Citation
Downtown Carbondale design study

Material Information

Title:
Downtown Carbondale design study
Creator:
Liske, Katy
Language:
English
Physical Description:
51 leaves : illustrations, maps ; 22 x 30 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Central business districts -- Colorado -- Carbondale ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado -- Carbondale ( lcsh )
Central business districts ( fast )
City planning ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
Colorado -- Carbondale ( fast )
Genre:
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 51).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Katy Liske.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09735023 ( OCLC )
ocm09735023
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1979 .L568 ( lcc )

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DOWNTOWN CARBONDALE DESIGN STUDY
A project prepared for the Town of Carbondale and the University of Colorado at Denver College of Environmental Design :
funded by
The Western Colorado Rural Communities Program
Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements
for the
degree of Master of Architecture
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May 1979


Preface
Background
Analysis
Goals
Design
Implementation
Acknowledgments
Bibliography

Contents


Preface
This project began in September, 1978, at the suggestion of Dan Schler, UCD coordinator of the Western Colorado Rural Communities Program. The program, funded by the Kellogg Foundation, provides technical, educational, and community development assistance to western slope towns.
The need in Carbondale is to preserve the existing character of the town while providing for anticipated growth. Because of its charm, the commercial core of the town has the capability of being a discretionary shopping center for the Roaring Fork Valley. If this is going to happen, though, community involvement is needed at many levels.
The first step in the design process was to study the town from a "participant observer" point of view. This involved discussions with many individuals in Carbondale and the Roaring Fork Valley, attendance at meetings, reading, and research.
From individual discussions, a consensus evolved: downtown Carbondale is in danger of being lost to "strip" commercial development alonq Highway 133. The need to take action was felt, the energy level was high, but no grouo existed to direct thoucht and activity.
In April, a germinal group was formed. Although it developed under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce, the Carbondale Council for the Arts and Humanities, the Valley Journal newspaper, property owners, and private citizens were also represented. Several ideas were presented to and discussed by the group, and people began to take action.
At this writing, several steps in town revitalization (Phase 1) are underway. The most exciting part of community development is that it never stops. As long as the energy level can maintain itself, positive progress and changes can he made.
An Arabian proverb suggests:
"All mankind is divided into three classes: those that are immovable, those that are movable, and those
that move.1.
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Background
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Locale
The town of Carbondale is located near the confluence of the Roaring Fork and Crystal Rivers in Garfield County, Colorado. The summit of Mount Sopris, looming to an elevation of 12,958 feet, dominates the valley. The area was described in the following passage from a 1925 geography text:
Valleys and benchlands in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plateaus are excellent for the production of fruit. Peaches are a specialty in western Colorado. This area is also excellent for staples, as is well illustrated by the Sweet Farm at Carbondale on the west slope of Colorado. Here tracts of well-drained benchland, irrigated by mountain streams, have this rotation: alfalfa, a perennial, standing three or four years, potatoes, wheat, barley, and again alfalfa. Wheat is sold. Barley and alfalfa are fed to sheep. Potatoes are sold. Potatoes yield sometimes 600 bushels to the acre, and other crops several times the national average. The potatoes are of such excellent quality (being mealy when baked) that they are used on dining-cars and in New York hotels. But the region as a whole is so excellent for potatoes that the markets are often glutted, and therefore the chief produce must be meat and wool. Some ranchers 90 miles from a railroad, or more, walk their produce to the railroad station.111


History
Carbondale's first known permanent settlers were William Dinkel and R. W. Zimmerman, who built a cabin and began raising livestock here in 1882. By 1883, the valley boasted a population of about twenty families. Dinkel's cabin soon became a store and stage stop for the newly opened stage road.
In 1887, two of the new settlers, William and Ellery Johnson, platted the town, naming it Carbondale after their home town in Pennsylvania.
When the Aspen and Western Railroad developed plans to expand its line from Aspen to Glenwood Springs and west to Utah, business began to boom in Carbondale. Railroad construction, as well as mining
and farming, attracted more and more settlers into the valley.
Bill Dinkel moved his store into town and in 1892 replaced it with the brick building which is standing today. Carbondale then boasted fifteen saloons, and the shops kept only the finest goods.
In spite of its elaborate plans, the Aspen and Western Railroad completed only thirteen miles of narrow gauge track from Carbondale to the Thompson Creek mines. Both railroading and mining suffered a setback with the panic of 1893 and the severe depression that followed it. Potato farms sprung up in the valley during the depression, and potatoes became the economic mainstay of the valley's economy.
Potato Days, the longest standing celebration in the community, began in 1909.
The fortunes of Carbondale have always followed those of both the region and the nation. The depression of the 1930‘s triggered a decline in Carbondale's business and population. The only bank in town moved to Glenwood Springs, taking important financial activity with it. The railroad, which had been struggling to stay in existence, finally closed altogether, and the track along the river was pulled up and sold for scrap. An era of growth and liveliness came to a close with the end of the railroad which had started it.
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Recent Evolution
In recent years, the bleak picture of forty years ago has changed dramatically. The steady rapid growth of Aspen has had a major impact on the entire valley. Increased tourism has brought an increase in trade and raised property values.
The mining industry has also brought changes as it has expanded. The
likelihood of continued growth will have an increasing impact on the town of Carbondale, which depends on the mines to employ forty per cent of its work force.
Population growth seems inevitable over the next several years, with over 7,000 units of housing currently planned for the lower end of the valley alone. Because of its location in the valley, Carbondale has the potential for serving as a regional commercial center, attracting business from Glenwood Springs, Basalt, and other nearby areas.
The commercial core of Carbondale is the district which has traditionally served as the central shopping area.
It has a unique character and ambienc* which are not found in more modern "shopping center" developments, because they have evolved slowly as the town has evolved. There is a sense among many townspeople that the unique flavor of the old town area should be preserved. It is the purpose of this project to encourage and direct the development and use of Carbondale's commercial core, so that its identity is preserved and enhanced through the coming years.


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Analysis


Local Studies
The information on the following pages summarizes the existing character and condition of the town of Carbondale, with emphasis focused on the zoned commercial core.
Information on these topics is included here:
Zoning The town zoning map was adopted September 18, 1978.
Land Use This map summarizes the existing use of land area within the town boundaries.
Existing Building Use Residential vs. commercial use of buildings within the commercial core are shown.
Sheds, garages, and trailers are not included.
Traffic/Activity Structure Proposed designation and actual use of pedestrian traffic ways are described
by this map.
Views & Vistas Important views and vistas into and out of the town are summarized here.
Architectural Quality This map is an abbreviated analysis of use and condition of downtown buildings.
Visual Texture The following elements of the visual environment are noted here:
Nodes are activity generators toward which one's attention is drawn.
An edge is a natural or man-made feature which establishes a definite boundary.
A path is a channel for movement.
Landmarks are important reference points.
The district boundary is a hazy line defining the perceived central business district of the town.
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Cognitive Maps
A more subjective informationgathering process is through the use of cognitive maps. This technique is simple; people are simply asked to draw maps of the town from memory. All of these maps were drawn by high school students. They show which elements of the town's physical environment are important to them. It is interesting to note that the commercial core of Carbon-dale is shown in greater detail and with more accuracy than any other area. This was true of every map drawn. What this indicated is that the downtown area is an important element in the town's social and physical geography. Further, the downtown area is instantly recognized as an entity.
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Urban Structure
When all of these bits of information, subjective and objective, are put together and analyzed, they result in a coherent picture of the current environment of downtown Carbondale. Translating the information into the visual vocabulary of space, views, pattern, and history brings into focus those elements which contribute to Carbondale's downtown character, as well as those which detract from it.
SPACE
The intersection of 4th and Main Streets is the main crossroads of town. It is the visual center of Carbondale, and is visually defined by two buildings. The Dinkel building on the northwest corner is the oldest and largest commercial structure in town; the commercial building on the northeast corner has been attractively renovated.
The long view to the south is of Mount Sopris; to the north is a red stone bluff clotted with trees.
The commercial core is important to the town as a shopping district and social hub. The density of activity is greater here than anywhere else in town. The crossroads at 4th and Main is the nucleus of activity: the Black Nugget bar in the Dinkel Building is always busy, and the sidewalk bench outside is nearly always occupied. Pedestrian and vehicular traffic is heaviest near here.
The buildings on the north side of Main Street, between 3rd and 4th, form a visually cohesive group.
Most of them are similar in age, height, and materials. Window heights, shapes, and sizes are similar. Parapet walls and flat roofs are used consistently.
Buildings or storefronts are of similar width, about 25 feet. The one residential structure is incompatible with other buildings and uses on the block.
The other visually cohesive group of buildings is on the east side of 4th Street, north of Main. The buildings north of the alley, however, are dilapidated in appearance and structure. The principal unifying element is signage, as all have suspended exterior signs of similar character.
Principal movement of both cars and pedestrians is along Main Street. Orientation of buildings and pathways reinforce each other. Several potentially important buildings, views, and experiences are "lost" because of this.
VIEWS
Views are poor on both the east and west approaches to the commercial core. The initial visual experience is confused. An effect of cohesion is not realized until one reaches the center of town.
40
There are many visua1 â–  aps" which contribute to a genera! lack of continuity and cohesiveness in the commercial core. One is the southwest corner of 4th and Main Streets, which is occupied by a Mountain Bell station and parking lot; the facade of the station is a long blank wall. Other gaps occur on the south side of Main Street between 3rd and 4th Streets, where there is much vacant property.
PATTERN
Parapet treatment on the brick buildings is an important element. The decorative entablatures establis a consistent pattern which is repeated throughout the town. This treatment also emphasizes the texture of the brick and is an important contributor to the human scale of the town. Finally, parapet treatment is a strong Tinier element defining and emphasizing the top of the buildings.
Another established pattern is the recessed dorway. This is seen in many shops on Main Street.
An important element in Victorian architecture is the arched window Semicircular arches are used on the New New Store; flatter arches can be seen in the Dinkel Building and elsewhere downtown. The arch is emphasized on the windows of the 100 by their "eyebrow" lintel treatment.


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Textural elements secondary to brick are lap siding and cedar shingles. Both of these repeat the relatively small scale of brick.
Awnings are used on several structures. They are often in poor condition.
TIME
The Centennial Plaza building is the newest commercial structure in the commercial core. While the initial impression it gives is one of contrast and modernity, it respects the older buildings in texture, size, and horizontality.
Renovation of the Dinkel Building over the years generally has detracted from its appearance and sense of history. Materials such as glass block and stone veneer are inharmonious with the form and age of the building.
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Goals
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There is much information in the visual environment of the commercial core which makes the area lively, attractive, and characteristically western. On the other hand, this "flavor" could be enhanced by eliminating or mitigating the detrimental elements and reinforcing those which unify and strengthen the existing character of the town.
The objectives outlined here describe the general policies which should guide development in the commercial core. This stage is a conceptual one, and deals with the downtown area as a whole.
SPACE
The intersection of 4th and Main Streets should be reinforced as the focal point of the commercial core in initial development. The key area which should be most densely developed is in the vicinity of that intersection.
Linear patters of movement should be broken, attracting people away from Main Street. In the long term, pedestrian and vehicular traffic will otherwise become congested. Additional parking will be required; this should be provided in off-street parking lots throughout the commercial core.
PATTERN
Existing patterns and proportions of width and height should be respected by future development. New buildinas should nol dominate those that exist, nor should they be much smaller.
The human scale of Carbondale is what makes it pleasant and comfortable. Pockets of open space should remain, even in areas of dense development.
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Phasing
The most important thing to realize in thinking about town design is that the environment of a city can be planned so that it is inviting, dynamic, and well organized. Towns are organic; they are always in a condition of growth and change. A town is never "finished." for convenience, the design ideas on the following pages are divided into three stages: immediate improvements that can be made in the next year or so, short-term changes, long-term plans and design ideas, and suggestions for the years to follow. These stages should not be construed as sudden developments to be undertaken at specified times. Too many unknown variables will determine when developments will take place. Rather, what is shown here is a series of glimpses of the town of Carbondale in various stages of evolution.
Briefly, suggested phasing of downtown development is as follows:
Phase 1, population 2,000:
*street repair and furniture on Main Street;
*landscaping;
*facade renovation; improvement of entries to town; *application for designation to National Register;
*adoption of architectural guide!i nes.
Phase 2, population 5,000:
*developmentof 200 parking spaces;
infill construction on Main Street;
*develupment of the Barn; â– ^continued landscaping and street improvement.
Phase 3, population 10,000:
*development of 400 parking spaces;
*further street improvement; Continued building development; *one-way traffic loop;
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Phase One
The first phase of development consists of improvements which can be made immediately. Only existing buildings are involved; there is no need for new buildings at the present time.
1STREET IMPROVEMENT will make the experience of getting into Carbondale a more positive one.
This is also a good first step in establishing an attitude of improvement in the commercial core.
Pedestrian crosswalks will be needed increasingly in the future and should be installed with the sidewalks to avoid unnecessary disruption. Pavers are recommended because they stimulate drivers' attention, are more attractive than striping, and provide another element of continuity.
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SiGewa1ks must be repaired where they are broken and impassible, or installed where none exist along Main Street. This will create a pedestrian pathway between the
commercial core and Crystal Village, the first of three proposed planned unit developments.
Lighting must be improved. Underground wiring is a must and will do much to improve the character of the town. Standards should be fairly simple but can be used to set a tone of liveliness and vitality, as well as to establish a rhythm and sense of continuity
Landscaping will provide interest and add softness and human scale to the street. Trees are planted at approximately 100-foot intervals. Deciduous trees are recommended since their shapes and colors change
with the seasons. For streetscape planting, a variety should be chosen which will be used only along designated downtown streets, so that the trees give a sense of direction and add to the continuity of downtown pathways. Recommended species include honeylocust, green ash, hack-berry, and boxelder.
Benches are important elements downtown. Simple wood slat benches with metal supports embedded in concrete are recommended. They are specified at locations along Main Street in the initial design stage, and elsewhere at later phases of the development plan.
Trash receptacles are simple and inexpensive. Both receptacles and benches could be built locally, using the services of professional carpenters and/or high school students.
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Bike racks w'!! encourage people to use their bicycles to get downtown wnenever possible. Racks are sturdy, unobtrusive, and easy to use.
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2ENTRY POINTS. Focal points at the east and west ends of Main Street would reinforce the sense of entry to the town. The need for this is especially strong at the west end of Main Street, at its intersection with Highway 133. An attractive sign accented with a few shrubs would provide a pleasant welcome to the town.
Design of an entry sign would be a good opportunity to use a town logo, which could be designed by a local artist, perhaps by competition. The design, construction, and installation of an entry sign would be a good vehicle for stimulation of community involvement in the downtown improvement effort.
3ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINES should be established to assist property owners and builders fo insure that future develo :ent reinforces those aspects of the town which make it attractive, comfortable, and unique. A set of guidelines has been prepared as part of this project and is printed separately.
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4-ACADE RENOVATION will improve the appearance of Main Street and make Carbondale's commercial core a more attractive place to shop and visit. Most of the suggested improvements shown here involve simple "face-lifting" tasks and do not require major structural changes to the buildings.
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HISTORIC DESIGNATION. Application should be made to the National Trust for Historic Preservation for designation to the National Register of Historic Places. This is a list of sites which are cultural resources worthy of preservation. Designation would accomplish several things. First, it would elevate local and regional consciousness of the historic value of Carbondale's downtown area.
Second, it might attract visitors downtown and therefore increase trade. Finally, it would make property owners eligible for grants for renovation and repair of their buildings.
The boundary of the suggested historic district is shown on the accompanying map.
There is a considerable effort involved in completing National Register Nomination forms. Such an undertaking might be sponsored by the Carbendale Council for the Arts and Humanities.
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34


PhaseTwo
The second stage of development is planned for a population of about 5,000. Since this level of development could be reached, depending on the impact of several intervening variables, any time between 1980 and 1995, no target date is given. Moreover, the various elements of the design stage are not intended to be sequential; rather, they are pieces which can be incorporated into the overall town design independently of one another.
1 THE BARN is redeveloped at this point into a studio/retai1/commercial space. This will expand the central core of the downtown area to the south, and provide a secondary focal node in the commercial core, the primary node being the intersection of 4th and Main Streets.
Paving material used outdoors here and elsewhere consists of the same material as previously used for pedestrian crosswalks in the first phase. Integration of design elements such as this can be coordinated by private developers and the town government.
2STRFET IMPROVEMENT continues one-naif block north and south of Main Street on 4th Street. This will draw interest in those directions by the repetition of trees, light standards, benches, and b^ke racks.
3 LANDSCAPING elements begin to establish some pedestrian linkages through the downtown area. Paving and planting on the south side of Main Street between 4th and Weanf relate the barn complex to Main Street and provide a pedestrian connection between the Dark anu downtown.
4 BUILDINGS. Initial development should take place on Main Street, between existing buildings. Several suggested sites are shown on the town plan. Architectural guidelines must be followed. Much building development at this stage involves change of use rather than new construction.
5 PARKING wi11 have to be expanded gradually as downtown use increases. Small lots dispersed throughout the •town are recommended for convenience and to avoid the depersonalized effect a single parking area would have. Off-street parking at this stage of development is provided for 300 cars in 12 lots; togetner with the existing supply of onstreet parking, about 500 spaces are available. Note landscaping shown on the town plan to mitigate the impact of the parking lots.
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Downtown Carbondale Design Study
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Phase Three
The third phase of development is planned for a town population of about 10,000. In this stage, a third node is created and pedestrian linkages are established to knit The central downtown area together.
1 A COMMUNITY1 PLAZA is shown in this stage, as the third and most important node in the downtown area. Combined with the proposed city hall/ recreation center to the north and shopping area to the south, this plaza is the hub of pedestrian and outdoor activity in the downtown area.
A theater is incorporated into the plaza for outdoor summer entertainment. In addition, the concrete proscenium could be flooded for winter skating. The theater shown seats about 300.
A kiosk is available for public announcements. It is maintained by the parks department.
Benches and paving material duplicate those existing.
Lighting is provided by simple, low level fixtures.
Landscaping breaks the plaza into small, private areas and large open spaces.
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2 STREET IMPROVEMENTS are made to the remainder of 4th Street in the commercial core, in order to emphasize it as a major axis. Many of the same elements used here are continued from the Main Street program in the first development stage: pedestrian crossings, street lighting, landscaping, and furniture. These strengthen 4th Street's visual impact and relate it strongly to the intense development already undertaken on Main Street.
Other street and traffic improvements are the following:
Colorado Avenue is improved by paving and widening it between 3rd and 6th Streets.
4th Street is closed to vehicles. This will allow more freedom and flexibility of activity in the central downtown area.
6th Street is widened and straightened at its intersection with Colorado Avenue
A downtown traffic loop is established on Colorado Avenue, 3rd Street, Main Street, and 8th Street. This is a one-way loop. It will decrease traffic from outside town on Main Street, and take cars incoming from outside town of Main Street, and take cars incoming from Route 133 to several parking areas on the norhtern edge of the commercial core.
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LANDSCAPING must be coordinated so that work done privately and publicly dc not conflict. Landscape elements should continue in this stage to reinforce each other and to tie the area together. Seen totally, landscaping and pedestrian walks are developed through the commercial core which is removed from vehicular traffic. The pathway also links the city park to the central business district.
PARKING is developed further in this cfage. 194 parking spaces are added in five lots, increasing the off-street parking supply to 494 spaces.
BUILDING DEVLLOPMENT in this phase is concentrated in the northern portion of the commercial core. Buildings shown here represent an increase in gross area of approximately 44,000 square feet over existing space.
By this stage of development, uses beyond normal retail, commercial, and office space may be required. There may be demand for a new city hall; a recreation facility may be warranted. A high-volume public facility would be highly desirable in the area north of the Dinkle Building. This would provide a steady flow of pedestrian traffic to the area and thereby greatly enliven and enhance it.


Beyond
As a final design note, some ideas
and suggestions on future and/or
tangential matters are in order.
Consider this food for thought:
*It is hard at this time to predict the future of the automobile. If parking becomes a problem in the ommercial core, it would be feasibl to build a multi-layer and/or underground structure. A logical location for such a structure would be north of the intersection of 4th Street and Colorado Avenue.
*Sooner or later, like it or not, the main crossroads of town will be the intersection of Main Street and Highway 133. It is worth thinking now about adopting design guidelines and zoning restrictions for development along the highway. The blight inherent in the usual "strip" highway development would negate all the charm of the commercial core, and it must be prevented.
*Last but not least, a bit of wisdom from Robert Townsend's Up The Organization. Townsend suggests,
"If you don't do it excellently, don't do it at all. Because if it's not excellent it won't be profitable or fun, and if you're not in the business for fun or profit, what the hell are you doing here?"



Implementation
45


Phase One
1. Street improvement $165,000
2. Entry signs 500
3. Architectural guidelines 0
4. Facade improvement 10,000
5. Historic designation 0
Phase Two
1. Barn redevelopment 117,000
2. Street improvement 27,900
3. Landscaping 73,000
4. Building development (maximum) 1,670,000
5. Parking 300,000
Phase Three
1. Community plaza 212,000
2. Street improvement 30,000
3. Landscaping 180,000
4. Building development (maximum) 4,540,000
5. Parking 200,000


Organizing
It is suggested at this time that a downtown improvement committee be formed and given the authority to initiate the necessary studies to prepare a plan. The Chamber of Commerce is in a position to initiate such a committee.
When the committee is createds a decision as to what extent plans are to be publicly or privately financed will need to be made. If they are to be publicly financed, the committee will need to convince the town council or the town planning commission, that such studies are necessary at this time and that expenditures will have the support of the community. If the plans are to be privately financed at this point, the creation of a non-profit corporation (or profit corporation if desired) would provide the basis of financial support. Stock or membership fees in the corporation could easily be used initially for financing the necessary studies. Later, additional assessments or stocks could provide the funds for implementation .
The committee -- whether it be organized under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce or as an advisory committee appointed by the town government -- should be broadly representative of the town. Owners and managers of businesses, real estate agents, developers, public officials, housewives and members of various civic and service organiza-
tions should be represented. The committee should seek out and visit at least two other towns with some similarity to Carbondale which have executed successful downtown projects in order to gather ideas, suggestions and tips to help generate enthusiasm that "something can be done." It should be the committee's ultimate intent to enlist the support of the entire town by generating community recognition of the situation and support for a specific plan. To do this, presentations to other groups and organizations, discussions on radio or television, and descriptive and pictoral articles in the local newspaper can help generate interest and achieve a community recognition of the situation.
As early as possible, the committee should seek and select professional assistance. This is important since the architect, landscape architect, urban designer or other professional you select to assist you needs to be in "on the ground floor" so he/ she can best determine and be familiar with your needs and your capabilities. Retaining professional assistance is important to the town because it represents an additional commitment to do something positive and provides the committee -- as soon as possible -- with an objective proposal and some alternative plans and ideas to consider.
As each stage in the planning process is completed, the committee, parent organization, (and under the "snowball effect" approach) public
officials and citizens of the community should be given an opportunity to hear the findings and respond to them, asking questions and offering opinions. This can be done through public information meetings and the news media and ultimately through an official public hearing prior to the adoption of the completed plans and recommendations.
If you have done your job well to that point, there probably will be no question as to whether or not the plans and recommendations should be adopted. The plan will have been well publicized, and it will have recognized the needs of the community. In addition, it will have used opinions and concerns as inputs and generated community-wide support for its proposals.
The next step is to officially adopt the plan either by your business district development corporation or by the town council and town planning commission and seek the necessary financial commitment to authorize its construction. It then becomes a matter of preparing construction plan and specifications, taking bids, awarding contracts, and undertaking construction. During the course of construction the business community can capitalize upon the project by having special events and sales which call attention to the improvements beino made and make the inconveniences caused by construction easier to tolerate.


Funding
These federal agencies may be able to provide financial assistance tu Carbondale through various programs:
Department of Agriculture
Business and Industrial Development Loans. Administered by the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA), this program provides guarantee or insurance for eligible loans for the purpose of improving, developing or financing business, industry and employment and improving the economic and environmental conditons in rural areas.
Industrial Development Grants. Administered by the FmHA, this program provides project grants to finance the development of retail, commercial or industrial space as well as supportive infrastructure (roads, parking areas, utility extension, etc.). This program is limited to public bodies which serve cities under 50,000 population.
Rural Development Grants. Also administered by the FmHA, this program provides grants for projects to facilitate development of private business enterprises in communities of up to 10,000 population. The FmHA office which handles Carbondale is in Grand Junction, but has an office day in Glenwood Springs.
Department of the Interior
Tax Reform Act of 1976. Administered by the Interior Department's Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation through the Colorado State Historical Department's Division of Historic Preservation, this Act provides significant tax incentives to owners of historic structures who wish to rehabilitate them. It applies to all depreciable structures that are either: (1) listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places; (?) located within a historic district listed in the National Register and are certified by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historic significance of the district; or (3) located within a state or locally designated district established under a statute or ordinance approved by the Secretary of the Interior.
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Comprehensive Planning Assistance ("701"). Under this program, project grants are available for cities under 50,000 population for preparing comprehensive development plans for downtowns or specific studies such as transportation, open space, market studies, etc.
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG). This program consolidates seven former categorical programs:
Urban Renewal, Model Cities, Neighborhood Facilities, Open Space Land, Historic Preservation, Urban Beautification, Water and Sewer Facilities Public Facilities Loans and Rehabilitation Loans. A wide array of downtown related activities can be carried out under this program.
Urban Development Actions Grants (UDAG). As part of the aforementioned CDBG program, this new program is created to provide additiona relief to the country's most trouble cities and urban counties. Grants are made for economic development and neighborhood revitalization to cities that are eligible on the basis of meeting three of the six minimum standards of distress. Distress standards are related to age of housing stock, per capita income, rate of population growth, unemployment and employment in the manufacturing and retail sector, and the federal poverty level of its population.
Applications for block grant funding are due in the fall. So find out about public information meetings, contact the Garfield County Planning Office, or the HUD office in Grant Junction, in early October.
AR


Acknowledgments
Thanks to
Bob and Linda Cox, for handing over house and home;
Arnie Dollase, for unbelievable amounts of good information;
Skip Flewelling, for open-mindedness and flexibility;
Brian Goodey, for encouragement and judicious criticism;
Craig Liske, for cooking, cleaning, and a handy shoulder;
Dan Schler, whose idea this was;
Vince Shivlap, for subtle direction and financial assistance;
Duncan Sinnock, for picking up and going with some ideas;
G. Kay Vetter, for some needed kicks in the pants; and
Lots of people in Carbondale, and the Roaring Fork Valley, who are kind and patient and friendly and enthusiastic.
^©nfnirnl n/pflu/7


Bibliography
Berk, Emanual (Illinois Department of Local Government Affairs). Downtown Improvement Manual.
Chicago, Illinois: ASPO Press, May, 1976.
Campbell, Rosemae Wells. Crystal River Valley: Jewell or Jinx? Denver: Sage Books, 1966.
Gibberd, Frederick. Town Design. NY: Frederick A. Praiger, 1967.
Halprin, Lawrence. Cities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1972.
_______________________. RSVP Cycles: Creative Processes in the Human Environment. NY: Braziller, 1970.
Kelly, George W. Rocky Mountain Horticulture. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing Co., 1958.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Technology Press and Haward University Press, 1960.
Mall Design Team, Private Development Guidelines for Architecture and Signs. Boulder, Colorado, June, 1976.
McCoy, Dell, and Russ Collman. The Crystal River Pictorial. Denver: Sundance Ltd., 1972.
National Trust for Historic Preservation, Main Street Project. Building Improvement File. Galesburg,
Illinois, 1978.
Percy Johnson-Marshal1 & Associates. Design Briefing in Towns. Edinburgh, Scotland: August, 1978.
Sprieregen, Paul D., AIA. Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1965.
State of Iowa Office for Planning and Programming, Division of Municipal Affairs. Downtown Improvement Manual for Iowa Cities. Des Moines, Iowa, July, 1978.
Urban Land Institute. Shopping Center Development Handbook. Washington, D.C.: ULI, 1977.
Venturi, Robert. Learning from Las Vegas. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1972.
Walker, Theodore D. Site Design and Construction Detailing. West Lafayette, Indiana: PDA, 1978.


Full Text

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,__ ___________________ _ -----------------............. .,, ___ . .. ...... . . .. ' -.. i " ........... . ..-. .f,, DOWNTOWN CARBONDALE .uESIGN STUDY A project prepared for the Town of and the University of Colorado at Denver College of Envjronmental Design :.: .. : .......... ....... funded by The Western Colorado Rural Communities Program Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture May 1979 :.. • •. • .,.; • .. ' r' " ' " 1 ; .... .. ••• 1"1! •l "' .......... ..,., . ''fl• l ' :...--------------------------------------------------------

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Contents Preface 1 Background 3 Analysis 7 Goals 21 Design 25 Implementation 45 Acknowledgments 49 . Bibliography 51

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Preface This project began in September, 1978, a t the suggestion of Dan Schler , UCD coordinator of the Western Colorado Rural Communities Progra m . The program, funde d by the Kellogg Foundation, provide s technical, educational, and community development assistance to western slope towns. The need in Carbondale is to preserve the existing character of the town while providing for anticipated growth. Because of its charm, the commercial core of the town has the capability of being a discretionary shopping center for the Roaring Fork Valley. If this is going to happen, though, community involvement is needed at many levels. The first step in the design process was to study the town from a "participant observer" point of view. This involved discussions with . many individuals in Carbondale and the Roaring Fork Valley, attendance at meetings, reading, and research. From individual discussions, a con sensus evolved: downtown Carbondale is in danger of being lost to "strip" commercial development alonq Highway 133. The need to take action was felt, the energy level was hig h, but no grouo existed to direct thouaht and activity. In April, a germinal group was formed. Although it developed under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce, the CarLondale Council for the Arts and Humanities, the Va 11 ey Journa 1 newspaper, prope; ty owners, and private citizens were also represented. Several ideas w ere presented to and discussed by the group, and people began to take action. At this writing, several steps in town revitalization (Phase 1) are underway. The most exciting part of community development is that it never stops. As long as the energy level can maintain itself, positive progress and change s can h e m ade. An Arabian proverb suggests: "All mankind is div ided into three classes:. those that are immovable. those that are movable, and those that move.'

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Background • •

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Locale The town of Carbondale is located near the confluence of the Roaring Fork and Crystal Rivers ir. Garfield County, Colorado. The summit of Mount Sopris, looming to an elevation of 12,958 feet, dominates the valley. The area was described in the following passage from a 1925 geography text: Va 11 eys and bench 1 ands in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plateaus are excellent for the production of fruit. Peaches are a specialty in western Colorado. This area is also excellent for staples, as is well illustrated by the Sweet Farm at Carbondale on the west slope of Colorado. Here tracts of well drained benchland, irrigated by mountain streams, have this rotation: alfalfa, a perennial, stand ing three or four years, potatoes, wheat, barley, and again alfalfa. Wheat is sold. Barley and alfalfa are fed to sheep. Potatoes are sold. Potatoes yield sometimBs 600 bushels to the acre, and other crops several times the national average. The potatoes are of such excellent quality (being mealy when baked) that they are used on dining-cars and in New York hotels. But the region as a whole is so excellent for potatoes that the markets are often glutted, and therefore the chief produce must be meat and wool. Some ranchers 90 miles from a railroad, or more, walk their produce to the rai1road '\. Fovt:\ rzive(:l \ Although they have changed since, the town and the valley are still typical examples of life in the Rocky Mountain west. 1T.Russ-ef"i. -Smith and M. Odgen Phillips, North America; Its People and the Resources, Development, and Prospects of the Continent as the Home of Man. NY: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1925. \ . \

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History Carbondale1s first known permanent se ttlers were William Dinkel and R. Zimmerman, who built a cabin and began raising livestock here in 1882. By 1883, the valley boasted a population of about tv.Jenty families. Dinkel1s cabin soon became a store and stage stop for the newly opened stage road. In 1887, two of the new settlers, William and Ellery Johnson, platted the town, naming it Carbondale after their home town in Pennsyl vania. W hen the Aspen and Western Railroad developed plans to expand its line fro m Aspen to Glenwood Springs and west to Utah, business began to boom in Carbondale. Railroad c o nstr uction , as w ell a s minin g and farming, attracted more and more settlers into the valley. Bill Dinkel moved his store into town and in 1892 replaced it with the brick building which is stand ing today. Carbondale then boasted fifteen saloons, and the shops kept only the finest goods. In spite of its elaborate plans, the Aspen and Western Railroad comp l e ted only thirteen miles of nar row gauqe track from Carbondale t o t h e Thompson C r e e k mines. Bot h railroading and m i n in g suffered a setback with the of 1893 and the severe depression that followed it. Potato farms sprung up in the valley during the depression, and potatoes became the economic main s tay of the valley1s economy. Potato Days, the longest standing celebration in the community, began in 1909. The fortunes of Carbondale have always followed those of both the region and the nation. The depre s sion of the 19301s triggered a decline in Carbondale1s business and population. The only bank in town moved to Glenwood Springs, taking important financial activity with it. The railroad, which had been struggling to stay in existence, finally closed altogether, and the track along the river was oulled up and sold for scrap. An. era of growth and liveliness came to a close with the end of the railroad which had started it. J

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Recent Evolution In recent years, the bleak picture of forty years ago has changed dramatically. The steady rapid growth of Aspen has had a major impact on the entire valley. In creased tourism has brought an increase in trade and raised property values. The mining industry ha s also brought changes as it has expanded. The .. -------likelihood of continued growth will have an increasing impact on the town of Carbondale, which depends on the mines to employ forty per cent of its work force. Population growth seems inevitable over the next several years, with over 7,000 units of housing currently planned for the lower end of the valley alone. Because of its location in the valley, Carbondale has the potential for serving as a regional commercial center, attracting business from Glenwood Springs, Basalt, and other nearby areas. \ The commercial core of Carbondale is the district which has traditionally served as the central shopping area. It has a unique character and which are not found in more modern "shopping center" developments, be cause they have evolved slowly as the town has evolved. There is a sense among many townspeople that the unique flavor of the old town area should be preserved. It is the purpose of this project to encourage and direct the development and use of Carbondale's commercial core, so that its identity is preserved and enhanced through the coming years.

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Analysis •

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Local Studies The information the following pages summarizes the existing character and condition of the town of Carbondale, with emphasis focused on the zoned commercial cor e. Information on these topics is included here: Zoning The town zoning map was adopted September 18, 1978. Land Use This map summarizes the existing use of land area within the town boundaries. Residential vs. commercial use of buildings within the commercial core are shown. Sheds, garages, and trailers are not included. Existing Building Use Traffic I Activity Structure Proposed designation and actual use of t r affic ways are described by this map. Views&Vistas Important views and vistas into and out of the town are summarized here. Architectural Quality This map is an abbreviated analysis of use and condition of downtown buildings. VisuaiTexture The following elements of the visual environment are noted here: Nodes are activity generators toward which one•s attention is drawn. An edge is a natural or man-made feature which establishes a definite boundary. A path is a channel for movement. Landmarks are important reference points. The district boundary is a hazy line defining the perceived central business district of the town. 0 [i5)l/S',MfZfKlfrfi5\MVJr:m _ _ rr f5vcuf7.5'1u:fla\

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fit-OPeN <&P.Aa:. IOWN OF CARWNPAU::i ,::x:x:J lo:'O 1 PIJD

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Land Use fM::2 /2&0tceNT1Ar.../ LON oeHPPC.e .. \ •. ToW N OF t:"xx:/ =' lbvJN lI M I T -....._ -.. , • • I I I • i • I . ' 1 . • '

PAGE 14

Views & Vistas •. ' • ' ., L. IOWI-J OF z:;.r::m""=; I?::Jd 1('<'0. TovJN L.IMIT ....... .. .. e . • I ' l 1'

PAGE 15

Architectural Quality COHOmON .Aa:EPrAe>L.e t.tfaotf;AA-re Nceoeo P-ev!Ov'AL. ?fl.OeABL-6

PAGE 16

Existing Building Use 1
PAGE 17

/<\'t<.c;:x;/}it ARTBR!AL.... / PV'("O f
PAGE 18

D II I I II I II I l?tci.LS/d--• •'800N

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Cognitive Maps A more subjective information process is through the use of cognitive maps. This tech nique is simple; people are simply asked to draw maps of the town from memory. All of these maps were drawn by high school students. They show which elements of the town's physical environment are important to them. It is interesting to note that the commercial core of Carbon dale is shown in greater detail and with more accuracy than any other area. This was true of every map drawn. What this indicated is that the downtown area is an important element in the town's social and physical geography. Further, the downtown area is instantly recognized as an entity. ' I

PAGE 20

.a: r 7 +''o) .• 4. K_'.-L) \. . 1-/.'(

PAGE 21

Urban Structure When all of these bits of information, subjective and objective, are put together and analyzed, they result in a coherent picture of the current environment of downtown Carbondale. Translating the information into the visual vocabulary of space, views, pattern, and history brings into focus those elements which contribute to Carbondale's downtown character, as well as those which detract from it. SPACE The intersection of 4th and Main Streets is the main crossroads of town. It is the vi sua 1 center of Carbondale, and is visually defined by two buildings. The Dinkel building on the northwest corner is the oldest and largest commercial structure in town; the commercial building on the northeast corner has been attractively renovated. The long view to the south is of Mount Sopris; to the north is a red stone bluff dotted with trees. The commercial core is important to the town as a shopping district and social hub. The density of activity is greater here than else in town. The crossroads at 4th and Main is the nucleus of activity: the Black Nugget. bar in the Dinkel Building is always busy, and the sidewalk bench outside is nearly always occupied. Pedestrian and vehicular traffic is heaviest near l'lere. The buildings on the north side of Main Street, between 3rd and 4th, form a visually cohesive group. Most of them are similar in age, height, and materials. Window heights, shapes, and sizes are similar. Parapet walls and flat roofs are used consistently. Buildings or storefronts are of similar width, about 25 feet. The one residential structure is incompatible with other buildings and uses on the block. The other visually cohesive group of buildings is on the east side of 4th Street, north of Main. The buildings north of the alley, however, are dilapidated in appearance and structure. The principal unifying element is signage, as all have suspended exterior signs of similar character. Principal movement of both cars and pedestrians is along Main Street. Orientation of buildings and pathways reinforce each other. Several potentially important buildings, views, and experiences are 11lost11 because of this. VIEWS Views are poor on both the east and west approaches to the commercial core. The initial visual experience is confused. An effect of cohesion is not realized until one reaches the center of town. There are 'T!dny vi sua 1 ''c:;aps" \'thi ch contribut e t o a gener a i I ack of continuity and cohesiveness in the commercial core. One is the south west corner of 4th dnd Main Streets, which is occupied by a Mountain Bell station and parking lot; the facade of the station is a long blank wall. Other gaps occur en the south side of Main Street between 3rd and 4th Streets, where there is much vacant property. PATTERN Parapet treatment on the brick buildings is an important element. The decorative entablatures establis a consistent pattern which is repeated throughout the town. This treatment also emphasizes the tex ture of the brick and is an important contributor to the human scale of the town. Finally, parapet treatment is a strong linier element defining and emphasizing the top of the buildings. Another established pattern is the recessed dorway. This is seen in many shops on Main Street. An important element in Victorian architecture is the arched window. Semicircular arches are used on the New New Store; flatter arches can be seen in the Dinkel Building and elsewhere downtown. The arch is emphasized on the windows of the 100 by their "eyebrow11 lintel treatment.

PAGE 22

r ; !D\V"-1 Of \ ,,...-.Jv . .

PAGE 23

Textural elements secondary to brick are lap siding and cedar shingles. Both of these repeat the relatively small scale of brick. Awnings are used on several structures. They are often in poor condition. TIME The Centennial Plaza building is the newest commercial structure in the commercial core. While the initial impression it gives is one of contrast and modernity, it respects the older buildings in texture, size, and horizontality. Renovation of the Dinkel over the years generally has detracted from its appearance and sense of history. Materials such as glass block and stone veneer are inharmonious with the form and age of the building.

PAGE 24

Goals

PAGE 25

There is much information in the visual environment of the commercial core which makes the area lively, attractive, and characteristically western. On the other hand, this "flavor" could be enhanced by eliminating or mitigating the detrimental elements and reinforcing those which unify and strengthen the existing character of the town. The objectives outlined here describe the general policies which should guide development in the commercial core. This stage is a conceptual one, and deals with the downtown area as a whole. SPACE The intersection of 4th and Main Streets should be reinforced as the focal point of the commercial core in initial development. The key area which should be most densely developed is in the vicinity of that intersection. Linear patters of movement should be broken, attracting people away from Main Street. In the long term, pedestrian and vehicular traffic will otherwise become congested. Additional parking will be required; this should be provided in off-street parking lots throughout the commercial core. PATTERN Existing patterns and proportions of width and height should be respected by future development. New buildinas should not dominate those that exist, nor should they be much smaller. The human scale of Carbondale is what makes it pleasant and comfortable. Pockets of open space should remain, even in areas of dense deve1opment.

PAGE 27

Design

PAGE 28

Phasing The most important thing to realize in thinking about town design is that the environment of a city can be planned so that it is inviting, dynamic, and well organized. Towns are organic ; they are always in a condition of growth and change . A town is never "finished." for convenience, the design ideas on the following pages are divided into three stages: immediate improvements that can be made in the next year or so, short-term changes, long-term plans and design ideas, and suggestions for the years to follow. These stages should not be construed as sudden developments to be undertaken at specified times. Too many unknown variables will determine when developments will take place. Rather, what is shown here is a series of glimpses of the town of Carbondale in various stages of evolution. Briefly, suggested phasing of downtown development is as follows: Phase 1, population 2,000: *street repair and furniture on Main Street; *landscaping; *facade renovation; *improvement of entries to town; *application for designation to National Register; *adoption of architectural guidelines. Phase 2, population 5,000: *developmentof 200 parking spaces; *infill construction on Main Street; *develupment of the Barn; *continued landscaping and street improvement. Phase 3, population 10,000: *development of 400 parking spaces; *further street improvement; *continued building development; *one-way traffic loop; *community plaza .

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Phase One The first phase of development consists of improvements which can be made i m mediatel y. Only existing buildings are involved; there is no need for new buildings at the present time. ISTREET IMPROVEMENT will make the experience of getting into Carbondale a more positive onG . This is also a good first step in establishing an attitude of improvement in the commercial core. Pedestrian crosswalks will be needed increasingly in the future and should be installed with the side walks to avoid unnecessary disruption. P a vers are recommended because they stimulate drivers1 attention, are more attractive than striping, and pr ovide another element of continuity. CJL:Jc:J w. . c::J . . c . ... . . . : : ..... c:: . . . :_:.' ... .-:. ..' .. . ... :: .... , . S idewalks must b e repaired where they are broken and impassible, or_installed where none exist along Ma1n Street. This will create a pedestri a n pathway between the commercial core and Crystal Village, the first of three proposed planned u nit developments . Lighting must be improved. Under ground is a must and will d6 much to improve the character of the town. Standards should be fairly simple but can be used to set a tone of liveliness and vitality, as well as to establish a rhythm and sense of continuity a long Main Street. Landscaping will provide interest and add softness and human scale to the street. Trees are planted at approximately 100-foot intervals. Deciduous trees are recommended since their shapes and c h ange wit h the seasons. For streetscape planting, a variety s hould be chosen which will be used only along designated downtown streets, so that the trees give a sense of direction and add to the continuity of downtown pathways. Recommended species include honeylocust , green ash, hackberry, and boxelder . Benches are important elements downtown. Simple wood slat benches with metal supports embedded in concrete are recommended. They are specified at locations along Main Street in the initial design stage, and elsewhere at later phases of the development plan. Trash receptacles are simple and ine xpensive. Both receptacles t and benches could be built locally, using the services of professional c arpenters and/or high school s tudents . 29

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Bike racks will encourage people to u se their bicycles to get downtown wnenever possible. Racks are sturdy, unobtrusive, and easy to use. :2ENTRY POINTS. Focal points at the east and west ends of Main Street would reinforce the sense of entry to the town. The need for this is especially strong at the west end of Main Street, at its intersection with Highway 133. An attractive sign accented with a few shrubs would provide a pleasant welcome to the town. Design of an enti ' Y sign wou 1 d be a good opportunity to use a town logo, which could be designed by a local artist, perhaps by competition. The design, construction. and insta11ati'on of an entry sign would be a good vehicle for stimulation of community involvement in the downtown improvement effort. elevation plan :3ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINES should be established to assist property owners and builders to insure t hat future reinforces those aspects of the town which m ake it attractive, comfortable, and unique. A set of has been prepared as part of this project and is printed separately .

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4FACADE RENOVATION will improve the appe arance of Main Street and make Carbondale's commercial core a m ore attractive place to shop and visit. Most of the suggested improvements shown here involve ;:;imple tasks and do 110t require maJOr structural changes to the buildings. ,_, I .. tb. .. : w) I . t• .,' 3rd Mai n Slreet lookong south '• rr=.:. liiii . 6th M ai n Street lookong north Main Street lookong north .'\At:.l'r•J.:'i(J'I( rJ ------------------, t •• 1 1..:, ./'l"'rf'..;.... ,i rut. .. ... •: or,;._,../r.t ,.._..,.'' ,, llf .1. 1 '"''"' r • T• 1 n)'P\0>1( ru...,r • .... •o.I;.'•,{o"'l.o ('0 1 t 1 ,t,-, ' . I .• ''" '' .... •. t , r -----------------.., ll>t ... 1 : ., ... ,,.. r------,t ,_,., ...
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li ,jl r j :l.i I!! r-.--Main [ 4th Street looking w e s t Col orado 4th Street looking e as t . , ;:. ': 1; ::r 1 • r-------------------.., I • .... , ......... I ••• -liy . .. .... " rM'J.u..•• • 1 1 fb.JJ : , • • 4., ' '. " lrv'l"' \. .... I 1,"'.-l
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;HlSTORIC DESIGNATION. Application should be made to the National Trust for Historic Preservation for designation to the National Register of Historic Places. This is a list of sites which are cultural resources worthy of preservation. Designation would accomplish several things. First, it would elevate local and regional con sciousness of the historic value of Carbondale's downtown area . Second, it might attract visitors downtown and therefore increase trade. Finally, it wcul d make property owners eligible for grants for renovation and repair of their buildings. The boundary of the suggested historic district is shown on the accompanying map. There is a considerable effort involved in completing National Register Nomination forms. Such an undertaking might be sponsored by the Carbondale Council for the Arts and Humanities. . ,, • ' \

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CJ 0 34 0 , .... ----/ I I I Phase2 Downtown Carbondale Design Study -Notes 0 25 so 1 :' C',#l 1 1/ 1 ... .. , .. t.: ,fi"J .

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Phase Two The s e c o n d stage o f deve lopme nt is planned for a population o f about 5,000. Since this level of development c ould be reached, depending on the impact of several intervening variables, any time between 1980 and 1995, n o target date i s g iven . Moreover, the various elem ents of the d e sign stage are not intended t o be sequential ; rath e r , they are pieces which can b e incorporated into the overall town design i n dependently of one another. 1THE BARN is redeveloped at this point into a studio/retail/commercial space . This will expand th2 central core of the downtown area to the south, and provide a secondary focal node in the commercial core, the primary node being the intersection cf 4th and Main Streets. Paving material used outdoor s here and elsewhere consists of the s a m e materia l as prev i ously use d fo r pedestrian crosswalks in the firs t phas e. Integration of d?sign elements SU(h as this can be c o ordinated by private developers and the town government . 2STRfET IMPROVEMENT cont inue s onehalf block north a -nd south o f h . . 11 Street on 4 th Street. T 1 s w1 I 1 draw interest in th ose d i rections by the r e petition of trees, light standards, b enches, and b ike rack s . 3LANDSCAPING element s begin t o establish some p edestrian linkages through the downtown a r ea . Paving and planting o n the south side o f Main Str e e t between 4th and Wean: relate the barn complex to Main Street and provide a pedestrian connection het w ee n th e oark and downtown. 4BUILDINGS. In i t i al develop ment should take plac e o n Main Street, between existing Several s u ggested sites are shown on the town plan. Architectural guidelines must be followed. Much building development at this stage involves change of use rather than construction. . 5 PARKING wi 11 have to be exp ande d g r a d ually as downtown use increases. S mCl.ll lots dispersed throu g hout the town are recomm ended for conve n ience and to avo id the depersonalized e f fe c t a single parking area wou ld have . Off-street parking at this of d evelopment is provided f or 300 c ars i n 1 2 lots; t ogetr.er w i th the existin g sup ply o f on street parking, about 500 spaces are Note landscaping shown on the town plan to mitigate t h e impact of the par king lots. r ,.,. i ift,\ctu.tircC > ( . luJvvrt WJ CL a; v c rcr N)l,cr

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0 tH11 \!I\ L---..J

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D I 1 n I I I I I r ' I 0 \.1) tJ I L I J 0 Phase3 Downtown Carbondale Design Study t:!Q!es __ _ .... 1 ( f U?D -'IU . .JtJ "' ' I.,. 2 ....,,tr > '1\fiF. . .. "'J ,,.h_ 0 2 5 so :.':.1: . ,,I ... ., . ...... (to•.<" • l jf'\ \ , . ....... ' ' l .. \ ('< "''o ,''J;' o' o A ' •'•t '<'•• ;,;.r, .. o,(}';, -•(,. -'1 • r • • " ,;j • , " ' ,.._r .,,-., -,.-,1 •. ' ' I ; . '"' "'! " • u: •. t"'•' 3 ' '/.". ,.; lA 'f' .... '\ ..... , , ... -•• 4 Building development • " ""' 1ti.J)U.rv.I,L •, • •• '"'• ••lc: . t ,..,.,.,.l'llol.ml).,.;J'-' ..... ,. ... 5 Parktng expans1on r, o( .,'l w 41...p('l ... 0

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Phase Three The third phase of development is planned for a town population of about 10,000. In this stage, a third node is created and pedestrian are established to knit rne central downtown area together. 1 A COMMUNITY PLAZA is shown in this stage, as the third and most impor tant node in the downtown area. Combined with the proposed city hall/ recreation center to the north and shopping area to the south, this plaza is the hub of pedestrian and outdoor activity in the downtown area. A theater is incorporated into the plaza for outdoor summer entertctin ment. In addition, the concrete proscenium could be flooded for winter skating. The theater shown seats about 300. A kiosk is available public announcements. It is maintained by the parks department. Benches and paving material duplicate those existing. Lighting is provided by simple, low level fixtures. Landscaping breaks the plaza ir.to small, private areas and large open spac es. 3 ..

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STREET IMPROVEMENTS are made to the remainder of 4th Street in the commercial core, in order to emphasize it as a major axis . Many of the same elements used here are continue d from the Main Street program in the first development stage: pedestrian crossings, street lighting, landscaping , and furniture! These strengthen 4th Street's visual impact and re1ate it strongly to the intense development already undertaken on Main Street. Other street and traffic improvements are the following: folorado Avenue is improved by paving and widening it between 3rd and 6th Streets. 4th Street is closed to vehicles . This will allow more freedom and flexibility of activity in the central downtown area . 6th Street is widened and straightened at its intersection with Colorado Avenue A downtown traffic loop is established on Colorado Avenue, 3rd Street, Main Street, and 8th Street. This is a one-way 1 oop. It wi 11 decrease traffic from outside town on Main Street, and take cars incoming from outside town of Main Street, and take cars incoming from Route 133 to several parking areas on the norhtern edge of the commercial core. _41

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--=::::::-------.,._ . \ ---=. . ----.---;--.. --2

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LANDSCAPING must be coordinated that work done privately and de n0t Landscape elements sr.ould continue in this stage to reinforce each other and to tie the area tog e t her. Seen totally, landsc apin g and p edes trian walks are d e veloped through the commercial core whic h i s r emovFd from vehicular traffic. The pathway alsn the city park to th e central bus in e s s district. I I -"""--m •I.(Sllf;'(l •-!lza. ' # DE-Par i ,, . I I +----i-LL:..i IJm,IIJWi PARKING is developed further in this m• 11''' c.:+ age. 194 parking spaces are added f J rr _1 :+L: c in five lots, increasing the offI PJI\ //".. .. \ s treet par \ ____ 4 3

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AA Beyond As a final desi g n note, some idea s and suggestions on futu r e and/ or t a ngential matters are in o r der. Cons1der this food for thought: *It is hard at this time to predict the future of the automobile. If par king becomes a problem in the (OmmP.rcial core , it would be feasible to build a multi-layer and/or under g r ound A logical location for such a structure would be of the i ntersection of 4th S t r ee t and Colorado A venue . *SoQner or later, like i t o r not, the main crossroads of town will be the intersection of Main Street and Highway 133. It is worth thinkinq now about adopting design guidelines and zoning restrictions development along the highway. The blight inherent in the usual "strip" highway development would negate all the charm of the commercial core, and it must be prevented. *Last but not least, a bit of wisdom from Robert Townsend's Up The Organization. Townsend suggests , "If you don't do it excellently, don't do it at all. Because if it's not excellent it won't be profitable or fun, and if you're not in the business for fun or profit, what the hell are you doin g here? "

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C mplementation

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Costs Phase One l. Street improvement 2. Entry silgns 3. Architectural guidelines 4. Facade improvement 5. Historic designation Phase Two l. Barn redevelopment 2. Street improvement 3. Landscaping 4. Building development (maximum) 5. Parking Phase Three 1. Community plaza 2. Street improvement 3. Landscaping 4. Building development (maximum) 5. Parking $165,000 500 0 10,000 0 117,000 27,900 73,000 1,670,000 300,000 212,000 30,000 180,000 4,540,000 200,000

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Organizing It is suggested at this time that a downtown improvement committee be formed and given the authority to i nitiate the necessary studies to pr epare a plan. The Chamber of Commerce is in a to initiate such a committee. When the committee is created , a decision as to what extent plans are to be publicly or privately financed will need to be made. If they are to be publicly financed, the commit tee will need to convince the town council or the town planning commis sion, that such studies are neces sary at this time and that expenditures will have the support of the community. If the plans are to be privately financed at point, the creation of a non-profit corp oration (or profit corporation if desired) would provide the basis of fi nC"lnci a l Stock or mer11ber ship fees in the corporation could easily be used initially for financing tl1e necessarv studies. Later, additional assessments or stocks could provide the funds for imole mentation. The committee --whether it be organized under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce or as an advisory committee appointed by the town g o vernment --should be broadly representative of the town. Owners and managers of businesses, real estate agents, developers, public officials, housewives and members of v2r io u s civic and service organizatior.s should be represented. The committee should seek out and visit at least two other towns with some similarity to Carbondale which have executed successful downtown projects in order to gather ideas, suggestions and tips to help generate enthusiasm that 11Something can be done.11 It should be the committee's ultimate intent to enlist the support of the entire town by generating community recognition of the situation and support for a specific plan. To do this, presentations to other groups and orqanizations. discussions en radio or television, and descriptive and pictoral articles in the local newspaper can help generate interest and achieve a community recognition of the situation. As early a . s possible, the committee should seek and select professtonal assistance. This is important since the architect, landscape architect, urban designer or other professional you select to assist you needs to be in 110n the ground floor11 so he/ she can best determine and be familiar with your needs and your capabilities. Retaining profPssion al assistance is important to the town because it represents an additional commitment to do something positive and provides the committee --as soon as possible --with an objective proposal and some alternative plans and ideas to consider. As each stage in the planning process is completed, the committee, parent organization, (and under the 11Snowball effect11 publi c officials and citizens of the commuidty should be given an opportunity to hear the findings and respond to them, asking questions and offering opinions. This can be done through public information meetings and the news media and ultimately through an official public hearing prior to the adoption of the completed plans and recommendations. If you have done your job well to that point, there probably will be no question as to whether or not the plans and recommendations should be adopted. The plan will have been well publicized, and it will have recognized the needs of the community. In addition, it will have used opinions and concerns as inputs and generated community-wide support for its proposals. The next step is to officially adopt the plan either by your business district development corporation or by the town council and town planning commission and seek the necessary financial commitment to authorize its construction. It then becomes a matter of preparing construction plan and specifications, taking bids, awarding contracts, and undertaking construction. During the course of construction .. the business community can capitalize upon the project by having special events and sales which call attention to the improvements beina made and makE the inconveniences caused by construction easier to tolerate. 4:Z

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Funding These federal agencies may be able to provide financial assistance tu Carbondale through various progra111s : Department of Agriculture Business and Industrial Development Loans. Administered by the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA), this program provides guarantee or insurance for eligible loans for the purpose of improving, developing or financing business, industry and employment and improving the economic and environmental conditons in rural areas. Industrial Development Grants. Administered by the FmHA, this program provides project grants to finance the development of retnil, commercial or industrial space as weil as supportive infrastructure (roads, park ing areas, utility extension, etc.). This program is limited to public bodies which serve cities under 50,000 population. Rural Development Grants. Also ad llli ni stered by the FmHA, this program provides grants for projects to facilitate development of private busi ;,ess enterprises in communities of up to 10,000 population. The FmHA office which handles Carbondale is in Grand Junction, but has an office day in Glenwood Springs. Depurtment of the Interior Tax Reform Act of 1976. Administered by the Interior Department•s of Archeology and Historic Preser vation through the Colorado State Historical Department•s Division of Historic Preservation, this Act provides significant tax incentives to owners of historic structures who wish to rehabilitate them. It applies to all depreciable structures that are either: (1) listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places; located n hist0ric district listed in the National Reqister and are certified by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historic siqnificance of the district; or (3) located within a state or locally designated district established under a or ordinance approved by the Secretary of the Interior. of Housing and Urban Development Comprehensive Planning Assistance (1170111). Under this program, project grants are available for cities under 50,000 population for prepar ing comprehensive development plans for downtowns or specific studies such as transportation, open space, market studies, etc. Community Development Block Grants (CDBG). This program consolidates seven former categorical programs: Urban Renewal, Model Cities, Neigh borhood Facilities, Open Space Land. Historic Preservation, Urban Beautification, Water and Sewer Facilities Public Facilities Loans and Rehabilitation Loans. A wide array of downtown related activities can be carried out under this program. Urban Development Actions Grants (UDAG). As part of the aforemen tioned CDBG program, this new program is created to provide additiona relief to the country•s most trouble cities and urban (Ounties. Grants are made for economic development and neighborhood revitalization to cities that are eligible on the basis of meeting three of the six minimum standards of distress. Distress standards are related to age of housing st0 ck, per capita income, rate of population growth, unemployment and employment in the manufacturing and retail sector, and the federal poverty level of its population. Applications for block grant fundir q are due in the fall. So find out about public ir.fnrmation meetings, contact the Garfield County Planning Office, or the HUD office in Grant Junction, in early October .

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Acknowledgments Thanks to Bob and Linda Cox, for handing over house and home; Arnie Dollase, for unbelievable amounts of good information; Skip Flewelling, for open-mindedness and flexibility; Brian Goodey, for encouragement and judicious criticism; Craig Liske, for cooking, cleaning, and a handy shoulder; Dan Schler, whose idea this was; Vince Shivlap, for subtle direction and financial assistance; Duncan Sinnock, for picking up and going with some ideas; G. Kay Vetter, for some needed kicks in the pants; and Lots of people in Carbondale, and the Roaring Fork Valley, who are kind and patient and friendly and enJhusiastic.

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Bibliography Berk, Emanual (Illinois Department of Local Government Affairs). Downtown Improvement Manual. Chicago, Illinois: ASPO Press, May, 1976. Campbell, Rosemae Wells. Crystal River Valley: Jewell or Jinx? Denver: Sage Books, 1966. Gibberd, Frederick. Town Design. NY: Frederick A. Praiger, 1967. Halprin, Lawrence. Cities. Cambridqe, Massachusetts: M.I. T . Press, 1972. RSVP Cycles: Creative Processes in the Human Environment. NY: Braziller, 1970. Kelly, George W. Rocky Mountain Horticulture. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing Co., 1958. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Technology Press and Haward University Press, 1960. Mall Design Team, Private Development Guidelines for Architecture and Signs . Boulder, Colorado, June, 1976. McCoy, Dell, and Russ Collman. The Crystal River Pictorial. Denver: Sundance Ltd. , 1972. National Trust for Historic Preservation, Main Street Project. Building Improvement File. Galesburg, Illinois, 1978. Percy Johnson-Marshall & Associates. Design Briefing in Towns. Edinburgh, Scotland: August, 1978. Sprieregen, Paul D., AIA. Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1965. State of Iowa Office for Planning and Programming, Division of Municipal Affairs. Downtown Improvement Manual for Iowa Cities. Des Moines, Iowa, July, 1978. Urban Land Institute. Shopping Center Development Handbook. Washington , D.C.: ULI, 1977. Venturi, Robert. Learning from Las Vegas. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M . I . T . Press, 1972. Walker, Theodore D. Site Desiqn and Construction Detailing. West Lafayette, Indiana: PDA, 1978. ____