Citation
Denver concert hall

Material Information

Title:
Denver concert hall
Creator:
Leong, Tim
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
8683778 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL design
auraria library
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S'
Tim Laona




Contentst
A. Introduction
B. Goals
1. Personal Goals
2. User Goals
C. Needs
1. Daily Operation
2. Maintenance
3. Rehearsal
k, Performance
D. Concepts
l. Hall Configuration
2. Relationship to DCPA
3. Conceptual Flow Charts
E. The Facts
1. Site Data
2. Zoning & Building Code Checklist
3. Space Requirements & Designations Acoustical Design Data
5. Sight Lines & House Design Data
F. The Problem
1. Description
2. Relationship Diagrams
G. Appendix


Acknowledgements t
Davis Holder Robert Kindig Gary Long Chester Nagel John Prosser G.K. Vetter Engineer/Faculty Architect/Thesis Advisor * Architect/Faculty Architect/Faculty Architect/Faculty Architect/Faculty
Hugh Hardy Kathleen Thompson Jaffe Acoustics Inc. Hal Tamblyn Hardy, Holzraan & Pfeiffer Assoc.-Architects Hardy, Holzman & Pfeiffer Assoc.-Architects Acoustical Engineers M.S.C. Music Dept. Chairman
♦special thanks to my wife, Cheryl, for all the support and help


V
Introduction


INTRODUCTION:
The evolution of auditoriums and music halls has been a slow and arduous process, having many calculated successes as well as failures. The performing arts that have taken place in these auditoriums have changed greatly over time and have been the overall shaping force in theater design. The evolving performing arts have been putting increasing demands on theater design and have indeed forced theater design to become more specialized and sophisticated. While our understanding of hall acoustics, sight lines and theater functions have increased immensly our understanding of the performer and the performing arts have not kept pace with technological advances. This singular fact is responsible for many of our modern responses to theater design and the accompanying shortcomings.
The common problem involving theater design for the artist is the artist’s inability to fully understand and express the needs and desires of his performing vernacular to the theater designer. Likewise there is a problem if the theater designer cannot anticipate many of these needs and desires. This problem is one of ultra specialization; one professional being a design/build artist dealing with the tangible and the other professional being a perform-ance/interpetive artist dealing with the intangible. Ultimately, the ideal solution is a collaborative effort between two such artists with a good deal of background in each others field.
Another common problem is the inability for the administrative forces to decide upon the halls usage and specialization. All too often a hall is designed to be a multi-purpose hall made to house everything from dancing bears to Mick Jagger. While this misconception is understandable in previous years where our understanding of acoustics was not what it is now, it is unforgive-able for any hall to be built that does not house nor render any singular performing vernacular adequetly.


The historical, cultural and technological significance of the theater has been tremendous throughout history. The auditorium/theater has been a meeting place for governments of ancient civilizations, a center for the preservation and advancement of culture as evidenced in the gothic cathedral, and has been the incubator for the contemporary performing arts. The erection and use of such a building is one of man's most graphic manifestations of successful, cooperative and creative effort. The relative importance of the theater in man's history can only be examined properly in retrospect. Insofar as peaceful creative and cooperative effort is concerned, the theater has provided inumerable benefits per investment. In this light, the art and science of theater design holds an enviable position in the advancement of mankind, both culturally and politically.
While the theater plays many roles in man's cultural, social and artistic history the ultimate role of the theater is that of being an efficient instrument to produce and maintain the optimum performance. The theater acts as the intermediary between the audience and the performer. The rendering of the performance is the sole evaluation made upon a theater as it is the fruit of the performer's labor and the perceptive message given to the audience. The designer must then take into account both sides of the theater; the mitigating circumstances involving performance production and audience perception. Oftentimes these circumstances produce conflicting needs and requirements. The success of the theater design then lies in the priority given to all needs whether they be of a performing nature or an audience/perception nature.
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Personal Goals*
Throughout my undergraduate and graduate studies it has been my ambition to bring together my two interests; music and architecture. Oftentimes, one endeavor has been the inspiration for the other. I have found many similarities between the two disciplines both in creative motivation and creative realization but the single most common aspect that is a requisite to both is the desire and dedication one must inherently possess and constantly nurture.
The study of theater (concert hall) design has proved to be the one true link between the disciplines of music and architecture. This thesis research will bring together many of my aesthetic and functional ideas and approaches toward music and architecture, and hopefully this process will enhance my knowledge and appreciation of both.
The concert hall is as a building form and vernacular, a true distillation of architectural science and art. It is my ambition to treat this design specialty much the same way as a performer learns and interpets music, by studying the fundamentals and slowly organizing thoughts and ideas toward a rational and personally interpetive performance. As a performer there are many responsibilities one must bear; to the music and composer, to your public and to yourself. As a designer the responsibilities are similar. The responsibility toward the profession is staggering within itself; having to know the mechanical as well as the intuitive side of architecture. Yet the mastery of that in itself is not enough as architecture involves the working relationship with consultants and the client. To have a successful melding of the two disciplines with equal and objective attitudes toward both is indeed the ultimate goal that I have set before myself.
It is also my desire to utilize this study to focus on the iconographical meaning of this building, both whithin itself and within the urban fabric and context that I have chosen. While the site restraints are dictated by the existing complex


there must be a strong and positive statement in the design of the theater (concert hall). The formal and functional aspects of the theater must be expressed in harmony with the site and urban context as well as in and for itself. The performance must indeed start with the theater and end with the theater to bring a total and convincing performance to a successful conclusion.
There will be many changes in perception, doctrine and principles on my part throughout the course of this thesis; this I am certain of. It is my hope that throughout this metamorphisis that the design will eventually reflect this constantly evolving design philosophy.


USER GOALS*
The functional goals will he studied as to the respctive performing vernaculars and in their order as to chosen priorities. The hall has been chosen to serve pure music vernaculars as listed below*
1) Symphonic Orchestra
2) Opera
3) Chambermusic (to include modern forms i.e. Jazz etc.)
4) Ballet
The above listed vernalculars have been chosen because they are complimentary to one another artistically and for its visual/acoutical compatibility. The hall will be able to serve all four vernaculars well and yet have enough visual/acoustical adjustibility to produce different performing situations peculiar to each form.
1. Symphonic Orchestra*
The Symphonic Orchestra will be the major user of the Hall. The orchestra in residence will be the "Denver Symphony'.' The size and arrangements of the orchestra will remain flexible so as to accomodate a variety of performances and interpetations. The major configuration will be as follows*


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All Symphonic and Symphonic/Choral works depend on rapport and communication between the conductor/director and the ensemble(s). Due to the size of the group that is to perform (often in excess of 90 players) the distance between the furthest player and the director is important. That player must be able to distinguish all of the instrumental groups and their proper imaging as well as the director's intentions.
With this in mind the stage or performance area must retain an acoustical integrity apart from the house. The balance must be such that all performers can depend on it to perform their part at a proper dynamic range and in the proper sequence and time allotment.
Sight lines within the stage area is also important to aid the players to communicate with one another as the director may not play a part in a portion of the performance. For example, the oboist may have a duet with the concertmaster and the distance between them may be 25 feet or more. Traditionally the winds sit on a riser for acoustic and sight line reasons.
The acoustic response of all instruments are not the same and this fact must be accounted for in the stage area. Lower pitched instruments have a much more difficult time with imaging and response than those pitched higher. The reflective surfaces near such instruments must be adequately designed to counteract this phenomenon.
The addition of a chorus to the stage is even more complex as each singer must also have eye contact with the conductor as well as have proper balance and imaging with the orchestra. Oftentimes in choral works there may be a requirement for a secondary director that may be on or off stage. This communication between the principle conductor and the secondary conductor must have the least amount of visual interference.


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2. Opera
The operatic repertoire has encompassed the gamut on off/on stage problems. The difficulty of handling the scenery changes, entrances and exits of players and the ensemble playing and accompaniment between orchestra and singer(s) is phenomenal.
There is a clear cut division between on stage singers and the pit orchestra by virtue of location and lack of sight lines. The director becomes that much more integral between the two factions. The singers voice also has limited directionality and intensity so as to make the pit orchestra almost totally dependent on the director. Things are further complicated by the fact that the pit lighting must remain low and at a minimum as the on stage occurances are of visual importance. Thus the director must remain clearly visible to both the orchestra as well ap the singer(s) in deep stage.
The varying set designs must be constructed, and located in such a way as not to hamper the communication between performers and director. Materials and locations should be chosen that will not acoustically effect the performer or his sight line to the director anywhere on the stage.
The pit presents a special problem to the orchestra as the locations and seating arrangements of the instrumentalists are dictated by space and balance requirements alone. Various solo instruments (i.e. flute and oboe) may be placed together or in close proximity. The presence of certain instruments may be affected by the pit and each location and treatment of such instruments is of utmost importance.
Finally, the audience and especially those located in the first few rows will be exposed to many distractions in the pit caused by communication between orchestra members. This distraction should be mitigated as best as possible as these seats are usually occupied by those who have paid an exorbitant amount for these seats.



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3. Chambermusic
While this vernacular is performed in houses that accomodate about 500 persons, the hall and stage must be so designed as to showcase this medium adequately. Oftentimes the orchestra will be reduced to a chambermusic size performance (i.e. the Haydn Surprise Symphony) and thus must have the flexibility to properly image and balance the entire orchestra or a representative portion of each.
Chambermusic is not dependent on an intermediary (director) and thus the interaction between performers becomes immediate and extrememly intimate. The stage must be so designed as to enhance this format and not have the size and configuration become an acoustical or visual problem.
Stage depth, size and acoustical treatment for a recital or chamber format will obviously be radically different form a full orchestral format. The lighting will play an important role in the intimacy between performers as well as the relationship between performer and audience. The on/off stage route and distance should also be considered as the performers must feel comfortable on all travel between the backstage and the stage.
While it is much easier to hide visual and acoustic shortcomings in a large format like an orchestra, these shortcomings will be much more evident in a chambermusic format. All such problems should be handled as to minimize problems both to the performers as well as to the audience.
Audience noise can be very detrimental to the performance of chambermusic and with this in mind the first several rows of people should be sufficiently removed from the performing area. Also the mechanical system should be as noiseless as possible as there are many "rests” where no audible sounds are produced and the drama and intensity of such moments could be ruined by a noisey fan coil unit.


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Ballet
Many of the problems that occur in a pit arrangement such as in opera are also present in the performance involving dance. There are many differences between ballet and opera that require special attention.
Oftentimes a Ballet repertory company may present in excess of thirty dancers on stage at once. This may cause confusion between the principle dancers, chorus dancers and the director. Also, the timing involved in communicating the dancer's movements with the pit orchestra is crucial. The pit orchestra is virtually blind to the movements on stage and must rely solely on the director.
The motion on stage, while visually active, may detract from the accompanying music and therefore must be minimized. Also the pit orchestra and the solo instruments must be absolutely clear to those dancers having to coordinate their movements with the solo instruments. The imaging and balance must be clear and audible to those in deep stage as well as those offstage in the wings.
All technical operation of the stage and the pit must have direct and clear communication lines with the director and the dancers. All bows, encores and curtain calls must appear cohesive and this aspect of the performance lies in the domain of the technical crew and equipment. Also, the variances in lighting on stage must not interfere with the operation of the pit. This problem is basic to the percussion section which must constantly switch instruments and music and must frequently assemble and disassemble equipment.




NEEDS *
The needs of the modern concert hall are not only defined by traditional works and repertoire but by contemporary and experimental work as well. There exists an endless number of large and small demands made upon each space with each specific usage. The use of the building can be classified into four general groups*
1. Daily Operation (no performance or rehearsal)
2. Periodical Maintenance
3. Rehearsal (open or closed)
4. Performance (day or night)
By considering these different functions and their respective group activities which occur within them the design needs can best be identified and grouped. Since the hall will be designed for pure music performance only* the needs will be clear and well defined unlike that of a multi-use auditorium.
Daily Operation*
The daily operation of the hall and its adjacent spaces will be handled by a skeleton crew. There will be very little activity in the hall except for repairs and the maintaining of equipment on stage. The backstage area will be open for stage crew, construction of sets and recieving of materials. The lobby space will be open for cleaning and repairs only. The ticket office and public relations offices will keep regular business hours. There will be a required route within the building to accomodate tours given through the public relations office.
Periodical Maintenance*
The hall and its adjacent spaces will require cleaning periodically and these services will be rendered either by City of Denver employees or through


private commercial contracts (i.e. carpet cleaning). There will be a requirement for enclosing entire spaces for repairs and maintenance at various periods of the day. There may be a need to shut down all electrical systems or mechanical systems while doing maintenance or repair. Oftentimes it may convenient to perform such work at odd hours of the night and a provision for opening the building at such times must be made.
Rehearsals
The most common of the various types of rehearsals is the closed orchestral rehearsal. The rehearsal may have to be seperated into two or more groups with the addition of chorus, opera or ballet and hence, several possible schedules must be adhered to. Often there will be concurrent demands on a space and provisions for sharing the space must be made. The major activity of the rehearsal (closed) will occur within the backstage area and on the stage. The house will only be used to test balance, lighting and response. There will be little usage of the lobby except for ticket sales and tours. Any repairs of spaces within the hall or its periphery must not interfere with the rehearsal in any way.
A seperate rehearsal space will be designed to accomodate sectionals within the orchestra and also act as an overflow rehearsal space.
The open rehearsal usually requires the same things that a closed rehearsal will with the exception of seating the public and having possible communications between the stage and the house or press. An open rehearsal usually is one at the end of the rehearsal sequence and more of an informal performance. All support spaces will be open to the house and if a limit is set on seats, a provision to rope off excess seating area will be required. At no time will the house be allowed to interfere with the rehearsal in progress.


Performance*
The performer and audience form a reciprocal relationship with each other during the performance. These two entities create two seperate sets of demands. The formal development of the theater has shown this seperation in the house and the stage.
The functioning and operation of these two areas must be independent from one another. The performance must remain clear and consistent to the audience just as the performance must be consistent and problem free to produce.
The differences in performance time may also have great impact on the buildings function and appearance. The matinee is a daylight performance that usually occurs between noon and five in the afternoon. These performances are usually less formal than the evening concerts. A greater number of youths attend these concerts and the duration of such concerts is generally shorter. There are however cases where a matinee may be just the starting time for an extra long performance (i.e. the performance of a Wagner opera). The lobby must be lit in transitional areas to make such transitions from natural light to artificial light as comfortable as possible.
The evening performance is the formal event in the performance sequence. The concert season is usually planned around the evening performance (i.e. 2 evening performances to one matinee). The evening concert draws more adults and also is a culmination of an evenings entertainment. The building will rely on artificial light for all spaces and all routes to and from the house must be clear and well described.
The social interaction between both the audience and performers is limited and subject to varying professional policy. The most common time and area for such
interaction is during the post concert period in the green room or in an area alloted for the public.


Pre-Program*
Audience
ticket sales, seating and ticket taking holding spaces before house entry access to refreshments and restrooms waiting spaces for seperated parties major usage of entries
Programi may be repeated
use of holding spaces (late arrivals) limited access to and from house (by ushers) access to restrooms and lobby sound control important major use of house
Intermission! may be repeated
usage of lavatories, refreshment demand interaudience socialization minimal performer-audience interaction usage of lobby and overflow spaces
Performer
dressing rooms, warm up rooms warm up areas
storage space, security space briefing space, set space access to stage for maintenance major usage of backstage doors
access from stage to backstage production noise control important usage of stage eqpt, major use of stage
use of backstage areas use of restrooms and lounges
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performer-performer interaction preparatory time for resumption of performance


Post Program!
Audience
Performer
major use of exits restrooms and waiting spaces used audience-performer interaction press and media coverage
major use of exits waiting spaces, restrooms used dressing rooms and overflow spaces used green room area used for press and media
dismantling and storage of equipment
*The degree of activity and usage within each space is dependent on performance type and format, performance duration, audience size and performing group size.


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Concerts: changing rooms
*
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Conductors 2 single
Soloists (instrumental) 4 single There should be a piano in at least one room.
Leader of orchestra 1 single
Musicians 120 shared Aa the proportion of male to female musicians varies there should be flexibility in the changing room provision, say, 6 holding 20 each.
Soloists (singers) 4 single There should be provision for making-up.
Choristers 250 shared The sexes should be segregated and a flexible system adopted to allow for varied proportions.
Recitals: changing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Conductors 2 single *
Soloists (instrumental) 2 single There should be a piano in at least one room.
Soloists (singers) 2 single
Musicians 40 shared and For flexibility it should be
segregated possible to sub-divide larger rooms or provide several
Choristers 40 shared smaller ones which can be suitably allocated.


Variety, musicals, spectacles: dressing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Principals 4 single Should be adaptable for 2 occupants.
Minor principals 30 up to 6 per room Capacities of rooms can be varied to take a maximum of 3, 4, 5 or 6 performers. As many as possible of the principals' and minor principals' rooms should be at stage level.
Chorus, etc. 60 shared up to 20 The size of cast will vary with the size of the production but this should be sufficient for the average maximum.
Children variable they may be accommodated in one of the chorua rooms. Regulations for child performers require that they be separately accommodated and properly supervised.
Variety, musicals, spectacles: changing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Conductor 1 single The room should be large enough to hold auditions.
Musicians 30 shared Divisible for male and female musicians, e.g. 5 rooms to take a maximum of 6 each.
Drama dressing rooms
Type of performer Number Occupancy of room Remarks
Principals 2-6 single or occasionally two. The principals and as many minor principals as possible
Minor principals 16-20 shared 2, 3, 4, 6 or 6. should be at stage level. The allocation of dressing rooms will vary continually
Supporting cast 20-40 shared in rooms holding up to 15. according to the scale of the production and they will only be fully occupied for large 6hows.


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CONCEPTS:
The Concert Hall has been instrumental in the charting of architectural, artistic and technological advances. The very existence and continuation of the Concert Hall is dependent on many forms of mutual cooperation and should reflect this in its built form. The Hall itself has played an integral part in a culture's functioning as evidenced in the ancient amphitheaters and in medievil cathedrals. If the importance of the Hall and its traditions are to survive, the design process must be consistent with and true to the artistic expressions that are to occur within it.
Hall Configuration-
There has been increasing interest in varying theater configurations, particularly the theater "in the round" and various assymmetrical arrangements of volumes within the theater. While the social values and consequences remain unknown as yet for such non-traditional forms it has been argued that there is superiority in the traditional proscenium configuration; both visually and acoustically.
An assymmetrical volume as far as sound production and distribution is concerned, is inferior to the symmetrical volume because simple logic tells us that an assymetrical form will have one side sounding better (or different) than the other.
The acoustical quality will be subject to great change from one point to another because sound is a function of air and its distribution. Furthermore, an assymmetrical arrangement totally ignores the directionality and sound quality and balance that the music source is producing.
For this reason of acoustics the Denver Concert Hall will retain basic symmetry within the hall and have traditional proscenium seating arrangements. While there are informal characteristics to the "surround hall" the proscenium arrangement can be handled to accomodate the audience with an equal sense of informality if that is so desired.


For visual reasons, the proscenium theater is superior for the performance of pure music because most instruments are directional and will be performed in a particular direction. It does not make sufficient sense to the author to have an audience view a musical performance from the rear or at an oblique angle to the side. Also, the performer may have certain reasons to face the audience at a 180 degree front due to musical format (i.e. the orchestra is arranged to maximize the communication between conductor and orchestra). Theater in the round also has an inherent distraction in its arrangement due to the audience being forced to see accross to the other side of the audience. Because of visual reasons, the Denver Concert Hall will be restricted to proscenium seating.
The Concert Hall's Relationship to DCPA and Denver-
The Denver Concert Hall is to succeed the Denver Theater as the home for the Denver Syphony. The new concert hall will become an integral part of the Denver Center for the Performing Arts and will act as the showcase for the performance of pure music.
The Bonfills theater complex will provide the dramatic performing aspect within the center and will have spatially flexible characteristics. The Denver Concert Hall will have a basically fixed format with the ability to adjust seating volume, acoustics and performance vernacular.
The Denver Concert Hall will be the focal point within the pure music community and provide the city with the best environment in which to perform and enjoy music. The hall is to employ all manners of viewing and performing formats that will best suit the material to be performed.


PRINCIPAL WESTERN THEATER FORM OUTLINE PLANS a CHRONOLOGY
GREEK ARCHAIC (IKRIA)
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PROSCENIUM STAGE
THEATER OF THE RESTORATION
FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM STAGE
FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM, APRON. CALIPER STAGE
PARTIALLY ENVELOPING AUOITORIUM THRUST STAGE
FULLY ENVELOPING AUOITORIUM IN-THE-ROUND STAGE
AUOITORIUM
ORCHESTRA
STAGE
NO SCALE
WGUKE 2.1 This graphic reference table shows the basic ground plans of ancient and modern theaters. No «calc is intended or implied, but the shifting of emphasis between shape and position among auditorium, orchestra, and stage is basic to understanding the historiography of theater design. To relate matters of jeale and size, refer to the drawing portfolios of specific theater buildings in Chapters 3 and 7 and the Muxlapositional line drawings of Chapter 12. |G. C. Izenour Archive]


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STAGE ENTRANCE
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BROKEN LINES-------MATERIALS
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ZONING ORDINANCE CHECK LIST
Project Names Denver Concert Hall Dates
Locations 950 13th St. Zoning Ordinances Denver Zoning Ordinance
Denver, Colorado
Zoning Official Consulteds Phones
Zoning Classifications B-5 General Business Zone Yard Requirementss
Front- none Side- none Rear- none Side- none
Allowable Projections into Setbacks not applicable Bulk of Structuress none
Maximum Allowable Heights
Stories- no restriction Feet- no restriction


ZONING ORDINANCE CHECK LIST
Basic Maximum Gross Floor Area*
Ten times the zone lot area; not to include parking within the structure, any floor area where the ceiling is less than k feet above grade at the nearest building line, also to exclude any floor area where 75% or more is devoted to mechanical space.
Open Space* no requirement
Off Street Parking* no requirement (parking accomodated by existing DCPA Structure) Offstreet Loading* see Article 615 each berth shall be 10'x35'xl^' high
Gross S.F.
^0,001 to 100,000 100,001 to 160,000
No. of Berths Req*d
2
3
Special Requirements or Considerations* under the jurisdiction of DURA


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Project Name* Denver Concert Hall
Location* 950 13th St.
Denver, Colorado
Date*
Building Code* Denver Building Code
(1976)
Building Official Consulted* Phone*
Fire Zone* 1
Total Floor Area-Estimated* 100,000 s.f.
Single Floor Area-Estimated* 70,000 s.f.
Actual Floor Areas-Chapter 5 General Requirements*
Type of Construction
F.R. 1 F.R. 2
Occupancy type , Group A
Basic Allowable Area Unlimited 22,500
Increase for seperations n/a see Sec. 506
Increase for Fire Ext. System n/a see Sec. 506
Total Allowable Unlimited
Maximum Allowable Building Height*
Type 1-stories* unlim. feet* unlim. Type 2- not permitted


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Separations between occupanciesi see Table no. 5-B Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls (type 1&2 const.)i n/a Openings in Exterior Walls (type 1&2 const.)i n/a
Requirements for Occupancies-Chapters 6-15»
Sanitation: Mens-** lav. Womens-4 lav.
6 urinals 7 w.c.
5 w.c.
Drinking Fountains- 13
*all fixtures based on expected house of 2500 persons.
Boiler Room & Furnace Enclosures
Every furnace and boiler room shall be provided with a one hour fire resistive occupancy separation. Doors will have a one hour rating with self closing devices.
Restrictions in Fire Zones: see Sec. 1602


BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Requirements for Construction-Chapters 1?-22j Fire Resistive Requirements
Exterior Bearing Walls 4 k
Interior bearing walls 3 2
Exterior non bearing walls k k
Structural Frame 3 2
Permanent Partitions 1 1
Vertical Openings 2 2
Floors 2 2
Roofs 2 1
Exterior Doors & Windows 3 A 3 A see Sec. 1?07
Parapets Required k k
Projections from Building non. comb, non. com!



BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST
Main Exit Size: must accomodate j occupancy, but not less than the total width
of all isles, stairs, exit paths, etc. leading to it» must exit to a public way.
No. of Exits Required: total bldg.-
per floor-
Arrangements of Exits: must accomodate 1/3 occupancy Distance to Exits: 150' w/o sprinklers, 200' w/ sprinklers
Exit Doors: to include panic hardware
width & height Min. Max.
Width 3'-0"
Height 6'-8"
Corridors:
Width- 44" x 7'-0" high Fire Resistance: 1 hour
Dead End Corridor Limit- 20' Openings: tight fitting smoke and draft control
door assembly with fire rating 20 min.
Stairs:
rise & run- rise 4"-7.5" 44" wide
run less than 10"
Distance Between Landings: 12* vertically max.


BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST
Stairs* continued
Stairway to roof- ht. must be greater or equal to ^ stories must have roof
stairway unless slope is lesser than ^*12
Fire Resistance- non combustible
Smoke Proof Enclosure Required- where floor is more than 75' above grade.
Special Conditions* see Chapter 39-Stages


SPACE ALLOCATION
space no. name
100 LOBBY
101 TICKET OFFICE
102 MEETING ROOM/ARCHIVES
103 DCPA OFFICE
104 DSO OFFICE
105 DSO OFFICE
106 REFRESHMENT SERVICE
10? MEN'S RESTROOM
108 WOMEN'S RESTROOM
109 JANITOR'S CLOSET
200 HOUSE
201 LIGHT BOOTH
202 SOUND BOOTH
203 STANDING ROOM
300 STAGE
400 BACKSTAGE AREA
401 GREEN ROOM
402 MEN'S RESTROOM
403 WOMEN'S RESTROOM
404 SINGLE DRESSING ROOM
405 M
406 It
40? ••
continued
area (in square feet.)
20,000
150
400
100
100
100
100
400
400
25
>30,000
40
80
500
6,500
6,000
1,200
200
200
200
200
200
200


408 SINGLE DRESSING ROOM £00
409 II 200
410 MUSICIAN'S DRESSING ROOM a ,000
411 TROUPE DRESSING ROOM 4,000
500 THE PIT 4,000
501 REHEARSAL ROOM 5.000
502 MECHANICAL ROOM 2,500
503 STORAGE 4,000
series 100 spaces 21,775
series 200 spaces 30,620
series 300 spaces 6,500
series 400 spaces 14,800
total
73.695 square feet



a
a
no. of spaces* 1
size* 20,000 s.f. total
ROOM NO. * 100
ACTIVITY USE* Entry & Waiting Area, House overflow, Display area PRIMARY USAGE* Entry & Waiting Area
USERS*. General Public
LOCATION* At Galleria Level
First space off entry
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS* Natural light
Display area and lighting Ticket taking at entry Public Phones
Acoustic seperation from House *see bldg, code for entry requirements Directory and Information off ticket sales area direct access to business offices and restrooms
REMARKS* Consider flexibility of lighting for evening vs. matinee performances


TICKET C\ SSpace designation
no. of spaces: l 1 size: 150 s.f. ROOM NO. : 101
ACTIVITY USE: Ticket sales, Information, Tour origin
PRIMARY USAGE: Ticket sales & Information
USERS:. salespeople - 2
business representative - 1
LOCATION: Adjacent to business offices
Sales window to face Galleria & Entry Access to Lobby
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: Security service window 3'*^' (tempered glass)
Canopy over service window
Computer terminal & outlet
Security provisions to Lobby
Wall catalog for tickets
Carpet
Intercom
Phones
REMARKS: Area to function at normal business hours High security area


no. of spaces: ^ | size* i^QQg.f, J@lQQS.f. [ RQQM NO. » lna> 1Q.1, ink,._lQ£
ACTIVITY USE* General DCPA & DSO Business, Theater Public Relatidns Symphony Library & reproduction facilities
PRIMARY USAGEi Business
USERS*.
DSO represenative DCPA represenatives
LOCATION* Adjacent to ticket office
Access to backstage and Lobby
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS* Coffee machine & sink
Reproduction machine & paper cutter Diazo machine and vent Meeting area
REMARKS* Library and reproduction facilities will be open during rehearsals Offices will keep normal business hours



no, of spaces:^
-.A-.6-*_.1Q.Q .a»f^.
ACTIVITY USE: Dispensing of refreshments
SSpace designation
ROOM NO. i ~| pfc____
PRIMARY USAGE* same
USERS* Serving (bartending crew) crew General Public
LOCATION* Adjacent to Lobby
DESIGN REQUIREMENTSi Wet bar and coun ter top
Roll down security window Refrigerator (under counter) floor drain
Ceramic tile floor and Wainscot
REMARKS* Area must be secured at non-serving times
Deliveries and servicing may occur at odd hours


1 SSpace designation
no. of spaces: ^ j size: . ROOM NO. : 107
ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement PRIMARY USAGE: same
USERS:
1250 - male users (design figure)
LOCATION: off Lobby space
access to business offices
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: see bldg, code for fixture requirements
floor drain
ceramic tile floor & wainscot
REMARKS 1
usually kept open during normal business hours kept open at all times to the Lobby


KE£5pSSpace designation
no. of spaces: 1 j size* -4t^p-s-r- | ROOM NO. i 108
ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement
PRIMARY USAGE* same
USERS*. 1250 - female users (design figure)
LOCATION* off Lobby space
access to business offices
DESIGN REQUIREMENTSt see Bldg. Code for fixture requirements
floor drain
ceramic tile floor & wainscot
REMARKS* usually opaiduring normal business hours kept open at all times to Lobby


JM-M'TCK'Bp SSpace designation
no, of spaces* 1 | size* 25 s.f, | ROOM NO. i 109 ~
ACTIVITY USEi clean up, eqpt. storage
PRIMARY USAGEi same
USERSi Janitorial staff
Private commercial janitorial service
LOCATION* Adjacent to Restrooms
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS* Utility sink
Shelves and mop rack
Floor drain and Ceramic tile floor
Wainscot
REMARKS* Door to be secured except doing clean up periods


*THE>
a
a
size: 300 ft^/person 30,000s«^.R00M NO. > 200
no. of spaces: 1
ACTIVITY USE: Seating & Viewing of Orchestral, Operatic, Charabermusic and Ballet performances PRIMARY USAGE: Orchestral Concerts USERS: Qenerai Publi; Media
LOCATION: Open to Stage, Adjacent to Lobby
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: #see bldg, code for exit requirements
#see bldg, code for aisle width and depth requirements design occupancy* 2,500 persons to include sound control, doors & vestibules to include holding areas and standing room to remain visually clear for light, sound and tech booths acoustical surface treatment
REMARKS: to house reverberant chambers to house reflecting surfaces


U6*44f 'e>&C7Vr 1- “Space designation
no, of spaces: ^ size: s.f. ROOM NO, : 201
ACTIVITY USE: lighting and set control special effects control
PRIMARY USAGE: light and set control
USERS: lighting crew - 2
tech, crew - 1
LOCATION: near centerline of house, at vantage point visible to stage
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: switchboard for light control
set and special effects control acoustical seperation from house one way glass window intercom
direct access to Lobby
REMARKS: to used during open and closed rehearsals to be used during performances



o
a
no. of spaces; 1
size; 80 s.f.
ROOM NO. ;
ZQZ.
ACTIVITY USE; Amplified sound control, recording facilities, intercom control PRIMARY USAGE; Amplified sound control
USERS; sound crew tech crew
LOCATION; direct access to light booth, near centerline of house at vantage point
visible to stage
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS; switchboard for sound control
wall to accomodate recording eqpt. storage for tapes and eqpt.
acoustical seperation from house and light booth
one way glass window
intercom
direct access to Lobby
REMARKS; to be used during open and closed rehearsals to be used during performances


WH6, 1
no. of spaces:l size* 500 s.f.
SSpace designation
ROOM NO. 1 203_______
ACTIVITY USE* standing room, overflow space, holding space
PRIMARY USAGE, standing room
USERS* General Public Media
LOCATION* adjacent to house entrance near tech, booths
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS^ modesty railing
sound control low light area carpet and toe guard
REMARKS * to remain invisible from stage during performance


eTA6i e* : _ . .. — . . . — - - | iSpace designation - - - ■ - - -- -
n°* of spaces: ± size: variea 6,5QQ- a.,.fgras, , ROOM NO. :
ACTIVITY USE: Performance area
PRIMARY USAGE: Orchestral performance
USERS: Musicians
Chorus, singers
Soloists
Dancers
LOCATION: At House centerline
Open to House, Adjacent to backstage Emphasis may change according to use DESIGN REQUIREMENTS:
Orchestra, Chambermusic, Dance surfaces (floor) Dense wood laminated floor base Floor electrical outlets
Variable open proscenium and thrust arrangements Opening to reverberant chamber Variable reflective surfaces and mechanisms Riser
Soloist Pedastles Prompting opening Set fly space and Curtain Baffles REMARKS: Electrical Main Stage Switch board
Perimeter Inter com
Lighting catwalks and suspension catwalks Four track manual/electric Curtain track
must be adjacent to all waiting areas between backstage and house see bldg, code for special requirements


i SSpace designation
no. of spaces: ^ size:varies 6.QQQ a.f. gross ROOM NO. : /j,oo
ACTIVITY USE: Prep & storage of sets Reception of Materials Overflow space for stage
PRIMARY USAGE:
Set prep. & storage
USERS: Performers
Stage & Set crew Tech. Crew
LOCATION: Directly behind stage
Adjacent to Loading Dock
Reception dock and Door Cone. Floor/Variable surface Sound Control to stage Perimeter intercom
Light seperation from stage ( if possible)
Open to set fly space access to green room floor electrical outlets access to all catwalks and mech. areas hydraulic lift to lower storage area Floor drain
provide security measures for open rehearsals and performances
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS:
REMARKS:


KOOM SSpace designation
no. of spaces: \ size: 1.200 s.f. ROOM NO. : 401
ACTIVITY USE: Perf. waiting area, warm up area, rehearsal overflow area
PRIMARY USAGE: Performance waiting area
USERS:.Performers Soloists Media
LOCATION: Adjacent to stage
Adjacent to dressing rooms and restrooms
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: Carpet
Full length Mirrors
Sound seperation from Stage
Phones
Drinking fountains Vending machines Lounge furniture Intercom
REMARKS: Must have security measures during open rehearsals


â–¡Space designation
no. of spaces: 2 size: 200 s.f. ROOM NO. : Q2
ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement PRIMARY USAGE: same
USERS: 200 - male users (design figure)
LOCATION: Adjacent to green room
access from individual and group dressing areas
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: see bldg, code for fixture requirements
floor drain
ceramic tile floor and wainscot acoustical seperation from stage
REMARKS: usually kept open to green room and backstage area at all times


UiC>MEN'£> SSpace designation
no. of spaces: ^ size: 200 s.f. ROOM NO. : Uf)^
ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement
PRIMARY USAGE: same
USERS: 100 - female users (design figure)
LOCATION: Adjacent to Green Room
Access from individual and group dressing areas
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: see bldg, code for fixture requirements
floor drain
ceramic tile floor and wainscot acoustic seperation from stage
REMARKS: usually kept .open to green room and backstage area at all times


6>If-taLE' Space designation
no. of spacest^
slzet 2QQ s.f. .each
room no. * gn7, koa, ^09
1,200 s.f. gross
ACTIVITY USE* Dressing for Performance
PRIMARY USAGE1 Performance prep, for soloists and conductors
USERS> Soloists, Conductors
LOCATIONt Adjacent to Green Room, access to Stage
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS* /per room
1 - lavatory
1 - water closet
1 - shower stall
closet
mirror
intercom
phone
piano
couch
side chairs (2) coffee table side tables (2) carpet
acoustical seperation from Green Room
REMARKS* Room must be secured during all rehearsal and performance times


MU€tI<1J£4-4I6? i>K&66i6f ferHSSpace designation

no. of spaces: ^ size* 2.000 s.f. ROOM NO. :
ACTIVITY USE: Performer’s preperation and storage area
PRIMARY USAGE: same USERS: performers
primary users - orchestral musicians
LOCATION: Adjacent to Green Room Access to rest rooms
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: Make up mirrors and counter
chairs
lockers
coat and hat racks
carpet
intercom
sound seperation from stage
REMARKS:
Must be able to divide space if used for changing areas by sex


'TKOUpE^ 6f 'feCC’M SSpace designation
no. of spaces* i
size* /f.ooo s.f.
ROOM NO. * 4ii
ACTIVITY USE: Performing troupe changing and dressing area
PRIMARY USAGE* same
USERS* Ballet troupe
Operatic troupe
LOCATION* Adjacent to green room
Access to musician's dressing room Access to rest rooms DESIGN REQUIREMENTS*
Showers
see bldg, code for sanitary fixture requirements
Make up mirrors & counter space
lockers
hat and coat racks
intercom
carpet
sound seperation from stage
REMARKS* must be divisible if space is used for changing areas by sex


TH£' FI1 “Space designation
no. of spaces: i | size:Varies *f,000 s.f. gross ROOM NO. : <$Q0
ACTIVITY USEs Orchestra perf. area for Opera/Ballet
PRIMARY USAGE: same
USERS:.Musicians
LOCATION: Between Stage and House (at lower level)
Adjacent to rehearsal space
0
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: Floor electrical outlets
Hydraulic lift
Modesty curtain for first row of seating
2 access aisles
Riser
variable floor surface on dense wood base opening to reverberent chamber (under seating)
REMARKS: may be eXpan(jed to areas slightly under stage and/or seating


KeHEA ' SSpace designation
no. of spaces* ^ size* ^.OOO s.f. gross ROOM NO. *
ACTIVITY USE* Rehearsal and Utility area PRIMARY USAGE* Rehearsal USERS*. Performers
LOCATION* un(jer stage, adjacent to Pit
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS* Acoustic seperation from both stage and pit
Cone, floor
Riser and riser storage
Floor electrical outlets
Flexible perimeter boundary for storage
REMARKS* remains open to pit at all times



a
o
ion
no, of spaces: -|
slzet 2»5QQ a.f-
ROOM NO. i
-502-
ACTIVITY USE: Housing Mech. Eqpt.# Storage of specialty mech. eqpt.
PRIMARY USAGE: same
USERS: Maintenance crew
LOCATION: under backstage area
access from storage area and utility area
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS: 2 means of egress to outside
see bldg, code for fire seperation air handling and treatment air ionizer
sound seperation from all adjacent spaces boiler
REMARKS: mUst available for repairs at odd hours


iSpace designation
no. of spaces* i size* 4.000 s.f. gross ROOM NO. * ^03
ACTIVITY USE* storage
PRIMARY USAGE* same
USERS* performers Stage Crew Set Crew Maintenance Crew
LOCATION* partially under house and stage
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS» direct access to backstage
lift to backstage wire cage seperation for storage security at all storage areas set storage
REMARKS* must remain flexible
lift to be run by stage crew only


FIGURE 0.1 Continuum of program uses or types. |Bolt Ueranek and Newman Archive]
Reverberation time
Speech Lons Music
Chanting i . Organ
Chorus
Romantic symphony
liturgical music Wugncrian opera
Classical symphony
Lecture Contemporary symphony
. Italian opera
Musical comedy
Piano
Drama
Broadcast 1 f
Speech Short Music
Reverberation time
Relative ideal reverberation for various types of performed music and speech
Organ
Chorus
Romantic symphony Wagnerian opera Classical symphony Italian opera Chumber music Musical comedy Piano Drama
Tormlnal reverberance (Reverberation time In seconds)
FIGURE 0. II (Above) Plot of reverberation time versus program type. [Bolt Beranek and Newman Archive]
FIGURE 0.12 (Right) Plot of reverberation time versus ceiling height. [Bolt Beranek and Newman Archive]
Approximate average celling height (ft)


Articulation Index
FIGURE 9-13 Plot of optimum articulation index versus program type. [Bolt Beranek and Newman Archive]
The optimum value of running rcverberance (and thus of the AI) is different for each of the program types shown in Figure 9.1. Program types toward the top of the scale require a higher value of running reverberance (lower AI). The approximate relation between optimum AI and program type is shown in Figure 9.13.
Running reverberance is one of the most important aspects in the evaluation of auditorium acoustics. If the reverberance is made low (in order to favor drama usage), then orchestral music will sound “dry” and lifeless, as though the orchestra were playing outdoors. But, if the reverberance is optimized for music functions toward the top of the scale in Figure 9.1, then speech will be unintelligible; drama and even opera and musical comedy may not be satisfactory. Thus, in a multiple-use hall where a wide range of program types must be accommodated, the running reverberance (or AI), not the reverberation time alone, is the principal quantity that must be varied in order to adjust the acoustics of the hall to the different uses. Means of providing for adjustable running reverberance is discussed in section 9.4.2 ^
9.3.7 Source Spread-Focus Balance
For drama as well as for a solo recitalist there is an important need to focus aurally on the performer. Inability to focus on the performer detracts from the immediacy of the performance. For listening to a symphony orchestra concert such focus, though still necessary, is needed much less. In fact, a broad, full, enveloping sound is desired for concert acoustics. Although many aspects of this sound quality were discussed above in relation to the “clarity-running reverberance” balance, there is a spatial aspect of this musical quality that has strong implications for room shaping, particularly that part of the room near the stage.
The diagrams a, b, and c in Figure 9.14 indicate some of the geometrical implications of the source spread-focus balance. Because the widely di-
FIRDRE 9.14
balance, fBo!


Articulation Index Reverberation Umo (seconds)
FIGURE 0.16 (a) Criteria for terminal revcrbcrance; (b) criteria for running reverberance. (Bolt Beranck and Newman Archive]
b. Criterion for running reverberance
08
0.4
0.2
✓
Needed range
##
\
Achluvuble with ubsmptlon added
§
£
IS 31.5 63 125 250 500 1.000 2.000 4,000 8.000 16.000 31.000
i
Octave bond center frequencies (Hz)
!
FIGURE 0.15 Plot of reverberation time versus octave band center frequencies,
Cain Auditorium, Kansas State University. (Bolt Beranek and Newman Archive]


100
40
*0 123456789
TIME OF REVERBERATION (SECONDS)
A speech AMPiirro a LOUOEST speaker C MOOERATELY LOUD D AVERAGE E MODERATELY WEAK
f weakest speaker
AUDIBILITY OF SPEAKERS depends on their vocal strength and reverberation time. The curves show the Percentage Speech Articulation for amplified and unamplified speech in an auditorium of 400,000 cubic feet.
FIGURE 8.2 Percentage articulation (PA) as a function of reverberation time for speakers of different speech power. |V. O. Knudscn Archive]
ROOM VOLUME (CUBIC FEET) A 25.000 B 100.000 C 400 000 D 800.000 E 1600000
AUDIBILITY OF SPEECH in a quiet room depends primarily on reverberation time and size of room. Audibility is expressed as Percentage Speech Articulation (PA), the per cent of unamplified speech sounds that a panel of listeners identifies correctly. Curves show the difficulty of achieving a PA above 75 per cent, the minimum acceptable value.
FIGURE 8.1 Percentage articulation (PA) as a function of reverberation time for rooms having volumes of 25,000 to 1,600.000 cubic feel. JV. O. Knudsen Archive|


(Doll Bcranck and Newman Archive)
FIGURE 9.3 Articulation curvea. (Bolt Bcranek and Ncivman Archive)


The particular shape to which the search-light owes its efficiency is, of course, the surface known in geometry as the paraboloid of revolution. It is the surface obtained by revolving a parabola about its axis. In the diagrams accompanying the present article this surface will be represented by the parabola resulting front its intersection by a plane passing through its axis. Thus in figure (c) the paraboloid is represented by the parabola BAC, although the real surface would be obtained by spinning the parabola about its axis AX.
The property upon which the search-light is based is the fact that every ray of light emanating from the focus F, figure (c) is reflected in a direction parallel to the axis AX. Thus rays such as FP and FR are reflected in the directions PQ and RS, parallel to AX. Applying the same principle to the reflection of a sound-wave, it follows that any small part of the wave (which, for convenience, will be called a SINGLE SOUND) will be similarly reflected in a direction parallel to the axis. In this way the natural tendency of the sound-wave to expand as it recedes from the starting point is entirely checked so far as the reflected portion of the wave is concerned, and this portion will, therefore, produce an effect at Q just as loud as
at P and an effect at S just as loud as at R.* This fact very much simplifies all the calculations for loudness. ... In figure (d) the paraboloid is again represented by the parabola BAC. For the present purpose it may be assumed that the sound-wave originates in the form of a spherical surface of compressed air of which the focus F is the center. This spherical surface is represented by the circle PQR.
Figure (c) shows what happens when the wave has spread far enough from its starting point to strike against the inner surface of the paraboloid. The part of the wave which has struck the paraboloid is reflected in the form of a plane surface represented by the line YZ. The remainder of the wave still continues to expand in the form of a spherical surface as represented by the arc YRZ of which F is the center and FR the radius. The relative intensity of the sound at different points of Figure (f) shows the shape of the wave a little later on, when the reflected tortion has passed beyond the focus F. Under these circumstances a man standing «t the point L will hear first the direct or spherical portion of the wave YLRZ and •*ext the reflected or flat portion of YQZ. If the flat portion of the wave reaches ■ini less than one-fifteenth of a second after the spherical portion—if, in other •chords, the distance QL is 75 feet or less—he will perceive the two portions of the
* An unimportant modification of these conditions results from the sideways movement or diffraction M the sound-wave.
wave in the form of a single sensation of hearing each louder than the effect which either part of the wave would have produced alone.
Ill applying this principle to the Hill Memorial Hall the first problem was to adjust the parabolic surface to the requirements of architectural design and decorative effect. As a matter of geometry the paraboloid was first limited by surfaces corresponding to the side and rear walls, the ceiling and the floor. The resulting shape which the auditorium thus assumed is shown jn plan in figure (g) and ill vertical section in figure (h). In figure (g) the side walls are indicated in plan by the lines EB and DC and in figure (h) their intersection with the paraboloid is indicated by the parabola HIJ. The intersection of the ceiling with the paraboloid is similarly represented in figure (g) by the parabola EGD and in figure (h) by the horizontal line OHK. The rear wall is represented in figure (i) by the curve EMD and in figure (h) by the vertical line OP. Finally the main floor is represented in figure (h) by line PNJL.
The influence of the wall and ceiling surfaces upon the shape of the sound-wave is shown in figure (i). If there had been no side walls the wave would have taken the form of the spherical surface SN, of which the center is an F' symmetrical to F with reference to the line DH. The loose end N of this wave also spieads out still further by diffraction as shown by the arc NO of which C is the center. Under these circumstances a man standing at L will hear in succession three sound-waves, namely: the direct spherical wave RLS, the flat reflected wave 1QC, and the reflected spherical wave SNO, and if these three waves reach him within the same sixteenth of a second he will perceive all three as a single sensation of hearing. In exactly the same way a still further portion of the wave is reflected down from the ceiling so that people in the extreme rear of the auditorium hear this fourth portion in addition to the other three.




Materials Coefficients
123 Hi 230 Hz 500 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz 4000 Hz
Brick, unglazed 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 005 0.07
Brick, unglazed, painted 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03
Carpet, heavy, on concrete 002 0.06 0.14 0.37 0.60 0.65
Same, on 40 oz hairfclt or foam
rubber 0.08 0.24 037 0.69 0.71 0.73
Same, with impermeable latex
backing on 40 oz hairfclt or foam rubber 008 0.27 0.39 0.34 0.48 063
Concrete Block, coarse 036 044 031 039 0.39 035
Concrete Block, painted Fabrics | 0.10 005 0.06 0.07 009 0.08
Light velour, 10 oz per sq yd, hung straight, io contact with wall Medium velour, 14 oz per sq yd. 0.03 004 0.11 0.17 034 035
draped to half area ' Heavy velour. 18 oi per sq yd. 0.07 0.31 0.49 0.75 0.70 0.60
draped to half area 0.M 0.35 0.55 0.72 0.70 0.65
Floors
Concrete or tenazzo Linoleum, asphalt, rubber or cork 0.01 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.02 0.02
tile on concrete 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 003 0.02
Wood 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.07 0.06 0.07
Wood parquet in asphalt on concrete Glass 0.04 004 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.07
Large panes of heavy plate glass 0.18 006 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02
Ordinary window glass 1 Gypsum Board, nailed to 2 x 4*s 035 035 0.18 0.12 0.07 0.04
16'' o.c. 029 0.10 0.05 004 007 0.09
Marble or Glazed Tile i Openings > 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
Stage, depending on furnishings 035—0.75
Deep balcony, upholstered seats 0.50-1.00
Grills, ventilating 0.15—0.50
Plaster, gspsum or lime, smooth
finish on tile or brick 0.013 0.013 002 0.03 004 0.05
Plaster, gypsum or lime, rough finish
on lath 0.14 0.10 006 005 0.04 0.03
Same, with smooth flnish 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.04 0.04 003
Plywood Paneling, thick 038 032 0.17 0.09 0.10 0.11
Water Surface, as in a swimming pool 0.008 0.008 0.013 0.015 0.020 0.025
Air, Sabins per 1000 cubic feet @ 30% RH 0.9 23 73
Absorption of Seats and Audience
Values given are in sabins per square foot of seating area or per unit
125 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz 1000 Hz 2000 Hz 4000 Hz
Audience, seated in upholstered seats, per sq ft of floor area Unoccupied cloth-covered upholstered 0.60 0.74 0.88 0.96 0.93 085
seau, per sq ft of floor area Unoccupied leather-covered uphol- 0.49 066 0.80 088 0.82 0.70
stered seats, per sq fi of floor area Wooden Pews, occupied, per sq ft of 0.44 054 0.60 0.62 0.58 0.50
floor area Chairs, metal or wood seats. 0.57 0.61 0.75 0.86 0.91 0.86
each, unoccupied 0.15 0.19 032 0.39 038 0.30


ACOUSTICAL DATA:
Reverberation Time (1.5 sec. maximum recommended
T = K x V
TT
T = Time (Seconds)
K = Constant (Q.049)
V = Volume (ft*5)
A = Coefficient of Absorption (sq. ft)
of materials.
Max. (Orchestra, chorus <51 chamber music)
Volume = 181,462 cu.ft.
by enclosed chart)
EA
Stage Opening (35 x 22) x .5 =
Ceiling (plaster) = 6041.1 sq. ft. x .06 = Floor
385
362.5
1. Occupied upholstered seats
622 x 5.8 =
2. Carpet on Concrete
0.14 x 5034.25
705
Walls
Tront Walls (plaster) Area = 1352 x .06 =
81.12
Side Walls (cone, aggregate)
Area - 1088 x .03 =
32.64
Back Walls (heavy carpet on foam pad)
Area = 1864 x.39 =
727
EA =
5901.26


T
1.5064 seconds
181,422 x .049
----5 TOOK"’
Minimum Reverb Time (for lectures, intimate drama)
Add heavy draperies to walls
Wall areas (total) =
Front Walls (draped) 1352 x .55 = Side Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = Back Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = | , 743.6 598.4 1025.2
j Stage, ceiling and floor conditions remain i unchanged = i > 5060.5
i ii < —ur 7428
T . . 1.19 Sec. | 1 \
! ! Note: See enclosed charts for recommended reverb times for various activities. ,
i !,
i i
(
1 I
i
i
i


100V. absorption through opening
FIGURE 1.8 Acoustical energy absorption. (G. C. Izenour Archive)
FICUKE 1.7 The direct hearing line. (G. C. Izenour Archive|
HARD MASSIVE REFLECTIVE SURFACE


SPRAYED ON PLASTIC DAMPENING STEEL SHEET
FIGURE 10.1 Plastic damped sheet metal. [G. C. Izenour Archive)
MASTIC ADHERED PLASTIC DAMPENING STEEL SHEET
FIGURE 10.2 Mastic adhered plastic damped sheet steel. |G. C. Izenour Archive]
l
FIGURE 10.4 Sound reflective, modulated, and damped metal surfaces. [G. C. Izenour Archive]


SOME RELEVANT ACOUSTICAL DATA ON WELL KNOWN CONCERT HALLS AND ON RECENT MULTIPLE-USE AUDITORIA
HAKE OF HALL OR STAGE DIMENSIONS IN FT. AUDIENCE AREA IN FT. VOLUME -THOUSANDS OF CU. FT. NUMBER of SEATS REVERBERATION TIME - SECONDS
AUDITORIUM Height Width Depth Height Width Depth 500-1000 Hz 125 Hz
EDWIN THOMAS PERFORMING ARTS HALL1 Akron University 25-36 34-56 38 54 56-162 76-130 140-650 800 to 3000 1.6-1.0* 1.6-2.04
CONCERTCEBOUU Amsterdam 66-50 92 32 56 92 96 633 2206 2.0 2.2
CONCERT HALL* Atlanta 25-34 44-64 40 59 90 100 484 1762 1.83 2.23
SYMPHONY HALL Boston 37-44 44-58 34 58-62 76 134 662 2631 1.9 2.2
SEVERANCE HALL (1958) Cleveland 24-40 40-58 46 54 > 92 62-114 555 1890 1.9 -
CORDINER HALL Ualla Veils. Wash. 20-26 36-50 34 32-42 56-104 106 330 1450 1.6 1.8
FESTIVAL HALL Tokyo 18-36 30-64 30 52 72-110 122 605 2327 2.03 2.83
THEATER-CONCERT HALL1 Fresno, Calif. 24-30 44-56 40 46 64-116 112 475 2360 1.7 2.1
CAMMACE AUDITORIUM Arizona State Unlv. 20-32 48-64 40 44-64 84-140 105 700 3050 1.9 2.4
THEATER-CONCERT HALL Honolulu 24-26 36-50 38 40-54 68-105 102 530 1800 2.03 2.43
ROYAL FESTIVAL HALL London (1960) 34-44 58-106 48 54 106 118 775 3030 1.5 1.4
DOROTHY CHANDLER1 PAVILION, Los Angeles 24-32 50-60 44 36-60 90-130 106 750 3250 1.9 2.0
PHILADELPHIA ACADEMY OF MUSIC (pre-1965) 18-22 54 50 66 90 104 555 2900 1.5 * 1.6
NEUES FESTSPIELHAUS Selzburg 31* 62-100^ verles 50 100-120 90-115 470 2340 1.5 1.6
VAN UEZEL AUDITORIUM Seresote 22-33 38-56 36 40 76-150 112 350 1900 1.5-1.8 1.9-2.3
OPERA HOUSE Seettle 24-30 36-60 40 32-60 mi S' i ►— o 108-150 778 3150 \ 2.03 2.23
STAATS OPER Vienne 393 - 64 68 92 376 2100 1.3 1.4
MUSIKVEREINSSAAL Vienne 45-54 65 34 56 65 112 520 2000 1.9 2.1
WASHBURN CONCERT HALL Topeka, Kansas 24-34 54-62 38 38-40 84-100 104 360 1200 1.83 2.33
CONCERT HALL CENTURY II Ulchlte 26-29 50-58 40 48 60-116 116 460 2200 2.0 2.7
Hiultiple-uae; listed stage dimensions ere for the scoustlcsl shell ^Proscenium dimensions 3No audience ^Calculated
FIGURE 8.(1 Relevant acoustical data on well-known concert halls and recent multiple-use auditoria. [V. O. Knudsen Archive]


Full Text

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I ,-CHIVES 1190 r\72 1981 L46 i -. ,. 4 . l " t ! J . . . ... :• ., _.:•' .. , .. ' ... ' -: .. . .. " 0 , .. -,."'' . , . ' , . .; ...... "\. ).! .. • 'ai. ... • . .: \, . .. '. :• ... .. .. . ... -" \. 4, .• : .... ; ,,.,.. •'!;. ' ,. .. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURAR/A LIBRARY .. Tirn

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' . { UJ c CD u c 0 u

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Contents a A. Introduction B. Goals 1. Pers.onal Goals 2. User Goals c. ljeeds 1. Daily Operation 2. Maintenance .3. Rehe arsal 4. Peri'ormanc e D. Concepts +• Hall Coni'iguration 2. Relationship to DCPA .3 Conceptual Flow Charts E. The 'Facts 1. Site Data 4. z .oning & Building Code Checklist ]. Space Requirements & Designations Acoustical Design Data ,S. Sight Lines & House Design Data F . 'l'he Problem 1. Description 2. Relationship Diagrams G. Appendix

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Acknowledgements a Davis Holder Robert Kindig Gary Lon:g Chester Nagel John Prosser G.K. Vetter Hugh Hardy Kathleen Thompson Jaffe Acoustics Inc. Hal Tamblyn Engineer/Faculty Architect/Thesis Advisor Architect/Faculty Architect/Faculty Architect/Faculty Architect/Faculty Hardy, Holzman & Pfeiffer Assoc.-Architects Hardy, Holzman & Pfeiffer Assoc.-Architects Acoustical Engineers M.S.C. Music Dept. Chairman *special thanks to my wife, Cheryl, for all the support and help.

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INTRODUCTION: The evolution of auditoriums and music halls has been a and arduous process, having many calculated successes as well as failures. The performing arts that have taken place in these auditoriums have changed greatly over time and have been the overall shaping force in theater design. The evolving performing arts have been putting increasing demands on theater design and have indeed forced theater design to become more specialized and sophisticated. While our understanding of hall acoustics, sight lines and theater functions have increased immensly our understanding of the performer and the perform-ing arts have not kept pace with technological advances. This singular fact is responsible for many of our modern responses to theater design and the accompanying shortcomings. The common problem involving theater design for the artist is the artist's inability to fully understand and express the needs and desires of his ming vernacular to the theater designer. Likewise there is a problem if the theater designer cannot anticipate many of these needs and desires. This problem is one of ultra specialization; one professional being a design/build artist dealing with the tangible and the other professional being a performance/interpetive artist dealing with the intangible. Ultimately, the ideal solution is a collaborative effort.between two such artists with a good deal of background in each others field. Another common problem is the inability for the administrative forces to decide upon the halls usage and specialization. All too often a hall is designed to be a multi-purpose hall made to house everything from dancing bears to Mick Jagger. While this misconception is understandable in previous years where our understanding of acoustics was not what it is now, it is unforgiveable for any hall to be built that does not house nor render any singular performing vernacular adequetly.

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The historical, cultural and technological-significance of the theater has been tremendous throughout history. The auditorium/theater has been a meeting place for governments of ancient civilizations, a center for the preservation and advancement of culture as evidenced in the gothic cathedral, and has been the incubator for the contemporary performing arts. The erection and use of such a building is one of man's most graphic manifestations of successful, cooperative and creative effort. The relative importance of the theater in man's history can only be examined properly in retrospect. Insofar as peaceful creative and cooperative effort is concerned, the theater has provided inumerable benefits per investment. In this light, the art and science of theater design holds an enviable position in the advancement of mankind, both culturally and politically. While the theater plays many roles in man's cultural, social and artistic. history the ultimate role of the theater is that of being an efficient instrument to produce and maintain the optimum performance. The theater acts as the intermediary between the audience and the performer. The rendering of the performance is the sole evaluation made upon a theater as it is the fruit of the labor and the perceptive message given to the audience. The designer must then take into account both sides of the theater; the mitigating circumstances involving performance production and audience perception. Oftentimes these circumstances produce conflicting needs and requirements. The success of the theater design then lies in the priority given to all needs whether be of a performing nature or an audience/perception nature. Gol..c:::>\CAI70 5

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Personal Goalss Throughout my undergraduate and graduate studies it has been my ambition to bring together my two interests; music and architecture. Oftentimes, one endeavor has been the inspiration for the other. I have found many similarities between the two disciplines both in creative motivation and creative realization but the single most common aspect that is a requisite to both is the desire and dedication one must inherently possess and constantly nurture. The study of theater (concert hall) design has proved to be the one true link between the disciplines of music and architecture. This thesis research will bring together many of my aesthetic and functional ideas and approaches toward music and architecture, and hopefully this process will enhance my knowledge and appreciation of both. The concert hall is as a building form and vernacular, a true distillation of architectural science and art. It is my ambition to treat this design specialty much the same way as a performer learns and interpets music, by studying the fundamentals and slowly organizing thoughts and ideas toward a rational and personally interpetive performance. As a performer there are many responsibilities one must bear; to the music and composer, to your public and to yourself. As a designer the responsibilities are similar. The responsibility toward the profession is staggering within itself; having to know the mechanical as well as the intuitive side of architecture. Yet the mastery of that in itself is not enough as architecture involves the working relationship with consultants and the client. have a successful melding of the two disciplines with equal and objective attitudes toward both is indeed the ultimate goal that I have set before myself. It is also desire to utilize this study to focus on the iconographical meaning of this building, both whithin itself and within the urban fabric and context that I have chosen. While the site restraints are dictated by the existing complex

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there must be a strong and positive statement in the design of the theater (concert hall). The formal and functional aspects of the theater must be expressed in harmony with the site and urban context as well as in and for itself. The performance must indeed start with the theater and end with the theater to bring a total and convincing performance to a successful conclusion. There will be many changes in perception, doctrine and principles on my part throughout the course of this thesis; this I am certain of. It is my hope that throughout this metamorphisis that the design will eventually reflect this constantly evolving design philosophy.

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USER GOALS& The functional goals will be studied as to the respctive performing vernaculars and in their order as to chosen priorities. The hall has been chosen to serve pure music vernaculars as listed below, 1) Symphonic Orchestra 2) Opera 3) Chambermusic (to include modern forms i.e. Jazz etc.) 4) Ballet The above listed vernalculars have been chosen because they are complimentary to one another artistically and for its visual/acoutical compatibility. The hall will be able to serv.e all four vernaculars well and yet have enough visual/acoustical adjustibility to produce different performing situations peculiar to each form. 1. Symphonic Orchestra: , The Symphonic Orchestra will be the major user of the Hall. The orchestra in residence will be the "Denver The size and arrangements of the orchestra will remain flexible so as to accomodate a variety of performances and interpetations. The major configuration will be as followsa

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PAGE 13

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PAGE 14

. ) . . ____/

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All Symphonic and Symphonic/Choral works depend on rapport and communication between the conductor/director and the ensemble(s). Due to the size of the group that is to perform (often in excess of 90 players) the distance between the furthest player the director is important. That player must be able to distinguish all of the instrumental groups and their proper imaging as well as the director's intentions. With this in mind the stage or performance area must retain an acoustical integrity apart from the house. The balance must be such that all performers can depend on it to perform their part at a proper dynamic range and in the proper sequence and time allotment. Sight lines within the stage area is also important to aid the players to communicate with one another as. the director may not play a part in a portion of the performance. For example, the oboist may have a duet with the concertmaster and the distance between them may be 25 feet or more. Traditionally the winds sit on a riser for acoustic and sight line reasonso The acoustic response of all instruments are not the same and this fact must be accounted for in the stage area. Lower pitched instruments have a much more difficult time with imaging and response than those pitched higher. The reflective surfaces near such instruments must be adequately designed to counteract this phenomenon. The addition of a chorus to the stage is even more complex as each singer must also have eye contact with the conductor as well as have proper balance and imaging with the orchestra. Oftentimes in choral works there may be a requirement for a secondary director that may be on or off stage. This communication between the principle conductor and the secondary conductor must have the least amount of visual interference.

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2. Opera The operatic repertoire has encompassed the gamut on off/on stage problems. The difficulty of handling the scenery changes, entrances and exits of players and the ensemble playing and accompaniment between orchestra and singer(s) is phenomenal. There is a clear cut division between on stage singers and the pit orchestra by virtue of location and lack of sight lines. The director becomes that much more integral between the two factions. The singers voice also has limited directionality and intensity so as to make the pit orchestra almost totally dependent on the director. Things are further complicated by the fact that the pit lighting must remain low and at a minimum as the on stage occurances are of visual importance. Thus the director must remain clearly visible to both the orchestra as well the singer(s) in deep stage. The varying set designs must be constructed, and located in such a way as not to hamper the communication between performers and director. Materials and locations should be chosen that will not acoustically effect the performer or his sight line to the director anywhere on the stage. The pit presents a special problem to the orchestra as the locations and seating arrangements of the instrumentalists are dictated by space and balance requirements alone. Various solo instruments (i.e. flute and oboe) may be placed together or in close proximity. The presence of certain instruments may be affected by the pit and each location and treatment of such instruments is of utmost importance. Finally, the audience and especially those located in the first few rows will be exposed to many distractions in the pit caused by communication between orchestra members. This distraction should be mitigated as best as possible as these seats are usually occupied by those who have paid an exorbitant amount for these seats.

PAGE 19

. * -rRADtnoHA.l-QU6JiCf'l2;f A"'=> C.Jed...IP . .

PAGE 20

J. Chambermusic While this vernacular is performed in houses that accomodate about 500 persons, the hall and stage must be so designed as to showcase this medium adequately. Oftentimes the orchestra will be reduced to a chambermusic size performance (i.e. the Haydn Surprise Symphony) and thus must have the flexibility to properly image and balance the entire orchestra or a representative portion of each. Chambermusic is not dependent on an intermediary (director) and thus the interaction between performers becomes immediate and extrememly intimate. The stage must be so designed as to enhance this format and not have the size and configuration become an acoustical or visual problem. Stage depth, size and acoustical treatment for a recital or chamber format will obviously be radically. different form a full orchestral format. The lighting will piay an important role in the intimacy between performers as well as the relationship between performer and audience. The on/off stage route and distance should also be considered as the performers must feel comfortable on all travel between the backstage and the stage. While it is much easier to hide visual and acoustic shortcomings in a large format like an orchestra, these shortcomings will be much more evident in a chambermusic format. All such problems should be handled as to minimize problems both to the performers as well as to the audience. Audience noise can be very detrimental to the performance of chambermusic and with this in mind the first several rows of people should be sufficiently removed from the performing area. Also the mechanical system should be as noiseless as possible as there are many "rests" where no audible sounds are produced and the drama and intensity of such moments could be ruined by a noisey fan coil unit.

PAGE 21

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PAGE 22

4. Ballet Many of the problems that occur in a pit arrangement such as in opera are also present in the performance involving dance. There are many differences between ballet and opera that require special attention. Oftentimes a Ballet repertory company may present in excess of thirty dancers on stage at once. This may cause confusion between the principle chorus dancers and the director. Also, the timing involved in communicating the dancer's movements with the pit orchestra is crucial. The pit orchestra is virtually blind to the movements on stage and must rely solely on the director. The motion on stage, while visually active, may detract from the accompanying music and therefore must be minimized. Also the pit orchestra and the solo instruments must be absolutely clear to those dancers having to coordinate their movements with the solo instruments. The imaging and balance must be clear and audible to those in deep stage as well as those offstage in the wings. All technical operation of the stage and the pit must have direct and clear communication lines with the director and the dancers. All bows, encores and curtain calls must appear cohesive and this aspect of the performance lies in the domain of the technical crew and equipment. Also, the variances in lighting on stage must not interfere with the operation of the pit. This problem is basic to the percussion section which must constantly switch instruments and music and must frequently assemble and disassemble equipment.

PAGE 23

Ill -a m m 2

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NEEDSs The needs of the modern concert hall are not only defined by traditional works and repertoire but by contemporary and experimental work as well. There exists an endless number of large and small demands made upon each space with each specific usage. The use of the building can be classified into four general groupsa 1. Daily Operation (no performance or rehearsal) 2. Periodical Maintenance J. Rehearsal (open or closed) 4. Performance (day or night) By considering these different functions and their respective group activities which occur within them the design needs can best be identified and grouped. Since the hall will be designed for pure music performance the needs will be clear and well defined unlike that of a multi-use auditorium. Daily Operationa The daily operation of the hall and its adjacent spaces will be handled by a skeleton crew • . There will be very little activity in the hall except for repairs and the maintaining of equipment on stage. The backstage area will be open for stage crew, construction of sets and recieving of materials. The lobby space will be open for cleaning and repairs only. The ticket office and public relations offices will k eep regular bu siness hours. There will be a required route within the building to accomodate tours given through the public relations office. Periodical Maintenances The hall and its adjacent.spaces will require cleaning periodically and these services will be rendered either by City of Denver employees or through

PAGE 25

private commercial contracts (i.e. carpet cleaning). There will be a requirement for enclosing entire spaces for repairs and maintenance at various periods of the day. There may be a need to shut down all electrical systems or mechanical systems while doing maintenance or repair. Oftentimes it may convenient to perform such work at odd hours of the night and a provision for opening the building at such times must be made. Rehearsal: The most common of the various types of rehearsals is the closed orchestral rehearsal. The rehearsal may have to be separated into two or more groups with the addition of chorus, opera or ballet and hence, several schedules must be adhered to. Often there will be concurrent demands on a space and provisions for sharing the space must be made. The major activity of the rehearsal (closed} will occur within the backstage area and on the stage. The house will only be used to test balance, lighting and response. There will be little usage of the lobby except for ticket sales and tours. Any repairs of spaces within the hall or its periphery must not interfere with the rehearsal in any way. A seperate rehearsal space will be designed to accomodate sectionals within the orchestra and also act as an overflow rehearsal space. The open rehearsal usuallyrequires the same things that a closed rehearsal will with the exception of seating the public and having possible communications between the stage and the house or press. An open rehearsal usually is one at the end of the rehearsal sequence and more of an informal performance. All support spaces will be open to the house and if a limit is set on seats, a provision to rope off excess seating area will be required. At no time will the house be allowed to interfere with the rehearsal in progress.

PAGE 26

Performance a The performer and audience form a reciprocal relationship with each other during the performance. These two entities two seperate sets of demands. The formal development of the theater has shown this separation in the house and the stage. The functioning and operation of these two areas must be independent from one another. The performance must remain clear and consistent to the audience just as the performance must be consistent and problem free to produce. The differences in performance time may also have great impact on the buildings function and appearance. The matinee is a daylight performance that usually occurs between noon and five in the afternoon. These performances are usually less formal than the evening concerts. A greater number of youths attend these concerts and the duration of such concerts is generally shorter. There are however cases where a matinee may be just the starting time for an extra long performance (i.e. the performance of a Wagner opera). The lobby must be lit in transitional areas to make such transitions from natural light to artificial light as comfortable as possible. The evening performance is the formal event in the performance sequence. The concert season is usually planned around the evening performance (i.e. 2 evening performances to one matinee). The evening concert draws more adults and also is a culmination of an evenings entertainment. The building will rely on artificial light for all spaces and all routes to and from the house must be clear and well described. The social interaction between both the audience and performers is limited and subject to varying professional policy. The most common time and area for such interaction is during the post concert period in the green room or in an area alloted for the public.

PAGE 27

Pre-Programa Audience ticket sales, seating and ticket taking holding spaces before house entry access to refreshments and restrooms waiting spaces for seperated parties major usage of Program a may be repeated use of holding spaces (late arrivals) limited access to and from house (by ushers) access to restrooms and lobby sound control important major use of house Intermissiona m,ay be repeated usage of lavatories, refreshment demand interaudience socialization minimal performer-audience interaction usage of lobby and overflow spaces Performer dressing rooms, warm up rooms warm up areas storage space, security space priefing space, set space access to stage for maintenance major usage of backstage qoors access from stage to backstage production noise control important usage of stage eqpt. major use of stage use of backstage areas use of restrooms and lounges ' performer-performer interaction preparatory time for resumption of performance

PAGE 28

Post Programa Audience major use of exits restrooms and waiting spaces used audience-performer interaction press and media coverage Performer major use of exits waiting spaces, restrooms used dressing rooms and overflow used green room area used for press and media dismantling and storage of equipment *The degree of activity and usage within each space is dependent on performance type and format, performance duration, audience size and performing gr, oup size.

PAGE 29

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Concerts: changing rooms Type of perforTMr Number Conductors 2 Soloists (instrumental) " Leader of orchestra 1 Musicians 120 Soloists (singers) Choristers 260 Recitals: changing rooms Type of performer Number Conductors 2 Soloists (instrumental) 2 Soloists (singers) 2 Musicians 40 Choristers 40 Occupancy of room single single single shared single shared Occupancy of room single single single shared and segregated shared &marka There should be a piano in at least one room. As the proportion of male to female musicians varies there should be flexibility in the changing room provision, say, 6 holding 20 each. There should be provision for making-up. The sexes should be segregated and a flexible system adopted to allow for varied proportions. Remarka There should be a piano in at least one room. For flexibility it should be possible to sub-divide larger rooms or provide several smaller ones which can he suitably allocated.

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Variety, musicals, spectacles: dressing rooms Type of perfornu!r Principals Minor principals Chorus, etc. Children Number Occupancy of room 4 single 30 up to 6 per room 60 shared up to 20 variable they may be accommodated in one of the rooms. Remarks Should be adaptable for 2 occupants. Capacities of rooms can be varied to take a maximum of 3, 4, 5 or 6 performers. As many as possible of the principals' and minor principals' rooms should be at stage level. The size of cast will vary with the size of the production but this should be sufficient for the average maximum. Regulations for child performers require that they be separately accommodated and properly supervised. Variety, musicals, spectacles: changing rooms Type of performer Conductor Musicians Drama dressing rooms Type of performer Principals Minor principals Number Occupancy of room &marlu 1 single The room should be large enough to hold auditions. 30 shared Divisible for male and female musicians, e.g. 5 rooms to take a maximum of 6 each. Number 2-6 16-20 Occupancy of room single or occasionally two. shared 2, 3, 4, 6 or6. &marlu Supporting cast 20-40 shared in rooms holding up to 15. The principals and aa ms:ny minor principals as possible should be at stage level. The allocation of dressing rooms will vary continually according to the scale of the ----------production and they will only be fully o ccupied for large sho ws . ----------------------'

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UJ D. Cl) u c 0 u

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CONCEPTS a The Concert Hall has been instrumental in the charting of architectural, artistic and technological advances. The very existence and continuation of the Concert Hall is dependent on many forms of mutual cooperation and should reflect this in its built form. The Hall itself has played an integral part in a culture's functioning as evidenced in the ancient amphitheaters and in medievil cathedrals. If the importance of the Hall and its traditions are to survive, the design process must be consistent with and true to the artistic expressions that are to occur within it. Hall Configuration-There has been increasing interest in varying theater configurations, particularly the theater "in the round" and various assymmetrical arrangements of volumes within the theater. While the social values and consequences remain unknown as yet for such non-traditional forms it has been argued that there is superiority in the traditional proscenium configuration; both visually and acoustically. An assymmetrical volume as far as sound production and distribution is concerned, is inferior to the symmetrical volume because simple logic tells us that an assymetrical form will have one side sounding better (or different) than the The acoustical quality will be subject to great change from one point to another because sound is a function of air and its distribution. Furthermore, an rical arrangement totally ignores the and sound quality and balance that the music source is producing. For this reason of acoustics the Denver Concert Hall will retain basic symmetry within the hall and have traditional proscenium seating arrangements. While there are informal characteristics to the "surround hall'' the proscenium arrangement can be handled to accomodate the audience with an equal sense of informality if that is so desired.

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For visual reasons, the proscenium theater is superior for the performance of pure music because most instruments are directional and will be performed in a particular direction. It does not make sufficient sense to the author to have an audience view a musical performance from the rear or at an oblique angle to the side. Also, the performer may have certain reasons to face the audience at a 180 degree front due to musical format (i.e. the orchestra is arranged to maximize the communication between conductor and orchestra). Theater in the round also has an inherent distraction in its arrangement due to the audience being forced to see accross to the other side of the audience. Because of visual reasons, the Denver Concert Hall will be restricted to proscenium seating. The Concert Hall's Relationship to DCPA and Denver-The Denver Concert Hall is to succeed the Denver Theater as the home for the Denver Syphony. The new concert hall will become an integral part of the Denver Center for the Performing Arts and will act as the showcase for the performance of pure music. The Bonfills theater complex will provide. the dramatic performing aspect within the center and will have spatially flexible characteristics. The Denver Concert Hall will have a basically fixed format with the ability to adjust seating volume, acoustics and performance vernacular. The Denver Concert Hall will be the focal point within the pure music community and provide the city with the best environment in which to perform and enjoy music. The hall is to employ all manners of viewing and performing formats that will best suit the material to be performed.

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PRINCIPAL WESTERN THEATER FORM OUTLINE PLANS a CHRONOLOGY PRIMITIVE GREEK ARCHAIC IIKRIA) GREEK CLASSICAL ... I CLASSICAL I 1B.C.-400A.P. ANCIENT I MODERN y I I \ SINGLE VISTA STAGE HORSESHOESHAPED AUDITORIUM FANSHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM STAGE MULTIPLE VISTA STAGE (Polodlo) THEATER OF THE RESTORATION ..-----...... FAN-SHAPED AUDITORIUM PROSCENIUM, APRON, CALIPER STAGE 'IGURe 2.1 This graphic reference tahle shows the basic ground plans of ancient and modern theaters. No c alc inlendcd or implied, but the shirting of emphasis bclwccn shape and position among auditorium, rche s lra, and sl a ge is basic to undurs landing the historiography of !heater design . To relate mailers of • c alc and refer lo lbe drawing porlfolios of specific lhcaler buildings in Chapters 3 and 7 and the u xtaposiliona l lin e d rawings of Cha pt e r 12 . JG. C . Jzenour Archive) AIOSCNIIJM STAGE (AIIIolll) PARTIALLY ENVELOPING AUDITORIUM THRUST STAGE GAECQ-HELLENISTIC ROMAN ....... THEATER ol SHAKESPARL FULLY ENVELOPING AUOITORIUM INTHEROUND STAGE GRECO ROMAN ODE GRANO SALLE [ _ ] AUDITORIUM ORCHESTRA STAGE NO SCALE I I I l

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Compolile amlic11ce floro daarl. I ! ! . -STREET OR .. FOYER ----+(..-LOBBY & LOUNGE HOUSE (unsheltered) (sheltered) I I I NSIT TO TH •mettency exita I j .J: I ' I toilet roon" 1: I ltor, c-eulont I EATRE I • I OWl I ..... wifMiew I I exhi bitions ... oialea I t l I , MOt I public Iron I tvrnatilo odmiuion lou"• T check I , I I box office ... 1 I r poaaogoa I BALCONY LOBBY I I alt ayatoM ., I ... odmiulon .I I ticlceta obtained • .. , tlrive I in advance J control I I I I ... n 'lrOhklo I I i r ORCHESTRA LOBBY ' i I re10rvationa I '""" r l! po1Mif" driven cw toxicabl-I I -I I I room • • I -11 for friends, I •-nt I I l " OIIIH I celebrities, I toilet rooms I I I I • I eorly orrlvola bar, conceniona I __.,,_, I . I I I I ...... r= I I uh. ibitions I I I if •t: I j I CURB ENTRANCE LOBBY HOUSE on>ergoncy oxita I I ..... I \ at-go theatre-returns att.r

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(COSTUMES) -. I TEUPHONE BOOTH WARDROBE ROOMS DOORMAN'S BOOTH SHOWER$ TOILETS ' I I I r---r---. ..1------J • I 'r-------, "'-MAKEUP ROOM STAGE ANTEROOM I t ----ACCESS TO BOTH f SIDES Of STAG WAITING SPACE ON STAGE I ACTING AREA t I : (COSTUMES) I I I I SOLID LINES PERSONNEL BROKEN LINEs---MATERIALS Flow chart Jor in the thetdre.

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Shell Erected fly Loft \] 6 Stagtt Projection and , Control \] 6 Concert Hall Typical Section Proscenium• Pure Music Mechanical .... 6 Lobby \] 0 10 20 lO IU'J' 1'/ "f r ' r I 1 ' a r1 r 10 •• I $0 ' n

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Shell Stored [> r fly Loft \J 6 Stage 6 Orchestra Pit Theatre Projedlon and Control Cronover lobby Typical Section Through Prosceniums Multi-Purpose Mechanical Multi-Purpose loom lobby
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UJ u u ca I.L ID .c 1-

PAGE 45

1-225

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JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ffi60 w a: fa n 2 ..__-+---+--+-1 r---t-----tw n 10 t---+----+MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURE ANNUAL MEAN 50 MONTHLY PRECIPITATION ANNUAL 14.6 MONTHLY SNOWFALL ANNUAL 60"

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Latitude N40 r-SOlAR TIME JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC AM PM 21 21 21 2 1 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 1\L T 2 ;.5 7 1\: : I 117 ., .. . .... -------------AI T 7 IJ I' II w 6 6 Ai:l !l!l 106 100 lOt • --------Al.l , ) I ) 1!1 24 :'fi 10 II ,, _ 7 _ 1 5 /\;.:I 1 :' .•. fl(l !17 100 H1 .., ••• 1;> " AL T • : ,., :0:-t : 11 :or. :11 ... (I o, 4 1\; ; , •... 1(1 11) U 7 0 1 ,,,, . . , 1(1 ' ' :l , --I ALl 11 . I , . , II I . , 411 II •:l .. . 11 14 9 I 3 /\..:.1 ... . 1 : .:I 1•• .... 11 '., .,, .. , ..• -----1\LT . , . , tt: • ' '• r.ro *oH .: 1;.1 :•? ;-. . ? I 10 2 /\,:I :"\'. 1 '.I I (,) 1\(t ... : l;.t "'' 'II ;>J ,,, • .u 411 :>II :'U ?"o /\7.1 Ill If• :•, : ... l . , Ill :t"t lA lr• ... -----, a AI, T . . , , I f• ',(\ r:: l 10 J • l 11 r.? ...., All ., , 12 " ; , " " I II II " n 0 (I II () -40"N LATITUDE

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WINTER SUN 0 0 N TYPICAL FOR 40 N. LATITUDE

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rULJ DO t=J Q) ''-"-' -s:: Jl --p.. D 3 l ID n : ' 1+'!!1 I u I I : I D

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J L_ ____ _ 1-JJ l:!::::::+---1 1 ====:jv L J4--ni I I ,, I I . ' • . I -..C.U 1:71 1' O f(.l LH-f ) l I J j ' [ --. . . $ (..-
PAGE 51

; n DO m .IJ tU) . -+> Jl J. UJ Ul .-I >< Q) ...__, .3 v 0 r>:.. u 8 ....:l c H ::J (:() I i _j _________ J

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PAGE 53

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0 , . . ' ... :':•. .o . ; .. ' ' . \ . 1! I ., . .. . 'i . . t • I • I • t . . . .. ;; t:t t=t 0 0 I [ ;UI I t=l l ! I 0 o j_ ___ _ _ J I i . l ID -r \1)'--tJ

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.r' I J I q I .: i ;I ' '' ---: ' • . . l . ---. I . + : c >t-re-:J ! I \ i : I l +-----) ------: ...... $ :J " I ! 00 m .&J

PAGE 56

ZONING ORDINANCE CHECK LIST Project Name: Denver Concert Hall Dates Locations 950 lJth St. Zoning Ordinances Denver Zoning Ordinance Denver, Colorado Zoning Official Consulteda Phones Zoning Classifications B-5 General Business Zone Yard Requirementsa Front-none Side-none Rear-none Side-none Allowable Projections into Setbacks not applicable Bulk of Structures; none Maximum Allowable Height: no restriction Feet-no restriction

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ZONING ORDINANCE CHECK LIST Basic Maximum Floor Areac Ten times the zone lot areai not to include parking within the structure, any floor area where the ceiling is less than 4 feet above grade at the nearest building line, also to exclude any floor area where 75% or more is devoted to mechanical space. Open Spacea no requirement Off Street Parking& no requirement (parking accomodated by existing DCPA Structure) Offstreet Loading& see Article 615 each berth shall be high Gross S.F. 40,001 to 100,000 100,001 to No. of Berths Reg'd 2 3 Special Requirements or Considerations& underthe jurisdiction of DURA

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BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST Project Namea Denver Concert Hall Locationa 950 13th St. Denver, Colorado Building Official Consulteda Fire Zonea 1 Date a Building Codea Denver Building Code (1976) Phone a Total Floor Area-Estimateda 100,000 s.f. Single Floor Area-Estimateda 70,000 s.f. Actual Floor Areas-Chapter 5 General Requirementsa Occupancy type • Group A Basic Allowable Area Increase for seperations Increase for Fire Ext. System 'l'otal Allowable Maximum Allowable Building Heights Type of Construction F.R. 1 F.R. 2 Unlimited 22,500 n/a see Sec. 506 n/a see Sec. 506 Unlimited Type 1-storiesa unlim. feeta unlim. Type 2-not permitted

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BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST Separations between occupanciesa see Table no. 5-B Fire Resistance of Exterior Walls (type 1&2 const.)a n/a Openings in Exterior Walls (type 1&2 const.)a n/a Requirements for Occupancies-Chapters 6-15a Sanitationa Mens-4 lav. 6 urinals 5 w.c. Drinking Fountains-13 Boiler Room & Furnace Enclosurea Womens-4 lav. 7 w.c. *all fixtures based on expected house of 2500 persons. Every furnace and boiler room shall be provided with a one hour fire resistive occupancy separation. Doors will have a one hour rating with self closing devices. Restrictions in Fire Zonesa see Sec. 1602

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BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST Requirements for Construction-Chapters 17-22a Fire Resistive Requirements T 1 T 2 :ype . ype Exterior Bearing Walls 4 4 Interior bearing walls 3 2 Exterior non bearing walls 4 4 Structural Frame 3 2 Permanent Partitions 1 1 Vertical Openings 2 2 Floors 2 2 Roofs 2 1 Exterior Doors & Windows 3/4 3/4 see Sec. 1707 Parapets Required 4 4 Projections from Building non. comb non. coml

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BUILDING CODE CHECK LIST Main Exit Sizes must accomodate t occupancy, but not less than the total width of all isles, stairs, exit paths, etc. leading to it, must exit to a public way. No. of Exits Requireds total bldg.per floor-Arrangements of Exitss must accomodate 1/3 occupancy Distance to Exits& 150' w/o sprinklers, 200' w/ sprinklers Exit Doorsa to include panic hardware width & height Min. Width Height Corridors: WidthX 7'-0" high Dead End Corridor Limit20' Stairs a rise & run-rise 4"-7.5" 44" run less than 10" Distance Between Landings a 12' 3'-0" 6'-8" Fire Resistancea 1 hour Openingsa tight fitting smoke and draft control door assembly with fire rating 20 wide vertically max.

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BUILDING CODE CHECKLIST Stairss continued Stairway to roof-ht. must be greater or equal to 4 stories must have roof stairway unless slope is lesser than 4al2 Fire Resistance-non combustible Smoke Proof Enclosure Required-where floor is more than 75' above grade. Special Conditionsa see Chapter 39-Stages

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SPACE ALLOCATION space no. name area (in square feet.) 100 LOBBY 20,000 101 TICKET OFFICE 150 102 MEETING ROOMfARCHIVES 400 103 DCPA OFFICE 100 104 DSO OFFICE 100 105 DSO OFFICE 100 106 REFRESHMENT SERVICE 100 10? MEN'S RESTROOM 400 108 WOMEN'S RESTROOM 400 109 JANITOR'S CLOSET 25 200 HOUSE 201 LIGHT BOOTH 40 202 SOUND BOOTH 80 ' 203 STANDING ROOM 500 300 STAGE 6,500 400 BACKSTAGE AREA 6,000 401 GREEN ROOM 1,200 402 MEN'S RESTROOM 200 403 WOMEN'S RESTROOM 200 404 SINGLE DRESSING ROOM 200 405 " 200 406 " 200 407 .. 200 continued

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408 SINGLE DRESSING ROOM aoo 409 u 200 410 . . MUSICIAN'S DRESSING ROOM 'i,OOO 411 TROUPE DRESSING ROOM 4-,000 .500 THE PIT 4,000 .501 REHEARSAL ROOM .5,000 .502 MECHANICAL ROOM 2,.500 .503 STORAGE 4,000 series 100 spaces 21,??.5 series 200 spaces 30,620 series 300 spaces 6,.500 series 400 spaces 14,800 total -?3,69.5 square feet

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gspace designation no. of spaces, 1 I sizes 20,000 s.f. total I . ROOM NO. s 100 ACTIVITY USE: Entry & Waiting Area, House overflow, Display area PRIMARY USAGEs Entry & Waiting Area USERS a . General Public LOCATIONs At Galleria Level First space off entry DESIGN REQUIREMENTS a Natural light Display area and lighting Ticket taking at entry Public Phones Acoustic separation from House *see bldg. code for entry requirements Directory and Information off ticket sales area direct access to business offices and restrooms REMARKSs Consider flexibility of lighting for evening vs. matinee performances

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gspace designation no. of spaces: 1 1 sizes 150 s.f. I ROOM NO. ' 101 ACTIVITY USE: Ticket sales, Information, Tour origin .PRIMARY USAGEs Ticket sales & Information USERSa. salespeople-2 business representative -1 LOCATIONs Adjacent to business Sales window to face Access to Lobby DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& offices Galleria & Security service window J'x4• Canopy over service window Computer terminal & outlet Security provisions to Lobby Wall catalog for tickets Carpet Intercom Phones Area to function at normal business hours High security area (tempered glass)

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gspace designation no. of.spaces, 4 I size& 1@400s.f. 'llOOs .. f' .. I ROOM NO. '10? lOIJ. ACTIVITY USE: General DCPA & DSO Business, Theater Public . Symphony Library & reproduction facilities PRIMARY USAGEa Business USERSs. DSO represenative DCPA represenatives LOCATIONs Adjacent to ticket office Access to backstage and Lobby DESIGN REQUIREMENTSs Coffee machine & sink Reproduction machine & paper cutter Diazo machine and vent Meeting area REMARKSa Library and reproduction facilities will be open during rehearsals Offices will keep normal business hours

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no. of spaces:1 J size: 100 s .f' ACTIVITY USE: Dispensing of refreshments PRIMARY USAGEs same USERSs. Serving (bartending crew) crew General Public LOCATION: Adjacent to Lobby DESIGN REQUIREMENTS• Wet bar and coun ter top Roll down security window Refrigerator (under counter) floor drain gspace designation I ROOM NO. I 1 Oh Qeramic tile flmor and Wainscot REMARKSa Area must be secured at non-serving times Deliveries and servicing may occur at odd hours

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designation no. of spaces: 1 J size, 4CO "::>. F. j ROOM NO. a 10? ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement PRIMARY USAGE: same USERSa. 1250-male users (design figure) LOCATION: off Lobby space access to business offices DESIGN REQUIREMENTSa see bldg. code for fixture requirements floor drain REMARKS a • ceramic tile floor & wainscot usually kept open during normal business hours kept open at all times to the Lobby

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no. of spaces: 1 I sizea I ROOM NO. I 108 ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement PRIMARY USAGEa same USERSa. 1250female users (design figure) LOCATION& off Lobby space access to business offices DESIGN REQUIREMENTS• see Bldg. Code for fixture requirements floor drain ceramic tile floor & wainscot usually openduring normal business hours kept open at all times to Lobby

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gspace designation no. of spacesa 1 sizea 25 s.f. ROOM NO. 1 10 ACTIVITY USEa olean up, eqpt. storage PRIMARY USAGEa same USERSa:Janitorial staff Private commercial janitorial service LOCATION• Adjacent to Restrooms DESIGN REQUIREMENTSa Utility sink Shelves and mop rack Floor drain and Ceramic tile floor Wainscot REMARKS• Door to be secured except doing olean up periods

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designation no. of spaces, 1 I sizea 300 :ftJ/person NO. • 200 ACTIVITY USE: Seating & o:f Orchestral, Operatic, Chambermusic and Ballet PRIMARY USAGEa Orchestral Concerts USERSa.aeneral Media LOCATIONa Open to Stage, Adjacent to Lobby DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& *see bldg. code :for exit requirements *see bldg. code :for aisle width and depth requirements design occupancy• 2,500 persons to include sound controL doors & vestibules to include holding areas and standing room to remain visually clear :for light, sound and tech booths acoustical sur:face treatment to house reverberant chambers to house re:flecting sur:faces

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no. of.spaces: l size a 40 s.f. ACTIVITY USE: lighting and set control special effects control PRIMARY USAGEs light and set control USERSa. lighting crew-2 tech. crew -1 gspace designation ._ 1 ROOM NO. a 201 l LOCATIONs near centerline of house, at vantage point visible to stage DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& switchboard for light control set and special effects control acoustical seperation from house one way glass window intercom direct access to Lobby REMARKSs to be used during open and closed rehearsals to be used during

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gspace designation no. of spaces: 1 I sizes 80 s.f. I ROOM NO. '202 ACTIVITY USE: Amplified sound control, recording facilities, intercom control PRIMARY USAGEa Amplified sound control USERSa. sound crew tech crew LOCATIONa direct access to light booth, near centerline of house at vantage point visible to stage DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& switchboard for sound control wall to accomodate recording eqpt . storage for tapes and eqpt. . acoustical separation from house and light booth one way glass window intercom direct access to Lobby to be used during open and closed rehearsals to be used during performances

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gspace designation . 1 sizea 500 s.. I ROOM NO. a 201 no. of.spaces:l ACTIVITY USE' standing room, overflow space, holding space PRIMARY USAGE, standing room USERSa General Public Media 1 LOCATIONs adjacent to house entrance near tech. booths DESIGN modesty railing sound control low light area carpet and toe guard REMARKSa to remain invisible from stage during performance

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gspace designation no. of spaces: J size I vari 6 '100 1' urosk ROOM NO • I ACTIVITY USE: Performance area PRIMARY USAGEs Orchestral performance USERSa. Musicians Chorus, singers Soloists Dancers LOCATIONs At House centerline Open to House, Adjacent to backstage Emphasis may change according to use DESIGN REQUIREMENTSa REMARKS a Orchestra, Chambermusic, Dance surfaces (floor) Dense wood laminated floor base Floor electrical outlets Variable open proscenium and thrust arrangements Opening to reverberant chamber Variable reflective surfaces and mechanisms Riser Soloist Pedastles Prompting opening Set fly space and Curtain Baffles Electrical Main Stage Switch board Perimeter Inter com Lighting catwalks and suspension catwalks Four track manual/electric Curtain track must be adjacQnt to all waiting areas between backstage and house see bldg. code for special requirements

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gspace designation no. of spaces, 1 l size'varies 6.000 s f. IZross I ROOM NO. 'LJ..oo ACTIVITY USE: Prep & storage of sets Reception of Materials Overflow space for stage PRIMARY USAGEa Set prep. & storage USERSa.Performers Stage & Set crew Tech. Crew LOCATION, Directly behind stage Adjacent to Loading Dock DESIGN REQUIREMENTS• REMARKS a Reception dock and Door Cone. Floor/Variable surface Sound Control to stage Perimeter intercom Light separation from stage ( if possible) Open to set fly apace access to green room floor electrical outlets access to all catwalks and mech. areas hydraulic lift to lower storage area Floor drain provide security measures for open rehearsals and performances

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gspace designation no. of spaces: 1 I sizea 1.200 s.f. I ROOM NO. I 401 ACTIVITY USE: Perf. waiting area, warm up area, rehearsal overflow area PRIMARY usAGEs Performance waiting area I USERSa.Performers Soloists Media LOCATIONa Adjacent to stage Adjacent to dressing rooms and restrooms DESIGN REQUIREMENTSa Carpet Full length Mirrors Sound separation from Stage Phones Drinking fountains Vending machines Lounge furniture: Intercom .. REMARKSa Must have security measures during open rehearsals

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gspace designation no. of spaces: 1 I size: 200 s.f. I ROOM NO. a 402 ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement PRIMARY USAGE: same USERSa 100 male users (design figure) LOCATIONs Adjacent to green room access from individual and group dressing areas DESIGN REQUIREMENTSs see bldg. code for fixture requirements floor drain REMARKS a ceramic tile floor and wainscot acoustical seperation from stage usually kept open to green room and backstage area at all times

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gspace designation no. of spaces: 1 l size: 200 s.f. j ROOM NO. a 401 ACTIVITY USE: sanitation requirement PRIMARY USAGE: same USERSa. 100 -female users (design figure) LOCATION: Adjacent to Green Room Access from individual and group dressing areas DESIGN REQUIREMENTS• see bldg. code for fixture requirements floor drain REMARKS: ceramic tile floor and wainscot acoustic separation from stage usually kept ,open to green room and backstage area at all times

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designation no. of spacess6 I sizes 200 R f' Aar.h l ROOM NO a uni.J. J.J.o c;. uoF-. uo? LJ.oA uno 1,200 s.f. gross ACTIVITY USE: Dressing for Performance PRIMARY USAGEs Performance prep. for soloists and conductors USERSa_Soloists, Conductors LOCATIONs Adjacent to Green Room, accessto Stage DESIGN REQUIREMENTSa /per room 1 -lavatory 1 -water closet 1 -shower stall closet mirror intercom phone piano couch side chairs (2) coffee table side tables (2) carpet acoustical separation from Green Room REMARKSs Room must be secured during all rehearsal and performance times . ,

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no. of. spacess 1 l sizes 2 ooo s f I ROOM NO. I lJ.l (I ACTIVITY USE: Performer's preperation and storage area PRIMARY USAGEs same USERS1_performers users -orchestral musicians LOCATIONs Adjacent to Green Room Access to rest rooms DESIGN REQUIREMENTS• Make up mirrors and counter chairs REMARKS a lockers coat and hat racks carpet intercom sound separation from stage Must be able to divide space if used for changing areas by sex

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:;:space designation no. of spaces: 1 l sizea 4.000 s.:f. I ROOM NO. ' 411 ACTIVITY USE: Performing troupe changing and dressing area PRIMARY USAGE: same USERS1 . Ballet troupe Operatic troupe LOCATION: Adjacent to green room Access to musician's dressing Access to rest rooms DESIGN REQUIREMENTSa Showers room see bldg. :for sanitary :fixture requirements Make up mirrors & counter space lockers hat and coat racks intercom carpet sound separation :from stage REMARKSa must be divisible if space is used :for changing areas by sex

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gspace designation no. of.spacess 1 I sizesvaries 4.000 s.:r. gross I ROOM NO. s soo ACTIVITY USE: Orchestra per:f. area :for Opera/Ballet PRIMARY USAGEs same USERS a Musicians LOCATIONs Between Stage and House (at lower level) Adjacent to rehearsal space , DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& Floor electrical outlets Hydraulic li:ft REMARKS a Modesty curtain :for :first row o:f seating 2 access aisles Riser variable :floor sur:face on dense wood base opening to reverberant chamber (under seating) may be expanded to areas slightly under stage and/or seating

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gspace designation no. of spaces: 1 I size, '1.000 s.f .. gross I ROOM NO. I '\01 ACTIVITY USE: Rehearsal and Utility area PRIMARY USAGE1 Rehearsal USERS1. Performers LOCATIONa Under stage, adjacent to Pit DESIGN REQUIREMENTS• Acoustic separation from both stage and pit Cone. floor Riser and riser storage Floor electrical outlets Flexible perimeter boundary for storage REMARKS• remains open to pit at all times

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gspace designation no. of.spaces: 1 I size& ? c:;oo R f' I ROOM NO. • --ACTIVITY USE: Housing Mech. Eqpt., Storage of specialty mech. eqpt. PRIMARY USAGEs same USERSa _ Maintenance crew LOCATIONs unqer backstage area access from storage area and area DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& 2 means of egress to outside REMARKS a see bldg. code for fire separation air handling and treatment air ionizer sound separation from all adjacent spaces boiler must be available for repairs at odd hours

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no. of spaces: 1 I sizes 4.000 s.f. g:ross ACTIVITY USE: storage PRIMARY USAGEs same USERSs. Performere Stage Crew Set Crew Maintenance Crew LOCATION: partially under house and stage DESIGN REQUIREMENTS& direct access to backstage lift to backstage gspace designation I ROOM NO. s 'i01 wire gage separation for storage security at all storage areas set storage REMARKS a must remain flexible lift to be run by stage crew only

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FIGUKE 9 . 1 Continuum of program uses or types. (Boll Dcranck and Newman Archive) llcvcrbcrollon limo Speech Long 1\luslc Chan ling Or): an Chorus Romantic symphony Uturglcalmuslc Wagnerian opera Closslcul symJlhony Lecluro Contemporary tiymphony . ltollon opera OrJCan 1\luslcal comedy Chorus Plano Romantic srmphony Drama \\' axnerian opera Droodcu•l 1 Speech Short 1\luslc lt alloo opera Rcverberullun limo Chamber music llclath e Ideal for various types ol porfom•ed muRic and spcech / Musical comedy Plano Dralll8 FIGURE I. II (Above) Plot or reverberation time versus program type . (Bolt Beranek and Newman Archive) FIGURE 9.12 (Right) Plot or reverberation t ime versus ceiling height . [Bolt Beranek and Newman Archive) / 0 0.5 \ 3 i c 0 .... 2 ! ! c .2 :@ .f 0 20 . . ' . I . Tcnalnal reverbcrance (Reverberation tlmo In seconds) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2 . 5 3.0 v. / / / 7 I I I Approxlmalo average collins botghl (rt)

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Ar11culation Index 0 0 . 2 0 .4 0 .6 ChoNS .........._ Romantic S)'mphony " \ ' Wagnerian opera f\ Jtollan opera \ Chamber music \ Musical cemedr '1\. "' nGURE 9.13 Plot of optimum articulation index \•ersus program type. [Bolt Beranek and Newman Azchive) O.R t . O ' The optimum value of running reverberance (and thus of the AI) is different for each of the program types shown in Figure 9 . 1 . Program types toward the top of the scale require a higher value of running reverberance (lower AI). The approximate relation between optimum AI and program type is shown in Figure 9.13. Running reverberance is one of the most important aspects in the evaluation of auditorium acoustics. lf the reverberance is made low (in order to favor drama usage). then orchestral music will sound "dry" and lifeless, as though the orchestra were playing outdoors. But, if the reverberance is optimized for music functions toward the top of the scale in Figure 9.1, then speech will be unintelligible ; drama and even opera and musical comedy may not be satisfactory . Thus, in a multiple-use hall where a wide range of program types must be accommodated, the running reverberance (or AI), not the reverberation rime alone, is the principal ____ quantity that must be varied in order to adjust the acoustics of the hall to the different uses. Means of providing for adjustable running reverberance is discussed in section 9.4.2 :. . 9.3.7 Source Spread-Focus Balance For drama as well as for a solo recitalist there is an important need to focus aurally on the performer. Inability to focus on the performer detracts from the immediacy o f the performance . For listening to a symphony orchestra concert such focus, though still necessar y, is needed much less. In fact , a broad, full , enveloping sound is desired for concert acoustics. Although many aspects of this sound quality were discussed above in relation to the "clarity-running reverberance" balance, there is a spatial aspect of this musical quality that has strong implications for room shaping , particularly that part of the room ncar the stage. The diagrams a, b, and c in Figure _ 9.14 indicate some of the geometrical implications of the source spread-focus balance . Because the widely di-b c FJ(;IIRE 9 .14 bnlnn c c . fRo!' Adjustable reflectors Adjustable absorption

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I: I ' \ ; .. i:: a . C rit erio n for tcnnlnal revorb c r o nco 3 . 0 'i" .... c: i 2 . 0 " E = c: .!! e 1 . 0 Noc dod range' \\ith ahsorpllon added __ . /"/#.., .. IX 0 L-------------------------------------b . Crit e rion for runnln11 revorbcrance 1 . 0 , .. 0 . 8 ] J N o edod range u 0.2 . Achlovoble "'llh absorpllon added 0 ... ... c c .8 e j u ... ... !. ... 1 1 e. 0 e. e • :ii • &. a 1 l .. :ii 2 1: 0 j l .. li D t d 0 g . d :ii 0 :: !: fiGURE 9.16 (a) Criteria for terminal reverberance; (b) criteria for running reverberance. )Doll Deranek and Newman . Arc hive) • 'i" 2 . 5 All hard ... c Side and rear absorpllon l 2 . 0 I Side, rear, and allle absorplloa c .!! e 1 . 5 t . O • ' ,, . ' t, ') {..; I . ' I I ---Predi c ted lllou sun11l ' ----.--' l I ! \ I 18 31 . 5 Ill 125 250 500 1,000 :.!. 000 : -1.000 8 , 000 16, 000 31,000 Octave band center frequ ende & (th) ! FIGURE 9.1S Plol or reverberation lime versus octave band center Cain Auditorium, Kansas Stale Universlly. )Doll and Newman i An:hlve) f I

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3)0 A SPEECH AMPI.Ifi!:O a LOUDEST SPEAKER C MODERATELY tOUO D AVERAGE E MOOERATELY WEAK F WEAKEST SPEAKER '• . . , • ' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TIME OF REVERBERATION (SECONDS) AUDIBILITY OF SrEAKERS depend• on their Yonl strenath •nd renrbe .. tlon tln1e. The rurves ohow the Percen1a1e Spcerh Articulation for •mplllied and unamplilied speech In an audl torlum of 400,000 ruhlr feet. FIGURE 8 . 2 Percenlage articulolion (PA) u a function or reverberation time for speakers of diiTerr.nl speech power. IV. 0 . Knudsen Archive! war----.----.-----.----.----.-----.----.----.----, 0 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 ROOM VOLUME (CUBIC fEET) A a 100.000 c <100.000 D &:lO.OOO E umooo TIME OF REVERBERATION (SECONDS) AUDIBILITY OF SPEECH In • quiet room depends primarily on rever berallon time and size of room. Audiloilily h u Percentace Speech Articulation (PA), the per cent of unamplllied speech so undo that a panel of listeneu identifies corre c t!,. Curvr.s ohow tloe diOicuhy of achlevlns • PA abon 7S per rent, the minimum acceptable nlue. fiCURil 1 . 1 rercenl age erliculollon (PA) as a funclion or rcvcrberolion lime for rooms havin g volumes of 25,000 lo 1 .6 00,000 c ubi c feel. IV. 0 . Knudsen Arc hiv e !

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, ... ,. _ . j . l . I . 20 l .. 0 ' '' ' ., ' ' \ 1\ 1'\. r\.. . ,__ ..... I--r--."1'-' ""' JOdD ........ :--.... -1.; 1--,,'' -.... ' ' ,..., ' f'.., ' ' ........ r--. !"' '\ """" ,.......; r-..: NC30 "'-r-...., .... ' ;-. ' ._ ''\I ' ...... I 31.5 50 110 125 200 315 500 1100 1 . 250 2 , 000 3.150 5.000 1 ... ', • . l..: ... . 40 100 100 250 -100 830 I ,000 I .600 2,500 4.000 6,300 Ono-thlnl ocle•-e band cenlrr lrequencles Cllz) PICURF. 8.2 Relellonahlp between 1peecb signal le• ela and bacl;ground noise. (Dolt Beranek •nd Newman 1\rchlveJ IIJO !10 no 70 c " 1:!, .; ... 00 8 ... !i so 0 .. c .. c X !; 40 li ::s .! ..,., "' 30 .... L..----l.--/ fnlence / v . I / I I I I v I 1 fonscn sc •yllo >les I 17 v . J 20 10 0 I I I I / I I v v 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 3 U . 4 0 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 0 1.11 MlculoUon Index fiGURE 8 . J /\111culallon curves. (Doll Beranek and Newman Archlv e J

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The particular shape to which the search-light owes its efficiency is, of course, the smface known in geometry as the paraboloid of revolution. It is the surf.Ke obtained by revolving a parabola about irs axis . In the diagrams accompanying the present article this surface will be represented by the parabola resulting fr?m irs intersection by a plane passing through its axis . Thus in figure (c) the paraboloid is rcprcsemed by the parabola BAC, although the real surf.1cc would be obtained by spinning the parabola about its axis AX. The property upon which the search-light is based is the f.1ct that every ray of light emanating from the focus F. figure (c) is reflected in a direction parallel to the axis AX. Thus rays such as FP and FR arc reflected in the directions PQ and RS, parallel to AX. Applying the same principle to the reflection of a sound-wave, it follows that any small part of the wave (which, for convenience, will be called a SINGLE SOUND) will be simibrly reflected in a direction parallel to the axis . In this way rhe naturaltendlncy of the sound wave to expand as it recedes from the starting point is entirely checked so f.1r as the reflected portion of the wave is concerned, and this portion will, therefore, produce an effect at Q just as loud as a t P and an cfft:c t at S jus t as loud as at R. * This fact very much simplifies all the calculations for loudness .. .. In figure (d) the paraboloid is again represented by the parabola BAC. For the present purpose it may be assumed that the sound-wave originates in the for m of a spherical surface of compressed air of which the focus F is the center. This spherical surface is represented by the circle PQR. Figure (e) shows what happens when the wave has spread far enough from irs starting point to strike against the inner surface of the paraboloid . The part of the wave which has struck the paraboloid is rdlecred in the form of a plane surf.1ce represented by the line YZ. The remainder of the wave still continues to expand in the form of a spherical surf.Ke as represented by the arc YRZ of which F is the enter and FR the radius . The rclattve intenmy of the sound at different points of he wave is indicated by the thickness of the lines which represent the wave front n the diagram . Thus the flat part of the wave is shown thickest at its center ecause the sound is more intense at this point . On the other hand the spherical 10rtion of the wave is represented by a unitorm line because the intensity of the .ound is the same at all points on the spherical surface. figure (f) shows the s hape of the wave a little later on, when the reflected 10rtion has passed beyond the focus F. Under these circumstances a man standing t the point L will hear first the direct or spherical portion of the wave YLRZ and ext the reflected or flat portion of YQZ. If the flat portion of the wave reaches im les s than one-fifteenth of a second after the spherical portionif. in Q[her ords, the distance QL is 75 feet or lesshe will perceive the two portions of the • An unimponam modification o f rhesc conditions r<:>'.llts from the sideways movcmcm or dilfracri o n thc .sound-wave . A -A tel ldl fCI wave in the form of a single sensation of hearing each louder than tht: ctl(: c t which either part of the wave would have produced alone . In applying this principle to the Hill Memorial Hall the first problem was to adjust the parabolic surf.1ce to the rcquiremems of architectural design and decorative effect . As a matter of geometry the paraboloid was first limited by surf.1ces corresponding to the side and rear walls, the ceili1ig and the floor. The resulting shape which the auditorium thus assumed is shown _in plan in (g) and in vertical section in figure (h). In figure (g) the side walls arc indi c ated in plan by the lines EB and DC and in figure (h) their intersection ' with the p a raboloid is indicated by the parabola H/j. The intersection of the ceiling with the paraboloid is similarly represented in figure (g) by the parabola ECD a ' nd in figure (h) by the horizontal line OHK. The rear wall is in figure (i) by the curve EMD and in figure (h) by the vertical line OP. Finally the main floor is represcmcd in figure (h) by line PNJL. The influence of the wall and ceiling surfaces upon the shape of the sound-wave is shown in figure (i). If there had been no side walls the \yave would have taken the form of the spherical surface SN, of which the cemer is an F' symmetrical to F with reference to the line DH. The loose end N of this "'fa' ve also sp1 eads out still further by diffraction as shown by the arc NO of which C is the ccmer. Under these circumstances a man standing at L will hear in succession three sound-wa vcs, namely : the direct spherical wave RLS, the Hat reAccred w ave JQC, a nd the reflected spherical wave SNO, and if these three wave s r eac h him within the sa111C sixteenth of a second he will perc eive all three as a single sensation of hearing. In exactly the same way a still further portion of the wave is refle c t ed down from the ceiling so that people in the extreme rear of the auditorium hear this tounh p o rtion in addition to the mhcr three .

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fa) fbi i I HA.Lr' I DtN:iAAM ef rh .. MTHUR. HILL Mr:.MOR'lAL ANN AAI!IOR., MICH. lfl HALL. (Ill I I lui B c Ill -A ! -----t--H \I ,,, r

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Mo,rl41J 12S Hz 2SO Hz 1000Hz 2000Hz 4000 H& Brick, unglued 0 .0) 0 .0) O.Ol 0 . 04 o .os 0.07 Brick, uaglaud, paialecl 0 . 01 0.61 0.01 0.01 0 . 01 O . Ol Carpel, heavy, on concrete 0.02 0 .06 0 .14 0 . 37 0 .60 0 .6S Same, on 40 oz hairfeh or foam rubber 0 . 01 0.24 O.S7 0.69 0 .71 0 .13 Same, with impermeable late& backing on 40 oz or foam rubber 0 . 01 0.27 0 .39 0.34 0 . 48 0 . 63 Concrete Block, wane I 036 0 . 44 0.31 0.29 0.39 O.lS Concrete Bl.xk, painted 0.10 O .OS 0 . 06 0 . 07 0 . 09 0 .08 Fabri"' I li&bt • clour, 10 oz per s:q yd, hung maigbt, ia eontacl with wall O . Ol 0 . 04 0 .11 0.17 0.24 03S Medium velour, 14 oz aq yd. draped to half area I 0 . 07 0 .31 0.49 0.7S 0 . 70 0.60 Heavy velour. II OJ per :aq yd. draped to half area 0.14 O .lS o .ss 0.12 0.70 0 . 6S Floors Concrete 01' terrano 0 .01 0 . 01 O.GIS 0 . 01 0.02 0 . 01 Linoleum, asphalt, rubl r or oort tile on cnncretc 0.02 0 .0) 0 .0) 0.0) 0 . 03 0 . 02 Wood O .IS 0 .11 0 .10 0.07 0 .06 0 . 07 Wood parquet in a > phal on cnnactc 0.04 0 . 04 0 . 07 0 .06 0 . 06 0.07 Glau Large panes of heavy plfle glasa 0.18 0 . 06 0.04 0 .0) 0 . 02 0.02 -Ordinuy window glau 0 .3S O.lS 0.18 0.12 0 .01 0 .04 Gypsum Board, j" nailed 1h 1 11 4'a 16" o . c. ! 0.29 0.10 o .os 0 . 04 0 . 07 0 .09 Marble or Glazed Tile ! O.GJ 0 .01 0 .01 O.GI 0 . 02 0 . 02 Openings Stase. depending on furnishing• O.lS--0.75 Deep balcony , SUit O.S0-1.00 Grills, vcntila ting I O.IS--O.SO Plaster, gypsum or lime, smooth finish on tile or brick O .Oil 0.015 0 . 02 O . Ol 0 .04 O .OS Plaster, gypsum or lime, rough finisb on lath 0 .14 0.10 0 . 06 o.os 0.04 O . Ol Same, with smooth flaisb 0.14 0.10 0 . 06 0 . 04 0 . 04 O .Ol Plywood Paneling, j" th.ick 0.28 0.22 0 .17 0 . 09 0.10 0.11 Water Surface, as ia a swimmina pool 0 . 001 0 . 001 0.013 O.GJS 0 .020 0.02S Air, S;,bins per 1000 cubic feel @ SO'l. RH 0 . 9 23 1.2 : Ab.orptwn of Se4u and Audience VGiuu tiwf. tJ" Itt lllbiru JUF Sf11GU foot of utJti11g QTCIJ tw per urrlt 125Hz 250Hz SOO Hz 1000 H& 2000 H& 4000 H& Audieacc, seated ia upholstered sealS, per aq n of floor area 0 . 60 0 . 74 0 . 88 0 . 96 0 . 93 O .BS Unoa:upied cloth-covered upholstered sealS, per aq n of floor area 0 . 49 0 . 66 0 .80 0 . 88 0 . 82 0 .70 Unoccupied lcathcr-rovercd upholstered scats, per aq n of floor area 0 . 44 0 . 54 0 . 60 0 . 62 o .sa o .so Wooden Pews, occupied, per aq fl of floor area O.S7 0 .6 1 0 .7S 0.86 0 .91 0 .86 Chairs, metal or wood sealS, ea ch, un occ upied O.IS 0.19 0 . 22 0 . 39 0 . 38 030

PAGE 96

ACOUSTICAL DATA: Reverberation Time (1.5 sec. maximum recommended by enclosed chart) T = KxV EA Time (Seconds) Constant Volume (ft ) T = K = v = A = Coefficient of Absorption (sq. ft) of materials. Max. (Orchestra. chorus & chamber music) Volume = 181.462 cu.ft. EA = Stage Opening (35 x 22) x .5 = (plaster)= 6041.1 sq. ft. x .06 = Floor Occupied upholstered seats 622 X 5.8 = 2. Carpet on Concrete 0.14 X 5034.25 Walls ---pront Walls (plaster) Area = 1352 x .06 = Side Walls (cone. aggregate) Area1088 x .03 = Back W a lls (heavy carpet on foam pad) Area = 1864 x .39 = EA = 385 362.5 l608 I I ' 705 I I 81.12 32.64 727 5901.26

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T = 181.422 X .049 5901.26 = 1.5064 seconds Minimum Reverb Time (for lectures. intimate drama) Add heavy draperies to walls I Wall areas (total) = \ Front Walls (draped) 1352 x .55 = 1 Side Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = I Back Walls (draped) 1864 x .55 = \ Stage. ceiling and unchanged = \ T = .049 X 181,462 7428 I = 1.19 Sec. I I \ \ I I See enclosed charts for recommended: reverb times for various activities. Note: l I \ I I 743.6 598.4 1025.2 5060.5 7428

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100% ABSORPTION THROUGH OPENING PARTIAL ABSORPTION BY SOFT POROUS SURFACE s \ \ flVRE 1 . 1 Acoustical energy a b sorptioo.(G. C. l zeoour Ar c hiveJ '\ \ \ \ \ \ "\ \ \ \ \ fiURI! 1.7 The direct hearingline. (G . C. lzenour ArchlveJ HARD MASSIVE REFLECTIVE SURFACE

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SPRAYED ON PLASTIC DAMPENING STEEL SHEET FIGIJKK I 0 . 1 Plullc damped sheet metal. (G. C. lzenour Archive) . MASTIC ADHERED PLASTIC DAMPENING STEEL SHEET I'IGURII IO. Z Mastic adhered plastic damped sheet sleel. (G . C . lzenour Archive) TWO SHEETS TOGETHER MASTIC ADHERED STEEL DAMPENED STEEL fiGURII 10.3 Mastic adhered ateel damped sheet steel. (G. C. benour Archive) fJGURII IO. t Sound reOective, modulated, and damped metal aurfacea . (G. C. lzenour Archive)

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. ; SOME J!ELEVANT ACOUSTICAL DATA ON WELL KNONN CONCERT HALLS ANO ON IIECENT MULTIPLE-USE AUDITORIA IIAIIE or BALL oa STAGE DIMENSIONS lH n . AUDIENCE .UEA IN n. VOLIJl!E -AUDITOillOH He1&ht Width Depth Betaht W14th Depth TIIOUSAHDS OF CU. n . EDWIN PERFORII-56 -162 76-130 lNC .UTS BALLI 25-)6 34-56 )8 54 140-650 Altroo U..ivenity COHCEITCEIOOII 46-SO 92 32 56 92 96 Ul .......... CONCEat BALL1 25-34 44-64 40 59 90 100 484 Atlaou Sn!PHOill BALL 31-44 44-58 )4 58-62 76 134 662 loa toG SEVEIWICE BALL (1958) Cleve1eo4 24 -40 40-SI 46 54 ' 92 62-114 555 CORDUIEI HALL 2026 36-50 34 Walle ll&lb, Waah. 32-42 56-104 106 330 FESTIVAL BALL 18-36 Tokyo l064 30 52 12-110 122 605 TKE.ArEl-cONCEIT HALL1 24-30 44-56 40 Fre•oo. Calif. 46 64-116 112 41S CAIIHACE AUDlTOllDH 20-32 Artzou sure Uotv. 48-64 40 44-64 84-140 lOS 100 TIIEATEI-coiiCEIT HALL 24-26 36 -SO )8 Honolulu 40-54 68-105 102 530 lOYAL FUTIVAL BALL 34-44 58-106 48 S4 106 118 175 Loo4oo (1960) DOIOTII'f QWIDLEil 24-ll S0 -60 44 36-60 90-llO 106 1SO PAVILION, Loa Aoaelea PBILADnPBlA ACADIDI'f 18-22 S4 50 66 90 104 sss or IGISlC (pre-196S) NEUES FESTSPIELHAUS 312 62-tooz vartea so 100-12 90-11S 470 Sabbura . VAN WE2EL AUDlTOiliiK 22-33 38-S6 )6 40 76-150 112 350 S.ceaota OPEIIA HOUSE 24-)0 36 -60 4 0 32-60 64-140 08-150 178 Saettlo STAATS OPEl. )92 442 -64 61 92 376 Vienna IGISUVEI!lNSSAAL 45-54 65 34 56 65 112 520 Yienoa WASBBUIII CONCERT HALL 24 34 54 62 38 38-40 14-100 104 )60 Topeka. CONCEIT BALL CENTUIY 11 26 29 so-sa 40 48 60-116 116 460 Wichiu ltated ataaa dt.aenatona are for the acouetlcal ahell 2rroacaotua d taenatona 1No audtaoce 4Calculete4 IIUI!liER of SEATS 800 to )000 2206 1162 26ll 1190 1450 2327 2360 3050 1800 3030 32SO 2900 2340 1900 mo\ 2100 2000 1200 2200 t'IGURE 8 . 8 Relevant acousti c al data on well -known concert halls and recent multiple use auditoria . (V. 0 . Knudsen ArchlveJ IIEVEiliERATIOH TIHE -SECONDS 500-1000 B z 125 Bz 1.4-1.114 1 .6-2.04 2.0 2 . 2 1.13 2.23 1.9 2.2 1 . 9 -1.6 1.8 z . o3 2.83 1.7 2.1 1.9 2 . 4 2 . 0 3 2.43 1.S 1.4 1.9 2.0 l.S . 1.6 1 . S 1.6 1.5-1. 8 1 .9-2.) 2.03 2.23 1.3 1.4 1.9 2 . 1 1.83 2 . 3 3 2 . 0 2 . 1 I •I I I ' !• • .. i. I' I I

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Depth of House Location of center of curooture for roan of •eau. There are many formulas used to determine the depth of the house, or more accurately, to determine the relationship between depth of house, width of house, and width of screen or proscenium. They vary consider ably and are all empirically derived on the basis of existing theatres, with too little reference to whether such theatres are good or not. Typical are the following: Optimum depth equals 4 times screen width. Maxi mum depth equals 6 times screen width. Depth equals 1.25 to 2.35 times house width when house width is 2.5 to 3 . 5 times screen width. Practi cally, there are only two significant considerations in planning the depth of the house: 1. Visual acuity. Normal human vision can perceive a minimum dimension or separation equal to 1 minute of visual arc. Translated into space measurement this means that at 10 feet a normal eye can percei\'e a dimension of .035 inch, at 50 feet, . 175 inch, and at 100 feet, .35 inch . Details of actors' make-up and facial expression are not plainly recognizable at distances of more than 50 feet from the stage. 2. Capacity. The larger the house, the lower can be the price per seat or the greater the gro ss . If the box office is not to be con s idered, capacity may be limited by optimum seeing require ments, and the last rows k ept within 50 feet of the stage. As various requirements operate to increase capacity, the di s tan ce of the rear seats from the stage mu s t be in c reased and seeing conditions ,impaired in proportion. The theatre operator may comp e nsate tl1e occupants of the s e seats by charging less for them. For shows involving live human actors, 75 feet is g enerally accepted on grounds of visibility as maximum house depth. In theatrical entertainment which has as its chief visual component human actors (live shows) the degree to which these performers must be seen to satisfy the audience and put the show across varies. A. Details of facial expression and small gesture are important in legitimate drama, vaudeville and burlesque, intimate revue and cabaret. B. Broad gesture hy single individuals is important in grand opera, presentation, musical comedy, and the dance. C. Gesture by individuals is unimportant and movement of individ uals from place to place is the smallest s ignificant movement in pageant. It follows then that theatres planne d for the types of entertainment listed under A must be limited in depth of auditorium so that visibility from the remotest seat still allows the occupant to perceive facial expres sions (not over 75 feet). !. lj ' I I lj ,, I ' I . I I I I I : : • ' : j ., ' I • ! l•l I, I ' i ' ! ! I J , • ! i I ,! j t I , l ' q ' \ I

PAGE 102

Llaara II ll•c patron i• to eec satisfactorily, plan and section must conform to a nurnf1er of limitations which are set forth in the following list. To design an auditorium is to determine a seating area within these limita tions and to establish position (not shape) of walls and shape of floors therefrom. I. The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision (,o eye movement) is approximately 40 degrees. 2. The horizontal angle to the center line at which objects onstage, upstag e of the curtain lin e , ce a se to bear the . intended relationship to other objects on s tage and to the background is approximately 60 degrees. 3. The horizontal angle to a flat projec tion sheet at whit:h distorti . on on the screen becom e s s ub s tantially intolerable is 60 measured to the far side of the projected im a ge. Curvature introduceJ into the scree n may r ender the distortion less from the extr e me o n op posite side of the center line of the house but will increase dist o rtion from the seat s on the same side of th e cent e r line. i I I f I • Audiences will not chouse luc(ltiona beyond a line taJ'" Jlroximutely 100 to tla(? c :ur luiu ( J t tlw proue nium. Tlte t/uu[,.,f llri'IU l'llrlltlirl ' . CIII\IVIN\I' :::: I 50 , MAT AUOIENc&: : '-.,. I i ti\AIVIJVIN . . AUDIENCE , i • •eal$, order of desira bility of is: A. front center, except when the picture •creen u dose lu the front ro1o; B. middle center; C. middle •ide; D. front side; E. rear center; F . rear side. The angle to the Celfler line at which ob jecll omtage, upstage of the curttrin line, ceale to bear lite intended relatiomhip to otl1er objecll omtage and to the bac k grouml is trpproxi mately 60 . 1 'he hori%ontal angle. to the projection •creen at 1ohich distortion on the screen becomes •ub•lantiully intolerable is 60, r

PAGE 103

Several methods have been offered heretofore for developing the floor slope. Doubtless others will he offered in the future. The present the following method as one which assures unobstructed vision from aU seats. It may be noted that this sy s tem produces a floor slope consider ably steeper than that in many exi s ting theatres. It also produces betler seeing conditions. To determine floor slope, establi s h eye position of spectator in first row on center line by approximately 30 degree vertical angle above. For live shows, stage floor will be approximately 2 inches hdow this level. For theatres designed solely for motion pictures, the location of the stage floor is not critical; tlte position of the bottom of the screen is. A point 3 feet 8 inches below, and 18 incites in front of the eye posi tiou will he the floor level for the front row. ( l) Draw a sight line from the eye position to downstage edge of s tage, and exteud it hack of the eye position for the front row, step off horizontal seat spacing (back to back), and draw. vertical lines at the points thus established. ( 2) Estab lish a point 5 inches above the intersection of the extended sight line and the next vertical line. ( 3) This is the eye po s ition for the second row and the floor level at the front edge of the second row seat is 3 feet 8 in c hes below and 18 in c hes in front of the eye position. Repeat (1), (2) and (3) to the back of the hou s e and draw in the floor slope. Where the slope exceeds Ilh inches per foot, platforms are require d under the seals, and steps in the ai s les. A cross-aisle which divides the orchestra into front and back stc tious entails the elevation of the first row of seats behind it to make up for horizontal width of the aisle. The standing spectator's eye level behind the rear row of seats is as sumed to be 5 feet 6 inches above the floor level of the la s t row. The sight line from this position to the top of the screen or highest probable curtain trim establishes the minimum heiglat for ceiling under balcony. Raising the stage make it possihle to reduce the floor slope but at the penalty of producing upward sight lines in the fir s t two or three rows which are uncomfortable and unnatural for viewing stage setting and action. If the stage floor is above the elevation of the fir s t row eye po si tion, the upstage portion of the floor will be invisible from the first row. Leaving the upstage floor out of sight by perhaps as much as 6 inches from the first row is generally preferable to having an excessive floor slope, especially if more than one balcony is used. When planning for motion pictures only, the lower sight line from the fir s t row will come to the botlom of the projected picture, approxi•••att:ly 2 1 indacs the s t age floor , or still higher if a reverse floor MCWIE OR. Hlliio-+4E.'&.T O"B.,&.CT 30. ----&iGM/i...iN.e;;r---Maximum tolerable upward tight line angle for motion picture•. Maximum angle determine• location of clo1e1t 1ea11. Batie dlmeruioru Jor plotting floor •wpe.

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5''/ 12.7cm fiGUIIE I.S The ver tical sight line : every-other-row vision ( after Frink) . (G. C. b.enour Arc hive) 1.1.2 Sig h t Lines A siglzt liue is defined as the path of .vision from the position of a spectator in an auditorium seated) to the performer or performance space. A good sight line is one in which there arc no impediments to vision and angular di s placement (vertical and horizontal) of the eyes and h e ad faJJs within the criteria for comfort (sec Figs . 1.2 and 1 . 3) . An unsatisfactory sight line trans gresses in ore or Jess one or aiJ of these criteria . A ,,ertical sigllt liue (Fig . 1.4) is d e fined as the angular path of vision in th e vertic a l plane over or under impediments, if any, b e tween a sight point and the performance area . This is usuaJiy conc erned with the heads of intervening spectators (as in Figs. 1.4 and 1.5, iJJustraring every-row and every-other row vis ion) or building restrictions such as a balcony rail, unde r b alco ny s tru cture, etc. A IJOrizo11tal siglll li11e (Fig . 1 . 6) is defined as the angle of vision in the horiz o ntal plane b e tween or around ' intervening obstructions, if any, b e tween a sight point and the performance area . These are usually the h eads of spectators in th e row or rows immediately in front or building components s u ch as bo" divi s ions, columns, etc. fiGURE 1.4 The vertical sight line: every-row vision (after Frink). (G. C. lzenour Archive) FIGURE 1 . 6 The horizontal sight line (after Frink). (G. C . lzenour Archive)

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. . so• MAXIMUM HEAD ROTATION 45• EASY HEAD MOVEMENT THEATER SEAT WIDTHS: MAXIMUM 2255.9 m AVERAGE 20-50.8 em MINIMUM 18-45.7cm nGURE 1.2 Average dimensions of the seated human llgure iD plu (after Dreyfuss). (G. C. Izenour Archive) \ o• STANDARD SIGHT LINE o• EASY HEAD MOVEMENT ' s-12.7cm DIMENSION --,f--------r'---EYE TO TOP OF HEAD 44111.1cm ----MEAN EYE HEIGHT FROM FLOOR 34--86.4cm AVERAGE DIMENSION TO THEATER CHAIR TOP OF BACK 23--58.4cm DIMENSION FLOOR TO TOP OF THEATER CHAIR ARM REST 1s-40.6cm AVERAGE DIMENSION _..t--+--+--FLOOR TO TOP OF THEATER CHAIR SEAT FIGURE 1.3 Average dimensions of the seated human figure ia e l evation (after Dreyfuss). (G. C. lzeaour Archive)

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FOR CONCERT HALL. PLATf'ORM N ROOM INSTEAD OF STAG B011NO -O&CI:NI.....,._ 81GHT LIN& &AM AS OTMA UVE SHOW& WORKING ... I:IGHT Of' CUATAIN • t"I'I06CENIUM USUALLY HIGHER) 15' TO 20' FOR OAAIIAA 20" TO 30' FOR MUSICAL A .. : . : . . . LIVE SHOWS COA.,....A, MuSICAL., OPERA, BALLET) "":"OTAL NET VO\..UM CJCCLUOONG 6TAGE I • 150-200 CU FT. &EAT / / LIGHT / / / / )' / / I : . .. . : .. :. : ::. i : : : : . . -: . : . . . . . ORC ... E&TRA PIT • I() 8Q FT PER ... V61CIAN PLu& 100 TO 200 6Q I'"T. W ... EAE PIT USED. f"IRST ROW WILL BE SUFFICIENT O •STANCE FROM STAGE

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r.>:; 0.-SC .. EEN 0 .. CUATAIN "EPAT OATUM OR CHAIR L '" roq LIVE & ... ows S E E & ECTION F"OR LOCATING f"'RST ROW _______ _,.,_ ___ 5'' HEAO CLEARANCE AT ALTERNATE ROW& TVPICAL'-V ...,., N 70 BO.,.TC"' OF" 6 C .. EEN I -----..: =-----_-_-::__ : .::: ::.:::.:: --16'-0' OR MORE p;:;co .. •CES A V ERI> ,.LOOR S -OPE I 2 " .>BOV!!: STAGE ,.oq ... 1vE s ... ows -----ft.A'AV a:: "''ov•NG FOCus ABOUT • 6 ' " ABO\f A N D MOVE DOWN I " P i.: R ROW -o .>.C.-EN WIDT ... S IWI 14 ::7' SMALL YOVIEC"-"-Be:: uSED II"Oq 1 6 ........ 6 -::L.::•/IS ION .&L..SO • 6.::l' T O 20'-0" OP";':"'UM 2 i 0 " V.AJ(IMl.JhA :!'.0 ... aSOl..UTE MAX:MUMI PLAN OF"TE N U SED; GAINS S OME POOR SEAT S 6 LOSES MANY GOOO ONES ''--sCRE E N I LOCATES CURVATURE I RADIUS ,.IR&T AOW See local code for max imum ai•l• slopes pcrmilled: B . O . C . A . & B . B .C . allow 1 : 711 ,/4'/lt. ) . U . B . C . allows 1 : 8 N . B .C . • N . F . P . A . , S . S . B . C . allow 1 : 10 Slopes g rea t e r than 11bove must be i n l i sle r isen full a i1le widlh , usu11lly allowed only i n gall e r i es 6 bal coni es. BOUNDARY 0 .. GOOD SEATING AREA• OPTIMUM SEAT& :!IW 'TO 5W ,.ROM SCREEN MAXIMUM 6W f'ROM SCREEN. BACK WALL SHOULD NOT f'"Ol..LOW BEAT CURVATURE

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ft. 1 ft. I h. 1 ft. 1 lt . . fl. . lt. 1l Production Reao;on•ble )faxlmuna 40 45 so 80 • I P'AO&CEN .... W'OTH IWI so TO 4c:Y FOR co-AM A e 40" TO 50" FOR MUSICAL 60" TO 80" FOR OPERA • 26" SOMETI ... USED FOR INTo':4ATE THEATER : _ . ._ . . . . . . • .. " ... 0 .8 . . 0 . . . " i . . . . . I w ... -.;. ! 0 i . . I: lilt-4 .... ... • ... .J o 4 WUII: .. ; 0 ... ... .J • :.: :-. : 0111411: ... ZH Z wzxw \-o.a-U60AL N. RADIUS ----I I I I I I I I I --l .... .... _ W MAX. DRAMA W MA>C. """-'S-CAL 8 OPERA DEPTH OF BTAGE• W TO 1'..-..w ,.LAN alOE AISLCIS ARC BCTTEA THAN SIDE SEATB"j. ..: : . • : . • : ••• . : i ... i APRON• :z' . Q .. MIN. TO 15.-0 .. MAX. COCEI GOOD SEEING a HEARING AREA INTERMEDIATE AISLES a CROSSOVERS NOT SHOWN NOT

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FICUK 1.58 Contemporary American back-lo-back spacing of &healer chairs; self-rising versus self-rising/relracling pushback, as used In theater consulling practice (no &cale). (G. C. lzenour Archive) Style tlack to back i Average seats Total no. , Radial aisle P ara llel aisle C on tinent a l side aisle • For comfort. t Shaded area in plans. minimum spacing , in. • 36 36 39 per 256 ft.2t of seats 41 605 46 617 48 756 No. of rows Maximum d . istance from stage, ft. 18 54 18 54 16 52 ( ' i • I i Cal (b) fiCUU 1 .66 Basic contemporary auditorium sealing geomelriea in plan (no scale). (a) Rectilinear, (b) Curvilinear, (c) Single herringbone, (d) Double herringbone . (G. C. lzenour Archive) ,.

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.,_ ___ 22• BACK PITCH IIR I . U Contemporary American selfrising Iter .chair. Dim e n s ion a l drawing (no scale, t uns1ona in in c hes) . (Courtesy of American Sealing "P&DYI 24 I ' t t .. p. f. .. .:.: '------26 &..----19 t ----t 35 321 2 I . S8 Contemporary American •df-ris in11/retracling pushback theater chair. llimen s ion a l drawing (no scale, dimensions in inche s ) . (Courte a y of American Sealing CompanyJ 23j 17t CHAIR SIZE 21 22 23-H 1 r r _ ...... -----", : I I I I . ' I I I I I I i I l J: l -l -.f ' --...... ____ .... I \ .!::. ' fiCUil I.S7 Contemporary Am e rican theater chair widtha : arm to-arm . Dimensional drawing (no scale, dimension• in inches) . (Courlesy of America . n Sealing CompanyJ I I 'I p c!:=lo

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• E GJ L D. IU .c 1-

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PROBLEM STATEMENTa The artistic and social displays and performances that go on in the theater occur in many Jdegrees both in the public and performing The the&ter must be capable of accomodating human needs without detrement to the artistic environment. ' The theater after all is made for and used by people with the main goal of interaction and sharing a common experience. Tne pursuit of art occurs in many levelsa the public support,of creative effortsa the artists dedication to that effort, and the technical expertise to meld the two together. The design of the theater must recognize all of these facets and respect the complexities of their The personal display of patron and once-in-awhile concert goer in the public realm I must be addressed as well as the performers display on stage. Richard Wagner had said thata " •. the concert hall is for the audience to find a place in which to view the performance... While so much of that is true today we still must be sensitive to the issues of human comfort, social considerations that have evolved since then. The Denver urban context and image must be recognized throughout the design process. While the context of the DCPA is well established by the Bonfils complex there are many issues still unclear as to a concert hall's formal image much less that image in Denver's urban fabric. Acoustical and perceptual solutions to the concert hall must be critically thought through as to its suitibility and adaptability to the programmed usage

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of the building. The excellent air density for sound passage made possible by Denver's altitude is a physical boon to be exploited. The numerous design tools for the acoustical handling of the house will further aid in the design of the theater. While even the most expert of acoustical engineers and consultants disagree on method or means (much less criterea) there are many proven concepts that have been successfully realized in past halls, and this should provide the springboard from which to design. Finally, the traditions of the performing arts must be addressed. While so much avante garde and mannerist (for lack of another term) composition occurs (that is not conducive to traditional usage of instruments) there still exists the need to accomodate these creative directions. However, the fine traditions that have originated with the composer, performer and conductor of past must be kept alive as that is the context in which the music was born. The tradition of the concert hall is an ever evolving process that is paralleled with man's creative and social development. To successfully design for such a concert hall one must the and complexities of the day without ignoring the promises of the future rior the established wealth of the past.

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ARE A RELATIONSHIP AND LOCATION MATRIXa LOBBY HOUSE STAGE BACKSTAGE LOWER LEVEL 1 must be adjacent 2-must be accessible to 3 -vertically separated 4 -no needed 5 -no access needed

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SUB AREA RELATIONSHIP AND LOCATION MATRIXa LOBBY TICKET OFFICE RM./ARCHIVES DCPA OFFICE DSO OFFICES (2) REFRESHMENT SERVICE MEN'SRESTROOM WOMEN'S RESTROOM JANITOR'S CLOSET 1 -must be adjacent 2 -must be accessible to J -vertically seperated 4 -no seperation needed 5 -no access needed

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SUB AREA RELATIONSHIP AND LOCATION MATRIX a HOUSE LIGHT BOOTH SOUND BOOTH STANDING ROOM 1 must be adjacent 2 must be accessible to 3 -vertically separated 4 -no seperation needed 5 -no access needed

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SUB AREA ftELATIONSHIP AND LOCATION MATRIX• I BACKSTAGE GREEN ROOM MEN'S RESTROOM WOMEN'S RESTROOM SINGLE DRESSING ROOMS MUSICIAN'S DRESSING ROOM TROUPE DRESSING ROOM 1 must be adjacent 2 must be accessible to 3 -vertically separated 4 -no separation needed 5 -no access needed

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SUB AREA RELATIONSHIP AND LOCATION MATRIXa The PIT REHEARSAL ROOM MECHANICAL ROOM STORAGE 1 must be adjacent J 2 must be accessible to 3 -vertically separated 4 -no separation needed 5 -no 'access needed

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>< -ll c G) a. D. (

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THE BOETICHER CONCERT HALL, DENVER, BY HARDY HOLZMAN PFIEFFER ASSOCIATES AN " UNDERGROUND" ADDITION AT THE OJAI VALLEY .INN DESIGN IN THE SPIRIT OF ISLAM: THE AGA KHAN AWARD FOR ARCHITECTURE A CHARETTE-STYLE COMPETITION FOR A NEW PROVINCETOWN PLAYHOUSE ON CAPE COD BUILDING TYPES STUDY: OFFICE BUILDINGS FULL CONTENTS ON 'PAGES 10 AND 11 ARCHITECTUML RECORD

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The Boettcher Concert Hall, designed by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates, is the first in the United States in which the audience is seated around the orchestra to bring it as dose to the perfonnance as possible-the S
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,., ... ,,, ...,.._, .... , "'.._ u .... UI'-11 .... 11;;;; 1.:1 IIIVIC tt/011 U,J f rom the stage. "Everyt h ing f rom opera to pr ize f i ghts is going to happen in Boettche r, but it is pr imari I a conce r t hall, " said arch i tec t Hugh Hard y rep lying to the quest i o n : "Why make it round ?" T he former conductor o f the Denver S y mphon y Orches tra, Brian Priest man, has f o r years conducted out-of-door s i n the great deser t amph i theate r outside the c ity . "The design started w ith h i m . He was used to having people everywhere . He wanted h i s orchestra surrounded . He had created the audience for s y mp h on i c musi c in Denver and they were used t o seeing and hearing the orchestra fro m various rocky perches unde r the deser t s ky . " Priestman wanted a concert hall that would be informal and democratic , encourag ing the audience to br ing indoors the playful relaxed spirit wh ich music under the stars create s . Boettcher Hall was to be as big as all outdoors as well , with seating capacit y of "2;750. HWe d idn' t want to make a s i mple bowl shape o f the seating and volume wh ich this hall requ i red ," said Hardy. "It is even b i gger than the one we d id in Minneapolis. Our prob le m was to make th i s big room intimate-to ring each member of the audience into the best possi b l e visual and acous ical relati onship to t h e performance . When I go to the theater or to a concert I want to sit i n the first row of the mezza nine-those are my favorite seats. So for Boettcher we broke the audience seating into t erraced , staggered , shallow segments o ffer ing more o f t hose great f irst row mezzanine seats. Nobod y i s i n the t wenty-sixth row looking over all those heads. B y break ing up Eighty per cent of the is within 65 feel nUhe,ct.age..arnLno member of the is more 85 feet from the The itself is 2,400 feet up to 120 for symphonic

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-------o -.... cher are arranged asymmetrically , the radii of each arc o f seats have differen t focal points . T h u s all eye s are no t focused on a soloist standin g at a singl e point at the center o f a bowl. Seen oblique ly he doesn't look so for l orn. The trad iti ona l hall is s y mmetrical abou t an axi s wh i c h bisects the roya l box . It was desi gned f o r kings. But an orchestra is not inherentl y symmetrical. Orchestra musi cia n s are asy mme t r ically arranged b y instru men t w i thin a con trolled acoust ical environ men t . A .ll halls sound different from different lis t e ning po ints depend ing upo n whic h i nstru ments are c losest . a n d Boettcher is no excep t i o n . Halls look d iff e r ent too f rom d i fferent v iewing po ints. but Boettche r-because it i s a symm etr ical i n b oth plan and sectionc hang e s f o r m i n an i ntr i cate and engag ing w a y fro m e v e ry vant a g e poin t w ithi n the hall. The e xperience o f hearing and seeing i s thus subtly a l tered fr o m one terrace o f seats to ano ther. Each p lace i n the hall i s " some place " to be. Since the shape o f Boettcher was devised i n response to the conductor ' s long expe ri ence in an outdoor amph i theater , it cou ld be assumed that the new hall. as a matter o f course , woul d have sound amplifi cati on. as outdoor m u s ical centers generall y do . Boettcher , howe v er. was to have natural sound. because , according to Hard y , for t r a diti ona l crit i c s ther e i s no othe r measure . " Chr i stopher Jaffe would have loved to show wha t he can do w i th amplifica t ion . but Boettcher wou l d no t h a v e rece i ved the cert i ficat i on o f the East Coas t musi c cr itics i f he had-an i mprima t u r t hat Denver knew i t cou l d no t do w i thou t." Alt hough Har d y H o lzman P f eiffe r and the ir acoust i c ian h a d to defer to tradit i o n wi th regard t o natura l sound , thei r client encour a ged and accep t ed mos t o f the ir unprecedent ed concep ts. "We could no t hav e bu ilt a :oncert hall as adv anced as this in New York The over 2,750 in five kinds of suting the dress circles projecting out either side of the the suts sloping gently buk from the the mezunine which divided into eight the section the which un olllso be used for in four semi-circular rings which over _ the lower The color used throughout the hollll evokes the thirties, colors in the nearby environment And the pAintings of Georgi• O'Keefe. The Architects thought of the ceiling "the blollnket" with stripes intersecting At right Angles. VISible and electricolll outlets were into the blAnket design. The Acoustical anopy consists of 106 circulAr plastic discs. A number of these douds an be or lowered to provide the best possible sound reflection for the type of event on st.e.

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The Boettcher Concert HAll (1bove) u of the Denver . Center for the Performing Arts, occupies 1 qu1drant of 1 downtown Denver (site pllns opposite p1ge, top). The Center will ultirutely include seven f1cilities: Boettcher, 1 the1ter complex by Roche, Dinkeloo & now nearing completion, _ .an amphithuter, an 1uditorium the1ter 1nd an offiCe building and 1 now completed p1rking gu1ge. These f1cilities are joined together by 1 cross-shaped, glass-roofed g1lleril (opposite p1ge, top left) which is 1n elented wAtkwty 60 feet wide ;.,d 76 feet high. The relltionship of the concert hiD to its immediate surroundings can be seen in the three smAll photos on the oppo5ite The exterior brick colors of the new building m1tch the tans 1nd browns of of the surrounding structures. The undul1ting wAlls in the small center photo define two arcs of se1ts which swell beyond the rectangullr building envelope-a due th1t the inside of the hall is anything but rectilinur. The lobbies of the concert h1ll (left) have the look for which H1rdy Holzrun Pfeiffer Associltes are famous. Apart from their color the West. This is wh y good architects like Charles Moore play their verbal games in the East, but build their buildings in the We s t: The architects' most startling inno vat i on was their decision to spend most of the budget on the hall itself. keeping the public lobbies and the building -shell -as simple and inexpensive as possible . "We wanted to make a glorious , memorable room . The idea that it's oka y to do this again is an excit i ng contemporary notion-making such rooms was not important to the Modern Movemen t . A l ot of architects still wan t to make only things-buildings in space-not wonderful. magical rooms . " Many theaters with g reat i nteriors are not important on the outside . Hardy cites New York Cit y's legitimate theaters and in particular the New Amsterdam Theater on 42nd Street . "Look the-outside . It is not h r.ooms, and now it is coming up for landmark desig nation . " The exter ior of Boettche r had to be a simple box, no t only for economic reasons but because it-1was designated in the master plan to occup y a rather tight quadrant. "We had to be in a quadrant a ' nd we had to provide access from -a corner and that was that , " said Hardy . So the architects gave everything to the hall itself . The room is banded by ribbon-like balcony fascias that undulate to serve the acoustic function of increasing the percent reflective a1 ea a11d to diffuse the sound . But these fascias also help enclose the room visua lly . They e
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..::: r.= II I! = -r=

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Table I, Hall Characteristics length A len g t h B WidthC Ale feet feet feet ( 1 ) (2) (3) Vienna 142 105 66 2.2 Boston 157 128 75 2 . 1 leipzig 138 108 62 2.2 Average 145 113 67 2 . 16 Amsterdam 125 88 94 1 . 3 Edinburgh 122 100 108 1.1 Average 123 94 86 1 . 2 Mexico 155 102 172 0 . 9 Denver 140 90 190 0.7 Average 147 96 181 0 . 8 (1) Average length of hall from rear of orchestral stage platform. ( 2 ) Average length of hall from front of orchestral stage platform . (3 ) Average width of hall . ITDG ITDG B / C milli m illi-seconds seconds ( 4 ) (5) (4 ) (6) 1 . 6 15 1.7 18 1.7 12 1.66 15 .9 27 .9 46* .9 36 0.6 32 16 0 . 6 41 17 0 . 6 36 . 5 16.5 ( 4 ) Initial Time Delay Gap. The time isms between arriva l of direct sound from stage platform and first b inaural reflection . ( 5 ) Measured from side balcony front/or wall. "Measured from wall. (6) Measured from canopy. Table II, Measured Reverberation Times Average Frequency in cps i! Occupied 500-1000 cps 67 Vienna 2.05 2.4 Denver 2.0 2 . 8 Many symphony-concert fans presume that the best shape for a concert hall i s the " shoe box " version exemplified by the renowned Boston Sym phony Hall and some of the great halls of Europe (across page, top) . But in form and audience involvement to some extent , the " surround " hall has some precedence in the Con certgebouw of Amsterdam and Usher Hall of Edinburgh (across page). The acoustic design challenge in the new surround halls, o f wh ich Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City (RKORD, January, 1978) is the first in North America , and Boettcher Hall in Denver is the first in the U .S., to achieve the classic sound in halls of much d i fferent physica l form . The 125 250 500 1000 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.6 2 . 4 2 .0 2.0 initial time-delay gap (ITDG) between direct orchestral sound and first reflections ;and 2) reverberation time of low .and mid-frequency sound en ergy . Comparisons of ITDG' s for famous concert halls in Europe and the new surround halls are given in Table I. Comparisons of reverberation times for Vienna' s Grosser Mu sikvereinssaal and Denver ' s Boettcher Hall are given in Table II. More low-frequency sound energy is .msorbed by audiences closer to the or chestra in surround halls. To compensate for th is, Boettcher Hall has a reverberant cham ber under the orchestra plat form and the fir5t few rows of the audience, with openings to the hall, is "tun..t>le" by 2000 1.9 1.9 4000 6000 8000 1.6 1.3 1.5 . 9 " ------SAlA NEZAHUALCOYOTL, MEXICO OTY KEY: -----DIRECT SOUND -• • -fltST REfl.fCTlON \ \ \ \,.......-"''\ A / / I I \ c > / / / / / \ ------.. / ' """'\ ..... "' "' ... \ \ \ I I 1 / I / I \ / I __ y.:.."\ A I \ ..... y \..-.....

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The following d i scussion o f the acoustics design was prepared b y Chr i stopher Ja-ffe : Though the Den v er Symphony wanted a new hall flexib l e enough for both music of toda y and of years i nto the f uture , the idea o f music-in-the-round at first s tr uck Boettcher Hall's sponsors as a prett y rad ical idea . The y were reassured , however , b y a trip to Europe where the y saw three semi-surround halls. i ncluding the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam. and the full-surround hall in Berlin . Nonetheless , the concept of a 360degree symphonic facility wou l d be greeted with skeptic ism b y the musical commun i t ies of many c ities. Why spend millions of dollars on a facilit y whose physica l characteristics are so very different from those of the rectangu lar European conce r t hall whose acoustic qualities have received such glowing acclaim? Why take the chance? Those holding this poi n t of view have been m i s l ed b y two popular acoustic m yth s . The first is that there is onl y one trad iti ona l . European concert-hall envi r onment: a nar row, rectangular box with an average length to-width rat i o (measured from the rear of the stage -platform) oi at least two to one , a reflective end stage, and narrow side balconiesextending _ to _ the apron of the platfo rm. Representative halls of this type are Boston Symphon y Hall, the Vienna Grosser Musikver einssaal and the Leipzig Neues Gewandhaus (see drawings labeled " A "). Actually, these " shoebox " halls are representative o f only one school of design in Europe . There is another traditional concerthall form that is square or modified-fan shaped, having an average length-to-width ratio (measured from the rear of the ,stage platform) o f one-and-one-half to one or less, and with " soft " chora l seats mounted on tiered risers behind the orchestra , or, in some to those in oper.a houses . Tbe Amsterdam Concertgebouw and Edinburgh ' s Usher Hall are typical of this schoo l of concert-hall design (see drawings labeled " B " ) . The second myth is tha t concert-going i s by nature a very forma l and cerebra l event ; and that , therefore, people must have exten sive training i n the ritua l s of the listening experience before they can be expected to appreciate a concert. This point of view is of course open to challenge. Musicologists tell us that early public concerts were informal, wild and woolly affairs w it h a potpourr i program tha t . rnigbt include an aria from a n opera , a p iano concerto, and one or two movements of a symphon y . Recent studies and program evaluat ions tell us tha t a large number of contemporar y American audiences would prefer to hear music in less formal environments . The results of the National Endowment f or the Arts ' research project, " Environments and the Conrf'rt F.xoPrienrP. " thP "' ' •hP NP w Y or k Philh armonic Rug Concerts . and Erik Marden's report for the Ford Foundat i on on audience att itudes . all support these findings. In its simplest sense, a satisfactory musi cal experience for the audience depends upon it rece i ving a series of reflected sounds o f differen t frequencies in particular relation ships to the initial orchestra l sound source . For examp l e , it is ver y important for listeners to rece iv e earl y high-frequency reflect ions within 20 mill i seconds of the arrival o f the direc t orchestral sound f or them to experi ence opt i mum musical presence and def ini tion . The difference in t ime between the arr ival of the direct sound and the first reflec t ion is called the ini tial t i me-delay gap (ITDG). The first reflections from the walls and balco ny fronts o f a narrow rectangular hall auto matically occur within the proper range. For example , the average ITDG o f three well respected rectangular concert halls is 15 mill i seconds (see Table 1). In the square or surround hall, on the other hand , the wall surfaces are too far away for listeners to receive these early reflections within the required time period , and special suspended reflecting surfaces must be introduced at proper heights for ..a.udiences to compatable presence and definition . The average wall reflec tion ITDG of two renowned traditional square halls is 36 milliseconds (ms), and of two new surround halls is 36. 5 ms (see Table 1). In the older halls, center-area listening locations suffer from lack of optimum pres ence and definition . In the new halls, however , th i s potential deficiency is avoided through the use of overhead reflectors that are sized and shaped to reflect sound of the desired frequencies. The average ITDG from the canopy systems for the new surround halls in Mexico City and Denver is 16.5 msonly 1 . 5 ms higher than the average ITDG for " shoebox " designs, and well within the design criterion of 20 ms. just as important as presence and defin i tion in a hall are the acoustical qualities of fullness, liveness, and warmth , which result from mid-and low-frequency reflections as sound energy decays in a hall. For a hall to have these qualities , it must have the right reverberation time, which is a measure of these decays . The better halls have reverber ation times o f between . 8 and 2.2 seconds at mid-frequencies (i. e . , 5()()-1000 cps} when occupied . In an end-stage rectangular hall , the sound energy at these frequencies is prevented from being absorbed too rapidly by the hard reflecting surfaces o f the orches tra chamber , and the cap of the ceiling and upper walls over the aud i ence ('See overleaf) . In a rectangular hall built with proper mater i als, a volume of 300 cu ft per person will provide the desired RT's. 1., il surround ha!l. howe ver . there i s no A ' B J ----; . I • ' I A I -----------GROSSER MUSIKVEREINSSAAL, VIENNA 1 I I I I ,1_ A ,_::.::===-=-------====-= SYMPHONY-HALL, BOSTON / r ... , . I T / . I I . • / ' I I __ ) NEUES GEWANDHAUS, LEIPZIG USHER HAll, EDINBURGH 20

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ooo o o oooo o Grosser Musikver einssaal, VIENNA oooo.ooooooooo C oncertgebouw , AMSTERDAM Boettcher Hall, DE VER -r--r ----in the surround hall (the " soft " bowl) , more o f the late-arriving l ow-frequenc y e'nergy is absorbed in this reg i on . To compensate for th is in Denver , we built a four-second low frequency reverberation chambe r , or moat , under the wooden platform stage and part o f the seating area. This chambe r is energized b y the vibrations of the stage floor , and is tuned w ith a series of v ariable drapery panels extended on tracks under the stage . A compar ison o f the RT's o f Boett cher and Vienna's Grosser Musikvereinssaal are given in Table II, showing that both halls have ver y similar characteristics . In sum, then , here are the maj or design techniques used in Denver to provide the familiar symphon i c listening experience : 1 . Distribution o f the audience in terrace blocks rather than in a single circular amphi theate r pattern . The terrace b locks increase the percentage o f reflective areas in the vicin ity o f the audience , creating an increased ratio o f reflected to direct sound ; 2. Raking the terraces at a steep angle in order to reduce the effect of incident aud i ence sound absorption , which also allowed the designers to incorporate high, seat backs; 3. Use o f a 360-degree onstage over head reflector canopy that distributes the harmoni c structure of each instrument throughout the hall and improves onstage and cross-stage hearing for the orchestra; 4 . Design of a forestage canopy of suffi cient radius to enab le early reflected energy patterns to reach the audience within 20 ms o f the arrival of the direct sound ; 5. Increasing the volume / seating area ratio to 450 cu ft per person so tha t sufficient refl ective surfaces are introduced into the "hard cap" o f the ceiling to prov ide desired rever beration t imes i n the mid-and low frequencies ; 6. Design o f an acoustic coupl ing cham ber with a reverberation time of four seconds under the stage p lat f orm to further enhance late-arriving , lower-frequency energ y . Boettcher Hall was well rece ived not onl y by the nationa l and loca l press, but by guest conductors , as well-testimony to the fact t hat acoustic restrictions endemic to the classic concert hall environmen t need no longer apply . The symphon i c environment can be changed without harming the tradi t i ona l classic sound . In fact, these new inti mate environments have a "traditional " sound of their own, and are not so radical as popularly believed . More importantly , these spaces will prov ide a stimulant for t he crea tion of new musical compositions , and increase audience involvement in the concert experience . The degree to which these events occur will be the true measure o f the success of Boettcher Concert Hall.

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-o-o -----------... , developed by the architects and lighting/ stage consultants Jules Fisher and Paul Marantz, let the audience experience the hall totally or focus their interest on the stage, which an be configured to suit the event. 'The following discussion was de veloped by the firms of jules Fisher & Paul Marantz , Inc., Lighting Consultants , and jules Fisher Asso dates , Inc., Theatre Consultants : . The objectives of the lighting system for the audit orium of Boettcher Hall were twofold: 1) to ligh t the room pr i o r to the performance so that the concertgoer senses the large community of the audience and feels he is in a special place , 2) to compress the room during the performance to bring the concert goer into direct and intim ate contact w ith the stage. (See sketches and photos, left.) The lighting design was organized around the concept o f scale man i pulat i on, and the key to th i s is found in the plan itself . The room is a dialogue between an orthoga nal envelope and radial contents . With the surfaces of the orthoganal conta iner lighted, the eye is drawn outward and upward toward the boundar ies, and the perceived space is large . Before the performance begins , these surfaces are darkened, and the visible boundaries are drawn inward-limited horizon tally by the undulating front surfaces of the seating rings, and vertically by the convex acoustical reflectors . Oftentimes in concert halls, the perime ter of the performing space is defined by lightsJn the..iascias o f balconies and -terraces . But this was not possible in Boettcher Hall because of the undulating surfaces of the boxes ; furthermore, the sleekness of the boxes made such lights undesirable . Instead, an eye stopping sparkle was provided on the ring fronts by means of a double stripe of gold leaf. The acrylic acoustical reflectors also provide a visual boundary since they bounce diffused light images from the stage to the viewer along the same paths as the sound waves . In this way the working surfaces are given additional life , while physical light sources are suppressed . The lighting fixtures for the audit orium were specially developed for the building , providing indirect illumina tion , and satisfying acoustical requirements . The basic element is a molded-fiberglass housing that i s used both singly and in clusters as the visible lighting element. A similar need to alter scale was a prima ry design problem for the theater consultant. While principally a concert hall , Boettcher will also be used for such events as modern dance , semi-staged and concert opera , and other non-traditiona l uses. In an arena or -------------------,..o .... _ stage was approached in three ways . First, large areas at the front and stage-right sides are hydraulic lifts , controlled individually or linked together . These lifts can be lowered to p it level to accommodate an orchestra , or lowered to the basement. Second ly, remova ble traps were located along the perimeter of the stage to isolate the stage platform visuall y from the fixed seating so as to provide some " esthetic distance " for dramatic performance modes : Thirdly, a central trapped section was provided in the center stage area to permit mani pulation of the stage plan and to provide addit i onal entrances from within . Boettcher Hall is not lavishly equipped as a theater . Rather , a great effort was made to create a facility that would not inhibit theatr i cal functioning (with the clear understanding that flown scenery was impossible because of the acoustical canopy) . Ample electric power and a flexible-circu it distribution system allow the use of sophisticated portable dimming equipment as needed . Provisions for mount ing stage lighting are included , and the lights are brought in as required. Doors and loading dock were carefully sized to permit the free movement of materials . Thus, Boettcher Hall was designed to satisfy its concert-hall program fully, but also to permit alternate uses with some ease. For both acoustical and design reasons, the tiers of seats are asymmetrical. With eight centers for seating arcs, engineers KKBNA had an interesting exercise in geometry. The following discussion is by Charles D . Keyes and William B . O ' Neal of KKBNA, the consulting structura l engineers : Functional requirements of the " surround " hall dictated radial geometry within the hall for the structural framing, while the shape of the building envelope itself suggested ortho gonal geometry on a grid paralle l to the exterior walls . The radial geometry was further complicated by the acoustical require ments of breaking the radial geometry so that the semi-circular seating segments would be offset asymmetrically from one another. This meant that eight radius points had to be used to define the hall geometry from which the column locations could be laid out (see top drawing). In addit i on , the levels o f seating are offset asymmetrically by use of steps and overhanging cantilevers. To bring order to the confusing geome try of the haiL the architects elected to express a change in structural systems between the hall and the lobby and andllary areas surrounding it. Within the hall , the fram ing comprises beams and . 1 . Basic stage configuration with elevators up and traps closed . 2 . Stage configuration with front elevator down 3. Stage configuration with elevators down and perimeter traps open .

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. -I :---., ... _ r 'i ll' " . ' . I i J,-L.J J. 0 D 0 I I 0 \ ;:l I I " I u fz F0 '\ , ; • I " I I ! I I T I Framing Plan at 9 ft-o in . level Floor Plan at 9 tt-o in. level openings provided in the interface area, one is able to perceive both the location and extent of the hall space. The two framing geometries , the mult i ple level changes , and cantilevers and sight line requirements have resulted in unusuall y complicated framing (see center drawing ) . There are approximately 200 column and support locations in the building . In contrast , with more conventional framing , say with 3D by 3D-ft bay sizes, there might be only 60 column and support points . All floors are exceptionally heavy and stiff to minimize vibration and sound trans mission, and to control deflection . Deflection in the floor system, which supports many heavy, non-structural acoustical masonry walls, was lim i ted to prevent cracking and consequent sound leakage . Sound isolation from outdoor noise was provided by a single cavity wall at the exter ior comprising a 4-in. brick wythe, 13-in . cavity (to allow for steel framing), and 8-in . concrete-block wythe. This is in contrast to a common acoustical design of exterior wall , public corridor and interior solid wall, refer red to as " box within a box . " The design chosen offered both more de sign flexibility and lower cost. The 72-ft-high brick wall is tied to the floor beams (9 ft on center) for lateral support , but for acoustical reasons there are no ties to the interior block or steel framing within the cavity . The solid-brick wall is reinforced both horizontally and vertically , and special caulking was used to maintain the acoustical integrity of the wall . The 8-in . concrete block is grouted solid and has bond beams at 4 ft on center . Vertical joints are provided in the brick at approximately 60 ft on center to satisfy the acoustical require ments . Contro l joints in the concrete block are 30 ft on center, and also received high density caulking . The exterior wall is complicated . by projections required for passageways around the circular seating (see small photo on page 104) . These passageways , occuring at two seating levels , begin tangent to the exterior wall, curve out a distance of approximately 14 ft beyond the main wall , and then return to intersect the main wall again. The roof system has 12D-ft-long trusses with steel beams between to suppo;t metal deck and concrete topping . From the roo f structure a number of building elements are suspended: 1) the hall ceiling , 2) the acoustical reflectors and the light bri dge and catwalk , 3) four mechanical rooms, one in each corner of the building, 4) the uppermost tier of seats. These rings of seats are supported by pipe hangers without X-bracing . As was the case for the floor design , these rings were designed based on a stif fness that would satisfy both vertical and horizontal vibration cri t eria and deflect _ i on requirements .

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J::lUUK.::S American Theater Planning Soard. Theater Check List. Middletown, Conn . Press, 1969. BurrisMeyer, Harold and Edward C. Cole. Theaters and Auditoriums. New York. Re:nhold ?ublishing 1964. Izehour, G eorge C. Hill, 1977. New York. Mielziner, Jo. The Shapes of Our Theater. New York. Crown Publishers, 1970. Pena, William. ?roblern Seekin2. Cahners Books Ltd., 1977. Schubert, Hannelore. Tte Modern Theater. New York . Praeger, 1971. Silverman, Max. Contemporary Theater Architect re. New York. New York ?ublic 1965. ARTICLES "Con cert She 11 :or Romar. Ru ir:." A t e c t ural ::lecord, December 1970 , pp. 67 74 . "Denver's Boettcher Concert f1c.ll. " Record, March 1979, PP• 99-1-0. "Designing ?or Culture." pp. 125 -140. "Doing Less and :1.cn:.evi:1g Arch " tec:ura::. Record, April -979, pp . "Gloria in "'ransit." Novembe r l975, pp. Pro;;:ress.:.e 43 "Jl. "Kind of Up to t,m . " Progress i ' ' Arc h:: e c t u r e , o v ember 19 7 5 , pp. 40-43. "Iowa's Prairie Auditorium." . ?ecord, December 1970, pp. 75-70. "Orpheus N ebraskensis." ?regressive ':ecture. Novembe r -975, pp. 4 4 -47.

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