Citation
Using the Apple Macintosh personal computer as a tool in the practice of landscape architecture

Material Information

Title:
Using the Apple Macintosh personal computer as a tool in the practice of landscape architecture
Creator:
Postlewait, Jordan
Language:
English
Physical Description:
149 leaves : illustrations, charts, facsisms., plans ; 30 cm +

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Landscape architecture ( lcsh )
Computer graphics ( lcsh )
Computer graphics ( fast )
Landscape architecture ( fast )
Genre:
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 70-75).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Landscape Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Jordan Postlewait.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
15644707 ( OCLC )
ocm15644707
Classification:
LD1190.A77 1986 .P68 ( lcc )

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Full Text
USING THE APPLE MACINTOSH PEASONAL
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COMPUTER AS R TOOL IN THE PRACTICE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
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ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING AURARIA LIBRARY
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THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
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1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS_____
2 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS..
3. INTRODUCTION..........
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4. CHAPTER ONE: THE PERSONAL COMPUTER AS A TOOL; POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS IN THE FIELD OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

A. Word Processing.................
B. Accounting......................
C. Cost Estimating............
D. Networking - Telecommunications.,
E Project Management...............
F. Engineering.......................
G. Database Management............
H. Geographic Information Systems.....
I. Visual Simulations.
J. Perspective Sketching....,
K. Computer Aided Design and Drafting....
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5. CHAPTER TWO:
THE CASE STUDY, 8599 THUNDERBIRD ROAD A PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT IN DESIGN USING THE MACINTOSH COMPUTER
A Introduction to Project...................................................................15
B. The Traditional Approach................................................................15
1. The Design Process................................................................. 17
2. Site Inventory and Analysis..........................................................18
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3. Development of Design Alternatives..,
4. Visual Simulations.
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5. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan..._______________________________________________________________________________________24
6. Planting Pan.___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________25
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8. Contracts...._________________________________________________________________________________________29
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C. The Computer Assisted Approach.
1. The Design Process...............
2. Site Inventory and Analysis.
3. Basemap...........................
4. Development of Design Alternatives.
5. Visual Simulations....................
6. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan
7. Panting Pan...............................
8. Cost Estimate,....
9. Phasing Pan.......
10. Contract.........
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6. CHAPTER THREE: A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION
A. Introduction to the Comparative Methodology.
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B. The Comparisons...........................
1. The Design Process......................
2. Site Inventory and Analysis.............
3. Development of Design Alternatives......
4. Visual Simulations......................
5. Development of a Conceptual Masterplaa,
6. Plant Material Selection................
7. Cost Estimate...........................
8. Contract................................
53 53 53 . 54 55 55 . 55 . 56 57
7. CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A Summary of Findings.,
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1. Advantages of Computer Aided Techniques.
2 Disadvantages of Computer Aided Techniques., 3. Preparation of Presentation Graphics....


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B. General Findings and Concerns.....-....
Q Recommendations and Personal Opinions...
D. Future Trends..........................
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8. Committiee Members.
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9. Sources of Information.,

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70 76
12. APPENDICES
10. Bibiography______
11. Footnotes........
APPENDIX A BACKGROUND BASICS..............’......
APPENDIX B: CHOOSING A SYSTEM....................
APPENDIX C. EXPLANATION OF HARDWARE USED.........
APPENDIX D. EXPLANATION OF SOFTWARE USED.........
APPENDIX E. DEVELOPING A SYMBOL LIBRARY..........
APPENDIX F. DEVELOPING A PLANT MATERIALS DATABASE. APPENDIX G. GLOSSARY OF TERMS.;..................
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This thesis project would not have been possible without the dedication of a lot of different people.
First, I would like to thank my entire thesis commitee on whom I depended for technical advice as well as moral support.
Thanks to Randy Palmer for providing the initial spark of enthusiasm and opening my eyes to the world of computers.
Thanks to Joe Nagy for sharing his extensive technical expertise of the Macintosh and MacDraft and for his willingness and commitment to help with even the mundane tasks such as proofreading.
And thanks to Jerry Shapins who kept pusing me to take the project further so as to develop the best possible final product.
Thanks, too, to Phil Flores for providing the contact for the case study and to Gregg and D'Nell Macaluso who's property is the case study.
I would also like to thank Leslie Gordon of Apple Computers for allowing me to use the Lazer Writer for printing my final document, as well as supplying the large video screen for my final presentation.
And finally, I thank Richard VanGytenbeek for his part in developing the initial design concepts and providing drawings for the case study.
Denver, Colorado May, 1986
1


HAND PREPARED ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Design Process Diagram.......................................17
2. Site Basemap............................................... 18
3. Design Alternative One.......................................19
4 Design Alternative Two.........................................20
5. Visual Simulation - Front Entry.............................21
6. Visual Simulation - West Elevation...........................22
7. Visual Simulation - South Elevation........................ 23
8. Site Section.................................................23
9. Conceptual Masterplan........................................24
10. Planting Plan................................................25
COMPUTER ASSISTED ILLUSTRATIONS
11. Design Process Diagram.......................................33
12. Site Inventory and Analysis................................ 34
13. Site Basemap............................................... 35
14. Design Alternative One.......................................36
15. Design Alternative Two.......................................37
16. Visual Simulation - Front Entry............................. 38
17. Visual Simulation - West Elevation...........................39
18. Visual Simulation - South Elevation Alternative One..........40
19. Visual Simulation - South Elevation Alternative Two..........41
20. Visual Simulation - Driveway............................... 42
21. Conceptual Masterplan........................................43
22. Planting Design..............................................44
23. Phasing Plan.................................................48
24. Time Comparison Chart........................................61
25. Computing Process Diagram....................................80
26. Macintosh Desktop............................................85
27. Typical MacWrite Screen......................................86
28. Typical MacPaint Screen......................................86
29. Macintosh Windows............................................87
30. Typical MacDraft Screen......................................92
31.. Symbol Library..............'.........................97 - 115
2


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As the world of affordable computer technology rapidly advances on the profession of landscape architecture, an awareness of computer capabilities and their application to design problems will be essential for any firm trying to survive in a very competitive market. The purpose of this thesis is to show why I think that this is true and also to provide a source document for the lay person/landscape architect wishing to gain a general understanding of the microcomputer and it's applicability to the profession of landscape architecture.
In order to accomplish this, my paper is divided into four main chapters. The first chapter provides general exposure to the wide range of office and design related capabilities that computers now provide. The second chapter involves a case study in which the reader will be introduced to a specific site and then walked through a design process for the preparation of construction documents. The process is followed first by manual techniques and then by computer aided techniques. Chapter Three is a comparative evaluation to determine in which areas of the design process the computer was effective and in which areas it was not.
Although the comparison between the two different techniques is important, the major goal of the thesis is to develop a set of working drawings that are 100% computer generated. These drawings can then speak for themselves and together with an explanation of how they were constructed can serve as a model for anyone interested in applying a microcomputer to similar uses.
The conclusion (Chapter Four) of this report is a summary of my findings as well as a personal and professional opinion of what I think that this all means to our profession and where I see this relatively new technology taking us in the near future. This conclusion will clearly point out the areas in landscape architecture in which a microcomputer can improve on our present techniques and efficiency levels.
As stated earlier, the primary concern is to aid the professional landscape architect who is attempting to expand his or her knowledge about microcomputers. I believe that a large number of firms have already
taken the initial step in purchasing a microcomputer but are for the most part using them only for traditional business applications such as cost estimating and word processing. Another major goal then is to be able to increase these peoples' understanding of microcomputers so that they can begin to use them as a standard office tool for many different applications including design.
As a means of accomplishing this goal I have also included in this document a rather extensive set of appendices.
The first of these appendices (Appendix A) provides some background basics about microcomputers in general and gives a generic step by step procedure for operating one. The purpose of this section is to show how simple the basic operations are, so that readers who are intrigued by the applications won’t be intimidated by the implementation.
Appendix B is a brief discussion on how to go about choosing a microcomputer system to buy. It includes information on how to evaluate one's own needs and what to look for and what to avoid in a personal computer purchase. It also includes information on why I chose the Apple Macintosh as the system on which to perform my study.
Appendix C is a more in depth look at the specific hardware that I used.
Appendix D describes the software.
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Appendix E shows in hardcopy output, the symbol library created to do the computer aided drawings found in the main document. A copy of this library will also be provided on disk and furnished to the College of Design and Planning library as public domain software.
Appendix F is also a hardcopy output of information created and supplied as public domain software. It is a database of information on plant materials. By setting up queries for this database, a user can get a list of plant materials that meet with specific criteria that they have specified. Information supplied on the database includes species, common name, family name, form, use, growth rate, water requirements, fruit type, flower type, erosion control, shade tolerance, drought tolerance, soil requirements, and typical mature heights. The database is set up for over 300 species of plants that are commonly planted in the Front Range and the Denver Metro area.
The final appendix will be a glossary of terms so that the reader will have an easy reference if they come across a word or computer term with which they are not familiar.
4


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The potential number of applications for the use of microcomputers in landscape architecture is virtually limitless. This section is meant to give an overview in very general terms of what some of these potential applications are, and why the computer offers advantages over the more traditional methods of performing the same tasks. The applications that I have chosen to explore are listed below. There are twelve broad categories altogether. The first five categories are extremely general and can be applied to any business situation. The last seven categories are more specific and have more unique applicability to the field of landscape architecture. These last seven categories will be explored in much more depth and will be emphasized in the second chapter of this paper which involves the case study.
A. WORD PROCESSING
In today's world, word processing is a basic need for any profession. It offers advantages over traditional typing in that it does not bind you to permanence. A word processor allows every mistake or second thought to be instantly edited on the screen. It offers the ability for information to be stored, deleted, edited, and rearranged, before it is printed out. For these reasons, it is a very helpful tool for anyone who deals with written documentation. For the landscape architect, this documentation might include proposals, contracts, and specification writing. A word processor can tremendously speed up the preparation of these documents because it can serve as a library for information that is used frequently (i.e. lists, legends, zoning codes, etc.). This information can then be cut, pasted, edited, and printed to conform to a specific job, without ever having to retype it.
B. ACCOUNTING
Having accurate accounting records is another business application that is important to any professional. One of the nice qualities of a microcomputer is that it allows someone such as a landscape architect to do their accounting instead of having to hire a CPA firm.
Typical accounting programs that would be useful to the landscape architect allow someone to generate billings based on a percentage of construction costs (or whatever other criteria is specified), keep track of things such as employee hours and wages, and provide historical summaries of costs, invoices, payments, balances due, profits, etc.
C. COST ESTIMATING
Computer aided cost estimating also saves the designer time because once unit prices and quantities are entered into the computer, the computer takes care of all of the mathematics such as multiplication, adding and percentage calculations. If any of these variables should change during the course of the project, the computer can easily redo the calculations, thus eliminating the need for the designer to manually adjust for the change.
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Typical programs suited for the landscape architect permit easy entry of construction material names, quantities, and unit costs as well as labor hours and other miscellaneous items. The estimates can be printed out on an easy to read, standardized form with the company logo on it.
D. NETWORKING - TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Networking and electronic mail, or telecommunications, is another area in the computer revolution that will play a very significant role in the future. What this is referring to is the ability of computers, be they micros, minis, or mainframes to communicate with each other. This simple fact means that anyone who owns or has access to a computer of any size or brand, has the potential to communicate over telephone lines with anyone else who has a computer. Also, since computers are capable of storing large amounts of data, this means that there is a whole electronic universe of available information for users to tap into. Simply by dialing a number, a person can access an unlimited data base of information. For the landscape architect, this might mean information on plant materials, zoning codes, design standards, etc. The possibilities are limitless. The ability to communicate between computers also means that it is possible to send 'electronic mail'. This is particuarly useful to large firms that have different offices around the country or around the world. These small offices can send drawings or reports over the telephone lines to each other, thus eliminating the need for a courier service. The advantages of electronic mail are that it is instant, and it allows the receiving end to review and edit the information (via a word processor or drafting software) before it is printed. This also means that these offices can share peripheral devices such as printers and plotters.
The hardware needed to send 'electronic mail' is a device called a modem. The modem translates the computers digital signals into audio tones. A special program (software) is also required to manage the communication process.
E. PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project or office management is another area in which the computer can be used as a tool to help organize and increase efficiency. Applications in this area include organizing critical path methods and bookeeping including keeping track of deadlines, budgets, client files, etc.
F. ENGINEERING
Most landscape architects are involved with some sort of civil engineering in their work. Since civil engineering usually involves a large amount of number crunching rather than intuitive thought, it has been rather easy for programmers to write software to preform specific tasks. Also, since engineers in general are among the front runners in professionals who have been applying the use of computers to their work, the demand for such software was made clear early. What all of this means to the landscape architect is that the appropriate software does exist for almost any
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engineering application that we would have a need for. The following is a list of some of these applications.
*Earthwork Calculations is a program which calculates cut and fill volumes by the average average-end area method and is able to display and print existing and
proposed sections and grading plans.
*
*Road Allignments for both horizontal and vehicle curves.
irrigation and Drainage Networks computes surface runoff, velocities and pipe sizes.
Construction Guidelines (for decks, retaining walls, etc.) can be used to examine reactions, shears, and moments for various loading conditions.
*Sun. Shade, and Shadow Calculations including slope and sloar potential.
G. DATABASE MANAGEMENT
A database is a sophisticated system for storing and organizing information. Any kind of information can be entered into a database from a plant file to an address index. Once the information has been entered, it can be retrieved in a number of different ways. The information can be sorted, rearranged alphabetically, or specific records of information can be searched for automatically. A typical database management program can easily produce a report based on specific selected information in the database.
There are a number of different possible applications for a database management system in a landscape architecture office including lists of landscape materials, personnel records, client records, bibliographies, inventories, etc. Perhaps the most important application however, is the storage of information on plant materials. With a database management system, a user can set up a catalogue of information on plants that includes, common and botanical names, growth characteristics, fall color, soil and water requirments, current prices, availability, shade tolerance,suppliers, etc. Once all of this information has been entered, the user can ask the computer to call up a list of plants that are in the database that meet the requirments of the specific needs that he or she is looking for. For example, you could ask for a list of shade trees that do well in the shade, need little water, and are available from a certain nursery for below a certain cost. The computer would then be
8


able to scan the database and provide a list of all of the plants that met these requirements. In addition it would be able to provide a more detailed description of all of the other characteristics of the plants that were included on the list. The advantages of this over the more traditional methods of searching through catalogues and making a lot of phone call to see what is available are obvious.
The following is a list of other advantages of a computerized system for record keeping over traditional, paper based- methods^
* Compactness: No need for potentially voluminous paper files.
* Speed: The computer can retrieve and change data far faster than a human can (in particular, spur-of-the-moment queries).
* Less drudgery: Much of the sheer teduim of maintaining files by hand is eliminated.
* Currency: Accurate, up-to-date information is available on demand at any time.
H. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
One relatively new, yet fasinating use of computers in landscape architecture involves the use of overlay mapping in order to perform regional assesments. The basis for this technology stems from the earlier hand drawn overlays developed by Ian Mcharg in his book Design With Nature^onlv the computer drasticaly increases the accuracy and efficiency of such systems as it allows for numerous overlays of a large number of maps without gaining a "muddled" look. It is able to do this because it uses a mathematical system of analysis instead of a visual one.
Unfortunately, this mathematical system requires a large internal memory capacity which most microcomputers do not have. As a result, these types of programs have usually been retricted to the larger and more powerful 'mainframe' computers. The recent development of hard disk and ram drives has however now made it possible for them to run on microcomputers and a few such programs are currently commercially available.
The basic idea behind these systems, known as Geographic Information Systems, or GIS involves the mapping of a large area of land in terms of it's natural resources and/or demographic and socioeconomic data, and then using a series of commands or mathematical functions to overlay the different maps and analyze them for significant relationships.
This might involve the site selection or impact assessment for a proposed new project, or using a more general term, suitability mapping.
Perhaps this may be best understood with a physical example. The author has experience with one such study involving regional planning in Teller County, Colorado. This study will be outlined below. For purposes of understanding, the process has been greatly simplified.
The study was done on the PRIME mainframe computer at the University of Colorado. The specific Geographic Information System used was the Map Analysis
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Package, developed by Dana Tomlin at Harvard.
In the study, a group of graduate students mapped the county in terms of it's natural resources (ie. a seperate map for soils, vegetation, wildlife, hydrology, and topography) and it's socioeconomic data (landuse, zoning, visual character) and then used a GIS to evaluate the data and come up with a potential growth scenario that would be compatible both to the sensativity of the existing natural resources and to the county's current development trends.
This was accomplished by first digitizing the maps and entering them onto the computer. The digitizing process involved superimposing a grid of predetermined resolution (ie. one cell = 40 acres) over the individual maps and then assigning a specific numerical value to each different category that appeared on a map. For example, on the vegetation map, a '1' might stand for a cell that was predominately occupied by a stand of Ponderosa Pine, and a '2' might stand for a cell that was predominately occupied by Douglas Fir. These numbers could then be typed into the computer so that each number corresponded to a specific cell which in turn represented a particular 40 acre parcel of land on the map. The same processs was followed for all of the maps until all of the information found on the original maps had been digitized so that it could be used on the computer.
The maps were then ready for overlay analysis and this is where the computer’s ability to deal with large amounts of numbers at one time becomes essential. The first step that was taken in order to perform the overlay analysis involved the rating of each of the different catagories for each of the natural resources in terms of their sensitivity to development. For example, a cell on the wildlife map represented rare or endangered species was rated as being highly sensitive and a cell that represented an area that was predominately occupied by a pest species was rated as having a low sensitivity to development.
It was then a simple task to command the computer to 'renumber1 the maps to create new maps for each of the natural resources that now represented their sensitivity to development. These maps were then combined (or overlayed) using a command called 'add'. When the add command is used, all of the cells that represent the same geographical area of space (have the same x and y coordinates) from each of the different maps are added together to display a new map that is made up of cells that each have a contribution from all of the previous maps. Then, to preform a general analysis, this new map was averaged by dividing the number of maps that it took to make it, into it. The resulting new map represented the area's overall sensitivity to development. This map could then be compared to the map of the county's current zoning to determine the areas best possible locations to expand it's commercial and residential development while still having the least possible impact on the existing natural resources.
The above example represents a very simple application of a Geographic Information System. Although the powers of such a system are apparent, it should be realized that a typical program would also be able to perform many more very sophisticated operations in analyzing the data. Among these would include neighborhood functions in which cells that were geographically located close to each other could be analysed for their special relationships, and distance related functions , which are able to determine geographic paths through a group of cells that are somehow related. These types of functions make a GIS useful in studying the land immediately surrounding a given site and in siting things such as roads and powerlines.
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It should be noted that if these special types of functions are not needed, it is possible to create a GIS on a database management program such as the one mentioned in the previous section for organizing plants. This type of system would have some disadvantages however, as seen by the following quote by Bruce MacDougall from his book Microcomputers in Landscape Architecture.3
"The advantages of a database program for map overlays are significantly diminished when the overlay involves spatial relationships, that is, when grid cells are selected not only by the combination of factors that occurs there, but by distance to some place, or by the values of neighboring or nearby cells. For example, in a search for a site for an unpopular facility such as a landfill, it is necessary to take into account not only the physical suitability of each place, but also the land uses that surround it and its location relative to the area served."
I. VISUAL SIMULATIONS
Visual simulation, or the art of giving some sort of graphic representation of what a proposed project is going to look like is yet another area in which computers can play a large role.
Some of the roles of simulations in project planning are summed up below.
* Part of the design process to aid the designer.
* General orientation for both the client, and the designer.
* Impact assessment- a professional analysis tool.
* To provide documentation.
* To serve as a guide for construction.
* Monitoring/ post-construction evaluation.
Again, computers offer advantages over traditional methods in that they are so much faster in accomplishing a given task. Generating quick, perspective graphics is one area where this is particuarily true. For example, a digital terrain model can be drawn by the computer if the coordinates for topography have been digitized and entered. This could be helpful for doing such things as siting a powerline in a way that will have the least visual impact.
Another example could be in the field of residential design. In order to show a client what a proposed retaining wall might look like, a traditional method could be to trace a slide or photograph of the site, and then hand draw in the proposed retaining wall. With the aid of the computer and a digitizing device, the photograph could first be digitized automatically (eliminating the need fortracing) and then the retaining wall added using a perspective plot program. The result would be a faster, more accurate,
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and more realistic depiction of what the wall would actually look like if it were to be built.
Also of interest here, is that a small digitizer can be purchased for less money than it costs to buy a slide projector.
J. PERSPECTIVE SKETCHING
Perspective sketching, or developing three dimensional drawings is perhaps one of the newest and most exiciting applications of microcomputers to the design profession. These types of programs allow one to easily construct "wire-frame" perspective drawings of houses, buildings, or other objects primarily composed of straight lines. They can greatly reduce the amount of time required to construct a perspective drawing compared to the more conventional techniques.
To create a perspective drawing in one of these programs, the user would first create a plan view drawing of the object, and then enter the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the major points. The computer then determines the location of each point as it appears in perspective and draws lines between the successive points. Some of the more advanced programs of this nature also offer the added feature of being able to remove hidden lines.
One of the major advantages of this method of constructing perspective sketches over traditional techniques, is that once the first drawing has been created, other drawings utilizing different vantage points and thus creating entirely different views can be drawn by the computer with no additional input from the user. In this manner, the user can easily develop a whole series of drawings in order to determine which one offers the best view so that it can be used in developing a final rendering.
K. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND DRAFTING
The design professions of architecture, landscape architecture, planning and interior design all involve a design process which have historically been labor intensive. CADD is revolutionizing the way designers analyze needs, explore opportunities, and produce and communicate solutions.
A CADD system is a tool that designers can use to help eliminate drudgery and speed up the design process. It must be made clear that a CADD system does not actually do design work, it only helps in the process. In many respects a CADD system is nothing more than a sophisticated piece of drafting equipment. What then is a CADD system and what can it do?
The hardware involved in a CADD system typically involves a computer, video moniter, one or two disk drives, a plotter or dot matrix printer, and some sort of graphic input device such as a mouse, a light pen, or a digitizer. A CADD package also includes software capable of preforming various different functions. Different systems of course, can do different things and are extremley variable in price (see section on "choosing a system"). The major features of most CADD systems are however, pretty much the same. These major features, or capabilities are outlined below. *
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* Drawing
- Different line types (dotted, dashed, etc.).
- Different line weights
- Different shading patterns (eliminating the need for zip-a-tone)
- Repeated shapes in rectangular or circular format
- Free hand drawing
- Fillet (constructs an arc of specified radius between two lines)
* Editing
- Move objects within a drawing
- Copy objects or areas of a drawing
- Enlarge an area for more detailed drawing (zoom capability)
- Create new drawings out of stored items (symbol library)
- Erase shapes, areas, lines, and line segments
* Calculations
- Automatic dimension lines
- Compute the distance between two points
- Calculate the area of any enclosed space
* Reports
- Generate a quantity take-off
- With prices, generate a cost estimate
* Lettering
- Gives a choice of size and font (eliminate the need for press-type)
* Miscellaneous
- Provide on-screen grid display
- Permit layered drawings
- Change scale on command
4* (adapted from Computer Assisted Drafting & Landscape Architecture by Larry and Joan Henderson, LATIS Vol 6. No. 1, May 1985, page 22).
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A. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT
For my case study, I have chosen a residential design project located in Parker, Colorado. I was one of the two primary designers on this project which is currently under construction. The project involved several stages of conceptual design which led to the development of a final set of construction documents. The final design included plans for a conceptual masterplan (including design ideas for the development of a large retaining wall system), a planting plan, a cost estimate, and an overall phasing plan for the entire project.
I knew from the onset of the project that I would use it in my thesis so I kept careful records of each aspect of the design process, including the amount of time spent on each of the drawings. The purpose of this was so that I could repeat the process, only this time using the computer so that I could compare the two different methods of approach in order to determine in which areas of the design process the computer was appropriate and in which areas it was not.
The process diagram that I followed in developing each of the two different approaches (manual and computer) is shown at the beginning of both Section C (The Traditional Approach) and Section D (The Computer Assisted Approach). The diagram is the same for both sections except thatthe one that is at the beginning of Section D is a computer generated graphic. This was done so as to have another means of comparison for part three, the comparative evaluation. When reading through the document and looking at the graphics, the specific stage of the process that the drawing represents can be determined by matching the drawing title (found both in the title block and at the upper left hand side of the page) with the box on the process diagram that has the same title.
B. THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH
The following flowchart (Process Diagram) is a graphic representation of the process that I used to complete the design. As seen from the chart, the first step that I took was to do a site inventory and analysis. This information along with a blueprint supplied by the developer was then used to construct the basemap. The basemap was nothing more than a site plan of the existing conditions on the site. The basemap was then used as a foundation to which new information was added in order to carry out the rest of the stages involved in the process. These stages can all be seen in the following pages.
After the basemap had been developed, several different alternatives for the sites development were explored. Section drawings and perspective sketches were then made of these alternatives in order to make the ideas clearer to the client and give him an idea of what the proposed project might look like if it were built.
After receiving input from the client on how he felt about each of the alternatives, his favorite ideas were then taken and combined to develop one final conceptual masterplan.
This masterplan was then further refined by deciding upon the particular plant species that could be used to best relay the concepts presented with the design, and then these species along with their respective sizes and amounts were presented in a final planting plan.
15


The next step was to do a cost estimate and a phasing plan for construction and this along with the planting plan, a few design detail drawings, and the conceptual masterplan represented the final construction documents. These documents were then given to the contractor in order to begin construction on the site.
What follows are the graphic plans and documents for the different elements of the process discussed above. For each of the drawings that follows, a name can be found on the upper left hand side of the page. This name corresponds to the specific stage in the process diagram (pg.17 ) that the drawing is representing. This same process will be repeated in step C of this chapter (The Computer Assisted Approach) and then the two different processes will be analyzed and explored in depth in the next chapter, The Comparative Evaluation.
16


1. The Design Process
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. Development of a Concept Masterplan




7. Cost Estimate
JIEM________________UNIT PRICE________ft________TOTAL
SITE GRADING $50.00/HR. 2 HRS. $100.00
STONE RETAINING WALL $8.00/FT 120 FT. $ 960.00
STAIRS $12.00/FT. 8 FT. $ 96.00
FLAGSTONE PATH $10/FT. 35 FT. $ 350.00
DRY STREAM BED $10/FT. 30 FT. $ 300.00
COBBLE DRAINAGE WAY $ 7/FT. 70 FT. $ 490.00 $ 2,296.00
PLANT MATERIAL
BLUE RUG JUNIPER $1.90 45 $ 85.50
BUFFALO JUNIPER $1.90 45 $ 85.50
OAK BRUSH SUMAC .79 (TUBEPACK) 28 $22.12
NOOTIKA ROSE $1.90 12 $ 22.80
PERSIAN YELLOW ROSE $1.90 8 $ 15.20
AUTRIAN COPPER ROSE $1.90 8 $15.20
PURPLE CLEMATIS $3.50 5 $17.50
VIRGINS BOWER $2.50 10 $ 25.00
WOODS ROSE $1.90 9 $17.10
SMOOTH SUMAC $1.90 6 $11.40
REDBUD $9.00 6 $ 54.00 $ 371.32
LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION
$60.00/HR 8 HRS. $ 480.00
GRAND TOTAL PHASE ONE
$ 3147.32
26


Cost Estimate (Cont.)
JIEM_____________UNITPRjQE_________£___________JQJAL,
COBBLE DRAINAGE $ 7.00/FT 50 FT. $350.00
ROCK PLANTERS $ 10.00/FT 25 FT. $250.00
STEEL DIVIDER $ 2.00/FT 120 FT. $240,00 $880.00
PLANT MATERIALS
PHLOX $ 10.50 (FLAT) 1 $10.50
BLUE FLAX $ 10.50 (FLAT) 1 $10.50
FLOWERING QUINCE $ 12.00 1 $12.00
PINK PUSSY TOES $ .79 (TUBEPACK) 6 $ 4.74
SWEET WOODRUFF $ .79 (TUBEPACK) 6 $ 4.74
RED OAK $ 12.00 1 $12.00
EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH $ 4.50 1 $ 4.50
COTONEASTER $2.15 30 $64.50
BURNING BUSH $ 1.90 9 $17.10
PAMPAS GRASS $2.50 10 $25.00
BLUE AVENA GRASS $2.50 20 $50.00
BLUE RUG JUNIPER $1.90 20 $38.00
WESTERN SAGE $ 1.90 6 $11.40
MUGO PINE $8.00 1 $ 8.00
GREEN PHITZER $9.00 1 $ 9.00
ENGELMAN SPRUCE $49.00 1 $49.00
TAMMY JUNIPER $ 1.90 2 $ 3.80
RUSSIAN OLIVE $2.50 20 $50.00
NEW MWEXICAN PRIVET $2.50 8 $20.00
PONDEROSA PINE $30.00 1 $30.00
BOX ELDER $2.50 1 $2.50
NEW MEXICAN LOCUST $6.00 3 $18.00
SERVICEBERRY $1.90 25 $47.50
WHEATGRASS (SEED) $10.00/LB. 3 $30.00
$532.78
LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION
$60.00/HR 24 HRS. $1440.00
GRAND TOTAL PHASE TWO $ 2852.78
27


Cost Estimate (Cont.)
JIEM________________UNIT PRICE_________£___________TQTAL
WOOD DECK $4.00/SQ. FT. 750 SQ. FT. $3000.00
PLANT MATERIALS
BLUE GRASS $ .17/SQ. FT. 1300 SQ. FT. $221
JAPANESE MAPLE $ 20.00 1 $ 20.00
OREGON GRAPE $ 1.90 30 $ 57.00
ASPEN $9.00 3 $ 27.00
SWEET WOODRUFF $ 1.90 15 $ 28.50
BOSTON IVY $ 1.90 10 19.00
$ 372.00
LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION
$60.00/HR 8HRS $480.00
GRAND TOTAL PHASE THREE
$ 3852.00
TOTAL COST ESTIMATE 3,147.32
(ALL THREE PHASES) 2,852.78
+ 3.852.00 $ 9852.00
+ 1477.8 (15% CONTINGENCY) = $11,329.80 GRAND TOTAL
28
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8. Contract
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C. THE COMPUTER ASSISTED APPROACH
This next part of the document deals with the exact same design process as described in the previous section. The only difference is that all of the drawings and documents found in this section were produced using the Macintosh computer (they were not hand drawn).
Once again the specific stage of the design process (pg. 33) that the drawing is refering to can be determined by matching the title found on the upper-left hand side of the page with the box of the same name on the process diagram.
32


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IF PLANTINGS OR RETRING WALLS RRE TO BE PLACED WITHIN RN EASEMENT, THE NECESSARY PERMISSION MUST FIRST BE OBTAINED FROM COUNTY OFFICIALS.
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4. Development of Desig Iternatives Alternative One
EUERGREEN GROUP PLANTINGS.
SHRUG PLANTINGS TO SCREEN UIEW OF NEIGHBORS HOUSE.
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Alternative Two
XIST1NG DRIVEWAY
RETAINING WALL SYSTEM
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38
EXISTING


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EXISTING
PROPOSED

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EXISTING
PROPOSED
40


Visual Simulations (cont.)
PROPOSED
41


Visual Simulations (cont.)


MACALUSO RESIDENCE
«SM 1HUNHHWO RON)
PARKER. COLORADO
MASTER PLAN
ALTERNATIVE ONE
JORDAN POSTLEWAIT
DEPT. or LANOSCAPC ARCHITECTURE
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
SCALE IN FEET
. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan



Plant Material Selection


8. Cost Estimate
. A B C D E F
1 COST ESTIMATE - MACALUSO RESIDENCE
2
1
4 PHASE ONE
5
6
7 ITEM UNIT PRICE NUMBER TOTAL
8
9 SITE GRADING $50.00 2 $100.00
10 STONE RETAINING WALL $8.00 120 $960.00
11 STAIRS $12.00 8 $96.00
12 FLAGSTONE PATH $10.00 35 $350.00
13 DRY STREAMBED $10.00 30 $300.00
14 COBBLE DRAINAGE WAY $7.00 70 $490.00
15 $2,296.00
16 PLANT MATERIAL
17
18 BLUE RUG JUNIPER $1.90 45 $85.50
19 BUFFALO JUNIPER $1.90 45 $85.50
20 OAK BRUSH SUMAC $0.79 28 $22.12
21 NOOTIKAROSE $1.90 12 $22.80
. 2^ PERSIAN YELLOW ROSE $1.90 8 $15.20
. L AUSTRIAN COPPER ROSE $1.90 8 $15.20
„4 PURPLE CLEMATIS $3.50 5 $17.50
25 VIRGINS BOWLER $2.50 10 $25.00
26 WOODS ROSE $1.90 9 $17.10
27 SMOOTH SUMAC $1.90 6 $11.40
28 REDBUD $9.00 6 $54.00
29 $371.32
30 LABOR $60.00 8 $480.00
31
32 GRAND TOTAL PHASE 1 $3,147.32
33
34
35 PHASE TWO
1 36
â–  37 ITEM UNIT PRICE NUMBER TOTAL
1 38
| 39 COBBLE DRAINAGE WAY $7.00 50 $350.00
! 40 ROCK PLANTERS $10.00 25 $250.00
i 41 STEEL DIVIDER $2.00 120 $240.00
42 $840.00
43 PLANT MATERIALS
AA
PHLOX $10.50 1 $10.50
MO BLUE FLAX $10.50 1 $10.50
47 FLOWERING QUINCE $12.00 1 $12.00
45


Cost Estimate (cont.)
A B C D E F
1 PINK PUSSY TOES $0.79 6 $4.74
SWEET WOODRUFF $0.79 6 $4.74
5 Q RED OAK $12.00 1 $12.00
51 EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH $4.50 1 $4.50
52 COTONEASTER $2.15 30 $64.50
53 BURNING BUSH $1.90 9 $17.10
54 PAMPAS GRASS $2.50 10 $25.00
55 BLUE AYENA GRASS $2.50 20 $50.00
56 BLUE RUG JUNIPER $1.90 20 $38.00
57 WESTERN SAGE $1.90 6 $11.40
59 MUGOPINE $8.00 1 $8.00
59 GREEN PHITZER $9.00 1 $9.00
60 ENGLEMAN SPRUCE $49.00 1 $49.00
61 TAMMY JUNIPER $1.90 2 $3.80
6? RUSSIAN OLIYE $2.50 20 $50.00
63 NEW MEXICAN PRIVET $2.50 8 $20.00
64 PONDEROSA PINE $30.00 1 $30.00
65 BOX ELDER $2.50 1 $2.50
66 NEW MEXICAN LOCUST $6.00 3 $18.00
67 SERVICECHERRY $1.90 25 $47.50
68 WHEATGRASS(SEED) $10.00 3 $30.00
69 $532.78
1 LABOR $60.00 24 $1,440.00
11
1 7? GRAND TOTAL PHASE TWO $2,812.78
i 73
74
! 75 PHASE THREE
j 76
77
79 ITEM UNIT PRICE NUMBER TOTAL
1 79
j 80 WOOD DECK $4.00 750 $3,000.00
81
92 PLANT MATERIAL
| 83
84 BLUE GRASS $0.17 1300 $221.00
85 JAPANESE MAPLE $20.00 1 $20.00
i §6 OREGON GRAPE $1.90 30 $57.00
87 ASPEN $9.00 3 $27.00
88 SWEET WOODRUFF $1.90 15 $28.50
89 BOSTON IVY $1.90 10 $19.00
90 $372.50
m LABOR $60.00 8 $480.00
j
yj GRAND TOTAL PHASE THREE $3,852.50
94
46


Cost Estimate (cont.)
A B C D E F
« r- GRAND TOTAL (ALL PHASES) $9,812.60
15* CONTINGENCY $1,471.89
97
98
99 GRAND TOTAL $11,284.49
47


A
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PHASE ONE | I
PHASE TWO [
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SITE GRACING 150 00/F4L 2WS. SI 00 00
STOM RETAINING WAU SOOO/FT 120 FT S 960 00
STAIRS 11200/n 6 FT S 96 00
FLAGSTOM PATH IIO/FT 35 FT. t 350 00
DRY STREAM OLD l10/FT SOFT S 300 00
COBBLE DRAINAGE WAT S 7/FT 70 FT S 490 00 S 2.296 00
PLANT MATERIAL
ALL* RUG JUNIPER SIM 45 S 85.30
BUFFALO JUNIPER SIM 45 S 6550
OAK BRUSH sumac n cnjBEf’AQc) 2S S 22.12
NOOTIICA ROSE SIM 12 S 2280
PERSIAN YELLOW ROSE SIM a t 1520
AUTtlAN COPPER ROSE SIM a S 1520
PL*PLE CLEMATIS S3 50 3 S 17 50
VIRGINS BOWER S2 50 10 12500
WOODS ROSE SIM 9 S 17 10
awoTHsunAC SIM 6 t 1140
REDBUD SO 00 LABOR FOR PI ANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION B S 5400 S 371.32
160 00/MR B HRS $ 400 00
COBBLE DRAINAGE S700/FT SOFT
ROCK PLANTERS t 1000/FT 25 FT
STEEL OIVIOER S 200/n 120 FT
PLANT MATERIALS
PM IB S 10 30 (FLAT) 1
BLUE FLA1 S 10 50 (FLAT) 1
FLOWERING QUINCE S 1200 1
PIMC PUSSY TOES S 79 (TUBEPAO0 6
SWEET WOOORUFT S 79 (TIBER ACX) 6
RED OAK S I2M 1
EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH 1450 1
COTOP* ASTER S 215 30
BURNING BUSH SIM •
PArf>AS GRASS S 250 10
BLUE A VENA GRASS S 250 20
BLUE RUG JUNIPER S IM 20
WESTERN SAGE SIM 6
MUGOPIM I B 00 1
GREEN PHfTTER S 9 00 1
ENGELMAN SPRUCE S49 00 1
TA/TTY JUNIPER SIM 2
RUSSIAN OLIVE S 250 20
ICW MWEXICAN PRIVET S 250 a
POWEROSA PllC $30 00
BOX ELDER S 2 50 i
MW MEXICAN LOCUST S 600 3
SERVICEBLRRY S 1 M 25
WMATGRASS (SEED) $10 00/LB 3
GRAM) TOTAL PHASE OM
13H7J2
LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION
ibooonm ]4«S
SRAM) TOTAL PHASE TVO
9. Phasing Plan
PHASE THREE
-TOTAL mn price . TOTAL
$350 00 S250 00 $240 00 $880 00 WOOD DECK S400/SQ.FT. 750 SO FT $3000 00
PLANT MATERIALS
SKL9D $1050 $1200 S 474 S 474 $1200 S 450 $6450 BLUE GRASS JAPANESE MAPLE OREGON GRAPE ASPEN SWEET WUGORLFF BOSTON IVY S 17/50 FT. $20 00 S 190 $900 $ 190 t 190 1300 SO FT 1 30 3 IS 10 1 221 00 t 20 00 1 5700 $ 27 00 $ 2B 50 $ 1900 S 37200
T7 10 $2500 $50 00 LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION S60 00/W MS $400 00
$3800 GRAM) TOTAL PHASE TWEE t 3BS2M
t BOO t 900 $4900 t 3 BO
150 00 120 00 130 00 1250 tIBOO $47 50 130 00 3532.78
1144000
♦ I477.B (158 CONTINGENCY)
>111.329 SO 6RAN0 TOTAL


10. Contract
January 15,1986
Gregg and D'Nell Macaluso
8599 Thinderbird Road
Parker, Colorado 80134
Lot 12, Block 7, Filing 4 The Pinery
This document is to outline an agreement between Gregg and D'Nell Macaluso and Jordan Postlewait, Richard VanGytenbeek, landscape architecture students at the University of Colorado, Denver.
The Macalusos' have hired these gentlemen to provide landscape planning assistance for the aforementioned property.
The nature of the services provided and yet to come are as followed, but are not limited to;
a. A preliminary site inspection and consultation pointing out ongoing functional problems and initial aesthetic desires and ideas.
b. Preparation, review, and discussion of a variety of preliminary perspective and elevation drawings depicting a variety of landscaping ideas for all areas of the house including:
1. The large retaining wall required on the southern portion of the lot as well as other retaining structures.
2. Plant species selections for all other areas surrounding the home.
c. Preparation, review, and discussion of a preliminary topographical master plan depicting ideas shared in previous meetings. This step will address:
1. Some consideration of phasing the entire project.
• 2. Preliminary cost considerations for the project.
d. Preparation, review, and discussion of a final form master plan which will include the foilwing:
1. Detail plan as to the project phasing, (ie what phases must take place in order to address erosion and water channeling needs and what may wait for later installation so that both cost considerations are reasonably addresed.
2. A detailed outline of costs associated with all phases of the landscaping project as detailed in 'Other Considerations'.
49


3. A complete set of installation plans that would allow the reasonably competent contractor a guide by which to install listed materials.
Note: It is understood that the plan for installation is to be used as a guideline to materials and location for placement of those materials. It is not intended to serve as an engineering guide to wall construction. The Macaluso's would simply ask
for the availability of Mr. Postlewait and Mr. VanGytenbeek for questions in the areas in which construction could be aided by their expertise including questions which clarify intent in the plan itself.
Cost: Completion of phases A - C represents 1/2 of the $500 'basic compensation' for the project. Phase d represents the other half.
The Macaluso's understand that there are other phases of the plan which may be included at an addional cost. These include, but are not limited to:
1. Mechanical Irrigation Installation
2. Design Details
3. Additional elevation drawings
4.
5.
6.
These additional plans will be provided at the Macaluso's request given that the landscape architects wish to do the work, they may set their own prices for this work. The Macaluso's request that the additional work be packaged in value increments of $100.00 or less for each selection.
Timing: Completion of Phases A-D will be by March 30,1986 unless other arrangements are made by the two parties prior to that date.
Payment for Phases A-D will be due upon competion and delivery of said products.
Other Considerations:
* Cost estimate will include species/plant cost and a rough estimate of rock costs for retaining walls.
* Phasing will consider cost estimates taken in point (Other Considerations).
* Points 1 and 2 (Other Considerations) are provided as an additional service value $100.00 (as agreed to step c, listed above).
The terms of this agreement are ratified by the signees below.
50


Jordan Postlewait
Richard VanGytenBeek
Gregg R. Macaluso
D'Nell Macaluso


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©®®a[p^^TQWi

52


A. INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPARATIVE METHODOLOGY
In order to compare the two different techniques used for preparing construction documents, I will refer back to the process diagram seen on page 35. I will go through this process diagram step by step, comparing the two separate approaches and describing the different techniques that each of them used. In this section I will also place value judgements on each of the techniques in order to see in which areas of the design process each of them offer advantages in the practice of landscape architecture.
B. THE COMPARISONS
1. The Design Process
For comparing and evaluating the two process diagrams, the basic issue is one of graphics since the contents of the diagrams themselves are exactly the same.
Since the originals of both of these drawings were much larger than the ones shown in this book, one of the issues here is how well did each of the drawings reduce. In this case it appears that the hand prepared drawing did a bit better although this is an unfair comparison because the computer drawing was reduced using a scaling factor in the program while the hand prepared drawing was reduces using a xerox process. It would appear that the xerox process produces a cleaner method of reduction than does the computer process. This may also have to do with the nature of the printing capabilities of the dot matrix printer that was used in preparing the document.
While this is indeed a limitation of the computer and it's peripherals, the computer still offers an advantage over the traditional methods because it at least offers the capabilities to do automatic reductions.
Another advantage of the computer graphic is that the geometry reads a bit cleaner. While this problem could be addressed in the hand done graphic with more care being put into its preparation, it is not even an issue with the computer generated graphic.
Finally, it should be noted that the hand prepared drawing took longer to produce than did the computer drawing (1 hr. vs. 35 minutes). See pg. 64
2. Site Inventory and Analysis
This stage of the design process was somewhat intuitive and was used more as a tool for myself the designer, rather than something that needed to be shown and graphically represented for the client.
In doing the Inventory and Analysis I spent a lot of time on the site walking around it, photographing it, and discovering problems and discussing them with the owner. The biggest area of concern (and the reason that the owner had initially sought the help of a landscape architect) was that the concrete driveway on the south end of the property had begun to crack. This was due to a serious erosion problem that had
53


begun to occur on the slope that supported the driveway. A primary concern then was to develop ideas that would put an immediate halt to the erosion problem and begin to stabalize the slope.
Another major goal was to develop an aesthetically pleasing and low maintenance landscaping plan for the entire property. The house itself was brand new on a lot that was a part of a young development, so the site was very barren and void of plant material. The topsoil seemed to be made up mostly from left over fill (low quality) from grading the driveway.
In comparing the two approaches, the issue of importance here is the technique involved in taking the inventory information and using it to prepare a basemap. This basemap can then be used as a source onto which the other information needed to prepare the rest of the drawings could be overlayed.
For the traditional approach a basemap was provided. Unfortunately it was not provided on reproducable paper, so it had to be hand traced before it could be used. The map that was provided also had to be changed because it was not accurate in terms of how the driveway was configured.
Once the drawing had been traced and its inaccuracies corrected, sepia mylars (expensive!) were run as a base for which to lay out the other plans.
This is another area in which the computer proved to be the superior method. Once the basemap had been drawn on the computer (which was a very quick and easy process given the automatic dimension capablities of the program MacDraft) it could be called up and used a template every time a new drawing was begun. If mistakes were made on these new drawings it didn't matter because the basemap was always readily available in its original form and in unlimited quantities.
Drafting the basemap on the computer proved to be a cleaner process than traditional methods as curves and lines could be matched exactly thus eliminating the need for straight edges, french curves, technical pens, and compasses.
Lettering on the computer was also much faster (as fast as typing) than either hand lettering or applying presstype or Kroy letters.
3. Development of Design Alternatives
The process of developing design alternatives was greatly aided by the application of the computer. Although the computer cannot by itself come up with alternative concepts for design, it can greatly increase our efficiency and help in visualizing those designs which we create.
With the development of a vast symbol library (see Appendix D) and using these symbols to place in simulations, the designer is quickly able to see what a finished rendering might look like. Also the different elements in the drwaing can easily be moved, duplicated, and manipulated around the page without having to erase or redraw them.
In the traditional approach, design alternatives are first explored in a rough sort of way before they are drafted in final form. The computer eliminates the need for this step of the process as it allows one to view the graphics in final form as a one step process (symbols from the symbol library do not have to be redrawn, only copied and reproduced).
54


The computer does have limitations however in developing site wide concepts and/or alternative designs. These limitations are due to the size of the screen. Although it is possible to zoom way out in order to view the entire drawing, the resoultion at this scale is drastically reduced. In general however this did not pose too much of a problem because the details of the drawing could be looked at at the same size that they would be on the final drawing and the zoom out feature could be used strictly for studying the spatial relationships among the objects on the screen.
4. Visual Simulations
The method involved for creating visual simulations in both the traditional approach and the computer assisted approach was basically the same. The only difference was in the technique used in their development. In the traditional method, sketches were made by manually tracing slides of the existing conditions on the site, and then enhancing these skecthes with additional information concerning the proposals.
The computer eliminated the need for tracing slides as a digitized image of a photograph could be entered into the computer with a hardware device known as Thunderscan (see Appendix F). New information could then be added to, or drawn on top of this image by using one of the drawing programs such as Macpaint, Macdraw, or Macdraft. These programs also make it possible to erase those parts of the images that show things that will not be there in the final proposal.
5. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan
The development of the final masterplan in the hand drawn approach required redrawing those aspects from the alternatives that the client liked best.
In the computer assisted approach, redrawing was again eliminated since one can 'cut and paste' images from several different drawings to form one new drawing.
6. Plant Material Selection
In both of the approaches the process used for selecting plant materials involved a close examination of the site, analyzing it for it's various conditions and then developing a close relationship with the client to learn of his needs and wishes.
An overall guiding principle was that of the use of water. Since the west will always be subject to periodic droughts, water conservation is critical especially given the steadily increasing population. With this in mind, I tried to choose drought tolerant plants whenever possible. This also seemed to fit with the clients desires in designing a landscaping plan that would be low maintenance.
55


In the traditonal approach the method of selection involved looking in books and studying lists of plants that were suited for various conditions. These lists included plants that control erosion, shade tolerant plants, drought tolerant plants, heat resistant plants for south and west exposures, and plants with colored foliage. I used these lists together with my own knowledge on plant materials to decide on species that were both best suited for the varying conditions of the site and best suited for the desires and wishes of the client.
In the computer assisted approach, plants were chosen using a database management program that I had previously filled with information concerning plant material (see Appendix E).
Once the basic data, or information had been entered into the database management program, it can then be retrieved in a number of different ways. The information can be sorted, rearranged alphabetically, or specific records of information can be searched for automatically. For example, one could ask for a list of plant materials that were all shade trees, did not need a lot of supplemental irrigataion, had an extensive root system for controlling erosion, and were available for below a certain cost. The computer would then scan the database and furnish a listing of plant materials that met all of the specified criteria. It could also provide a more detailed description of all of the other characteristics of the plants that were included on the list. This list could then be piesented and reviewed with the client.
The limitations of choosing plants in this manner are that you are limited to plants that had to have been previously entered into the database. Also, in order for plants to have matching fields when a query is run, the information in each record has to have been entered in eactly the same way.
7. Cost Estimating
At first appearance, the cost estimate appearing in each of the two approaches seems to be pretty much the same. This makes sense they are both cost estimates for the same project.
The major difference between the two is that the one shown under the computer assisted section was created on the computer using Jazz software and the spreadsheet application, while the one shown in the traditional approach section was created using only a word processor. All of the calculations for the latter had to be done by hand.
A typical spread sheet consists of a grid made up from a series of rows and columns. Each 'cell' then has a specific row and column number that is unique to itself. This row and column number is known as the cells address.
Values (numbers), text, or mathematical formulas can be entered into cells in such a way so that the computer can then calculate information as it is needed (i.e. add or multiply a specific row of numbers). The power of this application lies in the fact that if a change in the data occurs (i.e. a plant is found out to cost more than originally supposed) it is only a matter of readjusting this one number. The computer can then recalulate everything else so that the totals and percentages are also readjusted. It is then a simple procedure to reprint the updated information without anyone having to retype it.
56


8. Contracts
A copy of the original contract used between myself and the client can be found under the Traditional Approach' section of this report. It was included in order to emphasize the power of a good word processing program. This original contract was hand written and lacks a professional looking quality. The exact same contract appears again under the 'Computer Assitted Approach", only this time it was prepared using a word processing program. The advantages are obvious. In addition to simply being easier to read, the document prepared on the word processor enables one to use different styles and sizes of type, thus eliminating the need for Kroy or Press-Type lettering. The word processor also allows one the ability to move blocks of text around and insert or delete changes as needed. The Macintosh computer also offers the added advantage of being able to automatically insert logos or other graphics.
57


©tnWTTItR (F®(U)(Pls ©@KI©[L[y)SQ®[MS /&M®
58


A. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The following lists describe in summary form some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the computer as compared to more traditional approaches to the design process. The lists are intentially written in a synopsis form for quick reference. The implications of these findings are discussed in more detail in the latter sections of this chapter.
1 .Advantages of Computer Aided Techniques
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
Ability to store, edit, and print detail drawings, without having to redraw them.
No need for voluminous paper files.
Speed increase for retrieval of database information.
Speed increase for drafting.
Reduces mechanical errors in drafting.
Reduces drudgery of routine tasks.
Provides automatic drawing reductions (automatic changes of scale).
Provides automatic drawing dimensioning.
Eliminates the need for Kroy or press-type lettering.
Eliminated the need for sepia reproductions.
Automatic duplication, manipulation of drawings.
Automatic 'digitizing' of images eliminates the need for tracing
No recalculating cost estimates.
No retyping needed other than to edit text and make corrections.
59


2. Disadvantages of Computer Aided Techniques
A. Quality of reductions is poor.
B. Possible to 'loose' data.
C. 'Systems errors' are often hard to figure out (what went wrong).
D. There are no immediate solutions to program 'glitches'.
E. Size of screen can be limiting (i.e. for presentations).
F. Storage or memory sometimes limiting factors.
60


AVERAGE TIME SPENT PER DRAWING IN H0UR5
13 A TIME COMPARISON
14 FOR COMPUTER DRAWINGS 13 VS. DRAWINGS DONE
12 BY HAND
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
BASEMAP DEVELOPMENT
ALTERNATIVE PLAN
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A. PREPARATION OF PRESENTATION GRAPHICS
There are two main concerns when prerparing presentation graphics on the Macintosh, ribbon quality and paper quality.
Ribbons vary both in price and in quality and in general you get what you pay for. More expensive ribbons produce higher quality drawings with better black and white contrast and less chance of smudging. A fresh ribbon is also important for high contrast, although for printing text it may be better to use a slightly used ribbon so to reduce bleeding.
Paper type also affects bleeding and how well the ink adheres to the paper. In general, heavier papers seem to produce better results and minimize horizontal streaking.
Printing on other types of paper such as vellum, mylar, and trace will produce adequate results although they may need to be sprayed with a fixative.
Drawings produced on these types of paper can easily be produced by a diazo process.
For reproducing drawings that are larger than the image writer, taping the pages together and then xeroxing them with a large format machine works well.
Another alternative is to use a plotter if one is available. A plotter will also allow for the addition of color. Other alternatives for adding color to drawings include rendering printouts with markers or colored pencils. Add Markers and Design Markers on computer paper tend to bleed if the paper is not treated with a fixative but Magic Markers, Niji Markers, and Prismacolor colored pencils seem to work fine.
Examples of colored computer drawings can be found in the slide set that accompanies this document.
62


B. GENERAL FINDINGS AND CONCERNS
An initial look at the summary of findings charts on advantages and disadvantages of computer vs. traditional approaches to design (pgs. 59-60) seems to indicate that the computer offers overwhelming advantages. Although these advantages are legitimate, there are some limitations of the computer which are not immediately evident.
While I believe that computers are an incredible tool and they can vastly improve on the speed and accuracy on which an office is run, I want to make it clear that I do not wish to advocate the use of computers for all aspects of the decision making process. Decisions which require human value or judgement may be better off left to traditional methods. As Dr. Joseph Weizenbaum of M.l.T. sees it "Computers can perform impressive feats of calculating but they cannot make judgements because judgements depend on more than information extracted from the real world; they depend on meaning. And meaning emerges from the thinkers participation in the real world". ^
I think that Dr. Weizenbaums point is well taken as I view the computer strictly as a tool to aid one in the design process. The computer by itself is not actually capable of designing or making judgements and so a final design done on a computer can be only as good as the designer who is using the computer.
It is for this reason that the emphasis of this thesis has been on tools and techniques rather than design theory although it is sometimes difficult to separate them.
In terms of evaluating tools and techniques the purpose of comparing the techniques involved in the traditional approach to design with the techniques involved in the computer assisted approach was to further Carl Steintz' of Harvard University research on this subject, or in his words to "develop a sense of appropriateness to handling information so as to have a higher probability of having a better design which has a higher probability of producing a better envirionment . Producing a better environment should after all be the goal or final result of any design process in landscape architecture.
C. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSONAL OPINIONS
My purpose in writing this section is to give the reader a very personal and candid report on some of the rewards and frustrations that I experienced in writing and preparing this thesis. Perhaps this can then provide a stepping stone for someone wishing to further my research by giving them a general idea of what to expect when undertaking a study such as this that involves a technology that is brand new.
The first point that I wish to make is that the payoff for adopting such a new technology is by no means instant. Learning the terminology and operating procedures that are necessary to operate a computer can be (like learning how to draw for the first time) a very slow process. Introducing onesself to a computer for the first time can be particularly frustrating on a CAD system because this is such a new technology that not all of the ’bugs' have been worked out (here, I can only refer to the system with which I am most familiar, the Apple Macintosh and MacDraft software but my feeling is that the same would hold true for any new CAD system).
Some of the more frustrating 'bugs' that I experienced seemed to be linked to the printing process. On many occasions I experinced difficulty while trying to print my
63


MacDraft documents. For one reason or another various things seemed to go wrong. For example mysterious lines would sometimes appear on the printed document that I did not draw and that did not appear on the monitor. On several occasions I also had the program (MacDraft) "crash" half way through printing a drawing, leaving me with only half of the drawing in hardcopy output. This would happen for no apparent reason and in the present version of MacDraft (1.1) there is no way to reprint only the specific pages that were missing, so I would have to reprint the entire drawing (sometimes this 'reprint' would also crash halfway through!). This problem was not the fault of the printer as I also experinced similar difficulties while using MacDraft with other peripheral devices such as a lazor writer and a plotter.
Another frustrating experience for the novice getting involved with computers for the first time is that of not having the expertise to determine what the cause of a problem is. When you don't know what is wrong it is very difficult to correct a problem.
The problems that I've listed above are just a few examples of the many difficulties that I encountered while involved with this project. There were many more but my purpose here is not to list them all but rather to prepare the reader for encountering similar frustrations when attacking a problem such as this.
I do believe however that most of these problems were simply due to the 'newness' of the technology and that they will be worked out in the very near future thus making the microcomputer CAD system a very appropriate tool for a typical design office.
I also believe that Apple has taken a very big step towards initiating large scale implimentation of such systems simply by designing one (the Macintosh) which is so 'user friendly' and so closely parallels the thought process of a design process (see Appendix C). Indeed, my frustrations have been, not in the conceptual understanding of what needed to be done on the computer and how to go about doing it, but rather in the computers response to instructions which I thought were correct.
Another frustration that I have encountered is also related to the fact that the whole technology of Computer Aided Design and Drafting is so new. This frustration is the simple fact of how quickly any new system or software that one buys can become outdated. It seems like everyday there are new things on the market that are cheaper and better than what there were the day before. This is not a huge problem however, because for most systems updates are usually available. This also should not deter one from getting started on a CAD system as this trend is liable to continue for quite some time. Any system with which one becomes familiar and is able to use productively is better than none at all and it doesn't matter if something exists on the market that is better.
Despite the frustrations, the overall rewards and capabilities of even a very primitive CAD system (such as MacDraft) are truely astonishing. This is evidenced by the summary section of this document intitled 'Advantages of Computer Aided Techniques' (pgs. 59-60).
D. FUTURE TRENDS
I think that it is important to conclude my documentation with some notes on what I feel will be the major future trends of this very new technology.
64


First of all, as far as professional applications in landscape architecture are concerned, I think that some uses of the microcomputer are already well established. These uses include word processing, accounting, cost estimating, project management, engineering, and database management.
The trends of the future lie in three major applications including Geographic Information Systems, Networking and Telecommunications, and Computer Aided Design and Drafting. This last category can be further broken down to include visual simulations, digital terrain modeling, and perspective sketching. These three major applications and their implications on the profession are discussed briefly below.
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Once Geographic Information Systems such as the Map Analysis Package discussed earlier become readily available for use on microcomputers, their impact on the profession will be substantial. What they will do is allow small firms with relatively small numbers of employees the chance to compete effectively with the larger corporations for jobs that involve large scale land assessment and evaluation. They are able to do this because they eliminate the need for many specialists by enabling a single person to view large geographical regions either as a whole or broken down into it's constituent parts.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Further advancements in networking and telecommunications will have a very significant impact on office structures in the near future. For one thing it will enable firms to effectively communicate between their different offices via electronic mail. It will also allow workers the flexability to stay at home to accomplish some of their tasks. If a job normally involves sitting at a terminal or word processor entering data or typing reports or drafting on a CAD system, what difference does it make where the terminal is? With the technology to communicate over telephone lines, workers can simply finish their quota for the day and then dial up their firms computer and transmit the work over the phone line.7
This technology could eventually eliminate the need for vast amounts of office space.
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND DRAFTING
CAD systems have already been discussed in some detail in this report. The reason for this is that I feel that this is the area in which microcomputers will have the biggest impact on the profession of landscape architecture. At the present time there seems to be an obstacle in getting firms to fully accept the necessity of a CAD system but I feel this is mostly due to the fact that these systems are so new that a lot of people simply do not realize the capabilites of these machines. Another issue here is the fact that affordable ($2,000 -$50,000) CAD systems have only been on the market for about three years.
I think that it is clear that although these systems are new and strange, they are here and that now is the time for our profession to take a serious look at them and decide on what this technology is going to mean in the long run for landscape architects. One issue that comes to mind is that of the integral relationship between the
65


creative process and the ability to draw by hand. I think that in the very near future the profession is going to be forced to deal with a whole new breed of landscape architects who are indeed incapable of drawing by traditional methods, or without the aid of a computer. We need to ask ourselves what are the implications of this and are we going to loose something important that we won't be able to restore? My personal opinion is that we may well loose something in the sense of quality drawings for arts sake, but that we just as well may gain something in terms of the built envirionment. The reason that I feel that we may gain something is because of the level of realism that can be obtained from very fast computer generated visual simulations. With this level of realism and relative ease of constructing drawings, a client will have a very good idea of what a finished project will look like and due to the relative ease of constructing these simulations, they won't have to be satisfied with a design until they see something that they really like. I think that the level of realism in the simulations is also very positive because it means that someone won't be 'fooled' into accepting an idea just because of an illustrative rendering that may or may not portray an adequate or realistic depiction of what a finished product might look like.
Whether or not one believes in the quality of a computer generated visual simulation or plan graphic over a hand generated one is not really even an issue. The fact of the matter is that the computer technology exists and if it is not already, it will soon be cleaner, faster, and more accurate than traditional methods. For these reasons it is clear that computer applications in landscape architecture are here to stay and landscape architects are going to be forced to make a choice of whether they want to ignore the technology or become a part of the force that is using it.
66


9. COMMITTEE MEMBERS
1. Jerry Shapins
Landscape Architect Faculty Advisor
Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture University of Colorado at Denver
2. Randy Palmer
Landscape Architect/Planner Dames and Moore Adjunct Faculty Member University of Colorado at Denver
3. Joseph R. Nagy, P.E Construction Engineer United States Mint 320 West Colfax Ave.
Denver, Colorado Macintosh Computer Consultant
67


@F OIMF®[]?[ML®nri]®IN]
1. Calcomp
200 Hacienda Ave.
Campbell, Ca. 95008 (408) 866-6272
2. Computer Information Publishing, Inc.
150 Fifth Ave. Suite 714
New York, New York 10011
3. Computers For Design Paul Karius, Presisent
1430 Larimer Square, Suite 208 Denver, Co. 80202 (303) 629-7474
4. Ervin, Stephen
ASLA'S Open Commitee on Computers in Landscape Architecture C/O Box 851 Amherst, Ma. 01004
5. Generation 5 Technology Sheridan Park 8
8670 Wolff Court, Suite 120 Denver, Co. 80030 (303) 427-0055
6. Kesler, Gary
Dept, of Landscape Architecture 214 Mumford Hall
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1301 W. Gregory Drive Urbana, Illinois
7. Killpack, Charles President, Iris International 4301 Garden City Drive Landover, Maryland 20785
8. Kulak, Arthur J.
1014 Tennesee Ln.
Elk Grove Village, Illinois 60007
68


9. LANDCADD
Gregory W. Jameson, President 5435 S Midvale Ave.
Tucson, Az. 8574
10. Lindhult, Mark
Dept, of Landsdcape Architecture 109 Hills North University of Mass.
Amherst, Ma. 01003
11. Olsen, Jean E.
Landscape Architects Microcomputer User Group
Extension Landscape Architect
288 College of Design
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011
12. Pitt, David G.
Associate Professor and Extension Landscape Architect Dept, of Horticulture University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742
13. Schmieman, Susan Principal
Perisan, Pautz Road Box 286
Maribel Wisconsin 54227
14. White, Dennis
Lab. for Computer Graphics Harvard University 48 Quincy Street Cambridge, Ma.
69


1. Artwick, Bruce A.
Applied Concepts In Micro-Computer Graphics 1984. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
2. Brand, Steward ed.
Whole Earth Software Catalog For 1986
3. Burns, Diane and Venit, S PC VS MAC
PC Magazine July 23,1985
4. Chan, Barbara J. ed.
The Macazine
5. Church, Thomas D.
Gardens Are For People 1983, Elizabeth R. Church
6. Ciaccio, David J.
Site Sections and Details 1984 Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
7. Clark, Ron
55 More Color Computer Programs For The Home. School, and Office
8. Conley, William E. Basic For Beginners
70


9. Crone, John Computers: Guide to 3D Landscape Architecture Magazine March/April 1986
10. Date, C.J.
Database A Primer
1983 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
11. Dwyer, Thomas
Basic and The Personal Computer
12. Ellias, Thomas S
The Complete Trees of North America 1980, UNR Inc.
13. Evans, Larry
Illustration Guide For Architects. Designers, and Students 1982, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
14. Girard, Diane
The Essential Users Guide To The I.B.M. PC. XT and PC ir,
1984
15. Glossbrenner, Alfred How Tq Get Free Software.
1984, St. Martins Press
16. Glossbrenner, Alfred
The Complete Handbook of Personal Computer Communications: Everything You Need To Go On Line With The World
1985, St. Martins Press
71


17. Guzelimian, Vahe Becoming A Macartist
18. Hart, Glenn
Hardware: Firm Support For Cad PC Magazine March 11,1986
19. Jensen, Dallas Beginners Guide To Primps
20. Kelley, Kathleen ed.
LATISVol. 6#1 May 1985
21. Kerr, Kathleen ed.
PostData For Landscape Construction
1986, Kerr Associates Inc.
22. Kisor, Henry
News America Syndicate
Rocky Mountain News, Wed. Oct. 16,1985
Special Computer Section
23. Lewis, Gerard
Macintosh The Appliance Of The Future 1984
24. Long, Marion
Turncoat of the Computer Revolution New Age Journal
72


25. Lynch, Kevin Site Planning 2nd edition
1962, The MIT Press
26. Machrone, Bill ed.
P.C. Magizine
27. MacDougall, E. Bruce Microcomputers In Landscape Architecture 1983, Elsevier Science Publishing Co.
28. McGill, Frank
Using Computers for Environmental Assessment Planning, Sept. 1983
29. McHarg, Ian Design With Nature
1969, Doubleday/ Natural History Press
30. Moran, James
Markets Shift Within Cad/Cam Field VAR, July 1985
31. Norton, Peter
PC-DOS Introduction to High Preformance Computing 1985 Brady Communications Co., Inc.
32. Steinitz, Carl
Tools and Techniques: Some General Notes But Precious Few "Hard"
Recommendations
Harvard University, 1974
73


33. Oevllette, R.P.
Computer Techniques in Environmental Planning
34. Olivieri, Peter ed.
Wheels For The Mind Vol.1 No. 1
Fall 1985
35. Rademacher, Susan ed.
Landscape Architecture Magazine Jul/Aug 1985
Vol. 75 #4
36. Redgat Publishing Company The Macintosh Buyers Guide
37. Schmieman, Susan MacPaint, Drawing Drafting Design 1985, Brady Communications
38. Shapiro, Neil L.
Macuser Magazine
39. Technoscape Research Landscape Architecture Software Directory
40. Teicholz, Eric
Computer Graphics and Environmental Planning
41. Walker, Theodore D.
Site Design and Construction Detailing 1978, Theodore D. Walker
74


42. Wang, Thomas C.
Plan and Section Drawing 1979, Van Nostrand Reinhold Inc.
43. Whited, William L.
.UsinaMificacflmpuleisJD-U foan Planning
Planning Advisory Service Report # 372
44. Williamson,Joseph F. ed New Western Garden Book 1981 Sunset Magazines
45. Wolverstein, Van Running M$ PQS 1984, Microsoft Press
46. Younger, J. Kelley Macworld Magazine
75


FOOTNOTES
1. Date, C.J.
Database A Primer
1983 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
2. McHarg, Ian Design With Nature
1969, Doubleday/ Natural History Press
3. MacDougall, E. Bruce Microcomputers In Landscape Architecture 1983, Elsevier Science Publishing Co.
4. Kelley, Kathleen ed. LATI5 Vol. 6 *\ May 1985
5. Long, Marion
Turncoat of the Computer Revolution
New Age Journal
6. Steinitz, Carl
Tools and Techniques: Some General Notes But Precious Few "Hard"
Recommendations
Harvard University, 1974
7. Glossbrenner, Alfred
The Complete Handbook of Personal Computer Communications: Everything You Need To Go On Line With The World 1985, St. Martins Press
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APPENDIX A: BACK6R0UND BASICS
Having read this document the reader should have a pretty good understanding of the potential applications of the microcomputer to landscape architecture. The next step is to begin to use the computer! In order to do this, one first has to have some sort of storage medium where Information can be written in magnetic patterns and stored and retrieved as needed. Standard storage mediums include casette tapes, and both hard and floppy disks. Floppy disks are by far the most common. Floppy disks can be either 8", 5 l/4“, or 3 1/2“ in diameter, depending on the system that is being used. In the case of the Macintosh computer, floppy disks are 3 1/2 “ in diameter and are incased in a hard plastic covering.
Before a floppy disk can be used, it has to be ‘formatted’, or 'initialized’. This means that the computer has to magnetically scribe concentric circles onto the disk. These circles then serve as a storage place, or means by which the computer Is able to organize and retrieve Information that the user specifies. Formatting a diskette is a very simple process. First, the blank disk is inserted into the disk drive, and then the command “format" or "initialize" is selected.
All floppy disks have three things In common: ‘tracks', 'sectors', and 'density'. These terms all refer to the way information is organized on the diskette by the computer. Tracks are the concentric circles which are scribed magnetically around the disk. Sectors are pie shaped slices which cut across these tracks, breaking the surface up into a large number of readily identifiable areas. Density refers to how many bytes of information can be recorded in any sector on any track. Combinations of different disk sizes, number of sectors, and densities result in many different formats or amounts of storage that any one disk Is capable of handling.
Diskettes, like cassette tapes, are fragile and need to be handled with care. Extreme heat, dust, and bending need to be avoided. They should also never be placed on or near a magnetic surface. Nor should they be placed on or near something such as a television set or x-ray machine which generate magnetic fields.
All new diskettes come with a write/protect notch. When this notch is covered up, the information stored on the diskette cannot be erased.
In addition to having a storage medium to place files that are created, every computer system also needs software, or programs of instructions that the computer uses to operate. These instructions exist as electronic impulses and can therefore be stored on the same type of magnetic disks just described.
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The first piece of software that a microcomputer user will need to use is called the "Master Disk" or “System Disk". This disk contains information which operates the basic functions of the computer. It is usually refered to as the Disk Operating System or DOS. The DOS moves information into the computer and then moves it around once it is inside. It creates files, manages them, and controls printers, monitors, disk drives, etc.
Once loaded for the first time, some of the information from DOS goes directly into the computers internal memory (RAM). This means that the instructions for commands that will be used all of the time such as those for copying, opening, or removing files will always be available whether or not the system disk drive has the “System Disk" software loaded in it. These then become 'internal' commands.
RAM is limited in size, so some of the other information on DOS such as the initialize command, stays on the diskette and requires that it be in the disk drive in order for the computer to perform those functions.
Once DOS has been loaded, the computer will give some type of signal that it is ready to go (a blinking cursor which means type something, or a display of icons which mean select something). The number of choices for ways to compute within DOS is limited, so the next step is to load some sort of applications software. This simply means ejecting the DOS disk and replacing it with a disk that has been programed to preform specific functions.
Most microcomputers now have two disk drives. The first disk drive, generally holds the software application, and the second holds a blank disk or data disk where ones personal files can be stored. If the computer has only one disk drive, the same thing can be accomplished by swaping the disks back and forth.
Once the software has been loaded, the program can usually be started in one of three ways:l.) Type in the name of the software package. 2.)Move the cursor to an operation and then hit the return or enter key. 3.) Move the mouse to place the arrow (which moves with the mouse) over an icon of the desired operation and 'click' the mouse button.
After it has been opened, each software package contains it's own set of commands or icons which can either be typed or selected. Each of these commands preforms its own unique function. Owners manuals come with the software and explain all of these commands.
Application software works on various levels. First, the user is confronted with a menu from which they are to choose a command (this may be a list of words from which they choose one and type it, or may be a display of visual icons from which they choose one and 'select' it with the mouse). That process takes them to another level where they will do the same thing. This continues until they have accomplished what they wanted to do.
The diagram on the next page, summarizes the process discussed above.
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LOAD PROGRAM
SELECT COMMAND
ENTER TEXT (OR GRAPHICS)
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APPENDIX B: CH00SIN6 A SYSTEM
With a basic understanding of beginning computing, how then does the novice computer user/landscape architect choose an appropriate system? There Is no simple answer to this question. The choice depends on both the needs of the individual and their budget. There is a lot of existing software for many different systems at many different costs that is all applicable to the field of landscape architecture. It is important to keep in mind that all microcomputer software is not compatible with every system. Programs that run on an IBM won't necessarily run on an Apple. I think however, that since the market is so competitive, major computer manufacturers all try to have very similar programs for their systems. Even though one company may come out with a particular piece of software first, if it is popular, the other major competitors won't take long to follow in developing a similar program for their system.
Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind when choosing an appropriate system is that the most expensive system is not necessarily the best. The 'best' computer for any job depends on the particular situation. Before purchasing any system a user must first do a careful analysis of their own needs. This should include evaluating exactly what the computer is going to be used for to make sure that the applications that are desired are something that can benefit from automation. One neeeds to ask oneself where can time be saved? And where can prodctivlty be increased? Once these types of questions have been answered, one then needs to consider issues such as expandability, amount of available software, amount of available hardware and how whoever is going to use the computer will be trained.
With this in mind, I chose the Apple Macintosh as the system on which I to do my study. The reason I chose the Macintosh is threefold. First of all, the Macintosh is extremely 'user friendly', which meant that I was able to train myself how to use it. User friendly in terms of the Macintosh means that it's programs present menus of visual images or 'icons' for the user to 'select', as opposed to having to memorize traditional typed in commands. It is my contention that if the user does not experience any great frustration while doing relatively simple tasks, then they will be more inclined to learn more about the computers capabilities so they will be able to run more sophisticated programs. Second, the Macintosh is one of the most powerful microcomputers available today in terms of it's abilities to generate graphics. This makes it particularly appropriate for design professions. And third, the software package MacDraft is available
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for only $150.00. This may sound like a lot but a comparable package for the IBM PCs or compatible computers (AutoCad), can run into thousands of dollars and would require another peripheral device, a graphics adapter board (approx. $500.00), to be purchased before the AutoCad program could even be run!
So far, the only application that I have encountered that AutoCad can do and MacDraft cannot is that of layered drawings.
Having discussed the reasons for which I chose the Macintosh computer as the system I will work on, I will now discuss in some detail the hardware and software that go with it, that I used to prepare this study. Some of this information is rather technical in nature and can be skipped over if the reader has no interest in it.
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1. Macintosh Computer
The Macintosh computer with it's high resolution black and white screen, unique way of driving the computer around the screen via the mouse, advanced sound capabilities and original operating system is the first in what will probably be a new generation of ‘user freindly' personal computers.
Perhaps best way to explain the Macintosh computer and it's innovative ‘user freindly' way of interacting with it's software is through graphic examples, or' screen dumps'.
Figures 1 through 4 show some typical screens that the user might see when working on the computer. A brief explanition of what process is being illustrated is Included with each figure.
Figure 5 is a list of technical specifications associated with the computer.
r w File Edit Uieui Special
FIGURE 1
Files can be kept track of by seeing a graphic display of their different icons. Unwanted documents can be discarded by 'dragging' them into the trash can.


FIGURE 2
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The pull-down menu feature is operated by the mouse. This feature allows the user to select an application such as font style and then choose from the list of commands that are available for this operation.
Also, the ruler at the top of the page allows for easy manipulation of margins and tabs.
r £ Flip Fdit Goodies Font FontSize Style
Various tools for creating drawings are displayed as visual icons.
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CIGURE 4
« File Edit Search Format Font >tnh?
Header

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Having dls computer as the the hardware a study. Some of skipped over if
B. EXPLANATK
1. Macintos
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Note Pad
Keep up to eight pages of notes here in the Note Pad. Click on the dog-ear to turn to the following page. Click in the lower left corner to turn to the previous page]
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Scrapbook
Numerous windows can be diplayed on the screen at once to allow the user to keep track of various on-going activities at the same time.
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Processor: MC68000, 32-bit architecture, 7.8336MHz clock frequency
Memory: 128 bytes RAM 64K bytes ROM
Disk Capacity: 400K bytes formatted disk, 3 1/2-inch diameter hard- shell media
Screen: 9-inch diagonal, high resolution, 512-pixel by 342-pixel bit-mapped display
Interfaces: Synchrooonous serial keyboard bus Two RS232/R5422 serial ports, 230.4K baud max. (up to 0.920 megabit per second if clocked externally) Mouse interface External disk interface
Sound generator: 4-voice sound with 8-bit digital-analog conversion using 22 KHz sample rate
Input: Line voltage: 105 to 125 volts AC, RMS Frequency: 50 or 60 Hz Power: 60 watts
Keyboard: 58 key, 2-key rollover, software mapped
Mouse: Mechanical tracking, optical shaft encoding 3.54 pulse per mm (90 pulse per inch) of travel
Clock/calender: CMOS custom chip with 4.5 volt (Eveready No.523
or equivalent) user-replaceable batterey backup Fiaure5: Macintosh SDecifications
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2. Externa) Disk Drive
A Macintosh external disk drive can be added to the system to make available another 400k disk on the desktop. This greatly speeds up many of the common activities involved in operating the computer such as copying disks and documents, and saving files.
3. Imaoewriter Printer
The Apple Imagewriter is a dot matrix printer. It generates pictures or characters as a pattern of dots chosen from an array 16 dots wide by 9 dots high. The printer's standard characters are 7 dots wide and 8 dots high; the space between characters is 1 dot wide. A microprocessor inside of the computer keeps track of which dots to print and where to print them.
The printer works by moving a column of wires along the paper, and striking successive patterns to create each printed character or picture.
4. H. P. Plotter
A plotter is a device controlled by the computer that moves a pen over paper on a drum or flat surface. There are many different models and makes available. Most of these different models allow for the use of different pen types including different colors and differnent point sizes.
5. Thunderscan
This is actually a small piece of hardware that the imagewriter printer uses to digitize any printed image and turn it into a detailed, high resolution Macpaint document. Once digitized, these images can be modified or manipulated by the user.
The Thunderscan device itself is a small lazer cartridge that fits into the Image Writer printer by replacing the ribbon.
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1. Macwrite
Macwrite is a word processing program that comes (along with Macpaint), packaged with the Macintosh computer. It’s features include a page indicator, a memo maker, the ability to generate 7 different fonts in 6 different sizes, and the ability to accept different documents from different programs (such as graphics from Macpaint). The editing features can be controlled either by the keyboard or the mouse. Macwrite was the sole word processing package used to create this document.
2. MacPaint
Macpaint is a revolutionary pixel based drawing system that does not have to create a vector database nor drive a plotter in order to work. Images are 'painted' onto the screen as accurately as a single pixel at a time. Drawings can be stored in the 'scrapbook' and then 'cut and pasted' as they are needed. This makes it possible to create a symbol library using Macpaint. Drawings that have been stored can be moved, duplicated, or resized to any desired scale.
Macpaint has it's shortcomings in the fact that it lacks color support, the grid is not adjustable (so it is hard to scale drawings), and the screen represents less than a full page to draw on. It is still however, a very good program to do fast, high quality graphic design.
3. Macdraft
This program is similar to Macpaint only it is aimed at the technical draftperson. Screen rulers let you change scale without changing the rest of the drawing. Objects can also slide over each other and still retain their original identity (not so in Macpaint).
MacDraft is the program which allows the Macintosh to function as a complete CADD package. It's major features are listed below.
- Continuous drawing mode (drawings scroll automatically).
- 16 different scales in Metric and English units.
- Zoom In and Zoom Out up to 8x.
- Automatic dimension lines.
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- Circles by radius or diameter. •
- Arcs by radius or three points.
- Distribute objects along a line.
- Rotate objects in 1 degree increments.
- Create objects by inside or ouside diameter.
- 4 Separate documents on the screen at the same time.
- Paste illustrations to and from other documents.
- Paste pictures and objects from Macpaint and MacDraw.
- 64 Patterns for Fill and Ink.
- Flip objects.
Figure 6 is an example of a typical Macdraft screen.
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4 Jazz
Jazz is a multifunctional business software program that offers integration between its worksheets, graphics, word processing, database, and communications functions. It takes advantage of the Macintosh's special characteristics such as icons, pull-down menus, and dialog boxes. The following list (taken from the Jazz Handbook) describes the 5 various applications of the program.
WORKSHEET- The worksheet application is an eiectronic spreadsheet ir which you enter and store data, including numbers and text You can ther. preform many types of calculations using expressions you create ot functions built in to the program. For example, you can calculate monthly expenses and estimate costs with a Jazz worksheet. When you change any of the numbers, Jazz automatically recalculates the worksheet for you.
GRAPHICS - The Graphics application lets you create many different kinds of graphs that visually represent numbers you enter in a worksheet 0/ database. If you change the data a graph is based on, Jazz automatically updates the graph. You can enhance a graph by using titles, lab/els, anc legends that explain parts of the graph.
WORD PROCESSING - With Word Processing, you can write, edit, and format letters, memos, reports, and other documents. For example, you can delete unnecessasy text, move words and sentences to a different part of a document, and change the margins and spacing of a document.
DATABASE - The Database application lets you organize and manage information, such as employee files. Finding individual facts or groups 01 facts is easy in a database, it's easy, too, to sort the data in numeric ot alphabetical order and produce a report on selected data.
You can work with your database directly, or use a Jazz form. A form is ar easy way to enter, edit, or view data in a database, one record at a time. You can customize a form to your needs by adding detailed instructions, about what to enter in each database field or by rearranging elements of l form so that it presents the data clearly. A form can show only some oi the information in a database if you don't want users to see every field.
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COMMUNICATIONS - The Communications application lets you use yout Macintosh as a terminal to communicate with other computers. You car call information services, public databases, and electronic bulletin board*, to get information such as stock quotations. You can also send andrecieve documents to and from other computers. Connecting to a larger computet system lets you use programs that the larger system supports.
5. DaVinci Landscapes
This is a program which produces a three-dimensional rendering of a building or a landscape. It consists of a series of ‘building blocks’ which can be cut and pasted in an infinate number of different ways in order to create fully detailed interior or exterior design plans.
94


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©eweioti™® a symbols library
The symbols found on the following pages were all created on the Macintosh computer. Some of them were hand drawn with the mouse and others were digitized using the 'Thunderscan' hardware device. All of these symbols can be found on the floppy disk that is included with this document intitled “symbols library". The disk is meant to be used as Public Domain Software by any interested party.
To use the disk simply follow the procedure oulined below.
1. Find a image you want to use in a drawing be leafing through the pages that follow.
2. Open the MacPaint document found on the “Symbols Library" disk that has the same name as the page that the drawing you want to use is on.
* Note: The application MacPaint is/wf included on the "Symbols Library" disk.
3. Use either the lasso or the marquee to 'select' the image you have chosen.
4 Select 'copy' from the Edit menu.
5. Close the MacPaint Document found on the “Symbols Library" disk.
6. Open a new MacPaint document on a different disk.
7. Select 'paste' from the Edit menu.
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Full Text

PAGE 1

r USING THE APPLE MACINTOSH PERSONAL # COMPUTER AS A TOOL IN THE PRACTICE OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 1', •

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ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING AURARIA LIBRARY ,. THIS THESIS IS SUBMITTED AS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR A MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER COLLEGE OF DESIGN AND PLANNING GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE ACCEPTED: • 1-' .... ---. ... .-..-.....-.. Randy Palmer, Landscape Architect .. ,.,.: . .... . . I : . . . :.-_.:--r.$. . .. . .... : ... :. : "'' .... •. -. rJAN 0 8 • . I

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1. ACKNO'Iil.EDGEMENTS.................................................................................................................................................... 1 2. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.............................................................................................................................................. 2 3. INTRODUCTIOO ........................................................................ '" ............ ........................................................... 3 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE PERSONAL COMPUTER AS A TOOL; POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS IN THE FIELD OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE A. Word Processing................................................................................................................................................................ 6 B . Accounting. ............................. -........................................................................................................................................... 6 C . Cost Estinatilg................................................................................................................................................................. 6 D. Networki'lg Telec0111'TllJ'lications.......................................................................................................................... 7 E. Project Managetnert...................................................................................................................................................... 7 F . Engneerng. ............ -......... -.... -.......................................................................................................................................... 7 G. Database Managernert............................................................................................................................................... 8 H. Geographic Information Systems........................................................................................................................... 9 I. Visual Sinulations. ..................................................................................................................... ...................................... 1 0 J. Perspective Sketching. .................................................................................................................................................. 12 K Co!ll'uter Aided Design and Draftng. ................................................................................................................. 12 5. CHAPTER TWO: THE CASE STUDY, 8599 THUNDERBIRD ROAD A PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT IN DESIGN USING THE MACINTOSH COMPUTER A. lntrodudlon to Project ...................................................................................................................................... 15 B. The Traclional Approach. ............................................................................................................................. 15 1. The Design Process. ................................................................................................................................................. 17 2. Sle Inventory and Analysis. ............................................................................................................................... 18 3. Developmert of Design Alternatives .............................................................................................................. 19 4. Vtsual SirT1Jiatiorls ............................................................................... ................................................................. 21 5. Developrnert of a Conceptual Masterplan ................................................. ,.,., .... , .............. ! ............. ............ 24 6. Plarlti1g Pla.n ........................................................ , ..................... ., ... ., ......... ... ., ... ............... .. .. 25 7. Cost Estinate ............................................................................................................................. : ............. ;;; ................. 26 a Collracts.. ......................................................................... ,_ .. ................ ....... ............ ....... .... ... ... 29. C. The Cornpl,jer Assisted Approach. ........................................... ! ............................. ................................. !''' 32 1. The Design Process ................................................................................. , ............. , .......... , ................. , ................................ : :33 2. Sle Inventory and Analysis. .................................................. , ........ , ........................... ....................... ,............ ....... fs 3. Basemap ........................... ....................................... _ .... _ .!' ....................... ................. lt! ...... ................... .. 4. Developmert of Design Alternatives ........................................................................ ....... ....................... 5. VISual SirTl.Jiations .......................................... .., .................. _ ... ,,..,., . . t • ...................................... .............. '.;.41 . ........................ . 6. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan ............................... , ........ , .............................. 43 7. Planting Plan ................................................................................................................ ....... .. .. , . ...... 44 8. Cost Estinate ................................................. , ..................................................................... ..................................... .. 45 I 9. Phasng Plan ........................................................................................... , ............. , ................................. ., ..... ; . : ..... 48 " . . . . 49 10. Contract ........................................................................................................................................ . , .......... .... .. .

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6. CHAPTER THREE: A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION A. Introduction to the Comparative Methodology .............................................. :............................................. 53 B. The Comparisons. ......................................................................................................................................................... 53 t The Design Process. ................................................................................................................................................. 53 2 . Site Inventory and ......................................... _.................................................................................... 53 3. Developmert of Design Alternatives .................................................................. :........................................... 54 4 . Visual Sinulations..................................................................................................................................................... 55 5. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan ..................... " .......................................... ;................................ 55 6 . Plant Material Selection......................................................................................................................................... 55 7. Cost Estimate...................................................................................................................... ............. ............................ 56 8. Contract........................................................................................................................................... .............................. 57 7. CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS A. Sl.llllllaJ'Y of Fi1di1gs. .................................................................................................................................................. 59 1. Advantages of Computer Aided Techniques. .................................................. , ....................................... 59 2. Disadvantages of Computer Aided Techniques. .................................................................................... 60 3. Preparation of Presentation Graphics....................................................................................................... 62 B. General Fl'ldings and Concerns. ............................................................................................................................ 63 C. RecOI'TITlef'ldations and Personal ()pi'lions....................................................................................................... 63 D . Future Trends. .................................................................................................................................................................. 64 . 8. Members .... .... -........................................................................................................................................... 67 9. Sources of Information..................................................................................................................................................... 68 11 Footnotes . ................................................................................................................... 76 12 APPENDICES APPENDIX A:. BAa
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.. This thesis project would not have been possible without the dedication of a lot of different people. First, I would like to thank my entire thesis commitee on whom I depended for technical advice as well as moral support. Thanks to Randy Palmer for providing the initial spark of enthusiasm and opening my eyes to the world of computers. Thanks to Joe Nagy for sharing his extensive technical expertise of the Macintosh and MacDraft and for his willingness and commitment to help with even the mundane tasks such as proofreading . And thanks to Jerry Shapins who kept pusing me to take the project further so as to develop the best possible final product. Thanks, too, to Phil Flores for providing the contact for the case study and to Gregg and O'Neil Macaluso who's property is the case study . I would also like to thank Leslie Gordon of Apple Computers for allowing me to use the Lazer Writer for printing my final document, as well as supplying the large video screen for my final presentation. And finally, I thank Richard VanGytenbeek for his part in developing the initial design concepts and providing drawings for the case study. Denver, Colorado May, 1986 1 1

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HAND PREPARED ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Design Process Diagram ....................................................................................... 17 2. Site Basemap ............................................................................... , ............................ 18 3. Design Alternative One .......................................................................................... 19 4. Design Alternative Two ........................................................................................ 20 5. Visual Simulation -Front Entry ....................................................................... 21 6. Visual SimulationWest Elevation ................................................................ 22 7. Visual Simulation -South Elevation ............................................................... 23 8 . Site Section ............................................................................................................... 23 9. Conceptual Masterplan .......................................................................................... 24 10. Planting Plan ............................................................................................................. 25 COMPUTER ASSISTED ILLUSTRATIONS 11. Design Process Diagram ...................................................................................... 33 12. Site Inventory and Analysis .................................. : ............................................ 34 13. Site Basemap ............................................................................................................ 35 14. Design Alternative One ........................................................................................ 36 15. Design Alternative Two ....................................................................................... 37 16. Visual Simulation -Front Entry ......................................... , ............................ 38 17. Visual Simulation West Elevation .............................................................. 39 18. Visual Simulation -South Elevation Alternative One ....................... .... 40 19. Visual Simulation-South Elevation Alternative Two .......................... 41 20. Visual Simulation-Driveway .................................................. : ...................... 42 21. Conceptual Masterplan ......................................................................................... 43 22. Planting Design ....................................................................................................... 44 23 . Phasing Plan ............................................................................................................. 48 24. Time Comparison Chart. ...................................................................................... 61 25 . Computing Process Diagram .............................................................................. 80 26. Macintosh Desktop .... ............................................................................................ 85 27. Typical MacWrite Screen .................................................................................... 86 28 . Typical MacPaint Screen ..................................................................................... 86 29 . Macintosh Windows ............................................................................................... 87 30 . Typical MacDraft Screen .......................... ........................................................... 92 31 . . Symbol Library ................................ : .......................................................... 97-115 I -2

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As the world of affordable computer technology rapidly advances on the profession of landscape architecture, an awareness of computer capabilities and their application to design problems will be essential for any firm trying to survive in a very competitive market. The purpose of this thesis is to show why I thi nk that this is true and also to provide a source document for the lay person/landscape architect wishing to gain a general understanding of the microcomputer and it's applicability to the profession of landscape architecture . In order to accomplish this, my paper is divided into four main chapters. The first chapter provides general exposure to the wide range of office and design rel ated capabilities that computers now provide . The second chapter involves a case study in which the reader will be introduced to a specific site and then walked through a design process for the preparation of construction documents. The process is followed first by manual techniques and then by computer aided techniques. Chapter Three is a comparative evaluation to determine in which areas of the design process the computer was effective and in which areas it was not. Although the comparison between the two different techniques is important, the major goal of the thesis is to develop a set of working drawings that are 1 00% computer generated. These drawings can then speak for themselves and together w ith an explanation of how they were constructed can serve as a model for anyone interested in applying a microcomputer to similar uses . The conclusion (Chapter Four) of this report is a summary of my findings as well as a personal and professional opinion of what I think that this all means to our profession and where I see this relatively new technology taking us in the near future . This conclusion will clearly point out the areas in landscape architecture in which a microcomputer can improve on our present techniques and efficiency levels. As stated earlier, the primary concern is to aid the professional landscape architect who is attempting to expand his or her knowledge about microcomputers. I believe that a large number of firms have already taken the initial step in purchasing a microcomputer but are for the most part using them only for traditional business applications such as cost estimating and word processing . Another major goal then is to be able to increase these peoples' understanding of microcomputers so that they can begin to use them as a standard office tool for many different applications including design. As a means of accomplishing this goal I have also included in this document a rather extensive set of appendices. The first of these appendices (Appendix A) provides some background basics about microcomputers in general and gives a generic step by step procedure for operating one . The purpose of this section is to show how simple the basic operations are, so that re aders who are intrigued by the applications won't be intimidated by the implementation. Appendix B is a brief discussion on how to go about choosing a . microcomputer system to buy. It includes information on how to evaluate one's own needs and what to look for and what to avoid in a personal computer purchase. It also includes information on why I chose the Apple Macintosh as the system on which to perform my study. Appendix C is a more in depth look at the specific hardware that I used. Appendix D describes the software. 3

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Appendix E shows in hardcopy output, the symbol library created to do the computer aided drawings found in the main document. A copy of this library will also be provided on disk and furnished to the College of Design and Planning library as public domain software. Appendix F is also a hardcopy output of information created and supplied as public domain software. It is a database of information on plant materials . By setting up queries for this database, a user can get a list of plant materials that meet with specific criteria that they have specified . Information supplied on the database includes species, common name, family name, form, use, growth rate, water requirements, fruit type, flower type, erosion control, shade tolerance, drought tolerance, soil requirements, and typical mature heights. The database is set up for over 300 species of plants that are commonly planted in the Front Range and the Denver Metro area. The final appendix will be a glossary of terms so that the reader will have an easy reference . if they come across a word or computer term with which they are not familiar. 4

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. !A\ !A\ aoo . 5

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The potential number of applications for the use of microcomputers in landscape architecture is virtually limitless. This section is meant to give an overview in very general terms of what some of these potential applications are, and why the computer offers advantages over the more traditional methods of performing the same tasks. The applications that I have chosen to explore are listed below. There are twelve broad categories alltogether. The first five categories are extremely general and can be applied to any business situation. The last seven categories are more specific and have more unique applicability to the field of landscape architecture. These last seven categories will be explored in much more depth and will be emphasized in the second chapter of this paper which involves the case study. A. WORD PROCESSING In today's world, word processing is a basic need for any profession. It offers advantages over traditional typing in that it does not bind you to permanence. A word processor allows every mistake or second thought to be instantly edited on the screen. It offers the ability for information _ to be stored, deleted, edited, and rearranged, before it is printed out. For these reasons, it is a very helpful tool for anyone who deals with written documentation. For the landscape architect, this documentation might include proposals, contracts, and specification writing. A word processor can tremendously speed up the preparation of these documents because it can serve as a library for information that is used frequently (i.e. lists, legends, zoning codes, etc.). This information can then be cut, pasted, edited, and printed to conform to a specific job, without ever having to retype it. B. ACCOUNTING Having accurate accounting records is another business application that is important to any professional. One of the nice qualities of a microcomputer is that it allows someone such as a landscape architect to do their accounting instead of having to hire a CPA firm. Typical accounting programs that would be useful to the landscape architect allow someone to generate billings based on a percentage of construction costs (or whatever other criteria is specified), keep track of things such as employee hours and wages, and provide historical summaries of costs, invoices, payments, balances due, profits, etc. C. COST ESTIMATING Computer aided cost estimating also saves the designer time because once unit prices and quantities are entered into the computer, the computer takes care of all of the mathematics such as multiplication, adding and percentage calculations. If any of these variables should change during the course of the project, the computer can easily redo the calculations, thus eliminating the need for the designer to manually adjust for the change. 6

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Typical programs suited for the landscape architect permit easy entry of construction material names, quantities, and unit costs as well as labor hours and other miscellaneous items. The estimates can be printed out on an easy to read, standardized form with the company logo on it. D. NETWORKING • TELECOMMUNICATIONS Networking and electronic mail, or telecommunications, is another area in the computer revolution that will play a very significant role in the future. What this is referring to is the ability of computers, be they micros, minis, or mainframes to communicate with each other. This simple fact means that anyone who owns or has access to a computer of any size or brand, has the potential to communicate over telephone lines with anyone else who has a computer. Also, since computers are capable of storing large amounts of data, this means that there is a whole electronic universe of available information for users to tap into. Simply by dialing a number, a person can access an unlimited data base of information. For the landscape architect, this might mean information on plant materials, zoning codes, design standards, etc. The possibilities are limitless. The ability to communicate between computers also means that it is possible to send 'electronic mail'. This is particuarly useful to large firms that have different offices around the country or around the world. These small offices can send drawings or reports over the telephone lines to each other, thus eliminating the need for a courier service. The advantages of electronic mail are that it is instant, and it allows the receiving end to review and edit the information (via a word processor or drafting software) before it is printed. This also means that these offices can share peripheral devices such as printers and plotters . The hardware needed to send 'electronic mail' is a device called a modem . The modem translates the computers digital signals into audio tones. A special program (software) is also required to manage the communication process. E. PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project or office management is another area in which the computer can be used as a tool to help organize and increase efficiency. Applications in this area include organizing critical path methods and bookeeping including keeping track of deadlines, budgets, client files, etc. F. ENGINEERING Most landscape architects are involved with some sort of civil engineering in their work. Since civil engineering usually involves a large amount of number crunching rather than intuitive thought, it has been rather easy for programmers to write software to preform specific tasks. Also, since engineers in general are among the front runners in professionals who have been applying the use of computers to their work, the demand for such software was made clear early. What all of this means to the landscape architect is that the appropriate software does exist for almost any 7

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engineering application that we would have a need for. The following is a list of some of these applications. *Earthwork Calculations is a program which calculates cut and fill volumes by the average average-end area method and is able to display and print existing and proposed sections and grading plans. . . *Road Allignments for both horizontal and verticle curves. *Irrigation and Drainage Networks computes surface runoff, velocities and pipe sizes . *Construction Guidelines (for decks, retaining walls, etc.) can be used to examine reactions, shears, and moments for various loading conditions. *Sun. Shade. and Shadow Calculations including slope and sloar potential. G. DATABASE MANAGEMENT A database is a sophisticated system for storing and organizing information. Any kind of information can be entered into a database from a plant file to an address index. Once the information has been entered, it can be retrieved in a number of different ways. The information can be sorted, rearranged alphabetically, or specific records of information can be searched for automatically. A typical database management program can easily produce a report based on specific selected information in the database. There are a number of different possible applications for a database management system in a landscape architecture office including lists of landscape materials, personnel records, client records, bibliographies, inventories, etc . Perhaps the most important application however, is the storage of information on plant materials. With a database management system, a user can set up a catalogue of information on plants that includes, common and botanical names, growth characteristics, fall color, soil and water requirments, current prices, availability, shade tolerance,suppliers, etc. Once all of this information has been entered, the user can ask the computer to call up a list of plants that are in the database that meet the requirments of the specific needs that he or she is looking for. For example, you could ask for a list of shade trees that do well in the shade, need little water, and are available from a certain nursery for below a certain cost. The computer would then be 8

PAGE 13

able to scan the database and provide a list of all of the plants that met these requirements. In addition it would be able to provide a more detailed description of all of the other characteristics of the plants that were included on the list. The advantages of this over the more traditional methods of searching through catalogues and making a lot of phone call to see what is available are obvious. The following is a list of other advantages of a computerized system for record keeping over traditional, paper basedmethods.1 * Compactness: No need for potentially voluminous paper files. * Speed: The computer can retrieve and change data far faster than a human can (in particular, spur-of-the-moment queries). * Less drudgery: Much of the sheer teduim of maintaining files by hand is eliminated. * Currency: Accurate, up-to-date information is available on demand at any time. H. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS One relatively new, yet fasinating use of computers in landscape architecture involves the use of overlay mapping in order to perform regional assesments. The basis for this technology stems from the hand drawn overlays developed by Jan Mcharg in his book Design Wjth Nature. only the computer drasticaly increases the accuracy and efficiency of such systems as it allows for numerous overlays of a large number of maps without gaining a "muddled" look. It is able to do this because it uses a mathematical system of analysis instead of a visual one. Unfortunately, this mathematical system requires a large internal memory capacity which most microcomputers do not have. As a result, these types of programs have usually been retricted to the larger and more powerful 'mainframe' computers. The recent development of hard disk and ram drives has however now made it possible for them to run on microcomputers and a few such programs are currently commercially available. The basic idea behind these systems, known as Geographic Information Systems, or GIS involves the mapping of a large area of land in terms of it's natural resources and/or demographic and socioeconomic data, and then using a series of commands or mathematical functions to overlay the different maps and analyze them for significant relationships. This might involve the site selection or impact assessment for a proposed new project, or using a more general term, suitability mapping. Perhaps this may be best understood with a physical example. The author has experience with one such study involving regional planning in Teller County, Colorado. This study will be outlined below. For purposes of understanding, the process has been greatly simplified. The study was done on the PRIME mainframe computer at the University of Colorado. The specific Geographic Information System used was the Map Analysis 9

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Package, developed by Dana Tomlin at Harvard. In the study, a group of graduate students mapped the county in terms of it's natural resources (ie. a separate map for soils , vegetation, wildlife, hydrology , and topography) and it's socioeconomic data (landuse, zoning, visual character) and then used a GIS to evaluate the data and come , up with a potential growth scenario that would be compatible botn to the sensativity of the existing natural resources and to the county's current development trends. This was accomplished by first digitizing the maps and entering them onto the computer. The digitizing process involved superimposing a grid of predeterm ined resolution (ie. one cell = 40 acres) over the individual maps and then assign ing a specific numerical value to each different category that appeared on a map. For example, on the vegetation map, a '1' might stand for a cell that was predominately . occupied by a stand of Ponderosa Pine, and a '2' might stand for a cell that was predominately occupied by Douglas Fir. These numbers could then be typed into the computer so that each number corresponded to a specific cell which in turn represented a particular 40 acre parcel of land on the map. The same processs was followed for all of the maps until all of the information found on the original maps had been digitized so that it could be used on the computer . The maps were then ready for overlay analysis and this is where the computer's ability to deal with large amounts CJf numbers at one time becomes essential. The first step that was taken in order to perform the overlay analysis involved the rating of each of the different catagories for each of the natural resources in terms of their sensitivity to development. For example, a cell on the wildlife map represented rare or endangered species was rated as being highly sensitive and a cell that represented an area that was predominately occupiad by a pest species was rated as having a low sensitivity to development. It was then a simple task to command the computer to 'renumber' the maps to create new maps for each of the natural resources that now represented their sensitivity to development. These maps were then combined (or overlayed) using a command called 'add' . When the add command is used, all of the cells that represent the same geographical area of space (have the same x andy coordinates) from each of the different maps are added together to display a new map that is made up of cells that each have a contribution from all of the previous maps . Then, to preform a general analysis, this new map was averaged by dividing the number of maps that it took to make it, into it. The resulting new map represented the area's overall sensitivity to development. This map could then be compared to the map of the county's current zoning to determine the areas best possible locations to expand it's commercial and residential development while still having the least possible impact on the existing natural resources. The above example represents a very simple application of a Geographic Information System. Although the powers of such a system are apparent, it should be realized that a typical program would also be able to perform many more very sophisticated operations in analyzing the data. Among these would include neighborhood functions in which cells that were geographically located close to each other could be analysed for their special relationships, and distance related functions, which are able to determine geographic paths through a group of cells that are somehow related. These types of functions make a GIS useful in studying the land imr11ediately surrounding a given site and in siting things such as roads and powerlines. 10 I -

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It should be noted that if these special types of functions are not needed, it is possible to create a GIS on a database management program such as the one mentioned in the previous section for organizing plants . This type of system would have some disadvantages however, as seen by the following quote by Bruce MacDougall from his book Microcomputers jn Landscape Architecture. 3 "The advantages of a database program for map overlays are significantly diminished when the overlay involves spatial relationships, that is, when grid cells are selected not only by the combination of factors that occurs there, but by distance to some place, or by the values of neighboring or nearby cells. For example, in a search for a site for an unpopular facility such as a landfill, it is necessary to take into account not only the physical suitability of each place, but also the land uses that surround it and its location relative to the area served." I. VISUAL SIMULATIONS Visual simulation, or the art of giving some sort of graphic representation of what a proposed project is going to look like is yet another area in which computers can play a large role. Some of the roles of simulations in project planning are summed up below. * Part of the design process to aid the designer . * General orientation for both the client, and the designer. * Impact assessmenta professional analysis tool. * To provide documentation. *To serve as a guide for construction. * Monitoring/ post-construction evaluation. Again, computers offer advantages over traditional methods in that they are so much faster in accomplishing a given task. Generating quick, perspective graphics is one area where this is particuarily true. For example, a digital terrain model can be drawn by the computer if the coordinates for topography have been digitized and entered. This could be helpful for doing such things as siting a powerline in a way that will have the least visual impact. Another example could be in the field of residential design. In order to show a client what a proposed retaining wall might look like, a traditional method could be to trace a slide or photograph of the site, and then hand draw in the proposed retaining wall. With the aid of the computer and a digitizing device, the photograph could first be digitized automatically (eliminating the need for tracing) and then the retaining wall added using a perspective plot program. The result would be a faster, more accurate, 1 1

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and more realistic depiction of what the wall would actually look like if it were to be built. Also of interest here, is that a small digitizer can be purchased for less money than it costs to buy a slide projector. J. PERSPECTIVE SKETCHING Perspective sketching, or developing three dimensional drawings is perhaps one of the newest and most exiciting applications of microcomputers to the design profession. These types of programs allow one to easily construct "wire-frame" perspective drawings of houses, buildings, or other objects primarily composed of straight lines. They can greatly reduce the amount of time required to construct a perspective drawing compared to the more conventional techniques. To create a perspective drawing in one of these programs, the user would first create a plan view drawing of the object, and then enter the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the major points. The computer then determines the location of each point as it appears in perspective and draws lines between the successive points . Some of the more advanced programs of this nature also offer the added feature of being able to remove hidden lines. One of the major advantages of this method of constructing perspective sketches over traditional techniques, is that once the first drawing has been created, other drawings utilizing different vantage points and thus creating entirely different views can be drawn by the -computer with no additional input from the user. In this manner, the user can easily develop a whole series of drawings in order to determine which one offers the best view so that it can be used in developing a final rendering. K. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND DRAFTING The design professions of architecture, landscape architecture, planning and interior design all involve a design process which have historically been labor intensive. CADD is revolutionizing the way designers analyze needs, explore opportunities, and produce and communicate solutions. A CADD system is a tool that designers can use to help eliminate drudgery and speed up the design process. It must be made clear that a CADD system does not actually do design work, it only helps in the process. In many respects a CADD system is nothing more than a sophisticated piece of drafting equipment. What then is a CADD system and what can it do? The hardware involved in a CADD system typically involves a computer, video moniter, one or two disk drives, a plotter or dot matrix printer , and some sort of graphic input device such as a mouse, a light pen, or a digitizer. A CADD package also includes software capable of preforming various different functions. Different systems of course, can do different things and are extremley variable in price (see section on "choosing a system"). The major features of most CADD systems are however, pretty much .. the same. These major features, or capabilities are outlined below. * 12

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* Drawjng Different line types (dotted , dashed, etc .). Different line weights -Different shading patterns (eliminating the need for zip-a tone) -Repeated shapes in rectangular or circular format Free hand drawing Fillet (constructs an arc of specified radius between two lines) * Edjtjng Move objects within a drawing Copy objects or areas of a drawing Enlarge an area for more detailed drawing (zoom capability) Create new drawings out of stored items (symbol library) Erase shapes, areas, lines, and lhie segments *Calculations Automatic dimension lines -Compute the distance between two points -Calculate the area of any enclosed space *Reports Generate a quantity take-off With prices, generate a cost estimate *Lettering -Gives a choice of size and font (eliminate the need for press-type) * Miscellaneous Provide on-screen grid display Permit layered drawings Change scale on command 4 • (adapted from Computer Assisted Drafting & Landscape Architecture by Larry and Joan Henderson, LA TIS Vol 6. No. 1, May 1985, page 22). 13

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------lfG1llWW -----!A QJJOfM 14

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A. INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT For my case study , I have chosen a residential design projerj located in Parker, Colorado . I was one of the two primary designers on this project which is . currently under construction. The project involved several stages of conceptual design which led to the development of a final set of construction documents . The final design included plans for a conceptual masterplan (includ ing design ideas fo r the development of a large retaining . wall system), a planting p l an, a . cost estimate , and an overall phasing plan for the entire project. I knew from the onset of the project that I would use it in my thesis so I kept careful records of each aspect of the design process, including the amount of time spent on each of the drawings . The purpose of this was so that I could repeat the process , only this time using the computer so that I could compare the two different methods of approach in order to determine in which areas of the design process the computer was appropriate and in which areas it was not. The process diagram that I followed in developing each of the two different approaches (manual and computer) is shown at the beginning of both Section C (The Traditional Approach) and Section D (The Computer Assisted Approach) . The diagram is the same for both sections except thatthe one that is at the beginning of Section Dis a computer generated graphic . This was done so as to have another means of comparison for part three, the comparative evaluation. When reading through the document and looking at the graphics, the specific stage of the process that the drawing represents can be determined by matching the drawing title (found both i n the title block and at the upper left hand side of the page) with the box on the process diagram that has the same title. B. THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH The following flowchart (Process Diagram) is a graphic representation of the process that I used to complete the design. As seen from the chart , the first step that I took was to do a site inventory and analysis. This information along with a blueprint supplied by the developer was then used to construct the basemap. The basemap was nothing more than a site plan of the existing conditions on the site. The basemap was then used as a foundation to which new information was added in order to carry out the rest of the stages involved in the process. These stages can all be seen i n the following pages. After the basemap had been developed, several different alternatives for the sites development were explored. Section drawings and perspective sketches were then made of these alternatives in order to make the ideas clearer to the client and give him an idea of what the proposed project might look like if it were built. After receiving input from the client on how he felt about each of the alternatives, his favorite ideas were then taken and combined to develop one final conceptual masterplan. This masterplan was then further refined by deciding upon the particular plant species that could be used to best relay the concepts presented with the design, and then these species along with their respective sizes and amounts were presented in a final planting plan. 15

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The next step was to do a cost estimate and a phasing plan for construction and this along with the planting plan, a few design detail drawings , and the conceptual masterplan represented the final construction documents . These documents were then given to the contractor in order to begin construction on the site. What follows are the graphic plans and documents for the different elements of the process discussed above. For each of the drawings that follows, a name can be found on the upper left hand side of the page. This name corresponds to the specific stage in the process diagram (pg.17 ) that the drawing is representing. This same process will be repeated in step C of this chapter (The Computer Assisted Approach) and then the two different processes will be analyzed and explored in depth in the next chapter, The Comparative Evaluation. 16

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1. The Design Process I NTJZODUAICti 10 Atlr7 WITH Cf NI:e.J? ANV Wt?Hf!.? Pf:VfLOrHENT CF reveLOPHetif OF PHD {;f Wt1li > !In INVaiTOPt' MD ALT. ALT. AlX I 2. u-i I z. t166rf.rz.fLAN 1'LAN11 Nu PLAN GOtJr HATe Pl.Nt 17

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u 2 . Site Y and Analysis an Inventor d Basemap ( ,.

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. . . . <-4

PAGE 25

Visual Simulations BEFORE I ' • . .J AFTER

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Visual Simulations (Cont.) BEFORE AFTER 22 detatl b

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Visual Simulations {Cont.) J. . section a -a re:::r . AFTER

PAGE 28

tTl :I p I I • L :z: I! . . J t \i j IJ • I' i: . .. ">;i e f d ilih ;j . ,: I l'l MACALUSO RESIDENCE 8599 THUNDERBIRD RD PARKER. CO. The Pinery Lot-12 Block7 .. Fllinll4 oil( I hi jU, . .. . ; I . I . l Sheet Title: MAsTER PLAN Scale: r o Sheell.of.J. Date: North Landscape Architects : jordan f\:lstlewalt Richard VanGytenbeek Cll . c CD < CD 0 , 3 CD :::J 0 ID 0 0 :::J 0 CD , !!!: m en CD .. , m :::J

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1\) 01 6. 1tlng Plan

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7. Cost Estimate ITEM UNIT PRICE # SITE GRADING STONE RETAINING WALL STAIRS FLAGSTONE PATH DRY STREAM BED COBBLE DRAINAGE WAY PLANT MATERIAL BLUE BUG JUNIPER BUFFALO JUNIPER OAK BRUSH SUMAC NOOTIKA BOSE PERSIAN YELLOW BOSE AUTBIAN COPPER BOSE PURPLE CLEMATIS VIRGINS BOWER WOODS ROSE SMOOTH SUMAC REDBUD $50.00/HB. $8.00/FI $12.00/FT . $10/FT . $10/FT . $ 7/FT . 2HBS. 120FT. 8FT. 35FT. 30FT. 70FT. $1. 90 45 $1.90 45 . 79 (TUBEPACK) 28 $1.90 12 $1.90 8 $1.90 8 $3.50 5 $2.50 10 $1. 90 9 $1.90 6 $9.00 6 LABOR FOB PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION TOTAL $100.00 $960.00 $ 96.00 $350.00 $300.00 $490.00 $2,296.00 $85.50 $85.50 $22.12 $22.80 $15.20 $15.20 $17.50 $25.00 $17.10 $11.40 $ 54.00 $371.32 $60.00/HB 8 HBS. $ 480.00 GRAND TOTAL PHASE ONE $3147.32 26

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Cost Estimate (Cont.) PHASE TWO ITEM UNIT PRICE # COBBLE DRAINAGE $ 7 . 00/FT 50FT. ROCK PLANTERS $10.00/FT 25FT. STEEL DIVIDER $ 2 . 00/FT 120FT. PHLOX $ 10.50 (FLAT) BLUE FLAX $ 10.50 (FLAT) FLOWERING QUINCE $12.00 PINK PUSSY TOES $ .79 (TUBEPACK) SWEET WOODRUFF $ . 79 (TUBEPACK) RED OAK $ 12 . 00 EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH $ 4 .50 COTONEASTER $ 2 . 15 BURNING BUSH $ 1 . 90 PAMPAS GRASS $ 2.50 BLUE AVENA GRASS $ 2 .50 BLUE RUG JUNIPER $ 1 . 90 WESTERN SAGE $ 1 . 90 MUGO PINE $ 8 . 00 GREEN PHITZER $ 9.00 ENGELMAN SPRUCE $49 . 00 TAMMY JUNIPER $ 1 . 90 RUSSIAN OLIVE $ 2.50 NEW MWEXICAN PRIVET $ 2.50 PONDEROSA PINE $30.00 BOX ELDER $ 2.50 NEW MEXICAN LOCUST $ 6.00 SERVICEBERRY $ 1.90 WHEATGRASS (SEED) $10.00/LB. LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION $60.00/HR 24 HAS. GRAND TOTAL PHASE TWO 27 1 1 1 6 6 1 1 30 9 10 20 20 6 1 1 1 2 20 8 1 1 3 25 TOTAL $350.00 $250 . 00 $24Q.OO $880 .00 3 $532 .78 $1440.00 $10 .50 $10 .50 $12.00 $ 4 . 74 $ 4 . 74 $12 .00 $ 4.50 $64 .50 $17.10 $25 .00 $50 .00 $38 .00 $11.40 $ 8 .00 $ 9 . 00 $49 .00 $ 3 .80 $50 .00 $20.00 $30 .00 $2.50 $18 .00 $47 .50 $30.00 $2852.78

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Cost Estimate (Cont.) ITEM WOOD DECK PLANT MATERIALS BLUEGRASS JAPANESE MAPLE OREGON GRAPE ASPEN SWEET WOODRUFF BOSTON IVY UNIT PRICE $ 4 . 00/Sa . FT . $ . 17/Sa . FT. $20.00 $ 1 .90 $9.00 $ 1 . 90 $ # TOTAL 750 sa. FT . $3ooo .oo 13oo sa. FT. 1 30 3 15 10 $221.00 $ 20.00 $ 57 .00 $ 27 .00 $ 28 .50 $ 19.00 $ 372 .00 LABOR FOR PLANT MATERIAL INSTALLATION $60.00/HR 8HRS GRAND TOTAL PHASE THREE TOTAL COST ESTIMATE 3,147 . 32 {ALL THREE PHASES) 2 , 852 . 78 .852.00 $ 9852 .00 $480.00 $3852.00 t 14ll. 8 (15% CONTINGENCY) = $11,329.80 GRAND TOTAL 28 I -

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8. Contract I j ' ; , ; l ------------------'!------. . . . , , . --------I :.& fh_Q7 -----! v]lL..Q 7 , D J • F ----. I : ., ..... N 1' Jl • .. ., .... o.-ll:•'llf)N 4 L r .......... 0 n ..... .... 1<1[ 'l'ti():Z 29

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Contract (cont.) ___ L_: ----------(.1. _ ___L __ _ 30

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Contract (cont.) j-j \) 0 -_ _ _ / . . -9 cfC, \',' t' I ------31

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C. THE COMPUTER ASSISTED APPROACH This next part of the document deals with the exact same design process as described in the previous section. The only difference is that all of the drawings and documents found in this section were produced using the Macintosh computer (they were not hand drawn). Once again the specific stage of the design process (pg. 33) that the drawing is refering to can be determined by matching the title found on the upper-left hand side of the page with the box of the same name on the process diagram. 32

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miJ[I u w __ ....,_ ( .... --} -..... .. ------------------------------------------------------------., t ( ) .. ------------------------------------( . r • l (• I ) n Process ................ ............. ________________________________ ., -....... . ,_____ ( ) [=-l + (=-l iGiiiiiiiiiiiiiiJIIII ( I ( + Jl ) ) ( -) """ZIIIIIZIIIILIZIZI -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.. +

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i • -----) i ... _,....,... ___ --El + ------() ........ IIIII:III:IIIIIIIIICIIIUIEIII------------, ( ) 't\ L::1 + v (==-.) (=-) + ;I --) ----------------------------------------) + ( --) + --------------( -) 2 . Site lnvento DUI&N DF ITIIININ& WlllliS CDNCEPTUIIL ONLY. Tlt IIC1UIIl OUI&N liND N&INRIN& FOR Tlt WRll SHOULD 1 DON IY II PIIOFUSIONR L CIUIL EN&IN. DOU&LRSS COUNTY R(QUIRES II PROHSSIONIIL EN&IN STIIMP DN llll Wllll PLIINS WHICH EHCEED 48' IN HHT. Wllll MUST IILSO MT Wlllllll STIINDRIIOS S[J IY TltE IIRCHITC1URRL IIPPROUIIL CDMMITTI liT Tlt PINERY. UTILIT'I RSEMENTS EHIST ON THE NORTH, ERST, liND WEST SIDES OF THE PIIOPEIIT'I liS SHOWN. TltESE RSEMENTS RRE T'IPICRLLY STTN FT RWRY FROM TltE PROPERT LINE. IF PLRNTIN&S OR RTRIN6 WAllS liRE TO BE PLRCED WITltiN RN ERSEMENT, THE NECUSRR PERMISSION MUST fiRST BE OBTAINED fROM COUNTY OfFICIALS . I nd Analysl! @I 0 " ! 0 ; :;:

PAGE 39

IUIIiN IT IOIININii WILL IS CDNCP111Rl DNl'r. 111( ICTUIL IUIIiN FORTH WALL SHOULD 8 DONE IY II PROFUSIDI'lRL CIUIL ENGINEER. DOU&LRSS COUNTY REQUIII I PIIOFUSIONil fl'l&INUIIS STIIMP ON All Will PLANS WHICH EHCEED 48' IN HEU&HT. WALL MUST ALSO MEET WITH THE STANDARDS SET BY TH ARCH ITCTURIIL RPPROUIIL CDMMITTI[[ RTTH PINERY. UTILITY EASEMENTS EHIST ON THE NORTH, ERST, liND Wm SID Df THE PIIOPEIIT'IIIS SHOWN. THESE EASEMENTS RR T'IPICBUY SETTN fEET AWRY FROM TH PIIOPEIIT LIN. If PUINTIN&S OR IIETIIINii WALLS 1111 TO 1 PLIIC WITHIN liN (IISEMENT, THE NCSSIIIIY PEIIMISSION MUST fiRST 8( OBTRIN[D fROM CDIJNTY DffiCIIILS. 3. PROPOSED DECK STAIR DETAIL

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4. Development of Deslg lternatlves Alternative One UER6REEN 6ROUP PLRNTIN65. I . . . : VISUAL SIHULATIC:MS STONE, COBBLE, AND BOULDER DRY STREAMBED TREE LINED FLAGSTONE WALKWAY TO HOUSE. STAIRS ARE TO BE BUILT INTO THE RETAINING WALLS. ALL PLANTINGS IN TERRACED AREA WILL BE DROUGHT TOLERANT AS WELL AS PROUJDING EROSION CONTROL • FOUR FOOT TALL RETAINING WALLS SET AT TEN FEET APART. TO PRDUIDE FOR DRIUEWRY DRAINAGE. Anll AL TiUATIVI n:tO

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I . TILE DECK LEVEL 2 COVERED WALKWAY NATIVE 6RASSES DUI&N Of WILLIS CDNCll'lllll DNlt. 111( IClVIl IUI&N lNG (N&INUIINII fDI111 Will SHOULD I( DIN( IY I PRDFUSIDNIL CIUIL N&IN((I. GGU&LISS CDIIIm' I(QUIIU I PRDJSSIGN& fN&INUIS lll.l Will PLINS WMICM UCUI41" IN Mli&HT. Will MUST IUD M([T WITM Till STINGIIDS SIT 1 RRCHIT(ClVIRl IPPRDURL C-llTIU IT111 PIN. UTI LIT (IS(M(NTS KIST DN 111 NDIIlll. UST, IND WST SIDU OF 111 PIDPT IS SHDWN. TNU (MNTS RR TVPICRll SIT T(N rT IWR FROM TN PROPEIT LINE. IF PLRNTIN&s 01 ROliN& WillS II TO I[ PLRCED WITHIN IN SIMNT, 111[ NECUSRIY PERMISSION MUST FIRST IE DITIIND FROM COUNTY DHICIILS. Alternative Two DRIVEWAY C)RETAININ6 WALL DETAIL

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5. Visual Simulations EXISTING

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Visual Simulations (cont.) • EXISTING • PROPOSED 39

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Visual Simulations (cont.) EXISTING PROPOSED 40

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Visual Simulations (cont.) PROPOSED 41

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Visual Simulations (cont.) STING PROPOSED 42

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UACAlJJSO fARKER . COLORADO ALTERNATIVE ONE en . c CD < CD 0 "C 3 CD :::J 0 -. D) 0 0 :::J () CD "C c:: D) s::: D) en -CD ... "C D) :::J

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7 . Plant Material Selection a: !:: ... :::0 cz:: z 3 ... c::o ... Q .... .... c::o ... cz:: c::o a: A. c::o .. z .... w cz:: c::o w u c::o = cz:: ... .a c::o c::o Ill .., ,.. Cl' .. ,.. !:: u Ill ... .,; ! z a: "' ... ,.. w ;;; :::0 .... cz:: • ... z :I: :; = = L.&.l u z Cl L.&.l = Cl Q E3 = (,1) Cl Q d L.&.l = Cl a: lXI = = f!3 Q = Q 1.1.1 (,1) Cl _, :::) z Q c:::::J (..) aAII ....1 ::I a: ::z:: = ..... u ..... E3 Cl\ a: Cl\ = d l: If) = TREE STAK ING D ETAIL = c.. .........

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8. Cost Estimate A -B c D E F I COST ESTIMATE-MArALUSO RESIDENCE i 3 4 PHASE ONE 5 6 7 HEM UNIT PRICE NUMBER TOTAL 8 9 SITE GRADING $50.00 2 $100 . 00 10 STONE RETAINING WALL $8 . 00 120 $960.00 ll STAIRS $12 . 00 8 . $96 . 00 12 FLAOSTONE PATH $10 . 00 35 $350.00 13 DRY STREAMBED $10 . 00 30 $300 . 00 14 COBBLE DRAINAGE WAY $7.00 70 $490.00 15 $2 296.00 16 PLANT MATERIAL 17 18 BLUE RUG JUNIPER $1. 90 45 $85.50 19 BUFFALO JUNIPER $1.90 45 $85 . 50 20 00< BRUSH SUMAC $0 . 79 28 $22 .12 21 NOOTIKA ROSE $1.90 12 $22 . 80 24 PERSIAN YELLOW ROSE $1.90 8 $15.20 l AUSTRIAN COPPER ROSE $1.90 8 $15 . 20 ... -l PURPLE CLEMATIS $3.50 5 s 17.50 25 VIRGINS BOWLER $2.50 10 $25.00 26 WOODS ROSE $1.90 9 $17 .10 27 SMOOTH SUMAC $1. 90 6 s 11.40 28 REDBUD $9 . 00 6 $54.00 29 $371.32 30 LABOR $60 . 00 8 $480.00 31 32 GRAND TOTAL PHASE 1 $3 147 . 32 33 34 35 PHASE TWO ITEM UNIT PRICE NUMBER TOTAL 8 COBBLE DRAINA6E WAY $7 . 00 so $350.00 ROCK PLANTERS $10.00 25 $250 . 00 I 41 STEEL DIVIDER $2 . 00 120 $240.00 I 42. . $840.00 I ! PLANT MATERIALS .dLl -' PHLOX $10.50 1 $10 . 50 BLUE FLAX s 10.50 1 $10.50 _41 FLOWERING QUINCE $12.00 1 $12 . 00 45

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Cost Estimate (cont.) A B c D E F . l PINK PUSSY TOES $0 . 79 6 $4 . 74 SWEET WOODRUFF $0 . 79 6 $4 . 74 50 RED CWC $12 . 00 1 $12.00 51 EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH $4 . 50 1 $4 . 50 52 alTONEASTER $2 .15 30 $64 . 50 53 BURNING BUSH $1.90 9 $17 .10 54 PAMPAS eRASS $2 . 50 10 $25 . 00 55 BLUE AVENA eRAS5 $2 . 50 20 $50 . 00 56 BLUE RUO JUNIPER $1.90 20 $38 . 00 57 $1.90 6 $ t 1.40 58 MUOOPINE $8.00 1 $8 . 00 59 OREEN PHITZER $9.00 1 $9 . 00 60 ENGLEMAN SPRUCE $49.00 1 $49 . 00 61 TAMMY JUNIPER $1. 90 2 $3.80 62 RUSSIAN OLIVE $2.50 20 $50 . 00 63 NEW MEXICAN PRIVET $2 . 50 8 $20 . 00 64 PINE $30 . 00 1 $30 . 00 65 BOX ELDER $2 . 50 1 $2 . 50 66 NEW MEXICAN LOCUST $6 . 00 3 $18 . 00 67 SERVICECHERRY $1. 90 25 $47 . 50 68 WHEATaRASS( SEED) $10 . 00 3 -$30 . 00 6'! $532 . 78 llABOR $60 . 00 24 $1 440.00 , I 72 GRAND TOTAL PHASE TWO $2812. 78 73 74 75 PHASE THREE 76 77 78 ITEM UNIT PRICE NUMBER TOTAL 79 80 WOOD DECK $4.00 750 $3,000.00 I 81 tM PLANT MATERIAL i BLUE GRASS $0.17 1300 $221.00 JAPANESE MAPLE $20 . 00 1 $20.00 OREOON GRAPE $1.90 30 $57.00 . al2 I 87 ASPEN $9 . 00 3 $27 . 00 i 88 SWEET WOODRUFF $1.90 15 $28 . 50 I 89 BOSTON IVY $1.90 10 $19.00 ! I 9Q $372.50 i n L LABOR $60 . 00 8 $480.00 -> . I . .. I yj GRAND TOTAL PHASE THREE $3,852 . 50 I 94 46

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__5ll. 98 99 Cost Estimate (cont.) A GRAND TOTAL (ALL PHASES) 151 CONTINGENCY GRAND TOTAL B c D E F $9,812 . 60 $1,471.89 $11,284 .49 47

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PHASE ONE IIIII raal!l!a DIIM lmSil.ADI. 15400/lll , .... 110000 STCN:..,A*tMiWo\U. 1000/I"T 120n. ...... ...... 111.00/JT OrT ' ... FUGSTOC,.Ioi'M '""' JSrT. ,,. .. ............ llotn'' lOrT ,,.. .. cma.1 DbWYra WAY SJIYT, >orT. UIIUR su-.oo IUII..06IliiOI. .............. "" .. ..... UTA&.O..I.IMfU .... .. . ..... ... __ nma>oco " Uz.tt .,..,...,. ll.to " J%2.00 'OI'SIM1'U..UIW.sl "" • """ .... • ..... """'-.f.QD\Alll ., ... s IIUt .,... " ...... ..... .,. "" • IIlii ....... _ .... • 111• ...., noo • Udl an1..D I .... UB!IAIII:MIDIM 115l6111Im ........ -..... 00 &IINID111T.'*SICIII. PHASE TWO ""'::.:...:: ..;;; .:__:'-"-'---' 18(tpttq uoom I 1000/Jl '1001TT P'tUII I ltWIJUTl awn..u lltwaun R.O.O-a-2: 111.00 >OrT . 2SrT. t20n. ,._II'USSYTQO I I .ltm.rAOO 1m OM: I 11.00 .. A8f 14.50 I Cl1fl>STUU I11S J1 ......... ... . 12.50 1t 12.50 20 •.. . WI:S'TDIIISAa: I Ito I 11..00 I .0 NTlD ••• Olill..I'WISI"N::: ..... T...,..,...&lllf'U lito 2 M.55UoiiCI.IYI: 12.51 a IIE'ti'MIICNINtWT 1150 I I'QCl(ltQS.Af'tC UOOO I IOIW)(I 11.50 I ...,I'OICMILCID.51' S6.00 J SOY.a.:"" I I to JS IIOOIJ\.a. J mooo IZ50. 00 WUl ..... ,, .... 111.oe 14.74 I •U4 11100 .... ....... n-,,, ...... ..... .... .. ..... I Uo ' ... ..... .... ..... 120 .00 ..... 11>0 111..00 ....... UUI JSJ1l0 ....... PHASE THREE li! IIIII .-ama ........ , .. .,..n. IUIII.JlOIIIIII .... ..... 1 ,J,AI'Ioiii:SI""""' ...... ............ ,,_ .. ..... .... .....,_. ,, ... ......... ... • .. .... ...,. m111. PMAa TGTALCUSTmtMlt J.l41.l2 (AU n.o: JW.SW 2.15.1.71 ........ -: nosa.n . tsooan. I " J IS " .:...UZlJ 1111 CDITlWOOCYJ •111.32910 GAAHO 9. Phasing Plan ;; d ua:a ..... ... 111101 ' ,. .. ..... . .... ' .... .1...WII 'J7100 IJOUOO

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10. Contract January 15,1986 . Gregg and O'Neil Macaluso 8599 Thinderbird Road Parker, Colorado 80134 Lot 12, Block 7 , Filing 4 The Pinery This document is to outline an agreement between Gregg and O'Neil Macaluso and Jordan Postlewait, Richard VanGytenbeek, landscape architecture students at the University of Colorado , Denver . The Macalusos' have hired these gentlemen to provide landscape planning assistance for the aforementioned property. The nature of the services provided and yet to come are as followed , but are not l i mited to ; a . A preliminary site inspection and consultation pointing out ongoing functional problems and initial aesthetic desires and ideas. b . Preparation, review, and discussion of a variety of preliminary perspective and elevation drawings depicting a variety of landscaping ideas for all areas of the house including: 1. The large retaining wall required on the southern portion of the lot as well as other retaining structures. 2. Plant species selections for all other areas surrounding the home. c . Preparation, review, and discussion of a preliminary topographical master plan depicting ideas shared in previous meetings. This step will address : 1 . Some consideration of phasing the entire project . 2. Preliminary cost considerations for the project. d . Preparation, review, and discussion of a final form master plan which will include the follwing: 1. Detail plan as to the project phasing, (ie what phases must take place in order to address erosion and water channeling needs and what may wait for later installation so that both cost considerations are reasonably addresed . 2. A detailed outline of costs associated with all phases of the landscaping project as detailed in 'Other Considerations' . 49

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3. A complete set of installation plans that would allow the reasonably competent contractor a guide by which to install listed materials. Note: It is understood that the plan for installation is to be used as a guideline to materials and location for placement of those materials. It is not intended to serve as an engineering guide to wall construction. The Macaluso's would simply ask for the availability of Mr. Postlewait and Mr. VanGytenbeek for questions in the areas in which construction could be aided by their expertise including questions which clarify intent in the plan itself. Cost: Completion of phases A C represents 1/2 of the $500 'basic compensation' for the project. Phase d represents the other half. The Macaluso's understand that there are other phases of the plan which may be included at an addional cost. These include, but are not limited to: 1. Mechanical Irrigation Installation 2 . Design Details 3. Additional elevation drawings 4. 5. 6 . These additional plans will be provided at the Macaluso's request given that the landscape architects wish to do the work. they may set their own prices for this work. The Macaluso's request that the additional work be packaged in value increments of $1 00.00 or less for each selection. Timing: Completion of Phases A-D will be by March 30,1986 unless other arrangements are made by the two parties prior to that date. Payment for Phases A-D will be due upon competion and delivery of said products. Other Considerations: • Cost estimate will include species/plant cost and a rough e$timate of rock costs for retaining walls. • Phasing will consider cost estimates taken in point (Other Considerations). • Points 1 and 2 (Other Considerations) are provided as an additional service value $100.00 (as agreed to step c, listed above). The terms of this agreement are ratified by the signees below. 50

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Date Jordan Postlewait Richard VanGytenBeek Gregg R. Macaluso O ' Neil Macaluso 51

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[ [ru lJ [}={] [ru [ 52

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A. INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPARATIVE METHODOLOGY In order to compare the two different techniques used for preparing construction documents, I will refer back to the process diagram seen on page 35 . I will go through this process diagram step by step, comparing the two separate approaches and describing the different techniques that each of them used. In this section I will also place value judgements on each of the techniques in order to see in which areas of the design process each of them offer advantages in the practice of landscape architecture . B. THE COMPARISONS 1. The Design Process For comparing and evaluating the two process diagrams, the basic issue is one of graphics since the contents of the diagrams themselves are exactly the same . Since the originals of both of these drawings were much larger than the ones shown in this book, one of the issues here is how well did each of the drawings reduce. In this case it appears that the hand prepared drawing did a bit better although th i s is an unfair comparison because the computer drawing was reduced using a scaling factor in the program while the hand prepared drawing was reduces using a xerox process. It would appear that the xerox process produces a cleaner method of reduction than does the computer process. This may also have to do with the nature of the printing capabilities of the dot matrix printer that was used in preparing the document. While this is indeed a limitation of the computer and it's peripherals, the computer still offers an advantage over the traditional methods because it at least offers the capabilities to do automatic reductions. Another advantage of the computer graphic is that the geometry reads a bit cleaner. While this problem could be addressed in the hand done graphic with more care being put into its preparation, it is not even an issue with the computer generated graphic. Finally, it should be noted that the hand prepared drawing took longer to produce than did the computer drawing (1 hr. vs. 35 minutes). See pg. 64 2. Site Inventory and Analysis This stage of the design process was somewhat intuitive and was used more as a tool for myself the designer, rather than something that needed to be shown and graphically represented for the client. In doing the Inventory and Analysis I spent a lot of time on the site walking around it, photographing it, and discovering problems and discussing them with the owner. The biggest area of concern (and the reason that the owner had initially sought the help of a landscape architect) was that the concrete driveway on the south end of the property had begun to crack. This was due to a serious erosion problem that had 53

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begun to occur on the slope that supported the driveway. A primary concern then was to develop ideas that would put an immediate halt to the erosion problem and begin to stabalize the slope. Another major goal was to develop an aesthetically pleasing and low maintenance landscaping plan for the entire property . The house itself was brand new on a lot that was a part of a young development, so the site was very barren and void of plant material. The topsoil seemed to be made up mostly from left over fill (low quality) from grading the driveway. In comparing the two approaches, the issue of importance here is the technique involved in taking the inventory information and using it to prepare a basemap . This basemap can then be used as a source onto which the other information needed to prepare the rest of the drawings could be overlayed. For the traditional approach a basemap was provided. Unfortunately it was not provided on reproducable paper, so it had to be hand traced before it could be used. The map that was provided also had to be changed because it was not accurate in terms of how the driveway was configured. Once the drawing had been traced and its inaccuracies corrected, sepia mylars (expensive!) were run as a base for which to lay out the other plans. This is another area in which the computer proved to be the superior method. Once the basemap had been drawn on the computer (which was a very quick and easy process given the automatic dimension capablities of the program MacDraft) it could be called up and used a template every time a new drawing was begun. If mistakes were made on these new drawings it didn't matter because the basemap was always readily available in its original form and in unlimited quantities. Drafting the base map on the computer proved to be a cleaner process than traditional methods as curves and lines could be matched exactly thus eliminating the need for straight edges, french curves, technical pens, and compasses. Lettering on the computer was also much faster (as fast as typing) than either hand lettering or applying presstype or Kroy letters. 3. Development of Design Alternatives The process of developing design alternatives was greatly aided by the application of the computer. Although the computer cannot by itself come up with alternative concepts for design, it can greatly increase our efficiency and help in visualizing those designs which we create. With the development of a vast symbol library (see Appendix D) and using these symbols to place in simulations, the designer is quickly able to see what a finished rendering might look like. Also the different elements in the drwaing can easily be moved, duplicated, and manipulated around the page without having to erase or redraw them. In the traditional approach, design alternatives are first explored in a rough sort of way before they are drafted in final form. The computer eliminates the need for this step of the process as it allows one to view the graphics in final form as a one step process (symbols from the symbol library do not have to be redrawn! . only copied and reproduced). 54

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The computer does have limitations however in developing site wide concepts and/or alternative designs. These limitations are due to the size of the screen. Although it is possible to zoom way out in order to view the entire drawing , the resoultion at this scale is drastically reduced. In general however this did not pose too much of a problem because the details of the drawing could be looked at at the same size that they would be on the final drawing and the zoom out feature could be used strictly for studying the spatial relationships among the objects on the screen. 4. Visual Simulations The method involved for creating visual simulations in both the traditional approach and the computer assisted approach was basically the same. The only difference was in the technique used in their development. In the traditional method, sketches were made by manually tracing slides of the existing conditions on the site, and then enhancing these skecthes with additional information concerning the proposals . The computer eliminated the need for tracing slides as a digitized image of a photograph could be entered into the computer with a hardware device known as Thunderscan (see Appendix F). New information could then be added to, or drawn on top of this image by using one of the drawing programs such as Macpaint, Macdraw , or Macdraft. These programs also make it possible to erase those parts of the images that show things that will not be there in the final proposal. 5. Development of a Conceptual Masterplan The development of the final masterplan in the hand drawn approach required redrawing those aspects from the alternatives that the client liked best. In the computer assisted approach, redrawing was again eliminated since one can 'cut and paste' images from several different drawings to form one new drawing. 6. Plant Material Selection In both of the approaches the process used for selecting plant materials involved a close examination of the site, analyzing it for it's various conditions and then developing a close relationship with the client to learn of his needs and wishes . An overall guiding principle was that of the use of water. Since the west will always be subject to periodic droughts, water conservation is critical especially given the steadily increasing population. With this in mind, I tried to choose drought tolerant plants whenever possible. This also seemed to fit with the clients desires in designing a landscaping plan that would be low maintenance. 55

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In the traditonal approach the method of selection involved looking in books and studying lists of plants that were suited for various conditions. These lists included plants that control erosion, shade tolerant plants, drought tolerant plants, heat resistant plants for south and west exposures , and plants with colored foliage. I used these lists together with my own knowledge on plant materials to decide on species that were both best suited for the varying conditions of the site and best suited for the desires and wishes of the client. In the computer assisted approach, plants were chosen using a database management program that I had previously filled with information concerning plant material (see Appendix E). Once the basic data, or information had been entered into the database management program, it can then be retrieved in a number of different ways . The information can be sorted, rearranged alphabetically, or specific records of information can be searched for automatically. For example, one could ask for a list of plant materials that were all shade trees, did not need a lot of supplemental irrigataion, had an extensive root system for controlling erosion, and were available for below a certain cost. The computer would then scan the database and furnish a listing of plant materials that met all of the specified criteria. It could also provide a more detailed description of all of the other characteristics of the plants that were included on the list. This list could then be p1esented and reviewed with the client. The limitations of choosing plants in this manner are that you are limited to plants that had to have been previously entered into the database. Also, in order for plants to have matching fields when a query is run, the information in each record has to have been entered in eactly the same way. 7. Cost Estimating At first appearance, the cost estimate appearing in each of the two approaches seems to be pretty much the same. This makes sense they are both cost estimates for the same project. The major difference between the two is that the one shown under the computer assisted section was created on the computer using Jazz software and the spreadsheet application, while the one shown in the traditional approach section was created using only a word processor. All of the calculations for the latter had to be done by hand. A typical spread sheet consists of a grid made up from a series of rows and columns. Each 'cell' then has a specific row and column number that is unique to itself. This row and column number is known as the cells address. Values (numbers), text, or mathematical formulas can be entered into cells in such a way so that the computer can then calculate information as it is needed (i.e. add or multiply a specific row of numbers). The power of this application lies in the fact that if a change in the data occurs (i.e. a plant is found out to cost more than originally supposed) it is only a matter of readjusting this one number. The computer can then recalulate everything else so that the totals and percentages are also readjusted. It is then a simple procedure to reprint the updated information without anyone having to retype it. 56

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8. Contracts A copy of the original contract used between myself and the client can be found under the 'Traditional Approach' section of this report. It was included in order to emphasize the power of a good word processing program. This original contract was hand written and lacks a professional looking quality. The exact same contract appears again under the 'Computer Assitted Approach", only this time it was prepared using a word processing program . The advantages are obvious . In addition to simply being easier to read, the document prepared on the word processor enables one to use different styles and sizes of type , thus eliminating the need for Kroy or Press-Type lettering. The word processor also allows one the ability to move blocks of text around and insert or delete changes as needed. The Macintosh computer also offers the added advantage of being able to automatically insert logos or other graphics. 57

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@OO[baJJa@OO lJa@OO 58

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A. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The following lists describe in summary form some of the advantages and disadvantages of using the computer as compared to more traditional approaches to the design process. The lists are intentially written in a synopsis form for quick reference. The implications of these findings are discussed in more detail in the latter sections of this chapter. 1.Advantages of Computer Aided Techniques A. Ability to store, edit, and print detail drawings , without having to redraw them. B. No need for voluminous paper files. C. Speed increase for retrieval of database information . D. Speed increase for drafting . E. Reduces mechanical errors in drafting . F. Reduces drudgery of routine tasks. G. Provides drawing reductions (automatic changes of scale) . H. Provides automatic drawing dimensioning . I. Eliminates the need for Kroy or press-type lettering . J. Eliminated the need for sepia reproductions . K. Automatic duplication, manipulation of drawings . L. Automatic 'digitizing' of images eliminates the need for tracing M. No recalculating cost estimates. N. No retyping needed other than to edit text and make corrections . 59

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2. Disadvantages of Computer Aided Techniques A. Quality of reductrons is poor . B. Possible to 'loose' data . C. 'Systems errors' are often hard to figure out (what went wrong) . D . There are no immediate solutions to program 'glitches'. E. Size of screen can be limiting (i.e . for presentations). F . Storage or memory sometimes limiting factors . 60

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14 13 12 r/') ex: :::l 0 1 1 J: z (..!) 10 z ?; < 9 ex: 0 ex: UJ e (J) c.. ...... tz UJ 7 c.. r/') UJ I: 6 t-UJ (..!) < 5 C( UJ > < 4 3 2 A TIME COMPARISON FOR COMPUTER DRAWl NGS VS. DRAWl NGS DONE BY HAND BASEMAP DEVELOPMENT ALTERNATIVE PLAN PLANT MATERIAL SELECTION LEGEND COMPUTER ASSISTED -HANDDRAWN

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A. PREPARATION OF PRESENTATION GRAPHICS There are two main concerns when prerparing presentation graphics on the Macintosh, ribbon quality and paper quality. Ribbons vary both in price and in quality and in general you get what you pay for. More expensive ribbons produce higher quality drawings with better black and white contrast and less chance of smudging. A fresh ribbon is also important for high contrast, although for printing text it may be better to use a slightly used ribbon so to reduce bleeding . Paper type also affects bleeding and how well the ink adheres to the paper. In general, heavier papers seem to produce better results and minimize horizontal streaking . Printing on other types of paper such as vellum, mylar, and trace will produce adequate results although they may need to be sprayed with a fixative. Drawings produced on these types of paper can easily be produced by a diazo process. For reproducing drawings that are larger than the image writer, taping the pages together and then xeroxing them with a large format machine works well. Another alternative is to use a plotter if one is available . A plotter will also allow for the addition of color . Other alternatives for adding color to drawings include rendering printouts with markers or colored pencils . Add Markers and Design Markers on computer paper tend to bleed if the paper is not treated with a fixative but Magic Markers, Niji Markers, and Prismacolor colored pencils seem to work fine . Examples of colored computer drawings can be found in the slide set that accompanies this document. 62

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B. GENERAL FINDINGS AND CONCERNS An initial look at the summary of findings charts on advantages and disadvantages of computer vs. traditional approaches to design (pgs . 59-60) seems to indicate that the computer offers overwhelming advantages . Although these advantages are legitimate, there are some limitations of the computer which are not immediately evident. While I believe that computers are an incredible tool and they can vastly improve on the speed and accuracy on which an office is run, I want to make it clear that I do not wish to advocate the use of computers for all aspects of the decision mak ing process . Decisions which require human value or judgement may be bette r off left to traditional methods . As Dr. Joseph Weizenbaum of M . I.T . sees it "Computers can perform impressive feats of calculating but they cannot make judgements because judgements depend on more than information extracted from the real world ; they depend on meaning . And meaning emerges from the thinkers participation in the real world" . 5 I think that Dr . Weizenbaums point is well taken as I view the computer strictly as a tool to aid one in the design process . The computer by itself is not actually capable of designing or making judgements and so a final design done on a computer can be only as good as the designer who is using the computer . It is for this reason that the emphasis of this thesis has been on tools and techniques rather than design theory although it is sometimes difficult to separate them. In terms of evaluating tools and techniques the purpose of comparing the techniques involved in the traditional approach to design with the techniques involved in the computer assisted approach was to further Carl Steintz' of Harvard University research on this subject , or in his words to "develop a sense of appropriateness to handling information so as to have a higher probability of having a better design which has a higher probability of producing a better envirionment"? Producing a better envirionment should after all be the goal or final result of any des ign process in landscape architecture. C. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSONAL OPINIONS My purpose in writing this section is to give the reader a very persona l and candid report on some of the rewards and frustrations that I experienced in writing and preparing this thesis. Perhaps this can then provide a stepping stone for someone wishing to further my research by giving them a general idea of what to expect when undertaking a study such as this that involves a technology that is brand new . The first point that I wish to make is that the payoff for adopting such a new technology is by no means instant. Learning the terminology and operating procedures that are necessary to operate a computer can be (like learning how to draw for the first time) a very slow process. Introducing onesself to a computer for the first time can be particularly frustrating on a CAD system because this is such a new technology that not all of the 'bugs' have been worked out (here, I can only refer to the system with which I am most familiar , the Apple Macintosh and MacDraft software but my feeling is that the same would hold true for any new CAD system) . Some of the more frustrating 'bugs' that I experienced seemed to be linked to the printing process. On many occasions I experinced difficulty while trying to print my 63

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MacDraft documents. For one reason or another various things seemed to go wrong. For example mysterious lines would sometimes appear on the printed document that I did not draw and that did not appear on the monitor. On several occasions I also had program (MacDraft) "crash" half way through printing a drawing, leaving me with only half of the drawing in hardcopy output. This would happen for no apparent reason and in the present version of MacDraft (1.1) there is no way to reprint only the specific pages that were missing, so I would have to reprint the entire drawing (sometimes this 'reprint' would also crash halfway through!). This problem was not the fault of the printer as I also experinced similar difficulties while using MacDraft with other peripheral devices such as a Iazor writer and a plotter. Another frustrating experience for the novice getting involved with computers for the first time is that of not having the expertise to determine what the cause of a problem is. When you don't know what is wrong it is very difficult to correct a problem. The problems that I've listed above are just a few examples of the many difficulties that I encountered while involved with this project. There were many more but my purpose here is not to list them all but rather to prepare the reader for encountering similar frustrations when attacking a problem such as this. I do believe however that most of these problems were simply due to the 'newness' of the technology and that they will be worked out in the very near future thus making the microcomputer CAD system a very appropriate tool for a typical design office. I also believe that Apple has taken a . very big step towards initiating large scale implimentation of such systems simply by designing one (the Macintosh) which is so 'user friendly' and so closely parallels the thought process of a design process (see Appendix C). Indeed, my frustrations have been, not in the conceptual understanding of what needed to be done on the computer and how to go about doing it, but rather in the computers response to instructions which I thought were correct. Another frustration that I have encountered is also related to the fact that the whole technology of Computer Aided Design and Drafting is so new. This frustration is the simple fact of how quickly any new system or software that one buys can become outdated. It seems like everyday there are new things on the market that are cheaper and better than what there were the day before. This is not a huge problem however, because for most systems updates are usually available. This also should not deter one from getting started on a CAD system as this trend is liable to continue for quite some time. Any system with which one becomes familiar and is able to use productively is better than none at all and it doesn't matter if something exists on the market that is better. Despite the frustrations, the overall rewards and capabilities of even a very primitive CAD system (such as MacDraft) are truely astonishing. This is evidenced by the summary section of this document intitled 'Advantages of Computer Aided Techniques' (pgs. 59-60). D. FUTURE TRENDS I think that it is important to conclude my documentation with some notes on what I feel will be the major future trends of this very new technology. 64 /

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First of all, as far as professional applications in landscape architecture are concerned, I think that some uses of the microcomputer are already well established . These uses include word processing, accounting, cost estimating, project management, engineering, and database management. The trends of the future lie in three major applications inci•Jding Geographic Information Systems, Networking and Telecommunications, and Computer Aided Design and Drafting. This last category can be further broken down to include visual simulations, digital terrain modeling, and perspective sketching. These three major applications and their implications on the profession are discussed briefly below. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Once Geographic Information Systems such as the Map Analysis Package discussed earlier become readily available for use on microcomputers, their impact on the profession will be substantial. What they will do is allow small firms with relatively small numbers of employees the chance to compete effectively with the larger corporations for jobs that involve large scale land assessment and evaluation. They are able to do this because they eliminate the need for many specialists by enabling a single person to view large geographical regions either as a whole or broken down into it's constituent parts. TELECOMMUNICATIONS Further advancements in networking and telecommunications will have a very significant impact on office structures in the near future. For . one thing it will enable firms to effectively communicate between their different offices via electronic mail. It will also allow workers the flexability to stay at home to accomplish some of their tasks. If a job normally involves sitting at a terminal or word processor entering data or typing reports or drafting on a CAD system, what difference does it make where the terminal is? With the technology to communicate over telephone lines, workers can simply finish their quota for the day and then dial up their firms computer and transmit the work over the phone line? This technology could eventually eliminate the need for vast amounts of office space. COMPUTER AIDED QESIGN ANO ORAFTING CAD systems have already been discussed in some detail in this report. The reason for this is that I feel that this is the area in which microcomputers will have the biggest impact on the profession of landscape architecture. At the present time there seems to be an obstacle in getting firms to fully accept the necessity of a CAD system but I feel this is mostly due to the that these systems are so new that a lot of people simply do not realize the capabilites of these machines. Another issue here is the fact that affordable ($2,000 -$50,000) CAD systems have only been on the market for about three years. I think that it is clear that although these systems are new and strange, they are here and that now is the time for our profession to take a serious look at them and decide on what this technology is going to mean in the long run for landscape architects. One issue that comes to mind is that of the integral relationship between the 65

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creative process and the ability to draw by hand . I think that in the very near future the profession is going to be forced to deal with a whole new breed of landscape architects who are indeed incapable of drawing by traditional methods , or without the aid of a computer. We need to ask ourselves what are the implications of this and are we going to loose something important that we won't be able to restore? My personal opinion is that we may well loose something in the sense of quality drawings for arts sake , but that we just as well may gain something in terms of the built envirionment. The reason that I feel that we may gain something is because of the level of realism that can be obtained from very fast computer generated visual simulations. With this level of realism and relative ease of constructing drawings, a client will have a very good idea of what a finished project will look like and due to the relative ease of constructing these simulations, they won't have to be satisfied with a design until they see something that they really like . I think that the level of realism in the simulations is also very positive because it means that someone won't be 'fooled' into accepting an idea just because of an illustrative rendering that may or may not . portray an adequate or realistic depiction of what a finished product might look like . Whether or not one believes in the quality of a computer generated visual simulation or plan graphic over a hand generated one is not really even an issue. The fact of the matter is that the computer technology exists and if it is not already, it will soon be cleaner, faster, and more accurate than traditional methods . . For these reasons it is clear that computer applications in landscape architecture are here to stay and landscape architects are going to be forced to make a choice of whether they want to ignore the technology or become a part of the force that is using it. 66

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c COt1MimE MEMBERS 1 . Jerry Shapins Landscape Architect Faculty Advisor Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture University of Colorado at Denver 2 . Randy Palmer Landscape Architect/Planner Dames and Moore Adjunct Faculty Member University of Colorado at Denver 3. Joseph R. Nagy, P. E Construction Engineer United States Mint 320 West Colfax Ave . Denver, Colorado Macintosh Computer Consultant 67

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1. Calcomp 200 Hacienda Ave . Campbell, Ca. 95008 ( 408) 866-6272 2 . Computer Information Publishing, Inc . 150 Fifth Ave. Suite 714 New York, New York 10011 3 . Computers For Design Paul Karius, Presisent 1430 Larimer Square, Suite 208 Denver, Co. 80202 (303) 629-7474 4. Ervin, Stephen ASLA'S Open Commitee on . Computers in Landscape Architecture C/0 Box 851 Amherst, Ma. 01004 5. Generation 5 Technology Sheridan Park 8 8670 Wolff Court , Suite 120 Denver, Co. 80030 (303) 427-0055 6 . Kesler, Gary Dept. of Landscape Architecture 214 Mumford Hall University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1301 W. Gregory Drive Urbana, Illinois 7. Killpack, Charles President, Iris International 4301 Garden City Drive Landover, Maryland 20785 8. Kulak, Arthur J. 1014 Tennesee Ln. Elk Grove Village, Illinois 60007 68

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9 . LANDCADD Gregory W . Jameson, President 5435 S Midvale Ave. Tucson,Az . 8574 1 0 . Lindhult, Mark Dept. of Landsdcape Architecture 1 09 Hills North University of Mass. Amherst, Ma. 01003 11. Olsen , Jean E. Landscape Architects Microcomputer User Group Extension Landscape Architect 288 College of Design Iowa State University Ames , Iowa 50011 12 . Pitt , David G. Associate Professor and Extension Landscape Architect Dept. of Horticulture University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742 13. Schmieman, Susan Principal Perisan , Pautz Road Box 286 Maribel Wisconsin 54227 14. White, Dennis Lab. for Computer Graphics Harvard University 48 Quincy Street Cambridge, Ma . 69

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1. Artwick, Bruce A. Applied Concepts In Micro-Computer Graphics 1984 . Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2. Brand, Stewarded. Whole Earth Software Catalog For 1986 3. Burns, Diane and Venit, S PCVS MAC PC Magazine July 23, 1985 4 . Chan, Barbara J . ed . The Macazine 5 . Church, Thomas D . Gardens Are For People 1983, Elizabeth R. Church 6. Ciaccio, David J. Site Sections and Details 1984 Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 7. Clark, Ron 55 More Color Computer Programs For The Home. School. and Office 8. Conley, William E. Basic For Beginners 70

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9. Crone, John Computers: Guide to 3D Landscape Architecture Magazine March/April 1986 10. Date, C . J. Database A Primer 1983 Addison Wesley Publishing Co . 11. Dwyer, Thomas Basjc and The Personal Computer 12 . Ellias, Thomas S The Complete Trees of North America 1980, UNR Inc. 13 . Evans, Larry Illustration Guide For Architects. Designers. and Students 1982, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co . 14 . Girard, Diane The Essential Users Guide To The I.B.M. PC. XI and PC jr . 1984 15. Glossbrenner, Alfred How To Get Free Software 1984, St. Martins Press 16. Glossbrenner, Alfred The Complete Handbook of Personal Computer Communications : Everything You Need To Go On Line With The World 1985, St. Martins Press 71 •

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17. Guzelimian, Vahe Becoming A Macartist 18. Hart, Glenn Hardware: Firm Support for Cad PC Magazine March 11 , 1986 19. Jensen, Dallas Beginners Guide To Primos 20. Kelley, Kathleen ed . LA TIS Vol. 6 #1 May 1985 21. Kerr, Kathleen ed. Cost Data for Landscqpe Construction 1986, Kerr Associates Inc. 22. Kisor, Henry News America Syndicate Rocky Mountain News, Wed. Oct. 16, 1985 Special Computer Section 23. Lewis, Gerard Macintosh The Appliance Of The future 1984 24. Long, Marion Turncoat of the Computer Revolution New Age Journal 72 I -

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25. Lynch, Kevin Site Planning 2nd edition 1962, The MIT Press 26. Machrone, Bill ed . P . C . Magizine 27. MacDougall, E. Bruce Microcomputers In Landscape Architecture 1983, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. 28. McGill, Frank Using Computers for Environmental Assessment Planning, Sept. 1983 29 . McHarg, lan Design With Nature 1969, Doubleday/ Natural History Press 30. Moran, James Markets Shift Within Cad/Cam Field VAR, July 1985 31. Norton, Peter PC-DOS Introduction to High Preformance Computing 1985 Brady Communications Co., Inc. 32. Steinitz, Carl Tools and Technigues: Some General Notes But Precious Few "Hard" Recommendations Harvard University, 197 4 73

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33. Oevllette, R.P. Computer Technigues in Enyironmertal Planning 34 . Olivieri, Petered. Wheels For The Mind Vol.1 No . 1 Fall1985 35 . Rademacher, Susan ed. landscape Architecture Magazine Jui/Aug 1985 Vol. 75 #4 36. Redgat Publishing Company The Macintosh Buyers Guide 37 . Schmieman, Susan Macoaint. Orawing Drafting Oesign 1985 , Brady Communications 38. Shapiro, Neil L. Macuser Magazine 39. Technoscape Research landscape Architecture Software Directory 40 . Teicholz, Eric Computer Graphics and Environmental Planning 41. Walker, Theodore D. Site Design and Construction Detailing 1978, Theodore D . Walker 74

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42. Wang, Thomas C. Plan and Section prawjng 1979 , Vari Nostrand Reinhold Inc. 43 . Whited, . William L. Using Microcomputers In Urban Planning Planning Advisory Service Report# 372 44. Williamson,Joseph F . ed New Western Garden Book 1981 Sunset Magazines 45 . Wolverstein, Van Runnjng MS pos 1984, Microsoft Press 46. Younger, J. Kelley Macworld Magazine 75

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FOOTNOTES 1 . Date, C.J. Database A Primer 1983 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 2. McHarg, I an Des j go Wj th Nature 1969, Doubleday/ Natural History Press 3 . MacDougall, E. Bruce Microcomputers In Landscape Architecture 1983, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. 4. Kelley, Kathleen ed. LATIS Vol. 6 May 1985 5. Long, Marion Turncoat of the Computer Reyolutjon New Age Journa 1 6. Steinitz, Carl Tools and Technicues Some General Notes But Precious Few "Hard" Recommendatj oos Harvard University, 1974 7. Glossbrenner, Alfred The Complete Handbook of Personal Computer Communications: Everything You Need To Go On Line With The World 1985, St. Martins Press 76

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A''IIIIIIOI A: IACIIUIIJIIIIIAIOCI 77

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• APPENDIX A: BACK8ROUND BASICS Having read this document the reader should have a pretty good understanding or the potential applications or the microcomputer to landscape architecture . The next step Is to begin to use the computer! In order to do this, one first has to have some sort of storage medium where Information can be written In magnetic patterns and stored and retrieved as needed. Standard storage mediums Include casette tapes, and both hard and floppy disks . Floppy disks are by far the most common. Floppy disks can be either 8 " , 5 11 4", or 3 1 /2" In diameter, depending on the system that Is being used. In the case of the Macintosh computer, floppy disks are 3 1/2" in diameter and are incased in a hard plastic covering . Before a floppy disk can be used, It has to be ' formatted', or 'Initialized' . This .means that the computer has to magnetically scribe concentric circles onto the disk. These circles then serve as a storage place, or means by which the computer Is able to organize and retrieve Information that the user specifies . Formatting a diskette Is a very simple process. First, the blank disk is inserted into the disk drive, and then the command "format " or "lnltla11ze" Is selected . All floppy disks have three things In common: 'tracks', sectors, and 'density'. These terms all refer to the way Information is organized on the diskette by the computer . Tracks are the concentric circles which are scribed magnetically around the disk . Sectors are pie shaped slices which cut across these tracks, breaking the surface up into a large number of readily Identifiable areas . Density refers to how many bytes or Information can be recorded In any sector on any track. combinations of different disk sizes, number of sectors, and densities result in many different formats or amounts or storage that any one disk Is capable of handling. . Diskettes, like cassette tapes, are fragne and need to be handled with care. Extreme heat, dust, and bending need to be avoided. They should also never be placed on or near a magnetic surface . Nor should they be placed on or near something such as a television set or x-ray machine which generate magnetic fields . All new diskettes come with a write/protect notch. When this notch Is covered up, the information stored on the diskette cannot be erased. In addition to having a storage medium to place files that are created, every computer system also needs software, or programs of instructions that the computer uses to operate. These instructions exist as electronic impulses and can therefore be stored on the same type of magnetic disks just described . 78

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The first piece of software that a microcomputer user will need to use is called the "Master Disk" or "System Disk". This disk contains information which operates the basic functions of the computer. It is usually refered to as the Disk Operating System or DOS. The DOS moves information ' into the computer and then moves it around once it i s inside . It creates files, manages them, and controls printers , monitors, disk drives, etc . Once loaded for the first time, some of the information from DOS goes directly into the computers internal memory (RAM). This means that the instructions for commands that will be used all of the time such as those for copying, opening, or removing files will always be available whether or not the system disk drive has the " System D isk" software loaded in it. These then become 'internal' commands. RAM is limited in size, so some of the other information on DOS such as the initialize command, stays on the diskette and requires that it be in the disk drive in order for the computer to perform those functions . Once DOS has been loaded, the compute r will give some type of signal that it is ready to go (a blinking cursor which means type something, or a display of icons which mean select something) . The number of choices for ways to compute within DOS is limited, so the next step is to load some sort of appli.cations software. This simply means ejecting the DOS disk and replacing it with a disk that has been programed to preform specific functions . Most microcomputers now have two disk drives. The first disk drive, generally holds the software application, and the second holds a blank disk or data disk where ones personal files can be stored. If the computer has only one disk drive, the same thing can be accomplished by swaping the disks back and forth. Once the software has been loaded, the program can usually be started in one of three ways: J.) Type in the name of the software package. 2.)Move the cursor to an operation and then hit the return or enter key. 3.) Move the mouse to place the arrow (which moves with the mouse) over an icon of the desired operation and 'click' the mouse button. After it has been opened, each software package contains it's own set of commands or icons which can either be typed or selected. Each of these commands preforms its own unique function. Owners manuals come with the software and explain all of these commands. Application software works on various levels . First, the user is confronted with a menu from which they are to choose a command (this may be a list of words from which they choose one and type it, or may be a display of visual icons from which they choose one and select' it with the mouse). That process ' takes them to another level where they will do the same thing. This continues until they have accomplished what they wanted to do. J The diagram on the next page, summarizes the process discussed above. 7Q

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(C (O)lt1) [pl WJ 1r 00 (t) •••••••••••• .......... ......... ........ ........ ••••••• I ee ee I ... .. . . . a 80 lOAD PROGRAM I SELECT COMMAND I ENTER TEXT (OR GRAPHICS) l CREATE A FILE I SAVE A FilE I EDIT A FilE I SAVE THE EDITED FilE I FORMAT THE FilE FOR PRINTING I PRINT THE FilE

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01111 A 111n1PJ 81

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APPENDIX B: CHOOSIN6 A SYSTEM With a baste understanding of beginning computing, how then does the novice computer user/landscape architect choose an appropriate system? There Is no simple answer to this question. The choice depends on both the needs of the Individual and their budget. There Is a lot of existing software for many different systems at many different costs that is all applicable to the field of landscape architecture . It 1s Important to keep In mind that all microcomputer software Is not compatible with every system. Programs that run on.an IBM won't necessarily run on an Apple. I think however, that since the market Is so competitive, major computer manufacturers all try to have very s1m11ar programs for their systems. Even though one company may come out with a particular piece of software first, If tt Is popular, the other major competitors won' t take long to follow In developing a s1m11ar program for their system. Perhaps the most Important thing to keep In mind when choosing an appropriate system Is that the most expensive system Is not necessarily the best. The 'best' computer for any job depends ori the particular situation . Before purchasing any system a user must first do a careful analysts of their own needs. This should Include evaluating exactly what the computer Is going to be used for to make sure that the appltcatlons that are des1red are something that can benefit from automation. One neeeds to ask oneself where can time be saved? And where can prodcttvlty be Increased? Once these types of questions have been answered, one then needs to consider issues such as expandab111ty, amount of available software, amount of ava11able hardware and how whoever Is going to use the computer will be trained. With this in mind, I chose the Apple Macintosh as the system on which I to do my study. The reason 1 chose the Macintosh Is First of all, the Macintosh Is extremely user friendly, which meant that I was able to train myself how to use It User friendly in terms of the Macintosh means that It's programs present menus of visual Images .or 'Icons for the user to select, as opposed to having to memorize trad1t1onal typed In commands. It Is my contention that If the user .does not experience any great frustration wh11e dotng relatively simple tasks, then they will be more Inclined to learn more about the computers capab111ties so they will be able to run more sophisticated programs. Second, the Macintosh is one of the most powerful microcomputers available today In terms of It's abilities to generate graphics. This makes It particularly appropriate for design professions. And third, the software package MacDraft is available 82

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for only $150 .00. This may sound like a lot but a comparable package for the IBM PC's or compatible computers (AutoCad). can run into thousands of dollars and would require another peripheral device. a graphics adapter board (approx . $500 . 00). to be purchased before the AutoCad program could even be run! So far. the only application that I have encountered that AutoCad can do and MacDraft cannot is that of layered drawings . Having discussed the reasons for which I chose the Macintosh computer as the system I will work on. I will now discuss in some detail the hardware and software that go with it. that I used to prepare this study . Some of this information is rather technical in nature and can be skipped over if the reader has no interest in it. 83

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Altlltlllllllll C: lllltliLAIIIATIIJJI • IJIIAIIIM6A. IIIII 84

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1 . Mac1ntosh Comouter The Macintosh computer with it's high resolution black and white screen. unique way of driving the computer around the screen via the mouse, adVanced sound capab111tles and original operating system Is the first in what will probably be a new generation of user freindly ' personal computers. Perhaps best way to explain the Macintosh computer and It's Innovative user frelndly' way of Interacting with It's software is through graphic examples, or screen dumps. Figures 1 through 4 show some typical screens that the user might see when working on the computer. A brief explanition of what process is being Illustrated Is Included with each figure . Figure 5 Is a list of technical specifications associated with the computer. r • I • File Edit Uiew Specia 223K in disk 0 [Q [Q cost fStimat• machoust karius MOAV F'IN Al RESUME D Clipboard Filt pro practict contract FIGURE 1 mac2 Bill HANNA LETTER utt rifll [Q phil Scrapbook Filt Files con be kept trock of b4 seeinq o qrophic displo4 of their different icons . Unwanted documents can be discarded by 'dragging' them into the trash can . RJ:1 .,

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FIGURE 2 8 Italic ............... _ ..................... ... 0 6 l ines/inch Underline ffimUDOID :3 o "lilmt!lmrm s Superscript Subscript !PmHrnU fl ffi !PCDDIDU !PmtlrnU !PmDrnR The pull-down menu feature is operated by the mouse. This feature allows the user to select an application such as font style and then choose from the list of commands that are available for this operation . Also, the ruler at the top of the page allows for easy manipu l ation of margins and tabs. ENTER TEXT (OR GR • CREATE A FlLE Various tools for creating draw ings are displayed as visual icons . 86 .,

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riGURE 4 Having di computer as th the hanjware study . Some o skipped over if Keep up to eight pages of notes here in the Note Pad. Click on the dog-ear to turn to the following page. Click in the lower left corner to turn to the previous page1 1 / 1? Scrapbook Numerous windows can be dip1ayed on the screen at once to allow the user to keep track of various on.:going activities at the same time. I 87 .,

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Processor : MC68000, 32-bit architecture, 7 .8336MHz clock frequency Memory: 128 bytes RAM 64K bytes ROM Disk Capacity : 400K bytes formatted disk, 3 1 /2-inch diameter hardshell media Screen: 9-inch diagonal, high resolution, 512-pixel by 342-pixel bit-mapped display Interfaces : Synchrooonous serial keyboard bus Two RS232/RS422 serial ports, 230.4K baud max. (up to 0 . 920 megabit per second if clocked externally) Mouse interface External disk interface Sound generator: 4-voice sound with 8-bit digital-analog conversion using 22KHz sample rate Input : Keyboard: Mouse: Line voltage: 105 to 125 volts AC, RMS Frequency: 50 or 60Hz Power: 60 watts 58 key, 2-key rollover, software mapped Mechanical tracking, optical shaft encoding 3 .54 pulse per mm (90 pulse per . inch) of travel Clock/calender : CMOS custom chip with 4 . 5 volt (Eveready No. 523 or equivalent) user-replaceable batterey backup Figure 5: Macintosh Specifications 88

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2 . External Disk Drive A Macintosh external disk drive can be added to the system to make available another 400k disk on the desktop . This greatly speeds up many of the common activities involved in operating the computer such as copying disks and documents, and saving files. 3 . lmagewriter Printer The Apple lmagewriter is a dot matrix printer . It generates pictures or characters as a pattern of dots chosen from an array 16 dots wide by 9 dots high . The printer ' s standard characters are 7 dots wide and 8 dots high; the space between characters is 1 dot wide . A microprocessor inside of the computer keeps track of which dots to print and where to print them. printer works by moving a column of wires along the paper, and striking successive patterns to create each printed character or picture . 4 . H. P. Plotter A plotter is a device controlled by the computer that moves a pen over paper on a drum or flat surface. There are many different models and makes available. Most of these different models allow for the use of different pen types including different colors and differnent point sizes . 5. Thunderscan This is actually a small piece of hardware that the imagewriter printer uses to digitize any printed image and turn it into a detailed, high resolution Macpaint document. Once digitized, these images can be modified or manipulated by the user. The Thunderscan device itself is a small lazer cartridge that fits into the Image Writer printer by replacing the ribbon. 89

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AIJJifJIIIIIIII I: IIIIJJILAIIIA TI(IJ • IIJPNA. IIIII 90

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I. Macwrite Macwrite is a word processing program that comes (along with Macpaint). packaged with the Macintosh computer. It's features include a page indicator. a memo maker. the ability to generate 7 different fonts in 6 different sizes, and the ability to accept different documents from different programs (such as graphics from Macpaint). The editing features can be controlled either by the keyboard or the mouse. Macwrite was the sole word processing package used to create this document. 2. Macpaint Macpaint is a revolutionary pixel based drawing system that does not have to create a vector database nor drive a plotter in order to work. Images are 'painted' onto the screen as accurately as a single pixel at a time . Drawings c.an be stored in the 'scrapbook' and then 'cut and pasted' as they are needed. This makes it possible to create a symbol library using Macpaint. Drawings that have been stored can be moved. duplicated, or resized to any desired scale. Macpaint has it's shortcomings in the fact that it lacks color support. the grid is not adjustable (so it is hard to scale drawings). and the screen represents less than a full page to draw on. It is still however. a very good program to do fast. high quality graphic design . 3. Macdraft This program is similar to Macpaint only it is aimed at the technical draftperson. Screen rulers let you change scale without changing the rest of the drawing. Objects can also slide over each other and still retain their original identity (not so in Macpaint). MacDraft is the program which allows the Macintosh to function as a complete CADD package. It's major features are listed below . -Continuous drawing mode (drawings scroll automatically). -16 different scales in Metric and English units. Zoom In and Zoom Out up to ax. -Automatic dimension llnes . 91

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-Circles by radius or diameter . -Arcs by radius or three points . -Distribute objects along a line . -Rotate objects in 1 degree increments. -Create objects by inside or ouside diameter . -4 Separate documents on the screen at the same time. Paste illustrations to and from other documents . -Paste pictures and objects from Macpaint and MacDraw . -64 Patterns for Fill and Ink. -Flip objects. Figure 6 is an example of a typical Macdraft screen. r w file runt Line fill lllew Floor Plan Metric : : : Set Scale .•• FIGURE 6 : : : : Set Grid ... . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . • : • 0 • • : • • • : 0 0 • 0 : • 0 0 • ' o o o o o : • o o o • o o o o o o o o o o o o o • : o o o o o o o o o o o • o o o o o o : 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o • o o : o o o o o • • o • o o o • o o o o oooo uooo ooo-oo,..oooooo-•-••-oouo. oouoo-oo .... _.,_...,, Show Rulers Scale Rulers 1 :11: 11 1 u _ U:Uu _ _i uu -u u Hide Grid Lines Hide Page Breaks Drawing Size ... Bill Qry 92

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4. Jazz Jazz is a multifunctional business software program that offers integration between its worksheets, graphics , word processing, database, and communications functions. It takes advantage of the Macintosh ' s special characteristics such as icons, pull-down menus, and dialog boxes. The following list (taken from the Jazz Handbook) describes the 5 various applications of the program . JtQRKSHEET-Tl1e worksheet application is an electronic spreadsheet it wl1icl1 you enter and store including numbers and text. You can tner. preform many types of calculations using expressions you create 01 functions built in to tne program. For you can calculate mont/11} expenses and estimate costs wit/1 a Jazz worksheet. W!Jen you change an; of tne Jazz automatically recalculates tne worksheet for you. . . GRAPHICS-Tl1e Graphics application lets you create many different of graphs tnat visually represent numbers you enter in a worksheet 01 database. If you change tne data a grap/1 is based Jazz automatica/1; updates tne grap!J. You can enhance a grap/1 by using anc legends tnat explain parts of tne grap!J. PROCESSING-Wit/1 Word Process you can edit and formal and otner documents. For you can delet6 unnecessasy text move words and sentences to a different part of E. document and change tne margins and spacing of a document. DATABASE Tl1e Database application lets you organize and manag6 suc/1 as employee files. Finding individual facts or groups 01 facts is easy in a database. It's to sort tne data in numeric 01 a/pl1abetical order and produce a report on selected data. You can work wit/1 your database or use a Jazz form. A form is at easy way to enter; edit or view data in a one record at a time. You can customize a form to your needs by adding detailed about wnat to enter in eac/1 database field or by rearranging elements of E. form so tnat it presents tne data clearly. A form can snow only some 01 tl1e information in a database 1f you don't want users to see every field 93

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CO/"'1UNICATIONS T!Je Communications application lets you use you1 t1acintos!J as a terminal to communicate wit!J ot!Jer computers. You cat call information public and electronic bulletin to get information suc!J as stock quotations. You can also send and reciev6 documents to and from ot!Jer computers. Connecting to a larger computet system lets you use programs t!Jat t!Je larger system supports. 5 . DaVinci Landscapes This is a program which produces a three-dimensional rendering of a building or a landscape. It consists of a series of 'building blocks ' which can be cut and pasted in an infinate number of different ways in order to create fully detailed interior or exterior design plans . 94

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Alfllflllllllllll: IIIVIIIL8JIIIII A lllfill& II.IIIAII I -95

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The symbols found on the following pages were all created on the Macintosh computer . Some of them were hand drawn with the mouse and others were digitized using the 'Thunderscan hardware device . All of these symbols can be found on the floppy disk that is included with this document intitled " symbols library" . The disk is meant to be used as Public Domain Software by any interested party . To use the disk simply follow the procedure oulined below. 1 . Find a image you want to use in a drawing be leafing through the pages that follow. 2 . Open the MacPaint document found on the " Symbols Library" disk that has the same name as the page that the drawing you want to use is on. * Note: The application MacPaint is not included on the " Symbols Library " disk . 3 . Use either the lasso or the marquee to 'select ' the image you have chosen. 4. Select 'copy' from the Edit menu. 5 . Close the MacPaint Document found on the "Symbols Library" disk. 6 . Open a new MacPaint document on a different disk. 7. Select 'paste ' from the Edit menu. 96

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• PLAN TREES 97

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PLAN TREES 2 98

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99

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LARGE TREES 100

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ROCKS SHRUB 101

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• "/. • . : , j . .., ! I r ) f .i -. v <\ : . 1 tjv'... . . .. ,;J'v" .... .. , .. .. . . • ' " / (I " ,.,,/ •" , . \ . 102

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MISCELLANEOUS 103

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PEOPLE 104 J.1,.: ,.:i>l ' .. .. '•; I ! I • ' f l . ; • I ....... . . . 'l' • • • • • ' i !l :: •,. ' ;t ! !! : jj •• ,; ! ,. i .(;/ , ! l ....•. . . r= .,.. . .

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ELEVATION TREES • 105

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DECK 106

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t:; t'rj n ... t:; ....... c 0 """' 0 c rJJ

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-c ..... . r : ,. , .F ... ---, .h-"' / . : ) ' • ' .: ... , , ,., . ' . -t(L.... :;,, _ ; . , _._.. . .of.;,. '' ! .... ..... ' I . ...,,. -... . !! --" .. -+ , . .:.......... ... ... . . . .. .r;;;:t. 11 .;-,•., : ., • • . ..,. . .:,.-\,. 1 .... .. •.............. -s. .:. . ..... c: , ..... ' . .., ..... . " ..... _ ..... ... !/ ... : ... . ....... _ =.::.:.:. " ' r5 CARS 109 {{" ..... ' '--:f:,. fC ........ t:r-

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10 0 10 20 I -!-----' SCALE IN FEET 1 I 4' 1 /2 1 2 I ARROWS AND SCALES 110

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==c trj .....; > J ........ I ,I z 3 ..... (I) ........ w ./ z < > ..... Cl ..... ..... > t'"-4 t:-'"4 1/2" -3/4" MORTAR JOINTS, TO WASH FINISHED GRADE OBBLE BLOCKS, SET ON END . MORTAR SETTING BED GRANULAR MATERIAL CONCRETE FOOTING 4" P . V . C . UNDERDRAIN COMPACTED SUBGRAOE

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DOUBLE 2 X 6 TREAD BOLTED TO ANGLE IRON CLEAT \ l r:. l 0 i . t • : ;; • •• • V "I , , / ' , DECK BOARDS STAIR DETAIL -JOIST JOIST HANGER I OR BEAM N ....... .......

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TREE WITH SHRUB 113

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SELECT I VEL V PRUNE CROWN DO NOT CUT CENTRAL LEADER TREE WRAP --------3" SAUCER TREE UNDISTURBED TREE STAKING DETAIL NO SCALE .F'" 2" x 2" CEDAR •. / STAKE 36" LONG PlAN

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TREE • • 115

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APFIIIIIIII IP: IIIVIIILIJPIIIII A FILAIIIT INARIIAlL IATAIIAII 116

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IDliEVlEILCODl D 1111 IAJAIAIIE IPICOXIU1l11 lA IPIL/AIIIY 1m/A 1nEIID /AIL IAJAIAIIE A database 1s a soph1st1cated system for storing and organ1z1ng information. Any kind of information can be entered into a database from a plant file to a address index. Once the information has been entered, it can be retrieved in a number of different ways . The information can be sorted, rearranged alphabetically, or specific records of information can be searched for automatically . A typical database management program can easily produce a report based on specific selected information in the database. There are a number of different possible applications for a database management system in a landscape architecture office including lists of landscape materials, personnel . records, client records , bibliographies, inventories, etc . Perhaps the most important application however, is the storage of information on plant materials. With a database management system, a user can set up a cataloge of information on plants that includes, common and botanical names, growth characteristics, fall color, soil and water requirments, current prices, availability, shade tolerance,suppliers, etc . Once all of this information has been entered, the user can ask the computer to call up a list of plants that are in the database that meet the requirements of the specific needs that he or she is looking for. For example, you could ask for a list of large trees that do well in the shade, need little water, and are available from a certain nursery for below a certain cost. The computer would then be able to scan the database and provide a list of all of the plants that met these requirements. In addition 1t would be able to provide a more detailed description . of all of the other characteristics of the plants that were included on the list. The advantages of this over the more traditional methods of searching through cataloges and making a lot of phone call to see what is available are obvious . What follws is a hardcopy of the database management program that I created for this project. The database was written using Jazz software and the database application. A public domain disk with the same information is also included with this doccument. 117

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SPECIES 1 ABIES CONCOLOR ACER Gl NNALA -ACER GLABRUf1 -4 ACER GRANDIDENTATUM 5 ACER NEGUNDO 6 ACER PALMATUM 7 ACER PLATANOIDES 8 ACER PLATANOIDES 'CULUMNARE' 9 ACER PLATANOIDES 'SCHWEDLERI' 10 ACER SACCHARINUM 11 ACER LACINIATUM 12 ACER 1J AEOOPODIUM PODAGRARIA VARIEeATUM 14 AESCULUS GLABRA 15 [AESCULUS 16 AESCULUS LUTEA OCTANDRA 17 AILANTHUS AL T ISSI MA 18 GENEVENSIS i9 AJUGA REP TANS VARIEGATA CONSPICUA 20 ALNUS TENUFOLIA 21 AlYSSUM s-\XATILE 22 AMELANCIHER SP. 2J AMOPHORA ?4 ANTENNARIA ROSEA 5 ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI ,6 ARISTOLOCHIA MACROPHYLLA 27 ARONIA 28 ARTEMISIA ABROTANUM 29 ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA JO ARTEMISIS J1 ARUNDO DONAX J2 ATRIPLEX CANESCENS JJ AVENA SEMPERVIRENS J4 AVENA SEMPREVIRENS JS AlALIA MOLLIS 36 BERBERIS MENTORENSIS J7 BERBERIS THUNBERG! J8 BERBERIS THUNBERG! ATROPURPUREA J9 BERBERIS TUNBERGI 'CRIMSON PYGMY' 40 BETULA FONTINALIS 41 BETULA PAPYIFERA 42 BETULA PENDULA 4J BETULA PENDULA 'GRACILIS' 44 BUDDLEIA ALTERNIFOLIA 45 CAMPSIS RADICANS -) CARAGANA ARBORESCENS 7 BETULUS COMMON NAME WHITE FIR AMUR RIVER MAPLE ROCKY MOUNTAIN MAPLE BIG TOOTH MAPLE BOX ELDER MAPLE NORWAY MAPLE COLUMNAR NORWAY MAPLE SCHWEDLER MAPLE SILVER MAPLE WIER MAPLE SUGAR MAPLE SNOW ON THE MOUNTAIN OHIO BUCKEYE HORSE CHESNUT YELLOW BUCKEYE TREE OF HEAVEN GREENLEAF AJUGA VARIEGATED AJUGA NATIVE ALDER (THINLEAF) BASKET OF GOLD ALYSSUM SERVICEBERRY LEAD PLANT PUSSEYTOES KINNIKINNICK DUTCHMAN'S PIPE CHOKECHERRY (ARONIA) SOUTHERNWOOD BLACK 5-\GE ARTEMISIA CAUCASICUM GIANT REED (ARUNDO) FOUR-WING 5-\LTBUSH BLUE AVENA GRASS BLUE AVENA GRASS AlALIA MOLLIS MENTOR BARBERRY JAPANESE BARBERRY RED BARBERRY CRIMSON PYGMY BARBERRY NATIVE RIVER BIRCH PAPER BIRCH EUROPEAN WHITE BIRCH CUTLEAF WEEPING BIRCH BUTTERFLY BUSH TRUMPET VINE SIBERIAN PEASHRUB HORNBEAM (EUROPEAN) PLANTS-Page I 118

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FAMILY 1 PINACEAE '2 ACERACEAE . J ACERACEAE . 4 ACERACEAE 5 ACERACEAE 6 ACERACEAE 7 ACERACEAE 8 ACERACEAE 9 ACERACEAE 10 ACERACEAE 11 ACERACEAE 12 ACERACEAE 13 14 HIPPOCASTANACEAE 15 HIPPOCASTANACEAE 16 HIPPOCASTANACEAE 17 SIMAROUBACEAE 18 19 20 ULNUS 21 22 23 24 5 6 27 28 29 30 31 J2 33 POACEAE 34 POACEAE 35 J6 BERBERIDACEAE 37 BERBERIDACEAE 38 BERBERIDACEAE 39 BERBERIDACEAE 40 BETULACEAE 41 BETULACEAE 42 BETULACEAE 43 BETULACEAE 44 45 .A.:; -7 FORM USE CONIFER SMALL TREE MULTI STEM SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHADE TREE SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SHADE TREE STREET TREE SHADE TREE STREET TREE SHADE TREE STREET TREE GROUND COVER SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE GROUND COVER GROUND COVER SMALL TREE GROUND COVER SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER GROUND COVER VINE SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' DRY LAND GROUND COVER GRASS SHRUB UNDER 6' GRASS GRASS GROUNDCOVER SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' BARRIER SHRUB UNDER 6' BARRIER SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB OVER 6' ... NATIVE SMALL TREE SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHRUB OVER 6' ... VINE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SMALL TREE PLANTS -Page 1. 1 119 RA ... WATER RAPID MEDIUM FAST SLOW WET MEDIUM FAST MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM SLOW WET DRY DRY WET DRY RAPID DRY MEDIUM WET DRY

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FRUIT FLOWER 1 'l WINGED SAMARA s -4 WINGED SAMARA 5 6 7 WINGED SAMARA 8 9 10 WINTER 11 12 1J 14 15 SHOWY 16 EARLY SUMMER 17 18 19 20 21 22 2J .----2-4 5 _5 27 28 I 29 JO J1 J2 JJ J4 J5 SHOWY 36 RED BERRY J7 RED BERRY YELLOW SPRING J8 J9 40 41 42 4J 44 45 A") -, -FALL COLOR SHADE TOL. .. BLUE RED RED YELLOW RED NO CHARTREUSE RED RED RED RED YES YES YES YES NO YES RED-ORANGE YES RED-ORANGE YES YELLOW YES YELLOW YES PLANTS -Page 1 . 2 120 DROUGHT TOL CONTROL E ... YES NO YES YES NO NO NO

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1 2_ J 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 5 5 27 28 I 29 30 31 J2 33 34 35 J6 37 38 39 40 41 42 4J 44 45 All r -NOTES HARD TO FIELD G . . . COLD HARDY CLEAN GROWINe FALL SEEDER, S ... NEEDS PRUNING LOW MAl NTENAN ... LOW MAl NTHJAN ... SUCKERS LOW MAINTENAN ... FOUND ALONG ST ... !APHID PRONE SOIL WELL ORAl NED WELL ORAl NED ANY WELL ORAl NED WELL ORAl NED WELL ORAl NED WELL ORAl NED ANY ANY ANY WELL DRAINED ANY ANY WELL ORAl NED HEIGHT PLANTS -Page 1.3 121

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SPECIES 48 CARYOPTERISINCANA .. 9 CATALPA OVATA 0 CATALPA 51 CELASTRUS SCANDENS 52 CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS 53 CERASTIUM TOMENTOSUM 54 CERCIS CANADENSIS 55 CERCIS OCCIDENTALIS 56 CERCOCARPUS LEDIFOLJUS 57 CERCOCARPUS MONT ANUS 58 CHAENOMELES 59 CHAENOMELES SUPERBA 'TEXAS SCARLET' 60 CHAMAEBATIARIA MILLEFOLIUM 61 CHRYSOTHAMNUS NAUSEOSUS 62 CLEMATIS LIGUSTICIFOLIA 63 CLEMATIS ORIENTALIS 64 CLEMATIS PANICULATA 65 CLEMATIS VITALBA VAR. 66 CORNUSALBA 'VARIEGATA' 67 CORNUSMAS 68 CORNUS SERICEA 'FLAVIRAMEA' 69 CORNUS SERICEA 'STOLINIFERA' 70 CORNUS SERICEA (STOLINIFERA) 'KELSEY!" 71 CORONILLA VARIA 2 CORTADERIA SELLONIA ,J COTI NUS CCOOYGR lA 74 COTONEASTER ACUTIFOLIA 75 COTONEASTER APICULATA 76 COTONEASTER DAMMERI 'SKOOSHOLMEN' 77 COTONEASTER DIVARICATA 78 COTONEASTER HORIZONTALIS 79 COTONEASTER MICROPHYLLA 80 COTONEASTER MULTI FLORA 81 CRATAEGUS 'TOBA' 82 CRA TAEGUS AMB IGUA 83 CRATAEGUS ARNOLDIANA 84 CRATAEGUS CRUS-GALl 85 CRATAEGUS MOLLIS 86 CRATAEGUS PHAENOPYRUM Ji1 CRATAEGUS X LAVELLEI 88 CYTISUS X PRAECOX 89 DIANTHUS ADVERENSIS 90 DUCHESNEA INDICA 91 ELAEAONUS ANOUST I FOL lA 92 ELAEAGNUS UMBELLATA --s ERIANTHUS RAVENNAE . 4 EUONYMOUSALATUS COMMON NAME BLUE MIST SPIREA CHINESE CATALPA WESTERN CATALPA BITTERSWEET HACKBERRY SNOW IN SUMMER REDBUD CURL LEAF MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY MOUNTAIN MAHOOANY FLOWERING QUINCE TEXAS SCARLET QUINCE FERNBUSH RABBITBRUSH WESTERN VIRGINSBOWER YELLOW CLEMATIS SWEET AUTUMN CLEMATIS CLEMATIS VARIEGATED DOOWOOD CORNELIAN CHERRY YELLOWTWIG DOOWOOD REDTWIG DOOWOOD KELSY DOOWOOD CROWN VETCH PAMPAS GRASS SMOKE BUSH PEKING COTONEASTER CRANBERRY COTONEASTER BEARBERRY COTONEASTER SPREADING COTONEASTER ROCKSPRAY COTONEASTER SMALL LEAVED COTONEASTER LARGE FLOWERING COTONEASTER TOBA HAWTHORN RUSSIAN HAWTHORN ARNOLD HAWTHORN COCKSPUR HAWTHORN DOWNEY HAWTHORN WASHINGTON HAWTHORN LAVALLE HAWTHORN SCOTCH BROOM DIANTHUS ADVERENSIS FALSE STRAWBERRY RUSSIAN OLIVE AUTUMN OLIVE PLUME GRASS WINGED EUONYMOUS PLANTS Page 2 122

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FAMILY 48 Al) -) BIGNONIACEAE 52 ULMACEAE 5J CARYPPHYLLACEAE 54 LEGUM I NACEAE 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 COMPOSITACEAE 62 6J RANUNCULACEAE 64 RANUNCULACEAE 65 RANUNCULACEAE 66 CORNACEAE 67 CORNACEAE 68 CORNACEAE 69 CORNACEAE 70 CORNACEAE 71 . 2 POACEAE . . J 74 75 _76 77 78 79 ROSACEAE 80 81 ROSACEAE 82 8J ROSACEAE 84 85 86 81 ROSACEAE 88 89 90 91 ELAEAGNACEAE 92 ELAEAGNACEAE ! "'1 POACEAE I CELASTRACEAE FORM USE SHRUB UNDER 6' SMALL TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN VINE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN GROUND COVER WINTER COLOR SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SHRUB OVER 6' ... NATIVE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB OVER 6' ... HEDGE SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' NATIVE VINE VINE VINE VINE BANK COVER SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB OVER 6' ... HEDGE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB OVER 6' ... NATIVE SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER eRASS WINDBREAK SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... SHRUB OVER 6' ... HEDGE SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER SHRUB UNDER 6' SPECIMAN, LARG ... SHRUB UNDER 6' XMAS GREENS GROUND COVER SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... COVER SMALL TREE SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER GROUND COVER GROUNDCOVER SMALL TREE HEDGE, SCREEN SHRUB OVER 6' ... GRASS SHRUB OVER 6' ... SCREEN, SPECIM ... PLANTS Page 2. 1 123 RA ... WATER FAST DRY SLOW THEN FAST DRY RAPID DRY RAPID DRY MEDIUM DRY DRY DRY DRY -RAPID DRY WET RAPID WET MEDIUM WET RAPID DRY MEDIUM MEDIUM DRY MEDIUM RAPID DRY RAPID RAPID DRY DRY RAPID WET RAPID DRY DRY SLOW MEDIUM

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FRUIT FLOWER 48 .A'9 SHOWY . [) LEGUME SHOWY . :>1 52 BIRDS 53 WHITE MAY 54 SPRING MAGENT ... 55 MAGENTA 56 57 58 59 SHOWY 60 61 BERRIES DRY TAN FLOWE ... 62 63 64 65 SHOWY 66 BIRDS 67 BIRDS ATTRACTS WILD ... 68 BIRDS 69 BIRDS 70 BIRDS 71 2 SPONY PLUME .J 74 BIRDS, BLUE BE ... 75 BIRDS, SHOWY 76 77 SMALL BERRY 78 SHOWY BERRIES ... SPRING 79 80 BIRDS 81 BIRDS 82 BIRDS WHITE WITH RE ... 83 BIRDS 84 BIRDS WHITE WITH RE ... 85 BIRDS 86 BIRDS, SMALL C ... SPRING 87 BIRDS 88 89 90 RED, SUMMER YELLOW 91 OLIVE LIKE FRAGRANT 92 -1 !1 RED BERRIES SMALL -FALL COLOR SHADE TOL. .. YES NO YELLOW YES YELLOW-RED NO YES BRONZE YES RED YES YES RED RED YES YES RED NO RED-ORANGE YES RED RED-ORANGE YES NO RED YES PLANTS -Page 2.2 124 PROUGHT TOL CONTROL E ... YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO YES YES YES NO YES NO NO

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48 A') -) :>l 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 2 .J 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Jl7_ 88 89 90 91 92 -1 ' -NOTES HARDY, AVOID HI... BRITTLE BROADLEAF EVE ... BLOOMS IN MARCH 3 SEASON PLANT HARDY, WI LOLl F ... HOLDS FRUIT MOUNDS WEEPING FORM HARDY LONe CURVED TH ... OISTICTIVE BAR ... SMALL BUDS MAY GROW INTO ... SOIL ANY ANY WELL ORAl NED WELL ORAl NED POOR ANY ANY MOST ANY NO CLAY ANY ANY AVERAGE HEIGHT PLANTS -Page 2 . 3 125

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. . -SPECIES COMMON NAME 95 EUONYMOUSEUROPAEUS EUROPEANEUONYMOUS 06 EUONYMOUS FORTUNEI 'LONGWOOD' LONGWOOD EUONYMOUS 7 EUONYMOUS FORTUNEI WINTERCREEPER EUONYMOUS FORTUNE! 'SiLVER QUEEN' SILVER QUEEN EUONYMOUS 99 EUONYMOUSFORTUNEICOLORATUS RED LEAF WINTERCREEPER 100 EUONYMOUS KIAUTSCHOVICUS 'MANHATTAN' SPREADING EUONYMOUS 101 FALLUGIA PARADOXA APACHE PLUME 102 FESTUCA. OVINA GLAUCA. BLUE FESCUE GRASS 10J FORESTERIA NEO-MEXICA.NA NEW MEXICA.N PRIVET 104 FORSYTHIA X INTERMEDIA FORSYTHIA 105 AMERICA.NA WILD STRAWBERRY t06_ FRAeARIA VESCA AMERICA.NA DOMESTIC STRAWBERRY 107 FRAXINUSAMERICA.NA 'AUTUMS PURPLE' AUTUMN PURPLE ASH 108 FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANICA.LANCEOLATA GREEN ASH 109 (ASPERULA) ORORATA SWEET WOODRUFF 110 GLEDITSIA TRIACA.NTHOS INERMIS THORNLESS HONEYLOCUST 111 GYMNOCLADUS DIOICUS KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE 112 HEDERA HELIX ENGLISH IVY 11 J HEDERA HELIX ENGLISH IVY 114 HELIANTHEMUM NUMMULARIUM SUN.ROSE 115 HEUCHERA S'tNGUINEA CORAL BELLS 116 HOLODISCUS DUMOSUS ROCK SPIREA 117 HUMULUS AMERICA.NUS HOP VINEW 118 HYBISCUS SYRIACUS SHRUB ALTHEA 9 HYDRANGEAARBORESCENS GRANDIFLORA 'ANNABELLE' HYDRANGEA ANNEBELLE 0 HYDRANGEA PANICULATA 'GRANDI FLORA' PEEGEE HYDRANGEA 121 IBERIS SEMPERVIRENS CA.NDYTUFT 122 ILEX MESERVEAE 'BLUE PRINCE' BLUE HOLLY 12J JAMESIA AMERICA.NA WAXFLOWER 124 NIGRA BLACK WALNUT 125 JUNIPERIS CHINENSIS HETZ JUNIPER 126 JUNIPERUS CHINENSIS 'OOLD COAST' OOLD COAST JUNIPER 127 JUNIPERUS CHINENSIS 'HOLBERT' HOLBERT JUNIPER 128 JUNIPERUS CHINENSIS 'PFITZERIANA' PFITZER JUNIPER 129 JUNIPERUS CHINENSIS 'PROSTRATA' PROSTRATA JUNIPER 1JO JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS MOUNTAIN COMMON JUNIPER 1J1 JUNIPERUS HORIZONTALIS 'ANDORRA' ANDORRA JUNIPER 1J2 JUNIPERUS HORIZONTALIS 'BAR HARBOR' BAR HARBOR JUNIPER 1JJ JUNIPERUS HORIZONTALIS 'BLUE CHIP' BLUE CHIP JUNIPER 134 JUNIPERUS HORIZONTALIS 'HUGHES' HUGHES JUNIPER lJS JUNIPERUS HORIZONTALIS 'MARSHALL CREEPER' MARSHALL CREEPER JUNIPER 1J6 HORIZONTALIS 'WILTONI' WILTON JUNIPER 1J7 JUNIPERUS MONOSPERMA ONE-SEED JIUNIPER 1J8 JUNIPERUS SABINA 'BROADMOOR' BROADMOOR JUNIPER 1J9 JUNIPERUS SABINA BUFFALO BUFFALO JUNIPER ... -') JUNIPERUS SABINA TAMARISCIFOLIA TAMARIX JUNIPER I JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM ROCKY MOUNTAIN JUNIPER PLANTS -Page 3 126

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FAMILY 95 CELASTRACEAE Ofi CELASTRACEAE -7 CELASTRACEAE CELASTRACEAE 99 CELASTRACEAE 100 CELASTRACEAE 101 ROSEACEAE 102 POACEAE 103 104 OLEACEAE 105 ROSACEAE 106 ROSbiCEAE 107 OLEACEAE 108 OLEACEAE 109 110 LEOOMINACEAE 111 LEGUMINACEAE 112 ARALIACEAE 113 ARALIACEAE 114 115 116 117 118 I -I . -121 I 122 123 124 JUGLANDACEAE 125 CUPRESSbtCEAE 126 127 CUPRESSA.CEAE 128 CUPRESSA.CEAE 129 CUP RESSbtCEAE 130 131 CUP RESSA.CEAE 132 CUPRESSA.CEAE 133 CUPRESSbtCEAE 134 CUPRESSACEAE 135 CUPRESSACEAE 136 CUPRESSACEAE 137 CUPRESS'tCEAE 138 CUPRESSACEAE 139 CUPRESSACEAE . CUPRESSACEAE CUPRESSACEAE FORM USE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SPECIMAN GROUND COVER VINE GROUND COVER GROUNDCOVER VINE TRAILING VINE SHRUB UNDER 6' EVERGREEN SHR. . . SHRUB UNDER 6' DRYLAND GRASS SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SCREEN SHRUB OVER 6 ' . . . SCREEN GROUNDCOVER GROUNDCOVER GROUND COVER SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN GROUND COVER SHADE TREE STREET TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN VINE GROUND COVER GROUND COVER GROUND COVER SHRUB UNDER 6' VINE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHADE TREE SHADE TREE CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUNDCOVER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER BARRIER CONIFER WINDBREAK PLANTS -Page 3 . 1 127 GROWTH RA ... WATER RAPID SLOW RAPID WET MEDIUM DRY DRY RAPID MEDIUM MEDIUM TO RAPID RAPID DRY RAPID DRY MEDIUM ANY MEDIUM DRY RAPID DRY MEDIUM-FAST DRY

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FRUIT FLOWER 95 01) -7 ':fd 99 100 101 102 10J 104 EOO SHAPED BER ... 105 106 107 108 109 110 RED BERRIES 111 112 11 J 11.-4 115 116 117 118 9 SHOWY 0 SHOWY 121 122 12J 124 125 FRAGRANT 126 FRAeRANT 127 FRAGRANT 128 2 BERRIES/SEED 129 FRAGRANT 1JO BLUE BERRY FRAGRANT 1J1 FRAGRANT 1J2 BLUE BERRY 1JJ FRAGRANT 1J4 FRAGRANT 1J5 FRAGRANT 1J6 FRAGRANT 1J7 FRAGRANT 138 FRAGRANT 1J9 FRAGRANT ..... FRAGRANT BLUE BERRY FRAGRANT -FALL COLOR SHADE-TOL. .. RED YES YES YES YES NO YES YES ORANGE -PURPLE YELLOW YES YES YELLOW YELLOW YES YELLOW YES NO PLANTS-Page 3.2 128 DROUGHT TOL E ... YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

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NOTES 95 SUCKERS, HOLD ... 06 7 ':18_ NEEDS FERTILIZ ... 99 HARDY EVERGRE ... 100 WON'T HANDLE E ... 101 102 10J 104 105 106 107 108 HARDY 109 110 HARDY 111 LONG LIVED ,NIC ... 112 11 J 114 115 116 117 118 9 0 121 122 12J 124 TAP ROOT 125 126 127 128 NATIVE 129 lJO CAN LIVE UNDER ... 1J1 1J2 1JJ 1J4 1J5 1J6 1J7 1J8 1J9 I ... , -I NATIVE -SOIL ANY WELL PREPARED ANY ANY ANY MOST ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY HEIGHT PLANTS Page 3.3 129

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SPECIES 142 JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA 1413 KOELREUTERIA PANICULATA 4 KOLKWITZIA AMABILIS 1695 LARIX DECIDUA 146 LATHYRUS LATIFOLIUS 147 LIGUSTRUM VULGARE 148 LIGUSTRUM VULGARE 'LODENSE' 149 UeUSTRUM X VICARYI 150 LONICERA HECKROTTI 'GOLD FLAME' 151 LONICERA HIRSUTA X SEMPERVIRENS 152 LON I CERA JAPONICA 'HALL lANA' 153 LONICERA KOROLKOWI 154 LONICERA TATARICA 'ZABELI' 155 LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA 156 MAHON lA AQUI FLO I UM 'COMPACTA' 157 MAHON lA AQUI FOLIUM 158 MAHONIA REPENS 159 MALUSSP. 160 MISCANTHUS SINENSIS 161 MORUSALBA 162 MORUS ALBA 'PENDULA' 163 NEPETA HEDERACEA 164 PACHYS'tNDRA TERMINALIS 165 PARTHENOCISSUS QUINQUEFOLIA 5 PARTHENOCISSUS TRICUSPIDATA . 7 PENSTEMON STRICTUS . 168 PENTEMON PINIFOLIUS 169 PEROVSKIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA 170 PHALARIS ARUNDINACEA PICTA 171 PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS 172 PHLOX SUBULATA 173 PHYSOCARPUS OPULIFOLIUS 174 PHYSOCARPUS OPULIFOUUS 'LUTEUS' 175 PHYSOCARPUS OPULIFOLIUS NANA 176 PICEAABIES 177 PICEA ENeELMANII 178 PICEA eLAUCA DENS'tTA 179 P ICEA PUNGENS 180 PINUS ARISTATA 181 PINUS CEMBROIDES EDULIS 182 PINUS CONTORT A LATIFOLIA 183 PINUS FLEXILIS 184 PINUS MUOO MUOO 185 PINUS NleRA 186 PINUS PONDEROS't 1R7 PINUS STROBUS I PINUS SYLVESTRIS COMMON NAME EASTERN RED CEDAR OOLDENRAIN TREE BEAUTY BUSH LARCH PERENNIAL SWEET PEA COMMON PRIVET LODENSE PRIVET OOLDEN VICARY GOLD FLAME HONEYSUCKLE SCARLET TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE HALLS HONEYSUCKLE BLUELEAf HONEYSUCKLE ZABEL HONEYSUCKLE MONEYWART COMPACT OREOON GRAPE OREOON eRAPE CREEPING MAHONIA FLOWERING CRABAPPLE MISCANTHUS GRASS WHITE MULBERRY WEEPING MULBERRY GROUND IVY JAPANESE SPURGE VIReiNIA CREEPER BOSTON IVY ROCKY MOUNTAIN PENSTEMON CREEPING RED PENSTEMON RUSSIAN SAeE RIBBON GRASS MOCK ORANGE CREEPING PHLOX COMMON NINEBARK GOLDEN NINEBARK DWARF NINEBARK NORWAY SPRUCE ENeELMANS SPRUCE BLACK HILLS SPRUCE COLORADO SPRUCE BRISTLECONE PINE PINON PINE LOOOEPOLE PINE LIMBER PINE MUGHO PINE AUSTRIAN PINE PONDEROS't PINE EASTERN WHITE PINE SCOTS PINE PLANTS PEICJ! 4 130

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FAMILY 142 CUPRES&tCEAE 143 SAP I NDACEAE CAPRIFOLIACEAE .... PINACEAE 146 147 148 149 150 CAPRIFOLIACEAE. 151 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 152 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 153 FOLIACEAE 154 155 PRIMULACEAE 156 BERBERIDACEAE 157 BERBERIDACEAE 158 159 160 161 I 162 163 164 165 VITACEAE 5 -7 168 169 170 171 W.l FRAGACEAE 172 POLEMONIACEAE 173 174 175 176 PINACEAE 177 PINACEAE 178 PINACEAE 179 PINACEAE 180 PINACEAE 181 PINACEAE 182 PINACEAE 183 PINACEAE 184 PINACEAE 185 PINACEAE 186 PINACEAE • ft..., PINACEAE PINACEAE FORM USE CONIFER WINDBREAK SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... LARGE SCALE PR. .. CONIFER DECIUDUOUS EV . . • VINE SHRUB OVER 6' ... HEDGE SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB OVER 6' ... HE DOE VINE HEDGE VINE VINE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SCREEN SHRUB OVER 6' ... SCREEN eROUNDCOVER OROUNDCOVER SHRUB UNDER 6' REPLACES HOLLY SHRUB OVER 6' ... HE DOE aROUND COVER SMALL TREE eRASS SMALL TREE SHRUB UNDER 6' aROUND COVER aROUND COVER VINE CLINe! NO VINE VINE GROUND COVER aROUND COVER SHRUB UNDER 6' eRASS SHRUB OVER 6' ... HE DOE GROUND COVER GROUNDCOVER SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' CONIFER WINDBREAK CONIFER SPECIMAN CONIFER CONIFER WINDBREAK CONIFER HIGH ALTITUDE ... CONIFER WINDBREAK CONIFER HIGH ALTITUDE ... CONIFER HIGH ALTITUDE CONIFER SMALL TREE CONIFER SPECIMAN CONIFER SPECIMAN CONIFER SPECIMAN CONIFER SPECIMAN PLANTSPage 4 . 1 131 GROWTH RA ... WATER SLOW-MEDIUM DRY RAPID MEDIUM RAPID MEDIUM RAPID WET RAPID RAPID RAPID WET SLOW-MEDIUM MEDIUM DRY DRY RAPID MEDIUM RAPID MODERATE MEDIUM WET MEDIUM WET RAPID WET SLOW DRY SLaw DRY DRY MED-FAST DRY SLOW DRY SLOW DRY MODERATE DRY FAST-MED WET RAPID DRY

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FRUIT FLOWER 142 BLUE BERRY FRAGRANT 1Al LANTERN SHAPED YELLOW IN MID ... . I SEEDS IN CLUST ... BLOOMS IN MAY ... . .... J UeHT eREEN CO ... 146 147 BIRDS 148 149 BIRDS 150 BIRDS, TWIN RE ... FRAGRANT 151 BIRDS FRAGRANT 152 BIROS FRAeRANT 15J BIRDS FRAORANT 154 1 ''''''' FRAeRANT 155 SPECTACULAR Y . . . 156 BLUE BERRIES CLUSTERED 157 158 159 BIRDS 160 161 BIRDS 162 BIRDS 163 164 165 BIRDS, RED BER ... PURPLE 6 BIRDS 7 168 169 170 171 SMALL ORANGE... FRAGRANT 172 BLOOMS ALL MAY 17J 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 CONE W/EATIBL... 182 CONES 183 CONE 184 FRAeRANT 185 UNARMED CONE 186 ......... CONE -CONE FALL COLOR SHADE TOL. .. NO NO OOLD YES NONE YES NONE TURNS BROWN 1... YES BROADLEAF EVE ... YES RED YES YES NEEDLES TURN ... NO YES YES YES YELLOW /GREEN ... YES YES ORANGERED BA ... PLANTS-PI!MJ! 4.2 132 DROUGHT TOL CONTROL E ... YES YES NO NO YES YES YES NO NO NO YES SOMEWHAT YES NO YES YES YES

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NOTES 142 HEAVIL Y 'FRUITED 1A1 BI-PINNATELY C ... J SIMPLE, OPPOSI... I&Jj LEAFS OUT INSP ... 146 147 148 149 I 150 PRONE TO RUSSI... 151 152 153 154 LEAFS OUT IN EA . . . 155 156 NOT NATIVE 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 PALMATELY COM . . . . -. 168 169 170 171 172 COMES IN BLUE, ... 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 , . 180 VERY OLD SPECIES 181 182 REQUIRES FIRE ... 183 VERY RESINOUS 184 185 NEW SHOOTS IN . . . 186 NATIVE TO ROCK ... ..... -. WILL NOT TRANS ... -OPEN-AIRY FORM SOIL ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY MOST ANY NO CLAY MOST HEIGHT 15' 4-5' 2-2.5' 40-50' PLANTS PBJB 4 . 3 133

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SPECIES 189 PLATANUS OCCIDENTAL IS tnl) POLYOONUM AFFINE 'BORDER JEWELL' I POLYOONUM AUBERTi POLYOONUM CUSPIDATUM COMPACTUM 193 POPULAS NIGRA 'IT 194 POPULUSACUMINATA 195 POPULUS ALBA 196 POPULUS ALBA 'BOLLEANA' 197 POPULUS ANGUSTIFOLIA 198 POPULUS SARGENT! 199 POPULUS TREMULOIDES 200 POTENTILLA FRUTICOSA 201 POTENTILLA HIPPIANA 202 POTENTILLA TONGUE! 203 POTENTILLA VERNA 204 POTENTILLA VERNA NANA 205 PRUNUS 206 PRUNUS BESSEYI 207 PRUNUS BLIREIANA 'NEWPORT' _208 PRUNUS CERASUS 'MONTMORENCY' 209 PRUNUS PADUS 210 PRUNUS TOMENTOSA 211 PRUNUS TRILOBA 212 PRUNUS VIRGINIANA 'SHUBERT' l PRUNUS VIRGINIANA MELANOCARPA -.4 PRUNUS X CISTENA 215 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIES! 216 PTELEA TRIFOLIATA 217 SP. 218 PYRUS 'BRADFORD' 219 PYRUS USSURI ENSIS 220 QUERCUS ALBA 221 QUERCUS B I COLOR 222 QUERCUS COCCI NEA 223 QUERCUS GAMBELl 224 QUERCUS MACROCARPA 225 QUERCUS PALUSTRIS 226 QUERCUS ROBUR 227 QUERCUS RUBRA 228 RHAMNUS 229 RHAMNUS FRANOULA 230 RHAMNUS FRANOULA COLUMNAR IS 'TALLHEDGE' 231 RHODODENDRON SP. 2J2 RHUS 233 RHUSGLABRA .... _ .. RHUS GLABRA CISMONTANA RHUS TRILOBATA COMMON NAME BORDER JEWELL POL YOONUM SILVER LACE VINE DWARF JAPANESE FLEECE FLOWER LOMBARDY POPLAR LANCELEAF COTTONWOOD WHITE POPLAR BOLLEANA POPLAR NARROWLEAFCOTTONVVOOD PLAINS COTTONWOOD ASPEN CINQUEFOIL SILVERY CINQUEFOIL POTENTILLA TONGUEI CREEP I NO POTENTILLA POTENTILLA VERNA NANA WILD PLUM WESTERN SANDCHERRY NEWPORT PLUM SOUR CHERRY EUROPEAN BIRD CHERRY NANKING CHERRY FLOWERING ALMOND SHUBERT CHOKECHERRY WESTERN CHOKECHERRY PURPLE LEAF PLUM DOUGLAS FIR WAFER ASH BRADFORD PEAR USSURIAN PEAR WHITE OAK SWAMP WHITE OAK SCARLET OAK SCRUB OAK BUR OAK PIN OAK ENGLISH OAK RED OAK COMMON BUCKTHORN GLOSSY BUCKTHORN TALLHEDGE BUCKTHORN RHODODENDRON FRAGRANT SUMAC SMOOTH SUMAC ROCKY MOUNTAIN SUMAC THREE LEAF SUMAC PLANTS -Page 5 134

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FAMILY 189 1Q() POLYOONACEAE 1 POL YOONACEAE -POLYOONACEAE 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 RO&\CEAE 203 204 205 206 RO&\CEAE 207 208 209 210 ROSACEAE 211 212 l 4 215 PINACEAE 216 RUTN:.EAE 217 218 219 220 FAC3ACEAE 221 FN3ACEAE 222 FAGN:.EAE 223 FAGACEAE 224 FAC3ACEAE 225 FAGACEAE 226 FN3ACEAE 227 FAGACEAE 228 RHAMNACEAE 229 RHAMNACEAE 230 RHAMNACEAE 231 232 233 ANACARDIACEAE ""21 ANACARDIN:.EAE ; ANACARDIACEAE FORM USE SHADE TREE GROUND COVER . GROUNDCOVER VINE GROUND COVER SHADE TREE WINDBREAK SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SHADE TREE HIGH ALTITUDE ... SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SHRUB UNDER 6' NATIVE GROUND COVER GROUND COVER GROUND COVER GROUND COVER SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB UNDER 6' DRYLAND NATIVE SMALL TREE SMALL TREE SMALL TREE SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB UNDER 6' SMALL TREE SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB OVER 6' ... CONIFER SPECIMAN SMALL TREE SPECIMAN SHRUB UNDER 6' HEDGE SMALL TREE FORMAL SMALL TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SMALL TREE NATIVE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHRUB OVER 6' ... WINDBREAK SHRUB OVER 6' ... WINDBREAK SHRUB OVER 6' ... SCREEN SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB HEDGE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' HEDGE PLANTS -Page 5. 1 135 GROWTH RA ... WATER RAPID MEDIUM WET RAPID DRY RAPID DRY RAPID WET RAPID WET MEDIUM DRY RAPID WET SLOW-MODERATE DRY . MODERATE DRY RAPID SLOW THEN FAST RAPID MEDIUM RAPID DRY FAST DRY DRY FAST DRY

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FRUIT FLOWER 189 PINK ON SPIKES 19J 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 [YELLOW , WHITE . . . 201 202 203 204 205 [BIRDS 206 [BIRDS, DARK PU ... [WHITE 207 208 209 210 [BIRDS 211 [BIRDS [SHOWY 212 .J [BIRDS [BIRDS IMOUSETAIL CONE 216 [CLUSTERED SEEDS 217 [BIRDS [WHITE SPRING 218 IWHITEt EARLY S ... 219 220 1\CQRtJ 221 222 223 [ACORN 224 IACORtJ 225 226 [OBLONG ACORN 227 [ACORN 228 [BLACK BERRIES 229 230 ISPARCE BLACK B ... 231 [SHOWY 232 23J • FALL COLOR TOL. .. .RUSTYRED [YELLOW !YELLOW [YELLOW [RED I EVERGREEN I YES [YELLOW [EVERGREEN [NO IRED MAROOtJ YELLOW BROWN ;YELLOW /ORANG ... 'VERY LITTLE :RED [YES IRED [NO IYELLOW .. RED !NO PLANTS -Page 5.2 136 TQL CONTROL E ... L!l_, SUCKERS E ... [YES SUCKERS 'NO NO [NO L@ INO L@ ['@_ '@_ '@_ [YES [YES

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189 190 1 -1 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 J 4 . 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 -NOTES MORE FLOWERS ... LANCE SHAPED l.. . SHALLOW ROOTED DISTINCT ODOR HARDY BUT WEA. .. PRONE TO SPIDE ... FLAT NEEDLES ... HARDY. FRAGRA ... NEEDS ROOM 4 SEASON PLANT ... BEAUTIFUL 8REY ... NICE WINTER St... DIFFICULT TO TR ... COLD HARDY STRONG HARDY T ... MOST COMMON N ... HARDY HARDY MOUNDINe FORM SMOOTH FORM SOIL ANY ANY ANY AVERAGE MOST ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY ANY WELL ORAl NED HEIGHT 1 .5-3' 25-30' 12-15' 6-8' PLANTS -Page 5 . 3 137

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SPECIES _236 RHUS TYPHINA 'l"t"7 RHUS TYPHINA 'DISSECTA' RIBESALPINUM RIBES CEREUM 240 RIBES OOORATUM ' 241 ROBINIA NEO-MEXICANA 242 RO&\ FOETIDA BICOLOR 243 244 RO&\ SP. 245 RUBUS DELICIOSUS 246 SALIX ALBA 'TRISTIS' 247 SALIX ALBA 'VITELLINA' 248 SALIX CAPREA 249 SALIX IRRORATA 250 SALIX MONTICOLA 251 SALIX PURPUREA 252 SALIX PURPUREA NANA 253 SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS 254 SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS 'ACUTILOBA' 255 SAMBUCUS PUBENS 256 SANTOL INA CHAMAECYPARISSUS 257 SAPONARIA OCYMOIDES 258 SEDUM SP. 259 SHEPHERD lA AReENTEA 0 SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS 1 SORBARIA SORB I FOLIA 262 SORB US AUCUPARIA 26J SORBUS HYBRIDA 264 SPIREA BUMALDA 'FROEBELI' 265 SPIREA NIPPONICA 266 SPIREA PRUNIFOLIA 267 SPIREA TRILOBATA 268 SPIREA X VANHOUTTEI 269 SYMPHORICARPOS ALBUS 270 SYPHORICARPOS X CHENAUL Tl 'HANCOCK' 271 SYRINGA AMURENSIS JAPONICA 272 SYRINGA CHINENSIS 273 SYRINGA MEYERI 274 SYRINGA PEKINENSIS 275 SYRINGASP. 276 SYRINGA VELUTINA 'MISS KIM' 277 SYRINGA VULGARIS 278 TAMARIX HISPIDA 279 TAXUS CUSP I DATA 280 lAXUS X MEDIA 'HICKSI' TEUCRIUM CANADENSIS ! TH!JJA OCCIDENTALIS -' COMMON NAME STAGHORN SUMAC CUTLEAF SUMAC ALPINE CURRANT f/JUAW CURRANT CLOVE CURRANT NEW MEXICAN LOCUST WILD ROSE SHRUB ROSE CLIMBING ROSE THIMBLEBERRY WEEPING WILLOW OOLDEN WILLOW OOAT WILLOW BLUE STEM WILLOW YELLOW MOUNTAIN WILLOW BLUE FOUNTAIN WILLOW DWARF ARTIC WILLOW eREEN ELDER CUTLEAF ELDER RED-BERRIED ELDER eREY SANTOLINA ROCK SOAPWORT STONECROP BUFFALOBERRY CANADA BUFFALOBERRY URAL FALSE SPIREA EUROPEAN MOUNTAIN ASH OAKLEAF MOUNTAIN ASH FROBEL SPIREA SNOW MOUND SPIREA BRIDAL WREATH SPIREA THREE LOBE SPIREA VANHOUTTE SPIREA SNOWBERRY HANCOCK CORALBERRY TREE LILAC CHINESE LILAC KOREAN DWARF LILAC CHINESE TREE LILAC LILAC MISS KIM LILAC COMMON LILAC TAMAR IX JAPANESE YEWE HICKS YEW TEUCRIUM ARBORVITAE PLANTS -Page 6 138

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FAMILY 236 ANACARDIACEAE 237 ANACARDIACEAE 8 9 240 241 242 RO&tCEAE 243 244 RO&tCEAE 245 246 247 SALICACEAE 248 SALICACEAE 249 SALICACEAE 250 251 SALICACEAE 252 SALICACEAE 253 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 254 CAPRI FOLJACEAE 255 CAPRI FOLIACEAE 256 257 258 259 0 1 262 RO&tCEAE 263 264 ROSACEAE 265 ROSACEAE 266 RO&tCEAE 267 ROSACEAE 268 ROSACEAE 269 270 271 OLEACEAE 272 OLEACEAE 273. OLEACEAE 274 OLEACEAE 275 OLEACEAE 276 OLEACEAE 277 OLEACEAE 278 279 280 ?Rl 2 FORM USE SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB UNuER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6 ' SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' BARRIER SHRUB OVER 6' ... BARRIER VINE SHRUB UNDER 6' SHADE TREE SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... SHRUB OVER 6' ... NATIVE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB OVER 6' ... SCREEN SHRUB OVER 6' . . . SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER GROUND COVER GROUND COVER SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6 ' SHRUB UNDER 6' SMALL TREE SPECIMAN, STRE ... SMALL TREE SHRUB UNDER 6' WALL PLANTING SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB OVER 6' ... SCREEN SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SMALL TREE SHRUB OVER 6' SCREEN SHRUB UNDER 6' SMALL TREE SHRUB OVER 6' ... WINDBREAK SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB OVER 6 ' SCREEN SHRUB OVER 6' ... WINDBREAK CONIFER CONIFER GROUND COVER CONIFER BARRIER PLANTS -Page 6. 1 139 GROWTH RA ... WATER RAPID DRY RAPID DRY DRY MEDIUM RAPID DRY DRY FAST WET FAST WET RAPID WET RAPID WET WET WET RAPID WET WET DRY DRY DRY RAPID MEDIUM MEDIUM RAPID RAPID MEDIUM DRY SLOW WET

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FRUIT FlOWER 236 ')":('7 BIRDS BIRDS 240 BIRDS 241 CLUSTERED PEA 242 YELLOW 243 FRGRANT 244 FRAGRANT 2_45 246 247 248 249 SPRING 250 251 252 253 BIRDS WHITE UMBEL L... 254 BIRDS 255 256 257 258 . 259 ) I 262 RED BERRIES, B ... CLUSTERED, WH ... 263 BIRDS 264 SEED IN CAPSULE SHOWY 265 SHOWY 266 267 SHOWY 268 MAY 269 270 271 FRAGRANT 272 PURPLE, FRAGR ... 27J FRAGRANT 274 BIRDS FRAGRANT 275 FRAGRANT 276 FRAGRANT 277 FRAGRANT PURP ... 278 279 280 -FAll COlOR SHADE TOL .. RED YES RED YES NO NO NO YELLOW ORANGE NO YES RED YES PURPLE/YELLOW YES YES PLANTS -Page 6.2 140 DROUGHT TOl CONTROl E ... YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO

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NOTES 236 HARDY, OPEN FO ... 237 HARDY, OPEN FO ... 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 HYDROPHILLIC, ... 248 249 HYDROPHILLIC 250 . 251 252 253 GUMMY PITH, P ... 254 255 256 257 258 259 -4 [) I 262 263 264 DOES WELL IN ll ... 265 266 267 268 WEEP I Ne ,MOUN ... 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 HARDY 278 279 280 jR1 SOIL ANY ANY POOR WELL ORAl NED ANY ANY AVERAGE ANY HEIGHT 12-15' 8-12' 6-8' 1 0-12' PLANTSPage 6.3 141

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SPECIES ) PLANTS-Page 7 142 COMMON NAME

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FAMILY 283 284 TILIACEAE TILIACEAE 287 288 289 290 291 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 292 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 293 CAPRI FOLIACEAE 294 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 295 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 296 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 297 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 298 CAPRIFOLIACEAE 299 APOCYNACEAE 300 APOCYNACEAE 301 302 303 304 305 FORM usE GROUND COVER GROUND COVER SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SPECIMAN SHADE TREE SHADE TREE GROUND COVER GROUND COVER SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' SPECIMAN SHRUB OVER 6 ' . . . HEDGE SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... SHRUB UNDER 6' HEDGE SHRUB OVER 6' ... SHRUB OVER 6 ' ... SPECIMAN SHRUB UNDER 6' GROUND COVER GROUND COVER GROUNDCOVER GROUND COVER SHRUB UNDER 6 ' SCREEN SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' SHRUB UNDER 6' PLANTS-Page 7 . I 143 GROWTH RA ... WATER MEDIUM DRY SLOW-MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM SLOW MEDIUM DRY DRY DRY

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FRUIT FLOWER 283 ?R4 i LIGNATE BRACT FRAGRANT YELL... -LUJ LIGNATE BRACT FRAGRANT 287 288 289 290 291 BIRDS 292 WHITE WITH Pl... 293 BIRDS 294 BIRDS, BLUE BE ... WHITE IN CLUST ... 295 NONE NONE 296 BIRDS 297 BIRDS, RED BER. . . CLUSTERED BLO ... 298 299 300 PURPLE IN MAY 301 302 SHOWY JOJ 304 305 FALL COLOR SHADE TOL. .. YELLOW YELLOW RED YES BRONZE YES RED YES BRONZE-RED YES EVERGREEN YES YES YES PLANTS-Page 7 . 2 144 DROUGHT TOL CONTROL E ... NO NO YES, SUCKERS YES YES

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283 284 5 6 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 _l02 303 304 305 NOTES PYRAMIDAL FORM ANY PYRAMIDAL FORM ANY PAIRED LEAF BU ... UPRIGHT ROUND ... HARDY BUT DOE ... MOST PALMATELY COM ... MAY BLOOM ALL ... ANY SOIL HEIGHT 10-12' 4-6' PLANTS-Page 7.3 145

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. . 146

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CADD -Computer aided design and drafting The Central Processing Unit (CPU) This is the heart and/or brain of a computer system . The CPU i s the place in the computer where instructions are translated and data are examined, altered and moved to various locations . It is usually housed in one central chip (a microprocessor). Database A body of information, not necessarily computer based. Digitizer A device which converts graphic information, such as topographic contours into cartesian coordinates , which the computer can store and process as digital information . A digitizer usually consists of a pad or larger flat surface and a pen-like sensor to "read" the material on the pad. Disk Drive A device by which the computer gains access to ("reads") informat ion on a disk and puts information on the disk ( "writes") for storage . Geographic Information System . A special purpose DBMS specifically for use with geographically based data . Typically has some mapping capabilities. Field Information of one type . For example, the zip code would be one f i eld in an address record in a mail ing list file. Hardcopy Any form of computer output which can be usewd and moved independently of the computer . Hardware The physical components of a computer-The computer itself, the CRT, keyboard, disk drives, printer, and other peripherals . Sometimes refers to the chips as well. As distinguished from software . 147

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Input and Output Devices ("I/O") Devices that allow the CPU to communicate with the outside world (the user, another computer, etc.). Monitors (screens), keyboards, and pri nters are the most common 1/0 devices. Menu A list of programs or commands available for use which appears on the computer monitor on command or in response to certain events such as turning on the computer . Modem (Modu 1 ator-Demodu 1 a tor) A device that permits the transmission of computer based information over telephone llnes. Mouse A hand held device used to control the position of the cursor on a screen by sensing relative motion of the x andy axis . Operating system A "master Program" which controls operation of the whole computer andsystem and allows "appllcation " programs to be run . Peripheral Used as a noun, refers to equipment usewd in conjunction with a computer, e.g. printer or plotter. Plotter A device for graphi c output from a computer, using a pen or stylus to draw on paper. Printer A device for printed output from a computer either directly as letters and symbols {letter quality), or in patterns or dots which form letters, symbols, llnes, shades of gray, etc. {dot matrix printers). Query Inquiry 148

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Random Access Memory (RAM) This is an area inside the computer where instructions and data are stored by the CPU and retrieved when necessary. It is the computer ' s main memory . RAM is measured in K, or kilobytes of information. Each kilobyte is equal to 1,024 bytes. One byte is the amount of memory that will hold a small number, a single character, or a single piece of instruction. Read Only Memory (ROM) Instructions or programs for the computer which cannot be changed by the user, (e.g. an operating system . Record One complete unit of the information that is in a file Software Programs, or bodies of instructions to the computer, including the computers operating system . These exist only as electronic impulses and are therefore not 'hard' . Spreadsheet The generic term for a program which manipulates data in colums and rows, such as quantity take offs and standard bookkeeping tasks. Some can be used for more complex calculations, as for matrix algebra . System An aggregate of dynamically interconnected things and/or processes . A system does not necessarily include or refer to computers . 149