PLACES OF POWER: EXAMINING FRENCH TOPONYMIC SPATIAL PATTERNS IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN by MARCELLE LEE CATURIA B.A., University of Minnesota Duluth, 1993 M.G.I.S., University of Minnesota Twin Cities, 2004 A thesis submitted to the Faculty o f the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Applied Geography and Geospatial Science Program 2018
ii This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Marcelle Lee Caturia h as been approved for the Applied Geography and Geospatial Science Program by Peter Anthamatten , Chair Brian Page Gregory Simon Maria McCormick Date: May 12, 2018
iii Caturia, Marcelle Lee (M.A., Applied Geography and Geospatial Science Program ) Places of Power: Examining French Toponym ic Spatial Patterns in the Mississippi River Basin Thesis directed by Associate Professor Peter Anthamatten ABSTRACT Place name s, or toponyms, represent both location and symbolic meaning, and examining the spatial distribu tion of place name s across landscape s can reveal otherwise hidden cultural patterns . Including quantitative methods as part of the process of interpretive ethnocultural research has contributed to revitaliz ing modern scholarship in toponomy . This study tak es a similar methodological approach by using spatial statistic al methods to visualize general spatial patterns of French place name s in the Mississippi River Basin, combined with qualitative historical and cultural analysis of socio political patterns at the more local scale of Minnesota . Integrated analysis of toponymy enables us to better understand how and why Fr ench toponymic power changed over time , which yields useful insights to the region s geography and history. The form and content of this abst ract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Peter Anthamatten
iv DEDICATION Sincerest thanks to my thesis committee members, including Peter Anthamatten, Brian Page, Gregory Simon, and Maria McCormick, for their invaluable direction and unfai ling support in completing my thesis and degree . Special credit goes to Professor Anthamatten for taking the time to serve as my M . A . and thesis faculty advisor. I also offer my great appreciation to the University of Colorado Denver Geography and Environment al Sciences Department for offering the opportunity for me to pursue this graduate degree, as well as ongoing encouragement throughout my student experience. I would also like to express my gratitude to Dr. Stephan Fuchs, who provided the inspiration for this research topic and allowed me to realize that regardless of the direction in which my career path takes me, I am a toponymist at heart. To Seshu, my family and friends, and work colleagues, thank you for your constant understanding and support while I lived the adventurous life of a graduate student . grateful and could never have completed my graduate studies without you.
v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 1 The French Presence in the Mississippi River Basin and Minnesota ................................ . 1 The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) ................................ ......................... 4 Research Goals and Intents ................................ ................................ ................................ . 5 Rationale ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 6 II. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 7 Place Names as Cultural Indicators ................................ ................................ .................... 7 Place Names and Socio Political Power ................................ ................................ ............. 9 Constructing Toponymic Landscapes ................................ ................................ ............... 10 Toponymy in Geographic Research ................................ ................................ .................. 10 R evealing Hidden Toponymic Footprints ................................ ................................ ......... 11 New Approach for Toponymy: Integrated Methods ................................ ......................... 12 Conceptual Model ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 14 Statement of Research Questions ................................ ................................ ...................... 15 III. METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 Geospatial Data Acquisition ................................ ................................ ............................. 16 French Toponym Identification ................................ ................................ ........................ 18 Spatial and Statistical Analytical Techniques ................................ ................................ ... 19 Historical and Cultural Research Methods ................................ ................................ ....... 20 IV. RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 23 Basin Level Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 23
vi Cartographic Analysis of French Toponyms in Minnesota ................................ .............. 26 Historical and Cultural Analysis ................................ ................................ ....................... 27 V. DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 36 Patterns across the Mississippi River Basin ................................ ................................ ...... 36 Patterns within Minnesota ................................ ................................ ................................ . 36 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 41 VI. CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 43 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 45 APPENDIX A ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 48 APPENDIX B ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 49
vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Historical and cultural attribute field definitions. ................................ ............................... 21 2. French toponym absolute counts and relative proportions, by state. ................................ .. 23 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1741. ................................ ...................... 2 2. Red River Ox Cart Trail routes. ................................ ................................ ............................ 3 ................................ 12 4. Thesis conceptual model. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 5. Overview map of basin study area. ................................ ................................ ..................... 17 6. Basin extent simple point pattern map. ................................ ................................ .............. 24 7. Basin extent relative proportions (by county) map. ................................ ........................... 25 8. Basin extent hot cold spots map. ................................ ................................ ........................ 25 9. Basin extent kernel density map, highlighting Minnesota extent. ................................ ...... 26 10. French vs. all place names in Minnesota (MN): simple point distributions. .................... 29 11. French place names in MN: Hot cold spot analysis by county. ................................ ....... 30 12. Linguistic origin of MN place names, by French exploration era. ................................ ... 31 13. Linguistic origin of MN place names, by French Canadian settlement era. .................... 32 14. Reference themes of MN French place names, by French exploration era. ..................... 33 15. Reference themes of MN French place names, by French Canadian settlement era. ...... 34 16 . French place names vs. French ancestry in MN. ................................ .............................. 35
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Toponyms , or place names, have a dual nature because they convey both location and cultural meaning in a single word or phrase . The process of place naming enables people to define where we are i n the world, what a space means to us symbolically , and to communicate our sense of place to others (Tuan , 1991) . As Basso (1988) observes, even ordinary place names e's worlds . background; therefore, different cultures might experience and bestow names up on places in very different ways . This research examines the cultural lens es of Fren ch colonial exploration and French Canadian settlement across t he Mississippi River watershed basin (focusing on Minnesota in particular) , the resulting spatial patterns of French toponyms, and what insight such patterns may yield about the underlying past and present socio political power structures and dynamics. The French Presence in the Mississippi River Basin and Minnesota 1500 to the mid 1700's, eventually influencin g more than half of the continent . for territorial expansion across focused on trade, particularly supplying fur pelts to European markets, rather than conquest (Labine, 2016) . Due to the light French colonial presence, economic activity in the interior of the continent was "riverine, expansive, and interracial" (Harris , 1990). The Mississippi River served an important role in French exploration as an economic and transportation network and strategic military resource . Prior to t he conclusion of the French and Indian War in 1763, the French controlled the entire Mississippi
2 River Basin as part of their strategy to encircle the British colonies from what is now New Orleans , Louisiana to w h a t is now the C anadian pr ovi nce of Qu Ã© bec ( see Figure 1 ) . Source: www.historymuseum.ca/virtual museu m of new france/colonies and empires/colonial expansion and alliances Figure 1 . Extent of in North America, 1534 1741. This period also marked the start of French exploration and influence in the region that is now Minnesota. According to Lab ine ( 2016) , French and French Canadian e xplorers and fur traders mapped the area forts and trading posts to interact with indigenous communities . Because i ntermarriage between French men and indi genous women established kinship bonds and trading alliances , it was officially encouraged and extremely common . , the French Empire had lost military control of the Mississippi River Basin and the fur trade had declined to the point at which traders New Orleans Qu Ã© b ec
3 needed to find a new livelihood. Because many former traders in Minnesota territory had mixed French I ndigenous heritage (and thus local familial and business ties ), they stayed in place and became farmers . Many Francophones migrated from Qu Ã© bec , France, and other parts of the United States to Minnesota in the 18 4 0 to escape political instability and find economic opportunities (Labine, 2016) . A series of ox cart routes connect ing settleme nts in mixed French Indigenous settlements in Manitoba with the riverboat landing in Saint Paul, Minnesota, were heavily used for travel and trade ( see Figure 2 ) . Source: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_River_Trails_Locator_Map_cropped.PNG Figure 2 . Red River Ox Cart Trail routes . St. Paul
4 French was often the preferred language of Minnesota during its territorial and early statehood period. Following Minnesota statehood in 1858, new waves of non French speaking immigrant settlers began arriving in the region . French was thus gradually replaced by English as the common and dominant language for business and social interactions (Labine, 2016). As French exploration and settlement developed across North America , the participants (e.g., explorer s , traders , and se ttlers ) named natural and cultural features such as rivers, lakes, or populated places along the way. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, French explorer cartographers selectively labeled place names on maps , according to the ir subjective opinion s . Settlers expressed their toponyms via government documents, business records, or iding with the closing of the American frontier (Stewart, 2008), the U.S. government took formal steps to standardize the process of place naming on federal maps and other printed products. U.S. President Benjamin Harrison issued an Executive Order establi shing the U.S. Board on Geographic Names on September 4, 1890 (Fournier, 2016). The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) The U.S. Board on Geographic Names ( BG N ) is the interagency organization of the United States Government established to maintain uniform geographic name usage throughout the Federal Government. The BGN renders decisions and promulgates policy regarding the uniform spelling, use, and application of both domestic and foreign toponyms across all official federal products . Its members represent a variety of federal agency interes ts, such as geographic information , population, ecology, m anagement of public lands, and national security (USBGN, 2016) .
5 The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) database , developed by the U.S. Geologica l Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the BGN, records official names for p laces located within the U nited S tates , District of Columbia, T erritories, Associated A reas , and Antarctica . The GNIS contains more than two million place name records covering a wide range of feature types, such as populated places, parks, streams, valleys, and every feature type except roads and highways . Attributes maintained for each record include the federally recognized toponym ; variant and former place names ; location (given by geographic coordinates, county, and USGS topographic map quadrangle ) ; bibliographic reference s for the place name sources ; and occasionally BGN decisions and other historical information ( USBGN, 2016 ) . The GNIS can serve as a valuable resource in toponym ic and historical research (Fournier , 2016) . W hen an official toponym is replaced or updated , a variant place name is created in the database . GNIS variant toponyms can thus serve as a record of divergent views of a particular place through various cultura l filters and socio political scales . Toponyms are also never deleted , but instead are designated as h istorical , which identifies the feature as no longer existing or the place name as no longer used. BGN decision cards ( i.e., documentation of BGN decision s such as official toponym approval dates ) and historical designations can often assist in identifying and documenting changes in place names usage over time. Research Goals and Intents This research project will demonstrate an exploratory, integrated res earch approach , combining quantitative and qualitative methods to examine spatial patterns of French toponyms in the Mississippi River Basin of North America . Based on use of the GNIS database as a place name spatial reference source , various spatial and s tatistical analy ses w ill enable basin wide visualiz ation of toponymic patterns . Following the identification of spatial patterns in French
6 toponyms , linguistic and historical research will be employed at a more localized scale to explore changing aspects o f the expression of French power over time. Rationale An examination of where and how French place names developed throughout the Mississippi River Basin can contribute to a n improved understanding of Fr ench colonial cultural and hegemonic imprint on Nor th America , including the respective power structures between and among French explorers, settlers, and indigenous groups . This approach may contribute to research in the fields of toponymy and cultural historical geography , as well as provide a real world example of how the GNIS database can be used as a toponymic data source in historical research .
7 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Place Names as Cultural Indicators T he act of place naming , situated within a socio political context, expresses how different cultures view their natural environment, which features should be named, and who gets to name them. Different societal groups view their surrounding environment through their own cultural lens and have divergent perceptions of what makes a place unique, s ignificant, and therefore meaningful . Jenn ings emphasize d that the choice is not between two landscape it is between two human ways of living, two ways of belonging to an ecosystem" ( as cited in Cronon, 1983, p. 12 ). For example, the i ndigenous and colo nial populations in North America saw their surrounding natural environments through different cultural lenses relating not only to which features were important, but also how humans should interact with those features . The colonists viewed the land as own ed, whereas the indigenous communities viewed the use of the land as what was owned (or co owned): What the Indians owned or more precisely, what their villages gave them claim to was not the land but the things that were on the land during the variou s seasons of the year . It . In nothing is this more clear than in the names they attached to their landscape, the great bulk of which related not to possession but to use . (Cronon , 1983, p. 65) Toponyms (place names) can serve as cultural indicators of such human environment relationships . Building upon the previous example, the indigenous residents and English colonists each recognized different types of features as bein g beneficial, and named features accordingly: Unlike the English, who most fre quently created arbitrary place names which either recalled localities in their homeland or gave a place the name of its owner, the Indians used ecological labels to describe how the land could be used . (Cronon , 1983, pp. 65 66)
8 I ndigenous place names in New England expressed socio political themes such as supply political our side, I fish on my side, nobody fish in the middle seasonal references ( ) (a ll quotes from Cronon , 1983, p p . 65 66 ) . Such place names created a useful mental map indicat ing the location and seasonal avail ability of surrounding natural resources : ( Cronon, 1983, p. 6 5 ) . Around the we stern Great Lakes, indigenous toponyms tended to reference physical and biological features (especially (Hartley, 1980, p. 67). Indigenous expressions of ecosystem rel ated concepts have been identified in recent research efforts in cultural anthropology . Boillat , Serrano, Rist, and Berkes (2012) demonstrate that Quechua indigenous farmers in the Bolivian Andes use place names to represent ecological units that integrate nature and people together, emphasize geodiversity, and "humanize" places ( i.e., consider landscape features as living beings with agency). Cogos , RouÃ© , and Roturier (2017) report the sharing of a physical and cultural landscape knowledge via oral narrati ves by the Sami community in Sweden and encourage new forms of cartography which capture such traditional knowledge maps . Hercus and Simpson (2009) explore development of historical indigenous place name s in Australia, along with their meanings, referentia l features, spatial and cultural networks.
9 Place Names and Socio Political Power ( Alderman, 2008; Rose Redwo od, Alderman & Azaryahu, 2010; as cited in Fuchs , 2015 , p. 333 ) . T hey raise questions about power, such as who gets to name places, and which toponyms persist in the landscape across changing socio cultural political regimes . name is cr eated, the person (or group of people) controlling the naming process invoke a type of creative toponymic power, convert ing (Tuan, 1991, p. 687). The newly created place names act as hegemonic expression s of cultural and political power. For example, French explorers and colonists in North America saw themselves as having religion (Glasrud , 1985) . Military fort staffers and fur traders traveled via water and mixed culturally with indigenous tribes . The process of French place name creation was thus often associated with the selective appropriation of indigenous names (Lapierre , 2000) . As a result, place names resulting from Fren ch exploration and colonization activities generally have either French or French I ndigenous origin s . Mitchell (1996) emphasizes that some features within a landscape are purposely emphasized physically and/or culturally ( i.e., made to become more "visibl e"), while others remain indistinguishable from the background ( i.e., made "invisible"): invisible or , 1996, p. 26). names became "visible" to not only the explorers and colonists, but also to their patrons and
10 audiences in their country of origin . Unnamed features remained "invisible" and were thus unrecognized and considered insignificant. Constructing Toponymic Landscapes Qian, Kang, and Wang (2016) describe the concept . E ach layer contain s a set of place names associated with a culture at a particular point in time , thus provid ing a historical political power dynamics . Collectively, all the Qian et al. , 2016) . By examining how each toponymic layer represents a perspective on the relationships between people and the natural environment, a historical narrative of the ecological landscape can be constructed. Toponymy in Geog raphic Research The use of toponyms to define the location and meaning of sociocultural features is an established research approach in the field of g eography . For example, Wright (1929) suggested that place names serve as valuable and versatile sociocult ural and ecological indicators. Zelinsky (1967) observed that place names provide historical and cultural information on settlement patterns that enable insights into the status, character, and mindset of the local community . By extension, toponyms can ser ve as a valuable resource for the geographic study of historic immigrant groups. However, such toponymic research has been marginalized within the discipline of geography over the past few decades (Fuchs , 2015) . Some critics claim that research into place names lacks a theoretical foundation because it lacks a widely agreed upon classification scheme , 2002, p. 247 ) . Goodchild describes toponymic research as a n "old and largely discredited field"
11 (as cited in Rose Redwood et al., 2010, p. 455). Rose Redwood et al. (2010) also note that because traditional scholarship on place , it is often (Rose Redwood et al., 2010, p. 455). Recently, the field has shifted to focus more on the use of critical analyses in toponymic research (Alderman 2008; Ro se Redwood, Alderman, & Azaryahu, 2010) . For example, newly bestowed names can express a belief in authority to claim territory (Glasrud , 1985), while name changes codify significant political conflicts and ideological shifts (Zelinsky , 1983) . The act of (Vuolteenaho & Berg , 2009) . Erickson (2015) points out that although a Canadian river used by that the river was a contested space in reality (Erickson, 2015, p. 318) . Bernstein (2016) also provides a critical analysis perspective, arguing that indigenous tribal names and naming practices were essential to the cartographic creation of the Trans Mis sissippi region of the United States. I dentifying changes in the toponymic landscape can serve to reveal otherwise hidden processes and long term changes to the ecological ( both natural and human) landscape, including culture and power dynamics. Fuchs (20 15) posits that although critical toponymy studies ha ve the potential to offer important insights , they could be even more effective if combined with quantitative research to further contextualize qualitative based results. Revealing Hidden Toponymic Footp rints An integrated methods approach that combines modern spatial statistical methods with traditional historical and interpretive techniques can provide useful perspectives for toponymic research by and directing interpretative discussions (Fuc hs , 2015 , p. 330 ). The value
12 of integrating multiple approaches ( e.g., quantitative methods, qualitative methods, and critical lens theory) is that additional containing expressions of culture and power that would otherw ise remain hidden (see Figure 3 ). Figure 3 . New Approach for Toponymy: Integrated Methods By revealing spatial patterns and the cultural context s within the toponymic landscape, the use of integrated methods can provide novel perspectives o n the data. Fuchs (2015) suggests that attention and dedicated effort toward the development of such approaches can assist in revitalizing research in the field of toponymy within geography . Contemporary toponymic research provides a variety of examples to B efore the emergence of modern geographic information systems (GIS), Kaups (1966) developed a combined quantitative qualitative approach by manual ly mapping the locational distribution of, and calculating population statistics for, Finnish place names in northern and western Minnesota, yielding a spatial analysis of Finnish community settlement patterns . More recently, Wang, L. Zhang, G. Zhang, and H. Zhang (2014) used various geospatial tools, such as Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolation, spatial cluster analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA), to map and analyze patterns of toponyms originating from multiple ethnic groups in an d around Yunnan province in China . Fuchs (2015) combines spatial statistical
13 measures (including polygon hot spot analysis, point density visualization, and point cluster analysis) with critical interpretation for identifying and examining regional pattern s of Germanic place names in the U.S. Midwest. Weaver and Holtkamp (2016) integrate cluster analysis, creation of a regression model, and a cultural exploration of perceived local identity for the U.S. region of Appalachia . Qian et al. (2016) apply quantit ative techniques, including spatial smoothing and interpolation, independent samples t test, and binary logistic regression, to build historical toponymic layers for the province of Guangdong, China . Chloupek (2017) emphasizes the benefits of using GIS bas ed spatial statistics combined with qualitative historical analysis to identify unique, discrete spatial patterns on a state wide scale, and further investigate the identified patterns in greater detail at local scales . His quantitative methods include the average nearest neighbor (ANN) search for point based spatial analysis, and kernel density estimate on for point pattern visualization, of populated places in Nebraska. In summary, toponyms reflect the cultural lens through which humans apply place name s to their surrounding landscape. Examination of changes in toponymic patterns can be used to identify and analyze past and ongoing cultural political power dynamics. Although the field of toponymy was established a long time ago , it appeared marginalized within the discipline of geography over the past several decades, considered too focused on empirical methods (such as simply cataloging and mapping place names), without foundation in theory . Recent interest in the politics behind place naming does not ta ke advantage of the potential offered by combining such analysis with quantitative research to further contextualize qualitative based results. The value of applying an integrated approach is that even more insight is gained through revealing hidden, and thus participate in further revitalization of toponymic research.
14 Conceptual Model Th e present study is based on the conceptual understanding of toponym creation as a process shaped by the exercise of power (Figure 4 ) . Beginning with an unnamed, undifferentiated location in space, the naming process confers a symbolic meaning and "sense of place" i n that location (Cresswell 2013) . As the French Empire initially explore d and settled the a historical imprint through its named places . Toponyms were mainly based on cultural symbols, people, places, landscape features , and s ometimes (selectively) appropriated indigenous place names . The resulting toponyms may be analyzed using two main approaches . Quantitative research methods reveal spatial patterns, while qualitative research methods explore the symbolic meanings and underl ying socio cultural dynamics . A research framework combin ing both approaches can enable a multifaceted look at where the French cultural imprint on North America occurred while shed ding insight on the political and social dynamics of that imprint . Figure 4 . Thesis c onceptual m odel .
15 Statement of Research Questions This paper will demonstrate an integrated quantitative qualitative approach to the study of French place names located within the Mississippi River Basin of North America, by address ing the foll owing research questions: What kinds of spatial patterns can be identified within the French toponymic landscape across the Mississippi River Basin? What are possible underlying socio political reasons for the observed patterns? What can this tell us about how the expression of French toponymic power changed over time in the region ? Fuchs (2015) was the primary inspir ation for the overall methodological approach of this study, i.e., integrating spatial analys e s at a general scale with historical cultural a nalys e s at a local scale in order to better visualize and understand toponymic patterns that might otherwise remain hidden. toponyms across the U.S. Midwest region, this research turns attention to Fre nch toponyms within the Mississippi River Basin. Dr. Fuchs also piqued my interest in creating an applied use of the GNIS database, as well as alerting me to the importance of participating in the revitalization of toponymy as an important research area wi thin geography.
16 CHAPTER II I METHODS This study used v arious types of spatial analys e s to visualize general spatial patterns of French place name s located in the Mississippi River Basin and also focused around the state of Minnesota. H istorical a nd cultural research also examin ed possible underlying socio political causes of the identified patterns within Minnesota . Geospatial Data Acquisition The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) database provide s a collection of spatially enabled topon ymic features within which French place names can be identified . The GNIS point features and associated attributes are free and publicly available to download in pipe delimited text file format , referenced with the 1983 North American Da tum (NAD 83) coordi nate system . The most current version of the GNIS point feature s grouped by state was obtained from the B oard on G eographic Names website (URL p rovided in Appendix A) , and t he text files were converted into point shapefiles and projected using Microsoft Excel and ESRI ArcMap 10.2.2 . Hydrology , governmenta l units , and census data for both the Mississippi River Basin and Minnesota extents were downloaded online from the USGS Science Base, USGS National Map , Minnesota GeoSpatial Commons , and University of Minnesota National Historical Geographic Info rmation System (NHGIS) websites ( URLs provided in Appendix A) . Vector shapefiles were unzipped and inspected for spatial and attribute consistency and completeness. The NHGIS provides U.S. Census population and ancestry counts which have already been joine d to county boundary polygons (MPC, 2016) . This research used the NHGIS compiled census data source d from the Am erican Community Survey (ACS) for the y ear 2015 and containing total po pulation
17 and total ancestry counts by county (census source co de: B04007, NHGIS file name : nhgis0001_ds214_2015_county , NHGIS code: ACLW) . Ancestry information is self identified, meaning that the survey respondent writes in any answer of his/her choosing (versus selecting an answer from a pre determined list) in response to the ACS questio n titled What is this per ancestry U.S. Census Bureau, 2015) . T he ratio of the number of people self identified as having French or French Canadian ancestry, compared with the total population per county , Percent French or Fren ch Canadian Ancestry . To provide a suitable processing buffer for quantitative analyses , the basin extent was defined as all states intersecting with any part of the Mississippi River Basin watershed boundary . Figure 5 provides an overview map of the bas in extent study area. Figure 5 . Overview m ap of basin s tudy a rea .
18 French Toponym Identification French toponyms were identified and tagged in the acquired GNIS point data layer . For toponyms were defined as having originate d direct ly from French or Canadian French ( Qu Ã© becois ) , having been French in the past and directly translated into, corrupted into, or replaced by place name s in a different language (usually English). Topon ymic e.g., l o were excluded from consideration re garding whether or not a place name was French . In some cases, French topony m s were derived from already existing indigenous place name s (Labine , 2016) . The reference text for identifying GNIS entr ies as being French was Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) , a gazetteer of French place names providing nation wide coverage of the U nited S tates . The authors report ed having consult ed authoritative published works for each state, as well as meeting or correspondi ng with local place name experts in order to complete the gazetteer . They list ed toponyms covering various geographic feature types, such as natural ( e.g., lake, stream, bluff) and socio cultural ( e.g., city, township, county) features . L ocational precision appeared to be potentially limited in many cases, as Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) did not provide spatial coordinates for toponyms . M ost place names were instead listed by county, and features spanning more than one county ( such as rivers) were ident ified only by state. Populated places were usuall y listed by county and ZIP code and could be located with a high level of confidence . In addition, the gazetteer did not include all possible French place name s . in C olorado, a documented French toponym ( Dawson , 1954), was not included. In order to control the scope of this project as well as conduct geospatial analy sis consistently across the entire basin extent , Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) served as the only so urce of potential French toponyms . The gazetteer
19 sometimes includes alternate place name spellings ( e.g., . Several incorrect assumptions regarding the French origin of place names were also identified, e.g., ancient city in Asia Minor (Upham, 2001), rather than the French city of Troyes as claimed by Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) . The GNIS was searched for each gazetteer listed Fre nch toponym , using the location and attribute search tools provided in ArcMap 10.2.2 . If a matching record was identified in the GNIS database , then the corresponding point feature was marked as being of French origin in the shapefile attribute table . To a ddress the potential limitations described above , the GNIS database w as searched online for toponyms at both the basin wide and Minnesota levels. The online, publicly available GNIS search tool results include variant toponyms any other names by which t he feature is or was known if such variants are present in the database . Spatial and S tatistical Analy tical Techniques The identified French toponyms were analyzed using several quantitative techniques in order to facilitate visualiz ation of s patial pa tterns at both the Mississippi River Basin and Minnesota extent s . Spatial and s tatistical analyses were conducted using ArcGIS 10.2.2 tools and extensions (Spatial Analyst and Geo statistical Analyst ) , and a ll geospatial datasets were projected into the "USA_Contiguous_Equidistant_Conic" projection prior to analys i s. The French toponyms identified in the GNIS database were selected and exported as a separate shapefile data layer. A simple point pattern map was created to visually represent the overall toponymic distribution at b oth extent s . At the basin wide extent, t he p ercentage of French place name s relative to all place name s (having the same GNIS feature class, e.g., stream or populated place) was calculate d per state and per county . Presenting r elative proportions of
20 French toponyms state wide provides a relevant comparison to absolute counts , whereas presentation at the c ounty level supports intuitive visual analysis and enables direct comparison with other county based socio demographic information sources , such as census data (Fuchs 2015). Average n earest neighbor analysis (ANN) was used to determine whether place name points had a clustered distribution pattern both at the basin wide and Minnesota analytical scales . Optimized Hot Cold Spot Analysis tool i dentifies sta tistically significant spatial clusters of high values (hot spots) and low values (cold spots), using the Getis Ord Gi* statistic ( yielding a z score with an associated probability value p ) (ESRI, 2014) . F eature values were examined i n the context of neighboring featur es to find locations both having high value s and surrounded by other high values at the basin wide and Minnesota extents . Groups of point features were then aggregated into designated areas . T he grouped point count s , i.e., total place name s per designated area, served as the analyzed values . The basin wide level processing extent included all counties intersecting with any part of the Mississippi River Basin watershed boundary . The Minnesota level processing extent included counties located within a 100 kil ometer buffer around the state boundary. The Kernel Density tool c alculates t he density of point features in a neighborhood around those features , based on a kernel function to fit a smoothly tapered surface to each point (ESRI, 2014) . At the basin wide level , this to ol creat e d a continuous value surface from the French toponym points in order to validate the area based hotspot analy tical results . Historical and Cultural Research Methods Visualization of spatial patterns can facilitate in depth analysis using qual itative methods (Fuchs, 2015) . Following spatial pattern visualization and analysis on a basin wide scale ,
21 historical and cultural research techniques examined French toponyms at the localized scale of Minnesot a. The h istorical c ultural r esearch process re lied on toponymic history and origin information from four sources: Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) , Upham ( 2015 ), Labine (2016), and BGN decision information attached to GNIS record s . Manual editing in ArcMap 10.2.2 added and populated attribute fiel ds containing the new cultural and historical data into the French toponym point shapefile. Attribute field names, descriptions, domain values, type, and width are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Historical and Cultural Attribute Field Definitions Field Na me Description Domain Values Type Width HIST_LYR Historic t oponymic l ayer 1E = French Empire exploration era String 10 2S = French Canadian settlement era FR_or_EN Linguistic origin FR = Currently French String 10 EN = Currently English IN DIG_RT Has i ndigenous r oots IN = Has i ndigenous roots String 10 Type Reference t heme CU = Cultural symbol or event String 10 LA = Landscape PL = Place PR = Person VAR_FRN M Has French variant Y = Yes, N = No String 10 VAR_SP Spelling alter ed from original Y = Yes, blank if No String 10 VAR_TR Directly translated from original Y = Yes, blank if No String 10 VAR_CR Corrupted from original Y = Yes, blank if No String 10 Notes Additional detail about toponym as needed String 250 Table 1 . H i storical and cultural a ttribute field definitions . which indicated whether French colonists or French Canadian settlers were likely to have named the feature. Research sources did not provide dates for when places were named, but rather described (usually very generally) how the naming process occurred. For the purposes of this study, if a place name was described in one or more sources as having been given by a French explorer , trader or havi historical group group if
22 identified as commemorating a French leader or famous person, American of French heritage, or local French settler. Toponymic linguistic origins ( based on defin itions provided by the research sources listed above ) having French roots). If a place name of e ither linguistic origin also possessed indigenous roots, Reference theme categories were designed to indicate for whom or what a place was named, including a cultural symbol , landscape characteristic or use ( , place , and person . The existence of variant names, changed spellings, translations, and language corruptions were also recorded . These attributes were assigned based on a subjective evaluation of the information pr ovided in the research sources.
23 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Basin Level Analy sis French t oponyms were analyzed across the Mississippi River Basin in thirty three continental U.S. states . A total of 725 gazetteer suggested toponyms were matched, while 115 were no t matched. Absolute total counts and percentage ( relative to all place names having the same GNIS feature class ) of French toponyms per state are presented in Table 2 . Louisiana, Minnesota, and North Dakota had the three highest relative proportions of Fre nch toponyms. Table 2 French Toponym Absolute Total Count s and Relative Proportion s ( out of all t oponyms having the same GNIS feature class, in Percent % ), by State State Count % State Count % State Count % AL 23 0.11 MD 11 0.07 OH 53 0.24 AR 20 0.11 MI 64 0.24 OK 53 0.38 CO 9 0.04 MN 206 0.85 PA 61 0.21 GA 18 0.08 MO 46 0.26 SC 45 0.33 IA 29 0.25 MS 14 0.11 SD 11 0.16 ID 16 0.08 MT 11 0.05 TN 11 0.04 IL 40 0.22 NC 9 0.03 TX 22 0.05 IN 26 0.18 ND 52 0.96 VA 10 0.04 KS 42 0.50 NE 49 0.47 WI 43 0.23 KY 19 0.08 NM 7 0.04 WV 38 0.24 LA 155 0.94 NY 40 0.14 WY 25 0.18 Table 2. French toponym absolute counts and relative proportions , by state. Figure 6 displays the simple point pattern map of all French place names identified through the methods describe d above. French toponyms can be found across all of the Mississippi River Basin states with varying degrees of concentration. In particular, concentrations appear to occur near the headwater and source areas of the Mississippi River. Figure 7 maps French place names grouped by county, relative to all place names of the same feature classes. The highest percentages of French toponyms exist in counties located along the U.S. Canada border in North Dakota and Minnesota, scattered counties in those states as w ell as Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma, and in southeastern Louisiana.
24 The Average Nearest Neighbo r (ANN) analysis reported a Nearest Neighbor Ratio of 0. 640094 (p value < .001 ), which indicates significant spatial clustering in the French place name point loca tions with a high confidence level . The b asin wide H ot Cold S pot s map (Fig ure 8 ) show s statistically significant clusters of high numbers of French toponyms located in a northwest southeast direction across Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin, most of ea stern Ohio , and southern Louisiana. Kernel Density analysis can serve to validat e the area based Hot Cold S pot results in terms of remedying possible scale based distortions a nd confirming visual patterns (Fuchs , 2015) . As mapped in Figure 9 , the Kernel Density r esults confirm observed toponymic patterns , and also show local ized patterns in greater detail , such as some toponymic concentrations around St. Louis , Missouri , and partway up western tributaries of the Mississippi River. Although a French toponym ic conce ntration exists within South Carolina, it is in fact located outside of the Mississippi River Basin, and thus was excluded from further consideration. Figure 6 . B asin extent simple point pattern map .
25 Figure 7 . Basin extent r elative p roportions (by c ounty ) map . Figure 8 . Basin extent h ot cold s pot s map .
26 Figure 9 . Basin extent kernel density map , highlighting Minnesota extent . Cartographic Analysis of French Toponyms in Minnesota Minnesota contained the third highest relati ve proportion (0.85%) and the highest absolute total number (202) of French place names of all the Mississippi River Basin states. In addition, I personally have the most familiarity with the toponymic landscape in Minnesota compared to all of the other Mi ssissippi River Basin states. For th ese reason s , I selected Minnesota as the study extent for further quantitative and qualitative analyses . Figure 10 presents a simple point pattern map to demonstrate the spatial distribution of the 202 identif ied French place names throughou t Minnesota , in comparison with all place names of similar feature class es ( totaling 23,801 place name s) . In general, French t oponym s are associated with water based transportation routes such as major rivers ( e.g., the southeastern Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers), and larger sized l akes ( e.g., Lake Superior in the northeast, Red Lake and Lake of the Woods along the U.S. Canada border , and Lake Mille Lacs in central
27 Minnesota) . A noticeable clustering of French place names is also evident in the northwestern corner of the state , part of the Red River Valley , centered in Red Lake County . The Average Nearest Neighbo r tool reported a Nearest Neighbor Ratio of 0.714997 (p < 0.001 ), indicat ing statistically significant spatial clustering in the French place name point locations . Optimized H ot Cold S pot analysis (Figure 1 1 ) reflect s a similar (but refined) pattern to that observed at the basin wide level, i.e., statistically significant clusters of high numbers of French toponyms generally oriented in a northwest southeast direction between the northwestern corner of Minnesota and the east central part of the state . Historical and Cultural Analysis T oponymic analysis based on qualitative methods initially associated French place names according to historical toponymic layer ( i.e., whether French explorers or French Canadian settlers had likely named the feature ) . Within the French place name groupings by historical era , 1 1 1 features were associated with French exploration , while 91 features were associated with French Canadian settlement . Q ualitative research next identified and mapped place names within each historical toponymic era according to linguistic origin and reference theme. Finally, all French toponyms, regardless of historical era, were analyzed and mapped in relation to French o r French Canadian ancestry spatial patterns. Appendix B contains a view of selected locational and qualitative attribute fields for all Minnesota toponyms. French Exploration Era Toponyms Within t he French exploration era category , qualitative research id entified 53 toponyms as currently French, and thirteen of these having indigenous roots. A total of 58 place names are currently English , with French roots , and 21 of these have indigenous roots. Categorizing French exploration era toponyms by reference th eme revealed seven toponyms symbolizing some aspect
28 of French culture, 69 referencing landscape characteristics or use, 34 named for a person(s), and one referencing a French named place located outside of Minnesota. Figures 1 2 and 1 4 show the French explo ration era spatial distribution patterns according to linguistic origin and reference theme , respectively . Based on examination of multiple research sources, Coulet du Gard and These four toponyms were thus excluded from further qualitative analysis . French Canadian Settlement Era Toponyms Within the French Canadian settlement era category, qualitative research identified 76 currently French toponyms, and 15 currently English to ponyms. None of the French Canadian settlement era toponyms had indigenous roots. Categorizing French Canadian settlement era toponyms by reference theme revealed three toponyms symbolizing some aspect of French culture, thirteen referencing landscape char acteristics or use, 65 named for a person(s), and fourteen referencing a French named place located outside of Minnesota. Figures 1 3 and 1 5 visualize French Canadian settlement era spatial distribution patterns according to linguistic origin and reference theme, respectively. French or French Canadian Ancestry Figure 1 6 shows where self identified French or French Canadian ancestry (based on U.S. Census ACS counts for the year 2015 and compiled per county by NHGIS) is highest across Minnesota, and also in relation to French place name spatial patterns . French toponyms generally appear to be most concentrated in northeastern and northwestern Minnesota . However, the toponymic cluster located in northwestern Minnesota around Red Lake County also stands out as having the highest percentage of French ancestry in the state.
29 Figure 10 . French vs. all place names in Minnesota (MN) : simple point distribution s . St. Paul Minneapolis
30 Figure 1 1 . French place names in MN : Hot c old spot analysis by county. Red Lake County
31 Figure 1 2 . Linguistic origin of MN place names, by French e xploration e ra.
32 Figure 1 3 . Linguistic origin of MN place names, by French Canadian s ettlement e ra . Red Lake County
33 Figure 1 4 . Reference themes of MN French place names , by French exploration era .
34 Figure 1 5 . Reference themes of MN French place names, by French Cana dian settlement era . Red Lake County
35 Figure 1 6 . French place names vs. French ancestry in MN . Red Lake County
36 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION Patterns across the Mississippi River Basin Analys e s of t he spatial pattern s of French toponyms across the Mississippi River Basin revealed significant c lustering in and around the states of Louisiana, Minnesota, and Ohio. Th ese region al patterns reveal major transportation access points used by the French Empire as it explor e d and colonize d the North America n interior , s pecifically : 1) Lou i siana enabled a ccess from the Gulf of Mexico northward via the mouth of the Mississippi River; 2) Minnesota enabled access from the westernmost end of the Great Lakes southward via the headwaters and tributaries of the Mississippi River; and 3) Ohio enab led access from L ake Ontario westward via the Ohio River (Harris , 1990) . Mapping t hese toponymic patterns also enable d a basin wide visualization of the French reliance on major waterways and create d layer representing the associated historical ti me period. Patterns within Minnesota Because place names encapsulate both location and meaning , mapping the modern toponymal landscape , in combination with historical analysis , enables visualiz ation of where and how political and cultural power existed w ithin and among various groups over time . Similar to the basin level results, French toponyms throughout Minnesota were generally oriented in a northwest southeast direction across the state , and located near water based transportation routes , such as the Mississippi River, its tributaries, and lake s (see Figure 10) . P ossible historical dynamic s shap ing these patterns is worth exploring . In addition, these patterns reveal ed insights about the historical socio political power structure among d ifferent cultural groups . Identifying how these patterns relate to contemporary ethnic identification on a pers onal level, which can be derived through census data (Fuchs , 2015) , is also an important consideration .
37 Historical Dynamics French toponyms across Minnesota wer e examined within the context of two historical : 1) French colonial exploration and trade ( from around 1600 to the early ; and 2) French Canadian settlement ( the to around 1860 ) . e xploration o f the region and establishment of a fur trading network ( was characterized by c o existence and cultural mixing , resulting not in physical displacement but cultural appropriation and filtering (Hartley , 1980) . The F rench mapp ed and named features they encountered along the way , and some existing indigenous place names were translated or corrupted into French (see Figure 1 2 ) . Toponyms from the era p rimarily describe l andscape characteristic s or use (see Figure 1 4 ) , such as the Roseau River g a shash agunushkokawi sibi" eed grass r iver translated to for the thick reed growth along river banks) . In some cases, the French described their indigenous collaborators directly; for ex ample, the Bois For te Reservation includes a changed French b ois f English referring to perceived strength of the Ojibway people) , and the Des Moines River is a French corruption of the tribal name Moingona . The French also applie d their own names to describe landscape characteristics or use , as for Grand and the Pomme de Terre for edible river bank tubers ) River . French explorers and missionaries were also commemorated ( e.g., the cities of Duluth and La Salle ), along with political and religious figures ( e.g., Hennepin County, S t. Francis ) . Fre nch Canadian immigration to the region ( in resulted from the recruitment efforts of l ocal political or business l eaders with French or French Canadian heritage (Labine , 2016) . S ettlers speaking French as their first language bestowed
38 many French names on their new towns and counties (Figure 1 3 ) . The r esulting toponyms generally commemorated people, places , and cultural sym bols (see Figure 1 5 ) . F rench leaders or famous citizens were particularly honored ( e.g., Lafayette , Arago ), a s well as esteemed Americans with French heritag e ( e.g., Audubon, Girard , Revere ) and l ocal settlers ( e.g., Huot, Faribault , Renville ) . A noticeabl e clustering pattern of French toponyms named after people was also identified around Red Lake County, located in the northwestern corner of Minnesota. Many French Canadians immigrated to this area during the nineteen th century and set up farming communities. Local place names often commemorated residents who were socially prominent or had been an early settler (Labine, 2016). French geography or history were also heavily referenced in place names; for example, there is Gentilly (suburb of Paris), Elba (island where Napoleon was exiled), Lamoille (river in Vermont), and Terrebonne (town in Qu Ã© bec ). Cultural French for the Patrons of Husbandry, a secret agricultural order). Beginning in the 1860 i mmigrant s of other ethnic g roups eventually displaced French settlements , or replaced them as French descendants moved out of the area (Labine , 2016) . As a result, m any French toponyms were directly translated, corrupted, altered in spelling, or compl etely replaced by English words (see Figure s 1 2 and 1 3 ) . D irect translation occurred for the Root River and Lake of the Woods . Trotterchaud Lake is a changed spelling of (name of a local French settler). Lakeport Township and the Cannon River are actually not English , but rather corruptions of the French settler name "La Porte" and the French " r ivi Ã¨ re aux canots" ( r iver of the canoes) . Little Falls French for painted rock ) , and the Pigeon River vi Ã¨ re au x River).
39 Socio Political Power Structures and Distribution The process of place n aming can be considered an expression of personal or group power , and thus directly relate s to the question: who ha s the right to name place s ? When the French explorers recorded and named encountered features , one of their goals was to m ak e sites that were well l iterally appearing on maps and symbolically for later travelers . They were also tasked with claimin g territory for the French Empire , ultimately to establish and legitimize French control of the symbolic landscape . Because their recorded toponyms were often based on indigenous place names, the place naming process created many linguistic and socio polit ical connection s with local tribes in order to support trad e, compris ing a c omplicated mixture of official and unofficial influences, local and external actors, and . Although the French settlers and Ojibway trib al members were closely partnered socially and economically, the French selected and recorded the place wielded a toponymic power far out of proportion to their [population] How the balance of toponymic power changed over time depend ed on context . For example, the Minnesota the Ojibway t ribal homeland was loc ated east of the Great Lakes (Hartley , 1980). Tribal members t raveled with and advised the French as part of the fur trade , resulting in the westward migration of settlement into Lakota territor y. Ojibway place n ames migrated as well , were recorded by the French , and so inscribed upon the landscape . This tribal expression of toponymic power relied on French Ojibway cultural and political inter dependence and a relative balance of power . However, because the French reserved the power to name
40 places, the place naming process involve d cultural displacement and appropriation (Hartley , 1980) . Later waves of settlement by French Canadian and other immigrant groups (1860 onwards) added more names to the toponymic landscape , which expressed n ot only socio political power, but also allowed cultural groups to express autonomy and sense of belonging (Fuchs , 2015) . These processes raise the related questions of h ow many name s were changed , and who ultimately has the right to re name places ? A fewer number of pl aces being renamed c ould indicate that the initial names (and their associated socio political power) enjoyed lasting authority, or conversely, might suggest complacency and/or mutual accommodation among settlers from various ethnic groups (Fuchs , 2015 , p. 336 ) . The French legacy was displaced in locations where French toponyms were replaced or became historic . Personal Ethnic Identification Because t oponyms and personal ethnic identity both represent socio cultural aspects of our lives, examining how toponymic spat ial patterns align with contemporary ancestry data can broaden the scope of an integrated research approach . This kind of analysis can demonstrate shifts in the demographics an d dynamics over time , yielding further insight to socio cultural context s and pr ocesses. Based on U.S. Census ACS 2015 data , t he northwestern Minnesota area around Red Lake County contains relatively high rate s of both French place names and French ancestry (see Figure s 1 1 and 1 6 ). As described in the Introduction chapter of this report (see p. 3) t his area of the state included a branch of the heavily utilized Red River Ox Cart Trails network (Labine, 2016). Th e observed toponymic and ancestry pattern s could also indicate a significant French socio cultural impact and stability on a loca l scale , and perhaps a c ontinuation of individual and
41 group sense of bel onging , up through modern times . The existence du Nord (Association of the French of the North) , based in the town of Huot , located in Red Lake County , seems to support this idea . The ir mission statement is to create understanding of the world's French heritage while interpreting the role French presence has played in the Middle West, particularly in the northwestern Minnesota (emphasis mine) ( L 'Associatio n des FranÃ§ais du Nord , n.d.). Figure 1 6 also shows the northeastern corner of Minnesota as containing a medium to high pro portion of the population with French ancestry , but a lo w occurrence of French place names . This pattern may suggest a loss of cult ural authority in spite of high locational stability of initial settlers and their descendants (Fuchs , 2015) , and raises the questions of h ow and why the initial French authority was replaced or lost. In summary, t oponymic patterns at the basin level showe d where exploration for the French Empire generally focused their activities and place naming efforts, and ultimately their overall expression of political and cultural power . Toponymic historical research at the Minneso ta scale revealed aspects of loca l toponymic power expressions , by not only the French Empire , but also affiliated indigenous tribes and successive waves of Fr ancophone settle rs . Limitations Canadian place names were not included in this analysis to limit project scope, thus limiting acc uracy of spatial and statistical analyses results for areas along the U.S. Canada border. In addition, the gazetteer used to identify French toponyms at the basin wide extent ( Coulet du Gard & Western , 1977) did not include all possible French place name s , which reduced the precision of quantitative analy tical results . This research did not apply spatial or
42 statistical analytical techniques beyond the Minnesota state wide level and recommends conducting additional historical research to identify additional French toponyms before doing so . Finally , t oponymic researchers must often rely on secondary historical sources to provide qualitative data . H istorical sources ( and any data derived from them ) are always subjective to some extent, and secondary sourc es are not under the control of the researcher . I f such source s do not provide place name attributes like spatial coordinates ( or alternative locational information appropriate to the scale of the project ) , possible variant names, and/or date created, then more detailed research might be necessary . In some cases , confirm ing the accuracy of historical information associated with the place names under study is neither possible nor practical . T here is no single and fully complete gazetteer for toponyms at any scale . Furthermore, toponyms are dynamic ; a s people arrive, leave, and move, their place names always change. As a result, it can be very d ifficult to construct historic and modern toponymic layers without including extensive field study and archival rese arch , a time consuming and expensive endeavor . T oponymists should , therefore, research each place name in order to confirm histor ical information (Lapierre , 2000) . This process can be a challenge when conducting research in the United States , as American p lace names comprise a names of , 2008) , d ue to great variation in place naming contexts and processes over time .
43 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION This study demonstrated an exploratory, integrated research approach , comb ining quantitative and qualitative methods to examin e spatial patterns of French toponyms in the North America Mississippi River Basin . S patial analysis enabled visualization of basin wide patterns , followed by detailed historical and cultural analysis wit hin t he focused extent of Minnesota in order to identify possible underlying socio political reasons for the observed patterns. The use of t oponyms provide d socio cultural background info rmation generally not accessible via commonly used demographic source s , such as census data . Toponymic research can thus enable cross discipline approaches and c ontribute to greater depth and breadth of research in the field of geography . It also d emonstrates how the perspectives, techniques and tools of geoscience and digi tal cartography can enhance the process of toponymic analysis , enrich qualitative work , and contribute to increased use of the GNIS database as part of the recent resurgence of interest in the field of toponymy . This research will focus future eff orts on including toponyms from the Canadian Geographical Names Data Base (CGNDB) to enable geoprocessing of features, such as watersheds, that do not follow political boundaries. Modeling the iterative process of conducting historical research at more det ailed map scale , followed by quantitative analysis to identify patterns for further investigation, would also be useful . Natura l language processing (NLP) related methods focusing on how to automated identification of French toponym "candidate s " might assi st with optimizing the process for selecting features for analysis . Recent research into t oponym text identification on digital map scans (Weinman , 201 7 ) could also be useful for constructing historical toponymic layers.
44 T his study discussed the multi fac eted nature of Minnesota toponyms , which reflect multiple cultural replacements, whereby French place names replaced indigenous ones, followed by being replaced themselves by English ones. In the wake of renewed interest in indigenous cultures, modern topo nymic activit ies in the United States include tribal and non tribal community efforts to re nam e English place names to indigenous ones . Examples include replac ing (USDOI, 2015) , and the re naming of Lake Calhoun ( in Lakota) in Minneapolis, Minnesota (MNDNR, 2018). Multiple immigrant populations from other French speaking countries currently reside in Minnesota, and a future endeavor could examine how th eir respective political and/or cultural imprints are reflected in the toponymic landscape s .
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47 Stewart, G. R. (2008). Names on the land: A historical account of place naming in the United States . New York, NY: The New York Review of Books. Tuan , Y.F. ( 1991 ) . Language and the making of place: A narrative descriptive a pproach. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81(4):684 696. United States Board on Geographic Names (USBGN) . (2016). Principles, Policies and Procedures: Domestic Geographic Names (Version 1.0, December 2016) . Retrieved from https://geonames.usgs.gov/docs/DNC_PPP_DEC_2016_V.1.0.pdf U nited States Census Bureau (U.S. Census Bureau) . ( 2015 ). American Community Survey (ACS) Questionnaire Archive, 2015 Questionnaire. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/programs surveys/acs/methodology/questionnaire archive.2015.html U nited States Depar tment of the Interior (USDOI) . (2015, August 28). Change the n ame of Mount McKinley to Denali (Secretarial o rder n umber 3337) . Retrieved from Electronic Library of the Interior Policies (ELIPS) https://elips.doi.gov/ELIPS/0/doc/4185/Page1.aspx Upham, W. ( 2001 ) . Minnesota place names: A geographic encyclopedia (3 rd ed.). St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press. Vuolteenaho, J., & Berg, L. D. ( 2009 ) . Towards critical t oponymies. Critical toponymies: The contested politics of place n aming , ed. L.D. Berg and J. Vuolteenaho, 1 18. Ashgate, Burlington, VT. Wang , F ., Zhang, L., Zhang, G., & Zhang, H . ( 2014 ) . Mapping and spatial analysis of multiet hnic toponyms in Yunnan, China. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 41(1):86 99. DOI: 10.1080/15 230406.2013.831529 Weaver, R. and C. Holtkamp. ( 2016 ) . Determinants of Appalachian identity: Using vernacular traces to study cultural geographies of an American r egion. Annals of the American Association of Geographers , 106(1): 203 221. DOI: 10.1080/0004 5608.2015.1090266 Weinman, J. (2017, November 15). Geographic and s tyle m odels for h istorical m ap a lignment and t oponym r ecognition . Paper presented at the 14 th IAPR International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Kyoto, Japan. Wri ght, J. K . ( 1929 ) . The study of place n ames recent work and some possibilities. Geographical Review , 19(1), 140 144. DOI :10.2307/208082 Zelinsk y, W. ( 1967 ) . Classical town names in the United States: The historical geography of an American idea. Geographical Revi ew, 57 (4): 463 95. Zelinsky, W . ( 1983 ) . Nationalism in the American place name cover. Names, 31 (1): 1 28.
48 APPENDIX A Project Data Sources List Theme Basin Extent MN Extent Data Format Source Name Source Website Toponyms Text file US Board on Geo graphic Names geonames.usgs.gov/domestic Mississippi River Basin Watershed Boundary Polygon USGS Multi LCC Mississippi River Basin/Gulf Hypoxia Initiative, Conservation Blueprint 1.0 www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/ 55de04d5e4b0518e354dfcf8 Mississi ppi River and Major Tributaries Line USGS Multi LCC Mississippi River Basin/Gulf Hypoxia Initiative, Conservation Blueprint 1.0 www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/ 55df4075e4b0518e354e09a1 Great Lakes Polygon USGS Great Lakes Restoration Initiative ( GLRI) www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/ 530f8a0ee4b0e7e46bd300dd States Polygon USGS The National Map viewer.nationalmap.gov/basic/ Counties Polygon USGS The National Map viewer.nationalmap.gov/basic/ US Canada Border Line USGS The National M ap viewer.nationalmap.gov/basic/ Minnesota (MN) Lakes Polygon MN Geospatial Commons gisdata.mn.gov/ MN Major Rivers Line MN Geospatial Commons gisdata.mn.gov/ French Ancestry by County (for U.S. Census year 2015) Polygon University of Minnesota National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) www.nhgis.org/
49 APPENDIX B Minnesota Place Names Point Layer Attribute Table DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 639421 Arago Populated Place Hubbard 47.051070 95.161689 2S FR PR Named for Dominique Francois Arago, eminent French scien tist 639504 Audubon Populated Place Becker 46.863292 95.981718 2S FR PR Named for John James Audubon, famous ornithologist, of French origin 639632 Barn Bluff Cliff Goodhue 44.570801 92.525190 1E EN LA French variant name "La Grange" (the barn) 6396 46 Barrett Lake Lake Stevens 45.749845 96.078466 1E EN LA French variant name "Lac Petit Pomme de Terre" (Little Potato Lake), variant not in GNIS. 655261 Basswood Lake Lake Lake 48.074893 91.575120 1E EN LA French variant name "Lac Bois Blanc" (white wood) 639732 Baudette Populated Place Lake of the Woods 48.712474 94.599930 1E FR PR Named for the Baudette River (GNIS ID 639733) 639733 Baudette River Stream Lake of the Woods 48.716640 94.592429 1E FR PR Named for an early French fur trader 6398 72 Bejou Populated Place Mahnomen 47.441351 95.976152 1E FR CU Corruption of French "bonjour" (hello or good day), now similar to French "bijou" (jewelry) 654596 Belle Creek Populated Place Goodhue 44.438299 92.770754 2S FR LA French "belle" (beautifu l) 639891 Belle Plaine Populated Place Scott 44.622741 93.768573 2S FR LA French "belle" (beautiful) and "plaine" (plain) 639892 Belle Prairie Populated Place Morrison 46.033855 94.337502 2S FR LA French "belle" (beautiful) and "prairie" (prairie) 6 39893 Belle River Populated Place Douglas 45.991074 95.228922 2S FR LA French "belle" (beautiful) 639895 Bellechester Populated Place Goodhue 44.368300 92.511298 2S EN PL Combined French "Belle" (beautiful) and English "Chester" (for Chester Township, Wabasha County, MN) 639908 Belview Populated Place Redwood 44.605236 95.329451 2S EN LA Changed spelling of French "belle view" (beautiful view) 639970 Bernadotte Populated Place Nicollet 44.455243 94.301086 2S FR PR Named for Charles XV, king of Sw eden and Norway, of French family lineage
50 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 640158 Birch Coulee Creek Stream Renville 44.533294 94.964716 1E EN LA Combined English "Birch" and French "Coulee" (streambed) 2105053 Bois Forte Reservation Civil Koochiching 48.047746 93.230642 1E FR IN PR Changed spelling of French "Bois Fort" (hard wood), referring to Ojibwe indigenous tribe 640407 Boyer Lake Lake Becker 46.870512 96.049650 2S FR PR Named for Joseph Boyer, a French Canadian settler 655597 Calumet Populated Place Itasca 47.321882 93.27 6868 1E EN CU Corrupted form of French "chalemel" (little reed), now looks like French term for peace pipe 640870 Cannon Falls Populated Place Goodhue 44.506911 92.905484 1E EN LA Named for Cannon River (GNIS ID 640874) 640874 Cannon River Stream Good hue 44.585801 92.556858 1E EN LA Corrupted form of French " Rivi Ã¨ re aux canots" (River of the canoes), now looks like English "cannon" 654628 Caribou Populated Place Kittson 48.982482 96.449469 1E FR IN LA French Canadian "caribou" (reindeer) from Algo nquin "a scratcher" 641006 Cedar Lake Lake Martin 43.789856 94.733967 1E EN LA Translation of French "Le Lac des Cedres Rouges" (Lake of the Red Cedars) to English 641345 Cloquet Populated Place Carlton 46.721610 92.459357 2S FR PR Named for Cloquet River (GNIS ID 661012) 661012 Cloquet River Stream St. Louis 46.861331 92.570192 1E FR PR Named for an early French trader 641385 Colby Lake Lake Chisago 45.420121 92.677581 2S FR PR Named after early settler of French Huguenot descent from New Engla nd 641399 Collett Lake Lake Becker 46.738096 95.442703 2S FR PR Named after French settler, Jacque Colette or Collett 655885 Crooked Lake Lake Lake 47.606367 91.075784 1E EN LA Translation of French "La Crochu" (the crooked) to English 659463 Crow W ing County Civil Crow Wing 46.482372 94.070879 1E EN IN LA Named after the Crow Wing River (GNIS ID 655896) 655896 Crow Wing River Stream Cass 46.271078 94.339724 1E EN IN LA Translation of Ojibway name (unspecified) to French "La RiviÃ¨re du Corbeau" (c row river) to English 654671 Delorme Populated Place Red Lake 47.764690 96.289218 2S FR PR Named for Ambrose DeLorme, a French Canadian settler
51 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 465582 Des Moines River Stream Lee 41.381155 91.422375 1E FR IN PR Corruption (in French) of "Rivi Ã¨ re des M oingona" (River of the Moingona Indians) 642776 Detroit Lake Lake Becker 46.788926 95.832266 1E FR LA French "detroit" (straight), for the long sand bars in the lake 642777 Detroit Lakes Populated Place Becker 46.817181 95.845325 1E FR LA Named for n earby Detroit Lake (GNIS ID 642776) 642942 Du Forte Lake Lake Becker 47.130710 95.857123 2S FR PR Named for an early French settler named Du Fort (per Upham), not after an old fort (per Coulet du Gard) 661145 Duluth Populated Place St. Louis 46.783273 92.106579 1E FR PR Named for explorer Sieur du L hut 642988 Duquette Populated Place Pine 46.369667 92.553251 2S FR PR Named for an early French Canadian settler 643223 Elba Populated Place Winona 44.088575 92.018772 2S FR PL Named for Elba island i n the Mediterranean Sea, where Napoleon was in forced residence 643560 Faribault Populated Place Rice 44.294964 93.268827 2S FR PR Named for Alexandre Faribault (son of Jean Baptiste Faribault) 659467 Faribault County Civil Faribault 43.673928 93.9479 99 1E FR PR Named for Jean Baptiste Faribault (father of Alexandre Faribault) 643728 Flandreau Creek Stream Pipestone 44.058304 96.554490 2S FR PR Named for Charles Eugene Flandreau, Minnesota supreme court justice, of French descent 661291 Floodwood River Stream St. Louis 46.925499 92.906037 1E EN LA French variant name "River des Embarras" (river of difficulties) 661294 Fond du Lac Populated Place St. Louis 46.659664 92.273248 1E FR LA French "fond du lac" (end of the lake), located at the far e nd of a lake 643940 French Lake Populated Place Wright 45.199964 94.185538 2S EN CU Named for local group of French Canadian settlers 661327 French River Populated Place St. Louis 46.897992 91.897128 1E EN CU Named for the French River (per Labine 20 16). 643972 Frontenac Populated Place Goodhue 44.511079 92.356571 2S FR PR Named for Louis de Buade de Frontenac, French colonial governor of Canada 644072 Gentilly Populated Place Polk 47.789136 96.449224 2S FR PL Named for a southern suburb of Pari s, France
52 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 644105 Gervais Lake Lake Ramsey 45.020000 93.070542 2S FR PR Named for a French Canadian settler 654722 Girard Populated Place Polk 47.728583 96.674237 2S FR PR Named for Etienne (Stephen) Girard, a French immigrant who was the richest man of his era 656425 Grand Marais Populated Place Cook 47.750447 90.334273 1E FR LA French "grand" (big, i.e. large sized) and "marais" (marsh) 644330 Grand Portage Populated Place Cook 47.963776 89.684812 1E FR LA French "grand" (big, i.e. long distanc e) and "portage" (overland canoe haul) 644333 Grand Portage National Monument Park Cook 47.999682 89.760689 1E FR LA French "grand" (big, i.e. long distance) and "portage" (overland canoe haul) 659472 Hennepin County Civil Hennepin 45.004576 93.476884 1E FR PR Named for Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan missionary and regional explorer 644873 Hennepin Creek Stream Hubbard 47.416065 95.083622 1E FR PR Named for Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan missionary and regional explorer 644875 Hennepin Islan d Island Mille Lacs 46.179123 93.531351 1E FR PR Named for Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan missionary and regional explorer 644876 Hennepin Lake Lake Hubbard 47.340318 95.049496 1E FR PR Named for Father Louis Hennepin, Franciscan missionary and reg ional explorer 654761 Huot Populated Place Red Lake 47.865248 96.423389 2S FR PR Named for a French Canadian settler 659481 Koochiching County Civil Koochiching 48.245268 93.783366 1E EN IN LA Changed spelling of Ojibway "Ouchichicq" (rainy lake or ri ver); also has French variant "Lac de la Pluie" (rainy lake) not in GNIS 656924 La Prairie Populated Place Itasca 47.228276 93.489102 2S FR LA French "la prairie" (the prairie) 646294 La Salle Populated Place Watonwan 44.070792 94.569694 1E FR PR Nam ed for French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle
53 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 654782 LaBelle Populated Place Becker 46.882737 96.062555 2S FR PR Named for a French settler, or a beautiful woman who drowned herself in the lake 646291 LaBelle Lake Lake Becker 46.894413 96.074677 2S FR PR Named for a French settler 646298 Lac qui Parle Populated Place Lac qui Parle 45.000514 95.906143 1E FR IN LA Named for Lac Qui Parle lake (now reservoir) (GNIS ID 1776799) 659482 Lac qui Parle County Civil Lac qui Parle 44.995487 96.173479 1E FR IN LA Named for Lac Qui Parle lake (now reservoir) (GNIS ID 1776799) 1776799 Lac Qui Parle Reservoir Reservoir Lac qui Parle 45.021625 95.866976 1E FR IN LA Translation of Dakota "Mde Lyedan" to French (for "Speaking Lake") 646312 Lafay ette Populated Place Nicollet 44.446631 94.395254 2S FR PR Named for the Marquis de Lafayette, French general in American army during Rev War 659484 Lake County Civil Lake 47.523171 91.408849 1E EN LA Translation of French "lac" (lake); early French e xplorers called the area "Lac Sup Ã© rieur" 645468 Lake Isabelle Lake Dakota 44.740572 92.840746 2S FR PR Named for daughter of Alexis Bailly, a descendent of French Huguenots; Female commemorative 645541 Lake Itasca Lake Clearwater 47.216624 95.200297 1 E EN LA French variant name "Lac La Biche" (Elk Lake) 647551 Lake Marquette Lake Beltrami 47.429409 94.906597 1E FR PR Named for the French explorer Marquette 654378 Lake of the Woods Lake Lake of the Woods 49.051968 94.954539 1E EN LA Translation o f French "Lac du Bois" (lake of the woods) 649273 Lake Pepin Lake Pepin 44.433301 92.175173 1E FR PR Named for French king Pepin Le Bref, but sources don't confirm; multiple other French variant names 650570 Lake Saint Croix Lake Pierce 44.817960 92.7 75921 1E FR CU Named for the Saint Croix River 652615 Lake Stella Lake Kittson 48.963682 97.216878 1E EN LA French variant name "Lac du nord ouest" (Lake of the Northeast) 1618946 Lake Superior Lake Alger 47.049958 86.502447 1E EN IN LA Translation o f Ojibway "Kitchigumi" (upper lake) to Lac Sup Ã© rieur (upper lake) to English
54 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 653270 Lake Traverse Reservoir Traverse 45.704158 96.731415 1E EN IN LA Translation of Ojibway "Mdehdakinyan" (lake lying crosswise) to French "Lac Travers" (Crosswise Lake) to English 646461 Lamoille Populated Place Winona 44.002185 91.472366 2S FR PL Named by early settlers for the Lamoille River in Vermont 646295 LaSalle Creek Stream Hubbard 47.358011 95.173348 1E FR PR Named for French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sie ur de La Salle 646296 LaSalle Lake Lake Hubbard 47.331777 95.165180 1E FR PR Named for French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle 646552 Le Center Populated Place Le Sueur 44.389410 93.730234 2S EN LA Changed spelling of French "Le Centr e" (the center) 646545 Le Roy Populated Place Mower 43.509687 92.503786 2S FR PR Named for an early French settler (per Coulet du Gard, Upham doesn't specify) 654787 Le Sueur Populated Place Le Sueur 44.461354 93.915242 1E FR PR Named for French expl orer Pierre Charles le Sueur 659485 Le Sueur County Civil Le Sueur 44.371437 93.730079 1E FR PR Named for French explorer Pierre Charles le Sueur 656980 Leech Lake Lake Cass 47.161258 94.407914 1E EN IN LA Translation of Ojibway name (unspecified) to French "Lac Sangsue" (leech lake) to English 646589 Lemay Lake Lake Dakota 44.873577 93.157720 2S FR PR Named for settlers living nearby , per Upham (2001, p. 172 ) and BGN decision card 2094811 Lemay Lake Lake Dakota 44.844444 93.161667 2S FR PR Named for settlers living nearby , per Upham (2001, p. 172 ) and BGN decision card for GNIS ID 646589 646801 Little Falls Populated Place Morrison 45.976354 94.362502 1E EN LA French variant name "Le Rocher Paint" (Painted Rock) 646849 Little Marais Populated Place Lake 47.410745 91.110162 1E EN LA Combined English "little" and French "marais" (marsh) 646911 Little Rock Creek Stream Nicollet 44.384684 94.618870 1E EN LA Translation of French variant "Petite Roche" 647260 Lower Red Lake Lake Beltrami 47.9 60205 95.022859 1E EN IN LA Translation of Ojibwe "Misquagumiwi sagaingun" (Red Water Lake) to French "Lac Rouge" (Red Lake) to English
55 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 659487 Lyon County Civil Lyon 44.413492 95.838975 2S NA PR Not of French origin, named for General Nathanial Lyon 6 47376 Magnolia Populated Place Rock 43.645246 96.079191 2S NA PL Named for the town of Magnolia, WI (can't confirm French origin) 657310 Maraboeuf Lake Lake Cook 48.192563 90.830672 1E FR LA Changed spelling of "Lac Marais de B ufs" (French for "Marsh Buffalo Lake") 647536 Marion Populated Place Olmsted 43.943575 92.348225 2S FR PR Named for General Francis Marion, descendent of French Huguenots 659493 Mille Lacs County Civil Mille Lacs 45.938041 93.630083 1E FR LA French "mille lacs" (thousand l akes) 647859 Mille Lacs Lake Lake Mille Lacs 46.242562 93.646251 1E FR LA French "mille lacs" (thousand lakes) 659759 Minnesota River Stream Dakota 44.896910 93.149109 1E EN PR French variant name "River Saint Pierre" 648370 Muddy Creek Stream Steve ns 45.536628 95.896162 1E EN LA Translation of French "le Ruisseau boueux" (muddy creek) 648376 Mule Lakebed Flat Freeborn 43.804403 93.428825 1E EN PR French variant name "Le Sueur Lake", named for French explorer Pierre Charles le Sueur 648544 Nico llet Populated Place Nicollet 44.276077 94.187463 1E FR PR Named for French explorer and geographer Joseph Nicolas Nicollet (not French explorer Jean Nicollet) 659497 Nicollet County Civil Nicollet 44.349878 94.247388 1E FR PR Named for French explore r and geographer Joseph Nicolas Nicollet (not French explorer Jean Nicollet) 648994 Orleans Populated Place Kittson 48.926095 96.936719 2S FR PL Named for the city of Orleans, France 649009 Osage Populated Place Becker 46.920238 95.256972 1E EN IN PR Translation of Osage tribal autonym "Wazhazhe" translated to French "Ouchage" to English 654870 Parent Populated Place Benton 45.632466 93.986372 2S FR PR Named for farmer Auguste Parent and family 649176 Partridge River Stream Wadena 46.419685 94.826 685 1E EN IN LA Translation of Ojibway name (unspecified) to French "La Rivi Ã¨ re aux Perdrix" (Partridge River) to English 649253 Peltier Lake Reservoir Anoka 45.182748 93.058576 2S FR PR Named for French settlers, 3 brothers Peltier
56 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 654873 Perault Popu lated Place Red Lake 47.812468 96.290050 2S FR PR Named for Charles Perrault, a farmer of French descent 657824 Pigeon River Stream Cook 47.999053 89.569532 1E EN LA French variant name "La RiviÃ¨re au Groseilles" (Gooseberry River) 649406 Pigs Eye La ke Lake Ramsey 44.914890 93.026821 2S EN PR Named for Pierre Parrant, an early French settler, "Pigs Eye" was his English nickname 649543 Platte Lake Lake Crow Wing 46.163985 93.923280 1E FR LA Named for the Platte River, French "platte" (flat) 64962 2 Pomme de Terre River Stream Swift 45.175796 96.086990 1E FR LA French "pomme de terre" (potato), named for edible tubercle along the river banks 649708 Prairie Island Island Goodhue 44.649134 92.691309 1E EN LA French variant name "Isle Pel Ã© e" (Bald Island) 662230 Prairie River Stream Aitkin 46.771058 93.229389 1E EN LA Translation of French "La RiviÃ¨re de la Prairie" (Prairie River) 657964 Rabideau Lake Lake Beltrami 47.629536 94.523841 2S FR PR Changed spelling; named after French settler Lou is Robideau 649786 Racine Populated Place Mower 43.776074 92.482951 1E FR LA French "racine" (root), named for the Root River with original French "La Rivi Ã¨ re aux Racine" (Root River) 659508 Red Lake County Civil Red Lake 47.871694 96.095303 1E EN IN LA Named after Red Lake River (GNIS ID 649867) 649866 Red Lake Falls Populated Place Red Lake 47.882190 96.274214 1E EN IN LA Named after Red Lake River (GNIS ID 649867) 649867 Red Lake River Stream Polk 47.922479 97.021466 1E EN IN LA Translation of O jibway name (unspecified) for Red Lake to French "La Rivi Ã¨ re Rouge" (Red River, not Red Lake River), to English "Red Lake River" 649934 Renville Populated Place Renville 44.789126 95.211673 1E FR PR Named for Joseph Renville, famous local trader and tra nslator, of mixed French heritage 659510 Renville County Civil Renville 44.726815 94.947150 1E FR PR Named for Joseph Renville, famous local trader and translator, of mixed French heritage
57 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 649950 Revere Populated Place Redwood 44.223845 95.364445 2S F R PR Named for American patriot Paul Revere, of French Huguenot descent 650053 Rice River Stream Aitkin 46.589678 93.634412 1E EN LA Translation of French variant "La Rivi Ã¨ re Folle Avoine" (Wild Oats River) 650095 Ripple Lake Lake Aitkin 46.461786 93 .671810 1E EN LA French variant name "Le Lac Boueux" (muddy lake) 650096 Ripple River Stream Aitkin 46.541624 93.700249 1E EN LA French variant name "La RiviÃ¨re Boueuse" (muddy lake) 650249 Root River Stream Houston 43.761912 91.251802 1E EN LA Tran slation of French "La RiviÃ¨re aux Racine" (Root River), possibly from Dakota "huktan" (heron) 650278 Roseau Populated Place Roseau 48.846093 95.762766 1E FR LA Named for the Roseau River (GNIS ID 659936) 659513 Roseau County Civil Roseau 48.775139 95. 810817 1E FR IN LA Named for the Roseau River (GNIS ID 659936) 659936 Roseau River Stream Kittson 49.149990 97.249775 1E FR IN LA Translation of Ojibway "Ga shash agunushkokawi sibi" (Reed grass River) translated to French "Roseau" (rushes) 650382 Rum R iver Stream Anoka 45.189687 93.390509 1E EN PR French variant name "La RiviÃ¨re St. Francois", named after St. Francis of Assisi, not in GNIS 650451 Sacred Heart Populated Place Renville 44.786903 95.351678 1E EN LA Translation of French "Sacre C ur", named by French missionary for stream mouth in shape of a heart 650513 Saint Anthony Populated Place Hennepin 45.020521 93.218002 1E EN PR Named for St. Anthony Falls (GNIS ID 650517) 650517 Saint Anthony Falls Falls Hennepin 44.982188 93.255503 1E EN PR Named for missionary Hennepin's patron saint "Saint Antoine de Padoue" (Saint Anthony of Padua) 650559 Saint Cloud Populated Place Stearns 45.560799 94.162490 2S EN PL Changed spelling (anglicized) of the "Saint Cloud" suburb of Paris, France 6623 24 Saint Croix River Stream Washington 44.745801 92.802703 1E FR CU French "Saint Croix" (holy cross) 650579 Saint Francis Populated Place Anoka 45.386909 93.359398 1E EN PR Changed spelling (anglicized) of French "Saint Francois", named after St. Fra ncis of Assisi
58 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 650607 Saint Hilaire Populated Place Pennington 48.013857 96.214764 2S FR PR Named for French author and statesman Jules Barthelemy Saint Hilaire 662850 Saint Louis County Civil St. Louis 47.589862 92.461466 1E FR CU Named after the Sa int Louis River 662334 Saint Louis River Stream St. Louis 46.737719 92.140191 1E FR CU Named by French explorer la V Ã© rendrye, after the cross of Saint Louis conferred on him by the French king 650822 Saint Martin Populated Place Stearns 45.501909 94.6 68894 2S FR PR Named for Saint Martin, a past bishop of Tours, France 662851 Saint Paul Populated Place Ramsey 44.944410 93.093274 2S FR PR Named for the apostle Saint Paul by French Catholic priest Father Lucien Galtier 651233 Sauk Centre Populated P lace Stearns 45.737465 94.952522 1E EN IN PR Named for Sauk River (GNIS ID 651237) 651235 Sauk Rapids Populated Place Benton 45.591910 94.166101 1E EN IN PR Named for Sauk River (GNIS ID 651237) 651237 Sauk River Stream Stearns 45.591632 94.176379 1E EN IN PR Translation of Ojibway exonym "Ozaagii" (those at the outlet) to French transliteration "Sac" to English transliteration "Sauk" 652139 Skunk River Stream Morrison 45.935799 94.223330 1E EN LA French variant " RiviÃ¨re Platte" (Flat River), multip le variants in GNIS, eastern tributary of current Platte River 653098 Terrebonne Populated Place Red Lake 47.832465 96.133374 2S FR PL Named for Terrebonne county and town in Qu Ã© bec Province, Canada. Name means "good land" 653128 Thief River Stream Pen nington 48.123857 96.169202 1E EN LA French variant "La RiviÃ¨re Voleuse" (Stealing River) not in GNIS. Named for loss of earth due to river erosion during floods 653129 Thief River Falls Populated Place Pennington 48.119135 96.181147 1E EN LA Named af ter Thief River (stream), French variant not in GNIS 663479 Township of Ault Civil St. Louis 47.241828 91.920227 2S FR PL Named after the town of Ault on the coast of France 2397772 Township of Baudette Civil Lake of the Woods 48.738788 94.665189 2S F R PR Named for the Baudette River (GNIS ID 639733)
59 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 663548 Township of Bejou Civil Mahnomen 47.455853 96.000503 2S FR CU Corruption of French "bonjour" (hello or good day), now similar to French "bijou" (jewelry) 663559 Township of Bellevue Civil Morri son 45.869572 94.278576 2S FR LA French "belle" (beautiful) and "vue" (view) 663594 Township of Birch Cooley Civil Renville 44.577518 94.928670 2S EN LA Changed spelling, combined English "Birch" and French "Coulee" (streambed) 663656 Township of Bra y Civil Pennington 48.064784 96.436091 2S FR PR Named for Damase Simon Bray, a French Canadian settler 663667 Township of Brislet Civil Polk 48.140894 96.695530 2S FR PR Named for an early French settler 663713 Township of Buse Civil Otter Tail 46.23 4079 96.082900 2S FR PR Named for Ernest Buse, an early settler of French descent 663970 Township of Des Moines Civil Jackson 43.631038 95.040674 1E FR IN PR Named for the Des Moines River (GNIS ID 465582) 663971 Township of Des Moines River Civil Mur ray 43.978460 95.522403 1E FR IN PR Named for the Des Moines River (GNIS ID 465582) 664013 Township of Durand Civil Beltrami 47.694368 94.870809 2S FR PR Named for a French homesteader. 664093 Township of Emardville Civil Red Lake 47.905104 96.031265 2S FR PR Named for a French Canadian settler. 664141 Township of Fanny Civil Polk 47.890959 96.676581 2S FR PR Named for the wife of a French settler. Female commemorative. 664199 Township of Fortier Civil Yellow Medicine 44.674471 96.394906 2S FR PR Named for Joseph Fortier, a French Canadian settler who became county sheriff 664263 Township of Gervais Civil Red Lake 47.890420 96.160113 2S FR PR Named for a French Canadian setter 664273 Township of Girard Civil Otter Tail 46.325614 95.594106 2 S FR PR Named for Etienne (Stephen) Girard, a French immigrant who was the richest man of his era 664321 Township of Grange Civil Pipestone 44.066101 96.247225 2S FR CU French "la grange" (barn), honors secret agricultural order the Patrons of Husbandr y 664570 Township of Jadis Civil Roseau 48.868901 95.806547 2S FR PR Named after English settler of French descent. 664576 Township of Jay Civil Martin 43.631409 94.794420 2S FR PR Named for John Jay, grandson of Augustus Jay (a French immigrant)
60 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 66 4653 Township of La Crosse Civil Jackson 43.804535 95.394052 1E FR IN PL Named for city of La Crosse in Wisconsin, French "la crosse" (bishop's crozier) for the stick based game played by indigenous tribes 664656 Township of La Garde Civil Mahnomen 47.28 0595 95.742155 2S FR PR Named for descendant of French settlers 664657 Township of La Grand Civil Douglas 45.892107 95.454272 2S FR PR Named for descendant of French settlers 664650 Township of Lac qui Parle Civil Lac qui Parle 45.020650 95.931402 1 E FR IN LA Named after Lac Qui Parle lake (now reservoir) (GNIS ID 1776799) 664696 Township of Lakeport Civil Hubbard 47.193439 94.726966 2S EN PR Corruption of the French "La Porte", name of a French settler, now looks like English "lakeport" 664734 T ownship of Lavell Civil St. Louis 47.269219 92.789236 2S FR PR Named for a French settler who was a successful farmer 664760 Township of Le Ray Civil Blue Earth 44.152048 93.826674 2S FR PL Named for Le Ray township in Jefferson County, NY 664763 Tow nship of Le Sauk Civil Stearns 45.648960 94.236323 2S FR PR Combined French "Le" (the) and English "Sauk" (Ojibway exonym "Ozaagii" (those at the outlet) to French transliteration "Sac" to English transliteration "Sauk") 664765 Township of Lessor Civil Polk 47.717127 95.901840 2S FR PR Changed spelling, named for a French Canadian pioneer Lessard 664825 Township of Lorain Civil Nobles 43.630322 95.512360 2S FR PL Changed spelling, named for French province of Lorraine 664828 Township of Louisville Civil Red Lake 47.890994 96.417539 2S FR PR Named for Louis Huot, an early French Canadian settler 664829 Township of Louisville Civil Scott 44.739622 93.578965 2S FR PL Named for Louisville, KY (which was named after French king Louis XVI) 664849 To wnship of Lyons Civil Lyon 44.327014 95.895758 2S NA PR Not of French origin, corrupted spelling of last name of General Nathanial Lyon 665030 Township of Moran Civil Todd 46.238243 94.833086 2S FR PR Named for early French Canadian lumberjack Paul Mo ran
61 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 665121 Township of Nicollet Civil Nicollet 44.240470 94.187099 2S FR PR Named for French explorer and geographer Joseph Nicolas Nicollet (not French explorer Jean Nicollet) 665278 Township of Pepin Civil Wabasha 44.394850 92.135017 2S FR PR Named for Lake Pepin (GNIS ID 649273) 665317 Township of Platte Civil Morrison 46.113483 94.125025 2S FR LA Named for the Platte River, French "platte" (flat) 665318 Township of Platte Lake Civil Crow Wing 46.199848 93.999811 2S FR LA Named for the Platte River, French "platte" (flat) 665429 Township of Roberts Civil Wilkin 46.502630 96.695649 2S EN PR Changed spelling (anglicized), named for French settler Michel Robert 2094153 Township of Saint Francis (historical) Civil Anoka 45.400000 93.433333 2S EN PR Changed spelling (anglicized) of French "Saint Francois", named after St. Francis of Assisi 665519 Township of Saint Lawrence Civil Scott 44.655204 93.685614 2S EN PL French variant "Saint Laurent" (not in GNIS), named for the river and gulf of St. Lawrence 665523 Township of Saint Martin Civil Stearns 45.543147 94.701610 2S FR PR Named for Saint Martin, a past bishop of Tours, France 665813 Township of Troy Civil Renville 44.758838 95.057084 2S NA PL Not of French origin, named after city in NY state, which was named for ancient city of Troy. 665860 Township of Vermillion Civil Dakota 44.648187 92.974305 1E EN IN LA Changed spelling, named for the Vermillion River (GNIS ID 653634) 666074 Township of Zumbro Civil Wabasha 44.225840 92.408 793 2S FR LA Named for Zumbro River (GNIS ID 654509) 654978 Traverse Populated Place Nicollet 44.348577 94.017462 1E EN IN LA Named for Lake Traverse (GNIS ID 653270) 659522 Traverse County Civil Traverse 45.772185 96.471641 1E EN IN LA Named for Lake Traverse (GNIS ID 653270) 653338 Trotterchaud Lake Lake Becker 47.007289 95.956683 2S EN PR Changed spelling, named for French trader/settler Pierre Trotochaud 2761261 Truedale Slough Gut Dakota 44.721087 92.755408 2S EN PR Changed spelling of Frenc h "Le Bourbier Trudel" (Trudel Slough), named after a French Canadian pioneer
62 DD = Decimal Degrees HTL = Historical Toponymic Layer ( 1E = French Empire exploration era , 2S = French Canadian s ettlement era) FR_EN and IN = Linguistic Origin (FR = Currently French, EN = Currently English , IN = H as i ndigenous roots) RT = Reference Theme ( CU = Cultural symbol or event, LA = Landscape, PL = Place, PR = Person) GNI S ID Feature Name Feature Class County Primary Lat (DD) Primary Lon (DD) HTL FR_EN IN RT Detailed Notes from Coulet du Gard and Western (1977) and /or Upham (2001) 653561 Upper Red Lake Lake Beltrami 48.131070 94.766637 1E EN IN LA Translation of Ojibwe "Misquagumiwi sagaingun" (Red Water Lake) to French "Lac Rouge" (Red Lake) to English 653581 Vadnais Heights Populated Place Ramsey 45.057466 93.073831 2S FR PR Named for French settler Jean Vadnais 653583 Vadnais Lake Lake Ramsey 45.050966 93.090134 2S FR PR Named for French settler Jean Vadnais 653617 Vanose Lake Lake Mahnomen 47.4 07977 95.808224 2S EN PR Changed spelling, named for mixed French Canadian and Ojibwe settler Francis Vanoss 658839 Vaseux Portage Trail Cook 48.111831 90.134812 1E FR LA French "vaseux" (muddy) 662716 Vermilion Lake Lake St. Louis 47.891581 92.3668 24 1E FR IN LA Translation of Ojibway name "Onamuni" (red color) to French "Vermilion" (vermilion red color), for sunset colors on lake 653633 Vermillion Populated Place Dakota 44.673578 92.967155 1E EN IN LA Changed spelling, named for Vermillion River (GNIS ID 653634) 653634 Vermillion River Stream Goodhue 44.620523 92.666863 1E EN IN LA Changed spelling; Dakota name (unspecified) to French "Vermilion" (vermilion red color), for red ocher from Chimney Rock area 654087 White Lake Lake Freeborn 43.6622 19 93.413341 2S EN LA French variant name "Chapeau Lake" in GNIS, named by Lt. Albert M. Lea for the hat like appearance of lake 654269 Winona Populated Place Winona 44.049963 91.639315 1E EN LA French variant name "La Prairie aux ailes" (The Wing's P rairie), not in GNIS 654509 Zumbro River Stream Wabasha 44.291632 91.927940 1E FR LA Changed spelling of French " RiviÃ¨re des Embarras" (River of Difficulties)