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The role of the city manager and matrix management in formulation of an infilling policy in Colorado Springs

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The role of the city manager and matrix management in formulation of an infilling policy in Colorado Springs
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Scott, Jim Alice
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English
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203 leaves : ;

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City managers -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Matrix organization -- Case studies ( lcsh )
City managers ( fast )
Matrix organization ( fast )
Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( fast )
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Case studies. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Case studies ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 163-169).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jim Alice Scott.

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University of Colorado Denver
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ocm11300823
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Full Text
THE ROLE OF THE CITY MANAGER AND
roe:
MATRIX MANAGEMENT IN FORMULATION OF AN INFILLING POLICY IN COLORADO SPRINGS
by
Jim Alice Scott
S'
B.S., University of Texas, 1948 M.P.A., University of Colorado, 1973
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Public Affairs of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Public Administration Department of Public Affairs
1981


1%5 S37 l W I/
This Thesis for the Doctor of Public Administration by Jin Alice Scott has been approved for the Graduate School of Public Affairs by
Date
fyu^****^' / 9

Scott, Jim Alice fD.P.A. Public Administration)
Thesis Title: THE ROLF. OF THE CITY MANAGER AND MATRIX MANAGEMENT IN FORMULATION OF AN INFILLING POLICY IN COLORADO STRINGS
Thesis Directed by: Professor Robert W. Gage, Chairman
ABSTRACT
A, Problem and Purpose
In many areas of the United States today, municipal governments are finding it increasingly difficult to formulate effective land use policies in their rapidly changing urban environments. To solve part of this problem, some cities have promoted infilling, a term which refers to development of vacant land within the city's .current boundaries. However, cities to date have been less successful in adopting infilling policies to deal with land use problems.
This research project describes the role and managem-nt style of the City Manager of Colorado Springs in establishing such a new land use policy. The formulation of this policy prefaced the Colorado Springs City Council adoption of an Urban Infill Resolution which encourages the development of vacant, bypassed land within the City.
It demonstrates the need for broad based participation of interest groups in the community and the continuous involvement of city departments at various levels.
The dissertation points out the importance of elected officials in their role as policy initiators. However, the role and management style of the city manager is the principal focus of the paper because


| this role is held to be critical to the adoption of an infilling policy, and there has been relatively little published in public administration literature or planning literature to show the interactions between managers and planners, or the city manager's relationship to city council and community interest groups as new land use policy is formed.
The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate that city managers can use management techniques to encourage internal as well as external participatory management in land use policy formulation processes; that coupled with a data gathering system based on rational-comprehensive approaches to land use planning, the manager can develop a policy with broad consensual support; and that in fact, without the matrix management participatory style, policies may not be developed and implemented.
The dissertation links the case study of Colorado Springs to general public administration literature through the use of several key phrases used by public administration authors such as Louis Gawthrop, Deil Wright and John Gaus. In addition, the Colorado Springs case study is compared to a similar case study of St. Paul done by Alan Altshuler, pointing out key variables which supported the successful adoption of a land use policy in Colorado Springs. The dissertation asserts that absence of these variables in the St. Paul case contributed significantly to its lack of success.


fc. Finuinrr. and Conclusion
Inc study finds tnat tnc city manager's roie ano use o: c participatory matrix management style is fundamental to the success of tne experimental effort to formulate a new land use policy encouraging the development of vacant land within the city. The dissertation concludes that such a policy must be undergirded by a data base and administrative procedures which support the policy in departmental master plans and annual general purpose budgets as well as capital improvement programs. The author urges continued research and suggests that public administration literature should build stronger linkages between city management and the development of urban land use policies.
This abstract is approved as to form and content. I recommend its publication.
Signed
Faculty member
of thesis


TABLE OF CONTENTS
| LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS j ACKNOWLEDGMENT
| Chapter
I: INTRODUCTION ............................................. 10
A. Problem
B. Purpose
C. Theoretical Justification and Literature Search
II: METHODOLOGY .............................................. 48
A. Justification of Case Study Methodology
B. Field Research of Management Techniques
III: CASE STUDY: INFILL POLICY FORMATION IN
COLORADO SPRINGS ........................... 76
A. Introduction
B. 1979: Colorado Springs' Ecological Setting
C. Forming an Urban Infill Policy for Colorado Springs
IY: COMPARISON OF COLORADO SPRINGS AND ST. PAUL CASE STUDY .. 120
A. Highlights of the St. Paul Case
B. Paradigm: Comparative Analysis in Land Use Policy
Formation - St. Paul and Colorado Springs
V: CONCLUSIONS ............................................... 142
A. Summary Comparison: St. Paul and Colorado Springs
B. Unique Features of Colorado Springs' Matrix Management
C. Matrix Management Weaknesses, Areas for Future Research
D. Value of Urban Infill Policy


nirfi^»A>i'fi'ivr,T"v v■ mMtari‘ifMtfhiHWfit■'* tW'jBb
E. Reaffirmation of Intent ................................... 155
F. Concept Synthesis ......................................... 159
BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................... 163
APPENDIX:
A............................................................. 170
B.............................................................. 173
C.............................................................. 180
D.............................................................. 181
E.............................................................. 182
F.............................................................. 183
G.............................................................. 189
H.............................................................. 192
1.............................................................. 194
J.............................................................. 195
K............................................................ 200
*
J
A
A


ILLUSTRATIONS
Exhibits
1. Hypothetical Base Map .................................... 60
2. Old Buck Slip Form ....................................... 67
3. Revised Buck Slip Form ................................... 68
4. Planning Matrix .......................................... 71
5. Urban Infill Policy Resolution * 150-80 .................. 73
6. Summary of Infill Meeting, August 30, 1979................ 99
7. Summary of Mesa Project's Planning Matrix ............... 103
8. First Draft: Urban Infill Policy ........................ 110
9. Second Draft: Urban Infill Policy ....................... Ill
10. April 7, 1980 Memorandum to City Council ............... 114
11. Third Draft: Resolution * 150-80 ...................... 117
Charts
1. City of Colorado Springs Organizational Chart ........... 79
2. Case Study Chronological Chart - Colorado Springs ....... 87
3. Comparison of Case Studies on Land Use Policy Formation:
Colorado Springs and St. Paul ............................ 121
4. Defining "Urban Infill" ................................. 128
5. Matrix: Integrating Urban Infill Policy Resolution into
Colorado Springs Operational Structures .................. 13S
6. A Concluding Synthesis ...................................161
Diagram
1. James Easton: A Dynamic Response Model of a Political
System ................................................... 161
Illustration
1. Newspaper Clipping: Colorado Springs--gazette Telegraph,
June 1, 1979............................................... 96


Acknowledgments
Members of the City of Colorado Springs administrative staff played an important role in the project which formed the basis for this case study. The author's understanding of departmental issues in land use policy formation was gTeatly enhanced by the following persons: Hartley (Bud) Owsley, Director, and Larry Manning of the Planning Department; DeWitt Miller, Directof of Public Works; James Philips, Director of Utilities, and members of his divisions such as Ed Bailey, Balu Bhayani, Surest Patel, Dennis Cafero, Wes Fielder, Jonathan Downing and B.G. Carter; Larry Schenk, Director of Parks and Recreation; Police Chief John Tagert; Fire Chief Richard Smith; James Ringe, Director of Community Development; James H.B. Wilson, Director of Finance and Management Services and James Colvin, City Attorney. Ann Altier of the City Manager's staff ably maintained communication links and correspondence important to the project.
Special thanks to the Dissertation Committee: its chairman, Robert W. Gage; James A. Null, whose wisdom has guided the author's academic development for a decade; and George H. Fellows, whose support matched the professional skills in municipal management described in this case study.
Various others helped in several ways: Susan Watkins, Linda Eichengreen and Velma Swanson gave critical comments; Rae Hellen skillfully typed the final draft. The strong.support of all family members helped..The - author is particularly gTateful to Jim Scott, her husband and partner for over thirty years, for being himself.


10
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Problem
lo many areas of the United States today, municipal governments are finding it increasingly difficult to formulate effective land use policies in their rapidly changing urban environments. Until recently, it uas assumed that urban growth per se was beneficial to the public as well as the private sector. However, current city governments are finding their fiscal resources strained and the public Infrastructure over-extended by the demands of sprawl-type land use development. In addition, finite resources such as land, water and energy are being exhausted exponentially.
To solve this problem, Colorado Springs and other cities such as Phoenix, Charlotte-Mechlenburg, Indianapolis, Knoxville, Louisville, Mount Vernon, Omaha and Duluth have become interested in promoting "infilling." The term, infilling, refers to the development of vacant land within the city's current boundaries.
The Colorado Springs City Council initiated that city's effort by requesting policy recommendations from the city administration.
It became the City Manager's responsibility to determine how that policy formulation process should be conducted and what the criteria for the policy statement would be.


11
With the importance and current attention being paid to infilling, It is surprising that public administration literature has not paid greater attention to the techniques which will provide a basis for, and support new land use policies appropriate for the concept of Infill and urban development. The general body of literature published by the International City Management Association proved to be the author's primary source for material directed toward management issues related to the linkage between management, planning and urban development.
Public administration literature on policy formulation has transferability, but does not delve into land use policy or the function and style of the city manager in the development of land use policy. However, land use policy plays a major role in the economic, social and political decision-making of every community. City council agendas and the city manager's time must be devoted substantially to land use matters.
Infilling policy, and more broadly, concepts of urban design are Influenced by economic, social and political preferences of various groups within a city. Elected and appointed officials must make decisions which may not please everyone, and often they must do 60 with Inadequate Information. As a consequence, both internal and external pressures build. Policies tend to evolve in a fragmented manner. The city manager plays a pivotal role by linking these internal and external forces. Individual city departments have their own professional standards and goals. The standards and goals of one department may not mesh well with another department's, the urban design espoused by the planning department and/or


12
external standards and goals. Management provides the structure, and determines the process through which policy can be formed and Implemented to reflect these various concerns. This feat must be accomplished with a minimum distortion from policy formulation to decision-making and implementation. In urban administration, this is clearly a significant challenge for city management in the 1980s.


13
B. Purpose
The purpose of this dissertation Is to demonstrate that city managers can use management techniques to encourage internal as well as external participatory management In land use policy formulation processes; that coupled with a data gathering system based on rational-comprehensive approach to land use planning, the manager can develop a policy with broad consensual support; and that in fact, without the matrix management participatory style, policies may not be developed and implemented.
The Colorado Springs City Manager's approach to land use policy formation demonstrates the internal effectiveness of an interdisciplinary task force made up of department heads of the City and the efficiency of project management with parallel leadership from the City Manager's Office and the Planning Department. The City Manager's sense of timing with the City Council and the involvement of interested community groups at key points in the decisionmaking process demonstrates judicious use of City Council's time and effective external participation of community groups in policy formation.
The author believes that the field research on which the Colorado Springs case is based can forge stronger links between certain fundamental public administration concepts of administrative management (such as participatory management, rational-comprehensive planning and defining of the role of city management in land use planning). A new land use policy based on these concepts is more


likely to produce a satisfactory policy and less likely to suffer the fate of oblivion which Altshuler described for St. Paul.^
Specifically, It Is the purpose of this dissertation to
show:
- that management has a key role to play in land use policy formation, and that with management guidance, outcomes are more satisfactory for all parties.
- that management, through matrix management, can serve as the link which transforms input from external and internal environments through a conversion process based on rational-comprehension planning techniques.
Alan Altshuler, "A Land-Use Plan for St. Paul," The Inter-
Unlver~lty Case Program #90 (Syracuse, New York: Inter-University
Case . gram. College Division, Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. ,1965).


15
C. Theoretical Justification and Literature Search
1. Introduction.
This dissertation advances the hypothesis that the role and management style of the city manager is critical in formulating new land use policy. The justification for this study is supported by the fact that general public administration literature analysis of this subject has been limited, and because this management function merits greater attention in that literature.
Through the use of a case study, the formation of a new land use policy in Colorado Springs is explored; a descriptive analysis of the role and management style of the City Manager is developed; and the Colorado Springs case is contrasted to another land use policy formation case study of St. Paul. The analysis is limited to the unique and novel aspects contrasting the two cases. A number of phrases used by well-known authors and a political policy analysis model are used to link the case study to general public administration concepts. The final section of the concluding chapter synthesizes the concepts, case study, paradigm and policy analysis model.
The key phrases from public administration literature explain the environment of local government and public policy formation. They are conceptual linking pins for this dissertation. They include:
(1) Louis Gawthrop's phrases, "environmental turbulence," "change agent," and "rational-comprehensive planning;" (2) John M* Gaus' phrase "ecology in government," and Deil S. Wright's phrase, "electric transformer." In addition, the author uses a hybrid term, "modified matrix management" to describe the management style and form used by


16
the City Manager of Colorado Springs to guide the process used to formulate the new land use policy.
The terms are linked in the following manner: The concept, "ecology in government" provides the framework for the variables which need to be kept in balance if orderly change is to occur.
Such change can be orderly only if the "environmental turbulence" which always surrounds change remains within acceptable bounds.
The city manager sr-ves as an "electric transformer" to exercise considerable, but not exclusive control over the energy exchange.
He and others, such as the planning director and the author, serve as "change agents" to convert the energy inputs to productive outputs. The manager amalgamates the perspectives of elected officials, the various elements of the private sector, and the city administrative staff. Stabilizing factors within this environment are:
- "rational-comprehensive planning" by which data are aggregated and processed in a professional manner;
- "modified matrix management" techniques which employ boundary-spanning capabilities within the organization (between departments) to achieve the final policy product, and to bring input from the external environment.
This emphasis on the city manager's role called for an eclectic approach in the literature search. As a generalist, the city manager selected from a wide array of specializations and acted on premises drawn from a number of philosophical points of view. To portray the scope of effort and the influence of many variables, the dissertation cites select literature pertaining to policy formulation and urban design as it relates to social, political, economic.


17
psychological and physical considerations. Citations from this broader search are limited to those useful in the exposition of management problems associated with the formation of a new land use policy In a rapidly changing urban environment.
The author surveyed key articles appearing In the Municipal Year Book since the 1930s, tracing professional thought regarding the role and management style of the city manager. This was deemed necessary because the main thrust of public administration literature has been dominated by political scientists whose primary Interests were elected officials, their actions and their relationship to their environment. The dissertation does not dispute the importance of these studies nor the Importance of the elected official to ecology in government. However, it is the author's contention that the attention paid to elected officials has slighted the role of the city manager, particularly in the area of land use planning. The actual process by which the city manager participates in land use policy formulation has not been addressed to any significant degree. Although the current general public administration literature accepts the theory that the city manager, as well as the private sector manager, exercises policy formulation functions, few articles explore the implications and application of this theory in practice.
The complexity and turbulence of the urban manager's environment is discussed in literature such as the "Symposium on
•>
the American City Manager. . ."in the Public Administration Review."
2
Keith Mulrooney , ed. , "Symposium on The American City Manager: An Urban Administrator in a Complex and Evolving Situation," Public Administration Review, 21 (January/February 1971): 6-46.
i


18
However, llctle Is said about the city manager's role In land use policy formation. Even The International City Management Association's (ICMA's) "Green Books,” (Municipal Management Series—which serve as excellent texts for city managers and others in municipal management), do not emphasize the role of the city manager in formulating land use policies. For example, the newly published volume, The Practice of Local Government Planning, makes general remarks about the importance of the relationship of planning to management, but fails to deal in specifics.^ Managing the Modern City is more explicit, giving a history of planning as a function of local government, the organizational structuring of planning within municipal government, and significant detail about the technical aspects of planning. However, the linkage between the planning director and the city manager is discussed in a very
limited fashion, and the city manager's role in land use policy
4
formulation is minimally addressed. The greatest attention to this relationship was given by ICMA in the December 1969 issue of Public Management which ran a special series of articles discussing various aspects of the planning and management relationship.^ A June 1970
^Frank S. So, et al. eds., The Practice of Local Government Planning ( Washington. D.C.: The International City Management Association, 1979),pp. 78 and 173.
4
James M. Banovetz, ed., Managing the Modem City ( Washington,
D.C. : The International City Management Association, 1971), Chapter 12.
^Mark E. Keane, ed. , "Planning and Management," Public Management 51 (December 1969): 2-14.


19
issue focused on urban planning/management issues.^ These articles indicate the changing perspective of the ICMA literature and are in harmony with the thesis of this dissertation (which stresses the importance of the city manager's role in land use planning).
2. An Historic Perspective: Linking Key Phrases to the City Manager's Role and Management Style.
The literature search began with material published in the
1930s because at that time municipal government in the United States
was experiencing significant change. In the first issue of the
Municipal Year Book, Louis Brownlow stated:
... to go ahead with any assurance of safety means that the city governments must no longer trust to luck, must no longer grope blindly ahead in the darkness of Ignorance, but must commandeer the services of their most disinterested and most enlightened citizens in an effort to chart and plan the road into the future. For this planning they will require as much information as can be assembled. He have lacked information in the field of municipal affairs. . . J
During the Depression, it was local government which had to gear up to implement massive federal programs on very short notice. The fact that many fine public works projects were completed during those years is due in part to the skill of local government management. The environmental turbulence of those years proved the mettle of the council/manager form of government as well as that of individual city managers. At the same time, areas of weakness in local government planning and management were also revealed. The need for
^Mark E. Keane, ed. , "Urban Planning and Management," Public Management 52 (June 1970): 3-13.
^Louis Brownlow. "Looking Ahead at City Government,"
Municipal Year Book 1934 .eds.. Charence E. Ridley and Orin F. Nolt-
ing (Chicago: International City Managers' Association, 1934) p. 7.


20
good information, professionalism and teamwork was, as Brovnlov suggests, essential.
a. Environmental Turbulence - Louis Gawthrop's term "environmental turbulence" assists in describing and analyzing the sense of instability and a lack of management control over the environment that existed in cities because of changes during the 1930s. He contends that environmental turbulence is a state of public anxiety which
increases when the "rationale for adhering to the rules of the
8
incremental game becomes less and less persuasive." He believes that this condition is exacerbated by "government's inability to provide effective solutions to an ever-increasing set of technical and logistical problems," and from individuals' sense of moral and ethical frustration in the midst of rapid change over which they feel their control of their own destiny is threatened through in-
Q
cremental decisions. Like Brownlow, Gawthrop's solution Includes better Information, professionalism and teamwork directed toward the areas of instability within the total environment.
Depressions, wars and other national and international traumas impact the stability of local government, but rapid change in the local environment due to growth can also produce environmental turbulence. land use matters have always been a concern for those who govern and administer municipal government. However, they have been traditionally considered a matter of first concern to the private
8
Louis C. Gawthrop , Administrative Politics and Social Change ( New York: Martin's Press, 1971), p. 78.
9
Gawthrop , pp. 78 and 83.


21
sector. Government's corresponding role was to provide appropriate services to protect the stability of the environment.^
As the demand for expanded services occurred, government
itself was altered. If—as many organizational theorists as well
as architects and artists claim—"form follows function," changes
not only altered the form of government, but also created additional
roles for its administrators. This impact of growth was reflected
as early as 1936 when John M. Gaus advocated the integration of city
planning into the general functions of city government.
City planning can no longer remain an unrelated and incidental appendage to the city government if the older and more strongly-rooted municipal functions are to flourish. It must be built into the work of every department and integrated with the financial programs.H
Luther Gullck echoed this sentiment in the 1938 Municipal Year Book as he cited Philip Cormick's The Results of Premature Subdivision. Gullck saw environmental turbulence as a more critical factor when there was a lack of policy coordination with land use planning:
The study . . . which bears upon municipal finance, city planning, and urban economics . . . lays the basis for new forms of control over land value fluctuations and their disastrous effects upon city governments.^
Dennis R. Judd, The Politics of American Cities, Private Power and Public Policy (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979), pp. 33-38.
^John M. Gaus., "The State of the Nation's Cities," Municipal Year Book 1936 (Chicago: International City Managers’ Association, 1936),pp. 5-6.
^Luther Gullck , "Our Cities in 1937," Municipal Year Book 1938 (Chicago, International City Managers' Association, 1938),p. 8.


22
It is clear that leading authors in the field of public administration were able to see the need for linkage between planning— though not specifically land use planning—and management in local government policy formation almost fifty years ago. However, there is great distance between perceiving, articulating, and implementing. The abundance of land, the political and social philosophies of our nation, the simple press of more urgent matters has undoubtedly influenced the manner in which this concept has been accommodated in public administration literature as well as by management at the local government level. As the general concept of planning and management move closer together, it is probable that land use planning and management will do likewise—in the literature as well as in practice.
b. Ecology in Government - Caus pointed out that people who were dissatisfied with conditions in their environment often blame government :
Vhat does appear with increasing sharpness is the problem noted a year ago by Louis Brownlow—the problem of planning and administration. In studying the various reviews of functional developments . . . one is impressed by the heavy costs of our lack of adequate exact knowledge on which to base programs of public works . . . the confusion and cost resulting from mixing relief and public works without clarifying the respective objectives and possibilities, and hence priorities, of each; the lack of public sentiment places the blame for resulting confusion and waste, with its sense of frustration, upon "politicians," "officeholders," and other tangible objects of attack. The fundamental truth is that we have, in our rapid development, outgrown the neighborhood and village conditions in which our political ideas were formed, and we have failed to achieve any adequate positive conception of the city and its collective services as essential parts in a true economy and welfare essential to all citizens.^
13
Gaus, p. A


23
Gaus later elaborated on his concept of "adequate positive conception of the city and Its collective services . . ." in a series of lectures which he delivered at the University of Alabama In 19A5. It was there that he defined the term, "ecology in government."
An ecological approach to public administration builds, then quite literally from the ground up; from the elements of a place— soils, climate, location, for example—to the people who live there—their numbers and ages and knowledge, and the ways of physical and social technology by which from the place and in relationship with one another, they get their living. It is within this setting that their instruments and practices of public housekeeping should be studied so that they may better understand what they are doing, and appraise reasonably how they are doing it. Such an approach is of particular Interest to us as students seeking to cooperate in our studies; for it Invites— Indeed is dependent upon—careful observation by many people in different environments of the roots of government functions, civic attitudes, and operating problems.^
The richness of this definition incorporates the natural complexities of the environment into the equations used for public decision-making. It sets the parameters for evaluating government's "public housekeeping."
Gaus used a list of factors as a means of "explaining the ebb and flow of the functions of government; "people, place, physical technology, social technology, wishes and ideas, catastrophe and personality."^ He believe*’ these eight components to be key in the formulation of policy and the organization of government and saw these components in a dynamic and continuous three-step process: diagnosis-policy-revisions.
Gaus' ecological approach to government also encouraged a
1A
John M. Gausi (University of Alabama:
Reflections on Public Administration University of Alabama Press,1947), p. 8.
â– #, p. 9.


24
management style which fosters private sector or citizen participation as well as participatory management within the organization structure of government. He quoted Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes who stated: "When I pay taxes, I buy civilization."*6 This concept views tax dollars as an investment in government which serves as the guardian of civilization. It presumes that citizens are in partnership with government for the provision of services and that citizens and governmental officials share in the stewardship of tax dollars.
Gaus also appeared to hold common views with David Llllenthal in regard to the viability of local democracy. He quoted Lilienthal:
Unless ... an administrative system is so constructed and operated as to keep alive local and individual responsibilities, it is likely to deitroy the basic well-springs of activity, hope and enthusiasm necessary to popular government and the flowering of a democratic civilization. '
However, Gaus also stressed the importance of the governmental structure from within. He saw the need for that structure to be integrated in a manner which facilitated democracy in practice.
The change to the present view that administrative reorganization or city planning is a continuous process, and one to be incorporated in the administrative process itself, is an important step to advance. In fact, we should go further, and rid our minds of the notion that "planning" in the sense of revision of existing policies and procedures is exclusively the assignment of a separate and special "planning" or "research" or "procedures" unit.18
This segregation of planning from other functions had plagued local government for a number of years. As noted earlier, in land use
*8Gaus , p. 19.
17. Gaus , 00 (X
18Caus, p. 147.


25
matters, local government tended to accept the concept that growth per se was desirable and the pattern of growth was governed primarily, if not exclusively, by the private market. Obviously Lllienthal and Gaus were espousing a different concept—one which called for a partnership between the public and private sector and the integration of planning into the mainstream of local government management.
Although other authors writing in the 1940s re-enforced these concepts, the war years forced other matters to take precedence in local government affairs. As the 1943 issue of the ICMA Municipal Year Book pointed out, every aspect of life was affected by the war. Cities, as a domestic frontline, had to ensure that civilian defense functioned in a reassuring manner; that shortages of personnel, supplies, equipment did not unduly thwart government's functions and that population shifts and rationing did not reduce instead of increase the nation's productivity. In the 1943 Municipal Year Book, Walter H. blucher identified housing for war workers with the development of difficult transportation plans as the greatest challenge for planning and zoning at the local level, and John B. Blandford, Jr. cited specific functions which local governments performed:
The federal government has depended on local governments to handle some of the toughest administrative jobs in the war effort. Tires, automobiles, sugar, typewriters, and other commodities are rationed through approximately 6,000 price and ration boards organized almost overnight by local government . .
c. Electric Transformer - Perhaps only those who experienced the
administrative and management demands made on local government by
19
John B. Blandford, Jr.,"Administrative Organization,"
Municipal Year Book 1943 (New York: International City Managers' Association,jL943) , p. 313.


26
external environmental factors such as the Depression and World War II can appreciate the toll exacted from local government officials. Those years showed that local government officials played a key role In stabilizing a turbulent environment, and as has since been shown, channeling and controlling the flow of that environmental turbulence is a major function of city managers at any period in time.20 Dell S. Wright, writing a quarter century later, explains this as the role of an "electrical transformer t”
The manager plan juxtaposes a rational structure that is (or intends to be) administration within a large irrational matrix represented by the pressures of political change. The interface among these forces of relative stability and dynamic change is supplied by the city manager. His role telescopes into a single position conflicting public demands, varied social strains, and shifting community tensions. His total role is analogous to a large transformer in an electric supply system; he regulates the current flow and alters the voltage. In addition he may even supply additional power and change the amperage on his own initiative.2^
This description is particularly applicable to the city manager
22
described by Aaron Wlldavsky in Leadership in a Small Town.
However, the size of the town may have resulted in Wlldavsky giving scant attention to the internal relationships of a city manager (who was a planner by profession) to his own staff. The emphasis was
20 For a different point of view on local government's effectiveness during the Depression, see David A. Shannon. ed. , The Great Depression (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1960), Chapter 3.
21Deil S. Wright, "The City Manager as a Development Administrator," Comparative Urban Research. The Administration and Politics of Cities,ed.. Robert T. Daland (Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications, 1969),,p. 219.
22
Aaron Wlldavsky, Leadership in a Small Town (Trtowa, New
Jersey: The Bedminster Press, 1964), p. 388.


27
instead on the city manager's relationship to City Council members, community interest groups and issues. This dissertation focuses on the "conversion process” between the lnput/output components, thus adding a new dimension to studies made in the past, especially regarding land use planning.
This lack of a "conversion process” in the past is illustrated by the distrust of local governments which led to the creation of separate planning agencies, creating a gap between planning and other functions of municipal government. B. G. Pope criticized this separation and in 1949 spoke positively for a new trend:
City planning activity during the year was characterized by two developments of special significance: first, there appeared to be increasing acceptance among city officials and city residents of the idea that the necessary and proper scope of planning activities goes beyond the traditional concern with public works to include consideration of the prospective development of the city, the desirable goals toward which municipal progress should be directed, and all aspects of community preferences and needs.23
Halter H. Blucher in that same issue added a note of caution:
citizens were less sure that planning techniques and principles were
the panacea they were claimed to be.
More people were beginning to be less sure that more expressways, more parking meters, more official plans, more zoning, more industry, more self-sufficient neighborhood units, more new towns, more urban redevelopment, etc. were going to provide the answers to the problems of our cities.24
^H. G. Pope , "Our Cities in 1948," Municipal Year Book 1949 (Washington, D.C.: International City Managers’ Association, 1949),p. 6.
24
Walter H. Blucher , "Planning and Zoning Developments in 1948," Municipal Year Book 1949 (Washington, D.C.: International City Managers' Association, 1949),p. 253.


28
d. Change Agent - The work of the city manager as an electric transformer in today's changing environment will demand skills equal to or greater than those required during the Depression or war years.
ICMA consistently has been an advocate of greater professionalism in city management as well as throughout city administration. Pope wrote frequently in this regard during the 1940s and early 1950s, advancing the concept of organizing personnel departments and planning departments as a means of improving public administration and assisting the chief executive. He supported the formulation of service standards for all departments of local government.
By 1953, Edward W. Weidner could state that professionalization of public officials and employees in government had progressed beyond the talking stage. In addition, he attempted to put to rest the debate over whether a city manager should be a leader in policy formation. While recognizing that such a development altered the original theoretical basis for the council/manager form of government, he concluded that the consequences would be insignificant:
"At most a few minor practices of council/manager governments, such as hiring managers without regard to their orientation toward policy, might have to be rethought.
These words may have been offered to reassure big city mayors as well as express a new attitude toward the functions and role of a city manager. In any case, the matter was not laid to rest. In the day-to-day decision making, most city managers continued to recognize
^Edward W. Weidner, "Municipal Highlights of 1952,"
Municipal Year Book 1953 (Washington, D.C.: International City
Managers' Association, 1953),p. 3.


29
that they were wise to re-evaluate the appropriate role they were to play each tine the composition of the City Council changed, and even as different issues arose. However, the re-enforcement which 1CMA gave city managers did help to release many professionals from an exclusively reactive posture. City managers could then more effectively accept their role as change agents not only within the local government organizational structure, but also their function as electric transformers in the community/government relationship.
As a result, the latter part of the 1950s marked the beginning of a shift toward humanism and a concern for social programming as a function of management and planning. Writing several decades later, Cawthrop captures the essence of the city manager's "change agent" role as the electric transformer in a changing urban environment:
In reality . . . every technical and logistical solution tends to generate its own set of social, political and ethical problems. Within the public sector, administrators traditionally have openly proclaimed their concern for all three factors, but in actual practice the legacy of Max Weber provides a sterile atmosphere of impersonal operating efficiency for some^while the pluralist political tradition counsels political prudence for others. The professional change agents hold the key in converting these propositions from pious platitudes into operating realities. The change agents become, in the real sense of the word, the professional administrators of the future; they represent the key operatives who can complete the linkage of interacting and Interdependent relationships between the formal organizations and the turbulent environment, and between public and private boundary-spanning units.26
Although Gaus and others placed confidence in the ability of local government to manage change, the federal government has appeared less inclined to do so—despite the rhetoric of decentralization which
26
Gawthrop, pp. 106-107.


30
was loudly proclaimed In the 1930s, as well as In the 1970s and the 1980s. Many federal programs Implemented In the '50s had negative Impacts for local government, although the federal Intent was benign. For example, the Housing Act of 1949 and the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1936 were touted as aids to local government. However, even though it afforded housing for many who were unable to own homes previously, the Act served to entrench discrimination against racial minorities through exclusionary zoning, lack of financing for rehabilitation or the purchase of older homes and "redlining" (denial of financing of entire neighborhoods considered to I * declining In value and therefore high risks.) The Federal Highway Act provided those who could afford it the opportunity to escape inner city problems by flight to the suburban areas of large cities. The path of federal highways more often than not cut through and disturbed the neighborhood stability of low income neighborhoods where wholesale condemnation of land provided the cheapest routes for expressways. Often Urban Renewal Authorities flagrantly ignored local elected officials as well as professional planning done within the framework of local governments.
This led to controversy since professional planners in the field of land use planning had misgivings about becoming a part of local government's planning effort. Patrick W. Murphy spoke of these differences in the 1963 Municipal Year Book:
Such consolidation (of planning or urban renewal agencies with existent city departments) has been advocated on the grounds that it may make the realization of plans more likely as the planners no longer stand outsid” the administration but are Integral with it and come to better understand its day-to-day problems. It is also argued that urban renewal is a long-range process, capable of being integrated with planning. Some planners.


31
however, have disputed the advisability . . . declaring that the role of the planner is that of a "gadfly," who should remind administrators and the public that each compromise they make in regard to planning or zoning brings nearer the day of reckoning. These people contend that planners would lose a good deal of their effectiveness in this role if they become a part of the administration Itself.27
By 1970, the Municipal Year Book reflected a growth in understanding between planners and management. The American Institute of Architects wrote an article which appeared in that issue. It strongly endorsed the concept of the "design team" for planning purposes.
Space in the Sanskrit text means "opportunity for things to happen" and its inspired use can also mean a way out for American cities. Management of space is the one power cities retain that can force reform, concessions, and ventures from the forces and agencies that appear today to throttle the average municipality.2®
Even though the article fell short of formally relating the role of
the city manager to the planning process, planning was viewed as an
Integral part of city management as a whole.
However, the fact that ICMA and the ALA could join forces in seeing the need for the management of space within cities did not bring a quick response from academicians interested in the forces at work in local government. During the '70s academicians had excitedly begun to use more fully scientific research methods and empirical data bases for analysis. Surveying was a popular technique in local government studies, many of which attempted to identify the source and use
27
Patrick W. Murphy, "Administrative Management," Municipal Year Book 1963 (Washington, D.C.: International City Managers' Assoc-lation, 1963), p. 298.
28
American Institute of Architects, "Urban Design and the
Future of Cities," Municipal Year Book 1970 ( Washington, D.C.: The
International City Management Association, 1970),p. 341.



32
of power at the local level. Most studies were theoretical in nature
and were unconcerned with land use matters. There were two basic
premises being researched: (1) that "elites" rule the decision-making;
(2) that a "pluralistic" group of interests governed decision-making,
usually on an issue-oriented basis. Several authors have summarixed
29
the research done in this field.
Other academicians explored the impact of different forms of
local government on the decision-making process. Their analyses
examined voting patterns of the electorate and the elected officials «
as well as demographic correlations. Some authors contended that the
council/manager form of government is elitist and less responsive to
its constituents than the mayor/council form. Counter arguments were
made by ICMA which pointed out that sound management benefits the whole
community and that the council/manager form of government was founded
30
on non-partisan, public interest government. Instead of addressing new management issues such as matrix management, most of the literature was still debating local government issues of the 1960s.
29
Aaron Wildavsky, Leadership in a Small Town (Totowa, New Jersey: The Bedminster P'_ ss, 1964), pp. 3*,J-351; Kenneth J. Gergen, "Assessing the Leverage Points in the Process of Policy Formation," The Study of Policy Formation, eds., Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J. Gergen (New York: The Free Press, 1968), pp. 181-182; and F. William Heiss, Urban Research and Urban Policy-Making, An Observatory Perspective (Boulder, Colorado: Bureau of Governmental Research and Service, University of Colorado, 197S), pp. 4-9.
30
Charles R. Adrian and Charles Press, Governing Urban America, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972), Chapters 4 and 5; James M. Banovetz, ed.. Managing the Modern City (Washington,
D.C.: The International City Management Association, 1971); Thomas A. Flinn, Local Government and Politics (Glenview Illinois, 1970).


33
e. Modified Matrix Management - While others focused on the 1960s, ICMA's literature examined management and planning public policy Issues and drew these two professional fields closer together during the 1970s. As early as the December 1969 issue of Public Management, ICMA articles stressed the importance of the planner to city management.^ The planner was pictured as a member of the management team and laid the foundation for the type of dual leadership which the City Manager of Colorado Springs used in his modified matrix management model.
Urban Management styles also gained greater attention in the Municipal Year Book of 1975 which sanctioned the involvement of planners in the management decision-making process:
The historical model of the council/manager relationship stressed the separation of policy making and policy execution.
As with all formal theories of organizational structure and behavior, the traditional model fell more than somewhat short of the ideal. The ICMA has long since laid-out an extensive and growing policy role for the professional urban manager. The association acknowledges that city managers and other chief administrative officers are deeply involved in policy development and that generally part of their responsibilities Includes the presentation of policy considerations to elected leaders, (emphasis added
As the decade advanced, ICMA expanded its literature on the subject of management styles and addressed the subject of matrix management
^^Keane, pp. 2-l*>.
32
Robert J. Huntley, "Urban Managers: Organizational Preferences, Managerial Styles, and Social Policy Role6," Municipal Year Book 1975 (Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association ,1975)i p. 149.


34
as well. Beck explained the various management styles from the
33
perspective of several practicing city managers. Mercer extracted
material from a forthcoming book by Susan Woolston and Bill Donaldson
entitled Urban Strategies for the Eighties. They discuss in detail
various organizational structures for project management and matrix
34
management, citing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other
authors such as Davis and Lawrence point out the pitfalls of matrix
management as well as its advantages.^ Kathryn Tytler provides a
"nuts and bolts" analysis which focuses on the Implementation of a
36
matrix management system.
Although differing in their specific analyses, all this literature supports a more fluid and open style of management than the traditional pyramidial, hierarchical organizational structure permits. Tytler cited several reasons why this form of management is more viable today:
- the greatly Increased base of knowledge and expertise of technocrats calls for interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; * 3
■^Christine S. Beck , "Management Styles—Personal Perspectives," Management Information Service REPORT 11 (March 1979): 14.
3 It
James L. Mercer, "Local Government Organizational Structures for the Eighties," Management Information Services REPORT 12 (March 1980): 13.
â– ^Stanley M. Davis and Paul R. Lawrence , "Problems of Matrix Organizations," Harvard Business Review 56 (May-June 1978): 131-132.
If
Kathryn Tytler , "Making Matrix Management Work—and When and Why It's Worth the Effort," Training (October 1978 ). 7g_g2


35
- tight budgets call for maximizing staff resources;
- an increasingly complex environment calls for managers to exercise leadership in policy formation.
These factors all enhance the potential for a new team effort between planners and management at the local government level.
Along with new management concepts such as matrix management, "rational-comprehensive planning," a new approach to planning, gained vogue. These concepts were stabilizing factors for urban planning and management because each promotes openness and the Involvement of multi-disciplinary actors in the decision-making process. As Gaus noted, knowledge and participation reduce the potential for environmental turbulence because anxieties are assuaged while fatalism and alienation are reduced. The final portion of this chapter will discuss various aspects of rational-comprehensive planning as they are used in this dissertation.
f. Rational-Comprehensive Planning - Rational-comprehensive planning was defined earlier as a process by which data are aggregated in a professional manner. It is mere, however, than a mechanistic tool for management. In Colorado Spring?, it operationalized modified matrix management by providing the city manager an Internal support system for planning and policy formation. It also provided a conceptual framework to pull together the other key phrases used as linking pins in this dissertation.
As these terms Interrelate, the external environment, which Wright describes as a large Irrational matrix, comes together with the rational internal management structure of government through the city manager's function as an electrical transformer. Internally,


36
rational-comprehensive planning Is boundary-spanning; that la to say, it crosses departmental lines. Datum Is collected In a manner which makes It usable to other departments, to the city manager or elected officials or interested community members. At the same time, information furnished from external sources, such as citizen inputs, is incorporated in the data system. This provides the foundation for ecology in government.
The external element of this large irrational matrix is complex. It includes the attitudes and perceptions of all individuals and groups within the community. As could be expected, they have a variety of views on the subjects such as social and economic issues, urban design, environmental psychology and human ecology. To incorporate these views into the natlonal-comprenenslve system calls for a much broader interpretation of the term, and it also requires a broader matrix management style than is found in the private sector. The writings of some public policy theorists support these concepts.
1) Concepts of Public Policy - For example, Burgess’ research in public policy formation shows an understanding of the respective roles of various levels of government as well as citizen participation at the local government level. He also conceptualizes the coordination of fiscal and human resources along with programs to successfully implement policy. Burgess' confidence in local government's ability to manage is premised on a belief in democratic processes being exercised in a variety of ways. He contends that federal authorities usually perceive citizen participation exclusively as a public hearing process, but in fact there are


37
other ways, such as advisory committees and commissions, site visits, mini-city halls, neighborhood councils, review boards, and many other
avenues by which citizens have the direct accessibility of elected and
37
appointed officials at the local level.
Burgess offers an operational framework for other public policy formation theorists as well. Jones, Wildavsky, Lindblom, as well
as Bauer and Gergen concur that perception is key to the manner in
38
which a problem is identified. Problem identification precedes problem-solving and it is the function of the public administrator to formulate problems in such a manner that they will be solvable. If citizens' perceptions of the problem do not match that of the city administration, from the community's point of view, the problem remains unsolved. This was exemplified during the 1960s when urban
37
Philip M. Burgess, "Capacity Building and the Elements of Public Management," Public Administration Review 35 (December 1975): 705-716; Study Committee on Policy Management Assistance, chairman M.Frank Hersman, Strengthening Public Management in the Intergovernmental System, a report prepared by the Office of Management and Budget, 1975, Burgess a contributing writer; Burgess, et al., "Training Urban Managers: A Curriculum for the Selection, Design Implementation and Evaluation of Alternative Citizen Participation Mechanism," prepared for the National Training and Development Service for State and Local Government (February 1976); Philip M. Burgess and Larry L. Slo-naker, "The Decision Seminar: A Strategy for Problem-solving," A Mer-shon Center Briefing Paper (Ohio State University 1978).
38
Charles 0. Jones, An Introduce*to the Study of Public Policy, Second Edition (North Scituate, Massachusetts: Dusbury Press, 1977); Aaron Wildavsky, Speaking Truth to PoweT, The Art and Craft of Policy Analysis (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979); Charles E. Lindblom, The Policy-Making Process (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968); James E. Anderson, Public Policy-Making Second Edition (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979); Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J. Gergen, eds., The Study of Policy Formation (New York: The Free Press, 1968).


38
environmental turbulence came to rest on the doorstep of city halls throughout the nation.
39
In response to this turbulence, the "Kerner Report"
criticized the council/manager form of government, stating these
governments were less responsive to their environment than was the
strong mayor form of local government. The report charged that
elitism shaped local public policy. This influenced a flurry of
studies. The Public Administration Review's "Symposium on the
American City Manager ..." looked at issues pertaining to city
management from the perspective of the city manager. Several
articles addressed issues such as affirmative action and social pro-40
grams. The challenge of the '60s increased city management's awareness of social justice issues. New concepts of "the problem" were generated along with different approaches to problem solving.
New concepts also were presented by authors such as Jacobs, Greer and Keller who addressed issues of social justice, urban design, and the structuring of healthy city environments within neighborhoods and the metropolitan setting. Their literature of the '60s advocated
a more humanistic approach to problem solving and strengthened the
41
citizen participation movement.
39
National Commission on Civil Disorders, Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam Books, 1968).
40
Mulrooney, p. 8.
41
Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vantage Book, 1961); Scott Greer, Tne Emerging City Mytn and Reality (New York: The Free Press, 1962); Greer, Coverning the Metropolis (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962); and Suzanne Keller, The Urban Neighborhood, a Sociological Perspective (New York: Random House, 1968).


39
By the 1970s, authors such as Miller, Davidson and Peterson
expanded these concepts and began to examine the manner in which
citizen participation may have influenced public policy formation in
areas such as public expenditures for services, the level of taxation,
growth, and the manner in which a city's infrastructure is main-42
tained. Their literature points out the danger of neighborhood parochialism and the resulting effect of citizens' resistance to paying taxes sufficient to cover the costs of expanding services. The net danger has been an inadequate revenue base which has made cities unable to maintain or expand the necessary capital improvement network and/or service delivery system.
It is obvious from this brief review of literature that the role and style of city management has been shaped by its environment. It is also clear that that environment is not only exceedingly diverse in the public's perception of problems and their resolution, it is also apparent that these views are constantly changing.
One of the realities for city management is its closeness to the people and their problems. This is both an asset and a liability. The author believes this closeness increases a city manager's awareness of the diversity of perceptions. However, time pressures and proximity may make it more difficult to step back from the problems.
42
Zane L. Miller, "Turning Inward: The Concept and Role of Neighborhood in American Cities," Claud M. Davidson, "Comments on 'The Nature and Role of Neighborhood Organizations in American Cities,'" and William E. Oden, "Comments on 'Turning Inward- The Nature and Role of Neighborhood Associations in American Cities,*" Public Service 6 (January 1979): 7-13; Nancy Humphrey, George E. Peterson and Peter Wilson, "Cleveland and Cincinnati: A Tale of Tvo Cities," The Urban Institute Policy and Research Report 10 (Spring 1980): 1-6.


40
to look at then from a rational-comprehensive perspective.
The possibility of the city manager gaining distance and a more holistic view is increased by examining the theoretical basis for the r^ried attitudes and perceptions found within a given community. A useful tool is the utilization of comparisons. Case studies, empirical research and shared experiences offer city managers yardsticks against which their own unique community problems may be assessed. Individuals and groups behave in certain ways because they perceive community problems from their set of attitudes and perceptions. Wright defines this resulting diversity as the "large Irrational matrix" of the total community environment.
The final portion of the discussion of rational-comprehensive planning will explore some of the concepts of the healthy socio/ economic urban environment and the ramification of environmental psychology empirical research. Urban design literature will be cited to demonstrate the manner in which some experts believe planning and design may be rationally applied to the problem-solving process.
2) The "Large Irrational Matrix” - Land use policy formation ultimately becomes a matter of determining the size, growth pattern and density of a specific city. It is directly impacted by the private sector's philosophy of economic development and public sector revenues and expenditures. These interrelate to provide a healthy—or unhealthy— urban environment.
Serving as the electrical transformers in these environments, city managers' roles and styles are critical. Their task is to enable government to provide the rational focus which balances the public and


41
private sector's role in public policy formulation. They also must recognize legitimate individual and group self Interests as veil as the general public interests. Land use matters often become the point of confrontation between parties within the community as well as public-private sector disputes. The rational-comprehensive approach to city management may help quiet these disputes and may call upon the expertise of the internal structure of city government as well as the manager's general understanding of aocio/economlc theories and the wealth of data produced by empirical studies.
Theories of social justice and economic development need not be mutually exclusive. This is important to the city manager who seeks to be a change agent in land use development concepts. One land use concept, infilling, often creates disputes, anxieties and environmental turbulence in middle-income neighborhoods when multiple-family housing is proposed for Isolated vacant lots within a predominately single family neighborhood. The city manager who not only understands the basis for these fears (but also is aware that rational-comprehensive planning to formulate land use policies can mitigate these fears) may be able to avoid increased environmental turbulence as new land use policies support greater densities.
One management technique might include Roberick D. McKenzie's concepts of selective, distributive and accommodative forces of the environment:
. . . human beings are affected by the selective distribution and accommodative forces of the environment—a great deal has been written about the biological, economic and social aspects


42
of c.mpetitlon and selection, but little attention has been given to the distributive and spatial aspects of these processes.^
Patterns of segregation, poverty clustering and inequality of economic opportunity affect the selective, distributive and accommodative forces of the environment and those who live within it.
If, as McKenzie suggests, these can be mitigated by the distributive and spatial aspects of governmental policy formulation and processes, social justice will be enhanced and the greater economic benefits of spatial concentrations of populations and capital accumulation can be realized.
The potential for achieving this more ideal and healthy urban
environment depends on bettor understanding of human ecology and
environmental psychology. An annotated bibliography edited by Gwen
Bell, et al. provides an excellent resource for those who choose to
explore these and other aspects of the urban environment as it re-
44
lates to human behavior.
It is encouraging to note that urban planning literature has shown an interest in environmental psychology and human ecology research. Kevin Lynch and Lloyd Rodwin suggest: "A systematic
43
Roberick D. McKenzie , "The Ecological Approach to the Study of the Human Community," The Social Fabric of the Metropolis, ed..James F. Short, Jr. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1971), p. 18.
44
Gwen Bell, Edwfna Randall nnd Judith E.R. Roeder, eds., Urban Environments and Human Behavior. An Annotated Bibliography (Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., 1973).


43
consideration of the interrelations between urban forms and human objectives would seem to lie at the theoretical heart of city planning work."^6
However, Lynch and Lloyd are concerned that practicing planners do not embrace these objectives in an organized, systematic manner as yet.
What does exist is some palliative knowledge of rules of thumb for designing street intersections, neighborhood and industrial areas, for separating different land uses, distinguishing different traffic functions, or controlling urban growth. Analysis of urban design is largely at the level of city parts, not of the whole.56
To correct this approach, Lynch and Lloyd advocate "goal-formed" studies which they believe can lead to new Insights regarding the history of city planning as well as pioTide guidance for future planning. McKenzie's concepts of the distributive and spatial aspects of the biological, economic and social processes would he helpful to this study process. However, planning's relationship to selective, distributive and accommodate forces of the environment has been criticized by those who view urban environment from a social justice perspective as well as those who focus on the revenues and expenditures of government's service delivery system.
In addition, incorporating the citizen participation variable is often seen by public administrators as a threat to good public housekeeping and ecology in government. Yet the manner in which
^Kevin Lynch and Lloyd Rodwin , "A Theory of Urban Form," Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting ) eds., Harold M. Proshansky, William H. Ittelson and Leanne G. Rivlin ( New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970 ), pp. 84-J55.
46
Lynch and Rodwin, p. 85.


neighborhoods and community Interest groups can productively interact with city government in policy formulation can be demonstrated in the City of Colorado Springs' adoption of a new zoning ordinance regulating the location of foster care homes. In this instance, the City successfully negotiated the distributive and spatial accommodative needs of the various parties and overcame concerns expressed ty McKenzie.
3) Empirical Studies as a Tool - City managers also can benefit from research done by national organizations. Rational-comprehensive planning has been strengthened as a science by a number of empirical studies dealing with land use issues. The research of the Real Estate Research Corporation (RERC) and the Urban Land Institute (ULI) are examples.
RERC is currently under contract with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to conduct research on infilling.
The study is examining three communities in depth to determine why vacant land within the city has been bypassed for development.
Several other cities. Including Colorado Springs, serve as auxiliary cities for the study. The author is an auxiliary reviewer for the materials which RERC is producing. Although the approach of the RERC study is different from that of this dissertation, the author has benefited by being aware of the methodology, and issues being investigated by RERC.
RERC has published the following infill study materials to date:
A7 ,
(1) the formal project proposal to HUD; (2) the initial research mode.
A7
Deborah Brett, Margery A. Chalibi, Stephen B. Friedman,
Urban Infill: Opportunities and Constraints (Chicago: Real Estate
Research Corporation, research in progress).


45
and methodology, and (3) an annotated literature search on the
48
subject of Infilling. None of these materials reflect an intent to explore the subject in the manner used by the author.
Other RERC materials also have been helpful as background for the author. The classic, The Cost of Sprawl, set the stage for fiscal impact analysis of various land use alternatives in residential development. The study compares the costs of development for raw land, using four different patterns of residential density. It found that cluster development of housing is more economical for
the individual purchaser as well as for the infrastructure costs 49
to government.
Rational-comprehensive planning also is addressed by the Urban Land Institute which published a four-volume study including articles reprinted from other sources. This compendium covers a wide array of land use subjects related to its title: Management and Control of Growth. It should be noted that only one article was directed toward the functions of management from the local
48
Real Estate Research Corporation, Urban Infill: The Literature, Prepared by Real Estate Research Corporation under Contract No. H-2982 for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research (Washington, D.C. : Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office, January, 1980).
49
Real Estate Research Corporation, The Cost of Sprawl: Environmental and Economic Costs of Alternative Residential Development Patterns at the Urban Fringe, prepared for the U.S. Council on Environmental Quality, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974).


46
government perspective. This article is a reprint from Public
Management, ICMA's professional journal. It states:
A major result of the concern over excessive growth has been the increasing demands being made on government to begin to effectively manage, or at least guide, growth and its consequences.
But, none of the studies recognized the cornerstone role of local government in managing growth. None explored growth as would a local administrator responsible for dealing with local and federal programs related to growth.^>u (Emphasis added.)
These comments support the major thesis of this dissertation: the city manager is key to the process if rational-comprehensive planning is to be effective as a basis for land use policy formation. ICMA not only appears to hear city managers, it also speaks to their needs.
The ICMA article for the Urban Land Institute contends that local government is best suited to assume the leadership role in growth management, even though there are constraints such as federal regulations, as well as the lack of, or inadequacy of, local growth-related programs.
Managers and administrators should work with their governing bodies in assessing their communities' growth needs, and in adopting a community growth program which includes peoples' attitudes toward the desirability of various levels of population growth, as well as population projects, and the present and future capacities of city and county services and infrastructures (e.g, sewer and watet systems, solid waste disposal facilities, transportation systems, recreational facilities, etc.51 (Emphasis added.)
50
International City Management Association 1973 Municipal Management Policy Committee, "Managing Growth: Report of the ICMA Committee on Growth and the Environment," reprint in Management 6 Control of Growth, Issues, Techniques, Problems, Trends, Vol. I, ed., Frank S. So, et al. (Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1975): 138.
51
International City Management Association 1973 Municipal Management Policy Committee, "Managing Growth . . ." p. 139.


47
Concluding Remarks:
This literature search afforded the author the opportunity to review a wide array of material dealing with land use policy formation, the role and style of the city manager, rational comprehensive planning, and the soclal/economic concepts which shape individual and group views of the urban environment. Through this process, the author also gained an appreciation of environmental psychology and human ecology as new fields of study. The research being done in these areas is contributing to the changing theories of urban design.
The literature cited justifies the emphasis which this dissertation places on the role and style of the city manager in the formation of land use policy. The remaining sections of the dissertation offer a case study exposition on this thesis.


CHAPTER IX METHODOLOGY
A. Justification of Use of the Case Study Methodology
This dissertation is focused on the role of the city manager in the formulation of a new land use policy to support the development of vacant land within the City of Colorado Springs. The case study method is used to further that purpose, and through that methodology, the author seeks to do the following:
1. To Share Insights with Other Public Administrators.
This case study is intended to stimulate the thinking of other public administrators. To the degree that other public administrators can benefit from its insights, its findings may have transferability. However, Stein's perspective of the usefulness of the case study methodology prevails. He warns against overgeneralization by the author or the reader.
Furthermore, Stein contends that a case should not convey a moral, or state conclusions. In fact, the reader should not be coerced toward one specific judgment.
If the cases are successful, readers will constantly check their previous generalizations and will use the materials to Improve their ability to observe and evaluate tendencies and consequences, and to make Informed judgments; they will not arrive at a set of uniform judgments. . . . But students of public administration have attempted to push generalization even further—to raise generalization to the level of principles that constitute absolute rules of conduct. . . . Public administration cases do not serve as a book of instructions or a



trade manual, but this very limitation enlarges their sphere of relevance. They deal with decisions.^
2. To Permit and Encourage Flexibility in Analysis of Complex Environing
The case study methodology was used for this dissertation because it is a good research tool for examining and explaining a complex clustei of actions within a single setting or environment. Its flexibility allows both controlled and uncontrolled variables. The latter type of variable is typically present in field research, whereas clinical or empirical research can choose to include only those variables which can be controlled.
The case study approach is uniquely capable of portraying the eclecticism of the decision-making environment in which a generalist such as a city manager must function. In this case study, the City Manager was directed by City Council to formulate a new land use policy. The manager converts his perceptions of the total environment as a specific management format is developed. Wright describes this role of the city manager as that of an "electrical transformer."
To demonstrate the manner in which this conversion process functions, three factors were isolated for analysis because these variables were considered significant in the formulation of a new land use policy. These factors are:
- the attitudes, perceptions of elected officials, community interest groups and city departmental administrators;
^Harold Stein , "On Public Administration and Public Administration Cases," Essays on the Case Method ^d. Edwin A. Bock (Syracuse, New York: The Inter-University Case Program, 1962), pp. 22-23.
2Wright, p. 219.


50
- the administrative procedures and data gathering techniques developed to support the policy formulation process;
- the role and management style of the city manager.
The city manager can control the last two factors. The first factor is subject to the Influence, but not the control, of the manager. The attitudes and perceptions of the various actors are important in the formulation of policy, and will determine their acceptance of the final product. The city manager's role in the input-output conversion is vitally important.
3. To Expand the Scope of Research.
The case study methodology is particularly useful to examine an area which has not been a point of emphasis in other literature for a general field of study. With the noted exception of the literature published by 1CMA, the general public administration literature and the literature in other fields of study which deal with the subject of management do not explore in any depth the function of the city manager in the formulation of land use policy. When policy formulation is discussed, more often than not it is assumed that elected or appointed officials have the sole prerogative in this general sphere and especially in land use matters. The planners are recognized as advisers, but city managers art. seldom mentioned.
Since empirical research relies heavily on comparative data, when there is an absence of data from which comparisons can be made, the case study offers the better route for analysis. For the purpose of a comparison of administrative procedures, data gathering and the environment of decision making, another land use case study


3
by Alan Altshuler has been used. However, the Altshuler case does not discuss the role or management style of the city manager because there was no city manager In St. Paul at that time. Nevertheless, the argument can be made that the absence of a city manager probably had some bearing on the outcome of the case. Lack of acceptance of St. Paul's plan demonstrates the need for an individual who could serve as the "electrical transformer" within that total environment.
4. To Record and Analyze as a Participant-Observer.
One attribute of the case study methodology used for this dissertation is controversial. In the Colorado Springs case study, the author is a participant-observer or an "insider." Authors such as Stein and his colleagues believe that participant-observers may unduly bias the case study methodology and reduce its scientific usefulness. Towl, on the other hand, points out some advantages to being an insider. He believes that one must get involved in multiple relationships in a case study, and that such relationships can best occur when the author is a part of the group being studied.
It is by Involvement in the situation that the researcher from within it, discovers the cluster of data creating an issue in the system requiring discretion, a choice of purpose. . . .
While scholars seek the laws by which these complex forces work, those responsible for decisions at any moment are keenly aware of their need for skill as well as knowledge in charting a new direction for an organization. Those responsible for selecting and persuading men [women] to take such positions are keenly aware how difficult it is to find or to develop men [women] with this orientation and the necessary emotional maturity to:
- seek out and understand actual situations from the administrative point of view;
3
Altshuler,
"A Land Use Plan
for St. Paul."


52
- relate such concrete situations requiring action to the abstract knowledge and concepts of the subjects they taught;
- use such situations with students In the process of learning and maturity.4
Towl is viewing the case study primarily as a teaching tool.
In complex subjects dealing with the dynamics of human interaction, Towl's defense of the insider approach has certain merits. The major postulate of this dissertation is that certain management skills are critical to successful policy formulation. Only an Insider would have access to the internal actions and interactions which portray the subtle nuances of a management style. The participant observer not only sees the actions, but also has insights about why and how things occur. New understanding of local government may be generated.
The manner in which Bock describes a case study seems to support this assertion:
Case studies are efforts to wrest significant knowledge and useful understanding from the Infinite complexity and tangled interplay of forces and actions that make up the continuity of the real governmental process.^
Had Altshuler understood the governmental processes differently, he might have weighed St. Paul's land use planning problems differently.
As an "outsider" in the city administration, his interpretation of events in St. Paul had certain expectations of the internal and external environment. Whether the absence of a conceptualization of the city manager's role in Altshuler's case was the result of the
A
Andrew R. Towl, To Study Administration by Cases Boston: (Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1969),pp. xlll and 39.
^Edvin A.Bock, Essays on the Case Study Method (Syracuse,
New York: The Inter-University Case Program, 1962),p.91.


53
fact that the city had no city manager, or the result of an undue focus on the planning process without linkage to the city management function by the mayor or someone else Is not known. By the same token, had Altshuler been writing about Colorado Springs from an "outsider" point of view, he might not have perceived the city manager playing a key role.
Bock introduces still another dimension to the subject of bias in research. Quoting Vincent Ostrom, he supports diversity in research strategies: "Diversity in research strategy may do more to increase confidence in our conclusions than merely replicating the same research design in a large number of different situations."^ Ostrom and Bock strengthen the position of case studies in the field of research, and appear to support the viability of either "insider" or "outsider" observers in the preparation of case ocudy analyses.
Finally, Bock good-humoredly attacks the bias which may arise when case study research is narrowly focused on one clientele or purpose:
Certain biases may also arise from limiting the purpose of case studies to those useful to only one clientele. ... The glint in the eye of a man setting out to truncate a body of life ao that it will fit perfectly into hi8 trophy case is a fearsome thing and is often enough to send facts and subtleties of truth scampering for cover. . . . The biases that arise from the preparation of cases exclusively for operational use by officials or agencies come chiefly from the fact that these clients are direct or indirect parties at interest. . . . Biases may also arise from the desire to make case studies and case programs serve scientific purposes. The scientist serrching for evidence for a limited hypothesis is a party at interest.^
^Bock , p. 106.
^Bock, pp. 101 and 109.


54
It seems clear that bias may be a peryasiye element of human nature, not easily dismissed regardless of the point of view. In the final analysis, the user of a specific methodology should be satisfied that the technology used is appropriate for the specific analytical effort. Research integrity is then a matter of intent and conscience.
5. To Support a Functional Approach to case study Methodology.
Early case studies were primarily administrative histories or the capture-and-record studies which Anderson and Gaus consider representative of the genetic and developmental approach to public administration analysis. In contrast, Anderson and Gaus advocated a "new approach" for examining the activities of public administrators:
The new approach is in the realm of function rather t.,an of structure .... The new approach does not ignore organization .... but look upon it as one of constantly adapting the work relations of people to the needs of service.®
Field research of management in Colorado Springs demonstrates that a functional or procedural approach to a case more effectively illuminates the dynamics of management in policy formulation.
This approach also contrasts with other traditional concepts of public administration:
Conventionally, the other aspect of the public administrator's activities—the definition of his goals, his public and legislative relations, his dealings with pressure groups—has been regarded as somewhat alien to the study of public administration. It has been held to be more properly a branch (or another branch) of political science. This separateness and focus
8
William Anderson and John Gaus, Research in Public Administration (Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1945), pp. 43-44.



55
on narrow specialities or cavalierly dismissing public administration has been one-sided and fragmentary.5
The ICMA literature has supported a'Bore innovative approach
to management for same years. Glover and Horgan believe there are two
fundamental causes for case studies in urban management not reflecting
the functional approach more; (1) the lack of adequate research staff
within local urban ogvemment; C2) lack of linkage between cities and 10
their universities.
B. Field Research of Management Techniques
1. General Research.
The following section describes the urban management techniques used by the Infill Task Force as well as the information base and operational procedures used in Colorado Springs. Although matrix management is an organizational structure, it is primarily a functional relationship. The latter is stressed in the Colorado Springs case study.
9
Stein, p. 3.
10
Glover and Horgan are essentially talking about the genetic and developmental approach to planning—not urban land use planning. However, the linkage between land use planning and economics seems clear. If urban management is to be the thrust of research, it can no longer focus exclusively on the structural role of the city manager nor separate the city manager ftrom the total environment in which economics and land use decisions are linked. Today's ecology of government must recognize that local government often exists in an environment of turbulence where the traditional views and concepts are no longer valid for problem solving. Clifford H. Glover and Andrew B. Horgan III, "An International Program in Urban Management," The Municipal Year Book 1978 CWashington, D.C.: International City Manager's Association, 1978), p. 65.


1
56

2. Management Techniques Used In Colorado Springs.
a. Modified Matrix Management - Several common techniques of management were used In Colorado Springs. Organizationally, the process was structured as a modified management matrix. Generally speaking, matrix management may be described as a dual line of responsibility and supervision with one axis focused on the project or programmatic aspects of coordination while the other axis provides line supervision or the technical management element. The author, as representative of the City Manager's Office provided leadership on the technical axis. Working in tandem, this dual leadership mechanism permitted the City Manager to remain closely involved in the entire process, but actively participate only at key points. It assured maximum involvement of the Planning Department's expertise while shifting some of the coordinating and planning for the project itself to the author in the City Manager's Office. The term "modified matrix management* was used because none of the lines of authority or responsibility were changed during the project, and new matrix management features, such as an interdepartmental task force and citizen input were incorporated in the model.
The process was structured to include all the major department heads of the City. The City Manager formed an Infill Task Force whose membership included the following:
Director of Parks & Recreation Director of Public Works Director of Utilities Director of Community Development Chief, Police Department Chief, Fire Department
ii


In addition, the Development Coordinator, the Finance Officer and the City Attorney's staff were Involved from time to time. The City Manager, the Planning Director, and the author were permanent members of the Task Force along with department heads. At each Juncture of the policy formulation process, the Infill Task Force reviewed and shaped the direction of the overall effort. The ongoing responsibilities for developing information and preparing materials was shared by the Director of Planning and the author. The author had primary research and coordination responsibility.
The process was structured to include community interest groups as well. Individuals representing all the major factions of the community interested in land use policy were kept informed of steps being taken in the administrative procedures, and at each point that materials were gathered to be presented later to the City Council, this group was invited to review and comment. Their views were Incorporated into the material if a consensus prevailed. If consensus had been lacking, the City Administration would have made it clear to the community interest groups at what point in time and through which procedures dissenting views could be heard. In the specific case of the Infill Policy Statement, consensus was reached and certain language changes recommended by the community interest groups were incorporated into the final policy statement which the City Manager proposed to City Council.
Matrix management usually refera to the Internal structuring of shared management or participatory management.^ Adding the
^Stanley M. Davi n and Paul R. Lawrence, Matrix (Addison-
Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1977).


58
element of Interest group participation as Colorado Springs did 1e somewhat like sitting on a three-legged stool: one must understand the balance required for stability. The City Manager's role as an "electrical transformer" was key. The Manager's management style played an Important function in assuring that balance so that everyone having a vested interest in the process was comfortable. Ecology in government as Gaus defines it recognizes that there are numerous actors and each has a role to play. As noted in Chapter I, Wright's description of the electrical transformer identifies a key factor in the dynamics of change in that environment.
b. Changes in Administrative Procedures and Data Gathering - The matrix management style was also key to the changes in the City's administrative procedures and data gathering techniques. Early in the meetings of the Infill Task Force, certain problems were identified which city administrators felt would inhibit the policy formulation process as well as its eventual implementation. These included the disparate manner in which information was gathered by the individual departments, creating difficulty in combining data for purposes of management; the lack of effective linkage between budget constraints, as well as other City policies, and departmental master plans with proposed land use changes; and the difficulty of providing timely information to the Planning Department and appointed and elected officials under these constraints.
As a result of these concerns, the Infill Task Force designed more effective administrative procedures and data gathering techniques. There were four products of this action: a series of


59
baBe maps, a revised "buck slip," a Planning Matrix, and finally, the Urban Infill Policy Resolution which the first three products supported. Each of the four products will be discussed relative to their purpose, format and the techniques used in their formulation.
1) Product: Base Maps
Purpose: To provide a common base of mapped information from which management decisions could be reached.
Format: Maps were drawn to a common scale so that comparisons and management-type decisions could be facilitated. In the past, it was not unusual for maps to be drawn on many different scales to accommodate different departmental purposes. However, for management purposes, decision making was dependent on comparing information across departmental boundary lines and looking at many pieces of information simultaneously. The Planning Department, working with the other departments, developed a series of overlay maps on a common scale with a base map of the vacant land within the City. A hypothetical section of that mapping is shown in Exhibit 1. The maps produced by the Planning Department were too large to be reproduced in this dissertation.
Techniques: The base map overlays included not only boundary outlines for each urban service such as water, sewer, public
works (streets), fire service, and other services, but also
12
showed the carrying capacity of this infrastructure by a 12
The ability of the City's capital improvements and service delivery system to supply the demands for facilities and services.


4. district ciuj service




Exhibit #1-3

Z. ErtVIROWtrfTtt. PRCWJE**


63
I


64
shading technique when possible. In addition, environmental constraints such as steep slopes, the floodplain, and other environmental features were mapped.
2) Product: Revised Buck Slip
Purpose: The buck slip is a form on which city departments convey to the Planning Department comments for a proposed land use change. Buck slips had been used for some time, but were considered inadequate because departmental responses tended to be cursory,causing some of the departments to view them as a waste of time. The purpose of revising the buck slip was to make it a more useful planning and management tool for all parties. The maps helped private developers' planning and made data more accessible for interested community groups or Individuals as well. The departments were hopeful that, since they were making an effort to provide more analysis, the applicant for the proposed land use would see the benefit in providing adequate information about the nature of the proposed land use project.
Format: City departments were interested in portraying information which reflected their concerns about budget and capital improvement commitments to which they were already obligated as well as showing the applicant the impact of the proposed land use change vis-a-vis the department's master plan. The department's ability to help developers reduce costs and tine was viewed as a direct correlate to the timing and adequacy of the


65
information which the departments received from the developer
and the Planning Department.
Techniques: The revisions of the buck slips involved a three-step process. First, the author and a planner interviewed each department head who was a member of the Urban Infill Task Force. From that interview a draft revised buck slip was developed by the department and the author. If the latter, the draft was sent back to the department for changes until it was satisfactory to the department. The buck slips were designed to address macro and micro elements of the departmental area of responsibility for the City's infrastructure.^
After the buck slips had been revised, the Planning Department identified six vacant land areas within the city to test the new buck slips. The departmental responses were assessed on the basis of the adequacy of the responses in terms of the Planning Matrix (see Exhibit A) and its general usefulness for decision making. One of the rites was a land use change which had been recently reviewed using the old buck slip form. The revised buc». slip provided a greater amount of data, and revealed a conflict between the master drainage plan and the master park plan which had not been identified previously. The
13
For example, the acquisition, treatment and transmission of water is a macro element of the City’s water system while the distribution of water directly to the customer involves the micro elements of the system.


66
developer also obtained new Information which altered the costing out of the project.
This testing also revealed flaws In the revised buck slips of which a major one was the inability of the form to adequately address such differing land use changes as a master plan or a simple zoning change. In an effort to rectify this flaw, a flow chart was developed by the planner and the author to identify the types of Information normally received at a given point In any proposed land use process. In addition, the decision which might be made at each Juncture was also charted. This substantiated the need for a buck slip to serve each type of land use change request rather than attempting to use one general form to cover all needs. It also demonstrated that different sections of a department might be required to respond rather than just one person in each department.
After these revisions, the Urban Infill Task Force concluded that the test was sufficiently successful to prove the worth of continuing to refine the revised buck slips and to eventually consider using them on proposed land use changes other than infill projects. One of the old buck slip forms is shown in Exhibit 2. An example of the revised buck slips is shown in Exhibit 3.
3) Product: Planning Matrix
Purpose: The purpose of the Planning Matrix was to consolidate the basic information obtained from the revised buck slips. Through this consolidation, management and decision making would
be better served.


6?
Exhibit 2
feiPiamiina; W_J OGPARTMEfVJT^) OATf D DCVILOI'MCNT MCMMICAI COMMI7UC O MINOR LAND SUUDIVISION COMMI1UL O PLANNING DCPAH1MCN1 MCVICW O
O PUBLIC WORKS DEPT D T ENGR. DEPT. D PARK DEPT â–  Q LAND OFFICE â–¡ GAS O WATER â–¡ ELECTRIC D WASTEWATER d COUNTY D POLICE DEPT. D MTN BELL O FIRE DEPT. D STATE HWY. DEPT. â–¡ NCHSE O AIRPORT n SCH. DIST.* n n REG. BLDG. n O PPACG D
OSTANOARO COMMENT OTHER CONCERNS:
COMMENTS MUST BE RECEIVED PRIOR TO


T»i»f***»*d l*«.r
I m.n. Hu.n:
I rurawoiT;
r.r.uro-Sl urAbLlKt:
flit DSFABTHCTT
2. Fir# Wp^rtiiio*: Xupomi Time
2. Over 4 Blnuttl m^om* 11 m from miry lt«t)on.
2. Over 3 Minute* but less than 4 aliMiei response cine
itmm an/ on* station.
3. la as (Kan 3 ninuie# response tlM iron an/ one ststli
4. laaa than 3 ninutea reaponae tlae Iron two Idtloni.
Explain:
2. Fire flow will not allow nor* lntansa land uae than exists.
2. Firs flow will not allow land was as proposed hut lass intense use is a possibility.
3. Firs flow adequate for proposed development but remaining capacity for vacant lands in vicinity is minlnlacd.
4. Firs flow adequate for proposed development and adequate flew remaining for vacant lands in vicinity.
Explain:
3. Fire Suppression: Communication and Equipment (for special fires)
1. Additional calls will be mors numerous than other land uses in the area and special fire fighting equipment will be needed.
2. Additional calls will be about equal to other land usee la the area but special fire fighting equipment will be needed.
3. Additional calls will be morn numerous that other land uses in the area but no special firs fighting equipment will be needed.
4. Additional calls*wlll be about equal to other land uses is the arse and no special firo equipment needed.
Explain:
4. Fire Suppression: Access and Equipment (for special terrain)
1. Adequate fire access Is impossible and special vehicles will be needed to provide minimum protection.
2. Adequate firs access is possible if special vehlclas are available and/or modifications sre made in street design.
3. Adequate fire access is available for pioposcd developmentae designed.
4. Access is adequate (or proposee development and access ta adjacent
*â–  site is lopteved.
Espials:
!». rirr Ffrvemt l»»n
1 • Cwca»i 2. Kised land uae configuration will require inspections, fJre inveatlgat Jons, end fire safety presentatlans.
3. Single Family Accidentia) will rrqwlra fir* safety presentation! but Inspvct ions and investigations will be minimum.
4. foenmrciel and Industrial )and u»e* are large enough to provide
safety and investigation services ef their own.
Explain:
4. What is the estimated 10 year fir# loss for the proposed land use? — -
2. Bow docs the proposed development relate to fwlurs station locations?
1. Does this proposed development Impact the emergency paramedic services?


69
Format: The Planning Matrix format was designed to present four to six variables which the departmental buck slip addressed. These variables were briefly identified to the left of each matrix while a scale of one to four ran across the top of the matrix. The form enabled management and decision makers to see at a glance whether the project seemed to have problems with the infrastructure or the environment. The scale of one to four gave an indication of the intensity of that assessment.
It also helped to Identify areas of lnter-relatedness and open the opportunity for the applicant to negotiate trade-offs which would be least harmful to each of the concerned parties. Techniques: The technique of summarizing information in a meaningful fashion is a common management approach. It is also generally recognized, however, that there are dangers in oversimplification. These dangers were offset by having the revised budk slips serve as a backup. If the circumstance required further explanation, departments would still be free to provide a memorandum as an attachment.
Overall, the new processes were designed to reduce ambiguity and enhance openness as well as making the decision making at each level of the process more visable. An example of the Planning Matrix is shown in Exhibit 4.
4) Product: Urban Infill Tolley Resolution
Purpose: The purpose of the Urban Infill Policy Resolution was
to formulate and adopt a public policy which would guide the decision making of city officials as proposed land use changes
were considered.


70
Format: The resolution is a general statement of goals. It is not a detailed exposition of the manner in which that policy will be Implemented. It simply states an intent—in the case of a City Council, both a legislative and quasi-Judlclal intent. It also provides guidance to the City Administration.
Techniques: The techniques to develop a relatively simple two-page resolution were complex. They required that the various actors in the process of policy formulation reach some degree of consensus. The policy statement Itself was drafted and modified several times through a review process with the Urban Infill Task Force. Members of the Task Force then reviewed the policy statement with representatives of several key community groups who were shown the maps and examples of the revised buck slips. The administrative procedures and data-gathering system were explained as well. (Exhibit A illustrates the Planning Matrix. See Chapter III.)
The consensual approach took almost a year of intermittent effort on the part of city staff. The City Council was periodically provided updates and their input shaped the direction of the Urban Infill Task Force. Colorado Springs, like other cities, had found itself faced with rapid changes in its environment. Its infrastructure was being strained to meet expanding demands for service.
It is significant that City Council looked to the City Manager rather than the Planning Commission in policy formulation.
It is also significant that the City Manager chose to form a task force including the major department heads; that he chose to include interest groups from the community; and that he chose to assign


71
INFILL BUCK SLIP SUMMARY SHEET
Exhibit 4
PUBLIC WORKS 12 3 4 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 12 3 4
Transit System Z Comprehensive Planning Z
Drainage Basins Z land Use Relationship Z
Street Maintenance/Syst z Ordinance Compliance z
Neighborhood Traffic z Neighborhood Revital. z
Housing Rehabilitation z
PARK 4 RECREATION Human Relations: Social X
Existing Parks/Population z Hunan Relations: Econ. X
Existing Parks/Maintenance z Housing Authority X
Master Flam Location z
Master Flam Development z WASTEWATER
Proposed Phrks/Population z Proximity to Main X
Demand 4 Existing Syst. X
FIRE Oversized Extensions X
Response Time z Topographic Features X
Fire Flow z Non-potable Water Use X
Communication & Equip z ELECTRIC
Access 4 Equip z Power Capacity X
Fire Prevention z Proximity to Service X
Demand 4 Existing Syst. X
POLICE Unique Design Features X
Central Base Relationship X Major Capital Outlays X
Patrol pattern Relationship X DATE:
Service Demands: Type X
Service Demands: Amount X SITE:
Site Considerations X
Notei Water and Gas Division Bucksllp Formats were not yet complete at this time.


72
responsibility lor project management to two Individuals, one within the City Manager's Office and the other in the Planning Department. These actions established a pattern of participatory management, and created a dynamic management model conducive to effecting change.
The City Manager, serving as the electrical transformer, controlled the flow or the current in that change process.
When City Council requested the City Administration to recommend a new land use policy which would encourage infilling of vacant land within the city limits, the City Manager had several options: &) He could have suggested that the City Planning Department and Planning Commission develop the policy. This would have been in keeping with earlier concepts which separated the planning and management functions. However, in that environment, it would not have been the City Manager directing the policy formulation.
(2) The City Manager could have proposed that a consultant be hired to develop a draft policy. This would have separated the policy formulation process from the ongoing functions of the city administration, and might or might not have reduced the City Manager’s direct involvement in the policy formulation process. However, the city departments such as the Planning Department would probably have primary responsibility for the consultant contract with other city departments only peripherally involved. Modified matrix management functioned differently. The outcome of this effort was the Urban Infill Policy Resolution, adopted by City Council April 22, 1980.
It is shown as Exhibit 5.


73
Exhibit 3-1
httoluliun No. ISO'HO
A MSOM/rJON IS'EARLISIIINS UVJVsN I WILL POLICY
kio;r>aS, com unity values call for the balanced development of the public and private economic, social, cultural and natural resources of the area; and
KStDGXS, present and future investments made by public/privste sector must be protected in order to preserve these comunity values; and LHEREA5, the PPACC estimates that the population of the City of Colorado Springs will approximately double by the year 2010; and
151EREAS, as of this time, 421 of the land within the City limits is vacant and developable; and
l-JtdOaS, this vacant and developable land can match, at present patterns of density, the current population of the city; and
WHEREAS, citizens of Colorado Springs ar< paying for public services such as muss transit, utilities, streets, drainage, parks, fire, police, recreation, corrmunity dcvelopnent/rcnevclcprcnt, etc. within established service boundaries; and
WHEREAS, maximizing the use of existing city services could reduce spiawl, decrease financial burden to citizens, conserve energy and >tu in tain natural and non-rcncwable resources; and
WHEREAS, a successful infilling policy requires cooperation and "good faith" between neighborhoods, goverrnont and the private sector; and NOW, THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED BY *iHE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF COLORADO SPRINGS:
4/14/80


74
Exhibit *'5-2
7Tw»t An Ur but Infill rolicy is Ivsrcby cr.tiblishad as follow:
1. TO HiODURAGE THE DLVHJD1:2J/T OT VAT/J/T JUNDPJOVED) l.VC W1TKDJ TJC CITY LD-UTS AS AN ALTKW^ATJVE *JO IK'JECCSSAHY SPftthfi, BY:
1. rostering cquitible and coo j din* Led use of public And private resources consistent with:
a) approved city design standards in the various corprchcnsive plan elements;
b) approved capital improvement program* and priorities;
c) approved budgets for programs, staff, equipment and facilities necessary to provide public services;
2. Encouraging the conservation of natural and non-renewable resources; preserving coitrunity social, cultural and economic values;
3. Weighing neighborhood compatibility and cohesiveness as a centrumty asset in the consideration of changing patterns in density, buffering, access, and the flaw of traffic throughout the City;
4. Strengthening energy conservation and energy-saving alternatives;
5. Recognizing unique ccnmjnity aesthetic assets such as Pikes Peak, the Carden of the Gods, Palmar Park and other values intrinsic to the natural urban landscape such as ridges, geographical outcroppings, terrain and vegetation;
6. Respecting natural constraints in the development of land having steep slopes, drainage or floodplain problems, or sub-surfaae liabilities such as past landfills or mining coloration;
7. Supporting mixed land uses dcsignad within the above criteria.
-2-
4/14/SO


TacMblt 5-3
u. to mcojr/cx c»jjtwlk.tjon or pjsi.v>jy«.i,irr I'Kj'jwo.
DsU.<3 at Colorado Spii/^i, Colorado, Out 22nd day of _____ April
1980.
-3-
4/14/90


CHAPTER III
CASE STUDY: INFILL POLICY FORMATION IN COLORADO SPRINGS A. Introduction
This chapter will describe the benchmarks in the policy formation process used by the City Manager of Colorado Springs to develop an Urban Infill Policy. His role and managerial style is emphasized. Specific administrative procedures and data gathering techniques are shown to be an integral part of the land use policy formation process. Chapter TV compares and analyzes the Colorado Springs case to that of Alan Altshuler's case study of St. Paul's development of a new land use plan. That comparison highlights the differences between the roles and activities of various parties whose involvement—or lack of involvement—shaped policies and their acceptance level in each city.
The Colorado Springs case study is concerned with a specific land use policy (Infilling) and the City Administration's action to carry out City Council's request for a policy recommendation. Infill is defined as the development of vacant, bypassed land within the city. It assumes that some or all City services are present, and that the bypassed land is developable.
The author contends that the City Manager is key to Colorado Springs' successful management of the policy formulation process.


77
The City Manager's role is described as that of an "electrical transformer" whom Wright sees as the manager of the "forces of relative stability and dynamic change" in the policy process.^
The effort of the Colorado Springs Planning Department to define the policy Implications of urban Infilling began prior to the timeframe of this case study. In the early 1970s, the department began developing a comprehensive land use plan which Included the concept of infilling. The conclusion of the planners at that time was that urban sprawl was not a serious problem, and that certain disadvantages of infill outweighed the advantages. It was feared that overcrowding, loss of open space within the City, traffic congestion and air pollution as well as a general community resistance to greater density made infilling an unacceptable alternative at that time. The department did note that continued development might cause pressures to develop slopes and ridges within the City as well as create leapfrog development on the outskirts. It was felt that at the time that such conditions began to prevail, a more
2
serious examination of infilling as a planning option should occur.
City Council gave concept approval to the comprehensive plan in 1975 but took no formal action on it. There was considerable public Involvement in the process through committees as well as public hearings in neighborhoods. A divided Council preferred that
^Wright, p. 219.
2
City of Colorado Springs Planning Department, Comprehensive Plan Program: General Land Development Recommendations. Planning Information Report Two ( City of Colorado Springs Planning Department, July 1975), p. 73.


76
Che plan be used as a guide rather than a legal document. Therefore,
It lacked formal resolution or ordinance to give It legal sanction.
In this light, the fact that an Urban Infill Policy was adopted in resolution form should be viewed as a significant action by City Council in 1980.
B. 1979: Colorado Springs' Ecological Setting
Gaus speaks of public housekeeping within an ecological setting—that is, the total environment of a particular place in a particular time with a particular population. The change which took place in Colorado Springs during the 1970s must be understood within the context of its economic, social, political, and physical environment.
In 1967, the City of Colorado Springs contained 50 square miles of land area, 307 miles of streets, and its population was 103,500. By 1979, its.land area was 101 square miles, it had 810 miles of streets, and its population was estimated at 210,000 persons.
The City of Colorado Springs has had a Council-Manager form of government since 1921. City Council has five at-large and four district members. In 1979, the mayor was elected directly by the people for the first time since the nine-member council was formed.
The City's current organizational structure is shown in Chart 1. The Planning Department is one of the departments under the Community Development Department. The latter department provides an administrative umbrella for the following sub-departments: Relocation, Human Relations, and the Administrative offices of the department. In


CITY Of COlORAOO SP^INQS
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
ELCCTORATK
CD
LEGEND
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60
addition, the Public Housing Authority, Code Enforcement, Urban Renewal and Neighborhood Redevelopment as well as the Comprehensive Employment and Training Administration (CETA) are supervised by the Director of the Community Development Program.
The expanded growth patterns foreseen by the Planning Department had begun to occur In the late '70s, and by 1979 Council Initiated an effort to form an urban Infill policy so that they might deal more effectively with changing needs and available resources within the community. This contrasts with Council's concerns during 1973-1975 when a natural gas supply shortage resulted in a gas moratorium that dampened any likelihood that the City Council would adopt a policy which might encourage limited or controlled growth for the city at that time. However, In 1979 many aspects of the physical, social, economic and political environment had undergone change. Inflation and energy shortages were increasingly costly for everyone, including city government. The growing taxpayer resistance in Colorado Springs as well as other areas of the country could not go unnoticed even though Colorado Springs voters passed a million dollar park and open space bond authorization in 1979.
This ambivalence In general and specific attitudes is fertile ground for the "environmental turbulence" which Gawtbrop discusses.^ With Council's active interest in urban Infilling, land use planning for the City took a major step toward becoming a management tool through which the City Administration could provide more efficient "public housekeeping” as Caus described.* *
3
Gawthrop, p. 78.
*Caus, p. 8.


81
City departments were at first skeptical about Council's commitment to the development of an urban infill policy because of its growth-oriented decision-making pattern of the past. For this reason, it was critically important that the City Manager involve himself from the outset in the policy formation process. His office, through the author of this dissertation—as well as the City Manager at key decision-making points—played an active role in the policy formation process throughout the timeframe encompassed by this dissertation.
1. Economic Environment.
It is obvious from the statistics cited earlier that Colorado Springs has been and is a "growth city," one of the leading in the nation. Colorado Springs was founded by entrepreneurial interest led by General William Palmer, who envisioned Colorado Springs as a "Little London" on the frontier of an expansionist-oriented American investment capital. Business Interests in the community have been heavily involved since the 1800s in shaping that growth.
During the Depression, Colorado Springs, like other communities, experienced retrenchment. However, the City had significant growth between 1940-70 due to the location of five different military installations which dominated the economy until the electronics industry expanded measurably in Colorado Springs during the 1970s. These "clean industries" and tourism form the basic economic pattern for the community today.
2. Socio/Political Environment.
The social environment of Colorado Springs probably shaped the political environment to a large degree. However, it has not been the small ethnic/raclal population of Colorado Springs, but


82
the wealthy who have been a present and significant factor In shaping a basically elltlBt society. This society has governed by a noblesse oblige commitment of those In power to provide an acceptable environment for the rest of the support community. The turbulence of World War II and the 1960s shook that monolithic structure, but did not shift the power base of the community in any significant manner. It is more likely that the professional element of the military and electronics industries—basically independent of the "old guard wealth"—have influenced a re-dlrection of future growth.
As a politically conservative community, there has been strong emphasis on the individual property owners’ rights, perhaps to the detriment of the whole. However, this concept is one of the basic justifications for local government. The preservation, or at least the balancing of community and individual rights against excessive nationalism or a community collectivist monolith which can obfuscate the rights of the minority or the individual is a cherished ideal of the American democratic republic. The balancing is far from easy. Although some may argue to the contrary, this need for balance and equity can be a major reason for support of the Council-Manager form of government if strong individualism is prevalent in a community.
3. Physical Environment.
The Colorado Springs area is visually delightful, pleasantly cool in summer and relatively mild in the winter. It has many natural resources. However, one of the most serious constraints in Colorado is a shortage of water. Although it can be purchased like any commodity, supply and demand control its price and availability. Colorado Springs currently has a raw water supply sufficient to serve double its present
population.


83
One of the management tools Colorado Springs has Is Its Water Extension Ordinance. The ordinance dictates that extension of water to any area outside Colorado Springs boundaries requires an agreement permitting the City to annex that area at some future date. Other boundaries, such as gas and electricity, already extend beyond the City's formal boundaries. The Colorado Public Utilities Commission regulates gas and electric utilities. However, water rights are still controlled by the local jurisdiction through long-standing water law.
Owning land within the City does not automatically guarantee the availability of water for vacant land. Rights to water are granted on a "first come, first served" basis. It is estimated that the dry's current supply of raw water can serve future development of all vacant developable land within the city. However, should this water be committed to land developments acquired through extensive new annexations,
I
the City would either be unable to serve current vacant land or would have to acquire new raw water supplies to provide the additional demand.
Obviously, this constraint within the physical environmei impacts the City's policy formation regarding land use matters. With insights into the economic, social, political and physical factors of the environment, one can more fully appreciate Gaus' concern for ecology in government. In addition, there are two other factors to keep in mind regarding Gaus' concern regarding the manner in which public housekeeping in government should be judged: 1) the negative productivity factor if the present infrastructure is under-utilized because vacant land within the city limits has not been developed;
2) the negative taxpayer attitude toward rising costs of public services, If elected officials and the public demand sprawl but are unwilling to


84
pay lcs costs, the public administrator should not be saddled with the label of Inefficiency in public housekeeping. Good public housekeeping is contingent upon public policy which supports a balance in public/private views. It calls for a management partnership between elected officials and public administrators as well as a partnership between government and the private sector. Effective public managers work toward these symbiotic relationships. Good public housekeeping tends to follow.
C. Forming an Urban Infill Policy for Colorado Springs.
This dissertation covers approximately one year, from May 1979 to April 1980. The Initial impetus for the City Council request for an infill policy is difficult to pinpoint. The City Manager, however, set the process in motion by calling a meeting of the City department heads in mid-May. The chronological chart detailed on
subsequent pages gives the reader a set of benchmarks showing the
sequence of events during that year. The "Actor Code" Identifies those involved in a particular activity, and the general role they played.
Infill Task Force
The internal organizational group was made up of the following City department heads:
Director of Public Works
Director of Utilities
Director of Community Development
Colorado Springs Chief of Police
Colorado Springs Chief of Fire Department
Director Park and Recreation
Director Planning


85
The City Manager and the author were also members of the Task Force. This group brought together the knowledge and expertise to guide policy formation in a manner which would be supportable by administrative procedures and the City's technical data base.
City Council
The nine-member City Council served as initiators of the process. They guided policy formation and served as a link between the internal and external environment.
Private Sector - Coranunlty Interest Groups
The community at large provided the external environment which Wright describes as a "large irrational matrix." (In this sense, "irrational" means diverse and uncoordinated.) This group varied in its level of participation and its membership. At one time or another it Included representatives from the following entitles:
- Colorado Springs Board of Realtors
- Council of Neighborhood Organizations (CONO)
- Open Space Council
- Energy Research Center
- Private Developer Representatives
- Home Builders Association
- Chamber of Commerce
- League of Women Voters
There were two concentrated periods of time which involved the City Manager more intensely and directly in the administrative procedures: in May 1979 and the period of March through April 1980.
As the reader will note, these months also have more activities listed on the chronological chart. The City Manager’s role and style of management are demonstrated by his activity level and the timing of City Council and private sector involvement.


86
The case study is divided into three distinct phases:
Phase One:
Defining the Problem
Phase Two:
Policy Gestation
Phase Three:
Consensus-building and Final Policy Adoption
The activities of each phase are chronologically outlined in Chart #2. The importance of these activities in the policy formation process and the city management role and style is emphasized.
The case study section gives attention to case facts while Chapter TV's paradigm provides a policy formation analysis. It compares the highlights of the St. Paul land use study with the more detailed events and actions in the Colorado Springs case.
1. Phase One:______Defining the Problem (Way 1979).
A city manager must direct, delegate, consult, Integrate and produce results. The manner in which a manager carries out these functions reflects a management role and style. The case study begins at the point where the City Manager of Colorado Springs called a meeting of city department heads to discuss the assignment from City Council to prepare a report recommending an urban infill policy for the City of Colorado Springs. The Manager directed the author to attend this meeting and assigned her to do the follow-up necessary to complete the report prior to the City Council Workshop May 31, 1979.
a. City Department Heads' Meeting with City Manager (May 16, 1979) -At this meeting, the City Manager asked each department head to give his views on Infilling, its definition and the implications of developing an infill policy from his department's perspective. It was dear that different departments had different concepts of infilling


CASE STUDY CHRONOLOGICAL CHART - COLORADO SPRINCS
DATE
05/16/79
05/18/79
05/29/79
05/30/79
05/31/79
06/14/79
06/07/79
07/18/79
08/10/79
10/31/79
ACTOR CODE POLICY FORMULATION ACTIVITIES - DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES
/1/2/3/4/5/6/
I P
P i
R i
I p
I p p
i R
P i
R I
i p
I p
City Manager called department heada meeting to dlacuaa Council request for recommendntton on Infill Policy - group hereafter called Infill Task Force.
Author'a memo to City Manager. Outlines work plan and timetable for Interviews with department heads and achedulea next meeting of Infill Policy Task Force.
Author'a memo to City Manager reports departmental interviews, provides draft report to City Council.
City Manager chairs Infill Task Force meeting called to review draft to Council.
City Manager makes report to City Council, Planning Director presents vacant land map. City Council discusses report and accepts City Manager's recommendation for continued study.
Author's memo to Planning Director outlining proposed work plan.
Author and Planner conduct second round of departmental Interviews. Information points to need to revise routing slip for proposed lsnd use changes as they are reviewed by departments. Increased awareness of need for coimon map data base and sample site review.
Author's memo to City Manager provides progress report, revisions In work plan, plans to meet with two local developers.
Infill Task Force meeting with representatives of developers In community.
Developers provided Insight on constraints to infill from their perspective.
City Manager & Infill Task Force receive briefing, discuss timing for progress report to City Council. Discuss revised buck slips and review mapping done to date. Task Force decides to reroute revised buck slips using actual request for land use change (the Mesa Master Plan).
Ok
V
Chart


DATE
ACTOR CODE
POLICY FORMULATION ACTIVITIES - DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES
— 11/20/79
11/29/79
01/09/80
01/10/80
03/07/80
03/13/80
03/17/80 03/21/80
/1/2/3/4/5/6/
PtPi
City Manager provide* City Council Progreaa Report, Including prototype map overlay, example of revlaed buck allp.
Author'* nemo to Infill Task Force Identifies site selected by Planning Dept, for re-testlng buck slip; outlines new work plan using the Mesa Master Plan Proposal.
Larry Maiming reports findings to date on Mesa Master Plan Proposal.
Infill Task Force meeting with Community Interest Group Representatives. Planning Director exhibited maps prepared to date and discussed their usefulness. Response from representatives very positive. Revised buck slips were explained. No records of this meeting on file.
Infill Task Force review of draft definition of Urban Infill and preliminary draft of Urban Infill Policy Statement. Task Force decided to review materials with Community Interest Croups.
Meeting with larger representation of Cosmunlty Interest Groups. Review of Urban infill Definition, Urban Infill Policy Statement, demonstration of maps prepared to date. Response very positive. The Group Interested to close Involvement as process moves toward presentation to City Council.
Infill Materials sent out as part of Council Workshop Agenda for March 21st.
Include Proposed Policy Statement; Proposed Definition of Urban Infill; List of Base Maps; and Examples of Old and Revised Buck Slips and Planning Matrix
City Council Workshop, Planning Director and Author presentor*. Council selected definition from continuum of alternatives, directed City Administration to proceed with draft of Infill Policy Resolution. Coraunlty Interest Croup support strong. Council encouraged public relations effort to inform comminlty at large.
Z-Z#



mm*
w—
...... ...... HI. II. II
DATE ACTOR CODE POLICY FORMULATION ACTIVITIES - DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES
04/04/80
04/07/80
04/07/80
04/22/80
/1/2/3/4/S/6/
Meeting with Community Interest Croups to review Urban Infill Policy Resolution. Some modifications suggested by groups, and agreed upon by Infill Task Force.
Author's memo to City Council outlining changes In resolution; persons involved In meeting at which changes were proposed.
City Council reviewed proposed Urban Infill Policy Resolution snd approved Its being placed on the April 22, 1980 City Council meeting for formal approval.
This was a deferral In time In order to give anyone who wished the opportunity to add comments or Indicate concerns.
City Council formally adopted Infill Policy Resolution.
Legend: ACTOR CODE
Numbers: 1 - City Council 4 - Private Sector
2 â–  City Manager (Community Interest Groups)
3 - Infill Task Force 5 - Author
(City Departments) 6 â–  Planning Director
Letters: I - Initiator; P - Participant; Pr - Presenter; R â–  Receiver
Chart #2-:


90
and its implications. The City Manager directed the author to conduct follow up interviews with each department head and compile their views on the definition of infill, the appropriate criteria to be used for an infill policy, and possible constraints to infilling.
The Manager also directed the department heads to meet with him prior to the City Council Workshop to review the material prepared for that meeting.
b. Author's Memo to City Manager Outlining Work Plan (May 18, 1979) -The author's memo to the City Manager outlined a work plan which entailed four days of Interviews and follow-up memos from the department heads. As it turned out, the author provided the follow-up memos to the department heads. Two of them elaborated with subsequent memos.
In the May 18 memo, the author attached a series of questions to be raised in the interview with the department heads. A list of key variables, excerpted from The Cost of Sprawl, offered some stimulus for discussion also. This memo is presented in Appendix A.
c. Author's Memo to City Manager - Interview Reports; Draft Report to City Council on Infill Policy (May 29, 1979) - The author provided the City Manager with copies of each interview summary and the expanded comments of the Chief of Police and Director of Parks and Recreation. In addition, the author had drafted a report to City Council as well as the Manager's transmittal letter. Each department head had previously been given an opportunity to review the author's summary of their interview and offer comments or changes.
The draft report and City Manager's letter were to be reviewed by
the Infill Task Force on May 30.


91
The exchanges during Che two week, period from May 16 to May 30 focused Che policy formulation problem in the following manner:
1) interview with Planning Director - The interview with the Director of Planning identified several classifications of development: a) redevelopment areas; b) bypassed areas; c) new growth areas, including four sub—areas of development: (1) new growth linked to growth already within the City's planning boundaries;
(2) new growth detached from growth within the City's current planning boundaries; (3} new growth beyond the City's planning boundary, but within Utility Department's urban service districts; (A) new growth beyond present Utility Department urban service district boundaries. He described the present City policy regarding each classification, its infill application, and the kinds of additional information needed to undergird a new land use policy for infilling.
His classifications and analysis are summarized in the City Manager's May 30 memo to City Council (Appendix B). The Director's concepts formed the basic structure used to narrow the scope of the problem of infilling.
2) Memorandum from Park and Recreation Director - The Park and Recreation Department memorandum pointed out that a vigorous infill policy might result in additional pressure from citizens who preferred to see vacant land converted to open space or parks within their neighborhood. It also pointed out that vacant properties are often "the least economically feasible areas to develop due to topography, geologic formations or being in a flood plain.
^City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from
Lawrence A. Schenk, Director Parks and Recreation, to the author,
May 2A, 1979.


92
The nemo urged adherence to the Master Park Plan as a means of rationally determining the feasibility of park development advocated by citizen groups.
3) Memorandum from Police Chief - The Chief stated in his memorandum:
I believe infilling is Influenced by three primary factors:
1) urban renewal and redevelopment; 2) development of previously undeveloped land; 3) development of "islands” created as a result of annexations . .
Of the three, the Police Department considered urban renewal and redevelopment infilling most desirable because they reduce demand for police services and facilitates the utilization of more consolidated resources. The Chief expressed concern that previously undeveloped land within the City might have remained undeveloped because of certain topographic or geographic features which could also make it more difficult for the police to serve once it was Infilled. He further explained that the annexation islands tend to spread the resources of the department and therefore are less economical to service.
A) Interview with Director of Utilities - The Director of Utilities pointed out that two factors control the development of the utility service delivery system: a) market demand (and ability to pay); and b) the Public Utility Comaission of Colorado. The Commission requires the City to serve those requesting service within the City utility service system without regard to political jurisdictional boundaries.
He recommended that the infilling occur within the City's water district limits which basically conform to the present City boundaries, or within its Urban Planning Boundary which extends
^City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from
John L. Tagert, Chief of Police to the author, May 23, 1979.


93
somewhat beyond the City limits In some Instances. The Utility Director preferred not to extend high cost water services without a full utility service network.. Finally, he cautioned that the most expensive type of development for utilities is redevelopment areas because these areas often require the replacement of under-capacity infrastructure capital Improvements such as water mains.7
5) Interview with Director of Public Works - The Public Works Director was very conscious of the impact of land use changes upon the City's capital Improvement and general fund budgets. The Public Works Department was heavily dependent upon these monies for operation and maintenance of the City's street and drainage network. He pointed out that the City's Mass Transit Service operated at a deficit which could be better offset If there were a more concentrated settlement within the City (as opposed to substantial vacant property or expansion beyond the City's present boundaries). In addition, the Director said that development costs can effectively
O
"sterilize" land which has severe drainage problems.
6) Interview with Fire Chief - The Fire Chief pointed out that the type and design of infilling development impacts the Fire Department for the following reasons:
- if multi-story development replaces single family structures, water mains may have to be enlarged to maintain adequate fire flow.
7City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from the author to Jim Phillips, Director of Utilities, May 22, 1979.
g
City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from the author to DeWltt Miller, Director of Public Works, May 22, 1979.


94
- certain types of infill; for example, hillside or ridge development, may be difficult for the Fire Department to serve with present equipment.
- leapfrog development makes it difficult to serve and to
manage Fire Department resources (response time as well as personal q
and equipment).
d. Infill Task Force Meeting (May 30, 1979) - The Infill Task Force meeting May 30th produced a favorable consensus among department heads for the City Manager's recommendation to Council to pursue additional study of lnfilling's impacts on City service capacity. The draft memorandum was accepted without modification and plans were made for the presentation to City Council on the following day.
e. City Council Workshop (May 31, 1979) - The City Manager presented his memorandum to City Council with a brief verbal explanation of the process used by the City Administration. He also made the point that departmental differences in perspective on Infilling stemmed from the demands for service and the cost of capital improvement
and maintenance to sustain an adequate level of service. He then asked the Planning Director to present a current map of vacant developable land prepared by the Planning Department. The City Council discussed at some length the apparent need for an Infill policy.
One of the local newspapers, the Gazette Telegraph, reported the City Council's favorable action on the City Manager's recommendations, and quoted some of the City Council members comments
9
City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from the
author to Fire Chief Sievers, May 22, 1979.


95
as follows: (Illustration - 1)
jThe Vice Mayor stated]: I favor infilling because of the economies of development it affords and because it will save energy. [A Councilman commented]: . . . . Council should expect opposition from residents, but we'll have to change some ideas . ...
It should be noted that this period of two weeks was administratively intense. It also demonstrated the manner in which the City Manager began to develop the modified matrix management style used in this project. First the City Manager involved department heads to address the issues. This group evolved into the Infill Task Force. Second, the City Manager delegated the coordination of the effort and the preparation of the report to City Council to a person within his own staff, but encouraged close coordination with the Director of Planning. This set up the structure for the dual management function which later was developed. By setting up this initial management structure, the City Manager effectively retained control of the process and outcome, but encouraged broad-based input within the Administration where technical and operational expertise lies.
2. Phase Two: Policy Gestation (June 1979 through January 1980).
The second phase of the case study demonstrates the development of the rational comprehensive planning model through the design of new administrative procedures and a data base, and the involvement of community interest groups. "Policy gestation" was chosen as a title because it helps to portray the growth period of the policy formation process. Again the emphasis is upon the internal structure,
fij
Dick Foster, "Development in City Urged." Gazette-Telegraph Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 1, 1979.


Ulustjmtlon*!
Development in City Urged
think of It m open »paee, when tt
* By DICX FOSTER CT Suit Writer
Colorado Springs City Council will ercouragt Ihe coocepl of “Infilling." the (.cvrlopment of wear* land amid already established areas of ihe city. rather than more tpra* ling grr-th outward from Lae urbin fringe.
Council directed the city odminls-tratioo Thursday to draft a str.rrr.cai I.-; on avg infilling ef-fent of deve-epen and property owTcra.
V.'hile infilling is economical, such project* will probably prompt rtarty battles by residents seeking to preserve their established neigh-borrocis as Uey are. council members surmised
lr.f.imj Wwu-d nuke maximum use oi c».jr ise.Ubes already built l:-d ved m «»:-tlish*d areas, in-civ<».s; utility Lnes, streeu ?>d service Ur.l.ueo. such as fire stations.
“I favor WSuii»i becaw-e oi i.ve economies nf intUpcn* it sl-fliras and because n will save •mror," said Vice Mayor kl.se Bird
Generally, development of a p-ect o' “infill" fn^cr.y involves sur.-de Soukup* to utility lines already twill la the developed a};«.
use of streets already constructed, •id protection by (ire and polico which already serve the area.
So the Infill saves both the city and the in eloper the costa of n-tci-d.ng services
' In adda-on, development la the concentrated urban area vrOl provide energy savings — reducing trs.Ts;onjiion coiu to and from out lying arras on the urban fringe, and concentrating more activity 10 Ue city's established regions.
But ir.fillirg can have ns draw-breks lor developers a chief reason why land an. d cc\ cloned areas remain vacant m the first place
Many of the areas have drainage problems and erratic land countours. making installation of dra.rjge aUu^twres and pre-de-\«lc?rr.cnt gracing an espensivc proposition.
Cty Council wants to encoura;* Uvf.'.liog. with incrr.tives aucb os advancing the cost of drainage si rue-t.rev when Uo derringer can't afford D at Use eoucl of the development.
City officials (Ire envnwred future opposition from rendema arv-nd * gen infilling proieeta.
“People keomr used to vacant lands afouAd them, aod com# u>
redly U undeveloped land la private ewnenhio,” said City Men-ager George Feltevn.
Councilman Peter SmemOvI said council should erpect opposition from resident*, “but well have to charge some Ideas.”
“Sometime* It may not bo economical for o developer to build single-family homes to a ungle-family neighborhood. Sometimes mulufamily developments are the only economical development," he to>d.
But he said such developments — and even con.rrvere.ai bu*»«iiet — are “not neceswi’.y tocvmfioiible in a residential neighborhood “
He said council should rvalue that “all infilling projects ore going to increase trail* on sir ecu around It.” and that lhivcorr.mo-.iy cited argument by disapproving residents should bo discounted
Such billies with ae: giber hood poupe may Mcriut, as toidiuig iivlf dori
â– n.e co.nrU will bo laced with b3U. Case t to- Tolog rapti Colorado Springs Colorado 6/I/79


97
but the interface with the City Council and the external environment
through community interest groups is also significant. Policy gestation forms the third leg of the three-legged stool which a city manager stradles in the arena of public administration process of policy formation.
a. Author's Memo to Planning Director (June 14, 1979) - The net effect of the City Council's action was to "buy time" for the City Administration to more carefully analyze Issues and develop a policy recommendation which might take into consideration different variables. The author's memo to the Planning Director once again re-enforced the modified matrix management model as outlined in this dissertation.
The function of such memos was to establish a basis for understanding between the individuals who share responsibility for executing a work plan. This memo focused on the Planning Department's responsibility to identify several land use sites which were to serve as examples for the departments to analyze in terms of their assets and liabilities as an Infill site with a specific land use hypothetically designated.
A timetable was proposed to enable the City Council to have an urban infill policy recommendation by the end of the year. However, this timetable was extended in the fall of 1979. (See Appendix C.)
b. Author's Memo to City Manager (July 18, 1979) - This memo explained the extension of time on the basis of the extra demands upon departments during certain phases of the budget cycle. The Planning Department had identified six sites for departments to analyze. In addition, as a part of the discussion (which was not attended by the City Manager) the Infill Task Force determined that external input from private developers would be helpful. Therefore, it was agreed


that the Planning Department would contact several prominent
local developers end invite them to meet with the Infill Task Force in August 1979. It was felt that three major developers probably were not only representative of the attitudes of most developers in the community, but also that they provided strong leadership in responsible development practices within the community. (The author's memo is presented in Appendix D.)
c. Infill Task Force Meeting with Developers (August 10, 1979) -The Planner assigned to work with the author on the Infill Policy Formation Project, summarized the meeting with the developers.
That summary appears in full on the following pages. (Exhibit 6.) The City Manager did not attend this meeting, but was briefed verbally and through the notes taken by the Planner. Like the Task Force efforts In Phase One, the insights gained from this meeting with the developers were not new and startling. However, the meeting provided a means of consolidating information and perceptions as well as providing the developers with assurances that the City Administration was interested in Incorporating their expertise and concerns Into the policy formulation process.
d. Infill Task Force Meeting: Agenda (October 31, 1979) - This meeting gave the Infill Task Force an opportunity to reconvene after the major budget cycle efforts had been completed. The author and the Planner had been working unilaterally with various staff members within the departments to revise the buck slip and to experiment with it by reviewing the six sites chosen by the Planning Department. The City Manager's attention turned to determining when the City Administration felt it could finalize a policy recommendation to City Council.


RxM.blt 6-1
IHF1U M2T7K B-30-7! 1:30
City Manager's Conf. loom
City Staff: Rings, Boyer, Scott, Hanning, Owsley, Miller, Phillips and Schenk
Developers: Schuek, Shepard, and Schooler
Developer consents on Infill -
There are often political battles over developlnc an Infill site because the existing neighborhood typically opposes any development.
If City Council la serious about supporting infilling, it mist submit to these political ramifications. g#***,*
A lot of Infill sites are avoided by developers because of some specific high priced development aspect; If City would front end costs for these kinds of problems; private development Industry could more easily handle Infill 1n 1fa normal way of development.
Some of these Infill altas have simply been poorly marketed. The Conover property value peaked and diminished before the entire site was marketed. Before its service arcs was established, other more attractive commercial sites were developed making the Conover site service sres too small. The Citadel vacant land la caused in part by architectural controls desired by land owners r too expensive to build.
The larger the Infill site the more the "Kiaslea** â– ltleated. It la not wrth It on a small scale.
3
of development ara
Some sites (Conover) have been an individuals Ilf* low* development project--Timing becomes a problem. Its difficult to have a broad policy for Infilling since each site In unique. Bach site should be evaluated and a proposal made on the basis of Its specific problems.
City Council should use cost savings and ln'lll site development to Cltv as Justification for Incentives given to private development industry. City should use cost/beneflt analysis like private developers - If benefits out-weight cost . . . do it.
Densities will have to be increased on Infill sites which may present political problems for City Council. But this Increased density will aid In mass transit utilisation and a general reduction of energv consumption.
i" »l'«
Mult-Family development will again be increasing in about five year because of energy concerns, this will aid Infilling If M.F. is acceptablt. City should be ready for this and prepare for resistance from existing residents near Infill sits. The Wood Brothers and the Barber & Tergeaon San Miguel/ Hancock project are examples where the City would not "bits tVsr bullet1*.
The City's intertst In infilling is timeIt because there is time to prepare for the Hultl-Famlly rush and energy crunch ramifications on Infilling sltss.
Staff should: 1) Identify sites 2) form plan for future use 3) Identify and quantify costa v.s. benefits of each Individual site (some common elements may exist from site to site for general policy formulation) then City should set goals and thence priorities on sites for focusing development.
Manipulating development thru utility rates could have P.U.C. problems -If anything rates should be lowered to encourage, but never raised to discourage.


100
Exhibit 6-2
Indirect incentives do not work, (such ss restricted annexation policy) development will continue to occur on (rinse of City Units (Knob Mil)
•s example) and these become problems for the City eventually. Controls on fringe urban area growth are inflationary, clamps supply, and creates monopolys.
Constraints on new construction will tend to raise rates on existing stock possibly eliminating the low end home owner or renter.
City should begin to educate Public and development industry on infill concept - its costs and its benefits.
Some developers arc "Land Developers" (turn over raw land as qulek as possible), others are "BIDC. Developers" (Turn raw land to land uses and structures), others are just property owners, others are a combination of above.
Zoning regulation modifications could create infill incentive (ilka lowered parking requirements if near mass transit, etc.).
Incentive program can be defended on the basis of "Public Interest" l.e. same as split share improvement district concept.
Notes prepared byi
Larry Manning, Planner
Colorado Springs Planning Department


Full Text

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THE OF THE CITY MANAGER AND MATRIX MANAGEMENT IN FORMULATION OF AN INFILLING POLICY IN COLORADO SPRINGS. by Jim Alice Scott ., B.S., University of Texas, 1948 M.P.A., University of Colorado, 1973 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Public Affairs of the University of Colorado in parti3l fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Public Administration Department of Public Affairs 1981

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JS 537 l J( This Thesis for the Doctor of Public Administration by Jim Alice Scott baa been approved for the Graduate School of Public Affairs by

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Scott, Jim Alice (D. P .A. Public Administration) Thesis Title: TiiE ROLF. OF TiiE CITY MANAGER AND MATRn MANAGEMEm IN OF AN INFILLING POLICY IN COLORADO Si-'iUNGS Thesis Directed by: Professor Robert W. Gage, Chairman ABSTRACT A. Problem and Purpose In many areas of the United States today, municipal governments are finding it increasingly difficult to formulate effective land use policies in their rapidly changing urban environments. To solve part of this problem, some cities have promoted infilling, a term which refers to development of vacant land within the city's,current bound-aries. However, cities to date have been less successful in adopting infilling policies to deal with land use problems. This research project describes the role and style of the City Manager of Colorado Springs in establishing such a new land use policy. The formulation of this policy prefaced the Colorado Springs City Council adoption of an Urban Infill Resolution which encourages the development of vacant, bypassed land within the City. It demonstrates the need for broad based participation of interest groups in the community and the continuous involvement of city depart-ments at various levels. The dissertation points out the importance of elected officials in their role as policy initiators. However, the role and management style of the city manager is the principal focus of the paper because

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this role is held to be critical to the adoption of an infill1n;policy, and there has relatively little published in public administration literature or planning literature to show the interact-ions between managers and or the city manager's relationship to city and community interest groups as new land use is formed . The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate that city managers can use management techniques to encourage internal as well as external participatory management in land use policy formulation processes; that coupled with a data gathering system based on rational-comprehensive approaches to land use planning, the manager can develop a policy with broad consensual support; and that in fact, without the matrix management participatory style, policies may not be developed and implemented. The dissertation links the case study of Colorado Springs to general public administration literature through the use of several key phrases used by public administration authors such as Louis Gawthrop, Deil Wright and John Gaus. In addition, the Colorado Springs case study is compared to a similar case study of St. Paul done by Alan Altshuler, pointing out key variables which supported the successful adoption of a land use policy in Colorado Springs. The dissertation asserts that absence of these variables in the St. Paul case contri-buted significantly to its lack of success.

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. t. and 1llt: f1nas tn01t tnt: clty r.anagcr' s roit: anu U!>t o : manageruent style is funuamental to the of ttu: effort to foTliiUlate a ne" land use policy encourag1ng the development of vacant land within the city. The dissertation concludes that such a policy must be undergirded by a data base anc administrative procedures which support the policy in departmental master plans annual general purpose budgets as well as capital improvement programs. The author urges continued research and suggests that public administration literature should build stronger linkages between city management and the development of urban land use policies. This abstract i s approved as to form and content. I recommend its publication. Signed

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TABLE OF LIST OF ILLUSTRATION S ACKNOWLEDGMENT Chapter I: INTRODUCTION 10 A. Problem B . Purpose C. Theoretical Justification and Literature Search II: METiiOOOLOGY 48 A. Justification of Case Study Methodology B. Field Research of Management Techniques III: CASE snJDY: INFILL POLICY FORMATION IN COLORADO SPRINGS • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • . • • . . . . . . . 76 A. Introduction B. 1979: Colorado Springs' Ecological Setting C. Forming an Urban Infill Policy for Colorado Springs IY: COMPARISON OF COLORADO SPIUNGS AND ST. PAUL CASE snJDY • • 120 V: A. Highlights of the St. Paul Case B. Paradigm: Comparative Analysis in Land Use Policy Formation -St. Paul and Colorado Springs CONCLUSIONS A. Summary Comparison: St. Paul and Colorado Springs B. Unique Features of Colorado Springs' Matrix Management 142 C. ?-latrix Management Weaknesses, Areas for Future Research D. Value of Urban Infill Policy

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E. Reaffirmation of Intent •.••••••.••.•••••••••••••••.••.•• 155 F. Concept Synthesis ••••••.••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 159 BIBLIOGRAPHY •••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 163 APPENDIX: A ••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••• 170 B. • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 173 c. . ........................................................ 180 D. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 181 E. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 182 F. • •..•••••.•..•.•••••..••.••...••••.•.•••••••••••••••••••• 183 G. • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 189 H. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 192 I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 J. . . . • . . . . . • . • • . • . . . . • . . . • . • . • . . . . . • . • . • • • • • . . • . • • • . . • • . . . . 195 K •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 200

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ILLUSTRATIONS Exhibits 1. Hypothetical Base Map . . • . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • . • • 60 2. Old Buck Slip Form . . • . • • • • • . . • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • 67 3. Revised Buck Slip Form • • • • . • • • • . • • . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 68 4. Planning Matrix • • • • . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 71 5. Urban Infill Policy'Resolution I 150-80 •••••• • •••••••••• 73 6. Summary of Infill Meeting, August 30, 1979. 99 7. Summary of Mesa Project's Planning Matrix ••••••••••••••• 103 8. First Draft: Urban Infill Policy ••••••••••••••••••••••• 110 9. Second Draft: Urban Infill Policy •••••••••••••••••••••. 111 10. April 7, 1980 Memorandum to City Council ••••••••••.••••• 114 11. Third Draft: Resolution I 150-80 •••••••••••••••••••••.• 117 Charts 1. City of Colorado Springs Organizational Chart ••••••••••• 79 2. Case Study Chronological Chart -Colorado Springs .•••••• 87 3. Comparison of Case Studies on Land Use Policy Formation: Colorado Springs and St. Paul •••••.••••.••••••••.••••••• 121 4. Defining "Urban Infill" ................................. 128 5. Matrix: Integrating Urban Infill Policy Resolution into Colorado Springs Operational Structures ••••••••••••••••• 135 6. A Concluding Synthesis ••..••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••• 161 Diagram 1. James Easton: A Dynamic Response Model of a Political System •.•..•••••••••••.•••••••.•••••••••.••••••••••••••• 161 Illustration 1. Newspaper Clipping:. Colorado 'Telegraph, June 1, 19i9. . . • • • • • • • . . • • . . • • • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • • • • • • • • . . • 96

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Acknowledgments Members of the City of Colorado Springs administrative staff played an important role in the project which formed the basis for this case study. The author's understanding of departmental issues in land use policy formation was greatly enhanced by the following persons: Hartley (Bud) Owsley, Director, and Larry Manning of the Planning Department; DeWitt Miller, Directof of Public Works; James Philips, Director of Utilities, and of his divisions such as Ed Bailey, Balu Bhayani, Surest Patel, Dennis Cafero. Wes Fielder, Jonathan Downing and B.G. Carter; Larry Schenk. Director of Parks and Recreation; Police Chief John Tagert; Fire Chief Richard Smith; James Ringe. Director of CoDDDUni ty James H. B. Wilson. Director of Finance and Management Services and James Colvin, City Attorney. Ann Altier of the City Manager's staff ably maintained coDDDUnication links and correspondence important to the project. Special thanks to the Dissertation Committee : its chairman. Robert W. Gage; James A. Null. whose wisdom has guided the author's academic development for a decade; and George H. Fellows. whose support matched the professional skills in municipal management described in this case study. Various others helped in several ways: Susan Watkins, Linda Eichengreen and Velma Swanson gave critical comments; Rae Hellen skill fully typed the final draft. The _ -strong.support of.all famil)' .members helped • . The -author is particularly grateful to Jim Scott, her husband and partner for over thirty years. for being himself.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Problem In many areas of the United States today, municipal governments are finding it increasingly difficult to formulate effective land uae policies in their rapidly changing urban environments. Until recently, it was assumed that urban growth per se was beneficial to the public as well as the private sector. However, current city governments are finding their fiscal resources strained and the public infrastructure over-extended by the demands of sprawl-type land use development. In addition, finite resources such as land, water and energy are being exhausted exponentially. To solve this problem, Colorado Springs and other cities such as Phoenix, Charlotte-Mechlenburg, Indianapolis, Knoxville, Louisville, Mount Vernon, Omaha and Duluth have become interested in protDOting "infilling." The term, infilling, refers to the development of vacant land within the city's current boundaries. The Colorado Springs City Council initiated that city's effort 10 by requesting policy recommendations from the city administration. It became the City Manager's to determine bov that policy formulation process should be conducted and what the criteria for the policy statement would be.

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11 With the importance and current attention being paid to infilling, it is surprising that public administration literature has not paid greater attention to the techniques which will provide a basis for, and support new land use policies appropriate for the concept of infill and urban development. The general body of literature published by the International City Management Association proved to be the author's primary source for material directed toward management issues related to the linkage between management, planning and urban development. Public administration literature on policy formulation bas transferability, but does not delve into land use policy or the function and style of the city manager in toe development of land use policy. However, land use policy plays a major role in the economic, social and political decision-making of every community. City council agendas and the city manager's time must be devoted sub stantially to land use matters. Infilling policy, and more broadly, concepts of urban design are influenced by economic, social and political preferences of various groups within a city. Elected and appointed officials must make decisions which may not please everyone, and often they must do so with inadequate information. As a consequence, both internal and pressures build. Policies tend to evolve in a fragmented manner. The city manager plays a pivotal role by linking these internal and external forces. Individualcity departments have their own professional standards and goals. The standards and goals of one department may not mesh well with another department's, the urban design espoused by the planning dep&rtment and/or

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12 external standards and goals. provides the atructurt, and determines the process through which policy can be formed and implemented to reflect these various concerns. This feat must be accomplished with a minimum distortion from policy formulation to decision-making and implementation. In urban administration, this is clearly a significant challenge for city management in the 1980s.

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B. Purpost The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate that city managers can use management techniques to encourage internal as well as external participatory 111anagement in land use policy formulation processes; that coupled with a data gathering system based on rational-comprehensive approach to land use planning, the manager can develop a policy with broad consensual support; and that in fact, without the matrix management participatory style, policies may not be developed and implemented. 13 The Colorado Springs City Manager's approach to land use policy formation demonstrates the internal effectiveness of an interdisciplinary task force made up of department beads of the City and the efficiency of project management with parallel leadership from the City Manager's Office and the Plarning Department. The City Manager's sense of timing with the City Council and involvement of interested community groups at key points in the decisionmaking process demonstrates judicious use of City Council's time and effective external participation of community groups in policy formation. The author believes that the field research on which the Colorado Springs case is based can forge 1;tronger links between certain fundamental public administration concepts of administrative management (such as participatory management, rational-comprehensive planning and defining of the role of city management in land use planning). A new land use policy based on these concepts is more

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j j likely to produce a aatisfactory policy and less likely to auffer the fate of oblivion vhich Altshuler described for St. Pau1. 1 Specifically, it is the purpose of this dissertation to shov: -that management has a key role to play in land use policy formation, and that with management guidance, outcomes are more satisfactory for all parties. -that management, through matrix management, can aerve as the link vhich transforms input from external and internal environments through a conversion process based on rational-comprehension planning techniques. l Alan Altshuler, "A Land-Use Plan for St. Paul," The Inter• Case Pro gram #90 . (Syracuse, Nev York: Inter-University Case . College Division, Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. ,1965).

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15 c. Theoretical Justification and Literature Search 1. Introduction. This dissertation advances the hypothesis that the role and management style of the city manager is critical in formulating new lan d use policy. The justification ! o r this study is by fact that general public administration literature analysis of this subject has been limited, and because this management function merits greater attention in literature. Through the use of a case study, the formation of a new land use policy in Colorado Springs is explored; a descriptive analysis of the role and management style of the City Manager is developed; and the Colorado Springs case is contrasted to another land use policy formation case study of St. Paul. The analysis is limited to the . unique . and novel aspects contrasting the two cases. A number of phrases used by well-known authors and a political policy analysis model are used to link the case study to general public administration concepts. The final section of the concluding chapter synthesizes the case study, and policy analysis model. The key phrases from public administration literature explain the environment of local government and public policy formation. They are conceptual linking pins for this dissertation. They include: (1) Louis Gawthrop's phrases, "environmental turbulence," "change agent," and "rational-c0111prehensi-ve planning;" (2) John Gius' phrase "ecology in government," and Deil S. Wright's phrase, "electric trans former." In addition, the author uses a hybrid term, "modified matrix management" to describe the management style and form used by

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16 the City Manager of Colorado Springs to guide the process used to the new land use policy. The terms are linked in the following The concept, "ecology in government" provides the framework for the variables which need to be kept in balance if orderly change is to occur. Such change can be orderly only if the "environmental turbulence" which always surrounds change remains within acceptable bounds. The city lbolnager sr-ves as an "electric transformer" to exercise considerable, but not exclusive control over the energy Be and others, such as the planning director and the author. serve as "change agents" to convert the energy inputs to productive out-puts. The manager amalgamates the perspectives of elected officials, the various elements of the private sector, and the city adminis-trative staff. Stabilizing factors within this environment are: -"rational-comprehensive planning" by which data are aggregated and processed in a professional manner; "JDOdified matrix management" techniques which employ boundaryspanning capabilities within the organization (between departments) to achieve the final rolicy product, and to bring input from the external environment. This emphasis on the city manager's role called for an eclectic approach in the literature search. As a generalist, the city manager selected from a wide array of specializations and acted on premises drawn from a number of philosophical points of view. To portray the scope of effort a .nd the influence of many variables, the dissertation cites select literature pertaining to policy formulation and urban design as it relates to social, political, economic,

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17 and physical considerations. Citations from this broader search are limited to those useful in the exposition of management problems associated with the formation of a new land use policy in a rapidly changing urban environment. The author surveyed key articles appearing in the Municipal Year Book since the 1930s, tracing professional thought regarding the role and management style of the city manager. This was deemed necessary because the main thrust of public administration liter-ature has been dominated by political scientists whose primary interests were elected officials, their actions and their relation-ship to their environment. The dissertation does not dispute the importance of these studies nor the importance of the elected official to ecology in government. However, it is the contention that the attention paid to elected officials has the role of the city manager, particularly in the area of land use planning. The actual process by which the city manager participates in land use policy formulation has not been addressed to any sig-nificant degree. Although the current general public administration literature accepts the theory that the city manager, as well as the private sector manager, exercises policy formulation functions, few articles explore the implications and application of this theory in practice. The complexity and turbulence of the urban manager's environment is discussed in literature such as the "Symposium on ., the American City Manager ••• "in the Public Administration Review.-2Keith Mulrooney, ed. , "Symposium on The American City Manager: An. Urban Administrator in a Complex and Evolving Situation," Public Administration Review, 21 (January/February 1971): 6-46. ---

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18 However, little is said about the city manager's role 1n land use policy formation. Even The International City Management Associat ion's (ICMA' s) "Green Boolt5," (Municipal Management Seriea--hich serve as excellent texts for city managers and others in mu':licipal management), do not emphasize the role of the city manager in formulating land use policies. For example, the newly published volume, The Practice of Local Government Planning, makes general remarks about the importance of the relationship of planning to management, but falls to deal in specifics. 3 Managing the Hoder.J City is more explicit, giving a history of planning as a function of local government, the organizational structuring of planning within municipal government, and significant detail about the technical aspects of planning. However, the linluage between the planning director and the city manager is discussed in a very limited fashion, and the city manager's role in land use policy formulation is minimally addreaaed. 4 The greatest attention to thi. s relationship was given by ICMA in the December 1969 issue of Public Management which ran a special aeries of articles discussing various 5 aspects of the planning and management relationship. A June 1970 3 Frank S. So, et al. eds., The Practice of Local Government Planning (Washington, D.C.: The International City Management Asso ciation, 1979),pp. 78 and 173. 4 J&llles M. Banovetz, ed., Managing the Modern City (Washington, D.C.: The International City Management Association, 1971), Chapter 12. 5 Karle E. Keane, ed., ''Planning and Management," Management 51 (December 1969): 2-14.

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19 issue focused on urban planning/management issues.6 These articles indicate the changing perspective of the ICMA literature and are in harmony with the thesis of this dissertation (which stresses the importance of the city manager's role in land use planning). 2. ltiJ. Historic Perspective: Linking Key Phrases to the City Manager's Role and Management Style. The literature search began with material published in the 1930s because at that time municipal government in the United States was experiencing significant change. In the first issue of the Municipal Year Book, Louis stated: to go ahead with any assurance of safety means that the city governments must no longer trust to luck, muat no longer grope blindly ahead in the darkness of ignorance, but must commandeer the services of their moat disinterested and most enlightened citizens in an effort to chart and plan the road into the future. For this planning they will require as much information as can be assembled. We have lacked information in the field of municipal affairs •••• 7 During the Depression, it was local government which bad to gear up to implement massive federal programs on very abort notice. The fact that many fine public works projects were completed during those years is due in part to the skill of local government manage-ment. The environmental turbulence of those years proved the mettle of the council/manager form of government as well as that of individ-ual city managers. At the same time, areas of weakness in local government planning and management were also -.evealed. Tb. e need for 6 Mark E. Keane, ed. , ''Urban Planning and Management," Management 52 (June 1970): 3-13. 7Louis Brownlow. "Looking Ahead at City Government," Municipal Year Book 1934 ,eds., Charence E. Ridley and Orin F. ing (Chicago: International City Managers' Association, 1934) p. 7.

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good information, professionalism and teamwork was, as Brownlow suggests, essential. a. Environmental Turbulence -Louis Gawthrop's tei'lll "environmental turbulence" assists in describing and analyzing the sense of insta-bility and a lack of control over the environment that existed in cities because of changes during the 1930s. He contends that environmental turbulence is a state of public anxiety which increases when the "rationale for adhering to the rules of the 8 incremental game becomes leas and leas persuasive.• &e believes that this condition is exacerbated by "government's inability to provide effective solutions to an ever-increasing set of technical and logistical problems," and from individuals' sense of 1110ral and ethical frustration in the midst of rapid change over which they feel their control of their own destiny is threatened through incremental decisions.9 Like Brownlow, Gawthrop's solution includes better information, professionalism and teamwork directed toward the areas of instability within the total environment. 20 Depressions, wars and other national and international traumas impact the stability of local government, but rapid change in the local environment due to growth can also produce environmental tur-bulence. Land use matters have always been a concern for those who govern and administer municipal government. However, they have been traditionally considered a matter of first concern to the private 8 Louis C. Gawthrop , .Administrative Politics and Social Change (New York: Martin's Press, 197]), p. 78. 9 Gawthrop , pp. 78 and 83.

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21 sector. Government's corresponding role was to provide appropriate services to protect the stability of the environment.lO As the demand for expanded services occurred, government itself was altered. If--as many organizational theorists as well as arclU.tects and artists claim--"form follows function," changes not only altered the form of government, but also created additional roles for its administrators. This impact of growth was reflected as early as 1936 when John M. Gaus advocated the integration of city planning into the general functions of city government. City planning can no longer remain an unrelated and incidental appendage to the city government if the older and more stronglyrooted municipal functions are to flourish. It muat be built into the work of every department and integrated with the financial programs.ll Luther Gulick echoed this sentiment in the 1938 Municipal Year Book as he cited Philip Cormick's The Results of Premature Subdivision. Gulick saw environmental turbulence. as a more criticai factor when there was a lack of policy coordination with land use planning: The study ••• wlU.ch bears upon municipal finance, city planning, and urban economics • • • lays the basis for new forms of control over land value fluctuations and their disastrous effects upon city governments.l2 100enn1s R. Judd, The Politics of American Cities, Private Power and Public Policy (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979), pp. 33-38. ll John M. Gaus., ''The State of the Nation's Cities," Municipal Year Book 1936 (Chicago: International City Managers' Association, 1936),pp. 5-6. 12 Luther Gulick, "Our Cities in 1937," Municipal Year Book. 1938 (Chicago, International City Managers' Association, 1938),P 8.

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22 It is clear that leading authors in the field of public administration were able to see the need for linkage between planning--though not specifically land use planning--and management in local government policy formation almost fifty years ago. However, there is great distance between perceiving, articulating, and implementing. The abundance of land, the political and social philosophies of our nation, the simple press of more urgent matters has undoubtedly influenced the manner in which this concept baa been accommodated in public administration literature as well as by management at the local government level. As .the general concept of planning and management move closer together, it is probable that land use plan-ning and vlll do likewise--in the literature as well as in practice. b. Ecology u1 Government Caus pointed out that people who were dissatisfiet! with conditions in their environment often blame gove .rnment: does appear with increasing sharpness is the problem noted a year ago by Louis problem of planning and administration. In studying the various reviews of functional developments • • • one is impressed by the heavy costs of our lack of adequate exact knowledge on which to base programs of public works • • • the confusion and coat resulting from mixing relief and public works without clarifying the respective objectives and possibilities, and hence priorities, of each; the lack of public sentiment places the blame for resulting confusion and waste, with its sense of frustration, upon "politicians," "office holders," and other tangible objects of attack. The truth is that we have, in our rapid development, outgrown the neighborhood and village conditions in which our political ideas were formed, and we have failed to achieve any adequate conception of the city and its collective services as essential parts in a true economy and welfare essential to all citizens.l3 13 Caua, p. 4,

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23 Gaus later elaborated on his concept of "adequate positive conception of the city and ita collective services ••• "in a series of lectures which he delivered at the University of Alabama in 1945. lt vas there that he defined the term, "ecology in govermaent." An ecological approach to public administration builds, then quite literally from the ground up; from the elements of a placesoila, climate, location, for example--to the people vho live there--their numbers and ages and knowledge, and the ways of physical and social technology by which from the place and in relationship with one another, they get their living. It is within this aetting that their instruments and practices of public housekeeping should be studied so that they may better understand what they are doing, and appraise reasonably how they are doing it. Such an approach is of particular interest to us aa students seeking to cooperate in our studies; for it invites-indeed 1a dependent upon-careful observation by many people in different environments of the roots of government functions, civic attitudes, and operating problema.l4 Tbe richness of this definition incorporates the natural complexities of the environment into the equations used for public decision-making. It sets the parameters for evaluating government'• "public bousekeeping." Gaus used a list of factors as a means of "explaining the ebb and flow of the functions of government: "people, place, physical technology, social technology, wishes and ideas, catastrophe and personality."l5 Be believet these eight components to be key in the formulation of policy and the organization of government and saw these components in a dynamic and continuous three-step process: diagnosis-policy-revisions. Gaua' ecological approach to government also encouraged a 14John H. Gaus, (University of Alabama: 'R. P• 9. Reflections on Administration University of Alabama Presa,l947), P• 8.

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' I l 24 management style which fosters private sector or citizen participation as well as participatory management within the organization structure of government. He quoted Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes who stated: ''When I pay taxes, I buy civilization. nl6 This concept views tax dollars aa an investment in government which serves as the guardian of civilization. It presumP.• that citizens are in partnership with government for the provis1on of services and that citizens and governofficials share in the stewardship of tax dollars. Gaua also appeared to hold common views with David Lilienthal in regard to the viability of local democracy. Be quoted Lilienthal: Unless • • • an administrative system is so constructed and operated as to keep alive local and individual it is likely to de1troy the basic well-springs of activity, hope and enthusiasm n ... .. essary to popular goverDJDent and the flowering of s democratic civilization.l7 However, Gaus also stressed the importance of the governmental structure from within. He saw the need for that structure to be integrated in a manner which facilitated democracy in practice. The change to the present view that administrative reorganization or city planning is a continuous process, and one to be incorporated in the administrative process itself, ia an important step to advance. In fact, we should go further, and rid our minds of the notion that "planning" in the sense of revision of existing policies and procedures ia exclusively the assignment of a separate and special "planning" or "research" or "procedures" unit.l8 Thia segregation of planning from =ther functions bad plagued local government for a number of years. As noted earlier, in land use 16 Gaua, p. 19. 17 Gaus, p. 8. 18 Gaus, p. 147.

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25 matters, local government tended to accept the concept that growth per se was desirable and the pattern of growth was governed primarily, if not exclusively, by the private market. Obviously Lilienthal and Gaus were espousing a different concept--one which called for a partnership between the public and private sector and the integration of planning into the mainstream of local government management. Although other authors writing in tbe 1940s re=enforced these concepts, the war yeara forced other matters to take precedence in local government affairs. As the 1943 isaue of the ICMA Municipal Book pointed out, every aspect of life was affected by the war. Cities, as a domestic frontline, bad to ensure that civilian defense functioned in a reassuring manner; that shortages of personn2l, supplies, equipment did not unduly thwart government's functions and that popu-lation shift s and rationing did not reduce instead of increase the nation's productivity. In the 1943 Municipal Year Book, Walter H. blucher identified housing for war workers with the development of difficult transportation plans as the greatest challenge for plan-ning and zoning at the local level, and John B. Blandford, Jr. cited specific functions which local governments performed: The federal government has depended on local governments to handle some of the toughest administrative jobs in the war effort. Tires, automobiles, sugar, typewriters, and other commodities are rationed through approximately 6,000 price and ration boards organized almost overnight by local government ••• 19 c. Electric Transformer -Perhaps only those who experienced the administrative and management demands made on local government by 19 John B. Blandford. Jr.,"Administrative Organization," Municipal Year 1943 (New York: International City Managers' p. 313.

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26 external environmental factors such as the Depression and World War II can appreciate the toll exacted from local government officials. Those years showed that local government officials played a key role in stabilizing a turbulent environment, and aa has since been shown, channeling and controlling the flow of that environmental turbulence is a major function of city managers at any period in time. 2 0 Deil S. Wright, writing a quarter century later, explains this aa the role of an "electrical transformer:" The manager plan juxtaposes a rational structure that is (or intends to be) administration within a large irrational matrix represented by the pressures of political change. The interface among these forces of relative stability and dynamic change is supplied by the city =anager. His role telescopes into a single position conflicting public demands, varied social strains, and shifting community tensions. His total role is analogous to a large transformer in an electric supply system; he regulates the current flow and alters the voltage. In addition he may even S'.tpply additional power and change the amperage on his own initiative. 21 This description is particularly applicable to the city described by Aaron Wildavsky in Leadership in a Small Tovn.22 However, the size of the town may have resulted in Wildavsky giving scant attention to the internal relationships of a city manager (who was a planner by profession) to his own staff. The emphasis was 2 For a different point of view on local effectiveness during the Depression, see David A. SbanDon. ed., The Great Depression (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Ball, Inc., 1960),Chapter 3. S. Wright, "The City Manager as a .Admin iatrator," Comparative Urban Research, The Administration and Politics of Cities,ea., Robert T. Daland (Beverly Hills, California: S•ge Publications, 1969),.p. 219. 22 A&ron Wildavsky, Leaderahip in a Small Town (I'rtova, Nev Jersey: The Bedminster Press, 1964),p. 388.

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27 instead on city manager's relationship to City Council members, community interest groups and issues. This dissertation focuses on the "conversion process" between the input/output components, thus adding a new dimension to studies made in the past, especially re-garding land use planning. This lack of a "conversion process" in the past is illustrated by the distrust of local governments which led to the creation of separate planning agencies, creating a gap between planning and other functiocs of municipal government. B. G. Pope criticized this separation and in 1949 spoke positively for a new trend: City planning activity during the year was characterized by two developments of special significance: first, there appeared to be increasing acceptance among city officials and city residents of the idea that the necessary and proper scope of planning activities goes beyond the traditional concern with public works to include consideration of the prospective development of the city, the desirable goals toward which municipal progress should be. directed, and all of community preferences and .needs.23 Walter B. Blucher in that same isaue added a note of caution: citizens were less sure that planning techniques and principles were the panacea they were claimed to be. More people were beginning to be less sure that more express ways, more parking meters, more official plans, more zoning, more industry, more self-sufficient neighborhood units, more new towns, more urban redevelopment, etc. were going to provide the answers to the problems of our cities.24 23 H. G. Pope, "Our Cities in 1948," Year Book 1949 (Washington, D.C.: International City Managers' Association, 1949),p. 6. 24 Walter B. Blucher, "Planning and Zoning Developments in 1948," Municipal Year Book 1949 .(Washington, International City Managers' Association, 1949),p. 253.

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28 d. Change Agent The work of the city manager as an electric trans-former in today' s changing environment will demand skills equal to or greater than those required duri9g the Depression or war years. ICMA consistently bas been an advocate of greater professionalism in city management as well as throughout city administration. Pope wrote frequently in this regard during the 1940s and early 1950s, advancing the concept of organizing personnel departments and plan-ning departments as a meana of improving public administration and assisting the chief executive. Be supported the formulation of service standards for all departments of local government. By 1953, Edward W. Weidner could state that profesaionalization of public officials and employees in government had progressed beyond the talking stage. In addition, he attempted to put to rest the debate over vhether a city manager should be a leader in policy formation. While recognizing that such a development altered the original theoretical basis for the council/manager form of government, he concluded that the consequences would be insignificant: "At 1110st a few minor practices of council/manager governments, such as hiring managers without regard to their orientation toward policy, might have to be rethought. n25 These words may have been offered to reassure big city mayora as well as express a new attitude toward the functions and role of a city manager. In any ease, the matter was not laid to reat. In the day-to-day decision making , most city managers continued to recognize 25Edward W . Weidner, ''Municipal Highlights of 1352," Municipal Year Book 1953 {Washington, D.C.: International City Managers' Association, 1953),p. 3.

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29 that they were wise to re-evaluate the appropriate role they were to play each time the composition of the City Council changed, and even aa different issues arose. However, the re-enforcement which ICMA gave city managers did help to release many professionals from an exclusively reactive posture. City managers could then more ef-fectively accept their role as change agents not only within the local government organizational structure, but also their function as electric transformers in the community/government relationship. As a result, the latter part of the 1950s marked the beginning of a ahift toward humanism and a concern for social programming aa a function of management and planning. Writing several decades later, Gawthrop captures the essence of the city manager's "change agent" role as the electric transformer in a changing urban environment: In reality • • • every technical and logistical solution tends to generate its own set of social, political and ethical problems. Within the public sector, administrators traditionally have openly proclaimed their concern for all three factors, but in actual practice the legacy of Max Weber provides a sterile atmosphere of impersonal operating efficiency for some1while the pluralist political tradition counsels political prudence for others. The professional change agents bold the key in con verting these propositions from pious platitudes into operating realities. The change agents become, in the real sense of the word, the professional administrators of the future; they rep key operatives who can complete the linkage of interacting and interdependent relationships between the formal organizations and the tu-bulent enYironment, and between public and private boundary-spanning units.26 Although Gaus and others placed confidence in the ability of local government to manage change, the federal government has appeared less inclined to do so--despite the rhetoric of decentralization which 26 Gawthrop, pp. 106-107.

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30 was loudly proclaimed in the 1950s, as well as in the 1970s and the 1980s. Many federal programs implemented in the '50s had negative impacts for local government, although the federal intent was benign. For example, the Housing Act of 1949 and the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 were touted as aids to local government. However, even though it afforded housing for many who were unable to own homes previously, the Act served to entrench discrimination against racial minorities through exclusionary zoning, lack of financing for re-habilitation or the purchase of older homes and "redlining" (denial of financing of entire neighborhoods considered to l declining in value and therefore high risks.) The Federal Highway Act provided those could afford it the opportunity to escape inner city problems by flight to the suburban areas of large cities. The path of federal highways more often than not cut through and disturbed the neighborhood stability of low income neighborhoods where wholesale condemnation of land provided the cheapest routes for expressways. Often Urban Renewal Authorities flagrantly ignored local elected officials as well as profession&l planning done within the framework of local governments. This led to controversy since professional planners in the field of land use planning had misgivings about becoming a part of local government's planning effort. Patrick W. Murphy spoke of these differences in the 1963 Municipal Year Book: Such consolidation (of planning or urban renewal agencies with existent city departments) has been advocated on the srounds that it may make the realization of plans more likely as the planners no longer stand the administration but are integral with it and come to better understand its day-to-day problems. It is also argued that urban renewal is a long-range process, capable of being integrated with planning. Some planners,

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31 however, have diaputed the advisability ••• declaring that the role of the planner is that of a "gadfly," who should remind administrators and the public that each compromise they make in regard to planning or zoning brings nearer the d . ay of reckoning. Tbeae people contend that planners would lose a good deal of their effectiveness in this role if they become a par t of the administration itaelf.27 By 1970, the Municipal Year Book reflected a growth in understanding between planners and management. The American Institute of Architects wrote an article vhicb appeared in that issue. It strongly endorsed the concept of the "design team" for planning purposes. Space in the Sanskrit text means "opportunity for things to happen" and ita inspired use can also mean a way out for American cities. Management of apace is the one power citiea retain that can force reform, concessions, and ventures from the forces and agencies that appear today to throttle the average municipality.28 Even though the article fell short of formally relating the role of the city manager to the planning process, planning was viewed as an integral part of city management as a whole. However, the fact that ICMA and the AlA could join forces in seeing the need for the management of space within cities did not bring a quick response from academicians interested in the forces at work in local government. During the '70s academicians had excitedly begun to use more fully scientific research methods and empirical bases for analysis. Surveying was a popular technique in local government studies, many of which attempted to identify the source and use 27Patrick W. Murphy, "Administrative Management," Municipal Year Book 1963 (Washington, D.C.: International City Managers' Assoc iation, p. 298. 28 American Institute of Architects, Design and the Future of Cities," Municipal Year Book 1970 . ( Washington. D.C.: The International City Management Association, 1970),p. 341.

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32 of power at the local level. Most studies were theoretical in nature and were unconcerned with land use matters. were two basic premises being researched: (1) that "elites" rule the decision-making; (2) that a "pluralistic" group of interests governed decision-making, usually on an issue-oriented basis. Several authors have summarised 29 the research done in this field. Other academicians explored the impact of different forms of local government on the process. Their analyses examined voting patterns of the electorate and the elected officials ' as well as demographic correlations. Some authors contended that the council/manager form of government is elitist and less responsive to its constituents than the mayor/council form. Counter arguments were made by ICMA which pointed out that sound management benefits the whole community and that the council/manager form of government was founded 30 on public interest government. Instead of addressing new management issues such as matrix management, most of the litera-ture was still debating local government issues of the 1960s. 29 Aaron Wildavsky, in a Small Town (Totowa, New Jersey: The Bedminster P...ss, 1964), pp. 3<.:1-351; Kenneth J. "Ass essing the Leverage Point!; in the PTocess of Policy Formation," The Study of Policy Formation, eds., Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth (New York: The Free PTess, 1968), pp. 181-182; F. William Heiss, Urban Research and Urban Polic -Makin , An Observato (Boulder, Colorado: Bureou of Governmental versity of Colorado, 1975), pp. 4-9. 30 Charles R . Adrian and Charles PTess, Governing Urban Amer ica, 4th ed. (New York : McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972), Chapters 4 and 5; James M. Banovetz. ed., Mana in the Modern Cit (Washin ton. D.C.: The International City Management Associat1on. 1971 ; Thomas A. Flinn, Local Govern ment and Pol itics {Glenview Illinois. 1970) .

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33 e. Modified Matrix Management While others focused on the 1960s, ICMA's literature examined management and planning public policy issues and drew these two professional fields closer together during the 1970s. As early as the December 1969 issue of Public ICHA articles stressed the importance of the planner to city management.31 The planner was pictured as a member of the management team and laid the foundation for the type of dual leadership which the CJ.ty Manager of Colorado Springs used in his modified 1118trix management model. Urban Management styles also gained greater attention in the Municipal Year Book of 1975 which sanctioned the involvement of plan-ners in the management decision-making process: The historical model of the council/manager relationship stressed the separation of policy making and policy execution. As with all formal theories of organizational structure and behavior, the traditional model fell more than somewhat short of the ideal. The ICMA has long since laid .out an extensive and growing policy role fnr the professional urban manager. The association acknowledges that city managers and other chief administrative officers are deeply involved in policy development and that generally part of their responsibilities includes the presentation of policy considerations to elected leaders. (emphasis added)32 As the decade advanced, ICMA expanded its literature on the subject of management styles and addressed the subject of matrix management pp. 2-lio. 32Robert J. Huntley, Managers: Organizational Pref erences, Managerial Styles, tmd Social Policy Roles," Municipal Year Book 1975 (Washington, D.C.: International City Management Aasoci ation,l975), p. 149.

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34 as well. Beck explained the various management styles from the 33 perspective of several practicing city managers. Mercer extracted mate.rial from a forthcoming book by Susan Woolston and Bill Donaldson entitled Urban StrateP,ies for the Eighties. They diBcuu in detail various organizational structures for project management and matrix 34 management, citing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other authors such as Davia and Lawrence point out the pitfalls of matrix management as well as ita advantages.35 Kathryn Tytler provides a "nuts and bolts" analysis which focuses on the implementation of a 36 matrix management system. Although differing in their specific analyses, all this literature supports a more fluid and open style of management than the traditional pyramidial, hierarchical organizational structure permits. Tytler cited several reasons why this form of management is more viable today: -the greatly increased base of knowledge and expertise of technocrats calla for interdiacipiinary approaches to problem solving; 33 Christine S. Beck , ''Management Styles-Personal Perspec-tives," Management Information Service RD'ORT 11 (March 1979): 14. 3"'James L. Mercer, "Local Government Organizational Structures for the Eighties," Management Information Services RD'ORT 12 (March 1980): 13. 35 Stanley M. Davis and Paul R. Lawrence , "Problems of Matrix Organizations," Harvard Business Reviev 56 (May-June 1978): 131-132 • 36x.athryn Tytler , "Making Matrix ManageDent Work-and 'When and 'Why It's Worth the Effort," Training (October 1978 ); 78-82.

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35 -tight budgets call for maximizing staff resources; -an increasingly complex environment calls for managers to exercise leadership in policy formation. These factors all enhance the potential for a new team effort between planners and at the local government level. Along with new management concepts such as matrix management, "rational-comprehensive planning," a new approach to planning, gained vogue. These concepts were stabilizing factors for urban planning and management because each promotes openness and the involvement of multi-disciplinary actors in the decision-making process. As Gaus noted, knowledge and participation reduce the potential for environ mental turbulence because anxieties are assuaged while fatalism and alienation are reduced. The final portion of this chapter will dis cuss various aspects of rational-comprehensive planning as they are used in this dissertation. f. Rational-Comprehensive Planning -Rational-comprehensive planning was defined earlier as a process by which data are aggregated in a professional manner. It ia however, than a mechanistic tool for management. In Colorado it operationalized matrix management by providing the city an internal support system for planning and policy formation. It also provided a conceptual framework to pull together the other key phrases used as linking pins in this dissertation. As these terms interrelate, the external environment, which Wright describes as a large irrational matrix, comes together with the rational internal management structure of government through the city manager's function as an electrical transformer. Internally,

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I 36 rational-comprehensive planning is boundary-spanning; that is to say. it crosses departmental lines. Datum is collected in a manner which makes it usable to other departments. to the city manager or elected officials or interested community members. At the same time. information furnished from external sources. auch as citizen inputs. is incorporated in the data system. This provides the foundation for ecology in government. The external element of this large irrational matrix is complex. It includes the attitudes and perceptions of all individuals and groups within the community. As could be expected. they have a variety of views on the aubjects aucb as social and economic issues. urban design. environmental and human ecology. To incorporate these views into the national-comprehensive system calls for a much broader interpretation of the term. and it also requires a broader matrix style than is found in the private sector. The writings of some public policy theorists support these concepts. 1) Concepts of Public Policy -For example. Burgess' research in public policy formation ahows an understanding of the respective roles of various levels of government as well as citizen participation at the local government level. He also conceptualizes the coordination of fiscal and human resources along with programs to successfully implement policy. Burgess' confidence in local govern ment'• ability to manage is premised on a belief in democratic processes being exercised in a variety of ways. He contends that federal authorities usually perceive citizen participation ex clusively as a hearing process, but in fact there are

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37 other ways, such as advisory committees and commissions, site visits. "ini-city halls, neighborhood councils, review boards, and many other avenues by which citizens have the direct accessibility of elected and 37 appointed officials at the local level. Burgess offers an operational framework for other public pol-icy formation theorists as well. Jones, Wildavsky, Lindblom, as well as Bauer and Gergen concur that perception is key to the manner in 38 which a problem is identified. Problem identification precedes pro-blem-solving and it is the function of the public administrator to formulate problems in such a manner that they will be solvable. If citizens' perceptions of the problem do not match that of the city administration, from the community's point of view, the problem remains unsolved. This was exemplified during the 1960s when uTban 37 Philip M. Burgess, "Capacity Building and the Elements of Public Public Administration Review 35 (December 1975): 705-716; Study Committee on Policy Management Assistance, chairman M.Frank Hersman, Strengthening Public Management in the Intergovernmental System, a report prepared by the Office of Management and Budget, 1975, Burgess a contributing writer; Burgess, et al., Urban Managers: A Curriculum for the Selection, Design Implementation and Evaluation of Alternative Citizen Participation Mechanism," prepared for the National Training and Development Service for State and Local Government (February 1976); Philip M. Burgess and Larry L. Slo naker, "The Decision Seminar: A Strategy for Problem-solving," A Mer shon Center Briefing Paper (Ohio State University 1978). 38 Charles 0. Jones, An to the Study of Public Policy, Second Edition (North Scituate, Massachusetts: Dusbury Press, 1977); Aaron Wildavsky, Truth to Power, The Art and Craft of Policy An,lysis (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979); Charles E. Lindblom, The Proc"!SS (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968); James E. Anderson, Public Policy-Making Second Edition (New Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979); Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J • . Gergen, eds., The Study of Policy Formation (New York: The Free Press, 1968).

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l I 38 turbulence came to rest on the doorstep of city halls throughout the nation. 39 In response to this turbulence, the "Kerner Report" criticized the council/manager form of government, stating these governments were less responsive to their environment than was the strong mayor form of local government. The report charged that elitism shaped local public policy. This influenced a flurry of studies. The Public Administration Review's "Symposium on the American City Manager ••• " looked at issues pertaining to city management from the perspective of the city manager. Several articles addressed issues such as affirmative action and social pro40 grams. The challenge of the '60s increased city aware-ness of social justice issues. New concepts of "the problem" were generated along with different to problem solving. New concepts also were presented by authors such as Jacobs, r Greer and Keller who addressed issues of social justice, urban design, and the structuring of heal thy city environments within neighborhoods and the metropolitan setting. Their literature of the '60s advocated a more humanistic approach to problem solving and strengthened the 41 cit1zen participation movement. 39 National Commission on Civil Disorders, of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York: Bantam Books, 1968). 40 Mulrooney, p. 8. 41 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cit:i es (New York: Vantage Book, 1961); Scott Greer, The Emerging City and Reality York: The Free Press, 1962); Greer, Governing the Metropolis (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962); and Suzanne Keller, The Urban Neighborhood, a Sociological Perspective (New York: Random 1968) .

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39 By the 1970s, authors such as Miller, Davidson and Peterson expanded these concepts and began to examine the manner in which citizen participation may have influenced public policy formation in areas such as public expenditures for services, the level of taxation, gTowth, and the manner in which a city's infrastructure is main42 tained. Their literature points out the danger of neighborhood parochialism and the resulting effect of citizens' resistance to paying taxes sufficient to cover the costs of expanding The net danger has been an inadequate revenue base which has made cities unable to maintain or expand the necessary capital improvement net-work and/or service delivery system. It is obvious from this brief review of literature that the role and style of city management has been shaped by its environment. It is also clear that that environment is not only exceedingly diverse in the public's perception of problems and their it is also apparent that these views are constantly changing. One of the realities for city management is its closeness to the people and their problems. This is both an asset and a liability. The au!hor believes this closeness increases a city manager's aware-ness of the Jiversity of However, time pressures and proximity may make it more difficult to step back from the problems. 42 Zane L. Miller, ''Turning Inward: The and Role of Neighborhood in American Ctties," Claud M. Davidson, "Comments on 'The Nature and Role of Neighborhood Organizations in A merican Cities,'" and William E. Oden, "Comments on 'Turning Inward The Nature and Role of Neighborhood Associations in American Cities, 1 " "Public Service 6 (January 1979): 7-13; Nancy Humphrey, George E . T>o:>terson and Petc:r Wilscn, "Cleveland and Cincinnati: A Tale of T'. 'I :J Cities," The Urban Institute Policy and Research Report. 10 1980): 1-6.

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to loolt at them from a rational-comprehensive perspective. The possibility of the city gaining distance and a more holistic view is increased by examining the theoretical basis for the and perceptions found within a given com munity. A useful tool is the utilization of comparisons. Case studies, empirical research and shared experiences offer city managers yardsticlts against which their own unique cOIIIIIIUnity problems may be assessed. Individuals and groupe behave in certain ways because they perceive community problems from their set of attitudes and perceptions. Wright defines this resulting diveraity as the "large irrational matrix" of the total cOIIIIIIUility environment. 40 The final portion of the discussion of rational-comprehensive planning will explore some of the concepts of the be .althy socio/ economic urban environment and the ramification of environmental psychology empirical research. Urban design will be cited to demonstrnte the manner in which some experts believe and design may be rationally applied to the problem-solving proceas. 2) The "Large Irrational Matrix" Land use policy formation ulti mately becomes a matter of determining the size, growth pattern and density of a specific city. It is directly impacted by the private sector's philosophy of economic development and public aector revenues and expenditures. These interrelate to provide a healthy--or unhealthyurban environment. Serving as the electrical transformers in these environments, city managers' roles and styles are critical. Their task is to enable government to provide the rational focus which balances the public and

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41 private sector's role in public policy formulation. They also must recognize legitimate individual and group self interests as well as the general public interests. Land uae matters often become the point of confrontation between parties within the community as well as public-private sector disputes. The rational-comprehensive approach to city management may help quiet these disputes and may call upon the expertise of the internal structure of city government as well as the manager's general understanding of socio/economic theories and the wealth of data produced by empirical studies. Theories of social justice and economic development need not be mutually exclusive. This is important to the city 1118D&ger who seeks to be a change agent in land use development concepts. One land use concept. often creates disputes. anxieties and environmental in middle-income neighborhoods when multiplefamily is proposed for isolated vacant lots within a predominately single family neighborhood. The city manager who not only understands the basis for these fears (but also is aware that rationalcomprehensive planning to formulate land use policies can mitigate these fears) may be able to avoid increased environmental turbulence as new land use policies support greater densities. One management technique might include Roberick D. McKenzie's concepts of selective. distributive and accommodative forces of the environment: • • • human beings are affected by the selective distribution and accommodative forces of the environment--a great deal has been written about the biological. economic and social aspects

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of and selection, but little attention has been given to the distributive and spatial aspects of these processes.4 3 Patterns of segregation, poverty clustering and inequality of 42 economic opportunity affect the selective, distributive and accommodative forces of the environment and those who live within it. If, as McKenzie suggests, these can be mitigated by the distributive and spatial aspects of governmental policy formulation and processes, social justice will be enhanced and the greater economic benefits of spatial concentrations of populations and capital accumulation can be realized. The potential for achieving this more ideal and healthy urban environment depends on understanding of human ecology and environmental psychology. An bibliography edited by Gwen Bell,et al.provides an excellent resource for those who choose to explore these and other aspect & of the urban environment as it lates to human behavior.44 It is encouraging to note that urban planning literature baa shown an interest in environmental psychology and human ecology research. Kevin Lynch and Lloyd Rodvin suggest: "A systematic 43 Roberick D. McKenzie , "The Ecological Approach to the Study of the Human ColiiiiiUility," The Social Fabric of the Metropolis, ed.,James F. Short, Jr. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1971)' p. 18. . 44 Gwen Bell, Edwina Randall Judith E.R. Roeder, eds., Urban and Human Behavior, An Annotated Bibliography (Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, and Ross, Inc,, 1973).

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l I 43 consideration of the interrelations between urban forms and human objectives would seem to lie at the heart of city plan ning work. " 45 However, Lynch and Lloyd are concerned that practicing planners do not embrace these objectives in an organized, systematic manner as yet. What does exist is same palliative knowledge of roles of thumb for designing street intersections, neighborhood and indu.trial areas, for separating different land u.ea, distinguishing different traffic functions, or controlling urban growth. .Ana1ysis of urbzg design is largely at the level of city parts, not of the whole. To correct this approach, Lynch and Uoyd advocate "goalformed" studies which they believe can lead to new insights regarding the history of city planning as well as guidance for future planning. McKenzie's concepts of the distributive and spatial aspects of the biological, economic and social processes would be helpful to this study process. However, planning's relationship to selective, distributive and accommodate forces of the environment has been criticized by those who view urban environment from a social justice per-spective as well as those who focus on the revenues and expenditures of government's Service delivery system. In addition, incorporating the citizen participation variable is often seen by public administrators as a threat to good public housekeeping and ecology in government. Yet the manner in which 45Kevin Lynch and Uoyd Rodvin , "A Theory of Urban Form," PRychology: Man and His Physical Setting, eds., Harold 'M. Proshans'ky, William H. Ittelson and Leanne G. "lliVlin ( New York: Bolt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.,l970), pp. 84-85. 46 Lynch and Rod win , p. 85.

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44 neighborhoods and community interest groups can productively interact with city government in policy formulation can be demonstrated in the City of Colorado Springs' adoption of a new zoning ordinance regulating the location of foster care homes. In thi& instance, the City successfully negotiated the distributive and spatial needs of the various parties and overcame concerns expressed t.y McKenzie. 3) Empirical Studies as a Tool City managers also can benefit from research done by national organizationa. Rational-comprehensive planning has been strengthened as a science by a number of empirical studies dealing with land use issues. The research of the Real Estate Research Corporation (RERC) and the Urban Land Institute (ULI) are examples. RERC is currently under contract with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (BUD) to conduct on infilling. The study is examining three communities in depth to determine why vac&nt land within the city has been bypassed for development. Several other cities, including Colorado Springs, serve as auxiliary cities for the study. The author is an auxiliary reviewer for the materials which RERC is producing. Although the approach of the RERC study is different from that of this dissertation. the author has benefited by being aware of the methodology, and issues being investigated by RERC. RERC has published the following infill study materials to date: (1) the formal project proposal to HUD;47 (2) the initial research mode: 47 Deborah Brett, Margery A. Chalibi, Stephen B. Friedman, Urban Infill: ortunities and Constraints (Chicago: Real Estate Research Corporation, research in progress ,

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45 and methodology, and (3) an annotated literature search on the 48 subject of infilling. None of these materials reflect an intent to explore the subject in the manner used by the author. Other RERC materials also have been helpful as background for the author. The classic, The Coat of Sprawl, set the stage for fiscal impact analysia of various land use alternatives in reai-dential development. The study compares the coats of development for raw land, using four different patterns of residential density. It found that cluster development of housing is more economical for the individual purchaser aa well as for the infrastructure costa to government.49 Rational-comprehensive planning also is addressed by the Urban Land Institute which published a four-volume study including articles reprinted from other sources. This compendium covers a wide array of land use subjects related to its title: Management and Control of Growth. It should be noted that only one ll'.!'ticle was directed toward the functions of management from the local 48 Real Estate Research Corporation, Urban Infill: The Literature, Prepared by Real Estate Research Corporation under Contract No. H-2982 for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research D.c.: Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office, January, 1980). 49Real Estate Research Corporation, The Cost of Sprawl: Environmental and Economic Costs of Alternative Residential Development Patterns at the Urban Fringe, prepared for the U.S. Council on Environmental '?uali ty, the U.S. Department of Housing and UTban Dev elopment, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974).

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government perspective. This article is a repri.nt from Management, ICMA's professional journal. It A major result of the concern over excessive growth has been the increasing demands being made on government to begin to effectively manage, or at least guide, growth and its consequences. But, none of the studies recognized the cornerstone role of local government in managing growth. None explored growth •s would a administrator responsible for dealing with local and federal programs related to (Emphasis added.) 46 These comments support the major thesis of this dissertation: the city manager is key to the process if rational-comprehensive plan-ning is to be effective as a basis for land use policy formation. ICMA not only appears to hear city managers, it also speaks to their needs. The ICMA article for the Urban Land Institute contends that local govexr:ment is best suited to assume the leadership role in growth management , even though there are constraints such as ftderal regulations, as well as the lack of, or inadequacy of, local growth-related programs. Managers and administrators should work with their governing bodies in assessing their communities' growth needs, and in adopting a community growth program which includes peoples' attitudes toward the desirability of various levels of population growth, as well as population projects, and the present and future capacities of city and county services and infrastructures (e.g. sewer and water systems, solid waste disposal facilities, trans ortation s stems, recreational facilities, etc. Emphasis added. 50 City Management Association 1973 Municipal Management Policy Committee, Growth: Report of the ICMA Com mittee on Growth and the Environment," reprint in Management & Control of Growth, Issues, Techniques, Problems, Trends, Vol. I, ed., FrankS. So, et al.. (Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1975): 138. 51 International City Management Association 1973 Municipal Management Policy Committee, "Managing Growth ••• " p. 139.

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I 47 Concluding This literature search afforded the author the opportunity to review a wide array of material.dealing with land use policy formation, the role and style of the city manager, rational compre hensive planning, and the social/economic concepts which shape individual and group views of the urban environment. Through this process, the author also gained an appreciation of environmental psychology and human ecology as new fields of study. The research being done in these areas is eontributiDg to the changing theories of urban design. The literature cited justifies the emphasis which this dissertation places on the role and style of the city manager in the formation of land use policy. The remaining sections of the dissertation offer a ease study exposition on this thesis.

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48 CHAi'TER II METHODOLOGY A. Justification of Use of the Study Methodology This dissertation is focused on the role of the city manager in the formulaticn of a new land use policy to support the development of vacant land within the City of Colorado Springs. The ease study method is used to further that purpose, and through that methodology, author seeks to do the folloviDg: 1. To Share with Public Administrators. This case study is intended to atilllul.ate the thinking of other public administrators. To the degree that other public administrators can benefit from ita insights, ita findings may have transferability. However, Stein's perspective of the usefulness of the case study 111ethodology prevail!'. He varna against overgenerali:r.ation by the author or the reader. Furthermore, Stein contends that a case should not convey a moral, or state conclusions. In fact, the reader should not be coerced toward one specific If the cases are successful, readers will constantly check their previous generalizat1ons and will use the to improve their ability to observe and evaluate and consequences, and to make informed judgments; they will not arrive at a set of uniform judgments. • • • But students of public administration have attempted to push generalization even further-to raise generalization to the level of principles that constitute absolute rules of conduct. • Public administration cases do not serve as a book of instructions or a

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trade manual, but this very limitation enlarges their sphere of relevance. They deal with decisions.l 2. To Permit and Encourage Flexibility in Analysis of Complex Environma The case study methodology vaa used for this dissertation becaust it ia a good research tool for examining and explaining a complex clustet of actions within a single setting or environment. Ita flexibility allows both controlled and uncontrolled variables. The latter type of variable is typically present in field research, whereas clinical or empirical research can choose to include only those variables which can be controlled. The case study approach is uniquely capable of portraying the eclectici1n11 of the decision-malting environment in which a generalist such as a city manager must function. In this case study, the City Manager vas directed by City Council to formulate a new land use policy. The manager converts his perceptions of the total environment as a specific management format is developed. describes this role of the city 'lllan&ger as that of an "electrical transformer."2 To demonstrate the manner in which this conversion process functions, three factors were isolated for analysis because these variables were considered significant in the formulation of a new land use policy. These factors are: -the attitudes, perceptions of elected officials, community interest groups and city departmental administrators; 1 Harold Stein , "On Public Administration and Public Admin-istration Cases," Essays on the Case Method ,ed. Edwin A. Bock cuse, New York: The Inter-University Case Program, 1962), pp. 22-23. 2 'Wright, p. 219.

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.so -the administrative procedures and data gathering techniques developed to support the policy formulation process; -the role and management style of the city manager. The city manager can control the last two factors. The first factor is subject to the influence, but not the control, of the man ager. The attitudes and perceptions of the various actors are impor tant in the formulation of policy, and will determine their acceptance of the final product. The city manager's role in the inputoutput conversion is vitally important. 3. To Expand the Scope of Research. The case study methodology is particularly useful to examine an area which baa not been a point of emphasis in other literature for a general field of study. With the noted exception of the liter at,re published by IOfA, the general public administration literature and the literature in other fields of study which deal with the of management do not explore in any depth the function of the city manager in the formulation of land use policy. When policy formulation is discussed, more often than not it is assumed that elected or ap pointed officials have the sole prerogative in this general sphere and especially in land use matters. The planners are recognized as advisers, but city managers seldom mentioned. Since empirical research relies heavily on comparative data, when there is an absence of data from which comparisons can be made, the case study offers the better route for analysis. For the purpose of a comparison of administrative procedures, data gathering and the environment of decision making, another land use case study

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3 by Alan Altshuler has been used. However, the Altshuler ease does not discuss the role or management style of the city manager because there was no city manager in St. Paul at that time. Nevertheless, the can be made that the absence of a city manager probably had some bearing on the outcome of the ease. Lack of acceptance of St. Paul's plan demonstrates the need for an individual who could serve as the "electrical transformer" within that total environment. 4. To Record and Analyze as a P ;lrticipant-Observer. One attribute of the case study methodology used for this dis-sertation is controversial. In the Colorado Springs case study, the author is a participant-observer or an "insider." Authors such as Stein and his colleagues believe that participant-observers may unduly bias the case study methodology and reduce its scientific usefulness. Towl, on the other hand, points out some advantages to being an insider. He believes one _ must get involved in multiple relationships in a case study, and that such relationships can occur when the author is a part of the group being studied. It is by involvement in the situation that the researcher from within it, discovers the cluster of data creating an issue in the system requiring discretion, a choice of purpose .••• While scholars seek the laws by which these complex forces work, those responsible for decisions at any moment are-keenly aware of their need for skill as well as knowledge in charting a new direction for an organization. Those responsible for selecting and persuading men [women] to take such positions are keenly aware how difficult it is to find or to develop men [women] with this orientation and the necessary emotional maturity to: -seek out and understand actual situations from the administrative point of view; 3 Altshuler, "A Land Use Plao fCIT St. 11

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relace such concrece situattons requiring action to the abscract knowledge and concepcs of the subjects they taught; -use such aituations with acudents in the process of learning and maturity. 4 52 Towl is viewing the case study primarily as a teaching tool. In complex subjects dealing with the dynamics of human interaction, Towl's defense of the insider approach has certain merits. The major postulate of this dissertation is that certain management skills are critical to succeasful policy formulation. Only an insider would have access to the internal actiona and interactions which portray the subtle nuances of a management style. The participant observer not only sees the actions, but also has insights about why and how things occur. New understanding of local gove1'1UIIent may be generated. The manner in which Bock describes a case study seems to support this assertion: Case studies are efforts to wrest significant useful understanding from the infinite complexity and tangled interplay of forces and actions that make up the continuity of the real governmental process.5 Bad Altshuler understood the governmental processes differently, he might have weighed St. Paul's land use planning problems differently. As an "outsider" in the city administration, his interpretation of events in St. Paul had certain expectations of the internal and ex-ternal environment. Whether the absence of a conceptualization of the city manager's role in Altshuler's case was the result of the 4 Andrew R. Towl, To Study Administration by Cases Boston: (Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, 1969),pp. xiii and 39. 5Edvin A.Bock, Essa son the Case Stud Method (Syracuse, New York: The Inter-University Case Program, 1962 •P 91.

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53 fact that the city had no city manager, or the.reault of an undue focus on the planning process without linkage to the city management function by the mayor or someone else is not known. By the same token, had Altshuler been writing about Colorado Springs from an "outsider" point of view, be might not have perceived the city manager playing a key role. Bock introduces still another dimension to the subject of bias in research. Quoting Vincent Ostrom, he supports diversity in re-search strategies: "Diversity in research strategy may do more to increase confidence in our conclusions than merely replicating the same research design in a large number of different situations. " 6 Ostrom and Bock strengthen the position of case studies in the field of research, and appear to support the viability of either "insider" or "outsider" observers in the preparation of case .. analyses • . Finally, Bock good-humoredly attacks the bias which may arise when case study research is narrowly focused on one clientele or purpose: Certain biases may also arise from limiting the purpose of case studies to those useful to only one clientele. The glint in the eye of a man setting out to truncate a body of life so that will fit perfectly into his trophy case is a fearsome thing and is often enough to send facts and subtleties of truth scampering for cover. • • • The biases that arise from the preparation of cases exclusively for operational use by officials or agencies come chiefly from the fact that the@@ clients are direct or indirect parties at interest. • • Biases may also arise from the desire to make case studies and case prngrams serve scientific purposes. The scientist serrching evidence for a limited hypothesis is a party at interest.7 6 Bock, p. 106. 7 Bock, pp. 101 and 109.

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54 lt seems clear that bias mar be a pervasive element of human nature, not easily regardless of the point of view. In the final analysis, the user of a specific methodology should be satisfied that the technology used is appropriate for the specific analrtical effort. Research integrity is then a matter of intent and conscience. S. To Support a Functional Approach to case study Methodology. Early case studies were primarily administrative histories or the capture-and-record studies which Anderson and Gaus consider repre-sentative of the genetic and developmental approach to public administration analysis. In contrast, Anderson and Gaus advocated a ''new approach" for examining the activities of public administrators: The new approach is in the realm of function rather t . • of structure • The new approach does not ignore zation . . but look upon it as one of constantly adapting the Wt:Jrk relations of people to the needs of service.B Field research of_ management in Colorado Springs demonstrates that a functional or procedural approach to a case more effectively illumin-ates the dynamics of management in policy formulation. This approach also contrasts with other traditional concepts of public administration: Conventionally, the other aspect of the public administra tor's activities--the definition of his goals, his public and legislative relations, his dealings with pressure groups--has been regarded as somewhat alien to the study of public administration. It has been held to be more properly a branch (or another branch) of political science. This and focus 8 William Anderson and John Gaus, ResearCh in "Public Administration Public Administration Service, 1945), pp. 43-44.

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l I l I l 55 on narrow specialities or cav&lierly dismissing public admin istration has been and fragmentary.9 The ICMA literature has 51lpported a. 'lllcn'e innayathe approach to JUnagc=ent lor same years. Clover and Horgan believe there are two fundamental czases for case studies in urban zanagement not reflecting the functional approach more: (1) the lack of adequate research staff within local urban ogvernment; (2) lack of linkage between cities and 10 their universities. B. Field Research of Management Techniques 1. General Research. The following section describes the urban management techniques used by the Infill Task Force as well as the information base a."ld operational procedures used in Colorado Springs. Although matrix management is an organizational structure, it is primarily a functional relationship. The latter is stressed in the Colorado Springs case study. 9 Stein, p. 3. 10 Glover and Horgan are essentially talking about the genetic and developmental approach to planning--not urban land use planning. However, the linkage between land use planning and economics seems clear. If urban management is to be the thrust of research, it can no focus exclusively onthe structural role of the city manager nor separate the city manager from the total environment in which economics and land use decisions are linked: Today's ecology of government must recognize that local government often exists in an environment of turbulence where the traditional views and concepts are no longer valid for pro blem solving. Clifford H. Glover and Andrew B. Horgan : HI, "A."l Inter national Program in Urban Management," " The MuniCipal " Year Book 1978 (Washington, D.C.: International City Manager's Assoc1ation, 1978), p. 65.

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5b 2. Management Techniaues Used in Colorado Springs. a. Modified Matrix Management -Several 001111110n techniques of manage111ent were used in Colorado Springs. Organizatioually, the process was structured as a IIIOdified management lll&trix. Generally speaking, matrix management may be described as a dual line of responsibility and supervision with one axis focused on the project or programmatic aspects of coordination while the other axis provides line super-vision or the tecll!lical management element. The author, as repre-sentative of the City Manager's Office provided leadership on the technical axis. Working in tandem, this dual leadership 111echanism permitted the City Manager to remain closely involved in the entire but actively participate only at key points. It assured maxilllum of the Planning Department' a expertise while shifting some of the coordinating and plannin& for the project itself to the au.thor .in tile C1\.y Manager's The term "modified matrix management• was used because of the lines of authority or responsibility were changed during the project, and new matrix management features, such as an interdepart111ental task force and citizen input were incorporated in the IIIOdel. The process was structured to include all the major department h-ds of the City. The City Manager formed an lnfill Task Force whose membership included the following: Director of Parks & Recreation of Public Works Director of Utilities Director of Community Development Chief, Police Department Chief, Fire Department

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'' In addition, the Development Coordinator, the Finance Officer and the City Attorney's staff were involved from time to time. The City Manager, the Planning Director, and the author were p .ermanent members of the Task Force along with department heads. At each juncture of the policy formulation process, the lnfill Task Force reviewed and shaped the direction of the overall effort. The ongoing responsi-bilities for developing information and preparing materials was shared by the Direc:tor of Planning and the author. The author had primary research and coordination responsibility. The process was structured to include community interest groups as well. Individuals representing all the major factions of the community interested in land use policy were kept informed of steps being taken in the administrative procedures, and at each point that materials were gathered to be presented later to the City Council, this group was invited to review and comment. Their views were incorporated into the material if a consenaus prevailed. If consensus had been lacking, the City Adminiatratioc would have made it clear to the community interest groups at what point in time and through which procedures dissenting views could be heard. In the specific case of the Infill Policy Statement, consensus was reached and certain language changes recommended by the community interest groups were incorporated into the final policy statement which the City Manager proposed to City Council. Matrix management usually refers to the internal structuring of shared management or participatory management.11 Adding the 11 Stanley M. Dav:! o and Pa\!l R. Lawrence, Matrix. (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1977).

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58 element of interest group participation as Colorado Springa did is somewhat like sitting on a three-legged stool: one must understand the balance required for atability. The City Manager'• role as an "electrical transformer" was lt.ey. The Manager's management style played an important function in assuring that balance so that everyone having a vested interest in the process was comfortable. Ecology in government as Gaus defines it recognizes that there are numerous actors and each has a role to play. As noted in Chapter 1, Wright's description of the electrical transformer identifies a key factor the dynamics of change in that envirotlllleDt. b. in Administrative Procedures and Data Gathering The matrix management style was also key to the changes in the City's administrative procedures and data gathering techniques. Early in the meetings of the lnfill Task Force, certain problems were identified which city administrators felt would inhibit the policy formu lation process as well as its eventual implementation. These included the disparate manner in which information was gathered by the individual departments, creating difficulty in cnmbining data for purposes of management; the lack of effective linkage between budget constraints, as well as other City policies. and departmental master plans with proposed land use changes; and the difficulty of providing timely information to the Planning Department and appointed and elected officials under these constraints. As a result of these concerns, the lofill Task Force de signed more effective administrative procedures and data gathering techniques. There were four products of this action: a aeries of

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j J j l l 59 b .aae maps, a "revised "buck alip," a Planning Matrix, and finally, the Urban Infill Policy Resolution which the firat three products aupported. Each of the four product• will be diacuaaed relative to their purpoae, format and the techniques used in their formulation. 1) Product: Base Maps Purpose: To provide a common baae of mapped information from which management deciaions could be reached. Maps were drawn to a COIIIIDOU scale so that comparisons and management-type decisions could be facilitated. In the paat, it was not unusual for mapa to be drawn on many different scales to accommodate different departmental purpoaea. However, for management purposes, decision making was dependent on camparing information across departmental boundary lines and look-ing at many pieces of information simultaneously. The Planning Department, working with other departments, developed a series of overlay mapa on a common scale with a base map of the vacant land within the City. A hypothetical section of that mapping is shown in Exhibit 1. The maps produced by the Planning Department were too large to be reproduced in this dissertation. Techniques: The base map overlays included not only boundary outlines for each urban service such as water, sewer, public works (streets), fire service, and other services, but also showed the carrying capacity of thia infrastructurel2 by a 12Tbe ability of the City's capital improvements and service delivery system to supply the for facilities and services.

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60 Exhibit Il-l 4.

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Exhl b1 t #1-/; 3. ! l l l I

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62 Exh1 b1 t 11-) 2.

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6) Exhibit #l..J. • • . ..

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shading technique when possible. ln addition, environmental constraints such as steep slopes, the floodplain, and other environmental features were mapped. 2) Product: Revised Buck Slip Purpose: The buck slip is a form on which city departments convey to the Planning Department comments for a proposed land use change. Buck slips had been used for some but were considered inadequate because departmental responses tended to be cursory,causing some of the departments to view thea as a waste of time. The purpose of revising the buck slip was to make it a more useful planning and management tool for all parties. The maps helped private developers' planning and made data more accessible for interested community groups or individuals as well. The departments vere hopeful that, since they were making an effort to provide more analysis, the applic&L\t for the proposed land use would see the benefit in providing information about the nature of the proposed land use project. City departments were interested in portraying information which reflected concerns about budget and capital improvement commitments to which they were already obligated as well as showing the applicant the impact of the proposed land use change vis-a-vis the department's master plan. The department's ability to help developers reduce costa and time vas viewed as a direct correlate to the timing and adequacy of the

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information which the departments received from the developer and the Planning Department. Techniques: The revisions of the buck alipa involved a three-atep proceas. First, the author and a planner interviewed each department head who was a member of Urban Infill Task Force. From that interview a draft revised buck slip was developed by the department and the author. If the latter, the draft was sent back to the department for changes until it was satisfactory to the department. The buck slips were designed to address and micro element& of the departmental area of responsibility for the City's infrastructure.13 After the buck alips had been revised, the Planning Department identified six vacant land areas within the city to test the new buck alips. The departmental responses were assessed on the basis of the adequacy of the responses in terms of the Planning Matru (see Exhibit 4) and ita general usefulness for decision making. One of the ci.tes was a land use change which had been recently reviewed using the old buck slip form. The revised slip provided a greater amount of data, and re-vealed a conflict between the master drainage plan and the master park plan which had not been identified previously. The 13 For example, the acquisition, treatment and transmission of water is a macro element of the City's water system while the distribution of water directly to the customer involves the micro eleMents of the system,

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66 developer also obtained new information which altered costing out of the project. This testing also revealed flaws in the reviaed buck slips of which a major one was the inability of the form to adequately address such differing land use changes as a master plan or a simple zoning change. ln an effort to rectify this flaw, a flow chart was developed by the planner and the author to identify the types of information normally received at & given point in any proposed land use process. ln eidition, the decision which might be made at each juncture was also charted. This substantiated the need for a buck slip to serve each type of land use change request rather than attempting to use one general form to cover all needs. It also demonstrated that different sections of a department might be required to respond rather than just one person in each department. After these revisions, the Orban lnfill Task Force concluded that the test was sufficiently successful to prove the worth of continuing to refine the revised buck slips and to eventually consider using them on proposed land use changes other than in-fill projects. One of the old buck slip forms is shown in Exhibit 2. An example of the revised buck slips is shown in Exhibit 3. 3) Product: Planning Matrix Purpose: The purpose of the Planning Matrix was to consolidate the basic information obtained from the revised buck alips. Through this consolidation, management and decision making would be better served.

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. r (} 1 II I s s A c I DAH ____ _ 0 PUBLIC WORKS OEP"t 0 T ENGR. DEPT . 0 PARK DEPT. 0 LAND Ci"FICE 0 GAS 0 WATER 0 ELECTRIC a 0 STANDARD COMMENT I r D .THER CONCERNS : ' l!:Xh1b1t 2 0 DtV[LOI'r.I(Nl liCIIIIICAL t!IMIA11ll[ 0 LA14D SUUDIVISION C!III.Mil H t 0 'LANNING DtrANTM(Nl II(VI (YI 0 --------------------0 WASTEWATER 0 POLICE DEPT. 0 FIRE OEPT. 0 NOtSE 0 COUNTY 0 MTN BELL 0 STATE HWY . DEPT. 0 AIRPORT 67 0 SCH . DIS"t•---0-------0 REG . BLDG. . o ______ _ 0 PPACG 0 COLIM(NTS MUST BE REtE IV D PRIOR TO

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69 !!!!!: The Planning Matrix format was designed to present four to six variables which the departmental buck slip addressed. These variables were briefly identified to the left of each matrix while a scale of one to four ran across the top of the matrix. The form enabled management and decision makers to see at a glance whether the project seemed to have problema with the infrastructure or the enviroament. The scale of one to four gave an indication of the intensity of that assessment. It also helped to identify areas of inter-relatedness and open the opportunity for the applicant to negotiate trade-offs which would be least harmful to each of the concerned parties. Techniques: The teclmique of sUIIIIIISrizing information in a meaningful fashion is a common management approach. It is also generally recognized, however, that there are dangers in oversimplification. These dangers were offset by having the revised slips as a backup. If the circumstance required further explanation, departments would still be free to provide a memorandum as an attachment. OVerall, the new processes were designed to reduce ambiguity and enhance openness as well as making the decision making at each level of the process more visable. An example of the Planning Matrix is shown in Exhibit 4. 4) Product: Urban Infill Policy Resolution. Purpose: The purpose of the Urban lnfill Policy Resolution was to formulate and adopt a public policy which would guide the decision making of city officials as proposed land use changes were considered.

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70 Format: The resolution is a general statement of lt is not a detailed expoaition of the manner in which tl•at policy will be implemented. lt simply states an intent--in the case of a City Council, both a legislative and quasi-judicial intent. lt also provides guidance to the City Administration. Techniques: The techniques to develop a relatively simple twopage resolution were complex. They required that the various actors in the process of policy formulation reach some degree of consensus. The policy statement itself was drafted and modified several times through a review process with the Urban lnfill Task Force. Members of the Task Force then reviewed the policy statement with representatives of several key community groups who were shown the maps and examples of the revised buck slips. The administrative procedures and data-gathering system were explained as well. (Exhibit 4 illustrates the PJ..anning Matrix. See Chapter III. ) The consensual approach took almost a year of intermittent effort on the part of city staff. The City Council was periodically provided updates and their input shaped the direction of the Urban Infill Task Force. Colorado Springs, like other cities, had found itself faced with rapid changes in its environment. Its infrastructure was being strained to meet expanding demands for service. It is significant that City Council looked to the City Manager rather than the Planning Commission in policy formulation. It is also significant that the City Manager chose to form a task force including the major department heads; that he chose to include interest groups from the community; and that be chose to assign

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71 INFILL BUCK SLIP Stt!MARY SHEET Exhibit 4 PUBLIC YORKS l z J 4 CQo!MUNlTY DEVEW:FMENT l z J 4 Tzans1 t Systu I Comprehensive Planning I Drainage Basins 1 Land Use Relationship I Street I Ozcl1nance Compliance I Neighborlloocl Tmc 1 Neighborlloocl Rev1 tal, X Hous1ng Rehabili t.a.tion X D.11X & .RECRFATION Human Bel&tionst Social I Existing Pa:r:kJs/Popula tion 1 Human Econ. I Eld.sting Pa:r:kJs/Ma1ntenance 1 Hous1ng Authon ty I M&.ster l'lazu Location 1 Master P.lan t Development 1 WASTEWATER Proposed :Farlts/Population I Prox1mity to Ma1n I Demand & li:Xisting Syst • I FIRE Oversised Extenons I Response T1me I Topogn.Jilic Featuxes I F1re Flow 1 Non-potable Vater Use I CoiDIIIun1cation &: Equip I ELECTRIC Access &: Equip I Power Capacity l: Fire Prevention 1 Prox1mity to Service I Demand & Existing Syst • I R:lLICE tJnique Design Featuxes I Central Base Relationship I Major Cap1 tal Outlays I Patrol Pattern Relationship "X Service Demands 1 Type I DATEt Service Demandst Amount X SITE: Site Conderations I Note, Water and. Gas D1 v1s1on Buckslip Fo:mats were not yet complete at this time.

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responsibility for project management to two individuals, one within the City Manager's Office and the other in the Planning Department. These actions established a pattern of participatory management, and created a dynamic management model conducive to effecting change. The City Manager, serving as the electrical transformer, controlled the flow or the current in that change process. 'When City Council requested the City Administra-tion to rec ommend a new .land use policy which would encourage infilling of vacant land within the city limits, the City Manager had several options: He could have suggested that the City Planning Depart ment and Planning Commission develop the policy. This would have been in keeping with earlier concepts which separated the planning and management functions. However, in that environment, it would not have been the City Manager directing the policy formulation. (2) The City Manager could-have proposed that a consultaBt be hired to develop a draft policy. This would have separated the policy formulation process from the ongoing functions of the city adminis tration, and might or might not have reduced the City Manager's direct involvement in the policy formulation process. However, the city departments such as the Planning Department would probably have primary responsibility for the consultant contract with other city departments only peripherally involved. Modified matrix management functioned differently. The outcome of this effort was the Urban Infill Policy Resolution, adopted by -City Council April 22, 1980. It is shown as Exhibit 5.

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! l l j I huoholiun No. 1!.0 10 A IU:sotJifJON t:S " ti\RI.ISII!H:O 1.11m0oH JUt"! U. 1'01.1 CY PR"""t future MIC5e by public/privata SUir -t. b! protacl..eCI in or.xr tD ptHCI"\\e thnc c:amunity wluea; Md U. PPJIICC est.iiMU:S that. tho pcpulatian U.. City of D:>lorado will dcubla by U. yHr 2010; anS 7) IVD!:'IS, •• of t.his ti-. 4n of U. land within U. City li>nit.a is ,..CN>t and and t.his Y.x:N>t an! cScvelo;bla land CAn .,.\.ch. at preaant. IVIDIDIS, citi :oant. of D:>lorAdo Sprift9S an! pAying far public IU':h as """ utilities, su-u, drainage, parks, police, recrGJOL.ion, devalcpn:nt/n-n.--vel<>r""'t, etc. within r..W.Uzing t.he use of existing cit:;-MZVices C'CIWd spu,..l, decreue tlw"&lcn lD citi...,.., con..,._ Clft!lfJY an! • SUCCI!Uful infilling p:>licy rrquires ClCIC(>Uation an! •gcx:d t.ith• ""ighl.orh:xds, qoycnm.::nt. an! tho privata sect.or; an! N:IW, 'niEJU:FCRE BE lT IU"Sa..Vll) ll't "ita: ClTI CIUCJI. OF 111E ClTI t:1F OJIDM!X) -1-4/14/80

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I I I I Exhibit ' 5-2 .a) ApproYQ:S eil-y c5e5ign in thct various plan elcm:>nt5; b) CApitAl inpn>vel\3flt P""J'•...,. and pdod tiu; e) appn:>YC fc:c progr...,.., 5U.ff, and t..cilit.ias neceucy to pmlie servic:es: 2. D>couraglng the of nAtural and l. W..ighing neighboch:xd CCI1patibility And c:chesi.._.ss u a cc;nuunity .asset in U.. CCI'Isir\crAUcn of eh.v.gl.ng in Clcn5i ty • buff cuing, ac::ce::s, And Ow flow of t.nffie thc""!'l'out the City; the C'.uden of the Gcds, P.almu P.arlr. and ou-r -lues intrinsic to the l"to>tu.ul urbt.n liU'IIClseapct suet. •• ri&p, sa::ogr.aphied li.al:. ilitic:s 5Ucl> u . pout lanc1lills or fllining C."f'lorat.icn; 7. SUfPC)rting ..u.-d land uses 6c::si'J"'''l wil.hi.n . the Ab:Ne eritari.a. -274

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75 Exh1b1t 5-3 Jl. '20 a:xiJ7l.IO..TJON 01' I!Jl.VI:U...;a;,r 1!110. Da\L>d •t ColorMo Col<#d:>, Uois ..!!"! .S..y of -l4/14/30

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CHAPTER III CASE STUDY: INFIIJ. POLICY FORMATION IN COLORADO SPRINGS A. Introduction This chapter vill describe the benchmarks in tbe policy formation process used by tbe City Manager of Colorado Springs to develop an Urban Infill Policy. .Ria role and managerisl style is emphasized. Specific administrative procedures and data gathering techniques are shown to be an integral part of the land use policy formation process. Chapter IV compares and analyzes the Colorado Springs case to that of Alan Altshuler's case study of St. Paul' s development of 1< land. use plen. That cowparison highlights 76 the differences between the roles and activities of various parties whose involvement .... or lack of involvement .... shaped policies and their acceptance level in each city. The Colorado Springs case study is concerned with a specific land use policy (infilling) and the City Administration's.action to carry out City Council's request for a policy recommendation. Infill is defined as the development of vacant, bypassed land within the city. It assumes that some or all City services are present, and that the bypassed land is developable. The author contends that the City Manager is key to Colorado SP,rings' successful management of the policy formulation process.

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The City Manager's role ia described as that of an "electrical transformer" whom Wright sees as the manager of the "forces of 1 relative stability and dynamic change" in the policy proceas. The effort of the Colorado Springs Planning Department to define the policy implications of urban infilling began prior to the timeframe of this case study. In the early 1970s, the department began developing a comprehensive land use plan which included the concept of infilling. The conclusion of the planners at that time was that urban sprawl was not a serious problem, and that certain disadvantages of infill outweighed the advantages. It was feared that overcrowding, loss of open apace within the City, traffic congestion and air pollution as well as a general community resis-tance to greater density made infilling an unacceptable alternative at that time. The department did note that continued development might pressures to develop slopes and ridges within the City as well as create development on outskirts. It was felt that at the time that such conditions began to prevail, a more serious examination of infilling as a planning option should occur.2 City Counci( gave concept approval to the comprehensive plan in 1975 but took action on it. There was considerable public involvement in the process through committees as well as public hearings in neighborhoods. A divided Council preferred that 1 Wright, p. 219. 2city of Colorado Springs Planning Department, Comprehensive Plan Program: General Land Development Recommendations, Planning Information Report Two.(City of Colorado Springs Planning Department, July 1975) t p. 73. 77

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l l \ ! l t i l 1 ! the plan be used aa a guide rather than a legal document. it lacked formal resolution or ordinance to give it legal sanction. 1n this light, the fact that an Urban lnfill Policy was adopted in resolution form should be viewed as a significant action by City Council in 1980. B. 1979: Colorado Springs' Ecological Setting Gaus speaks of public housekeeping within an ecological setting--that is, the total environment of a particular place in a particular time with a particular population. The change which took place in Colorado Springs during the 1970s must be understood within the context of its economic, social, political, and physical environ-ment. In 1967, the City of Colorado Springs contained 50 square miles of land area, 307 miles of streets, and its population 103,500. By 1979, its,land area was 101 square miles, it had 810 miles of streets, and its population was estimated at 210,000 persons. The City of Colorado Springs bas had a Council-Manager form of government since 1921. City Council has five at-large and four district members. ln 1979, the mayor was elected directly by the people for the first time since the nine-member council was formed. The City's current organizational structure is shown in Chart 1. The Planning Department is one of the departments under the Community Development Department. The latter department provides an administrative umbrella for the following sub-departments: Relocation, Human Relations, and the Administrative offices of the department. In

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r:: : : . : . CJTY OP COlOIIIAOO S,IIIINOS ORGANIZATIONAL CHART O,ICI 0' CITY MANAOI!It ---•-c .. • ... ,. __ . . ._, _ LEGEND ... 0(1001111 . ... ,. ..-.e • ..,.._..,.......,. ...,.. .... , •• ,ovtcoo-oo•u'OI't .......... ._,.,. ... c, .... ._... ...., ....... . * coo-., .... , .. AC'•'"'' ...., .. : , . . : ... r'h

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'i t 8(1 addition, the Public Housing Authority, Code Enforcement, Urban Renewal and Neighborhood Redevelopment as as the Comprehensive Employment and Training Administration (CETA) are supervised by the Director of the Community Development Program. The expanded growth patterns foreseen by the Planning Department had begun to occur in the late '70s, and by 1979 Council initiated an effort to form an urban infill policy so that they might deal more effectively with changing needs and available resources within the community. This contrasts with Council' a concerna during 1973-1975 vben a natural gas supply shortage resulted in a gas moratorium that dampened any likelihood that the City Council would adopt a policy which might encourage limited or controlled growth for the city at that time. However, in 1979 many aspects of the physical, social, economic and political environment had undergone change. Inflation and energy shortages were increasingly costly for everyone, including city government. The growing taxpayer resistance in Colorado Springs as well as other areaa of the country could not go unnoticed even though Colorado Springs voters passed a million dollar park and open apace bond authorization in 1979. This ambivalence in general and apecific attitudea is fertile ground for the "environmental turbulence" which Gawthrop diacuaaea. 3 With Council's active interest in urban infilling, land uae planning for the City took a major step toward becoming a .anagemeut tool through which the City Administration could provide Wire efficient "public housekeeping" aa Gaus deacribed.4 3 Gawthrop, p. 78. 4 Gaua , . p. 8.

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' ., I 81 City departments were at first skeptical about Council's mitment to the development of an urban infill policy because of its growth-oriented decision-making pattern of the past. For this reason, it was critically important that the City Manager involve himself from the outset in the policy formation process. His office, through the author of this dissertation--as well aa the City Manager at key decision-making points--played an active role in the policy formation process throughout the timeframe encompassed by this dissertation. 1. Economic EnvirOUIIIent. It is obvious from the statistics cited earlier that Colorado Springs has been and is a "growth city," one of the leading in the nation. Colorado Springs was founded by entrepreneurial interest led by General William Palmer, who envisioned Colorado Springs as a "Little London" on the frontier of an expansionist-oriented American investment capital. Business interests in the community have been heavily involved since the 1800s in shaping that growth. During the Depression, Colorado Springs, like other communities, experienced retrenchment. However, the City had significant growth between 1940-70 due to the location oi five different military installations which dominated the economy until the electronics indus-try expanded in Colorado Springs during the 1970s. These "clean industries" and tourism form the basic economic pattern for the community today. 2. Socio/Political Environment. The social environment of Colorado Springs probably shaped the political environment to a large degree. However, it has not been the small ethnic/racial population of Colorado Springs, but

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82 the wealthy who have been a present and significant factor in shaping a basically elitist aociety. This aociety has governed by a noblesse oblige commitment of those in power to provide an acceptable environ ment for the rest of the support community. The turbulence of World War II and the 1960s shook that monolithic structure, but did not shift the power base of the community in any significant manner. ,It is more likely that the professional element of the military and electronics industries-basically independent of the "old guard wealth"-have influenced a re-direction of future growth. As a politically conservative community, there baa been strong emphasis on the individual property owners' rights, perhaps to the detriment of the whole. However, this concept ia one of the basic justifications for local government. The preservation, or at least the balancing of community and individual rights against excessive nationalism or a collectivist monolith which can obfuscate the rights of the minority or the individual ia a cherished ideal of the American democratic republic. The balancing is from easy. Although some may argue to the contrary, thia need for balance and equity can be a major reason for support of the Council-Manager form of government if strong individualism ia prevalent in a community. 3. Physical Environment. The Colorado Springs area is visually delightful, pleasantly cool in summer and relatively mild in the winter. It baa many natural resources. However, one of the most serious constraints in Colorado is a shortage of water. Although it can be purchased like any commodity, supply and demand control its price and availability. Colorado Springs currently has a raw water supply sufficient to serve double it11 present population.

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83 One of the management tools Colorado Springs has is its Water Extension Ordinance. The ordinance dictates that extension of water to any area outside Colorado Springs boundaries requires an I agreement permitting the City to annex that area at some future date. Other boundaries, such as gas and electricity, already extend beyond the City's formal boundaries. The Colorado Public Utilities Commission . regulates gas and electric utilities. However, water rights are still 'l controlled by the local jurisdiction through long-standing water law. I ! Owning land within the City does not automatically guarantee the availability of water for vacant land. Rights to water are granted on a "first come, first served" basis. It is estimated that the Cit.y's current supply of raw water can serve future development of all vacant developable land within the city. However, should this water be committed to land developments acquired through extensive new annexations, , the City would either be unable to serve current vacant land or would have to acquire new raw water supplies to provide the additional demand. Obviously, this constraint within the physical environmet , : impacts the City's policy formation regarding land use matters. With insights into the economic, social, political and physical factors of the environment, one can more fully appreciate Gaus' concern for ecology in government. In addition, there are two other factors to keep in mind regarding Gaua' concern regarding the manner in which public housekeeping in government should be judged: 1) the negative productivity factor if the present infrastructure is under-utilized because vacant land within the city limits has not been developed; 2) the negative taxpayer attitude toward rising costa of public services. If elected officials and the public: demand sprawl but are unwilling to

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84 pay its costa, the public administrator should not be saddled vith the label of inefficiency in public housekeeping. Good public housekeeping is contingent upon public policy which supports a balance in public/private views. lt calla for a management partnership between elected officials and public administrators as vell as a partnership between government and the private sector. Effective public managers work toward these symbiotic relationships. Good public housekeeping tends to follow. != _ Forming an Urban lnfill Po],icy for Colorado Springs. This dissertation covers approximately one year, from May 1979 to April 1980. The initial impetus for the City Council request for an infill volley is difficult to pinpoint. The City Manager, however, set the process in motion by calling a meeting of the C !ty deparnoent heads in mid-May . The chronological chart detailed on subsequent pages gives the reader a set of benchmarks showing the sequence of events during that year. The "Actor Code" identifies those involved in a particular activity, and the general role they played. Infill Task Force The internal organizational grouy vas made up of the follow-ing City heads: Director of Public Works Director of Utilities Director of Community Development Colorado Springs Chief of Police Colorado Springs Chief of Fire Department Director Park and Recreation Director Planning

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85 The City Manager and the author were also members of the Task Force. This group brought together the knowledge and expertise to guide policy formation in a manner which would be supportable by adminiatrative procedures and the City's technical data baae. City Council The nine-member City Council served aa initiators of the process. They guided policy formation and aerved as a link between the internal and external environment. Private Sector Community Interest Groups The community at large provided the external environment which Wright describes as a "large irrational matrix." (In this .l sense, "irrational" means diverse and uncoordinated.} This group varied in its level of participation and ita membership. At one time .or another it included representatives from the following entities: -Colorado Springs Board of Realtors -Council of Neighborhood Organizations (CONO) Open Space Council Energy Research Center -Private Developer Representatives Home Builders Association Chamber of Commerce League of Women Voters There were two concentrated periods of time which involved the City Manager more intensely and directly in the adminiatrative procedures: in May 1979 and the period of March through April 1980. As the reader will note, these months also have more activities listed l . on the chronological chart. The City Manager's role and style of management are demonstrated by his activity level and the timing of I City Council and private sector involvement.

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il \ J ' 1 l \ The case study is divided into three distinct phases: Phase One: Phase Two: Pbaae Three: Defining the Problem Policy Geatation Conaensus-building and Final Policy Adoption The activities of each phase are chronologically outlined in Chart #2. The importance of these activities in the policy formation process and the city management role and style is emphasized. The case study section gives attention to case facts vhile Chapter IV's paradigm provide& a policy formation analysis. It compares the highlights of the St. Paul land use study with the more detailed events and actions in the Colorado Springs case. 1. PhPse One: Defining the Problem (May 1979). A city manager must direct, delegate, consult, integrate and Sb produce results. The manner in which a manager carrie& out these functions reflects a management role and atyle. The case atudy begins at the point where the City Manager of Colorado Spring& called a meeting of city department beads to diacuss the aasignment from City Council to prepare a report recommending an urban in policy for the City of Colorado Springs. The Manager directed the author to attend thia meeting and assigned her to do the follow-up necessary to complete the report prior to the City Council Workshop Kay 31, 1979. a. City Department Heads' Meeting with City Manager (May 16, 1979) At this meeting, the City Manager asked each department bead to give hia views on infilling, its definition and the implications of devel-oping an infill policy from his department's perspective. It vas clear that different departments had different concepts of infilling

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DATE ACTOR CODE /1/2/3/4/5/6/ 05/16/79 I p 05/18/79 p I 05/29/79 R I ---05/30/79 I P 05/31/79 I p p 06/14/79 I R 06/07/79 p I 07/18/79 R I 08/10/79 I p 10/31/79 I p CASE STUDY CHRONOLOGICAL CHART COLORADO SPRINGS POLICY FORMULATION ACTIVITIES DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES City Manager called department heada meeting to diacuaa Council requeat for on Infill Policy group hereafter called Infill Taak Force. Author'• memo to City Manager. Outlinea work plan and tiaetable for intervieva with department heada and achedulea next meetina of Infill Policy Taak Force. Author'• memo to City Manaaer reporta departmental interviewa, providea draft report to City Council. City Manager chaira Infill Taak Focce meeting called to review draft to Council. City Manager •akea report to City Council, Planning Director preaenta vacant land aap. City Council diacuaaea report and accepta City Hanager'a reco.-endation for continued atudy. Author'• memo to Planning Director outlinina propoaed vork plan. Author and Planner conduct aecond round of departmental interviewe. lnforaation pointe to need to reviae routina alip for propoaed land uae chengea aa they are reviewed by departmenta. awareneaa of need for common aap data baae and eample aite revt•w. Author'• memo to City Manager provideaprogreaa report, reviaiona in vork plan, plana to meet with two local developera. Infill Taak Force aeetina with repreaentativea of developera in community. Developer• provided inaiaht on conatrainta to infill froa their perapective. City Hanaaer & lnfill Teak Force receive briefing, diacuea timing for progreaa report to City Council. Diacuaa revieed buck alipa end review aappina done to Teak Force decidea to reroute reviaed buck alipa ueina actual requeet for lRnd uae change (the Heaa Haater Plan).

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DATE ACTOR COD! /1 2 3/4/5/6/ 11/20/79 1 p p 11/29/79 R 1 01/09/80 R I 01/10/80 0)/07/80 p I 0)/ll/80 1 p 0)/17/80 I p P Ol/21/80 1 P P IP IPtPt POLICY FORMULATION ACTIVITIES DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES City Manager providea City Council Progreae Report, including prototype map overlay, example of reviaed buck alip. Author'• to lnfill Teak Force identifies 1ite 1elected by Pl1nning Dept. for re-testing buck 1lip; outlines new work plan using the Mesa Haater Plan Proposal. Larry Ha1ming reportl findings to date on Heaa Master Plan Proposal. Infill Ta1k Force meeting with Community Intere1t Croup Repre1entative1. Director exhibited map1 prepared to date and diacu1aed their uaefulneaa. from repreaentativel very positive. Reviaed buck alipa were explained. of thia meeting on file. Planning Reaponae record" Infill Teak Force review of draft definition of Urban lnfill and preliminary draft of Urban Infill Policy Statement. Task Force decided to review material• wtth Intereat Groupe. Meeting with larger repreaentation of Community Intereat Groupe. Review of Urban Infill Definition, Urban lnfill Policy Statement, demonatration of mapa prepared to date. Reaponae very poaitive. The Croup intereated to cloae involvement •• proceaa moves toward preaentation to City Council. Infill Materials aent out aa part of Council WOrkshop Agenda for Karch 2lat. Include Propoaed Policy Statement; Prcpoaed Definition of Urban Infill; List of Baae Mapa; and Example• of Old and Reviaed Buck Slipa and Planning Matrix City Council Workahop. Planning Director and Author preaentora. Council aelected definition from continuu• of alternatives, directed City to proceed with draft of Infill Policy Reaolution, Community lntereat Croup support atrong. Council encouraged public relatione effort to inform community at larRe. ![ 'Ill 1\) ' 1\)

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DATE 04/04/80 04/07/80 04/07/80 04/22/80 ACTOR CODE /1/2/3/4/5/6/ POLICY FORMULATION ACTIVITIES DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES p p p Meetin& with Community Interest Groupe to review Urban Infill Policy Resolution. Some modification• auggeeted by groupe, and agreed upon by Infill Taek Force. R R I Author's memo to City Council outlining changee in resolution; pereone involved in -et.!na at which changee were propoeed. I p p City Council reviewed propoeed Urban Infill Policy leaolution and approved ite being placed on the April 22, 1980 City Council meeting for formal approval. Thia was a deferral in time in order to give anyone who wi8hed the opportunity to add comments or indicate concerne . I p City Council formally adopted Infill Policy Resolution. Legend: ACTOR CODE Numbers: 1 • City Council 4 • Private Sector 2 • City Manager (Co.-unity Intereet Group a) 3 • Infill Task Force 5 • Author (City Departments) 6 Plannins Director Letters: I • Initiator; P • Participant; Pr • Preaentor; ll • Receiver 0 [ "" N I '-•'

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90 and its implications. The City Manager directed the author to conduct follow up interviews with each department head and compile their views on the definition of infill, the appropriate criteria to be used for an infill policy, and possible constraints to infilling. The Manager also directed the department beads to meet with him prior to the City Council Workshop to review the material prepared for that meeting. b. Author's Memo to City Manager Outlining Work Plan (May 18, 1979) The author's memo to the City Manager outlined a work plan which entailed four days of interviews and follow-up memos from the department heads. As it turned out, the author provided the follow-up memos to the department heads. Two of them elaborated with subsequent memos. ln the May 18 memo, the author attached a series of questions to be raised in the interview with the department heads. A list of key variables, excerpted from The Cost of Sprawl, offered some stimulus for discussion also. This memo is presented in Appendix A. c. Author's Memo to City Manager Interview Reports; Draft Report to City Council on Infill Policy (May 29, 1979) The author provided the City Manager with copies of each interview summary and the expanded of the Chief of ?olice and Director of Parks and Recreation. ln addition, the author had drafted a report to City Council as well as the Manager's transmittal letter. Each department head had previously been given an opportunity to review the author's summary of their interview and offer comments or changes. The draft report and City Manager's letter were to be reviewed by the Infill Task Force on Hay 30.

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91 The excnanges during the two week period from May 16 to May 30 focused the policy formulation problem in the following manner: 1) Interview with Planning Director The interview with the Director of Planning identified several classifications of develop-ment: a) redevelopment areas; b) bypassed areas; c) new growth areas, including four sub-areas of development: (1) new growth linked to growth already within the City's planning boundaries; (2) new growth detached from growth within the City's current planning boundaries; (3J new beyond the City's planning boundary, but within Utility Department's urban service districts; (4) new growth beyond present Utility Department urban service district boundaries. He described the present City policy regarding each classification, its infill application, and the kinds of additional information needed to a new land use policy for infilling. His classifications and analysis are summarized in the City Manager's May 30 memo to City Council (Appendix B). The Director's concepts formed the basic structure used to narrow the scope of the problem of infilling. 2) Memorandum from Park and Recreation Director The Park and Recreation Department memorandum pointed out that a vigorous infill policy might result in additional pressure from citizens who pre-ferred to see vacant land converted to open space or parka within their neighborhood. It also pointed out that vacant properties are often "the least economically feasible areas to develop due to topography, geologic formations or being in a flood plain."5 5 City of Colorado Springs Inter-office Memorandum from Lawrence A. Schenk, Director Parks and Recreation, to the author, May 24, 1979.

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92 The memo urged adherence to the Master Park Plan as a means of ratio-nally determining the feasibility of park development advocated by citizen groups. 3) Memorandum from Police Chief The Chief stated in his memorandum: I believe infilling is influenced by three primary factors: l) urban renewal and redevelopment; 2) development of previously undeveloped land; 3) development of "islands" created as a result of annexations • • • 6 Of the three, the Police Department considered urban renewal and redevelopment infilling most desirable because they reduce demand for police services and facilitates the utilization of more resources. The Chief expressed concern that previously undeveloped land within the City might have remained undeveloped because of certain topographic or geographic features vbich could also make it more diffi-cult for the police to serve once it vas infilled. He further explained that the annexation islands tend to spread the resources of the department and therefore are less economical to service. 4) Interview with Director of Utilities The Director of Utilities pointed out that tvo factors control the development of the utility service delivery system: a) market demand (and ability to pay); and b) the Public Utility Commission of Colorado. The Commission requires the City to serv2 those requesting service within the City utility service system without regard to political jurisdictional boundaries. Be recommended that the infilling occur within the City's water district limits which basically conform to the present City boundaries, or within its Urban Planning Boundary which extends 6 City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from John L. Tagert, Chief of Police to the author, May 23, 1979.

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9J somewhat beyond City limits in same instances. The Utility Director preferred not to extend high cost water services without a full utility service network.. Finally, he cautioned that the most expensive type of development for utilities is redevelopment areas because these areas often require the replacement of under-capacity infrastructure capital improvements such as water mains.7 5) Interview with Director of Public Works The Public Works Director was very conscious of the impact of land uae changes upon the City's capital improvement and general fund budgets. The Public Works Department was heavily dependent upon these monies for opera-tion and maintenance of the City 1 s street and drainage network. Be pointed out that the City' a Mass . Transit Se .rvice operated at s deficit which could be better offset if there were a more concen-trated settlement within the City (as opposed to substantial vacant property or expansion beyond the City_ ' s preaent boundaries). In addition, the Director said that development costs can effectively "sterilize" land which bas severe drainage problems. 8 6) Interview with Fire Chief The Fire Chief pointed out that the type and design of infilling development impacts the Fire Department for the following reasons: -if multi-story development replaces single family structures, water mains may have to be enlarged to mainta.in adequate fire flow. 7 City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from the author to Jim Phillips, Director of Utilities, May 22, 1979. 8City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum from the author to DeWitt Miller, Director of Public Works, May 22, 1979.

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-certain types of for example, hillside or ridge development, may be difficult for the Fire Department to serve with present equipment. leapfrog development makes it difficult to serve and to manage Fire Department resources (response time ss well as personal and equipment).9 d. Infill Task Force Meeting (May 30, 1979) The Infill Task Force meeting May 30th produced a favorable consensus among department heads for the City Manager' a rec0111111et1dation to Council to pursue additional study of infilling's impacts on City service capacity. The draft memorandum was accepted without modification and plans were made for the presentation to City Council on the following day. e. City Council Yorkshop (May 31, 1979) The City Manager presented his memorandum to City Council with a brief verbal explanation of the process used by the City Administration. He also made the point that departmental differences in perspective on infilling stemmed from the demands for service and the coat of capital improvement and maintenance to sustain an adequate level of service. Be then asked the Planning Director to present a current map of vacant developable land prepared by the Planning Department. The City Council discussed at some length the apparent need for an infill policy. One of the local the Gazette Telegraph, reported the City Council's favorable action on the City Manager's recom-mendationa, and quoted some of the City Council ..mbers comments 9 City of Colorado Springs Inter-Office Memorandum froa the author to Fire Chief Sievers, May 22, 1979.

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95 as follows: (Illustration 1) {The Vice Mayor stated): I favor infilling because of the economies of development it affords and because it will save energy. {A Councilman coMmentedJ: •• Council should expect opposition from residents, but we'll have to change some ideas ••.. 10 It should be noted that this period of two weeks was adminis-tratively intense. It also demonstrated the manner in which the City Manager began to develop the modified matrix management style used in this project. First the City Manager involved department heads to address the issues. This group evolved into the Infill Task Force. Second, the City Manager delegated the coordination of the effort and the preparation of the report to City Council to a person within his awn staff, but encouraged close coordination with the Director of Planning. This set up the structure for the dual management function which later was developed. By setting up this initial management structure, the City Manager effectively retained control of the pro-cess and outcome, but encouraged broad-based input within the Admin-istration where technical and operational expertise lies. 2. Phase -Two: Policy Gestation (June 1979 through January 1980). The second phase of the case study demonstrates the develop-ment of the rational comprehensive planning model through the design of new administrative procedures and a data base, and the involvement of community interest groups. "Policy gestation" was chosen as a title because it helps to portray the growth period of the policy formation process. Again the emphasis is upon the internal structure, 10 Dick Foster, "Development in City Urged." Gazette.;.Teleg;-aph Springs, Colorado, June 1, 1979.

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pevelopment in City Urged Wnk fl • • .,... .,.,., ....... ruiiJ b •Mntle,H 1.,.4 I• wWC.Cr ).!-. CAundhn.M\ fttltr s-n.Diil will $r'IIOftM ....... tl _. "'-•,!:'-t:' .. ,... ..... aut wn .... u.J ,,..,. C'Oft.,.,c..tJ ..,...wun=... f'llf'f'ft...,i:, • a r.tt .. .. Ht 1.ud ""'-W N•lirt \hat .. . 11 w,u,ftr Pf'OIU tvU'IC le&ntfUW'! :.tJIIC' .. ,II""...t.rG.II\( H. .. Mill th.JI tlLt4 ..... u....w .. ....... ...::. ..._ala ,u&A ;."':' _......._ M iaWIU'I.C n. t nuwl will " l.are4 • ••• W.wc-c nt)• L"-C11)' -"CC l..a l.&&p; f"' ...........

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97 but the interface with the City Council and the external environment through community interest groups is also significant. Policy gestation forms the third leg of the three-legged stool which a city manager atradles in the arena of public administration proceas of policy formation. a. Author's Memo to Planning Director (June 14, 1979) -The net effect of the City Council's action was to "buy time" for the City Administration to more carefully analyze iaauea and develop a recommendation which might take into consideration different variables. The author's memo to the Planning Director once again re-enforced the modified matrix management model as outlined in this dissertation. The function of such memoa vas to establish a basis for understanding between the individuals who share responsibility for executing a work plan. This memo focused on the Planning Department's responsibility to identify several land use sites which were to serve as examples for the departments to analyze in terms of their assets and liabilities as an infill site with a specific land use hypothetically designated. A timetable was proposed to enable the City Council to have an urban infill policy recommendation by the end of the year. However, this timetable was extended in the fall of 1979. (See Appendix C.) b. Author's Memo to City Manager (July 18, 1979) -This memo ex plained the extension of time on the basis of the extra demands upon departments during certain phases of the budget cycle. The Planning Department had identified six sites for departments to analyze. In addition, as a part of the discussion (which was not attended by the City Manager) the Infill Task Force determined that external input from private developers would be helpful. Therefore, it was agreed

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that the Planning Department vould contact aeveral prominent local developer& and invite them to meet with the lnf.1ll Taak force in August 1979. lt vaa felt that three major developer• probably were not only repreaentative of the attitude• of 1110st developers in the community, but &lao that they provided atrong leadership in responsible development practices within the community. (The author's memo is presented in Appendix D.) c. Inf111 Task Force Meeting with Developers (Auguat 10, 1979) The Planner aaaigned to work with the author on the lnfUl Policy Formation Project, summarized the meeting with the developers. That aummary appear& in full on the following pagea. (Exhibit 6.) The City Manager did not attend this meeting, but was briefed verbally and through the notes taken by the PllllUler. Like the Tuk Force efforts in Phase One, the inaights gained from this meeting with the developers were not n .ew and startling. However, the meeting provided a means of consolidating information and percep tions as well as providing the developers with assurances that the City Administration waa interested in incorporating their ex pertise and concerns into the policy formulation process. d. Lnfill Task Meeting: Agenda (October 31, 1979) This meeting gave the lnfill Task Force an opportunity to reconvene after the major budget cycle efforts bad been completed. The author and the Planner bad been working unilaterally with various staff mem bers within the departments to revise the buck slip and toexperiment with it by reviewing the six aites chosen by the Planning De partment. The City Manager's attention turned to determining when the City Administration felt it could finalize a policy recommendation to City Council.

PAGE 99

IJIFtlJ. ll!lmJIC t-t 1:30 Ctty Coftf. looa City Staff: lin a•, loyeT, Sc.oct, f'Yan1ftll, Ow a ley, Miller, Phillips ond Schenk Dn-elopera: Sch\ack., SM,.rd, aM Schooler Developer co..ettta on taftll There •r• often political Nttle• ovn-deowclopifta an tnftll att• Mcauae the exiattn• fteiJ:;hborhood tntcall:r oytpoaea any dnclo,.ent. If City Counc:.il ta aeriCKJa 11'bout auttrortlnlt ta!tlltna, tt -..at aut.tt co thcae polttic,al r'l"•tficattona. .... .._. -A lot of 1nf1ll attca arc avoided "' dnelopera becau•• of apectftc hi!lh priced drrelop.cnt aapec:t; 1f Ctty vould front ad coat a for thea• kinde of JtT'Obl••; prt"Wata drnlopwte"nt lndut!'y could tiiDI'c uatly luo!Mh fntlll 1n 1ra ,..,,...! ...,., nf d.., .. ,,.,_,.t, Soooe of then 1nrtll oitoo 11o ... ot•ply k.,. ... utod. Tho Concr,.r pi"'perty value puked and diaintahed before tM entire aite aarketed. Rcforc ita 1entce area VIII eatabliahed., other .,Tt: attraettwe C08H.rc1a1 dtes wre drvelopH .. kinA the c:.anowtr aite aentce aru too ... 11. 1ltc Citadel '1'acant land ia cauaed in part by archtte.ctuTal CCfttTola deatred by 1a'ftd ovneTI too .-xpenatwe to build. n .. larkPr the tnftll aU• t1te 110\"e tM .. of d...,elo,_.,..t ara attieated. It ia not 'WOrth it on a ...,.11 s """" oitoo (Conover) hen kn on 1ndiv1duola lif 1'"'• dcordo-l't pi'OjKt-Ttatna beco.ea a vrobl... Ita difficult to ha'Wt a b1"'0,8d policy for infUllnA atne:a uch aite 1• Vftique:. 1..ach atte ahould N naloated and a prottc••l aade em the 'baata of ita apeciflc. nobleaa. City Coune11 ahould uae coat IAVinP, . I artd tnftll dte dnelo,...nt to Citv •• juttfic.atton for tncentt'Wea Ai'Wen to prtv:u.e dnelor-nt tnduatry. City ahovld uae coat/Maeflt aaalyata like pri'WaU dnelopet'l if benaflta OtltWiKht coat ••• do it. Dcnattiaa vtll l\a'We to 1M increaaed on 1nl1ll eitaa vhtch .. , preaat.c political probleaa for City CounciL lut thia 1ac1'eaaed deneity vtll aid in .... traaatt utili.utio'll and • Teduction of '" 'b'-1'\al t-r-tly dneloJ"Nftt vtll be tncTeadna tn about five yeai bec•uae of on•r•J concnno, chh wUl oid 1nfUUna H "' ao CUy ahould be tudy for thie aftd prepert fol' rntlt81'\et frCM ntattna reatdl'ftCI aeor 1af111 oiu. The Wood ond tlw Iorber ' Hbud/ Kancock JTO .iect aTe lll:l•l)lea vhel'e the City wuld DOC "'btte bullet". The City• a tnteraat ta ia u ... t y becau1e there ia tS.. to prepare fol' the Multt-F .. tly ruah and enn-ay crvnch r .. tttcaticm• oa 1ita1. Staff ahould: 1) Identify .dte1 2) fo,._ rlaft for future u.aa )) t•entify and qu.ntify coata "'' benefit• of uch tndtvtchaal a1tl (ao.e elrr .. nta .. y tsilt froa atte to lite for Jf"'neTAl POlic:t' fo'I'Wt.llat1cm) thm City ahould aet and thence prtorlttea em aitea for focuainK 4rweloJNent. Kantpulat11lA dnelop.ent thru ut111t} ratew could bawe t.U.C. pTo'bl..a -1f an!"thinA ratea ahould be }overed ta Cftc.our•t•. b\lt n.-.cT rataed to cUacourar.• 99

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Exhibit 6-2 JM1rect l.e:..,.t.twea do eot wriL. (auch •• reatrtcted aftnesatSOft ,.,ltcy) 4ndopoM'IIt vlll eontlto .,.. • ..,. "" !Yin•• of CU:r ll•lto Mlll " ' aa .... artle) aM theae M:co.e probl.,.. few the CSCy ., trin'• uNa area ITO'Vth aTe Satlat.tcmery, cl.-pa au,.ly, aM cr .. , -.. ..,,.. .. 1,. •. Coftat1'a1nta em nrv c.onJtruct1on v1ll ti'M to rat•• Tat•• tnt atatla& etock poaaibly elia.1aattBJ tM: liD'If nwt hoM owner or re-ntaT. Clty ohoul4 u uuc:ate "")lit -dntlo-t lNuotry .. Sallll coM:ept • Sta nata ud ita MMfJ.ta. •"•lopera art .,_.ad l>rftlOf"e:tl" (tu"' ner rav laM •• •uic.k aa pooal)lo), otllno ore -.IJ)C. llnclopero• (Tun rov latWI to land uoeo a1WI ll1'VCtUI'el), othn'a are juat propcTq ovnara, othn'l are a coablutln ., ........ Zoftlftl r.,..U.tioa -dUicationa co..ld ruate lftfill lftctftthe (Ub lovnM parktaa r•ttviT..-nta 1f ... .,. ••• tl'anatt, ate.). lncntiYa 'roar-can k def.-.1 .. n the Nata of ..,._bl1c. Jatuat• S.a • .... •• aJtlit iJI'pro"W...-at •satt1ct cefte..,t. Notes prepared by 1 L&rry Manning, Planner 100 Colorado Springs P1Mn1 ng Department

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101 When the Infill Task Force met, the members were generally pleased with the developments of the revised buck slips, but wanted to re-test one of thesix sites which the Planning Department bad chosen initially. This site vas an area for which a Maater Develop ment Plan vas proposed and had been scheduled for a December hearing by the Planning Commissiot\. The lnfill Task Force vas aware that this proposed Master had been reviewed by city staff using the old buck slips. The members were interested in learning whether a subsequent review, using the revised buck slips, would produce new information. It vas decided that this land uae proposal would be unofficially reviewed to teat the revised buck slip. As a consequence of this decision, the Infill Task Force agreed that only a progress report would be provided Council at that time, and the Mesa Master Plan proposal would be reprocessed using the revised buck slips and the Planning Matrix designed by the Planner. e. City Manager's Memo to City Council (November 20, 1979) This brief memo outlines the material that was presented to City Council at its last Informal Meeting in November. In addition to the revisions of the buck slip, maps which were drawn on a common scale and which depicted the City's service delivery system were presented. The Planner bad contracted with a graphic artist who worked directly under the head of the Graphics Division. A number of the maps had been completed by October, and the lnfill Task Force had its first opportunity to see them at its October 31 meeting. The Planning Director presented the maps at the City Council meeting and explained the other activities under way. Like the

PAGE 102

102 Infill Task Force, the City Council was very pleased with the of the mapping. Council's reaction to the progress report was very positive, and they aimply affirmed the City Admin-instration'a current direction in the policy formulation proceas. (Appendix E.) f. Author's Memo to Infill Task Force (November 29, 1979)This memo served two purposes: 1) to provide the Infill Task Force with a complete set of data for the Keaa Maater Plan re-testing; 2) to establish a new work plan and timetable for the Infill Policy Formation process. December ended the City's calendar year and the department& worked in the re-testing as staff time would permit. (Appendix F.) g. Planner's SUlllll8ry of Test, Re-test and Planning Matrix (January 9, 1980) The City Planner summarized the re-test of the Mesa with a narrative and the Planning Matrix. Appendix G contains the narrative. Exhibit 7 provides the Planning Matrix SUliiiiAry. The latter demonstrates the manner in which the Planning Matrix can provide a quick summary of the project review. The areas of concern are readily visable in column one: the Park and Recreation Kaster Plan and Development; Fire response time; and Waatevater proximity to exiating main. The cautionary indicators in column two reflected tbe Public Work's Department comments on the drainage basin, and neighborhood traffic; Fire flov; Police patrol pattern relationship; and Wastewater demand and existing aystem and oversized extensions. As the narrative pointa out, problems center around wastewater service." This variable affected three department&: Public Works, Wastewater, and Park and Recreation. Ita impact on

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INFILL BUCK SLIP SUMMARY SHEEr 10) PUBLIC WORKS Transit System Basins Street Neighborhood Traffic RRK .t: REX:RFATION Existing Parks/Population Existing Parks/Maintenance Master Plan: Location Master Plan: Development Proposed Pa.rks/Popula tion Response Time Fire Flow Co.mmunication .t: Equip Access & Equip Fire Prevention R>LICE Central Base Relationship Fatrol Fattern Relationship Service Demands: Type Service Demands: Amount Site Considerations x , I I I I I I I I ! I X I I1 I I I ! xl I i I I I : ' I . I I . I I r , , l I ! I ' i . ' I I I ! I I . -x' i . ! I ! X l . I t ' X 1 : I Exhibit 7 CaiMUNITY DEVELOFMENT !]IlUt Comprehensive Planning Land Use Relationship Ordinance Compliance Neigh borllood Revi tal. Housing Rehabilitation Human Relations: Social I I JI ' : I I I II Human Relat\ons: Econ. . I . Housing Authority 1 I WASI'EWATER I P.ro.ximi ty to Main 1 • II . Demand .t: Existing syst. lx Oversized Extensions l I I Topographic Features I : I Non-potable Water Use I ELECTRIC Power Capacity . % Prox1m1 ty to Service I & Existing Syst. ' I Unique Design Features I Major Capital Outlays I DATE: SITE: Note: Water and Gas Division Buckslip Formats were not yet complete at this tillle.

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104 the developer became apparent as the more intensive review of the Mesa Master Plan was conducted. The Public Works and Wastewater buck slip responses in September stated: Public Works: Drainage problems exist in this area Public Works would like to see a more detailed Master Plan before proceeding to Planning Commission. Therefore ;;---recommend postponing this item. Wastewater: Master Plan is acceptable. Extension of the Mesa Valley truck sewer from Brewster and Washington and from Monument Creek to Caramillo and Chestnut will be required. However, the Park and Recreation response vas routine because a problem which later surfaced vas unlcnovn to the Park and Recreation Department in September. In fact, the Park and Recreation Master Park Plan and the Wastewater Master Plan were in design conflict. This meant that the private developer' a master plan could not be in conformace with both department's master plans. The impact of these consequences were as follows: -For the Developer: The developer would experience a higher than expected front-end cost, and might have a longer pay out on his investment. A drainage improvement basin's fees are allocated to the abutting property owners, but are front-ended by the developer. As the property is developed and sold, the City reimburses the developer from the drainage improvement fees imposed upon the property. Drainage fees premised on a natural design which permita absorption and assumes relatively low runoff is leas costly than an underground pipe system designed to carry water from the area. The Mesa haster Plan waa premised on a natural drainage ayatem.

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. I -For the City Wastewater Division: The Wastewater Kaster Plan called for an underground pipe inatallation of a major sewer trunk. The Wastewater Division would benefit eventually from this system because it would reduce lift coats. As a part of the City's Wastewater Master Plan, any costa to the City.were already anticipated. -For Park and Recreation Department: The Park and Recreation Kaster Park Plan for the Mesa site called for a natural drainage area and a linear trail-park which linked a major trail ayatem being developed. In additi.on, a newly dedicated park just south of the Mesa was in the drainage path which would receive greater run-off than had been plmmed by Park designers. Subsequent negotiations with the developer helped to assure the additional benefits which the underground drainage would provide in stabilizing the trail-park area. There were obvious coat tradeoffs for the City. However, the costs incurred by the Wastewater Diviaion would be recouped since all utility departments operate .as enterprise funds and are not dependent upon the general tax structure. Like the developer, Park and Recreation would incur some unanticipated costa in park development. Development of parka must depend upon general obligation bonds or the general fund. These are leas flex ible funds than those of an enterprise operation. The benefits of a more detailed method of compiling d .ata was apparent from this exercise, but revised buck slips were still not totally responsive to the wide variety of land use changes which the departments must review. Even the most dedicated department had not successfully produced a revised buck slip format which supplied

PAGE 106

106 all the information necessary for the major types of land use which might come before the city. The difficulty with the buck slips seemed to lie in the fact that different types of information were needed depending upon the point at which the application accessed the system. The flow chart in Appendix H was developed by the Planner and the author. It identified the steps required in the three major types of land use change: 1) a request for Kaster Plan approval; 2) a zone change request; and 3) a planned zone change request. Each process calla for one or more buck slip reviews, and the data required for each is slightly different-moving from a macro plan to micro detail as the projec: goes through the various stages of development. Note on the flow chart the symbol indicating the points at which buck slips are required. On the upper side of the flow chart line, the information the applicant supplies is symbolized. The lower side of the line shows the buck slip routing for depa .rtments of the city. One might wryly observe all this paper flow, yet the alternative for reducing it is a demand that the applicant provide all pertinent information initially. This alternative would make the City departments' job easier, but it is the applicants who resist this option. Information is costly to develop, and individuals are reluctant to spend the money and time necessary to information prior to certain assurances, particularly financing assurances. One of the benefits of the mapping process is its ability to provide information about the service delivery system without vast expenditures of money and/or time for the applicant. The buck

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I lG? slips have the potential of serving a similar benefit if appropriate formats can be designed to function in a cost effective manner for all parties. Appendix I dem,natrates the evolution of the buck slip as it provided information on the Mesa Master Plan proposal. Wastewater was chosen because it demonstrated that the old buck slip's narrative format can be helpful, but that for data base development, the revised format III&Y become even more useful. To be!come fully functional, the revised buck slips may need to be refined several times. In addition, personnel !DUSt learn bow to use them in a 1118DDer conducive to management decisions. Until departments can relate a land use proposal to : 1) City Master Plana; 2) Capital Improvement and 3) General Fund budgets, the buck slip will be fragmentary. b. lnfill Task Force Meeting with Community Interest Groups (January 9. 1980) The Home Builders and Real Estate Board representative had requested a meeting with the City in order to bring them up to date on the City Administration's progress on tbe infill project. The Planning Director presented the base maps prepared at this time, and reported on the buck slip efforts. The meeting demonstrated that the private sector was quick to perceive the benefits of the data base being developed. Their response indicated to City staff that the months of effort and the open process was creating a momentum in community support. The City Manager's involvement had been reduced during Phase Two, partly because of the budget preparation demands upon his time, and partly because his management style did not call for the same level of involvement in this particular phase of the

PAGE 108

108 project. The author and Planning Director gave him periodic updates, and the Manager had attended the October 31 meeting at which time the decision was made to give City Council a progress report and proceed with the re-te&ting of the revised buck slip. 3. Phase Three: Consensus-Building and Final Policy Adoption through April, 1980 ) , During February the Mayor indicated that City Council would hold its annual Workshop in March instead of May which accelerated the time table for a report on the urban infill policy project. The City Manager ' involvement in the process also increased at this point. The response from city departments and the community at large led the Manager to conclude that a policy statement could now be formulated. Be directed tt author to draft an initial document for the Infill Task Force to review. a. Infill Task Force Meeting to Review Policy Statement (March 7, 1980) -Exhibits 8 and 9 present the first andsecond drafts of the Urban Infill Policy Statement. The third and final version was included in the report which City Council received in preparation for its March 21, 1980 Workshop. The sensitivity of the City Administration to the community interest group's desire to be involved in a pre-review of the proposed language prompted their inclusion in the next meeting of the Infill Task Force. The changes from draft one and two included clarification of several points: the section dealing with the conservation of the community Qnd reordering the the sections. b. Meeting with Community Interest Groups to Review Policy Statement (March 13, 1980) -This group of people represented the most complete gathering all interested parties to date. The Planning Director once again presented the set of base maps which now numbered at

PAGE 109

109 least fifteen. The group's response to the maps vas very positive. Some changes were suggested by the group and incorporated into the policy statement language. These differences are reflected between Drafts two and three. Language changes included: -adding in the Rationale section: " ••• support community values; and maximize taxpayers investments in the public sector. 'Io achieve this goal calls for prudent • • " -adding in Urban lnfill Policy Guidelines, Section I: " unimproved land that bas some relationship to the infrastructure within the City limits ••• " -adding in the Urban lnfill Policy Guidelines, Section II: " community values as expressed through a sense of community and neighborhood cohesiveness." The group also discussed the deftnition of Urban Infilling extensively. The options were presented as a continuum with several questions listed to focus the group's attention on issues which the Infill Task Force had been discussing. The group then agreed upon the following def_inition which was recommended to City Council: Urban Infilling: The development of bypassed vacant (unimproved) land which has relationship to the present infrastructure of public services provided within the current City limits. c. Author's In fill Memorandum to City Council for City Council Workshop March 21, 1980 (March 17, 1980) -This memorandum to City Council requested action on two items: -a definition of urban infilling -a proposed urban infill policy statement The third draft of the policy statement was included in the memoran-dum along with the Urban Infill Definition (Chart #4), a sample of the old and revised buck slips and planning matrix (Exhibits 2, 3, and 4). In addition, a preliminary list of the base maps was included. The list is presented in Appendix J.

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URBAN INFILL POLICY GUIDELINES• DRAFT ONLY It h tho policy oltho City ol Colorodo Sprln1o to encoura1e development ol vacant land within tho built are at of the City In accordance wlth exlttlna clfy dealan tlandardt. Thh policy thall be carried out by coo rdlnatlna the reeourcet of Chy aovernmenh • the varloua approved compreheruh e plan ehmenh and CltyCodet lhe approved c apital ltnprovemenh proaramt and prlorltlea • the ataU, facll&tlee, and proarama or the General Fund, Utllltlee. and Special Fundt Budaeh, lndudlna lnteraovernmental lunda when pottlble Thh pollcy tha11 recoanlae the need to conae,.ve tl-e followlna element. of community reeourcett -flnlta natural retourcea ana ray retourcat wU.hln the Clty' t manaaement and ju.rhdtctlonaJ control • lima and other retourcat lnvaetcd by the private aector. p&Ttlcularly when devetopmf'nt plan rulty conform• whh Urban lnflll Polley Guldctlnee The adoption of an U"ban lnfllt Polley doe• not preclude Clty Councll'a conetderatlon of developnent propo1ah which requhe the ewhnelon of utllltle• ouhlde the Clty ltmlte ao lona ae the propc,.at h ln accordancf! wlth tho uhtanl City Utility E•tenolon Pollcloo. URBAN INFILL POLICY RATIONALE• The Clty of Colorado Sprln1• 1trlvea to promote th• hlr.heet and beet uae of public and prlvate reaouTc•• In OTdar lo maxlmhe h•payara' lnveetmenh ln the publtc eactor, pt"udant uae of CHv IO"arnment' e raeourcea cath ror exte•ulva coordination and con .. arvatlon. The eame h true of pt'lvale IICior r••ourcea. Thh policy P"omtlff'1 the deltherate u•• of the11 rf'fOUrCI"I In a coordinated mannar.ln 1upport of arprop..; .. , .. fl .. lop"'""' of vacant tand within thr built •r••• of the CUy.

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Exhibit 9 Policy St&tement, Dra.ft #2 INFD..L PCUcr IAI'IC%WL: '!he C1ry of C:..lorado S9rln8J at:rivu t.o pr'CliiDt.e the hipat me! beet t.e of plblic me! pri\'ate resourc:ea . In order tt> miJd.miz.e t.t.xpayera ' inwatm!nU in the plbl.iJ: aector, use of Ciry ruourc:ea wla fDr extenooiw c::oordinaticn me! a>nse:rwtia>. The ...,. 11 true of privata MCtor resources. 'Ibis policy aUtCIII!nt pra!OtU the deliberate and coordinated use of re.soun:es t.o auppon of byp&saed vac.mt l..nd within the lll C1ry limi.t.l in a _..._ "'*'1dd nccr;tiz.es the a:nstraints in !"bliA: dal.l.u" resourcu. lNFD..L Pl1lCY QIIIELDIES: I. It 1a the policy of the C1ry of Q>l.a::ado SprU>p t.o of bypassed vac.nt l..nd w1tlWl the City limi.u in acaorclmce with a:l.st:Ulg city atandards. 'Ibis policy ahall be carried cut by coordinadna and equi tably d1sttibutinc the fol.l.cwinc raourca of C1ry • the variOJS appl'OIIIId .... pl.m al.soonu a C1ry Otd1nlnoea a Resclutiau -the capital vrosra priorit:i.es -the awf, facll.itiu, -s progra!1l of the Celeral Fmc!, Utllit.iu, a Special F\nis l!udgets, including f\nda""""" po.,.ible (i. e . , Federal, St.ate grants) 1h1a ccordinaticn ahall be by. ual..n!! C1ry Ou>dlappn:r.oed apecial atrategies \lhich aupport the Ciry' • Urban lnfill Policy. n . '!he pol..U:y shall the .--.1 to c:cnx:rw the follawin& elOIII!Ma of CIOII1U\ity ruourcu : • the of finite natural rescurcea t.o the extent possible in dete:J:IIIinina the rype, dmairy and inunsity of poi>liA: me! private dewlopmont of land within the planing jurisdicticn of the C1ry cf Q>lorada Springs • the CXInSU!pticn of energy within the C1ry'a anagtiiii!!M .-.:! jurbd.icti.a>al ccnttDl relatiw to the general loc:aticn and extent of exilti.ng or c:unently planned aajor transportation, utUiry me! CCD..mry faeUitiu • the apendieure of tiaa .-.:! other ruourcu inwated by the private aec:tor llL The adcpticn of .., Urban Infill Policy does not preclude C1ry Cou1cil' • a:nsideration of dewlopnl!nt proposals \ohlch require the e>a:ension of utUiHes rucside the City limits so lcng u the proposal is in the exilunt C1ry Utiliry Enensim Poli.cy .

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112 d. City Council Work3hop (March 21, 1980) -The Planning Director made the presentation for the Council Workshop. The City Council response was very positive. The Vice-Mayor a&id that the vork done by City staff had been "creative, disciplined, and good for the community." One Councilman also c0111plilllented the staff, but urged that the language of tl1e Urban lnfill Policy be written in simple lay language so the document could also serve as an edu cat 1onal tool for the cOIIIIIIUllity. A Councilvoaan emphasized the importance of four variables: buffering, density, ca.patibility and access. Another Councilwoman joined in the emphasis on public re.lations and education of t.he coammity. Council members also debated the inclusion of redevelopment areas in the definition of urban infill, but finally concluded that these areas were covered by other aeans of action, auch as Community Development Block Grants and Urban Rene'Will. The Council gave concept approval of the policy statement and directed the City Manager to prepare a draft Urban Infill Policy Resolution for the first informal City Council Meeting April 7, 1980. e. Author's Memo to Infill Task Force Meeting April 4th (March 28, 1980) A Public Affairs staff member was recruited to draft the Urban lnfill Policy Resolution. The draft becute the final resolution. It is shown again as Exhibit 11. The Task Force was also asked to provide c0111111ent on a set of "strategies" vbich the Planning Director had drafted. These strategies to illlplement the Urban Infill Policy Resolution offered alternatives vbic:h could determine the level of intensity which the City Council aight ex pect City Departments to exercise in that implementation. Thia

PAGE 113

.U) material was not circulated to community interest groups prior to the City Council April 7 Informal Meeting. The strategies were presented to City Council by the Planning Director. Time constraints bad not permitted these strategie! to have the in depth review by City departments much leas interested community groups which the Urban lnfill Policy Statement, Resolution and Definition bad received. shows the strategies. f. lnfill Task Foree Meeting (a.m.)/Community Interest Group Meeting, (p.m.) (April 4, 1980) -Evidence of the time constraints is ahowa by the double scheduled meetings on this date. The 1110rning meeting enabled the City Manager to review and approve the draft resolution vith the Infill Task Foree. The discussion of the strategies was inconclusive, but it was felt that they might stimulate City Council's thinking and provide the City Administration some guidance on Council's for the Policy.. The Public Affairs staff member was complimented on the draft language. It was agreed that the Public Affairs staff member and the author would meet with representatives from community interest groups to review the draft resolution in the afternoon. At the afternoon meeting, minor changes in the resolution were suggested and accepted. These were outlined in a memo from the author to City Council, April 7, 1980. (Exhibit 10.} g. City Council Informal Meeting/April 7th memo (April 7, 1980) The author presented the draft resolution and its amendments and the Planning Director presented the Strategies. Council gave informal approval of the resolution as amended, but delayed placing it on the City Council Formal Agenda until the last Council meeting in

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0.,: To. SL 'BICT; Exhibit 10-1 CITY 0,. COLORADO SPRINGS COLORADO I:\" T F. II • 0 t F I r. I! liD I 0 II.\ It II .\1 AprU 7, 19110 CITY COUNCil.. Jim Alice Scott Suuooted • 4/4/80 Draft Urbaa Will Policy 0.1 Friday, AprU 4th, the loUow1D1 perooao, wbo han expruoed iDtereot io the Ciry'a !onnulatioa of aa Urbao W'lll Polley, met to review the 4/.f/80 Dro!t Reoolutioa: CIU! Johaooa Naocy Avila Bill Crlbble Fraak O'Doanel ::OIDr&do Sprio1• Board of Realtoro CONO, Open Space CoW>CU CONO, EaeriY Ruearch Ceater ChambeT of Commerce: Terry Schooler Private Developer Repreaentative Chuck Graff Private Developer Representative Geor1e J\lry Home Aaaociation City Stal! Membero Preoent: Jim Alice Scott Suaac Watkins They propoaed chac1e1 &I ahowu oo. the attachment to t.hia meiDO. 1 would recommend these chanae• aa appropriate clarification to the Resolt.atioa . I . / / . I • f?w , I < l.,.&-4.. :-:;::/ t!!.,.: / t.Jlm Alice Scot: Project. F.eaearch Acalyat apa attachnunt 114

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Exhibit 10-2 SUOO.ESTED REVISION Urba11 WW Policy -4/4/10 Draft CommWlity lnterut Oroup.)4 .. tilll Ameod 4tb paracraph: WHEREAS, ao ot thio time, 4Z'fe ot the I&DCI witbill tbe Cky limtta ta •ac&Dt &Del developable; a.ncl AmeAcl 6tb . paracraph: 115 WHEJIEAS, cUt&eAo ot Coloraclo SprlDII are pa.,U.c IDr public: oerviceo aa.cll u ma.aa traa.ats:, atUitlel, etraata ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• AmaDcl 7tb paracraph: WHEREAS, maxlmh:iDs ,.,. of llrlotiDs city aerYic:u cocalcl aprawl, deer•••• !i.D.a.acial burdell tD cltiaeaa, coo.aerve eaercy &.ad. mai.D.taln aatur&l &ad DOD-renewable reaourcea; [ Acldi.tkuo.al WHEREAS tA be iDoertecl: J WHEREAS, a at.acce•afW. iA!illi.D& policy reqW.raa cooperatioa aad "aood faith" between ael1bborhooda, aover.a.meot a.nd. the private aector; aad. Chaace Pllrpooe No. 1 lA read: L TO ENCOURAOE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VACANT (UNIMPROVED) LAND WITHIN THE CITY LJMITS AS AN ALTERNATI'P:: TO UNNECESSARY SPRAWL BY:

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116 April to allow for further community review and comment. h. Citycouncil formally Adopts 'Infill (April 2 2 , 1980) all parties had been with the product, the final adoption of the Urban Infill Policy Resolution was accomplished without fanfare. 'Exhibit 11 is the resolution in its final form . Summary: Each phase of the case study can be linked to one or more of the six key phrases from general public administration liter ature and to Easton 1 s policy analysis model as follows: Phase One/Problem Definition (Input): This stage was one in which the City Manager developed the modified matrix management framework demon strating his role as electric transformer by working with the City Council, the City Administration and showing sensitivity to the environmental turbulence which policy changes may generate. The modified matrix mangement model was further strengthened by the use of the author and the Planning Director as change agents and joint leaders in the development of the initial report to City Council. Phase Two/Policy Gestation (Conversion) : This stage involved City istration and the community interest groups. A rational comprehensive planning model was useo to reduce environmental turbulence as new admin istrative procedures and a new data base were developed. The author and Planning Director assumed more structured roles in the model. Phase Three/Consensus Building and Policy Adoption (Output): Ecology in government was enhanced by the City Manager's utilization of modified matrix management to develop the new land use policy. The final produce gained the support of the diverse internal and external rroups.

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l\caol .. tion No. 1!>0-110 A l:S" CIIRI.ISIIINC l>it"ll.l. R:li.ICY Exhibit 11-::. a:m!\lni ty value>s call for the bol&ne:X>d dcv<>lopt"C!I"lt of pn>sent ;,td future inwstJrcnta ..ode by public;/privat.e s.r:tor -t b:> protecl.ed in order to pcescrve these c:amunity values; .ond the PPN:C cst.inwtes that the p:lpUlation of the City of O>lorado springs will appro> SPIUNCS: -14/14/80 117

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Exh1 b1 t 11-2 '!hal"" UtbVI J.nfill l'ol..icy is hcrcl>y cst.1blhhcd as follows: 1 . '10 tNCOI.IiV\C 111E Ct.Vt1.QI': >J' c:." VI'CNlf (l.tiDFIOVil>) 1> Wlnml 11! CITY LlM.J'I'S AS .lVI 1\l..'TJ:IOoii\TI\/E '10 IJ1'-')I[CESSARY SPR:\1-L BY: l. n..lcri"9 ble and coordinot.ed USC! o1 J:U>lic And privat..e resource5 consistent with: a) apprO\IOd city dc•ign atolnd.&rds in the \lAC ious c:crrprchcnsi ve plan clanonts; b) c:.apiU.l illprlic scrvicu; 2. D>ocu:raging the of natural and prcsarving carnunity trOCi,.l, <.'\llwral And ecrrnan.ic v.alues; J. Weighing neigl-b:>ch:xxl CDTpAti.bility And c:chesi,_,.,ss as a a>nuunity asset in U... ccnsidcratia> of changing patlerns in density, b.J.I'!cr ing, and U1e flow of tn f fi c thro.lgrout the City; 4. Streng t.heni "9 erw>rqy cx:nserva tia> And .,..., c;y... v ing al terNti vcs; 5. Jr.cognizing unique comunity aesthetic auets such a• Pikes the C'...-dc!n of the Q:lds, Park And other ,..lues intrinsic to the natural url::w> l.and5eapc such .,. r idrp, gaogr •phi cal outcrcppings, t.enain and Ye90lalia>; ' 111>5?"-<:ti.ng natural ca>5traints in the develosr.cnt of lard hAving sl.cp!s, dral..nacp oc floodplain prcblc;11S, ex sutrsurf.KII! liabilities 5UCh u p.>st landfills or .Uni"9 c.:-;>loralia>; 1. S
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119 Exh1 b1 t 11 -) Dlllal at Springs, Colocado, this E!!! day ot April 1980. A1'I'EST: City Clerk -3_4/14/30

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' 120 CHAPTER IV COHPABlSON OF COLORADO SPRINGS AND ST. PAUL CASE STUDIES This chapter begins by highlighting the Altshuler case on points which will be compared with Colorado Springs. Three major areas will be analyzed in Chart 13 on the following page. -attitudes and perceptions of the various actors. -administrative procedures and data gathering techniques. the role and management style of the City Manager in land use policy formation. A. Highlights of the St. Paul Case Before discussing the areas compared in the paradigm. certain characteristics of the St. Paul case should be noted. Altshuler states: The following study differs from moat inter-university case program studies in a significant respect. The author tries to do more than describe in narrative form how the city planners of St. Paul went about preparing a land-use plan. Be seeks to portray some of the underlying professional values. assumptions. and self-images that explain why the planners noticed some things but not others and why they emphasize some values and not others. The study is therefore1 partly a narrative. partly an analysis. and partly a critique. Altshuler's emphasis on professional values and assumptions was helpful in making the comparisons needed between St. Paul and Colorado Springs. 1 Altshuler, p. 1.

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st. PAUt. NtD COtoftADO I"HMCS • CQWAIUSON or CUE lntOfll 0111 UoND Ull: I'Ol.IC"r PO"*TION A . ,.rceptlOft of ••ed 1 tor t..tnct u .. study 1. OnfOlftlt lnvolv ... nt of COUncil c. lupport tor rlnd Product lt. P•ul• •• ••c.pt lloud"' Colo1'edo lprl!!!•l Clty iUthOritr bltcau .. IIUD r-.uhN 1t.6y brcwd lntunt IIDM. PlMNU fdt ther ...... ROt 1'1pUh to Cou.Rcll1 each •hp be bter .. ud, awan "h•n phn critlc;ellr revl•wed a •upport •••ffl,....cl 11on1 ltt"'ft9 r .... Chr CO\IM"ll, dty clep•rt .. nt1 aM kay lnteun troups Jl.,_,_lnl•tntlve Procedure• and Data CltheriM f\ablts A&!lphtntlgn IP A I tundeuhlllty Adlalnhtntha Procen for h•ph .. ntetlon A. Cltr Man.atn I'Oh ln •tuctr 1. Clty .,._.,thtntlon ltrle 1t0ne ronullud Cltr Nd no C'tr ..... , Pb• pt'-..ratiH ..... .t .. to l.,_.r hwal 1Ufl 1• fhlltlllf\41 Dept. II'. rawl"-4, t.wt ROt for toller. '''""'"" Dlr.ctor -.odlflri to protect dep.rt•nt lute lecluahdr •tat .. vlthl• Plai'I•IRt O.p.,l•ent• 1'10 putlclpatlo" br .-c:ted otrlclah or cltlun1 hlley etatea.tnt ulh ror tolcll"t 111 Caplhl 1-..rowe-.:nts 1\Mttet alld (;e'neul I"V,.. llud9et op.ntlORI •• well •• ••• of new ••oceduu5 durlnt potlcr forwuhtloR C:ltr ... cre.at .. ll Tuk rofC'•• lMludlftlt all ... jor ••r.art ... nt heACit. .... .,._.. Cltr Mtr . atart to cocudlnah 11lt" Plannlft!t Director aw.l ••PII''--ntt -.. d•r-•od.ar actlwhl ... City Nthe It all critical points or .... ,_, Cttr ...... , .... , ,. .. t IC'I&•ttory/ Mtrh ... ,.,, .. ..,.nt 1tyh htott••.al ly• eRCOure"JI!" dlr•r t lnlll'o l v .. ,., .. " . """"' ,., hhn•t trour•

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122 The St. Paul land use plan was developed so that St. Paul would qualify for Department of Housing and UTban Development (HUD) funds. Altshuler begins his case study by stating: "No politician, city official, or influential group of private citizens in St. Paul eve. r asked the City 2 Planning Board for a land-use plan." In order to prepare the plan, the Planning Department hired a new Planner. The regular Planning staff devoted the bulk of their time toward "zoning administration, one-shot reports on issues of interest to 3 City Council, and public relations." Tbe new planner bad been in Duluth Planning Department at the time that a nati.ona.lly-recognized consultant bad been retained to prepare Duluth's land-use plan. St. Paul planners felt the new planner's background would add credibility to their land use plan, particularly with the Federal government. St. _Pau) . 's senior planner exercised informal supervision of the plan and ultimately reviewed it from a technical, but not policy formulation perspective. The author is grateful to this Planner for the insights gained through a personal interview August, 1980 at which time the St. Paul case was discussed, and a general agreement wit.h Altshuler's findings was indicated by the former senior planner. The new planner from Duluth worked from file data rather than primary source information. He made no attempt to incorporate the attitudes or sociai conditions present in St. Paul, nor did he probe 2 Altshuler, p. 5. 3 Altshuler, p. 5.

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lZJ deeply into the problems identified by more experienced city officials. For example. a question regarding bypassed vacant land was discussed briefly with other city staff: He alae asked experienced city officials why private developers had ignored certain lands in St. Paul. According to them. the reasons were varied: some lands were subject to flooding; others were not served by water. severs. or streets; some bad poor drainage or severe others were platted irregularly; others adjoined railroad lines. However. St. Paul planners were fearful of conflict or possible controversy. so minimal reference was made to vacant land even though the new Planner vas aware of certain issues pertaining to that problem. The new Planner then formulated eight objectives for the land-use plan--most of them reflecting non-controversial urban design concepts generally accepted. at that time. The Planning Department's wariness in focusing on vacant land was due in part to the Central Busines District's negative reactions to an earlier report which cautioned against serious problems of deterioration in the downtown area. There had been political reper-cussions from the report. The planners did attempt. however. to gather data and make certain forecasts although Altshuler criticized the lack of accuracy in the data base and felt the assumptions on which the projections were made seriously flawed the plan. He also criticized the planner's dependence on empirical assumptions made from another study because that data base lacked comparability with the St. Paul environment. The final plan drew little attention from the elected officials. the business community or local community groups. There 4Altshuler. p. 9.

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appeared to be little expectation that the plan would be implemented and it seemed that City Council's approval vas merely a formality to meet HUD requirements. When the Planning Board did its review, the planners glossed over some key implementation factors and indicated they saw no relationship of the plan to the city's budget. When one board member questioned many of the specific standards in the plan as being unrealistically costly, Wieland assured him that it did not matter. The capital improvement plan ••• set budget prioritiea. 5 Since it was in the area of standards and criteria for land use goals that the planner bad allowed himself any specificity, it is signifi-cant that the policies and prineiples of the plan were viewed in this manner. His recOIIIIIIelldations included issues which should have been considered by the decision-makers. However, Altshuler believed that certain proposals could have been controversial bad they been considered seriously. For example, policy recommendations included a mixed uae land plan for vacant land with specific objectives which included more strictly enforced zoning, health, housing and building codes. Altshuler felt only the land-use standards recommended were capable of direct implementation, and that policy rec0111111endations failed to clarify basic principles.6 He concluded the plan was never intended for implemeotation. It should be noted that the Planning Director and the new planner took sharp exception to Altshuler's study and did not endorse 5 Altshuler, p. 31. 6 Altshuler, p . 25.

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ita publication. Their perceptions of ita value as well as its potential impact differed considerably from Altshuler's, and they in fact wrote rebuttals in several sections. 12.5 B. Paradigm: Comparative Analysis in Land Use Policy Formation St. Paul and Colorado Springs Despite same significant differences between the two cBses, Altshuler's case study of St. Paul offers a basis for comparison with Colorado Springs on issues pertinent to this dissertation. The follow ing section will discuss the parad, igm (Chart i)) in detail. 1. Attitudes, Perceptions and Act;f,ons of Elected Officials, Community Groups and City Administrators. Altshuler supported the involvement of all interested parties in land use policy formation and was critical of the lack of such involvement in St. Paul's process. The elected officials and Planning Board were disinterested; community groups and city administrative staff other than the Planning Department were not included in other than a cursory fashion. Altshuler believed that the new planner wanted to include the community groups but did not know how, and that the Planning Department's desire to be non-specific and noncontroversial played a part in the lack of use of other staff. In contrast, Colorado Springs City Council initiated the infill study, followed it closely and actively guided policy forma tion at key points. Community groups were also actively involved throughout the stud7 and eventually influenced policy formulation language. City departmental personnel at several levels were involved in the process, and key department heads were assigned by

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126 the City Manager to an Infill Task Force which met regularly and had considerable impact on the direction of the policy formulating effort. As a result, each group was able to see that their inputs were reflected in the final product. The City Manager's perception of his role was key in the coordination of this effort and the success of the policy formulation process. Be stressed delegation of responsibility and effective management of other's involvement in the policy formulation process. Literature about policy making consistently sbovs that perceptual factors play an important function in identifying the problem initially, structuring the problem solving process and reaching a satisfactory conclusion. Jones speaks of perceptions relative to problem definition: Perception is important in the policy processes because it conditions definitions of problema. ''Definition" is a second significant functional activity. -Thus perception will refer to. the event. Definition refers to the problem.7 Lindblom states it somewhat . differently: "Policy makers are not faced with a given problem."8 B.e believes that the perception of an issue spapes the definition of the problem. Wildavsky expands upon this thesis in the context of policy analysis: Policy analysis is an art. Its subjects are public problema that must be solved at least tentatively to be understood. Piet Bein put this thoughtwiater, "Art is the solving of problems that cannot be expressed until they are solved." Policy analysis must create problems that decision-makers are able to handle with the variables under their control and in the time available. --Every policy is fashioned of tension between resources and objectives, 7 Charles 0. Jones, An Introduction to the Study of Public Policy, Second Edition (North Scituate, D bury Press, 1977),p. 26. 8charles E. Lindblom, The PclicJ-MakiuK Process {Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1968 ,p. 13.

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planning and politics, skepticism and dogma. Solving problems involves temporarily resolving these tensions.9 These theoretical precepts support the six key phrases (en-vironmental turbulence, ecology in government, electric transformer, change agent, modified matrix management and rational-comprehensive planning) to link public administration literature terms to the process developed to formulate a new land use policy in Colorado Springs. The Colorado approach to land u•e policy formation was significantly different from that of St. Paul vis-a-vis attitudes and perceptions of the various interested parties in the community. Chart I 4 on the following page IJUIIIIII&ri.%es the questions discussed with the parties regarding the definition of urban infilling. As Lindblom and Wildavsky point out, defining the problem is essential to finding an acceptable solution. The consensus reached on the definition was an important first step toward developing a policy statement mutually acceptable to all parties in Colorado Springs. The mid-point choice on the chart reflects a compromise; not one based on the "game theory of politics," but rather the "strategy of analysis" as Gawthrop uses those terms. Gawthrop's confidence in human nature as well as good information systems and professionalism is affirmed by others such as Brownlow, Gaus, and Pope. Each may state their views differently, but Gaus' ecology in government is premised on the concept of good public housekeeping; Brownlow urges citizen participation, sound information gathering and high professional 9 Aaron Speaking Truth to Power, the Art end Craft of Policy Analysis (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979),pp. 15, 17.

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Defining "URBAN IMFn.L" Tho followlna tuoaUona o.ro ooao wkl.ch tho Urban Inf111 Task Forco uko4 Haole ao tho rroup cUac uaood 1nf1lllo•&• • Io Urb&A"Inflll vaunt 10114 only, or ny 1t 1ncludo land on whlch ruuu,olopnnt h dulrocn • It Urlwl ln!1ll1n& 1o l1..ttod to vo.c&nt land, which aooanphlc boundo.rlto boot clof1no Counc1l'o lntont ln tor.ulal1na &n Urlwl Inf1ll l'llllc(l • Should &n InfUl Polley 'bt proahod on tho requlroaont that oovoral ooaponan\o of tho rubllo oorvlco lnfrutructuro (ut1Utlta, accoao atrooto, fin, pollco, ato.) alroacly bo rrooonU • Should tho Urb&A In fill Polley alva kl.ahor prtort ty and oupport for a propoaal to develop a vacant property wkl.ch already haa aovoral ccaponente c! tho public "rvlco lnfraotruoturol • Should tho lnf1ll Polley &ho hlahor pr1orl ty ancl oupport for a propooal to clovelop a vacant proporty wkl.ch uh1b1to awaronou and a ocd ut1U&at1on cf tho a ru'o natural roaourcoot reccsnlcu tnaray deaandst anc1 cUero tho aoat prudent and oq\lllablt uao ot tho Clty'• fhcal roaources7 Tho clot1n1\lcn finally rocoMoncltcl to Clty Counc1l he 1.. Inf1lllnso Tho clovolopunt of bypauod vacant (uniMproved) land wkl.ch hat aoao relatlonah1p to tho pruont 1nfrutructuro of public oorvicoo prov14od 111 thin tho currant City 11-t to, Tho coapro..tu 4o!1n1Uon rocoMoncltcl to City can 'bt aoon ao a on a conUnulWII of clovdornent. ly "loctlnc tho urban lnflll clof1nltlon roccMo. ncltcl, tho Clty Coun1l will lccuo attention at that polnt without rollntuhkl.nc tho opUon to have other pollclu which a dcl.ruo d1fforont polnto on that opectr..... Potontlal Vacant Vacant Vacant Vacant Vacant vacant hclovolopaont Propertloo Propertloo Proportloa l'ro perth I l'roportloo l'ro por l1 oo Ur'bM Proportioa within tho within tho 111 thin tho wi tkl.n tho wittdn tho wi tkl.n tho Intlll 111 thin tho Central Core 'cull\ area current. Urban curnnt Potential rc.-tlcy Con tral Coro of tho City City ll•ih PlaMins Ut1l1ty Utlll\7 Boundary Service Sorvioo Jcundarlu Jounclo.rloo

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j l I J 129 standards and Pope supports Gawthrop's emphasis on a strong municipal administrative organization to undergird policy formation. Municipal administrative organization represents the framework of the administrative machinery which translates public policy formulated by the citizens' chosen representatives into public services and regulation.10 The following section describes in grester detail the contrast between St. Paul's and Colorado Springs' approach to data gathering and the administrative procedures uaed for policy formulation. 2. Administrative Procedures and Data Gathering Techniques. St. Paul's data gathering approach seemed premised on the belief that planners utilize objective data with limited input from their specific environment. Their fear of being corrupted by in-fluences such as business groups became an obstruction to meaningful inter-action with their total community. 'Therefore, they used empirical data from another study, but failed to carefully analyze the areas of applicability for St. Paul. In doing so, the planners sacrificed the benefit which empirical studies provide professionals--a comparison. When local data was used it was drawn from the files rather than being generated through new research. As a consequence, the planners built in obsolence and failed to use gathering as an opportunity to learn--and to teach others--how current information might make contributions to the decision-making process for St. Paul. For example, the planners, when asked about the plan's impact on the budget for public improvementa, stated that it would have no impact because the capital 10s. G. Pope, ''Management and Research," Municipal Year Book 1950 {Chicago: lDternational City Manager's Association, 1950)-;p:-!!3.

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. I 1)0 improvements program controlled this element of the city's budget. This in fact, was an acknowledgment of the locus for the urban design of the city. The importance of the planning and design of public facilities has been strongly emphasized in ICMA literature. Since city management and planning literature agree that these public expenditures do shape the urban design, the St. Paul planners' response revealed the planning department's isolation from other city functions. As a result of these planning philosophies and the planning process steadily lost momentum. The final product became a sterile end unto itself, not a synergistic force capable of producing energy beyond ita own needs. The author believes that the product of these actions was a plan which did not reflect the values of the community and lacked the strength of a soundly based professional judgment about that environment. The city lost the opportunity to exercise leadership and provide direction to the urban design and development of St. Paul physically, economically, socially, psychologically and politically. Colorado Springs adopted quite different procedures for data gathering. The data base was founded on the moat currently available local data and input from those external and internal to the city administration was encouraged. As Brownlow had urged in 1934,1 1 those in the city's sector who have special were asked to give input on the proce8 a as well the product. Further, 11 Brownlow, p. 7.

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J j 1 131 some of those who participated had from time to time differed sharply with the planners and other public officials regarding land use matters. Each city department's current master plan .. P provided the mapping data base. The revised buck slip incorporated each department's assessment of the important variables which should be considered each time a land use change was proposed. The planning .. trix r-ave the public officials as well as city staff a better management tool for decision-11141r.ing. The dynamic character of thia process used the existing system without limiting its flexibility. The concept of integrating the proposed policy on infill into the City' a capital improvement progrBID was considered vi.tal to the 1m-plementation of the Colorado Springs' policy. In addition, the City Manager, planners and department heads felt it was important to inte-grate the policy with the City's general fund and utility budget. The differences between the two in their approach to administrative procedures and data gathering is not purely technical. The comparison points out differences in philosophy about the role and functiona of local general purpose government as well. With only two case studies, there is not sufficient comparative data to document empirically the author's contention that the differences in administrative procedures and data gathering affected their outcome. However, this contention is supportable in the public administration theory literature. A number of the previously cited authors as well as political scientists such as 12 David Easton and researchers such as Richard Applebaum appear to concur. 12 Richard P. Appelbaum, Size, Grovth, and U.S. Cities (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1978).

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132 According to Jones, if one is a devotee of Max Weber, (administrative procedures and data gathering techniques being a manifestation of bureaucracy) ia a routine process devoid of creativity and essentially neutral in character. However, Jones places a different perspective on the interactions of bureaucracy in his definition of "system" and ''process.'' System refers to two or more persons engaged in patterned or structured interaction guided by shared values and directed toward the achievement of some goal. A system ia characterized by a definite, identifiable population, boundaries (defined by the shared values and goals), patterned behavior, and direction; it is essentially a static concept. Process refers to the action of the system; it is a dynamic concept and may apply to any number of patterned activities in a syatem.13 Jones acknowledged a debt to Easton' a input-output political analysis model. Easton also share c0111111011 views with Gawthrop and Caus. Like Caus, Easton believes that the total ecological environment should be input in the.system of analysis. Like CavthrDp, be sees internal inputs as well, and calls these "vitbinputa." Easton also believes that the envirotlllient can cause turbulence, vbicb he calla "stress." The administrative process which produces the con-version of inputs to outputs is considered by Easton to be the of the continuation of a system when stress occurs. The persistence of any type of political system at all can now be re-defined. If any stress threatens to destroy the system, .its impact will take the form of interferinst in some fundamental way with the capacity of the avstea to keep such a conversion process vorkinst. If no outputs related to bindinst 14 decisions and actions c.an be provided, the system has broken dovn. 13 Jones, p. ll. 14 David Easton, A Framework for Political Analysis (Englewood Cliff&, i1ew Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1965), p. 132.

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lJJ Easton defines a system as the process of translating demands into support for allocative authority. Conversion relates decisions to action. If administrative procedures or data gathering produces insufficient or inaccurately applied information, there ia a greater danger that environmental turbulence will be produced because, as Gawthrop states, the people will lose confidence in government's ability to solve "real" problema. The St. Paul plBDDers' inappropriate use of empirical data and file data exhibited poor information gather ing tecbniquea. Their reluctance to include others in the administrative processes denied community involvement in the decision-making. The communit7's lack of confidence in the plan meant its demise, according to Altshuler. Gaus, Gawthrop and Wright each use their own terms, but the processes they describe are like those described by in all major points dealing with the subject of conversion. Their views are iD harmony with those exPressed by the author. St. Paul planners' attitude toward business preempted the input of those whose economic fortunes would be sustained or eroded by the city's land use planning policies. A major component in the total environment is the economy of an area. This subject is a legitimate input for the system. 3. City Manager's Role and Management Style. St. Paul bad no city manager. Colorado Springs did. St. Paul lacked a leadership focus within the city administrative structure. St. Paul's commission form of government was less conducive politically and administTatively to a leadership focus.

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134 While the Colorado Springs' form of government undoubtedly aided in structuring the focus, that ia not aufficient to explain the auccess of the Colorado Springs'experience in nev land us yC!icy formation. What was aignificant vas the City Manager's effectiveness in serving as an electric transformer and change agent. Material presented in the earlier sections of the dissertation demonstrate that an underlying principle in the Colorado Springs policy formation approach1vas assuring the policy's compatibility and incorporation into the mainstream of the general city and utility budgets as well as the capital improvement progrlllllllling. The base maps, including departmental master plana and the revised buck slips, were necessary parts of the Colorado Springs integrated planning. It is significant that the City Manager used the Infill Maps as be made his formal presentation of the 1981 budget to City Council. In contrast, St. Paul's planners aav no releyance of their plan to the city's budget, and accepted the fact that the capital improvement budget controlled development independent from planning. Chart i 5 on the following page is a matrix conceptualization of the integration of Colorado Springs' Urban Infill Policy Resolution's value systems into the fabric of the City's and planning structure. The Colorado Springs City Manager'• integrative style placed him in a pivotal position for the policy formulation procesa. His duties as city manager did not permit large amounts of time to be apent on the day-to-day activities related to urban infill policy formation. Therefore, he developed an informal management model which the author bas called matrix management." Nothing

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COMP. PLAN ELEME NT CIP VALUE ORDINANCES UTILITY L OUTLAY r.4TUIIAL RESOURCES ENEROY IIESOUACE TIME L MONEY RESOURCES PUBUC ' PRIVATE VALUES RESOURCES GENERAL F"UNO IIUDCET SPECIAL F"UND O UDOET O EN ERAL UT)!.'!Y.!>g!._

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136 similar appears to have exiated for St. Paul. However, this ment style and fcm is k.ey to the success of the integrative role the city manager played. Consequently, the final portion of this aection will deacribe modified matrix management as it compares to the general theory of matrix and project management. The strengths and weaknesses of the manasement mode will be outlined II'! well. a. l-!atrix Managements _ __j'heories and Concept The traditional concept of matrix management is a two-dimensional ordering of information and/ or relationships on a vertical and horizontal axis with both axes having direct supervisory functions. Prominent groups which have used this concept include: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, General Electric, TRW Colorado Electronics Inc., Citibank, Dow Chemical, and Shell Oil. It is a sophisticated management tool which is most effective with highly complex and technical organizations. However, with individual modifications, its use has become more widespread. Since all administrative departments in the Colorado Springs model continued to have the same reporting linea in the Infill Task Force structure, why should the format be considered a matrix manage ment concept at all? Matrix management and project management have similarities and can be practiced in many different formats. Colorado Springs' use of the modified matrix management model was not an intentional shift in the organizational structure of city government. It evolved in part from the City Manager's basic style, and in part from a new job assignment for the author. Nevertheless, it demonstrated the usefulness of this management model in the policy formation process. The Colorado model

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has some likenesses and some differences vith matrix management 15 models described in other literature. The Colorado Springs' modified matrix management model is similar to project management in that no staff member devoted full 137 time to the project and no lines of authority vere changed. However, Colorado Springs' model had two significant differences to project or matrix models as described in the Mercer article: (1) the City Manager used a task force made up of all major city department heads whose functions interfaced with landuse policy formation; {2) the City Mana-ger included representatives from community interest groups at key points in the policy formation process. The Infill Task Force was organized around a product, the development of a policy, not just around the staff's traditional functional lines of responsibility. In addition, the City Manager de1egated to the Planning Director and the author dual lines of responsibility and authority to carry out the project. These two individuals were permitted to make trade-off decisions pertaining to the management of the project on a day-to-day basis. Major decisions related to the direction of the study were discussed vith the City Manager and usually brough back to the Infill Task Force for consideration of various alternatives. This enabled the project to use 15 Two recent publications by leMA dealt explicitly with the subjects of management style and matrix management and help to sum marize these differences. Beck explores management concepts such as Theory X and Y as styles of management while Mercer condenses basic matrix management models such as project management or matrix manage ment. Christine S. Beck, "Management Styles-Personal Perspectives," Information Service REPORT 11 {March 1979): 1-14; James L. Mercer, "Local Government Organizational Structures for the Eighties," Management Information Service REPORT 12(March 1980): 1-13.

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138 staff in s manner which supported three basic reasons for a matrix management system: -the organization needs to focus strongly on more than one direction at a time (product and functional specializations). -the organization needs to process and respond to a great deal of information about a changing situation (expressed as need to enable lover levels within tbe organization to design trade-offs and c011111Uni.eate them to the right people). The organization needs to use resources efficiently, to move them quickly to address an issue, but not have staff resources idle, or unable to cross-utilize and negotiate the1gse of all resources for which they are functionally responsible. Tytler bel.ievea tbe key principle of matrb !Unsgement and project management is: • • • the unifying theme of all these arrangements is balance-the need to balance the points of view of individual groups with the overall needs of the organization. These themes make all dual-focus structures close relatives of the pure matrb. 17 The unique aspect of tbe (;()lorado Springs' model vas the role of the Infill Task Force. It served as an adaptor into the city's current structure. Even in a basically hierarchial structure such as the City of Colorado Springs government, matrix management has been an effective management tool when employed in a project-type activity which spans functional boundaries within the organization, and when changes in policy are the product of that effort. Tytler believes that its usefulness outweighs its shortcomings under these circumstances. 16 Tytler, p. 78. l?Tytler, p. 79 .

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lJ9 b. Matrix Management: Strengths and Weaknesses -Consumer control is present at numerous stages in the public sector process (through committees, board, public bearings and direct access to local elective and appointed officials as well es the administration.) This involvement enables the citizen-consumer of government to share in the shaping of governmental products in a manner not usually present in the purchase of private sector products. Even with this control, productivity in is often difficult for citizens as consumers to assess. The product orientation of matrix management gives management and the consumer a measurable product to assess as well as being a strong 1118118gement tool. As Tytler points out, matrix management is an efficient means of utilizing information with limited resources. One of the major concerns of government is how to manage better with fewer resources in an which is demanding more services. Colorado Springs has enjoyed a sustained period of growth and affluence. However, as a conservative community, it philosophically favors the theory of less government. Therefore, as the general trend across the nation moves toward reductionism in government, Colorado Springs bas less excess to trim before services are significantly cut. The following data supports this contention: -in the last ten years, the city has doubled its acreage, popu-lation and General Fund per capita operational expenditures, but the per capita number of City employees has remained constant (5.19 to 5.89 per thousand population within that period, with a ratio of 5.51/1000 in 1980.) 18 18 George H. Fellows, "Letter of Transmittal," City of Colorado Springs General Fund 'Budget , 1980.

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I j 140 -the City is projected to double ita population by the year 2010. That growth rate could be totally absorbed through infilling the currently available vacant developable land within tbe city, and at the same time retain the basic density patterns which currently 19 exist. In the face of expected growth of this nature, new .. nagement techniques will be useful in many areas of government, particularly where policy-making and management can be combined to maximize staff expertise. As one of these new techniques, matrix management is not without ita weaknesses. Davia and Lawrence point out both advantages and disadvantages to matrix management. On the positive aide, they state: • • • it facilitates a rapid management response to changing market and technical requirements. Further, it helps middle managers make trade-off decisions from a general management perspective.20 It is this opportunity to make trade-offs from a general management perspective which vas key to the management model's usefulness to the City Manager under the circumstances of developing an urban infill policy. The time constraints of the City Manager sa vell as department heads tended to narrow the parameters to expand their focus and permitted the city manager to zero in as necessary on a given project. and Lawrence caution that there are easier vaya to ma"age an orgRnization, and that matrix management should be left 19city Council of Colorado Springs, Urban Infill Policy Resolution No. 150-80, April 22, 1980. 20 Stanley M. ilavia and Paul I. Lawrence, "Problema of Matrix Organizations," Harvard Bustneaa Reviev 56 (May-June 1978) :132.

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141 alone unless there are compelling reaaons to use it. Their article identifies nine "pathologies" associated with 1114trix management and discusses their diagnoses, prevention and treatment. It is wise, therefore, for managers thinking of adopting a to be familiar with the diagnoses, prevention, and treatment of nine particular pathologies: tendencies toward anarchy, power struggles, severe groupitia, collapse during crunch, excessive overhead, sinking to lower levels, 21 uncontrolled layering, navel gazing, and decision strangulation. Obviously no self-respecting organization would want to have such scourges. It is fortunate that Davia and Lawrence hold hope for reasonable prevention. They also point out that should a pathology strike an organization, prompt diagnosis and treatment of the malady offers a good prognosis for recovery. Altshuler's case study points out the inadequacy of St. Paul's structuring of ita land use study on which to base a plan. The structure and attitudes of various parties reduced instead of en-hanced the 1 ikelihood of the plan' a acceptance in any meaningful way. This case study sought to describe the manner in which the City Manager of Colorado Springs set about designing a management strategy which offered greater poasibiliitea for success. The analysis of the two cases indicates that these management variables directly impacted the success of the planning efforts. 21 Davis and Lawrence , p . 132.

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142 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this dissertation was to demonstrate through the use of a case study describing the formulation of a new land use policy that the city manager's and management style is key to the policy formulation process. Although administrative management plays a role in the development of any major policy, the author belit'"tes this is the first effort to use a case study method to explore the manner in which a city manager of a fast-growing, moderate sized municipality led the policy formulation process which culminated in the adoption--with support of all interested parties--of a potentially controversial new land use policy. The dissertation stressed :he interrelationship of six key concepts which linked three areas of comparative analysis used in a paradigm. These phrases and interrelationships were described as follows: environmental turbulence was held to be the product of too-rapid change in an urban environment. In this case, the city manager acted as an electric transformer to stabilize that environment by controlling the flow between the external (community) and internal (governmental) tensions within the local environment. To explain the way in which the Colorado Springs' manager accomplished this objective, a rational-comprehensive planning approach was used to develop administrative procedures and data gathering

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j .i 143 techniques, In addition, the author's term, modified matrix management explained model which enabled the city manager and others within the city adw1o.istration to aerve as change agents to bring the external and internal environments together in the policy formation process. The combination of theae five variables constitutes ecology in government, the sixth variable, which describes the holistic measure of government's ability to serve that environment. Three areas of analysis were used in the paradigm for comparison of St. Paul and Colorado Springs' land use policy formation process: the analysia of attitudes and perceptions of the interested parties; the significance of developing adminis-trative procedures and data gathering techniques baaed on rational-comprehensive planning; and the modified matrix management model within the context of the city manager's role and management style. The author concluded that ColorAdo Springs' success in developing a new land use policy which had consensual support was the result of the management model used by the City Manager of Colorado Sjlrings. This was deemed to be more significant than the fact that St. Paul had no city manager, even though this probably contributed to some of the problems experienced by that city. A. Findings: St. Paul -Colorado Springs Paradigm Comparison of the St. Paul-colorado Springs cases clarified the differences between the success *-bich Colorado Springs enjoyed and the lack of success in St. Paul. These findings may be summarized

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as follows: DIFFERENCES IN 11lE MANNER IN WHICH THE EXTEIUW./INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS WERE HANDLED BY THOSE IN CHARGE OF ADMINISTRAnVE PROCEDURES TO FORMULATE POLICY: 144 St. Paul The planning staff felt alienated from the elected officials and the community, particularly the business community; the planners involved other city staff only minimally and no policy direction was provided by the elected city officials. Colorado Springs The City Council initiated the study; the City Manager involved himself directly as an electric tranaformer to bring external/internal input from numerous sources including the city department heads vhom be assigned to an Infill Task Force and an ad hoc committee of representatives from various interested groups from the community. The difficulty of this task was explained by identifying the myriad philosophical perspectives which influence individuals' perception of their how they define and wtAt consider solvable. Social, economic, political, psychological perceptions as well as concepts of u .rban design, enviroDJDelltal psychology and human ecology shape the views supporting or rejecting policy formation. Policy analysis gains meaning by interpreting the different disciplines from a theoretical perspective and applying them to the attitudes and perceptions expressed in the local environment. The city manager must have an eclectic capacity to assimilate and interpret these views. DIFFERENCES IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEilURES AND THE TYPE OF DATA BASE TECHNOLOGY USEil:

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St. Paul -Mismatched empirical data, or local file data which lacked currency vas used; city staff expertise vas not used in the development of administrative procedures and information which would support the new land use policy and projections were made on faulty premises. 145 Colorado Springs The City Manager structured the committee cited above, and used the Director of Planning and the author in a matrix management model to facilitate change in the data gathering procedures and administrative processes being developed by the city administration to support the proposed new policy. National standards were recognized as valuable comparisons, but the City Manager relied upon the expertise of city departments to provide the most accurate assessment of the policy's impact on the city's infrastructure, its service delivery capacity, and fiscal resources such as the general fund, the utility, and capital improvement program budgets. New common-scaled base mapa were drawn which incorporated service capacities as well as boundaries. These were based on the departments' current master plans and could be used as multiple overlays. In addition, another map showed the private sector master plans already approved by the city. Since much of that land was still vacant, the private development master plans showed the vacant properties which had a high potential for future development within the city. In addition, the city departments re-designed the city review process "buck slip" which was used to obtain departmentaJ. col!IDents for any proposed land use change. The revised buck slips provided better information for decision-making at all levels of review. A planning matrix was designed to summarize the major points in a uniform manner

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146 for the benefit of the Planning Commiaaion and City Council. The matrix also provided a .ummary sheet for staff reviews. DIFFERENCES IN THE CENTlW. MANAGEMENT APPROACH USED IN FORMULATING A NEW LAND USE POLICY : St. Paul The city lacked a city manager. Neither elected officials nor interest groups within the community gave any active support to the development of the plan. Shifting planning staff, the use of a new hire to prepare the plan. and a laelr. of policy auperviaion crested a management vacuum for the entire effort. Colorado Springs The City Council initiated the policy study and delegated the policy formulatioa reaponaibility to the City Manager. These are significant steps because they indicate the appropriate alignment of responsibility and authority for the poliey-.alr.ing process. When the study became an administrative matter. the City Manager strue-tured a modified matrix management model Ybieh incorporated some unique matrix management features which the author believes favorably illlpaeted the successful outeoae of the policy formulation effort. B. Conclusions: Colorado Springs' Unique Feature Modified Matrix Management 1. Involvement of Elected Officials and Citizen Groups. The City Manager's relationship to elected officials and interest groups outside the governmental structure 1a one aide of the electric transfoi"'IIer funet ion. This relationship enablea the manager to gauge the level of environmental turbulence and the rate of change which can be accomplished through the

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147 rational-comprehensive planning approach. A manager uaes and strategies to maximize that involvement and assured the orderly progression of steps in the decision-making process. By determining the material presented to City Council and the appropriate time for presentation, the manager conserved Council's energies and time a s well as that of the staff. By encouraging citizens to participate at key times, this same pattern was established. This participation expanded the trust level between government and ita citizens, reduced potential environmental turbulence, and praYided the manager with inaigbts from the community without precipitating a confrontive climate. The openness of the Colorado Springs' Manager's system permitted the spectrum of viewa to be beard through a rationalcomprehensive planning structure which facilitated decision-making. It assumed that citizens, elected officials and administrative professionals are rational human beings who will respond to accurate and timely information and that in this climate, they will choose to exercise their respective duties as citizens, politicians and professionals in a responsible fashion. The justification of the confidence is measured by the success of the project. The final product of the policy formulation process was an Urban Infill Policy Resolution which City Council adopted in April, 1980 with the support of all interested parties. This success affirmed the theoretical precepts of numerous public administration authors cited throughout the dissertation. The emphasis on the policy making and management functions of the manager instead of City Council was not intended to imply

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148 that City Councils are not the ultimate decision-makers. lt was ' intended to show that in the policy formulation process as well as ita implementation, IDUch can be accomplished in routine fubion within the administrative procedures developed to support that policy. This is the principal vay in which management overcomes the traditional concept of the political/administrative dicotomy and creates a symbiotic relationship vbich better serves the purposes of ecology in government. Because St. Paul's fear of undue influence froa the business sector isolated them from community inputs, the dissertation discussed various views of the vay in which government and the economic interests of the community interrelate. Some authors shared the St. Paul viev, vbile others believed government baa a role to play in the management of the economic development of a cOIIIIIIUDity. The latter view holds that government is not neutral in ita actions vbich impact the local economy, and that government muat act to resolve conflict and stabilize the environment ao that the economic component of the ecology is able to make ita contribution to the whole. The author concluded that the ecological approach to governance presumes that all sectors of the community vill be in-volved in polity formulation to the degree tboae sectors perceive themselves to be impacted by the policy. Colorado Springs' involvement of business groups such as the private developers, the hame builders, real estate interests and the Chamber of Commerce was mutually beneficial. The private sector was pleased vitb the data bue being developed by the Planning Department, and felt reassured that policy recommendations

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'-would be reviewed by all community .interest groups prior to being aubmitted to City Council. 149 Environmental groups, neighborhood the League of Women Voters and the El Paso County Taxpayers Asaociation alao were represented on the ad hoc committee. They too felt the maps and revised administrative procedures were helpful to them because they often lacked the resources to develop information as needed in regard to land use matter• of concern to them. Since the material which went to City Council bad been reviewed and in some instances, modified by the ad hoc cOllllllittee, City Council was aware that the various community groupe had discussed the policy recommendations before they were presented to Council. The consensual approach made it easier for the Council to act favorably on the recommendations because they were assured of substantial community support for the new policy. The city manager's role as an electric transformer has been compared to sitting on a three-legged stool. It requires balance and slr.ill, but when done well, looks easy. Matrix management in the private sector shares the internal tensions between the their line personnel, and the decision-malr.ing board. However, the consumer is not usually a part of that process and the private management literature focuses on the internal processes, not the external environment (except for contractual or vender relationships). The contrast between public and private matrix management need not imply that the management of government is unduly influenced by community groups. The central mechanism for offsetting this influence is two-fold: through openness which includes all parties,

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1.50 even those with adversarial relationships to each other or toward government; and through the use of a rational-comprehensive planning base for decision-making. The satisfaction of creating a policy widely accepted within its environment is worthy of for good public housekeeping which is soundly based on good professional standards. The use of citizen committees in an ad hoc manner is hardly new. However, the manner in which the manager consolidated an internal and external committee is unique, and the judicious use of the time and energy of elected officials and community groups is indeed a "thre!!-legged stool" feat. 2 . Involvement of lnfill TaskForce. The City Manager's formation of an In!ill Task Force made up of city department beads was the other aide of the manager's electric tragsformer connection. The task force served as an feedback loop and aided the manager in meshing the external and internal components of the environment more effectively. The task force members were knowledgeable about the impact of a proposed land use policy on their departmental obligations and current activities. Their enthusiasm for the policy formation project rose when they learned that it was to be coordinated with the departmental goals and objectives as presented in the annual general fund budget, the utility capital outlays budget and the general city capital improvement program budget. The Community Development Department wanted the process to include areas in which the City was currently undertaking redevelopment projects so that a continuum of development strategies could be developed to better serVe the variety of development opportunities and program demands within the city.

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The City management style and the task force approach provided the City Manager support for the use of the modified matrix management model. The policy formulation project was not conceived with any other modela in mind. Linea of responsi bility and authority were not clearly drawn at all timea, However, it would have been more difficult for the Planning Director and/or the author to successfully coordinate the infill policy formulation had there been no task f orce responding to the City Manager's lead. It was the task force which urged the Planning Department to develop some sample land use changes to test the revised buck slip. In fact, it vas the task force members pointed out in the individual interviews with the author that the buck slip was as unsatisfactory to them as it was to the Planning Department. Since the Planning Department always wrote a formal report for the Planning Commission as well as the City Council, these bodies were less aware than the staff that the buck slip process needed improvement. The task force reviewed material to be presented to City Council. At one point, the task force sent the buck slip back through another test of an actual land use change which bad been previously processed with the old buck slip. This type of testing and evaluating of the policy support system proved to be useful to the city administration as well as the developer of an infilling because new information was developed through the use of the revised buck slip. Finally, the involvement of city departments strengthened the commitment of the city administration to the policy being formulated. Initially many of the department heads had been skeptical

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1.52 about the from City Council. lnoving the high growth rate of Colorado Springs, they were wary that a policy resolution would be more a pallative than a policy. Their entbusia8111 grew as they aaw the internal benefits to the process being used by the City Manager. In addition, it enabled them to re-enforce the tasks which they were already charged to carry out for currently adopted policies and budgetary commitments. ln the final analysis, only those things which a department baa the resources to carry out can realistically be expected to be completed. If those tasks are pre empted by new policies, the turbulence escalates internally as well aa externally. C. Matrix Management \leaknesaea, Areas for Future Research 1. Weaknesses of Modified Matrix Management. The overall assessment of modified matrix management was positive, yet there are weaknesses in any system. This model could be improved by incorporating the following recommendations in future efforts. Firat, time-consuming aspects of the model could be modified. Some meetings scheduled with department beads as a task force could have been conducted with departmental support staff since the meeting was more technical in nature than policy-oriented. This would have saved the department beads' time and probably produced better results since technical personnel were the primary resource for department heads in these instances; second, there could have been greater awareness of the times when the City Manager should play a key role in the progress of the project so that be would be provided the necessary information to produce the desired results.

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15J The Planning Director and the author were aware that the City Manager's presence was essential at critical decision-making points. In a few inatances, he alone was able to finalize decisions regarding the next step to be taken. For example, the content of memos to go to City Council could be agreed upon by the task force in a general way, but the final wording was approved by the City Manager. When members of the task force were uncertain about the appropriate alternative to select for the next step in the process, the City Manager was able to bring closure in a manner satisfactory to all. While these points did not raise serious obstacles to the progress of the policy formulation, the project leaders believe that greater awareness of critical points in a process would be important to any future projects of a similar nature. 2. Areas for Future Research. Opportunities for further research lie in determining whether current matrix management structures in the private and public sectors have informal arrangements such as the task force or the community group ad hoc committee; those questions related to the resources used; the frequency of meetings; the degree to which they deal with policy versus technical issues and membership of these groups. The ICMA article indicated that matrix management might be the canagement pattern. for the 1980s. It would be interesting to know how many municipalities are currently involved in project or matrix management. Their assessment of the model as a useful management tool in the public sector would also be of interest. Continuing utilization of the model in the private sector should

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also be monitored and the research being done in that ares ca&c fully scrutinized to learn new applications and increase aware ness of the pitfalls. D. Value of Orban lnfi1l Policy The value of the new policy to City Administration is that it gives the City Manager direction in planning and budgeting. For example, in the City Manager's 1981 budget presentation to City Council, the Manager utilized the urban in!ill maps extensively to emphasize the ways in which .ore efficient utilization of the City's current infrastructure could produce more economical distribution of services. In addition, the 1981 capital improvements pTogram r:!qttests and recOUDerodatic.ua vere mapped so that City Council could visualize these projects in relation to the current infrastructure. These provided City Council a reference point so that it could coordinate decision-making, and if necessary, devise alternatives to meet changing fiscal projections. Durin;; 1980, the sales tax revenues dropped--revenues which provide approximately forty percent of the City's income. If these revenues do not meet projections in 1981, several capital improvement projects will be deferred. General Revenue Sharing had been in limbo in Congress throughout 1980. Bad the closing week 154 of that session of Congress not produced action to continue General Revenue Sharing, the City of Colorado Springs would have lost over $3 million dollars, and a major re-evaluation of the 1981 budget would have been required.

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As cities find fiscal and physical resources c:onstrained, lUJiage:ment i-s pre"ed to find ways to be more productive, to cut lSS rather than expand budgets. The finite limitations of the political, social and cultural environment as well as the physical environment will be tested. Many cities, especially in the Sun Belt (includ ing Colorado Springs) have substantial vacant land within their current boundaries. Yet strong pressure from the private to expand rath er than utilize the current infrastructure exists. As the Urban Infill Policy indicated, forty-two percent of the developaole land in Colorado Springs is vacant. Lack of development is due in part to less expensive land outside the c:ity, but neighborhood resistance to greater dens-ities, heavier traffic: and their objections to mixed uses are also significant c:onstraint.s. The policy sets parameters to resolve these differences. E. Reaffirmation of Intent This dissertation provided a descriptive analysis of the City Manager's role and management style as it impacted the formation of a new land use policy for Colorado Springs. Using the case study methodology, the author portrayed the City Manager's use of matrix management, wfidi.' ICMK views as the new city manage:ment style of the 198.os: Colorado Springs' matrix management approach had certain unique features which distinguished it from other applications of matrix management. These differences focused on the active role played by the City Manager who coordinated and guided the interaction of external and internal groups intersted in the decision-making process to form a new land use policy. To explain these features, the author drew upon phrases from general public administration literature. This literature lacked direct

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1S6 parallels or specific empirical data supporting the concepts developed in the case study. However, the of the case study aethod ology made it possible for th. e author to explicate the unique management features found in Colorado Springs through general public administration ccncepts, In addition, a paradigm, using another land use policy case study sharpened the analysis presented in the dissertation. Along with the conceptual insights gained frOID the literature, the paradigm substantiated or corroborated unique elaents of public management and policy formulation as in Colorado Springs. This constituted ''new discover" through the case study :methodology. New discovery has a special place in scientific research and philosophical analysis, even among those who urge empirical confirma tion of theory. It is cultivated in rigorous theoretical disciples because such discoveries provide the basis for new premises which can then be tested empirically. Case study methodology is also an appropriate vehicle for new discovery because it permits the use of everyday language and provides the bridge between the use of that language and the more precise definition of terms expected in theoretical scien tific research employing more rigorous inductive or deductive logic. The western world has had a stream of authors writing in several disciples who have argued the :merits of inductive versus deductive logic. The foundation of philosophical, metaphysical and political reasoning has been inductive logic. However, this mode of thought found less favor among authors writing in the late 1800s or this century, 01ong seeking to develop Wlre scientific research methods. brl Popper would be classified among the latter group. His work is especially relevant to the concept of new discovery in that .he

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157 sought to deyelop a 111ethod of deduc:tiye . tcsting vhi'Ch elilllinated the problems of inductive logic. without tn place. He was crttic:al of pos i'ti'Yi-rt philosophers-suc:h as Wiugenstein because he felt they failed to achieve this goal. Popper replaced th.e princ:i:ple of lDeaning premised on verifiability of fac:t with a principle of falsifiability. By set-ting out falsification as a criterion, Popper established principles of demarcation by which he justified the use of logical deductive methodology to test an hypothesis and provide corroboration which would enable conclusions to be drawn frCBD that process. He stated: From a new idea, put up tentatively, and not yet justified in anyway--in anticipation, a hypothesis, a theoretical system, or what you will--conclusion are drawn by lDeans of logical deductions. These conclusions are then compared with one an other and with other relevant statements, so as to find what logical relations (such as equivalence, derivability, compatibility, or incompatibility) exists between them.l Popper was able to ac:c:ept a certain degree of metaphysical uncertainity in order to advance scientific: discovery. He commented: I am inclined to think that scientific discovery is imposs ible without faith in ideas which are of a purely speculative kind, and sometimes even quite hazy, a faith which is completely unwarranted from the point of view of science, and which, to that extent, is 'metaphysieal. Karl R. Popper, The Logie of Scientific Discovery (London: Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) LTD, 1959), p. 32. 2 Popper, p. 38.

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158 In fact, Popper's concepts acknowledge the usefulness of intuition as a means of discovery: • • • there is no thing as a logical method of having new ideas, or a logical reconstruction of this process. My view may be expressed by saying that every discovery contains 'an irrational element', or' a creative intuition', in Bergson's sense. In a similar way Einstein speaks of ' • • • , the search for those highly universal • • • . laws from which a picture of the world can be obtained by pure deduction. There is no logical path', he says, 'leading to these .••• laws. They can only be reached by intuition, based upon something like an inte113ctual love ('Einfuhling') of the objects of experience. The dissertation author's "intellectual love" of local goveznment public administration led to the selection of the dissertation subject. This subject area was also the author's base of expertise. Therefore the author could blend intuition with experience, using deductive logic as a participant-observer to document lrnowledge of the internal and external environment, the administrative procedures and data gathering techniques with a knowledge of the City Manager's role and management style. The author makes no claim that these observations or conclusions provides exhaustive scientific verification of the dissertation hypothesis. The literature search, the empirical data of the case study itself, and the paradigm did not falsify the conclusions drawn. In fact, in accordance with Popper's theory of dedutive logic, the author's conclusions were supported. 3 Popper, p. 30.

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159 f. Concept Synthesis The observations and conclusi'OJls of this diss-ertation will be conceptually integrated with the six central public administration phrases (environmental turbulence, electric transformer, change agent, matri:Jt management, -rational-camprehensive planning and ecology in government) in this section. These were used, not as empirical definitions of scientific phenomena, but -rather as pre-defined terms serving to explain and define a new quantity or tel'lll( modified matrix management. The tems helped to describe the dynamic relationships and functions of a public administration process, focusing on the role and management style of a city manager in fol'llling a new land use policy, and in effect, defining modified matrix management. The terms, used by authors such as Louis Gawthrop, Deil Wright, and William Gaus served two purposes. They linked concepts in general public administration literature to those developed in the case study, and they made it possible to use these terms as conceptual shorthand for unique features of the policy formulation process described as the case study was developed. Stein explains why this technique can be useful to academicians as well as the practitioner: Insight into public administration requires an awareness of its dynamic character .••• This may sound simple, but it is enormously complex. Every verb--'passed,' 1 appointed, 1 1 created,' 'made,' 'satisfied, 1 'abolished, 1 'abandoned,'--is shorthand for a host of choices, decisions, actions of all sorts .••• The concept of public administration as process can be as broad as the whole of public administration.---For the administrator, different problems . that he faces makes it for him to distinguish what is novel in each new sitUAtion, concentrate on the novel element, and find a suitable solution;

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this kind of knowledge 4is obtainable by the study of public administration. 160 Besides the six terms from general public administration literacture, the author Easton's model as a general conceptual framework. Authors such as Easton focused on political policy analysis while the author of the dissertation focused on administrative aspects for poli cy formulat i on. The d issertation Easton ' s conceptualization of the input-conversion-output 1110del, particularly in the conversion step. (See DiagTam 11). nus extension enhanced the author's oppor-5 tunity to explore "the administrative aspects of :>elicy formulation. The chart on the following page shows the matrix concepualization which melds the various terms and concepts with the case study and the paradigm. However, the author would re-emphasize Stein's warning cited in Chapter II. He cautioned against generalization •••• to 6 the level ot' princi"ples that constitute rules of conduct. " Nevertheless, caveats can be misused to cover for criticism of a intentionally limited research effort. Perhaps it is more appropriate to be able, as Wildavsky suggests, to acknowledge the possibility of error in policy analysis and to recognize the benefits gained through exror correction. This attitude is particularly suitable for 4 Stein, p. 5 and 14. 5 Easton , A Pramework for Political 6 See Chapter II, p. 48.

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161 Diagram JI "A Dynmic Response Model of a Pol:t.Ucal Syste:::" Source: David Easton, A FrameWork for Political Analysis Cliffs, New .lt".J'J:,.,v! Pl>ll&tner Hall, 1965), p. 110. Chart I 6 A Concluding "Synl:hesis M.ALrTJCAl. i lNJ'VT ! a>WVDSlC>I OU"I'M c::t)t!.-a::Pr'UU. : : JII)0IJ'IJl) JUTAII rAJU.CDU:Xf : EQ)LCJ:T IJi ! COVD:Nl:i PIC.I'EIITU:! Of' Dn:.u!IC ll:tDACTlON ------+---... ---------+ --.;.------: Jlc:olOCtcal.. \loloeic.al1 : C11.J Mr'Yln& &a :Colo Ssca• DeW : aoc:Jal, : ll...ICTIUC TA4K3'0it'l.llt : 1&1111 U3e JOlley. : econo.ic &nd J1Dl1Uc.al I.,...., 0041 ol P'n:ldue1. of : &Jat.caa ( •la.q• trnt: •ert.ct..s tzu.. t.ne • coa. ... mu : 1onal aaUU. ot 1.Dt.ra: t:nY1ro,..n\a• u I ducrtbed. as : and u.tn.aoc:J.-\.&1 : upn-....1 tho'C,h •]np.rt i ao4111ed aat..r1.a i Colo ! Deltanda &I'd :Upport• i:: __ ,.. : 'fu1ou.:o parUn : CHAf:I:E zool• ol : 1nt..nat.e4 1a land : C1tJ PlantUnc : :Output. u-• .rouct. A;.Tlc::.u. : : J'l.UIIDC : : (:o1.1PJ10r\ed by &A inl"or-• : : .,... &&I'IAC41Mn't f•t.dblci : -----------------7------------+---------------. ------:.-----.. -:cSrJR4TlOM : lr.tt.1t1Jde:, perupUona : Ada1n1•tn.the :h't:M:ed\l . .riU : Con\n.at 'beh...a A : of d.c.ted off1c1al• • : a.r'ld d&t.a tKhn1... :a.ccey&.anc:e..,. P.I.JW)JCY. (CO:,,.,.ASTS) : 1,n,up. U an : ques/C•twn.l J\lbllc :of Mill' l&l'ld. \&Sa : 1 nputfor }'ftleeu to : AcbshUatnUon tn.n&i"er: pgl1c7 (St .. hW : fonuJ.aUoa land,..... lab1.l1't.J($\.Pat.al/Calo Staa) : and Colo .. ) : pol1c7 (St. Pa\U &I'd : C1 t)' M&l\olrC•r•a )ale a.nrl : : Colo SJII• con1.rUt.) :xa.nac•ent St7h a.& las-ct. : : :oa l..a.nll UN JlQ11e7 Fol!!o&'\.108 :

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162 case studies which attempt to use ordinary, knowledge and conversational to develop formalized constructs useful to concept formulation in empirical research, By advocating policy analysis which is both an art and a craft, Wildavsky permits this discipline to dare to investigate creatively, and to use such an investigation as a means of discovery and justification. He compared this to the way in which Gowing de .scribed Cezanne 1 s conceptualization of art: He deduced general laws,then drew from them principles which he applied by a kind of convention, so that he interpreted rather than copied what he saw. 7 His vision was 11111ch 1110re in his brain than in his eye, Interpreting what one sees is also a function of public policy analysis. Jones, Wildavsky and Lindbl011 shared the views that one's perception of "the problem" determined iu boundaries and its possible solutions. 8 Towl pointed out that the participant-observer enjoys in-side knowledge of an organization and is therefore able to describe . 9 what which is not seen by those outside the organization. This van-tage point also provides the opportunity for research which can supply a high informative content on which corroborating data may be gathered. Popper believed that there are trade offs between corroboration and probability for any hypothesiS, and that in fact, the greater the corroboration, the less support there will be for inductive probability, The trade-off for gaining the insights of a participant-observer may, in fact, be less with the use of the deductive logic approach of this dissertation. 7 Wildavsky, Speaking Truth to Power p. 385. 8 9 See Chapter rv, p. 126-127. See Chavter II, p. 51-58.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Adri&D, Charles R. and Press, Charles. Governing Urban America. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972. Altshuler, Alan. "A Land-Use Plan for St. Paul." Inter-University Case Program #90. Syracuse, New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.,l965. American Institute of Architects. Design and the Future of Cities." lolzrtidpal Yelll' Bocilt 1970, pp. 341-346 • . Washington, D.C.: The International City Management Association, 1970. Anderson, James E. Public Policy-Making, Second Edition. New York: Bolt, Rinehart and Winst01!, 1979. Anderson, William and G&ua, .John. Research in Public Administration. Chicago: Public Administration Service, 1945. Appelbaum, Richard P. Size, crovth, and u.s. Cities. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1978. Banovetz, James M., ed. Managing the Modern City. Washington, D.C.: The Internat:l.onal City Management Association, 1971. Bauer, Raymond A. and Gergen, Kenneth J., .eds. The StudY of Policy Formation. New York: The Free Press, 1968. Beck, Christine S. "Management Styles--Personal Perspectives." Management Information Service REPORT. 11 1979): Bell, Edwina Randall and Judith E.R. Roeder, eds. Urban Environments and Human Behavior, An Annotated Bibliography. StroUdsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., 1973. Blandford, John B. Jr. "Administrative Organization." Municipal Year Book 1943. PF• 311-314. New York: International City Manager's Association, 1943. Blomquist, C. Allan. Aspen, Colorado. Interview. August 1980. Blucher, Walter B. "Planning and Zoning Developments in 1948." Municipal Year Book 1949, pp. 253-259. Washington, D.C.: Inter national City Manager's Association, 1949. Bock, Edwin A., ed. Essays on the Case Method. Syracuse, New York: The Inter-University Case Program, 1962.

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16-b bowers, Joseph L. Decision Theory from the • Administra tive Viewpoint.'" The Study of Policy Fol'1Dation,pp.l03-14B.eds : A ; Bauer and. Kenneth ThD Free Press,l96B. Brett, Deborah; Chalibi, Margery A; and Friedman, Stephen B. Urban Infill: Opportunities and Constraints. Chicago: Real Estate Research Corporation, Research in prorress. Brownlow, Louis. "Looking Ahead at City Government." Municipal Year Book 1934• !P 3-7. eds. Clarence E. Ridley and F. Nolting . Chicago: International City Managers' Association, 1934. Burgess, Philip M . "Capacity Building and the Elements of Public Management . " Public Administration Reivew 35 (December 1975): 705-716. and Slonaker, Larry L. ''The Decision Seminar: A Strategy for ----.Problem-solving." A Mershon Center Briefing Paper. Ohio State University, 1978. Burgess, Philip H.; Benson, Johnathan L.; Conway, Richard C.; James, Thomas E. rraining Urban Managers, A Curriculum far the Selec tion, Design Implementation and Evilluation of Alternative Citizen Participation Mechanisms. Prepared for the National Training and Development Service for State and Local Government, (February 1976). City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Qffice Memorandum from Jim Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst, to Hartley (Bud) Owsley, Director of Planning. Hay 17, 1979. City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Qffice Memorandum from Jill Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst, to George Fellows, City Manager. Hay 18, 1979. City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Office Memorandum from Jim Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst, to James Phillips, Director of Utilities, Hay 22, 1979. City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Office Memorandum from Jim Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst, to Dewitt Miller, Director of Public Works. Hay 22, 1979. City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Office Memorandum from Jim Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst, to Fire Chief Sievers. Hay 22, 1979. • City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Office Memorandum from John L. Tagert, Chief of Police, to Jim Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst, Hay 23, 1979. City of Colorado Springs. Inter-Office Memorandum from Laurence A. Schenk, Director of Parks & Recreation to Jim Alice Scott, Project Research Analyst. Hay 24, 1979.

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City of Colorado Springs Planning Department. Comprehensive Plan Program: General Land Development Recommendations, Planning lnfor mation Report Tvo. City of Colorado Springs Planning Department, July 1975. Clawson, Marion. Suburban Land Conversion in the United States: an Economic and Governmental Process. The John Hopk .ins Preas , 1971. Davidson, Claud M. "Comments on 'The Nature and Role of Neighborhood Organizations in American Cities.'" Public Service 6 Center for Public Service, Texas Tech University, (January 1979): 11-12. Davia, Stanley M. and Lawrence, Paul Jl. "Problema of Matric Organi zations." Harvard Business Review 56 . (May-June 1978): 131-142. Dror, Yehexk.el. Design for Policy Sciences. Amsterdam: Elaevier, Dunn, Egar s.,l971. Easton, David. A Framework for Political Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965. Fellows, George H. of TranSJIIittal." City of Colorado Springs General Fund Budget. 1980. Fesler, James W. "The Case Method in Political Science." Essays on the Case Methodl pp.6S-119. ed. Edwin A. Bock. Syz:acuse, New York: The Case Program, 1962. Flinn, Thomas A. Local Government and Politics. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company , 1970. Foster, Dick. "Development in City Urged." Gazette-Telegraph, Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 1, 1979. Gaua, John M. Reflection on Public Administration. Univeraity of Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1947. "The State of the Nation' a Cit"i.ea." Municipal Year Book 1936. pp.3-6:Chicago: The International City Association,l936. Gawthrop, Louis C. Administrative Politics and Social Change. New York: St. Martin' a Preas , 1971. Gergen, Kenneth J. "Methodology in the Study of Policy Formation," The Study of Policy Formation, eds.Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth J. Gergen. New York: The Free Press, 1968. Gergen, Kenneth J. "Assessing the Leverage Points in the Process of Policy Formation." The Study of Policy Formation. pp. 181-203. eds. Raymond A. Bauer and Kenneth.J. Gergen. New The Free "Press, 1968.

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Clover, Clifford H. and Horgan, Andrew B. III. "An International Pro gram in Urban Management." The Municipal year Book 1978, PP.65-67. Washington, D.C. : International City Management Association, 1978. Creer, Scott. The !merging City, Myth and Reality. liew York: The Free Preas , 1962 . ___ Governing the Metropolis. New York: John Wiley and Sous, Inc •• 1962. Gulick., Luther. "Our Cities in 1937. " Municipal Year Book 1938, pp. 3-8. Chicago: International City Managers' Association, 1938 . Beiaa, F. William. Urban Research and Urban Policy-Making, An Observatory Perspective. Boulder, Colorado: Bureau of Governmental Research and Service, University of Colorado, 1975. Boward, William A. and ltracht, James B. "Optiam City-Size and !t.micipal Efficiency: A Revised Version of Exchange Bibliography lio. 52." Exdumge Bibliography #169. Council of Planning Librarians, 1971. BWIIphrey, Nancy; Peterson, George E. and Wilsou, Peter. "Cleveland and Cincinnati: A Tale of Tvo Cities." The Urblll'l Institute Policy and Research Report. 10 (Spring'l980): 1-6. Huntley, Robert J. "Urban Managers: Organizational Preferences, Managerial Styles, and Social Policy Roles." The Municipal Year Book 1975, pp. 149-159. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association, 1975. International City Management Association 1973 Municipal Management Policy Collllll.ittee. ''Managing Growth: Jl.eport of the ICMA Committee ou Growth and the Environment." lleprint in Management & Control of Growth, Issues, Problems, Trend&. Vol. !, pp. 136-u7.ed5. Randanw. Sccrtt,'David J. rower andBallas D. Miner. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1975. Jacob&, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vantage Book, 1961. Jones, Charles 0. An Introduction to the Study of Public Policy, Second Edition, North Scituate, Massachusetts: Duxbury ?Tess, 1977. Judd, Dennis R. The Politics of American Cities, Private Power and Public Policy. Boston: Little, Brawn and Company , 1979. Keane, Mark E. ed. "Planning and Management." Public Management 51 (December 1969): 2-14.

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----, ed. ''UTban Planning and Management." Public Management. 52 (June 1970): 3-13. 1&7 Keller, Suzanne. The Urban Neighborhood, A Sociological Perspective. New York: Random House, 1968. Lindblom, Charles E. The Policy-Making Process. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968. Lynch, Kevin and Rodwin, Lloyd. " A Theory of Urban Form." Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Settin&_., pp. 84-100. eds. Harold M. Proshansky, William H. Ittelson and Leanne G. Riv lin. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970. Manning, Larry. Force. Metting uf Private Developers and Urban Infill Task Colorado Springs, Colorado. August 1979. McKean, Roland N. Public Spending. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1968. McKenzie, Roberick.D. Ecological Approach to the Study of the Human CollllllDlity." The Social Fabric of the " Met!OJ?Olis. pp.l7-32. ed. James F. Short, Jr. Olicago! The University of Chicago Press, 1971. Mercer, James L. "Local Government Organizational Structures for the Eighties. " Management Information Services REPORT. 12 (March 1980): 1-13. Miller, Zane L. "Turning Inward: The Concept and Role of Neighborhood in American Cities." Public Service. 6 Center for Public Ser vice, Texas Tech University. (January 1979): 7-11. Mulrooney, Keith, ed. "Symposium on the American City Manager: An Urban Administrator in a Complex and Evolving Situation." Public Administration Review 21 (January/February 1971): 6-46. Murphy, Patrick W. "Administrative Management." Municipal Year Book 1963, pp. 297-300. Washington, D.C. :International City Manage ment Association, 1963. National Commission on Civil Disorders. Report of the National Advis-ory Commission on Civil Disorders. New York: Bantam Books, 1968. Oden, William E. "Comments on 'Turning Inward: The Nature and Role of Neighborhood Associations in American Cities."' Public Service 6 Center for Public Service, Texas Tech University (January 1979): 12-13. Pope, H.G. "Management and Research." Municipal Year Book "1950, pp.233-239. Chicago: International City Association, 1950.

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168 ----;"Our Cities in 1948." Year Book 1949. Chicago: lnternational C ity Managers' Association, 1949. pp. l-7. Popper, Karl R : The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson & Co.(Publishers)LTD, 1959. Presaman, Jeffery L. and Wildavsky, Aaron. Implementation. Berkeley: University of California Preu, 1973. Real Estate Research Corporation. The Coat of Sprawl: Environmental and Economic Costa of Alternative Residential Development Patterns at the Urban Fringe. Prepared for the U.S. Council on Environmental Quality, the U.S . Department of Rousing and Urban Development aDd the U.S. Envirolllllental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974. Urban lDfill: The Literature. Prepared' under Contract No. B-2982 for the Depart!U:Ilt of Housing and Urban Deve1opatent, Of fice of Policy Development and R.eaearc:h. w .. hington, D. C.: u.s. Printing Office, January 1980. Schmitt, Robert C.; Zane, Lunn Y.S. and l'fiahi, SharOG. "Density, Health and Social Disorganization Revisited." American lDA.titute of Planning Journal 44 (April 1978) : 209-211. Shannon, David A., eel. The Great Depresaiou. Ell.glewood Cliffs, Rev Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1960. Smith, Michael P. The City and Social Theory. New York: St. Kart in' a Preas , 1979. So, Stollman, Israel; Beal, Frank; and Arnold, DavidS. eds. The Prachce of t.oeal Government Planning. Washington, D.C.: The International City Management Association, 1979. Stein, Harold. "Co Public Administration and Public Adminiatrati011 Cases Essays on the Case Method, pp. 1-37. ed. Edwin A. Bod. Syracuse, Ne-.t York: The Inter-Uriiversity Case Prograa, 1962. Study COIIIIII.ittee on Policy Management Assistance, K. Frank Ber.-n, Chairm.m. Strengthening Public Management in the Intergovern mental System. A report prepared by the Office of Kanaaement and Budget , 1975 . Towl, Andrew R. To Study Administration by Cases. lloaton: Harvard University Graduate Schnol of Businea• Administration, 1969. Tytler, "Making Matl'ix .. Work-and Wbm aDd Why It's Wort!\ 'the Effort," 'lfumafl 'l'rdnln! 15 (October 1978): 78.82.

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169 ll'aldo, DwiJ!ht. "Five Perspectives on the Cases of the lnter-UniveTCase Pro $:Tam." Essays on the Cast' , pp. 38-63. ed . .Edwin A. Bock. Syracuse, New York: The Inter-University Case 1962. Weidnn, Edward 1'0. "Municipal Highlights of 1952." Municipal Year Book lill., pp. 1-4. Washington, D.C.: International City Managers' Association, 1953 . Wildavsky, Aaron. Leadership in a Small Town. Totowa, New Jersey: The Bedminster Press, 1964. ---Speaking Truth to Pawer 4 The Art and Craft of Policy Analysis. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1979. Wright, Deil S. ''The City Manager as a Development Administrator." Coll parative Urban Research, The Administration and Politics ofJ'P. 203-248. ed. Robert T. Daland. Beverly Hills,California: Sage Publications, 1969. Hempel, Carl G. ''Fundamental of Concept Formation in Empirical Sciences," International ".Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol II, No.7., pp. 1....93. ed, Otto Newrath. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1952. Kraemer, Kenneth L. Policy Analysis in Local Government, A Systems Ap proach to Decision Making. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association, 1973. McHarg, Ian L. Design With Nature. Garden City, New York: The Natural History Press, 1969.

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'• ,_ Jl"J&IIC 1 CrTY Of' $NttHG$ CO\..OIIIIADO I :"li 'T 1: ft • n F t ' I t • P. 1: It II . \ !\' II I ' )I ApPendix A-1 " a.., O...l•r ., Jlm wu ••• t/21 #'JimPiillllpo -'Jeb Taaar\ "Jino IHaao Lurr Scheok O.M:I Sia"n .. Delle l.UUar 1 ••,. •• toUowiaa ... ,.. plaa: Mtlrameat: S/lZ To later""•• aa.cllt of t llta abe .. JNn•"• .. 4ctormll\e Lheb \ewe ._4 recorn.mcnod-a• .. •• •• 1he e.-jccl of iofilll•l u. •. 4.hahieo. crhar ... . coauraiau). S/24 \\' r iuca commeou Croft'\ To1k Force Mcll to me. .S/ZSTo coordinate th••• Ylcwe .. recommcndciWIIaa wa a. •••II a..nd \a To•lr. Force OA 31 lalilllo1 P.llcy • .!...:..1..!!!! sTo mcc& ......... Took. Force .......... " Ceii'UnCOI •• e taU repor1 a.IMI dc .. lop approach tor C.wacC lrorkehop. S/ll .. Covacil \':orL•hep For IAe JMlrpltc of t.he , ... ,...,, • .,, whll the TaeiL Force Ol\ JniUU•t P.hcy. , ... •oro MveleJM41 ,..,..,, •• a a.at4e ler 4 ... couiea. •po cc: T••lr. r•rc• "'•"'""• 170

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ApPendix A-2 Qw•u••• 1p Jtairs whh rash Mtmpr pf City P.perun•ntal Tat It Fprc1: b)' J1.a AlJ. .. leo\\, KAT, 1919. 4. How aho.wl C.O!!•k .. llt ratiot, lacl...tlA1 eateraalltl••• M comJN••d Mr each 1 5. W'kat cwrr•ot City poUcie• ••rve at coau.raf.att to iARULaa, and wa&t WQ1&141, 0.! COli of IJMCUlc alterD&tlY!I 1 6. W'Mt l&ell'tphic '"''' cu J'OII pr••••uly l4eatUy whlch may po11 problenat U \he dcHaUioae aad crh1ria yotoa clte 1hould a.dopcecl 'by C.wacU 1 7. WlLa& ..... , ••• of policy be eaplored wic.lll aovera.tnllll, Scbool D iatricte, etc. 1 I. \Vhat U aay, clo•• .$(.ate mana11d ctphal oullayt t.mpact locatio• tacl dtttity ef ••w dtvelopment.7 Ara there ar••• of policy•m.aktna bet._..,,. ltttel\oca! CO"YWrnmeat wftich at.ould M a4drettld.? 171

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Appendix A-J t. 1a .-. Co•t ''SprawL ,.u..ua .. re W.MUM• •• My compo••••• U 4"'U••• and a war• \0 ._ 41a-.alope4 to aacem,.aa l.he vartablaa H aled Mlow, on wh\c:h af theta would your •• ,.. .. uneftl au. ••• .. lmpact 1 Wll lc)\ po• • m.,. ....... ler \be c,t.y : which poaa maJOr caau &er U\a pri•••• aacul', other ........ aatlda• " YourC.,.run•n•= ------------------------------------CJ'hada t.r Type• tf Coat )4 ajor Major Coau w a;.r C at,a&at f"rontu410.,.olno tp,.itta t a C.et b.vt Entlt• Tn k A.A&.lvsacl D•otallmDA 7) •••• to"' C . l..aod u EA•iroftm'"'"al tfec:u A • .AJ.,. Pou ....... B .. W atar \oa C. Eroaioa D. Noi.aa E. Veactatio• • WU4llf• T. Vi• Ell•c t• w c. W ater ' neray C.n•wnpdor Pcr .. nal EUech "-Uaa •f Di..acr•tlon•ry J. P a,chlc Coau c. Tr•••l Time D. Traffic Accid•nh .. Crt.ma 172

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o.,,._. ,,..,.,_. Appendix B-1 COLOOIAOO ., ... r .. trr. May JO , 1979 ClTY COUNCil. City t..tanaacr Clty Depar&mcau raap:odad \o my r••lM•t to provhla ..t.a .. •• iaiUli•l• The uanvnarr aatlioaa wry \trleOy &),e major polau made lty dapart.rnaata. A accoM auaclvnaot Wantlllea varie•• claaaUlc•tlon of cSa.,.loptncat wMcll may M •ad u •• laltlal framework lor additloaal •liacvaaioo. A Utility Dep&runaal D\ap b tacha4ed lor yowr coownlanca. 11 Cooacil .-hhaa 10 aypport a •trona \Afllli"l policy. lt Ia ••ca••••• t.hat the Acbnll'lhtration undartalla fwhh tM PlaAAi.o& Da,..runeat aetviDI aa laadJ a atudy t.o : • aaublhla crharla Jor aaaaaalo1 caua a..S M .. tha wltl\ia aac:'h clauillcat\oft; and thoac araaa appraprlataly termed "htfill\tla" • lillla,alop ax&mplaa -.-ttMn aach claaatlicaUoa and uaa colt arwt 'benellt crUeria t.o damonetrata the policy altaraat\voea whlcb m iaht M '"••• to d•tcrmi .. priorilica. •accaaary chanc•• lD proctuin& applicaliona &o P1a1U1in1 ' D.-pa,.uncat &o enaltle the City \e HUe I' aaaht coor.lnalioo of lalilllac cttorla. The .cope of thi a eUol'l ahouhl M coYCraed by tlle level ot \ate real CowftcU t.•• Ia eatabUahiaa a apecinc ratLoaalo for dechioa malt.inc i o policr arcaa which are undcrcoin& cltaaae. Tho fui'Miameotal qucttlon ia: \ •.'"}.at ahoulG h the rolo of pwrNnoat 7 17.3

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AppendiX B-2 • w ••crce ,,_.,1111 the City pro•W• h'cea\J" .. eac.our•c• • epecUic t)"JM of clcvdopn .. at? • l.w mtrht t.he City ••••rmiac which tMeatl"a •••••• •pJ1lic4 altd •itrc tl.ay ahould M applie4 1 t. ,..,, the &•acral City pDlicy '-••• th.t an h"Oat-• .. ceata af ••••'-P"'••• "'"'•' k boi'IM l.ty th.-dttYI.l•,....r. n.. twe ••c•ptM,.. an 1) whaa ••me of the coat a &ra ni.mbwncd fal' \mprov.maau "-ncfit U•a chy •• a.....,. ••• aiHil) 1• racln•clopmaaa wkre federal have Mea uaad. "•q..,hlAilha ••••leper w kar aU coeta only a ahorttcrm •••iftl \.e the Chy U acatt.are4 ... tUaco .. acta• development lacrc•••• the C hy'• anaoinl COtll \e pro vi•• 1arvicae. 1t may a lao l n M bit tM City• a atUtly to eUicically pl.aa capital itnpronmcot a aed lo1lcal locn:maata at ICI'vica ,_,. ll\a tola) city. U Cowac:U w{ahaa \aha ... the A4mlehtl'&tlon oAdartaka \hi a policy aludy. 1 am prR,..retl &o t o CouncU a t a ) a ler date wh.h a •'Ork p l•• and ••.•atirn&u of the r••••rc•• .. c••••ry 10 compl••• atucty • . ,.. AttacNnaot• 174

PAGE 175

IJI'IUYJI:J P.\IUt I k.tC or Dt:rJUtfloVf'T tlr::N)I DCPJNITIOtl • INrtLLINa CJIIIYI:JI.lJ T"'-daUlGplllftt of arut "ltMn City ll•lte which can be con• n.cted tr, the-••tefttlOA of or utllllJu, The d•wtlop.At of auaa vhhl• the Chr'a wnar dhtrlct lJna, h aUactlnt ""•• O.weloplnt or at ope• tpace AftY Ina ftOt yat dowelopc-d or vacant renewal ....... . T'ha Ml'4 of U•• total publle to hUll u araa to provtcta utllhtu, etn•t n•tvork or tra .. ,portatlon •r•t•• to alraadr daweloped areae, ... Market ••••ncle aftd tho eblllty to par. ... P . u . c . raqwtre .. nt to pro• vida t•• a electric .. rvlca• upo" de•and. hulbtlltr (ret topotraphy, t•oloth fo111'1tlOAI, or f'lool Phlfttl ... c-onfo[1aanea w/Pu" MaaUr Phfl a NU'l etandarde for Parlll a aea . U . a . acru/1000 popuhtloft or lractaatlo. faclUtlu/1000 populattOft • ... of aco,.,a-lo ltq\lhalancr Jrwia11 .mue •rprorr lth. C:OISTMJtn'l '" P-.bllc Wor''• NhJr _. ... ..,,,..,. .. t .. -.t•• tuch u brldtn or dutnata The coeu to the druloper afhctlnly •aurtlhat• that abuttlnt proro •rty " '"""' the! thndpoht of dnalopl"ent. ... City Clft ••arclta dhact COI'Itrol of wat Without wetar, N '''' c•n ••••lop, • aedewalo,.."t arut hav• hith hr coete whea 1Ah•nr'Ktwro 11 had• 'l"ltt for MW d•w•l•.,....,.t. .,._, ... Aa l•NJ •• hnd and ar• I• outaldo City PhAnlnt k H•At:•rr or • "•" • alda UtlUt)' Dht.rlct, d•••Jor-rs vlll r . tlnwe to to tha,.t ouas. Wan c-oeUr ••u• tor 1ntl11h't al"d wannt hftd ""'lch alrudy : hcttl• authbh around aftd th•outh It II "'"' ah.11 11'1 1111f'C1Uitl , .. Major Pollcr hatHII wh•thu Cltr h to be ,,...,.,, ••;-ottr fldi.ICII local lftl'l't)' C'Oitl & trowth Uulblllty. Due to natural ...,..nltlot of thoa •ucant .. ,.. Nf M hitl\ly •• ope" tpaca, Howa•er, due to thttc a."':"'
PAGE 176

... ,..,. roua 0C:YU41'oc:wr OU'IIIITrl"'u .. IHP'UJ. ING .,. ... .,_., •f pochU of ""'••opt4 hM wMch .... "-'" ........... J frJ•ary hcton tow hfllUnt• Ut.,_n reneval & rede•olo,....ftt O.•elop ,,..,Jou.tr • ..dnelopH hMI De•uloJJ"'4nt of ann••., •tah1"4e"' roUe• ••• _ _. •••Ur •••I with _.,.,_,.. reMwal or rede•elo,.d are•• Dehrlo,.tln4 •r••• are • 4rah' "' to! J'aiO\ti'CII .. ,., v/in Cltr cr .. tu for foltn. otlce COMII'PIO• abo\tt ••r•h• ••thotr el'tata uea1 .. ,.. 1Uocted ily ,,.,,., •• •tthcult for ollco to .. ClrD IUWII any area w/ltt dUll .. waca"t h"d "'Del ertet'tl,e ••• C'l ty ll•lta. ltD 1'11'etotlfCIIt O.•ltn of tntlllht aho\lt• lnphca hcllltln I ettulp-ePI! cottaldert '"phce pei'•Oft"'' ro .. lr.cn•• .. c.ne .. ,, .. ••ulor-c""t covl'lterpr,...•wct he f for ••P""'H"' ll'lfrenntctYre. S/•ln. rc-•po,. .. tlr• aho .. O.ulopaent •h ""lch •lt"t .,.,,,, -or• •UUcult '"'""'f''"""' ot 1P4fu lncro••• Ura h•••r•• I type ftl & pe••onMl. of flu ,.,....,.lee uq11lr ... lcattulnt Nurctoua loea• tlOftt \19\lch caft aho hw:nuo lln .. rvtu COlla U . e . lNtul * trial chntert au 11101'1 eftl• ' to •u•• thaft aro vl,ol 41eburll• Ua• tore for Clty thM&,.. .. _.._. .. ertt v•• ather ttt,_• t ... ll•lt 1 '"'' of l.e. u'IJltJ t l#lo,.•lt ""'tWf'!ftlo f't0o ( .. ithbor..,..•t 1\tlt ... ,.., ... WICII\t I pnel-..bh Ia,_. Mltlt C'Of'ltl"l' tr•d•orft for ••r•t•• '" uu.,. h0111 conb•n•fl.t oe urvtu h .,., ........... ..,.,0 ,_",

PAGE 177

DEF"INITJONS1 lalllll•l• lntr ... trvcharea APJ)endiX B-) 'ne 4e .. lopmeat ar redevcloP'"eaL of aay areaa CtU'rtnlly wllhl• lM chy Urnhe/orban\a•• area. ne phyalc&) C&pACII\ce -caaa&ry fer 4ewlopmeatt Le., •tilhlea, thaln.aae, aewer/aewer treatnM:at road.waye, IIOA•clecrea&I\On •n\ I'ODtneat. tl\e O,.ratMR&l c•pact&y ,..c••••ry \0 aerw developmeftb pollee, lire. ,.rka/opera •p&ee, noadear•aatioa of e•viroft.meet, tra,..lt. Polk:leaJ C.oeral and apecliLc polki•• .... topetl &o eacowraae lnfUUne w+lert approJU'-ial• to tM aeNral )\ealth, aafety and welfare ot COmlft\Uthy •• a whole: withia \he C\ty' • current c&!I''Y'"I or where apecU\c ••'•"-'••• ot Lhe carrylna C&pAchy u .. beea approved.. n.e Um\U of phyalcal aDd liacal reaourcea beyo .. which aatlafyin& llem.aadt mwat M ••rved bJ ... r••••rc•• 177

PAGE 178

r.riiCAAl. tn: vr.LO...,.r.w? C1.ASitrrr.A1'JOHI AND Y'ltiEJa 1Mf"LJCUJONI roa INP'ILLIMO POI.IC'f • Acl•qtut• P'lbl lc .. rvtce tnh••tructvre 1. ,,..,,..,..t• pu"H• ••r•h•• hlrUU'KhU lhfUU,. re• •wlr•d to uptudl"" 11MI1 lM ... ulnt ••nlc•• capeclty) c . Major hfuetnctun pl'obl ... • t:..ron4 f1ne..chl ebUltt .. of prlw•t• ••ctor. U h.nlftt lntuut ,_,.. -.neflt to ovuall J) ben•fltl I'Utrlctecl prlNrlly to d•veloper II I'IPASSED IYACAHTI INIO A . Ad•quau •ubllc: ••rvlc• ir'lfrllti'UCtVI'O I. ln••••w•u publle euvtcee lnhutr-actun fl.,.. •• 1-b) e . ... lntr .. uuctvu probh .. t:..ro"' financial abtlh lea of prhate .. ctor. U ha.vlnt hrt ... lnt .. nt •"" b4neflte. J, bef'lellte prlNrUy to devdorer 1) Lhhd Growth .. • natural eat.1111l01' Njor port& on• or ,,., •• l'llt('tt .... pl"lllftt J) Deteche4 C-rewth heptr ..... t..,.•lr •ttho-at 10041 Un••••• ....,r bfo o!r• • o •t by ot"-r Njol' b
PAGE 179

179 Appendix B-7

PAGE 180

To. SUIJIECT : CITY CO\..OIIADO COL.OfiiADO Appendix C I PIT II ll • tt P PIC P. Ill P. :\1 n ll A PI b II .: ..... 14, 1979 8\111 OWoloy lftfillinq Policy Study Aftu a Mcon4 round of otatf iDtArviev. Oft illlillinq followi""l City Council Wozkabop, it. ia Wf u.n4ern .. a1'4in9 t.b&t w a.re the foUo-tint unutive plAn and tiae achedu.l•• 8y End of Juna • aud OWoloy will _.:ifically 14antlfy U.. propoeed aiua for depe.rt.aenta to pro.ide Aet.&iled .,..lyaia &n4 n99en a tantati•• l.&nd u.ae plan 0111 vb.J.eb thia aaalyaia c.an bev .. Jt of Jl&ly kll oepan.. .. c Haado to rni-u.. aitaa and l•nd UM plan propoiMCS by the Director of Pl&N\inl). Detaraine U... fr-for •epArtatnta to pr.p.ua Jl&ly 23-AUoiJ, ll a.port s.ct!OD' City Oowlcil .... tlnq. Provide Council an up
PAGE 181

r-JL'IUCCT : Cny "' CoLOitAUO "r uruc.:.. ''-'L(IUAUO I!\ 'J 1 : U • tt t I ' I c : 1: I ! >I U II.\:\' U I ' )I Cllyw ..... ,., Ptecr••• "e;oru Jnfillh'C Made .... Uy a taU -.ho wttl dol"& l•IUU•a lonewwp mft T .. aday. July to review altca aclccted -., dta P1aaalaa Depar&nMat ... "••..,.,plea•• fol' lndept1l atvdy ef ••C:lopme•t problam.a wlliiU u,... created 'bypaaacd land or preacnl ccrtal• rc4cwelopnaat cca•t.ral•U. ']")ac abc aUca aclactcd were: 1) Conover 1) Eaat HIU Jlea4 l) .Pi.kaa Peak Academy .C) the S) Bott Avoe. • aiWI 6) J..o,...r Cold HUt.. "n.a Planninc Department pre.,. red.,.._.. .. ldcatllyh•& each altc'a cMraclcriatica aa follo•u 1) & .. ar•pl'llc J.tcatlea aiMS appro:xbnatc else; 2) praacftl aonias lor aha ...a aer• ro•*U•a area; J) prcacnt dcvclopmcal of aorrovi'Mllna area: 4) m&jor cWft4'rat.lp pattern. phyalcal charac&ariatica; aDd So) prop:taod b ... ••• (S.o attached Coaover m&tariab). 0.. '-Umo coea.traia&.a which tl\o 4aparvneeta leal oa.-claJly dart•& "-daat time, tiM aroop cooaen••• ..... 10 a:ate .. eome of OM tlmatablaa orl&lnaJly arreod vpo• a..S to vrtdertaka the followina prior Ia the aa.Jrt r-teatlna,. A"ao•t Zhh 1. n. eo ... , .. , property will M &IMlyaad by ••ell daparvnent lo ida the followinc: tocfa a,aUa"bla or net a,ai1alah lo achla.e lnliUin& olher cocatr&iata which may inMbil • coau lO the City aod/or lha dawloper Z. P1&NIIi n& Dcpertmant -IU contact • ._.,..r• (c•capt P lkoa Peak Aca4amy property) 1.0 diacvaa their p4rceplion of tlta p,..party'• polaalial da'\eloP"'ant. lta conatrainta. any hbtory of 4cva1opmeat clforta. J. P1anahtC Dcpartrn•nt wtU lnvtt• lwe lecal •• ,.,.,.,.,, Stave Schttek an4 Zr•c• S),appanl. 10 n••l maeUns Zht) to cliacvaa tll•lr &•"•F•l p•rcapllo•• el lntU1iAC potential aftd conatralnla in Co1oratfe Spri•&•• ... The dvpar\meotal commlttee -n1 dlacva • the format and content of PTo;rcaa on JnUlliftl t.o CouacU aroYIMI lbal ol Sapltmbe r. s.d..aff Qim Alic• Scott lnlerJO..,..rnmental Coordl••IOr 181

PAGE 182

SUIUCCT : CnY M CO\.-ADO CO\..OffADO I!"Tt: n • fi"Pif:r.. )tF.;\ffttiAi""ftiJJI -20,1979 CITY lDICI1. Appendix E '!ho a.,. -cattinoad .... periooUcally .., .--1ntillil'c anody -tcrUU pnpand tl1rcqtl • jcd.nl eHart of n.w>1l'c .-..1 Oftica oc.afi . n-1ncl>do: ll-•jar-.. doll.-y oyac-.-..1 choir 'bc>u1daiaa vtdl of naa.r&l Jlhyrical ct.aracuriJotic .-..1 poa-. l) ...,..., of njca-pl>yolcal .-..1 'by MrVI.o:.o anarla rd/ar 'bc>u1daiaa l) ..u:n. -win& apl.alnl.nc a...-vtc:u .....-..ely prui.ded ,_ ._ tho doli., of • clnft far.t (bud< •lila ...._) f. ..-..l .. tiz>& claw l__. .. .tW:tl ...... be 'by ., tkt>c Will Policy '!ho a.,. Pl.amin& 11 prwpa-...S .... ,......,c a.,. Oan:U vtth • ,..,..,.,.,.. -1• of #1 In ca-do:r t.o doaa•.craca tho ....r In .tW:tl tho data -be utilized In {onulatln& ., Will "'l.icy .-..1 m !acilltata cloc11ia> ..au,...., a apecHi c A drat1: ""lftt1ll .a SUp" la.--c 11 curr...U.y TWiled 'by ary .,...._,.. .-..1 vUl be tasted .., a apocific claw l_.. n..U., .-..1 .,._, rac .. ced v!th a 2nd apecilic claw l_.,. 1hl of th1o ol.!J:Jn hu 'beon _., -itiw. l.lo '-.., rat>.lm .... a.,. Qu-dl vith. uport "" thil phue of WUl J'Dllq -u-tho fun of the .,__ 1l> .-thil poJzc In-llt>a!y, ..., IUin wlU. -J a.,. a:rA.:tad .-..1..., .,.._._... pri-• _,__ vue Invited to clloc.ou Willil'c v!th tho Tult lnais)>U pined "-ra-_, lncorpooa&ad into tho dolt., of tho--u aa.ly. eearp 1C t oito:;; a.,. 1:-..ccr QV: JAS : -182

PAGE 183

To , _ _ Appendix F-1 em cw COL.OtiiAOO COI..OftACO I="'T'En • OFYit:•: 110.-bet 2t. lt79 l"fUl Taalr. race. Sulpl• Ute Au.ac.._. 1a t..tr. dte U.. PlaMiat o.p&l'taaet to teet OU' Jahll awck IU.p. .Uth0u9h thh dte h oa the Pla.MiA'I c:o-t..l .. ioe ..... fu Dec..-.r 1, lt1t, the lftfUl lloiCfk SUp wUl .. , be utilhed •t tMt u .... PhaM iftd1cate .arw4/or iacl_.. MY ...,..iat i.Afcnw.tioe wt\l.ct. will uain ia e..ap.NI-101 beMU,Ae 4au we ue bopi1119 to ooUen. u.r._.ll t.Ma proc.u. .... (DIIhrt.-:11 Doc. fro. U./2,/lt• Doc. 10 •••• Doc . 'l'e .eu.u .. J .... lt 10 11 21 1 Prot,.••• repon. ta City Cauftcil C will ftOt ccr..r .....,1. aiu 4u.a\ •Mll .. , s...ple atu raapoftae t.o loury ,..,_,,,.. CPl&MU.. "'"'i.Aot vitb Ctt.r ......,..,. .,.. Tuk PtKce to cl.iacu .. 4ata Oft -...pla ai.u 4at.a oc.pUatloe CP1Jt9.Coof.,.. J Data f• -.t. P1'09nu to City C:OW.CU v..si"9 ....,1. au. e .. u &lllll aNllyah la ...S.Utio.., at:t.ached h a copy of aa IN'41a.Aea J..ury lcheftk ......,. .. iA pl'eJNdnt for h1a pra•lOY.e .-ployer. 'I'D the de•r .. tMt a potafttial ..... Ioper al9ht alae De•tu ,.._ t.J\h 1nto.....clon •• -..u u the Cic.y , h. .. , be .... rut c.o Meip • ayac.-evenc..,..Uy wbic:h •M..bl • tM 4eveloper t.o access .web of tlli• 1nfoz• .. u .. t.Movtb the c:J.ty • s buic (pri.aaryJ clatA M... h thee. -...nne.r tbe C:J.ty wow14 have a check and bal&nce on the 6CC\U'acy of c.M 4au and t.M .._.u.ry v•l-.. of aYCh t.o tM .. ..-.loper ..awld belp t.o oUMc. .... u .. ac.t1-c.t.tdes t01111ard toV•n-•t • a foe iftfocaadon. opo CC I Chy AM.e9e1' lBJ

PAGE 184

AppendiX F-2 THE ME5f\ Cf>O IS 2. TO tF oF r.z;r.Z5 kio IZ%7. A.eoJi 1 SQ tl\\. srutl\ wr.,rcf 184

PAGE 185

I • boGC.c.5S ---ort\'F 1'1'\VL.TI fllll"I\IUo\ PE.IIELDptO . &f' " .00'01"\ •• 185 ApPendix F-)

PAGE 186

l86 Appendix F-4

PAGE 187

0\./t-\ERS\-\\P . ,,. --W\.Jtllt Deb..IHI'6E. ''\\1111 ST'iE:.(' SLO(?e.C;, \JeG.t:xr:.:ftOt\ IH ....._,,..b.Ue. itlflet1. 6IU .. 1\tfli I ••

PAGE 188

188 Appendi.x FI I , I r-l I \. ., .r,...,..'-"1: o lz • ., . '\. ... k., '\..'-I ,. j

PAGE 189

S ...... l 0' USPOidi:S O!'t lBlU SNCPU: SITE AppendiX G-1 1be tafora1Uoa 1• this h Mt1.cd ho. City aa4 UUllt7 Dep.an.-•u hvohocf to ... 1t 1a aot • co.plete colhccioa of IIUU that WD"l4 be ....W4 foe a coac/Maetit .an.alJah. Cll:y PlannSna O.p.An.-nt L . KAftftlna 1-t ... wu 189

PAGE 190

Append.U G-Z De"lo,..rtu t.ftur•l•t•: !'WJ•• ,,.o,lor-enter arewwil ••r•J.ce. liOU' al l'4'" ........,, ia ra._wlrd 1.0 c .... ct .. J.ca co aUe. TlaJa .....,..14 h kUc ott , ... aHa ,.._ eM hunccu .. of ..-4 c:-t-r uatara, _.,. J•J) to .t.auue,c.at' J.a ...._..., C1'aalil.. la _..ttt-, tM u• u-... ...... at th. ..,_.thulr u, at ,...,. dta ...,...14 ..... u a. aau....., -.1-. 4nlu.,c c...._.l (S, & v • .._..,.1'1 .. af Uta) ""' nt_•.._• &ace uw alta. ...._.. ,.,.11'•,., ta ..,..,.., , ... ,,.,.u_ nau. Ot..,.r •Ullty ar. u.-..r4: 1. .U4 tao c-•tr...cc1-ceu far ..aerar..-4 d"utc Mnica. l . ...,.._ aur .. ua far h• ,..,.. .,. fr-..t c .. u far pa Mnlca. aeont .. ..,..14 1M PVD tlltllc:• ,.._.& ... a ,laa a,.r ... l . n.te will r.,"tu tk tte .. t.,..r to l6o ._ lllau1la4 , l.,.J.•& at ca. ••Un .. u . T'he follovlaa •n .,.cu of tarwt pla. n w ! h tM: at c-.cu .. u CltJ ;.,.u. 1 . Acca .. co aauu alto U•r.uP aatatia& ..,.... • .,...,. l . .., '"falcal ecu .. lor ,..Uca ..-; Uu. ) . hUn -...,_ .. ul ... h& al•&l• f•&UJ _.... .. , .--M .. l.,._..t. o,,.aht ... tr.. ••hU•a M1a,A"-.-...,..• dl&u.-.1 a., t h h -..1..,..., w.tll ... -t•r .uowW: ,_. .. a.. poh&•l 1. uafiJc l•tMtau4 wUS !Mir.& ... eah&i.aa u,.t ... :O...hlf.aall, .... ,,.-.,. , •• .. .. ........ rua t• Cll7: All •&lUUea eacept ..,.,,_,.,.,. •r• alra.,.., M"tcl•a ,..,. ,...,.1 •••• ..., '"" 4e"Hia,...t •• ..,., a.. Sac:er,.or.at•"' 1t M•l..,.r .... ,.._.., 190

PAGE 191

191 Appendix G-) "l.,..at •f thb etu •• teaS4eec1al vUl pnvSM • illftefScUl rahcf.•ahlp .WMlo,...oc. A .ajer U ftre •'41'Pt••-'• ahce tkh area ta not witlilht a tN•• ta ct. area. th&a c"rrncly lliletna foe Sa the CUy Put '" tbe ot ttw .. n&caa avch aat l. Z...taa iaapeccen.

PAGE 192

Flow Charlt Process Land Use Change .... ... -

PAGE 193

19) Appendix H-2

PAGE 194

Appendix I BASE MAl' SERIES 1 INFn.L STUDY • Fire • l'arlts • Community Developnent Block C:ra.nt , Schools , Transit {bus) , Principal Streets , Draniage Basins , Electric Service • Wastewater Service • Vater Service • Cas Service , Environmental Cautions • Pollee • City-owned La.nd • Vacant Land 194

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II I s s • ' I • I , l ' Cl PUBLIC WORKS DEPT Cl T ENGR. DEPT . Cl PARK DEPT. CJ LAND OFFICE 0 GAS 0 WATER 0 ELECTRI C Appendix J-1 0 OtYlLOPMtN..,.llCHNICAL CUM Mill H 0 MINOA LAND 5U8DIYI510N COMMITl E 0 PLANNtr•c DEPARTMENT REV IEW 0 ----------Lfb [I WASTEWATER CJ POLICE DEPT. Cl FIRE DEPT. Cl NOISE CJ SCH. OIST.•---0 REG. BLDG. Cl PPACG Cl COUNTY Cl MTN BELL Cl ______ _ o ______ _ o ______ _ CJ _____ _ Cl CPC MP .. , 11o1 .. Schriner fo'l' Parlr. V.u eo.,.."'• tor a"r.,el of the Parlr. V...c !'ta.stor Plaa. coa.shtifll of 47.a acres. lout•• aovt....,oat of tho tDconoccJOft of Ya• IYnft Suo•c oN lrevstor Sueoc. z....• 1Ulh14..). C STANDARD COMMENT OTHER CONCERNS : fL.f..) t S a,:... TffL ku'/ nz_.,-.J,;_ ,4...t:J ,:__., /11.--.AJ....,.vl ro C.ll.;,!.lf.,-IIL.LO &()ILL 8L MUST 8 RECEIVED PAIOR TO tJt= r/rf71 cmPI.. .:::m;t. 19, )91? 195

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Appendix INfiLL PIWJioCT ANALYSIS Ucpart•-c••t : Was\C'IIIIItOJ' Lli•isi ott Propoac.S Lat•d U1e ProJeCt no Me•• ... Ocf'l. flcotd : I!rnrns c .. r .. ro letJ'Ondent; Ill's! f1e 1 Jc:r lespohJe Dc11dl Jrts: 12/10/1 9 IIASTEWATU DIVISION I. II. Collection Trantaiasion PU11pina Watte-water Treataeat Noa Potable Treautcnt HonPotable D istTibvtion 1. What is th• uti .. ud flow fro• this propoud dovolop•ntT Measur•• ill: ,.u ..... ,. .. • 345 .000 2. Docs tloh flow nee .. tho capodty of: l . Wattewater Collection Syst .. Was teva t.cr Trunk/1 n terceptor Wastewater TraatAcnt Syste• Docs the proposed project contaia sites with DOft-potable water ...ae potentials! Yes 1 No==""'---Jf ,ark laa4 i a lan4scapcd Capital Outlays Mli )OJ' Noraal Additions 1. ls tlus proposed de•elopMat withia aa area already ser••• by wast•vater systeas? Yes ___ _ No. __ __:l:__ __ _ 1 .. Are there a11y llleflaed aajor capital outlay s underway or plu•ed wlllch will lteaeli t the Jllfteral area of this pro,.aed project! l. Will propo1eli project required ••• facilities for: Wastevater Operatioft/Halnteftaace Wastewater T rw:.): or lftterceptors Wastewater 'u....p i"l Station Wastevater Treaterat • Treausent or lUst. OthT Yu au . 196

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Appendix J-) 1 • )IJ'. ""o•""•:;---, J. z . • Non-Potabl e D istribution Izt.cnsioas Ace of Sys te• How is the w•stewater collection aaift which can IIFYI the proposed devalopaent! t41acent to sovtherly..!!!tioa Js t _he capacity of the esistin& systc. adequ•t• to sene the proposed. developaent! Teo ___________ No __ ]. Are oversized ez'tenstons ftecassary to sene adjacent '"'"' sen iced lands! Tu ___ __________ __ 4 . ATe there unique desi&D of topo&raphic factors which affect. the cost of installation operation or aaifttenance of t!Je required extensions! . ________ _ Daly a portion of the trunk sewer necessary to serve this area has been installed to date. Additional developaent cannot be IITYed throu&h the existinc systea. The req\lired trunk iever ••tension (shown on t.he attached aaps) is !ro• the esistin& Monuaent Valley IDterceptor vest across )4on .. ent Creek, the railroad tracks and the interstate to Carriaillo Street and Cooper Street. Jn addition, the developer •ust ••ten d the sever northerly alona the clrainaae channel vith ••tensions into the deYelopaent. Fut\lre extensions of this tTW\k lever to Filaore Street vill enable t.he Divisioft to abandon two existin& lift stations and reduce operations anti aaintenanc.e expenses. 197

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Te : SIJiliCCT ' I!'IT&ft • ••••cr. M&)tOa.&:.•uJt Jo .... ., )0, UIO ......._. loocuu, (latl.ll h..,) n ............. tla!.a , ..... , wllic." n.tlecu .... 4.UC.•t..a -,......,. 11, ltiO. ..,. that tM W1'4 ...... l.eU'" ap,._n dtn •f .-e.cS.... 1-1. 'l'llU U •et c.rttkal 1a 1 -.J vtwn ..uwr--t• et u,..c:tU•• ... l.M;atieu •t t.p,.......u abetU.• k .. , .. ta tM .... ••uU t.a WnUf7 tlM .c:enect &aU .. 1'J.c.a1 __.... 1,2,.J, •• 4 . fer ....,h, l.a 11, 1t ,-.. auwn ,. ( • .... tee _.. ca,.c:U y a'n.i.l.a-'le), ,.. aheu. u ...,u.a: 1 . l.ec.au ... ..w d .. ef .... ua\h fad.Uty, ... l . The r&l.aUM'aalU, ef •••U .. h (C:..U .-../C.J) u tM ._. ... ef the 1.a.W ••• ,..,_..,1 1a -•U•• •u al .. ,.,. l baa ur .. Je:eeTa.l ... , ... .,.... u ''" an ... a .nt.., ef etMt Ct\a.t ... , "-ef J ... rta.ca. flNaa relai'O • c-..u 70\1 .. }' t\a.wa em tt\Ja fo .... c.. -....,.. . 198

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\:..\STtvATU DlVJSJcr.1 . Ujaca"t ... :. aJ aa. ,._ aorvJC'a ea.!sta to altt.. l . Oft-atu 1•;-rr"'•*'nu "••••• 4.. S.rdu ' u,.cit7 cveUaltla. laplata 1ft acaau1'alllla waJta: Appendix J-5 ,.,,.,... .. ..... ,.._.. \J.., . ttttje-., I 1 . .. cap•dt7 .... uawa J.o 1atarcepter 01' collector. 2.. la collcctot'. -capacSCJ 1a iatancptor, l.. Capecity 1o bteTuptor, .. ca,.ctty ia coUactot'. 4. c..,.city 1• tnuruptor & collector. ts,lda b 2tleanlllla -.•ha: l. O..nh.o4 tsreaal-a. 1.._ E.aten.t.• re4fuil'e41 lor .,.ra1aa setcrccpcor•rtrWt&. 2. btcnat .. raquirccl for iatarccpcol' or trwn&. l. E.ateaaJ-ra,rad for ...,,.,aiac collcccor. 4. btcnaioo for collector. lapla.ia 1a aecawu,la urtha: •-T..,.auphic Futuna. 1 . aeuah topo, • atccp al.,.. ceft41Uona. 2 . lou&h tope llut &001111 aoU c.._411ttona. l . Ta.hl7 fbt poor .. u cond:hiena. 4. 1l•c to,. vitla tdul ao1l. La-p}e• 1a ..-Ita! liAA-pot.e•h v••ar 1. •• av,plJ .,. aer'"lc• •••Ue'-.la. l. ., . • n.-.1 ... vt ....... ,,1,. ) . •'•n••l• \.wt •• aar,lc•. 4 . su,,ly & Sarvju •v.U• .. h X..pl •I• Ia autun-.le u1111U e s 6.Are any specialilfacWties antfcipated to serve the site? Whare are they? ?.Does the proposed wastewater construction improve service in the surrounding area and/ or aid 1n reducing operations & maintenance costs? How? 8', What does the wastewater Master Plan call for at this site? .1.99

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Appendix K-1 STAATlCUS FOR IHPLE>IEKTlHC A POLICY OP lMnU.tHC 1 . Develo, current data and lnfor .. tion to aeaiat vith ura4at1Und1n& of tM tnfUl poUCJ. A. t,;oapleta a vacaftt land inventory and analyata. Identify the 1ntena1ty and dentity at davelop.ent which raalittic.ally and econoaically M acco ... 804atacl em each parcel of vacant l.and . I . Develop 110re apec1f1c infonNtion about the carryioa cap.ecity of aelactad ale.enta of the infraettucture at.ach •• vater, vaauvaur, artar1al a , ate. c. Develop and araphieally portray inforaatioa the c--..nity'a rr IOUICII ar\d hov addition.} lf'OVth Clft be &uid.ed. Il. Diaa .. tnation of relative 1nforaat10ft and davelo,.at of privata aU eclvcation proaraas. A . Actively ahara tnfill data vida the •• a vhola and. •r• •pacifically, vith the participants in the land dave.lopeent proceea. i . e , , davalopMnt industry, nei&hborhood orsanizationa. civic oraaniaationa. Und De:velop..-nt '!'achnical C:O..ittee, City AainiatratiOtt., C1ty Pbnnin& eo-.laaion and the City Council. 1. Develop a public education proar•• clearly outliaiaa tbe infillina coacept. its advancaaea, and vhat trade-o!fa are neceaaary to achieve 1aple•ntat1on. C . Instill an underatandina of and en aapathy for the principle• of infillina in local oraaniaacione aa the Cha•ber ol eo-.trce, Board of laaltor5. aarwica clube. ace. D . Develop a uau.l which araphically depict a technical daailft aolut ion a •• to how "'Dufferina" c.n be aaaily achieved becv.aa different land \Uti. 111. Land da,..lop..aDt procaaa and coordination i.,tO'I..atta. A. fiuliae and ia?le .. nt the nev 1nf1ll baae up aeriu, the rniaed 'buckalipa and the related .. crix aulyail au ... riliDI coral City dep.ertMntal input. 1 . lD identified vacant "aenaitive" arua, encouraaa and/or pro.ota a cooparatift approach to the developactlt of a JUeter Plan involviaa the J)Ctitionar, eurroundtna natahbora, C1t7 technical repreacntat1vea and the Plannina Dep•rt .. nt. C . Encour.aae .an4/or proacta pre-propoe.al dlacuaaion aaeaioal vlth potntlal nev irulu•triea or lara• .. ployare to dlacu•e, ,.,., other th1ftll, tM .-at10ft.ala 200

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Appenc11x X-2 ... olltjoecJ.wea of the c._.t&J11 S..ltll ,.llcy. The ,l'i .. ry pycpoee ia co t•pac.t tho dec.ia1on.. &ina ,roc••• in eM crucial lnltial acaa&. D . ...,.lew the cui'Tint lan4 devalo,.ent proca11 and identify vftare aNI vhy breakdown• occur. Nccaa••r)' adn1ac:rat1vt and/or leaialati'lc adJv.lcaenta aho"ld be .. de to eliainate 1dcl't1f1ed bottlenecks. tv. Phcal AccountabU1t' A. la acc.ordaoca with lnfill principlae, raeuai..e tha City' a currnt anat.aal budaet aad s-yaar proaraa davelo,.cnt procedurea. Par&., fut.lic VorU, eo-.mtty Develo,..at, Ut111t1aa, lira an.d Police aatabliAh apacif1c. project pl'ioritiea baNd aa the aoat reliable data available aU pl'epara coordinated budaaca daJilftd to eyat ... t.ic•lly .... , aacd.a. 1. Iacraaaa the .. inte:aaac.e hudaeca of all cleae:nta of tM phyatcal infra• atructura to 1aaure tbat che cunutly urttan.ia•• &Eua E ... ia aa econaeic uaet. A . Develop an attitude of total C..-..nlty an• 1•prove the SOMt1-• disjointed effort a of the var.ious tazin& bodiea, 1. e . , City, Couaty, 1chool district.•, Maher edi.'C.ation inatituciona, etc. I. Continue to 1•prove the coord1n.t1on and cooperation betvecn the City and the County. All the citiama of the Mtropolitan area ahoul• coll•ctively ahara the d1l.--. of Ulh1aed vacant lAnd, other urban davtlop-'ftt problua, aDd accively aupport ••aurae to iaprove thil rapon 'a l{u.AlitJ of life. C. for atate aad federally Ua.nced proarau v1th iDfill objocttveo. (Alao .. 1ntonanu ahould bo tnclu
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Appendix K-) C. lccvalU!ata C...cral lwainaaa 'lannt.aa effort• aa4 .... a, a r..n•a41 eat ef raaUatlc and aut4eltnaa to eap.a:ade4 CID arovth and davalop.ent. t . Within 11:11t1na C1t7 ''Oit•• araaa, pl'nide for a vide ran&• of capital incentivea auclt •• etraata, brtdaaa, ,..ru, t.p,..,u .... tr•nalt aervica, duinaaa, etraet li&ht1na. e14cva1U, pol1c.a procectioa, utility cx.te.a.aiona, etc. r. hlaaca the c..r1'n. : trend of the daccntraliaatiOD of ca..et'ctal ai!Mt 1a4uatr1&1 dcvalop•ot vhich ..,... jo-and ahopptna opportuaitlaa furtber avey ho. popvlatioe coacantratiD'Da. VII. laaulat1• aM uforce.aat. A. Develop ayttc.atic zociAJ and hou.aina coda eaforc.-nt prarr ... to atrn&atha tha •lAUlltJ of osiatioa ooiahl>orhooda. 1. Pro.ata the .aa of plan control aoeaa and/or pl&llOed Ofttlay aoeu ta fac1Utate •P?roprUu City depart.cnta. citiu:n and aeiahbot'hood ltOVJI, and deYelopera to collectively identity and apac1f1c.ally addraaa the UM-to-vae ralationabip problau vhich can M craatad by aiud or diffarnt l.ad vaaa. VIII. C.oaropbic arowtb U.aitatioo. A. Adopt a '"""'"" aatobliab.ioa ouur Uaiu of arovtb. Such U.aiu ahould k raaliltically baaed ora a coabiut101l of ph7aical ud aatTica conatra1ata •• dofiood ia tho Urboa Plaantoa Aroo concept cun ... tlJ kio& dnelopod. 1 . l.,toft tha curraat a.nnaution policy in accorduca vlth tiM ia.tUl policy 'DJ (1) aatabiiaMna a better ralatioaehip Ntwaaa annu.atioe plata aU related .. atar pbna, ud (2) Main& vatar aftd veattv.atar e.at•aioea oe aa. aft.Alyail of 'Dcnafita atwl coata. 11. Jase.arclt. an.d .Analyaia. A.. leaaarch to dataraina tha apacitic proa aadl coaa of cen&U diatac. .. t1"•• to cUacovr•&• apravl. I . t.ua.ioe the adunt•&•• and clia.ahaat•&•• of .. raiaal coat prtciD& for utnlicm ot public aarvicaa. 202

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Appendix K-4 c. Malyaa eM 1tl0 c ... ua Uc.a to U chat'I&S.•a ••-arapt'lica t.pact the ahapa and character of the c--.lcJ. 1.e., ... 11ar fuSl7 11aa • .ora etnale heacll of houaeholda, .ora Ienior citi&ana, 1), De'lelop co.-c. data to and quant1f) cou. varewa ra'lenua of axcarwlln& the the faaatb111ty of retro-fitttna over capac1ta4 wtility linea, air pollution. &ftd traffic trade-off• vith .ora coapact davalopMilt, etc. r.. Dctaraiu 1f th& nSCAII .odal developed by a conoultOftC fr011 1l Paoo CO\IIIC7 caD lta of aeaiatan.ce to tM City' 1 dac.1a1oa .. uaa proeaaa. r. Dctarai.De 1f the un.,.ually hi&h radoo of co-rcial and 1nduotr1al uood land co c-rdal aad induotrial &onod land otfacu th& inUll policy. C. l.aplou tho pouibillty of cha City ••-liaa land for dovolo-Dt by pTivaca a . !Jqtlol'a the poaailtWty of tax 1Dceat1vaa •• a ... aul'a to ncouraa• ••caftt lae.t 20.3