Citation
Capacity, coherence, and deformation of strip-geosynthetic reinforced soil structures

Material Information

Title:
Capacity, coherence, and deformation of strip-geosynthetic reinforced soil structures
Creator:
Elmagre, Egbal
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Doctor of philosophy)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Civil Engineering, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Civil engineering
Committee Chair:
Chang, Nien-Yin
Committee Members:
Znidarcic, Dobroslav
Hoffman, Peter
Vega, Rafael Sanchez
Dashti, Shideh

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Egbal Elmagre. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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! Rf ! ! 56N 0 %;C;>7FI0 )9V;F=EW;C 0 ! The objectives of this study are compromised into two main objectives; the first one is to L=<=EAP!D!PH7?;K? 2 6D?=L!BAF:LD@;A:!BA>!D:DE7N;:M!KDPDK;@7(!KAH=>=:K=(!D:L!L=BA>CD@;A:!;:! ?A;E!?@>FK@F>=?!>=;:BA>K=L![;@H!M=A?7:@H=@;K!?@>;P? 9!&H=!?=KA:L!;?! @A!FK@F>=? 9!%:!DLL;@;A:!@A! KACPD>;:M ! ?@>;P 2 3,1 ! [;@H! ?H==@ 2 3,19 ! ! ! 56O 0 $>CXC08D0%;C;>7FI 0 In order to fulfill the research objective s outlined above, the following tasks were undertaken: Task 1: Reviewing previous studi es on the behavior of GRS mass, p ED?@;K;@7!@H=A>7! ?@FL;=?(!D:L!1 AGAEAG9 ! Y"HDP@=>IZ ! &D?G!IW! Developing a simpl e analytical model for predicting capacity and deformation of GRS structures. (Chapter 3) Task 3: Conducting laboratory tests to examine the behavior of unfaced GRS structures and doing data reduction for the validation. (Chapter 4) Task 4: Presenting a new design guidance based on the adapted analysis and its validation to facilitate the design process for GRS structures. (Chapter 5) Task 5: Applying the design steps to analyzing some actual case studies for walls around the world. (Chapter6) Task 6: Revie wing the AA S HTO Simplified Method and suggesting policy based on the adapted analysis and its validation. (Chapter 7) ! 0 0

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PAGE 46

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! S` ! "DEKFED@;A:!AB!;:@=>C=L;D@=!PD>DC=@=>?W ! ! • ! ! • !!!! ! ! 222 !! B>AC! +QFD@;A:!Yd9O Z! BA>!?H==@!M=A@=\@;E= ! ! • !!!!!! !!!!!!!! ! ! ! 222 !! B>AC!/;MF>=!d9dd !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! • !!!!!!!!! ! ! ! ! • !!!!!!!!! ! ! 222 !! B>AC!&D6E=!d9RI ! ! • !!!!!!!!!!! ! 222 !! B>AC!+QFD@;A:!Yd9RdZ ! ! • !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! 222 !! B>AC!+QFD@;A:!Yd9fdZ ! ! %@!;?!=CPHD?;N=L!@HD@!@H=!/*]#!=QFD@;A:!BA>! B ! DPPE;=?!@A!KACCA:!?H==@!M=A@=\@;E=?9!%@?! DPPE;KD6;E;@7!BA>!?@>;P?!L=K>=D?=?!D?! Z ; ! L=K>=D?=?9 ! ! #?!=\PED;:=L!;:! @H=!?=K@;A:!A:!4ADL!$D@H(!@H=!B;>?@!=QFD@;A:!;:!@H=!?7?@=C!>=CD;:?! F:KHD:M=L9!];@H!@H=!C;L 2 >D:M=!=:K=!67!&D6E=!d9RI ! !!!!!!!! ! 222 ! PA?@ 2 KAH=>=:K=!YBDK=LZ!67!&D6E=! d9RI ! ! I9 !!!!!!!!!!!! ! 222 ! KAH=>=:K=!D:L!PA?@ 2 KAH=>=:K= ! K P = t a n 2 ( 4 5 ¡ + ! / 2 ) = 5 . 8 W = 0 . 7 S V 6 D m a x = 0 . 4 1 W / W = 1 . 4 2 W = ( W / W ) W = 0 . 5 8 T f = T f / s = 5 5 0 k N / m E R = T f ! R S V = 7 . 4 M P a R c = s / S H = 0 . 1 2 ! = 0 . 5 : ! H = R c ( 0 . 4 4 M " T f / S V ) = 2 0 M k P a ! H = 0 . 4 4 M " ( R c T f ) / S V = 2 0 M k P a E S = 1 0 0 K P p a ! H = 5 8 0 0 ! H k P a

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! `I ! ;?!D!?P=K;DE!KD?=!BA>!KACCA:!?H==@!M=A@=\@;E=?![H=>=! E c E G ! }!J9dX9!1@D6;E;@7!=?@;CD@=?!BA>! ?@>;P?!D>=!:==L=L![H=:! E c E G ! }!R9 ! &H=!;:<=>?=!AB!+QFD@;A:!Yd9`d Z!;? ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Yd9`XZ ! ! %@!:==L?!CAL;B;KD@;A:!BA>! ?@>;P?9 ! 5?;:M! W FB g ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Yd9`OZ ! ! + QFD@;A:!Yd9`OZ ! ;:A:M!!?H==@?!M;<=? ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Y d9`a Z ! ! />AC!+QFD@;A:!Yd9`IZ(! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Yd9`SZ ! ! ! ! K K A = ! l n W µ K A S V / D m a x W W = q s t r i p q s t r i p q s h e e t q s h e e t = q s t r i p q s h e e t q s t r i p q s h e e t ( ) = q s t r i p R c q s h e e t q s t r i p = R c W W q s h e e t q s h e e t ! s t r i p ! s h e e t = R c W W K ( 1 ) / K A K ( 2 ) / K A = 1 + ! " ( 2 ) 1 + ! " ( 1 ) ! " ( 2 ) " ( 1 )

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! RXd ! `"$"#! I0)F5'C'!,V!+*/C3 9 \.,'50*-.*C(!A.C0V,/(.8.0* ! #!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?@>;P!;?(!;:!BDK@(!D!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?H==@![H=:!A:=r?!<;=[!;?!>=?@>;K@=L! @A![;L@H! 5 ! AB!@H=!? @>;P9!&H;?!>=?@>;K@;A:!;?!>=CA<=L![H=:!D!?H==@ ! ;?!DPP>A\;CD@=L!67!PEDK;:M! ?@>;P?!?;L= 2 67 2 ?;L=9! ! %B!@=:?;E=!?@>=:M@H!AB!@H=!?H==@!;?! K , ! ! D:L!@=:?;E=!?@>=:M@H!AB!@H=!?@>;P!;?! T , ! (!@H=:! !!!!!!!!!! T , ! j! 5K , ! 9 ! %B! Z ; ! j! 5 c = J ! ;?!@H=!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!KA<=>DM=!>D@;A(!@H=:!E;C;@!?@D@=!KDPDK;@7!AB!D!?@>;P 2 M=A?7:@H=@;K!>=;:BA>K=L!?A;E!?@>FK@F>=!;?! ! /;MF>=!a9f ! ;?!L=>;<=L!BA>!?H==@!A>!M>;L!>=;:BA>K=C=:@(!:A@!?@>;P?9!*A[=<=>(!67!@H=! P>=K=L;:M!PD>DM>DPH(!@H=!B;MF>=! >=CD;:?!!?@>;P!>=;:BA>K=C=:@![H=:!@H=!?F>KHD>M=! ;?!?KDE=L!67!@H=!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!KA<=>DM=!>D@;A! Z ; 9!#?!@H=!?F>KHD>M=!L=K>=D?=?(!@H=!=D?=?!;:!/;MF>=!a9f 9! ! /A>@F;@AF?E7(! @H= ! >=?FE@? ! AB!@H;?!;:<=?@;MD@;A: ! D>=!DPPE;KD6E=!@A! @H=!P>APA?D E!@A!=\@=:L! ##1*&) (!6F@!@H= ! @[A ! A6b=K@;<= ?!D>= ! F:>=ED@=L9! &H;?!;:<=?@;MD@;A: ! QFD:@;B;=L!@H=!]F 2 $HDC! ;:?@D6;E;@7!AB!F:BDK=L!?A;E!?@>FK@F>=?!>=;:BA>K=L![;@H!M=A?7:@H=@;K!?@>;P?(!D:L!@H=7!DFMC=:@! /*]#!@=?@?!P=>BA>C=L![;@H!M=A?7:@H=@;K!?H==@?!Y -;KG?!=@!DE9!IJR d(!*ABBCD:!D:L!+ECDM>=! IJRS Z9! ! /A>!D:DE7?;?!AB!@H=!##1*&)!P>APA?DE (!@H=!AC!L=BA>CD@;A:!LD@D!67!@H=!<=>@;KDE!?@>D;:!=QFD@;A:(! f W ! j!J9OYR 2 Y E c E G Z J9X Z I (![H;KH![D?! L=>;<=L!D:L!=<;AF?E7!Y *ABBCD:!D:L!]F!IJRX Z9 ! $>9:;0 R6 5 ! "DEKFED@;A:?!BA>!$ED:=!1@>D;:!& =?@?!D@!"5!.=:<=> ! =;C=0F>C; 0 + X _ + Y 0 A ( ! W A (! W 0 ]G] I 0 a Y 0 0 bX3>_BCDc0 0 b Y ! bfc 0 #9!?H==@ ! J9JJ! ! R9JJ ! J9dd ! J9dd ! J9dR ! a`JcROXJJ ! RR9S ! 89!a!?@>;P? ! J9fd! ! J9fS ! J9fX ! J9IR ! J9dO ! XOJcRRaJJ ! `9O ! "9!d!?@>;P? ! R9JJ! ! J9IJ ! J9fO ! J9J` ! J9fO ! IdJcfSJJ ! O9I ! ! &H=!KDPDK;@7!AB!D:!F:BDK=L!@=?@!LA=?!:A@! D@@D;: ! @H=!E;C;@!?@D@=9!&H=!]F 2 $HDC! ;:?@D6;E;@7!KDF?=?!D!KDPDK;@7!>=LFK@;A:!@HD@!;?!L=@=>C;:=L!67!@H=!>D@;A! = W c O .9a (![H=>=! = W ! ;?! q u l t s t r i p = K P T f / S H S V = ( s / S H ) K P T f / S V = R c q u l t s h e e t .

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! RXf ! @H=!<=>@;KDE!?PDK;:M!D:L! O .9a ! ;?!@H=!L;DC=@=>!AB!@H=!ED>M=?@!?A;E!PD>@;KE=?9!/A>!?H==@ 2 M=A?7:@H=@;K!>=;:BA>K=C=:@(!@H=!>=LFK@;A:!BDK@A>!;?! ! Y#LDC?!=@!DE9!IJRR Z9! ! /A>!?@>;P 2 M=A?7:@H=@;K!>=;:BA>K=C=:@(!@H=!>=LFK@;A:!BDK@A>! BA>!?H==@?!Y B Z! ;?! KA>>=K@=L! @A!@H=!BDK@A> ! BA>!?@>;P?!Y W Z! F?;:M!?AEF@;A:?! BA> ! $A;??A:r?!=QFD@;A:9!&H=!KA>>=K@;A:! W FB ! ;?!PEA@@=L!;:!/; MF>=!a9X (!D:L!;@?!L=>;A<;L=L!;:!"HDP@=>!d9 ! ! KELM7;0R6P !! 1@D6;E;@7!KA>>=K@;A:! W c B !! ;?!BF:K@;A:!AB! = J c = W ! ! `"$"$! Y)FCL)*C,0 ! &H=!@=?@!LD@D!AB! /;MF>=!a9O D ! =??!D:L!?@>D;:!>=?FE@?!AB!&D6E=! a9 R9 ! /;MF>=!a9O D!HD?!:A!A6<;AF?!>=E==?=:@;:M! @H=!?DC =!LD@D!L;BB=>=:@E7(!/;MF>=!a9O 6!6=KAC=?!QF;@=!>=E===!LD@DPA;:@?!:A[! A<=>ED7!@H =!M=A@=\@; E=!KF><=!B>AC!/;MF>=!a9f 9!0=D?F>=L! P c P 9 ! ;?!PEA@@=L!DMD;:?@! Z ; W (! =D?=?!D?!KA<=>DM=!>D@;A! Z ; ! L=K>=D?=?9 ! ! W = 0 . 7 S v / 6 D m a x

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! RXX ! (a) (b) KELM7; 0 R6Q ! &=?@?!#(!8(!"W ! YDZ! KACPD>;?A:!AB!KDEKFED@;A:?![;@H!?@>=?? 2 ?@>D;:!C=D?F>=C=:@?( ! D:L! Y6Z! KACPD>;?A:!AB! KDEKFED@=L!M=A@=\@;E=!KF><=! [;@H!C=D?F>=L ! EFE G ! D:L! 9!!! ! ! /;MF>= ! a9O D!;?! ED>M=E7 ! =QF;=! a9O 69! 0A>=A<=>(!/;MF>=!a9O 6!;?!@H=! D:DE7?;? 2 6D?=L!=QF;D;: 2 MDFM= 2 6D?=L!KHD>@!AB!@H=!##1*&)!1;CPE;B;=L! 0=@HAL9!-=\@(! @H;?!D:DE7?;?!;?!DPPE;=L!@A!@H=!1@9!,=C7!D:L!"H>;?@;D:D![DEE?9 ! `"$"J! I33FC()*C,0 ! 6+..!I33.0LC2< ! $D>DC=@=>?!BA>!@H=!1@9!,=C7!D:L!"H>;?@;D:D![DEE?!D>=!@DG=:!B>AC!4AND:A!=@!DE9! Y IJRa Z!D:L!4FA!=@!DE9!Y IJRX Z9!,=MD>L;:M!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?PDK;:M?(!@H=!B ;>?@ ! ?D7?(!^&H=!1@9! ,=C7![DEE!HDL!D!<=>@;KDE!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?PDK;:M!AB!J9SC!@7P;KDEE7!D:L!D!HA>;NA:@DE! >=;:BA>K=C=:@!?PDK;:M!AB!J9XC!A:!D<=>DM=s9!01+!KF>>=:@E7!KA:?@>FK@=L!;:!@H=!51!F?;:M! q / q u l t

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! RXO ! M=A?7:@H=@;K!?@>;P?!AB!@H;?!H=;MH@![AFEL!HD<=!D!<=>@;KDE!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?P DK;:M!AB!J9aXC!D:L! D!HA>;NA:@DE!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?PDK;:M!AB!J9aXC9_!&H=?=!D:L!A@H=>!PD>DC=@=>?!D>=!E;?@=L!;:! &D6E=! a9 I9 ! &A!>=LFK=!KA:BF?;A:(!PEA@@=L!>=?FE@?!D>=!P>=?=:@=L!;:!@H=!CD::=>!AB!@H=;>!A>;M;:DE! PDP=>? 9 ! $>9:;0 R6 @ ! $D>DC=@=>?!AB!1@9!,=C7!D:L!"H>;?@;D: D![DEE? ! ! 5d@ #=0%;?F;c 0 5TSS 0 @ &I7EC=E>?>d0-,0b4#!c 0 @U5@ 0 T , ! j!?@>=:M@H!AB!?@>;P! ! RJJ!G! dJ!G-!;:!@AP!HDEB ! XJ!G-!;:!6A@@AC!HDEB ! 5 ! j![;L@H!AB!?@>;P ! `J!CC ! XJ!CC!;:!@AP!HDEB ! OX!CC!;:!6A@@AC!HDEB ! = W ! j!<=>@;KDE!?PDK;:M ! J9S!C ! J9aX!C ! = J ! j!HA>;NA:@DE!?PDK;:M ! J9X!C ! J9aX!C ! f Z ! j!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?@>D;:!D@! K *8/ ! J9RI ! J9RI ! c ! j! d ?A;E!B>;K@;A:!D:ME= ! day!@>!c!d`y!P? ! fXy!@>!c!XJy!P? ! O .9a ! j!L;DC=@=>!AB!PD>@;KE= ! R9X!CC ! f9aX!CC ! w ! j!?A;E!L=:?;@7 ! RO9f!G-cC d ! RS9a!G-cC d ! J ! j!H=;MH@ ! O9f!C ! `!C ! $ Q'h9('!4/!98#!D%Y$VHg! % Q*'!4/!98#!D%Y$>Hg! " /-+9a+98!D/-HF:89(4!5/-9+(!D:5H ! P&!k%%>!8[,v!.!k!"#"I!,/! ! V#%#"#$! G::8+;9/+'(!/'!/@4!=/#!Z4.0!B988 ! ! +QFD@;A:!Y a9 IZ(!L=>;<=L!B>AC!*AAG=r?!ED[!D@!D!PA;:@(!;?!=\@=:L=L!;:!DEE!@H>==! L;C=:?;A:?!67!D??FC;:M!@HD@!@H=![DEE!;?!;:!PED:=!?@>D;:!D:L!@HD@!@H=!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!;?!D! ?H==@9!]H=:!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!?@>;P?![;@H!?@>=:M@H! T , ! D:L![;L@H! 5 ! D>=!PEDK=L!?;L= 2 67 2 ?;L=(!@H=7! DPP>A\;CD@ =!D!?H==@![;@H!?@>=:M@H! K , ! j! T , c 5 9!&H;?!;?!D!B;K@;@;AF?! 6F@!=\@>=C=E7!?@>A:M!?H==@! [;@H! K , ! j!RJJcJ9J`!j!RRJJ!G-cC!YaX!G;P?cB@Z(![H;KH!E=DL?!@A!ED>M=!! EFE G 9!&H=! PD??;<=!=D>@H!P>=??F>=!KA=BB;K;=:@!;?! E 3 ! j!Rc E G ! j!@D: I YfXy!z! c cIZ!j!f9f![H=:!KAH=?;A:! ;?! :=ME=K@=L9!%:!+QFD@;A:!Y a9 IZ(!@H=!@=:?;E=!CALFEF?!;?! T Z ! j! K , cY f Z ! = \ Z!j!RR9O!0PD!YIfJ!G?BZ(!D:L!

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! RXa ! BA>!KACP>=??;A:(! T = ! ;?!=?@;CD@=L!YwD:6F!R`Od(!4DL=!D:L!-=E?A:!R`SaZ9!&H;?! ;:<=?@;MD@;A: ! F?=?! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Y a9 dZ ! ! [H=>=!D@CA?PH=>;K!P>=??F>=!;?! : 9 ! j!RJJ!G$D!YRf9a!P?;Z!D:L ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! Y a9 fZ ! ! ;?!@H=!HA>;NA:@DE!?@>=??!D<=>DM=L!A<=>!EADL?! U ! ;:!@H=!>D:M=! ! Y +ECDM>=! D:L! *ABBCD:!IJRO(!*ABBCD:!IJRO Z9!/DK=L!KDPDK;@7!;?! j! E 3 ! Z ; K , c = W ! j!RRJJ!G$D!YId!G?BZ![H=:! @H=!>=;:BA>K=C= :@!KA<=>DM=!>D@;A!;?!@H=!DK@FDE! Z ; ! j! 5 c = J ! j!J9J`cJ9XJ!j!J9RS9! ! /A>!@H=!1@9!,=C7![DEE(!@H=!?A;E!?F>KHD>M=! U ! D@!C;L 2 H=;MH@!;?!Y J cIZ w ! j!Yd9IZYRO9fZ!j!XI! G$D!YRRJJ!P?BZ9!&H=:( ! j!J9JfS!>=P>=?=:@?!@H=!B>DK@;A:!AB!FE@;CD@=!KDPDK;@7! D??AK;D@=L![;@H!?F>KHD>M=! U! D@!C;L 2 H=;MH@9!+QFD@;A:?!Y a9 IZ(!Y a9 dZ(!D:L!Y a9 fZ!D>=!D!?7?@=C!AB! =QFD@;A:?![HA?=!?AEF@;A:!;?! EFE G ! j!R9R![H=:! l ! j!J9JfS9!)6?=><=!@HD@! EFE G ! ;?!ED>M=![H=:! ! ;?!?CDEE9!&H;?!D:DE7?;?!M;<=?!@H=!KF><=!:=D>!6A@H!@H=!L;DMA:DE!D:L!@H=!1@9!,=C7! LD@D!;:!/;MF>= ! a9a D9!&H=!L;DMA:DE!;:!@H=!PEA@!KA>>=?PA:L?!@A! EFE G ! j!R!Y 4AND:A!=@!DE9!IJRa Z9 ! V#%#"#%!G::8+;9/ +'(!/'! =@44/ ) NZ=!O9/9!98'(25+<4 ! =/#!Z4.0! O9/9 ! ! )@H=>!LD@D!D>=!D??AK;D@=L![;@H!?H==@ 2 M=A?7:@H=@;K!>=;:BA>K=C=:@(!:A@!?@>;P! >=;:BA>K=C=:@9!#:DE7?;?!AB!@H=?=!?A;E!?@>FK@F>=?!;?!6D?=L!A:!@H=;>!C=L;D:!!KACCA:!M=A@=\@;E=?(! T Z ! j! K , cY f Z ! = \ Z!j!aRJ!G$D!j!J9aR!0$ D!YRX!G?BZ!BA>!+QFD@;A:!Y a9 IZ9! 5?;:M!@H=!DK@FDE!>D@H=>!@HD:!D!B;K@;@;AF?!?H==@(!@H=!BDK=L!KDPDK;@7!;?! ! j!fRJ!G$D!YS9O!G?BZ! D:L! l ! j!J9Rd9! ! ! E S = 4 4 0 p a ! H ! H = 0 . 4 4 " R c T f / S v K / K A ! 1 0 . 4 4 " R c T f / S v " # $ % K / K A [ ] K / K A < 1 & ' ( ) ( 0 < q < ! q u l t q u l t ! = q / q u l t ! = q / q u l t q u l t

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! RXS ! &H=!?AEF@;A:!AB!+QFD@;A:?!Y a9 IZ(!Y a9 dZ(!D:L!Y a9 fZ!:A[!M;<=?! EFE G ! j!J9IS 9!,=P>=?=:@;:M! @H;?!D:DE7?;?(!@H=!KF><=!PD??=?!@H>AFMH!@H=!C;LL E=!AB!@H=!A@H=>!LD@D!;:!/;MF>=!a9a D9!%:! PD>@;KFED>(! @H=!C=D?F>=L!@=:?;A:!;?!D6AF@!IS q ! AB!@H=!P>=L;K@;A:!6D?=L!A:! EFE G ! j!R9 ! ! ! (a) (b) KELM7; 0 R6R 0 0=D?F>=C=:@?!AB!/;MF>=!a9d ! D>=!KA>>A6A>D@=L![;@H!ED6A>D@A>7 2 !YDZ!1@9!,=C7!D:L!A@H=>![DEE?!D:L!BA>!Y6Z!"H>;?@;D:D![DEE 9 !

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! RX` ! V#%#"#"! G::8+;9/+'(!/'!/@4!1@-+5/+9(9!B988 ! &AP!D:L!6A@@AC!HDE<=?!AB!@H=!"H>;?@;D:D![DEE!HD<=!L;BB=>=:@!>=;:BA>K=C=:@(!D:L!@H=! L;BB=>=:K=!DPP=D>?!D@!C;L 2 H=;MH@!;:!6A@H!@H=!LD@D! D:L!@H=!KDEKFED@;A:?!AB!/;MF>=!a9a 69!8=;:M! D!>=K=:@!P>Ab=K@(!K>==P!;:BA>CD@;A:!;?!DD@A>7!@=?@?!C=D?F>=!>=;:B A>K=C=:@! ?@>=:M@H![;@H;:!C;:F@=?9!8F@(!;:;@;DE!B;=EL!C=D?F>=C=:@?!;:=C=:@?!AKKF>>=L!@[=:@7!CA:@H?!ED@=>9!5?;:M!@H=!CD:FBDK@F>=>r?!K>==P ! LD@D!;:!@H=! ;:@=>P>=@D@;A:!AB! ;:;@;DE!D:L!?F6?=QF=:@!B;=EL!C=D?F>=C=:@?(!>=;:BA>K =C=:@!?@>=:M@H!;?! D??FC=L!@A!6=!SXq!D:L!aSq!AB!@H=!ED6A>D@A>7!!@H=!"H>;? @;D:D![DEE(! L=P;K@=L!;:!/;MF>=!a9a 6(!D>=! P=>BA>C=L!E;G= ! @HA?=!BA>!@H=!1@9!,=C7![DEE9 ! Measured K/K A decreases over time in the Christiana wall. The granular sta bility calculation in the Appendix indicates that no decrease would occur if parti cle size were increased from D max = 5mm to D max = 50mm (2 in.). R6N0+E=E8?C 0 &H=!1@9!,=C7!D:L!"H>;?@;D:D![DEE?!?FMM=?@!@HD@! E c E G ! }!R!BA>!M=A?7:@H=@;K!?@>;P? ! M=:=>DEE7!Y4AND:A!=@!DE9!IJRaZ9!&H=!M=:=>DE!P>APA?;@;A:!;?!:A[!D:DE7N=L9 ! `"J"#! A.C0V,/(.8.0*!B,R./)Z.!A)*C,!A ( ! 4D6A>D@A> 7!@=?@!LD@D(!PEA@@=L!;:!/;MF>=!a9O 6(!L=CA:?@>D@=!@HD@! E c E G ! ;:K>=D?=?!D?! >=;:BA>K=C=:@!KA<=>DM=!>D@;A! Z ; ! L=K>=D?=?9!%:!@HA?=!@=?@?(!E;C;@!?@D@=!KDPDK;@7!L=K>=D?=L!D?! @H=!DCAF:@!AB!>=;:BA>K=C=:@!L=K>=D?=L9 ! %:!/;MF>=!a 9S (!E;C;@!?@D@=!KDPDK;@7!;?!H=EL!KA:?@D:@![H;E=! Z ; ! ;?!;=L9!&HD@!;?(!@H=! ?@>=:M@H!AB!=DKH!?@>;P!;?!LAF6E=L![H=:!@H=!:FC6=>!AB!?@>;P?!;?!HDE<=L 9!8=KDF?=!@H=!L;DMA:DE! KA>>=?PA:L?!@A! E c E G ! j!R(!@H=!KDEKFED@;A:?!L=P;K@=L!;:!/;MF>=!a 9S ! ?HA[!D!?;M:;B;KD:@!;D@;A:! ;:!
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PAGE 192

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