Citation
The Development of a linear Kalman filter for responsive myoelectric control

Material Information

Title:
The Development of a linear Kalman filter for responsive myoelectric control
Creator:
Burch, Rusty Daniel
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Bioengineering, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Bioengineering
Committee Chair:
Weir, Richard F.
Committee Members:
Austin, Erin
Lammers, Steven

Notes

Abstract:
Quick and smooth estimation of the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude is essential to providing users with intuitive control of a myoelectric prosthesis. Muscle contraction creating an electric potential is detected on the skin surface and translated into a prosthesis command signal. Because of its complexity, characterizing EMG requires a statistical approach. A standard amplitude estimator has been the root-mean-square (RMS) statistic; however, RMS calculation introduces significant delay in prosthesis control, generating a requirement for faster estimators. A Bayesian statistical approach predicting future data using past observations was developed using a Kalman filter. This Kalman filter produces estimates more quickly and even more smoothly than RMS but probably is not yet perfected. The successful development of this filter represents progress towards intuitive myoelectric control.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Rusty Daniel Burch. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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! ($ ! !(:6(A' 1*W% ' ! '<1L,7<,/k'.&)*J< ! function [x,P,xf,Pf] = emgKalmanVector(y,P0,x0) N = length(y); if (N < 2) || (size(y,1) > 1 && size(y,2) > 1) msg = 'y may only be a vector with length > 1' ; error(msg) end Q = .001; R = 5; I = 1; A = 1; H = 1; P = zeros(1,N); x = zeros(1,N); switch nargin case 1 P(1) = 1; x(1) = y(1); case 2 P(1) = P0; x(1) = y(1); case 3 P(1) = P0; x(1) = x0; otherwise msg = 'Inputs are not correct' ; error(msg) end for i = 1:N 1 P(i+1) = A*P(i)*A + Q; K = P(i+1)*H/(H*P(i+1)*H + R); P(i+1) = (I K*H)*P(i+1); x(i+1) = A*x(i) + K*(y(i+1) H*A*x(i)); end Pf = P(N); xf = x(N); end ! '<1L,7<,/;&23;&J< ! function [x, K, P] = emgKalmanPtbyPt(x, y, P, Q, R, A, H) P = A*P*A + Q; K = P*H/(H*P*H + R); P = (1 K*H)*P; x = A*x + K*(y H*A*x);

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! (% ! end ! WW4($/0J< ! fs = 1000; dt = 1/fs; z = tf( 'z' ,dt); Q = 0.001; R = 5; A = 1; H = 1; % need EMG input for y [x,K] = emgKalmanIIRfind (y,Q,R,A,H); t = 0:dt:1; H = K/(1 + A*(K*H 1)*z^ 1); figure impulse(H,t); figure [y_step,t_step] = step(H,t); freqs = 0:500; frf = frd(H,freqs, 'Hz' ); response = squeeze(frf.ResponseData); response = abs(response); response = log10(response); figure plot(freqs,res ponse); title( 'Frequency Response Function of KF' ) ! ! ! '<1L,7<,/ WW4($/0J< ! function [x,K] = emgKalmanIIRfind(y,Q,R,A,H) N = length(y); if (N < 2) || (size(y,1) > 1 && size(y,2) > 1) msg = 'y may only be a vector with length > 1' ; error(msg) end P = zeros(1,N); x = zeros(1,N); P(1) = 1; x(1) = y(1); I = 1; for i = 1:N 1 P(i+1) = A*P(i)*A + Q;

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! (& ! K = P(i+1)*H/(H*P(i+1)*H + R); P(i+1) = (I K*H)*P(i+1); x(i+1) = A*x(i) + K*(y(i+1) H*A*x(i)); end % Pf = P(N); % xf = x(N); end ! 25*.#B)Q9,%%M)*-`4J< ! % need EMG input y d = designfilt( 'lowpassiir' , 'PassbandFrequency' , 2, 'StopbandFrequency' , 5, 'PassbandRipple' , 1, 'StopbandAttenuation' , 60, 'SampleRate' , 1000); lp = filtfilt(d,abs(y)); ! ! ! '<1L,7<,/-<))&#'*J< ! function [xSm, x] = emgKalmanSmoother(y, Q, R, A, H) N = length(y); if (N < 2) || (size(y,1) > 1 && size(y,2) > 1) msg = 'y may only be a vector with length > 1' ; error(msg) end switch nargin case 1 Q = .001; R = 5; A = 1; H = 1; case 2 R = 5; A = 1; H = 1; case 3 A = 1; H = 1; case 4 H = 1; case 5 otherwise msg = 'Inputs are not correct' ; error(msg) end eps = zeros(1,N); P = zeros(1,N); P(1) = 1; V = zeros(1,N); V(1) = 1;

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! (' ! K = zeros(1,N); K(1) = 1; x = zeros(1,N); x(1) = y(1); xIB = zeros(1,N); % in between xIB(1) = x(1); for i = 1:N 1 % prediction xIB(i+1) = A*x(i); V(i+1) = A*P(i)*A + Q; % update K(i+1) = V(i+1)*H/(H*V(i+1)*H + R); P(i+1) = (1 K(i+1)*H)*V(i+1); eps(i+1) = y(i+1) H*xIB(i+1); x(i+1) = xIB(i+1) + K(i+1)*eps(i+1); end J = zeros(1,N); xSm = zeros(1,N); xSm(N) = x(N); % Smoother for i = 1:N 1 k = N (i 1); J(k 1) = P(k 1)*A'*V(k)^( 1); xSm(k 1) = x(k 1) + J(k 1)*(xSm(k) (x(k 1) K(k 1)*eps(k 1))); end end ! ! '<18,/09,%%J< ! function band_y = emgBandpass(y) bpCoefficients = [ 0.00348291, 0.0287043, 0.0332166, 0.0145718, 0.0368817, 0.0102642, 0.0327594, 0.00469909, 0.0164771, 0.0278803, 0.000200483, 0.0406399, 0.00324646, 0.0287632, 0.0297156, 0.00097259, 0.0578426, 0.0118232, 0.0538653, 0.018979, 0.00152817, 0.091767, 0.0781205, 0.168753, 0.137508, 0.79 827, ... 0.137508, 0.168753, 0.0781205, 0.091767, 0.00152817, 0.018979, 0.0538653, 0.0118232, 0.0578426, 0.00097259, 0.0297156, 0.0287632, 0.00324646, 0.0406399, 0.000200483, 0.0278803, 0.0164771, 0.00469909, 0.0327594, 0.0102642, 0.0368817, 0.0145718, 0.0332166, 0.0287043, 0.00348291]; if size(y,1) > size(y,2) y = y'; tflag = 1; end

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! (( ! if (size(y,1) > 1 && size(y,2) > 1) msg = 'y cannot be a matrix' ; error(msg) end M = length(bpCoefficients); N = length(y); z = zeros(1,M 1); % pad with zeros y = [z y]; band_y = zeros(1,N); for i = 1:N band_y(i) = dot(bpCoefficients,y(i:i+(M 1))); end if tflag band_y = band_y'; end end ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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! () ! ' (&WXS=*'1*W% ' ! '<1L,7<,/J$/) ! r$/.750'!i?$*.57,*85(('*J#s ! r0'($/'!25((B'/!ED ! r0'($/'!-A+;B@t;W`!AF! ! r0'($/'!;=+t)5&!FE ! ! 0)527'! 29?)'(($.$'/&%c25((B'/d!u!v U GJGGbaHFfD>! U GJGFH[Gab>! U GJGbbFDee>!GJGDaE[DH>! U GJGbeHHD[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJGDGFeaF>! U GJGbF[Efa>! U GJGGaeffGf>! U GJGDea[[D>! U GJGF[HHGb> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGGFGGaHb>! U GJGaGebff>! U GJGGbFaeae>! U GJGFH[ebF >! U GJGFf[DEe> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGGf[FEf>! U GJGE[HaFe>!GJGDDHFbF>! U GJGEbHeEb>! U GJGDHf[f> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGDEFHD[>! U GJGfD[e[>!GJG[HDFGE>! U GJDeH[Eb>!GJDb[EGH> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJ[fHF[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !! GJDb[EGH>! U GJDeH[Eb>!GJG[HDFGE>! U GJGfD[e[>! U GJGGDEFHD[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGDHf[f>! U GJGEbHeEb>!GJGDDHFbF>! U GJGE[HaFe> U GJGGGf[FEf> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGFf[DEe>! U GJGFH[ebF>! U GJGGbFaeae>! U GJGaGebff>! U GJGGGFGGaHb> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGF[HHGb> U GJGDea[[D> U GJGGaeffGf> U GJGbF[Efa>!GJGDGFeaF> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGbeHHD[>!GJGDaE[DH> U GJGbbFDee>! U GJGFH[Gab>! U GJGGbaHFfDwV!nn%3<<'&*$.! ,2)5&!<'0$,/J ! ! ?$*.57,*85(('*i0)527'>!25((B'/s!25(('*DV ! ! 0)527'!2,/09,%%I0)527'!.)'( ($.$'/&%c25((B'/d>!0)527'!9,%%A**,3c25((B'/d>!0)527'!29h5&K!v ! !! ! !! 0)527'!)5&95&!u!GV ! !!!! ! !! nn8,/09,%%!($7&'*!&#'!0,&, ! !! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!25((B'/V!$jjKv ! !!!! )5&95&!ju!9,%%A**,3c$dq.)'(($.$'/&%c$dV ! !! w ! !! 29h5&!u!)5&95&V ! !! *'&5*/!29h5&V ! w ! ! 5/%$1/'0!7)/1!<$.*)&$<'V ! 5/%$1/'0!7)/1!.#OV ! ! $/&!*',0$/1!u!GV ! $/&!.&!u!GV ! ! 2))7!(71!u!GV ! ! 0)527'!29h5&V ! 0)527'!25(('*A**,3c25((B'/d!u!v ! G ! wV ! !

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! (, ! r0'($/'!%! U GJGFH[Gab>! U GJGbbFDee>!GJGDaE[DH>! U GJGbeHHD[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJGDGFeaF>! U GJGbF[Efa>! U GJGGaeffGf>! U GJGDea[[D>! U GJGF[HHGb> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGGFGGaHb>! U GJGaGebff>! U GJGGbFaeae>! U GJGFH[ebF>! U GJGFf[DEe> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGGf[FEf>! U GJGE[HaFe>!GJGDDH FbF>! U GJGEbHeEb>! U GJGDHf[f> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGDEFHD[>! U GJGfD[e[>!GJG[HDFGE>! U GJDeH[Eb>!GJDb[EGH> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJ[fHF[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJDb[EGH>! U GJDeH[Eb>!GJG[HDFGE>! U GJGfD[e[>! U GJGGDEFHD[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGDHf[f>! U GJGEbHeEb>!GJGDDHFbF>! U GJGE[HaFe> U GJGGGf[FEf> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGFf[DEe>! U GJGFH[ebF>! U GJGGbFaeae>! U GJGaGebff>! U GJGGGFGGaHb> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGF[HHGb> U GJGDea[[D> U GJGGaeffGf> U GJGbF[Efa>!GJGDGFeaF> ! !!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGbeHHD[>!GJGDaE[DH> U GJGbbFDee>! U GJGFH[Gab>! U GJGGbaHFfDwV!nn%3<<'&*$.! ,2)5&!<'0$,/J ! ! ?$*.57,*85(('*i0)527'>!25((B'/s!25(('*8;V ! ! 0)527'!2,/09,%%I0)527'!.)'(($.$'/&%c25((B'/d>!0)527'!9,%%A**,3c25((B'/d>!0)527'!29h5&K!v ! !! ! !! 0)527'! )5&95&!u!GV ! !!!! ! !! nn8,/09,%%!($7&'*!&#'!0,&, ! !! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!25((B'/V!$jjKv ! !!!! )5&95&!ju!9,%%A**,3c$dq.)'(($.$'/&%c$dV ! !! w ! !! 29h5&!u!)5&95&V ! !! *'&5*/!29h5&V ! w ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! $/&!*',0$/1!u!GV ! $/&!%!4>!A>!Z ! 0)527'!N!u!GJGbV!! ! 0)527'!4!u!DGV! !

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! )! 0)527'!A!u!DV! ! 0)527'!Z!u!DV! ! ! %&*5.&!O;,*,<%!v! ! !! 0)527'!k:,7>!nn!'**)*!.):,*$,/.'!<$0 U .,7.57,&$)/ ! !! ;:,7>!nn'**)*!. ):,*$,/.'!*'%57&! ! !! L:,7>!nnL,7<,/!1,$/ ! !! @;-:,7>!nn0$(('*'/.'!2'&Q''/!<',%5*'<'/&!,/0!9*'0$.&$)/J ! !! X:,7>!nn2,.OQ,*0%!I$/:'*%'K!L,7<,/!1,$/z ! !! y:,7>!nnL,7<,/!'%&$<,&' ! !! y-+:,7V!nn%<))&#'0!L,7<,/!'%&$<,&'! ! wV ! ! %&*5.&!O;,*,<%!O,7<,/M=I%&*5.&!O;,*,<%!OM=tD>!%&*5.&!O;,*,<%!OM=tF>!0)527'!3K!v!nn3!$%! <',%5*'<'/&!! ! ! !! nn!L,7<,/!()*Q,*0 ! !!!! 0)527'!k>!;>!L>!@;->!X>!y>!y-+V!! ! !!!! k!u!OM=tDJk:,7V ! !!!! ;!u!OM=tDJ;:,7V ! !!!! y!u!OM=tDJy:,7V ! !!!! L!u!OM=tDJL:,7V ! !!!! @;-!u!OM=tDJ @;-:,7V ! !!!! y-+!u!OM=tDJy-+:,7V ! !!!! X!u!OM=tDJX:,7V ! ! !!!! k!u!Aq;qA!j!NV ! !!!! L!u!kqZnIZqkqZ!j!4KV ! !!!! @;-!u!3! U ! ZqAqyV ! !!!! y!u!Aqy!j!Lq@;-V ! !!!! ;!u!IW! U ! LqZKqkV ! ! !!!! OM=tFJk:,7!u!kV ! !!!! OM=tFJ;:,7!u!;V ! !!!! OM=tFJy:,7!u!yV ! !!!! OM=tFJL:,7!u!LV ! !!!! OM=tFJ@;-:, 7!u!@;-V!!!! ! !!!! OM=tFJy-+:,7!u!y-+V ! !!!! OM=tFJX:,7!u!XV ! !!!! *'&5*/!OM=tFV ! w ! ! %&*5.&!O;,*,<%!O,7<,/8=I%&*5.&!O;,*,<%!O8=tD>!%&*5.&!O;,*,<%!O8=tFK!v!!!!!! ! !! ! !! nn!L,7<,/!2,.OQ,*0n%<))&#'* ! !!!! 0)527'!X>!L>!@;->!;>!k>!y>!y-+V ! !!!! y-+!u!O8=tFJy-+:,7V!nn!$jD ! !!!! k!u!O8=tFJk:,7V!nn!$jD !

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! )% ! !!!!! -+,**c%!)/73!;:,7!,/0!y:,7!<5%&! 2'!%'&!25&!)&#'*%!%'&!Y5%&!$/!.,%'!%)<'&#$/1!5/9*'0$.&'0!#,99'/%!!!!!!!!!! ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGdJy:,7!u!-+,**cGdV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGdJL:,7!u!DV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGd J@;-:,7!u!GV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGdJ;:,7!u!DV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGdJk:,7!u!DV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGdJy-+:,7!u!GV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGdJX:,7!u!GV ! !!!!!!!!!! (71!u!o(71V ! !!!!!!!! w ! !!!!!!!! '7%'!v ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=t$/95&D!u!OM=cGdV! ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=t$/95&F!u!OM=cGdV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGd!u!O,7< ,/M=IOM=t$/95&D>!OM=t$/95&F>!-+,**cGdKV ! !!!!!!!!!! OM=cGd!u!O,7<,/8=IOM=cGd>OM=t$/95&FKV ! !!!!!!!! w ! !!!!!! ! !!!!!! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!%!OM=t$/95&F>!3KV ! !!!!!!!! O8=c$jDd!u!OM=c$jDdV ! !!!!!! w!nn()*!7))9 ! !!!!!! O8=cGd!u!OM=cGdV ! !!!!!! O8=c%OM=t$/95&FKV ! !!!!!! w!nn()*!7))9 ! !!!!!! ! !!!! 0)527'!P,$/!u!bV ! !!!! 0)527'!)((%'&!u!bGV ! !!!!!! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!%G>aGfE>!G>FEEKV!nn<,9!G!&)!DGFb!)/!]/)J ! !!!!!!!! 9y-+!qu!P,$/V ! !!!!!!!! 9y-+!ju!)((%'&V ! !!!!!!!! -'*$,7J9*$/&7/I9y-+>EKV !

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! )& ! !!!!!!!! ,/,7)1=*$&'I;=+t)5&>9y-+KV ! !! !!!!!! 0'7,3+$.*)%'.)/0%IfGGKV!nn)5&95&!(*'T5'/.3!%#)570!,99*)R$<,&'!$/95&!(*'T5'/.3>! ,..)5/&$/1!()*!.,7.57,&$)/!&$<'!&#,&!#,%!9,%%'0J ! !!!!!! w ! !!!! ! !!!!!! OM=cGd!u!O8=c%! U GJGFH[Gab>! U GJGbbFDee>!GJGDaE[DH>! U GJGbeHHD[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJGDGFeaF>! U GJGbF[Efa>! U GJGGaeffGf>! U GJGDea[[D>! U GJGF[HHGb> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGGFGGaHb>! U GJGaGebff>! U GJGGbFaeae>! U GJGFH[ebF>! U GJGFf[DEe> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGGf[ FEf>! U GJGE[HaFe>!GJGDDHFbF>! U GJGEbHeEb>! U GJGDHf[f> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGGDEFHD[>! U GJGfD[e[>!GJG[HDFGE>! U GJDeH[Eb>!GJDb[EGH> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJ[fHF[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! GJDb[EGH>! U GJDeH[Eb>!GJG[HDFGE>! U GJGfD[e[>! U GJGGDE FHD[> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGDHf[f>! U GJGEbHeEb>!GJGDDHFbF>! U GJGE[HaFe> U GJGGGf[FEf> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGFf[DEe>! U GJGFH[ebF>! U GJGGbFaeae>! U GJGaGebff>! U GJGGGFGGaHb> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGF[HHGb> U GJGDea[[D> U GJGGaeffGf> U GJGb F[Efa>!GJGDGFeaF> ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! U GJGbeHHD[>!GJGDaE[DH> U GJGbbFDee>! U GJGFH[Gab>! U GJGGbaHFfDwV!nn%3<<'&*$.! ,2)5&!<'0$,/J ! ! ?$*.57,*85(('*i0)527'>!25((B'/s!25(('*t.#DV ! ?$*.57,*85(('*i0)527'>!25((B'/s!25(('*t.#FV ! ! 0)527'!2,/09,%%I0)527'!.)'(($.$' /&%c25((B'/d>!0)527'!9,%%A**,3c25((B'/d>!0)527'!29h5&K!v ! !! ! !! 0)527'!)5&95&!u!GV ! !!!! ! !! nn8,/09,%%!($7&'*!&#'!0,&, ! !! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!25((B'/V!$jjKv ! !!!! )5&95&!ju!9,%%A**,3c$dq.)'(($.$'/&%c$dV !

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! *$ ! !!!!! 29h5&!u!2,/09,%%I29?)'(($.$'/&%>!25(('*A* *,3>!29h5&KV ! !!!!! 29h5&!u!,2%I29h5&KV ! ! !!!!! 25(('*4+-t.#FJ95%#I29h5&KV ! ! !!!!! $(!I25(('*4+-t.#FJ$%M577IKK!v ! !!!!!! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!*<%B'/V!$jjK!*<%A**,3c$d!u!25(('*4+-t.#Fc$dV ! ! !!!!!! 0)527'!*<%t.#F!u!GV ! !!!!!! ()*!I$/&!$!u!GV!$!i!*<%B'/V!$jjK!*<%t.#F!ju!%TI*<%A**,3c$dKV ! ! !!!!!! *<%t.#F!nu!*<%B'/V ! !!!!!! *<%t.#F!u!%T*&I*<%t.#FKV ! !!!!!! 8!u!*<%t.#FV ! !!!!!! 8!qu!8t1,$/V ! ! !!!! $(!I8!s!)/"#*'%#K!&*$11'*t.#F!u!DV ! !!! w! ! ! w!nn!I25(('*t.#FJ$%M577IKK ! !!!!!! ! !!!!!! $/&!0*$ :'t.#D!u!I$/&K!AV ! !!!!!! 0*$:'t.#D!u!<,9I0*$:'t.#D>G>aGfE>!G>FEEKV!nn65'!<,9 ! !!!!!! 0*$:'t.#D!ju!)((%'&t.#DV ! !!!!!! $(!I0*$:'t.#D!s!FEEK!0*$:'t.#D!u!FEEV ! ! !!!!!! $/&!0*$:'t.#F!u!I$/&K!8V ! !!!!!! 0*$:'t.#F!u!<,9I0*$:'t.#F>G>aGfE>!G>FEEKV!nn65'!<,9 ! !!!!!! 0*$:'t.#F ! ju!)((%'&t.#FV ! !!!!!! $(!I0*$:'t.#F!s!FEEK!0*$:'t.#F!u!FEEV!!!!!! ! !!!!!! -'*$,7J9*$/&I0*$:'t.#DKV ! !!!!!! -'*$,7J9*$/&Ix>xKV ! !!!!!! -'*$,7J9*$/&7/I0*$:'t.#FKV ! ! nn)5&95&!0,&,!9)$/&!,%!;=+!,/0!5%'!3!u!!Q#'*'!G>aGfE>!G>FEEKV!nn65'!<,9 ! nn!!!!!!0*$:'t.#D!ju!)((%'&t.#DV ! nn!!!!!! 0$1$&,7=*$&'I.#Ft'/,27'>Bh=KV ! nn!!!!!!0$1$&,7=*$&'I.#Dt'/,27'>ZWPZKV ! nn ! nn!!!!!!$(!I0*$:'t.#D!s!FEEK!0*$:'t.#D!u!FEEV ! nn!!!!!!,/,7)1=*$&'I;=+t9$/>0*$:'t.#DKV ! nn!!!!!!$(!IA!iu!)(("#*'%#K!&*$11'*t.#D!u!GV ! nnw ! nn !

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! *% ! nn'7%'!$(!II8!s!AK!||!I&*$11'*t.#FKK!v ! nn!!!!! ! $/&!0*$:'t.#F!u!I$/&K!8V ! nn!!!!!!0*$:'t.#F!u!<,9I0*$:'t.#F>G>aGfE>!G>FEEKV!nn65'!<,9 ! nn!!!!!!0*$:'t.#F!ju!)((%'&t.#FV ! nn!!!!!!0$1$&,7=*$&'I.#Dt'/,27'>Bh=KV ! nn!!!!!!0$1$&,7=*$&'I.#Ft'/,27'>ZWPZKV ! nn ! nn!!!!!!$(!I0*$:'t.#F!s!FEEK!v ! nn!!!!!!!!0*$:'t.#F!u!FEEV ! nn!!!!!!w ! nn!!!!!!,/,7)1=*$&'I;=+t9$/>0*$:'t.#FKV ! nn ! nn!!!!!!$(!I8!iu!)(("#*'%#K!v ! nn!!!!!!!!&*$11'*t.#F!u!GV!!!!!!!! ! nn!!!!!!w ! nnw ! nn'7%'!v ! nn!!!!!!0$1$&,7=*$&'I.#Ft'/,27'>Bh=KV ! nn!!!!!!0$1$&,7=*$&'I.#Dt'/,27'>Bh=KV ! nnw ! ! ! w!nn!I.#O! U ! <$.*)&$<'!s!fffK ! ! w!nn!:)$0!7))9 ! ! "#'!.)0'!()*!&#'!.$*.57,*!25(('*!Q,%!&,O'/!(*)!,00!&#,&!&)!3)5*!7$2*,*3!$/%&',0J ! ! ?$*.57,*85(('*J# ! /* CircularBuffer.h Circular buff er library for Arduino. Copyright (c) 2017 Roberto Lo Giacco. This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either versio n 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the G NU General Public License for more details.

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! *& ! You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see < http://www.gnu.org/licenses/ >. */ #ifndef __CIRCULAR_BUFFER__ #define __CIRCULAR_BUFFER__ #include #ifndef CIRCULAR_BUFFER_XS #define __CB_ST__ uint16_t #else #define __CB_ST__ uint8_t #endif #ifdef CIRCULAR_BUFFER_DEBUG #include #endif template < typename T, __CB_ST__ S> class CircularBuffer { public : CircularBuffer(); ~CircularBuffer(); /** * Adds an element to the beginning of buffer: the operation returns `false` if the addition caused overwriting an existing element. */ bool unshift(T value); /** * Adds an element to the end of buffer: the operation returns `false` if the addition caused overwriting an existing element. */ bool push(T value); /** * Removes an element from the beginning of the buffer. */ T shift(); /**

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! *' ! * Removes an el ement from the end of the buffer. */ T pop(); /** * Returns the element at the beginning of the buffer. */ T inline first(); /** * Returns the element at the end of the buffer. */ T inline last(); /** * Array like access to buffer */ T operator [] (__CB_ST__ index); /** * Returns how many elements are actually stored in the buffer. */ __CB_ST__ inline size(); /** * Returns how many elements can be safely pushed into the buffer. */ __CB_ST__ inline available(); /** * Returns how many elements can be potentially stored into the buffer. */ __CB_ST__ inline capacity(); /** * Returns `true` if no elements can be removed from the buffer. */ bool inline isEmpty(); /** * Returns `true` if no elements can be added to the buffer without overwriting existing elements.

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! *( ! */ bool inline isFull(); /** * Resets the buffer to a clean status, making all buffer positions available. */ void inline clear(); #ifdef CIRCULAR_BUFFER_DEBUG void inline debug(Print* out ); void inline debugFn(Print* out , void (*printFunction)(Print*, T)); #endif private : T buffer[S]; T *head; T *tail; #ifndef CIRCULAR_BUFFER_INT_SAFE __CB_ST__ count; #else volatile __CB_ST__ count; #endif }; #include #endif ! ?$*.57,*85(('*J&99 ! /* CircularBuffer.tpp Circular buffer library for Arduino. Copyright (c) 2017 Roberto Lo Giacco. This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FO R A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License

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! *) ! along with this program. If not, see . */ #include template CircularBuffer::CircularBuffer() : head(buffer), tail(buffer), count(0) { } template CircularBuffer::~CircularBuffer() { } template bool CircularBuffer::unshift(T value) { if (head == buffer) { head = buffer + S; } * -head = value; if (count == S) { if (tail -== buffer) { tail = buffer + S 1; } return false; } else { if (count++ == 0) { tail = head; } return true; } } template bool CircularBuffer::push(T value) { if (++tail == buffer + S) { tail = buffer; } *tail = value; if (count == S) { if (++head == buffer + S) { head = buffer; } return false;

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! ** ! } else { if (count++ == 0) { head = tail; } return true; } } template T CircularBuffer::shift() { void(* crash) (void) = 0; if (count <= 0) crash(); T result = *head++; if (head >= buffer + S) { head = buffer; } count -; return result; } template T CircularBuffer::pop() { void(* crash) (void) = 0; if (count <= 0) crash(); T result = *tail -; if (tail < buffer) { tail = buffer + S 1; } count -; return result; } template T inline CircularBuffer::first() { return *head; } template T inline CircularBuffer::last() { return *tail; } template T CircularBuffer::operator [](_ _CB_ST__ index) {

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! *+ ! return *(buffer + ((head buffer + index) % S)); } template __CB_ST__ inline CircularBuffer::size() { return count; } template __CB_ST__ inline CircularBuffer::available() { return S count; } template __CB_ST__ inline CircularBuffer::capacity() { return S; } template bool inline CircularBuffer::isEmpty() { return count == 0; } template bool inline CircularBuffer::isFull() { return count == S; } template void inline CircularBuffer::clear() { head = tail = buffer; count = 0; } #ifdef CIRCULAR_BUFFER_DEBUG template void inline CircularBuffer::debug(Print* out) { for (__CB_ST__ i = 0; i < S; i++) { int hex = (int)buffer + i; out >print(hex, HEX); out >print(" "); out >print(*(buffer + i)); if (h ead == buffer + i) { out >print(" head");

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! *, ! } if (tail == buffer + i) { out >print(" tail"); } out >println(); } } template void inline CircularBuffer::debugFn(Print* out, void (*printFunction)(Print*, T)) { f or (__CB_ST__ i = 0; i < S; i++) { int hex = (int)buffer + i; out >print(hex, HEX); out >print(" "); printFunction(out, *(buffer + i)); if (head == buffer + i) { out >print(" head"); } if (tail == buffer + i) { out >print(" tail"); } out >println(); } } #endif ! ! ! !

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