In 1979, of primary and of secondary school-at:;e children were enrolled in school, and about were in universities or colleges. 'l'he attention paid to education has also resulted in a substantially hicher adult literacy rate. According to Vlorld Bank data, the adult literacy rate had risen to by 1976, as compared to 501: only 20 years GarliGr. 19 Theravada Duddhism is the religion of more than of the Thai. The GOvernment pemits religious freedom, however, and many other religions are represented. Spirit \'/Orship and animism are also important in Thai religious life.

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20 EISTOHY S outheast Asi a has been inhabited by hu mans for more than. half a million years. Recent archeological studies suggest that by 4000 B . C., communities i n Thailan d has e merge d as centers of early bronze metallurgy. This accomplishment, together with the cultivation of wet rice, provided the impetus for social and political organization. evidence suggests that these early technological innovations may have originated in Thailand and other places in Southeast Asia, then transmitted to China, not vice versa as long believed. The Tai language links groups in southern China and modern Thailand. Strong evidence exists of migrations from southern China to Southeast Asia in the sixth and seventh centuries A.D., but earlier migrations, possibly from south to north, are less vvell understood. The early history of Thailand VIas a complex struggle for terri tory a n d power a m on g the r .1alay, Tai, !':io n , and K hmer peoples. The Thai date the founding of their nation to the 13th century. According to tradition, in 123 8 Tai chieftains overthrew the K hmer at establishing the Tai King do m . At this time, the people in Sukhotai adopted the name Thai to distinguish themselves from other Tai-spealdng people under the rule of foreign prices. After the poli tical decline o f the Sukhotai King do m with the death of its energetic E ing Ramkhamhaeng (Hama the Great), a new , centralized Thai King do m emer ged in 13 50 with its center a t Ayutthaya on the Chao Phraya River. Rama Thibodi, the first ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdo m , made two extremel y important contributions to 'l1hai the establishment

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21 and promotion of Theravada Buddhism as the official religion and the compilation o f the Dharmashastra, a legal code based on a Hindu source a n d on Thai custom . The Dharmashastra remained effective until the late 19th century. The Ayutthaya Kingdom had some contact v1i th the West , beginning \Vi th the Portuguese in the 16th century , but relations VJith its neighbors in Southeast Asia were of pri mary importance until the 19th century. Toward the end of the 1 8th century, Burmese armies overwhelmed the Jcingdom . Rama I , founder of the present ruling dynasty, -vvas one of the leaders who eventually drove out the Burmese. He established the capital Bangk o k , at its present location in 1782. His successors, especially after the British victory in B urma in 1826, became increasingly preoccupied with the threat of European colonialism. It is a source of great pride to the Thai that theirs is the only country in South and Southeast Asia never colonized by a European

PAGE 28

22 power. The Thai understood the necessity of flexibility and adaptability. Believing that "the strength of bamboo vtas its ability to bend \•ti th the vtind," they adapted themselves to the pressures of foreign powers to preserve the nation' s independence. R ama III began the process of accommodating to Western power with negotiation of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the British i n 1826. The United States began diplomatic exchange with Siam in 1 8JJ. I.:ore important steps in this direction were made by Rama IV, k novm in the West as King f',Tongkut, and by Rama V ( King Chulalong lcorn) , who carried out a virtual revolution of modernization in the Thai Government during the last quarter of the 19th century. These monarchs combined diplomatic skill vti th recognition of the need to modernize the state structure , m a king it possible for Thailru1d to survive as an independent state. E uroperu1 predom inance in Southeast Asia was challenged in the 20th century by the Japanese V /hen Japan struck at the Philippines and ! .. alaya in December 1 941 , it also invaded Thailand. Paced v r i th overv:helming Japanese poV!er , vthich quickly caused the collapse of Western forces in the area, Thailand acceded to Japanese demands. Althoug h nominally allied with Japan durine; 'ilorld II, T hailru1.d vms effectively an occupied country. The defeat of Japan was follo\ Jed by an era of increasingly close relations with the United States, viliich had extended assistance to Thailand in the immediate postwar period. Thailand sav.,r the

PAGE 29

victory of communist forces on mainland China in as a potential threat to its independence. I t became an active participant , along with the United States, in efforts to check communist expansion in Southeast Asi a . Sinc e 1975, Thailand 2J has served as a country of first asylum for hundreds o f thousands of refugees from communist Indochina. For its humanitarian policies in this area, Thailand and especially the r o yal family have received acclaim from the international organizations sup porting refugee relief. The present monarch, His King B humibol A d u l yadej ( R a m a IX ) , and Queen Sirild t have four children, including one son, Prince \ 'lachiralongk on , who v1as invested as crovm price in December 1972. The royal family contributes tim e and energy to many social and development pro grams. EC 0 rT 01\'JY End ov1ed with considerable natural resources, Thailand has de m on strated impressive r;r owth in its do mestic eco nomy. Foreign trade and i nves t ment are an i mportant part of the econom y , and e xternal conditions substantiilily influence the revenues of the Thai Government and the i ncomes of private citizens. A Griculture has been the m o s t important econo1,1ic activity -nearly of the p opulation live in rural areas. A mong urban areas, only Bangk ol( has a p opulation of more than 200 , 000. The

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24 staple food crop is rice. l larvests are consistently larger than do mestic consu mption, a n d 'l1hailand e xp o rts larg e quanti ties of f ood each year, t h e o nly developing country to do so. Other i m portant crops for do mestic consumption and export are manioc (the sour c e of tapioca) , corn, rubber, and sugarcane. r,Jajor nonagricultural e),.rports are textiles, tin, and electronics. Industry and the services sector are also important and have contributed to the consistently rapid growth of the Thai economy , v1hich has averaged more than annually over the past JO years. After consideration of price inflation and population growth, the r e a l per capita incom e of Thai citizens has g rovm at more than per year and is now estimated at more than $8 2 8 annually. This places Thaland well into the middle rang e of the developing nations. The economy is manag ed within a free enterprise system. Government regulation of the do mestic economy is exercised mainly throug h the bank ing system . Certain

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25 controls are placed on expo rts of co mmodities, such as rice a n d rubber, that are considered to be of strategic i mportance. A system o f "promotion" for do mestic and foreign investment includes tax incentives, favorable tariff treatment, and other b enefits as a greed with the Board of Investment. Applications f o r promotion a r e reviewed for co nsistency with the 5 -year plan for social and economic development. Objectives of the current plan include cl:osing the i n co m e gap and alleviating the inequitabl e d istribution of social services. The government seek s b alanced econonic growth by diversifying industrial production. I t promotes enterprises that will. produce a gricultural products, m inerals , chemicals, mechanical and electrical equipment, and othe r products and services. It also promotes enterprises which \ 'till produce for export or \ 'thi ch are labor intensive. S ocial and e co n o mic treads include increasing urbanization, ex pansion o f industrial activity at a faster rate than a griculture, and [;TO';;th of incomes in service industries. 'l'hese trends are often associate d with growth and but they have a l s o pro duc ed pro bleras that the Thai Government recognizes and seel;:s to relieve. Dang l;:ol;: faces housint; problem s and severe pressure o n basic services, i ncludi n g vmt e r , energ y , and tra n s prot facilities . observers have noted that the area of l and under cultivation i s unlikely to increase. Increases in i n co mes vtill be gai ned t hrouc;h g r eater productivity of the labor and land n o\t i n use and by developmen t o f i ndustrial production. To meet the problem s that development poses, a national planning a gency

PAGE 32

has been c;stablished to set priorities. Budgetary resources alloted for i m p l er nentation of the national plan have been increased in each of the recent annual bu d gets. 26 Tourism i s a n important g rO\rth industry. Thailand attracts travelers from all areas of the vvorld, v1ho come to visit the temples, purchase c;e m s a n d handcrafts, and to enjoy the breaches and resorts. 'rhailand's domestic economy is closel y tied to its exports and is closely tied to its and is extremely sensitive to fluctuations in the i nternational financial and commodity m ar1 cets. In recent years, hig h international interest rates and declining prices for many e xports have slo\'red Thai econo mic growth. Importing petroleum for more than of its energ y needs, Thailand has been affected by skyrocketing prices. Lar g e natural gas de posits have been discovered in the Gulf of Thailand, h owever, and a petroleum -based industry is now developing . These discoveries are reducing Thailand's dependence on imported fuels. In its e xternal relations, Thailand is a m ember of the ASEAN (Association o f South East Asian Nations) preferential trading arranG e ment but trades principally with Japan, the United States, the countries of the European Community, and Australia. 'rhailand a lso has concluded trade agreements vdth socialist countries, includinG; the U . S . S . R., Czechoslovakia, and others. Agricultural

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27 cor. modi ties are the primary exports, and fuels are i mported unde:t the s e arrang e ments. Foreig n investment is i mportant to Thailand. L'Iultilateral financial institutions, such as the \'lorld B anlc, the Asian Development Danlc, a n d foreig1:1 governments provide official credits. Largescale energy-related projects have been financed from abroad, including the development of gas resources in the Gulf of Thailand, the e xploitation of lignite (brovm coal) deposits in the northeast, and transportation and electricity supply throughout the country. Private investment is encouraged. I . 1ost important sectors of the economy are privately ovmed and operated, and the R o yal Thai Government recognizes that the continued supply of nev ; capital v1ill be necessary to achieve further growth. The Governemnt of Thailand recently has joined the General A gree on 11ariffs and Trade (GATT) and has recently ratified tariff understanding s achieved with the United States during the " Kennedy Round'' of negotiations in 1979 Thailand belong s to the International Telecommunications Satel lite Consortium (IN T ELSAT) and continues to cooperate with the Ui)i ted States throug h a bilateral a greement on textiles. In its relations v1i th the other ASEAN states, Thailand has concluded acr e e m e n t s to further develop coo peration in economic, trade, and c ultural matters.

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28 Althoug h predictions are alvrays difficult and the economy has encountered som e problem s (trade deficits and external debt), it i s that the Thai econom y will continue to g row at a strong rate and that recent trends will continue. Exports will increas and diversify, and industrial and service sectors v1ill expand more rapidly than a criculture. FOTIEICW! , E LATIONS Thailand' s history of freedom from formal Vlestern colonialism sets the country apart from its neiGhbors. Preservation of the nation' s independence, throug h flexible and pragmatic diplomacy, co ntinues to b e the k e yston e of government policy. 'l'hailand ' s foreic,1 1 policy i ncludes support for ASEAI'T in the interest o f reGional stability and emphasis on the security relationship \rith t h e United States . Thailand participates in internatioalan d recionalorc;anizations. I t has developed increasingly close ties vri th most other Southeast Asian countries, especially vri th the other ASEAN states -Indonesia, Lalaysia, the Philippines, and Sincapore. r ieeting s of the ASEA I ' priL'le m i n i sters are held annually. H e gional cooperation is prog r e s sing in economic, trade, bankinc;, political, and cultural Inatters. Since the Vietnamese occupation of ICampuchea in early 1979 , Thailand' s primary regional foreign policy concern has become its e a stern frontier. In addition to the Vietnamese troops there,

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29 hundreds of thousands of (native K a mpucheans) and Indochinese r efucees have crossed into Thailand from I :ampuchea. Thai relations ts eastern neighbors v1ill remain the country' s most press-.• .l. " • ing foreit:,'11 policy issue.

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JO TOURISM IN THAILAND Tourism i s co nsidered to be one of the major industries in Thailand, althoug h about 80 % of the economy is based on the a gricultural products, because it generates over a billion dollars fro international tourists annually. Thr government is fully supports tourism in Thailand and promote it internationlly throug h the Tourist Authority of Thailand that have the head quarter in Bangkok, and many offices in various major cities of the world. The number of internal tourists and international tourists hav e been increasing rapidly especielly in the past few years. Last year, the total number of international tourists increased 14% over the total n umbe r in 1985, b a s e d on the annual report by the Tourist Authority of Thailand. There are both international and domistic tourists travels throughout the various part of the Kingdo m of Thailand. Domistic tourists are usually those of t h e wee kend vacationers that tends to travel within a maximum driving time of about no more than 2 to J hours around their home cities. Many of these tourists are those in the city of Bangk ok which have a population of about 5 million people. The number of domistic tourists is usually based on the economy and differen t time of year, but it is constant and easy to project. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the international tourists who have a great impact over the tourism and economy of Thailand. The major number of tourists arrived in Thailand can be projected by the number of arrivals at Bangkok International Airport annually. Last year, the total number increased by 14% over the number of 1985's, and sources of whe r e these international tourists came from can be studied by the following :

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J1 The total number of tourists arrived at BangkoJ{ International Airport in 1986 is 2 , 002 , 188 people. The majority of this number are the tourists from Eastern Asia and Pacific areas which have a total number of 682 , 536 people, increased 16% since 1985 . The tourists from the European nations have a total of 58J, 126 people, increased 21%; from the Americas were 228 , 492 people, increased 1J% ; from the Southern Asian Countries were 204,725 people, decreased 5 % ; 109 , 825 people from the Middl e E ast, increased 6% ; and 1J, 4 8 2 people from the Africas, increased 22%. f . Iost of the tourists who arrived by airplanes are the Japanese, 249 , 010 people, increased 15% since 1985 ; the Americans, 1 84,222 people, increased 15% ; and 1J4,961 people from the European nations, increased 15% also. The average length of stay was studied from January to N ovember of 1986 , the averag e length is 6 days, increased from the past year, 1985 , which had an averag e length of stay of 4 days.

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32 The number of tourists who visits Thailand has been increasing since a small declined in 1 9 8 3 , the rate is projecting to be even higher in the near future. The Tourist Authority of Thailand had also recently studied the wajor tourists' s destinations o f the follov.Jing major genera l regions that are most popular. The results of the studies are: BANGKOK There were 73 hotels with 1 6 , 006 room s which increased by 7 hotel establishments, or 1 , 1 2 3 additional rooms since 19 8 3 . The hotel guest arrival' length of stay averaged 2 . 7 1 days. The averag e occupancy rate of last year was 61. 16%. The n u mber of hotel arrival guests \ 'Jere 1. 23 million divided into 88 , 000 Thais and 1.14 million international tourists. Most of the foreigners came from Japan, Hong l'= on g , and United States of America. January was the peak month and June was the lowest month. CHIANG M A I There were 126 accommodation establishments of varlous types of lod ging with 5 , 1 8 5 r ooms which increased by 87 rooms since 1 9 83. The averag e length of stay of guest was 2 . 96 days. The averag e occupancy rate o f last year was The number of guest arrival vtere 0 . 39 million divide d into 0 .25 Thais and 0 . 14 international tourists. Most of the came from the U . S .A., France, \'les t Ger many , U . K., H on g Kon g and Sin gapore. N ovember and December were the peak months and June and September were the lov1est months.

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MAP OF THAILAND SHOWING MA.JOR TOURIST DESTINATIONS ill Nakhon Aatchasima •

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J4 PATTAYA 1'here 'Nere 152 accomonda tions of various types with 8 , 647 rooms which increased by 1 ,005 rooms from 198J. The average length of stay of guest arrivals vvas 3 99 days. The averag e occupancy rate was LriJ. 1 3 % . The number of QAest arrivals were 0. 59 million divided into 0.16 million Thais and 0 .4J million internal tourists. Most o f the foreigner s came from West Germany , the Middle-East, H on g K on g , U . K . , Japan, and the U . S . A .. The peal<: season was in December and January, and the low season was in r . l a y and June. PHUKET Having the number o f 96 accornmondation establishments o f various types with 2 , 8 7 8 rooms available, occupancy rate throughout 1 9 8 6 was averaged 47.65% Total of guest arrivals was 0 .2J million averag e length of stay of J . 5 8 days. Of this number , 0.14 million were Tha i s and 0.09 million were foreigners which com prised visitors fro m West Germany , United King do m , Malaysia, Australia, United States, and Singapore. December was the peak month and June was the lowest month. HAT YAI l 'li t h an increase of 296 room s over the year 1 9 8 5 , Hat Yai had a total of 07 8 room s available in 60 hotels, showing occupancy rates of 62 .50%. Hotel f:,'Uest arrivals totalled 0.82 million; half of this number were Thais, and the other half were foreigners which mostly co mposed o f visitors from Malaysia, 65%, and visitors from Sing a pore JO%. Their len g t h of stay averaged 2 . 02 days. The peak season was from December t o February, and the low is September .

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SUNGAI KOLOK There are 44 ho t els with 1 , 098 rooms available, increased by 249 rooms since Occupancy rates in 19 86 averaged 56.28%, and 35 1. 27 days vms the average length of stay for the guests which totalled 0 .25 million. Of this number , 0.09 millen wer Thais, 0 . 14 nillion were Malaysians, and 0.01 million v1ere from Singapore . There was n o definite period for peak or low seasons, de pending on the situations, or annual events. For 1 986 , the hig h season was from March to July, and the low season was from September to november . In conclusion, the previous studies shO\v the need for more accommendations except in Bang k ol\: \'there a large number i s already at its limits. There are already attractions throughout the country that dra1,vs these tourists, and there is a potential for beach resort developments to drav., even more do mistic and international tourists. Since the larg e number of do mistic tourists are in the destination beach resort should not be too far away. The study site is about t\'lo hours anay by driving , therefore, its potential is hig h , even for majority of the international tourists who mostly arrives at the Banclcok Airport.

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REGIONAL CONTEXT

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INTRODUCTION TO THE REGION The province of 1ayonc is located on the eastern part of Thailand. The southern part of the region is completely bordered by the ocean, a part of the Gulf of 'l1hailand. \1ith a total area of about 1 , J88 square r.ii les, it i s 37 co ,Jposed of 1 : any tovvns, small and larv e , and a capital city called "The city of Rayong". '.rhis general region is about 120 miles from Bangko1c , a major potentia l sources of tourist for this resort development, and about L1-5 miles from another exi sting beach resort north-west of this reg i on . Present p o p u lation of JJ8 ,L!-8 1 peppl e s pread throug h the many communi ties wi t h i n the region, and a largest number o f t h i s t otal p opulation i s in t h e City o f Rayon@; 'l'h e major economy of this province is based on the farming and fishing industries v1here a larg e number of the population i s compose d of. There are licht industrial areas such as sand mines for g lass factories, and a small naturo.l gas refinary plant i n the region. But they have little influrence over the environment other than the p o sitive i mpact on the econom y . The landscape in this region can be devided into t v10 different types , those of the shore-line landscape ,.,hich is composed o f the white sand beaches wi t h small rollinc hills and salt tall era ted plcmts , a n d the areas f urther inland Hi t h t aller hills alon g with larc;e plains and dense vec;etation. f.uch of t h e areas \'rllere not in use for fanning or other i ndustries are left un-touche d , . , i th natural environment. And m o s t areas on the coast, since salty soils and hic;h r.1 L :ture of salt in the air is not sui table for farming , are remaining undeveloped. There are s o m e developmen t on the coast f o r fishing communities on the c l a m \'ta ter bay areas , and som e housing are starting to develop on the certain parts of the coast a lso.

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r : obM"""I.J'I"'ft-n' : I I I I J I . I I . ,. .. ,...,., o:l' "'i""1 I I I' r r----I I I I I ! l.AI2t".o'6 eDt-4H UMn"' B A .. lroOCN I(JI A PAOII ..

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39 EXISTING TOURISM CONDITIONS An bench resort miles av1ay from this recion has already n axi mized its development capacity, and demand for resort homes and a general vacation resort is i ncreasing from both internal and international tourists. This re::::;1on 1s aware of this matter and the local govern ment are encourag ing for tourism on its coastal areas. A t the present tim e , som e development have been eoinr; on already and increas1ng existing attractions, one of the most importion i'actors 1n tour ishl functional system , will b e studied and noted as. they vtill have influrence over the planning of this beach resort. The followinc:; also list the e x i sting lodginaand the number of units available.

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TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ' l'here are uany types o f attraction in t h i s rep;ion t o be considered for potential tourist s . 'l'he c;eneral types a r e t h ose o f t h e h i storic s igni f i cance, religious s i c n i ficanc e , and the n a tura l s i gnificance. H I S'J'OTIIC SIGl'fll,'ICAl,: CE A'l''l'HACTIOHS ----------1:\ shrine o f "h.ing a who lived a bout 200 years a g o . H i s signi f i cru1.ce is hic;hl y respe c ted by a l l peo p l e i n r eQ;aining freedom b a c l c fro m :;urliia onl y m on ths o f losei nc; a vmr , and T h ailand have neve r again lose her independent up to today. 'l'his shrine i s located near the City of Rayonc;. T h e statue of ":::unthorn Puc" , a f a m ous p oet \ ;h ose writing i s still vvidely used to study the basic of Thai languag e i n s c hool: I t i s ten 111iles o n frce':!ay J nest of the cit y of R a y o nc; , and five miles south of tha t freevmy. The statue of a navy a d m iral who i s known a s a father of t h e royal Thai' s navy . I t i s located about 1 5 m i les away from the c ity of Rayong alo n g the eastern c oast area. •ICAN C E ATTrl AC':eiO US " l )radu e " templ e , is famous f o r its unique reclin i n g budda in the r. a i n build i n g . The t emple i s i n the city of E a y ong. T e Lp l e on a sr.1all island , o n e m i l e s o u t h o f the city o f Rayo n g . An a ncient t empl e dated bact: to several hundred of years that have significance in its

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41 arc hi tee ture. l1A'1D'AL A'.rTHACTIOI.S ----... ---' .Lhere are several beaches and bay areas on the eastern coast east of the city of Rayonc an
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42 EXISTING ACCOMENDATIONS 'J.lhe follo•:tinc is a list of all of the existing; lodc;inc; facilities and unit s available at present time throug hout this reg i o n . Please note that most of the available a t this time are in the fonn of bungalows, detached housinG units that are rented per day , or rent by room per day. 1 . Rayongthani I r o tel 2 . Sirirodc;e Hote l 3. Srifarh Hotel Hotel R ooms 11 7 45 36 _.21 Total hotel rooms 250 D li:'ffi '!'Cll!m Ul1I 'l'S: 1. 'Iubthon c Dunt;alo w 2 . Chanpaen Villar 3 l.ational Flores DUngalow H intaevt Ilun,;alovt 5 . Pro1. pon;::; L od c e 6 . L od G e 7 l'!ear Seaside L odge 8 . .:..; . l . • Dungalovt 9 . t:u t p u t L unc;alovt 1 0 . Prenwadee Seaview LodGe Uni t s 10 7 7 8 9 6 10 4 2 13

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11. L oh i :ae\' 1 I.ung alovt 1 2 . R n Gthalae L od c e 1J. N . S . Land Dung alo\'f 14. Suan Soan Villa 1 5 . Thipvaree Cottag e 1 6 . Pae Vill 1 7 . B arn Pae Resort 1 8 . Sinsm u t l3un .r'alov t 1 9 . Hes ort 20. A mornpllun Villa 21. Hungnapa Resort 22. Cha\'tlae Cottag e 23. Talae Narn Lod g e 24. Rienrom Jungalow 25. Pat Lod g e 26. C r ystal Sand 27. Iarsri Villag e 2 8 . Sahamitr Land 2 9 . .:aepiem I3un..o-alow 30. Phiunip a Villa 8 8 15 1 8 13 8 '-l 12 35 30 13 14 13 10 12 8 10 8 1 2 10 Tot a l unit: 3 G O LODGI!:U OF " S A L:CD " IST A P D 1.. "Pa Taeb " Dungalow 2 . S un Sand Bne;alow Units 35 20 43

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J . rarl:a :Jun.;alo\? 1 3 h . h .JGi 1:unL;a l ov1 10 5 Classy Sand Villa 1 5 6 . Toie Villa 1 2 7 r a i:lb oo nay Inn 1LI-8 . Sea Breeze Lode;e 1S' (I ':Pub Tho n e ::::.unsalow 1 0 / 10. S a m ed Villa 27 11. Charlie Villa 10 1 2 . Putta BunGalo\r 15 13 . 'I'ub Tim i3ungalo w . 30 'l1arntavran Lod g e 1 5 1 5 . Suvit B tm G alow 13 1 6 . Saued Resort 8 17 . V on gdieon Resort 1 2 1 8 . V ongdieon Villa 1 5 1 9 . s . Hut 1 2 20 . D o m e Dun[;alow 1 5 21. . nattana Lod g e _2 Total Unit: 32 9 In conclusion, \'/e can see that there are i n the reGion 25 1 hotel room s , and 709 rental units of any other ldnd s of housing that are a lready available. Dut these units are by far, do not meet the standard of any beach resort ret:;ion. 'rhe bungalov:s are p opular for the Thai tourist because t h e y usually travel vri th many m e mber of t h e family and friends, and since 44

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kitchen is available, they usually cooks themself. The available number of hotel rooD s are of those of the hotel in or near the city of Rayong , and none are considered lodt;inG units are those cheapl y built and rents are not nell maintained. a resort hotel. of the small huts are very lov..r, and ::..;ut these units The remaining of most of the near the beaches that are the detached housing units that are usually filled up especially clurinc; the sumraer because they are affordable by majority o f the Thai tourists, and there are also international tourists of the younger a g e croup s \'rho ei1 joy v i si tine; the prima ti ve beach areas and does not need luxurious facilities .

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46 RECOMMENDATIONS The is a list of recOii I t tenda tions based upon the previous reviev t o f tl e region and its tourism conditions. 'l'hese recommendations are far froL 1 complete, and are subject to review nnd evaluation. They a lso do not fully address the real planninG complexities of the upcoming resort project. These are just the general about the region that may have influrenc e over the succession of the planninr; of this beach resort. Involve the public: everyone includinG all local government, center i n the city of special interests and anyone willing to participate. Accep t the problem that both short and lonr; rang e needs must be met . ' 11his requires establishing of the conceptual framv10rk for the lon grang e planninc.; and Hill help prevent short-rane e mistakes that become long ranc;e A t any scale o f investiGation for reeional factors or complexities that \'Jill have impact or effects over the planning of this beach resort developmen t , attempt to truely understand what the real problem is, not just the sywtom of the 'l'he solution then derived will be par more :1 r:c eE; r :"tJ. . Only when the real problem is understood can the real need be address. Potential for tourism 3rowth in the reGion can be hicher if well pror! lotcd. :Cusiness ovmers at the r aon1ent are doing it by themself. In

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t h e future, local c;overnment should be involved since much profit can be made for everyone, and it is also v 1ell supported by the tourists authority of 'l1ho.iland. ExistinG facilities and attractions should be considered and used as a n iuportan t factor of this beach resort' s tourism functional syste1n . 47 E nviron mental and social i mpact should also be studied by a specialist at the later stac;e before begininc; of constructions, to try to understand h o w r auch the new resort cor. muni ty will have influrence over these i1,1 p o r tan t a reas , and are they positives or net; a ti ves.

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SITE ANALYSIS AND EXISTING CONDITIONS

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49 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY SITE The study site have a total area of approximately 2,372 acres. It is located about 15 miles east of the province of Rayong along freeway number three. The site is mostly undeveloped and existing environments are at natural conditions. The Eastern Development Company, owner of this project, owns a large portions of land within this study site that they are using certain areas for sources of glass sand. Other than that, the overall conditions of this site are untouched and very attractive suitable for a beach resort environment, especially its coastle area that is about J.J miles long. The total area of 2,372 acres was studied based on all of the existing informations available at this time to determine and select the best location suitable to be developed for a beach resort community. The size of the developJ nent at this stage will not be determined, but mainly to find out and locate the most suitable areas within the study site. And based on most availability of suitable areas, the program and size of the development will later be determine. Following are the results of the studies described different physical conditions about the study site based on existing informations and personal evaluations. They were studied to determine opportunities and constrains, each of them will be summarized at the end of this process to determine the overall suitabilities of the resort development.

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    5 1 SLOPE DISTRIBUTION T he study site contains a larg e portions with plains that are fairly opened. Slopes are vary but slightly changed from the north to south of the major portion s of the plains with about 100 feet vertically. The hills east of the site are mostly steep and may not be suitable for the development, but the foothill areas are very attractive and hig h enoug h to have a good view of the ocean. Slopes are put in catagories from 2 per cent to over JO per cent. A major development must consider slopes for proper drainages, therefore, the areas with at least 2 to 10 per cent slopes would be most appropriate. The development must also eliminate slopes that are too steep, because they will cost more to be developed and much problems may occures due to errosion. T he following m a p subdivided the site into slope catagories that will later be determined for the overall suitabilities.

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    53 HYDROLOGY AND DRAINAGE Being in a tropical rain forest climate region, general precipitation rate is also high in this area, with average annual rainfall of about 1204.4 milimeters. These rainfalls are the major source of water in this region and naturally collected in the ponds near the foothills on the site. During the rainny season, the creek on the lower middle part of the site is always filled with water as it catches draining water from different surfaces, and flows into the sea. IV:any wet land areas are also within this study site, the were also created by the precipitation rates and based on their topograpicle locations. During the high precipitation season, water in the ponds and creek increases the levels rapidly, and therefore, those areas may be considered as the flood that any constructions should stay away from.

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    . -t . i I \ . 1 I t I .. t -......... -. I I I : .. . . . ' I I I i L " •• I MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY For The Prov1nce Of R a yong. Thail and D I . I . I L -----------------

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    VEI;:IETATIDNS The majority of the areas in this site are fairly opened and are composed of grassland on sandy soils. Coconut trees dominates vegetations in this coastal areas, but certain locations, where muddy soil were created, are densely covered by different kinds of plant. There are two major densely vegetated areas on this site, one on the western part and another on the hill areas. These areas creates greenbelts on the site and rich with wild lifes. They should be preserved if possible because they also make this site attractive, and provide a major greenary. A small portions of land are used for rice fields, composed with wetland and o pened. They could be used as a part of the development if necessary, and the soil is already rich for planting. The following map illustrates the major vegetation areas. They will later be determined if certain zones should be preserved for a feature of this development. 5 5

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    I ' ' J . . . . -. \ \ \ \ \ \ ', ... __ .... ------..,,-----------•I l t_ -. --... ---. --.......... .... ,. -... ' .... .... I ---------',,, 1 . ''' )do : .... '... .:. J c, .,.-.....,......,.-...... --...... --.. _.. ...,.._, . ._,._ M ... ... • ..-.. w• ..._,. _. ....--& • ..._.... • --... " ... -------_..., ,_ .. _._ ... " ...... _,_........,. r ....,._ o .... AI&.,.. -... ............. ------_..,. __ ..____ _______ ], A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY l For The . .

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    57 GEOLOGY J •::ost of the soils on this site is very salty and only sui table for certain species of plant. The beach front areas are mostly covered with fine sand that create a loose surface, but deeper under these surfaces are more compact. Building constructions in this area may need to be foundated deeper and cost more to stablized. The remaining types of soil can all be suitable for constructions, but the hill areas are usually rocky with shallow dept of bedrocks. Determinations for development suitability may need to consider the locations of the types of soil for planting potential. But most of the soil types are suitable for many plants that are native to this region because they are salt tallerated. Certain plant species that are not natively grown here may be introduced but should be planted on the organic clay areas because they have lesser mixture of sand and salt.

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    ----------------------------------------, ' ' I : I puepe4..1_ 6uofi.ei::! JO AOnj_S j_CJOS3t:t H8V'38 .. :.. ...... ..... ..:....... . ... : -. . ... : I L ______________________________________________________________ ...._ ________________________ •• I I J I , ; ; i ' ' ' ' ' 1 I I -----------=---_ J _ -----l ..

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    59 SEASONAL WIND AND IMPACT There are three seasons in this region, rainny, cool, and summer. Wind changes direction due to the different seasons, and intensities are also different. The period of times and directions of wind, including intensities are: A) The rainny season, from June to September, have the south-western wind that averaged about 9.8 knotts per hour, but can increased intensively during the storms that are typical in this season. B ) The cool season, from October to January, have the northern wind, average at about 5 knotts per hour. C) The summer season. , from February to May, have the north-eastern wind that average at about 10 miles per hour or 80 percent of maximum wind blow of about 25 miles per hours. Since the peak season for the resort would be during the summer season, impact of summer wind to the study site was determined, and direct impact areas might be eleminated because it will also creates intense waves that are criticle for boating and swimmin g .

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    ... ' .. \ ' ... '• _,_ -'II ..... T --...... .... -A-f'-, \ \ \ \ \ \ ' . . ... , ... ___ .. ---""--... ' ' ' ' \ :... ::-.. _ ,.. ----_.._..,.. __ I I I I I ' ' .......... , ___ ........ .. . . . . \ \ \ \ \ . 60 --------------"""'' • , . ' ........... I .... ' ,, , .. ---. ........... .'j',,, __ ,.. ' •J • J • • ,,, I ' ' . ... _ \ ' I . ! I ........ l'
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    61 SHORELINE STUDY The height and times of waves in the ocean outside and on the beach area of the study site was studied by the Navel Department 40 miles east of this region. The study was done at the rate of every three hours with directions and in tensi ties of wind. The results of the study shows that 80 per-cent of the waves are about 1.5 feet high, and the waves of over 3 feet high have intensity of about 95 percent. 'l1h e sea levels are as the following : HIGHEST HIGH WATER = +5.4 FEET fi:EAN HIGH WA'I'ER = +1. 8 FEET 1\.iEAN SEA LEVEL + FEET = -0.0 r . JEAN LOW WATER = -2. 1 FEET LOWEST LOW WATER = -6.2 FEET The beach of the study site is the result of long shore sand deposit, the largest sand de posit area is at the eastern part of the beach where it curves a gainst the deposit direction, which runs eastward along the beach line. Other types of sand deposits are the result of mainland surface drainages such as the creek and major drainage line along the foothills that runs to the sea. These overland flow drainages could result with a muddy deposits, but the flows on this coast are carried by the underwater current and deposits on the bottom of the sea o n the other side of the hills east of the site, and leave the beach of this site with only the pure fine sand.

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    •, •, .. . \ \ \ \ \ ' ' .. ....... "' .... _ ... I ' "'' \ I . \ --'' , . I ' I ........ ..... \ ....... . I ' \ t j '. ' I' I ...... . .......... ', o \ II ... , / -.. \ ,. ,,: ' ..... ; ! . \ ,' ,# ' / ' \f', .1. , ,. , J. ' ,' 1,(' ' \ 'l ___ .. -.. : ', , ' l ' ' , ''• , , ' , ' ' I .. ... \ ... --r . . . .:.::. ... _ _ .... ..... .. .. , j-----1 :---------...l ----.:"' J ' ............ t_ ______ .....-____ _ -.. u :-..........,;_..,. .,__..-.. ". -... ... ....... "' --y . ..,.._-.. .... . ..-.,..-.... . ........,_,.., ___ .............,. ........ __,... .. " ........ ...,._ ............ ......... -....,._. -...:.. ...:.......""':....,. _.., ' I I I I \ ' . --, ,I '• . . ... , ---__ , --. ' \ . r ) 62

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    EXISTING ROADS AND UTILITIES S o far, there is not a permanent paved road on this study site, but a few dirt roads that are used by the surrounding communities are evidenced due to the needs for fresh water from the ponds and access to the sea. There are paved roads around the study site that serves the existing communities, as o n the Circulation map, they may be used as a connection to the project, and two of them are already connects to the freeway north of the site. r . Iajor p ower lines are already reaches these surrounding communi ties. The prop o sed resort community may choose to connects its power lines to the existing o nes, o r generates the power by itself. 6J

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    I I ----.-1 J ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ---'\ ' ' \ \ ------I , , \ ', ... _ .. _ ... " ,.; --' ' ' \ \ ' I I I I . ' \ \ -' ... __ ... '• ... , • ,_ ' \ ... ___ ........ ',, L ______ _.,....._ _____ ... __ .:::.._ _________________________ . . . -.... ----, ',, ! -----.. ... -....................... "..,. .. ... . . ,. •• -........---r._.. . .. l A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY . ' L...: 64 .. _______________________________ . _____ j ••

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    SUITABILITIES ANALYSIS Important physical factors to be used for determination of development suitability areas are, slopes, hydrology, types of vegetation, soil types, and direct win d impact areas. First, areas with most constrains from 65 these studies were considered unsuitable and totally eliminated. The remaining factors were then put together to determine if certain areas are more or less suitable. Since the remalnlng areas are considered developable, the numbering system was applied to determine for more or less suitabilities of the different areas. For each factor, numbers of 1, 2, and J were mapped for the areas that are considered to be more or less suitable. For example, 1 are least and J are most suitable areas. The maps of these factors were then overlaid together and numbers were added. The result is the following Development Suitabilities map that have areas wi t h different numbers. Areas with the least numbers are least suitable, and the areas v1i th higher numbers are more sui table. These numbers were then put i nto three catagories, and they are to show the least and most suitabilities for this development. The areas where are unsuitable are also shown on the following map.

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    J ' . . \ ' 66 \ \ . \ \ \ \ I . i . . .. . i . i L _________________ ____ _ .J . . R s A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY For The

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    67 RECOMMENDATIONS The previous determinations for development suitabilities areas were only to show most and least suitable locations throughout the study sites. They do not mean or point out the areas that would need to be developed, but m e rely to show the general suitable areas that the site selection process could be located on.

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    OVERALL .PLANNING CONCEPT

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    DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND B ased o n t h e p r evious analysis process and the s ummary for a mount of area m o s t suitable for development, the planning of this beach resort should a c hieve the following goals and objectives: 1. To enhance existing a menities such as the beach and ocean, lakes and streams. 2 . Create aditional amenities that more pleasing environment will be resulted from throughout the development area. J . To increase values of land by maximize the use of those areas around existing and created a menities. 4. Create day and night activities as to provid e facilities for land and water uses, and to provide every body with something to do as one of the attractions for this resort. 5 Create within the resort itself, difference areas or neighborhoods that have different characters and will attracts different kind of people and that may have uses at different times. .Plan the resor t by using maximum a mount of land most suitable for the development, and divide the uses of these land by the ratio that is likely to be most appropriate and successful. 69

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    70 PLANNING CONCEPT The first step of the planning process is to decide on the overall concept, and to first lay out the 18-hole golf course based on the golf course design principle in this report. After that, many major areas will be created on the most suitable land. These suitable areas have a total of 504 acres to be planned for the first phase of development. Before the land use master plan can be developed effectievely and appropriately, this chapter will discuss the overall planning concept. And after that, concepts for each of the different areas on the site will also be developed and discussed. THE OVERALL CONCEPT: 1. To create an interesting and pleasing main access as a gate way into the development. This suggests that a right-ofway of about 150 feet wide should be provided so that there will be enough room for larger road with a nice median in the middle. 2. For the areas inside the eight-shape golf course, the golf course is to be considered as a major amenity for the units within the sites, and by doing so will increase the value of the land stated as one of the development goals. J. The main access road should connect directly to the beach front road. The beach front road takes only a portion in the middle of the whole beach front area to create an interesting and pleasing drive through. This is to also provide all-public beach use area on this part of the beach front on the other side of the road.

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    71 4. For some other parts of the beach front areas, the beach should be more private and isolated, seperate fromthe road that will create interesting and more valuable sites for hotel or condominium development. Since lru1d values w111 be most expensive on these beach front areas,certain sites should be permitted for construction of high-rise buildings that will not create too much constrains or block the view for other near-by sites. 5 Other than the main entry road into the development, another main road should be planned for to g o through the second phase site that will also provide a circulation to and from the phase one development area. This will provide a second main access from another existing road west of the site that also connects to the freeway. By plruming and construction of this road to go through the second phase area at this time will help push future development of the second phase to be sooner and those land near the road will already be more see the following page for the conceptual diagram of this Overall Concept.

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    72

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    DEVELOPMENT AREA SITE SELECTION N o w that the overall co ncep t has been s t ated, at this tim e I will discuss t h e determination for general locations of the resort development. 73 Firs t of all, the d etermination for location is to be related directly to the planning concept and the overall goals and objective. Based on the development suitability map, certain areas with most constrains are not to be used within the developable boundaries. The remaining areas are to be considered developable with more or less constrains. The largest most suitable area should be considered first, and those near by or next to it could be u sed as a part of the overall development. Access into the site should also be considered as to use the existlng roads already connects to the freeway as a part of major access into the resort. With these two major considerations the existing road connected to the freeway that ended north of t h e middle part of the study site will be used as a part of the major access into the development. The largest most suitable area is on eastern middle part of the study site wlth steep hills bordered the east part, the ocean b y the south, and g o a s far as the creelc on the west. Therefore, the res o r t developme n t will be selected to locate on this general area, and b y using the existing freeway access road into the site. Based on the previous overall planning co ncept, the general area for the 1 8-hole G Ol f course i s to b e located no rth of t h e development site to leave a major land betw e en t h e golf course and the ocean for other developments. The access roa d will g o throug h the middle part of the gold course to provide a p leasant gate w a y a n d a direct access i nto t h e golf course' s club hous e off of the main access road. The main access road then runs directly to the

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    beach front road. The remaining ideas for location and she selection of the development can be directly related to the previous concept. Please note at this tim e that another road will connect north of the main access road to another existing road west of the study site and the most suitable land in between may be used as a part of this development or will be preserved for future use. ( See the follow1ng p a g e the map of the selected development site) 74

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    "f-Y -,... ... _,., • T .,.. .. _...... .. --y . . ,.,.,..,._. , ..... -.....,_,.. .. "H .... ,..y .. ..._....IC ,. ........... ,..., , ... _,.. , • • L--T" .... .. ,...., ... . _....,.,_ ..... .__,., • .,.. ... ,L. .... \ __ .,----.. ---CJI \ A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY -----. 75 ..... -,...... -._,. -11..--<-----.... ..............

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    76 GOLF COURSE PLANNING-SITE LAYOUT An 1 8-hole course is o n e of the major objectives for this beach resort development to provide a major activity as one of the attractions to bring p eo ple into the resort. A larg e number of Thai people enjoy the g a m e of golf, . and a larg e number of foreigners working in various international firm s and e mbassies in Bang ko k also plays golf. Along with these users, tourists from all over the s pend so1n e times during their visits play inb golf a t many courses dependin::.:_ on v 1here they are. It has been noted t hat a larc e number of Japanese tourists enjoy spending a lot of tlm e s p .l a y l n G golf i n Thailand during their vacation because the green fee ls much che aper t h a n i n Japan, and there are more interesting golf courses throu g hout t h e country . 'fhere are a bout seven golf courses in Bang k o k area (11 6 miles from this and t w o in the n ear by existing beach r esort (50 miles away). S o , t here is not any golf course within the 50 miles radious from this beach resort developmen t and a planning of one here is likely to be very successful. D e side the demand for a golf course in this region, a golf course itself could provide attractive o pen space for the whole development and create positive i 1 n a ce. I t wi.l.l als o provide a lot of attractive areas for residential d eve..Lop ment a n d pleasi n g view from various places on the site as a go..Lf cours e vti.ll b e considered here as another a menity in addition to the ocean. 'l1h e first s t a g e of the plannin g process i s to .lay out the golf course general plan that will later be more carefu..L.ly design by a go..Lf course design s pecialist. T herefore it ls appropriate for a .landscape architect to work

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    on the planning of the golf course at this level by following the general de<>iQ'1 principal, and to provide the overall concep t for the golf course that \..ril l \ ' Jork \.,rell wi t h the overall planning concep t for the whole resort developn1ent. S o , t h e of this level of golf course lay out is to determind the area for an 1 8-hole "eic;h-shape" c;olf course that will tak e up much of the area to provide positive open space view to m o s t of the residential development . "eic;ht-shape" colf course is selected because it will leave t\v o attractive spaces wi thin the golf course that have potential to be planned for residential development. TilE TIEGULATIOU CODHSE 77 In li10St cases, a golf course has a par of 70 , 71, 72 , or occasionally 69 or 73 l .any older courses built in the Unite d States play to a total par of 70 . ilov1ever , in recent year s par 7'!. has beco r11e t h e standard of excellence i n the of r :mny developers and golfers. It should be stressed, hm 1eve r , that the size and natura l characteri stics of a site determine wha t the total par sloul d be; therefore, many courses are built outside the standard par 72 . In many cases the golf course arc hitect will determine that o. shorter par 70 course may indeed be much better than a forced par 72 because it is more demanding and natural. r :ei ther par nor total yardag e should be the criterion of quality, for the objectives of the recreational development c;olf course should be that it is fair and enjoyable to play. A rec,u lation <:;olf course comprises H 3 holes v1i th a cor.1bination of par 3s, and 5s, the sura of which equal s pars 70 to 73. The standard mix for a par

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    78 72 colf course is ten par four par Js, and four par 5s. Par 7 1 courses cenerally drop a par L1. and replace it with a par J or drop a par 5 and replace it with a par 4 . A par 70 golf course eenerally has either six par Js, eit)1t par and four par 5s or four par Js, twelve par and t w o par 5s. A par 73 [Olf course generally has an additional par 5 i n place of a par • It is these combinations of pars which comprise \•tha t is considered to be the norm to qualify a course as "regulation" in the ninds o f colfers . However, it is neither total yardag e nor par vtlnch deteruines the aJno"Lmt of area used, the quantity of lot frontac;e, and the cost of maintenm1ce aJ.'ld control of the golf facility once it is built. 'l1lle needs o f the project, the shape of the total property, and the physical characteristics o f the site all have an influence on how and 1..vhere the GOlf course architect, planner, and O\'/ner decide to lay out a regulation golf cour:3e. " EIC'J".r SIU\.FE11 1 U 1IOLE GOLF C OURSE \'!I'rll TIETUHN I N G Eli'iES Thi s tYJ)e o f colf course \'Jill have a larg e amount of fairway frontac;e for real estate development \'/ill consume a lot of area which is one of the coals set :for the plm1ninc;; for this beach resort. In order to maintain in tricrity o f the golf holes and safety in the deve.loped. areas, a minimum distance of 150 feet fro1n center line to boundary on both sides 1s necessary. The s maller frontac e fit,L.tre is a result of brinc;ing more holes bacl\: to the club house area aDd concentrating the location of features, greens and trees in that area. slight loss of frontae;e is more than o1set by tt1e lncreased and diverse play the course can accommodate.

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    111he " e i ghts h a p e " 1 8 -hole with retur ninG nines m a x i mizes both the playing flex i bility ru1.d the n u mber of daily rounds because of t h e returninc; nines feature. .'lith seperate startlng and i 'inishing goles , golfers begining a g a u e peak GOlfinc; hov.rs ( U : 00 a m . to 10:15 a m . and 1 2 :30 pm. to 79 p m . ) can start on both nines ru1.d crisscross to the other n ine t\'.ro to t'.'iO and o n e -quarter hours later. This manner of startin g makes a maximum nul:lber of r ounds p o s s i ble, a faster round of golf, and Gives the golfer the option of playing only nine holes. The course requires more. maintainence wen and m ov1ers for early marine; preparatio n because of the longer mowing and m a chinery transportation tim e due to the spread-out nature of the greens ru c1 trees.

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    I 8 0 .. . , ' ' . 'I I ' i I i • • I ' ' ' ' ' , ' I _ _ , / \ ... ... ' / \ -•--T ... _ _ r '' '""' •' ,/' • \ • • .,. ... ,.. -*' .., .., , *' I .. .., .. " ,.-,Jo ' •., I r-, \ \ . . . I ---. ., . . I . I I . . ! ' , I . I . . . . . . . -"' .. . . I . . I / I ,. , / I ' ' , I / . • . ' L .. __________ _ _____________________ l . . I . i I • \ •. \ L_ _ _ ____________________ _j -o -MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY

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    PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

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    82 DEVELOPMENT PHASING The site v;i tll t h e total area of 760 acres will be selected for t h i s dcveloprnent, but the1 e are m ore areas that are considered most sui tab.Le, based on the previous site analysis process. 'rhose areas m a y be saved at this time to be consider for future development. 'l1he fo.Llo':Jing map shows the location of these areas that have a total of about JOJ acres.

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    Q ____ ... ,..., ... _ •....... } ..... _ .............. .,. ..... o.,. ....... __ .._... .•• o . \ s , (8 ..... ?'o' 0., ..• _..., ... ... ..,. .... ,..,0{. '• <:1. .. <&"'......, • ..,.._.. ...... Q • ..... ,..... """"" . • • • H 1 N;:;:;;;::J 't •• ;;;;;:u CI""V"" ...__...,..,._ """""l4L ..,,. • .., "' ..-.xu .., ...... "' ..... ,......,.,..._..,....,.W-t.,.....l.oQl. \ \ -ADn..LS ..Lt:JOS:3t:J H8"V':38 :3Sn-D:3XIII\J "v' ' ' ' ' ' i -.. ........... ,.,_...,,.,. .-.... -...... ... ' ' ' \ ' \ ' ... ::... :.-... ............ _ q........... .... --• Q .... -...... • Q ............ , ,,..._.. .. _ _ ... ........... , .................. _ ... ... -........ _ . . .).. .. _ ................ _._ ................ ..o ..... -.)..-... -' . 0. \ -

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    DEVELOPABLE SITE Usinc; the larzest portion of land most suitable for development from the sui tabLll ty uap, an U.:l-hol e golf course v1as first laid out in the "eit:;htshape" forrn providinc; spaces in the middle that have potential for residential area (see c;olf course design section). now we basically knO\'/S that the colr course takes up acres, and the remaining most suitable t.;;roun d in the larg e portions have a total of 807 acres. Leaving JOJ acres on t h e \ '!est side of golf course for the second phase as future expansion area, that vrill leave acres for present planning . The following chart illustrate these number in suunary: ----. -------1 0 -hble tolf course == 2 ,)6 acres /irst phc:u:e de\7elop:!!Gnt == acres ::.ecm1d ,LJ h:J..::c == JOJ acres Total developable area == 1 ,06J acres ----------------1 U -hole GOlf course L;:u 1 d to be c lc\reJ_OlJCl1 Total ::: acres == 7 6 0 acres 84

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    Therefore, determination for development will be f o r 504 acres of developabl e G r ouna acres of course. 85

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    A CASE STUDY I t is not an easy tas1{: trying to develop or plan for the uses of the land over a thousand acres wiehout looking into some of the existing projects or similar developments that have already been sucessful. Since my primary concern for this study is to plan and design most of the site for a beach resort development, selection of the case studies are those of the coastal resort developments. Many cases had been reviewed but one will be discuss here to give an overview and some factors will be applied as a model to my upcoming program development process. KAANAPALI BEACH RESORT, ISLAND OF M AUI, HAWAII The Kaanapali Beach Resort, owned, developed, and managed by Amfac, Ltd., a billion-dollar Hawaii-based corporation, is located on the shores of west Maui. It was the first major destination resort established in Hawaii off Oahu and, with the opening of a golf course and the first two hotels in 1962, has served as a model of planning, mar keting , and profitability. 8 6 Dy 1 9 80 , about 6 00 of the more than 1,000 acres had been developed or were tmder developme nt, i ncluding construction of six hotels with a tota l o f 3,700 rooms, seven sold-out condominium projects with a total of 1,300 units, 130,000 square feet of commercial space, 350 custom ho m e s sites, tvw 1 8-hole golf courses, and an airstript served by a commuter airline. Plan for expansion continuing into the 1990's including the addition of t w o more hotels, three condominium projects, 17

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    apartment sites, a neighborhood shopping center, two theme cultural attractions, a number of residential subdivitions, and an executive golf course. THE SITE The resort is 26 miles from the main airport on f 11Aui at Kahului, approY..ima tely 100 miles from Honolulu on the island of Oahu , and three miles north of Lahaina, an old whaling port with a population of about 6 ,000 people. Lahaina was the first capital of Hawaii; its historic significance serves as a major attraction to the west coast o f Maui .

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    88 Eaanapali Beach is predominantly dry and sunny. Annual rainfall is 15 to 20 i nches with an averag e of 355 days of sunshine and breezes. The project is bordered by three miles of sandy beach on the ocean side a11.d sugar cane fields that reached up a gradual slope on the mountainou s inland. The most intensively developed area of the resort proper inunediately fronting on the beach is relatively flat and is bisected by the main high-way which separates the sloping residential areas f r o m the resort area. PJLANNI N G A N D DESIGN W h en conceived in the late 1950s, the Kaanapali Beach Resort was int ended to be a self-contained i sland resort, ultimately including all the recreational, commercial, entertainment, social, and medical facilities necessary. Provision was made to build residential apartments a s a secondary land use, primarily for the limited number of loca l b u s i ness e xecutives. Golf course w ere p lanned a s i m p o rtant areas of open space and lands capi n g i s profuse t hroughout. I n additi o n t o the beach and golf course, recreational facilities i nclude 22 tennis courts scattered throughout t h e resort alon g vri t h n u merous othe r land and water-oriented activities t y pica l o f a m ajor oceru1. resort. 'l1h e desire d by somev1 h a t v . r e a1-;:e l y coordinate d architectural i m a g e is t r o p ical, rel y i n g o n H awaiian s t yle r oo flines, natural roc1 t , and o p e n air d esic;n. A m fac maintains an architectural review corrunitte of five

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    89 experts who serve as advisors. The resort \'las already well established when z o ning v ras introduced; consequently, urban development is perrn i tted over m ost of the property. Public regulations stipulate a 12-story m a ximu m hei ght for buildings, setback s from the ocean, special permits for construction seanard of the highway, landscaping requirements for par1dnG lots , and public access to beach spaced at a maxim u m of 1, 500 feet apart. Amfa c provided central vtater and sewer services, and is blessed \ ri th access to fresh water in and otherwise water-short area. INTERESTING F AC11S A BOU11 THE PROJECT A. The success of the Kaanapali Beach destination is attributable to climate, proximity to the t ovm of Lahaina, ambience of resort, friendliness o f local people, range of services, and amenities. B . The concept of selling properties to help finance development limits the master developer's control over orchestrating resort development as well as quality of service. c . Initial planning should consider many details, such as security, transportation, organizational responsibilities, and, ultimately, the potential for an increased number of permanent residents. Poor control of signage and graphics, for instance, can seriously undermine the magic of an exotic resort atmosphere. D . Ocean vistas are by far the prime values. The new Hyatt at Kaanapali offers ocean views in 90 percent of its rooms. E . Growing resistance to "overbuilding " can result in a community opposing any further c onstruction. While this is a typical and familiar problem to all developers, it is of particular concern in resort development because of the need for a return on the heavy front-end coasts of infrastructure.

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    PLANNING DATA KAANAPALI BEACH RESORT Land Use Information: Site area: 1,055 acres TOTAL UNITS Hotel Rooms Condominiums Commercial Space Apartments Single-Family Gross Density: Parking Spaces: Land Use Plan: Land Use Hotel Condominium Commercial Single-Family Apartment Golf Course EXISTING 1980 J,700 1,JOO 1JO,OOO sq.ft. J50 Total Planned 10.7 units per acre 1.25 units per space Acres 150 110 55 JOO 70 J70 TOTAL 1,055 90 PLANNED 5,700 2,500 700,000 sq.ft. -1,000 1,500 10,700 units Percent 14 10 5 29 7 35 100

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    9 1 '.l.'he previous case study at t his stat;e v.;ill be di1:ectly related to as a model and cuideline to develop a proG ram for t his beach resort development . Since I'aanapali Deach Resort is one of the most successful resorts in Hawaii and has been established for over 20 years, it is \'!ell k nown and has been used as a model i n many resort planninc already. A program development can be very com plicated, there are r, any different ways to determind the number o f land use and so forth. And yet , som e may not be so successful. Since this beac h resort development contains many factors that are s i milar to Laanapali' s , the program development will directly follow the most successful ratio in tern 1 o f perc e n tat:;es of land use o f Laanapali ' s .

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    92 APPLICATION OF THE CASE STUDY Kaanapali Beach Resort was planned on a total of 1,055 acres with 10,700 units plus 700,000 square feet of commercial space. The existing condition data in 19 8 0 provided number of what has been successful verses the planned number. Those numbers and percentages are as the following chart. Total site area = 1,055 acres Existing 19 8 0 Percent Built Planned Hotel Hooms 3,700 64.9 5,700 Condominiums 1,300 52.0 2,500 Commercial 130,000 18.6 700,000 Apartment 1,000 Single-family 350 23 11!200 Total planned 710,700 units Next is the amount of land planned for different uses verses percentage of w hat had been built and a mount of land actually used for development other than the golf course. Planned Acres Percent Built Amount of Land Used Hotel 150 64.9 97 35 Condo minium 110 52.0 57.20 C ommercial 55 18.6 10.20 S ingle-family 300 23 70.00 Total : 615 38 . 2 234

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    Out of 1,055 acres, 22 percents was used for development plus the golf course, and J8.2 percents was actually built out of the planned units. It may not seems much, but they devoted a lot of land to golf course which is one of their major attractions. Another large amount of land are also preserved to provide best features on the site and create pleasing environments. After studying Kaanapali's developed areas, a conclusion can be drawn that out of 2J4.75 acres that had been fully developed, 41.4 percent is hotel, 24.J percent is condominium, 29.8 percent is single-family, and 4.5 percent is commercial space. These percentages are the ratio of what have been successful in a beach resort development, and it is this ratio that will directly be applied to the upcoming program for this beach resort in the overall planning scheme. The ratio is listed in the following chart: A ratio for the planning program (based on the previous case study) Hotel 41.4 Percent Condominium 24.J Percent Single-family 29.8 Percent Commercial 4.5 Percent Total: 100.0 Percent To determine average amount of land to be used per planned unit, the case study will once again be related to as a prototype. By using the existing 93

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    units and amount of land used to construct them, one can determine the averag e amount of land to be planned per unit. The numbers are as following: Units Acres Used Average Land Used/Unit Hotel (rooms) 3,700 97 0.026 AC/1,133 F2 Condominium (units) 1,300 57.20 0.044 AC/1,917 F2 Single-family (units) 350 70.00 0.200 AC/8,712 F2

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    THE PLANNING PROGRAM This program is based on the numbers and ratio developed from the case study on the previous pages. It may be appropriate for the planning 95 at this stage, but more detail will be developed for site specific that relates to certain concepts for different areas later on in the site design process. SITE DATA: Golf course area First phase area Second phase area 256 Acres 504 Acres .JO.J Acres Total Developable area 1,.319 Acres FIRS rr PHASE D EVELOPN iEN T (504 ACRES) Hotel 208.7 Acres/rJ:ax. Condominium 122.5 Acres/Niax. Single-family 150. 2 Acres/IV!ax. of 8,027 of 2,784 of 751 Commercial Space 22.6 Acres/ 987,456 S.F. ROAD-WAY R. 0. W . PROGRAlVi Entry/Access Roads: 150 feet R.o.w . 28 feet wide of pavement on each side Rooms Units Units

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    20 feet wide for median hajor Roads : 100 feet R . o . w . 20 feet wide of pavement on each side 20 feet wide for median r.Jinor Roads: A) Road with median 8 0 feet R . o . w . 20 feet wide of pavement on each side 10 feet wide for median B ) Twoway with parking on both sides 8 0 feet R.o.w . 3 6 feet wide for pavement INTERNA L R OADS: 60 feet R.o.w . 36 feet wide for pavement with parking o n one side 9 6

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    97 SHEET: PLANN I N G PROGRAM FOR LAN D USE PLAN FOR AVERAGE LAND USE PER UNIT LAND USE ACRERAGE ROONJS/UNI TS ACRE SQUARE FEET HOTEL 2 0 8.7 8,027 0.026 1, 13.3 CONDGr'liNim. ' l 122.5 2,78 4 0.044 1,917 SINGLE-FAl':IILY 150.2 751 0.200 8,712 COf.'.I:1ERCIAL 22.6 GOLF COURSE 256. 0 TOTAL: 760. 0 11,562

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    97 SUI'.'1l'•i AHY SHEET : PLANNING PHOGRAN ; FOR LAN D USE PLAN FOR AVERAGE LAND USE PER UNIT LAND USE ACRERAGE ROONiS/ UNI TS ACRE SQUARE FEET HOTEL 208.7 8,027 0.026 1,1JJ CONDGr.'.INIUI \ ' 1 122.5 2,784 0.044 1,917 SINGLE-FAl'.'JILY 150.2 751 0.200 8,712 C 0 r . .i.._'JER C I AL 22.6 GOLF COUhSE 256.0 TOTAL: 760.0 11,562

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    MASTER PLANNING.

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    99 CONCEPTS FOR DEVELOPMENT AREAS Novr t hat the overall concept for the develo pmen t have been set, another concepts vri thin the overall concepts will at this time be developed. After the layout of the golf course had been set, we have a remaining developable land that have a total area of 504 acres to be planned for the first phase o f development. ':Phe planning of the ''eight shape" golf course itself created many interesting areas inside and around it. These developable land have been divided into six major areas based o n their sigr1ificance. they are called site A,B,C,D , E , and F. Each of them will be described, and different concepts will be developed respectfully based on the stated overall concept. See the following page for the map illustrating division of these concept development areas.

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    \ \ ... ... --....-......... ........ ....... .... .,.... .. .....,.,..._ ""'"' Y ,._,.._.,. 1>&,.,.._,. .. _. ,,. ,...-, ... "IW .. ,." .. \.1<4. "'"'"'T ..,....,. • 6-........... "' .:. .............. ........................ ., .. .:...-..--y ............................ !;) .. A,toO.O. ..... "iT .,... ...... "fA ................ >t< .... .... t> '\--,.--__ ---. ' ' \ \ ' \ 1 i j j j j ! ....... ,, I I ' \ -----"\. -A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY For The Province ' ...... .,.....,., ............. --..... 1> .... .,................ .... ....... .. -:.... ,.., ............. Ql" "'"'"' .... G.., ....... 0 .. ... 'hiC.u...& c.oHI"'t . ,...E.A c. -!!& .,..,..""""' 0 •• .,...,..,.,.. .. '55 '"'"."" ,. 'f()Jp "' .. .,. "o01..P' GO\..Ifl•e. a A G IIIII::a & ., ',, ' ' o ' \ ' 100 ' \ \ \ • oc. e.oo---, ...,., ._ --T • 6 ..... ... ...-....-.c. .......... ,.,..14 ....... I!.M"P'"' ____ D ............................

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    101 S ITE A COHCEPT: This area is located on the beach front west of the main entry road. Containing a total of 51 acres. The beach front road on this site starting to move inland across the creek toward the secondary access road on the phase two site. It leaves some area on the beach side of the road having a distance that varie from 100 to 300 feet wide. North of the site bordered by the sandy bottom creek that is very attractive especially during the hig h precipitation season. Across the creek is a large portion of the golf course that is visible from some part of this site but may not be so from a longer distance toward the beach as elevation slopes down at about five percent. CONCEPT 1. Since the shape of this site is linear and being next to the beach, eventhoug h the beach front road cuts through a portion of it, the land value can be one of the highest in the development. This suggest that the site is suitable for high-rise hotels with view of the ocean on one side and the golf course on another. Consideration for location of these buildings should repectfully refers to the view points from the golf course also. 2. Some area on the beach side of the road can be used as a part of the hotel that stands on the other side of the road on a larger portion of land. They may be used as a beach facilities area, a beach bar and restaurant, boat launching area, and so forth. Any building s if planned to be located here shuold 'kept the hight low to provide access to the view from the hotel areas.

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    102 --

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    fll/l;b/Nt#t !I MAY &6 &til H et
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    104 SITE B COHCEPT: This site have thG largest amount of land, 1 88 acres, for the development. It is located in the middle of the beach front area with major access road connecting to the beach front road. North side of the site is bordered nex t to the golf course vvi th a s mall portion on the east next to the existing pond. The beach side of the site is bordered by the beach front road of about 0 . 8 mile long. The slope is generally rolling tov1ard the beach at about 1. 6 percent. T H E CONCEPT 1. S1nce this site is centrally located in the middle of many thing s and surrounded by a menities v1hi ch are the ocean, the go l f course, and the pond, it could be a central of acti viti es for b oth day and night with a resort environment. 2 . A comme rcial should be located here containing gift shops, specialty stores, restaurants, night clubs, and so forth. Since this site is riG h t in the middle of the resort and may be surrounded by residential areas , a commercial center here should not be permitted to the harzardous types of commercial use such as gasoline service stations, and so forth. J. r rhis site have a larg e portion of land next to the golf course which may be suitable for a golf hotel located away from the beach. 4. There is a large portion of land sits next to the beach front road inward the land that is more valuable than those farter away from the ocean. N o high-rise or tall building s should be permitted here because they will block the v i e w fro m those areas f a r ter away. But

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    THIS t.AeK-7 VIE.W Ac:c-eS?. 7H(6FoltS ft1o $T F Fe!/( ()!C 105

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    106 since the land is more expensive here, and it may not be appropriate for hotels because of restriction for tall buildings, low-rise condominium units should be planned for and maximum density should be provided v1her e see fits. Some portions of the near by land may be use as a center of activities and commercial uses that may create disturbance to these residential units. Therefore this factor should be in consideration when designing for these condominium units by providing the buffer between these two different areas. 5. The commercial center in this site should have access from the public beach on the other side of the beach front road. Therefore, the center should not be located too far from the beach. The reason for this is because the beach will be heavily used during the day time and some services should be provided for these users, and it should be at this central commercial area for easy access and controlled. 6 . Areas next to the golf course and the natural pond are also more valuable. Like those areas near the ocean, no tall buildings should be permitted because of the access to the views reasons. Therefore, these areas are suitable for single-family detatched units and the low-rise condominiums development where see fits. For the singlefamily units, maximum number of lots next to the c;olf course should be planned for. Some condominium units should be planned for in this area because the land is more valuable and maximum number of units could only be provlded ror by building condominiums for affordable housing on expensive ground. Please the following page for the above conceptual diagrams.

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    107 i l . ' ....

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    108 S ITE C COHCEP 'r : This site is east of main entry road, east on the beach front road. I t is next to the beach containing a total of 98 acres and having a beach f ront distance of about 3,500 feet, or about 0.7 mile. The beach front road curved inland bordered the vtest side of the site and runs throug h north of the site. The east surrounded by steep hills blocking the vtind and provide the site with calm ocean. The beach area on this site is much larger than the beach in other area in the development due to the oceanographic location . THE CONCEPT 1. This site is located where ideal for a more private development, the beach is isolated from the road providing a larg e area in between from the road to the ocean. Since the site is narrower para elle to the beach, it may not be many different kinds of development. And being next to the ocean maximized the value of land. Therefore, the site is may be suitable for for hotel development that is more private and isoleted. Since this site is narrov1 in width and not much development may occur in the back , high-rise buildings may be per mitted for hotels. S o m e hotel developers may choose to build on on a larger a mount of land and using low or mid-rise buildings with a lot of natural landscaping as a so-called "Club f : Ied .. concept. 2 . The area north of the site is farter away from the beach but it isolated and could be considered as a "quiet area11• Being nex t to the pond, on the lov1er g round and slopes up to the steep hill,

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    109 this area could be used for another type of hotel development. The reason for this is because the prog ram called for more land for hotel development and all of the most suitable area for the purpose had already been taken into the account, and the total area is still short from what is required. Therefore, by taking this paticular area into the account will fulfill the total amount of land required for hotel development. 71'4LLS.C HII16L, /ll.lfvbl N df $ A !flEA Pol( 1/(ff"E.I.. MAY L.AeKS 1l1& \1'16W t7P THE. IIVT" NttY& lUJflEe-r TO 7HE FtJNA l'tNii V16W 'THE. c:;, oL,. ec v Me.. 4/'IAIA., Ht7T6l., 4 Dill. < V"O 7U6 ltAII'I Jllltfl, ! )lease see also tl1e follov1ing paGe for conceptual diag ram for this site.

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    il-'E : e.oNe6P'ftiA.,_ 110

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    111 SITE D PJ-!D E COIJCEPT : , l,hesc t\?O sites are located inside of the "eight-shape .. golf course, one on eac h side. Site d is slightly larger with 9 3 acres, and 55 acres for site E . Most of the borders for site D are edges of the golf course \'!i th the south by the flood plain of the creek. Site E is completely bordered by edges of the golf course. There is one entry road to each site v1hich is connected to the main access road. THE cm;CEPT 1. Both sites are surrounded by the golf course as major amenity that makes these land more valuble with pleasing views. The area next to the edge of the golf course is obviously more expensive than those farter away, but the concept here is to m aximize the use of amenity by providing as much visibility as posible from various places on the sites. Therefore, single story houses should be planned on those areas close th the golf course and to also maY.imize number of lots on those areas. 2. For another portion of land having a longer distance from the golf course, mid-rise condominium units may be appropriate because the heiGht will allow visibilities over the roofs of the s i n gle-family units to the golf course' s open space. These two sites are about 100 feet higher than the sea level, and therefore, view of the ocean may be visible from them also. ). With single-family units on the outer radius and mid -rise condominiums on the middle, it may appear to to be some dead space in the middle. But a community at this size have som e needs

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    e HAVE POTii!U"'TI A 'Fo /Z. e<; M/'1& I A'-A fl e-E.NTEil I tl Ill efJMI1tJN "f'E.N 'f7Ae. 6tOLtF HA'Y L I N KAGrS FI(OM THI ? 112 '7 IN GJLE. -z..oN, TALLE/t. !>1Nt4LFAMIL'( L.l N }'(.AtE, f.. LtJW ... GONbO,..,fiN/UN$ -z..OH "t-ONe, fl.I'JE. MAY 66 t) IM Al(61\.

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    11J for s mall commercial spaces such as the convenien stores, a community center, or a common o p en space. The idea here is to provide a place vthere people can interact, the above sug gestions could achieve this goal in one way or another. Another concept for these areas is to provide pedestrian vvays within the site that is accessible and connects to the golf course' s club house. The reason for this is because many residents may have a second home here because they enjoys the g a m e of golf and wish to be near by. Therefore, they may choose to walk to the golf course insted of drive there. vae.w To L..f <::,ovtt e
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    114 SITE F This site is located on the main access where the road runs throug h before getting across the GOlf course, having a total area of 19 acres. T he site is divided into two different parts by the main access road that cuts in the middle. The north part of them are bordered by the two entry roads into the sites in the middle of the golf course. 'l'he remaining borders are cornposed of the edges of the golf course. 'l'JIE cor: c ...... P T 1. This is the smallest site of all the major areas in the develop rtlent. 'nlC site is too small for any residential developrnent, and too close to the major road where is too noisy and exposed. But it have a good advantag e for direct accessibility into the site from the main road. Therefore, this site have a g ood opportunity for being a commercial area v1here to provide difference services than those of the commercial center in site D . The retail objective here should be more of the house \'Jhole needs such as grocerry stores, hardware shops, and so forth. Since it is centrally located on the main access road, the location is ideal for sasoline stations because the site is not close to any residential development and therefore is not subject to any dangerous hazard. 2. Since this is right on and is a part of the gate-vl/ay into the resort, the commercial area should be carefully designed to maintain the good i mage before entering the golf course crossover.

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    115

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    J. The areas of this site \!here ne:xt to the golf course should be buffered so that it v1ill not disturb the activities o f golfing , and positive i m a g e for the commercial area to this side should be provided for. +----THI'J l'f Molf-------+ LOCSt..Y 7C 116 (/4$61> FDIC yu; WAY M'btA,.., l MlttN 8
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    117 LAND USE MASTER PLAN Based o n the land usc proc;ra1 , 1 a n d the p revious concepts, the master plan is desit,ned in the foru of land use control to express them . 'fhe six d ifferent areas are uesir;ned to:;ether as a whole, but each contains their 0\'111 characters . 'rhe land use master plan is to pin poi n t types of development of ,:here they should occur, and the different limit for height of building s . The follO\'!inG will describe the different call nuri!bers from the master p lan f o r each land use type: H -1: Lov:-rise building s of no r , 1ore than 2 to J stories hig h only. E 2 : f.ediul!l -rise buildings may be constructed from 4 to 7 stories h i g h . Jl-J : H igh-rise buildines may be constructed if the site is larg e e noug h to full fill the requirements for o pen space and parJ'.:inr; area, but should not exceed 1 2 stories high. CA -1: Lovv-rise building s onl y , no more than an average heie;ht of t D o stories hic h . CA2 : !edium -rise buildin g s o f no more than an average of five stories hig h may be constructed. CA -J : li i b h -rise buildint;s may be constructed, t h e maximum hei g h t \'rill be deterJnine b y the site requirernen t , but shoul d not exceed 8 stories hig h .

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    FAJ.IL Y JJ.2'J.'A1'C1IED -1: Sing l e story hi0h houses only . SF 2 : T\'!0 to three stories hi[; h hou.ses may be built. C -1: specialty stores, t;ift shops, general stores, and related facilities only . C 2 : General commercial area includinc gas stations and grocery stores may be located. 118

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    , .. . .. ' ' \ , . I i i i i i t i I A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY •. ..: ' -...:....:::... ... =-. . ... ' ' ' ' ' ' . ' ' L._ ______________________ _ IIIII-I

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    SITE DESIGN

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    SITE DESIGN STANDARDS The total area for development, other than the golf course, of about 504 acres was designed based on the previous stated master plan. The c oncepts are those of the six different areas. Since this is a large development ru1d thing s should tied together, the site at this point was designed at a larg e scale to be able to make sence, and certain details could later be designed. Therefore, the site design at this point may be considered to 1 2 1 be at the conceptual level. Certain elements and major site standards have already been decided where see fits, they may be flexible, but future site design should follow them because they are also the results of this study. The following are design standards set for major issues of this project. They are: STREET SCAP ING A) E NTRY/WAJOR ACCESS ROAD 150 feet R.o.w . 2 8 feet width of pavement on each side 20 feet wide median B ) LAJOR ROADS 100 feet R.o.w . 2 0 feet width of pavement on each side 20 feet wide median

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    122 C) r : t i NOR ROADS VTI TH HEDIAN 8 0 feet R.o.w. 20 feet v.,ridth of pavement on each side 10 feet wide median !':'JIHOR ROADS WITH TWO-WAY 8 0 feet R.o.w. 36 feet wide for pavement D) INTERNAL ROADS 60 feet R.o.w. 36 feet wide for pavement E ) RESIDEnTIAL ROADS 40 feet R.o.w. 26 feet wide for pavement P) CUL-DE-SAC ROADS 28 feet H. o. \11. 20 feet wide for pavement

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    '"o' F.o.w. P---I'Hb . I nb•!.',..'"'H w """'"" w /1>.'1 123

    PAGE 131

    ....... Ot-!L...'( GOr--t \.ir ? e APE Fof' VIes.,-,.._ • ,...t,L.. or: A'RGA boWt-4 .,. o "T'l-' c. 61!-,t\ eH l ? 1'"U u c. . to ' oP P'E. t>6 S"T C>N '9-ll:)CC. O\= 1-0 ' \0' WH1:.H e-H rfit.,oN'T -n::> 1l-46. '-"t-'b 1 \1? FeliT oF w , wou l,...l:> TO 't"r4'E.. Or

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    BUILDING SETBACKS The general setbaclc s for single-family detached units are Front yard 20 feet Side yard 10 feet. Condo miniums or sine;le-family attached units: Front yards 20 feet Side yards 20 feet Hotel Units: Front yard 40 feet Side yard 200 feet Please see the following pag e for the typical types of housing design standard. 125

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    .4?1N 't>E."T"GH e.t:> ,a..Ht> zqo• I I t-----1 I t------1 I : l ___ J PAMit,...Y W\1"H Lo"l *P' I I : I I I I l I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I 1 I L I I I 1 I I I I 1 _.J_.J __ L_.L_L_...J 126 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I -l-..l--L-..L--1

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    14 5 Peiser, Richard D . Optimizing Profits F rom Land Use Planning. Washington, D . C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp . 6-10, September, 1982. Phalen , T am. How Has Performance Zoning Performed? Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 16-21, October, 19 8J. Planning for Housing, Development Alternatives for Better Environments. Washington , D . C.: National Association of H o m e Builders in the United States, 19 8 0 Scott, James f.. i . Coastal Development and Federal Policy: A Case Study. Washington, D . C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 20-27, r v :arch, 1 9 82. Smart, J.E. Recreational Development Handbook . Washington , D . C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1981. Tourism in R ayonr;. Bang lcok, Thailand: The Tourist Authourity of Thailand Publication, September, 1 986. Steinbec k , J o hn . Travels with Charley. New York : Viking Press, 1961.

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    127 HOTEL DESIGN: The design and site layout for the hotels at this stage was only at the conceptual level. The different sites may be chosen to be developed by the project ovmer, but many other sites could be developed by outside hotel developers. Those hotel developers or companies should follow the master plan of this resort and certain restrictions may later be written to allow the resort developer to have the general control over the hotel developmen t VJithin its boundaries. The control migh t be in the form of design guide line that should be based on the factors of the resort hotel concepts. The general ideas for resort hotel design is described by the following : but . Drealc dovm monolithic bloc'ks of rooms into smaller, more human-scaled building s connected by horizontal circulation corridors. "Stepping the building dovm" v1i th terraces or even with varied rooflines helps present a

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    128 friendly 8esture toward adjacent property 0\mers or natural surroundings. Loo!c for views that might be framed or accented by an opening in the building . T I l1ll 11111 • mum V'""S ......--::::...... ..... ..... ..... r-... ) ....... rr .. p v """ anmmll ,-.. -......... IV V" ' ')t --"T , . Y\0 If monolithic forms cannot be reduced because of land yield requirements, introduce a random pattern into the facade treatment. Stair and elevator towers can make for a do minantly vertical order, while corridors, varied window openings, and balcony rail treatments stress a horizontal contrasting pattern.

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    Insite planning , focus the building toward an amenity area. Use the structure as definition of a view, or backdrop for a stage of activity. The activity or congregation of people will create a special ambienc e for gu e sts to participate in or view from their quarters. 129

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    • Provide a grandiose sense of entry and arrival for the initial impression of guests. Expansive lobby areas with rich materials create the excitement of beginning a resort experience. Immediate views of the amenities the hotel offers can be positive as 'Nell . 130

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    -lJl r.;ost important is capturing the vernacular architectural style of the region through contemporary forms and materials. Look at shapes, rooflines, canopies, overhang s , colors, and materials indigenous to the locale. The integration of these elements helps bring local acceptance for new projects .

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    ... .. 1J2 OPEN SPACE AND ATIVITIES It is important for a resort development to provide adequate amount of activities for both day and night for vacationers. r.;ajor facilities should be provided for, and other activities could occur v1i th existing resort features such as the beach area and the p o nd. The overall site planning leaves many different open spaces throughout the resort. These open spaces have potential for many types of activities based on their locations and neighborhoods that they are in. The Open Space and Activities m a p shows the locations of these areas and the type of activities and facilities that they should contain. Certain areas within the condo minium sites are already the common used area, but S0111e portions of them are considered to be used as a part of the overall open space system. It means that these areas are to be used by the G eneral public v1i thin the neighborhood, and they will also be the between different open spaces that the pedestrian side walks may run through . Different types of activities are located through major areas within the development. S o m e other activities may occures outside of the boundaries such as hiking o n the hills east of the site, and activities around and in the existing ponds. The locations and types of all activities can be reviewed on the following site plan:

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    / / // // ---------,.//. /' / / .. -----;> I . . . . -:: :-:'::. ': : ... j __) A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUDYj .. ----. . _ .... " 1.J3 ... ... . \ \' .. ; ! . . . . . -------_, -----_ , _ _ , ._

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    135 C) THE SPOR'l' PAC I LITIES CEN'l,ER: containing different kinds of sport i ncluding a svvimming pool and tennis courts. It is connected by the pedestrian linkages from the surrotmding accommodations, and also related to the water sport facilities center on the south. D) THE POND AREA: is accessible by two different entry ways, please see the map for their locations. These two entries are connected to the overall pedestrian system that will bring people into the pond area from the different neighbourhoods on its west. E ) THE GOLF COURSE' S CLUB HOUSE: the pedestrian linkages into the club house area are from the tvvo sites in the middle of the golf course. These pedestrian side walks must cross over the golf qourse field at one point. Therefore, they were located on the areas where no dan.ger from the range of golf balls could happen. But these pedestrians should be advised about the possibilities, and should stay on the assigned areas only. r.iany other activities are located throughout the site, and the pedestrian circulation are to connect them together to bring peo ple into. The remaining linka ges will not be discussed but cru1 be refered to by the activities map that stated their locations, and the follo\'lints map will illustrate these linkages.

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    134 PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION A typical resort community should always be pedestrian oriented because many tourists travel by some kinds of public transportation. This particular beach resort have a pleasant environment and comfortable climate enough to encourac e a majority of tourists and local people to walk or ride on the b icycle. Therefore, the site design have given a major consideration for pedestrian circulation within its development. The important objectives in linking the resort's pedestrian circulation are to direct the movement tovmrd and between major activity areas. Certain areas, such as the golf course, may have a direct impact over pedestrian ways because if not located properly, it could be very dangerous to the pedestrians by possibilities of getting hit by the golf ball. Since the objective of one of the overall planning concept is to have pedestrian linkages between the different neighbourhoods and the golf course club house, those pedestrian ways were minimize v1hen crossing the golf course and located where little or no impact could happen from the range of golfing in the area. The r.mjor activity areas that these pedestrian linkages are connected to are: A) THE BEACH AREAS: are connected to by all pedestrian movements, from all of the major residential areas and accommodations. B ) THE BY 'rl-IE BEACH-FRONT ROAD: This area is accessible by the beach users and the surrounding accomodations. It contains restaurants, gift shops, specialty stores, and night acti viti es.

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    ----..... ... / . . / / • -/ / " . / A MIXED-USE BEACH RESORT STUD .: :. 1J6 ' . I . . ' ' I ' I : ' 'I\' '' ' . '. u I'' I 0 I I I I -' ' ------c -....., -..... -.-------------.......... --_.. _ ... ------__ , _ , __

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    1J7 THE SITE PLAN 'l'he previous considerations for major issues of the site design were completed, and the site v1as designed based on them and the general land planning program . Onc e a gain, the site at this tim e was designed at the conceptual level with certain amount o f details. They are flex.ilJle, the general themes has been set, and funlre actions should follow the master plan and this site plan. Follov1ing is the illustrative site plan that shows major elements of the site design. 'l'he pedestrian site walks are not shown on this map because of the size of scale used for the study. Dut the concepts and general ideas for them can b e refered to on the previous Pedestrian Circulation map. Planting design at this tim e was completed only enoug h to show major roads' streetscaping . It also shows planting themes for the golf course area, es pecially around the areas where there are the needs to be buffered, such as the g igh concentration areas of tee offs and puttings. Different plant wA:rP. used to isolate these areas and create spaces within the golf course's seperate holes . Three types of plant are selected to be used at this planting level. They a r e the street or larg e deciduous trees that may be 8 0 to 100 feet hig h and spread up to 6 0 feet; the coconut trees that are native to the region, and can be very suitable and attractive; the last type, the " Sea Pine" trees, is also native and only pine specie that do well in this tropical climate zone, they are sui table for wind brea1 c , and their fine but dense foliag e can buffer noise and som e other factors. It should be noted that plants v1i t h thick foliage were not located where viesta access is important. F o r example, the beach-front road's street scape were only co mposed of coconut

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    trees and ground level shrubs and small plants to allow the ocean view for the different accor1lodations along the road. The following pac;e illustrate the site design and these planting themes: 1J8

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY

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    141 BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen I Lady. Planning for Play. Cambridg e I r.:assachusetts: The I\':I T Press I 1 974 . Allen, Shirley V /. , and Leonard, Justin W . , Conserving Natural Resources. New York : J\':cGrawHill Book, 1966. The Annual Tourism Statisticle Report of Thailand in 1985. Bangkok, Thailand: The Tourist Authority of Thailand, January, 1986. Doulding , I Cenneth E . The Image. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of I..ichiean Press, 1956. Crampon, L. J . " 'l1he Development of Tourism," Tourism Development Notes. Doulder: Bureau of Business Research, University of Colorado, 196J. Cost Effective Site Planning , Single Family Development. Washington, D.C.: N A H B the National Association of Home Builders, 1976. Smith, Douglas. Hotel and Restaurant Design. London, England: Design Council Publications, 197 8. Cory, Gr e gory, and J•,,cElyea, Richard. Hetail Experience in Resort Locations. V/ashington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 16-21, September, 1984. Ciqliano, Jan, and Witherspoon. Focus On Retails In Major Projects.

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    Vlashington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 12-17, December, 19 85. Also, Focus On Hotels in Projects. Washington D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 8-11 September, 19 85 . Chiara, Joseph De, and I:oppelman, Lee, Urban Planning and Design Criteria. N . y,; Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., 1982. FarV!ell, Ted A., "Resort Planning and Development." Cornell H . .R.A. Quarterly: February, 1970. Feibleman, Peter. Thailand. Beverly Hills, California: Travel and Leisure; pp . 102-119, October, 19 86 . Gearing , Charles E., and others. Planning for Tourism Development:. Quantitative Approaches. New York: Praiger, 1976. Galehouse, Richard F . Land Planning for Large-Scale Residential Development. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 12-18, October, 1981. Gunn, Clare A. A Concept for the Design of a Tourist -Recreation Region. Lason, l:Jichigan: B.J, Press, 1965. Gunn , Clare A., Tourism Planning. New York: Crane, Russak and Company, Inc., 1979

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    Gunn , Clare A. Vacationscape: Designing IJ.'ourist Regions. University of Texas at Austin: Board of R e gents of the University of Texas System, 1 972 . H au ger, 1.rom. Seattle Golf Course Redeveloped: Flexibility Wins Quick Approvals. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 12-15, July, 1935. Holiday Time in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: The Tourism Authority of Thailand Publication, Vol. 26 No. 4, July -August, 1986. H udman, Lloyd E., "Tourism Impacts: The Need for Regional __ Planning." 14J Unpublished paper presented at the Travel Research Association heeting , Scottsdale, Arizona, June 12-15, 1977 Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University, 1977 Jones, Rees L., and Rando, Guy L., Golf Course Development. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1974. Land Use and Construction Regulations. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Home Builders in the United States, 1982. Lynch, Kevin, and Hack , Gary. Site Planning . Cambridge, f i iassachusetts: 'l'he 1'.1IT Press, 198J. r :;arsh, \'Iilli am fi.. Landscape Planning: Environmental Appli cations. Reading, Lassachusetts: Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 198J.

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    144 L c Elyea, J , Richard. The Resort and Second Home Industry. Washington D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. J2-JJ, October, 198 J. r : , c Elyea, J. Richard, and Krekorian, Gene P. The Changing Economics of Golf. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, January, 1987. I '.1eyers, Phyllis. Zoning Hawaii. An Analysis of the Passage and Implementation of Hawaii Land Classification Law. \'/ashinton, D. C.: rrhe Conservation Foundation, 1976. I.' iller, Chris top her, and Bachman, Geraldine. Other Coastal Disturbances. Washington, Institute, January, 1984. Planning for Hurricanes and D.C.: The Urban Land Eva, and Gerald Gurin. The Demand for Outdoor Recreation. Ann Arbor, I':_ich i gan: Institute of Social Research, University of rJJichigan, 1961. National Association of Home Builders in the United States, Land Development 2. Washington, D.C.: 1981. A. J. The Tourist Industry: A National and International Survey. New York: Pittman Publishing Co., 1936. Odum, Eugene P., Ecology. University of Georgia: Holt, Rinehart and r . ; iinston, 1975

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    145 Peiser, Richard D . Optimizing Profits From Land Use Planning . Washington, D . c.: The Urban Land Institute; pp . 6-10, September, 19 82. Phalen, Tam. How Has Performance Zoning Performed? Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 1 6-21, October, 198J. Planning for Housing, Development Alternatives for Better Environments. Hashington, D.C.: National Association of Home Builders in the United States, 19 8 0 Scott, James f.'Jo Coastal Development and Federal Policy: A Case Study. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute; pp. 20-27, 19 82. Smart, J.E. Recreational Development Handbook . Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 19 81. Tourism in R ayonr;. BanglcoJc , 'rhailand: The Tourist Authourity of Thailand Publication, September, 1 986 . Steinbeck , John. Travels with Charley. new York : Viking Press, 1961.

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    ( I : : : : : : 1 2 3 4 5 6 intentions research & analysis concepts program master planning site design . . . . i . I i ; . I -----------, . : . . . . I I I : I I . . . . . A CASE STUDY I I I • . . REGIONAL I I CONTEXT ' DEVELOPMENT ,_. -: • GOALS & PHASING ILLUSTRATED . INITIAL : OB.JECTIVES SITE PLAN GOALS : RESEARCH . : MASTER : PROGRAM PLANNING o OF 1..-,o\.HI> FUHG1"10ti,M. • I H1"1:.H--(I ot-t -A.Hl> • J'-01" I Y I "1"'( A.tib FOei.J&;. DEVELOPMENT • IHAIL ""H 1:) AH't) : IYf"lS. OF ,.-HE. )'o..Hb OF 1'1"? SITE "TCTTAL. Afi!E.,._ • .ANALYSIS : OVERALL .-..u"'1'0 • Gl t.Jkt"IO 1::>\..,..IOH, .._,... CONCEPT : ... • C.OHl>11"10H • I . : . : . : . I : ! : I I . . I : . : I . . . . : i ---: -------------.-.-. ---.J SITE PLANNING AND DESIGN CHART PROCESS : FLO\/\/ A MIX EO-USE BEACH RESORT STUDY i RAYOUNG, THAILANO

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