Citation
The Blake Plaza

Material Information

Title:
The Blake Plaza an urban design implementation
Creator:
Kang, Michael S. H
Language:
English
Physical Description:
51 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, maps (1 color), plans ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plazas -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Plazas ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture in Urban Design, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
[prepared by Michael S.H. Kang].

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
16733991 ( OCLC )
ocm16733991
Classification:
LD1190.A73 1986 .K36 ( lcc )

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Full Text
THE BLAKE PLAZA
An Urban Design Implementation
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To my parents with love and gratitude.


This thesis program was prepared by Michael, S.H. Kang, a Master degree candidate of Urban Design in The University of Colorado at Denver.
CONTENTS
I. Introduction Project Statement Thesis Statement
II. Site Analysis Location & Land Use Transportation Climate Preservation
III. Spatial Requirement Vertical Circulation Core Office Space
Retail Shop
Restaurant
Art Gallery
Under Ground Parking
Street Furniture
Vagetation
Outdoor Open Space
Plaza
IV. Coding Zoning Code Building Code
V. Conclution
VI. Bibliography


Introduction
Project Statement Thesis Statement


PROJECT STATEMENT:
This is an assume project which I would like to deal with urban design as well as architecture design. Through this project, I am going to discuss the relationship between buildings, the people who use them and the juxtaposition of scale and style.
According to the " Downtown Area Plan ", the city spine, 16th street mall, will be extented snd the city core will move west to the Cherry Creek Waterfront. Considering this I choose this particular project and try to f lfi 1 this future plan of Denver City.
A good plan is the beginning and the end, because every good plan is organie-----------F.L. Wright.


1. Introduction------
A city is a living organism, It may appear to be stable and have its destiny set, but actually it is continually changing. The design of the city is the visible flesh of that organism, and it is the result of the interrelationship of social, physical and creative sources. It can be created or it can jest occur. It is the role of the urban designer to regulate growth and minimize happenstance. This project, The Blake Plaza, is an urban design implementation wich concerns the physical character and order of the Denver City, and the relationship between people and their environment.
*
2. Background------
Denver is the largest urban center in the Moutain West, with 500,000 people and more than 1.7 million within the metropolitan area. Downtown Denver is the heart of Denver City and also the


heart of one of the nation's important metropolises, and one of the ten largest office markets in the nation. One expected to take on increasing importance with grouth in business and economics. But growth cannot be taken for granted however, Denver should immediately develop an overall strategy to stimulate new growth in this region, with a particular focus on the core area. Equally pressing is the need for a framework that assures that our growth doesn't occur at the expense of the very characteristics of our environment that created it.
3. The Spine------16th street mall
Since the completion of the 16th st. mall in 1980 Downtown's retail deterioation has been reversed. Sales have stabilized; 250'000 square feet of lost space has been replaced. By various survey, 20% or more of metro-area households shop Downtown during a 3°-day period, and two-thirds of Denver househoulds shopped at Tabor Center more than once in its first year of operation. So, the



16th street mall should be considered the central organizing element,the spine within the frame— work system. It is the key reference point for anyone in the downtown area and a magnet for people and activity. All downtown development and infrastructure is defined by its relationship to the mall. With the exetention of the 16th st. mall to the Platte Valley, the business and activities growth of the future will be enhenced. It will deveiope large area with well infrastructure for future growth and development that can accelerate the proaperity of downtown Denver.
4. The Lower Downtown------Denver birth place
Lower Downtown is the birth place of the city of Denver and originallocation for many of its urban institutions. Itis a traditional and growing home to the design community. Because of its historic character, human scale, and architectural detail, Lower downtown can become a rich pedestrian environment. Itis one of the most sensitive and vulnerable district in downtown. Its historic


character is a pleasure for the whole region to enjoy and share with the world. Itis also a market asset to downtown. The district must he preserved and redeveloped through a package of actions that stimulate new economic demandin Lower Downtown, and that protect its historic character by preserving the existing buildings and promoting compatible infill development.
5. Postscript------
Urban design is not just an academic disipline, or a pastime for visionary planners and architects Neither is it coldly oriented to physical things rather than to people and their experiences. It has to do, above all, with the visual and other sensory relationships between people and their environment, with their feeling of time and place and their sense of well-being.


Site Analysis
Location & Land Use Transportation Climate
Preservation


Location------
The site is the 16th street between Market and Wynkoop street, and the vacant lands along both sides of the 16th street.
Most of the buildings around the site are historic and should preserved. The biggest vacant land is faced The R.T.D.Market Station, which served as a bus terminal and also a major open space of lower downtown district. The buildings of the left side of this area have historic facade and serves as retail, restaurant on the ground floor and small office on the upper.
The buildings between 16th and 17th street along the Market street are all historic and have a very unique character. Those buildings are served as retail shops of art and antique.
The buildings along Larimer street of this area are all modern buildings, which served as office on the ground floor and high rise residential on the upper floors.
The buildings between 16th and 17th street, along the Wazee street are all historic, which served


as restaurant and office on the ground floor and office and residential on the upper. The buildings along Wynkoop street of this area are all historic which served as warehouse or officeuse.
The buildings between 16th and Wynkoop street is the post office of Denverwhich has historic facade and will be moved out in the near future.
Union Station,at the end of 17th street, is the major amenity of Denver City. This building should preserved as a note and allowed dense activities, social encounters happening here.
The 16th street before the Market street is a pedestrian mall which is the major spine of Denver City. It has lots of activities and is the main retail street of downtown Denver.
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Transportation
The existing traffic volumn is shown in picture , The Larance and Larimer street is served as W-E traffic arterial in this district. But with the influence of Aroria Parkway project, a state money supported project which is rearanged the transportation system in Aroria and is under construction now, the traffic arterial mode of Larimer street will certainly move to Blake street. And the N-E arterial mode of 15th street will remain be the same with probaly some increase of traffic volumn. The city has a proposal to move away the rail road and tear down the viaduct of 15th, 16th, and 20th street. With this proposal, the extention of 16th street pedestrian mall will be a reality and not a dream. And with the extention, the existing traffic volumn of 16th street will be distributed to 15th and 17th street. The future traffic volumn and transportation system is shown in picture This system will have a great influence and impact of my thesis project.


DAILY, MONTHLY AND ANNUAL PRECIPITATION DATA (inches) DENVER, COLORADO
Month Total Precipitation Mean Nunbar a Snow Maan N«bar * of Daya with Snow 1.0 Inch
Ha an Monthly Maxlsun Monthly Minimum Max laua 24-hour of Daya with Precipitation >, .01 Inch Monthly Mean Max lata Monthly
Jan .61 1.44 0.01 1.02 6 8.4 23.7 2
Fab .67 1.66 0.01 1.01 6 8.0 18.3 2
Mar 1.21 2.89 0.13 1.48 12.6 29.2 4
Aor 1.93 4.17 0.03 3.23 9 9.6 28.3 3
May 2.64 7.31 0.06 3.53 10 1.5 13.6 ab
Jun 1.93 4.69 0.10 3.16 9 T« 0.1 0
Jul 1.76 6.41 0.17 2.42 9 0.0 0.0 0
Au* 1.29 4.47 0.06 3.43 8 0.0 0.0 0
Sap 1.13 4.67 1< 2.44 6 1.9 21.3 a
Oct 1.13 4.17 0.03 1.71 3 3.8 31.2 1
Nov 0.76 2.97 0.01 1.29 3 7.6 39.1 2
Oac 0.43 2.84 0.03 1.30 3 6.3 30.8 2
Total 13.51 7.31 T« 3.53 88 59.9 39.1 18
MEAN AND EXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY l°FI DENVER, COLO.
Month Dally Maxluua Daily Hlnlaua Monthly Maan Racord High Racord Low Normal Dagraa Daya Raae 65°f
90°F and 32°F and below
(Heating) (Cooling) above
Jaa 43.5 16.2 29.9 72 -25 1088 0 0 30
Pah 46.2 19.4 32.6 76 -30 902 0 0 27
Mar 30.1 23.8 37.0 84 -11 868 0 0 27
Apr 61.0 33.9 47.5 63 - 2 325 0 0 13
May 70.3 43.6 V.o 96 22 253 0 a 2
Jun 80.1 51.9 66.0 104 30 80 110 5 0
Jul 87.4 58.6 73.0 104 43 0 248 15 0
Au( 85.6 57.4 71.6 101 41 0 208 9 0
Sap 77.7 47.8 62.8 •7 20 120 54 2 I
Oct 66.8 37.2 52.0 88 3 406 5 0 9
Nov 33.3 25.4 39.4 79 - 8 768 0 0 25
Dac 46.2 18.9 32.6 74 -18 1004 0 0 29
Annual 64.0 36.2 50.1 104 -10 6016 623 32 162
Temperature
Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Picture gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado.
Precipitation------
Denver lies in the semi-arid shadow of the Rocky Moutains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15*51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the precipitation usually falls as snow. Heavey thundershowers are not uncommon during the warm summer months, Picture shows Denver's precipitation
characteristics.


AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.h.) AND DIRECTION AT DENVER
MEAN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS DENVER, COLORADO
Month Mean Wind Speed (mph) Prevailing Direction Maximum Wind Speed Recorded (mph) Direction Aasoclated with Maximum
Jan 9.2 S 53 N
Feb 9.4 S 49 NV
Mar 10.1 S S3 NW .
Apr 10.4 S 56 NW
May 9.6 S 43 SW
Jun 9.2 S 47 - S
Jul 8.5 S 56 > SW
Aug 8.2 S 42 SW
Sep 8.2 S 47 NW
Oct 8.2 • S 45 NW
;i Nov 8.7 S 48 W *
Dec 9.0 S 51 NE
Annual 9.1 S 56 NW
Wind
Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in picture Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have “been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximun recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, i960 and again in July, 1965* The latter is not, however, a recommended design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higer.
Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds in relation to the outdoor air temperatures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air <•


MONTHLY AND ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD DATA _______________Denver, Colorado
Month Percent of Possible Sunshine Number of* Clear Days Number of* Partly Cloudy Days Number of* Cloudy Days Mean Sky Cover (Tenths)
January 72 10 10 11 3.3
February 71 8 9 11 3.8
March 70 8 10 13 6.0
April 66 7 10 13 6.1
May 65 6 12 13 6.2
June 71 9 13 8 r<>
July 71 9 16 6 3.0
August 72 10 14 7 4.9
September 74 13 9 8 4.4
October 73 13 10 8 4.4
November 66 11 9 10 3.3
Jeceaber 68 11 10 10 3.3
total 70 113 132 118 3.3
conditioning equipment is functioning. Picture and , used toghter, may be of some limited use in this regard.
Picture presents monthly annual mean and extreme winds at Denver. The annual average wind speed is 9.1 miles per hour with April having the highest average( 10.4 miles per hour ). Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and aftermoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent as shown in picture
Sunshine duration and cloud cover------
Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring.
Annually Denver averages 115 clear days( 10 to 30 percent cloud cover ), 133 partly cloudy days (30


SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY SOLAR AND SKY RADIATION IN LANGLEYS lcal/cm'2/day)
to 80 percent cloud cover ), and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover ). Picture present daytime solar and cloud data at Denver.
Solar radistion------
Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value ( solar constant ) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earth's vaporous atomosphere. Picture is a summary of average daily solar and reflected sky radiation for Denver and other west-
ern cities.


PLANNING RELATIONSHIPS IN TERMS OF PROBLEM AREAS, CLIMATOLOGICAL & PLANNING PARAMETERS
Problem Area Climatological Parameters Planning Parameters
Air Quality Anticyclonic persistence*, temperature profiles, Inversion height and frequency, wind speed and direction. i Siting and stack height of emission sources, street and freeway . orientation and width; green space locations. Modes of urban travel, land use.
Transportation Wind speed, visibility, precipitation, snow and ice, temperature extremes. Highways, streets, airports, rights-of-way, modes of travel, land use patterns.
Energy Consumption Solar radiation Intensity, temperature extremes and their duration. Building shapes, solar access, orientation and materials, landscaping and land use.
Water Supply and Water Quality Precipitation, humidity, snow-pack, air contaminants. Paving, sewers, waterways and facilities, permeability of soil. Land and water use patterns.
Building Failure Wind velocity, gustiness, solar radiation, precipitation, snow and ice accumulation and duration, temperature extremes. Building size, shape, heights, materials, and orientations, landscaping, land use.
Human Comfort and Safety Prevailing wind direction, floods, heavy precipitation. Building heights, orientation, density, land use and landscaping.


Preservation
New development can enhance and preserve Denver's distinctive qualities if it is designed with consideration for the prevailing design character and the effect on surroundings.
External details in building facades, entries, stairways, retaining walls and other features provide visual interest and enrichment and are consistent with the historic scale and texture of Denver.
Rich detailed facades enhance the character of the street by giving it greater visual variety. Such detail often reduces building facades and textures to a more human scale and makes the street a more pleasant place to be.
even blank walls may possess visual interest if they are textured and scaled.
New construction can have a positive effect on the area around it if it reflects the character of


adjacent older buildings of architectural merit.
To conserve important design character in historic or distinctive older areas, some uniformity of detail, scale, proportion, texture, materials, color and building form is necessary,
Large buildings impair the character of older, small-scale areas if transition is made between small-scale and large-scale elements.
New blank facades introduced into areas of older, more detailed buildings detract from neighborhood character.
New buildings using textured materials with human scaled proportions are less intrusive in older area characterized by fine details and scale.
Visually strong buildings which contrast severely with their surroundings impair the character of the area.
Building of parking garages under parks can seriously lessen their natural qualities when the acess ramps, air vent and elevator structures and intrude upon the landscape.


Preservation of Denver’s strong and continuous down town street facades will ensure maintenance of that area's distinctive character and spatial quality.
A consistent commercial facade on neighborhood shopping streets will give definition to these area and promote activity.
Renovation and restoration of older, welldesigned buildings can preserve the character and interest of the streetscape if the original building is respected in use of materials and details.
On commercial buildings, signs that fit within the architectural order of the facade do not obscure or damage the building's integrity.
Historic buildings represent crucial links with past events and architectural styles and, when preserved, afford educational, recreational, cultural and other benefits.
Historic buildings often serve as landmarks and focal points for interest or orientation and add to a neighborhood's visual image.


Relatively homogeneous groupings of buildings of architectural and historic merit, such as in Blake Square, are especially rare and irreplaceable
Preservation of some older, low and smallscaled buildings and grounds amidst larger building tower will help conserve unique cityscape charater, maintain a sense of openness and green space, and produce a more livable environment.
Traditional street patterns and spaces can often be esstial to maintaining an appropriate setting for historical and architectural landmarks or areas. Development in the street space abutting historic buildings would destroy the setting.
Historic buildings and grounds often provide necessary visual open space or passive recreation area Open space in the city can be supplemented by en-hanceing the semi-recreational functions of historic areas.


L —-
Street space serves as a means to control and regulate the scale and organization of future development by: a. protecting against the accumulation of overly large parcels of property under single ownership on which passive buildings codld be constructed; b. indirectly controlling the visual scale and density of development, as well as maintaining continuity of facades.
Once vacated, a street space could be built upon to allowable densities. In some critical areas of the city, the addition of dwelling units or floor space on vacated street areas might be acutely felt
Views from streets can provide a means for orientation and help the observe to perceive the city and its districts more clearly.
The relationship between areas of low, finescaled buildings and areas of high, large-scaled building
can be made more pleasing if the transition in buildings height and mass between such areas is gradual.


Spatial Requirement
Vertical Circulation Core Office Space Retail Shop Restaurant Art Gallery Underground Parking Street Furniture Vagetation Outdoor Open Space
Plaza


Vertical Circulation Core
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Office-


iffice space
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Design Requirements:
'or small componies such as services :onsultant, atterney, etc. iut should be parted flexibly for .arge office too.
1.
2.
3-
4.
5-
Flexible partition.
Articulate working space.
Should prepared loung space for visitor. Should have small coference room for meeting. Should have rest rooms in each floors.
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Notes:


tails Shop
age:
fashion place of shopping for ople who work or live in Denver.
Design Requirements:
1. Should close to the place that have lots of human activies.
2. A place which involved old and new form to express the specific character of Lower Downtown in order to attract people.
3. Flexible partition for different size of usage.
4. Should considered human behavior and consummer feeling.
agram:


Re staurant
Usage:
For the people who work in downtown Denver, or visitors that come to this district.
Design Requirements:
1. A neat and elegant interior of classic style.
2. Efficiently manageable place.
3. A special form which involves old and new to express the specific character of Lower Downtown in order to atract people.
4. Should have outdoor open space for enjoying the whole environment .


Art Gallery-
Usage :
For the people who work at downtown Denver to strall and enjoy the art!
Design Requirements:
1. A neat and elegant interior of classic style.
2. The circulation system should be designated as strolling around to let people loung with ease and efficiency.
3. A special form which involved old and new to express the specific character of Lower Downtown in order to attract people.
Should have outdoor open space for displace and allow human activities.
Diagrams
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Notes:


Underground Parking
Usage i Design Requirements:
A parking space specially for the 1. Volumn of the parking space should according to the U.B.D.
occupants and visitors of the 2. Entrance and exit should not intrude street traffic and
building. people on the sidewalk.
3. The ramp of vehicles should not disturb the human activity
on sidewalk and open space.
4. The polution problem and slope degree should be considered.
5. Should be planned of efficiency and economic.


treet Furniture
sage t
visual amenity and lounge space or the people.
Desige Requirements!
1. Should considered climate factor.
2. Should have a unic character to serve as a whole.
3- Should considered human behavior.
4. Should considered the homorny of materials usage and the planning relationship of buildings surrounded.
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Notes


egetation
sage :
or the pedestrian mall and side-alk use.
Design Requirements:
1. Vegetation should be grouped to create a shape.
2. Should considered the species of the vegetation in order to create a shadow in the summer and let the sun radiate through in the winter.
3. People usually will cluster under the trees, because it form identy and security.


utdoor Open Space
fsage *
or people who use the building and troll along the side walk.
,arge outdoor open space should ierve as visual and activitive .menity of Denver City.
Design requirements:
1. Should considered climate factors.
2. Should considered human behavior.
3. Should considered vegetation and its impact to^dlimate and human behavior.
4. Should treat as a barrier to traffic and a transition of different exterior facade to adjacent building.
5. Should fit properly to the framework of Denver City.
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Plaza
Usage s
Abig open amenity should serves as activities note and a monumantal sign of the city.
Design requirements:
1. Should considered climate factors and human behavior.
2. Should considered vegetation and its impact to climate and human behavior.
3. Should have a specific character to serve as a amenity of downtown Denver.
4. Should fit properly into the framework of Denver City.
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Coding
Zoning Code Building Code


ZONING ORDINANCE:
B-7 ZONE
Proposed uses--------- 1. pedestriant mall 2. retails 3* restaurant 4. art galleries 5* offices
6. plaza and open space 7« parking ( underground ).
Applicable allowable uses-------- 1.general retails 2. light industrial 3* wholesale service
4. office 5* high-density residential 6. underground parking and open space Maximum F.A.R.-------- 2 to 4 times of lot size.
Available bonuses--------- with premiums the floor area can be increased to 4 times the lot size.
Zone change required?--------NO.
Minimum lot size ?-----------NO.
Minimum yard requirements ?-- NO.
Maximum height ?------------- No controlled.
Bulk planes ?---------------- Not availabled.
Off-street parking----------- one space required for 750 square feet.
Open space requirements ?---- NO.
Landscaping requirements ?--- NO.
fences requirement ?--------- NO.
Sign restrictions ?----------NO.


BUILDING CODE
GROUP A-3
Floor Area------
* Construction type--
* Occupancy type-----
* Basic allowance area ( 5°5~b )------
* Total allowable area----------------
Fire Resistive Requirements------------
* Construction type----
* Exterior bearing walls ( 17°1 )-----
* Interior bearing walls ( 1701 )-----
♦Exterior non-bearing walls ( 1701 )-
* Structural frame ( 1701 )-----------
* Partitions--permanent---------------
* Shaft enclosures--------------------
* Floors-----
* Roofs------
Fire and Opening Protection------------
* Fire resistance of exterior walls ( 1803
* Opening in exterior walls ( 1803-b )-----
* Opening permitted distance ( 1803-b )----
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A-3
Unlimited
Unlimited
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Building Height-------
* Allowable building height ( 5°7 )----
Exit Requirements-----
* Numbers of exits required each floor ( 33°3
* Required exit width ( 3303-b )-------
* Corridor width ( 3305-b )------------
^Corridor height ( 3305-c )-------------
* Dead end corridor limit ( 33°5-f )---
* Stairway widths ( 3306-b )-----------
* Stairway rise heights ( 3305-c )-----
* Stairway run depths ( 33°5-c )-------
* Stairway landing depths ( 33°5-g )---
* Stairway to roof ( 33°5-c )----------
* Ramps widths ( 33°7-b )--------------
* Ramps slope ( 33°7-c )---------------
* Aisles widths ( 3315-b )-------------
* Aisles distances to nearest exit ( 3315-c )
* Aisles slope ( 3315-g )--------------
Unlimited
)----- 2
Total occupant load divided by50
44 in.
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20 ft.
44 in. 4-71/2 in. No less than: 10 in.
44 in.
1 for 4 or more stories
44 in.
No steepen than 1 vertical to 12 horzizontal
24 in.
------- 150 - 200 ft.
No steeper than 1 vertical to 8 horizontal


Conclusion


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Bibiliographies
1. Downtown Area Plan------Denver Partnership In.
1986.
2. Denver Urban Design Sourcebook-----Denver
Planning Office 1982.
3. The Urban Design Plan For Comprehensive Plan
Of San Francisco-----Department Of City Planning
San Francisco, 1971*
4. San Antonio, Urban Design Mechanisms Study-----
City Planning Department, San Antonio, 1972.
5. Ernst Neufer Architect's Data------Vicent Jones
Granda Publishing, I98O.
6. Architectures Form Space & Order------Francis
D.K. Ching,1981.
7. The Architecture of Arata Isozaki-----Philip
Drew, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1982.
8. The Death and Life of Great American Cities--Jane Jacobs, Vintage Books, New York, 1961.
9. The City in History-----Lewis Mumford, A Harvest
/HBJ Book, 1961.
10. Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century--------


Robert Fishman, The MIT Press,1982.
11. Climatic Design-----Donald Watson and Kenneth
Labs, McGraw-Hill Book Company,
12. Design with Nature-----Ian L. Me Harg, Double
-day/ Natural History Press,1969-
13- Site Reconnaissance and Engineering--------
Harlow C. Landphair and John L. Motloch, Elserier Science Publishing Co., 1985
14. Architecture for People -----Byron Mikellides,
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1980.
15. For Pedestrians Only------Roberto Brambilla
and Gianni Longo, Watson-Guptill Publications, 1978.
16. Behavioral Architecture------Clovis Heimsath,
McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1978.


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE BLAKE PLAZA An Urban Design lmplamaotation

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To my parents with love and gratitude.

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This thesis program was prepared by Michael, S . H . Kang9 a Master degree candidate of Urban Design in The University of Colorado at Denver. Signat . 1, '86. CONTENTS-----------I. Introduction Project Statement Thesis Statement II. Site Analysis Location & Land Use Transportation Climate Preservation III. Spatial Requirement Vertical Circulation Core Office Space Retail Shop Restaurant Art Gallery Under Ground Parking Street Furniture Vc;tgetation Outdoor Open Space Plaza IV. Coding Zoning Code Building Code V . Conclution VI. Bibliography

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Introduction Project Statement Thesis Statement

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PROJECT STATEMENT: This i • s an assume project which I would like to deal with urban desig n as well as architecture design. Through this project, I am going to discuss the relationship between buildings, the p eople who use the m a n d t h e juxtaposition of scale and style. According to the " Downtown Area Plan", the city spine, 16th street mall, will be extented snd the city core will move west to the Cherry Creek Waterfront. Considering this I choose this particular project and try to f lfi 1 this future plan of Denver City. A go od plan is t he beginning a n d t he end, because every good plan is orga nie---------F.L. Wright.

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1. Introduction------A city is a living organism, It may appear to be stable and have its destiny set, but actually it is continually changing. The design of the city is the visible flesh of that organism, and it is the result of the interrelationship of social, physical and creative sources. It can be created or it can jest occur. It is the role of the urban designer to regulate growth and minimize happen-stance. This project, The Blake is an urban design implementation wich concerns the physical character and order of the Denver City, and the relationship between people and their environment. ' . 2. Denver is the largest urban center in the Moutain West, with 500,000 people and more than 1.7 million within the metropolitan area. Downtown Denver is the heart of Denver City and also the .1.... .. .• . .:"

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16th STREET , 1920' s heart of one of the nation • s important metro-polises, and one of the ten largest office markets in the nation. One expected to take on increasing importance with grouth in business and economics. But growth cannot be taken for granted however, Denver should immediately develop an overall strategy to stimulate new growth in this region, with a particular focus on the core area. Equally pressing is the need for a framework that assures that our growth doesn1t occur at the expense of the very characteristics of our environment that created it. J. The Spine------16th street mall Since the completion of the 16th st. mall in 1980 Downtown1s retail deterioation has been reversed. Sales have stabilized; 250 ' 000 square feet of lost space has been r eplaced. By various survey, 20% or more of metro-area households shop Downtown during a JO-day period, and two-thirds of Denver househoulds shopped at Tabor Center more than once in its first year of operation. So, the

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16th street mall should be considered the central organizing element,the spine within the frame-work system. It is the key reference point for anyone in the downtown area and a magnet for people and activity. All downtown development and infrastructure is defined by its relationship to the mall. With the exetention of the 16th st. mall to the Platte Valley, the business and activities growth of the future will be enhenced. It will deveiope large area with well infrastruc for future growth and development that can accelerate the proaperity of downtown Denver. 4. The Lower Downtown------Denver birth place Lower Downtown is the birth place of the city of Denver and orig.:!:_nallocation for many of its urban institutions. Itis a traditional and growing home to the design community. Because of its historic character, human scale, and architectural detail, Lower downtown can become a rich pedestrian environment. Itis one of t he most sensitive and vulnerable district in downtown. Its historic

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character is a pleasure for the whole region to enjoy and share with the world. Itis also a market asset to downtown. The district must be pneserved and redeveloped through a package of actions that stimulate new economic demandin Lower Downtown, and that protect its historic character by preserving the existing buildings and promoting compatible infill development. 5. Postscript-----Urban design is not just an academic disipline, or a pastime for visionary planners and architects Neither is it coldly oriented to things rather than to people and their experiences. It has to do, above all, with the visual and other sensory relationships between people and their environment, with their feeling of time and place and their sense of well-being.

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Site Analysis Location & Land Use -Tranporta.tion Climate Preservation

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Location------The site is the 16th street between Market and Wynkoop street, and the vacant lands along both sides of the 16th street. Most of the buildings around the site are historiC and should preserved. The biggest vacant land is faced The R.T.D.Market Station, which served as a bus terminal and also a major open space of lower downtown district. The buildings of the left side of this area have historic facade and serves as retail, restaurant on the ground floor and small office on the upper. T he buildings between 16th and 17th street along the Market street are all historic and have a very unique character. Those buildings are served as retail shops of art and antique. The buildings along Larimer street of this area are all modern buildings, which served as office on the ground floor and high rise residential on the upper floors. The buildings between 16th and 17th street, along the Wazee street are all historic, which served

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as restaurant and office on the ground floor and office and residential on the upper. The buildings along Wynkoop street of this area are all historic which served as warehouse or officeuse. The building s between 16th and Wynkoop street is the post office of Denverwhich has historic facade and will be moved out in the near future. Union Station,at the end of 17th street, is the major amenity of Denver City. This building should preserved as a note and allowed dense activities, social encounters happening here. pedestrian mall which is the major spine of Denver City. It has lots of activities and is the main retail street of downtown Denver. V-ACANT LA'N'b. RETAIL. Dt;"NTIAL.

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T ih'ltX> I . c:si i I.C • • • • • Transportation------The existing traffic volumn is shown in picture The Larance and Larimer street is served a s W-E traffic arterial in this district. But with the influence of Aroria Parkway project, a state money supported project which is rearanged the transpor-tation system in Aroria and is under construction now, the traffic arterial mode of Larimer street will certainly move to Blake street. And the N-E arterial mode of 15th street will remain be the same with probaly some increase of traffic volumn. The city has a proposal to move away the rail road and tear down the viaduct of 15th, 16th, and 20th street. With this proposal, the extention of 16th street pedestrian mall will be a reality and not a dream. And with the extention, the existing traffic volumn of 16th street will be distributed to 15th and 17th street. The future traffic volumn and transportation system is shown in picture This system will have a great influence and impact of my thesis project.

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KonLh Jan Fob .... Aor May J"n J"l Sap O. , 0 1 inch "••n llonthly Snow 1.0 lnch .61 1.44 n . m 1.02 8 . 4 2), 7 2 . 67 1.66 0 . 01 1.01 6 8.0 U . 3 2 1.21 2 . 89 0.1) 1.4 8 8 12.6 29 . 2 4 1.93 4 . 17 0 . 0 3 3.2S 9 9 . 6 28 . 3 3 2.64 7 .31 0.06 3.)) 10 1.5 ]). 6 ab 1.93 4 . 69 0 . 10 3 . 16 9 tc 0 . 1 o ]. 78 6 . 41 0 .17 2 . 4 2 9 o . o 0 . 0 0 1.29 4 . 47 0 .06 3 .4) 8 n.o o . o 0 1.1) 4 . 67 2 . 44 6 1.9 21.3 . ).I) 4 . 17 o .os ). 71 ' 3 . 8 31.2 I o . 76 2 . 91 0 . 01 1.29 , 7 . 6 n . 1 2 0.43 2 . 84 0 .03 1.1" , 6.) 30 . 8 2 B .51 7 .31 t< 3 . 55 8 8 s•. 9 39. 1 18 Temperature------Denver area temperatures typify a mild interior continental region. Extremes of hot and cold temperatures lasting beyond 5-6 days are a rarity. The diurnal temperature range between night and day is greater than the winter to summer swing. Picture gives the mean and extreme temperature summary as recorded by the United States Weather Bureau at Denver, Colorado. Precipitation-----MEAN ANDEXTREME TEMPERATURE SUMMARY 1FI DENVER,-COLO.--Denver lieS in the semi-arid shadow of the Rocky Dally Dally Konthly beard lecord ,..Dnth M.lllaUII Hinlaua H!Rh Lov Ju 43 . 5 16.2 29. 9 7 2 -25 , .. U . 2 19 . 4 )2.8 76 -30 .... 50.1 2l. 8 37 . 0 84 -11 Apr u . o )). 9 47 . 5 85 -2 ... , IQ. J 43 . 6 v . o 96 22 Juo 80.1 )1.9 66.0 104 3 0 J"l 17. 4 58 . 6 7). 0 104 4l ..... 85. 1 57 . 4 71.6 101 tl Sop 77.7 4 7 . 8 62 . 8 07 2 0 Dec 66.8 3 7 . 2 52.0 8 8 3 Nov 53.] 25 . 4 3o. 4 79 3 Doc 46. 2 18. 9 )2. 6 74 -18 Annua l 64 . 0 36 . 2 5'1.1 1 0 4 -10 Nont.al DaJrea D a y a .. .. Hutln&) (Cooltnfll 1038 0 •o2 0 0 SH 0 253 0 80 11 0 0 248 0 208 120 54 5 768 0 1004 n 6016 625 90F aod above 0 0 0 0 . 5 u 9 2 o o 0 ]2 32F .nd bdov 30 27 27 13 2 0 n o I 9 25 29 162 Moutains. Mean annual precipitation equals 15.51 inches with the bulk of the moisture coming in the spring months. The winter months are normally the driest months. From November to March, the preci-pitation usually falls as snow . Heavey thunder-showers are not uncommon during the warm summer months, Picture shows Denver's precipitatio n characteristics.

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AVERAGE HOURLY WIND SPEED (m.p.hFAND DIRECTION AT DENVERJAJI lt&OiiaU ttOlr. lllf._r ... 1 00 I 1 . 1 1 .00 ' ,, 1 00 ' 1 . 1 6110 ' 100 s 1 . 1 100 s 1 . 1 1 00 ' 1 . \ 000 ' I . S 9 :00 I 1 . 1 JOOO • II 1100 s 1 . 0 1100 I 1 . 1 '" 1 •00 ' 9 I 1.)0 : . r 91 100 "' tl tOO . 91 1 .00 .. .. 100 • I I 100 I I I 100 I 1 . 1 900 I 1 , 1 1000 ' 1 , 1 11. 00 I II 11<>0 s 1 . 1 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Hay Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual F U HAA API HAl .ll1lf JUL AUC SEPT OCT NOV DEC AlllfUAL Oir. t'lr. .... •.. ""' .... ... .... Ctr .... Otr, ... " ' .... Dtr. .... Ot• ' ' ' • ' s I ' s s s IJ . . "' , ( , ; [ . . " ' I ' I s . . . I . . . I " ' I . S ' 6 . l I 6 . 1 ' 1 . 1 ' 6 . 1 ' , , I . . . ' . . . I 0 , 1 ' 1 . 1 ' 1 . 1 I 6 . 1 ' 1 . 0 I l . l I ., ' .. ' 1 . 0 I 1 . 1 ' 1 . 0 ' . . . ' S . l ' . . . ' ( . 1 • I . S ' 1 . 1 ' 61 s I I s Sl s ... s ... • S . l I '' • l . t ' II ' 1 . 1 ' IS • ... • ... • u ' '-' ' •• s ,, I II I ... ' 1 . 1 I 11 I 1 . 1 I ! . l ' , , • ... • 61 ' . . . • 1 . 1 • !.. i ' \1 ' 1 . 0 i 1 ' It • 1 • • I J . C I 1 . 0 ' . . . • ,, s ... ' \ . ! s Ul I " ' . . . s 11 I IS . 1 , 6 I 1 . 0 ' 01 I . . . I !1 ' \ . I ' . . . s I! I . . . . .. . 1 . 1 " 1 . 1 . 1 . 0 : ; ( 1 . • I 1 . 9 I II I II ' 1 . 1 ... 0 . 1 ... .., ,, 1 . 1 :I[ '' ,, I . J '.( u ,, ,, I 1.! . • • .. • • ... C.t , , , OJ . . • II .,, ' I ' •i : I '' 'I I . . . IJI , , 10 I "' •• l o ( ' ' .. IS :,( • . 1 , , li , , !.l ., 10. : . "' " ' l06 ... I l l 1.( '' . 1 . ( :.{ , , I .a: 'I ' . . 10 I .. II.C , .. 109 .. 10. 6 .. 101 ' . . . ' ol " ' .. . . . ' ' . . 101 , , ,.( ol::! 10' . . 101 . .. " 9 . 1 , , . , " l j . , • I ... II. I , , ( ll.l " ' 10. . 10 I . t , l " t . J . . 1 .1 , , , II "' II ' 10.1 " " ' .. 10' 1 0 , 1 " t . J ... ... " " ... I\ , 1 . 1 . . 0 . 1 .,, t l , , , t . J "' 9 . 1 \ G . \ I[ 1 , 1 i ' I , , 1 . 1 I II ' 1 . 1 . II . . • • ... 10 ' 1 . 1 I I I 6 , 1 ' 6 . 1 I ... I I 1 , , I , "' I I ' 1 . 1 ' I I ' . . . ' f I ' . . . I ... ' . . . ' I I I 1 . 1 . . . I . . . I 1 . 6 I . . ' .. ' 6 . 1 I 1 . 9 ' 1.1 I II s 6 . 1 s I I ' . . . ' II ' I I I 6 . t s 6 . 1 I I 0 s 1.1 • II I 6 . 1 I 0 . 1 s 61 ' 61 I MEAN AND EXTREMES OF WINDS DENVER, COLORADO HaxiiiiUa .... Olr, .... LUr. 1 . 0 ' 1 . 1 ' 1 . 1 ' 1 . • • 1 . 1 ' 1 . • ' II s IS s 1 . 1 s I . S s 1.l ' I I ' 1 . 6 ' I. I I t s !.1 ' 1 . • I 1 , 1 • 1 , 1 I 1 , 1 s 1 , 6 I I ! :.[ II I r ' , , . . . I .. ;.[ 81 . 0 1 " " ,0( 1 . 1 ... > . 1 ' II ,, 11 " ' I ... . . . I 1 0 ',( . . . ' I • ,,, 6 . 1 I " I 1 . 0 ' 1 , 1 ' 1 . 1 I II I 1 . 1 I 1 . 1 I I I l 1 , 1 I Direction . Mean Wind Prevail ina Wind Speed Aaaociated with Speed (mph) Direction Recorded (mph) Maxi9 . 2 s 53 H 9.4 s 49 NW 10.1 s 53 NW . 10.4 s 56 NW 9.6 s 43 sw 9 . 2 s 47 s 8.5 s 56 SW 8.2 s 42 sw 8.2 s 47 NW 8 . 2 . s 45 NW 8.7 s 48 w 9.0 s 51 N'B 9.1 s 56 NW .... 0 I 1 . 1 I . S l . t , , II 1 . • II I I 1 . 0 1 . 1 l.l . . . t . J . . . 1 . 1 . . . 0 . 1 1 . 9 1 . 1 10 "' • • I I Wind------Wind speeds in Denver are normally highest in winter and spring and lowest in late summer and fall as shown in picture Sustained wind speeds of 90 miles per hour with gusts to 120 miles per hour have been recorded along the foothills west of Denver. The maximun recorded surface wind speed at Stapleton International Airport was 56 mph in April, 1960 and again in July, 1965. The latter is not, however, a recomme nded design wind speed representative of the Denver area, since winds a few feet above the surface or along the foothills might be considerably higer. Knowledge of the prevailing wind direction is a grossly overused and not particularly revealing statistic by itself. For heating, ventilation and air conditioning applications it is much more important to know the various wind directions and wind speeds i n relation ;to the outdoor air temper-atures and those desired temperatures in the building at the time heating, ventilation and air ,..

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MONTHLY AND -ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND CLOUD-DATA Denver, Colorado Percent of lullber ot• P011ible Nu.a,er ot• Partly C1ou4y Ntaber ot• Month Sun1hine Clea r Dave Day a Cloud• Dan J&auary 72 10 10 11 5.5 rebnury 71 • ' 11 5.1 Karc b 70 • 10 13 6 . 0 April 66 7 10 ll 6.1 Kay 65 6 12 13 6.2 71 9 1l • J.O July 71 9 16 6 5.0 iW&Uit 72 10 14 7 4 . 9 Septeabet' 74 13 9 a 4.4 ktober 73 13 10 • 4 . 4 love.t:.er 66 11 9 10 5.3 )ecCIIber 61 11 10 10 5.] roial 70 115 132 111 5.3 conditioning equipment is functioning. Picture and , used toghter, may be of some limited use in this regard. Picture presents monthly annual mean and extreme winds at Denver. The annual average. wind speed is , 9.1 miles per hour with April having the highest average( 10 . 4 miles per hour ). Because of the nighttime drainage wind down the South Platte Valley, south is the prevailing wind direction in all seasons. During late morning and aftermoon hours, north and northeast winds are most frequent as shown in picture Sunshine duration and cloud cover------Sunshine duration is defined as the number of hours of sunshine reaching the surface which is intense enough to cause distinct shadows. Denver receives on the average 70 percent of the total possible sunshine throughout the year. Clearest days occur in the fall and cloudiest in the spring. Annually Denver averages 115 clear days(. 10 to 30 percent cloud cover), 133 partly cloudy days (30

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SUMMARY OF AVERAGE DAILY SOLAR AND SKY RADIATION IN LANGLEYS lcal/cm 2;dayl SutJon Jan hb ,.., /.or .... Jun Ju1 . .. s.. Oct llov Uveu:lde , C alif . 260 lOS 190 soo S40 sn S9S S40 4H lH 290 La Jolla, Calif. 160 lOS 400 o iOS SlO sao us 400 )40 290 Mev Orle•na, La. 22 0 liS l>O 42S 460 410 425 4lS 110 110 )00 rruno, 170 l i S 400 HS 610 100 61S 6U HO 410 )60 MaahvUle, Tenn. 140 210 )10 410 soo no SlO 460 liS 300 200 Davia, C..ltf. 210 280 liS S60 640 100 690 6U su }60 240-Phoent:a, Arh. 110 JJO 480 SIO 660 uo 600 HS 495 400 lOO Cund Jync:t1on, Colo. 110 lU 400 410 sso 610 610 S4S us }40 llO loiM, Idaho lJO us }10 42 0 SH l6S 600 SH 403 lH 160 Dod&• C1r:y, lanau lH l6S lH 460 su Sll SIS S40 440 JU 2H Ely, Mevada 2U 210 420 49S S6S no 600 S60 460 )60 250 11own avUla, Taua 260 l6S l6S 1 9 0 soo lll SH llO 410 )60 HO f o rt. Wortb , r .... 2)0 2U )80 4}0 SlO SH HO HO 44S l6S 210 MHbNI, Taua 260 l9S 160 490 su no S60 l40 4SO )jj 295 Spok..a.na. Waahtoatoa lOS us liO liS 4 U S6l 60S l!O HO 210 IU l.andar, Vyoatn& lO S l6S 410 410 HS S90 SIS SJO 4)0 llO lU Jouldcr, Colora do 200 270 400 uo 460 su l!O 460 430 JU 210 knve r . Colorado• 140 lH 4H SlO S60 610 610 uo 460 l'l 240 Doc lOS 140 lOS . I SS 110 IU 160 u s IU us 20 0 2ll llO H O 10 110 190 us to 80 percent cloud cover ), and 117 cloudy days (80 to 100 percent cloud cover ). Picture present daytime solar and cloud data at Denver. Solar radistion------Solar radiation varies with latitude and season. Incoming radiation has a value ( solar constant ) of about 2 gram calories per square centimeter per minute at an angle perpendicular to the outer boundary of the atmosphere. The solar collector on a Denver house will receive about half that rate of energy during an average summer solar day. The depletion is caused by many factors including reflectivity, cloud cover, ozone, sun angle and absorption by the earthus vaporous atomosphere. Picture is a summary of average daily solar and reflected sky radiation for Denver and other west-ern cities.

PAGE 18

PLANNING -RE[ATIONSHIPSINIERMS\>F PROBCEM AREAS, CLIMATOLOGICAL & PLANNING PARAMETERS Problem Area Climatological Parameters Planning Parameters Air Quality Anticyclonic persistence*, Siting and stack height temperature profiles, of emission sources, inversion height and street and freeway -frequency, wind speed and orientation and width; direction. green space locations. t Modes of urban travel, . land use • Transportation Wind speed, visibility, Highways, streets, precipitation, snow and ice, airports, rights-of-temperature extremes. way, modes of travel, land use patterns. Energy Consumption Solar radiation intensity, Building shapes, solar temperature extremes and access, orientation their duration. and materials, land-scaping and land use. Water Supply and Precipitation, humidity, Paving, sewers, water-Water Quality snow-pack, air contaminants. ways and facilities, permeability of soil. Land and water use patterns. Building Failure Wind velocity, gustiness, Building size, shape, solar radiation, precipita-heights, materials, and tion, snow and ice accumulation orientations, land-and duration, temperature scaping, land use. extremes. Human Comfort Prevailing wind direction, Building heights, and Safety floods, heavy precipitation. orientation, density, land use and landscaping.

PAGE 19

Preservation------New development can enhance and preserve Denver's distinctive qualities if it is designed with consideration for the prevailing design character and the effect on surroundings. External details in building facades, entries, stairways, retaining walls and other features provide visual interest and enrichment and are consistent with the historic scale and texture of Denver. Rich detailed facades enhance the character of the street by giving it greater visual variety. Such detail often reduces building facades and textures to a more human scale and makes the street a more pleasant place to be. even blank walls may possess visual interest if they are textured and scaled. New construction can have a positive effect on the area around it if it reflects the character of

PAGE 20

T . _ .. -. :::.._, . . adjacent older buildings of architectural merit. To conserve important design character in historic or distinctive older areas, some uniformity of detail, scale, proportion, texture, materials, color and building form is necessary, Large buildings impair the character of older, small-scale areas if transition is made between small-scale and large-scale elements. New blank facades introduced into areas of older, more detailed buildings detract from neighborhood character. New buildings using textured materials with human scaled proportions are less intrusive in older area characterized by fine details and scale. Visually strong buildings which contrast severely with their surroundings impair the character of the area. Building of parking garages under parks can seriously lessen their natural qualities when the acess ramps, air vent and elevator structures and intrude upon the landscape.

PAGE 21

r '..,! , . Preservation of Denver's strong and continuous down town street facades will ensure maintenance of that area's distinctive character and spatial quality. A consistent commercial fa_cade on neighborhood shopping streets will give definition to these area and promote activity. ; i Renovation and restoration of older, wellde signed ' ] buildings can preserve the character and interest of the streetscape if the original building is respected in use of materialsand details. On commercial buildings, signs that fit within the architectural order of the facade do not obscure or damage the building0s integrity. Historic buildings represent crucial links with past events and architectural styles and, when preserved, afford educational, recreational, cultural and other benefits. r Historic building s often serve as landmarks and focal points for interest or orientation and add to a neighborhood0s visual image.

PAGE 22

Relatively homogeneous groupings of buildings of architectural and historic merit, such as in Blake Square, are especially rare and irreplaceable Historic buildings and grounds often provide nece-ssary visual open space or passive recreation area Open space in the city can be supplemented by en-hanceing the semi-recreational functions of historic areas. Preservation of some older, low and smallscaled buildings and grounds amidst larger building tower will help conserve unique cityscape charater, L --maintain a sense of openness and green space, and • produce a more livable environment. Traditional street patterns and spaces can often be esstial to maintaining an appropriate setting for historical and architectural landmarks or areas. Development in the street space abutting historic building s would d estroy the setting.

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. I ,L II I _. . . . ..... Street space serves as a means to control and regulate the scale and organization of future development by: a. protecting against the accumulation of overly large parcels of property under single ownership on which passive buildings codld be constructed; b.indirectly controlling the visual scale and density of development, as well as maintaining continuity of facades. Once vacated, a street space could be built upon to allowable densities. In some critical areas of the city, the addition of dwelling units or floor space on vacated street areas might be acutely felt. Views from streets can provide a means for orien-tation and help the observe to perceive the city and its districts more clearly. The relationship between areas of low, finescaled building s and areas of high, large-scaled building can be made more pleasing if-the transition in building s height and mass between such areas is .,. . . gradual.

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Spatial Requirement Vertical Circulation Gore Office Space Retail Shop Restaurant Art Gallery Underground Parking Street Furniture Vagetation Outdoor Open Space Plaza

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rertical Circulation Core--------Jsage: I Design Requirements: connect the circulation between 1 . Seperate from other circulatio n elements for different use. iifferent floors. 2 . Should be articulately place d t o avoid disturbance. 3 . Should be compactly placed f o r efficient and economic rea son. 4 . Should have the shortest distance between eac h spaces. 5 . Should have both uses for service and people m o de . 1iagram: Size: Note :

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lffice space-------Jsage : I Design Requirements • 'or small componies such as services 1 . Flexible partition. :onsul tant, a tterney, etc. 2 . Articul.ate w orking space. lut should be parted flexibly for J . Shoul d prepared loung space for visitor. . a r g e office too. 4 . Shoul d have small coference room for meeting . 5 . Shoul d have rest r oo m s in each floors. i a gram: Size1 • o.{+tO;? =&g C>ffteo 0ttu..\a Notes:

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tails Shop----------age: fashion place of shopping for ople who work or live in Denver. .agrams Design Requirements: 1 . Should close to the place that have lots of human activies. 2 . A place which involved old and new form to express the specific character of Lower Downtown in order to attract people. J. Flexible partition for different size of usage. 4. Should considered human behavior and consummer feeling. Size: +-Notes:

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Restaurant-----------Usage: l people who work in downtown For the Denver, or visitors that come to this district. Design Requirements: 1. A neat and elegant interior of classic style. 2. Efficiently manageable place. 3. A special form which involves old and new to express the specific character of Lower Downtown in order to atract people. 4. Should have outdoor open space for enjoying the whole envi ronment. Slze: Notes: . n r--=L L:J -i.DuJ..
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Art Gallery---------Usage: Design Requirements: For the people who work at downtown 1. A neat and elegant interior of classic style. ' Denver to strall and enjoy the art. 2 . The circulation system should be designated as strolling around to let people loung with ease and efficiency. J, A special form which involved old and new to express the specific character of Lower Downtown in order to attract people. 4 . Should have outdoor open space for displace and allow humar. activities. Diagram: Size: --t------'-vk;t Notes:

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Underground Parking---------Usages Design Requirements: A parking space specially for the 1. Volumn of the parking space should according to the U.B.D. occupants and visitors of the 2. Entrance and exit should not intrude street traffic and building. people on the sidewalk. J. The ramp of vehicles should not disturb the human activity on sidewalk and open space. 4. The polution problem and slope degree should be considered 5. Should be planned of efficiency and economic. Size: Notes:

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treet Furniture----------sage' Desige Requirements: visual amenity and lounge space 1. Should considered climate factor. or the people. 2. Should have a unic character to serve as a whole. 3 . Should considered human behavior. 4. Should considered the homorny of materials usage and the planning relationship of buildings surrounded. iagram; Size: l.o.M.p. Notes:

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egetation-----------sage: Design Requirements: or the pedestrian mall and side-1. Vegetation should be grouped to create a shape. alk use. 2. Should considered the species of the vegetation in order to create a shadow in the summer and let the sun radiate through in the winter. J. People usually will cluster under the trees, because it form identy and security. liagrams S1ze: sua. w u. Notes: WINTER.

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utdoor Open Space---------rsagea Design requirements: 'or people who use the building and 1 . Should considered climate factors • . troll along the side walk. 2 . Should considered human behavior . • arge outdoor open space should J . Should considered vegetation and its impact and :erve as visual and activitive human behavior. .meni ty of Denver City. 4 . Should treat as a barrier to traffic and a transition of different exterior facade to adjacent building. 5. Should fit properly to the framework of Denver City. liargams S1ze: Notes:

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Plaza-----------Usages Design requ1rements: Abig open amenity should serves as 1. Should considered climate factors and human behavior. activities note and a monumantal 2. Should considered vegetation and its impact to climate and sign of the city. human behavior. 3. Should have a specific character to serve as a amenity of downtown D enver. 4. Should fit properly into the framework of Denver City. Diagrams S1ze: dotes:

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Coding Zoning Code Building Code

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ZONING ORDINANCE: --------------B-7 ZONE Proposed uses--------1. pedestriant mall 2. retails J. restaurant 4. art galleries 5. offices 6. plaza and open space 7. parking ( underground ). Applicable allowable uses--------!.general retails 2. light industrial J. wholesale service 4. office 5. high-density residential 6. underground parking and open space Maximum F.A.R.--------2 to 4 times of lot size. Available bonuses--------with premiums the floor area can be increased to 4 times the lot size. Zone change required?-------NO. Minimum lot size ?----------NO. Minimum yard requirements ?-NO. Maximum height ?-------------No controlled. Bulk planes ?----------------Not availabled. Off-street parking-----------one space required for 750 square feet. Open space requirements ?---NO. Landscaping requirements ?--NO. fences requirement ?--------NO. Sign restrictions ?---------NO.

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BUILDING CODE------------Floor Area------* Construction type-* Occupancy type----GROUP A-J * Basic allowance area ( 505-b )----* Total allowable area---------------Fire Resistive Requirements-----------* Construction type----* Exterior bearing walls ( 1701 )----* Interior bearing walls ( 1701 ) ----. *Exterior non-bearing walls ( 1701 )* Structural frame ( 1701 )---------* Partitions--permanent-------------* Shaft enclosures------------------* Floors-----* Roofs------Fire and Opening Protection-----------* Fire resistance of exterior walls ( 1803-a )----* Opening in exterior walls ( 1803-b )------------* Opening permitted distance ( 1803-b )------------I A-3 Unlimited Unlimited I 4 3 4 3 1 2 2 2 1 3/4 hr. 5 ft.

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Building Height-------* Allowable building height ( 507 )----Exit Requirements-----* Numbers of exits required each floor ( 3303-a )----* Required exit width ( 3303-b )-------* Corridor width ( 3305-b )-----------*Corridor height ( 3305-c )-----------* Dead end corridor limit ( 3305-f )---* Stairway widths ( 3306-b )----------* Stairway rise heights ( 3305-c )----* Stairway run depths ( 3305-c )------* Stairway landing depths ( 3305-g )--* Stairway to roof ( 3305-c )---------* Ramps widths ( 3307-b )--------------Unlimited 2 Total .occupant ldad divided by50 44 in. ? ft. 20 ft. 44 in. 4-71/2 in. No less tbanr 10 in. 44 in. 1 for 4 or more stories 44 in. * Ramps slope ( 3307-c )---------------No steepen than 1 vertical to 12 horzizontal * Aisles widths ( 3315-b )-------------24 in. * Aisles distances to nearest exit ( 3315-c )-------150 200 ft. * Aisles slope ( 3315-g )--------------No steeper than 1 vertical to 8 horizontal

PAGE 39

Conclusion

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, ,. ,. r ,. , 111111 PIUIIIC IHICI C!lllll 1111 .. ...... \ . ...... .'"" " '. , / / "" .. , v . .. '> , .. ' <'""' ... J 'J HtoiYf . I " . J h ... I• I I• I:! 111 .. 11. ""'"""-..,.-. -,. -,...,.-. _ . J ( L l [-,.,.m a ' ,-lltolft. Clllll = g i! ; -; ,.,----.. --: = 5 THE CITY IMAGE !•.' ,I

PAGE 41

w ::c .... -ST. ..... Mol...,. ""{-= "t dell.&tt"-ihllOU, ... a."""""'"" b.t .,!!1. 1k \Gt* l5t l'1o& l!o. .. l"' '-""'"'"llt "'f<.;,c..tood • ...__.. ... "'i!'itlf &6 .... 1,.__ .... -.= of< 1 I> o<= -'llo.otat ""' IIIOrlld: O:t. 0.,._o. 1li.bt.r C,dda-1:1.1 "ttc WJJI IIOib( tt-o. t.UW. '"'"'.,..,...., """""' "'b'"f""' ....,...., tu '""'..,.,;t--... • -...wtJ ....... "'f"'_ •T$).1 dottA llillO:tua"" hvner tD 'tb """"'""'--. ""'"''"""'"'" _._ ..... lt .. 1!1: ..... "'iP' "' t-1. llo.> --tlo -:&f"l"" •=
PAGE 42

.• .11u. ""' (\ .t •{G'I< • ..,-..o<':Q ....... ..... • 1\u. l.\'11o" o{ l h.t.l 1 c.i.Ju1d IJI)ol>j ""t\. diY1Ml -'itt \:•'"'UnJ b '+• .,.._ """""""' •tll r l•u-...t.r1'*""" ' uluJ<.. •"T'i'11trtt • .. ... ..t.i' '"'fl\'1< -;.l 0( \/'tO vo<\ .,.dod , o. ... \, li"M. -ln1'1 • .ft • ! •
PAGE 43

THE I EXTENTION I AND IMPLEMENT A OF 16TH ST. AN liUWI DfSIGN THESIS co PREPARED BY .. •, . . : . ' . , I I ' "' -. >

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-II: I D n= I• I • I , h • ...... V'A x x .'xl' : x __.. Ia -_. .A..WI .. . .. _ ,, --.:: t -1-1: s;: s;: . I ! I

PAGE 45

tla ST. Ull fl. PLAN I I I . •" ,• llTAil flDOI • . f •JO' BASEMENT .. ,._ . .

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'. -I • 1 ' •30' SECOND Fl . PLAN llfTM It-I •

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: I ' Lliil. l1i . . ' WH I . J R . . I . . I lLE H THIRD FL. PLAN OffiCE flOOII S • f •JO" .... \ I . 0 . t;r."l r ,J p ::1 . 0 fl ' IJJ L1 -; I ; FOURTH FL PlAN It-I ! ' : njj r . . ' o 1:;;; 1:11 -0 u.u l lU I H l liUi FIFTH FL PLAN SECTIOI B B ' .. ' .... • . . . . . .. -! il' I ll Ulll IlL!: : . litH -

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l •fJC1 SECTION A A --c c

PAGE 51

Bibiliographies----------1. Downtown Area Plan-----Denver Partnership In. 1986. 2. Denver Urban Design Sourcebook-----Denver Planning Office 1982. J, The Urban Design Plan For Comprehensive Plan Of San Francisco-----Department Of City Planning San Francisco, 1971. 4. San Antonio, Urban Design Mechanisms Study---City Planning Department, San Antonio, 1972. 5. Ernst Neufer Architect's Data-----Vicent Jones Granda Publishing, 1980. 6. Architecture: Form Space & Order-----Francis D.K. Ching, 1981. 7 . The Architecture of Arata Isozaki-----Philip Drew, 'Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1982. 8. The Death and Life of Great American Cities--Jane Jacobs, Vintage Books, New York, 1961. 9. The City in History-----Lewis Mumford, A Harvest /HBJ Book , 1961. 10. Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century------

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Robert Fishman, The MIT Press,1982. 11. Climatic Design-----Donald Watson and Kenneth Labs, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 12. Design with Nature-----Ian L. Me Harg, Double -day/ Natural History Press,1969. 13. Site Reconnaissance and Engineering------Harlow C. Landphair and John L. Motloch, Elserier Science Publishing Co., 19 8 5 14. Architecture for People -----Byron Mikellides, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1980. 15. For Pedestrians Only------Roberto Brambilla and Gianni Longo, Watson-Guptill Publications, 1978. 16. Behavioral Architecture-----Clovis Heimsath, McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1978.