Citation
A recreation center for Five Points

Material Information

Title:
A recreation center for Five Points
Creator:
Ward, Douglas Christopher
Language:
English
Physical Description:
48, [35] leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (some color) ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Recreation centers -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Recreation centers ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Architectural drawings. ( fast )
Academic theses. ( lcgft )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Architectural drawings ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 29).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Douglas Christopher Ward.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09428984 ( OCLC )
ocm09428984
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1979 .W367 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Thesis
Douglas Christopher Ward University of Colorado at Denver 1979


Contents
204 00270 8395
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page
Draft
Report
Summary
Objectives
and
Goals
Research
Environmental
Analysis
Arc hit ectural Programming
Architectural
Design
Givens......................................... page 1
Questions.......................................... .2
Research.................................... ...jt
Answers............................................... .4
Omissions.......................................... 8
Research Objectives.............................. page 9
Environmental Analysis Objectives.......................11
Architectural Programming Objectives....................12
Personal Objectives................................... 13
Presentation Objectives............................... 14
Goals............................................ .15
Location Map..................................... page 16
Interview and Visit Log................................1? â– . '
Interview Information Summaries....................... 19
Photos-Existing Centers............................ .25
Bibliography............................................29
Vehicular Circulation..............................page 30
Parking.................................................31
Pedestrian Paths........................................32
Vegetation..............................................33
Views.............................................. .34-
Solar Angles............................................ 35
Man-made- Features..................................... 36
Topography...................V..........................37
Winds................................................... 33
Utilities.............................................. 39
Code Information..................................page.40
Space parameters...................................... 43
Proximity Matrix.................................. .46
Functional Relationship Diagram....................... 47
Spring Schedule
page 48
My thanks to Pamela Mangu for typing this mother.


Draft Report Summary
Givens _______
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 1
The building type, site and basic program were known
New facilities are needed and will be built for the Glenarm Recreation Center at 2800 Glenarm Place. There is special need for expanded gym space and swimming pool size.
The given site is the one the existing center occupies near Five Points.
A preliminary program, mainly for budgeting purposes, had been compiled be Bertram Bruton, an architect familiar with this type of project.


Draft Report Summary
Questions____________
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 2-
Questions to be answered by research
1. Is the present preliminary program complete in its listing of activites to be housed at the center and does it allot the proper space needed for the activites?
2. What functional and parametric considerations will determine the arrangement of space in the center?
3. What are the environmental and locational factors on the site which will affect
the placement and configuration of the building
4. What should be considered in deciding to renovate or demolish existing center?


TDR/15 Dec ?8/Ward/page
Draft Report Summary Research
Techniques of 1. Talks with involved parties
obtaining the
information a. Director of existing center
b. Other Parks Department personnel, all levels
c. Councilman sponsering new center
d. Architect already involved in this and other city projects
2. On site observation
a. of environmental factors
b. of activity at center
3
Readings on recreation and leisure theories


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 4-
Draft Report Summary
Answer-1______
I determined that it was reasonsbla in its listing of activities and its allotment of space with two exceptions.
a. The areas devoted to ceramics, crafts and other classes are adequate by traditional(Denver) standards, but inadequate probably for the programs being carried
out even now at the center
These call for expansion or at least provision for combination with rooms that could be used for overflow classes.
b. The unmet needs of seniors in the area is not well addressed by the preliminary program. Except for directorial, peroga-tive, there would be no seniors program here at all, but the need has now been revealed and is substantiated by Parks Department data. Experiences with shared facilities at Berkeley Park show that Seniors are the ones who lose in a conflict over use.
I haven't made a specific recommendation about how to handle Seniors, but I don't believe it can be assumed that three rooms and the promise of shared facilities wil meet the needs of this important group.
See preliminary program and Space Parameter Table for decisions made on these basis.
Regarding the completeness of the preliminary program


Draft Report Summary Answer-2
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page $
Regarding Functional and Parametric considerations
1. Functionally the following are most important
a. Easy logical access for users to the activitie of their choice.
b. Provision for minimal staffing
c. Sequential separation of wet and dry areas
2. Important parameters (those things other than pure function which dictate arrangement) are
a. Need for supervision by staff
b. Noise generation and need for quiet
c. Economy of means in water supply
d. Degree of environmental control needed
See Proximity Matrix for decisions made on these bases


Draft Report Summary
Answer-3______
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page
Environmental and Locational factors
b. Location of 15 large trees on or near site
c. Direction of seasonal winds
Most decisions about location and configuration of facility have not been made at this point
Most important are
a. Vehicular and Pedestrian circulation to and through site, including location


Draft Report Summary Answer-4
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward./page 7
Renovate or Demolish the existing center
The decision is affected by
a. The cost of refurbishing and restructuring the rapidly deteriorating shell.
b. The difficulties of bringing the interior up to code, making it low maintenance and making it vandal proof.
c. The psychological implications for the community of a new versus a remodeled center.
d. The historic value of the building and its role as a landmark in the area.
I feel the problems far outweigh the advantages of saving the existing structure. Its historic value is not enough to justify the great expense of maintaining it and the psychological benefit to the neighborhood is questionable.


Draft Report Summary
Omri-sslons____________
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page £
Not included in this research
1. User interviews, Instruction told me written data collection was out of the question in this area. Also most of the users were bigger and meaner looking than myself. But this is an omission I hope to correct. I would like to especially like to find out how the children and Seniors view the center.
2. Statistical information about the neighbors. Educated guesses can be made about the future of Five Points, but to be most effective
a program should include measureable data.


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page
Objectives and Goals
Research Objectives
0 Find out background of project and involved parties (0Read newspaper article (^f^Visit existing facility
(^T^Speak to Director, ( Ellen Washington) about history of
center
0^
Speak to architect Bertram Bruton about his involvement with this and other city projects
(^'Speak to Elton Caldwell about his relation to the area and the inltiatin of the center proposal and the Parks Bond referendum
(^^Speak to Parks Dept. Planning Division Edgar Johnson about ethnic influences on this and other centers
l wJ Determine what are the specific program activltes and schedules of ^ the existing center from Mrs. Washington
Observe and record center activites at various times (0 Monday night (^) Tuesday evening Wednesday morning (^y Seniors Lunch (^) Friday afternoon 0^drafts class (^y Ladies night 1
o
Solicit user input in the form of random interviews with the members of different user groups
Children and parents (^y Adolescents (^y Adults (^) Seniors


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page \0
Objectives and Goals Research Objectives Continued
f Obtain results of previous research and experiences of Bertram Bruton, V' Architect.
(^fPreliminary program indicating building spaces and square footages
(^^Site Plan
(^^Diagrammatic program
f«^insight into city policies on recreation centers from an architect's point of view
• (© Obtain aerial photograph of site and neighborhood
©T Obtain photographs of other existing recreation centers
o Cook Center
(^f'Bkyland
Washington Park (^f Present Glenarm (^) Adams er Berkeley Park (^) South Elati (^fHighland <3^20th street
( >r\ Get information and opinion on the benefits and disadvantages of retaining the existing structure
@TFrom Architect
(^f From Center Director
Qf From Parks Department
c?r

Read about recreation and leisure- theories
©
Review Planning Office Development Control Summary


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 1|
Objectives and Goals
Environmental analysis objectives
O' Examine climatic and locational influences
(^fsolar angles and shadows of adjacent buildings (^^Topography, slopes and drainage (^f Vegetation, existing and potential (^fwinds, directions and zseasons (^Tviews, high and low ( Examine site characteristics
w of
Circulation, vehicular and pedestrian
(^^"utilities, Sewer Fire protection
Water Telephone
Electricity Deliveries
Waste Disposal
o
(5
0^
C\ >
Spatial characteristics
Examine legal, political and associational restraints on land use
{^J^Easements and Rights of Way (^) Zoning codes Byilding codes (^) Special codes O Gity' state and federal laws City politics
(^f^Parks department policy Complete "Zoning and Code Checklist"

Examine local economics
o
Examine locational demographics


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 12*
Objectives and Goals
Architectural Programming Objectives
Determine activities to be housed
Alter activities supplied by Bruton in preliminary program in accordance wj' needs expressed by interviewees and with observations made at the centers
Or Determine needs and parameters for activities
Qf Space (area and Height)
Equipment
Lighting
Qr Environmentalcontrol & Maintenance Or Water consumotion Solar exposure
0TNoise generation/ Quiet needs (^^^Supervi sion/privacy
er Establish matrix for relation of needs and parameters
Gr
Generate diagram of functional relationships
f Review, nrinted. information given by_ parks. Department, and underline that which applies directly to this project.


fefeoo
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I^
Objectives and Goals
Personal Objectives___________________________________________________________
Work with faculty I haven't had in classes and who are reported to have special talents.
Work with an architect other than my instructors and employers. Improve my research techniques.
See some of my ideas used in the recreation center eventually built.


TDR/l5Dec 78/Ward/page i^V
Objectives and Goads
Presentation Objectives
f yr Give thesis committee and each advisor a copy of the V ^ thesis Proposal
f y) Give thesis committee and each advisor a copy of the 'Ss—' Thesis Draft Report
O Present Oral, visual and written summation of work and ideas
Report of study and approaches in booklet form (^) Drawings and model (^) Oral presentation
(This list to be expanded)


oo
TDR/15 Dec 78/Waxd./ page 1^
Objectives and Goals Goals_____________
Produce a design for this recreation center of which I can be proud.
Get my degree


Research
Location Map
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page (C*
Existing Glenarm Recreation Center 2800 Glenarm Place Denver, Colorado 80205


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 17
Research
Interview and Visit Log
Date/Time/Place Person/Title Purpose/Result
26 Sept ?8 4:45 P® Glenarm Rec Center Ellen Washington Director Glenarm Rec Center Initial exposure to center, wanted background information, people to contact, sketchy idea of needs. Found out about Bruton, Caldwell, Ciancioj got brief program information.
28 Sept 78 afternoon telephone Elton Caldwell City Councilman Wanted to know possibilities for center being built and how architect is hired. Got history, nostalgia, and hopefulnesson bond issue and blessing.
13 Oct 78 4:30 pm Bruton's Office Bertram Bruton Architect Interested in Bruton's involvement with the city and with this project. Found out how he was involved, that it takes a long time for these things to go. Got site plan.
17 Nov 78 3:00 pm Bruton's Office Bertram Bruton Architect . » Needed to know budgeting considerations (now that bond issue had failed) and how to get effective user data. Project shelved but probably revived in one or two years.
28 Nov 78 9:00am Parks Planning Edgar Johnson Director Parks Planning John Dillavou His Assistant Needed background on centers, policies, and desires or Parks Department. Found out much about center and politics and seniors programs, real estate approaches.


Research
Interview and Visit Log
Continued
Jim Adams Dan Reid Rod Witlock Parks Dept.
1 Dec 78
morning
telephone
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I £
Found oit about meals program for seniors, pool staffing, CDA funding possibilities.
4 Dec 78 Observing
7:00 pm
Glenarm Rec Center
Found out who,of what race and age,was using the center,how.
4 Dec 78 8j00 pm
Glenarm Rec Center
Ellen Washington Director
Got staff and schedule information, minority-information, and seniors needs, hopes and desires.
11 Dec 78 10:00 am
Berkeley Park Center
Clyde Hendricks Director Connie Boden Seniors Staff
Learned how a working center operates, what the architect left out, and a great varience in programs.
11 Dec 78 Observing activity
4:30 pm
Glenarm Rec Center
Much less action than at night. No whites, still, but all facilites in use.
12 Dec 78
morning
telephone
John Dillavou Discussed the impli
of seniors' facilities in this nieghborhood.
Seems a shame to make them just token.
I told him of my findings about keeping the building.
We talked about the various things (parameters) that cause spaces to need proximity.


Research
Interview Information Summary-1
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I*]
Center Director’s View
Gathered from Interviews with Ellen Washington 26 Sept 78, 15 Nov 78. and 4 Dec 78.
Background
Locations of center: 1 Jan 19^8- June 1965 ® 26th & Glenarm
Then to Whittier Elementary to present facility.
History of Building: Present facility a YMCA for black men built in
1925 or 1929. Remodeled in 1970-1971 for $125,000+ to house recreation center.
Operation
Area Served: North to Curtis
East to Airport South to Colfax West to 21st street
Times Open:
(other schedules) Monday-Friday
12:30-9:00 pm.
Exceptions Friday @ 10:30 "Pride" group for delinquent youth
Pool 12:30-8:30 in warm weather (minorites don't let kids swim in cold weather)
Wednesday night is "women’s night" for pool and workout rooms
Thursday morning is "seniors time" for pool and workout Monday morning religious program Wednesday night "Crusade for Justice" meets Thursday afternoon Bingo
Usual Schedule: 12:30-3:30 is adults, 18+ light use
3:30-6:00 gym open, activites 6:00-9:00M,W,F House League games 6:00-9:00 T,TH Open gym noon hours Seniors lunch evenings Crafts classes (1:00pm.+) closed weekends


Research
Interview Information Summary-1
Continued
TDfi/15 Dec 78/Ward/page ^ 0
Activites:
Gym(all year): Pool(warm): Tennis(warm): Crafts(all year):
Games(all year):
Other(warm):
House Leagues and open gym Classes and open swim Court across the street Ceramics Silver Smithing
Stained Glass Done by one male
Batik recreation leader
Silk Screening
Pottery
Macrame
Children's crafts Photography Leather crafts Cards
Dominos Especially Seniors
Television
Bingo
Picnics
Fishing trips Especially Children
Trips downtown and Seniors
Neighborhood tours
"Free ticket" cultural events
Informal counseling
Scholarship seeking
Touch football
Hopscotch
Jacks
4-square
Staff
Full Time:
Seven full time
Eleven part time
1 Director (female) Supervises and Plans
Teaches crafts Orders materials Trouble shoots
4 Recreation Leaders: 3 made, 1 female
3 are lifeguards, all are planners and overseers of activites, all are instructed in crafts, 2 males, 1 female on basketball , cool weather note: the female is the photo instructor, one male' does special crafts, he is also the director's assistant
1 Athletic Facility Works for nine months then
Assistant (female): becomes recreation leader


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 2-'
Research
Interview
Continued
Part-Time
Notes:
Information Summary-1
1 Custodian (male): Cleaning and Minor repairs
1 Life Guard: Full time, warm weather, 1 June-
31 Aug
1 Senior Aid (female):70+ years
• 9 Deal Workers: Male and Female, Denver Earn and
Learn, 4 hr./day M-F
Vandalism a big problem. Attributed to dilapidation of facility
Television is desired activity, but set needs to be embedded in cement
Likes variety of programs, including those normally denied to minorites,"People have same basic desires".
Attendence dropped in last two years, again because building is so dilapidated.
Would like to see all new facility
Outdoor space on site, minimally important.


Research
Interview Information Summary-2
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward./page 2Z-
Parks Department's view
Gathered from Interviews with Edgar Johnson, Director Parks Planning,
29 Nov ?8; John Dillavou, Assistant Director, 29 Nov 78.
and telephone conversations with Jim Adams, Recreation Supervisor, 1 Dec 78; Dan Reid, Administrative Assistant to Director, 1 Dec 78; Rod Witlock,Center Director,1 Dec 78.
and visits to centers!
Cook Park
Berkeley Park Center and Senior Center
Highlands Seniors Center
Skyland Center
20th Street Center
Washington Park Center
Important Points to Consider
Centers must be flexible-needs changes
Statistics: *1970 9000 playing team sports
*1978 28,680 playing team sports + 150 Tennis
♦Washington Park replaced billards with weight room equipment due to membership ♦Jogging and golf on wane, Tennis and bicycling on rise
Seniors programs expanding-demographic changes.
Low maintenance is essential -save old buildings only if they can be made low maintenance.
Consider handicapped in more ways than required.
Sometimes designing for ethnics is appropriate.
Success of centers generally depends on the program selected be Directors.
Same programs serve different functions in different locations. At Berkeley Park, seniors lunch is a social event, in Five Points it is a nutritional need.
The puchase of property on which to place a recreation center or expand facilities is undertaken with great care by the department. Because of the loss of tax revenue, Eminent Domain is rarely used. In this case the apartment building behind the site would not likely be considered for purchase unless it came up for sale at a convenient time.


Research
Interview information Summary-2
continued
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 2 ^
Elderly need to be more and earlier involved in progams. Demographically they are an ever enlarging group. They are also more active as a group than ever before.
Needs of users is not just for physical facilities, but also for manpower in organizing group activities such as travel tours, museum trips, pinics, walks, etc. These things are bigger than any one person and need the focus of a recreation center for impetus.


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page *2-4
Reseaxch
Interview Information Summary-3________________________________________________
An Architect's View
Gathered from an Interview with Bertram Bruton 19 Oct 78 and 17 Nov 78. Comments
Budget for center is too tight considering needs of neighborhood.
City Councilman Elton Caldwell will probably get the money somehow. He has long been a benefactor, elected 1956 (or so.)
Getting input from the users is extremely difficult. Bruton related experiences in building a school. General public can't or won't talk to architects} public meetings poorly attended; only hecklers showed up.
For information from Parks Department go to Parks planning.


Research
Existing Recreation Centers_______
Existing Glen arm Recreation Center
TDR/15 Dec 78Aterd/page 2$
View from South, Streetside entrance
View from Northeast, Main entcance


TDB/15 Dec 78/Ward/page V+
Research
Existing Recreation Centers
Continued
Neighbors to Glenarm Recreation Center
Daycare Center to East, View from Southwest
Health Center to North, View from East


TDB/15 Dec 78/Waxd/page 2.7
Research
Existing Recreation Centers
Continued
20th Street Center
Highland Seniors Center
Berkeley Park Center & Seniors Center


Research
Existing Recreation Centers
Continued
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 2 &
Typical
Recreation
Center
Interiors
Be*eley Park Shown


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page
Research Bibliography
Butler, George, Introduction to Community Recreation; McGraw
Hill Book Company, New York, 1967.
Cheek, Neil, and Burch, William, The Social Organization of Leisure
in Human Society! Harper and Row, Publishers,
New York, 1976.
Dulles, Foster R., A History of Recreation; Appleton-Century-
Crofts, New York, 1965.
Fish, Harriet, Activities Program for Senior Citizens: Parker
Publishing Company, Inc., West Nyack, N.Y., 1971.
Kraus, Richard, Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society; Appleton-
Century-Crofts, New York, 1971.
Miller, Norman,and Robinson, Duane, The Leisure Age? Wadsworth
Publishing Co., Belmont, California, 1963.
Nesbitt, John, and Brown, Paul, Recreation and Leisure Service for
the Disadvantaged; Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1970.
Tillman, Albert, The Program Book for Recreation Professionals;
Mayfield Publishing Go., Palo Alto, California,
1973.
"Development Controls: A Summary of Denver Planning Office Activities
197^-1976"{prepared by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, July, 1976.


Environmental Analysis
Vehicular Circulation
TDR/15 l*ec 78/Ward/page


Environmental Analysis Parking-Existing and Planned
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 'J’l
Tremont


Environmental Analysis Pedestrian Paths
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page
Tremont


Environmental Analysis
Vegatation_____________
TDR/15 I'ec 78/Ward/page 'i'b
z> K. ~7 rz
29 th Street
f \ r~
Z7 Z
I?
U
r\


Environmental Analysis Views from Site-Ground Level
TLR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 34
7 7
7 7
7
7
29 th Street
~\
J
“\


Environmental Analysis
Solar Angles___________
TDR/15 78/Ward/page $5
7 7
7 7
29 th Street
~\ /--------------------\
IZ7 l
7
^UMtfeP. p-, 5uM^e-r |—y


Environmental Analysis Man-made Site Features
TDh/15 £ec 78/Ward/page

1 " ' ~J
29 th Street
Tremont


Environmental Analysis Topography and Drainage
TER/15 tiec 78/Ward/page 37
7 7
7 7
7 7
17
29 th Street
"\
J
“\
Tremont


Environmental Analysis
Winds______
TDR/15 flee 78/Ward/page
Tremont


Environmental Analysis Utilites
TDR/15 Rec 78/Mard/page
7 ^
Z> ^
Z) Z
Z
29 th Street
r
J

Lg^Nt? -x
-W-- WAT£fc
-£----bM
-e—-^mut tow & (yu —Ml—------------
â– yttONW H/ fUOPU^T
Tremont


TDR/15 Dec ?8/Wa^d/page4'C,
Architectural Programming
Code information______________________________________________________________
ZONING AND CODE CHECKLIST
• PROJECT NAME Glenarm Recreation Center__________________PROJECT NO. Thesis
BUILDING DEPT./AUTHORITYDenver Bldg Dent,/ G. BurchardtPHONE NO. 575~3643______
BUILDING CODE USED Denver Bldg Code ___________________EDITION 1976
(date)
ZONING DEPT./AUTHORITY Denver Zoning Dept._____________PHONE NO. 575-2191
ZONING CODE USED Denver Zoning Ordinances______________EDITION latest _________
(date]
ZONING REQUIREMENTS (Cite Chapter and Section or Paragraph No.)
Building zone R^__________________________,Fire zone__________III______________
'Setbacks 10 feet__________front-_________7.5 feet sides 20 feet rear
Height and bulk limitations ___________________________________________________
Parking requirements ________;_________________________________________________
Fencing restrictions __________________________________________________________
Sign restrictions _____________________________________________________________
Easements _____________________________________________________________________
BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS (Cite Chapter and Section)
Occupancy type(s) B-2__________________________________________________________
Type(s) of construction permitted:
A. Type 1___________________________
Basic allowable area unlimited Allowable area increases 33z%
Total allowable area unlimited
Height limitations unlimited
Occupancy separations none
Page 1


Zoning and Code Checklist (Continued)
4!
Basic allowable area ___
Allowable area increases
Total allowable area
Height limitations __
Occupancy separations
Basic allowable area ___
Allowable area increases
Total allowable area
Height limitations __
Occupancy separations
Basic allowable area ___
Allowable area increases
Total allowable area___________________________
• »
Height limitations ____________________________
Occupancy separations _________________________
Exit requirements:
Occupant load/type ?OQ occupants/ B-2 occupancy
Number exits required 2__________________________________________________
Minimum/Maximum distance between exits 150 (200 if sprinkled)____________
________ _____________________________________________________(feet)
Page 2


Zoning and Code Checklist (Continued)
42-
Stair shafts fire rating NA_____________________________________(hours)
Total exit width required 14 (-f-at main exit)____________________(feet)
Minimum corridor width 3*67____________________________________(feet)
Corridor fire rating________1______________________________________(hours)
Special conditions (open wells, etc.) None Known at This time
Additional requirements:
Shafts - required fire ratings - (hours)
Doors - fire ratings & UL label <
stair (hours) (label)
corridor (hours) (label)
other (hours) (label)
Special requirements for light, ventilation and sanitation None Known
Special hazards None
OTHER CODE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIVE COVENANT, FIRE, HEALTH, LIFE SAFETY, ETC.
List below requirements in addition to and/or more restrictive than those of the Building Code or additional restrictions affecting setback lines, parking, fencing, signs, easements, access to site, landscaping, public safety, utilities.
None Known
Page 3


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 43
Architectural Programming Legend for Space Parameters
it

S

Square Footage Requirements (in square feet)
Width of Space (in feet)
Length of Space (in feet)
Height of Space (in feet)
Water Requirement (in fixture units)
Supervision Requirements
constant supervision: entry (at least) to activity must be in direct view of staff area
occasional supervision: staff must see entry to general area and have only a short trip to look in.
no supervision needed
supervisory view needed out of space
Environmental Control Requirements
V ventilation and moisture extraction especially important
O cooling especially important
H heating especially important
(7 draft protection especially important
Noise
o
->
generates noise requires quiet Natural Lighting Requirements (Solar Exposure)
1 I could use direct sun
1 indirect natural light would enhance activity 1 natural light not important no natural lighting needed or wanted
C


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page A\
Architectural Programming Legend for Space Parameters Continued
Artificial Lighting Requirements (in foot candles)
Maintenance Requirements K regular maintenance HI occasional high maintenance wet maintenance


f
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 45
Architectural Programing
Space n /K ! a s« cA «3 # f —
Vestibule '70 IV 1 b O n ft
Lobby |50 10 |5 \t O an fo ft
Control Desk 100 10 10 b M 10 ft
Check Room 100 10 \0 b b* M bo N
Director no \0 12- b O (Tb m 50 ft
Rec. Leaders too \4 15 b wm ft
Conference/Lunch I bo 11 If e> m 5o ft
Staff Toilet bo $ [to t> (ol V iii
subtotal 1000
Lounge 500 If to 10 'b 0 Senior(25) 15 1$ 10 0 n> m racrl $0 ft
Senior(25) 1$ 25 10 V Kitchen C\0 -1 10 b 1-0 v,? m 10 w
Games-Kids *>00 15 to b O MJ bo ft
Games-Adults 500 1* tv to O m 5o ft
Table Games loo »* to 10 O fd 5o 14
Crafts & Storage 110 \(f to & n M to 14
Ceramics & Storage \k M- to lb C7 V #o» m 5o wi
Kilns 1 VO b W ON m $• W
Classroom l\o if 14 b M \oo ft
Classroom 3l5 15 t\ b m 100 ft
Photography (,00 za 15 b 100 V rb WM loo 14
subtotal 4100
Gym-Multipurpose fro 00 big 1!^ tA O V c=C3 w> 1 4* 41
Swimming Pool 1000 biff \0(ff tA O V 1 Ao HI
Spectator Mo 10 Vb \P V <1 m\ to ft
General Exercise too 70 Ao \c> 0 V,P iSJ Ao ft
Hand/Raquet Ball too 10 4 0 11) t. <1 ^1 Ao 41
Basket Room \oo I 0 10 b E3H i* 14
Control to i> 10 b V 4 0 H
Toilets(Both) boO lo 4 0 b Ml w V m 5o 4
Sauna 100 10 10 b Mo 0 m 10 N
Utility b 10 6 m }o W
Custodial 110 10 II b KSi 50 N
subtotal total \bf06 1H0O 1


TDft/1,5 Dec 78/Ward/page Ab
Architectural Programming Proximity Matrix__________
Vestibule
Lobby
Control Desk
Check Room
Director
Rec. Leaders Conference/Lunch"
Staff Toilets
Lounge
Seniors (25
Seniors (25
Kitchen
Games-Kids
Games-Adults
Table Games
Crafts & Storage
Ceramics & Storage
Kilns Classroom
Classroom
Photography
Gym/Multipurpose
Swimming Pool
Spectator
General Excercise
Hand/Raquet Ball
Basket Room
Control
Toilets (two)
Sauna
Utility Custodial
Guide to Proximity Requirements
Required-related functions â–¡I Desired-related functions a Desired-related parameters â–¡ Not necessary H Undesirable
Utility
Custodial


TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 47
Architectural Programming Fuaetienal-Relationship Diagram


Architectural Design Spring Schedule 1979
TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page
1 Jan-28 Jan Winter Break Gather more information on Seniors. Talk to users, Get moieinformation on heighborhood. Consult J. Jones.
5 Feb-16 Feb Refine relationship diagram, experiment with different configurations on site. Consult A. Malo. Begin site model.
19 Feb-2 Mar Decide on configuration, general layout on site,. Generate schematic plan. Consult, B. Brutonand E. Washington.
5 Mar-16 Mar Readjust or change according to consultations. Generate ideas on how to "address surroundings" via materials and connections. Consult A. Malo
19 Mar-30 Mar Mock up model on site model. Layout outdoor activities in detail. Consult D. Blossam and A. Malo, get last chance with everyone.
2 Apr-13 Apr Finalize design and site development. Breathe deeply. Begin compiling written data for printing.
16 Apr-27 Apr Do line drawings, plans, sections, elevations. Begin work on model. Get written information typed or printed.
30 Apr-11 May Finish model. Do renderings necessary, Get final presentation prepared and mounted. Don't Panic.
Late May-
Present
















>
SYNOPSIS: PROGRAM TO DESIGN
The following pages were selected from a notebook kept during the design process. This mixture of preliminary layouts, notes and fantasies helped with the difficult process of extracting meaning from the program data.
What emerged from this reevaluation of the data was that there were two sets of needs that warranted attention. The need for a specific scale and type of recreation center on the cramped site was clearly outlined in the program. The directions toward the solutions of this need were also clearly in the program. Less clear were the problems and the solutions regarding lack of free, open space in the neighborhood. The decision to deal with this implied need for open space was long in coming.
Architects are not traditionally reinforced for inventing problems to solve. Only the feeling, substantiated by piles of drawings, that this cake could be had and eaten, too, allowed this decision. Translation: the final solution to the recreation center proper can stand on its own. It affects and is affected by the "park" laid over it, to be sure,
but it is not ruled by the park. Instead, the park allows a series of huge volumes to dwell less obtrusively among more sensitively scaled neighboring buildings than they might have.
The difference in the origins and natures of the two sets of needs indicated different approaches to their solution and resolution. The spaces of the recreation center are as direct a solution to the multitude of requirements as could be managed. There is light, air, drama and vitality for sure, but all within the efficient grid.
The rooftop green area originated as a dream and was executed as a vision. Its slope, shape and development were partially products of exigency but ultimately it is an aesthetic creation.
It is clear that these two solutions should affect each other to some extent. They do so in the present project, although perhaps not as much as they could and should have. The vision which gives life to this project was perhaps followed too blindly at the expense of more specifically appealing development. These are somewhat subjective issues. The project is not conceived or scaled beyond user development. The final balances are nearly always achieved in that arena.
Douglas Christopher Ward


(}) "]Xu> ozdteA uJtlL be, UM-t
CSS\)f'€Ai, ptytf,4A0AaJjj Io£&Ju4J2-
£cM^~ (mJ/OM. ($(LsJto*\ ?)
Q) jh as) cSd*~ p ^ ^aSjlMsf^ jArtsfc^- (Xs\ jz ^oJtc>su^C^eA^ ijtfc Ip^ ~fb
o1)UasIl, ju^[^t/^A (cIom
cedtzJ Vi^SJtb cL^tu, ^),
Jyt^ioru^.
*?&urLAJL~
ClAAsbzt
TU^
\0yM*AAA ® jH" to ^fU \n^iy(i- pdi tyAmAji- ^lCh*\ 'il/Ss /yussd/dsf\ CL^
^ud '~ftu Csryw/WUAjJL (yv^M^sL^ (b jfh)-
® "TW A/) J^tt(jL
^Jj)(uc cma 1U $(Xp ajtl| (rw**+1 p paJ/L .
'/tr jbeurt-
G-^Z/As*->
OAjXrt J
TU CtdS


iW. ll<4"
'Jla J)^ ficwhi- Cm[ %uAU$~lin*s. t
$l/mhL "fU [jIckIl, {/A^cJ^
^NLtJA l/w~ iUa- Cp^rt/JL ^cZiiti^* CH\ ~j.
(Q) Jyf f/JJiAd i/Ks ft. jjpuJ- ij)cnM A IcuLij j&HCA^^f
(j— c$JUW>v JQ\ c\_ \)^amJm of c^sf ]/M^O ft fb*
olud/vA
PM41MW
f
>ontfy


1b^ YlpC. /vn Pi^CctvcmJ, '
/Ak’fHCt C
fUuL,
(M^
MfiutL,
‘i&L' C^tvu
fyj mjmLuA.f (k. picfk*£*
rvL.
CljuJiL//t (pjiX Jt'VWQ'ltMsvl 5UCt tfL/wuv [Ae*p**~
jv ClfiJZJ
TxM #7w
M^W^-yWv.
0/
j/* KaxaL' MmT Jwrc CM-
AA*&i/U^ fyxsiC aJUt-(}(lOWMJzJ4 frdL 0^^
(A & /tiuvpf
he,
Co^mxmjlmA
£xjmwi£_
JU#UAl(b\A’
\CvMmJL \^UaA] CM—'
iaAAJ

__ •
lUtA UfitCirVHy
^KOOAd- f


jA_s
J1
! ) Cwvljl. Orv*JL \t yVWV NACoJL' [/rCti\ yyM^I ■ Jh & jff)/AscJ‘ M*' ' ^IrJluJLk

'(AAJU
'ZU ^ ^ ^ J)
- k*. tn^ixAicJl + v-p^JJf)i*JL
-* £j)pni ip (JdMu*. o^r ^ -
&M J?
JIlp J&6
jU^Ih^UU Jl^cf
i^rv/1m^-ZZ ~ffir
^ Tl



\fi*p Jl '1'Lp ^robs
whjfL Iha/J^ OJtJL[ lit G&^(CuM~ {* '
c/fU^ . i^tL.
OMUla—
oJ fj)(Att cm 71* /t/^XO\ Jjol#-
T^T) Jch (jl&lM+ti' u ^
cJunyp-— {9 ^
(f /WWW ----- (1/ J/1*S( is-*
jtlfaj (MJL&* chA Oi Ju .
> ^}A&flujy) lA/vih ~Tkw ML ^/^ujcjcAxJc^ ^
"7^C«j/ /USULck 0^ ^^llM6****<^
Q/iU^vu*- ^ - 1^ L(J J-TJ
cn a.
© 0 ... , ! ...
{0 aX • (7^ mJL f (mmL ILio l/S\J)b- 1m cXttio^
/Vv. /t/2^ (W twdl #
ieMnAj-


i) {v ClTYM.
0 '%L l/C^L‘lLuaa IaM£~ o$nwr<^
CU^d L)bdo\tVFM
@%oJU CL ftuAXjM/ f A^fy"
aJL. (w!
itn&A jj^addu
!u fiiduA. \
Mw?
/VdUP Un
fdhK. fryH> a, .
(^) IJj&s /pi*^ eAA&Lt 7W (Po^A^J/AAA-s .
Pe^/I
Y&dMjj'A'
vf
yC*'-
yf
KK-
/ww.
. ^Jal At (A. Qfl-uti
m
(^) JLaAU/UU %*t
t
pJts
C^-
ylvutd 'fl* /l*/stqlJ!rttl^V-d
^LA/Ts
wtk.
(t) IMCM^dv /IAAW--01A4V1 ) CL JkO^CJL^ ifr
aju^T poAtAtA h fiJxtt) Jl<4
J iJu«~
£*\t\UTL





(j) YbuA /\a&u~d (fdju. /VL(j*d rvU'- ce/dtj^
Jbh W^l VAu |kW 'fo \yyj/u JamJL ytM ^tuo j^edfl ^tf^yo .
JL'u u^- lx-' kcfuM*. 'hcnr UuJt ImIoLvy
C^ /putftlut 6cJljL . ^U/-~ pluAt-?-.
(^Lchuj : ^cfy^cod 'jw* 0O4s iut< C;
io. M\ Ct^Lp^ * •
£. \yytyMMrw^ A*' *20*1*1-'
[%c&n^ J/c^caJl Y)AJ
1
. 14

Amt\A-y
Ojui[jL^U
C4-




T.
u iT 1 °T*
1 §>
' \ dt*» CA*ld l^L—M—i




cUdc
r.
w
[] fiUc
I if
s§r*,,r
%v ^
JMb^
9i^^ciiX-
&mait
CLuk t ] fUm **
I2i\utl} VeA^L
I3H
4 &JKs. . LtAC(U%
Cwlth-JmA 4
fMo
f>pj
*f fry**-
JditJL C^rut^jC^i^
Jj*l
To4j&
^jy fid? t-echut. (J.)
‘7J)'e^Mn4_
Ptoft’tJ.






Pct4AAx><-' r-----r
lo«U|0
wu
Gmjjui
4JuX«- 'WH*-
(pUtJJUL.
"^LlVf.uL(L$e
4«
5*uw*j
5fc
*8
1h&&
4*«
0
■ 5cx»ivt- 116 ■ 1* 5t*urv< !
-
6o*p f** 640

- dm. ’ i - — c&-*+ 22 1 fL



a
ra 7^' ll p_i
k- i=a
—v—
i i o| 1
^-^UlOBAfc. C=F
IM ^— —> 1 i
>»— yvmK/z*>+~
j L_ exra>c ?ep-V—

fy ia. "£fc fh& f* fnfa*- yp^M fU


(rf/lM

rlfajtoJAi c^ (J^dt tw*
±TS

•itWU V1/1




\4aJUi
t
4
f"r“L l!_
1 V^‘ > ‘ / / /}
i'W
}' -)
ci>
W
fi|i&
iuitA
1
j'
WJ C**kr*^ I
•v L . •»
A. w/via-o
^Ui ^
JLWM1 y
<\ x&*A
y l&VL i^'KX*.
Kk)
*ITF
50k
V"1


pWStO
Vjy^
l^dmtdi /-—

(p^
iw
Khi
tw# t<4xi 'A I*
nu***


PitOtIa. (0/
?U L
V*
rn
KJ
ITP
1 Two A /w/w


* r

QutAitrvMi
Ji^X^e^uJL
TW a. ClmJ^
CjluIA *ht+Cj
fa/JtrisL Ci^^A^C
$OfAAAkXjU

(JrllMMt*
*i+ L-M^Ua " '



l(5-rV2—
©■w* |(n, CWCJLLA J \thM
(A J M>
Vt
C^Uui A/)
2 J//\rtGAACn’ jXjiM/JuXy U/V^cj
JW^(\jXm4JL y{jM 71m O&mIm. C*-J '\\fa~'
.n^ fyJx rj TU, ]^JJaa^c . aO
CHa \f)rdh f^chtL | f (*j) (MmmaiI~/uMiw [acIjuM ^ ACVamX}
^IL 0^ 5(w4~-XmXa qs) olui/L CiwvH Mm* • 5^f (d&MMrw ^
4JU ht- Xudi* ^)tMZ(yvi ^|

(4) 7U JaIL 7Iajl of JX^uJIL
jX ,1a /Mpk (a. 4m(wiiL. jU1 jiaMJL
Crf |uv3 $AxA 4r AtAJns /t-i_
JtA


VtuAxr*o j? be* WacLt-*
(\) IfJh/AQ-' (s*x^ /l^tws k. Jja\'/\o^ \o — sj yfi cAlMKAsi-*
If)
n
(S) (/^Tfb 'flw h |) trfluj' lC*ty , CMA~- /*
auMm JmamuI 4* yIa) J
jL Tknc a {jydJ^ I Id pfylu. ftiytctlCtr
1/syC 6* ^ -fU

*o O^a
hiu A
'I'Ll \iij^i/l aMr^t
yU/AA^i
if 1fULs (*Aa (a^VJUa^^AAA ^

iirv^
"f* 7 V\fiich—


I 0-2, VP
Pa^id c^_
%*df , . v
‘Tie^-ed f%u>e\£ud_
\%-
r
\M~eJdjLs j-j
'%£^\ J2-*wX^1AW2^ . % ~Huft ItCf^uy-^Ji Pf
sd ;J yud'/ CyULUJr- (J^ -'jf
Q. wiA«( <-
!
1 (I
^C^lA/tv^el y & G@jh£?*‘.
0) cx_ ^cO ^1 c^l
(^) Orvu^j^jL ~JZ T

w
*J"kt
C^io/a^L.


ft
01
'to io CHAs\ yz<-*-
s^j) cH/\
fJ*oJ I
f)j/M d.0 JJ Coli-#*^ -^C^l ^
(JJlM^L. — JLLj . h C^itL
/ ^l-
MyJj^ HcMi cb*uL~

iu
dLo^i^)
(X
fs*&tli> W j/e^:
U^LA-^H Hi
I •
CK (\MAT\JL-^ (yuVvvV^^-^
jy clcL Vjk^ \xx^-— .
~^Ll. CiAjU^
C-**^ Ju


C(T*o\/vo^. f U<^t a/I 1 ^ _
cwj- ~Y}\]WJ\?\\^k *r? /vt^y
[f 'U iL ‘d
u Institutions


\?cus (yvM* &j JLjl
htfASL C>a(’ v)W-
. • xl
y%j. /fI\aA(nMo^ (s>
\p2-UO ft. V^V
Iajl— (
f j2/)/Cf
rl,
A>/ CW&J‘


Mack'*


Full Text

PAGE 1

Thesis Douglas Christopher Ward University of Colorado at Denver 1979 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY

PAGE 2

Contents Draft Summary Objectives and Goals Research Environmental Analysis Architectural Programming Architectural Design I I I I I \\\Ill Ill I IIII I l l \ Ill\ Ill\ Ill I l l I ll\\\ I I I\\ I IIII I I I III II I I I 3 1204 00270 8395 TDR/15 Dee ?8/w_aro./pa.ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . • • . page Givens •• , ••••• 'Questiops •••••••. . . . . • ... . ........ . . . ....... , . Research; •• . ; .................. Answers •• Omissions, . . . . -..... . . . ... ............ . ..... .. -..... . , • . .. . ..... .... . . .a . ...... Research Objectives ••••••. • ••• , Environmental Analysis 0 bj ec ti ves • •••• , • , . • , .. .. page 9 . .... .11 ' Architectural Programming Objectives. Personal 0 -bj ecti ves ••••• Presentation Objectives •••• ....... ; •• ; 12' .1J . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . .. , ..... . Goals. . . . ... ................................... • •• 14. :t5 . LocatiQil Map ••••• .............. • • • •• page 16 • • ...... •... 1 7 i.,., • i Interview and Visit Log ••••••••••••• Interview Summaries. ..... . .. ..19 . ; .25 Photos-Existing. Centers. Bibliography ••••••.•.• Vehicular Circulation. Parking ..•••...•• Pedestrian Paths. Vegetation ••. Views ••• : ••• • . . .... . . . . . - • . . . . . . . . . . .... . . • •••••••••••••. 29. .page JO . . .J1 . ... I I I I I . .... . . . ..... .. . . Solar Angles. Man-made Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • ..... .J2 .JJ .J4 .J5 .J6 . . . . . . . ... Topography. . . . . . . . . . . ... . .......... . • •••. J7 Winds.,.,. . . . . . . . .. .38 Utilities •• . . . . . Code Information ••• Space parameters •• Proximity Matrix •• . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . Functional Relationship Diagram. . . . . . . . ........ . J9 . . . . . ... . ....... . .pa.ge .. 40 .4J .46 . ......... . . ... • ....•...•.•• 47 Spring Sched.ule .........................•......... page 48 My taanks to Mangu for typing this mother. J.

PAGE 3

Draft Report Summary Givens The building type, site and basic program were known TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I New facilities are needed and will be built for the Glenarm Recreation Center at 2800 Glenarm Place. There is special need for expanded gym space and swimming pool size. The given site is the one the existing center occupies near Five Points. A preliminary program, mainly for budgeting purposes, had been compiled be Bertram Bruton, an architect familiar with this type of project.

PAGE 4

Draft Report Summary Questions Questions to be answered by research TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward./page 21. Is the present preliminary program complete in its listing of acti vi tes to be housed at the center and does it allot the proper space needed for the activites? 2. What functional and parametric considerations will determine the arrangement of space in the center? J. What are the environmental and locational factors on the site which will affect the :placement and configuration of the building? 4. What should be considered in deciding to renovate or demolish existing center?

PAGE 5

Draft Report Summary Research Techniques of obtaining the information 'IDR/15 Dec :7 1. Talks with involved parties a. Director of existing center b. Other Parks Department personnel, all levels c. Councilman sponsering new center d. Archi teet already involved in this and other city projects 2. On site observation a. of environmental factors b. of activity at center J. Readings on recreation and leisure theories.

PAGE 6

Draft Report Summary Answer-1 Regarding the completeness of the preliminary program TDR/1.5 Dec 78/Ward/page 4I determined that it was reasonable in its listing of activities and its allotment of space with two exceptions. a. The areas devoted to ceramics, crafts and other classes are adequate by traditional(Denver) standards, but inadequate pro ba.bly for the programs being carried out even now at the center These call for expansion or at least provision for combination with rooms that could be used for overflow classes. b. The unmet needs of seniors in the area is not well addressed by the preliminary program. Except for directorial perogative, there would be no seniors program here at all, but the need has now been revealed and is substantiated by Parks Department data. Experiences with shared facilities at Berkeley Park show that Seniors are the ones who lose in a conflict over use. I haven't specific recommendation aoout how to handle Seniors, but I don't believe it can be assumed that three rooms and the promise of shared facilities wil meet the needs of this important group. See preliminary program and Space Parameter Table for decisions made on these basis.

PAGE 7

Draft Report Summary Answer-2 Regarding Functional and Parametric considerations TDR/1.5 Dec 78/Ward/page ::; 1. Functionally the following are most important a. Easy logical access for users to the activitie of their choice. b. Provision for minimal staffing c. Sequential separation of wet and dry areas 2. Important parameters (those things other than pure f\mction which arrangement) are a. Need for supervision by staff b. Noise generation and need for quiet c. Economy of means in water supply d. Degree of envi::ronmental control needed See Proximity Matrix for decisions made on these bases

PAGE 8

Draft Report Summary Answer-J Environmental and Locational factors TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page /, Most important are a. Vehicular and Pedestrian circulation to and through site, including location b. Location of 15 large trees on or near site c. Direction of seasonal winds Most decisions about location and configuration of facility have not been made at this point

PAGE 9

Draft Report Summary Answer-4 Renovate or Demolish the existing center . . TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 7 The decision is affected by a. The cost of refurbishing and restructuring the rapidly deteriorating shell. b. The difficulties of bringing the interior up to code, making it low maintenance and making it vandal proof. c. The psychological implications for the commUnity of a new versus a remodeled center. d. The historic value of the building and its role as a landmark the area. I feel the problems far outweigh the advantages of saving the existing structure. Its historic value is not enough to justify the great expense of maintaining it and the psychological benefit to the neighborhood is questionable.

PAGE 10

Draft Beport Summary Omissions Not included in this research TDR/15 Dec fJ 1. User interviews, Instruction told me written data collection was out of the question in this area. Also most of the users were bigger and meaner looking than myself. But this is an omission I hope to correct. I would like to especially like to find out how the children and Seniors view the center. 2. Statistical information about the neighbors. Educated guesses can be made about the future of Five Points, but to be most effective a program should incluie measureable data.

PAGE 11

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward.)page . 4 Objectives and Goals Research Objectives 0 Find out background of project and involved parties newspaper article existing facility to ( Ellen Washington) about history of center to architect Bertram about his involvement with this and other city projects to Elton Caldwell about his relation to the area and the ini tiatJm of the center proposal and the Parks Bond referendum &"speak to Parks Dept. Planning Division Edgar Johnson about ethnic influences on this and other centers what are the specific program activites and schedules of the existing center from Mrs. Washington 0 Observe and record center activites at various times night 0 Tuesday evening B"'w ednesday morning Q Seniors Lunch 0 Friday afternoon class 0 Ladies night 1 Solicit user input in the form of random interviews with the members of different user groups 0 Children and parents • 0 Adolescents 0 Adults 0 Seniors_

PAGE 12

Objectives and Goals Research Objectives Continued TDR/15 Dec I 0 d Obtain results of previous research and experiences of Bertram Bruton, \J Architect. program indicating building spaces and square Plan program into city policies on recreation centers from an a.rchi teet's point of view aerial photograph of site and neighborhood e-Obtain photographs of other existing recreation centers 0 Cook Center 0 Washington Park &resent Glenarm 0 Adams Park 0 South Elati street . 0 Get information and opinion on the benefits and disadvantages of retaining the existing structure @'From Arc hi teet e-From Center Director Parks Department G"Read recreation and leisure-theories e Review Planning Office Development Control Summary

PAGE 13

Objectives and Goals Environmental analysis objectives TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward./pa.ge II climatic and locational influences 0." Solar angles and shadows of adjacent buildings slopes and drainage existing and poteEtial directions and zseasons high and low (3'Examine site characteristics vehicular and pedestrian Sewer Fire protection Water Telephone Electricity Deliveries Waste Disposal c=) Spatial characteristics legal, politlcal and associational restraints \..:.) land use Rights of W ay c=) Zoning codes codes c=) c=) City, state and federal laws c=) politics department policy 0complete "Zoning and Code Checklist" c::> Examine local economics Q Examine locational demographics

PAGE 14

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I '2. Objectives and Goals Architectural Programming Objectives Determine activities to be housed Alter activities supplied by Bruton in preliminary program in accordance . needs expressed by interviewees and with observations made at the centers needs and parameters for activities (area and Height) G""Equipment G'tighting @Maintenance consumotion exposure generation/ Quiet needs . matrix for of needs and parameters diagram of functional relationships = -

PAGE 15

Objectives and Goals Personal Objectives TDR/15 Dec 1 1 0' Work with faculty I haven't had in classes and who are reported to have special talents. with an archi teet other than my instructors and employers. 0 Improve my research techniques. 0 See some of my ideas used in the recreation center eventually built.

PAGE 16

'IDR/1.5Dec 78/Ward./pa;ge I k Objectives and Goals Presentation Objectives thesis committee and each advisor a copy of the 'thesis Proposal ("X'Give thesis commitee and each advisor a copy of t!'le '\.J Thesis Draft Report 0 Present Oral, visual and written summation of work and ideas 0 Report of study and approaches in oooklet form 0 Drawings and model 0 Oral presentation (This list to be expanded)

PAGE 17

Objectives and Goals Goals TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/ page 0 0 Produce a design for this recreation center of which I can be proud. Get my degree

PAGE 18

Research Location Map Existing Glenarm . Recreation Center 2800 Glenarm Place Denver, Colorado 80205 TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I C.. ( I-70 1st

PAGE 19

Research Interview and Visit Log Date/Time/Place 26 Sept 78 4:45 pm Glenarm Rec Center 28 Sept 78 aftemoon telephone 13 Oct 78 4:30 pm Bruton's Office 17 Nov 78 3:00 pm Bruton's Office 28 Nov 78 9:00am Parks Planning Person/Title Ellen Washington Director Glenarm Rec Center E1 ton Caldwell City Councilman Bertram Bruton Architect Bertram Bruton Architect TDR/15 Dec 1 7 Purpose/Result Initial exposure to center, wanted background information, people to contact, sketchy idea of needs. Found out alx>ut Bruton, Caldwell, Ciancio• got brief program information. Wanted to know possibilities for center being built and how archi teet is hired. Got history, nostalgia, andhopefulnesson lx>nd issue and blessing. Interested in Bruton's involvement with the city and with this project. Found out how he was involved, that it takes a long time for these things to go. Got site plan. Needed to know budgeting considerations (now that lx>nd issue had failed) and how to get effective user data. Project shelved ; but probably revived in one or two years. Edgar Johnson Director Parks Planning John Dillavou His Assistant Needed background on centers, policies, and desires or Parks Department. Found out much alx>ut center and politics.and seniors programs, real estate approaches.

PAGE 20

Research Interview and Visit Log Continued 1 Dec 78 moming telephone 4 Dec 78 7:00 pm Glenarm Rec Center 4 Dec 78 8:00 pm Glenarm Rec Center 11 Dec 78 10:00 am Berkeley Park Center 11 Dec 78 4:}0 pm Glenarm Rec C enter 12 Dec 78 moming telephone Jim Adams Dan Reid Rod Witlock Parks Dept. Observing Ellen Washington Director Clyde Hendricks Director Connie Boden Seniors Staff Observing activity John Dillavou 'IDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page I Found ol.t aoout meals program for seniors, pool staffing, CDA funding possibilities. Found out what race and age, was using the center1how. Got staff and schedule information, minority information, and seniors needs, hopes and desires. Leamed how a working center operates, what the archi teet left out, and a great varience in programs. Much less action than at night. No whites, still, but all facilites in use. Discussed the impli of seniors' facill ties in this nieghoorhood. Seems a shame to make them just token. I told him of my findings about keeping the building. We talked about the various things (parameters) that cause spaces to need proximity.

PAGE 21

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 1 4 Research Interview Information Summaxy-1 Center Director's View Gathered from Interviews with Ellen Washington 26 Sept 78, 15 Nov 78, and 4 Dec 78. Background Locations of center: 1 Jan 1948June 1965@ 26th' & Glenarm Then to Whittier Elementary to present facility. History of Building: Present facility a YMCA for black men built in Operation Area Served: Times Open: (other schedules) Usual Schedule: 1925 or 1929. Remodeled in 1970-1971 for $125,000+ to house recreation center. North to Curtis East to Airport South to Colfax West to 21st street Monday-Friday 12:30-9:00 pm. Exceptions Friday @ 10:30 "Pride" group for delinquent youth Pool 12:30-8' :30 in warm weather (minorites don't let kids swim in cold weather) Wednesday night is "women's night" for pool and workout rooms Thursday morning is "seniors time" for pool and workout Monday morning religious program Wednesday night "Crusade for Justice" meets Thursday afternoon Bingo 12:30-3:30 is adults, 18+ light use 3:30-6:00 gym open, activites 6:00-9:00M,W,F House League games 6:00-9:00 T,TH Open gym noon hours Seniors lunch evenings Crafts classes (1:00pm.+) closed weekends

PAGE 22

TDR/15 Dec 1 0 Research Interview Information Summary-! Continued Activites: Staff Full Time: Gym(all year): Pool(warm): Tennis( warm): Crafts(all year): Games (all year) : Other( warm): Seven full time Eleven part time House Leagues and open gym Classes and open swim Court across the street Ceramics Silver Smithing Stained Glass Done by one male Batik recreation leader Silk Screening Pottery Macrame Children's crafts Photography Leather crafts Cards Dominos Especially Seniors Television Bingo Picnics Fishing trips Especially Children Trips downtown and Seniors Neighborhood tours "Free ticket" cultural events Informal counseling Scholarship seeking Touch football Hopscotch Jacks 4-square 1 Director (female) Supervises and Plans Teaches crafts Orders materials Trouble shoots 4 Recreation Leaders: 1 A .thletic Facility (female): 3 male, 1 female 3 are lifeguards, all are planners and overseers of activites, all are instructed in crafts, 2 males, 1 female on basketball , cool weather note: the female is the photo instructor, one male " does special crafts, he is also the director's assistant Works for nine months then becomes recreation leader

PAGE 23

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page Z.. \ Research Interview Information Summary-1 Continued Part-Time: Notes: . 1 Custodian (male): Cleaning and Minor repairs 1 Life Guard: Full time, warm weather, 1 June-31 Aug 1 Senior Aid (female):70+ years 9 Deal Workers' Male and Female, Denver Earn and Learn, 4 hr./day M-F Vandalism a big problem. Attributed to dilapidation of facility Television is desired activity, but set needs to be embedded 1n cement Likes variety of programs, including those normally denied to minorites,"People have same basic desires". Attendence dropped in last two years, again because building is so dilapidated. Would like to see all new facility Outdoor space on site, minimally important.

PAGE 24

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 'Z. Z.. Research Interview Information Summary-2 Parks Department's view Gathered from Interviews with Edgar Johnson, Director Parks Planning, 29 Nov 78; John Dillavou, Assistant Director, 29 Nov 78. and telephone conversations with Jim Adams, Recreation Supervisor, 1 Dec 78; Dan Reid, Administrative Assistant to Director, 1 Dec 78; Rod Witlock,Center Director,1 Dec 78. and visits to centers: Cook Park Berkeley Park Center and Senior Center Highlands Seniors Center Skyland center 20th Street Center Washington Park Center Important Points to Consider Centers must be flexible-needs change: Statistics: *1970 9000 playing team sports *1978 28, 680 playing team sports + 150 Tennis *Washington replaced billards with weight room equipment due to membership *Jogging and golf on wane, Tennis and bicycling on rise Seniors programs expanding-demographic changes. Low maintenance is essential -save old buildings only if they can be made low maintenance. Consider handicapped in more ways than required. Sometimes designing for ethnics is appropriate. Success of centers generally depends on the program selected be Directors. Same programs serve different functions in different locations. At Berkeley Park, seniors lunch is a social event, in Five Points it is a nutritional need. The puchase of property on which to place a recreation center or expand facilities is undertaken w1 th great care by the department. Because of the loss of tax revenue, Eminent Domain is rarely used. In this case the apartment building behind the site would not likely be considered for purchase unless it came up for sale at a convenient time.

PAGE 25

Research Interview information Summa.ry-2 continued 'IDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 2. "; . . Elderly need to be more and earlier involved in pro@2Uils. Demographically they are an ever enlarging group. They are also more active as a group than ever before. Needs of users is not just for physical facilities, but also for manpower in organizing group activities such as travel tours, museum trips, pinics, walks, etc. These things are bigger than any one person and need the focus of a recreation center for impetus.

PAGE 26

TDR/15 Dec -2-"\Research Interview Information Summa.ry-3 An Arc hi teet's View Gathered from an Interview with Bertram Bruton 19 Oct 78 and 17 Nov78. Comments Budget for center is too tight considering needs of neighborhood. City Cotmcilman Elton Caldwell will pro ba.bly get the money somehow. He has long been a benefactor, elected 1956 (or so.) Getting input from the users is extremely difficult. Bruton related ex periences in building a. school. General public can't or won't talk to public meetings poorly attended; only hecklers showed up. For information from Parks Department go to Parks planning.

PAGE 27

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward./page 2' Research Existing Recreation Centers Existing Glenarm Recreation Center . -. View from South, Str.eetside entrance __ -------. .View from Northeast, Main

PAGE 28

Research Existing Recreation Centers Continued Neighbors to Glenarm Recreation Center Daycare Center to East, View from Southwest Health Center to North, View from East 'IDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page Z,t,

PAGE 29

Research Existing Recreation . Continued TilR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 1-1 20th Street Center Highland Seniors Center Berkeley Park Center & Seniors Center Skyland

PAGE 30

Research Existing Recreation Centers Continued Typical Recreation Center Interiors Beieley Park Shown CJ TDR/15 Dec 2iJ

PAGE 31

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 21 Research Bibliography Butler, George, Introduction to Community Recreation; McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1967. Cheek, Neil, and Burch, William, The Social Organization of Leisure in Human Society, Harper and Row, Publishers, New York, 1976. Dulles, Foster R., A History of Recreationr Appleton-Century Crofts, New York, 1965. Fish, Harriet, Activities Program for Senior Citizens; Parker Publishing Company, Inc., West Nyack, N.Y., 1971. Kraus, Richard, Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society; AppletonCentury-Crofts, New York, 1971. Miller, Norman,and Robinson, Duane, The Leisure Age; Wadsworth Publishing Co., Belmont, California, 1963. Nesbitt, John, and Brown, Paul, Recreation and Leisure Service for the Disadvantaged; Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1970. Tillman, Albert, The Program Book for Recreation Professionals; Mayfield Publishing Palo Alto, California, 1973. "Development Controls: A Summary of Denver Planning Office Activities 1974-1976•;prepared by the u.s. Department of Housing and Urban Development, July, 1976.

PAGE 32

Analysis Circulation 7 \\:: ____ _ 29 th Street Health Center Apartments I . . I . . I . _! Existing Recreation Center I . . I TDR/15 D ec 78/Ward/ptJ,e ?;tJ

PAGE 33

Environmental Analysis Parking-Existing and Planned TDR/15 Dec 78/Wa4d/page 7 \: _____ _..7 C..._ _____ ) C..._ _____ :; 29 th Street Health Center 28 th Street I Apartments I lji!I111Jlflll Jll 1.' tl'lllf' J I JII fr I . IIIL "llhl Ill I .J'U".li, . Wf.'J'. I; aye are Center 0

PAGE 34

7 Environmental Analysis Pedestrian Paths 29 th Street Health Center 28 th Street c:='\ c:='\ TDR/15 78/Ward/page Apartments ...... _

PAGE 35

Environmental Analysis Vegatation D \C__-_-_-_--__ -_-_7 -29 th Street Health Center 28 th Street ,c=') ,c=') t? TDR/15 D ec 78/Ward/page c ________ rc---------_______ 7 I Apartments I 0

PAGE 36

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/paf5e 34 Environmental Analysis Views from Si te-Grotmd.._ Level 7 c ______ 7 29 th Street Health Center c _______ J c _______ :; I 0 Apartments Existing Recreation Center I . : . c .. -.. -.. I.Jaycare Center 0

PAGE 37

Environmental Analysis Solar Angles 7 \: ______ 7 29 th Street Health Center TDR/15 D ec 78/Ward./pB.f!.e 'qf; c ______ J '-------7 I Apartments I (]

PAGE 38

Environmental Analysis Man-made Site Features 1 \._\ _____ _ _____ 7 29 th Street Health Center 28 th Street c==\ c==\ 0 T.DR/15 .Dec ______ 7 Apartments Existing Center I 0

PAGE 39

Environmental Analysis Topography and Drainage 7 \._\----,_____ ..../ 29 th Street Health Center 28 th Street c::'\ c::'\ TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/pBf!.e '? 1 c __________ ) rc----------_____ :; I Apartments I Daycare Center 0

PAGE 40

Environmental Analysi Winds s \: ______ 7 29 th Street 0 28 th Street c=:'\ c=:'\ c=:'\ TDR/15 Dec 78/'tlardjpage 'Jf; \: _______ ) r\: _____ _ ______ :) I Apartments I . . I . . I Existing Recreation Center -I • . I I.Ja ycare C e nter 0

PAGE 41

7 j Environmental Analysis Utilites "" 7 29 th . Street c I Apartments Health Center 28 th Street r-. . I . I . I . I I Existing Recreation Center -C,Eft,.ror?l..lbijr c9 1 ) r IE TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page c \ Daycare Center 7 0 '-' i .

PAGE 42

Arc hi teet ural Programming Code information ZONING AND CODE CHECKLIST TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 4o . PROJECT NAME __ G_l_e_n_arm __ R_ec_r_e_a_tio_n_C_e,_.n;;..;t..;;..er;;;;.__ _____ PROJECT NO. Thesis BUILDING DEPT./AUTHORITYDenver Bldg Dept./ G, BurchardtPHONE. NO. 575-J64J ; , 6 BUILDING CODE USED _D_e ...... _______ EDITION _1 ..... 9..:,.7-:--:---.--(date) ZONING DEPT./AUTHORITY Denver Zoning Dept. PHONE NO. 575-2191 ZONING CODE USED Denver Zoning Ordinances EDITION latest . (date) ZONING REQUIREMENTS (Cite Chapter and Section or Paragraph No.) Building zone _R_4 __________ .Fire zone ____ r_rr _____ _ • Setbacks 10 feet front . 7.5 feet sides 20 feet rear Height and bulk limitations -------------------------------Parkin g requ irements ---------------------------Fencing restrictions ----------------------------Sign restri-ctions -----,-----------------------Easements ---------------------------------BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS (Cite Chapter and Section) Occupancy type(s) _.....;;;.B_-2.;;....._ ___________________ _ Type(s) of construction permitted: A. Type 1 Basic allowable area unlimited -----------------------Allowable area increases JJt% Total allowable area unlimited -------------------------Height 1 imi ta ti ons _____ un __ li_m_i_t_ed _____________ _ Occupancy sepa rations ____ n_o_n_e ______________ _ Page 1

PAGE 43

4 1 Zoning and Code Checklist (Continued) B. c. D. Basic allowable area --------------------------------------Allowable area increases -----------------------------------Total allowable area ______ _. ___________________ Height limitations ---------------------------------------Occupancy separations ---------------------------Basic allowable area --------------------------------------Allowable area increases ----------------------------------Total allowable area --------------------------------------Height 1 imitations --------------------------------Occupancy separations -------------------------------Basic allowable area -------------------------------------Allowable area increases Total allowable area -----------------------------------. . Height 1 imi ta ti ons -----------------------------------Occupancy separations -----------------------------------Exit requirements: Occupant load/type 700 occupants/ B-2 occupancy Number exits required __ 2 ____ -----------------------Minimum/Maximum distance between exits 150 (200 if sprinkled) ------------------_____ (.feet) Page 2

PAGE 44

Zoning and Code Checklist (Continued) Stair shafts fire rating __ NA ________________ (hours) Tota l exit width required 14 (tat main exit) (feet) Minimum corridor width ;.67 (feet) Corridor fire rating ___ 1 ________________ (hours) Special conditions (open wells, etc.) None Known at This time I , . t:...Additional requirements: Shafts required fire ratings (hours) Doors -fire ratings & UL label stair (hours) ( 1 abel) corridor (hours) ( 1 abel) other (hours) (label) Special requirements for light, ventilation and sanitation None Known Special hazards None -------OTHER CODE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIVE COVENANT, FIRE, HEALTH, LIFE SAFETY, ETC. List below requirements in addition to and/or more restrictive than those of the Building Code or additional restrictions affecting setback lines, parking, fencing, signs, easements, access to site, land scaping, public safety, utilities. None Known Page 3

PAGE 45

TDR/15 Dec 78/Wam/pB.fSe 4-; Archi teet ural Programming Legend for Space Parameters B IZJ Ill BJ Sgtia.re Footage Requirements (in square feet) Width of Space (in feet) Length of Space (in feet) Height of Space (in feet) Water units) Supervision Requirements 0 constant supervision: entry (at least) to activity must be in direct view of staff area occasional supervision: staff must see entry to general area and have only a short trip to look in. no supervision needed supervisory view needed out of space Environmental Control Requirements \1 ventilation and moisture extraction especially important cooling especially important H heating especially important 17 draft protection especially important Noise generates noise 0'1 requires quiet Natural Lighting Requirements (Solar Exposure) c=Jcould use direct sun indirect natural light wuld enhance activity light not important _ _ no natural lighting needed or wanted ' . . -..

PAGE 46

Archi tectura.l Programming Legend for Space Parameters Continued Artificial Lighting Requirements (in foot candles) Maintenance Requirements R regular maintenance HI occasional high maintenance W wet maintenance TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 4{

PAGE 47

Architectural Programming Space Parameter Table rtl Space vestibule_ !70 l.obby Control Desk : IOO s:: 0 Check ROOIIL __ I 0 c? ..-1 +l Direetor +l (I) Rec • Leaders too ..-1 s:: Conference/Lunch ,lt;O s t ar r Toilet So subtotal IODO .I :COunge "joo " Senior(25) '71ffi Senio:d25) 717 Kitchen . '4b d Games-Kids 0 Games-Adults '7 (/ (t 0 Table Games 'too Crafts & Storage ,10 Ceramics . & Storage _7..fD Kilns (I) Classroom '110 > ..-1 Classroom (I) (I) ro Photography {,0,0 Pot 4110 Gym-Multipurpose 'f,DOO Swimming Pool 10DO S.pectator . General Exercise bOO Kand/Ra.Q uet Ball 'btJO .Basket Room fOO Control .. Toilets(Both) Sauna I dO > r --t;o ..-1 Utility +l Custodial 1 to ' subtotal totaL ' I ? • I I 10 l 10 I.? I.? lc? 1 0 It' '10 12. t ? --,I t 1f 7 t b 17 Z P I? ,, ;.5 1 r o ttJ . . '!-# ].0 1'-to '"' -, ' " 17 lA t? -:.r 14 j.? II c? b" IOh IO 10 1-0 40 10 10 I o to 4a lc? I 0 to IO II --TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 4? ] -9 g-g .t) @ . ' " ! I f, 0 D 1;t It 0 c:::j II] fJ '--" II] /0 1\ b III] 8 o VJ b Ot A 1m] 5o K-b c:;r} n • 5f? !? '--" A b lo7 '--" v II] ;o l o -'? C> (") IIJ 'J,I I O 'C:7 t7 ro II] -10 C7 t7 A EIJ 5 o f\ $ 10 J VJl mo 1 0 b 0 e::::::1 HJ 81? 0 t:::::::1 mJ 5 P r< IO 0 q &J 5P f> 'Z& C7 A rm:J !?P 1M b v r'l> o e; '--" c,,v mfi] I w b C7 A II] IPO b C7 riO J P O fl. b too '--" \) n ' J_p(l w tAo v c::::::J llJ 4-o HI '24 0 v ::::J CJ 411 HI tc? v e:::::] &] '" 0 v , o c::::::1 ri[] -...._..r t mJ . H.l. '-" lriJ 3Q b J v 1m v-.1 b '-" v RJ 7() b )\0 0 /0 I B . 10 v-l . b '-" . w b '-/ 10

PAGE 48

TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 4b Architectural Programming Proximity Matrix Guide to Proximity Requirements 111 Required-related functions [I Desired-related functions Desired-related parameters -o_Not necessary Undesirable

PAGE 49

Arc hi teet ural Programming Diagram Entry/ Lobby Lockerroom -' TDR/15 Dec 78/Ward/page 4 7 At least this portion of path under supervision. Sl'iimming Pool Gymnasium Racquetball General Exercise Lounge Seniors Classrooms Crafts

PAGE 50

Architectural Design Spring Schedule 1979 1 Jan-28 Jan Winter Break 5 Feb-16 Feb 19 Feb-2 Mar 5 Mar-16 Mar 19 Mar-30 Mar 2 Apr-13 Apr 16 Apr-27 Apr 30 Apr-11 May Late May TDR/15 Dec "ff, Gather more information on Seniors. Talk to users, Get mom information on beighborhood. Consult J. Jones. Refine relationship experiment with different configurations on site. Consult A. Malo. Begin site model. Decide on configUration, general layout on site, Generate schematic plan. Consult, B. Brutonand E. Washington. Readjust or change according to consultations. Generate ideas on how to "address surroundings" via materials and connections. Consult A. Malo Mock up model on site model. Layout outdoor activities in detail. Consult D. Blossam and A. Malo, get last chance with everyone. Finalize design and site • . Breathe deeply. Begin compiling written data-for printing. Do line drawings, plans, sections, elevations. Begin work on model. Get written information typed or printed. Finish model. Do renderings necessary, Get final presentation prepared and mounted. Don't Panic. Present

PAGE 51

.. b • 0 ---' . .

PAGE 56

I ( _ c

PAGE 58

SYNOPSIS: PROGRAM TO DESIGN The following pag e s were selecte d from a notebook kept during the design process. This mixture of preliminary layouts, notes and fantasies helped with the difficult process of extracting meaning from the program data. What emerged from this reevaluation of the data was that there were two sets of needs that warranted attention. The need for a specific scale and type of recreation center on the cramped site was clearly outlined in the program. The directions toward the solutions of this need were also clearly in the program. Less clear were the problems and the solutions regarding lack of free, open space in the neighborhood. The decision to deal with this implied need for open space was long in comin g . Architects are not traditionally reinforced for inventing problems to solve. Only the feeling, substantiated by piles of drawings, that this cake could be had and eaten, too, allowed this decision. Translation: the final solution to the recreation center proper can stand o n its own. It affects and is affected by the "park" laid over it, to be sure, but it is not ruled by the park. Instead, the park allows a series of huge volumes to dwell less obtrusively among more sensitively scaled neighboring buildings than they might have. The difference in the origins and natures of the two sets of needs indicated different approaches to their solution and resolution. The spaces of t he recreation center are as direct a solution to the multitude of requirements as could be managed. There is 1 ight, air, drama and vitalit y for sure, but all within the efficient grid. The rooftop green area originated as a dream and was executed as a VISion. Its slope, shape and development were partially products of exigency but ultimately it is an aesthetic creation. It is clear that these two solutions should affect each other to some extent. They do so in the present project, although perhaps not as much as they could and should have. The vision which give s 1 ife to this project was perhaps followed too blindly at the expense of more specifically appealing development. These are somewhat subjective issues. The project is not conceived or scaled beyond user development. The final balances are nearly always achieved in that arena. Douglas Christopher Ward University of Colorado at Denver 1978-9 Douglas Christopher Ward

PAGE 59

. @ aM! {'A ,;;A kt.. cw:JeM, ,..f ::$ crrJ-;de-1, . {$ ?) -. J-f . . . . f"'{;j; . / . {j) j{ M j{,u IW-C-i/ . /U.t (b,m). . . @ -nw . M J;tfi 1tr I /f()M_. fhA /i.t f 11 11 1 cw.d M.c-" . 1l..t-

PAGE 61

& -... -. _ .... _., ::r-• .

PAGE 62

-. h -. . ; . ::r . .., Ct ff-._ v.LtM.t.. + . 1cJ1T .; . tr . . .

PAGE 63

(9 7WML ctt M ci. . ? opf P. dl \) . . 1f . .

PAGE 64

(!) 1 fnJ f.Ju_ 1L, ht f.., (2> 1l., t.J,_. '1'.(.Ad. f(u 4, .. }1. J l-t-1. 17. " . 0'11\ Oi fLU . It v . . 1W fA. IJL . a> $ M-rhM -'if. : 'ik ;,;fl

PAGE 65

@ 1rlk a. ' I ]a I f < if*}_ ;;r. . . /lJ1 . ' . ' j-111k -,J Vl ftt-d f . (D h f4 1-r\ .. -. --... ...... _ ... -------_.,-

PAGE 66

au+lwtrz, 7.+u ,., ?t W, . Jt; WJ)k 1-wrr '4. @ r . . CW};fk;f)(.; . . . . . . . r;J --.= .. ::r-• --

PAGE 67

w.;;r-, 1k . • • cf H-i . ' ' • .. JA-W\

PAGE 68

mRFl liJ . -E] foJ. . 0 t----------'o , lllAIUAIAflmifN e PcJL

PAGE 69

• -.., ::r= --.. -r. r. •

PAGE 70

; . Jkf_ 1 tf.r,-f LT.) .

PAGE 71

.. --=-• ---

PAGE 72

' IID1 X (,O' 941' '(!5o' Cttod • I ZO' • f...e n' Veek fr; 0J.ua IS• [[] ' q L::J;J BlilEJ [c"t][ fL-h ;o•

PAGE 73

' ] I ... G 1 0 0 D I

PAGE 74

__ ----w. t7. r------_J--

PAGE 75

...J / l -:_ . ) ... ! 9

PAGE 77

. :

PAGE 78

. .._...., . 11-L;, !' -

PAGE 79

. M -04-JM1f. )/; @) ;w.JWJL ,J . 4 . /. /lM t0 rLJ.J k. ()v.. 5fJM'L . M M p c/.u);L rJ-1r -ht-d -oA. CVtL-

PAGE 80

k

PAGE 81

-;;,a-w pW., _u5?-/D-2AJO 7(-r.a} I J 7 -+; . . . . fa -rzu. :v1) ;vt I . ;Ji . . . . . .r jj . . cr l::-1 t.nJ . . C\ . i, . j . . jv/G 7Zu

PAGE 84

. T7 rnJ__ 1M en-l 02--/JO .$t. )J y i ----tv__ : -Jf lA kvJ . -'jk 1/'v;)tnNU>-Jj C ' . . O.J. _ -fM(+J? (}4 fA . k 1 j co---.. . . . f-, -;;1 .

PAGE 85

. I ;;;;{ J;veJ G t=-g.u 0 ( .. ( I