Citation
Preserving Sand Creek and Culloden : the importance of preservation in controversial tragedies

Material Information

Title:
Preserving Sand Creek and Culloden : the importance of preservation in controversial tragedies
Creator:
Fontenot, Erica
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of History, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
History
Committee Chair:
Noel, Thomas J.
Committee Members:
Levine-Clark, Marjorie
Smith, Richard

Notes

Abstract:
Many think of preservation in terms of old buildings or monuments. Preservation also revolves around battlefields, massacre sites, and tragedy, important to national memory and heritage. Events like the Sand Creek Massacre in Colorado and the Battle of Culloden Moor in Scotland resulted in the deaths of hundreds, the persecution of thousands, and a turning point in history for each country. Some tourists, who visit places like this out of macabre curiosity, others visit them out of remembrance, and still others see them as a vital piece of history. The popularity of these places is rising, and with that, the importance of conserving them for the future. Each location has a vastly different history with some key similarities. Native people are fighting against an incoming army, fighting for survival, history, and heritage. These fights at Sand Creek and Culloden left the earth stained with blood, the near eradication of cultures, and years of controversy. These are, in part, the reasons national government organizations need to preserve these spaces carefully for future generations. The history and the controversy draw people in, invite curiosity, and are excellent tools for education. We can learn much from them and can teach this to future generations. Sand Creek and Culloden feature the history and heritage of different cultures, military history of each country, and even a history of tolerance. How these sites are preserved and presented to the public is not only a key factor in their conservation and care, but also in how accurately they portray the past to the public. We owe it to the memory of those who died and those who have yet to learn. We owe it to ourselves to preserve this history and these spaces; what we receive in return is invaluable.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright Erica Fontenot. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
PRESERVING SAND CREEK AND CULLODEN: THE IMPORTANCE OF
PRESERVATION IN CONTROVERSIAL TRAGEDIES
by
ERICA FONTENOT
B.A., University of Colorado Denver, 2013
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History Program
2018


This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Erica Fontenot has been approved for the History Program by
Thomas J. Noel, Chair Marjorie Levine-Clark
Richard Smith


Fontenot, Erica (MA, History Program)
Preserving Sand Creek and Culloden: How Preservation of Tragedy and Horror Enhances Education and Memory for the Future While Respecting Memory and Culture Thesis directed by Professor Thomas Noel
ABSTRACT
Many think of preservation in terms of old buildings or monuments. Preservation also revolves around battlefields, massacre sites, and tragedy, important to national memory and heritage. Events like the Sand Creek Massacre in Colorado and the Battle of Culloden Moor in Scotland resulted in the deaths of hundreds, the persecution of thousands, and a turning point in history for each country. Some tourists, who visit places like this out of macabre curiosity, others visit them out of remembrance, and still others see them as a vital piece of history. The popularity of these places is rising, and with that, the importance of conserving them for the future.
Each location has a vastly different history with some key similarities. Native people are fighting against an incoming army, fighting for survival, history, and heritage. These fights at Sand Creek and Culloden left the earth stained with blood, the near eradication of cultures, and years of controversy. These are, in part, the reasons national government organizations need to preserve these spaces carefully for future generations. The history and the controversy draw people in, invite curiosity, and are excellent tools for education. We can learn much from them and can teach this to future generations. Sand Creek and Culloden feature the history and heritage of different cultures, military history of each country, and even a history of tolerance. How these sites are preserved and presented to the public is not only a key factor in their conservation and care, but also in how accurately they portray the past to the public. We owe it to the memory of those who died and those who have yet to


learn. We owe it to ourselves to preserve this history and these spaces; what we receive in return is invaluable.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Thomas J. Noel
IV


DEDICATION
My grandmother always told me I could go to college and get my degree, and in my mind I still hear her say "I told you that you could do it baby girl." She raised me, read to me, told me stories, and was there for me to gossip like "two little old ladies at a fence post." I wanted to start this path before her death, but I kept putting it off. I always thought I had tomorrow to make her proud of me for starting school. Then tomorrow did not come. That has not stopped me from looking to her for inspiration when things get tough. When I reach an obstacle or think I cannot do it anymore, I hear her voice in my mind and remember being a little girl and her telling me she would be proud of me not matter what.
So here I am, a girl from a small village in Louisiana, writing a thesis, and getting ready to get my Masters Degree and I hear the voice of Miss Agnes in my mind telling me, "I told you youngun." She was right, I could do it and I did, and she was with me every single step of the way even though I lost her years ago. Thank you Mamaw, thank you for all those books, and thank you for putting up with me. This is for you!
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It took me longer than some to start college, and the path has taken almost ten years from those first classes for my bachelors to my masters. I doubted myself quite a bit along the way but I had some wonderful people there to encourage me, and some of those who were just as surprised as I was that I have done this. For my grandmother, my Mamaw,
Agnes Bearden, who raised me, put up with the stubborn child I was, and encouraged me my whole life, I wish you could be here to see me, but I know you are watching. My mom, Deborah Boyd, you were right again, I can do it, and I love you for reminding me. To my aunt Marsha Bearden (KK), you were there for me growing up always encouraging me, thank you for always telling me to keep trying. Lauren Cross, thank you for being there during this entire journey, from burritos in lab to Top Gear, London, and beyond. Glen Butterfield,
Marie von Haas, and Laura Hogg, my fellow grad students, you were there encouraging me and helping me through some tough times during grad school. I could not have done this without you. Lastly, but certainly not least, thank you to my professors, especially Dr. Tom Noel, Dr. Maijorie Levine-Clark, and Dr. Richard Smith. Dr. Smith, you helped me find my love of British history as an undergrad, I miss being a part of your classes, especially on discussion days. Dr. Levine-Clark, you showed me how to be a historian, how to find my evidence and analyze it through a historical lens. Dr. Noel, you helped me realize what I want to do when I grow up, your encouragement as a mentor has been invaluable. Thank you in particular to the three of you for being there through comps, this thesis, and for helping to guide me through this entire process.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION.................................................1
II. DARK HISTORY AM) PRESERVATION................................5
III. NATIONAL TRUSTS, PUBLIC HISTORY, AND PRESERVATION............9
The National Park Service....................................9
The National Trust for Scotland.............................12
IV. SAND CREEK..................................................14
Massacre and Controversy....................................14
Finding Sand Creek..........................................26
Historiography..............................................32
V. Cl 1.1.ODEN.................................................37
'45 Rising..................................................38
Battle of Culloden Moor.....................................40
Historiography..............................................47
VI. THE PRESERVATION OF CULLODEN................................51
Leanach Cottage.............................................53
Memorial Cairn..............................................55
Battlefield and Future of Culloden..........................57
VII. COMPARISON OF THE PEOPLE, EVENTS, PRESERVATION..............62
VIII. CONCLUSION..................................................66
BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................67
APPENDIX
A. Update on Sand Creek NHS
73


B. Sand Creek Notable Names...............................................74
C. Culloden Notable Names.................................................76
D. Sand Creek Timeline....................................................78
E. Culloden Timeline......................................................79
F. List of Images.........................................................80


CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
There are many sites around the world that are places of tragedy, where hundreds of people lost their life and atrocities occurred beyond imagination. Many people would think the world should forget these places and let time erase these sites of horror and tragedy. Let the grass grow, let development take over, and let people move on, erase the past to heal the future. "Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it." George Santayana coined the phrase and it applies well to many of these locations of tragedy, shame, and horror. The preservation of these places is not just important to avoid repeating past mistakes, it is to remember lives lost, cultures almost erased, and heritage of a people. We preserve them and in many cases return them to a condition similar to what they were in during the tragedy. Just as important as the preservation is the ability to alter the narrative over time.
Some question the need to preserve sites such as these, these locations of death. Why preserve the location when we can read the history, take a class, or watch a show? Is the preservation necessary? In short, the answer is yes. The National Park Service, which cares for many battlegrounds, buildings, and monuments that portray or remind us of tragedy, answered this question. We cannot learn or fully understand these events from a book or a lecture. Print, spoken word or film cannot compete with being able to immerse oneself in the sights, smells, and first hand viewing of a place of tragedy.1 To understand
1 T. Gosset, "Why Save Civil War Sites," National Park Service, accessed September 14, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/abpp/cwsac/cws2.html.
Although this article was about Civil War locations, it adequately describes the reasons behind saving other sites of tragedy and death.
1


a battle, we can look at maps, read strategies and correspondence from those involved, but this will not give the same understanding as being on the field itself, looking across to the point were adversarial forces gathered. We can understand a massacre differently by standing where the combatants stood, looking across the distance and imagining the scene when enemies clashed. Other tragedies, like the holocaust, have a different impact between reading about them and standing at the remains of a preserved camp. When one sees memorials and the rooms where people died, it can have a deep impact on the psyche.
Preservation is no longer just beautiful architecture or landscape; it now encompasses shameful, tragic locations. These places include battlefields, prisons, asylums, and internment camps. These locations are more difficult to manage and preserve. One must look at the event with sensitivity for those who died, interpret and display the history with care to not offend or ignore. The most successful applications of preservation regarding these dark history sites include perspectives of the descendants, the cultures, and the people who have a stake in the site. For example, making sure to include Jewish voices in interpreting and preserving places regarding the Holocaust, or Native Americans regarding locations like Sand Creek will ensure that not only is the location preserved in a sensitive and proper manner, it will also more accurately tell the story. Public interest is beginning to focus on these places, and on ensuring history books and the sites tells the correct story, not a white washed tale rife with racism or prejudice.2
2 Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with Difficult Heritage, ed. William Logan and Keri Reeves, (New York: Routledge, 2009) 10-11.
This series of essays discusses more than the sites I am focusing on. It also includes sites from internment camps, genocide locations, and battlefields.
2


All sides of the story are important, but the story the victims puts things in a different context. Their history and their culture is what we will learn from and remember.
The way professionals deal with these difficult sites will vary from country to country. Each type of site will have a different set of challenges. In this thesis, I focus on two locations, one from the United States, Sand Creek, and one from Britain, Culloden. These sites are similar in their history; people defending what had been their land against a better-armed invading army. Preservation at these locations plays a key role in understanding the culture of Native Americans and Highlanders, both people once looked upon as savage, barbaric, and uncivilized. Through the locations, we can better get a sense of who these groups were, their history, and heritage. Future generations learn from the preservationists working with Native Americans and Jacobite Scots. They will learn what happened from the victim's point of view, why they took the stands they did, and what was lost and what was at stake. By examining exactly how preservation has played a role, I will explore what makes them successful, and what preservationists can change. I will examine the historiography of Sand Creek and Culloden to look at how changing attitudes have affected preservation and public views on the sites.
Why do we need to alter the narrative and to change the interpretation and the way that people look at these events? As time goes on, and as more evidence is uncovered and the interpretation changes, the display of history should change as well. Attitudes about events alter as do how we see people, races, and different cultures. These preserved sites, especially these sites of tragic history, are particularly susceptible to the need for change. A museum or memorial dedicated to the western expansion in the United States would differ in presentation and design today versus one hundred years
3


ago. Changing attitudes and better understanding of different cultures is an opportunity for historians to share this knowledge.
In the following chapters, I will explore what is dark history, the national organizations care for these sites I have researched, and the sites themselves. In chapter 2, I explain what I mean by dark history and why it is important to this research. Chapter 3 examines the National Park Service and the National Trust, the two organizations entrusted with the preservation with Sand Creek and Culloden. My goal is to describe their importance, to explain how history changes and how historians can use this change to educate with preservation. Chapter 4 will discuss Sand Creek, the massacre and the preservation. Chapter 5 similarly will describe the events at Culloden while I cover the extensive preservation history of the site in Chapter 6, including the land, architecture, and collections. In Chapter 7,1 will compare the two locations to explain why I chose these specific sites and explain the importance of heritage tourism in controversial locations.
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CHAPTER II
DARK HISTORY, TRAGEDY, PRESERVATION, AND TOURISM
Dark history, pieces of history that contain an aura of tragedy, sadness, or evil about them, has long fascinated the public. Buildings and various locations bring in people who want to be at the place of dark events, to help remember those who died, or to learn more about the victims and their lives. These places include sites like Auschwitz in Germany, the Japanese relocation camps in the United States, and Gettysburg Battlefield in Pennsylvania. These locations not only save a vital piece of history, they also remember the dead, their families, and provide an outlet for education about something many shy away from due to negative connotations. Due, in part, to historians, educators, researchers, and archaeologists, federal and state organizations highlight the value of these places when once they may have shunned them, feeling a stigma in remembering such a negative part of our past. Preservation plays an integral role in remembering the victims, paying respects to them, and maintaining a key piece of history. Pairing preservation with tourism aids with education and is a very important part these sites of tragedy.
Tourism at these sites, often referred to as dark tourism or thanatourism, is becoming increasingly popular in academic and entertainment.3 Locations like those listed above and others like Jack the Ripper tours in London, the Hiroshima museum, or more recently the site of the World Trade Centers in New York City can easily be used for educational purposes or easily exploited. In major cities around the world, cemeteries offer tours, highlight the famous interred there, and usually host haunted tours during
3 Thanatourism comes from the Latin term Thanatos, from the Greek god of death.
5


Halloween. In doing this, they not only cater to those looking for the spooky or macabre, they take the opportunity to educate visitors about local history, who is buried there, their significance, and their deeds.4 Preservation of these locations becomes increasingly important as the popularity of dark tourism increases the opportunity for research and education is increased.
What draws people to sites of tragedy, violence, and loss? Why do people come to these places where people have died, where horrific events took place, and places that evoke emotions like shock and disbelief alongside sadness and regret? While this is not something that I will fully explore in this thesis, it is a key piece of it. They draw people to them out of national pride, morbid curiosity, heritage, history, or remembrance, and each of these plays a role into why sites of pain are major tourist attractions. Some historians claim death and violence draw people in, enticing their curiosity.5 These sites claim heritage, education, tourism, and history as part of their core foundation. They draw people in to capitalize on this fascination. This is in no way a bad thing. As I will show with this thesis, there are places that can do this successfully, educating and preserving history for future generations. The most successful are able to create a tasteful memorial to those lost, maintaining the sanctity of the location while telling a tragic story. They can recreate a horrific event, some can examine two sides of the same coin without disrespecting the victims, and many can instill a sense of national pride or heritage in visitors. This is not to say that all of these places are tasteful; there are those
4 Philip R. Stone, "Dark Tourism Consumption: A Call for Research," eReview of Tourism Research vol. 3 no. 5, 2005, 109-117.
5 Horror and Human Tragedy Revisited, ed. Gregory Ashworth and Rudi Hartmann, (New York: Cognizant Communication Corp, 2001) ch 1.
6


that exploit the event, the victims, and play on fears, gore, or shock. Unfortunately, just as there are the good, we will have the bad.
In this thesis, I will examine two locations, Sand Creek in Colorado and Culloden in Scotland, both examples of this dark tourism and both protected by national organizations. These places and the organizations that protect them are examples of the educational value gained from dark tourism. The National Trust in Scotland has maintained and preserved Culloden Battlefield, the location of the final battle of the 1745 Rising, a Scottish rebellion against the British Monarchy. It is an impressive example of battlefield preservation with various historical and educational aspects. Sand Creek in Colorado is a similar site, the location of the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864 where hundreds of Native Americans died during an unprovoked attack from a U.S. militia.6 I will explain how preservation at Culloden enhances the location for education, tourism, and cultural heritage and how preservationists and historians can apply a similar method at Sand Creek. At both sites, people made a stand for their culture and way of life in an attempt to save who they were and what they believed in. I will further explain each event, its cause, repercussions, and the conservation of the locations. Consequently, I will look at these two locations as important pieces of a darker side of history, sites of tragedy, shame, and extreme loss.
It is not just important to examine the preservation and the history of these locations, but also how historians have written about them over time. This historiography
6 The Jacobite Rising in 1745 was a battle between Jacobites, those who supported the restoration of a Stuart to the British throne, and the British government. The Sand Creek Massacre was the slaughter of a peaceful band of Native Americans by a U.S. army regiment.
7


is a key aspect of how preservation can help further education at these sites. It helps to explain the changing attitudes about the places and the people. Sand Creek has an impressive array of primary evidence including personal correspondence, congressional hearings, and scientific surveys. The secondary literature is just as impressive and I will explore it in more detail in the ensuing chapters. An important recent work is Ari Kelman's A Misplaced Massacre. Kelman explains the malleability of history as well as landscape. Gregory Michno, wrote The Three Battles of Sand Creek looking at the massacre, the hearings, and the aftermath. William R. Dunn and Reginald Craig wrote books that help readers understand the events of the day, from the perspective of the army. Dunn's The Fighting Parson and Craig's I Stand by Sand Creek do not fully justify the actions taken by the army, but they offer a better understanding of the frame of mind of the men at that time.
Culloden's literature, similar to Sand Creek's, contains a vast array of primary literature including government documents to secondary literature that explains the Jacobite cause. Stuart Reid's CullodenMoor and Culloden: 1746 Battlefield Guide are examples of why this event and why this place is so important to Scottish Highland history. Murray Pittock wrote Great Battles: Culloden, which looks at the battle in a new way, changing the way historians analyze the battle and preserve the site.
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CHAPTER III
NATIONAL TRUSTS, PUBLIC HISTORY, AND PRESERVATION
Government agencies like the National Trust of Scotland and the U.S. National Park Service manage historical properties, monuments, buildings, and many historically significant sites. They care for the upkeep, maintenance, and preservation of various locations important for cultural, historical, or heritage reasons. The National Park Service can date its beginnings back to Stephen T. Mather, conservationist and businessman who went to Washington in 1915 as assistant secretary of the Interior. He successfully lobbied for the creation of a single Federal office to manage all National Parks. Appealing to business, politicians, and media, Mather and his legal assistant, Horace Albright, were instrumental in the creation of the National Park Service (NPS). They secured lands and funds, and served as the first two directors for the NPS.7 In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson created the National Park Service as a federal organization to look over and care for national parks in the United States. Prior to this, parks, monuments and historical sites were all under the Department of the Interior, managed independently of one another.
The U.S. Army managed sites such as Yellowstone prior to the creation of the NPS. Mather, as first director for the NPS, pushed for the creation of more parks along the rail lines. He believed that Americans should be able to enjoy these spaces, and in doing so, this would help save these natural spaces for future generations.8 The idea of creating national parks along rail lines increased the opportunity for more people to appreciate the
7 Marian Albright Schneck, "Horace Marden Albright," The National Park Service. Accessed September 10, 2017,
https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/sontag/albright.htm.
8 Alfred Runte, National Parks, The American Experience (Taylor Trade Publishing: Lanham, MD, 2010), 93-95.
9


beauty of near unspoiled nature. Doing this gave people an opportunity to develop an appreciation for what the NPS did and its importance. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt consolidated the management of national parks, monuments, and historical spaces under the National Park Service. The large number of monuments, parks, and forests each managed by a different federal group made it necessary to put them under a single umbrella. Each of these are part of history, public history, and need preservation and conservation. President Roosevelt saw this and created a system easier to manage. This put war monuments under the guidance of the NPS as well as historical monuments previously under the Forestry Service.9
In part, the National Park Service serves as protection for sites of culture, history, and national significance. These places tell an important story, both good and bad. The nomenclature does lead to confusion, many believing the NPS serves only official parks. The NPS also cares for historic seashores like the Cape Cod National Seashore in Massachusetts, battlefields like the Appomattox National Historic Park in Virginia, and National Cemeteries like Vicksburg National Cemetery in Mississippi. It also cares for National Heritage Sites, National Monuments, and National Rivers among others.10 Some like Sand Creek are open space with few structures. Military parks, national historic sites, and national monuments brought together under one organization allow blanket legislation to govern them. The term "parks" became a generic title for ease in
9 The National Parks: Shaping the System, Produced by the Division of Publications and the Employee Development Division National Park Service (U.S. Department of the Interior: Washington, D.C., 1991,) 24
10 "America's Public Lands Explained," U.S. Department of Interior, accessed September 10, 2017, https://www.doi.gov/blog/americas-public4ands-explained.
10


communication because the NPS looks over so many various types of sites.11 The official definition from Congress is "...any area of land and water now or hereafter administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the National Park Service for park, monument, historic, parkway, recreational, or other purposes."12 This does create problems because of unique situations that include Native American tribes. Just as in each park, there are areas off limits to the public; Sand Creek has areas that are for tribal use only, for ceremonial tribal use. The NPS has specific legislation and rules for management and care of historic landscapes and culturally important sites such as Sand Creek. Because these areas invite tourism and visitors, these rules are crucial for the continued preservation. These particular places are educational, a visual show of history preserving events, landscape, and ensuring we remember these events and that they are there for the public. The National Park Service plan for these cultural and historic landscapes also includes structure management, interpretation, and cultural and historical management.13
A century ago a federal institution, created to ensure the care of national parks and historical monuments, saw the necessity of ensuring these were available to future generations. This includes places like Sand Creek, locations that some see as a dark stain on American history. While Sand Creek is obviously different from Yosemite or Yellow Stone, it falls under the care of the National Park Service. One of the most important
11 The National Parks, 6-7.
12 The National Parks, 7.
13 Charles A. Birnbaum, " Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes," National Park Service, September 1994, Accessed August 1, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/36-cultural-landscapes.htm.
11


aspects of having a site listing with a national organization is the ongoing interpretation as historians, researchers, or anyone who discovers and verifies new information.14
The Scottish Trust began in 1931 and as of today is the largest registered charity in Scotland. Registered in 1936, today the trust has over 300,000 members and looks after sites including Neolithic monuments, battlefields, and gardens.15 The idea of a national conservation trust began in 1865 with the London of the Commons Preservation Society formed to "defend the public's right of access to open spaces for recreation."16 Passing of the trust by Parliament created a council with the ability to declare certain lands, buildings, and monuments protected by the state. It contributes to the Scottish economy by providing attractive tourist destinations, using properties for events, and farms. The NTS works with schools to educate children about the culture and history of Scotland. It maintains over 700 staff and over 3,000 volunteers and is the third largest land manager in Scotland.17
Founded for similar reasons as the NPS, its goals is to not only preserve and educate, but to encourage visitation to its coastlands, wilderness areas, and historic sites. It began by a group previously focused on the preservation of rural Scotland under the name Association for the Preservation of Rural Scotland. A British Act of Parliament
14 Donald L. Vasicek, "About Sand Creek," Sand Creek Massacre, Accessed October 2, 2017, http://sandcreekmassacre.net/sand-creek/.
15 "The National Trust for Scotland: About" National Trust for Scotland. June 2012, accessed September 11, 2017,
http://www.nts.org.uk/about/downloads/cid_2012_text_only.pdf.
16 The National Trust for Scotland Guide, ed. Robin Prentice, (London: Jonathan Cape Ltd, 1976) 22.
17 "The National Trust for Scotland: About" National Trust for Scotland. June 2012, accessed September 11, 2017,
http://www.nts.org.uk/about/downloads/cid_2012_text_only.pdf.
12


made it an official organization in 1935. An early statement by Sir John Stirling Maxwell identified the trust's purpose then and now: "The National Trust for Scotland serves the nation as a cabinet into which it can put some of its valuable things, where they will be perfectly safe for all time, and where they are open to be seen and enjoyed by everyone.”18 From the beginning, the NTS focused on preserving Scotland's history and heritage for current and future generations. The goal is to make sure Scottish heritage is accessible for educational, entertainment, and historical purpose. It extends beyond architecture and preserves wilderness, coastlines, battlefields, and monuments.
Government agencies like the National Trust or the National Park Service face the daunting task daily upkeep on these historic sites. This includes not only the land and architecture, but any collections housed on the site as well. The interpretation, controversy, and day-to-day maintenance are important for the integrity and for those who share its heritage. As historians discover new evidence, it is up to these organizations to ensure the public has this information available at the sites, to learn all sides of the stories, to interpret for themselves, and to pass it on for future generations.
18 "History of the National Trust for Scotland" National Trust for Scotland, accessed May 9, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/Charity/Our-work/History/. John Stirling Maxwell was one of the founding members of the National Trust for Scotland and one of its Vice Presidents.
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CHAPTER IV
SAND CREEK
By 1864, the American Indian Wars had been going on for over 100 years. Beginning with the early colonization of America and the ideology of Manifest Destiny, armed conflicts were a regular occurrence between Native Americans and settlers. Attempts at peace treaties failed and as settlers continued west, they pushed Native Americans onto smaller regions. In November 1864, John Chivington, the leader of the Third Regiment of the Volunteer Calvary, ordered his men into the field to patrol.
Reports of few and varying attacks reported in the area spumed Chivington toward Fort Lyon, near the encampment on Sand Creek of Black Kettle. Chivington, in spite of objections from officers such as Silas Soule, decided to march on Sand Creek.19 At dawn, the Third Regiment with almost 700 men, led by Chivington, marched to Sand Creek where a group of approximately 500 Native Americans camped, primarily women and children.20 The army carried four mountain howitzers, fully armed and rested men and horses, and the element of surprise. The camp, under an American flag and a white cloth of peace, contained mostly Cheyenne and Arapahoe. The majority of warriors were hunting and not at the campsite. The attack caught the camp unawares. Black Kettle, even among the bullets, called for calm, believing that their treaty meant the soldiers would not kill them. Many attempted to run north, to a larger band of Cheyenne, but artillery struck them down before they could make it far from camp. Others managed to dig into sandy
19 Elliot West, Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado, (Fort Hays: University of Kansas Publishing, 1998), 299-300.
20 Chivington created the Third Regiment from volunteers during the summer of 1864 to counter Indian attacks across Colorado Territory.
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trenches where some of the most vicious fighting occurred. Those who tried to hide in these sand pits were easy targets for the soldiers. The attack and mutilations continued for over nine hours. When the fighting ended, an estimated 180 Native Americans were dead, many women raped, and many bodies mutilated.21 The majority killed were women and children. In the carnage, the bodies of Chiefs White Antelope, Left Hand, and other notable men among the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lay scalped. George Bent, wounded, made his way away from Sand Creek. He later recounted that White Antelope stood amongst the fighting with his arms outstretched singing his death song, "Nothing lives long only the earth and the mountains."22 Some soldiers took scalps and body parts as souvenirs. By the time the soldiers returned to Denver, each Indian family had lost someone, if not entire families eradicated.23 One must bear in mind the Sand Creek encampment was approximately forty miles northwest of Fort Lyon. This made the massacre even more controversial. Not only was this the encampment of the chiefs who attended the peace conference, it was practically on top of soldiers. This made it highly unlikely to be the location of a murderous band of savages that Chivington claimed he and his men attacked.24
21 The extreme and graphic nature of the mutilations has been recorded extensively. I have avoided many of the more intense and disturbing details in this thesis.
22 DU Study, 5. George Bent's testimony has been recorded and is an invaluable part of the investigation into the events at Sand Creek. Bent witnessed children shot, women shot while holding a white cloth. He survived with a group who took shelter north of the fighting in a sandpit.
23 National Park Service, Sand Creek Massacre Project: Site Location Study, (Denver: National Park Service, Intermountain Region), 13.
24 Black Kettle escaped Sand Creek and continued his efforts at keeping peace between the U.S. government and Native Americans. His influence among his peers declined as many wanted war and did not believe peace was possible.
15


Chivington and the Third Regiment received a hero's welcome in Denver following the massacre at Sand Creek. Propaganda circulated lead many to believe the Indians were the instigators and murderers. While the information regarding those camped at Sand Creek was false, there were raids, murders, and kidnappings at the hands of some tribes. It became difficult to discern peaceful from antagonistic. Soon, letters from some of his men describing the actual events led to a Congressional investigation. The great "battle" that Chivington touted soon became known as a "massacre." Interviews with witnesses made it clear this was not a two-sided battle. During the official congressional hearing, witnesses gave multiple statements on behalf of the tribes as well as the soldiers. Details about the attack and the ensuing mutilations painted a disturbing scene. Those who spoke in defense of the attack, for the most part, believed attacks such as the one at Sand Creek would be the only solution for peace among the Indians and safety for those living near them. Chivington, in his deposition, claimed to have no knowledge of any truce between the camp at Sand Creek and the government. He stated reports contained information that the Native Americans were still hostile and the settlers were wary and wanted him to attack the camp.25 Many of the Native American survivors of Sand Creek went on to fight further for their people. Others like Black Kettle tried once again to live in peace.26 The precise location of the Sand Creek camp became lost over the years.
Primary documents regarding Sand Creek show two things, an attempt to justify Chivington's attack on Black Kettle's encampment and an account of the horrors that
25 The Sand Creek Massacre, (Washington: Westholm Publishing, 2015), 108.
26 Black Kettle was killed four years later in Washita, Kansas during another controversial attack by the military on a peaceful camp.
16


occurred. There are no grand tales of heroism from that day. Immediately following the massacre, letters and official records included official inquiries that recounted the atrocities. There are those, such as communication from Captain Silas Soule and Lt. Joseph Cramer, explaining their shock at the actions by their commanding officer and fellow soldiers. Fortunately for this thesis and for other researchers, these letters and the entirety of the Congressional hearings are available. Many of these reports contain statements from soldiers, civilians, and Native Americans.27
Public opinion following the attack was divisive, many standing by the militia's actions and others demanding they pay for the deaths of the Native Americans. The Congressional hearing and statements by Governor John Evans and Colonel John Chivington attempted to justify their attack on Sand Creek. Distrust, fear, and hatred existed between Native Americans and the government. The animosity and mistrust between Native Americans and settlers in the west grew, resulting in more violence and murder during the American Indian Wars.
An official report by Evans claimed that Native Americans were particularly hostile and "emboldened" by troop movements during the Civil War. 28 According to Evans, "every mail and messenger from the plains brought reports of additional depredations."29 One of his officers, Major Samuel G. Colley, sent numerous reports to
27 For this thesis, I use the terms Native American and Indian interchangeably. This is to show respect to the modern terminology but to also to make it easier when quoting many of the older primary sources who refer solely to the term Indian.
28 Because of the large number of early primary sources regarding the Sand Creek Massacre, I will only be highlighting certain ones. The entirety of the documents can be found online and in numerous books.
29 Sand Creek Papers: Documents of a Massacre (Independently Published, 2016) kindle location 49.
17


Evans detailing attacks on soldiers or settlers. Evans issued a proclamation to the Native
Americans, sending the notice to Colley, instructing them to "keep away from those who
are at war and go to places of safety."30 Evans faced a difficult dilemma, working with
peaceful tribes, and trying to separate them from ones raiding in a time of racism and
misunderstanding. One of Colley's reports gives definite indication of how troublesome
things had become.31 "I have done everything in my power to keep peace. I now think a
little powder and lead is the best food for them."32 Colley believed there could never be
peace and continued to provide Governor Evans with information leading him to believe
hostilities were, in part, due to the tribes who would be located at Sand Creek. At this
point, documentation show Evans then called for action to be taken against Native
Americans, by militia, military, and civilians.33
Now, therefore, I John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, do issue this my proclamation, authorizing all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my said call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also, to kill and destroy, as enemies of the country, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians.34
This one document could be, in part, what set the tone that led to Sand Creek. There could be no peace; there could be no turning back.35 Fear ran rampant and people simply
30 Carol Turner, Forgotten Heroes & Villians of Sand Creek, (Charleston, History Press: 2010)33.
31 Communication between Colley and Evans was numerous. Colley's feelings towards Native Americans is clear. However there is little clear corroborating to prove his claims.
32 Sand Creek Papers, kindle location 246.
33 Evans put together the Third Colorado volunteers, a group whose purpose was to find and kill hostile Native Americans. At a time with anti-Indian sentiment at a high, this was an invitation for slaughter. John Chivington was chosen to lead this militia.
34 Sand Creek Papers, kindle location 167.
35 These documents prior to the massacre at Sand Creek show the violence and the fear that was rampant in the area. Many civilians did not see past the fact that a person was a Native American, in part, due to the stories of these savages circulating.
18


did not understand the extreme difference in customs and mannerisms. In the eyes of the new settlers, Native Americans were heathens, scantily dressed, and murderous. Native Americans lost their land, been forced onto smaller and smaller reservations, and had a new government forced upon them. Tensions continued to rise between these two sides as each saw the other as dangerous.
19


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Figure 1:
Native American Net Roots
http://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/tag/Sand%20Creek%20Massacre36
36 A notice calling for volunteers to fight against Native Americans. These men would serve, in part, in Chivington's Third Regiment.


Letters from Black Kettle and other tribe leaders show that some of the Native
Americans believed in the possibility for peace. Aided by George Bent among others, the chiefs reached out to the U.S. Army to find path ensuring peace on all sides. Black Kettle, in an effort to achieve peace for his people, on September 18, 1864, sent a letter to Governor Evans and his officers asking to trade prisoners and secure supplies for his people.37 He sent word to other tribes, including Arapahoe and Sioux to inform them of this new collaboration with the government.38 On September 28, 1864 at Camp Weld in Denver, a meeting between Black Kettle, White Antelope, Evans, and Chivington, among others, highlighted how tenuous this peace was at the time. While the Native Americans hoped for peace, Governor Evans stated his troops were preparing for a fight. Mistrust on each side, accusations, and a declaration from Chivington to "fight them until they lay down their arms and submit to military authority" widened the divide between the two groups.39 Correspondence between military officers on the plains and Gov. Evans show an ever-widening rift. The tribes under Black Kettle and White Antelope and Left Hand had gathered at Sand Creek, as ordered, under a flag of peace. Trusting they were out of harm's way by following the explicit orders from Gov. Evans, they did not believe they were in any danger.
37 There were two major councils between Indians and the US at the time. Black Kettle met with Major Wynkoop discussing a possible peace. Following this came the meeting with Gov. Evans. It was a few weeks after this that Major Wynkoop was relieved of his command.
38 Sand Creek Papers, kindle location 317.
39 Sand Creek Papers, Document 15, kindle location 506. Simeon Whiteley documents this meeting. There were other Native American chiefs present and the primary conversation was to determine if Black Kettle, White Antelope, and the others had committed crimes against the United States.
21


A letter from Black Kettle, written with the help of George Bent in September
1864, stated his desire for a peaceful solution. Meeting with the other chiefs of Kiowa,
Comanche, Arapahoe, Apache, and Sioux, Black Kettle set in writing the terms they
sought for peace. The letter shows a genuine desire to work with Governor Evans and the
United States government.
Cheyenne Village Aug. 29th/64 Maj. Colley.
Sir
We received a letter from Bent wishing us to make peace. We held a consel in regard to it & all came to the conclusion to make peace with you providing you make peace with the Kiowas; Commenches, Arrapahoes Apaches and Siouxs. We are going to send a messenger to the Kiowas and to the other nations about our going to make with you. We heard that you some prisoners in Denver. We have seven prisoners of you which we are willing to give up providing you give up yours.
There are three war parties out yet and two of Arrapahoes. they have been out some time and exspect now soon. When we held this counsel there were few Arrapahoes and Siouxs present. We want true news from you in return, that is a letter.
Black Kittle & other Chieves
Brought to Ft Lyon Sunday Sept 4th 1864 by One Eye -40
40 "The Sand Creek Massacre - Black Kettle Letter to Agent Samuel Colley and Major Edward Wynkoop," KC Lone Wolf \ accessed September 1, 2017, http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc-documents/sc-black-kettle-letter.html#sthash.3 YhcyeXZ.dpbs. This is the translation of the letter I have included on the following page. The translation, with multiple misspellings, is verbatim from Black Kettle.
22


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Figure 2: http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc-documents/sc-black-kettle-
1 etter. html#sthash. 3 Yhcy eXZ. dpb s41
There were those who believed the massacre was the fault of the Native
Americans, not seeing it as a massacre at all, and many such as Chivington and Evans
attempted to justify their actions. Others could not believe something so brutal had
occurred, especially at the hands of the U.S. militia. Newspapers reported a battle 41
41 Letter from Black Kettle to Major Colley requesting peace. The letter was sent to Major Colley and Major Edward Wynkoop.
23


between the army and the Native Americans, not a surprise attack on an unsuspecting
camp.
GREAT BATTLE WITH INDIANS The Savages Dispersed 500 INDIANS KILLED
Our Loss 9 Killed, 38 Wounded FULL PARTICULARS 42
This headline from the Rocky Mountain Weekly left no doubt the general attitude many had about Native Americans. Printed on December 8, 1864, it preceded editorials describing a great victory for Chivington's men against well-armed and well defended Indians. Missing from the number of dead and wounded were those killed by friendly fire. The editorials portrayed a camp of hostiles well supplied with goods stolen from settler's homes or from trains.43 Other editorials discuss findings that would draw sympathy of the settlers in the region and incite anger towards the Indians. For example one person commented, "Among their effects were large supplies of flour, sugar, coffee, tea, &c. Women's and children's clothing were found; also books and many other articles which must have been taken from captured trains or houses."44 The statement does not mention the savagery, the lack of warriors and the number of women and children killed.
42 Sand Creek Papers: Documents of a Massacre (Independently Published, 2016) Document 18, kindle location 560.
43 "Archives of the West: Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre" PBS.ORG, Date accessed August 17, 2017,
https://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/sandcrk.htm.
44 "The Sand Creek Massacre: Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News After the Attack," KCLone Wolf, accessed September 1, 2017,
http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc-reports/rocky-editorials.html. Other editorials were similar to this one. Each discussing the glory and bravery of Chivington and his men and the savage evils of the Native Americans.
24


These first stories and letters portray a battle of well-armed Indians against the army. Stories such as this helped fuel anti Indian sentiment.45
Opinions on Colonel Chivington's victory began to change with letters from two soldiers present at Sand Creek, Captain Silas Soule and Lt. Joseph Cramer. Their letters, lost and then found in 2000, paint a much different picture of what happened that day. They catalyzed an investigation into the attack and led to the downfall of Evans and Chivington.46 The letter from Captain Soule, written to Major Ned Wynkoop, described horrific events including the murder of pregnant women, children, and elderly. Soldiers did not spare those running or those begging for their lives and ran down many trying to hide. They mutilated bodies, cutting off parts to keep as souvenirs. Perhaps most importantly in his letter, Soule specifically mentions the stated intentions to "massacre the friendly Indians camped on Sand Creek."47 Soule attempted to rescue as many as possible, including the Bent family.48 He also refutes Chivington's statement regarding the number of Indians at Sand Creek. Colonel Chivington stated that over five hundred were killed at Sand Creek, mostly warriors; however, Soule estimates the numbers to be around two hundred, mostly women and children.49
45 Other editorials and reports surfaced with similar descriptions of the events at Sand Creek. There were many and too numerous for this thesis, but each, for the most part, were similar in nature.
46 John Evans and John Chivington were great men in their own right and have numerous accomplishments to their name. This thesis will not go into detail regarding those because I am focusing on Sand Creek and the events leading up to that day and what happened following.
47 Sand Creek Papers, Soule and Cramer Letters, kindle location 1706.
48 George Bent was a respected and well renowned Cheyenne warrior and Confederate soldier. He was the son of Owl Woman and William Bent. Following his escape, he went on to fight against Americans with the Dog Soldiers.
49 Sand Creek Papers, Soule and Cramer Letters, kindle location 1706
25


Cramer's letter, similar in tone and description to Soule's, gave further evidence to discredit the reports of a great battle against hundreds of warriors. Cramer detailed more of what he and Soule faced when they spoke out against the events that day. Their fellow soldiers and commanding officers threatened them with hanging, dismissal, and bodily harm to them and their families. He wrote, "I thought it murder to jump them friendly Indians." Cramer also begged Wynkoop to stop Chivington from advancing in his military career, particularly for any achievements based on Sand Creek.50
These letters started a firestorm leading to Congressional and military hearings appeals by Evans and Chivington, and in the end each lost their commission. Evans resigned as territory governor and the military was unable to formally dishonorably Chivington, who had resigned from the military.51 The massacre at Sand Creek became ingrained in Colorado history. In 2014, Governor John Hickenlooper issued a formal apology to the Cheyenne for Sand Creek, saying, "We should not be afraid to criticize and condemn that which is inexcusable."52
Many people had difficulty believing the charges against Evans and Chivington due to their reputations. They were prominent men with reputable feats to their names. Evans helped found hospitals, researched disease, and helped develop quarantine regulations. He helped create the Denver Seminary and was instrumental in bringing
50 Sand Creek Papers, Soule and Cramer Letters, kindle location 1776.
51 "Colorado State Archives: John Evans," Colorado Official State Portal, accessed September 12, 2017, https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/archives/john-evans
52 "150th Anniversary Sand Creek Massacre" text of Governor John Hickenlooper's speech, Colorado State Archives, accessed August 12, 2017,
https://www.colorado.gov/governor/150th%C2%A0anniversary%C2%A0sand%C2%A0c
reek%C2%A0massacre.
26


railroads and streetcars through Colorado.53 John Chivington, an ordained Methodist minister, was a well-respected commander in the United States Army. He became a colonel after helping capturing Confederate supplies during the Civil War and had the loyalty of his men and peers.54 Chivington was the hero of the 1862 Battle of Glorieta Pass, a battle dubbed the "Gettysburg of the West." Chivington helped lead the Union Army against Confederate soldiers planning on taking Santa Fe, parts of Colorado, and on to California.55 These men were well known and loved by the people of Colorado. It was difficult to believe they could be a part of such a savage attack on a peaceful group of Indians.
Prior to the National Park Service naming Sand Creek a significant historical site, finding the exact location was key. The NPS knew the approximate location of the camp, but due to a lack of exact records, shifting creek bed and other geological markers, it was difficult to locate exactly where the massacre took place. The government forbade survivors to return to bury their dead and the rural location made it difficult to locate. In 1950, the Colorado Historical Society erected historical marker on State Highway 96 near Chivington, Colorado and participated in another ceremony overlooking a bend of Sand Creek. It was at this bend that the Eads Chamber of Commerce placed a memorial designating it as the massacre site. Tribe members began coming to this site, comparing it
53 "Colorado State Archives: John Evans," Colorado Official State Portal, accessed September 12, 2017, https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/archives/john-evans.
54 "John Chivington Biography," National Park Service, accessed September, 12, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/john-chivington-biography.htm.
55 "The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream," The National Park Service, accessed September 24, 2017,
https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/91glorieta/91glorieta.htm.
The location is currently under the National Park Service and
27


to their oral histories. While they agreed it was the correct location, others said it lacked the necessary evidence to be the location of the massacre. Through the 1990s, the NPS made more efforts to find Sand Creek after obtaining the support of the descendants of the victims. In 1997, using metal detectors and guided by army maps and oral histories, Professor Richard Ellis of Fort Lewis College surveyed two areas, neither giving him what he believed to be concrete proof he had found the Sand Creek Massacre site.56
The National Park Service's interest in finding the exact location to designate it as a National Historic Site continued to grow and on October 6, 1998, the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Study Act passed. Colorado U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell, the only Native American in Congress, led the crusade for designation. Tribal representatives and representatives from the NPS agreed on a joint project to locate the site. Their methods included archaeology, oral history, research, and traditional tribal methods.57 The help from the tribes was crucial to a successful research study. The study began in 1999 using the methods outlined above with the addition of aerial photography. Soon the research group identified five potential sites. One of the sites used a map marked by George Bent in 1905. Using a map mailed to him by George Hyde, who was writing his biography, Bent attempted to locate the massacre site. Hyde used 1890 topographical maps and landmarks could have easily changed since the
56 Sand Creek Massacre Project, 12.
57 Sand Creek Massacre Project, 14. The approval and assistance of the tribes was key to the study being a success. Laws such as NAGPRA, The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, meant any artifacts found must be returned.
28


massacre. The locations provided by Bent proved to be inaccurate but did provide useful
information for future researchers.58
/ art/ ; \ V* V A
■’ / y ' & t
! fir / \ Vj
; if . V J, V v
.v y i V V
Figure 3: The Bent-Hyde Maps: https://cudl.colorado.edu/luna/servlet59 Those involved with the search for Sand Creek stressed the importance of the oral histories. Prior to signing the Sand Creek National Historic Site Study Act, Congressman Bob Schaffer wrote to the NPS director to reiterate the oral histories and their importance.
Under the bill as it passed the House and Senate, the Secretary is directed to consult with the State of Colorado and the Tribes to conduct a resource study of the site. Such consultation should necessarily include efforts to record the oral histories of tribal elders. I urge you to see that every effort is made to do that.
58 Jerome A. Greene and Douglas D. Scott, Finding Sand Creek, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004), 40.
59 "The Bent-Hyde Papers," University of Colorado Boulder, https://cudl.colorado.edu/luna/servlet, accessed August 20, 2017. The University of Colorado Boulder has the Bent-Hyde papers from Hyde's collection in its entirety. There are other papers that discuss Sand Creek.
29


Besides providing valuable insight and historical information, those recollections may even establish the precise location of the massacre site.60
Collecting the oral histories as a primary source not only aided in finding Sand Creek, it
also ensured Native Americans were not left out of the process. This was their history.
Through their stories, researchers could plot map points, compare evidence, and narrow
down their search. Many of the participants in the oral history study aided in an aerial
topography survey in 1997 by using their stories to map out potential locations.61
Section 24, township 7 south, Range 46 west is the location of the Sand Creek
Massacre.62 Extensive surveys, comparisons of artifacts found at the various locations,
topography, and physical evidence validate this location. Signs of a one sided attack in
section 24 along with camp materials used by the Cheyenne and Arapahoe indicate the
location of Sand Creek. To the northeast, in Section 14, they found signs of another
battle, one that corresponds with the sand pits dug and the general direction many ran
away from Sand Creek. Camp debris, ammunition, and archaeological evidence show a
group fleeing to the northeast towards the location of the sand pits, corresponding with
the findings. For the first time, the oral histories and the research lined up with the
archaeological findings. After years of searching, the researchers located a vital piece of
United States and Native American history.63
60 NPS Sand Creek Massacre Project 138.
61 NPS Sand Creek Massacre Project 142. There were several other studies conducted immediately before and after the Sand Creek National Historic Study Act passed. Many of these, carried out by colleges and other researches employed similar methods, using topographical maps, oral histories, and archaeological research. Each of these studies used the findings of the previous to help in the search. The Native Americans who participated in the aerial topography study were an invaluable source.
62 Green, Finding Sand Creek, 98.
63 The search for the exact location of Sand Creek took years, and included Native American history, preservation, archaeology, geomorphology, and historic research.
30


November 7, 2000, President Bill Clinton signed the law creating the Sand Creek
Massacre National Historic Site Establishment Act. Sand Creek is unique in many ways.
It is not a battleground; it is not a scenic park. It is the site of a horrific massacre where
U.S. militia forces slaughtered hundreds.
The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site is the only unit of the National Park Service that commemorates a site of shame for the United States government. It unequivocally declares Sand Creek a massacre. It exits to teach the public the awful and lasting effects of genocide committed on peoples struggling to preserve their freedom and way of life.64
Started by a bill introduced by Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell in 1998, Sand Creek
finally received the designation the Arapaho and Cheyenne deserved. Listed on the
National Register of Historic Places, the site includes the campsite, the point where
Chivington's men first spotted the camp, the sand pits dug during their retreat, and the
path of the large howitzers.65 The Sand Creek National Historic Trust Act in 2005
advanced the process to protect Sand Creek. It put in writing the rules for funding, the
necessary approval of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes for any improvements, and the
purchase of any necessary property that belongs with Sand Creek.66 Since the massacre,
Those involved looked at several sites, comparing any artifacts found and determining if they could have possibly been part of the Sand Creek encampment. They dismissed some of the locations due to inaccurate artifact scattering (there would have been a specific pattern due to the number of people running and being fired at). Flash foods, dust bowls, collectors are just a few of the factors that play a part in the difficulty of finding the exact location of Sand Creek. Due to the amount of time that passed, researches had to distinguish between what could be Native American artifacts or Calvary artifacts and something left behind by settlers or land owners. Their findings across each location included bullets, casings, nails, household objects, utensils, and lead among hundreds more. Each item had to be cataloged and analyzed.
64 Smith, et al, DU Report, 10.
65 "Sand Creek Massacre: Places" National Park Service, accessed June 16, 2017, http s: //www. np s. gov/ sand/1 earn/hi story culture/places, htm.
66 "Public Law 109-45," Government Publishing Office, accessed July 8, 2017, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-109publ45/pdf/PLAW-109publ45.pdf.
31


much of the land belonged to private owners and quite a bit was used for cattle ranching. The NPS began purchasing land from those willing to sell. An important part of the site lay on the Williams Dawson Ranch. Controversy over selling the ranch continued for years until finally the NPS was able to purchase it and present it to the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes.67 It became clear that one of the problematic points was going to be reclaiming artifacts found during the time Sand Creek was on private land. Although laws were in place to protect anything found during official searches, nothing found by private owners stated they needed to return it to the tribes. In order to appease landowners, tribal delegates were asked to sign waivers stating that these private owners did not have to turn over artifacts.68 Despite this controversial sticking point during negotiations, all involved determined the preservation of the site was most important, not immediate artifact recovery. Artifact recovery and location was not the only controversy surrounding Sand Creek preservation.
The initial description of Sand Creek was as a "battle." This immediately drew the ire of many Native American tribes who knew there was no battle. A battle insinuates two armed opposing forces fighting against one another, expecting and preparing for a confrontation. This was not the case at Sand Creek. A monument, erected in Denver, Colorado in 1909 on the west side of the Colorado State Capitol, showed Sand Creek as a battle, but this changed with the NPS's decision to designate it as a "massacre" and state
67 Dawson initially was reluctant to sell his land. A legal battle ensued and Dawson accused people of trespassing and littering to get to the Sand Creek site.
68 "The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site" Santa Fe Trails Scenic and Historic Byway, accessed May 20, 2017,
http ://www. santafetrailscenicandhistoricbyway.org/ scmasacre.html.
32


and local governments changed signage to show this change.69 The monument to the Civil War listed significant battles, among which is Sand Creek. In 1998, Senator Robert Martinez sponsored a bill to have Sand Creek removed from the monument. Instead of removal, another monument honoring the victims of Sand Creek and explaining its historical significance was placed near the Civil War monument.70 Reinterpreting Sand Creek became important to the history. This is a key part of the historiography, how we initially viewed Sand Creek and the challenge to its labeling in Colorado history.
The official opening of the Sand Creek National Historic Site in 2007 marked the long anticipated recognition and acknowledgement of the massacre by creating a place where the tribes could remember their lost ancestors and visitors could see the place of one of the most shameful massacres on U. S. soil.71 The controversy surrounding its location definition already began to define Sand Creek. The interpretation and preservation discussions included requests from tribes for certain acreage to be set aside for ceremonial tribal use. the arguments against the use of the word "battle" on monuments and official records, and what kind of memorial would be created at the site. Lawmakers and historians agreed this was no battle, but a massacre. That much was clear, and monuments were adjusted to reflect this.72 The Sand Creek Massacre National
69 John B. Judis, "The Country's Most Revealing Memorial to the Sand Creek Massacre Used to Celebrate the Killings" New Republic, December 1, 2014, accessed August 19, 2017, https://newrepublic.com/article/120441/statue-celebrated-sand-creek-massacre.
70 Ari Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013)
201.
711 will describe in my comparison of the two locations ways that I believe the site can be improved to create a more educational experience.
72 Sand Creek Santa Fe Trails. Many argued for the replacement of plaques that called Sand Creek a battle and not a massacre. At the Colorado State Capitol, an additional plaque was added denoting it as a massacre and the original left intact.
33


Historic Site provides visitors with a chance to learn about the history of the site from Park Rangers and look out on where Black Kettle's camp was located at Overlook Hill. A repatriation area gives visitors an opportunity to pay respect to the dead. At this burial site, Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes bury any remains and artifacts returned to them. Memorials to Silas Soule and Joseph and the letters they wrote honor their deeds, plaques to the chiefs killed, and the tribes are present throughout the park. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site unfortunately suffers from poor attendance. This is in part due to its remote location and lack of visitor facilities.
The historiography of Sand Creek demonstrates the change in attitude and opinion of Sand Creek over the years.73 One of the more recent and most relevant to this thesis is Ari Kelman's A Misplaced Massacre. Kelman describes the difficulty of memorializing tragic and controversial events in a way that satisfies all parties involved. He explains the connection between the Civil War and Sand Creek. Native Americans like George Bent saw the Civil War as an event that cemented racism and allowed Sand Creek to occur.74 As opinions changed, history changed and he mirrors this with the difficulty in locating the exact site itself. What he ultimately shows is that Sand Creek is too controversial a story to have a single explanation. It is the story of the American West, Native Americans, the Civil War and the American Indian War. This is the story that preservation needs to show.
For in the end, this story of memorializing Sand Creek suggests that history and
memory are malleable, that even the land, despite its implied promise of
731 will look at this history in a way that highlights the events leading up to Sand Creek, records of the day, and correspondence of what has happened since. This is to show the change in feeling from the major players of Sand Creek, to also show exactly what can be gained from the National Historical site should an education center be expanded.
74 Ari Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013) 35.
34


permanence, can change, and that the people of the United States are so various
that they should not be expected to share a single tale of a common past.
Sometimes their stories complement one another; sometimes they clash.
Sometimes they intersect; sometimes they diverge.75
Gregory Michno's The Three Battles of Sand Creek looks at the controversy surrounding Sand Creek in three arenas, the battle, the following court battles, and the view historians have struggled with over the years. Michno looks at Sand Creek as both a battle and a massacre, depending on who is looking at the evidence. According to Michno the oral histories, numerous documents, and vast difference in opinion means we will not fully understand what happened. This is a controversial opinion, one that Ari Kelman countered.76 Michno's controversial viewpoint does not sway from a central message, the importance of the disclosure of all evidence and people being able to review it and come to their conclusions.
While Michno skirts saying he is a supporter of Colonel John Chivington, there are those who have written on their support of Sand Creek and Chivington. Reginald Craig's The Fighting Parson looks at Chivington's life as a Methodist preacher, his condemnation of drinking and prostitution, and his desire to create safe havens for settlers and to improve schools. He describes Chivington win at Glorieta Pass and paints him as a hero and not the monster others described.77 The truth about Chivington lies between the grand hero and the monster.
One of the most memorable and well-written books on Sand Creek is Song of Sorrow, Massacre at Sand Creek, by Patrick Mendoza. Mendoza relied on the oral
75 Kelman, 279.
76 Gregory Michno, The Three Battles of Sand Creekx (El Dorado Hills, CA: Savas Beatie, LLC, 2017).
77 Reginald Craig, The Fighting Parson, (Los Angeles: Western Lore Press, 1959).
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histories to tell the story from the Native Americans point of view. U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell, a direct descendant of those killed at Sand Creek and the man who spearheaded the effort to create the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, wrote the forward for the book.78 This is just one of the many books striving to give a voice to the many killed that day in 1864. The interest in the story and the desire for the truth is there. Both the NPS and Native American tribes can capitalize on this interest to educate.
The University of Denver (DU), founded in part by John Evans, conducted an extensive investigation and report into John Evans's involvement in the Sand Creek massacre. In conjunction with Northwestern University, also founded by Evans, an investigation following years of insistence began with a group of historians, archaeologists, faculty, students, and community members. With the release of the Soule and Cramer letters, students at Northwestern and University of Denver began demanding an investigation. The report, released in 2014 following a year of research, placed culpability on Evans by citing his neglect, leadership failures, and "reckless decision making" that created the conditions that led to the attack. In the report, DU acknowledged, "Evans was a man of many proud accomplishments, a visionary leader whose influence shaped the university, the city of Denver, and the state of Colorado."79 Their goal was to understand just how far and how much blame was to place.
One hundred and fifty years of controversy surrounded and defined Sand Creek. The initial documents alone are priceless in their educational and cultural value.
78 Patrick M. Mendoza, Song of Sorrow: Massacre at Sand Creek, (Denver: Willow Wind Publishing, 1993)
79 Richard Clemmer Smith, et al, Report of the John Evans Study Committee: University of Denver, (Denver: University of Denver, 2014), iv.
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Countless novels, films, and television shows attempted to tell the story.80 81 How does this influence this thesis? They show the state and national impact this has on America and on Native Americans. The NPS can use this to educate and tell the full story of Sand Creek and its victims at the National Historic Site. The history of Sand Creek is beyond the massacre, it is the story of finding the site, the story of the American West, and Native Americans.
80 There have been several movies about Sand Creek, more prominently are documentaries released since 2006. The most well known is a documentary by Donald Vasicek which won several awards and is catalogued in the Smithsonian Institute Library, Tribal libraries, and many museums and historical organizations.
81 Photo taken from the National Park Website
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CHAPTER V
CULLODEN
Culloden is an iconic battlefield, important to Scottish and British History. This site of the final battle of the 1745 Jacobite Rising became a symbol of the fight for Highland and Gaelic Culture. For many highlanders, the Rising became more about holding on to their culture, and not about the restoration of the Stuart throne. Culloden was for many, a last stand against the English, the final opportunity to hold on to being 'Scottish.' In the centuries since, what has made Culloden Moor such an important part of preservation history in Scotland? Why is it such a popular tourist destination, and how has preservation increased Culloden's popularity? In order to answer that, the area's vast history must be examined to understand how important it is to Scotland, and why it has become such a popular draw for historians, tourists, filmmakers, and authors. My explanation of the importance of Culloden Moor is dependent on the events of the Jacobite Risings in Scotland. I will examine the contentious history of the British monarchy in the years leading up to the '45 Rising, and the fight for the Stuart throne, the failures, victories, and losses of those who supported the Stuarts.82 The documents I will explore include letters from soldiers, commanders, and those who fought in the rebellion.
82 The 1745 Rising is commonly referred to as the '45. There is much more to examine in regards to Culloden than to Sand Creek. Years of monarchy and British rule, fights for the throne and years of battles. I will give a short examination of the fight for the throne and the part it played in the Risings. I will also briefly explain Jacobitsm, and the Act of Union that played a large role in the Scots fight against the English.
Similarly to my examination of Sand Creek, I will be looking at Culloden primarily from the view of the Scottish. Because I will be discussing Culloden and the preservation site today, I believe their viewpoint is most important to this thesis.
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William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, aka ‘Butcher Cumberland," youngest son of George II, King of Britain
portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, date uncertain
Charles Edward Stuart,
aka "Bonnie Prince Charlie,"
grandson of deposed English King James II
portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1745
Image 5: Butcher Cumberland and Bonnie Prince Charlie: http://guildofbezalel.blogspot.com/2016/04/from-culloden-to-cumberland.html83
The Jacobite Risings began when Francis Edward Stuart, son of former King of
Ireland, Scotland, and England James III, sought to regain his father's throne. James II,
deposed following the Glorious Revolution, was the last Catholic king to sit over the
British Isles. The rebellion failed and for fifty years, the risings quelled. James's son,
Charles Edward Stuart attempted to gain the throne in a similar manner to his father's
efforts. Charles, born in Rome and raised in Italy, never set foot in Scotland prior to his
push for the throne. During the War of Austrian Succession, which occupied most British
forces, the second Jacobite Rising began.84 "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or the "Young
Pretender" was raised to believe in his God given right to the throne. Groomed from a
young age for rule, Charles was sophisticated but under-educated.85 Jacobite supporters
83 http://guildofbezalel.blogspot.com/2016/04/from-culloden-to-cumberland.html The two leaders at Culloden, William and Charles.
84 The War of Austrian Succession, though beyond the scope of this thesis, was important because of the timing. Most of the European powers were involved in this war which spanned across Europe, India, and North America. The British, supporting the Austrian succession of Maria Theresa to the Habsburg throne, had many of their forces in mainland Europe.
85 Diana Preston, The Road to Culloden Moor: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the 1745 Rebellion, (Edinburgh: Constable and Company Ltd. 1995) Loc 306 Kindle.
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encouraged Charles, who was in fervor already, to attempt to claim the throne once more for the Stuarts. Backed by France following the 1743 death of French First Minister Cardinal Fleury, a staunch anti-Jacobite, Charles left for France leaving his father with these parting words: "I go, Sire, in search of three crowns, which I doubt not but have the honour and happiness of laying at Your Majesty's feet. If I fail in the attempt, your next sight of me shall be the coffin."86 Charles needed France's monetary and military support to better their chances against Britain. He believed his destiny lay in Scotland, as the restored Stuart King.
Court controversies and political turmoil between England and France eventually caused France to withdraw their support of the Jacobites and Charles.87 Jacobites continued meeting to put Charles Edward Stuart back on throne. An association of Jacobites in Scotland including high ranking members such as the Duke of Perth, Lord Lovat, Donald Cameron of Lochiel and John Murray of Broughton met to continue Jacobite efforts in restoring the Stuart throne. This association depended on France's support for Charles's campaign. A letter stating the importance of this support was sent to Charles, but it is believed he did not receive it, and therefore continued with his attack.88 Political issues forced France to withdraw much of their support and resulted in Charles
86 Preston, Road to Culloden Moor, Loc 422 Kindle.
87 A failed attempt by French forces to sail to England was thwarted by weather. Eventually English Parliament passed a law forbidding any communication with the sons of James Francis Edward Stuart. Charles believed he could return to Scotland, forcing his cousin, King Louis XIV to back his efforts.
88 Christopher Duffy, Fight for a Throne: The Jacobite '45Reconsidered, (Solihull: Helion and Company Limited, 2015.) ch 2-3
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feeling insulted and slighted. Charles attempted to force the hand of his cousin Louis XIV.89 He left for Scotland in August 1745, and the Jacobite Rising began in earnest.
Culloden was the end of a long rebellion that included multiple countries including France, Scotland, Ireland, and England and political machinations. Over the course of the next year, the Jacobites had many victories against the British in both Scotland and England. Charles surrounded himself with intelligent and capable leaders, and being charismatic, he was able to sway many to his cause and increase the size of his army. As the Jacobite army marched south, Charles's fervor to take London increased.
His generals convinced him to return to Scotland, believing Cumberland's army to be greater than it was and a lack of response from Jacobites in England. The British army under Cumberland's direction followed Charles back into Scotland and the many Jacobite victories turned to missteps and losses. In January 1746, Charles and his counsel argued over strategy. His generals wanted to return to the highlands and wait for spring to allow their men to rest and prepared while Charles wanted to continue the fight against the British.
After this I know that I have an army that I cannot command any further than the chiefs officers please, and therefore, if you are all resolved upon it, I must yield; but I take God to witness that it is with the greatest reluctance, and that I wash my hands of the fatal consequences wch (sic) I forsee but cannot help.90
The Jacobites with Charles wintered in Inverness with their advantage lost. On
April 15, with supplies and money almost depleted, Charles learned of Cumberland's
89 I began the history with this lengthy discussion to try and explain the background of the Jacobite cause, why Charles was so adamant to claim a throne in a country he had never been to and why so many Jacobites were willing to give their lives to the cause. I will not go into detail of the entire rebellion, just this beginning.
90 Publications of the Scottish Historical Society Volume XXVII: Memorials of John Murray of Broughton, ed. Robert Fitzroy Bell, (Edingburgh: University Press, 1898), 81.
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position and encouraged his men to march to Drummossie Moor from Culloden to launch a surprise attack. Cumberland's men never made it to Drummossie instead they remained at Nairn to celebrate Cumberland's birthday. The demoralized Jacobites returned to Culloden, many going in search of food, and many others ready to give up. They had spent the previous day marching with meager rations. Lord Murray noted, "The last three days our army was starved and this was a great cause of our night march proving abortive, when we possiblie (sic) might have surprised the enemy and defeat them at Nairn, but for want of provisions a third of our arm was scater'd. (sic)"91 The armies met the next day on Culloden Moor, Charles's starving and freezing Jacobites against Cumberland's well fed, clothed, and rested British army. Charles commanded his 5,500 soldiers to fight on Culloden Moor against Cumberland's 7,500. To the sound of drums and bagpipes, the armies engaged. Jacobites pushed through the marsh of the moor into the relentless fire from the British army. Within an hour, almost 1,300 Jacobites lay dead, at least that many wounded, and over three hundred taken prisoner. Cumberland ordered his men to go through the battlefield and kill any survivors. Several authors and historians have written about the brutality of these final killings on the battlefield. Many speculate the numbers killed could be in the hundreds. Many of the men who lay dying could have survived, but Cumberland demanded their deaths. This is, in part, what earned him the nickname "Butcher."92 Charles escaped but his rebellion was over. Anti British
91 NTS, Culloden, 50.
92 NTS, Culloden, 55.
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and English sentiment remained among many of the clans in Scotland, but there would not be another Rising after the '45.93
The historiography of Culloden dates back to the first Jacobite Rebellion in 1715; however, I will primarily focus on the 1745 Rising and the battle at Culloden due to the extensive sources and history.94 Researchers have over the years both criticized and romanticized Culloden. It was, as many Scots viewed it, a gallant fight of Highlanders against those who would attempt to take away their culture. Still today, many view it as a fight for a throne, a religion, and a culture, and at the same time as a civil war pitting Scot against Scot. Many of the Lowlander Scots came from origins similar to the English, Romans, Norman, and Anglo-Saxon while Highlanders have a Celtic origin, similar to parts of Ireland. The difference in culture and history mark a definite divide in highland and lowland beliefs and attitudes. These differences carried over into many of the Jacobite disputes and rebellions. One can see from some of the earliest primary documents in Scotland, on the Jacobite cause, that this was not going to be a simple rebellion. The Jacobites were passionate and ready to fight and die for their cause. The '45 begins with Lord Drummond in Scotland declaring war on the Hanover King and Queen in England and denouncing their authority in Scotland.95
93 Just as there is a significant history prior to Culloden, there is also more following, including the escape of Charles with the help of Flora McDonald, the Highland Clearances, and the many laws that followed as a result of Culloden. Due to the extensive history, I will stop my focus with Culloden.
94 Scotland at this point in time was part of the United Kingdom as per the Act of Union in 1707. Although there were Jacobites in England, the majority fighting at Culloden were Scottish. Because they were fighting against the British Army, I have chosen to use the term "Britain" and not England as there were Scots who were loyal to the crown and fought against the Jacobites.
95 James, the last Roman Catholic king, was deposed during the Glorious Revolution in 1688. His successor, William of Orange, a Protestant from Germany, ruled with James's
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WE Lord JOHN DRUMMOND, Commander in Chief of his most Christian Majesty’s Forces in SCOTLAND. Do hereby Declare, that we are come to this Kingdom, with Written Orders, to make War against the King of ENGLAND, Elector of HANOVER, and all his Adherants, and that the positive Orders we have from his most Christian Majesty are to attack all his Enemies in this Kingdom, whom he has Declared to be those who will not immediately Join, or assist as far will ly in their Power, the Prince of WALES, Regent of SCOTLAND etc. His Ally, and whom he is resolved, with the Concurrence of the King of SPAIN, to Support in the taking Posession of SCOTLAND, ENGLEAND, and IRLAND, if Necessary at the Expence of all the Men and Money, he is Master of, to which three Kingdoms, the Family of STEWART, have so Just and indisputeable a Title. And his most Christian Majest’s Positive Orders are, that his Enemies should be used in this Kingdom in proportion to the Harm they do or Intend to his Royal Highness’s Cause.96
Those fighting against the English believed in backing Prince Charles, who had not been in Scotland. It was more than just a fight against the British throne; they saw it a fight for Scotland. This sentiment went beyond the lairds and the upper class; it spread deep among all classes in the Scottish Highlands. Ironically, while many saw their fight as one against foreign rule, the leader they believed should take the throne could not do so without foreign assistance, something Prince Charles noted himself in a letter to Scotland.97
daughter Mary. The Act of Succession in 1701 set the succession of the British Throne with the Protestant Hanover line. James's son, James Francis Edward Stuart, known as the "Old Pretender" began the Jacobite Rising in 1715 in a failed attempt to restore the Stuarts to the throne.
96 "Jacobite Declaration of War" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http ://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/educati on/resources/j acobite-1745/j acobite-declaration-war/.
To understand what led to the Battle of Culloden Moor, one must have a small understanding of the Jacobite rebellion. These men and women passionately believed in their cause, and their announcement of against England shows their immediate distrust of the Hanover monarchy.
97 "Pretender in his own words" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite-1745/pretender-words/.
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The Jacobites proved to be formidable opponents for the British. They took most of Scotland, and began their march through England. Following their victory at Culloden, the British began their retaking of Scotland as many refused to give up. Correspondence from British soldiers described the Highlanders as primitive and destructive, something they noted as they marched across Scotland. Many "lowlanders" in Scotland were on the side of the British and fought against the Highland Scots.98 Letters to Britain describe Highlander attacks on lowland farms.99 These are, in many cases, the only records we have from this aspect. Charles touched upon this particular view of the Jacobites in a letter to those fighting for and supporting his cause. He dismisses the sentiment that the Jacobites and Highlanders are of "low birth" and desperate. Instead calls for the brave men and women of Scotland to come together, dismissing differences in the name of Scotland. He did not ask them to fight for him, but to fight for their homes.100 This helped to romanticize the Jacobite rebellion and Culloden.101
98 Lowlanders and Highlanders, though they share the same country, typically have different backgrounds. Highlanders share similar dress and culture to the Irish. They come from a background of Gaels and Celts while Lowlanders share a background similar to England as well as similar beliefs.
99 "Securing Scotland" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite-1745/securing-scotland/.
There are many letters written during this time regarding the situation in the Scottish lowlands and highlands. These letters include correspondence from citizens, politicians, and the clergy.
100 "Case for the Jacobites" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite-1745/case-jacobites/. This lengthy letter from Charles acknowledges his absence and attempts to pull together Jacobites who, although believe in a common cause, have a long history of animosity with other clans. He calls upon their faith, their feelings of Scottish nationality, and their belief in a Catholic king.
101 The records prior to Culloden and following Culloden are extensive and for this thesis would be impossible to document most. British primary sources primarily focus on the idea of savage highlanders who only know to kill. A pretender for the throne who could
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There are many primary sources describing the battle on Culloden Moor. They describe the Jacobites as starved, cold and desperate against a well-rested British army led by the "Butcher" Duke of Cumberland. The morning of April 16, 1746, against the better wishes of his advisors, and having held no council meeting, Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Young Pretender, ordered a charge. Lord George Murray, one of the more respected and successful generals in the Jacobite army had hoped for a charge the night before, when Cumberland's troops were celebrating his birthday. Letters from Murray showed he thought this their best opportunity, not the next day when the Jacobites had faced another cold night with no food.
... in short the last three days which were critical our army starved. This was the reason our night march was rendered abortive when we possibly might have surprised and defeat the enemy at Naim, but for want of provisions a third of the army scattered to Inverness he and the others who marched had not the spirits to make it quick as was necessary being faint for want of provisions.102
His disapproval at Charles's insistence at the push against the British, regardless of the weary men in his command is evident, showing the arrogance of Charles who against the better advisement of those who had lived in Scotland all their lives, insisted on this attack.
not attempt to take Scotland without foreign help. The Jacobite sources are mostly a rally to fight for who they saw as the rightful king of Scotland, for their culture. Because these beliefs were so deeply entrenched in Scottish history, (this was not the first Jacobite Rising and many of those fighting had either fought in the first or saw their fathers or uncles or friends fight for the Young Pretender's father. This was what they knew and what they believed in.
102 Lord George Murray Resigns His Command, History of the Highlands and the Highland Clans, ed John S. Keltie, F.S.A. (London: Jack and Fullerton, 1887), 591.
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Image 6: The two armies face off on Culloden Moor: http://www.scotclans.com/scotland/scottish-history/jacobite-scotland/1746-culloden/103
In just over an hour, the Battle of Culloden Moor ended, Charles was escaping
and Cumberland's soldiers killed many of the survivors lying wounded on the battlefield.
The Jacobite Rebellion was over. Similar to Sand Creek, the Jacobites, on their land, lay
dead or dying. One of Cumberland's soldiers described the carnage, "The moor was
covered with blood: and our men, what with killing the enemy, dabbling their feet in the
103 This image shows just how out manned the Jacobites were at Culloden. They were not only cold and tired, but surrounded as well, http://www.scotclans.com/scotland/scottish-history/jacobite-scotland/1746-culloden/
47


blood and splashing it about one another, looked like so many butchers."104 Many other statements from both sides talk about a bloodbath, soldiers begging for mercy as British soldiers killed them on the moor. Cumberland was ruthless following his victory at Culloden. Most authors and historians discuss this relentless killing of Jacobites on the moor. Over two thousand Jacobites died that morning, and with them their cause. A collection of documents published as the Culloden Papers gives an extensive look at the thoughts of the people of the '45. This collection has proved invaluable to those researching the Rising or Culloden specifically.105
Many authors and historians have documented the battle of Culloden Moor, and many emphasize it being the end of the Jacobite cause. Scottish author Stuart Reid describes in detail his ancestors' experiences on the moor. His map, descriptions of the armies, and the charge gives an in depth look at the battle, a method many authors have chosen to use in regards to Culloden Moor.106 Many secondary sources take approaches similar to this; however, there are those whose descriptions are as passionate as the Jacobites were for their cause. This is where the romanticizing of Culloden comes in. Hugh G. Allison's Culloden Tales: Stories from Scotland's Most Famous Battlefield draws upon folklore and stories to give the reader an idea of who the highlanders were
104 James Hunter, Culloden and the Last Clansman, (Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 2001)
105 Culloden Papers (London: T.Cadwell & Davies on the Strand, 1815)
This is a collection of documents from the private collection of Duncan Forbes.
106 Stuart Reid, Culloden Moor, 1746: The Death of the Jacobite Cause, (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002)
48


and what they believed. This history can help explain why the Jacobites felt the need to stand up and fight against the British.107
Following Culloden, political cartoons, paintings and documents depict the Scots as oafish in stature, furthering the savage barbarian idea. David Morier's "An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745" showed a group of Scots at Culloden carrying axes and swords facing off against a more sophisticated British army with guns and proper weaponry. Morier, who traveled with the British army, wanted to show the cartoonish view many had of the Jacobites.108 Depictions of Jacobites, Scots in particular continuously showed them as primitive, possibly to ensure there would not be another rebellion. Their fearsome nature diminished to a childlike ridiculousness minimized the threat they once posed to Britain. The Jacobites had done much damage to England and forced the British army to recognize them as a legitimate threat. By reducing them to comic stature, the threat became far less real and could sway sympathizers from the Jacobite cause. Historians' early ideas of Culloden are primarily a victory of civility over primitive savagery, protestant versus Catholicism, and rationality over temperament.109 Comparisons between the Jacobites and Native Americans inevitably surfaced, and the similarities are striking. Each fought against others who would take and control their
107 Hugh G. Allison, Culloden Tales: Stories from Scotland's Most Famous Battlefield, (Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 2007).
108 Murray Pittock, Great Battles: Culloden, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)
121.
Political cartoons at the time show females dressing as males fighting against the British, Highlanders wearing nothing under their kilts, any manner of mockery to demonstrate the view of them at the time. They are seen as improper, oafish, and almost ignorant. Other cartoons continued to show Jacobite soldiers later in women's clothing attempting to hide from the British Army.
109 Pittock, 121.
49


land, destroy their culture, and deem them as savage monsters incapable of higher levels
of thinking and reason.
Figure 7: Morier's An Incident in the Rebellion of 17451,110 Historian and professor Murray Pittock began to change this view of the highlanders and his narrative is changing the historiography. Pittock's research details a sophisticated political army that may have been outnumbered but was not outgunned or outmaneuvered. Their downfall was Charles's insistence they attack that morning and the British Calvary flanking them. Using archaeology at Culloden, Pittock determined the Jacobite army to be much more professional in their maneuvers than initially shown. He is helping to dispel the myth of the savage, even the "noble savage" idea that began following the romanticism of Culloden. Pittock, in his book Great Battles: Culloden, calls into question the idea that the moor was a poor choice of sites to stand against the
110 David Morier's "An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745", This painting is currently on exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. It is one of four pieces belonging to Cumberland, each depicting a triumphant British army against a less civilized opponent. These are definite scenes of British superiority.
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British. He examines the possible sites that the army had and of them, Culloden gave them the best chance at victory.111
There is much more documentation on Culloden than Sand Creek, in part due to the century that separates them. Colin G. Calloway discusses several of the similarities between Culloden and Sand Creek and those involved in White People, Indians, and Highlanders. Last stands for a way of life, for land, for culture, Culloden and Sand Creek have several similarities. There is one glaring difference though; Culloden was a battle of man against man, each armed and each part of an army, led by generals and tacticians. Sand Creek was a massacre, a surprise attack by a well-armed militia on a group of unsuspecting and ill-armed Native Americans. The armies and governments they fought against saw them as savages, uncivilized and barbaric. Jacobites (highlanders in general) and Native Americans had different religions, a different manner of dress, a different language and to the "civilized" this made them little more than animals. Ironically, following the loss at Culloden, many Scots ventured to North America and many of those worked to help colonize and establish trade with Indians. They had "expertise in dealing with indigenous peoples in frontier zones."112 Ironically, many of the Scots saw
111 Pittock, Culloden, ch 3.
112 Colin G. Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal People and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 33. These similarities is the backbone of this thesis. The idea that each, the Jacobites and the Native Americans were viewed as savages and uncivilized, they fought against a colonizing and superior force and one battle/massacre was essentially the final blow. There were certainly other battles in North America, but Sand Creek stands out as a glaring loss to Native Americans. Culloden was, without question, the end of the Jacobite uprisings. This is why I chose these two locations and how each site is preserved and used in public history.
51


themselves as superior and more civilized to Native Americans, judging them for savagery and backwardness similar to what they faced.113
The extensive history of Culloden Moor and its changes under the National Trust for Scotland I explain in the following chapter. The Highlanders sent to America, the National Trust memorializes those who died on the moor and the British who fought against them at the memorial and museum.
113 Calloway, 66.
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CHAPTER VI
THE PRESERVATION OF CUIL LODAIR/CULLODEN
The Forbes family, owners and lairds of Culloden owned much of the land and Culloden house.114 During the Jacobite Rising in '45, Duncan Forbes, laird and owner, was one of the leading Hanoverian supporters in Scotland. For over one hundred and fifty years, Culloden house remained the family seat. The last laird to live in the house, also named Duncan Forbes, built the memorial cairn, and donated all the land owned by the Forbeses and the house to the National Trust. Eighty years ago, the National Trust of Scotland acquired and began caring for Culloden Moor. Alexander Munro gave two small parcels of land known as the Leanach Farm to the National Trust in 1937 his son gifted more in 1959. This began the full preservation of Culloden Battlefield.115 The location of the final Jacobite battle contains the moor itself, graves, the memorial cairn, and Leanach Cottage, a small thatched roof home on the field. The area still is the site of controversy, even as a site of preservation. Numerous parties have proposed building condominiums, shopping centers, and other developments. Culloden has become a pilgrimage for Scots, particularly those who can date familial ties to the battle at Culloden Moor. In this chapter, I will examine the preservation of Culloden Moor and the buildings that remain, the conservation fight continues for the National Trust at Culloden,
114 The term "laird" is primarily Scottish use. It is interchangeable with the term "lord." Lairds are owners of large parcels of land and have several people working the land under them.
115 The National Trust for Scotland, Culloden (Edinburgh: The Stewarts of Scotland, 2011), 68-71.
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and some of the modern ways the National Trust has enhanced the experience for visitors.116 117
Figure 8: The current conservation boundary for Culloden: https://www.highland.gov.uk/downloads/file/15603/culloden_muir_conservation_area_b
oundary 117
116 Much of this information is directly from my visit and experience at Culloden battlefield which I visited in April 2016. During this trip, I not only visited Culloden just outside of Inverness, I also visited the National Trust of Scotland in Edinburgh to examine their files on Culloden. Their collection is extensive, and I focused my research on the Preservation of Culloden.
117This current conservation map is from the government website but may not include the recent expansion of conservation efforts by the National Trust.
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Upon receiving Culloden, the National Trust for Scotland (NTS) made several efforts regarding the preservation of the buildings on site, the memorials, and conservation of the moor in an attempt to return it to its condition during 1745. The NTS lobbied for the preservation of Culloden due to its cultural and historical significance.118 One of the immediate concerns for the trust was stopping further development on or around Culloden Moor. The NTS has also entrusted architects to help in restoring and preserving some of the older buildings on the site, like Leanach Cottage and the King's Stables. There are several tours available through the NTS, designed to follow the Jacobite history across Scotland, ending with the loss at Culloden. The goal is not to glorify battle, but to show why the Jacobites were fighting, remember who they were, and to also explain the reasons why the British Crown demanded they be stopped. The NTS walks a unique line, highlighting Scottish history while ensuring they tell the British government's position in a respectful and accurate manner.
Leanach Cottage sits on the northeast corner of Culloden Battlefield. The exact historical use of the cottage is unknown. An assessment and architectural survey done by Addyman Archaeology in Edinburgh stated it was built in the early 1700's and likely used as housing for estate officers. The last recorded tenant of the cottage was Belle McDonald who lived there until her death in 1912. Her family gave tours of Leanach Cottage to encourage an interest in Highland history and culture.119 Many historians believe this is where British soldiers took a group of wounded Jacobites waiting for
118 "270 years ago..." Culloden Battlefield, April 15, 2016, Accessed August 19, 2017. https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/270-years-ago/.
119 "Leanach Cottage," Culloden Battlefield, accessed October 1, 2017, https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.eom/2015/10/02/leanach-cottage/.
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execution following the battle of Culloden. Over the years, several people have restored Leanach, almost all keeping with the original materials and look of the cottage. The Gaelic Society of Inverness determined in 1922 during a special meeting that the cottage and several memorials on Culloden Moor were in dire need of repair. Fundraisers resulted in enough funds to work on the cottage and memorials and ensure money was there for future preservation.120 Leanach is one of the few remaining original buildings with a thatched roof, which the NTS maintains and repairs. The NTS originally set up the original visitors center in the Leanach Cottage, but constructed a new building to better accommodate visitors, enhance the experience and help preserve Leanach. The cottage is currently one of the NTS's next projects. The exterior is accessible on Culloden Battlefield; however, it is closed to public at this time.121 122
Figure 9: Photo of Leanach Cottage in the early 20th century. http://www.ambaile. org.uk/en/search/do_quick_search. html?q=leanach&mime_type=.122
120 "Old Leanach Cottage Inverness-Shire," Report prepared by Addyman Archaeology for The National Trust of Scotland, Desk Based Assessment and Architectural Record: March 2009.
http://her.highland.gov.uk/hbsmrgatewayhighland/DataFiles/LibraryLinkFiles/214591.pd
f.
121 This was during my visit to Culloden in April 2016. Signage indicated the cottage would soon be undergoing repairs and in time would be reopened to the public for tours.
122http://www.ambaile.org.uk/en/search/do_quick_search.html?q=leanach&mime_type=. This photo was taken by Mary Ethel Muir Donaldson.
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One of the most striking features on Culloden Moor is the Memorial Cairn. Duncan Forbes erected the cairn in 1881, creating an impressive lasting monument to those who died on Culloden Moor. Forbes finished the work that began in 1858 by Edward Power. Power donated the plaque on the cairn, remembering all who died in 1746 during the Battle of Culloden Moor.123 124 The cairn stands as a testament to the conviction of the Jacobites, the heritage of the highlanders, and the history of Scotland. It stands over six meters high and has a thatched roof similar to the cottage. During the first attempts to preserve Culloden, the Gaelic Society of Inverness enclosed the cairn, repairing its thatched roof. The road that ran close to Culloden was dangerously close to the cairn and was one of the first things changed when preservation began. Clans gather
123 This photo taken by the author of this thesis, Erica Fontenot, during a visit to Culloden in 2016.
124 James L. Coleman, Remembering the Past in Nineteenth Century Scotland, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014) ch 7.
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annually at Culloden and have a memorial ceremony at the cairn, laying wreaths with the
names of different clans lost during the battle.125 126
Figure 11: Culloden Memorial Cairn, photo taken one week after the annual memorial ceremony. Photo taken by Erica Fontenot126
125 Steve Goodwin, "Hundreds at cairn for Culloden ceremony," The Pictou Advocate, June 15, 2016, http://pictouadvocate.com/2016/06/15/hundreds-at-caim-for-culloden-ceremony/, accessed July 28, 2017.
126 The wreaths placed by the clans were still surrounding the caim a week after the ceremony when this picture was taken.
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Figures 12 and 13: The plaques on the memorial cairn. Photos taken by Erica Fontenot127 An archaeological survey at Culloden in 2005 showed that the NTS built the original visitors center across a government line. The National Trust decided to move the center, building the current visitors' center and museum further south, creating a larger building to better accommodate more people and highlight more of the collection. The visitors' center has signage in Gaelic and English, from the entrance sign for CUIL LODAIR to signs on the battlefield marking the graves and the memorials. The National Trust has embraced the Gaelic history of the area, creating an educational memorial and museum. The intention of the center is to have a place for visitors to get a sense of place, to see these objects, be able to touch some of them, see and hear the Gaelic language, immerse themselves in a 360-degree film, and walk the battlefield with a GPS driven audio guide.128 The website for the center gives visitors an idea of what to expect, a background of the battle and the people involved. Symbolism is important in Highland
127 Photos I took of the plaques on the memorial cairn. One donated by Edward Forbes and the other placed by the National Trust of Scotland.
128 This information comes directly from my experience at Culloden in April 2016.
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history and it is used at the visitors' center. The memorials, some signage, and many of the graves make use of symbolism such as thistles representing Scottish ancestry and loyalty to the country, bundles of sticks to show strength in numbers, and butterflies showing hope for the Stuart return.129
The NTS does not just display the Jacobite side of Culloden; through a walk inside of the museum, one side of the hallway displays the Jacobite experience and the other side the British army experience. It is a timeline of events with audio and objects to give the visitor an in depth experience. The battlefield gives a similar experience as well, showing the perspective of the Jacobites as well as the British. Living history plays an important role, again both Jacobite and British army, with actors explaining weaponry, field surgery, and clothing.
129 "Schools and learning guide to Culloden" National Trust for Scotland, Accessed April 4, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/What-we-do/Article/Schools-and4eaming-guide-to-Culloden.
The importance of the symbolism is explained in the appendix. Due to its length and number of symbols, I chose to only include some examples with further explanation.
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Figures 14 and 15: Signage on Culloden Battlefield showing the Gaelic and English and a view of the Culloden visitors center from the battlefield.130
The National Trust for Scotland has further plans for the battlefield. The forestry service owned the land for many years. The NTS has cut down many of the trees in an attempt to restore the field to its condition during April of 1746. One of the biggest points of difficulty in this comes from invasive plants following felling many of the trees.131 The NTS still plans on further expansion of the site, with an attempt to move the road further away. There is more evidence for archaeological finds in extended areas that the NTS wishes to survey and uncover.132 The site is more than a visitors center, a cottage, and the memorial cairn. Memorials and gravestones mark where it is believed the clans fell. Duncan Forbes erected the memorials for the clans with the information from locals who had records on where they were buried. The English Stone, to the west of Leanach Cottage, does not necessarily denote just the English forces; it also remembers the Scottish armies that fought with the British army. The Well of the Dead marks the place where a clan leader fell and the Cumberland Stone was placed where it is believed Cumberland stood and directed the battle. Throughout the battlefield is the Culloden
1301 chose these two pictures to highlight the care and detail the National Trust for Scotland has done with Culloden Battlefield. I took each of these photographs during April 2016.
131 "The Culloden Battlefield Newsletter," Smithton Primary accessed September 12, 2017.
http://smithtonprimary.weebly.eom/uploads/l/0/3/9/10397862/culloden_community_new sletterissuel .pdf
There is no exact information for what invasive plant species are causing problems at Culloden. One of the answers by the NTS has been to bring in five Highland ponies to help stop the spread of the plants.
132 The National Trust for Scotland, Culloden (Edinburgh: The Stewarts of Scotland, 2011), 71.
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walk. This experience, designed by the NTS, combines a walk through the battlefield with a GPS audio guide that instructs the visitor where to stop and hear about a particular point in the battle.133
Culloden offers visitors a dual depiction of the day of battle. The visitors' center museum has evidence from the point of view from Scotland and England. There are even memorials to the English on the field itself. The importance of this is their willingness to show each side of history, looking at this battle from different lenses. Visitors will see heroes from both sides, they will be able to hear and see evidence from each government and army, and be able to interpret the evidence for themselves. This is not to say the museum does not favor the Scots; it most certainly does, but their goal is to show as much of what happened that day as possible, and as accurately as possible. The National Trust for Scotland lists on their website that the site contains artifacts from both Jacobites and the British Army and depicts both sides of the controversy. They have been successful in doing just that while still respectfully paying memorial to those lost. The National Trust wants the public to learn from this event and this location, to stress its importance in Scottish and British history.134
Currently the National Trust in Scotland is facing another controversy over their trademark of "Culloden." By trade marking the name, local business are unable to use "Culloden" in their wares. Many Scots, particularly in Inverness see Culloden as
133 "Jacobite Stories: Culloden Today" The National Trust for Scotland, February 22, 2017, accessed August 2, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/What-we-do/Article/Jacobite-Stories-Culloden-today.
This information was a combination of research as well as first-hand experience.
134 Although Scotland is a part of Britain, I separated them out in this context because of the importance it has for Scotland as a country and for Britain as a whole.
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something for everyone in the area, something that is their history and not something to be controlled. The National Trust claims that controlling the term "Culloden" will help protect the integrity of Culloden and its history. Their claim is that third parties are profiting off these locations, which takes funds away from the National Trust and their ability to fund Culloden.135 This issue is still pending a resolution at this time. While I do understand the need to ensure funds continue to flow into the National Trust to continue protecting Culloden, I do not believe the restrictions a trademark would put on local businesses would be beneficial to the area, the NT, or Inverness tourism. Culloden Battlefield is a key tourist destination and the town of Inverness contains many shops that use the name of the battlefield, those involved, and center their business on this historical event. Forbidding the use of the name or restricting it could, in my opinion, damage tourism in Inverness and potentially detract interest.
The recent referendums for Scottish independence do not seem to have had an effect on the preservation of Culloden or the National Trust for Scotland. A document put out by members of Scottish Parliament do not mention the future of preservation.136 What this does show however is the fight for Scottish independence from Britain is ongoing. Many do not believe in a separate Scotland as the referendum failed by an overwhelming margin.
135 Sally Hind, "Battle for Heritage as Scots National Trust slammed for trade marking Culloden and Bannockburn," Daily Record, August 9, 2017, accessed August 17, 2017, http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish-news/battle-heritage-scots-national-trust-10953557.
136 Scotland's Future: Your Guide to an Independent Scotland, (Edinburgh: The Scottish Government, 2013)
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CHAPTER VII
COMPARISON OF THE PEOPLE, EVENTS, AND PRESERVATION
There are truly no apples to apples comparison of Sand Creek and Culloden. My goal with this thesis is to examine two sites of tragedy and shame, places where people fought on what had been their land. These proud people stood up for years for their heritage, their beliefs and their culture. One immediate difference between them is the fact that Sand Creek was not a battle but a massacre. Culloden was the final battle of a yearlong struggle of Jacobites against the British government and army. There has also been a significantly larger period since Culloden than Sand Creek. Part of the inspiration for this particular topic is a recent resurgence in the literature of Scots in the U.S. and Canada and comparisons between them and Native Americans. These particular sites highlight a complicated history and a legacy that each group holds onto. The similarities between the two groups also call for further inspection.
"Savage"
Each held their land and kept their traditions until another government came in and took control of the land. The "civilized" newcomers said the highlanders and the Native Americans were savage, primitive, and uneducated. Each had long traditions of storytelling, song, and spoke in languages difficult to understand or learn. There were close ties with the wilderness and their manner of dress was vastly different.137 These groups of people, with an ocean separating them were similar in many ways and those who interacted with each noticed commonalities. They did not conform to defined
137 Colin G. Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 60-61.
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civility, which to these newcomers made them barbaric and backwards. The colonizers wanted to bring civilization to these people, religion, language, and mannerisms to overcome what they called barbaric ways. The colonizing people saw native dress, religion, and way of life as a sign of their ignorance and crudeness. Both people had strong connections to the land and nature. With each group, community revolved around a key leader, a tribal elder or clan leader with strong ties of kinship, each had strong family beliefs. Some clans aligned themselves with larger ones for protection, and different branches of tribes who joined for protection. Their histories are one of the most important similarities, an empire confronting them, seeking their land, forcing them to change and leave behind their culture, and at an important junction in history.138
Location
Sand Creek and Culloden are each under the protection of government preservation agencies, the National Park Service and the National Trust for Scotland. These locations are important to Native Americans and Highlanders alike. Memorial ceremonies still take place annually and schools use them for educational purposes. They exist as an opportunity for future generations to understand their history. A difference in preservation is vast. Archaeological surveys at Sand Creek and Culloden have helped locate important artifacts relating back to the events that cost the lives of hundreds. The artifacts have played key roles in locations.139 The National Trust and the people of Scotland knew where the battle took place, but these surveys have expanded the site,
138 Colin G. Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008)
139 Surveys at Culloden have uncovered ammunition rounds, coins from Germany, and pendants.
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showing it is much larger than originally thought. The primary focus of the NST is to continue expanding the site to ensure they protect the full battlefield. A major road has been moved once before and they are attempting to do so again. The current attempts to restore the battlefield to its condition during the battle of Culloden show their desire to reach out to the past to save it for the future. Each location has a walking tour for visitors, allowing them to see where the tragedies took place.
At Sand Creek, again archaeology actually helped to find the exact location of the massacre. Arrowheads, bullets, and cannonballs show the path of the army and the Indians. Immediately following the massacre, Native Americans were scattered, displaced, and unable to properly commemorate or preserve the site, as the ones who survived escaped to other tribes or found themselves taken prisoner. Finding the site took many years of surveys, oral histories, and aerial photography. Since the NPS took over preservation, areas have been set aside for specific tribal use. There has not been the change in the area the way there was in Scotland. It is still fairly the same; no major roadway goes through the area, so they did not have that issue to address like Culloden. Sand Creek has moved, one of the factors making finding the location difficult.
Tourism and Education
Culloden has been more successful in their interpretation and their focus on education. This of course could due to the length of time that passed. Unlike at Sand Creek, colonizers did not force the Scots from their lands. The Highland Clearances, in the years following Culloden, did result in mass murders and massacre, but it was not what the Native Americans faced. Having an extensive walking path with the GPS audio file made for a unique experience. It allows the visitor to have a firsthand view of events
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from the Battle of Culloden. Sand Creek also could benefit from a visitors center similar
to Culloden. Currently a small trailer serves as a visitor center, something wholly inadequate for a site of such importance. A mixture of visitor's center and museum with collections and living history is highly educational and something that the Native Americans deserve. At Culloden, this allows the Jacobites and Highlanders to embrace their culture and their heritage and share it with visitors. An experience like this at Sand Creek could help bridge the chasm Native Americans still face between themselves and others who still view them with racist attitudes. The popularity of movies, novels, and television shows can increase interest in these sites, which in turn can lead to more people wanting to ensure the preservation of Culloden and Sand Creek.
Controversial sites of tragedy such as these are in particular need of preservation. In the case of Sand Creek, we gain the opportunity to learn about Native American cultures in a pivotal time of American history. We learn what events led to the decision to attack Sand Creek, and why Colonel Chivington deemed the attack necessary. Without both sides of this story, we cannot understand why it was so horrific in nature. We risk losing an understanding of our past, of Native American beliefs and heritage, and we further the divide between cultures. It is important to understand the why behind a tragedy. Preservation and heritage tourism can help with this understanding and education.
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CHAPTER VIII
CONCLUSION
What I have shown in this thesis is the importance of the continued research, preservation, conservation, and education regarding Sand Creek and Culloden. Each location has a vast history and is important to understanding the history between its people and the governments involved. Due to the time difference between the two events, there has naturally been more time to preserve Culloden, to tell the history and construct the site. Sand Creek is heading in that direction. Culloden is a successful example of embracing a site of devastation and loss and using it to tell the history of Scotland, of Highlanders, and of the Jacobite movement. They do not ignore the British aspect, they do not vilify the British Army or Government, and instead they do a superior job of telling both sides of the story. The site is an educational memorial; it is respectful and a continuous work in progress.
Sand Creek, in the time since the massacre, has changed, as has the attitude toward Native Americans. For the NPS, finding the location, designating it as National Historic Site, and working closely with the tribes involved, has added invaluable historiography to the site. Moving forward and creating something similar to what is found at Culloden has been something the NPS is moving towards, a more interactive, educational site for the victims, their descendants, and for future generations.
Preservation is particularly important in locations such as these, with contested and controversial histories. To understand what happened and why, we must be able to see both sides of the story. This will help honor the victims, remember the losses, and ensure we remember cultures and heritages.
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APPENDIX A
UPDATE ON SAND CREEK NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE SEPTEMBER 2017
Alexa Roberts, park superintendent for the Sand Creek National Historic Site, updated me on the plans for Sand Creek and its updates. The general management plan, approved last year after discussions between the NPS and tribal delegates, will begin implementation in 2018. The plan took over nine years to design and directly addresses tribal needs and concerns. The tribes had a major hand in designing the future of Sand Creek NHS. It will become an experience similar to Culloden. Care is taken to ensure the sensitive creek area is not damaged. A raised walking trail through the park will begin with visitors following the path of Chivington's militia. A ranger will meet visitors at the location of the army's gear drop and will follow a military approach. Once reaching Sand Creek and the location of the massacre, the trail will continue by following the Native American flight to the sand pits. Signage along the path will explain key events during the massacre. It is important that there is little to no impact to the site itself, hence the raised walkway. The trail is a total of three miles includes a new visitor's contact center at the park. A new visitor's center and museum in Eads, with more interpretation will allow visitors to see some of the artifacts found and on display. The new center will give reasons behind the massacre, the immediate impact and the aftermath. The full implementation will take approximately five years. The finished site will allow visitors to have a very personal contemplative experience, showing the power of landscape.140
140"General Management Plan for Sand Creek Massacre NHS Prepared for Public Review," National Park Service, accessed September 8, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/news/general-management-plan-for-sand-creek-massacre-nhs-prepared-for-public-review.htm.
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APPENDIX B
SAND CREEK: NOTABLE NAMES
Due to the sheer number of names and dates involved in Sand Creek, in order to understand the ramifications, scope, and the events, I have chosen to include a more comprehensive list.
Native Americans:
Black Kettle Leader of the Southern Cheyenne who spearheaded efforts for peace with Evans prior to the Sand Creek Massacre. He escaped Sand Creek and continued to counsel for peace. He was killed at a later massacre in Washita, Oklahoma in an attack from George Custer.
White Antelope Cheyenne chief who was present at the Camp Weld Conference with Black Kettle in September 1864.
George Bent Son of George Bent and Owl Woman who escaped Sand Creek and later joined the Dog Soldiers to fight against American troops. He provided a participant history of Sand Creek.
Niwot (Left Hand) Chief of the Southern Arapahoe in Colorado territory who was also present with Black Kettle at Camp Weld. He was wounded at Sand Creek and died a few days later.
Dog Soldiers A band of Cheyenne who fought against the United States believing peace was not possible.
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United States Government and Military:
John Evans
Col. John Chivington
Major Edward Wynkoop
Captain Silas Soule
Lieutenant Joseph Cramer
Doctor, politician, and businessman who became the second territorial governor of Colorado. Evans established a unit led by Colonel Chivington to fight against Indian attacks. Evans was forced to resign after Sand Creek as territorial governor. He was in charge of Indian relations. Former Methodist Minister who helped John Evans found University of Denver. He led the Third Regiment against the Native Americans at Sand Creek.
Well respected officer who brought Black Kettle to the Camp Weld Conference. He offered safety to the tribes under Black Kettle at Sand Creek and was notified by Cramer and Soule about the massacre.
An officer in Chivington's Third Regiment. He refused to fire against Native Americans at Sand Creek and was one of the men to inform Major Wynkoop about the massacre. Cramer, like Soule, refused to fire upon the Native Americans at Sand Creek. He testified against Chivington at his trial in 1865.
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APPENDIX C
CULLODEN: NOTABLE NAMES
Jacobites
Charles Edward Stuart The Young Pretender, Stuart was the son of James
III, the Old Pretender who fought to retake the throne during the 1715 Rising.
Lord Murray One of Stuart's most loyal and well known generals.
He counseled Stuart against taking their rebellion into England.
Duke of Perth James Drummond one of the more notable and high
ranking Jacobite members. His brother died on the battlefield during the Battle of Culloden.
Donald Cameron A prominent Highland chief whose support was key
for Stuart during the rebellion. He escaped Culloden with the Young Pretender and made his way to France.
Simon Fraser The Chief of Clan Fraser at Lovat, originally he was
a supporter for the Hanoverian throne, but changed sides in 1745 to support Stuart. He was taken prisoner following Culloden and beheaded in 1747.
British Army and Government
Duke of Cumberland "The Butcher" Cumberland is perhaps most well
known for his victory over the Jacobite army at
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Culloden. He earned his nickname, in part, for his
King George II
Duncan Forbes
Major James Wolfe
orders of killing all survivors on the field following the British victory.
Hanoverian King of Britain during the 1745 Jacobite Rising. He was the last monarch bom in Germany from the Hanover line.
Lord Culloden was a politician and Hanoverian supporter whose family seat was Culloden House. Forbes spoke out against Cumberland following the killing of Jacobite survivors.
Wolfe refused to shoot a highland soldier under direct order and supervision of Cumberland. He claimed he would not lose his honor by killing a wounded man.
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APPENDIX D
SAND CREEK TIMELINE
1849 - California Gold Rush sends thousands west
1851 - Treat of Fort Laramie defines land in Eastern Colorado, between the North Platte and Arkansas River as Cheyenne and Arapahoe territory
1854 - Kansas Nebraska Act allows settlers to build on the pre-defined Native American territory
1858 - Gold found in the South Platte River and Cherry Creek in Denver starting a new gold rush
1861 - Treaty of Fort Wise signed by Black Kettle and White Antelope ceded land to the United States Government, believed at the time by the same chiefs to be beneficial for the tribes.
1861 - The Colorado Territory established
1862 - John Evans appointed as second territorial governor of Colorado by President Abraham Lincoln
1862-1863 - Several attacks by bands of Native Americans angered by broken treaties with the U.S. Government.
1864 - In August, under the orders of Governor Evans, the Third Regiment is formed to fight against hostile Native Americans. It is led by Colonel John M. Chivington.
1864 - In September, Evans meets with chiefs at Camp Weld, ordering them to stay away from hostile bands and remain at Sand Creek to avoid hostilities.
1864 - On November 29, Chivington and his men attack the peaceful Araphao and Cheyenne at Sand Creek, killing most, mutilating the bodies, and inciting one of the most controversial attacks during the American-Indian Wars.
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APPENDIX E
CULLODEN TIMELINE
1715 - The Jacobite rising begins for James III, The Old Pretender begins led by the Earl of Mar
1716 - James Edward Stuart leaves Scotland for France ending the '15 Rising
1745 - Charles Edward Stuart, The Young Pretender, lands in Scotland, beginning the '45 Rising
1745 - The Jacobites land a major defeat against the British against Prestonpans and follow the British to England
1745 - In December, much needed support from France does not show for the Jacobites forcing the Jacobites to retreat from Derby.
1746 - In January Jacobites capture Inverness and Falkirk but suffer a loss at Stirling
1746 - On April 16, the Jacobites suffered a crushing defeat against British forces. The defeat forces Charles to escape Scotland and results in the end of the Jacobite rebellion.
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APPENDIX F
LIST OF IMAGES
FIGURES:
1. Notice posted by the U.S. Army calling for volunteers................16
2. Letter from Black Kettle..............................................19
3. The B ent-Hyde Map s.................................................28
4. Sign outside Sand Creek National Historic Site.......................32
5. Cumberland and Stuart.................................................34
6. Illustration of the armies facing off at Culloden....................38
7. Morier's An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745........................40
8. Conservation boundary of Culloden.....................................50
9. Early photo of Leanach Cottage.......................................53
10. Photo of Leanach Cottage in 2016....................................53
11. Memorial Cairn at Culloden...........................................54
12. Plaque on the Memorial Cairn........................................55
13. Plaque on the Memorial Cairn........................................55
14. Signage showing English/Gaelic.......................................57
15. Culloden visitors center.............................................57
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PRESERVING SAND CREE K AND CULLODEN: THE IMPORTANCE OF PRESERVATION IN CONT ROVERSIAL TRAGEDIES by ERICA FONTENOT B.A., University of Colorado Denver, 2013 A t hesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History Program 201 8

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ii This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Erica Fontenot has been approved for the History Program b y Thomas J. Noel , Chair Marjorie Levine Clark Richard Smith Date: May 12, 2018

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iii Fontenot, Erica (MA, History Program) Preserving Sand Creek and Culloden: How Preservation of Tragedy and Horror Enhances Education and Memory for the Future While Respecting Memory and Culture Thesis directed by Professor T homas Noel ABSTRACT Many think of preservation in terms of old build ings or monuments. P reservation also revolves around battlefields, massacre sites, and tragedy , important to national memory and heritage. Events like the Sand Creek Massacre in Colorado and the Battle of Culloden Moor in Scotland resulted in the deaths of hundreds, the persecution of thousands, and a turning point in history for each country. Some t ourists, who visit places like this out of macabre curiosity, others visit them out of remembrance, and still others s ee them as a vital piece of history. The p opularity of these places is rising, and with that, the importance of conserving them for the future. Each location has a vastly different history with some key similarities. Native people are fighting against an incoming army, fighting for survival, his tory, and heritage. These fights at Sand Creek and Culloden left the earth stained with blood, the near eradication of cultures, and years of controversy. These are, in part, the reasons national government organizations need to preserve these spaces caref ully for future generations. The history and the controversy draw people in, invite curiosity, and are excellent tools for education. We can learn much from them and can teach this to future generations. Sand Creek and Culloden feature the history and heri tage of different cultures, military history of each country, and even a history of tolerance . How these sites are preserved and presented to the public is not only a key factor in their conservation and care, but also in how accurately they portray the pa st to the public. We owe it to the memory of those who died and those who have yet to

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iv learn. We owe it to ourselves to preserve this history and these spaces; what we receive in return is invaluable. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I re commend its publication. Approved: Thomas J. Noel

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v D EDICATION My grandmother always told me I could go to college and get my degree, and in my mind I still hear her say "I told you that you could do it baby girl." She raised me, read to me, told me stories, and was there for me to gossip like "two little old ladies at a fence post." I wanted to start this path before her death, but I kept putting it off. I always thought I had tomorrow to make her proud of me for starting school. Then tomorrow did not come. That has not stopped me from looking to her for inspiration when things get tough. When I reach an obstacle or think I cannot do it anymore, I hear her voice in my mind and remember being a little girl and her telling me she would be proud of me not matter what. So here I am, a girl from a small village in Louisiana, writing a thesis, and getting ready to get my Masters Degree and I hear the voice of Miss Agnes in my mind telling me, " I told you youngun. " She was right, I could do i t and I did, and she was with me every single step of the way even though I lost her years ago. Thank you Mamaw, thank you for all those books, and thank you for putting up with me. This is for you!

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vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It took me longer than some to start college, and the path has taken almost ten years from those first classes for my bachelors to my masters. I doubted myself quite a bit along the way but I had some wonderful people there to encourage me, and some of those who were just as surprised as I wa s that I have done this. For my grandmother, my Mamaw, Agnes Bearden, who raised me, put up with the stubborn child I was, and encouraged me my whole life, I wis h you could be here to see me, but I know you are watching. My mom, Deborah Boyd, you were righ t again, I can do it, and I love you for reminding me . To m y aunt Marsha Bearden (KK), you were there for me growing up always encouraging me, than k you for always telling me to keep trying. Lauren Cross, thank you for being there during this entire journey, from burritos in lab to Top Gear, London, and beyond. Glen Butterfield, Marie von Haas, and Laura Hogg, my fellow grad students, you were there encouraging me and helping me through some tough times during grad school. I could not have done this without you. Lastly, but certainly not least, thank you to my professors, especially Dr. Tom Noel, Dr. Marjorie Levine Clark, and Dr. Richard Smith. Dr. S mith, you helped me find my love of British history as an undergrad , I miss being a part of your classes, especially on discussion days. Dr. Levine Clark, you showed me how to be a historian , how to find my evidence and analyze it through a historical lens . Dr. Noel, you helped me realize what I want to do when I grow up , your encouragement as a mentor has been invaluable . Thank you in particular to the three of you for being there through comps, this thesis, and for helping to guide me through this entire process.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 1 II. DARK HISTORY AND PRESERVATION ................................ ........................... 5 III. NATIONAL TRUSTS, PUBLIC HISTORY, AND PRESERVATION ................. 9 T he N ational P ark S ervice ................................ ................................ ....................... 9 T he N ational T rust f or S cotland ................................ ................................ ............ 12 IV. SAND CREEK ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 14 M assacre and C ontroversy ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 F inding S and C reek ................................ ................................ ................................ 26 H istoriography ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 32 V. CULLODEN ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 37 '45 R ising ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 38 B attle of C ulloden M oor ................................ ................................ ........................ 40 H istoriography ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 47 VI. THE PRESERVATION OF CULLODEN ................................ ............................ 51 L eanach C ottage ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 53 M emorial C airn ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 55 B attlefield and F uture of Culloden ................................ ................................ ........ 57 VII. COMPARISON OF THE PEOPLE, EVENTS, PRESERVATION ..................... 6 2 VIII. CONC LUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 6 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 6 7 APPENDIX A. U pdate on S and C reek NHS ................................ ................................ .................. 7 3

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viii B. S and C reek N otable N ames ................................ ................................ ................... 7 4 C. C ulloden N otable N ames ................................ ................................ ....................... 7 6 D. S and C reek T imeline ................................ ................................ .............................. 7 8 E. C ulloden T imeline ................................ ................................ ................................ . 7 9 F. L ist of I mages ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 80

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There are m any sites around the world that are place s of tragedy, where hun dreds of people lost their life and atrocities occurred beyond imagination . Many people would think the world should forget these places and let time erase these sites of horror and tragedy. L et the grass grow, let development take over, and let people move on, erase the past to heal the future. "Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it." George Santayana coined the phrase and it applies well to many of these locations of tra gedy, shame, and horror. The preservation of these places is not just important to avoid repeating past mistakes, it is to remember lives lost, cultures almost erased, and heritage of a people. We preserve them and in many cases return them to a condition similar to what they were in during the tragedy. Just as important as the preservation is the ability to alter the narrative over time. Some question the need to preserve sites such as these , these locations of death. Why preserve the location when we ca n read the history, take a class, or watch a show? Is the preservation necessary? In short, the answer is yes. The National Park Service, which cares for many battlegrounds, buildings, and monuments that portray or remind us of tragedy, answered this quest ion. We cannot learn or fully understand these events from a book or a lecture. Print, spoken word or film cannot compete with being able to immerse oneself in the sights, smells, and first hand viewing of a place of tragedy. 1 To understand 1 T. Gosset, "Why Save Civil War Sites," National Park Service , accessed September 14, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/abpp/cwsac/cws2.html. Although this article was about Civil War locations, it adequately describes the reasons behind saving other sites of tra gedy and death.

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2 a battle, we c an look at maps, read strategies and correspondence from those involved, but this will not give the same understanding as being on the field itself, looking across to the point were adversarial forces gathered. We can understand a massacre differently by s tanding where the combatants stood, looking across the distance and imagining the scene when enemies clashed . Other tragedies, like the holocaust, have a different impact between reading about them and standing at the remains of a preserved camp. When one see s memorials and the rooms where people died , it can ha ve a deep impact on the psyche. Preservation is no longer just beautiful architecture or landscape; it now encompasses shameful, tragic locations. These places include battlefields, prisons, asylu ms, and internment camps. These locations are more difficult to manage and preserve. One must look at the event with sensitivity for those who died, interpret and display the history with care to not offend or ignore. The most successful applications of pr eservation regarding these dark history sites include perspectives of the descendants, the culture s , and the people who have a stake in the site. For example, mak ing sure to include Jewish voices in interpreting and preserving places regarding the Holocaust, or Native Americans regarding locations like Sand Creek will ensure that not only is the location preserved in a sensitive and proper manner, it will also more accurately tell the story. Public interest is beginning to focus on these places, and on ensuring history books and the site s tells the correct story, not a white washed tale rife with racism or prejudice. 2 2 Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with Difficult Heritage , ed. William Logan and Keri Reeves, (New York: Routledge, 2009) 10 11. This series of essays discusses more than the sites I am focusing on. It also includes sites from internment camps, genocide locations, and battlefields.

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3 All sides of the story are important, but the story the victims puts things in a different context . Their history and their culture is what we will learn from and remember. The way professionals deal with these difficult sites will vary from country to country. Each type of site will have a different set of challenges. In this thesis , I focus on two locations, one from the United States , Sand Creek, and one from Britain, Culloden. These sites are similar in their history ; people defending what had been their land against a better armed invading army. Preservation at these locations pl ays a key role in understanding the culture of Native Americans and Highlanders, both people once looked upon as savage, barbaric, and uncivilized. Through the locations, we can better get a sense of who these groups were, their history, and heritage. Futu re generations learn from the preservationists working with Native Americans and Jacobite Scots. They will learn w hat happened from the victim's point of view, why they took the stands they did, and what was lost and what was at stake. By examining exactly how preservation has played a role, I will explore what makes them successful, and what preservationists can change . I will examine the historiography of Sand Creek and Culloden to look at how changing attitudes have affected preservation and public views on the sites. Why do we need to alter the narrative and to change the interpretation and the way that people look at these events? As time goes on, and as more evidence is uncovered and the interpretation changes, the display of history should change as well. Attitudes about events alter as do how we see people, races, and different cultures. These preserved sites, especially these sites of tragic history, are particularly susceptible to the need for change. A museum or memorial dedicated to the western expansion in the United States would differ in presentation and design today versus one hundred years

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4 ago. Changing attitudes and better understanding of different cultures is an opportunity for historians to share this knowledge. In the following chapter s, I will explore what is dark history, the national organizations care for these sites I have researched, and the sites themselves. In chapter 2, I explain what I mean by dark history and why it is important to this research. Chapter 3 examines the Nation al Park Service and the National Trust, the two organizations entrusted with the preservation with Sand Creek and Culloden. My goal is to describe their importance , to explain how history changes and how historians can use this change to educate with prese rvation . Chapter 4 will discuss Sand Creek, the massacre and the preservation. Chapter 5 similarly will describe the events at Culloden while I cover the extensive preservation history of the site in Chapter 6 , including the land, architecture, and collect ions . In Chapter 7, I will compare the two locations to explain wh y I chose these specific sites and explain the importance of heritage tourism in controversial locations.

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5 CHAPTER II DARK HISTORY, TRAGED Y, PRESERVATION, AND TOURISM Dark h istory, pieces of history that contain an aura of tragedy, sadness, or evil about them, has long fascinated the public . B uildings and various locations bring in people who want to be at the place of dark event s , to help remember those who died, or to learn more about th e victims and their lives. These places include sites like Auschwitz in Germany, the Japanese relocation camps in the United States, and Gettysburg Battlefield in Pennsylvania. These locations not only save a vital piece of history, they also remember the dead, their families, and provide an outlet for education about something many shy away from due to negative connotation s . Due, in part, to historians, educators, re searchers, and archaeologists, f ederal and state organizations highlight the value of these places when once they may have shunned them, feeling a stigma in remembering such a negative part of our past. Preservation plays an integral role in remembering the victims, paying respects to them, and maintaining a key piece of history. Pairing preser vation with t ourism aids with education and is a very important part these sites of tragedy . Tourism at these sites , often referred to as dark tourism or thanatourism , is becoming increasingly popular in academic and entertainment. 3 Locations like those listed above and others like Jack the Ripper tours in London, the Hiroshima museum, or more recently the site of the World Trade Centers in New York City can easily be used for educational purposes or easily exploited. In major cities around the world, cem eteries offer tours, highlight the famous interred there, and usually host haunted tours during 3 Thanatourism comes from the Latin term Thanatos, from the Greek god of death.

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6 Halloween. In doing this, they not only cater to th ose looking for the spooky or macabre, they take the opportunity to educate visitors about local history, who is buried there, their significance, and their deeds. 4 Preservation of these locations becomes increasingly important as the popularity of dark tourism increases the opportunity for research and education is increased. What draws people to sites of tra gedy, violence, and loss? Why do people come to these places where people have died, where horrific events took place, and places that evoke emotions like shock and disbelief alongside sadness and regret? While this is not something that I will fully explo re in this thesis, it is a key piece of it. They draw people to them out of national pride, morbid curiosity, heritage, history, or remembrance, and each of these plays a role into why sites of pain are major tourist attractions. Some historians claim dea th and violence draw people in, enticing their curiosity. 5 These sites claim heritage, education, tourism, and history as part of their core foundation. They draw people in to capitalize on this fascination. This is in no way a bad thing. As I will show wi th this thesis, there are places that can do this successfully, educating and preserving history for future generations. The most successful are able to create a tasteful memorial to those lost, maintaining the sanctity of the location while telling a trag ic story. They can recreate a horrific event, some can examine two sides of the same coin without disrespecting the victims, and many can instill a sense of national pride or heritage in visitors. This is not to say that all of these places are tasteful; t here are those 4 Philip R. Stone, "Dark Tourism Consumption: A Call for Research," eReview of Tourism Research vol. 3 no. 5, 2005, 109 117. 5 H orror and Human Tragedy Revisited . ed. Gregory Ashworth and Rudi Hartmann, (New York: Cognizant Communication Corp, 2001) ch 1.

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7 that exploit the event, the victims, and play on fears, gore, or shock. Unfortunately, just as there are the good, we will have the bad. In this thesis, I will examine two locations, Sand Creek in Colorado and Culloden in Scotland, both ex amples of this dark tourism and both protected by national organizations. These places and the organizations that protect them are examples of the educational value gained from dark tourism. T he National Trust in Scotland has maintained and preserved Culloden Battlefield, the location of the final battle of the 17 45 Rising , a Scottish rebellion against the British Monarchy . It is an impressive example of battlefield preservation with various historical and educational aspects. Sand Creek in Colorado is a similar site, the location o f the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864 where hundreds of Native Americans died during an unprovoked attack from a U.S. militia . 6 I will explain how preservation at Culloden enhances the location for education, tourism, and cultura l heritage and how preservationists and historians can apply a similar method at Sand Creek. At both sites, people made a stand for their culture and way of life in an attempt to save who they were and what they believed in. I will further explain each eve nt, its cause, repercussions, and the conservation of the locations. Consequently, I will look at these two locations as important pieces of a darker side of history, sites of tragedy, shame, and extreme loss. It is not just important to examine the pres ervation and the history of these locations, but also how historians have written about them over time. This historiography 6 The Jacobite Rising in 1745 was a battle between Jacobites, those who supported the restoration of a Stuart to the British thr one, and the British government. The Sand Creek Massacre was the slaughter of a peaceful band of Native Americans by a U.S. army regiment.

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8 is a key aspect of how preservation can help further education at these sites. It helps to explain the changing attitudes about the places and the people. Sand Creek has an impressive array of primary evidence including personal correspondence, congressional hearings, and scientific surveys. The secondary literature is just as impressive and I will explore it in more detail in the ensu ing chapters . An important recent work is Ari Kelman's A Misplaced Massacre . Kelman explains the malleability of history as well as landscape. Gregory Michno, wrote The Three Battles of Sand Creek looking at the massacre, the hearings, and the aftermath. W illiam R. Dunn and Reginald Craig wrote books that help readers understand the events of the day, from the perspective of the army. Dunn's The Fighting Parson and Craig's I Stand by Sand Creek do not fully justify the actions taken by the army, but they of fer a better understanding of the frame of mind of the men at that time. Culloden's literature, similar to Sand Creek's, contains a vast array of primary literature including government documents to secondary literature that explains the Jacobite cause. S tuart Reid's Culloden Moor and Culloden: 1746 Battlefield Guide are examples of why this event and why this place is so important to Scottish Highland history. Murray Pittock wrote Great Battles: Culloden , which looks at the battle in a new way, changing t he way historians analyze the battle and preserve the site.

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9 CHAPTER III NATIONAL TRUSTS, PUB LIC HISTORY, AND PRE SERVATION Government agencies like the National Trust of Scotland and the U.S. National Park Service manage historical properties, monuments, buildings, and many historically significant sites. They care for the upkeep, maintenance, and preservation of various locations important for cultural, historical, or heritage reasons. The Na tional Park Service can date its beginnings back to Stephen T. Mather, conservationist and businessman who went to Washington in 1915 as assistant secretary of the Interior. He successfully lobbied for the creation of a single Federal office to manage all National Parks. Appealing to business, politicians, and media, Mather and his legal assistant, Horace Albright , were instrumental in the creation of the National Park Service (NPS). They secured lands and funds, and served as the first two directors for t he NPS. 7 In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson created the National Park Service as a federal organiza tion to look over and care for n atio nal parks in the United States. Prior to this, parks, monuments and historical sites were all under the Department of the Interior, managed independently of one another. The U.S. Army managed sites such as Yellowstone prior to the creation of the NPS. Mather, as first director for the NPS, pushed for the creation of more parks along the rail lines . He believed that Americans should be able to enjoy these spaces, and in doing so, this would help save these natural spaces for future generations. 8 The idea of creating national parks along rail li nes increased the opportunity for more people to appreciate the 7 Marian Albright Schneck, "Horace Marden Albright," The National Park Service. Accessed September 10, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/sontag/albright.htm. 8 Alfred Runte, National Parks, The American Experience (Taylor Trade Publishing: Lanham, MD, 2010), 93 95.

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10 beauty of near unspoi led nature. Doing this g ave people an opportunity to develop an appreciation for what the NPS d id and its importance. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt consolidated the management of national parks, monuments, and historical spaces under the Nationa l Park Service. The large number of monuments, parks, and forests each managed by a different federal group made it necessary to put them under a single umbrella. Each of these are part of history, public history, and need preservation and conservation. Pr esident Roosevelt saw this and created a system easier to manage. This put war monuments under the guidance of the NPS as well as historical monuments previously under the Forestry Service. 9 In part, the National Park Service serves as protection for sit es of culture, history, and national significance. These places tell an important story, both good and bad. The nomenclature does lead to confusion, many believing the NPS serves only official parks. The NPS also cares for historic seashores like the Cape Cod National Seashore in Massachusetts, battlefields like the Appomattox National Historic Park in Virginia, and National Cemeteries like Vicksburg National Cemetery in Mississippi. It also cares for National Heritage Sites, National Monuments, and Nationa l Rivers among others. 10 Some like Sand Creek are open space with few structures. Military parks, national historic sites, and national monuments brought together under one organization allow blanket legislation to govern them. The term "parks" became a generic title for ease in 9 The National Parks: Shaping the System , Produced by the Division of Publications and the Employee Development Division National Park Service (U.S. Department of the Interior: W.ashington, D.C., 1991,) 24 10 "America's Public Lands Explained," U.S. Department of Interior , accessed September 10, 2017, https://www.doi.gov/blog/americas public lands explained.

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11 communication because the NPS looks over so many various types of sites . 11 The official definition from Congress is " ... any area of land and water now or hereafter administered by the Secretary of the Int erior through the National Park Service for park, monument, historic, parkway, recreational, or other purposes." 12 This does create problems because of unique situations that include Native American tribes. Just as in each park, there are areas off limits t o the public; Sand Creek has area s that are for tribal use only, for ceremonial tribal use. T he NPS has specific legislation and rules for management and care of historic landscapes and culturally important sites such as Sand Creek . Because these areas inv ite tourism and visitors, these rules are crucial for the continued preservation. These particular places are educational, a visual show of history preserving events, landscape, and ensuring we remember these events and that they are there for the public. The National Park Service plan for these cultural and historic landscapes also includes structure management, interpretation, and cultural and historical management. 13 A century ago a f ederal institution, created to ensure the care of national parks and h istorical monuments , saw the necessity of ensuring these were available to future generations. This includ es places like Sand Creek, locations that some see as a dark stain on American history. While Sand Creek is obviously different from Yosemite or Yello w Stone, it falls under the care of the National Park Service. One of the most important 11 The National Parks, 6 7. 12 The National Parks, 7. 13 Charles A. Birnbaum, " Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes," National Park Service , Septem ber 1994, Accessed August 1, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/tps/how to preserve/briefs/36 cultural landscapes.htm.

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12 aspects of having a site listing with a national organization is the ongoing interpretation as historians, researchers, or anyone who discovers and verifies new inform ation. 14 The Scottish Trust began in 1931 and as of today is the largest registered charity in Scotland. Registered in 1936, today the trust has over 300,000 members and looks after sites including Neolithic monuments, battlefields, and gardens. 15 The idea of a national conservation trust began in 1865 with the London of the Commons Preservation Society formed to "defend the public's right of access to open spaces for recreation." 16 Passing of the trust by Parliament created a council with the abili ty to declare certain lands, buildings, and monuments protected by the state. It contributes to the Scottish economy by providing attractive tourist destinations, using properties for events, and farms. The NTS works with schools to educate children about the culture and history of Scotland. It maintains over 700 staff and over 3,000 volunteers and is the third largest land manager in Scotland. 17 Founded for similar reasons as the NPS, its goals is to not only preserve and educate, but to encourage visitat ion to its coastlands, wilderness areas, and historic sites. It began by a group previously focused on the preservation of rural Scotland under the name Association for the Preservation of Rural Scotland. A British Act of Parliament 14 Donald L. Vasicek, "About Sand Creek," Sand Creek Massacre , Accessed October 2, 2017, http://sandcreekmassacre.net/sand creek/. 15 "The National Trust for Scotland: About" National Trust for Scotland. June 2012, accessed September 11, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/about/downloads/cid_2012_text_only.pdf. 16 The National Trust for Scotland Guide , ed. Robin Prentice, (London: Jonathan Cape Ltd, 1976) 22. 17 "The National Trust for Scotland: About" National Trust for Scotland. June 2012, accessed September 11, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/about/downloads/cid_2012_text_only.pdf.

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13 made it an official org anization in 1935. An early statement by Sir John Stirling Maxwell identified the trust's purpose then and now: "The National Trust for Scotland serves the nation as a cabinet into which it can put some of its valuable things, where they will be perfectly safe for all time, and where they are open to be seen and enjoyed by 18 From the beginning, the NTS focused on preserving Scotland's history and heritage for current and future generations. The goal is to make sure Scottish heritage is accessible for educational, entertainment, and historical purpose. It extends beyond architecture and preserves wilderness, coastlines, battlefields, and monuments. Government agencies like the National Trust or the National Park Service face the daunting task daily upkeep on these historic sites. This includes not only the land and architecture, but any collections housed on the site as well. The interpretation, controversy, and day to day maintenance are important for the integrity and for those who share its herit age. As historians discover new evidence, it is up to these organizations to ensure the public has this information available at the sites , to learn all sides of the stories, to interpret for themselves, and to pass it on for future generations . 18 "History of the National Trust for Scotland" National Trust fo r Scotland , accessed May 9, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/Charity/Our work/History/. John Stirling Maxwell was one of the founding members of the National Trust for Scotland and one of its Vice Presidents.

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14 CHAPTER IV SAND CREEK By 1864, the American Indian Wars had been going on for over 100 years. Beginning with the early colonization of America and the ideology of Manifest Destiny, armed conflicts were a regular occurrence between Native Americans and se ttlers. Attempts at peace treaties failed and as settlers continued west, they pushed Native Americans onto smaller regions. In November 1864, John Chivington, the leader of the Third Regiment of the Volunteer Calvary, ordered his men into the field to pat rol. Reports of few and varying attacks reported in the area spurned Chivington toward Fort Lyon, near the encampment on Sand Creek of Black Kettle. Chivington, in spite of objections from officers such as Silas Soule, decided to march on Sand Creek. 19 At d awn, the Third Regiment with almost 700 men, led by Chivington, marched to Sand Creek where a group of approximately 500 Native Americans camped, primarily women and children. 20 The army carried four mountain howitzers, fully armed and rested men and horses, and the element of surprise. The camp, under an American flag and a white cloth of peace, contained mostly Cheyenne and Arapahoe. The majority of warriors were hunting and no t at the campsite. The attack caught the camp unawares. Black Kettle, even among the bullets, called for calm, believing that their treaty meant the soldiers would not kill them. Many attempted to run north, to a larger band of Cheyenne, but artillery stru ck them down before they could make it far from camp. Others managed to dig into sandy 19 Elliot West, Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseek ers, and the Rush to Colorado , (Fort Hays: University of Kansas Publishing, 1998), 299 300. 20 Chivington created the Third Regiment from volunteers during the summer of 1864 to counter Indian attacks across Colorado Territory.

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15 trenches where some of the most vicious fighting occurred. Those who tried to hide in these sand pits were easy targets for the soldiers. The attack and mutilations cont inued for over nine hours. When the fighting ended, an estimated 180 Native Americans were dead, many women raped, and many bodies mutilated. 21 The majority killed were women and children. In the carnage, the bodies of Chiefs White Antelope, Left Hand, and other notable men among the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lay scalped. George Bent, wounded, made his way away from Sand Creek. He later recounted that White Antelope stood amongst the fighting with his arms outstretched singing his death song, "Nothing lives long only the earth and the mountains." 22 Some soldiers took scalps and body parts as souvenirs. By the time the soldiers returned to Denver, each Indian family had lost someone, if not entire families eradicated. 23 One must bear in mind the Sand Creek encampmen t was approximately forty miles northwest of Fort Lyon. This made the massacre even more controversial. Not only was this the encampment of the chiefs who attended the peace conference, it was practically on top of soldiers. This made it highly unlikely to be the location of a murderous band of savages that Chivington claimed he and his men attacked. 24 21 The extreme and graphic n ature of the mutilations has been recorded extensively. I have avoided many of the more intense and disturbing details in this thesis. 22 DU Study, 5. George Bent's testimony has been recorded and is an invaluable part of the investigation into the events at Sand Creek. Bent witnessed children shot, women shot while holding a white cloth. He survived with a group who took shelter north of the fighting in a sandpit. 23 National Park Service , Sand Creek Massacre Project: Site Location Study, (Denver: National Park Service, Intermountain Region), 13. 24 Black Kettle escaped Sand Creek and continued his efforts at keeping peace between the U.S. government and Native Americans. His influence among his peers declined as many wanted war and did not believe peace was possible.

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16 Chivington and the Third Regiment received a hero's welcome in Denver following the massacre at Sand Creek. Propaganda circulated lead many to believe the I ndians were the instigators and murderers. While the information regarding those camped at Sand Creek was false, there were raids, murders, and kidnappings at the hands of some tribes. It became difficult to discern peaceful from antagonistic. Soon, letter s from some of his men describing the actual events led to a Congressional investigation. The great "battle" that Chivington touted soon became known as a "massacre." Interviews with witnesses made it clear this was not a two sided battle. During the offi cial congressional hearing, witnesses gave multiple statements on behalf of the tribes as well as the soldiers. Details about the attack and the ensuing mutilations painted a disturbing scene. Those who spoke in defense of the attack, for the most part, be lieved attacks such as the one at Sand Creek would be the only solution for peace among the Indians and safety for those living near them. Chivington, in his deposition, claimed to have no knowledge of any truce between the camp at Sand Creek and the gover nment. He stated reports contained information that the Native Americans were still hostile and the settlers were wary and wanted him to attack the camp. 25 Many of the Native American survivors of Sand Creek went on to fight further for their people. Others like Black Kettle tried once again to live in peace. 26 The precise location of the Sand Creek camp became lost over the years. Primary documents regarding Sand Creek show two things, an attempt to justify Chivington's attack on Black Kettle's encampment and an account of the horrors that 25 The Sand Creek Massacre , (Washington: Westholm Publishing, 2015), 108. 26 Black Kettle was killed four years later in Washita, Kansas during another controversial attack by the military on a peaceful camp.

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17 occurred. There are no grand tales of heroism from that day. Immediately following the massacre, letters and official records included official inquiries that recounted the atrocities. There are those, such as communicati on from Captain Silas Soule and Lt. Joseph Cramer, explaining their shock at the actions by their commanding officer and fellow soldiers. Fortunately for this thesis and for other researchers, these letters and the entirety of the Congressional hearings ar e available. Many of these reports contain statements from soldiers, civilians, and Native Americans. 27 Public opinion following the attack was divisive, many standing by the militia's actions and others demanding they pay for the deaths of the Native Am ericans. The Congressional hearing and statements by Governor John Evans and Colonel John Chivington attempted to justify their attack on Sand Creek. Distrust, fear, and hatred existed between Native Americans and the government. The animosity and mistrust between Native Americans and settlers in the west grew, resulting in more violence and murder during the American Indian Wars . An official report by Evans claimed that Native Americans were particularly hostile and "emboldened" by troop movements durin g the Civil War. 28 According to Evans, "every mail and messenger from the plains brought reports of additional depredations." 29 One of his officers, Major Samuel G. Colley, sent numerous reports to 27 For this thesis, I use the terms Na tive American and Indian interchangeably. This is to show respect to the modern terminology but to also to make it easier when quoting many of the older primary sources who refer solely to the term Indian. 28 Because of the large number of early primary sou rces regarding the Sand Creek Massacre, I will only be highlighting certain ones. The entirety of the documents can be found online and in numerous books. 29 Sand Creek Papers: Documents of a Massacre (Independently Published, 2016) kindle location 49.

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18 Evans detailing attack s on soldiers or settlers. Evans issu ed a proclamation to the Native Americans, sending th e notice to Colley, instructing them to "keep away from those who are at war and go to places of safety." 30 Evans faced a difficult dilemma, working with peaceful tribes, and trying to separate them from ones raiding in a time of racism and misunderstanding. One of Colley's reports gives definite indication of how troublesome things had become. 31 "I have done everythin g in my power to keep peace. I now think a little powder and lead is the best food for the m." 32 Colley believed there could never be peace and continued to provide Governor Evans with information leading him to believe hostilities were, in part, due to the tribes who would be located at Sand Creek. At this point, document ation show Evans then called for action to be taken against Native Americans, by militia, military, and civilians. 33 Now, therefore, I John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, do issue this my proclamation, authorizing all citizens of Colorado, either indivi dually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my said call to rendezvous at the points indicated; also, to kill and destroy, as enemies of the countr y, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians. 34 This one document could be, in part, what set the tone that led to Sand Creek. There could be no peace; there could be no turning back . 35 Fear ran rampant and people simply 30 Carol Turner, Forgotten Heroes & Villians of Sand Creek , (Charleston, History Press: 2010) 33. 31 Communication between Colley and Evans was numerous. Colley's feelings towards Native Americans is clear. However there is little clear corroborating to prove his claims. 32 Sand Creek Papers , kindle location 246. 33 Evans put together the Third Colorado volunteers, a group whose purpose was to find and kill hostile Native Americans. At a time with anti Indian sentiment at a high, this was an invitation for slaug hter. John Chivington was chosen to lead this militia. 34 Sand Creek Papers , kindle location 167. 35 These documents prior to the massacre at Sand Creek show the violence and the fear that was rampant in the area. Many civilians did not see past the fact that a person was a Native American, in part, due to the stories of these savages circulating.

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19 did not understand the e xtreme difference in customs and mannerisms. In the eyes of the new settlers, Native Americans were heathens, scantily dressed, and murderous. Native Americans lost their land, been forced onto smaller and smaller reservations, and had a new government for ced upon them. Tensions continued to rise between these two sides as each saw the other as dangerous .

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20 Figure 1: Native American Net Roots http://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/tag/Sand%20Creek%20Massacre 36 36 A n otice calling for volunteers to fight against Native Americans. These men would serve, in part, in Chivington's Third Regiment.

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21 Letters from Black Kettle and other tribe leaders show that some of the Native Americans believed in the possibility for peace . Aided by George Bent among others, the chiefs reached out to the U.S. Army to find path ensuring peace on all sides. Black Kettle, in an effort to achieve peace for his p eople, on September 18, 1864, sent a letter to Governor Evans and his officers asking to trade prisoners and secure supplies for his people. 37 He sent word to other tribes, including Arapahoe and Sioux to inform them of this new collaboration with the gover nment . 38 On September 28, 1864 at Camp Weld in Denver, a meeting between Black Kettle, White Antelope, Evans, and Chivington, among others, highlighted how tenuous this peace was at the time. While the Native Americans hoped for peace, Governor Evans stated his troops were preparing for a fight. Mistrust on each side, accusations, and a declaration from Chivington to "fight them until they lay down their arms and submit to military authority" w idened the divide between the two groups. 39 Correspondence between military officers on the plains and Gov. Evans show a n ever widening rift. The tribes under Black Kettle and White Antelope and Left Hand had gathered at Sand Creek, as ordered, under a flag of peace. Trusting they were out of harm's way by following the explicit orders from Gov. Evans, they did not believe they were in any danger. 37 There were two major councils between Indians and the US at the time. Black Kettle met with Major Wynkoop discussing a possibl e peace. Following this came the meeting with Gov. Evans. It was a few weeks after this that Major Wynkoop was relieved of his command. 38 Sand Creek Papers , kindle location 317. 39 Sand Creek Papers , Document 15, kindle location 506. Simeon Whiteley docume nts this meeting. There were other Native American chiefs present and the primary conversation was to determine if Black Kettle, White Antelope, and the others had committed crimes against the United States.

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22 A letter from Black Kettle, written with the help of George Bent in September 1864, stated his desire for a pe aceful solution. Meeting with the other chiefs of Kiowa, Comanche, Arapahoe, Apache, and Sioux, Black Kettle set in writing the terms they sought for peace. The letter shows a genuine desire to work with Governor Evans and the United States government. Ch eyenne Village Aug. 29th/64 Maj. Colley. Sir We received a letter from Bent wishing us to make peace. We held a consel in regard to it & all came to the conclusion to make peace with you providing you make peace with the Kiowas; Commenches, Arrapahoes Ap aches and Siouxs. We are going to send a messenger to the Kiowas and to the other nations about our going to make with you. We heard that you some prisoners in Denver. We have seven prisoners of you which we are willing to give up providing you give up you rs. There are three war parties out yet and two of Arrapahoes. they have been out some time and exspect now soon. When we held this counsel there were few Arrapahoes and Siouxs present. We want true news from you in return, that is a letter. Black Kittle & other Chieves Brought to Ft Lyon Sunday Sept 4th 1864 by One Eye 40 40 "The Sand Creek Massacre Black Kettle Lette r to Agent Samuel Colley and Major Edward Wynkoop," KC Lone Wolf , accessed September 1, 2017, http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc documents/sc black kettle letter.html#sthash.3YhcyeXZ.dpbs. This is the translation of the letter I have included o n the following page. The translation, with multiple misspellings, is verbatim from Black Kettle.

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23 Figure 2: http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc documents/sc black kettle letter.html#sthash.3YhcyeXZ.dpbs 41 There were those who believed the massacre was th e fault of the Native Americans, not seeing it as a massacre at all , and many such as Chivington and Evans attempted to justify their actions . Others could not believe something so brutal had occurred, especially at the hands of the U.S. militia. Newspaper s reported a battle 41 Letter from Black Kettle to Major Colley requesting peace. The letter was sent to Major Colley and Major Edward Wynkoop.

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24 between the army and the Native Americans, not a surprise attack on an unsuspecting camp. GREAT BATTLE WITH INDIANS The Savages Dispe r sed 500 INDIANS KILLED Our Loss 9 Killed, 38 Wounded FULL PARTICULARS 42 Th is headline from the Rocky Mountain Weekly left no doubt the general attitude many had about Native Americans. P rinted on December 8, 1864, it preceded editorials describing a great victory for Chivington's men against well armed and well defend ed Indians. Missing from the number o f dead and wounded were those killed by friendly fire. The editorial s portrayed a camp of hostiles well supplied with goods stolen from settler's homes or from trains. 43 Other editorials discuss findings that would draw sympathy of the settlers in the regio n and incite anger towards the Indians. For example one person commented, " Among their effects were large supplies of flour, sugar, coffee, tea, &c. Women's and children's clothing were found; also books and many other articles which must have been taken f rom captured trains or houses ." 44 The statement does not mention the savagery, the lack of warriors and the number of women and children killed. 42 Sand Creek Papers: Documents of a Massacre (Independently Published, 2016) Document 18, kindle location 560. 43 "Archives of the West: Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre" PBS.ORG , Date accessed August 17, 2017, https://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/sandcrk.htm. 44 "T he Sand Creek Massacre: Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News After the Attack," KC Lone Wolf , accessed September 1, 2017, http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc reports/rocky editorials.html. Other editorials were similar to this one. Each discu ssing the glory and bravery of Chivington and his men and the savage evils of the Native Americans.

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25 These first stories and letters portray a battle of well armed Indians against the army. Stories such as this he lped fuel anti Indian sentiment. 45 Opinions on Colonel Chivington's victory began to change with letters from two soldiers present at Sand Creek, Captain Silas Soule and Lt. Joseph Cramer. Their letters, lost and then found in 2000, paint a much different picture of what happened that day. They catalyzed an investigation into the attack and led to the downfall of Evans and Chivington. 46 The letter from Captain Soule, written to Major Ned Wy nkoop, described horrific events including the murder of pregnant women, children, and elderly. Soldiers did not spare those running or those begging for their lives and ran down many trying to hide. They mutilated bodies, cutting of f parts to keep as souv enirs. Perhaps most importantly in his letter, Soule specifically mentions the stated intentions to "massacre the friendly Indians camped on Sand Creek." 47 Soule attempted to rescue as many as possible, including the Bent family. 48 He also refutes Chivington 's statement regarding the number of Indians at Sand Creek. Colonel Chivington stated that over five hundred were killed at Sand Creek, mostly warriors; however, Soule estimates the numbers to be around two hundred, mostly women and children. 49 45 Other editorials and reports surfaced with similar descriptions of the events at Sand Creek. There were many and too numerous for this thesis, but each, f or the most part, were similar in nature. 46 John Evans and John Chivington were great men in their own right and have numerous accomplishments to their name. This thesis will not go into detail regarding those because I am focusing on Sand Creek and the e vents leading up to that day and what happened following. 47 Sand Creek Papers , Soule and Cramer Letters, kindle location 1706. 48 George Bent was a respected and well renowned Cheyenne warrior and Confederate soldier. He was the son of Owl Woman and Willia m Bent. Following his escape, he went on to fight against Americans with the Dog Soldiers. 49 Sand Creek Papers , Soule and Cramer Letters, kindle location 1706

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26 Cramer's letter, similar in tone and description to Soule's, gave further evidence to discredit the reports of a great battle against hundreds of warriors. Cramer detailed more of what he and Soule faced when they spoke out against the events that day. The ir fellow soldiers and commanding officers threatened them with hanging, dismissal, and bodily harm to them and their families. He wrote, "I thought it murder to jump them friendly Indians." Cramer also begged Wynkoop to stop Chivington from advancing in h is military career, particularly for any achievements based on Sand Creek. 50 These letters started a firestorm leading to Congressional and military hearings appeals by Evans and Chivington , and in the end each lost their commission. Evans resigned as ter ritory governor and the military was unable to formally dishonorably Chivington, who had resigned from the military . 51 The massacre at Sand Creek became ingrained in Colorado history . In 2014, Governor John Hickenlooper issued a formal apology to the Cheyen ne for Sand Creek, saying, "We should not be afraid to criticize and condemn that which is inexcusable." 52 Many people had difficulty believing the charges against Evans and Chivington due to their reputations. They were prominent men with reputable feats to their name s . Evans helped found hospitals, researched disease, and helped develop quarantine regulations. He helped create the Denver Seminary and was instrumental in bringing 50 Sand Creek Papers , Soule and Cramer Letters, kindle location 1776. 51 "Colorado State Archives: John Evans," Colorado Official State Portal, accessed September 12, 2017, https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/archives/john evans 52 "150th Anniversary Sand Creek Massacre" text of Governor John Hickenlooper's speech, Colorado State Archives , accessed August 12, 2017, https://www.colorado.gov/governor/150th%C2%A0anniversary%C2%A0sand%C2%A0c reek%C2%A0massacre.

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27 railroads and streetcars through Colorado. 53 John Chivington, an ordained Methodist minister, was a well respected commander in the United States Army. He became a colonel after helping capturing Confederate supplies during the Civil War and had the loyalty of his men and peers. 54 Chivington was the hero of the 1862 Battle of Glorieta Pass , a battle dubbed the "Gettysburg of the West." Chivington helped lead the Union Army against Confederate soldiers planning on taking Santa Fe, parts of Colorado, and on to California. 55 These men were well known and loved by the people of Colorado. It was difficult to believe they could be a part of such a savage attack on a peaceful group of Indians. Prior to the National Park Service naming Sand Creek a significant historical site, finding the exact location was k ey. The NPS knew the approximate location of the camp , but due to a lack of exact records, shifting creek bed and other geological markers, it was difficult to locate exactly where the massacre took place. The government forbade survivors to return to bury their dead and the rural location made it difficult to locate. In 1950, t he Colorado Historical Society erected historical marker on State Highway 96 near Chivington, Colorado and participated in another ceremony overlooking a bend of Sand Creek. It was a t this bend that the Eads Chamber of Commerce placed a memorial designating it as the massacre site. Tribe members began coming to this site, comparing it 53 "Colorado State Archives: John Evans," Colorado Official State Portal, accessed September 12, 2017, https://www.colorado.gov/ pacific/archives/john evans. 54 "John Chivington Biography," National Park Service, accessed September, 12, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/john chivington biography.htm. 55 "The Battle of Glorieta Pass: A Shattered Dream," The National P ark Service, accessed September 24, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/91glorieta/91glorieta.htm. The location is currently under the National Park Service and

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28 to their oral histories. While they agreed it was the correct location , others said it lacked the nec essary evidence to be the location of the massacre. Through the 1990 s, the NPS made more efforts to find Sand Creek after obtaining the support of the descendants of the victims. In 1997, using metal detectors and guided by army maps and oral histories, Pr ofessor Richard Ellis of Fort Lewis College surveyed two areas, neither giving him what he believed to be concrete proof he had found the Sand Creek Massacre site. 56 The National Park Service's interest in finding the exact location to designate it as a N ational Historic Site continued to grow and on October 6, 1998, the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Study Act passed. Colorado U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell, the only Native American in Congress, led the crusade for designation. Tribal re presentatives and representatives from the NPS agreed on a joint project to locate the site. Their methods included archaeology, oral history, research, and traditional tribal methods. 57 The help from the tribes was crucial to a successful research study. T he study began in 1999 us ing the methods outlined above with the addition of aerial photography. Soon the research group identified five potential sites. One of the sites used a map marked by George Bent in 1905. Using a map mailed to him by George Hyde, who was writing his biography, Bent attempted to locate the massacre site. Hyde used 1890 topographica l maps and landmarks could have easily changed since the 56 Sand Creek Massacre Project, 12. 57 Sand Creek Massacre Project, 14. The approv al and assistance of the tribes was key to the study being a success. Laws such as NAGPRA, The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, meant any artifacts found must be returned.

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29 massacre. The locations provided by Bent proved to be inaccurate but did provide useful information for future researchers. 58 Figure 3: The Bent Hyde Maps : https://cudl.colorado.edu/luna/servlet 59 Those involved with the search for Sand Creek stressed the importance of the oral histories . Prior to signing the Sand Creek National Historic Site Study Act , Congressman Bob Schaffer wrote to the NPS director to reiterate the oral histories and their imp ortance. Under the bill as it passed the House and Senate, the Secretary is directed to consult with the State of Colorado and the Tribes to conduct a resource study of the site. Such consultation should necessarily include efforts to record the oral hist ories of tribal elders. I urge you to see that every effort is made to do that. 58 Jerome A. Greene and Douglas D. Scott, Finding Sand Creek, (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004), 40. 59 "The Bent Hyde Papers," University of Colorado Boulder, https://cudl.colorado.edu/luna/servlet, accessed August 20, 2017. The University of Colorado Boulder has the Bent Hyde papers from Hyde's collectio n in its entirety. There are other papers that discuss Sand Creek.

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30 Besides providing valuable insight and historical information, those recollections may even establish the precise location of the massacre site. 60 Collecting the oral historie s as a primary source not only aided in finding Sand Creek, it also ensured Native Americans were not left out of the process. This was their history. Through their stories, researchers could plot map points, compare evidence, and narrow down their search. Many of the participants in the oral history study aided in a n aerial topography survey in 1997 by using their stories to map out potential locations. 61 Section 24, township 7 south, Range 46 west is the location of the Sand Creek Massacre. 62 Extensive surveys, comparisons of artifacts found at the various locations, topography, and physical evidence validate this location. Signs of a one sided attack in section 24 along with camp materials used by the Cheyenne and Arapahoe indicate the locati on of Sand Creek. To the northeast, in Section 14, they found signs of another battle, one that corresponds with the sand pits dug and the general direction many ran away from Sand Creek. Camp debris, ammunition, and archaeological evidence show a group fl eeing to the northeast towards the location of the sand pits, corresponding with the findings. For the first time, the oral histories and the research lined up with the archaeological findings. After years of searching, the researchers located a vital piec e of United States and Native American history . 63 60 NPS Sand Creek Massacre Project 138. 61 NPS Sand Creek Massacre Project 142. There were several other studies conducted immediately before and after the Sand Creek National Historic Study Act passed. Many of these, carried out by colleges and other researches employed similar methods, using topographical maps, oral histories, and archaeological research. Each of these studies used the findings of the previous to help in the search. The Nat ive Americans who participated in the aerial topography study were an invaluable source. 62 Green, Finding Sand Creek, 98. 63 The search for the exact location of Sand Creek took years, and included Native American history, preservation, archaeology, geomorphology, and historic research.

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31 November 7, 2000, Pr esident Bill Clinton signed the law creating the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Establishment Act . Sand Creek is unique in many ways. It is not a battleground; it is not a s cenic park. I t is the site of a horrific massacre where U.S. militia forces slaughtered hundreds . The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site is the only unit of the National Park Service that commemorates a site of shame for the United States governme nt. It unequivocally declares Sand Creek a massacre. It exits to teach the public the awful and lasting effects of genocide committed on peoples struggling to preserve their freedom and way of life. 64 Started by a bill introduced by Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell in 1998, Sand Creek finally received the designation the Arapaho and Cheyenne deserved. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the site includes the campsite, the point where Chivington's men first spotted the camp, the sand pits dug during their retreat, and the path of the large howitzers. 65 The Sand Creek National Historic Trust Act in 2005 advanced the process to protect Sand Creek . It put in writing the rules for funding, the necessary approval of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes f or any improvements, and the purchase of any necessary property that belongs with Sand Creek. 66 Since the massacre, Those involved looked at several sites, comparing any artifacts found and determining if the y could have possibly been part of the Sand Creek encampment. They dismissed some of the locations due to inaccurate artifact scattering (there would have been a specific pattern due to the number of people running and being fired at). Flash foods, dust bo wls, collectors are just a few of the factors that play a part in the difficulty of finding the exact location of Sand Creek. Due to the amount of time that passed, researches had to distinguish between what could be Native American artifacts or Calvary ar tifacts and something left behind by settlers or land owners. Their findings across each location included bullets, casings, nails, household objects, utensils, and lead among hundreds more. Each item had to be cataloged and analyzed. 64 Smith, et al, DU R eport, 10. 65 "Sand Creek Massacre: Places" National Park Service , accessed June 16, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/places.htm. 66 "Public Law 109 45," Government Publishing Office , accessed July 8, 2017, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/P LAW 109publ45/pdf/PLAW 109publ45.pdf.

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32 m uch of the land belonged to private owners and quite a bit was used for cattle ranching. The NPS began purchasing land from those willing to sell. An important part of the site lay on the Williams Dawson Ranch . Controversy o ver selling the ranch continued for years until finally the NPS was able to purchase it and present it to the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. 67 It became clear that one of the problematic points was going to be reclaiming artifacts found during the time Sand Creek was on private land. Although laws were in place to protect anything found during official searches, nothing found by private owners stated they needed to return it to the tribes. In order to appease landowners, tribal delegates were asked to sign waivers stating that these private owners did not have to turn over artifacts. 68 Despite this controversial sticking point during negotiations, all involved determined the pres ervation of the site was most important , not immediate artifact recovery . Artifact recovery and location was not the only controversy surrounding Sand Creek preservation. The initial description of Sand Creek was as a "battle." This immediately drew the ire of many Native American tribes who knew there was no battle. A battle insinuates two armed opposing forces fighting against one another, expecting and preparing for a confrontation. This was not the case at Sand Creek. A monument, erected in Denver, Co lorado in 1909 on the west side of the Colorado State Capitol, showed Sand Creek as a battle, but this changed with the NPS's decision to designate it as a "massacre" and state 67 Dawson initially was reluctant to sell his land. A legal battle ensued and Dawson accused people of trespassing and littering to get to the Sand Creek site. 68 "The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site" Santa F e Trails Scenic and Historic Byway, accessed May 20, 2017, http://www.santafetrailscenicandhistoricbyway.org/scmasacre.html.

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33 and local governments changed signage to show this change. 69 The monument to th e Civil War listed significant battles, among which is Sand Creek. In 1998, Senator Robert Martinez sponsored a bill to have Sand Creek removed from the monument. Instead of removal, another monument honoring the victims of Sand Creek and explaining its hi storical significance was placed near the Civil War monument. 70 Reinterpreting Sand Creek became important to the history. This is a key part of the historiography, how we initially viewed Sand Creek and the challenge to its labeling in Colorado history. The official opening of the Sand Creek National Historic Site in 2007 marked the long anticipated recognition and acknowledgement of the massacre by creating a place where the tribes could remember their lost ancestors and visitors could see the place of o ne of the most shameful massacres on U. S. soil. 71 The controversy surrounding its location definition already began to define Sand Creek. The interpretation and preservation discussions included requests from tribes for certain acreage to be set aside for ceremonial tribal use. the arguments against the use of the word "battle" on monuments and official records, and what kind of memorial would be created at the site. Lawmakers and historians agreed this was no battle, but a massacre. That much was clear, an d monuments were adjusted to reflect this. 72 The Sand Creek Massacre National 69 John B. Judis, " The Country's Most Revealing Memorial to the Sand Creek Massacre Used to Celebrate the Killings" New Republic , December 1, 2014, accessed August 19, 2017, https://newrepublic.com/article/120441/statue celebrated sand creek massacre. 70 Ari Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013) 201. 71 I will describe in my comparison of the two lo cations ways that I believe the site can be improved to create a more educational experience. 72 Sand Creek Santa Fe Trails. Many argued for the replacement of plaques that called Sand Creek a battle and not a massacre. At the Colorado State Capitol, an ad ditional plaque was added denoting it as a massacre and the original left intact.

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34 Historic Site provides visitors with a chance to learn about the history of the site from Park Rangers and look out on where Black Kettle's camp was located at Overlook Hill. A re patriation area gives visitors an opportunity to pay respect to the dead. At this burial site, Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes bury any remains and artifacts returned to them. Memorials to Silas Soule and Joseph and the letters they wrote honor their deeds, p laques to the chiefs killed, and the tribes are present throughout the park. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site unfortunately suffers from poor attendance. This is in part due to its remote location and lack of visitor facilities. The historiogra phy of Sand Creek demonstrates the change in attitude and opinion of Sand Creek over the years. 73 One of the more recent and most relevant to this thesis is Ari Kelman's A Misplaced Massacre. Kelman describes the difficulty of memorializing tragic and contr oversial events in a way that satisfies all parties involved. He explains the connection between the Civil War and Sand Creek. Native Americans like George Bent saw the Civil War as an event that cemented racism and allowed Sand Creek to occur. 74 As opinions changed, history changed and he mirrors this with the difficulty in locating the exact site itself. What he ultimately shows is that Sand Creek is too controversial a story to have a single explanation. It is the story of the American West, Na tive Americans, the Civil War and the American Indian War. This is the story that preservation needs to show. For in the end, this story of memorializing Sand Creek suggests that history and memory are malleable, that even the land, despite its implied pr omise of 73 I will look at this history in a way that highlights the events leading up to Sand Creek, records of the day, and correspondence of what has happened since. This is to sho w the change in feeling from the major players of Sand Creek, to also show exactly what can be gained from the National Historical site should an education center be expanded. 74 Ari Kelman, A Misplaced Massacre, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013) 35.

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35 permanence, can change, and that the people of the United States are so various that they should not be expected to share a single tale of a common past. Sometimes their stories complement one another; sometimes they clash. Sometimes they intersec t; sometimes they diverge. 75 Gregory Michno's The Three Battles of Sand Creek looks at the controversy surrounding Sand Creek in three arenas, the battle, the following court battles, and the view historians have struggled with over the years. Michno loo ks at Sand Creek as both a battle and a massacre, depending on who is looking at the evidence. According to Michno the oral histories, numerous documents, and vast difference in opinion means we will not fully understand what happened. This is a controvers ial opinion, one that Ari Kelman countered. 76 Michno's controversial viewpoint does not sway from a central message, the importance of the disclosure of all evidence and people being able to review it and come to their conclusions. While Michno skirts say ing he is a supporter of Colonel John Chivington, there are those who have written on their support of Sand Creek and Chivington. Reginald Craig's The Fighting Parson looks at Chivington's life as a Methodist preacher, his condemnation of drinking and pros titution, and his desire to create safe havens for settlers and to improve schools. He describes Chivington win at Glorieta Pass and paints him as a hero and not the monster others described. 77 The truth about Chivington lies between the grand hero and the monster. One of the most memorable and well written books on Sand Creek is Song of Sorrow, Massacre at Sand Creek, by Patrick Mendoza. Mendoza relied on the oral 75 Kelman, 279. 76 Gregory Michno, The Three Battles of Sand Creek , (El Dorado Hills, CA: Savas Beatie, LLC, 2017). 77 Reginald Craig, The Fighting Parson, (Los Angeles: Western Lore Press, 1959).

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36 histories to tell the story from the Native Americans point of view. U.S. Senator Ben Nighth orse Campbell, a direct descendant of those killed at Sand Creek and the man who spearheaded the effort to create the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, wrote the forward for the book. 78 This is just one of the many books striving to give a voice t o the many killed that day in 1864. The interest in the story and the desire for the truth is there. Both the NPS and Native American tribes can capitalize on this interest to educate. The University of Denver (DU), founded in part by John Evans, conduct ed an extensive investigation and report into John Evans's involvement in the Sand Creek massacre. In conjunction with Northwestern University, also founded by Evans, an investigation following years of insistence began with a group of historians, archaeol ogists, faculty, students, and community members. With the release of the Soule and Cramer letters, students at Northwestern and University of Denver began demanding an investigation. The report, released in 2014 following a year of research, placed culpab ility on Evans by citing his neglect, leadership failures, and "reckless decision making" that created the conditions that led to the attack. In the report, DU acknowledged, "Evans was a man of many proud accomplishments, a visionary leader whose influence shaped the university, the city of Denver, and the state of Colorado." 79 Their goal was to understand just how far and how much blame was to place. One hundred and fifty years of controversy surrounded and defined Sand Creek. The initial documents alone a re priceless in their educational and cultural value. 78 Patrick M. Mendoza, Song of Sorrow: Massacre at Sand Creek , (Denver: Willow Wind Publishing, 1993) 79 Richard Clemmer Smith, et al, Report of the John Evans Study Committee: University of Denver , (Denver: University of Denver, 2014), iv.

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37 Countless novels, films, and television shows attempted to tell the story. 80 How does this influence this thesis? They show the state and national impact this has on America and on Native Americans. The NPS can use this to educate and tell the full story of Sand Creek and its victims at the National Historic Site. The history of Sand Creek is beyond the massacre, it is the story of finding the site, the story of the American West, and Native Americans. Image 4: The signage outside of Sand Creek National Park : Photo taken from the National Park Website 81 80 There have been several movies about Sand Creek, more prominently are documentaries released since 2006. The most well known is a documentary by Donald Vasicek which won several awards and is catalogued in the Smithsonian Institute Library, Tribal librari es, and many museums and historical organizations. 81 Photo taken from the National Park Website

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38 CHAPTER V CULLODEN Culloden is an iconic battlefield, important to Scottish and British History. This site of the final battle of the 1745 Jacobite Rising became a symbol of the fight for Highland and Gaelic Culture. For many highlanders , the Rising became more about holding on to their culture, and not about the restoration of the Stuart throne. Culloden was for many, a last sta nd against the English, the final opportunity to hold on to being 'Scottish.' I n the centuries since, what has made Culloden Moor such an important part of preservation history in Scotland? Why is it such a popular tourist destination, and how has preserva tion increased Culloden's popularity ? In order to answer that, the area's vast history must be examined to understand how important it is to Scotland, and why it has become such a popular draw for historians, tourists, filmmakers, and authors. My explanati on of the importance of Culloden Moor is dependent on the events of the Jacobite Risings in Scotland. I will examine the contentious history of the British monarchy in the years leading up to the ' 45 Rising, and the fight for the Stuart throne , the failure s, victories, and losses of those who supported the Stuarts. 82 The documents I will explore include letters from soldiers, commanders, and those who fought in the rebellion. 82 The 1745 Rising is commonly referred to as the '45. There is much more to examine in regards to Culloden than to Sand Creek. Years of monarchy and British ru le, fights for the throne and years of battles. I will give a short examination of the fight for the throne and the part it played in the Risings. I will also briefly explain Jacobitsm, and the Act of Union that played a large role in the Scots fight again st the English. Similarly to my examination of Sand Creek, I will be looking at Culloden primarily from the view of the Scottish. Because I will be discussing Culloden and the preservation site today, I believe their viewpoint is most important to this th esis.

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39 Image 5: Butcher Cumberland and Bonnie Prince Charlie : http://guildofbezalel.blogspot.com/2016/04/from culloden to cumberland.html 83 The Jacobite Risings began when Francis Edward Stuart, son of former King of Ireland, Scotland, and England James I I I, sought to regain his father's throne. James II, deposed following the Glorious Revolution, was the last Catholic king to sit over the British Isles. The rebellion failed and for fifty years, the risings quelled. James's son, Charles Edward Stuart attemp ted to gain the throne in a similar manner to his father's efforts. Charles, born in Rome and raised in Italy, never set foot in Scotland prior to his push for the throne. During the War of Austrian Succession, which occupied most British forces, the secon d Jacobite Rising began. 84 "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or the "Young Pretender" was raised to believe in his God given right to the throne. Groomed from a young age for rule, Charles was sophisticated but under educated. 85 Jacobite supporters 83 http://guildofbezalel.blogspot.com/2016/04/from culloden to cumberland.html The two leaders at Culloden, William and Charles. 84 The War of Austrian Succession, though beyond the scope of this thesis, was important because of the timing. Most of the European powers were involved in this war which spanned across Europe, India, and North America. The British, supporting the Austrian succession of Maria Theresa to the Habsburg throne, had many of their forces in mainland Europe. 85 Diana Preston, The Road to Culloden Moor: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the 1745 Rebellion , (Edinburgh: Constable and Company Ltd. 1995) Loc 306 Kindle.

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40 encouraged Charles, who was in fervor already, to attempt to claim the throne once more for the Stuarts. Backed by France following the 1743 death of French First Minister Cardinal Fleury, a staunch anti Jacobite, Charles left for France leaving his father with these parting words: "I go, Sire, in search of three crowns, which I doubt not but have the honour and happiness of laying at Your Majesty's feet. If I fail in the attempt, your next sight of me shall be the coffin." 86 Charles needed France's monetary and military suppo rt to better their chances against Britain. He believed his destiny lay in Scotland, as the restored Stuart King. Court controversies and political turmoil between England and France eventually caused France to withdraw their support of the Jacobites and Charles. 87 Jacobites continued meeting to put Charles Edward Stuart back on throne. An association of Jacobites in Scotland including high ranking members such as the Duke of Perth, Lord Lovat, Donald Cameron of Lochiel and John Murray of Broughton met to continue Jacobite efforts in restoring the Stuart throne. This association depended on France's support for Charles's campaign. A letter stating the importance of this support was sent to Charles, but it is believed he did not receive it, and therefore con tinued with his attack. 88 Political issues forced France to withdraw much of their support and resulted in Charles 86 Preston, Road to Culloden Moor , Loc 422 Kindle. 87 A failed attempt by French forces to sail to England was thwarted by weather. Eventually English Parliament passed a law forbidding any communication with the sons of James Francis Edward Stuart. Charles believed he could return to Scotland, forcing his cousin, King Louis XIV to back his efforts. 88 Christopher Duffy, Fight for a Throne: The Jacobite '45Reconsidered, (Solihull: Helion and Company Limited, 2015.) ch 2 3

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41 feeling insulted and slighted. Charles attempted to force the hand of his cousin Louis XIV. 89 He left for Scotland in August 1745, and the Jac obite Rising began in earnest. Culloden was the end of a long rebellion that included multiple countries including France, Scotland, Ireland, and England and political machinations. Over the course of the next year, the Jacobites had many victories again st the British in both Scotland and England. Charles surrounded himself with intelligent and capable leaders, and being charismatic, he was able to sway many to his cause and increase the size of his army. As the Jacobite army marched south, Charles's ferv or to take London increased. His generals convinced him to return to Scotland, believing Cumberland's army to be greater than it was and a lack of response from Jacobites in England. The British army under Cumberland's direction followed Charles back into Scotland and the many Jacobite victories turned to missteps and losses. In January 1746, Charles and his counsel argued over strategy. His generals wanted to return to the highlands and wait for spring to allow their men to rest and prepared while Charles wanted to continue the fight against the British. After this I know that I have an army that I cannot command any further than the chiefs officers please, and therefore, if you are all resolved upon it, I must yield; but I take God to witness that it is w ith the greatest reluctance, and that I wash my hands of the fatal consequences wch (sic) I forsee but cannot help. 90 The Jacobites with Charles wintered in Inverness with their advantage lost. On April 15, with supplies and money almost depleted, Charles learned of Cumberland's 89 I began the history with this lengthy discussion to try and explain the background of the Jacobite cause, why Charles was so adamant to claim a throne in a country he had never been to and why so many Jacobites were willing to give their lives to the cause. I will not go into detail of the entire rebellion, just this beginning. 90 Publicati ons of the Scottish Historical Society Volume XXVII: Memorials of John Murray of Broughton , ed. Robert Fitzroy Bell, (Edingburgh: University Press, 1898), 81.

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42 position and encouraged his men to march to Drummossie Moor from Culloden to launch a surprise attack. Cumberland's men never made it to Drummossie instead they remained at Nairn to celebrate Cumberland's birthday. The demoralized Jacobites returned to Culloden, many going in search of food, and many others ready to give up. They had spent the previous day marching with meager rations. Lord Murray noted, "The last three days our army was starved and this was a great cause of our nig ht march proving abortive, when we possiblie (sic) might have surprised the enemy and defeat them at Nairn, but for want of provisions a third of our arm was scater'd. (sic)" 91 The armies met the next day on Culloden Moor, Charles's starving and freezing Ja cobites against Cumberland's well fed, clothed, and rested British army. Charles commanded his 5,500 soldiers to fight on Culloden Moor against Cumberland's 7,500. To the sound of drums and bagpipes, the armies engaged. Jacobites pushed through the marsh o f the moor into the relentless fire from the British army. Within an hour, almost 1,300 Jacobites lay dead, at least that many wounded, and over three hundred taken prisoner. Cumberland ordered his men to go through the battlefield and kill any survivors. Several authors and historians have written about the brutality of these final killings on the battlefield. Many speculate the numbers killed could be in the hundreds. Many of the men who lay dying could have survived, but Cumberland demanded their deaths. This is, in part, what earned him the nickname "Butcher." 92 Charles escaped but his rebellion was over. Anti British 91 NTS, Culloden , 50. 92 NTS, Culloden, 55.

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43 and English sentiment remained among many of the clans in Scotland, but there would not be another Rising after the '45. 93 The historiogra phy of Culloden dates back to the first Jacobite Rebellion in 1715 ; however, I will primarily focus on the 17 45 Rising and the battle at Culloden due to the extensive sources and history. 94 Researchers have over the years both criticized and romanticized Cu lloden. It was, as many Scots viewed it, a gallant fight of Highlanders against those who would attempt to take away their culture. Still today, many view it as a fight for a throne, a religion, and a culture, and at the same time as a civil war pitting Sc ot against Scot. Many of the Lowlander Scots came from origins similar to the English, Romans, Norman, and Anglo Saxon while Highlanders have a Celtic origin, similar to parts of Ireland. The difference in culture and history mark a definite divide in high land and lowland beliefs and attitudes. These differences carried over into many of the Jacobite disputes and rebellions. One can see from some of the earliest primary documents in Scotland, on the Jacobite cause, that this was not going to be a simple re bellion. The Jacobites were passionate and ready to fight and die for their cause. The '45 b egins with Lord Drummond in Scotland declaring war on the Hanover King and Queen in England and denouncing their authority in Scotland. 95 93 Just as there is a significant history prior to Cullo den, there is also more following, including the escape of Charles with the help of Flora McDonald, the Highland Clearances, and the many laws that followed as a result of Culloden. Due to the extensive history, I will stop my focus with Culloden. 94 Scotla nd at this point in time was part of the United Kingdom as per the Act of Union in 1707. Although there were Jacobites in England, the majority fighting at Culloden were Scottish. Because they were fighting against the British Army, I have chosen to use th e term "Britain" and not England as there were Scots who were loyal to the crown and fought against the Jacobites. 95 James, the last Roman Catholic king, was deposed during the Glorious Revolution in 1688. His successor, William of Orange, a Protestant fr om Germany, ruled with James's

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44 WE Lord JOHN DRUMMOND, Comm ander in Chief of his most Christian Kingdom, with Written Orders, to make War against the King of ENGLAND, Elector of HANOVER, and all his Adherants, and that the positive Orders we have from his most Christian Majesty are to attack all his Enemies in this Kingdom, whom he has Declared to be those who will not immediately Join, or assist as far will ly in their Power, the Prince of WALES, Regent of SCOTLAND etc. His Ally, and whom he is resolved, with the Concurrence of the King of SPAIN, to Support in the taking Posession of SCOTLAND, ENGLEAND, and IRLAND, if Necessary at the Expence of all the Men and Money, he is Master of, to which three Kingdoms, the Family of STEWART, have so Ju st and Enemies should be used in this Kingdom in proportion to the Harm they do or 96 Those fighting against the English believed in backing Prince Charles, who had not been in Scotland. It was more than just a fight against the British throne; they saw it a fight for Scotland. This sentiment went beyond the lairds and the upper class; it spread deep among all classes in the Scottish Highlands. Ironically, while many saw their fight as one against foreign rule, the leader they believed should take the throne could not do so without foreign assistance, something Prince Charles noted himself in a letter to Scotland. 97 daughter Mary. The Act of Succession in 1701 set the succession of the British Throne with the Protestant Hanover line. James's son, James Francis Edward Stuart, known as the "Old Pretender" began the Jacobite Rising in 1715 in a failed attempt to restore the Stuarts to the throne. 96 "Jacobite Declaration of War" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/jacobite declaration war/. To understand what le d to the Battle of Culloden Moor, one must have a small understanding of the Jacobite rebellion. These men and women passionately believed in their cause, and their announcement of against England shows their immediate distrust of the Hanover monarchy. 97 "Pretender in his own words" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/pretender words/.

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45 The Jacobites prov ed to be formidable opponents for the British. They took most of Scotland, and began their march through England. Following their victory at Culloden, the British began their retaking of Scotland as many refused to give up. Correspondence from British sold iers described the Highlanders as primitive and destructive , something they noted as they marched across Scotland . Many "lowlanders" in Scotland were on the side of the British and fought against the Highland Scots. 98 Letters to Britain describe Highlander attacks on l owland farms. 99 These are, in many cases, the only records we have from this aspect. Charles touched upon this particular view of the Jacobites in a letter to those fighting for and supporting his cause. He dismisses the sentiment that the Jacob ites and Highlanders are of "low birth" and desperate . I nstead calls for the brave men and women of Scotland to come together, dismissing differences in the name of Scotland. He did not ask them to fight for him, but to fight for their homes. 100 This helped to romanticize the Jacobite rebellion and Culloden . 101 98 Lowlanders and Highlanders, though they share the same country, typically have different ba ckgrounds. Highlanders share similar dress and culture to the Irish. They come from a background of Gaels and Celts while Lowlanders share a background similar to England as well as similar beliefs. 99 "Securing Scotland" The National Archives, accessed Ap ril 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/securing scotland/. There are many letters written during this time regarding the situation in the Scottish lowlands and highlands. These letters include correspondence from citizens, politicians, and the clergy. 100 "Case for the Jacobites" The National Archives, accessed April 9, 2017, http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/case jacobites/. This lengthy letter from Charles acknowledges his absenc e and attempts to pull together Jacobites who, although believe in a common cause, have a long history of animosity with other clans. He calls upon their faith, their feelings of Scottish nationality, and their belief in a Catholic king. 101 The records pri or to Culloden and following Culloden are extensive and for this thesis would be impossible to document most. British primary sources primarily focus on the idea of savage highlanders who only know to kill. A pretender for the throne who could

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46 There are many primary sources describing the battle on Culloden Moor. They describe the Jacobites as starved, cold and desperate against a well rested British army led by the "Butcher" Duke of Cumberl and. The morning of April 16, 1746, against the better wishes of his advisors, and having held no council meeting, Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Young Pretender, ordered a charge. Lord George Murray , one of the more respected and successful generals in the Ja cobite army had hoped for a charge the night before, when Cumberland's troops were celebrating his birthday . Letters from Murray showed he thought this their best opportunity, not the next day when the Jacobites had faced another cold night with no food. ... in short the last three days which were critical our army starved. This was the reason our night march was rendered abortive when we possibly might have surprised and defeat the enemy at Nairn, but for want of provisions a third of the army scattered t o Inverness he and the others who marched had not the spirits to make it quick as was necessary being faint for want of provisions. 102 His disapproval at Charles's insistence at the push against the British, regardless of the weary men in his command is evident, s howing the arrogance of Charles who against the better advisement of those who had lived in Scotland all their lives, insisted on this attack. not attempt to take Scotland without foreign help. The Jacobite sources are mostly a rally to fight for who they saw as the rightful king of Scotland, for their culture. Because these beliefs were so deeply entrenched in Scottish history, (this was not the first Jacob ite Rising and many of those fighting had either fought in the first or saw their fathers or uncles or friends fight for the Young Pretender's father. This was what they knew and what they believed in. 102 Lord George Murray Resigns His Command, History of the Highlands and the Highland Clans , ed John S. Keltie, F.S.A. (London: Jack and Fullerton, 1887), 591.

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47 Image 6 : The two armies face off on Culloden Moor : http://www.scotclans.com/scotland/scottish history/jacobite scotland/1746 culloden/ 103 In just over an hour, the Battle of Culloden Moor ended, Charles was escap ing and Cumberland's soldiers killed many of the survivors l ying wounded on the battlefield . The Jacobite Rebellion was over. Similar to Sand Creek, the Jacobites, on their land, lay dead or dying. One of Cumberland's soldiers desc ribed the carnage, "The moor was covered with blood: and our men, what with killing t he enemy, dabbling their feet in the 103 This image shows just how out manned the Jacobites were at Culloden. They were not only cold and tired, but surrounded as well. http://www.scotclans. com/scotland/scottish history/jacobite scotland/1746 culloden/

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48 blood and splashing it about one another, looked like so many butchers." 104 Many other statements from both sides talk about a bloodbath, soldiers begging for mercy as British soldiers kill ed them on the moor. Cumberland was ruthless following his victory at Culloden. Most authors and historians discuss this relentless killing of Jacobites on the moor. Over two thousand Jacobites died that morning, and with them their cause. A collection of documents published as the Cullo den Papers gives an extensive look at the thoughts of the people of the '45. This collection has proved invaluable to those researching the Rising or Culloden specifically. 105 Many authors and historians have documented the battle of Culloden Moor, and ma ny emphasize it being the end of the Jacobite cause. Scottish author Stuart Reid describes in detail his ancestors' experiences on the moor. His map, descriptions of the armies, and the charge gives an in depth look at the battle, a method many authors ha ve chosen to use in regards to Culloden Moor. 106 Many secondary sources take approaches similar to this; however, there are those whose descriptions are as passionate as the Jacobites were for their cause. This is where the romanticizing of Culloden comes in . Hugh G. Allison's Culloden Tales: Stories from Scotland's Most Famous Battlefield draws upon folklore and stories to give the reader an idea of who the highlanders were 104 James Hunter, Culloden and the Last Clansman, (Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 2001) 105 Culloden Papers (London: T.Cadwell & Davies on the Strand, 1815) This is a collection of documents from the private collection of Duncan Forbes. 106 Stuart Reid, Culloden Moor, 1746: The Death of the Jacobite Cause, (Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002)

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49 and what they believed. This history can help explain why the Jacobites felt the need to stand up and fight against the British. 107 Following Culloden, p olitical cartoons, paintings and documents depict the Scots as oafish in stature, furthering the savage barbarian idea. David Morier's "An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745" showed a group of Scots at Culloden carrying axes and swords facing off against a more sophisticated British army with guns and proper weaponry. Morier, who traveled with the British army, wanted to show the cartoonish view many had of the Jacobites. 108 Depictions of Jacob ites, Scots in particular continuously showed them as primitive, possibly to ensure there would not be another rebellion. Their fearsome nature diminishe d to a childlike ridiculousness minimized the threat they once posed to Britain. The Jacobites had done much damage to England and forced the British army to recognize them as a legitimate threat. By reducing them to comic stature, the threat became far less real and could sway sympathizers from the Jacobite cause. Historians' early ideas of Culloden are pr imarily a victory of civility over primitive savagery , protestant versus Catholicism, and rationality over temperament . 109 Comparisons between the Jacobites and Native Americans inevitably surfaced, and the similarities are striking. Each fought against othe rs who would take and control their 107 Hugh G. Allison, Culloden Tales: Stories from Scotland's Most Famous B attlefield , (Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 2007). 108 Murray Pittock, Great Battles: Culloden, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016) 121. Political cartoons at the time show females dressing as males fighting against the British, Highlanders w earing nothing under their kilts, any manner of mockery to demonstrate the view of them at the time. They are seen as improper, oafish, and almost ignorant. Other cartoons continued to show Jacobite soldiers later in women's clothing attempting to hide fro m the British Army. 109 Pittock, 121.

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50 land, destroy their culture, and deem them as savage monsters incapable of higher levels of thinking and reason . Figure 7 : Morier's An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745" 110 Historian and professor Murray Pittock began to change this view of the highlanders and his narrative is changing the historiography. Pittock's research details a sophisticated political army that may have been outnumbered but was not outgunned or outmaneuvered. Their downfall was Charles's ins istence they attack that m orning and the British Calvary flanking them. Using archaeology at Culloden, Pittock determined the Jacobite army to be much more professional in their maneuvers than initially shown. He is helping to dispel the myth of the savage , even the "noble savage" idea that began following the romanticism of Culloden. Pittock, in his book Great Battles: Culloden , calls into question the idea that the moor was a poor choice of sites to stand against the 110 David Morier's "An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745", This painting is currently on exhibition at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. It is one of four pieces belonging to Cumberland, each depicting a triumphant British army against a less civi lized opponent. These are definite scenes of British superiority.

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51 British. He examines the possible site s that the army had and of them, Culloden gave them the best chance at victory. 111 There is much more documentation on Culloden than Sand Creek, in part due to the century that separates them. Colin G. Callow a y discusses several of the similarities betwee n Culloden and Sand Creek and those involved in White People, Indians, and Highlanders . Last stands for a way of life, for land, for culture, Culloden and Sand Creek have several similarities. There is one glaring difference though; Culloden was a battle o f man against man, each armed and each part of an army , led by generals and tacticians . Sand Creek was a massacre, a surprise attack by a well armed militia on a group of unsuspecting and ill armed Native Americans. The armies and governments they fought a gainst saw them as savages, uncivilized and barbaric. Jacobites (highlanders in general) and Native Americans had different religions, a different manner of dress, a different language and to the "civilized" this made them little more than animals. Ironica lly, following the loss at Culloden, many Scots ventured to North America and many of those worked to help colonize and establish trade with Indians. They had "expertise in dealing with indigenous peoples in frontier zones." 112 Ironically, many of the Scots saw 111 Pittock, Culloden , ch 3. 112 Colin G. Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal People and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 33 . These similarities is the backbone of this thesis. The idea that each, the Jacobites and the Native Americans were viewed as savages and uncivilized, they fought against a colonizing and superior force and one battle/massacre was essentially the final bl ow. There were certainly other battles in North America, but Sand Creek stands out as a glaring loss to Native Americans. Culloden was, without question, the end of the Jacobite uprisings. This is why I chose these two locations and how each site is preser ved and used in public history.

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52 themselves as superior and more civilized to Native Americans, judging them for savagery and backwardness sim ilar to what they faced. 113 The extensive history of Culloden Moor and its changes under the National Trust for Scotland I explain in the follo wing chapter. The Highlanders sent to America, the National Trust memorializes those who died on the moor and the British who fought against them at the memorial and museum . 113 Calloway, 66.

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53 CHAPTER VI THE PRESERVATION OF CÙIL LODAIR/CULLODEN The Forbes family, owners and l airds of Culloden owned much of the land and Culloden house. 114 During the Jacobite Rising in '45, Duncan Forbes, laird and owner, was one of the leading Hanoverian supporters in Scotland. For over one hundred and fifty years, Culloden house remained the family seat. The last laird to live in the house, also named Duncan Forbes, built the memorial cairn, and donated all the land owned by the Forbes es and the house to the National Trust. Eighty years ago, the National Trust of Sc otland acquired and began caring for Culloden Moor. Alexander Munro gave two small parcels of land known as the Leanach Far m to the National Trust in 1937 his son gifted more in 1959. This began the full preservation of Culloden Battlefield. 115 The location of the final Jacobite battle contains the moor itself, graves, the memorial cairn, and Leanach Cottage , a small thatched roof home on the field . The area still is t he site of controversy, even as a site of preservation. Numerous parties have proposed build ing condominiums, shopping centers, and other development s . Culloden has become a pilgrimage for Scots, particularly those who can date familial ties to the battle at Culloden Moor. In this chapter, I will examine the preservation of Culloden Moor and the buildings that rem ain, the conservation fight continues for the National Trust at Culloden , 114 The term "laird" is primarily Scottish use. It is interchangeable with the term "lord." Lairds are owners of large parcels of land and have several people working the land under them. 115 The National Trust for Scotland, C ulloden (Edinburgh: The Stewarts of Scotland, 2011), 68 71.

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54 and some of the modern ways the National Trust has enhanced the experience for visitors. 116 Figure 8: The current conservation boundary for Culloden: https://www.highland.gov.uk/downloads/file/15603/culloden_muir_conservation_area_b oundary 117 116 Much of this information is directly from my visit and experience at Culloden battlefield which I visited in April 2016. During this trip, I not only visited Culloden just outsid e of Inverness, I also visited the National Trust of Scotland in Edinburgh to examine their files on Culloden. Their collection is extensive, and I focused my research on the Preservation of Culloden. 117 This current conservation map is from the government w ebsite but may not include the recent expansion of conservation efforts by the National Trust.

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55 Upon receiving Culloden, the Nat ional Trust for Scotland (NTS) made several efforts regarding the preservation of the buildings on site, the memorials, and conser vation of the moor in an attempt to return it to its condition during 1745. The NTS lobbied for the preservation of Culloden due to its cultural and historical significance. 118 One of the immediate concerns for the trust was stopping further development on o r around Culloden Moor. The NTS has also entrusted architects to help in restoring and preserving some of the older buildings on the site, like Leanach Cottage and the King's Stables. There are several tours available through the NTS, designed to follow th e Jacobite history across Scotland, ending with the loss at Culloden. The goal is not to glorify battle, but to show why the Jacobites were fighting, remember who they were, and to also explain the reasons why the British Crown demanded they be stopped. Th e NTS walks a unique line , highlighting Sc ottish history while ensuring they tell the British government's position in a respectful and accurate manner . Leanach Cottage sits on the northeast corner of Culloden Battlefield. The exact historical use of the cottage is unknown. An assessment and architectural survey done by Addyman Archaeology in Edinburgh stated it was bui lt in the early 17 00's and likely used as housing for estate officers. The last recorded tenant of the cottage was Belle McDonald who lived there until her death in 1912. Her family gave tours of Leanach Cottage to encourage an interest in Highland history and culture. 119 Many historians believe this is where British soldiers took a group of wounded Jacobites waiting fo r 118 "270 years ago..." Culloden Battlefield, April 15, 2016, Accessed August 19, 2017. https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/270 years ago/. 119 "Leanach Cottage," Culloden Battlefield, accessed October 1, 2017, https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/leanach cottage/.

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56 execution following the battle of Culloden. Over the years, several people have restored Leanach, almost all keeping with the original materials and look of the cottage. The Gaelic Society of Inverness determined in 1922 during a special meeting that the cottage and several memorials on Culloden Moor were in dire need of repair. Fundraisers resulted in enough funds to work on the cottage and memorials and ensure money was there for future preservation. 120 Leanach is one of the few remaining original buildin gs with a thatched roof, which the NTS maintains and repairs. The NTS originally set up the original visitors center in the Leanach Cottage, but constructed a new building to better accommodate visitors, enhance the experience and help preserve Leanach. Th e cottage is currently one of the NTS's next projects. The exterior is accessible on Culloden Battlefield; however, it is closed to public at this time. 121 Figure 9: Photo of Leanach Cottage in the early 20th century. http://www.ambaile.org.uk/en/search/do _quick_search.html?q=leanach&mime_type=. 122 120 "Old Leanach Cottage Inverness Shire," Report prepared by Addyman Archaeology for The National Trust of Scotland, D esk Based Assessment and Architectural Record: March 2009. http://her.highland.gov.uk/hbsmrgatewayhighland/DataFiles/LibraryLinkFiles/214591.pd f. 121 This was during my visit to Culloden in April 2016. Signage indicated the cottage would soon be undergoing r epairs and in time would be reopened to the public for tours. 122 http://www.ambaile.org.uk/en/search/do_quick_search.html?q=leanach&mime_type=. This photo was taken by Mary Ethel Muir Donaldson.

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57 Figure 10: Photo of Leanach Cottage in 2016. Photo taken by Erica Fontenot 123 One of the most striking features on Culloden Moor is the M emorial Cairn . Duncan Forbes erected the cairn in 1881, creating an impressive lasting monument to those who died on Culloden Moor. Forbes finished the work that began in 1858 by Edward Power. Power donated the plaque on the cairn, remembering all who died in 1746 during the Battle of Culloden Moor. 124 The cairn stands as a testament to the conviction of the Jacobites, the heritage of the highlanders, and the history of Scotland. It stands over six meters high and has a thatched roof similar to the cottage. During the first attempts to preserve Culloden, the Gaelic Society of Inverness enclosed the cairn, repairing its thatched roof. The road that ran close to Culloden was dangerously close to the cairn and was one of the first things changed when preservation began. Clans g ather 123 This photo taken by the author of this thesis, Erica Fonteno t, during a visit to Culloden in 2016. 124 James L. Coleman, Remembering the Past in Nineteenth Century Scotland , (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014) ch 7.

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58 annually at Culloden and have a memorial ceremony at the cairn, laying wreaths with the names of different clans lost during the battle. 125 Figure 11: Culloden Memorial Cairn, photo taken one week after the annual memorial ceremony . P hoto taken by E rica Fontenot 126 125 Steve Goodwin, "Hundreds at cairn for Culloden ceremony," The Pictou Advocate , June 15, 2 016, http://pictouadvocate.com/2016/06/15/hundreds at cairn for culloden ceremony/, accessed July 28, 2017. 126 The wreaths placed by the clans were still surrounding the cairn a week after the ceremony when this picture was taken.

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59 Figures 1 2 and 1 3 : The plaques on the memorial cairn. Photos taken by Erica Fontenot 127 An archaeological survey at Culloden in 2005 showed that the NTS built the original visitors center across a government line. The National Trust decided to move the cente r, building the current visitor s ' c enter and m useum further south, creating a larger building to better accommodate more people and highlight more of the collection. T he visitor s ' center has signage in Gaelic and English, from the entrance sign for CÙIL LODAIR to signs on the battlefield marking the graves and the memorials. The National Trust has embraced the Gaelic history of the area, creating an educational memorial and museum. The intention of the center is to have a place for visitors to get a sense of place, to see these objects, be able to touch some of them, see and hear the Gaelic language, immerse them selves in a 360 degree film, and walk the battlefield with a GPS driven audio guide. 128 The website for the center gives visi tors an idea of what to expect, a background of the battle and the people involved. Symbolism is important in Highland 127 Photos I took of the p laques on the memorial cairn. One donated by Edward Forbes and the other placed by the National Trust of Scotland. 128 This information comes directly from my experience at Culloden in April 2016.

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60 histor y and it is used at the visitor s ' center. The memorials, some signage, and many of the graves make use of symbolism such as thistle s representing Scottish ancestry and loyalty to the country , bundles of sticks to show strength in numbers , and butterflies showing hope for the Stuart return . 129 The NTS does not just display the Jacobite side of Culloden; through a walk inside of the museum, one side of the hallway displays the Jacobite experience and the other side the British army experience. It is a timeline of events with audio and objects to give the visitor an in depth experience. The battlefield gives a similar ex perience as well, showing the perspective of the Jacobites as well as the British. Living history plays an important role, again both Jacobite and British army, with actors explaining weaponry, field surgery, and clothing. 129 "Schools and learning guide to Culloden" National Trust fo r Scotland , Accessed April 4, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/What we do/Article/Schools and learning guide to Culloden. The importance of the symbolism is explained in the appendix. Due to its length and number of symbols, I chose to only include some examples with further explanation.

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61 Figures 14 and 1 5 : Signage on Culloden Battlefield showing the Gaelic and English and a view of the Culloden visitors center from the battlefield. 130 The National Trust for Scotland has further plans for the battlefield. The forestry service owned the land for many years. The NTS has cut down many of the trees in an attempt to restore the field to its condition during April of 1746. One of the biggest points of difficulty in this comes from invasive plants following felling many of the trees. 131 The NTS still plans on further expansion o f the site , with an attempt to move the road further away. There is more evidence for archaeological finds in extended areas that the NTS wishes to survey and uncover. 132 The site is more than a visitors center, a cottage, and the memorial cairn. Memorials a nd gravestones mark where it is believed the clans fell. Duncan Forbes erected the memorials for the clans with the information from locals who had records on where they were buried. The English Stone, to the west of Leanach Cottage , does not necessarily d enote just the English forces; it also remembers the Scottish armies that fought with the British army. The Well of the Dead marks the place where a clan leader fell and the Cumberland Stone was placed where it is believed Cumberland stood and directed the battle. Throughout the battlefield is the Culloden 130 I chose these two pictures to highlight the care and detail the National Trust for Sco tland has done with Culloden Battlefield. I took each of these photographs during April 2016. 131 "The Culloden Battlefield Newsletter," Smithton Primary accessed September 12, 2017. http://smithtonprimary.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/3/9/10397862/culloden_commun ity_new sletter_issue_1.pdf There is no exact information for what invasive plant species are causing problems at Culloden. One of the answers by the NTS has been to bring in five Highland ponies to help stop the spread of the plants. 132 The National Trust for Scotland, C ulloden (Edinburgh: The Stewarts of Scotland, 2011), 71.

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62 walk. This experience, designed by the NTS, combines a walk through the battlefield with a GPS audio guide that instructs the visitor where to stop and hear about a particular point in the battle. 133 Cull oden offers visitors a dual depiction of the day of battle. The visitors' center museum has evidence from the point of view from Scotland and England. There are even memorials to the English on the field itself. The importance of this is their willingness to show each side of history, looking at this battle from different lenses. Visitors will see heroes from both sides, they will be able to hear and see evidence from each government and army, and be able to interpret the evidence for themselves. This is no t to say the museum does not favor the Scots; it most certainly does, but their goal is to show as much of what happened that day as possible, and as accurately as possible. The National Trust for Scotland lists on their website that the site contains arti facts from both Jacobites and the British Army and depicts both sides of the controversy. They have been successful in doing just that while still respectfully paying memorial to those lost. The National Trust wants the public to learn from this event and this location, to stress its importance in Scottish and British history. 134 Currently the National Trust in Scotland is facing another controversy over their trademark of "Culloden." By trade marking the name, local business are unable to use "Culloden" in their wares. Many Scots, particularly in Inverness see Culloden as 133 "Jacobite Stories: Culloden Today" The National Trust for Scotland , February 22, 2017, accessed August 2, 2017, http://www.nts.org.uk/What we do/Article/Jacobite Stories Culloden tod ay. This information was a combination of research as well as first hand experience. 134 Although Scotland is a part of Britain, I separated them out in this context because of the importance it has for Scotland as a country and for Britain as a whole.

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63 something for everyone in the area, something that is their history and not something to be controlled. The National Trust claims that controlling the term "Culloden" will help protect th e integrity of Culloden and its history. Their claim is that third parties are profiting off these locations, which takes funds away from the National Trust and their ability to fund Culloden. 135 This issue is still pending a resolution at this time. While I do understand the need to ensure funds continue to flow into the National Trust to continue protecting Culloden, I do not believe the restrictions a trademark would put on local businesses would be beneficial to the area, the NT, or Inverness tourism. Cul loden Battlefield is a key tourist destination and the town of Inverness contains many shops that use the name of the battlefield, those involved, and center their business on this historical event. Forbidding the use of the name or restricting it could, i n my opinion, damage tourism in Inverness and potentially detract interest. The recent referendums for Scottish independence do not seem to have had an effect on the preservation of Culloden or the National Trust for Scotland. A document put out by member s of Scottish Parliament do not mention the future of preservation. 136 What this does show however is the fight for Scottish independence from Britain is ongoing. Many do not believe in a separate Scotland as the referendum failed by an overwhelming margin. 135 Sally Hind, "Battle for Heritage as Scots National Trust slammed for trade marking Culloden and Bannockburn," Daily Record , August 9, 2017, accessed August 17, 2017, http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish news/battle heritage scots national trust 1095 3557. 136 Scotland's Future: Your Guide to an Independent Scotland , (Edinburgh: The Scottish Government, 2013)

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64 CHAPTER VII COMPARISON OF THE PEOPLE, EVENTS, AND PRESERVATION There are truly no apples to apples comparison of Sand Creek and Culloden. My goal with this thesis is to examine two sites of tragedy and shame , places where people fought on what had been their land. These proud people s tood up for years for their heritage, their beliefs and their culture. One immediate difference between them is the fact that Sand Creek was not a battle but a massacre. Culloden was the final battle of a yearlong struggle of Jacobites against the British government and army. There has also been a significantly larger period since Culloden than Sand Creek. Part of the inspiration for this particular topic is a recent resurgence i n the lit erature of Scots in the U.S. and Canada and comparisons between them and Native Americans . These particular sites highlight a complicated history and a legacy that each group holds onto. The similarities between the two groups also call for further inspect ion. "Savage" Each held their land and kept their traditions until another government came in and took control of the land. The "civilized" newcomers said the highlanders and the Native Americans were savage, primitive, and uneducated . Each had long tra ditions of storytelling, song, and spoke in languages difficult to understand or learn. There were close ties with the wilderness and their manner of dress was vastly different. 137 These groups of people, with an ocean separating them were similar in many wa ys and those who interacted with each noticed commonalities. They did not conform to defined 137 Colin G. Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America , (Oxford: Oxford Univer sity Press, 2008), 60 61.

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65 civility, which to these newcomers made them barbaric and backwards. The colonizers wanted to bring civilization to these people, religion, language, and mannerism s to overcome what they called barbaric ways. The colonizing people saw native dress, religion, and way of life as a sign of their ignorance and crudeness . Both people had strong connections to the land and nature. With each group, community revolved aroun d a key leader, a tribal elder or clan leader with strong ties of kinship, each had strong family beliefs. Some clans aligned themselves with larger ones for protection, and different branches of tribes who joined for protection. Their histories are one of the most important similarities, an empire confronting them, seeking their land, forcing them to change and leave behind their culture, and at an important junction in history. 138 Location Sand Creek and Culloden are each under the protection of government preservation agencies, the National Park Service and the National Trust for Scotland. These locations are important to Native Americans and Highlanders alike. Memorial cerem onies still take place annually and schools use them for educational pur poses . They exist as an opportunity for future generations to understand their history. A difference in preservation is vast. Archaeological surveys at Sand Creek and Culloden have helped locate important artifacts relating back to the events that cost the lives of hundreds. The artifacts have played key roles in locations. 139 T he National Trust and the people of Scotland knew where the battle took place, but these surveys have expanded the site, 138 Colin G. Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America , (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) 139 Surveys at Culloden have uncovered ammunition rounds, coins fro m Germany, and pendants.

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66 showing it is much larger than originally thought. The primary focus of the NST is to continue expanding the site to ensure they protect the full battlefield. A major road has been moved once before and they are attempting to do so again. The current attempts to restore the battlefield to its condition during the bat tle of Culloden show their desire to reach out to the past to save it for the future. Each location has a walking tour for visitors, allowing them to see where the tragedies took place. At Sand Creek, again archaeology actually helped to find the exact l ocation of the massacre. Arrowheads, bullets, and cannonballs show the path of the army and the Indians. Immediately following the massacre, Native Americans were scattered, displaced, and unable to properly commemorate or preserve the site, as the ones wh o survived escaped to other tribes or found themselves taken prisoner . Finding the site took many years of surveys, oral histories, and aerial photography. Since the NPS took over preservation, areas have been set aside for specific tribal use. There has n ot been the change in the area the way there was in Scotland. It is still fairly the same; no major roadway goes through the area , so they did not have that issue to address like Culloden . Sand Creek has moved, one of the factors making finding the locatio n difficult. Tourism and Education Culloden has been more successful in their interpretation and their focus on education. This of course could due to the length of time that passed. Unlike at Sand Creek, colonizers did not force the Scots from their lan ds. The Highland Clearances, in the years following Culloden, did result in mass murders and massacre, but it was not what the Native Americans faced. Having an extensive walking path with the GPS audio file made for a unique experience. It allows the visi tor to have a firsthand view of events

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67 from the Battle of Culloden . Sand Creek also could benefit from a visitors center similar to Culloden. Currently a small trailer serves as a visitor center, something wholly inadequate for a site of such importance. A mixture of visitor's center and museum with collections and living history is highly educational and something that the Native Americans deserve. At Culloden, this allows the Jacobites and Highlanders to embrace their culture and their heritage and share it with visitors. An experience like this at Sand Creek could help bridge the chasm Native Americans still face between themselves and others who still view them with racist attitudes . The popularity of movies, novels, and television shows can increase int erest in these sites, which in turn can lead to more people wanting to ensure the preservation of Culloden and Sand Creek. Controversial sites of tragedy such as these are in particular need of preservation. In the case of Sand Creek, we gain the opport unity to learn about Native American cultures in a pivotal time of American history. We learn what events led to the decision to attack Sand Creek, and why Colonel Chivington deemed the attack necessary. Without both sides of this story, we cannot understa nd why it was so horrific in nature. We risk losing an understanding of our past, of Native American beliefs and heritage, and we further the divide between cultures. It is important to understand the why behind a tragedy . Preservation and heritage tourism can help with this understanding and education.

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68 CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSION What I have shown in this thesis is the importance of the continued research, preservation, conservation, and education regarding Sand Creek and Culloden. Each location has a vast history and is important to understanding the history between its people and the governments involved. Due to the time difference between the two events, there has naturally been more time to preserve Culloden, to tell the history and construct the site. Sand Creek is heading in that direction. Culloden is a successful example of embracing a site of devastation and loss and using it to tell the history of Scotland, of Highlanders, and of the Jacobite movement. They do not ignore the British aspect, they do not vilify the British Army or Government, and instead they do a superior jo b of telling both sides of the story. The site is an educational memorial; it is respectful and a continuous work in progress. Sand Creek, in the time since the massacre, has changed, as has the attitude toward Native Americans. For the NPS, f inding the location, designating it as National Historic Site , and working closely with the tribes involved, has added invaluable historiography to the site. Moving forward and creating something similar to what is found at Culloden has been something the NPS is movi ng towards, a more interactive, educational site for the victims, their descendants, and for future generations. Preservation is particularly important in locations such as these, with contested and controversial histories. To understand what happened an d why, we must be able to see both sides of the story. This will help honor the victims, remember the losses , and ensure we remember cultures and heritages.

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69 BIBLIOGRAPHY "150th Anniversary Sand Creek Massacre . " text of Gove rnor John Hickenlooper's speech . Colorado State Archives . accessed August 12, 2017. https://www.colorado.gov/governor/150th%C2%A0anniversary%C2%A0sand%C 2%A0c reek%C2%A0massacre. "1715 The rebellion that should have worked..." Culloden Battlefield: Behind the Scenes Look at Cullode n Battlefield and the National Trust for Scotland. https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.com/tag/1715 rebellion/ "270 years ago..." Culloden Battlefield . April 15, 2016. Accessed August 19, 2017. https://cullodenbattlefield.wordpress.com/2016/04/15/270 years ago/. A Journey Through Part of England and Scotland Along with the Army Under the Command of His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland: Wherein the Proceedings of the Army, and the Happy Suppression of the Rebellion in the Year 1746. Are Particularly Described. As Also, the Natural History and Antiquites of the Several Places Passed Through. Togetherwith the Manners and Customs of the Different People, Especially of the Highlanders. By a Volunteer. Comprised in Several Letters to a Friend in London . London: T. Osborne. 1747. Allison, Hugh G. Culloden Tales: Stories from Scotland's Most Famous Battlefield . Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 2007 . "America's Public Lands Explained . " U.S. Department of Interior . accessed September 10, 2017. https://www.doi.gov/blog/americas public lands explained. "Archives of the West: Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre . " PBS.ORG . accessed August 17, 2017 . https://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/sandcrk.htm. Birnb aum, Charles A. " Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes . National Park Service . September 1994. accessed August 1, 2017. https://www.nps.gov/tps/how to preserve/briefs/36 cultural landscapes.htm. Bucholz, Robert and Key . Newton Early Modern England: A Narrative History . West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell Publishing, 2004. Calloway, Colin G. White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America . (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

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70 "Case for the Jacobites . " The National Archives . accessed April 9, 2017. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/case jacobites/. Coleman, James L. Remembering the Past in Nineteenth Century Scotland . Edinburgh: E dinburgh University Press, 2014. Craig , Reginald, The Fighting Parson, Los Angeles: Western Lore Press, 1959 . Culloden Papers . London: T.Cadwell & Davies on the Strand, 1815 ... Duffy, Christopher . Fight for a Throne: The Jacobite '45Reconsidered . Solihull: He lion and Company Limited, 2015. Gabaldon, Diana . Outlander . New York: Random House, 1991. Goodwin, Steve . "Hundreds at cairn for Culloden ceremony. " The Pictou Advocate . June 15, 2016 . http://pictouadvocate.com/2016/06/15/hundreds at cairn for culloden ceremony/, accessed July 28, 2017. Gosset, T. "Why Save Civil War Sites. " National Park Service . accessed September 14, 2017. https://www.nps.gov/abpp/cwsac/cws2.html. Greene , Jerom e A. and. Scott, Douglas D . Finding Sand Creek. Norman: Universi ty of Oklahoma Press, 2004. Hind , Sally . "Battle for Heritage as Scots National Trust slammed for trademarking Culloden and Bannockburn . " Daily Record . August 9, 2017 . accessed August 17, 2017. http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish news/battle heritage scots national trust 10953557. "Historic Sites Celebrate the Outlander Effect . " Historic Environment Scotland . last updated June 30, 2017 . accessed August 27, 2017. https://www.historicenvironment.scot/about us/news/historic sites celebrate outlander effect/. "History of the National Trust for Scotland . " National Trust for Scotland . accessed May 9, 2017. http://www.nts.org.uk/Charity/Our work/History/. Horror and Human Tragedy Revisited . ed. Gregory Ashworth and Rudi Hartmann. New York: Cognizant Communication Corp, 2001. Hunter, James. Culloden and the Last Clansma., Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing, 2001. Hoig, Stan . The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman: Universi ty of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

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71 "Jacobite Declaration of War . " The National Archives. accessed April 9, 2017. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/jacobite declaration war/. "Jacobite Stories: Culloden Today" The National Trust for Scotland, February 22, 2017, accessed August 2, 2017. http://www.nts.org.uk/What we do/Article/Jacobite Stories Culloden today. "John Chivington Biography . " National Park Service . accessed September, 12, 2017. https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/john chivington biography.htm. "John Evans . " Colorado State Archives. accessed August 12, 2017. https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/archives/john evans. Judis, John B. " The Country's Most Revealing Memorial to the Sand Creek Massacre Used to Celebrate the Killings . " New Republic . December 1, 2014 . accessed August 19, 2017. https://newrepublic.com/article/120441/statue celebrated sand creek massacre. Kelman, Ari A Misplaced Massacre. Cam bridge: Harvard University Press, 2013. Lord George Murray Resigns His Command. History of the Highlands and the Highland Clans . ed. John S. Keltie, F.S.A. London : Jack and Fullerton, 1887. Mendoza , Patrick M. Song of Sorrow: Massacre at Sand Creek . Denve r: Willow Wind Publishing, 1993. Michno, Gregory The Three Battles of Sand Cree k . El Dorado Hills, CA: Savas Beatie, LLC, 2017. More Culloden Papers. ed Duncan Warrand, M.A. F.S.A. Inve rness: Robert Carruthers & Sons. 1929 National Park Service . Sand Creek Massa cre Project: Site Location Study. Denver: National Park Service, Intermountain Region. "Old Leanach Cottage Inverness Shire . " Report prepared by Addyman Archaeology for The National Trust of Scotland. Desk Based Assessment and Architectur al Record: March 2009. Accessed April 4, 2017. http://her.highland.gov.uk/hbsmrgatewayhighland/Data Files/LibraryLinkFiles/21 4591.pd f. Pittock, Murray. Great Battles: Culloden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 201 6.

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72 Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with Difficult Heritage . ed. William Logan and Keri Reeves . New York: Routledge, 2009. Prebble, John, Culloden: The Magnificent Reconstruction of the Highlanders Tragic Moorland Battle , Middlesex: Peng uin Books. 1961. Preston, Diana. The Road to Culloden Moor: Bonnie Prince Charlie and the 1745 Rebellion . Edinburgh: Constable and Company Ltd. 1995. "Pretender in his own words . " The National Archives . accessed April 9, 2017. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/pretender words/. "Public Law 109 45 . " Government Publishing Office . accessed July 8, 2017 . https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW 109publ45/pdf/PLAW 109publ45.pdf. Publications of the Scottish Historical Society Volume XXVII: Memorials of John Murray of Broughton . ed. Robert Fitzroy Bell . Edingbu rgh: University Press, 1898. Reid, Stuart . Culloden Moor, 1746: The Death of the Jacobite Cause . Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002. Reid, Stuart Culloden: 1746 Battlefield Guide . South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword Military Publishing, 2005 . Runte, Alfred . National Parks, The American Experience . Taylor Trad e Publishing: Lanham, MD, 2010. Sand Creek Papers: Documents of a Massacre . Independently Published, 2016. " Sand Creek Massacre: Places . " National Park Service . accessed June 16, 2017 . https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/historyculture/places.htm. Schneck, Marian Albright . "Horace Marden Albright. " The National Park Service. accessed September 10, 2017 . https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/sontag/albright.htm. "Sc hools and learning guide to Culloden . " National Trust for Scotland , http://www.nts.org.uk/What we do/Article/Schools and learning guide to Culloden. Scotland's Future: Your Guide to an Independent Scotland . Edinburgh: The Scottish Government, 2013. " Securing Scotland . " The National Archives . accessed April 9, 2017 . http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/jacobite 1745/securing scotland/

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73 Smith, Richard Clemmer et al. Report of the John Evans Study Committee: University of Denver . De n ver: University of Denver, 2014. Stone, Philip R. "Dark Tourism Consumption: A Call for Research . " eReview of Tourism Research vol. 3 no. 5 . 2005 . "The Culloden Battlefield Newsletter . " Smithton Primary . Accessed September 12, 2017. http://smithtonprim ary.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/3/9/10397862/culloden_communi ty_new sletter_issue_1.pdf The National Parks: Shaping the System . Produced by the Division of Publications and the Employee Development Division National Park Service . U.S. Department of the In terior: Washington, D.C., 1991. "The National Trust for Scotland: About . " National Trust for Scotland. June 2012 . accessed September 11, 2017. http://www.nts.org.uk/about/downloads/cid_2012_text_only.pdf. The National Trust for Scotland . C ulloden . Edinburgh: The Stewarts of Scotland, 2011 . The National Trust for Scotland Guide . ed. Robin Prentice. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd, 1976 "The Sand Creek Massacre Black Kettle Letter to Agent Samuel Colley and Major Edward Wynkoop . " KC Lone Wolf . accesse d September 1, 2017. http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc documents/sc black kettle letter.html#sthash.3YhcyeXZ.dpbs. "The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site . " Santa Fe T rails Scenic and Historic Byway. a ccessed May 20, 2017. http:// www.santafetrailscenicandhistoricbyway.org/scmasacre.html. "The Sand Creek Massacre: Editorials from the Rocky Mountain News After the Attack . " KCLone Wolf . accessed September 1, 2017. http://www.kclonewolf.com/History/SandCreek/sc reports/rocky editori als.html. The Sand Creek Massacre : The Official Congressional Report. Washin gton: Westholm Publishing, 2015. Thompson, Ralph. "1716, The Year of the MacGregor," The National Archives . Accessed February 5, 2017.http://blog.nationalarchives.gov.uk/blog/1716 year macgregor/#more 28249 Turner, Carol . Forgotten Heroes & Villians of Sand Creek . Charleston, H istory Press: 2010.

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74 Vasicek, Donald L. "About Sand Creek," Sand Creek Massacre ,, http://sandcreekmass acre.net/sand creek/. West, Elliot . Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado . Fort Hays: University of Kansas Publishing, 1998 .

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75 APPENDIX A UPDATE ON SAND CREEK NATIONAL HISTORIC S ITE SEPTEMBER 2017 Alexa Roberts, park superintendent for the Sand Creek National Historic Site, updated me on the plans for Sand Creek and its updates. The general management plan, approved last year after discussions between the NPS and tribal delegates, will begin impleme ntation in 2018. The plan took over nine years to design and directly addresses tribal needs and concerns. The tribes had a major hand in designing the future of Sand Creek NHS. It will become an experience similar to Culloden. Care is taken to ensure the sensitive creek area is not damaged. A raised walking trail through the park will begin with visitors following the path of Chivington's militia. A ranger will meet visitors at the location of the army's gear drop and will follow a military approach. Once reaching Sand Creek and the location of the massacre, the trail will continue by following the Native American flight to the sand pits. Signage along the path will explain key events during the massacre. It is important that there is little to no impact to the site itself, hence the raised walkway. The trail is a total of three miles includes a new visitor's contact center at the park. A new visitor's center and museum in Eads, with more interpretation will allow visitors to see some of the artifacts found and on display. The new center will give reasons behind the massacre, the immediate impact and the aftermath. The full implementation will take approximately five years. The finished site will allow visitors to have a very personal contemplative experience , showing the power of landscape. 140 140 " General Management Plan for Sand Creek Massacre NHS Prepared for Public Review," National Park Service, accessed September 8, 2017, https://www.nps.gov/sand/learn/news/general management plan for sand creek massacre nhs prepared for public review.htm.

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76 APPENDIX B SAND CREEK: NOTAB LE NAMES Due to the sheer number of names and dates involved in Sand Creek, in order to understand the ramifications, scope, and the events, I have chosen to include a more comprehensive lis t. Native Americans: Black Kettle Leader of the Southern Cheyenne who spearheaded efforts for p eace with Evans prior to the Sand Creek Massacre. He escaped Sand Creek and c ontinued to counsel for peace. He was killed at a later massacre in W ashita, Oklahoma in an attack from George Custer. White Antelope Cheyenne chief who was present at the Camp Weld Conference with Black Kettle in September 1864. George Bent Son of George Bent and Owl Wo man who escaped Sand Creek and later join ed the Dog Soldiers to fight against American troops. He provided a participant history of Sand Creek. Niwot (Left Hand) Chief of the Southern Arapahoe in Color ado territory who was also present with Black Kettle at Camp Weld. He was wounded at Sand Creek and died a few days later. Dog Soldiers A band of Cheyenne who fought agains t the United States believing peace was not possible.

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77 United States Government and Military: John Evans Doctor, politician, and businessman who became the second territorial governor of Colorado. Evans estab lished a unit led by Colonel Chivington to fight against Indian attacks. Evans was forced to resign after Sand Cre ek as territorial governor. He was in charge of Indian relations. C ol. Joh n Chivington Former Methodist Minister who helped John Evans found University of Denver. He led the Third Regiment against the Native Americans at Sand Creek. Major Edward Wynkoop Well respected officer who br ought Black Kettle to the Camp Weld Conference. He offered safety to the tribes under Black Kettle at Sand Creek and was notified by Cramer and Soule about the massacre. Captain Silas Soule An officer in Chivington's Third Regiment. He refused to fire against Native Amer icans at Sand Creek and was one of the men to inform Major Wynkoop about the massacre. Lieutenant Joseph Cramer Cramer, like Soule, refused to fire upon the Native Americans at Sand Creek. He testified against Chivington at his trial in 18 65.

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78 APPENDIX C CULLODEN: NOTABLE NAMES Jacobites Charles Edward Stuart The Young Pretend er, Stuart was the son of James III, the Old Pretender who f ought to retake the throne during the 1715 Rising. Lord Murray One of Stuart's most loyal and well known generals. He counseled Stuart against taking their rebellion into England . Duke of Perth James Drummond one of the more notable and high ranking Jacobite members. His brother died on the ba ttlefield during the Battle of Culloden. Donald Cameron A prominent Highland chief whose support was key for Stuart during the rebel lion. He escaped Culloden with the Young Pretender and made his way to France. Simon Fraser The Chief o f Clan Fraser at Lovat, originally he was a supporter for the Hanoverian throne, but c hanged sides in 1745 to support Stuart. He was taken prisoner following Culloden and beheaded in 1747. British Army and Government Duke of Cumberland " The Butcher" Cumberland is perhaps most well known for his victory over the Jacobite ar my at

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79 Culloden. He earned his nickname, in part, for his orders of killing all survivors on the field following the British victory. King George II Hanoverian King of Brita in during the 1745 Jacobite Rising. He was the last monarch born in Germany from the Hanover line. Duncan Forbes Lord Culloden was a politician and Hanoverian supporter whose family seat was Culloden House . Forbes spoke out against Cumberland following the killing of Jacobite survivors. Major James Wolfe Wolfe refused to shoot a highland soldier under d irect order and supervision of Cumberland. He claimed he w ould not lose his hono r by killing a wounded man.

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80 APPENDIX D SAND CREEK TIMELINE 1849 California Gold Rush sends thousands west 1851 Treat of Fort Laramie defines land in Eastern Colorado , between the North Platte and Arkansas River as Cheyenne and Arapahoe territory 1854 Kansas Nebraska Act allows settlers to build on the pre defined Native American territory 1858 Gold found in the South Platte River and Cherry Creek in Denver starting a new gold rush 1861 Treaty of Fort Wise signed by Black Kettle and White Antelope ceded land t o the United States Government, b elieved at the time by the same chiefs to be beneficial for the tribes. 1861 The Colorado Territory established 1862 John Evans appointed as second territor ial gov ernor of Colorado by President Abraham Lincoln 1862 1863 Several attacks by bands of Native Americans angered by broken treaties with the U.S. Government. 1864 In August, under the orders of Governor Evans, the Third Regiment is formed to fight agains t hostile Native Americans. It is led by Colonel John M. Chivington. 1864 In September, Evans meets with chiefs at Camp Weld, ordering them to stay away from hostile bands and remain at Sand Creek to avoid hostilities. 1864 On November 29, Chivington a nd his men attack the peaceful Araphao and Cheyenne at Sand Creek, killing most, mutilating the bodies, and inciting one of the most controversial attacks during the American Indian Wars.

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81 APPENDIX E CULLODEN TIMELINE 1715 The Jacobite rising begins for James III, The Old Pretender begins led by the Earl of Mar 1716 James Edward Stuart leaves Scotland for France ending the '15 Rising 1745 Charles Edward Stuart, The Young Pretender, lands in Scotland, beginning the '45 Rising 1745 The Jacobites land a major defeat against the British against Prestonpans and follow the British to England 1745 In December, much needed support from France does not show for the Jacobites forcing the Jacobites to retreat from Derby. 1746 In January Jacobites capture I nverness and Falkirk but suffer a loss at Stirling 1746 On April 16, the Jacobites suffered a crushing defeat against British forces. The defeat forces Charles to escape Scotland and results in the end of the Jacobite rebellion.

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82 APPENDIX F LIST OF IMA GES FIGURES: 1. Notice posted by the U.S. Army calling for volunteers..........................................16 2. Letter from Black Kettle.........................................................................................19 3. The Bent Hyde Maps..............................................................................................28 4. Sign outside Sand Creek National Historic Site.....................................................32 5. Cumberland and S tuart.................. ...... ....................................................................34 6. Illustration of the armies facing off at Culloden.....................................................38 7. Morier's An Incident in the Rebellion of 1745 ........................... ............................40 8. Conservation boundary of Culloden.......................................................................50 9. Early photo of Leanach Cottage ............................................................................53 10. Photo of Leanach Cottage in 2016.........................................................................53 11. Memorial Cairn at Culloden..................................................................................54 12. Plaque on the Memorial Ca irn...............................................................................55 13. Plaque on the Memorial Cairn...............................................................................55 14. Signage showing English/Gaelic...........................................................................57 15. Culloden visitors center .........................................................................................57