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National municipal review, July, 1912

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Title:
National municipal review, July, 1912
Uniform Title:
National municipal review
Creator:
National Municipal League
Plehn, Carl C.
Geiser, Karl Frederick
Burke, Jesse D.
Bradford, Ernest S.
MacGregor, Ford H.
Hull, Reginad Mott
Tener, John K.
Ingersoll, Raymond V.
Williamson, Charles C.
Mowry, Don E.
Halbert, L. A.
Treleven, John E.
Myers, P. H.
Strong, Thomas N.
Watson, Max
Beard, Charles A.
Walnut, Henry T.
Gulick, Luther H.
Dunlop, George H.
Fairlie, John A. ( Editor )
Lapp, John A. ( Editor )
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Philadelphia, PA
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National Municipal League
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English

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serial ( sobekcm )

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Volume 1, Issue 3

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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. L JULY, 1912 No. 3 THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA BY PROFESSOR CARL C. PLEHN University of California LITTLE over thirty years ago after a period of popular agitation against the Chinese the railroads and the “money power,” A California adopted a new constitution, which at that time was held up to the world as the acme of radicalism.‘ It proved, however, far less radical than was feared. Now, again, and all within two years, California has attracted wide attention as a state that is prone to make daring experiments in matters of government. She has adopted, by large popular majorities, the direct primary, including the senatorial and presidential primary, the initiative, an enlarged use of the referendum, the recall of all elective officers including judges, women’s suffrage, the bifurcated legislative session, county home rule under freeholders’ charters, an employers’ liability law, a public utilities commission law, constitutional provision for municipal ownership of public utilities, and a new tax system, together with other lesser so-called radical measures. While the subject of this paper, the taxation of franchises, is a product of both the old and the new radical movements, it is not in itself radical in character, on the contrary it is an experiment in the direction of justice in taxation that the most conservative state might try to advantage. The constitution of California, adopted in 1879, contained certain provisions inregard to taxation, so novel as to arouse wide interest. Among them may be mentioned: the taxation of mortgages, as representing an interest in the property by which they were secured, in the hope of making the money-lender pay the tax; the separate listing of land, apart from the improvements upon it; the assessment of cultivated and of unculti1 1 Readers not familiar with what the Ron. James Bryce has called “that surprising document by which California is now governed” will find a convenient summary of it in his American Commonwealth. 337

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338 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW vafed lands of the same quality and similarly situated at the same rate; the assessment of land in small divisions; and the taxation of franchises. The experiment in regard to the taxation of mortgages broke down in 1899 and was finally abandoned in 1910, at the time of, but not as a part of, the adoption of a new system of taxation. That experiment may be regarded a3 having given a negative result, for it demonstrated, in a peculiarly clear and convincing manner, that the tax on the mortgage was inevitably shifted to the borrower. But, just as in many scientific experiments, a negative regult is as valuable as an affirmative one, in that it adds to the sum of human knowledge, so this experiment has been worth while. The provisions as to the listing and assessment of land may seem to be small details of administrative procedure, but they have proved to be of great service in the direction of greater accuracy and certainty in tax administration, and have been copied, or rediscovered, as in the case of New York, in a great many other states. The inclusion of franchises in the list of taxable property brought striking results, almost at once, in so far as the taxation of the great public service corporations was concerned. But in its wider application to other classes of companies, it had a fitful life until new vigor was infused into it by the changes made at the time of the adoption of the new system of state taxation in 1911. The change which gave it new life was the transfer to the state of the taxation of all franchises of every kind and nature and the prohibition of the imposition of any taxes thereon by the cities or other divisions of local government.2 This change .has made it practically impossible to evade the taxes on franchises. That municipalities should be debarred from taxing the franchises granted to street railways, gas and electric companies, water companies, telegraph and telephone companies and others using the public streets and from taxing the franchises of other classes of companies doing business in the cities, may seem at first sight an anomaly. The anomaly is, however, not so great as it seems. In the first place, all the rest of the property in the cities has been practically exempted from the payment of any state tax. In the second place, the cities are not debarred from obtaining revenue from the granting of the franchises. But that revenue must take the form of a rental for the franchises, regarded as public property. In fact, since 1897, all companies to which any municipality has the power to grant the use of the public streets must pay to the municipality, after the first five years, at least 2 per cent of the gross receipts obtained from the enjoyment of the franchises, and the cities are at liberty to drive a 2 The sole exception is that taxes for the payment of the principal and interest of city, county, and district bonds outstanding when the tax system was changed, are nominally assessed against the franchises, although paid by the state out of the proceeds of its taxes.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 339 better bargain if they can. But all the taxes, in the narrower sense of that term, levied upon the franchises go to the state. In the case of all the public service corporations, except water companies, the taxes paid to the state are computed upon the basis of the gross receipts, but they are expressly declared to be taxes upon the property and franchises, and are in lieu of all other taxes thereon. In the case of all the other corporations, including mercantile, manufacturing, and mining, the franchise is considered to be the equivalent of the corporate excess, that is, the difference between the aggregate value of all the corporation’s holdings, as shown by the value of the stock and of the bonds and the value of its tangible property that is placed upon the rolls of the counties. , The substance of the change is, that, while heretofore, franchises of every class have been taxable in the same manner as any other property for state, county, and municipal purposes, they are now taxable for state purposes only. Moreover, while, heretofore, only the conspicuous special franchises of the public service companies have been regularly and effectively reached, now, these, as well as all others, are reached and taxed. The full significance of the present system of taxing franchises cannot be understood without going back to its first introduction in the constitution of 1879. Its history since then is full of instruction, not alone as to the nature of the present franchise tax in California, but also as certain very fundamental principles in connection with the taxations of corporations everywhere.. No distinct mention of franchises, as taxable property, is to be found in the old constitution of 1849, nor in the codes or the statutes, prior to 1880. Still the definition of taxable property was, even at that time, broad enough to include franchises, and there is some evidence that they were occasionally taxed. But in the long article on revenue and taxation in the constitution of 1879 there are two references to the taxation of franchises. The first is in the definition of taxable property, which reads: “The word ‘property,’ as used in this article and section, is hereby declared to include moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, dues, franchises, and all other matters and The second is in the provision for the application of the unit rule in the taxation of railroads, which reads : “The franchise, roadway, roadbed, rails and rolling stock of all railroads operated in more than one county in this state shall be assessed by the State Board of Equalization at, their actual value, . . . .” The origin of these phrases is therefore of interest. An examination of the Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention3 shows that intricate as the matter is, the members of the a Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of California, convened at the City of Sacramento, Saturday, September 28, 1875. E. B. Willis and P. K. Stockton, official stenographers. Sacramento, State Printer, 1880. Hereafter, in this article, referred to as “Debates and Proceedings.” things,real, personal, and mixed, capable of private ownership; . . . . JI

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340 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the convention had a very definite plan of taxation in mind which they expressed by including the franchises of corporations among the taxable property. The word “franchises” as indicating a class of taxable property appears in the records of the convention for the first time in a resolution introduced by Mr. Dudley, of Solano, the very first resolution to be introduced with reference to taxation. It provided for an article on Taxation, the first section of which was to read: “Taxation shall be equal and uniform throughout the state. All property in this state, not exempt under the laws of the United States, except property belonging to the state, county, or other municipal corporation, shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as provided by law. The word (property,’ as used in this article and section, is hereby declared to include all moneys, credits, dues, franchises, investments in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, and all other matters and things capable of ownership and having value in exchange.”* Whether the use of the term franchises in this connection originated with Mr. Dudley is not clear. That gentleman’s chief interest, as it appeared later, was in the second section of his resolution which provided for an income tax and he had nothing to say, in regard to the taxation of franchises, in the subsequent debates.6 As the debates proceeded it gradually became clear that thepoliticosocial origin of the idea that franchises should be taxed was to be found in t.he movement for the taxation of mortgages, credits, and all forms of intangible property.E The proposal to call a convention for. the revision of the constitution was made sometime before the outbreak of those popular agitations which afterwards played so large a part in the decision of the people to hold the convention and which in large measure determined the choice of the delegates. Many of the delegates insisted that the real cause of the calling of the convention was the dissatisfaction of the people with adecisionof the Supreme Court, reversing previous decisions, and holding that mortgages were not taxable property under the old constitution.7 The platforms of several of the dominant party factions in the convention Debates and Proceedings, p. 95. It is interesting to note that the definition of taxable property finally adopted by the convention, and cited in part above, followed somewhat closely the wording of the resolution first introduced. Yet that language disappeared in the report of the committee on revenue and taxation, and did not reappear until close upon the final revision. But the word franchise was in every one of the resolutions considered by the convention and in every one of the amendments offered thereto. This unanimity is very remarkable in view of the wide differences of opinion that prevailed upon other points. 6 For a full discussion of the origin and history of the taxation of mortgages,see an Article in the Yale Review for May, 1899, by the writer of this paper. People us. Hibernia Bank, 51 Cal., 243.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 341 had declared for the taxation of mortgages and other credits, or that all property should be taxed no matter what its character was.8 When the article on revenue and taxation came back from the convention’s committee on revenue and taxation, it contained the following direct reference to the taxation of franchises. “Sec. 2. All property, including franchises, capital stock of corporations or joint stock associations, and solvent debts, deducting therefrom debts due bona jide residents of this state, . . . . shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as directed by law.”g The sixteen days’ debate on this article had barely begun before it was clear that this section had to be read in connection with: “Sec. 17. The value of the capital stock of a corporation shall be assessed in the county in which the principal place of business is located, and separately from all other property belonging thereto; and such stock shall be assessed at its market value when the assessment is made. The real and other personal property of such corporation shall be assessed in the several counties respectively in which the same is situate. The value of such stock, over and above the aggregate value of such real and other personal property, according to such assessment, shall be taxed in the county in which the principal place of business of such corporation is located; and the value of such real and other personal property shall be taxed in the several counties respectively in which the same is situate. The shares of stock belonging to the stockholders in such corporations shall be exempt from taxation; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not apply to railroad corporations.1f1o Here we have a clear and distinct provision for the taxation of the corporate excess. It soon became clear that the committee had adopted one of the two conflicting plans of different groups of delegates. One was to tax the stock of corporations as well as the property, much as these same delegateswished to tax the mortgages and the property by which the mortgages were secured; the other was, as proposed by the committee, to tax all the property, including everything that gave value to the stock, but not to tax the stock in addition thereto. Section seventeen seems to have been the committee’s interpretation, for administrative purposes, of the term franchises. As the discussion proceeded those members of the convention who had clear and pronounced views on taxation divided themselves into two camps. One contained those who regarded the property tax as a tax on property in the objective sense, that is, as a tax on things irrespective of the owners. These were opposed to the taxation of credits, mortgages] or other forms of intangible property that were representative of other property, such as, Sacramento] State Library, 1893. 8 Davis, W. J., History of Political Conventions in California, 1849-1895’. 9 Debates and Proceedings, p. 831. ‘ODebates and Proceedings, p. 831. The italics are mine.

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342 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW choses in action and the like, but they were not necessarily opposed to the taxation of intangible property when such property was not representative in character. Among the latter kinds of property would be, of course, franchises. The other camp contained those who regarded the property tax as a tax on persons in proportion to what they owned, that is, in proportion to their property. These, of course, wanted all credits and representative property taxed. Some of them would permit a man to deduct what he owed from what was owing to him, but many of them would not make even that concession. The clearer thinkers among the latter sub-group admitted that this would be double taxation, but advanced the claim that it would not matter as the doubling of the rolls would cut the tax rate in two. Inasmuch as franchises could reasonably be regarded as taxable property from both points of view the term fell, as it were, in neutral territory between the two camps and hence was regarded as belonging to both. That franchises should be taxed was, thus, tacitly admitted by both sides without a clear perception of the fact that they arrived at this conclusion by different lines of reasoning. This unanimity of opinion would have been fatal to our search for an expression of what the delegates meant by the term franchises, for it would have prevented its being discussed, had it not been for the fears and misgivings of the representatives of the mining districts. These representatives saw, or thought they saw, in the provisions for the taxation of franchises and especially in section seventeen, a danger to the mining corporations. Therewas a strong faction in the convention, composed of various elements, that was openly hostile to corporations and corporate power. The farmers were especially anxious to curb the railroads, while the workingmen’s party and other groups were more generally opposed to “the money power.”ll As it was clearly impossible to impose restrictions on corporations, without affecting those engaged in mining, the representatives of the mining districts were continually put upon the defensive, and in no case more so than in the face of the proposal to tax the stock and the property of the corporations. They saw, even in the committee’s proposal to tax the tangible property in theminingcoun11 The following are some of the most extreme expressions of a feeling that seems to have been prevalent: On October 5, 1877, the so-called “Kearney Party’’ adopted the following resolution: “We propose to destroy the great money power of the rich by a system of taxation that will make great wealth impossible in the future.” Davis, Political Conventions, p. 366. On January 24, 1878, the Workingmen’s party adopted a platform, and among the resolutions proposed for this, but not adopted,was the following: “Sec. 11. Millionaires and money monopolists are destructive to the happiness and dangerous to the liberty of the people, and we demand that they be iiinde impossible by a prcper system of taxation.” Ibid., p. 350.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 343 ties and the franchise, or the corporate excess, in the cities, where the offices of the companies usually were located, a grave danger. That was that the companies might fare’badly between the two assessors. Joined with this was the very natural desire of the mountain counties where the mines were located to retain the entire taxes upon the mines. The attack of the mining delegates brought out the meaning of the term franchise. Among the delegates who frequently and emphatically voiced the alarm of the mining delegates was Mr. Gregg, who on one occasion said: “Now the capital stock of corporations in some form, certainly, should be taxed, or the franchises should be taxed. I am satisfied that corporations owning franchises of great value should be taxed. The Spring ValleyL2 franchise should be taxed. But when you tax the capital stock of corporations you turn the greater portion of the tax into the treasury of the city and county of San Francisco, because nearly all the stock is owned there. Franchises include the capital stock13 and if you tax the one you should not tax the other. Then, again, when you tax the franchise and capital stock of corporations you are endangering the mining interests of the state.”I4 Very early in the debates it became apparent, as indeed is shown in this citation and in the replies thereto, that the delegates understood the term franchises to apply to all classes of corporations whether they had special privileges or not. No other interpretation of the two sections proposed by the committee is possible. Mr. Shafter said: “It is’quite correct to tax franchises, the right to do business, and the visible property only” (i. e., “only” in the sense of excluding the stock) “as these constitute all there is of value belonging to corporations.S It was Mr. Howard who first threw light on the meaning of the term by drawing upon the decisions of the courts. He quoted from the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of the Delaware Railroad Tax, 18 Wall., 231, as follows: ‘ ‘The state may impose taxes upon the corporation as an entity existing under its laws, as well as upon the capital stock, or its separate corporate property. And the manner in which its value shall be assessed, and the rate of taxation, however arbitrary or capricious, are mere matters of. legislative discretion.”l6 “A franchise, the Supreme Court says, ‘Is the privilege or the right of association in a particular manner to accumulate property and to make l2 The Spring Valley Water Company supplies the city of San Francisco with lbter. 13Apparently he meant to say that franchises are included in the value of the l4 Debates and Proceedings, p. 850. Ibid., p. 854. 161bid., p. 867. stock.

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344 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW money. The grant of a corporate existence is the grant of special privileges to the corporators enabling them to accumulate property, free from individual liability.’ Finally the convention agreed to strike out the provisions for the taxation of the capital stock, apparently on the ground that a majority of the members were convinced that to tax both the stock and the property, including the franchise, was double taxation. In this shape the article was reported out of the committee of the whole and although the convention did not hestitate toveopen the debate on many of the matters under controversy yet the decision of the committee of the whole on the taxation of franchises was not disturbed. A side light on the meaning of the term franchise as it was understood by the convention is thrown by the use of the term in the sections relating to corporations, their formation and their powers. There it is used in such phrases as : “all existing charters, grants, franchises, special or exclusive privileges;” “any franchise or charter” and in other similar expressions which show that the convention undcrstood that the mere right to be a corporation was a franchise. Immediately after the adoption of the constitution by the people the political code was amended to carry the new provisions of the constitution into effect. The definition of taxable property was taken over bodily from the new constitution and, of course, carried with it the taxation of franchises. Then section 3640 was rewritten. That section had stood since 1872 in the following form: “The owner or holder of stock in any firm or corporation, the entire capital or property whereof is assessed, must not be assessed individually for his stock in such firm or corporation.” There was nothing in this that was contrary to the decision of the convention to tax the propert,y of corporation and not the stock as such. But the definition of taxable property, as quoted above, said, that the word “property” included “moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, dues, franchises,” etc., and the legislature seems to have thought that it was left to it to provide for the taxation of stock. The section as revised read: “each person, firm, or corporation owning or having in his or its possession any of the shares of the capital stock of any corporation, association, or joint stock company, shall be assessed therefor.ls If the corporation, association, or joint stock company has its principal place of business in this state, the assessable value of each share of its stock shall be ascertained by taking from the market value of its entire capital stock the value of all property assessed to it, and dividing the remainder by the entire number of shares into which its capital stock is divided. The owner or holder of capital stock in corporations, associations, and joint stock companies whose principal place 11 Ibid., p. 890. la It will be observed that this was a direct reversal of the old section.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 345 of business is not within this state, must be individually assessed for such stock. SharehoIders, in the statement required by section 3629 of this code, shall specify the number of shares of stock held by them, and the name of the corporation. The owner of shares of stock to be entitled to the deduction provided for in this section must produce to the assessor a certificate of the assessment of the property of the corporation, association, or joint stock company.” This was in effect a legislative reenactment of the provision for the taxation of the corporate excess which had been rejected by the convention, with the difference that the excess was to be assessed to the stockholder and not to the corporation. The enactment of this section of the law opened up the question as to whether the constitution still required the taxation of the stock as well as of the property and the franchise of corporations. One of the assessors apparently decided for himself that the law as laid down in the section above quoted was unconstitutional and declined to assess shares of stock. A taxpayer, claiming that the omission of the stock of corporations from the tax rolls unduly increased his share of the taxes, went into court for an order directing the assessor to assess the shares of stock in corporations. This case is commonly known as Burke us. Badlam (57 Cal.’ 599), and is important as being given at a time when the proceedings of the convention were still fresh in the minds of many, and were consequently easier of interpretation than they would have been later. The decision was that ((to tax the property and franchise and also the stock is double taxation.” This rendered the greater part of the revision of section 3640 of the political code invalid and it was apparently on that account that the whole of it was repealed, the next year. But meanwhile the provision of that section as to the valuation of the stock had been adopted by some of the assessors as the method for arriving at the value of the franchise. On the same day that the legislature repealed this section, and in the same bill, it enacted a new section of the code which still stands as section 3608 and which reads: “Shares of stock in corporations possess no intrinsic value over and above the actual value of the property of the corporations which they stand for and represent; and the assessment and taxation of such shares, and also all corporate property, would be double taxation.” One of the code commissioners has since sneeringly referred to this as (‘a bit of subtle reasoning’’ but, although this may be true of it and although this provision may not be directive law, it is nevertheless a record of legislative convict.ion and a statement of principles that cleared the atmosphere at a very troubled time. At the time that the decision in the case of Burke us. Badlam was handed down, the court had before it another case, decided shortly afterward, involving the validity of the tax on franchises, that was the case of the Sun Jos& Gas Company us. January (57 Cal. 614). An assessor had

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346 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW valued the franchise of a gas company at $130,000 and the company resisted the payment of the tax. “In making the valuation,” says the court, “he estimated the combined aggregate market value of the shares of the capital stock of the corporation, held and owned by the shareholders at $240,000 and from that aggregate deducted the combined aggregate value of all the taxable property of the corporation, including real estate and improvements thereon, personal property, money, and street mains, and found the result $130,000, and assessed the franchise at that sum.” This assessment had been appealed to the county board of equalization, but had been sustained. In this particular case the franchise was one granted directly by the constitution of the state and might be enjoyed by anyone. As it did not represent a monopolisable right it might have been, possibly, regarded asdifferent from a special and exclusive privilege. On this point the constitution as it then stood said? “in any city where there are no public works owned and controlled by the municipality for supplying theseme with water or artificial light, any individual, or company duly incorporated for such purpose under and by authority of the laws of this state, shall, under the direction of the superintendent of streets, or other officer in control thereof, and under such general re‘gulations as the municipality may prescribe for damages and indemnity for damages, have the privilege of using the public streets and thoroughfares thereof, and of laying down pipes and conduits therein, and connections therewith, so far as may be necessary for introducing into and supplying such city and its inhabitants either with gaslight or other illuminating light, or with fresh water for domestic and all other purposes, upon the condition that the municipal government shall have the right to regulate the charges thereof.1120 The decision was that the franchise was taxable. As to the value fixed thereon the court held that that was a matter io be left to the discretion of theassessor and found no fault with the method used. It said further: “In a pecuniary sense, the value of franchises may be as various as the objects for which they exist, and the methods by which they are employed, and may change with every moment of time; but that franchises are property, and are to be taxed in some method in proportion to value, is a part of the paramount law of the state.” The whole matter was gone over again, shortly afterward, in the case of the Spring Valley Water Works us. Schottler (62 Cal. 69), which is the forerunner of a long series of cases in which the same principles are reaffirmed and extended. The assessor had valued the franchise of this corporation at $5000, but the county board of equalization, reviewing his work, had raised the valuation to $5,000,000. This is the company which supplies the city,of San Francisco with water. The attorney for thecompany claimed that “the difference between the value of the tangible property lJ This provision was amended in 1911. 21 Article xi, Sec. 19. of the state constitution.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 347 and the aggregate value of the stock of the corporation is composed of various elements, among which may be enumerated the skill, ability, and enterprise with which the business is conducted, the fortunate conditions and circumstances surrounding it, the custom which has been gained by the steady pursuit of the business for a number of years and by course of judicious and honorable dealing with the public.” The court in its decision, first reviewed the mode of making the assessment, or valuation. It said: “It appears from the record in this case that the Board of Supervisors, in the exercise of its powers of equalization, assessed the franchise of the Water Works by taking the aggregate market value of the shares of stock in the company on the 7th day of March, 1881, and deducting therefrom the value of the real and personal property of the company, and held the difference to be the value of the franchise. The market value of the stock was shown to the board by testimonyof witnesses. Such a mode of arriving at the value of the franchise appears to have been adopted by the assessor-in the Sun Jos& Gas Company us. January, 57 Cal. 614, and this mode was held to be within the powers vested in the assessor. It was also impliedly approved as a correct method in Burke us. Badlam, above cited.” Nor was the court unmindful of the fact that the rule of assessment laid down in section 3640 of the political code had been repealed. But it drew the inference from the passage of section 3608, which declared that the property and not the shares of stock should be taxed; that the legislature intended that all property including the franchise should 6e taxed. In this connection it said: “no doubt it was their intention” (i.e., that of the legislators) “to tax everything in the shape of property owned by the corporation; that everything entering into and giving value to the shares should be taxed. It cannot be doubted that the legislature, in acting upon the subject of revenue and taxation in the session of 1881, did not intend to leave the system in relation to so important a matter in such shape, that so large an amount of property as indicated by the difference between the market value of the shares of corporations and the value of the tangible property of such corporations should escape taxation. To come to any other conclusion, would be to impute to that body a most culpable dereliction of duty.” In answer to the contention made by the attorney for the company, and cited above, the court said: “it is contended that good-will enters into and forms an element in the value of the shares of stock. No case has been produced to us, nor have we been able to find any, holding or even intimating that thisisso. We find no such element of value in theleast hinted at, by anyone who has written on the subject, nor has any such been called to our at Lention. We cannot recognize any such element as giving value to the sharea ?f a trading corporation. It would be strange to predicate good-will as pertaininy

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348 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW to or extending to an abstraction, to an artificial being, invisible, intangible and existing only in contemplation of law,’J21 I have been unable to fkd any case since then in which the courts have attributed good-will to a corporation, except in one case in which the court upheld the notion that a corporation could purchase the name and goodwill of a person whose business it bought up and took over. But in the dissenting opinion in the Bank of California case, which will be referred to below, two of the justices use language that implies the possibilitythat in their opinion some elements of good-will may enter into the corporate excess. This decision, by approving the method of arriving at the value of the franchise, had the effect of giving life to a section of the code that had been repealed. Indeed the old section 3640 is much more alive today than some other section of the code that have not been repealed. Another series of cases involving the assessment of franchises arose in connection with the assessment, by the state board of equalization, of the railroads, operating in more than one county. These need delay us but for a moment. The main question was not the taxability of the franchise nor the method of valuation, but whether a railroad that received its franchise or a franchise from the federal government enjoyed also another franchise from the state and if so whether it could be assessed and taxed by the state upon its franchise, state or federal. It was finally decided that the franchise exercised within the state was taxable by the state and that such taxation was not an attack upon the privileges granted by the federal government .22 The rules laid down in the cases so far cited have been confirmed over and over again. But all of the earlier cases dealt with the franchises of public service corporations, and mainly with the right to use the public streets, although all the other franchises possessed and enjoyed by such companies were, by the method of valuation, also included. The question whether the franchise of a corporation not possessing special privileges was taxable, and could be valued in the same manner, came up much later in a series of cases of which the Bank of California us. Sun Francisco (142 Cnl. 276) may be taken as the leading one. It is clear that a bank has no special or exclusive privileges and yet the franchise of that bank was assessed at $750,000 and the assessment was sustained. The amount of the assessed valuation of the franchise was arrived at by deducting from the aggregate value of the stock of the bank the sum of the exempt holdings plus the assessed value of the real estate, money, and other taxable property of the bank and taking a fraction of the remainder as the assessable People us. Central-Pacific Railroad Company, 105 Cal. 576. Also California us‘. 21 The italics are not in the original. Pacific Railroad Cos., 127 U. S., 1.

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THE TAXATION 0.F FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 349 value of the franchise. The reasons for taking only a part (about onefourth) of the corporate excess seem to have been two: first, a concession to the general practice of under-assessment of all property, a practice that is entirely illegal, but prevalent; and second, a desire to omit from the assessment any element of good-will. The latter seems to have arisen from a fear that the courts might hold that good-will could not be taxed under the term franchise. But if that was the fear it was ill-founded, for on that point the court said that even if good-will had been included, the assessment would still have been valid, for “everything that gives value to the shares of a corporation shall be assessed as property of the corporation.” As this decision has been followed in a number of other cases it may now be said that it is the settled law that every corporation has a taxable franchise and that its value is equal to the corporate excess or the difference between the market value of the stock and the value of the corporation’s plant as assessedfor purposes of taxation. In the language of the courts there are three kinds of such franchises that are taxable: (1) the franchise (I to be” a corporation; (2) the franchise “to do” business as a corporation; and (3) the various special privileges specifically granted by the state or by some other branch of government. Although this has been the law since 1879, its administration has been far from uniform or effective. A11 special franchises in the great cities as well as the franchises of the great railroads have been assessed and taxed, with varying severity from 1880 to the present time. These offered no difficulties, except the administrative ones, of ascertaining the market value of the stock. But the “common franchises” of corporations of miscellaneous classes were very irregularly assessed and taxed. In 1897 there were no franchises whatever assessed in thirty out of the then fifty-seven counties of the state and after years of discussion there were in 1910 only forty-three counties out of the then fiftyeight, in which these franchises appeared on the tax rolls. In the large cities the practice grew up of placing nominal valuations upon the franchises of mercantile, manufacturing, and mining companies, in short upon all companies other than public service companies and banks which could not, by changing their “principal place of business,” move out of the assessor’s district, while in the country and in the smaller cities the franchises were ignored. Gradually, the assessors in the large cities raised some of these assessments, notably, in the case of some of the large oil companies, but the only effect was to drive the companies to move away. It was to cure these evils, that, when the new system of state taxation was adopted, the entire taxation of franchises was transferred to the state. The constitutional amendment adopted by the people, November 8, 1910, was drawn for the purpose of separating state from local taxation as to sources of revenue. It transferred to the state all the taxes ufion

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350 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW public service corporations, except water companies, all taxes upon banks, except the taxes upon the real estate of the banks. The classes of companies included are enumerated as : “railroads, including street railways, whether operated in one or more counties, sleeping car, dining car, drawingroom car and palace car companies, refrigerator, oil, stock, fruit, and other car-loaning and other car companies operating upon railroads in this state; companies doing an express business on any railroad, steamboat or stage line in this state; telegraph companies; telephone companies; companies engaged in the transmission or sale of gas or electricity; insurance companies; banks, banking associations, savings and loan societies, and trust companies; and taxes upon all franchises of every kind and nature.” It provided that the taxes upon the public service corporations should be computed upon the basis of the gross receipts, and that those on the banks should be in proportion to the book value of the capital stock; and all these taxes were expressly declared to cover the franchises of such companies. There remain, then, to be taxed as franchises, eo nomine, all otherfranchises, which in the language of the recent statutez3 are defined as follows: “These franchises. shall include the actual exercise of the right to be a corporation and to do business as a corporation, under the laws of this state and the actual exercise of the right to do business as a corporation in this state when such right is exercised by a corporation incorporated under the laws of any other state or country, also, the right, authority, privilege, or permission to maintain wharves, ferries, toll roads, and toll bridges, and to construct, maintain or operate, in, under, above, upon, through, or along any streets, highways, public places, or waters, any mains, pipes, canals, ditches, tanks, conduits, or other means for conducting water, oil, or other substances. ” The gain made by transferring the taxation of these franchises to the state was at once apparent. The taxes could not be dodged by the mere transfer of the’“principa1 place of business” to another place. Such a transfer is very easily effected, all that it requires is notice to the Secretary of State, and the opening of an office, however small. Even if the company transferred its office to some other state, it would, if it still continued to do business within the state, be taxable for a franchise. So too are foreign co$orations coming into the state. In 1910, as nearly as can be ascertained, the total assessed value of the franchises, other than those of the railroads operating in more than one county, in the forty-three counties in which alone they were assessed, was a little over $29,000,000. In 1911 the state assessed the common franchises and the others that are taxable eo nomine at over $160,000,000. In other words over $130,000,000 of heretofore untaxed, but always taxable, property was found and was taxed. zaChapter 335, Statut,es cf California, 1911.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 351 Some of the common franchises were found to be very large in value. Thus in the case of one group of affiliated companies the aggregate franchises were assessed at over $12,000,000; in another similar group at $8,000,000; and in another single company at $3,500,000. The constitution as now amended provides that franchises shall be assessed “at their actual cash value, in the manner to be provided by law.” But the legislature made no further provision than to place the duty of assessing the franchises upon the state board of equalization, which board has been vested with the entire administration of the state revenue system. Since the legislature did not venture to provide a new rule for the valuation of the franchises the board followed the time honored methods, approved by the courts and which we have just reviewed. As any other method would probably imply a different definition or meaning for the term franchise fromthat in which it has been understood to have been used in the constitution it would be of doubtful constitutionality. ‘But the legislature did add one restriction, not in the constitution, and contrary to the accepted meaning of the term franchise, and that was, that, in making the assessment due allowance must be made for good-will. This would seem to exempt from taxation a certain class of property heretofore taxable and to do so without constitutional grant. It is, therefore, difficult to determine the effect of this statutory provision until it has been passed upon by the courts. So far the courts have not distinctly recognized the possession of good-will by a corporation, except in the one case where a corporation had bought out and taken over the name and the good-will of an individual, whose business the corporation had absorbed. All of the elements of value that it has been sought to bar out by the use of the term ‘Lgood-wiU1’ have been repeatedly held to be part of the corporate franchise, or the corporate excess. Nor does the law in any way inhibit the taxation of good-will, other than in this anomalous provision. But the assessors have never made a practice of assessing good-will, although it might be urged that it is their duty so to do. Thus far in this paper I have referred solely to the use of the stock as the basis for determining the aggregate value of the corporation’s plant and franchises. For a long time, however, the practice has prevailed of including the market value of the bonds, of other mortgage interests, and of other securities which, in the language of section 3608 of the political code, also, “stand for and represent the property” of the corporation. This practice is so obviously a proper one that it has never been questioned in. the California courts and they have never been called upon to pass upon it directly. , The question was not likely to arise by reason of certain provisions of the constitution. Thus, so far as the railroads and other public service corporations were concerned, the constitution, until 1910, expressly provided that the corporations should pay all the taxes upon their property

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352 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and the bondholders, as such, should be exempt. In interpreting this the court has said that a tax upon the bonds of railroad companies of this state secured by a mortgage upon the value of their property, which is required to be assessed at its full va.lue to such companies, is double taxation forbidden by the constitution.24 This is a clear recognition of the representative character of the bonds, Furthermore it was ruled, even under the constitution as it stood prior to 1910, that (‘the bonds of private domestic corporations secured by mortgage or deed of trust can only be taxed by assessing the value of the security as an interest in the property encumbered for their payment. They cannot be assessed as mere personal debts or credits, and such assessment is void.112s That extends the same principle to other than public service corporations, and is tantamount to saying that sdch bonds were never assessable if all the property of the corporation is taxed, because the bonds, like the shares of stock, stand for and represent the property. The repeal of the mortgage tax provisions of the constitution in 1910 and the accompanying provisions to the effect that (‘a mortgage, deed of trust, contract, or other obligation, by which a debt is secured, when land is pledged as security for the payment thereof, together with the money represented by such debts, shall not be considered property subject to taxation” extended the same principle heretofore laid down for public service corporations to all classes of corporations andeven to private individuals. The federal courts have distinctly ruled that it is proper to include bonds in determining the value of the corporation’s property. That was in the case of the Atcheson, Topeka and Santa Fd Railway Company us. Sullivan, 173 Federal Reporter, 456. There are many corporations whose stocks and bonds are not dealt in on the stock exchange and whose shares and other securities are not often bought and sold in a way to determine a market value. In these cases the value of the stocks and bonds has to be determined by an appraisal, made, as nearly as may be, in the same manner as the market value would be determined if the stocks and bonds were bought and sold in the market. That is to say, there should be considered the amount of the property held and its character, the earnings available for distribution, either in the form of dividends to the stockholders, or of interest to the bondholders, or carried to surplus, or reinvested in betterments, the value that arises from the fact that it is a (‘going concern” and the future prospects as to continued, increasing or decreasing earnings. Of these, the earnings are the most important and if no other method is available they may be capitalized at rates approximatelyequal to the rates shown by the market value of similar classes of securities. Estate of James G. Fair, 128 Cal., 607, and subsequent cases affirming. f6 Ibid.

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THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA 353 It is almost needless to say that the more rigid enforcement of a tax, which had been so largely evaded for over thirty years, has given rise to some opposition and more discussion. The opponents of the taxation of franchises do not deny that the franchises are taxable property and have been so under the constitution and the laws of the state for over thirty years. The criticism is directed mainly against the propriety of the tax from the point of view of public policy. The critics fall into two groups: (1) there are those who argue that the franchise “t.0 be” and ‘(to do” has no value above the legal expenses and fees which it costs to obtain a charter and that all the rest of the corporate excess is due to good-will or to the ability and energy of the men at the head of the company and that the latter elements should not be taxed; (2) there are those who argue that corporations should not be taxed on their franchises, because they often compete with hms and partnerships, which pay no tax of a similar character. Back of the whole criticism is the feeling that corporations are being regulated, taxed, and otherwise “interfered with” more than is good for “business.” It must be admitted that there is a multitude of taxes falling upon corporations, although the total burden may not be large. First, there is the federal tax on the net earnings in excess of $5000, then the city and county tax on real estate and tangible personal property, then the state license tax, based upon the authorized capital stock, then the state franchise tax. While the last two can and probably should be combined, and made payable in one lump sum, yet they should be so combined that the identity of each may be preserved. The argument that a franchise is worth only what it costs to reproduce it is catchy and specious in the extreme. It rests upon a misunderstanding of the meaning of the term. That meaning was fully set forth in the case of the Spring Valley Waterworks vs. Schottler, above cited. If instead of using the term “franchise,” which is, perhaps, capable of misinterpretation, the constitution had said ‘(corporate excess.” or had laid down the rule that corporations should be taxed upon the property they held of every class including the value of the intangible property over and above the items of tangible property that could be found, no one would have thought of this particular ground for criticism. That that is precisely what is meant by the term as used in the constitution and the statutes of California has been abundantly demonstrated. Of the 18,000 corporations assessed for a “franchise” last year there were none which did not show a corporate excess far larger than the mere cost of obtaining a charter. Nor is this excess value due solely to the business ability of the men in charge. Men may come and men may go but the corporation and its corporate excess go on for ever. It was said when the tax was first assessed that it would drive many corporations to disincorporate and to turn themselves into partnerships. If such had been ‘the case it would have been partial evi

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354 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW dence that the franchise or the right to be a corporation was of little value to the incorporators. But the number of disincorporations has not proven to be any larger than has been the case in past years, when this tax was not so fully enforced. Those companies which have disincorporated have done so, in most i&tances, because their business had been completed or had proven a failure. The privilege of being a corporation is a valuable privilege conferred by the state and &s the state does not force this privilege upon anyone it certainly has the right to hedge it about with such restrictions, and to impose upon it any burdens, as it deems wise. The second of the two arguments of the critics is not an argument against the taxation of franchises, but, in so far as it has any significance, is an argument in favor of the taxation of individuals and partnerships .upon their good-will and the “value of a going concern,” either by the way of license taxes or by other appropriate means. If there be any inequality in the present system it should be corrected by taxing those who now escape their fair share of the public burdens, not by releasing those who have now for the first time been effectively reached.

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GERMAN MUNICIPAL SOCIALISM AS ILLUSTRATED BY ULM BY KARL FREDERICK GEISER~ Oberlin, Ohio HE recent German election which returned one hundred and ten Social Democrats to the imperial parliament suggests a continued tendency away from the laissez faire principle and a deepening of the national social instinct. The growth of national socialism in Germany has not, however, tended to minimize the local activities of the city. In other words, the extension of the central authority over local matters, which in the last decade has been very marked in the German empire, as also in the German states, has not resulted as might have been expected, in the curtailment of municipal powers. While local affairs have, in the best sense, become national affairs, they have become so because of the fact that Germany recognizes the importance of the local problem in its relation to citizenship. She has not merely allowed, but compelled the city to manage its own affairs and solve its own problems. In America, too, there has recently been a marked tendency toward national socialism, and with it a curtailment by the national government of the powers of the states. The states in turn, recognizing that the loss of power to the national government has been due to the inefficiency of their own legislatures to meet the problems within their borders, have awakened to self-consciousness, turned their attention to local affairs, and, among other things, reorganized their city governments. This municipal reorganization has compelled the people to face many new problems. Cities being corporations of delegated powers, the question of home rule and municipal socialism will have to be met in this new readjustment. With a strong public sentiment favoring home rule ihe city now has the opportunity to demonstrate its fitness for self-government. But what particular activities shall the municipalities take upon themselves?-that is the question. If the study of municipal history shows any one thing more clearly than another, it is this: that unless the cities do purge themselves of their oligarchy, the state will again, as it has in the past, be compelled to draw the lines of interference more closely and assume control of local matters. It is therefore instructive to turn to the German cities which can furnish many valuable lessons and ask, “What do ye more than others?” With a view to suggesting, therefore, what municipal activities a city may safely take upon itself without destroying that individual initiative which we T 1 Professor of Political Science in Oberlin College. 355

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356 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Americans still regard as of the essence of democracy, I shall briefly outline the municipal activities of a single south German city whose population comes within the range of those American cities in which the commission form of government has proved successful, that. is, cities not exceeding a population of one hundred thousand. The city of Ulm is generally regarded as being one of the best governed cities in Germany. It has without ,doubt made the greatest progress in social reforms and has perhaps extended its authority over a wider field of activities than any other city of the middle class. Moreover, it would be difficult to find a city anywhere whose consciousness of self-mastery over its own fortunes is more pronounced. Beautifully situated upon the confluence of the Danube and the Blau, with a history reaching back into the Middle Ages, with its far-famed cathedral, rivalled in Germany only by that at Cologne on the Rhine, with its varied industries, with its just pride in its city hall and its architectural beauty, with its many poor, with all the problems of growth and expansion-this city of fifty-six thousand souls is worthy of study. Not only in Ulm but in all German cities the great social problem is the housing problem. The political economists and political leaders, of whatever school or party, have come to recognize that the social unrest which is sending annually thousands of discontented voters into the ranks of the Social Democratic party and threatening the stability of the empire itself, must, as everything else under the sun, have a cause. The cause has been determined and by unanimous consent of the leaders it has been agreed that the strength of the nation lies in the contentment and happiness resulting from the ownership of a home. Mein Heim, meine Welt, is an old adage that finds a quick response in every German heart. Given the opportunity to acquire ownership of a home, you have created an honest enthusiasm for the “God of things as they are” and quenched the springs of discontent. So reason the German leaders, and the mayors of the German cities, being among these leaders, have applied the new remedy against social unrest by inaugurating a program of municipal socialism which to the average American seems appalling, yet which upon close examination, at least in Ulm, has already accomplished significant results and seems to have placed within the city’s grasp the control of her natural resources and the mastery of her own destiny. Of all German cities Ulm is generally recognized as the leader in the land and housing-reform movement. It has more completely perhaps than any other city solved the problems of the poor. . It has decided, for itself at least, the question whether the large tenement, or the single-family dwelling, shall be the dominant type in housing its poorer population, There is something to be said in favor of both systems. The large tenement house is cheaper and where land is valuable, it may be necessary to

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GERMAN MUNICIPAL SOCIALISM 357 insure a proper return for capital. But the financial consideration is not as important as health and happiness, and every effort should be directed to secure the latter. Private enterprise must of course be guided first of all by the financial returns and the hist,ory of the housing question in Ulm, as in most German cities, has demonstrated the futility of depending upon private enterprise to solve the problem. The city felt compelled to take a hand in the matter since the ultimate responsibility, both by imperial and date legislation, for social betterment must be met by the municipality. It must not be assumed that Ulm rushed thoughtlessly into a program of municipal socialism. She had long encouraged private builders and private capital to furnish houses for her working classes, and when the old unsanitary districts in the Alstadt were first torn down and new quarters erected, private enterprise took part, but the houses erected by private capitalists were too high priced for those with small means and small incomes. The city therefore undertook, at first on a small scale, municipal housing. From a hospital fund established in 1888 a large tenement was erected for hospital and city employees. It consistedof a three-story building enclosing twenty-one dwellings, nine of which contained three living rooms, and twelve, two living rooms to a dwelling. Besides the living rooms, each dwelling contains a kitchen, lavatory, alcove, cellar, fuel-room and wash-room These dwellings bore a rental ranging from $38 to $58 year, according to size and location. This was the first experiment, and though the rents were much lower than the average rental of similar houses in the city, the experiment was not a decided success. Families living under a common roof, using a common stairway and a common courtyard, found these conditions very unsatisfactory. The renters sought more private quarters and the city soon found itself with empty houses on its hands. Other means had to be devised to meet the situation. At the suggestion of the mayor and council the Building Society of Ulm was established. It was organized as a joint stock company and in 1891 it purchased of the city at the nominal price of $1.25 an acre per square metre a vacant tract and erected, subject to the plans of the city architect, a number of double houses, placed far enough apart to allow to each family sufficient room and light, with a rental ranging from $35 to $70 a year. This project which provided homes for 480 persons, was met with some opposition by the property owners of the city, though the number of houses thus erected did not materially affect the rents, neither did it provide homes for the lower classes, nor stimulate an interest in individual ownership in general. Naturally these new houses were rented to those whose income was such as to insure prompt payment of dues and a sure return to capital. This second experiment convinced the city authorities that the problem of homes for the poor would not be solved by private enterprise nor by

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358 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW societies assisted financially by the state or municipality. It became evident that unless the poorest laborers were furnished homes many would become entirely dependent upon the city; that their small incomes would be entirely used to pay a profitable rent to private builders. Moreover, if the city depended upon private capital to house its indigent population, land would fall into the hands of speculators who would build the crowded tenement for large profits and all hope of individual ownership among the poor would vanish. Here was a new problem the city had to face. But the authorities met it in a scientific spirit. With the terms of the problem clearly before them, a far reaching and comprehensive policy on a socialistic basis was outlined. Direct hancial aid would obviously be unwise as it would merely give temporary relief and emphasize the element of dependence. Forces must be set in motion and motives stimulated which would automatically operate among the poor in a way to encourageindustry and frugality, to inspire hope and discourage discontent and the feeling of dependence; could this be accomplished, the question would be half solved. Clearly a policy resting upon the basis of love of home and family, of frugality-in a word, a policy quickening those noble sentiments which are rooted in the ownership of home-would strike at the root of discontent. Accordingly in 1893 the authorities began a new building project to meet the needs of the poorest classes. The city itself was to furnish the ground and build the houses, complete in every detail, and sell them to the tenants on easy terms. These houses were built with due regard to the interests and wishes of those for whom they were intended. A tract of land owned by the city was set apart for this purpose and of the total area 63 per cent was devoted to gardens and courts, 20 per cent to buildings, and 17 per cent to streets, thus providing an abundance of air and sunlight, courts for children and sufficient garden space for each family. In the first three series of houses erected the two-family house was the type adopted, and in the allotment to tenants large families were given choice of location. The capital required for the prosecution of this project which amounted to 'nearly $500,000 came from three sources. The purchasers of the homes furnished a little over one-fourth of the entire amount, but the greater part was supplied in the form of loans from the Wurttemberg Insurance Company, and the Savings Bank of Ulm. That this experiment was successful is evident from the fact that many of these homes are already clear of debt. In view of the fact that nearly all of these hruses are occupied by large families with exceedingly small incomes, this showing is nothing short of remarkable. The houses are sold by the city with the privilege of repurchase at any time within one hundred years, and while the total cost of each dwelling ranges from $1500 to $1800, the annual payments do not exceed $65 to 395, including interest on investment at 3 per cent

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GERMAN MUNICIPAL SOCIALISM 359 plus 23 per cent amortization. If no misfortune prevents meeting the payments annually, the entire indebtedness becomes liquidated at the end of twenty-three years. Should a purchaser in the meantime leave the city, the house is taken back by the city without loss to the owner. In case of death of the head of the family, or of sickness, or other misfortune which curtails the income, the city extends credit or defers the obligation according to the needs of the owner and in various ways carries the delinquent family over the period of misfortune. After continuing the policy of erecting the two-family dwelling house, the city in 1903 erected 107 single-family houre; at a cost of $1750 each, including a fair-sized lot. The plan of purchase was essentially the same as in the case of those mentioned above and this type of dwelling of course made family life and living conditions in general still more favorable. Ulm is unique in the housing question in this, that it is the only city in Germany that undertakes actually to build and equip a complete home to sell outright to purchasers, but she also, like many other German cities, aids indirectly in the housing problem by granting long leases, at nominal rates, of city land, to various building societies and factories for housing purposes. These leases are granted, however, on condition that the societies build within a definite period, and of course all buildings erected are subject to strict building ordinances framed with a view to securing the most hygienic homes possible; and at the expiration of these leases the property reverts to the city. To encourage these societies in carrying on the housing project, the city extends them loans on easy terms to the extent of 90 per cent of the value of the property. In thus placing municipal land at the disposal of building societies, and in loaning money on credit, Ulm has directly and indirectly assisted materially not only in providing homes for the indigent poor, but also for the middle class. Nor have these activities merely resulted in securing homes to clmses that would otherwise have become a burden upon the city. In the new quarters thus erected under the most sanitary conditions, the rate of mortality has been reduced to 8.5 per thousand, compared to an average of 16 per thousand in other parts of the city, and 30 per thousand in the suburb of Soeflingen. Ulm has thus demonstrated the possibility of greatly reducing mortality by a wise building policy alone, a lesson American cities have yet to learn. Some of the English cities have achieved similar results. The labor villages of BournvilIe near Birmingham, and Port Sunlight near Liverpool, have, by similar housing methods reduced ’ the mortality to less than 8 per thousand, compared to London’s labor quarters of 30 to 40 per thousand. In these two English colonies the infant mortality is 92.5 per thousand, compared to England and Wales’ general average of 134.7 per thousand, But to return to Ulm, the city has directly, or through

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW assistance to societies and individuals, furnished 998 homes, representing a population of 5700 souls, in the last twenty years. In other words, the city has provided homes for one-tenth of its population; and these facts have greater significance than mere figures may indicate. Every new house erected in a new quarter releases a family from an old quarter and relieves the pressure of congestion. Every family assisted to the ownership of a home thereby gains a permanent interest in the city, pays taxes into the city treasury, and in a thousand ways contributes to the municipal welfare. As already stated, these houses were built upon land already owned by the city. It is impossible to havecheap homes where landis highpriced, and if we remind ourselves of the fact that agricultural lands in Germany are oftenvalued at $500 per acre, we can readily appreciate the difficulties of a poor man purchasing a home in a city where prices are proportionately high. This fact has induced the great majority of German cities to municipalize land. Frankfort owns, exclusive of streets, 59.5 per cent of theland within the corporate limits; Augsburg, 54.2 per cent; Strassburg, 40.5 per cent; Hanover, 43 per cent, and Ulm, 90 per cent. This ownership gives the city perfect control and direction of its expansion and growth. Through the far-sighted policy of its efficient Oberburgermeister, Herr von Wagner, famed far and wide as one of Germany’s most expert municipal administrators, Ulm early inaugurated a land policy which has resulted in making that city today a model in municipal housing. “Go to Ulm if you wish to learn how these things should be” is what the student of municipal housing hears on every hand in Germany; and English cities frequently send a delegation there to study conditions. Space forbids details, but since 1891 Ulm has purchased in round numbers a total of 1500 acres at an expense of $2,650,000. Of this amount 500 acres have been disposed of at a price exceeding the total cost of all the land purchased, thus leaving 1000 acres free of debt which is now yielding an annual net revenue of $18,750 from this source alone. Instead therefore of this colossal undertaking being an expense or burden upon the city, it has been a chief source of revenue. Nor is it strange that this should be so. While American cities have frittered away possibilities of handsome incomes-sufficient to pay the running expenses of the cityfrom the streets, by long and gratuitous franchises to transportation and lighting companies ; and through perverted notions of individualism and private enterprise have allowed real estate men and land speculators who toil not to enrich themselves at the expense of the homebuilder, Ulm has kept these fundamental resources to herself-or better, has acquired them by applying business principles to municipal politics. This land policy is pursued by many German cities-in fact by all-to a large extent. Like In fact the land question is the key to the housing question.

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GERMAN MUNICIPAL SOCIALISM 361 the American farmer of the middle west, who is financially rated by the number of fertile acres to which he holds a deed, so the fortune of a German city is measured in terms expressed by the ratio of real estate ownership to the total corporate area. In spite of the large number of social activities, of extensive public works, of increase in salaries to officials, Ulm has the lowest tax rate of any of the larger German cities, and its financial condition is such that a future competence is insured. Sites for schools, hospitals, lighting plants, water works and other municipal activities necessary to a growing city, may be located upon city land long after the city has grown far beyond its present limits. Meantime, the property thus owned, instead of being a burden is turned to good account. Over one hundred acres are devoted to so-called “Leaf Gardens” to the number of three hundred, which are rented to different families as private grounds and from which the city derives no inconsiderable revenue. The municipal activities are not, however, limited to an efficient financial administration, important as thismay be. The philanthropic and humane spirit is no less manifest in institutions which have recently been established and in the care of the poor and unfortunate. Since 1902 the school system has been equippedto meet the needs of feeble-minded children; in the lower and middle grades special courses for pupils .who stammer, of which for some reason there are many, have been added. A school physician was appointed in 1906 to supervise the health, and he was also clothed with authority to send children suffering from infirmities to health resorts, the expenses in such cases being borne in part, however, by the society for infirm children. A year later a dental clinic was added to the public school system. Thirty per cent of all school children have free tuition and free books, while free car fare is furnished when necessary, to those living at a remote distance from the school. Since 1905 the city has undertaken to furnish pure milk for infants and weaklings at 3 cents per liter, with a view to reducing infant mortality. In’ addition to this, the city gives annually $800 to the Society for the Protection of Infants. The cooperation of the city with these charitable societies in behalf of infants has resulted in reducing the infant mortality in Ulm from 208 in 1905 to 122 in 1910.2 In 1908 an institution under the direction of the city physician, assisted by a matron, was established to care for and give instruction in incipient cases of tuberculosis. It provides hospital accommodations, isolation, outdoor work, and furnishes, when necessary, proper food. In 1911 the city furnished this institution, free of charge, with 45,000 liters of pure milk. In all these provisions the city has taken the position that the humblest citizen is entitled to the best possible means of securing and 2This applies to deaths within a year after birth.

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362 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW maintaining health; and in line with this policy the municipality purchased, in 1905, a picturesque wooded tract, beautifully situated in the valley of the Blau, about four miles from the city, to be used as an outdoor health and pleasure resort, free to all citizens. But perhaps the most unique and unusual municipal activity is that of a pension to the veterans who fought against Austria in 1866 and also to those engaged in the Franco-Prussian war. This of course is a pure gratuity on the part of the city, as the granting of pensions is a function of the state; but it illustrates the wide range of activities of the German city. It is granted as a modest honorarium in recognition of the poorly paid services to the state in time of need. Veterans with an income of less than $225 a year, receive $25, while those with an income from $225 to $300, receive annually $12.50, in all cases a residence of ten years being required; but those who have been convicted of crime or have been inmates of almshouses, are excluded. The total amount thus granted by the city was, in 1911, $2000. In 1898 an information bureau was established to give legal advice free of charge to the poor; and if necessary, to defend or prosecute suits in their behalf. The unemployed also have the benefit of a municipal labor bureau, and of loans from the city to tide them over a period of unemployment. Municipal undertakings are always prosecuted with a view to furnishing, so far as possible, continuous employment and with a view to dividing the labor equitably among the unemployed. Difficult as this may seem, the city has, nevertheless, for the last ten years, so distributed the public work as to furnish to each unemployed laborer employment connected with some department of the city to the value of $45 during the winter season. In fact, the general policy of the city in regard to the care of the poor has been to reduce, on the one hand, almsgiving to a minimum by furnishing so far as possible employment, and on the other hand, to reduce the cost of living by controlling in various ways the price of the necessities of life. Thus in the fall of 1911 over 2000 bushels of potatoes were sold to the poor at cost. The exorbitant price of meats induced the city to establish a fish market, and recently the council entered into a five-year contract with an agricultural society to deliver one-sixth of the city’s pork supply at a constant, fixed and reasonable price; and similar arrangements are to be made in regard to beef. City interference has likewise kept the price of milk within reasonable limits. From 1899 to 1908 the city created a fund to assist financially, widows, children and the unemployed, and a special labor ordinance provides compensation for certain wage earners for the loss of earnings incurred by sickness, “fest days,” and military service. In spite of the numerous social activities here mentioned, it should not be assumed that Ulm has rushed headlong into municipal socialism or

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GERMAN MUNICIPAL SOCIALISM 363 that the city has by its socialistic policy stifled individual initiative. Ulm has simply socialized those resources, of which land is the most conspicuous example, which in America are used by the few-or may .be used by the few-to exploit the many. She has interfered in behalf of the poor, to prevent this class from becoming entirely dependent, as a matter of self-protection. Moreover, she has preferred always to aid the cause of the lower classes indirecily by assisting numerous voluntary charitable institutions and enlisting the interest and sympathyof a majority of the well-todo citizens. Such an extensive municipal policy obviously can only be carried to a successful issue by an efficient mayor and a wise council and a staff of administrative experts in the various departments. All this Ulm has. The present mayor, Herr von Wagner, has occupied his present position for a quarter of a century and is universally loved and respected. The land policy through which Ulm now controls her destiny was deliberately inaugurated by him at the beginning of his first term of office, when other cities of Germany looked upon the municipalization of land as of doubtful wisdom. But time has justified the wisdom of his course. The council has proved its competence to meet the present social needs and, at the same time, to place the city upon a sound financial basis. It has cost many a struggle and much anxiety on the part of the authorities, but because of this very fact the results have been all the more appreciated. Both the authorities and the citizens generally now entertain the coddent hope that the municipal activities now under way will in the words of their famed Biirgermeister, “bridge the chasm of discontent and bring men of all parties’and beliefs to a more perfect social consciousness, and, with the help of God, unite all in the high purpose of an effective social service in the body politic.”

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EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT BY JESSE D. BURKS, PH.D.’ Philadelphia TANDARDIZATION is today regarded by many enthusiasts as a sort of Aladdin’s lamp, possessing the potency and magic of that famous S talisman for accomplishing the purposes of man. Ardent devotees look forward to the time when every form of human activity will yield to its magic, and most of the abstacles to human efflciency will in this way be surmounted. Whatever be one’s conception of the part which standardization is ultimately to play in the industrial and social program, the standardization process is certain for many years to be a dominant factor in the development of higher efficiency in most fields of enterprise. Already in the field of industrial and commercial organization, salesmanship and advertising, medical and educational practice, religious and philanthropic activity, and of a hundred other types of enterprise, systematic efforts are being made to discover and establish standards of organization, equipment, procedure, method, output, results, and cost. Many of the consequences of such efforts are in fact already so familiar as to be commonplace. Standard guage railway tracks, car couplers, air brakes, and operating agreements make possible unbroken transcontinental train service. Standard telegraph equipment, codes, and news service, lie back of the daily newspaper. Standard typewriter keyboards facilitate the distribution of machines and the availability of operators. Waterpipe manufactured at a hundred different factories may be joined in the same water supply system by standard threaded joints. The doors of a score of colleges are opened to a candidate for admission by the passing of a set of standard entrance examinations. Standards established by the Carnegie foundation are beginning to make possible a distinction between real and pseudo medical colleges ; between “universities ” that confer degrees for educational attainment and those that confer degrees for revenue only. Dr. Wiley’s consistent program for standardizing food and drug labels is making it more and more possible for a consumer to buy what he pays for. The effective standardizing of official control over weights and measures in several states is beginning to insure to the purchaser the full quantity of goods for which he pays. There is a somewhat general misconception of the meaning of standardization which should at once be corrected. A “standard” is often thought of as implying an arbitrary, fixed or invariable basis of action, involving Director, Bureau of Municipal Research of Fhiladelphia. 364

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EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 365 possibly the idea of wfection. As used in modern industrial and municipal research, however, the term has none of this suggestionof final and unchangable authority. It implies rather a working basis which, after careful consideration of available facts, is accepted for the time as the best that can be devised. There is no assumption that a standard is not subject to amendment at any time; provided only the proposed modifications be subject to tests as rigorous ~ts thQse applied in the formulation of the original standard, Standardization thus defines a method rather than a fixed result-a method of scientsc research and of continuous and progressive revision based upon fact-tests as distinguished from opinion-tests. It is a matter of common observation that very few standards, in the sense here defined, have received general recognition in city mawgement. It is practically true that no specific problem of administration has been solved by two municipalities in the same way. Evenamong thedepartments of a given city, it is common to find wide variation in such matters as the classification of receipts and expenditures; method of handling requisitions, orders, bills, and stores of supplies and materials; preparation of financial estimates; handling and filing of correspondence and current records; supervision of janitorial and messenger service; formulation and publication of reports; and scores of other functions that might readily be subjected to scientific tests and‘standardization. Substantial beginnings, however, have been made during the past few years in the standardization of municipal organization and operation. Standard charter provisions, ballot laws, and financial statements for many years have been subjects of discussion at the annual conferences of the National Municipal League. The remarkable growth in popular favor of the short ballot and commission government indicates that interest in standardization of this nature, affecting the distribution of functions and the general form of municipal government, has increased rather than declined during recent years. There is today a strong disposition, however, to place the emphmis upon the details of administrative method and departmental organization, rather than upon the general problems of political control or upon the organic form of government. There is a growing realization that standards of work done, results accomplished, and cost incurred applicable 365 days of each year between elections and intelligible to citizens, taxpayers and officials alike, constitute a factor more essential to mqicipal efficiency than a ballot of standard brevity or a commission of standard personnel. It has taken a long time for the citizen-stockholders of American citycorporations to grasp the important fact that, without standards by which to measure concrete administrative results, all attempts to determine the efficiency of a clerk, a health officer, a mayor, a city council, an “administration, ” a policy, a method of management, a ballot law, or a charter must

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW be uncertain or futile. We have not been quick to see that the primary purpose of a municipality is not to furnish occasional opportunities for casting ballots, revising charters, or recalling offlcials, but to promote and protect the health, education, safety, convenience, and happiness of its citizens; and that efficiency Gandards must therefore be stated in terms of community service rather than in terms of ballot laws or charter powers. The present rapidly growing appreciation of the city’s possibilities as an agency of community welfare accounts for thewide-spread effort to find units of measurement and standards of practice that shall make possible a dehite appraisal of municipal efficiency in terms of community service rendered, community results obtained, community cost incurred. Standard specifications for supplies, equipment, and service; standard cost records; standard qualifications and salaries for officers and employees; standard classifications of revenues and expenses; standard forms for records and accounts; standard methods of inspection, audit, and financial control; are merely items in a program of social meuurement and interpretation. The ultimate purpose of this program is to enable citizens and officials to apply specific efficiency tests to administrative methods, and results; to subject their judgment to the measure of fact; to give and to receive intelligent appreciation or discriminating criticism. Only on some such basis can a community secure for itself the invaluable results of informed and exacting citizenship, on the one hand; or of economical and efficiency public service on the other. The advantage that invariably accrues to a community when standards are developed and put into force might be illustrated by numerous examples. A very few will serve the present purpose: 1. By standardizing its method of taking the school census, Philadelphia recently increased its portion of state school funds $75,000. 2. By standardizing its requirements as to the temperature and cleanliness of milk, its methods of milk inspection and its program for teaching mothers how to care for babies, Philadelphia saved the lives of more than a thousand babies in 1911. 3. By standardizing its medical inspection service, Philadelphia is now getting the physical defects of school children corrected, whereas formerly they were only reported and registered. 4. By standardizing the business methods of its bureau of water, New York increased its water revenues $2,000,000 a year. 5. As a result of fuel standardization, under which coal is purchased by heat capacity instead of by weight alone, the Board of Education of New York saved $900,000 in seven years. 6. Standardization of the quantity, quality, and form of official reports, books andof thecity Record, has enabled New York to make an annual saving of $~,~OOO,OOO.

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EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 367 7. By standardizing specifications for milk, a large city hospital last year showed how $30,000 could be saved and applied to some of the urgent needs of its'patients for which provision had not hitherto been made. 8. Among the many significant results of the studies made by the President's commission on economy and efficiency is the discovery that by standardizing envelopes used in the government service, an annual saving to the government of $250,000 or more could be secured. Without multiplying illustrations, it may be said that wherever intelligent effort has been made to determine standards of organization, administrative methods, specifications, work done, needs to be met, and unit of cost, results similar to these have followed. Better service and lower cost mean not only saving in taxes but saving in health, education, convenience, and mortality. One hundred thousand dollars saved by applying heat-unit standards to the purchase of coal, without the least magic can be transmuted into clean streets, reduced infant mortality, better housing conditions, additional playgrounds, industrial education for children who are now driven from school, or into one of the hundreds of other forms of community welfare for which adequate support is now lacking. With the money now being spent by American cities, officials now in office have adequate powers to insure enormously more efficient government even without further changes in charters or ballot lam, provided citizens and officials will look for results rather than resolutions and demand that haphazard methods in city management be replaced by clearly defined standards of procedure. In view of the definition of standardization proposed above, it is obvious that many municipal standards must vary in detail with the physical and social conditions of the communities concerned. Standards of snow removal applicable in Boston will have very limited application to New Orleans. Standards of school house construction, street paving, fuel cost, sewage disposal, water supply, transit facilities, street lighting, aqd industrial education must vary with climate, natural resources, topography and economic pursuits. On the other hand, there are broad limits within which uniformity of practice may reasonably be expected. The following suggestions are offered as to standards that should find general application in the field of municipal management : 1. In the performance of a large proportion of its functions, a municipality must meet precisely the same technical problems that a private enterprise meets in the discharge of similar functions. Such are the functions involved in the constructions of bridges, sewers, reservoirs, streets, buildings, and other public works; the operation and maintenance of water systems, lighting plants, street railways, and other municipal service enterprises; the purchase of supplies, the disposal of ashes .and sewage, the repairs of buildings and equipment; the collection and safe-keeping of moneys; '

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the maintenance of accounts, the audit of claims, the exercise of financial control, and the preparation of financial estimates and reports. 2. In the most highly developed private business it has proven advantageoa to reduce to writing all standards of practice, so that responsibility for knowledge of the standards may be fixed and consistency of practice promoted. Besides being more easily understood and enforced, definitely formulated standards are more readily modified than indefinite, vague assumptions. Such formulation of standards is open to the charge of being useless “red tape” only when the standards are of the expression of arbitrary opinion; not when they are the result of scientific determination. 3. The functional type of management has proven its superiority in commercial and industrial enterprises. Briefly stated, this type of administration provides that each man in an organization perform those functions for which by training or native capacity, he is best qualified; that the final authority in eachspecific branch of an organization be placed in the hands of the one person best equipped to exercise such control; that no member of the organization be required to perform service that can be satisfactorily performed by another person whose service is less valuable; that no individual be expected or permitted to make decisions in matters for which he has not the requisite qualifications and the necessary information. Some of the consequences of applying the methods of functional management in municipal administration will be these: a. City councils and boards of aldermen will demand evidence as a basis for action; their functions will be limited to the consideration of general programs and the fixing of policies, instead of being extended to details of administrative practice which obstruct rather than aid executive officers. b. Department heads will be selected on the basis of technical qualifications and administrative capacity; and these officers will give their attention to the study of community needs; to the collection, classification, and interpretation of facts; and to the utilization of such facts in the formulation of adequate standards and the development of an intelligent program of public service. c. Bureau and division chiefs will be functional specialists, each in his own field; with definite responsibility and authority in all administrative matters requiring expert judgment. d. Employees will be selected for the lower grades of service with a view to training them in the service for positions of higher grade. e. Men will be retained in the service so long as they give evidence of appropriate efficiency; when they are no longer competent to render efficient service, as a measure of economy and justice, they will be either dismissed or pensioned. Adequate protection will be afforded every officer and employee by making provision for standardized service records, on the basis of which his efficiency may be accurately determined.

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EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 369 f. Salaries will be standardized according to grades of service rendered; the requirements of each position being determined by scientific inquiry rather than by unsupported opinion. g. Provision will be made for distinct bureaus to perform, for the entire city government, special functions requiring expert service which the general departments are now commonly expected to carry on independently, each in its own way, to the financial and operative disadvantage of the city. The functions which can be thus segregated to advantage in a given community can be determined only by proper research. Among those which will probably be thus segregated, the following are suggested: (1) Central purchasing agency and storehouse, which shall give the city the benefit of central buying; to departments the benefit of prompt action; and to dealers the benefit of prompt settlement and businesslike treatment. (2) Interdepartmental janitorial service, which shall assume responsibility for the care of physical plants, including cleaning and minor repairs, which is often wastefully and unsatisfactorily placed upon the departments separately. (3) Municipal messenger service, which shall provide for prompt and direct communication between offices; avoiding the delays incident to communication by mail and reducing the expense of separately maintained departmental messenger service. (4) Emergency clerical force of the necessary number of employees trained in the methods of the city departments, from which occasional clerical service may be obtained on requisition by officers having seasonal or periodical requirements for such service. Such an emergency corps may not only facilitate the performance of municipal work at times of special need, but make possible reductions in the regular force of employees maintained by departments whose requirements fluctuate regularly. (5) Printing and publication service, which shall standardize specifications for printed for&, records, reports, and advertising and handle the details of printing contracts and the publication and distribution of officials reports. (6) Machine and repair shop, which shall make ordinary repairs of fire engines, automobiles, and other municipal equipment requiring machine work. (7) General repair service, which shall make ordinary repairs and alterations in municipal buildings and structures. (8) Municipal garage and transportation service, which shall maintain the city’s automobiles and other vehicles for transportation of persons and things; providing service to departments on requisition, aa needed, and accounting in detail for all service thus rendered.

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370 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW (9) General inspection service, which shall scrutinize work done and goods furnished to the city, in order to determine the quantity and quality of service or goods; thus providing an effective check and verification by an independent agency. Most men cannot hold themselves to their highest standard of efficiency unless they are constantly stimulated by the prospect of a rigid and impartial appraisal of their work. No one factor of efficient control is more cormhonly neglected in’ municipal management. (10) A general agency of standardization and research, which shall collect, classify, and interpret data regarding the administrative problems of each department of the city government; make such information available to officials and to citizens, in order that inefficient methods of management may be eliminated and efficient methods installed; and thus promote the development of a constructive municipal program based upon adequate knowledge and consideration of community needs. 4. A standardized system of ac’counts is a fourth essential to intelligent city management. Without means for determining currently, promptly, and accurately the main facts concerning a city’s financial operations and results, officials will find it increasingly difficult to meet the growing demand for evidences of honesty, economy, and efficiency in the public service. Accounting methods are everywhere needed that will show’ clearly what the city owns and what it owes; what revenues have become available and what expenses have been incurred for specific periods ; what appropriations have been made for specific purposes and in what amounts contracts have been entered into that will eventually become a charge upon such appropriations; what amounts have been paid under each contract and what liabilities remain to be discharged; what specific expense has been involved in each specific kind of activity included in the municipal program, and what results have been accomplished. 5. Most important of all the standards essential to efficient city administration is an informed, alert, and exacting citizenship. It is only recently that citizens have come to see that the management of a city means a good deal more than meeting a few so-called “issues” in spectacular fashion; that it means solving, day in and day out, innumerable definite problems calling for clear knowledge and effective action, as well as public spirit and honest intentions. With the realization that public business, in large measure, is an administrative and non-political matter, is coming a new conception of the business of citizenship. Citizens are now seeking to inform themselves concerning the problems of management which public officials are called upon to solve; concerning the equipment provided for carrying on the city’s business, the administrative methods employed, and the results accomplished in the various fields of municipal activity. It is becoming clear that the suc.

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EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 371 cessful management of public business is just as exacting, calls for as close application and as high standards of methods and procedure as the successful management of private enterprises; and that it is unintelligent and ineffective for voters, taxpayers, newspaper writers, and legislators to express opinions, to reach conclusions, and to formulate' these into law, without adequate and explicit knowledge of organization, methods, and results. The definition and formulation of municipal standards have hitherto been concerned mainly with the technical and business aspects of city government. This is not because those who are interested in the promotion of government efficiency consider technical and business methods as anything more than a means toward the chief end. It is rather because definite business standards are seen to be the first essential in the accomplishment of the higher purposes of cities. The program of municipal efficiency is fundamentally a program of community welfare; the purpose being to equip city government not only to do most advantageously the work already committed to it, but to extend its responsibilities to public needs not yet met by public service.

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FINANCIAL RESULTS UNDER THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT BY ERNEST s. BRADFORD, PH.D.~ Washington, D. C. N TWO fields of municipal' administration, the financial and the engineering, have the results obtained in the cities operating under the commission form been so clearly marked as to command generally favorable opinion from students of this new type of city government. In the care of streets and paving, bridges, and lighting, and in general, the engineering activities of the city, and in municipal hance, there has been clearly evident an increase in efficiency. The raising and expenditure of funds is intimately connected with every other function of the city, and a study of financial results deals with a fundamental phase of municipal government. Of the two hundred cities which have installed or have voted to install the commission form, more than sixty have had-or will have had by May, 1912-two years trial or more; nearly thirty have been operating for over three years. Galveston and Houston, Texas, the earliest commission centers, furnish naturally more extensive data on account of their large experience-Galveston since September, 1901, and Houston, since July, 1905. A group of Texas cities including Dallas, Fort Worth, Denison, Greenville, and El Paso, date from early in 1907, and Lewiston, Idaho, and Mandan, N. D., from later in the same year. Des Moines and Cedar Rapids, Ia., and Leavenworth, Kans., began in April, 1908; and Haverhill and Gloucester, Mass., High Point, N. C., Huntington and Bluefield, W. Va., Ardmore and Tulsa, Okla., Colorado Springs, Berkeley and San Diego, Calif., Wichita, Hutchinson, Independence, and two other Kansas cities, Bismarck and Minot, N. D., and Sioux Falls, S. D., in the early part or' middle of 1909. These are the cities to which we look for the most helpful information upon the subject under consideration, and to others of at least two years' experience, where the data are definite. I Ernest 9. Bradford, formerly fellow in political science of the University of Pennsylvania, is an economist andstatistician of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. He has published bulletins on municipal gas lighting and water works for the legislative reference library of Wisconsin, and has made a special study for the National Municipal League of the commission form of city government, being a member of its committee on that subject. His recently published Commission Government in American Cities (Macmillan, November, 1911) is the outgrowth of these studies. 372

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THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT 373 CLEARING UP OLD DEBTS One of the earliest efforts of the commission in the pioneer cities of Texas was directed toward wiping out the floating indebtedness of one kind or other, which had been allowed to accumulate, and to begin the early retirement of the city’s bonded debt. The commission in Galveston paid $200,000 of, outstanding scrip and due bills, previously issued for labor and supplies.2 Houston cleared up within the first eight months of its commission rule $400,000 of similar indebtedness.3 Parsons, Kansas, which when it adopted the small-board plan was issuing warrants stamped “Unpaid for lack of funds,” has since taken up $12,000 of these warrants, and has a considerable surplus in the treas Dallas started its new administration with an overdraft in the general fund of $129,575, which the commissioners reduced within twelve months to less than $50,000. The existence of these items of floating debt in so many of our American cities is an indictment of the inefficiency of municipal government heretofore existing. Something has been wrong. Has it been the system of government, or the men who administered it? The retirement of city bonds has also been vigorously attempted-sometimes a large amount, sometimes a smaller sum having been paid. To retire bonds without increasing taxes, or issuing other bonds, is no easy matter, unless a thorough and scientific study of finances shows where savings can be effected; and the results secured indicate that such study has been given to the details of income, and to their readjustment. San Diego (40,000 population) reduced its municipal debt by $69,200 in the first year under the commission, at the same time lowering the rate of taxation. Gloucester, Mass. (25,000 population), cut off $18,000 of similar indebtedness, during the first twelve months following the installation of the commissioners. Leavenworth retired $20,000 of bonds on which it had been payinginterest for the preceding thirty years, besides $119,750 of its one-half share of the county debt. Galveston (37,000 population) in the ten years follodng September 18,1901, paid $1,124,362 of its bonded debt, including $555,000 of grade-raising bonds. Ehporia has similarly paid off over $15,000 since the CommissioQers were inaugurated. Other smaller cities have retired less amounts. LIVING WITHIN MUNICIPAL INCOME So simple a matter as living within the income of the city had never previously received much attention from the councils of many of our cities. * See statement of board of commissioners, issued 1907. 4 See Beard, Digest of Short Ballot Charters, p. 74519. Figures furnished by commissioner of finance and revenue.

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374 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW If at the end of the year expenditures exceeded revenue, scrip was issued, or bonds; perhaps the tax rate was increased, but that always created unfavorable comment and was avoided if possible. But no sooner had the ‘(board of directors” taken charge of city affairs than a change of policy occurred in many municipalities. The first Des Moines commission found a deficit of $175,000 left by the outgoing administration,-outstanding judgments and other claims. These it met by a bond issue, the amount being too large to be paid out of current revenue, even if increased by economies, and with a clear field went on to meet current expenses. The statement of the auditor, John W. Hawk, shows that at the end of every fiscal year there has been an excess of cash over claims varying from about $15,000 to over $56,000. The installation of modern bookkeeping methods has enabled the commissioners to know where this revenue came from and where it was spent, and in Des Moines, Mankato, Leavenworth, Emporia, and Houston, it preceded the successful placing of the city on a sound financial basis. Harvey S. Chase and Company, the well knovrn accountants of Boston, after a detailed study of the receipts and expenditures in the various departments of the city of Haverhill, Mass., reported that “the running expenses of the city in 1909 have been kept inside of the $12 tax limit. Such a result has not been achieved in Haverhill for many years past. The present administration deserves much commendation for its foresight and vigilance in supervising the city expenditures, and in holding down the totals to the limits indicated. Comparing this result with what happened in previous years when borrowing money for various classes of running expenses was the rule, rather than the exception, the achievement appears to be a notable one.” The report recommends further improvements in bookkeeping methods. These results have been accomplished by reducing operating expenses in some’ cases, in others, by increasing municipal revenue (without increasing the tax rate), or by both. Galveston cut down the cost of its police department $60,000 in five years, by means of reduced salaries and a decrease in the number of men, methods not feasible, however, toor all cities. The .waterworks income was increased by $115,000 without material addition to the costs of operation. The offices of the assessor and the collector of taxes were consolidated. In Houston, the positions of controller and secretary were combined, and a saving effected of $2100 a year. Houston also employed the cashier of a bank to act as city treasurer at a salary of $600 a year, as contrasted with a former annual expense of $2,720. City funds on deposit with banks have been made to yield a considerable return in the way of interest; in Cedar Rapids $2,100 during 1908 alone; Houston, $40, 000 in less than five years;6 in Galveston,-including interest Data supplied by commissioner of finance and revenue, up to January 1, 1911.

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THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT 375 on taxes,-from September 18, 1901, to December 31, 1910, $136,451.'' Discounts for cash have been utilized in Cedar Rapids, Houston, and other cities, effecting an appreciable economy in each instance. Small items are worth saving, argue the commissioners, as well as large ones. The cost of city lighting has been lowered in Dallas, from $73 to $60 per arc light per year; in Des Moines from $95 to $75, and then to $65, for all night arcs; in Houston from $80 to $70 per arc per year. Water meters have been installed in many cities, and the wasting of water checked. It is true that this is not confined to cities governed by a commission, but is clearly marked in the cities which are so governed. In Houston, the price of gas has been cut from $1.50 per 1000 cubic feet to $1.15 per 1000 cubic feet. RATE OF TAXATION This revision of the current municipal revenues has permitted an actual decrease in the tax rate in many cities. Houston lowered its rate from $2.00 to $1.90, then $1.80, and finally $1.70 per $100. Cedar Rapids reports a slight reduction. San Diego lowered the rate from $1.48 to $1.30 per $100 of valuation. The policy of temporarilyreduced taxes to be made up by increasesin some later administration-apolicy thoroughly unsound-has not found favor with the commissioners, in most instances; and in some cases an increase of taxes has been necessary. This has been due sometimes.to the failure of a previous administration to provide sufficient funds to meet the expenditures of the following year or years, as at Kansas City, Kans., and Appleton, Wis., with the result that the first commission has been compelled to raise enough money to meet the deficit of the preceding year as well as current needs. This has required a temporary increase of the tax rate, where not offset by most unusual economies in administration. Other cities have had slight reductions. INVESTING IN NEW MUNICIPAL PROPERTY New investments by the city-the wise provision for the future manifested, like any other expanding business concern, in the purchase of additional equipment and property-may prevent an immediate reduction in the rate of taxation, but be sound municipal policy, nevertheless. The acquisition of real estate for new parh or school houses and play groundsland which can be purchased at a low cost at present, but which is certain to be held at a largely enhanced valuation in the near future; the construction of bridges needed to furnish access to a certain section of the city and to permit its development; the purchase of a municipal lighting plant; all these may be the soundest sort of civic finance, if wisely planned and exe* Data supplied by city auditor.

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376 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW cuted. Thisiswhat L. G. Powers, of the Bureau of theCensus,refers to when he speaks of “the wise and necessary increase in municipal expenditures which is called for everywhere in recent years by the fact that cities are finding out how, by enlarged public expenditures, their governments can be made to assist the people to added health, comfort, strength and pleasure.”’ When the first commission of Cedar Rapids purchased a large island in the Cedar River, near the business heart of the city, for the location of its future city hall and civic center, the expenditure of $106,500 for a site possessing such capacities for usefulness and beauty, and the sale of the old city hall property for $66,500, was an example of the foresight which it had proved impossible to exercise previously on account of the jealousies of ward councilmen. Houston invested $56,000 in new parks in 1907; $18,000, in 1910; $340,000 for eleven new school houses, since 1905; other sums for new bridges and sewers. Des Moines is creating a civic center and a park system which will be the pride of the Iowa Capital and of undoubted practical advantage to that community. Cedar Rapids extended streets, sidewalks, sewers and paving, and built the new Sixteenth Avenue Bridge. San Diego laid forty-one miles of new water mains in the first twelve months under the commission, and paved and graded more streets than during any similar period before. Dallas bought land for parks. Haverhill completed twice as much street paving in the same time and with the same money as formerly. Instances of this sort can be multiplied. This expansion of municipal properties and improvements, while it went on under the former council system, was neither as adequate nor as well planned as it has been under the responsible rule of the “people’s directors.” There should be no attempt to pave all the streets of the small town with asphalt, nor to supply a costly sewage disposal plant to the village of half a thousand, and just how far to go in this respect should be studied with some care, for each municipality; but the failure of councils to provide improvements to keep pace with the needs of our urban centers has been so glaring a fault in the past that it will be doubtless a long time before there is a general oversupply of municipal facilities in our cities. Such improvements will make the centers of moderate population more healthful, cheerful and habitable, and tend to check the rush to the great cities. CITY PLANNINQ And with a small board, directly responsible to the people, it is much more easy for citizens to secure the consideration and adoption of a comprehensive “city plan.” Dallas has laid out a system of improvements 1 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, November, 1911, Budget Provisions in Commission-governed Cities, p. 134.

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THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT 377 along broad lines, which it is already proceeding to develop. Cedar Rapids engaged an expert to study its park system, drives and general features, and outline a comprehensive, scheme of city beautifying and convenience, in accordance with which it acquired its island center, as a beginning. Memphis and Chattanooga, Omaha and Oakland, Walla Walla and San Diego, are formulating city plans also. This is not confined to commission governed cities, but the latter have a double advantage over municipalities operating under the old aldermanic form; citizens can secure action more easily and promptly where the governing body is directly responsible to the voters; and a small board is more able to take prompt and effective measures to put such a plan into operation than the larger and more loosely organized council-mayor-and-departments. With a fairly definite city plan outlined, the determination of financial questions becomes vastly simpler, as their bearing upon other phases of municipal development is made clear. The results so far secured under the commission form may be said to show in the field of finance a clear improvement over those attained under the former common type of municipal government. Debts have been paid, bonds retired, revenues increased, expenses reduced, and many wise investments made in additions to city property. What is needed now is a city plan-a definite policy well worked out in each field of municipal development, determined upon by citizens after thorough discussion, and started into operation by a governing body responsive to the people and so organized a3 to insure prompt, continued and efficient action.

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WHAT WISCONSIN IS DOING FOR ITS CITIES BY FORD H. MACGREGOR~ The University 01 Wisconsin FEATURE of the recent New York budget exhibit was the likeness of Father Knickerbocker, life size; gazing in wonderment upon same A statistics relative to. the city of which he is the personification. “New York, the second largest city in the world; population, 5,000,000”a city with more Jews than there ever were in Palestine; more Germans than in any city in Germany except Hamburg and Berlin; more Bohemians than there are in Prague; and more Italians than there are in Rome. (( 1,500,000 increase in ten years; equivalent to the combined populations of Boston, Kansas City, and San Francisco.” More people respond to the authority of the mayor of New York than did to the first President of the United States; and the employees of the city constitute an army larger than marched with Sherman to the sea. ‘(Area, 327 square miles; 5,000 miles of highway; 2000 miles of sewers; 341 miles of water front.’’ A birth every four minutes; a death every seven minutes; a marriage every eleven minutes. Annual school bill, $30,000,000; $15,500,000 for police protection; $8,250,000 for fire protection; $10,000,000 for charities. Cost of a single election, over $1,050,000. Bonded debt, over $800,000,000. Total budget for 1912, $174,000,000. This gives but a general idea of the immensity to which our municipal business has grown. The expenditures of Chicago, St. Louis, Philadelphia and Boston are second only to those of New York. Compared with the ‘aggregate expenditures of our cities, the expenditures of our national government shrink to insignificance. Even the construction of a Panama Canal does not outclass in magnitude the project of New Yolk’s new water supply. They have sprung upon us unawares. When our constitution was adopted there were no cities in the modern sense of the word. The largest city in the United States, Philadelphia, had a population of but a little over 30,000, while New York was about the size of Madison. But 3.3 per cent of our population was urban; today over 40 per cent of the entire population of the United States lives in cities of 4000 and over. We are becoming We are only now beginning to take our cities seriously. An address delivered before the Minnesota Academy of Social Science. *Head of the Municipal Reference Bureau, University of Wisconsin, and instructor in political science at the same institution. He is also the author of an important brochure on City Government by Commission, alderman in the city of Madison, secretary of the League of Wisconsin Municipslities and editor of its official organ, The Municipality. 378

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WHAT WISCONSIN IS DOING FOR ITS CITIES 379 an urban nation. Over 30,000,000 people are living in cities and towns, and that number is rapidly increasing. The American city, with its great problems of administration and business management, has come to be the social, economic, and political problem of the day. The twentieth century belongs to the city. Now, ours is an age of specialization, of experts; an age of the division of labor in which the old axiom “If you want a thing done well, do it yourself,” has given way to the new one, “If you want a thing done well, get someone to do it, who knows more about doing it than you do”-get an expert. This principle, as a rule of conduct, has been gaining ground for many years in almost every walk of life except, perhaps, the administration of our cities. We have employed architects to devise and supervise our buildings, doctors to cure our ailments, and lawyers to secure our divorces but have elected grocerymen, merchants, blacksmiths, lawyers, professors to run our cities-honest men, but littleversed in the affairs of a great city. Probably no other one thing is more responsible for the failure of municipal government in America. We have failed to devise an adequate system of administration, failed to develop a professional class of municipal officials and usually failed to place the blame for its failure where it belongs. The same has been true in state legislation. We have placed on the bench lawyers of high ability, backed up by a great mass of jurisprudence and precedents, to pass upon laws made by farmers, mechanics, and merchants. The Judge’s has been the easy job, for in addition to this great mass of jurisprudence, he has had the advantage of briefs and opinions of trial lawyers on both sides of the case, while to the farmer legislator has been left the task of fitting the laws into the complex social, economic, and political conditions of the times, and into the constitutional framework of the nation in such a way as to stand the test of the courts. All the experts have been on the side of the courts. In other words, talent has has been used to tear down the laws instead of to build them up. It was left, for the state of Wisconsin, through the Legislative Reference Department of the Free Library Commission, to place for the first time information and talent behind the legislator. It has now gone one step further and is attempting to perform through various agencies a similar service for the cities of the state-to collect facts and information on all the varied subjects of municipal activity and municipal government, and to place that material, together with expert service, at the disposal of the city officials and tax payers of the various cities of the state. The two channels through which it is attempting to perform this service are the state university and the various commissions at the capital-the tax commission, the railroad commission, and the newly created state affairs commission. The most. important and most direct of these two

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380 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW channels is the state university, and it is to this one to which I wish to direct attention. Municipal government is the most difficult of all kinds of government. It is difficult because of the multitudinous functions which it has to perform, and because of the exceedingly complex conditions under which it must perform them. Municipal government touches the citizen at more points and is of more vital importance to his interests than any other branch of government with which.he comes in contact. It collects more taxes from him and spends more money. With this enormous concentration of population in cities and the enormous expenditures of money which it envolves, a great number of new problems have arisen. As cities have become crowded, questions of housing and sanitation have appeared. As traffic and business interests have grown, problems of paving, dust prevention, and smoke abatement have been metproblems of water purification and sewage disposal, of milk and food inspection, problems of organization and administration, of accounting, regulation of public services, and special assessments, and a hundred and one other problems and questions incident to growth and the spread of social intercourse. And with every change in the social, economic, and political conditions of the country more of these problems arise. With every hvention of a labor saving device, and with every new combination of capital, their number is increased and their complexity multiplied. Great power plants are being developed. Heating plants, water power, and electric plants, and other great industrial enterprises, which use the streets, and furnish services to the citizens of our cities are being added daily, and these must be regulated and controlled. These are great problems, and problems with which the ordinary official, even though diligent, cannot familiarize himself during his short and busy tenure without assistance. Yet these problems must be solved and solved largely in the same way they have been solved in other cities where similar problems have appeared. Municipal experience must be drawn upon. The mistakes of other cities must be avoided and the benefits of their successful experiments seized upon. London has had a sewage problem for a thousand years; Rome a housing problem for a much longer time. How have these problems been met? How did France solve the dust problem for her macadam roads following the introduction of the automobile? With what success have motorists been taxed for road maintenance in Massachusetts and the East? What cities have bath houses, comfort stations, play-grounds? How much did they cost and what are their plans? How are municipal buildings insured? What is the relative cost of the collection of garbage in different cities, or what is the most successful system of sewage disposal or water purification? What has been done and is being done along these

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WHAT WISCONSIN IS DOING FOR ITS CITIES 381 lines in the various cities of the country and of the world? Many of these new problems in America are old ones in Europe. Now, these are the problems which the city official has to meet, and surely they are among the most complex with which public officials have to deal, for not only do they involve questions of policy, upon which there may be legitimate differences of opinion, but questions of business requiring the highest degree of business sagacity and judgment, where a mistake one way or the other always means the same thing higher taxes. If these problems are to be solved and solved wisely, if each city is to benefit by the success of other cities and profit by their failures, city officials must have access to all the available information and data to be had upon these various subjects. They must compare notes. For the failure of our municipal government in the past rests not so much with the system, although that has been bad, nor with the character of our officials, although that too has sometimes been bad, as with the fact honest officials have been uninformed. I am among those who believe that the average a!derman is an honest and well-meaning man. I think he is an over-abused official in this country. But the fact remains that he lacks information on the questions of city administration, and he has neither the time nor the facilities for getting it. When a question of the milk supply, of a wheel-tax ordinance, or of compelling the gas company to lay its mains before the street is paved, comes up, he is in a quandry to know what to do. Now grocers and merchants are good business men, and given the necessary data and information on which to form judgment upon a municipal proposition, they make the linest kind of councilmen. Heretofore, their judgments have been guesses many a time, and the wonder is that they have guessed as wisely as they have, considering the magnitude of the problems involred. Expert knowledge has been on the side of the private corporations, on the side of the street car companies, the telephone companies, and the gas and power companies. Now, why should men who are successful in their private business make such dismal failures in handling public business? Why should we have a failure in the erection of a garbage crematory or sewage disposal plant? Frequently, because we have not profited by the experience of other cities. We are still experimenting with a type of crematory which was abandoned in England and on the continent more than fifty years ago. Most of these problems have been solved somewhere. Why, then, can’t we have the data which will show how they have been solved? This is what the university, through the Municipal Reference Bureau of its extension division aims to do. It aims to place in the hands of the city officials information and data upon all the varied subjects of municipal activity and municipal governmentto be a bureau of information, a clearing house for municipal experience and experiments.

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382 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW For years the list of questions was the only way to get unformation of any kind, and committees of municipal societies have made nuisances of themselves with their numerous attempts at collecting all kinds of information. City officials are constantly imposing upon each other in this way, and newspapers have often taken up the practice. The city official either does not reply, or fills in the blanks with the least possible trouble. The result upon the questioner is either confusion or great danger of misunderstanding and consequent misleading. It is this laborious task that is undertaken by the Municipal Reference Bureau. But every city cannot maintain a separate municipal reference department. . New York, Baltimore, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Milwuakee,Kansas City, and such large cities can and do maintain such departments, but the small and growing city which is in greatest need of such assistance cannot do so. To perform this service for all the cities of the state is the purpose of the Municipal Reference Bureau of the university extension division. It aims to collect and furnish to the citizens of the state information on all subjects of municipal organization and administration, public works, public utilities, and public service rates, municipal employment, paving, sewage disposal, water supplies, and water purification, garbage disposal, parks and playgrounds, housing, street cleaning, street sprinkling, dust prevention, smoke abatement, city planning, civic centers, art commissions, care of city trees,. schools, charities and corrections, health and sanitation, accounting methods; comparative statistics, commission government, home rule, civic organizations, markets, comfort stations, and all the other subjects of municipal interest, and to collect and maintain a file of charters and ordinances, and reports of .the principal cities of the United States. But we are making a start. We are doing something where nothing was done before. The bureau has been in existence but two years, but during that time it has collected material upon all t.he subjects mentioned and many more and in addition has answered over 2,000 inquires for information on questions relating to municipal problems. The bureau has collected probably the most complete library on commission government which has ' been collected since that movement started. This information has been compiled and published in a bulletin of the university which is sent free to any citizen of Wisconsin. The first edition was exhausted within three months, but a second edition has already been published. Similar bulletins are now in preparation on municipal fire insurance, city planning, municipal legislation affecting tuberculosis, commission government for counties, wheel tax ordinances, and kindred subjects. The Municipal Reference Bureau of Wisconsin has exceptional facilities for gathering this information and securing expert advice for the cities of This is a tremendous job and takes time, money, and effort.

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WHAT WISCONSIN IS DOING FOR ITS CITIES 383 the state. The capitol and university being in the same city, it has advantages not available where these institutions are separately located. Besides unusual library facilities, it not only has the cooperation of the various departments of the university and the expert advice and professional knowledge of professors in their particular lines, but the legislative reference department, the state railroad commission, and the other state departments and commissions at the captiol cooperate to assist cities in the proper solution of these great problems. In this way the bureau is able to give to the municipalities of the state the advice and assistance of experts in practically every branch of municipal administration and the problems of cities, in addition to the information and data collected upon all the varied activities of the city of today. An illustration will suffice to show how this works out. A small city in the northern part of the state wished to install a sewer system. It hired a young draftsman to design one, paid him for his work, and was about to begin its construction, when the question arose as to 'whether this system should be a combined sanitary and storm water system orwhether there should be a separate system for each. The council being divided, they applied to the Municipal Reference Bureau for advice. The bureau informed them that this would depend upon whether the state board of health required them to purify their sewage or not, and called their attention to the fact that their plans must be approved by the state board of health. This was the first they knew about such a requirement, and when they did submit them, the board of health refused to approve them. In their extremity they turned again to the Municipal Reference Bureau, and that bureau sent Professor Davis, of the engineering department, a hydraulic and sewage expert, to go over the ground and advise them what to do. The purpose of the bureau is not to give the professional service itself, but to advise what should be done, and to save the cities from making such mistakes as was first made in this instance. It does not compete with the consulting engineer, but advises when a consulting engineer should be secured. Its aid and assistance is absolutely non-partisan, non-political, and free, and the correspondence and cooperation of the cities of the state is heartily solicited. The sole purpose of the bureau is to serve the cities and citizens of the state, and to relieve the city officials from the laborious task of collecting this indispensable information. Whether this work pays or not is best determined by the demand for it. We are beginning to take our cities seriously. We are beginning to be appalled by the magnitude of their expenditures, and we mant to administer them in the best and cheapest lvay possible. We are tired of needless experimentation; we want to know what other cities have done.

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384 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Nor do these demands come from this state alone, but from every state in the Union. Inquiries on the subject of commission government, for instance, have been received in a single morning from cities representing as high as nine states. During the last two weeks the number of requests for our bulletin on Commission Government has averaged from twentyfive to thirty a day. Although a few different cities have had local municipal reference bureaus for a number of years, Wisconsin was the first state to establish a state bureau for the service of all the cities of the state. But although this bureau has been in operation only two years, it cannot now claim the distinction of being the only one of its kind. The Universities of Illinois and Kansas have already established similar bureaus, and the Universities of Nebraska, Oregon, and Washington have in preparation at the present time, plans for similar bureaus at those universities respectively. There is a great demand for this kind of information, and the number of such bureaus is bound to increase. The university, through its extension division, also offers to city officials and to those looking forward to service for the city comprehensive courses of instruction in municipal government, local administration, and municipal and civic progress. It also offers through the lecture department popular lectures on municipal subjects, such as “City Government by Commission,” “American Municipal Progress,” “City Planning,” “City and Town Promotion,” and similar subjects. The activity of the state directly, through its commissions at the capitol, can hardly be said to have been fairly begun. By our public utility law the railroad commission is given a wide supervisory power over our public utilities. It is given power to prescribe accounts for public utilities, and to require the making of annual reports. It also has supervisory power over franchises to a large extent; franchises must be approved by the railroad commission in certain regards. In the case of contests between the city and the public service corporation, the city is given the assistance of the experts of the commission. Whereas formerly all the experts were arrayed on the side of the corporation, now some of the best experts on transportation andallied subjects are to be found on the side of the public. The state is able to employ and retain for the cities men whom the individual city could not afford to retain for itself. At the last session of the legislature, the state tax commission was given power to require annual reports from cities upon uniform schedules prepared by the commission showing their receipts and expenditures in summary and detail, and to publish these statistics for the benefit of the cities. It was also authorized to design a uniform system of accounts and to install the same in any city desiring the same. This system has been designed and the commission now stands ready to install it in any city that so desires.

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WHAT WISCONSIN IS DOING FOR ITS CITIES 385 The city of Madison has already voted to have the system installed, and other cities will undoubtedly follow in the near future. The newly created state affairs .commission is not given power over cities directly, but it is authorized to cooperate with all public and civic organizations in promoting the economy and efficiency of public administration in all its branches. A movement hasealready been started to unite all these departments and agencies into a school of municipal efficiency and municipal service, and to secure for the service of the cities the cooperation of all these departments in the most effective manner possible. Not much can be said of this movement as yet, but that it will be crystalized within a very short time is a veritable certainty. We have had too little “home rule” in legislation, and too much “home rule” in administration. What we need now is cooperation, central supervision and-control, and the assistance of all the potential forces of the state in the administration of our cities and the solution of our municipal problems. We of Wisconsin believe we are an the right track.

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS BY REGINALD MOTT HULL2 Cambridge, Massachusetts For some years students of government have advocated some simple method T which would eliminate the primary election, and allow the voters automatically to get behind an acceptable candidate. Methods of cumulative voting and other plans of preferential voting have been suggested, but it remained for Hon. Ja.mes W. Bucklin of Grand Junction, Colorado, to devise one which was easily administered and which enabled the voter to express his will. Proceeding upon the Grand Junction plan as a model, Prof. Lewis J. Johnson of Harvard University and others recently drafted a charter for Cambridge which passed the Massachusetts Legislature a.nd only narrowly failed of adoption by the people of Cambridge upon referendum. The preferential system is believed, however, to have been the chief cause for the hearty support of the strongest backers of this charter, nncl to have met the opposition of none but those who were opposed to the charter on other grounds. It had the support of practically all the nonpolitician leaders of local public sentiment and the open opposition of none whose standpat or .doctrinaire bias had not been previously well established. Voters at first were inclined to think preferential voting complicated, but this impression was readily dispelled by making mock elections illustrating the system a regular feature of charter meetings. Spokane, influenced by the favor which preferential voting had received in Cambridge, as well as by its success in Grand Junction, adopted a charter of the same kind and held its first election under it, March 7, 1911, and Pueblo, Colorado, a near neighbor of Grand Junction, has followed suit. In order to understand some of the advantages of the preferential system, the evils which it eradicates should be briefly enumerated. The primary was at first abused in the same way that the caucus was by members of one party voting in the primary of the opposite party. With the primary held on the same day, in tlie same place, with the vot,er reHE preferential system of voting is no new thing. 'This paper was omitted from the April issue of the NATIONAL MtrNIcIPAL REVIEW because of lack of space. Mr. Hull has availed himself of the opportunity afforded by t,he delay carefully to revise it and to add some important new data so that it is in many respects a new article. aReginald Mott Hull is secretary to the Cambridge Tax Payers' Association and assistant in government at Harvard University; he was also assistant secretary of the original Boston finance commission. 386

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT FVORKS 387 quired TO announce his party, this evil was stopped but another diaadvantage followed, namely, that the voter was not able to support good men on the tickets of both parties. The average voter who takes part in the primary is a party man. That is the kind of a voter that is surest to come out. The machine thus has an advantage. Independents are deterred from participation in the primary by the necessity of appearing as party men. Moreover if half the voters come out for the primary it is considered a satisfactory number. That vote is divided approximately equally between the two parties; a majority of that half nominates. The candidates, therefore, are likely to be machine men, nominated by a small minority, and all of them unacceptable to the m,,j Q ority of all the voters. In other words, the voter on election day must choose between nominees of mere political machines. The preferential system of voting, in conjunction with the short ballot, nomination by a few petitioners, and the elimination of party designatiors puts an end to the primary and its attendant evils. 8 In the method of voting proposed in Cambridge, any fifty voters could secure a place op the final ballot for the name of their nominee for any elective office. Election is by the city at large, to a highly paid, conspicuous position for a three year term, with no party designation, no primary, and, after the first year, with never more than two offices in the city council to be filled annually. Every candidate stands on his own feet,-no boss dictates who shall, or shall not run. The man who can survive this test must win on his own merit and not merely drift into office on a party label unknown to most of his fellow citizens. The preferential ballot enables the voters of the city in one election t.0 arrive at a majority choice irrespective of the number of candidates, provided there is anyone in the list of candidates acceptable to a majority. If there is none such in thd list it is obviously not the fault of the preferential ballot. Besides we get the next best thing and the only thing poesible with such a list of nominees, a legitimate plurality election; i.e., a plurality election based on a full and free expression of choice by the voters in place of the customary one in which a voter with only one choice must vote against all the candidates but one, though there may be several excellent namzs in the list. There is no such thing. What goes by that name is always something which merely chokes off candidates by a primary election or by dropping low men as in some of the older preferential systems and forcing an appearance of majority for what in fact is only a plurality candidate. A man is no true majority candidate unless in a free and open field and with full range of choice by the voter he has the support of the majority. No system of voting will make up for a lack of acquaintance OF support. We must, in The inexpediency of this is apparent. Beware of the man who tells of an absolute majority system.

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388 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIW a word, either have a majority man among the nominees, or put up with a plurality choice in fact, if not in form. The modern preferential ballot is arranged like the ordinary Australian ballot except that instead of one column for crosses there are three provided, headed Grst choice,” “second choice,” and “other choices” respectively. The voter places a cross in the hst column after the name of his first choice for that office, and in the second column after the name of his second choice. If there are others acceptable, and still others quite undesirable, the voter will place a cross after all the other acceptable men in the third column. This means that he not only has the opportunity to vote for all the good men, but also thus against all the undesirable ones. If some candidate polls a majority of all the votes in the first column, he is elected. Failing that, the first and second choice votes are added together. The candidate, now highest, wins, if he has a majority. If no man can command a majority of the firsts and seconds, meaning that there are a number of nearly equally desirable candidates, the choices in the third column are now added in. The highest man then wins whether he has a majority or not-for he is the man on the list behind whom the greatest number of voters are found to have gathered after each has specified all whom he cares to support. This will always reshlt in a majority selection unless the list of candidates happens to contain no one on whom the majority can freely and automatically unite-a condition clearly not due to the system of voting. Under our present system the voter can vote for but one man whatever the number of good or bad candidates, and the chances are that the undesirable man will win, because the machine can prevent the scattering of its vote among a lot of nominees whereas, if the citizens had a real opportunity for free expression a large majority might have gotten together behind some independent candidate. For instance, one man was elected mayor of a Massachusetts city about a year ago by 1800 votes out of 7200; the 5400 other votes being divided nearly equally among four other candidates. The primary partisan system to prevent such mishaps has to choke off, in the interest of harmony, desirable candidates, in order not to risk a party defeat through a split ticket. Then the irony of it is that after the citizen has been deprived of the opportunity of voting for any but mdchine candidates, blame for the failure of the present system is attributed to the fact that some abstain from voting in the kal election1 The present system necessitates the expenditure of large sums of money and a great deal of time and energy to be nominated or elected. Under the preferential system no money or time need be expended in campaigns. A man can be elected on his reputation as is shown by the fact that the president of the Chamber of Commerce was elected to the Spokane city council during his absence from the city.

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 389 The result of the first election in Grand Junction, November 2, 1909, is given below. FIRST CEOICE For commissioner of public affairs D. W. Aupperle ............... *W. H. Bannister .............. N. A. Lough .................. *E. R. Lutes.. ................. Edwin M. Slocumb.. .......... Thos. M. Todd (elected). ...... Total ................... For commissioner of water anc sewers Bostwick W. Vedder (elected). Scattering.. ................... For commissioner of $name an1 supplies *Leon J. Chapman ............. H. F. Vorbeck (elected) ....... Total. ...................... For commissioner of highways *John W. Armstrong.. ......... *Robert M. Hardinge.. ........ Henry B. Potorf.. ............ Thos. H. Rader ............... 5. J. Scovill (elected). ......... Total.. ..................... For commissioner health and civic beauty Chas. Gasho .................. Chas. K. Holmburg (elected). . D. S. Wright.. ................ Total.. ..................... 465 603 99 41 229 362 1,799 '1,605 837 902 ~ 1,739 __397 26 266 535 555 1,779 608 750 401 1,759 SECOND CHOICE 143 93 231 114 357 293 1,231 109 29 242 311 384 1,075 ~ 125 200 343 668 CHOICE8 145 43 328 88 326 396 1,326 84 33 267 130 236 750 TOTAL 753 739 658 243 912 1,051 580 88 775 976 1,175 733 950 744 Total votes cast.. ............ 1,847 Majority.. , 924

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320 SECOND CHOICE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW THIRD CHOICE ~~ The starred men were the anti-charter and minority candidates, the others the pro-charter and majority Candidates. Omitting reference to an unessential detail in the Grand Junction practice, that of “dropping the low man”-a complication not likely to be widely adopted, and without influence on this result-the decision was drawn from the foregoing figures, according to the principles above stated, as follows: There being no majority in first choice, the firsts and seconds were added together. Then the leading candidate, Bannister, provided he had had P, majority, would have won. There beiug no majority by combined firsts and seconds, the first, second and other choices were added together, and Todd, the candidate then leading, won. Under the usual system the minority would have beaten the majority and elected Bannister. Under the Des Moines-Los Angeles or Seattle plan, that of second elections, there would have resulted a bitter contest between Aupperle and Bannister, neither of whom had a majority of the people behind them. 119 558 326 513 Result of second election in Grand Junction, Colorado, November 7, 1011 52 278 81 488 For commissioner of finance and supplies (P)-Edward J. Olson, out first.. ........... (P)-H. F. Vorbeck,: elected.. ............. (R)-John R. Wentworth.. ................. For commissioner of highways (R)-L. E. Blackstone. ................... (PI-W. W. Goodman, out second. ......... (PI-James H. Rankin, elected.. ........... (P)-S. J. Scovil1,t out first.. .............. For commissioner of health and civic beauty (R)-C. H. Crawford, out second.. ......... (P)-Chmles K. Holmburg,* elected. ....... (R)-Frank Thompson. .................... (P)-John J. Weigmann.. .................. (P)-James Woods, out first. ............... 265 24 1 169 653 297 Total vote cast.. ..................... 64 70 42 229 549 FIRST CHOICU 307 1405 1123 1174 330 1011 255 535 975 63 1 353 22 1 9 12 227 1 114 TOTAL 1219 1632 1237 1345 1166 1418 1256 864 1286 842 1235 1067 ....................... 2926 *ReBlected. tDefeated for reelection. P-Progressives. R-Reactlonaiies.

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 391 One weakness of the Grand Junction plan of dropping the low man is apparent from the above schedule. Mr. Scovill running for commissioner of highways was out on first choice being the low man. His total vote, however, was larger than the man who was dropped out on his second choice. It should be noted also that here too as in the first election the reactionary (Mr. Blackstone) would, under the ordinary system of elections, have been elected as he had the highest number of first choices. This system seems to be free from the worst objections to the previous systems of preferential voting which have attracted no general favor. They overdid the straining for “scientific” accuracy. They were too complicated. They involved the fundamental fallacy in expecting the voter to select not only his first and second choices, but to grade definitely all his others as third, fourth and so on indefinitely. This assumes a precision of choice in the mind of the voters which cannot possibly exist except in the rarest cases. The Grand Junction plan as proposed in Cambridge seems clearly the one for practical use. It fits the established habits of our voters under our Australian system, is undoubtedly as scientific as the nature of the case warrants, and more perfectly than any other system seriously ,proposed protects the community from rule by a machine or any other organized minority. The most serious objection to it is that in a close election a voter might by his second or other choices contribute to the election of his second or other choice man over his first choice man. But as an offset to this risk he has by the same means a greatly increased chance of getting some one acceptable to him instead of no one, supposing his first choice to have proved hopeless. In any case, a man of the type acceptable to the great body of voters is sure to be selected so far as this is humanly possible. Moreover, the counting can be done in the precincts or districts and completed under the conditions most conducive to fairness and calmness. The final return is compiled from tally sheets, and that-the final and most exciting part of the work-can readily be checked up by anybody. The Grand Junction plan is admirably adapted to the support of all the clearly acceptable candidates as distinct from the objectionable or doubtful. It is assumed that a first choice may be clear in the voter’s mind, and possibly a second, but that beyond this niceties in the gradation of choices are illusory. The voter is thus enabled quickly to make his crosses after all the names he cares to support without need of facing the vexatious task of making up his mind whether this man is sixth and that man is seventh choice or vice versa. Rather than go through this process many would doubtless refrain from voting for these men at all-thus robbing them of support which they ought to have and which the Grand Junction system makes it easy to give them.

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392 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW If a voter wishes to express only one choice, he is, of course, free to do so. It is his duty to do so if there is only one acceptable candidate. But such voters are likely to be organization men bound to some boss or else supporters of a good nominee up for reelection. In the former case they are almost sure to be a minority, and likely to lose anyway-if not a minority, they will win and ought of course to win. In the other case the probably preeminent claims of the candidate should make him an easy winner in the first column. If he has no such claims the result ought to include the other columns, and the voter who expresses no second choice for fear of hurting his first one puts his candidate’s interest ahead of the public interest provided there are other good nominees and provided any of the rest are thoroughly bad. The Grand Junction system, with the minimum of turmoil and expense, selects from a large number of nominees a safe choice in a manner far more likely to reflect the calm, candid judgment of the voters than either the second election system or such alleged majority selection as is arrived at in the pulling and hauling of repeated balloting at a nominating convention. The voter has only to make a few crosses on a ballot, put the ballot in the box and await results. The result is known before the excitement can become very bitter. Contrast this with second elections or repeated ballotings ! An extraordinary nonsensical objection to the Grand Junction result should be mentioned. It seems incredible that it should influence anybody, but the politicians make it a serviceable talking point among their followers. They say: “There were 3305 votes cast against Todd at Grand Junction and only 1051 for him and he ought not to have won.” Of course, the absurdity of this contention can be seen from the fact that there were only 1847 voters in the entire city of whom 1051 had expressed their preference for Todd. Moreover, even granting as a concession to this type of mind for argument’s sake that there were 3305 votes against Todd, there were even more against each of the other candidates-against” Bannister, the favorite of those who argue this way, to 739 for him. The fact is there were only 794 voters (the difference between Todd‘s total vote and the total number of voters) who did not want Todd for mayor, and of the 1155 who put in a first-choice vote for a pro-charter candidate 1051 voters automatically came to agreement on Todd. Another advantage of the preferential system is drawn from this election in Grand Junction. Campaigns will be carried on with less mud-slinging than in former days. Every decent candidate will bid for the second aad third choices of the friends of the other candidates by abstaining from unjust criticisms. But if there is a sharp line between enforcement and non-enforcement of law, or any other definite issue of good and bad govern

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 393 ment, all the candidates of each class will freely criticize those of the other class. Such lines will be sharply drawn. Probably each side will be able to find two or three or more candidates in the list who wjll adequately represent its pobt of view. The majority will be able automatically to get behind some man who commands their confidence. Ballots cannot readily be spoiled. If a man marks more than one choice for any one man, only the highest of them is counted, and he does not lose his vote for that man. If a voter marks Grst choices for two men that means that he does not show which of the two he prefers and each receives one second choice. If he marks more than two first or two second choices, those votes are credited in the “other choices.” Whatever preferences the voter unmistakably exprzsses will be counreci. Anyone drafting a charter along the lines of the Cambridge charter ought to consult the Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts, 1911, Chapter 531, especially sections 48 to 53, inclusive. In October, 1909, Mayor N. S. Pratt, of Spokane, appointed a committee of seventeen citizens to report upon the general plan of a new charter. After five months’ investigation this committee advised a commission charter and recommended that a board of freeholders be elected to frame such a charter. The city council objected to this. After petitions had been filed, the citizens, by mandamus proceedings, compelled the city council to appoint September 27, 1910, for the freeholders’ election. This committee submitted the new charter which embodied the Grand Junction plan of preferential voting with the Cambridge modifications, except that the commissioners are not elected to a specXc office, as in Grand Junction and in the proposed Cambridge charter. The Spokane charter was adopted by popular vote December 28,1910 and the first election was heId March 7, 1911. The circumstances and results of this notable election are in brief as follows: Population of the city 104,000 (in 1910). Twenty-five signatures nominate. Nomination for city council of five without designation of specific ofice Council elects one of its number mayor, and distributes departments Four year terms. Salaries $5000. Number of candidates, 92; arranged alphabetically on ballots. Number of ballots cast 22,058. to be held. among its members. (Women vote.) The following letter from a responsible citizen of Spokane, gives further information :

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394 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW MARCH 21, 1911. . . It is the common consent that our election has given us a It is common remark that it has given us the In ideals he is a man of the highest type; in capacity he stands among the best men of the west. He has through his own efforts acquired a fortune and is not making any personal profit from his $5000 salary. He was elected during his absence from the city. He is president of the Spolrane Chamber of Commerce. W. J. Hindley, mayor, is regarded as one of the strong men of the northwest-an able orator, of intense force, activity, and virility. Z. A. Hayden, public safety, is a very successful lumber man and in the past managed a series of large lumber concerns throughout the northwest-a very successful man and a man of high ideals. D. C. Coates, public works, formerly lieutenant governor of Colorado, a member of the freeholders charter committee, father of the local preferential system, a member of the typographical union, a socialist, because he has ideals and sympathizes for the laboring man he is called “radical;” but we, formerly his opponents, now know him and admire him very much. His training as presiding officer of the Colorado senate, aids him very much in expediting the proceedin.gs of the council . . . . Robert Fairley, finance, for years city comptroller, ail honest straightforward man, familiar with the finance department, ancl on account of his general familiarity with the city government of the past, of great help in the period of transformation . , . . The whole city is enthusiastic over the change and over our new city officials. I have not heard of a single criticism of the preferential system. The people are satisfied with it. .It has ‘‘ delivered the goods” they think. The only men of those among the first twenty candidates who were representative of the liquor interests were Funk and Ome, who also carried a large labor and special interests vote. The liquor men were helpless and felt unable to control the system . . . . Even with a large list of Candidates, the voters were not confused. The fear of too large a number of candidates is exaggerated. Moreover, it is rict undesirable in a free open campaign before the people. The candidates went before the people. Hundreds of meetings were held over the city. We discussed candidates day and night; the large number of candidates caused almost every precinct to be represented by one candidate at least, and caused a local lively interest and cliscussion that was of great value. The people generally were inspired by a desire to get the best men and they succeeded. We are all proud of the high tone of the campaign and our present pride and satisfaction will not permit any other kind of a campaign hereafter. The undesirable and improper candidates found their level. most superior body of men. best commission in the United States. C; M. Fassett, public utilities commissioner.

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 895 617 392. 1,169 494 547 459 564 722 734 628 703 825 651 At the general municipal election held on March 7th, the following inTo vote for any person, mark a cross [XI in a square [a] to the right Vote first choice or five candidates, or ballot will be void. Second and Vote only five first choices, and only five second choices. Vote as many third choices as you wish. Vote your first choices in the first column. Vote your second choices in the second column. Vote in the third column for all the other candidates whom you wish to Do not vote more than one choice for any one candidate, as only the one All distinguishing marks make the ballot void. If you wrongly mark, tear, or deface this ballot, return it and obtain structions were officially given. of the name. third choice is not compulsory. support. choice will count. another from the election officers. 7,012 7,525 6,465 6,650 15,418 8,558 6,094 5,718 9,896 6,693 7,299 5,603 7,394 Spokane, Washington Five commissioners to be elected *C. M. Fassett ................... Leonard Funk ................ 6,284 4,007 SECOND CHOICE 1,734 861 2,544 1,553 1,692 1,815 1,523 1,753 2,400 1,755 2,802 2,170 1,587 ADDITIONAL ToT~ CaOICEB There were 92 names on thls ballot; only the highest are given. The smallest vote was 143. None of the names of the men elected stood near the head of the ballot. The first election under the preferential system in Pueblo was held on November 7. According to the local press the men elected are capable, efficient, favorable to the new charter and apparently not in'league with the special interests. Under the Pueblo charter the voter is allowed but one first, one second and one third choice. A fatal weakness in this is that in case there were six good candidates and one machine candidate, the good candidates would be likely to split the decent vote in half and the machine man be elected by a minority. Another disadvantage is that there may

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396 Donnelly.. ..................... Lannon ......................... Duke (Thos.).. ................. Prevost ......................... Burton ......................... NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 3,256 1,714 2,166 1,667 1,987 be more than three good men deserving support, in which case the expression of the will of the voter is hampered. All five of the commissioners elected at this election required all three choices to give them the necessary 4117 votes to elect. There were 55 candidates for the five commissionerships; 18 for three civil service commissionerships; 14 for the three water trustees. The total vote cast was 8,234. In addition to the five commissioners three civil service commissioners and three trustees of the water works we& elected at the same election. The vote was as follows: Pueblo, Col. Summary of successful candidates City commissioners 424 613 437 514 437 CANDIDATES 1 FIRST CHOICE 4,451 3,452 3,419 3,287 3,066 King ........................... 3,410 Doertenbach .................... 2,045 Campbell (J. E.) ................ 2,104 I SECOND CHOICE 771 1,125 821 1,106 6% 496 868 636 THIRD CHOICE I TOTAL8 3 10 3 17 3,906 3,223 3,057 Civil service commissioners Trustees water works I I I I Reno ............................ 1,711 398 Vieth ........................... 1,154 350 De Tienne ..................... 1 1,200 1 314 2,109 1,714 154 1,668 Ysjorlty first oholce votes 1822. The Grand Junction system of preferential voting is devised for the sole purpose of protecting the rights of the majority in the election of officers. Our worst evils in city government have come from the ease with which selfish minorities have been able to cohtrol. There is but one thing which a majority of the citizens want and that is efficient business like administration of the city’s business, and responsiveness to the popular will whether it be for retrenchment or expansion. Elections reflecting the will of the majority can be attained by direct and easy nominations, the elimination of the primary and by the preferential system of voting. Responsiveness to the people is secured partly by these

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 397 and partly by the initiative, referendum and recall. Of course, neither the preferential system nor any other system of voting will by itself alone, bring about the best government, although the lack of it may prevent the best results. Neither will a combination of these and other good features insure good government if the people are apathetic to their own best interest. But the preferential system, direct legislation and other modern ideas will make it reasonably easy for citizens to get the best government of which they are capable. More than this no form of government can doSS BIBLIOGRAPHY Grand Junction Plan of City Government and its Results. By James W. Bucklin, Chairman Charter Conventions. Published in the October, 1911, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Charter of the City of Spokane, Washington. Published by the Commissioners. New Charter for the City of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Published by the Cambridge Boston Common, October 12 and 19, 1911. Haruard Illustrated Magazine. Boston Common, September 24, 1910. Charter Association. Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts, 1911, Chapter 531. APPENDIX For the further elucidation of Mr. Hull’s paper its discussion at the hands of the members is herewith given. LIEUTENANT SHAW: (Mr. Dana in the chair) : Will Mr. Hull kindly inform me if, in considering what kind of ballot to adopt, the method of rejecting any because it was too complicated was considered? MR. HULL: We felt that the Grand Junction system combined in the best way simplicity of ballot, ease of understanding, and simplicity of computation by the election officers. LIEUTENANT SHAW: If the mixed population of Johannesburg and Pretoria has very successfully worked the HareSpence system, why could not Cambridge do so? MR. HULL: Perhaps it could. The Hare-Spence system however drops the lowest man. In the Grand Junction system, everybody stands equally all the way through. LIEUTENANT SHAW: What is the method of nomination in Spokane? How many names are required? MR. HULL: Twenty-five names. Ninety-five men were nominated in Spokane; three dropped out before the election by declining to accept renominations. DR. HART: In ordinary elections the children of light are sometimes successful by the elimination of the children of the world; in other words, they get in by the splitting of the predominant party. Now, in this matter, it seems to me that the children of the world could elect either fne of their candidates against the children of light. a The writer desires to record that in preparing this paper he has had the close cooperation and counsel of his colleague, Prof. Lewis J. Johnson, who has had much experience with popularizing preferential voting, and to whom he acknowledges his indebtedness.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW MR. HULL: That may be, but I have tried to beat this system; I have usually tried it this way, divide the groups into equal parties less one; the minority is organized as the crooks, and the majority as “goo-goos,” as we call them in Boston, and you can never get a crook elected until one of the goo-goos casts a vote for one of the crooks. MR. HAROLD S. BUTTENHEIM: I had a conversation with the commissioner of public works of Spokane, and brought up that question with him, and he said that he considered that the very strongest point in favor of the preferential system. He said that men who voted according to the dictates of any political machine, if they were to go to the polls to vote for a particular man, and pick out five men and vote for them, if those men had a second choice, their vote for second choice would often be along the right line. There was nothing that could prevent their making two choices or three choices, and he said that some men would make better selections than you would suppose from their adherence to the machine, and that they felt in Spokane that it had worked out that way, notwithstanding the long list of candidates to be voted on. I might also say in connection with the method of nominating in Spokane and other places where there is a long list, there is a method in use in the Canadian cities by which, instead of a lot of people being voted for who had no possible chance, every candidate who gets his name on the ballot has to deposit fifty dollars with the election officials with the understanding that if he polls a certain percentage of the votes his money will be returned, and if he does not it will not be returned to him. In that way they eliminate a great many candidates who have no earthly chance. MR. PORTER: I think the long list of candidates is not a profound danger. In England, where it is very easy to nominate anyone, they ordinarily have a very short list of candidates. I think after the system has been tried a few years the futility of a great many men being on the ballot will be shown, and they will not be nominated. No system has been devised that will prevent amanof the politician type being elected by the organized majority, but the idea of the voting systems is to keep the man who has an organization from coming in on a minority, which they are doing constantly. They have been able to do it heretofore by the vote of the good men being scattered among several candidates, and the man who is organized wins. MR. F. S. SPENCE (Toronto) : The statement made by the gentleman about the Canadian cities is partially correct and partially not. We have a statute that provides that in parliamentary elections a candidate must put up $200, and if he does not poll half of the vote of the successful candidate, the money stays where he puts it, in the possession of the government. If he does, the money is returned. That only applies to parliamentary elections; there is no such restriction about municipal matters. In municipal matters, where there is the freest possible nomination, we never have any trouble from the superfluity of candidates. In our last election there were three candidates to be elected in every ward; we had elections in every ward, and the highest number nominated in any ward was five. With regard to this preferential voting, of course it is mathematically correct when you come to elect candidates to a single office; but when you come to elect three or four candidates, like aldermen in a ward, or two or three members in a constituency, then it leaves a great deal to chance in the way you dispose of the surplus ballots. LIEUTENANT SHAW: Mr. Spence’s remark suggests a difficulty that does not exist in the HareSpence system, that is, the great chance in disposing of the surplus vote. There is a mathematical way of arranging that so that certainly the second and third choices will be distributed according to the size of the distric’t; and in what is known as the district the Hare-Spence system will invatiably give the minority representation exactly according to voting strength. That is exact mathematical justice.

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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 399 ~ Robert L. Owen BALLOT ILLUSTRATING PREFERENTIAL VOTING INSTRUCTIONS. To vote for a candidate make a cross (x) in the appropriate space. Vote your FIRST choice in the FIRST colurmi. Vote your SECOND choice in the SECOND column. Vote ONLY ONE FIRST choice and ONLY ONE SECOND choice for any one office" Vote in the THIRD column for ALL THE OTHER CANDIDATES whom you wish to ~~pport. DO NOT VOTE MORE THAN ONE CHOICE FOR ONE PERSON, as only one choice will count for any candidate. If you wrongly mark. tear or deface this ballot return it and obtain another. ONE MAN TO BE ELECTED FOR EACH OFFICE ~~ Theodore Roosevelt Supervisor of Administration Charles E. Hughes Champ Clark John A. O'Gorman (MWW Supervisor of Public Works Guy C. Emerson John Mitchal Stephen O'Meara Supervisor or timitit H. W. Wiley Supervisor of Public Property Gifford Pmchot Nelson W. Aldrich Richard Croker Fint Second Other Choice Choice Choices --__ --__ ----=qz --Supervisor of Finance Bourke Cockran Leslie B. Shaw John A. Sullivan Nathan Matthews Joseph W. Folk Robert M. LaFollette Woodrow Wilson --------William J. 'Bryan Chauncey M. Depew Boies Penrose Richard A. Balhger U

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW MR. HULL: As I look upon it, the ballot in Spokane is the most democratic thing I have ever heard of. To have a list of ninety-two candidates, where there are perfectly free nominations, means the utmost democracy: No man is dependent upon the machine, no man is dependent upon a boss. A man goes before the whole people, he has got to win on his merits, and where there are very few oflices to be filled, as will be the case in Cambridge after the first year, you have the voters’ attention fixed on the men and he is bound to pick out the best man. In regard to the number of men on the ballot, what is the use of going on the ballot when you are going to be snowed under? There is no advertising value in that today. Another thing, this preferential system of voting is intended to represent a majority which so far has never been represented. We have plenty of minority representation. I have not pretended to cover minority representation; what the preferential system is intended to do is to represent a majority of the people, who have never been, so far as I can see, heretofore adequately represented. Anyone who is interested enough to look at the report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the electoral system, and also Mr. Bucklin’s report of the Grand Junction system, and the Spokane charter, will find this worked out so as to show how mathematically accurate these things are. CHAIRMAN DANA: I will say that in Massachusetts we have had since 1889 a system by which independent candidates can be nominated by only fifty signatures, and we have not suffered from unduly long ballots.

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SHORT ARTICLES THE NEED FOR A PUBLIC UTILtTIES BILL 1N UCH is being said nowadays about the proper exercise of the police power and the necessity for the enactment of a certain class of M legislation which makes for the health, the safety, the convenience, the morals and the general welfare of the people. I am in entire sympathy with such legislation. And Pennsylvania today has many such humane and progressive laws upon her statue books; and more in contemplation. Many of these statutes may well be amended and extended; or, in some cases, repealed and a new statute enacted, framed in the light of our present enlarged knowledge and experience of the evils and the desired remedies. This observation is especially applicable to the Act approved in May, 1907, providing for the appointment of a railroad commission and prescribing its powers and duties. In point of fact the “powers” of this commission are unworthy of the name. They are simply recommendatory. Because of the impotency of this statute and my belief that Pennsylvania should have a real public utilities bill, I publicly declared, prior to my election, that I was in favor of the passage of a proper utilities bilI. I am still in favor of the passage of such a measure. Public service corporations are the creatures of the state. The commonwealth grants to such corporations special rights, franchises and privileges; and it is no longer debatable that in return for such grants, the commonwealth may justly require of such corporations the performance of special duties, chief among which are that they shall render and furnish to the public, safe, adequate and sufficient service and facilities; and that they shall charge for such service only just, reasonable and non-discriminatory rates and fares. To this end, therefore, it is proper, in the interest of the public, that there should be a duly appointed administrative body or commission, vested with the power and authority to supervise and regulate all public service companies doing business within this commonwealth. Such commission should be authorized to act either upon its own initiative or upon complaint of any citizen alleging the rendering of inadequate service or the charging of exorbitant rates or the non-performance or violation of any of its duties under the law. And the supervision and regulation of such companies, it has always seemed to me, should cover or .extehd to their incorporation, consolidation and reorganization. In this connection my further thought is that a public service bill should provide for the supervision and regulation by the commission of the issu401 PENNSYLVANIA

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402 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ance of the stocks and bonds of such corporations, not only at the time of their creation, but particularly, under our existing statutes, upon the reorganization of such companies after foreclosure sale. Such a requirement would likely end the crying evil of over capitalization and “watered stock,” and insure the practical enforcement of the provision of the constitution forbidding the issuing of stocks and bonds except for money, labor done or money or property actually received, and making null and void all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness. If the commission be required to give its certificate of valuation and approval before the issuance of such stock and bonds, the result will be to give the commonwealth’s stamp of validity and full value to all stock and bonds of such corporations issued by Pennsylvania companies. Manifestly, however, if the regulation and supervision of such public service companies is to count, the commission must be invested with full power and authority, after proper investigation and hearing, to make, not merely “recommendations” but findings, rulings and orders which shall be binding upon the corporation and all its officers, directors and agents: Therefore to this end, the commission must be authorized and empowered to enforce obedience of such orders in the courts, not only by injunction, mandamus and other well known legal proceedings, but also to punish, as for contempt, any persons who refuse to obey its subpoenas requiring their presence or the production of books and documents at its hearings; as well as to impose fines and penalties upon the corporation and its officers and agents for disobedience of such orders and decrees. In this way only can the orders and rulings of this commission be made effective. I repeat the present commission has no such powers. Of course it must not be lost sight of that such public service corporations are, nevertheless, in a certain sense, private corporations; that is, in their relation to their stock-holders, who are entitled to a reasonable return or dividend on their investment in the capital stock of the company. In this view, our supreme court has said that public service corporations in Pennsylvania are entitled to look for a rate of return, if their property will earn it, not less than the legal rate of interest; and that a system of charges that yields no more income than is fairly requisite to maintain the plant, pay fixed charges and operating expenses, provide a suitable sinking fund for the payment of debts and pay a fair profit to the owners of the property, cannot be said to be unreasonable. This must be taken, however, with the qualification or proviso that such corporations must in any and every event, render proper service at reasonable rates and perform all their duties to the public. The performance of such duties is a first consideration or pre-requisite; and must always take place as a condition precedent to the declaration and payment of dividends.

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LIGHTER TAXATION OF BUILDINGS 403 Moreover, in framing such a public service law, care should be taken that its provisions are not so drastic as to affect or retard the proper business developments of these companies. The interest of the patrons or consumers of the companies, i. e., of the patronizing public, must, of course, be considered as we have indicated; also must the interest of the investors, i. e., the stockholders and bondholders. And lastly in the framing of such a statute, it should be borne in mind, in the interest of the state and the general welfare of all the people therein, that the successful business development of such public service companies is an important and essential element in the industrial life of the Commonwealth and of her prosperity and eminence as a state; and in this regard appeals to, concerns and affects every citizen. within her borders. JOHN K. TENER.~ LIGHTER TAXATION OF BUILDINGS AS A HOUSING REFORM MEASURE NE measure which the New York Committee on Congestion of Population presented at Albany this year aroused the keenest 0 discussion and will no doubt continue next winter to be one of the livest issues before the state legislature. It is novel in that it seeks to relieve the overcrowding of New York tenements through a change in the city's tax laws. As is generally known, the land and housing problems in New York are in some ways more acute than in any other great city. It is not only that the acreage population in certain sections is the densest in the world. Prevailing rents are so high that most families find from a third to a fourth of their entire income going to the landlord. This causes the crowding of large numbers into a few rooms, often dark and unsanitary, and obliges a considerable proportion of the poorest tenement dwellers to bring a shifting stream of boarders into the family group. To the great majority of New York City parents it is most diEcult if not impossible to provide wholesome and adequate homes for their children. The prevalence of juvenile delinquency, the 28,000 new cases of tuberculosis every year and the yearly expenditure required by the city of over $10,000,000 in its public institutions for the dependent and incapacitated are evils flowing largely from this source. For ten years the city has had a tenement house law which prescribes for new buildings certain requirements as to lighting, size of rooms, fire proofing and sanitation. About one million persons-or one-fifth of the population-now live in tenements built under this law and are measurably Governor of Pennsylvania.

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-404 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW benefited by its safeguards. But if these restrictions have had any effect upon room crowding it has beer, in the direction of accentuating the problem. Building has been made more expemive, building operations have been thus discouraged, the pressure of a rapidly growing population upon available housing facilities has intensified and rents have been increased. The congestion committee agrees that the present restrictive legislation is necessary. It has, in fact, proposed further measures along the same line, especially one for restrictions in the height of buildings varying for different districts or zones. The committee believes however thkt the tendency of restrictive legislation already referred to should be balanced by such a change in taxation policy as will tend to encourage building and to moderate rents. The change recommended is the gradual reduction of the tax rate on all buildings until at the end of five years it shall be only one-half of the rate on all land in the city. As land and improvements are already assessed separately, the only change would be in the rate. In the thickly settled districts there are thousands of worn out buildings which are really unfit for occupancy. The owners hesitate to replace them with modern structures because, after bearing the heavy initial expense, they will be severely penalized in increased tax bills. Under the proposed act that deterrent penalty would be appreciably lightened. In the same way less discouragement would be placed in the path of the manufacturer who desires to move his industry out of the tenement sweatshops and to house his employees in substantial and suitably located factories. Even in the borough of Manhattan there are some eight thousand parcels of unimproved land and an equal number with merely nominal impravements. In outlying boroughs thousands of acres are being kept out of use in anticipation of the rise in value. Obviously the proposed transference of tax burdens from improvements to land would increase the carrying charges on such parcels and incline the owners to improve or to sell. Since the total land values of the city are nearly double the total building values, the tax ratio of one to two would have to be reached by a considerable lowering of the building rate together with a much slighter increase in the land rate. It would mean about four dollars per thousand more on land and about seven dollars per thousand less on buildings. With the exception of a few sections such as lower Broadway, Fifth Avenue and Times Square, any property suitably improved for the district in which it is located would have its ttm bills reduced. Building of individual homes in the outlying sections would be encouraged and this would help to relieve the pressure at the centers of dense population. The owner, or prospective owner, of a $2000 lot with $5000 improvement-a fairly typical case-could figure on paying $8 per year more on his lot a$ against $35 less on improvements, or a net yearly saving of $27.

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LIGHTER TAXATION OF BUILDINGS 405 The main objection seems to be to the very principle of treating the two formsof property differently. Everyoneknows, to be sure, that wisegovernments do make discriminations. In custom duties they make Merent tariffs for necessaries and for luxuries. They have one social purpose in putting ‘a heavy tax on liquor stores and another purpose in exempting churches and hospitals. If they tax sales of corporate stock they do not therefore tax sales of merchandise. To give some.attention to the social effects and to make some effort to determine upon whose shoulders the burden ultimately rests is recognized as being essential for reaching any sound basis. But lands and buildings have long been dealt in together under one undiscriminating term, as “real estate.” For this reason many fail to see that no two forms of property are governed by more essentially merentby more nearly opposite-economic laws. This needs to be made clear if an intelligent policy of taxation is to be,secured. Some of the more obvious differences may be pointed out here. 1. The quantity of land within a given area is practically fixed by nature. The number of buildings varies greatly from year to year. 2. A high tax rate on buildings tends to check the buildings supply. High taxation of lands has no such effect. In fact, land held out of use is brought into the active market. 3. Taxes in buildings are reflected in rents. Heavier taxes means fewer buildings and higher rents. That is, improvement taxes are paid by the tenants. Land taxes must be paid by the owner; they cannot be shifted. 4. Buildings values are produced and increased by the industry and enterprise of the individual owner. Land values arise almost wholly from the growth of the community and from its pressing need of places in which to live and work. New York land values go up over $700 for every person added to the census rolls. 5. Buildings tend to deteriorate from year to year; land tends to grow more valuable. With all the immense labor and wealth put into New York building operations in the last century, the ‘total building values are now little more than half of the total land values which have been created by the marvellous growth of the tom. 6. Increase in the actual, tangible useful wealth within the city is checked by a tax that discourages building. A tax on land does not have this effect. 7. Expenditure of public revenues-especially upon schools, docks and other permanent improvements-causes a direct increase in land valuks. Building values are not benefited in the same way. RAYMOND V. INOERSOLL‘ 1 Chairman of the New York Congestion Committee.

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406 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS ON MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS HE appearance of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW makes timely a survey of the publications already devoted to municipal affairs. T In this article an attempt is made to classify and characterize briefly the private periodical publications of the United States which deal with the problems confronting American cities. No mention is made of publications in languages other than English or of periodicals published in Canada and England. Neither does the present article include periodical publications issued by the cities themselves. Annual publications are also omitted and, with possibly one or two exceptions, nothing is said of periodicals no longer current. Even within the field thus narrowed down it is not claimed that this list is complete. It is believed, however, that all important titles are referred to in one or another of the eight classes or groups into which municipal periodical publications are, for our present purposes, divided. 1. The first of these groups includes periodicals which deal with municipal affairs in general and which are of much more than local interest and importance. After Municipal dfairs was discontinued this class was practically unrepresented until the American City (New York) appeared in September, 1909. This attractive monthly treats of the city in its external aspects chiefly. The NATIONAL MTJ-NICXPAL REVIEW thus enters a clear field and will undoubtedly stand forth as the leading representative of this first class. 2. To the second class may be assigned the organs of various state and local mdcipal leagues. The City HalLMidland Municipalities (Marshaltown, Iowa) is probably the most widely known in this class. This monthly review serves as the official bulletin of the League of American Municipalities, the League of Iowa Municipalities, the League of Nebraska Municipaljties and the League of Kansas Municipalities. It contains some articles of permanent value, dong with many shorter and less important ones, and gives much space to the programmes and proceedings of the leagues which it represents. The Municipality (Madison, Wisconsin) , the bimonthly organ of the League of Wisconsin Municipalities, is chiefly vduable for Wisconsin cities. It does, however, publish a few valuable articles of general interest. Pacz$c Municipalities (San Francisco, California), published monthly as the official organ of the League of California Municipalities, although addressed primarily to California city officials is also of more than local significance, especially in matters of sewage disposal, sanitation and fire prevention. The Municipal League News, representing the Municipal League of Seattle, is a vigorous four-page weekly.

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PERlOD ICAL PUBLICATIONS ON MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS 407 3. Similar in many respects to the publications just mentioned are the o5cial organs of local civic bodies organized to promote good government, pure politics and efficiency and decency in municipal affairs generally. Of this type no worthier representative can be cited than the Albany Citizen, formerly published by the Civic League of Albany, an organization formed, “TO create public sentiment in favor of a better administration of public affairs; to bring enlightened public sentiment into action; to secure the nomination and election of honest and efficient public officers; to labor for the enactment and strict enforcement of laws that will make for the moral and political cleanliness of the city; and to encourage every movement that will make Albany a better place in which to live.” In realizing this aim The Albany Citizen must have been an efficient means and one notes with regret that it has ((ceased publication,” a fate constantly threatening publications of this sort. The City Club of Philadelphia aims, among other things, to “conduct a campaign of education by giving efficient publicity to those facts that will help create an intelligent public opinion on municipal questions” and thus to aid in the betterment of municipal conditions in Philadelphia. This “efficient publicity” is promoted by the weekly Bulletin, the chief feature of which is the publication of an address delivered at its Saturday luncheon by some person qualified to speakon municipal topics of special interest in Philadelphia. Many of these addresses, it is needless to say, are of considerable value in the literature of municipal affairs. The City Club of Chicago publishes a Bulletin of much the same character. The City Club of New York also issues a small monthly Bulletin of two to four pages, but does not print full reports of its Saturday luncheon addresses. Although it contains some notes on important pending municipal questions, the Bulletin of the City Club of New YOT~ is intended to serve as a report upon club interests only; it does not aim to touch matters in which the club has not taken some part. The Civic Bulletin, published bi-monthly by the Civic League of St. Louis, likewise conlines itself to matters in which the League is active. On the other hand, the Civic League Bulletin, of Newport, Rhode Island, while especially concerned with local problems, endeavors to bring to the attention of members of the League interesting municipal experiments and solutions elsewhere. City Afairs, published monthly by the Good Government Association of Boston, is designed to keep its members in touch with municipal questions and especialIy to furnish information in regard to the records of candidates for office and other data of importance to the independent voter. In this class of municipal publications are to be found at least three conducted by women’s organizations. The Bulletin of the Woman’s Municipal League of New York is of interest chiefly to members of the various branches of the League, the purpose of which is .“ to promote among women an intelligent interest in municipal affairs, and to aid in securing permanent good gov

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408 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ernment for the city of New York without regard to party or sectional lines.” The Civics Bulletin is published “from time to time” by the Civic League of Norwalk, Connecticut, a woman’s club ‘I organized for concerted effort toward making Norwalk a perfect city.” The Civic Club Bulletin published monthly during the club year by the Women’s Civic Club of Philadelphia is a very creditable club organ. 4. One may treat in a separate group all publications purely local in character, though not nominally published as the organ of some civic or reform organization. The Citizens Bulletin of Cincinnati desires to contribute to the reform of municipal conditions in Cincinnati. It regularly summarizes the council proceedings and reprints much from other periodicals for the benefit of the local constituency. The Common Good of Civic and Social Rochester (Rochester, New York) is a most interesting publication. One gets from it the feeling that it reflects an awakened social conscience and heralds an advanced movement for better municipal conditions. The Public Oficials Magazine (Terre Haute, Indiana) when started in January, 1910, was described on its outside cover as “a monthly magazine devoted to the news of the public officials of Indiana.” Although these words have now been dropped, the paper is still essentially for local circulation. More space is given to the subject of good roads than to any other topic. Signed articles are usually by Indiana state or local officials. City Life and Municipal Facts is a weekly controlled by the Allied Real Estate Interests of New York City. Local municipal affairs, within a limited range, are treated in a popular way. In New York City the number of public employees, municipal, state and federal, especially in the police and fire departments, is large enough to support two weekly newspapers. The Civil Service Chronicle and Police Chronicle has no special value in the study of the larger problems of municipal affairs. It aims to promote the interests of civil service employees, especially in the police and fire departments. The Chief is another weekly that lays special emphasis on matters of interest to the personnel of the police and fire departments. 5. A survey of the periodical literature touching municipal affairs would be incomplete without mention of certain publications not primarily concerned with municipal problems. The American Pol$tical Science Review publishes considerable matter of current interest along the line of municipal .topics. Good Government (New York), the official journal of the National Civil Service Reform League, is naturally of interest wherever municipal civil service reform is an issue. The Gdvernment Accountant (Washington, D. C.) has a regular department of municipal accounting, conducted by an expert accountant. The Boston Common, while not in any strict sense a municipal weekly, should exert an important influence for better municipal conditions in Boston. It is distinctly “progressive” in its policies and quite unique as regards its management.

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PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS ON MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS 409 6. Another class of periodicals consists of those which exist primarily to advance the city’s commercial interests. They often take a hand in the discussion of local municipal problems, however, for enlightened business interests always demand good government and a clean, healthful and attractive city. Publications which exist primarily for ((boosting” purposes thus contribute to the literature of municipal affairs. The Municipal Development Magazine of Chicago is engaged in promoting the organization of chambers of commerce and business interests generally. The monthly Board of Trade Journal of Portland, Oregon, is purely commercial ; Progress, published by the Atlanta chamber of commerce, is “boosting” Atlanta and the South in general; and through Greater Dayton, the local chamber of commerce is booming Dayton. The Board of Trade and Engineering Journal, Scranton, Pennsylvania, is local in interest and handles municipal affairs from the business viewpoint. The Providence Board of Trade Journal, while devoted in the main to promoting the business interests of Providence, does publish a few articles on municipal matters and has an ably edited ‘(welfare department.” The Worcester Magazine, published monthly by the Worcester Board of Trade, is another business organ which publishes a few articles on municipal government. Of the same sort are Western New England, published monthly by the Springfield board of trade; the Board of Trade Journal, Fort’and, Maine; and The Detroiter published monthly under the direction of the publicity committee of the Detroit Board of Commerce. It seems to be the rule that the larger the city the more attention is paid by the chamber of commerce journal to civic affairs. In Boston the weekly Chamber of Commerce News discusses local municipal problems, such at3 taxation, harbor facilities, fire prevention, public utilities, transportation problems and city planning. Chicago Commerce, published weekly by the Chicago Associaticn of Commerce, also discusses problems of this class and has a “foreign municipal service” which ought to be very useful in furnishing data regarding European cities in a popular form. In New York the Monthly Bulletin of the Chamber of Commerceof the State of New York concerns itself only incidentally with municipal affairs, as in the matter of port facilities for the city. Greater New York, the Bulletin of the Merchants’ Association of New York, began publication March 4th, 1912. It aims to inform members of what the Association is doing and to call attention to matters of importance to the trade and welfare of New Yorlr. 7. Problems of municipal engineering and public utilities are touched upon to some extent in each of the classes of periodical publications already mentioned, but they are dealt with more fully in a group that may best be considered as forming a separate class. Municipal Engineering (Indianapolis, Indiana) is valuable for its articles on concrete construction, paving,

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410 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW sewerage, waterworks, street lighting, parks, garbage disposal, bridges, etc. Fire and Water Engineering discusses the engineering aspects of water supply and fire prevention, The Illuminating Engineer the Magazine of Good Lighting (New York) contains much information in regard to the lighting of streets and public buildings. Occasionally articles of value on such subjects as sewage disposal and paving appear in the Engineering News (New York). Probably the most valuable publication in this class is the Municipal Journal and Engineer. Editorially it says of itself: “We try to keep this the standard periodical for officials of cities and waterworks and other corporations conducting public utilities; also for contractors engaged in constructing such work. We publish practical information of all kinds which will be useful to all of these in their official or business capacities, the news of municipal doings and nothing else.” One of the most valuable features of the Municipal Journal and Engineer is a monthly “municipal index” in which are listed and classified all articles treating of municipal topics appearing in the leading periodicals. On the problems of paving Good Roads (New York), “a weekly journal of road and street engineering and contracting” is of considerable interest. The Electric Railway Journal and various electrical and gas lighting reviews of purely technological nature treat fully the engineering side of public utilities. The public service corporation’s side of controverted questions of public ownership and regulation is set forth in Public Utilities (Chicago). 3. In an eighth and final group reference should be made to publications devoted more or less exclusively to one or another of the pressing social problems. The most important of these is undoubtedly The Survey (New York) which approaches municipal affairs from the point of view of constructive philanthropy. In all matters of public and private philanthropy, housing, immigration, etc., The Survey is an indispensable guide. Vigilance (New York), published monthly by the American Purity Alliance and the National Vigilance Committee, serves as a clearinghouse of information in regard to what cities are doing in regulating and checking the “pocial evi 1. ” CHARLES C. WILLIAMSON, PH.D.’ THE MUNICIPAL MARKET SITUATION NDER modern commercial conditions, with the development of several grades of middlemen, the law of supply and demand, so far as the consumer is concerned, has become more or less a dead The consumer in our large cities finds that large crops of fruit and He used to read with much U letter. vegetables mean little or nothing to him. Chief of the division of economics and sociology, New York Public Library

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THE MUNICIPAL MARKET SITUATION 411 satisfaction that there was to be a large apple crop, that the peaches were to be plentiful and that potatoes were to be had in abundance, for he knew that these staples would be reasonable. Now, news of this kind is received with derision. Samuel Lewis Shank, mayor of Indianapolis, who has gained fame by his personalIy conducted cut-price sales of potatoes, poultry and other articles, in the public market of his city, has said that the only solution of the high-cost-of-living problem, was by bringing the producer and the consumer together. He has satisfied himself and the people of IndianapoIis, that his “municipal purchase and sales agent’’ idea is effective in reducing the artificially inflated prices of foodstuffs. There can be no doubt in the minds of those of us who have given municipal affairs any serious and studied consideration but that our cities have been allowed to grow up, with no thought of the’future. It is said that our non-interference policy, with respect to the food supply, has resulted in the so-called high cost of living. Others maintain that there has been a corresponding increase in the cost of living in most countries of the civilized world and that we cannot hope to find a solution of this problem by any special municipal policy. Fifty years ago every city and a good many towns had a public market place. St. Louis’ once had three or four great markets. Chicago has today three squares upon which market houses once stood. A generation ago every small town in the south and southwest had a central market place. Most of these communities have outgrown these centers. The privately owned market, grocery and butcher shop have suppIanted them. This is true, in a measure, of Great Britain and Ireland as it is of the United States. Yet, in some cities, at home and abroad, great and small public markets still exist and prosper. Municipalities throughout the country have the right, by law, to establish markets, control and supervise the sales within them. A few of our cities have taken up the movement for the establishment of modern markets or market centers, but, till now, the interest has been unenthusiastic on the part of the city’s officials. Charlestown, New York, Washington, D. C., and other large cities including Boston, Baltimore, New Orleans, Rochester and Indianapolis, have partially established a market system or have maintained the markets that were handed down from the former generation. Yet in all of these cities the activity has not been commensurate with the local needs. Municipal markets, as established in the United States, are, generally speaking, in their first stages of development. No American city has deliberately framed a comprehensive plan, Municipal markets are not new in this country. * Vid. Municipal Journal and Engineer, April 27, 1910, for article on St. Louis.

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412 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW much less carried one into effect, for developing public markets along the most approved modern lines, to meet the growing needs of an enlarged territory and an ever increasing population. Such public markets as still exist in the larger cities of the east fall short of market administrative qualities characteristic of many European cities, particularly upon the continent .z Nowhere in the United States is there a municipal market governed and controlled exactly as are those of Europe. Prices are not regulated by a standard of value; a great deal of marketing is wholesale, especially in the east, the farmers and truck gardeners being anxious to dispose of their products; and the personal element in buying has been supplanted by the telephone. Shopping at Faneuil Hall, Boston, hardly pays nowadays unless one has a large family or buys for a boarding house. The utter lack of a statistical valuation of the commodities, and the establishment of a standard price upon which all business must be transacted, is partly responsible for the lack of any real benefit to the city.s Baltimore is the center of the “eatables,” due in large measure to the geographic position of the city. Its markets are opened on different days of the week. The fact that there are eleven markets where one may trade, and find the same things, has caused the housewives and shoppers, in general, to trade at one market. This is done, likewise, because many marketmen rent stalls in different markets. These marketmen buy direct from the producer without the intervention of the middleman. Should a producer, coming to Baltimore, desire to sell his products himself, he would find it necessary to line up his wagon along the street. In Baltimore the idea of a market has spread, not because of any active regulation on the part of the city, but because the location of the city made a market a conparatively simple success. The system seems to be rather loose and about all that is askedon the part of the city administration is the price of the stalls. The prices asked for the products, aa far as the city is concerned, is of no importance. Baltimore4 is forging to the fore in the market situation, nevertheless. Her citizens buy eagerly and come regularly for their products. In the near future, Baltimore will attempt to establish regulations along constructive lines. The eleven markets give the city 2 per cent on the investment. Because of the fact that the people of Baltimore are accustomed to buy their product at these markets, there would be strong opposition if an attempt were made to abandon them. The Lexington market, in Baltimore, is the largest and finest in the United States, covering four blocks length wise. Mass. House Doc. No. 1750, report commission on cost of living, 1910, pp. 566 seq. Arch., 50 :33 S. . a J. N. Pardee, With a Boston Marketman, New England Magazine, 27 :450-63.

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THE MUNICIPAL MARKET SITUATION 413 Chicago has no market building, simply a market place. Retail buying is practically unknown in the street. And yet Chicago is the closest market in the country. One can buy almost all products of the soil for less money here than elsewhere in America. On account of its railway facilities the city is the fruit market for the world. Everything sells in Chicago. Things are bought unseen by the commission men and things must be sold. New Orleans is, perhaps, the best example of city leased markets where the revenue derived is about $185,000 annually. The city likewise operates four markets of its own which yield a revenue of $10,000 a year. In this instance, the city possesses a monopoly and the few private enterprises that exist are under the right of reversion to the city. In spite of the conditions which appear to exist in the larger American cities where municipal markets have been established, good financial returns have resulted. Boston nets a profit of $60,000 a year; Baltimore about $50,000; New Orleans something like $75,000. Of the 158 cities in the United States having 30,000 inhabitants according to the last special report of the Census Bureau, 54 made returns of market receipts and expenditures for the year 1907. In 25 cities, having receipts amounting to $10,000 and over, the total receipts from markets and public sales aggregated $1,252,405, or $865,237 more than the expense of maintenance. These facts indicate a danger which must be avoided and that is the renting of stalls at a profit and then surrounding the market places with rigid regulations. Such action might counteract the good results that should come from an open market. Municipalities have, in nearly every instance, the right to e?tablish municipal markets, and yet, in cities of 100,000 inhabitants and over, more than half have. no municipal market buildings under city supervision. In all cities from 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, hardly .onethird have municipal markets and in nearly every instance this qualification means the possession of market halls or centers where stalls are rented to the farmers and gardeners. It is quite evident that our markets are organized on the style of the forestsller-a plan that has for its ultimate object the building up of a large private business. These private interests are necessarily built up through the tax which the consumer must pay. While it is true that the cost of living in Baltimore is lower than in any other eastern city, this is not due to the fact that markets are fairly well established, but, on the other hand, to the geographic position of the city. If the present markets in our cities are to survive and be of lasting bhefit to the communities in which they are located, it is absolutely necessary that there be a systematic organization under municipal control. In a number of towns and cities where markets are in operation only a few truck farmers appear, offering their goods for sale. Madison, Wisconsin, built a municipal market two

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114 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW years ago at a cost of $55,000 and on account of the lack of interest taken in the project, by the city officials and members of the council, the market and the market center is not fulfilling its purpose. Dr. Madison C. Peters, New York City, opened his war on the middleman January 27, 1912, with volleys of carrots, potatoes, onions, beets and other vegetable ammunition. Within five minutes after his, store began business, it is reported, fifty women and boys with baskets were on hand and in two hours his stock was bought out. Thus was the inspiration of Mayor Shank of Indianapolis transferred to New York. “It has gone so well,” said Louis Steinfeld, financial backer of the scheme, “that we shall open four more st0res.l’ Dr. Peters’ prices are given below: Potatoes.. ..................................... .10 lb., 25c. 4c. lb. Carrots. ........ ..... 4c. Ib. Cabbage. ...................... 5c. lb. Apples. ............................ 2 Ib., 5c. (7 ap) 5c. for 2 Turnips ........................................ 1 lb., 2tc. 40. lb. Beets .......................................... 1 lb., 2tc. 4c. lb. Parsnips.. ..................................... 1 lb., 2tc. 4c. Ib. Onions ......................................... 1 Ib., 4c. 6c. Ib. In a letter dated November 21, 1911, Henry B. Gniffke, of Dubuque, Icwa, says in part. The greatest thing to happen to us was the discovery by a Des Moines newspaper, that the cost of living in Dubuque was very much less than in any city near its size in the middle west, and the cause for this state of affairs, while scarcely a matter of government, comes so close to the life of the municipality that I will briefly outline this discovery. The.Des Moines Register and Leader sent out a list of some thirty articles of staple foods, and requested the price be sent from some thirty cities of the middle, west of about the same population. On potatoes, for example, at least 70 per cent lower than Des Moines. The list was sent back for verification. It was correct. Then the mayor of Des Moines sent his secretary here to investigate, then the mayor himself came. Since then we have had delegations from all around us, sent here by the city governments, to learn how we solved the high cost of living. We were not aware of it until others discovered it for us. We have always boasted of the largest city market in the United States. In season hundreds of gardeners and farmers from the country around in Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois, occasionally coming twenty-five miles, back up to the curbstone in the neighborhood of the city hall, lining many blocks, and sell their vegetables, garden truck, flowers, butter, eggs, preserves, fruit, poultry, etc., direct to the consumer, who visits the market by the thousands between the hours of seven in the morning and noon. This institution, where producer and consumer deal without the intervention of the middleman, was not really appreciated here until others discovered its real value for us. It took root here over seventy years ago, grew and prospered, but it was only this summer (1911) that we discovered that the high cost of living was solved here.

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THE MUNICIPAL MARKET SITUATION 415 “The Dubuque market,” says H. H. Bliss, “has been a fixture here for many years. City ordinances have hed the position of the grocer so that he can do nothing to regulate prices or interfere with the farmer in any way. He is even forced to allow the public to take first pick at the market. And yet, grocers are doing a good business in Dubuque. Fairness has injured no one. The increased trade has more than made up for the reduction in price.” In September, 1911, one dollar would buy the following in Dubuque: One peck potatoes.. . .......................................... $0.15 One dozen ears of sw orn.. ...................................... .10 One-half dozen cucumbers, ........ Quart of beans ...................................................... .05 Head of lettuce.. ................................................... .05 One dozen eggs.. .................................................... .17 Four pounds Concord grapes.. ...................................... .06 One-half dozen carrots.. ............................................ .07 One head of cabbage ....... ...................................... .05 One-fourth dozen canteloupes.. ..................................... .05 One peck of apples.. ............................ ................... .10 One egg plant.. ............................. .................... .10 Total ............................................................. $1.00 At the recently established market place in Des Moines, between 100 and 200 farmers gather on the city hall lawn and in the streets adjacent thereto between the hours of 5 o’clock and 10 ofclock in the morning, without paying any license or rent. They are permitted to sell direct from their wagons to the city consumer. The result has been that they received approximately 50 per cent more for their produce than the commission men paid them before, while the city buyers get their produce for approximately 50 per cent less than was paid formerly. By compelling the sellers to display large cards stating whether they are gardeners or hucksters, the public is enabled to discriminate and to purchase direct from the man who grows.5 A municipal store, bonded by the city government or perhaps by the staie of Oklahoma, in case it develops that the municipality has not the power, is a plan now said to be on foot for reducing the cost of living in Oklahoma City. An initiative petition with that end in view is now being prepared, it is said, and will be circulated for signatures soon. It is claimed that Oklahoma is the only state in the union where such a store can be operated under the constitution, the organic law of the state providing that the state may enter into any business with the sole exception of agriculture. The parties at the head of the movement claim that the city derives this power from the constitution as a part of the state government, there being nothing in the charter prohibiting Iowa Homestead, October 5, 1911; Woman’s Home Companion, February, 1912. 8 Municipal Journal and Engineer, v. 31, December 7, 1911. Note. (P. 31.)

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416 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW With a view to so!ving the cost-of-living problem, Mrs. Julian Heath of New York has organized the Housewives’ League. The object of this organization is to bring the farmers and the city housekeepers closer together, and by attempting to abolish the middleman, to obtain better prices for the farmers and to reduce the household expenses of the city housekeeper. About one hundred thousand women are enrolled, and branches are being formed in all parts of the country. It was probably the Housewives’ League that brought down the price of butter last February when fifty and sixty cents a pound was being asked for that commodity. A boycott was started in New York; Pittsburg took it up; Toledo followed suit. The New York City Club has had a committee investigating the food markets of New York for some time and a portion of that committee’s report has recently appeared in one of the city club’s bulletins. It is recommended that a Market Department with a Commissioner at its head should be established where alleged unjust monopoly could be investigated and prosecuted, unjust discrimination on the part of common carriers prevented, unjust competition corrected, uneconomic handling of food supplies be minimized, and quality, grade and price of food stuffs be constantly supervised. At an early dat.e the club will issue a printed pamphlet embodying findings of the Club’s Committee together with a noteworthy article by Hon. Cyrus C. Miller, President of Borough of the Bronx, upon city markets in this and other countries. Two hundred representative citizens of Lynn, Massachusetts, gathered in the council chamber recently at a so-called high cost of living hearing to discuss ways and means of reducing the food bill of the average citizen. The question of the establishment of a municipal market where groceries and provisions could be purchased direct from the producers without the middleman’s charges, was discussed. Legal lights agreed that such aa act would be unconstitutional, the supreme court of Massachusetts having so decided in 1902, when the question of the establishment of municipal coal yards was agitated. Mayor William P. Connery therefore suggested that the citizens urge their representatives in the legislature to take action looking toward the resubmission of the question to the supreme court, the personnel of which has materially changed since 1902. In an effort to reduce the high cost of living a city market is to be established in Aurora, Illinois, the council decided to open a mart on a centrally located downtown site on March 1. With its establishment peddling by farmers or hawkers within the city limits will be forbidden. The success of the Joliet market influenced the aldermen in this action. Before Thanlrsgiving Day dressed turkeys were selling on the Joliet city market for 18 cents per pound, while in Aurora, the price was 25 cents.

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BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE OF KANSAS CITY 4.17 Hundreds of farmers, members of grangers, farmers elevator companies and shipping associations, in Minnesota, were represented at the first annual farmers cooperative marketing convention of the northwest, held at St. Paul, March 6, 7 and 8. It is evident from the recent steps’ which have been taken to decrease the cost of living that there are going to be a good many markets or market centers established in the United States in the near future, in an endeavor to equalize prices. It has been satisfactorily shown that in some instances prices charged the ultimate consumer were out of proportion to the prices received by the original producer. There is still some doubt in the minds of many that the retailer is the blamable factor in the high cost’of living situation. More systematic plans in inaugurating municipal markets in our urban communities must determine whether markets and market centers will solve the situation. In municipal regulation of markets, the cities must enter the field with caution and knowledge. The ownership of the market halls, the installation of proper officials, the preservation of sanitary conditions, the bringing of the producer and the consumer together, and the assurance to both the producer and the consumer that they have a right to a place in the market should be among the first considerations. Systematic organization is, without doubt, of first importance. The municipal market seems to be a necessity, from the standpoint of economics and society. If no effort is made to furnish the people with the necessities of life at a reasonable price, we may only hasten a corner in the food market. DON E. MOWRY. Madison, Wisconsin. BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE OF KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI HE board was created by ordinances. It consists of five members, serving for three years each, appointed by the mayor, but the successors to retiring members must be nominated by the remaining members of the board, which arrangement makes the board practically self-perpetuating. This provision was incorporated to keep the board as free from partisan political pressure as possible. The board voluntarily established the precedent of asking the Federated Charities of the city to nominate members to fill vacancies. All employees of the board are chosen by civil service competitive examinations. T 7 Ibid. October 23, 1907; April 1, 1908; April 27, 1910; May 25, 1910; June 8, 1910; June 29, 1910; July 20. 1910; March 22, 1911; August 16, 1911.

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418 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW This board is unique in the fact that it includes in one system and under one board various activities that are generally operated independently in other cities. It operates the municipal farm and the women’s reformatory, which are for men and women misdemeanants respectively, and conducts a parole system which is applicable to both. Thus it covers the correctional institutions. It is charged with the duty of investigating all private charities that solicit money from the public and issues a list of endorsed charities worthy of public support. It maintains a registration bureau for the exchange of information on cases between all the private charities and furnishes investigators to gather information on all applicants for help at any of the charities and make and execute constructive plans for putting them on their feet. Thus it fulfills the functions usually assigned to the associated charities. The board conducts housing investigations and causes evils to be remedied. In other words, it carries on the functions of a tenement commission. It maintains as a regular municipal activity a free legal aid bureau such as is conducted by private societies in numerous other cities. The dance halls of the city are under the supervision of its recreation department and an inspector attends each one. An ordinance is pending placing the censorship of motion picture films under the same department. The department has conducted an investigation and will make a report on all forms of commercial recreation. Factory inspection, a bureau of labor statistics reporting on working conditions md an employment bureau are the activities of the board for improving working conditions. In the winter months a public rock quarry has been maintained to give work to the surplus of unemployed men. The place usually occupied by the municipal lodging house is filled by buying board and lodging at a private institution called The Helping Hand Institute for those temporarily destitute and unable to work. The board acts as trustee for the Welfare Loan Agency, a philanthropic enterprise whose field is suggested by its name. District superintendents are placed in all the poorer sections of the city and instructed to study the district thoroughly and utilize all the available machinery, not only of the board but of society in general, to improve the environment of the people. The policy of the board is briefly summarized-in its annual report as follows : 1. It lays emphasis on justice before charity and on prevention rather than cure. 2. It agrees that the burden of caring for the poor should be laid upon the entire community through taxation rather than be provided for by the voluntary gifts of the generous minority.

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BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE OF KANSAS CITY 419 3. It believes that social action should be based on accurate knowledge and investigations should both precede and accompany all efforts to improve social conditions. 4. It strives for harmonious cooperation with all existing agencies, both public and private, and does not duplicate the work of any. 5. The board gives no public outdoor relief except in cases where the bread winner of the family is a city prisoner, and then only on the basis of actual destitution, and upon the recommendation of the superintendent of the Provident Association. 6. It gives no subsidies to private charities. The total expense of the board during its first year’s operations, which closed April 18, 1911, was $145,155.38. It may be worth while to briefly enumerate what pract,ical results have been achieved through this outlay. The research bureau has, through its endorsement scheme, protected the public from solicitors for unworthy charities. Nobody knows how much has,been saved in this way, but if the unendorsed charities themselves are to be believed, their operations have been greatly curtailed. Several have ceased to operate. We know from actually following up our cases that $13,000 worth of improvements have been made on houses on which our housing investigators made complaints. These are direct benefits to the poor. We have no way of estimating yet the benefits of the other investigations in this department but believe them to be very much worth while. The actual benefits of the department surely run up to three times the cost which was $5896. The department for the homeless and the unemployed prevents a great deal of loss through unemployment. The total amount of $11,796.05 spent in employing men at the municipal quarry was all money that would have actually been needed in the form of relief, but this quarry enabled us to save all but $1907.47 of this money-a saving of $9888.58. The employment bureau secured many temporary jobs where the amount of money earned was reported back by the men. The amount thus reported was $12,115.57. Even if those who did not report because they stayed at permanent jobs, and all the others not reporting earned at just the same rate as those reporting, the total for all would amount to $15,117.07. The amount spent in temporarily housing and feeding the 4,924 different homeless people who could not possibly pay was e900.20. Who will say that the city did not make a good investment in paying 45 cents per day for the board and lodging of these people? The social service department has been setting families to rights SO that they could support themselves and has kept some from giving up the fight. The welfare loan agency has loaned $24,022.07 at about 2 per cent per The benefits are the best charity money can buy.

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420 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW month in competition with the loan sharks who loan at 10 per cent per month. Figuring the difference in rates on the loans actually in force from December 1, 1910, to April 18, 1911, the period falling within our fiscal year, the saving to the citizens was $4472.27. This is an activity promoted by the board without a cent of cost to the city. The legal aid bureau has collected for poor litigants $6046.40, most of which would have been absolutely lost if it had not been for the timely aid of this bureau. The gains secured through our recreation department by shielding the youth from evil influences in connection with dance halls are moral and cannot be computed in money. It was well worth while to warn. the mothers of 250 young girls, sixteen years of age or under who were found at public dances with no responsible escorts. This is one of several benefits of the department. The following items in regard to the parole department are significant: The board has disbursed upon needy families where the bread winner was in prison, $1029. The parole department has collected from delinquent husbands in non-support cases during the past fiscal year, $8,346.21 and turned over the same to the neglected wives. Our paroled men have actually earned $166,832 during the time they would have been in the workhouse if it had not been for their parole. The prisoners made improvements at the. Farm worth $6186.24 more than the maintenance of the institution .cost. L. A. HALBERT.^ THE MILWAUKEE BUREAU OF ECONOMY AND EFFICIENCY HE establishment of the Milwaukee Bureau of Economy and Efficiency late in 1910 marked the advent of a new era in municipal T efficiency work, for this bureau was instituted by resolution of the common council, financed by public funds, and from its inception was an integral part of the city government. It was the beginning of general municipal efficiency work undertaken by the municipality itself. The advantages of this plan of organization over that of bureaus privately financed are immediately apparent: cooperation on the part of department heads and employees; free access to all records and accounts; accurate knowledge of business and operating methods; and an assurance that the recommendations of the bureau will be given careful consideration. Organization within the city goverment, however, is not without its disadvantages: the recommendations of the bureau might be regarded as made 1 General superintendent of the board of public welfare of Kansas City.

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MILWAUKEE BUREAU OF EFFICIENCY 42 1 from partisan motives rather than based on thorough efficiency investigations; and every change of administration endangers the continuance of the work. Its relation to the city government gave the bureau a distinctive method of procedure. Instead of being satisfied with merely discovering weakness and inefficiency in city methods, this bureau used the information obtained in its investigations as the basis on which to construct plans of reorganization to the end that these defects may be overcome. The scope of the work of the Milwaukee bureau was perhaps broader than that of any other similar organization. It included both an efficiency and a social survey. The city exists for its citizens, and year by year the scope of its activities broadens to embrace new fields of social service. In its social Eiurvey the bureau aimed to discover to what extent, for example, housing taws were enforced. The efficiency survey, in its study of the department concerned, had before it the findings of the social investigation, and detertnined why the housing laws were not enforced and how they could be enforced. The work in the two fields of activity of the bureau results not only in bringing to a high standard of efficiency the daily routine of departments, but in developing all of the activities that properly appertain to them. In its survey of the efficiency of operation, studies were made of the organization, operation, accounting, finance and business methods of the several departments of the city government. These efficiency studies followed the same general lines of procedure as are followed in eficiency work for industrial corporations. The effecting of ideal reorganizations in a municipality, however, is seriouslyhandicapped by budget restrictions. Tt was the aim of the bureau, therefore, to reorganize each department or activity so that the highest degree of efficiency might be attained with the expenditure of the funds available, and to secure economy in operation by eliminating waste, preventing duplication of effort, and establishing high standards of individual efficiency. Further, its knowledge of the activities of all city departments enabled the bureau to suggest plans for properly coordinating and correlating them, pointing out opportunities for increased service, and indicating points of overlapping. The Milwaukee bureau was under the direction of Prof. John R. Commons, with Dr. B. M. Rastall and Mr. Leslie S. Everts as associates. There was a small permanent staff which was augmented as occasion demanded by special investigators. A very distinctive feature in the organization of the bureau was the staff of consulting experts. This staff was made up of a group of the country’s foremost experts in organization, engineering, accounting, health and sanitation, finance and taxation, and social work. One or more of these

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422 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW experts reviewed critically every piece of work before it left the office for submission to the department. The value of such expert criticism cannot be overestimated.. From the very outset of the work the bureau had the advantage of thorough cooperation of allied civic and state organizations, such as the state board of public affairs, industrial commission, tax commission, and the University Settlement, and at various times such organizations as the Merchants’ and Manufacturers’ Association, Milwaukee Society of Engineers, the City Club of Milwaukee, and the Advertisers Club offered their cooperation and assistance. Without this cooperation the bureau would have found it very difficult, if not impossible, to effect some of its studies and reorganizations. Among these were the water works reorganization, in which study the railroad commission gave active assistance and finally ordered the installation of the system; the tax study, for which the tax commission loaned some of its men, and the studies of housing conditions, milk supply, newsboys, garnishment of wages, unemployment, and free legal aid, in which the industrial commission and private organizations cooperated by loaning some of their employees and printing some of the reports. The basis for all reorganization work in the individual departments was the preliminary survey of the legal provisions, organization, operation, and accounting procedure of the entire city. This survey was conducted at the beginning of the work and was practically completed before any of the reorganization studies were begun. This survey gave the directors a comprehensive view of the problems to be attacked and enabled them to plan the work of the bureau so as to obtain the maximum results in the time covered by the appropriation. The situation as shown by the preliminary survey was about as follows. The deputy comptroller (with whom cooperation was immediately established) had begun work on a scientiiic budget, and on a proper method of control to be exercised by him over the accounts of the various departments. Offset against this undoubted advantage was the fact that all of the work to be undertaken by the bureau was pionker in nature. There were no well trodden paths to follow. Based on the preliminary survey, however, a general scheme of reorganization was formulated by the directors. Later, as the work developed in the two departments in which reorganization work was attempted, namely the public works and health departments, standard practices in procedure, costs, and accounting were determined upon, so that the departmental accounts might be connected up with the controlling accounts of the city comptroller, and so that there would be no ragged edges in the finished pieces of work.

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MILWAUKEE BUREAU OF EFFICIENCY The most comprehensive study undertaken and completed by the bureau was the reorganization of the water department, which, with the exception of a few points necessitating legislation, went into operation January 1, 1912, upon the order of the Railroad Commission of Wisconsin. The problems of this department as brought out by a detailed study of operation, were approached from every possible angle. Organization, accounting and business procedure, water losses, e!ectrolysis, the efficiency of plant operation and the adequacy of the system were the subjects of special investigations. A water wastes survey was made during the summer of 1911 to determine the losses in the water distribution system and the methods to be followed in eliminating them. By the use of pitometers, tests were made on the pumps in each pumping station and the slip for each pump determined. Several of the pumps were operating within the limit of accuracy of the pitometer, but in others the percentage of stip was found to be very high. Sections of the distribution system were surveyed for water losses with the result that several large leaks were discovered. Calculations were made showing that 23 per cent of the total water consumption is lost by underground waste, misuse, or illegal use. Several recommendations were made for the elimination of this waste, which, it is believed, can be accomplished at a far greater annual saving to the citythan the costs involved. An electrolysis survey was made to discover to what extent return currents from the rails of electric railway companies are damaging the underground iron and steel structural work in the city. Recommendations made for minimizing this evil are under consideration. Two efficiency studies were conducted, one to determine the present operating efficiency of the water works plant, including intakes, pumping stations, reservoir, and distribution system, and to make recommendations to be carried out in the immediate future; and the other to determine the adequacy of the present plant and to make plans for the future growth of the system to care for the needs of the city twenty years hence. An entire revision of the water department as to organization, business practice, accounts and records, to embrace all of the recommendations set forth in the detailed study and the special surveys was completed. A modern and comprehensive accounting system with a complete schedule of accounts and a full set of forms was designed and the procedure indicated for all the divisions of the department. The studies of the bureau in the health department embraced all of its activities. The preliminary survey brought out the necessity of much detailed investigation and reorganization in order to place that department on n high standard of efficiency. Reports with constructive recommendations were made upon the following : division of education and

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424 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW publications; sanitary inspection; communicable diseases; meat and food inspection; milk supply; records and statistics; the health laboratory. and general reorganization. In cooperation with the chief of the bureau of education and publications, the bureau of economy and efficiency laid out a plan of work for this newly organized activity of the health department, pointing out the opportunities that exist in Milwaukee for the direct education of the public in health matters; showing where the health department can secure cooperation both in its campaign for education and its direct health work; and indicating the means for accomplishing these results. The plans for the reorganizaiion of the division of sanitary inspection include the transfer of outdoor nuisance inspection to the police department and the concentration of effort on pure health work. A serious obstacle to efficiency was discovered when $he bureau pointed out instances, notably in the inspection of milk, in which the importance of some minor phases of the work was being over-emphasized to the detriment of the work as a whole. The greatest hindrance to efficient work in the health department lay in its faulty organization. There was no definite location of responsibility among employees and related activities were scattered throughout the organization. In its reorganization plans the bureau endeavored to overcome this defect. It proposed to concentrate in one division under the direction of an expert epidemiologist, all efforts to check the spread of communicable diseases and to group all classes of food inspection under a chief inspector. In addition to indicating what it believes to be the proper functions of the health department and planning the organization necessary to perform its various activities, the bureau designed the necessary systems for a complete record of the work performed. Among other organization studies completed by the bureau were those concerning the refuse incinerator, street cleaning and sanitation, collection of garbage and ashes, special assessments, ward labor efficiency, consolidation of house drain and plumbing inspection, public structures, bureau of sewers, board of examiners of stationary engineers, consolidation of fire and police alarm telegraph systems, and the municipal reference library. The social studies included free legal aid, free employment bureaus, garnishment of wages, women’s wages, housing conditions, and street trades. In the study of the conditions which the city government must meet, the bureau has frequently pointed out problems which it felt could best be solved through the united efforts of interested citizens. To this end it recommended the creation of commissions, composed of representative citizens without regard to political affiliations, to study special problems, and bv making actual tests in operation, to devise means of solving

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MILWAUmE BUREAU OF EFFICIENCY 425 them. Following these suggestions, a housing commission, a market commission, a tuberculosis commission, a child weifare commission, and a special milk committee of the latter commission, were appointed. A recreational survey was also made preliminary to adopting a comprehensive plan for the development of recreational facilities. The bureau assisted these commissions in laying out their plans and cooperated with them at every stage of the development of their work. It never was the idea of the bureau that these special commissions should be a permanent feature of city government. They were established to discover the solution of certain definite problems; as soon as satisfactory solutions are reached, and the work of the commissions becomes routine operation, they should be discontinued and the work transferred to the proper department of the municipal government. Many times it was found possible to make consolidations and reorganizations effecting an immediate money saving, and at other times future savings were made possible through capital expenditure, but such savings were considered as a by-product to efficiency. In some instances, notably in the reorganization planned for the health department, the bureau did not hesitate to recommend increased expenditure to secure the desired efficiency. Although the bureau was organized as a part of the city government, it was not connected with any of the municipal departments nor did it constitute a department by itself. Its work was rather in the nature of a special investigation under the direction of the finance committee of the common council. This form of organization was not intended to be permanent. With the change of administration in Milwaukee in April the bureau as formerly constituted ceased to exist. The mayor and council are now investigating the feasibility of continuing the work of the bureau under some form of permanent organization established by ordinance. In its eighteen months of work the temporary bureau pointed out means by which the administrative machinery could be operated to conduct the functions of government more efficiently, it showed how the records of municipal transactions could be made intelligible and enlightening, and it was the inspiration for increased social service. If efficiency work is placed on a permanent basis, the municipality should receive these benefih in increasing measure each year. JOHN E. TRELEVEN and P. H. MYERS.' 1Mr. Treleven was secretary of the Milwaukee bureau of economy and efficiency and Mr. Myers was the accountant.

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426 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW REFORMS WHICH ARE STILL ABIDlN(: HE reform movement in Portland, Oregon, commenced in a small way about twenty-five years ago. It has in common with similar movements in’ the United States progressed ever since, with such accumulated momentum, carrying along such a whirlwind of dust and chaff, that sometimes its friends have become a little bewildered and have wondered whether or not the remedies were not almost as bad as the disease. Let us take stock of it. In the first place we cannot separate municipal reform movements from county, state and national reforms or estimate their effects apart from each other, hence we will drop the word municipal and consider only such reforms as abide which affect the city’s life. The first great step in Oregon was the Australian or secret ballot, and this with the registration of voters which came along about the same time were sufficient in themselves to revolutionize the city’s life, and they abide unquestioned and afford an absolutely decent, orderly and self-respecting method of determining the city’s will. Through them the public recovered its voice and freedom of choice, and this in itself is so great a thing that we are compelled occasionally to recount the old conditions to remind ourselves what a change has been wrought by these first steps alone. Twenty-five years ago in Portland the voting booths were a scandal and disgrace. The parties furnished their own ballots and marched their bought voters to the polls and saw them vote the paper given them; burly ruffians acted as challengers and maltreated voters of the opposite factions. In one case one of these sat a short distance away from the polls with his shot-gun over his knees defying the officers, and they had no intention of touching him, for he was of their faction. The police force was only a political club to hammer voters into line for particular factions or men and the city was kept in an uproar by the efforts of such men and factions to get control of the force. This disgraceful struggle was periodically transferred to the state legislature, and “pocket city charters” were formulated and passed for this purpose alone without the citizens ever seeing them. The control of the police meant the control of at least 3000 voters, 20 per cent of the then city vote, and to keep the police in line they were allowed to make merchandise of the laws and blackmail the helpless and the weak. Crime and vice were openly commercialized and promoted and he was the best man politically who utilized these vile agencies most effectively. Worst of all it was publicly recognized as the only way to play the game and the participants had no comprehension what a vile way it was; in fact they thought they were patriots. On one occasion small pictures of General U. S. Grant were utilized as tokens identifying bribed voters who had made good delivery and were cashed at $2.50 each at a booth T

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REFORMS WHICH ARE STILL ABIDING 427 just around the corner. Nor was the city of Portland alone in this. New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Chicago could in one form or another and on a scale of much greater magnitude match this description. The Portland politicians of that day had good reason to Weep that they bin Too small to sin, To the lights of their desire. In all Oregon such a thing now as a bribed voter is unknown, It is an extinct species. Violence at the polls has been done away with, and voting is decent, reasonable and orderly. For good or for evil what is recorded is the will of the people. Twenty-five years ago it was bad form and spelled ruin to vote outside of party lines and the city was used as a football of the partisan game, kicked hither and thither at the will of corrupt politicians, and incidentally governed by the state legislature. Now the city is a free city and political partisanship in city affairs is an unknown quantity. In fact the campaign against party ties has in state and natianal affairs gone so far and been so successful that responsible party management has practically been done away with. Whether for good or for evil remains yet to be demonstrated. But in any event the city is free and that is a great gain in itself. Whether the direct primary in state and national elections must be modified or controlled is another question that can be settled in due time after proper experiments has been made of it. Greatest of all reforms, however, growing as it has almost entirely out of the arrest of public attention by the struggle for specific reforms, is the new civic consciousness that has been created and is now assuming full power. Never in our history has civic and political consciousness been more in evidence, or the civic or political conscience of the mass so much in control of municipal affairs as now. Dozens of clubs and leagues and improvement societies bear witness to the community spirit that is being developed, and if perchance this community spirit is a little too critical and a little too much interested in the purely materialistic development of the city and has its eye a little too much concentrated on the real estate market and incidentally “boosts” and brags too much, it must be forgiven it, for these are the natural defects of a young and vigorous youth which having accomplished great things looks coddently and a little boastfully forward to accomplishing still greater things and especially likes to have the world take note of its doings. It is a defect of taste and not of intention. In response to this critical attitude of the public and this awakened public consciousness the performance of their duties by the civic officers has greatly improved. The auditor’s and city engineer’s offices are much more efficient and effective than they were twenty years ago. Some of thio

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428 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW increased effectiveness is due to the natural growth of the city’s business and its natural standardization, but more of it is due to the response of the officers to the persistent and more enlightened demand of the public. The whole city has been paved with hard surface pavements within the last few years, and the work has been comparatively well and economically done. Magnificent new bridges, sewerage and water systems, municipal docks, and public structures of different descriptions are under way or finished and millions of dollars of public moneys are being spent and no suspicion of jobbery or connivance is entertained. The franchise rights of the city and its rights and responsibilities in connection with its dealings with the public service corporations are carefully looked after and are jealously guarded by an active and awakened public interest. It is a new city of Portland now as compared with the old city of twenty five years ago, and its reformation has been exceptionally thorough and complete. If in the twenty-five years that are coming on one-tenth as much change for good is wrought comparatively as has been wrought in the last twenty-five years the best governed cities of Europe will have to look to their laurels, for the reformation spirit has come to Portland and is abiding. THOMAS N. STRONG.^ THE PUEBLO LANDS OF SAN DIEGO HE equable climate and splendid harbor of San Diego have won for this city world-wide renown, but few are familiar with the T fact that in still another way this city stands uniquely apart from other cities of this country. This practically unknown resource is the possession of about 7000 acres of land within her limits. When California became a state, all of the pueblo of San Diego, the bounds of which are within the present city limits, was deeded to the city by the federal government. This made SanDiego the possessor of nearlyall the lands within her limits. During the early days, when the idea of permanent municipal omership was not given serious consideration, many acres were disposed of by sale and gift, until only the land now in its possession remained. This land is located ten miles north of the city proper and bordering the coast for about five miles. It lies on a high plateau immediately above the precipitous cliffs of the shore line. On the east the land stretches away to the foothills in a comparatively level mesa and on the Mr. Strong was president of the Central Municipal League which was one of the pioneers in initiating the reforms to which he refers. For a number of years he was also one of the vice-presidents of the National Municipal League.

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THE PUEBLO LANDS OF SAN DIEGO 429 sky line can be seen the mountains from Lower California to the Sierra Madras. The west presents an unbroken view of the Pacific for miles along the coast, where the passing vessels are constantly visible and on a clear day San Clemente and Catalina Islands can be plainly seen. The location is one of the most picturesque that can be found on the whole Pacific coast. For years this land was used for grazing purposes by neighboring cattlemen and little thought was given to its value or future use. Not until 1908 was any debite action taken toward its development. At that time a clause was inserted in the new charter, through the farsightedness of some of the leading citizens, exempting all of the pueblo lands from sale until 1930 and providing a tax of 2 cents on every $100 of assessment value of city property for its improvement. The idea at the time wm that this improvement should be largely along the line of the establishment of a municipal forest. The proposition of creating a forest in Southern California, where there are no forests naturally, except upon the highest mountains, would seem to most people hardly feasible. The only thing which brings such an undertaking within the realms of possibility is that the eucalyptus tree of Australia is adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of this section even better than to the conditions of its native land. This tree has virtually changed the landscape of California. It is to be found from one end of the state to the other along the driveways and streets and in the parks. Only within the last few years, however, has the eucalyptus been recognized in this country for its timber value. The fact that the hardwood supply of our country was fast diminishing, brought to the attention of our people the fact that it would be necessaryto plant forests to supplyfuture demands. The rapidity of growth of the eucalyptus, its general usefulness and its adaptability to the conditions of California, made it apparent that the establishment of eucalyptus forests in California, which would become of commercial value in a comparatively short time, was an undertaking worthy of serious consideration by those interested in our future timber supply. The possibility of San Diego creating a municipal forest upon its pueblo lands, was recognized as an undertaking that would not only beautify this land, but prove to be a good investment from a commercial standpoint as well. After the adoption of this amendment, no definite action was taken until November 1910, when a pueblo forester and assistant were appointed to begin the work of establishing the forest. During the first year 40,000 trees were set out and a permanent headquarters and nursery established for carrying on the future work. The land where the trees were planted was thoroughly prepared and the very best of subsequent care given. Many of these trees at the end of one year are 10 feet in height and at least 2 inches in diameter at the base. During the spring of 1912 100,000 addi

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430 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tional trees were set out and the conditions give promise that these will make equally as good a growth. These trees are set 680 to an acre and at the end of the third year will be available for fence posts. At this time the groves will be materially thinned leaving about 200 trees to the acre to come to maturity as timber trees. It was not until the actual development of this land was under way that the many possibilities of its development were realized. Hundreds of acres of the comparatively level mesa are ideally adapted for agricultural purposes and could be leased to material advantage as small farms for the raising of vegetables and small fruits. At present a few hundred acres are being used by the city for raising hay for the use of farm stock and that o$ the different departments, which has proven to be a great saving in this line. With the rapid growth of the city, this land, owing to its superb location, will soon be particularly desirable for suburban homes, and will no doubt be ultimately leased by the city for this purpose. The possession of this land and the establishment of a municipal forest and farm offered a splendid opportunity for the city to solve some of its sociological problems by the establishment of an institution where a class of men, who through lack of employnent, were dependent upon the city, could be given assistance. During the last winter a camp was established upon the land for this purpose. A system by which each man was given ten days’ work, with his board and bunk and fifty cents a day, was inaugurated, and the men worked in clearing land and plantingtrees. Afew hundred of the unemployed of the city took advantage of this opportunity to gain assistance. Many who were arrested by the police for vagrancy and drunkenness were sent out by the court in lieu of a jail sentence and were helped in this way. This plan has proven to be a complete success and has been of great help to the men as well as a saving to the city. All the trees planted this year have been set out by these men. In nearly every case the men have been efficient workers and no trouble had been experienced in any manner. It is doubtful if a better plan than the establishment of a municipal forest and farm could be adopted by any city. It is not only a good investment commercially, but is a saving to the taxpayer in taking care of an element who are a burden to the community, in such a way that they become self-supporting and are enabled to take their proper place in society. It is doubtful if San Diego will ever dispose of this land as the possibilities of its development along the most advanced ideas of municipal government are unlimited. San Diego expects, through this development, to put herself forward as one of the most progressive cities of the country. MAX WATSON.‘ ‘Pueblo Forester, City of San Diego.

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RECENT ACTIVITIES OF CITY CLUBS 43 1 RECENT ACTIVITIES OF CITY CLUBS HERE was a time when it wm thought that the citizen’s duty to his government ended at the polls, and eighteenth century statesmen resented the formation of political clubs as a meddlesome interference with the rights of governing persons. In our day, however, citizens, through their special associations for labor legislation, prison reform, purification of milk suppIy, and a hundred other public purposes, are threatening to take possession of large fields of legislation and administration by a process of peaceful penetration.” Private citizens are now doing work which was once regarded as the peculiar function of official persons; they are analysing questions of law-making and enforcement; they are drafting laws, watching administrative officers, employing experts to find out better ways of doing public business, and creating public sentiment on matters of policy. The line between public authorities and private interest is broken down. In the sph,ere of municipal government, city clubs have for several years taken the lead 5t9 general non-partisan assocations. The older institutions, such as the City Club of New York, continue to thrive and justify their ways in affairs municipal. The St. Louis Club, now in its second year has found a place in that community under the secretaryship of Gustavus Tuckerman, and is growing steadily in the range of its activities and in membership. The Chicago club is just settling down to better work than ever in its new club house.‘ The Milwaukee club is in process of reorganization. It is being transformed from a dinner club into a real civic association. It has employed Charles A. Hanson, as civic secretary, and is at work increasing its membership to 1000 with a view to erecting a permanent home for the club. The proposals for the new club house are interesting: “We do not look forward,” they say, “to luxurious quarters. But whatever we shall have will be worthy of the club and such that both men and women members will be proud of it. The only restriction anticipated between members is that bed rooms to be provided (at a profit to the club) will constitute a section of the building exclusively for men. . . . No bar to be installed, no liquors except soft-drinks, sold in the house.” The roll of members contains appropriately enough the names of Dr. Bading, the new mayor, Victor Berger and Carl D. Thompson. The objects of the several clubs, as publicly announced, are strikingly similar. The St. Louis club states that its chief purpose is that of providing (‘an open forum for the discussion of public affairs.” The purpose of the Milwaukee club is “to bring together in intimate association, men, who are sincerely seeking the best interests of our city’; to create within T We shall not abandon our democracy. 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, 245.

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432 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the club an ideal of civic betterment, by providing, through addresses at noonday luncheons, through ample literature and otherwise, the best thought of the day in civic matters; to disseminate civic knowledgeby newspaper publicity and by bulletins to be published by the club and widely distributed; to promote a spirit of cooperation among the citizens in public matters.” In turning over the club programs for recent months one cannot help being impressed with the wide range of interest shown and the practical nature of the matters discussed. It would be hard to imagine a theme which has not been up for discussion in some form at the various clubs. St. Louis takes a preferential vote of the members on the several live subjects of the hour and the program committee is guided by the results. The program of that club for the winter of 1911-12, falls into eleven general divisions: the administration of justice, trusts and corporations, social reform; industrial problems; political reform; local municipal problems; social occasions; the Far East; health; education; and general municipal problems. Among the distinguished speakers before the club have been President Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Louis D. Brandeis, Governor Harmon, Henry George, Jr., Champ Clark, Dr. Wiley, Dr. W. H. Maxwell, Francis J. Heney, Dr. Delos F. Wilcox, Ella Flagg Young, and Jane Addams. The Boston club entertained the delegates to the convention of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, in September, 1911, gave receptions to distinguished persons visiting the city during the winter, and listened to talks upon subjects ranging from town planning by Raymond Unwin to detective experience by William J. Burns. The Boston program for the past winter, although it contains a number of themes of local municipal interest, seems to have looked more to general information and entertainment than to the detailed analysis of Boston’s pressing problems. The Philadelphia City Club on the contrary cohed its activities rather closely to the instant need of things, for thewinter’s program contains such topics as supplying Philadelphia with electricity for light and power, the development of the parkway, vice commission for Philadelphia, who are responsible for grossly insanitary conditions in Philadelphia? It must not be thought, however, that there is a want of catholicity in the Quaker City, for the City Club also listened to addresses by Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, Dr. E. Dana Durand, Dr. Wiley, and Harvey N. Shepard. New York’s City Club conducted during the winter fifteen Saturday luncheons and a number of important evening meetings at which subjects of general and local interest were under discussion. The club entertained His Excellency, Count von Bernstorff and has published his address on German cities. The Los Angeles club took up such matters as the city charter, the proposed municipal newspaper, the Good Government

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RECENT ACTIVITIES OF CITY CLUBS 433 and Socialist candidates for the school board, single tax, taxation, social hygiene, public baths, and the work of the legal aid society. The Milwaukee club has been merely a forum, meeting at various hotels, and listening to speeches and discussion by members and guests on civic affairs. As it was their bounden duty, the women of Los Angeles, enfranchised in October, 1911, have organized a city club of their own. In fact, the new association came into existence in June of that year-a few months ‘before their victory at the polls, and pending the erection of a home of its own is pleasantly located in the Higgins Building. The purpose of the club is to bring together in informal association “those women who are genuinely interested in the improvement, by independent and disinterested methods, of the civic and economic conditions of the community in which they live, in order that, by friendly intercourse, exchange of views, accurate information, and united activities, intelligent and effective cooperation in the work for good government for the City and County of Los Angeles may be secured.” It is to be regretted that space does not permit the publication in full of the program of the new club for the year 1911-1912, for it is a model in comprehensiveness, balance, pertinency, and fair-mindedness. It embraces a wide range of topics of practical interest, a hearing of the candidates of all parties in current elections, a consideration of constitutional amendments to be voted on, and discussions of immediate local and national political issues. It must not be thought, however, that much and appropriate talk is the sole purpose of the city club, even though the essence of democracy is government by discussion. Each of the clubs under survey investigates special local problems and prepares reports of immense practical value. Although non-partisan in character the clubs give a great deal of attention to immediate questions of city politics and administration, and co-operate with officials and local bodies in the execution of varied public programs. For example, the City Club of St. Louis, in conjunction with the Civic League Bas just held a civic exhibit displaying the work of the several municipal departments and civic organizations of the city which, it is hoped, may be the precursor of an annual budget exhibit conducted by the municipal authorities. In addition to the usual committees the St. Louis club has a special committee on public service which is designed to serve as an intelligence office to bring together volunteer workers and opportunities for civic service. The City Club of Los Angeles reports that it has accomplished two important things during the past few months: It has started a movement which will mean the acquirement by the city of the old Normal School site for municipal purposes-a municipal auditorium being one of the buildings in view. The club has succeded in getting both the city and

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434 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the county to adopt the idea of using the school buildings as polling places. This idea was tried out last December and proved a great success, saving a heavy expense and surrounding the polls with a good environment. In January, 1912, the club began work on the reorganization of the city planning committee. Chicago’s City Club through its committees on parks, playgrounds, and baths, and education, has been studying the relation of the public school buildings to the recreational facilities of the parks, and has made some pertinent recommendations to the city authorities to the effect that needless duplications of facilities can bo ttvoided, with decided economy, by the use of park lands for school purposes and the school buildings for recreational facilities. In New York City, the City Club has been specially active in the subway developments and the preservation of the City Hall Park. The club strongly supported the constitutional amendments making possible the establishment of a special court for condemning private property for public use and conferring upon cities in the state the power to make excess condemnations-both of which were defeated st the election of 1911 by the vote of the up-state districts. The club secured the repassage of these amendments slightly modified at the session of 1912. Club members have been well represented on important official city commissions. The committee work of the New York Club has been so successful that its methods are worthy of special study. By special request William F. Howes, the committee secretary, furnishes the following brief account of the plans which have been worked out to secure effective committee services: A gentleman of considerable experience, well known to the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW’S readers, said a year or more ago in my hearing that no system of voluntary committees ever had worked or ever would work successfully. The experience of the New York City Club up to that time went a long way toward bearing him out. A year’s experience since has convinced us that proper machinery with intelligent direction can effect constant and important results. A plan devised by Robert S. Binkerd, the club’s secretary, is already working well and will undoubtedly work much better. The committees are appointed as a result of the expressed interests of the club members. Every member, on election, is invited to serve upon a committee of his choice. He is also requested to file a “special interest” blank. In the fall of each year the membership is recanvassed and preliminary committee meetings held to which all members interested are invited to bring suggestions. A thorough reorganization follows. Two of the club’s committees, both meeting weekly, have always done remarkably effective work. These,-the legislation committee handling all city bills introduced into the state legislature and the committee on city affairs handling the calendars of the board of estimate and the board of alderman,-have been made feeders for the others. The number of matters coming before these two committees during the year is, of course,

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THE BLANKENBURG ADMINISTRATION 435 enormous. Many require specialized knowledge. Such are immediately referred to the appropriate committees and reports are requested, and received on a fixed date, usually within one week. Thus nearly wery committee is constantly receiving definite material to work upon and the stereotyped excuse of the chairman that “ there did not seem to be anything for him to call his committee together for” is unavailable. The two civic secretaries are responsible for the preparation of material for the central committees and for making their final action effective after it has received the endorsement of the trustees of the club. In Grand Rapids a part of the work of a city club is done by the municipal affairs committee of the board of trade, which formerly had as secretary John Ihlder. During 1911, the committee arranged lectures by Dr, L. H. Gulick, William Dudley Foulke and other experts in public affairs. The former came at the instance of the committee in support of its work for “a healthier city.” The latter spoke on I‘ Conservation in Municipalities” and during his visit to the city met several members of the new charter commission who took advantage of the opportunity to secure some valuable “pointers” for their undertaking. As a result of a lecture by Mr. Ihlder a special committee was appointed to start a movement for better housing in Grand Rapids. A sub-committee on street lighting has been busy with the prohlem of a more modern system of lighting, especially for the business streets. Another sub-committee on a more beautiful city set in motion a committee on parks and boulevards which put through a law incorporating an association to acquire land and develop parks and boulevards. This new association began to secure results at once and is now in possession of a large and valuable acreage which will be developed for public uses. CHARLES A. BEARD 1 THE BLANKENBURG ADMINISTRATION N DECEMBER the fourth last, Philadelphia’s new administration was inaugurated. In the campaign immediately preceding, the 0 candidates for the mayoralty had pledged themselves to provide, if elected, administrations that should be both business-like and nonpartisan. Rudolph Blankenburg was elected after one of the bitterest and closest fought municipal campaigns in the history of the city. He had been known for many years as an advocate of those principles upon which he had made his fight and also as a consistent opponent of the party organization that for a generation had been intrenched in the city hall, and the beginning of his administration was received with a high .degree of satisfaction and optimism. His first official action, the 1 Associate Professor of Politics, Columbia University.

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436 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW naming of his cabinet, was received with general approval. George W. Norris was appointed director of wharves, docks and ferries, George D. Porter of public safety, Herman Loeb of supplies, Morris L. Cooke of public works, Dr. Joseph S. Neff of public health and charities and Cyrus D. FOSS, Jr., as mayor’s secretary. The new administration at once found many difficulties in the way of putting into effect the pledge for a business administration so vigorously advanced by the mayor-elect. The financial condition of the city was far from prosperous. A debt for current operating expenses was carried over from the previous administration and careful tabulation of income and routine expenditures showed a deficit of some $4,000,000. In addition to current demands upon the city revenue, pressing needs appeared for a multiplicity of improvements requiring extraordinary expenditures. As a partial cure for the situation schemes of economy were considered. The payroll was pruned and the system of purchasing supplies revised. The department of supplies, when the new director took control was carrying an overdrawn account and payments made by it were necessarily so tardy that many business men refused to compete for contracts. This difficulty has been remedied, however, by an appropriation of councils and with the funds at hand, the department is now in a position to pay promptly, and this, together with the fact that all bidders are squarely treated, has made possible the purchasing of city supplies with a closeness approximating that of a private corporation-a condition both novel and gratifying. These economies with similar ones in the letting of contracts for public works in other departments, although they may show a marked saving, will not be sufficient to satisfy the need for large improvements. An unfinished parkway, running diagonally from city hall to Fairmount Park must be pushed to completion at large cost; a subway under Broad Street is insistently demanded by a closely populated and extensive section of the city lying to the north of city hall; wharves and docks are required for the river fronts as the development of the city’s harbor facilities and shipping trade is making a strong appeal to the popular imagination,and the constitutional borrowing capacity of the city has almost been reached. It will therefore be readily understood that a puzzling problem has been presented to the new administration, the solution of which has been sought with considerable ingenuity, but without conclusive success as yet. It was supposed that an amendment which became part of the state constitution by adoption at the election in November at which the new mayor was elected, would simplify the situation. Under it, the borrowingcapacity of the city was extended so that it was enabled to issue bonds for the purpose of building subways, wharves, docks and other improvements that would return sufficient upon the investment made to

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THE BLANKENBURG ADMINISTRATION 437 pay the interest upon the bonds and provide a sinking fund for their redemption. But the validity of the bonds which may be issued under the amendment has been questioned so pertinently that it is doubtful if the procedure indicated by the amendment may be made use of. Notwithstanding the difficulties affecting large work, the department of wharves, docks and ferries has presented an excellent plan for constructive procedure in developing the harbor facilities of the city and a recent ordinance introduced in councils provides for the extension southward of the city’s marginal avenue, the most ambitious project of its kind that has been seriously considered for many years. In the department of public health and charities much activity has been manifested. The city’s charitable institutions were found to be inadequate and steps are being taken to build a new and large asylum in the upper end of the city at a considerable distance from the congested center of population. The department of public works has found it necessary to revise the personel of its department as preparatory to efficient work. Apparently, it had not before been considered necessary to secure engineers for the work of the department. The new director has secured as his assistant an engineer from the United States navy and as the head of his bureauof highways another engineer of standing. The larger questions most immediately facing this department have to do with the sewerage system of the city, which had been pronounced inadequate, and with the extensive repair of the highways which have fallen into disrepair from long continued neglect. An estimate fixes the sum required to place the streets in good condition, and to open those needed for immediate development, at $4,000,000. The department is preparing to undertake both of these improvements after careful deliberation as to the best course to be pursued and after securing expert advice both in this city ahd elsewhere. From this brief review of the activities of the several departments it would appear that considerable progress has been made in the establishment of a business administration. The pledge of a non-partisan administration carried to its legitimate conclusion has resulted in an even more striking difference in character between this and other administrations than the new business principle and its effect is more immediately noticeable. The new mayor for many years was a staunch believer in civil service rbform. One of his first acts was the appointment of three civil service commissioners,-Frank hl. Riter, Lewis H. VanDusen and Peter Bolger-who were in sympathy with civil service reform and could be relied upon to execute the civil service law with integrity. Since 1885, examinations for certain parts of the city’s service had been provided by statute and in 1906 a well drafted and complete civil service law was provided for Philadelphia, but the enforcement of civil service requirements had never been sufficiently

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438 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW strict to impress their existence seriously on the city’s civil service. For generations, public office and political office were synonymous and it was generally assumed by men trained in practical politics that the new administration would play the game as previous administrations had played it. Shortly after the inauguration of the new mayor, numberless appeals for political preferment were made to him and the offices of the several directors were besieged with applicants and with political characters interceding for their favorites. It seemed to be inconceivable that the administration honestly intended to persist in a non-partisan course. It was pointed out time and gain, with much vehemence and considerable logic, that the administration must take a part in politics not only for its own protection, but for the protection of the good citizens who placed it in power, and unless it did so, councils, the majorityof whom were not administration men, could thwart its activities, and the &ate legislature would rip it out of office. These arguments, however plain, have produced but little effect. The new mayor has answered them by attempting something entirely new in the administration of the city’s government. He has taken the public into his confidence. He is himself a ready speaker and an appealing one. He and the officers of his cabinet have been called upon time and again to attend dinners and public functions and at them, the mayor makes known his stand upon public questions; his department of public works has organized a bureau of public instruction which provides speakers upon questions concerned with the plans for the city’s development; the department of public health has working with it a committee of one hundred interested citizens who have undertaken to aid in the development of the new charitable projects which are being undertaken and to assist in every way in making the department’s work successful; in the department of public safety, the hearings of all policemen and firemen to be tried are thrown open to the public; and public questions generally are discussed with a frankness that for manifest reasons could not have been indulged in by preceding administrations. There is a prevalent conviction that the new mayor’s intentions are of .the best. His sincerity of purpose is unquestioned and thus far his novel course has been successful. Councils have acted with him and there has been but one occasion when it was necessary to test his power. This arose in connection with an ordinance supported by the mayor which councils refused to acquiesce in. The mayor called a special session, the newspapers supporting his position wrote editorials upon the question, printed the names of the councilmen who had voted for and against the ordinance, and when councils met pursuant to the call, there was discovered a complete reversal of opinion and .the mayor’s position was endorsed with a generous majority.

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COMMUNITY DOCTORS 43 9 This method of “playing the game” is something quite new for Philadelphia. The ideal of a non-partisan municipal government was a real conception to a negligible group of those who had taken an active part in the campaign and in fact to very few citizens at large. The sudden transformation from the venerable system of political favoritism to a theory of non-partisanship has naturally caused a shock to well-established notions of duty due by an elected candidate to his followers and has given rise to lively discussion and dispute which has not, however, moved the mayor from his position. Looking broadly at the accomplishments of the present administration, one matter at least is clear. It has raised a new standard of government in Philadelphia and has awakened the belief that a non-partisan and business-like administration is not an impossibility. T. HENRY WALNUT.’ COMMUNITY DOCTORS2 M EDICAL examination of schools and scholars, especially in this country, is still in the experimental stage. There are still many questions open for discussion; much room for improvement regarding our present methods of examination and administration. It has been my observation that the medical inspection of schools in the United States is not having adequate results, mainly through the failure to provide trained men and women for this work. It is a distinct specialty, involving wide training, accurate and rapid diagnosis, coupled with great skill in dealing with social conditions, parents, teachers, school boards and the like. And yet this work is generally trusted to a young and inexperienced doctor who accepts the position simply as a preliminary step in working up his medical practice. He does not devote to the study the concentrated attention that he would give to a permanent career. This is because the salaries paid to medical school inspectors in America are absurdly small. In England these salaries are sufficiently adequate to enable men and women to look forward to this work as affording scope for permanent careers. To intrust the care of our school children to inexperience, low paid young medical practitioners, who do the work as a “pot boiling” job, is unfair to the children and to the physician. The present volume on Examination of Schools and Scholars can not fail to impress the reader with the importance of this branch of medical work on the future welfare of society. The statement was made at a Counsel and Secretary of the Civil Service Reform Association of Pennsylvania and member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. P. S. King and Son, London, Publishers. *Medical examination of schools and scholars. Edited by T. N. Kelynack

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440 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW meeting of the School Hygiene Association of New YorB City that the physician of the future would serve less and less in the capacity of family doctor and more and more as the community doctor; that he would devote a decreasing amount of time in studying and curing individual cases of disease, and a proportionately increasing amount of time in teaching the laws of health and preventive medicine. The efforts of guarding the community health through attention to the health of the school child by means of medical examination, not for contagious diseases but for physical defects, is a striking instance of this “ humanizing medicine.” The present volume aims to “provide school medical officers, managers of schools, educationalists, and all interested in the national care of the health of our children, with a complete, reliable guide to every department of medical school service.” It consists of a collection of studies by thirty-six men of several nationalities, who are experts in their respective lines. Men who might be termed “community doctrors” in the sense above referred to. It provicles material gathered from sources dealing with every aspect of the question, and the status of medical examination in fourteen countries is told of. The provision adopted by the different countries in respect to medical inspection of schools is of general interest. The English lam of 1907 provides for the compulsory examination of children in the public elementary schools. Scotch laws contain a clause providing that every teacher be thoroughly familiar with the importance of school and personal hygiene, a special training being provided for this purpose. Sweden has had medical school officers since 1830. Wales, though far behind England in this matter, has employed in the school medical service 127 medical officers as well as about 15 school nurses and a few health visitors whose duties consist of assisting the school medical officers, a fair percentage for the size of the country. Ireland is far behind the other countries in the matter of school accommodations of many sorts and is unworthy to rank with the other of the British Isles in medical inspection, so Dr. James Alexander Lindsay tells us. New Zealand also has made but little organized endeavor in the direction of medical schools inspection. France claims the honor of instituting the first scheme for the medical inspecbion of its school children. As far back as 1783 the matter w~ts brought up for discussion, though nothing was definitely adopted till after the revolution. In Norway the medical examination on schools and scholars is still in its beginning, but every indication points to this form of social good reaching a speedy perfection in that country. The discussion of this question as it concerns other countries are all of value to those practically interested in this movement. The bulk of the book deals with the different phases of medical inspection as it exists in England, with chapters on the inspection of schools and

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A MUNICIPAL NEWSPAPER 441 school buildings, a description of necessary equipments for medical examination, danger signals of defects, and other points relative to the matter of school and personal hygiene. The chapter dealing with dental conditions in elementary school children, should prove of special value. The investigation of some tens of thodsands of records of school children in this country have proved that the average child having decayed teeth, several cavities, requires something over five months longer to complete thcir elementary school course than do those children not affected this way. Children with painful teeth chew their food less effectively, in many cases eat less also, in either case a fundamental factor in nutrition has been interfered with, the ultimate results being a lessened vigor. I cite this as an example of the importance of dental inspection as well as the medical examination. The chapter on open air schools is of sufficient interest to create adesire for the possible establishment of more of this kind of institutions. This is the preventive medicine exemplified, and the excellent results obtained point to the influence the open air school promises to bring to bear on elementary education in general. The appended bibliographies to each chapter are comprehensive, and, for assistance to those desiring further study will prove of practical value. At present practically every state in the union has laws dealing with medical examination of schools, but in many cases the child is examined and the diagnosis filed away for future reference and nothing actually happens to the child. There are not enough doctors to give sufficient examinations and there are not enough nurses to see that the prescriptions of the doctors are carried out. If this volume aids in the correcting of the fault which lies behind the trouble in America-the inadequate salaries paid-it will have served as a means to an excellent end, in this country if no further. LUTHER H. GULICK.' A MUNICIPAL NEWSPAPER HE Los Angeles Municipal News is a weekly, 12-page newspaper of ordinary newspaper size and appearance, published by the city of T Los Angeles. Sixty thousand copies are printed in each weekly edition and distributed free throughout the city. In its news columns the paper confines itself almost entirely to news items relating to the city government, but not exclusively so; its news field being limited rather by the discretion of the commission in charge then by any hard and fast rules governing its publication. Municipal news is featured in the paper by being given the prominent positions and the big headlines. 1 The Department of Child Hygiene of the Russell Sage Foundation.

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442 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The editorial policy of the paper follows the official policies of the city, as the same have been determined by the city charter, and express vote of the people, or by city ordinance. The editorial policy of the paper is instructive and descriptive, rather than argumentative or exhortatory. When any municipal question is actively under discussion before the people, that is to say, before the official policy of the city has been determined in the matter, The Los Angeles Municipal News appoints two special writers, each of whom writes a special column-one on each side of the question under discussion-and the two columns are published side by side properly headlined rn the arguments for and against. The two special writers, though appointed and paid by the paper, each consult freely with the friends of the side of the controversy which they represent, and in a very large measure present the arguments for that side in accordance wifh the wishes of the leading proponents thereof. This provision for a hearing for each side of active public questions is one of the most highly appreciated features of the paper. Each political party, whether national or local, that polls 3 per cent of the vote of the city at any regular election, is allowed the free use of one column in each issue of The Los Angeles Municipal News. In these columns, each carrying appropriate headlines to indicate the respective parties to which they belong, the political parties are allowed to express their positions on public questions in their own way, free from any censorship whatsoever by the management of the paper, excepting that the matter published in the columns must be lawful for publication. The city administration or the newspaper itself may be freely criticized in these party columns. At the present time there are five of these party columns, to wit : .Republican, Democratic, Socialist, Socialist-Labor and Good Government. Some of the parties use their columns only for the discussion of national or state questions, and refrain from taking any part in the discussion of municipal issues, and some visa versa; while others set no such limitations upon themselves. The Los Angeles Municipal News accepts ordinary commercial advertising of approved classes. As illustrating the kinds of advertising that are barred, the paper will accept no medical advertisements, no advertisements of stocks and bonds that are not listed on a regular stock exchange unless the same have paid dividends regularly for the past three years, and no liquor advertisements. The voters of Los Angeles established The Los Angeles Municipal News by a very large majority vote on an initiative ordinance creating the newspaper, which ordinance was submitted to a popular vote at the regular city election in December, 1911. The voters sought to establish a paper which would have three leading characteristics :

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A MUNICIPAL NEWSPAPER 443 1. It should give prominence to municipal matters and not allow them to be side-tracked for the sensations of the day. 2. It should publish the municipal news accurately, not coloring its news columns with bias of any kind. 3. It should make ample provision for the publication of the arguments on each side of live public questions. The feeling of the voters was strong that the affairs of the city were altogether too much in the hands of the privately owned newspapers, whose news columns often contained bias, and whose editorials displayed a onesided advocacy. The scheme of The Los Angeles Municipal News, above outlined, has been regarded by some as the extreme of ridiculous foolishness, and by others as possessing almost immeasurable potentialities for municipal betterment. At the time of the writing of this article, five issues of the paper have been printed. Owing to limited financial resources, the typographical appearance of the paper is not as yet first class, but is gradually improving. Its reception by the voters of the city has been, on the whole, favorable, and the friends of the enterprise are unshaken in the confidence that it has a field to fill and is sure to succeed. The original plan contemplated a 40,000 edition of an 8-page paper; but all issues so far have been of (30,000 1Zpage papers. This enlargement of the original plans has been made possible by the fact that the advertising receipts have been larger than was anticipated. The advertising receipts, whatever they may amount to, go to the support of the newspaper, together with a regular cash appropriation of $700 a week from the city treasury. GEORGE H. DUNLOP.' 1 President of the Municipal Newspaper Commission of Lo8 Angeles City.

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS EDITED BY JOHN A. FAIRLIE Profeasor of Political Sn‘ancs, University of Illinois Five British Municipal Annuals.1These five British annuals bear eloquent testimony to the activities of British municipalities, and to the interest of the British public in municipal affairsfor without such interest it would be impracticable to publish such compendious volumes. Leading position is deservedly given to The Municipal Year Book, which from modest beginnings has developed into a volume of more than eleven hundred pages. The book is about equally divided in space between (1) a classified official directory, accompanied by a few leading historical and statistical facts and by an outline of municipal undertakings, and (2) more detailed information regarding municipal activities, grouped topically. In the first part the arrangement is by incorporated municipalities, county councils, urban districts and rural districts, classified 1 The Municipal Year Book of the United Kingdom for 1912. Albert E. Cave, Editor. London: The Municipal Journal. Ltd. Cloth; 5 x 9fln., pp. 1131 +rxrix. 15s., net. American price, $5, net. The Local Government Annual and Official Directory. 1912. Officially corrected. Edlted by 9. Edgecumbe Rogers. London: The Local Government JournalOffice (27a Farringdon Street). Cloth; 43 I 7 In.; pp. 292. is. Bd., net: American price, 60c.. net. The Public Health Service Directory and Year Book, 1911. Compiled by the Editor of “The Medical Officer.” London: Hodgetta, Ltd.. 36 Whitefriars Street, E. C. Cloth: 10 x 5 ins.; pp. 374. 7s. 6d.. net; American price, $3. The Water-Works Directory and Statistks, 1911, Including Alphabetical Index of Officials and List of Associations of Water Engineers. London: Hadl, Wataon. BVlney, Ltd.. 52 Long Acre. w. C. Cloth: 51 x 84 in.: pp. 414 + Ivil. 10s. Bd.. net; American price. $4.25 net. The Gaa Works Directory and Statistics 19111912-(Reviaed to August. 1911). With a Ilst of Chairmen, Managers, Engineers and Secretaries, and lists of Aaaaclatlons of Engineers and Managers. London: Hazell, Watson, B Viney, Ltd., 62 Long Acre, W. C. Cloth: 51 x 84 In.: pp. lxviii + 491. 10s. Bd., net: American price $4.2.5. net. further by the grand divisions of the United Kingdom. In the second part water supply, gas supply, tramways, motors in municipal service, electricity supply, housing of the working classes and town planning, education, markets and slaughter houses, baths and workhouses, libraries, sewage disposal, fire protection, indebtedness, local taxation returns, and still other topics are taken up. The water, gas and some other sections are almost wholly statistical. The various sections are provided with brief introductions, some of which outline the governing parliamentary legislation. The housing and town planning act of 1909 is given in full. Altogether these introductions sketch nearly the whole scheme of British local government. While the grouping together in sections of information on water supplies, gas supplies, education, and other municipal functions has obvious advantages for anyone who wishes to compare what is being done in a given line in various places it has the disadvantage of not giving a complete picture of the activities of each municipality. Where the information is statistical much space is saved by the grouping ahd comparisons are facilitated, but’ where the facts are in the form of text the segregation grouping seems to have but little advantage. It should be added, however, that in many cases some information as to local undertakings is given in the first part of the volume. The. Year Book gives information for none but municipally-owned undertakings, thus necessitating references to other year books for information regarding privately-owned water supplies, grts works or tramways. While this is in some respects an inconvenience it may be excused in view of the wide scope 444

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 445 of the work and the large size which the book has attained within its selfimposed limits. As a whole The Municipal Year Book well deserves the high regard in which it is held by students of municipal government on both sides the Atlantic. The Local Government Annual and Oflcial Directory is a handy little volume which seems to be well worth its modest price. For London and the boroughs comprising the county of London a little general information is given; otherwise the information is confined almost wholly to population and to the names of two or three officials of each locality included. The most surprising of the five annuals is ThePublic Health Service Directory and Year Book, now published for the second time, and extending to 374 closely printed octavo pages. It contains a public health calendar, showing for each day of the year what meetings and examinations of direct interest to health officials are to be held in the principal British cities. This is followed by a statement of conditions for obtaining degrees and diplomas in public health from fifteen universities and other institutions in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, and a brief account of the powers and duties of medical officers of health. There is next given for each city, borough, county, urban and rural district in Great Britain its population, area, medical officer of health, sanitary inspector, city engineer, public analyst, bacteriologist, health .visitor and various other officials having to do more or less directly with public health. For the smaller places, of course, only a few of the positions exist. Salaries paid are given in many instances. Officials concerned in the medical inspection of school children are given for each “education authority.” This section is prefaced by a statement regar$ng the work and powers of these medical school officers. The information outlined is all and perhaps more than one might expect in a health directory which has only reached its second year, but in addition there is a whole series of Who’s Whoin public health work, arranged alphabetically under medical officers, public analysts, school dentists, veterinary officers, sanitary inspectors (men and women separately), health inspectors, inspectors of midwives, and school nurses. These separate directories are prefaced with brief articles, especially contributed, on the functions of the school dentist, and so on, including one entitled Women in Public Health Work, by Mabel Portlack. The volume concludes with a list of isolation hospitals, by cities and towns, with numbers of beds; size of nursing staffs, dates established, and names of medical officers and matrons in charge a Who’s Who of hospital matrons; and a long list of national and local health societies, their secretaries and objects. Aside from its mass, of carefully prepared information the Public Health Directory is impressive for the evidence of training and of important positioncr held by many of the men and women listed in its various directories, and particularly for the fact that there appears to be a sufficient permanency of tenure of these officials to warrant going to so much pains to collect and publish their names and records. While we have in the United States a considerable number of health officials who have held office continuously for many years they are few in number and for the most part could show little special education or training for their work. The Water Works Directory and,Statistics and the Gas Works Directory and Statistics present in concise well arranged form the ownership (public and private), leading officers, general character and extent of plants, prices charged and a small amount of financial information for the water and gas works of the United Kingdom. The water works are arranged alphabetically for the whole kingdom, but the gas works are given separately

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446 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW for England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Each directory dontains an alphabetical list of the officials included under the various cities and towns. In the Water Works Directory death rates are given and a few water analyses. Neither the gas or water works directory gives summaries of any kind, not even the number of works included. The small general municipal directory is likewise without summaries. The Municipal Year Book gives the total number of municipal corporations,county councils, urban districts and rural districts, with aggregate populations in each case. Other summaries are given, but not all that one might desire or perhaps expect. For instance, it would be interesting to know how many places in the United Kingdom have refuse destructors. A few minutes’ work on the part of a single editorial assistant and the printing of the results of the count would answer this question for scores of people. Other valuable summaries could be made with a slight outlay of labor for compiling or expense for paper and printing, both for The Municipal Year Book and the gas and water works directories. But there is more reason to be thankful for the wealth of information given than to complain of a few omissions. Unfortunately we now have no American annuals like those under review, with the exception of Brown’s Directory of American Gas Companies. This was not always so. The Statistical Tables of American Water Works was published once in two years from 1883 to 1887 and was succeeded by The Manual oj American Water Works, which was published annually for three years and again in 1897, since which it has not been reissued. In 1902 The Municipal Year Book was published, in part as a successor of the Manual, but with an idea of covering in less detail the whole municipal field, including both public and private undertakings. As both the Manual and the Year Book were edited by the reviewer it is not fitting that much should be said about them here, except that they did not yield nufficient return to warrant the vast amount of labor and the heavy outlay entailed by the collection and compilation of the returns and the preparation of the editorial summaries which formed a part of each volume. Even aa far back as 1896, the year covered by the last Manual, there were 4125 more or less complete water works in the United States and Canada. To present descriptions and statistics of these required more than six hundred large, closely printed pages, although the historical and descriptive matter given in the first editions was omitted. The Municipal Year Book, though confined to cities and towns of the United States having 3000 population and over, presented information for 1527 places. An American water works annual for 1912, on the lines of the 1897 Manual, would probably include 6000 to 8000 water works and require a thousand pages or more, while an American municipal year book of such scope as the British annual would require several volumes of like size, especially if an attempt were made to outline the local government of each of our 46 states. Fortunately the federal bureau of the census gives us a considerable body of municipal statistics every year for places of 30,000 population and upwards, and less frequently for smaller places, down to 8000. Some of our states also publish municipal statistics. (See notice of federal and state collections of municipal statistics in this number of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. M. N. BAKER. Upper Montclair, N. J. 5 Federal and State Collections of Municipal Statistics.l-The United States bureau of the census, the states of Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Indiana and 1 Statietics of Cities having a Population of Over 30,000 -1909, Washington, D.C.: Bureau of the CenBUS. Cloth; 9 by 12 ins.; pp. 353. The Cost of Municipal Government in Mwachusett.9.-Statistics of Municipal Finances for the Year

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 44i Iowa, the province of Ontario and possibly some other states and provinces are now publishing yearly volumes of municipal statistics. The federal statistics are limited to cities of 30,000 and over, although figures for cities down to 8000 were brought out some years ago. As a rule, the state reports cover cities, towns or villages and rural districts. Most of the statistics are financial, but in alternate years the bureau of the census gives a considerable body of physical statistics as well, and some of the state reports also contain a few physical statistics. For the most part, the financial statistics deal with totals for each city or department, rather than with unit figures-such as per capita costs or debts, rates of taxation, etc. The census reports and the reports of some of the states give totals by groups of cities or for all the cities or other municipalities included. The slowly growing number of states that are making provision for the collection and publication of municipal statistics gives promise of better things in the future. The promise is greatest where the state department charged with collecting statistics prescribes the accounting system and audits the accounts, as is done in Ohio. In the other states under consideration the state department seems to have no power beyond that of requiring reports in accordance 1908-9. Third Annual Report. Boaton. Masa.: The Director of the Bureau of Statlatlca. Stlff paper; 6 by 9+ ha.; pp. 233. Speclal Report on Munlclpal Accounts by the State Comptroller.-Albany, N. Y. Paper; 6 x 9 Ina.; pp. 119. Comparative Statlatics Cltiea of Ohlo, 1910.40lumbus, Ohlo: Department of Auditor of State, Bureau of Inapection and Supervlsfon of Publlc Officea. Paper; 64 by 9 Ina.; pp. 238. Firat Annual Report of Inspection and Supervldon of Public Offices of 1ndlana.-Indlanapolla, Ind. Cloth; 6 by 9 Ins.; pp. 377. Statbtlcs of Cltlea and Towns of Iowa.-Fourth Annual Report, 1910-ll.-Dea Moinea,Iowa: Department of Flnance and Munlclpal Aocounta. Cloth; 6 by 0 Ins.; pp. 237. Municipal Ststlstlca of Ontario.-Part I11 of Bureau of Induatries. 1908. Toronto. Ont.: Deparb ment of Agrlculture. Paper; 6 by Q+ Ina.; pp. 160. with forms prescribed by the departments, which must be uniform for all municipalities, or for all within each class. The Massachusetts statute was amended in 1910 so as to permit the department to install and audit accounts for any city and town, on petition therefrom. The New York law makes it the duty of the department to formulate and prescribe uniform accounts. The Indiana law provides for field examiners of municipal accounts, which presumably might be interpreted to mean a more or less complete audit. The Iowa report noted herewith states that with fewexceptions the uniform system of accounts prescribed by law has been adopted throughout the state. Turning now to the individual reports it is fitting to consider first the one issued by the bureau of the census. The latest of these yet published is for the year 1908. The cities included are distributed over .the whole United States. The statistical scheme followed is an elaboration of the one devised by a committee of the National Municipal League, after years of study. The aim is to conform with good accounting practice and to classify departmental statistics along functional lines. The main statistical divisions are assets, liabilities, expenses, interest, outlays and revenue, payments and receipts, but there is considerable sub-classification. Some eighty pages of text are employed by way of introduction and analysis, including an explanation of the accounting terminology used and general tables of analysis and summary. The report was prepared by Mr. Le Grand Powers, assisted by Mr. E. H. Maling, and sets a high standard for the state bureaus to follow. None would be quicker than the census officials to admit that there is room for improvement in its subsequent reports. Such deficiencies as exist, however, are largely due to difficulties inherent in any attempt to present on a truly comparable basis the statistics of cities scatt.ered through forty independent commonwealths, with little making towards uni

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448 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW formity save the fact that the census bureau is engaged annually in the attempt to so re-combine non-uniform statistics as to make them uniform. The Massachusetts report covers 33 cities, 71 towns of more than 5000 population and 143 (of 250) towns of smaller size, together with three towns in the Boston metropolitan district. The figures for each group are separately presented. The plan of the ieport is similar in many respects, but less comprehensive, than that of the census report. Naturally, more statistics are given for the cities than for the towns and more for the larger than smaller towns. Summaries for the whole state and also a section on accounting terminology are included. There are few or no physical statistics and few unit figures. Mr. Charles F. Gettemy is director of the Massachusetts bureau of statistics. The first state collection of municipal statistics of New York was published in 1908 or early 1909. That report covered 39 of the 42 cities of the second and third classes, 423 of the 438 villages, and 56 of the 57 counties of the state. The classification was departmental rather than functional, but the departments were in considerable measure along unctional lines. The report just issued and now beforeus appears to cover theyearending September 30,1910. It is about a third of the size of the first report and as over half its contents is text, while the first, one had but little text, it will be seen that fewer statistics are given in the later than in the earlier report. A considerable part of the text deals with the examination of the accounts of a number of counties and a few cities and villages, which exposed many irregularities. No summaries or analyses of the statistical tables are given. The statistics for 1909-10 were taken from such reports as were filed at Albany. A considerable number of counties and cities and many villages are not represented. The range of statistics is limited and the classification does not agree closely with that of any other of the reports. The report for Ohio includes returns for 70 cities. Broadly, its classifications are similar to those of the census and of Massachusetts, but they differ materially in some particulars and are much more detailed. All three reports follow functional as well as accounting lines. The Ohio report gives the salaries paid to many classes of officials and clerks. It also includes some per capita statistics of receipts, expenditures, indebtedness and sinking funds. State summaries are lacking. The Indiana report covers 462 cities and towns, 311 school corporations, 1017 school and civil townships, counties of the state and various state institutions. The arrangement of the places is by counties, which is very inconvenient from nearly every point of view. The statistics are not so comprehensive as those given in the federal, Massachusetts and Ohio reports. In fact, little is given except classified inventories of property owned, outstanding indebtedness, and balances, receipts and disbursements. There is a brief introduction and totals for the state are given. William A. Dehority is state examiner of Indiana. The report for Iowaembraces 101 cities arranged in order of population (75, 626 to 1626, by the U. S. census of 1910), and some 650 towns, arranged alphabetically. Aside from lighting prices and waterworks rates and figures most of the statistics for Iowa are financial. A functional classification is followed. Disbursements, receipts and cash balances are given, but there appear to be no statementi of assets and liabilities. State totals are freely given, at the head of table columns, but summaries and analyses for the whole state are not presented. A directory of municipal officials is given and also a digest of the municipal laws of the state. The latest Ontario report at hand gives receipts, disbursements, assets and liabilities for the year 1907 for the various classes of municipalities, townships and counties, with comparative aggregates

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 449 for the whole province for a decade. A second division contains population, area, assessed valuation, and exemption from taxation for the year 1908. Some of these figures are also presented in total for the province for a period of ten years. The first group of figures is arranged alphabetically by localities, for the whole province, but for the last group the arrangement is first by counties, then alphabetically. A study of the foregoing outline of the various reports listed brings out two striking facts: (1) each report follows a plan of its own, and (2) nearly all the figures are totals for a department, a whole city or a state. The federal report has a resemblance of uniformity which would probably be found to be seriously lacking in fact, if one could go back to the original computations of returns, made necessary by the different systems of classification which prevail .throughout the country. Finally, it seems pertinent to ask of how much real value, besides satisfying the curious, are these hundreds of pages of statistics, dealing as they do almost wholly with mere totals, containing either little or no interpretative analysis or summary and practically no unit figures? Even per capita figures would be of little value without some kind of weighting which would take into account the quality as well as the quantity of the service rendered; and even then allowances would need to be made for variations in local conditions. These remarks are made not to discourage such statistical computations, but to show rather how much yet remains to be done before municipal statistics are put on a sound basis of comparability and utility. The task thus far has been long and wearisome. Little has yet been accomplished except to show a comparatively few people how inadequate is American municipal accounting aa a whole and how lacking we are in those systematic physical statistics without which unit costs are impossible. So far as financial statistics are concerned, unit costs alone throw any large clear light on municipal efficiency, and such costs must reflect quality as well as quality. M. N. BAKER. Montclair, N. J. 4 Metropolitan Sewerage Commission of New York.1-The question of sewage disposal is being made the subject of thorough study by the city of New York with the object of protecting the harbor of the Metropolis against pollution. Pollution, as applied to the water of a great seaport, has a meaning quite different from that which attaches to this term as applied to the water of reservoirs, lakes or bodies of sea water in which shellfish are grown. Harbor waters must unavoidably be contaminated with sewage matters to some extent because of shipping. The peculiar problem which must be faced by New York and other cities similarly situated is to prevent the pollution of its navigable waters to such an extent and in such ways as will produce a nuisance or disease. New York’s sewage disposal problem is being studied by a board of engineers created by the state and city of New York and known as the Metropolitan sewerage commision. It was brought into existence in 1906, reorganized in 1908 and will complete its labor by May, 1 Reports made by the Metropohn Sewerage Commission of New York: Dlgest of the Data Collected Before the Year 1908 Relatlng to the Sanltary Condition of New York Harbor. 1908. Preliminary Report: Metropolitan Sewerage Commimion of New York. March. 1910 Sewerage and Sewage Dlaposal In the Metropolitan Dktrlct of New York and New Jersey. Aprll, 1910. Report on the Discharge of Sewage from the Prcposed Passalc Valley Sewer of New Jersey. May. 1910. Report on the Diebarge of Sewage from the Bronx Valley Sewer. July, 1910. Preliminary Report No. 1: Study of the Collectlon of the Sewage of New York City to a Central Point for Disposal. September, 1911. Preliminary Report No. 2: Desc-lptton of the Four Prlnctpal Drainage Divisions In that Pnrt of the Metropolitan Sewerage Dlstrlct whlch lles In New York State. November, 1911.

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450 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1913. The total cost of the investigation made by the commission, including the preparation of plans for main drainage and such sewage purification works and improved outfalls as are necessary will be about $200,000. The commission has stated with all possible clearness its sense of the importance of putting a stop to the unrelated and unsanitary methods of sewage disposal which have been followed in the metropolitan territory of New York and New Jersey, and has urged that prompt action be taken to establish an effective system of conservancy to protect and improve the condition of the harbor. This system of conservancy should be carried out under the direction of an interstate commission having equal jurisdiction in New York and New Jersey. The practical measures of conservancy recommended by the commission are main drainage,such as has been adopted by London, Paris, Berlin, and other great cities of the world, and works for finally disposing of the sewage in accordance with modern scientific principles. Up to the present the sewage of New York and neighboring cities has been discharged into the harbor through numerous outlets in the belief that the destructive effects of the salt water and the flushing movements of the tide would cause the offensive materials to disappear. The commission has found that the benefits to be derived from the natural forces are much less than has been supposed and that the tidal movements cause the sewage to oscillate back and forth for long periods of time instead of of being carried promptly to sea. A floating buoy which was set adrift by the commission pursued a long‘ and devious course, but was picked up four days later within 1000 feet of where it was originally released. The total quantity of sewage discharged into New York harbor at the present time is about 700,000 gallons per twenty-four hours, or sufficient to fill one of the largest navigable channels of the harbor for a distance of about a quarter of a mile. By 1940 the commission estimates that the population will be double what it is today and the quantity of sewage will be correspondingly increased. There will thus be an ever increasing burden of polluting matter discharged into the harbor, unless protect’ve measures are adopted. The injurious consequences of pollution are described by the commission as including the production of extensive deposits of sludge, discoloration of the water, production of offensive odors and danger to health through bathing, the collection of driftwood and the gathering of shellfish either from planted bed3 or from natural growths near the outskirts of the harbor. Considerable emphasis is placed upon the offense to the sense of decency produced by the appearance of the sewage at the surface o* th. water, among the docks and piers, parks and other much frequented places. Owing to the density of which most of the water front of New Pork is already settled, the commission considers it impossible to find sufficient available land for the location of works for the complete purification of the sewage. The cost of carrying the sewage through trunk sewers to the ocean appears to be prohibitive. It would cost an excessive sum of money to collect all the sewage to one central point in the country and there purify it by biological methods. The only land at all suitable for the disposal OF he sewage by irrigntion is on Long Island and the immense area, over 80 square miles, which would be required for this purpose make this method of disposal impracticable. In the commission’s opinion, it will be necessary to utilize what is called the “digestive capacity” of the harbor water for the assimilation of most of the sewage. It is proposed to collect the sewage of New York to a number of centrally located points near the water front and there remove as much of the impurities as necessary and carry them to sea in tank steamers. For the purpose of collecting the sewage, the commission .

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 451 proposes the division of the city into five main drainage districts. For each of these districts a system of arterial collecting sewers leading to disposal works works is being designed. A number of printed reports have been issued by the commission. A volume of 550 quarto pages with numerous maps, tables and other illustrations was published in April, 1910. This volume has been in much demand by engineers and municipal and state officials in the United States and other countries. It is now out of print and can be consulted only in such libraries and public offices as have received it. Smaller reports have been issued from time to time and others will be published until the qommission goes out of existence. A second quarto volume, similar in form to the first and containing much original data, is now in press. In it the commission reports upon the present sanitary condition of the harbor and the degree of cleanness necessary for the waters. At the forthcoming International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, to be held in Washington in September, the Metropolitan sewerage commission of New York will give a full exhibition of its work, using maps, plans, diagrams and models to illustrate its numerous methods and results of research and the plans and projects which it proposes. GEORGE A. SOPER. Ib New York. Public Utilities Regulation in New York City.-The NewYork public service commission for the first district has recently published an illustrated pamphlet on State Regulation of Public Service Corporations in the City of New York, which is an easy reading, instructive and interesting summary of the work of the public service commission for the first district, from 1907 to 1911. In an introductory summary this pamphlet sets forth, in facts and figures, the changes and improvements which have been made in the service and property of public service corporations in New York City and on the city’s rapid transit lines, in the four years following the creation of the commission in July 1,1907. A few of the most striking follow: More than 5000 complaints have been received and investigated; traffic in the subway has grown from a daily average of 456,000 to 758,000, and revenue car mileage has increased from 37,184,940 to 57,110,868. On the street surface lines all cars have been overhauled and repaired and new cars purchased; life saving fenders and wheelguards have been installed on all surface cars at an expense of $300,000 to $400,000; and the number of persqns killed on all transportation lines has decreased from 500 in the fiscal year 1907-1908 to 334 in the fiscal year 1910-1911. Transfer privileges between intersecting surface car lines in Manhattan and the Bronx, which were cut off after the Metropolitan street railway system went into bankruptcy, have been ordered restored at 151 points. On the elevated railroads, the total number of revenue passengers carried has increased from 282,924,273 to 301,449,292, and the average daily number of passengers has increased from 775,133 to 825,886. Regulations for the maintenance of comfortable temperature in the cars in the subway, on the elevated and on surface car lines have been established. The commission has obtained from the legislature appropriations aggregating $5OO,ooO as the state’s one-quarter of the expense of eliminating grade crossings in Greater New York; and under these appropriations has ordered eliminated a number of dangerous grade crossings. In rapid transit work, the Brooklyn extension and the Van Cortlandt Park extension of the existing subway have been completed and opened to traffic. Permanent improvements to the subway, including the lengthening of stationplatforms, have been made at a cost of more than $3,000,000. Contracts for the Fourth Avenue subway in Brooklyn-a four track subway, four miles in length

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW have been let, and the work is practically completed. The contract price is nearly $16,000,000. One of the first acts of this commission was to conduct an investigation into the condition of the surface car system in Manhattan and the Bronx. This investigation held in 1907, disclosed conditions involving over-capitalization, misuse of company funds, neglect of road and equipment leading to serious deterioration. etc., and was followed by the placing of the entire metropolitan street railway system in the hands of receivers. The business of furnishing gas and electricity in New York City is in the hands of monopolies. In Manhattan and the Bronx the gas business is handled largely by the Consolidated Gas Company and its affiliated concerns, while the electric business is mainly done by the New York Edison Company, and its affiliated corporations. It is the duty of the commission to test all gas and electric meters before they are placed by the company. In the first four years of its existence the commission made 1,378,627 tests of gas meters. It will not be very long until every gas meter set in the city of New York will have been tested and sealed by the public authorities. As the commission has the power to reduce the rates of gas and electric companies, if found to be unreasonable, it has conducted several proceedings involving the question of rates and contracts. New York Edison Company met the commission’s requests in a spirit of fairness, and, on July 1, 1911, put into effect B new tar8 embodying a complete revision of rates. These revised rates are now in effect and according to an estimate made by the company, they amount to a saving to their customers of $1,250,000 per annum. A complaint against the Queen’s Borough Company resulted in reduced rates which are now in effect. A provision of the law forbids public service corporations under its jurisdiction to issue new bonds or stock without the approval of the commission. Therefore the commission has been called upon from time to time to pass upon applications for its approval of various issues of proposed securities by various companies. The decisions of the commission as to security issues mere contested in the courts only in two instances. This report concludes with a brief description of the commission’s rapid transit work. The duty of laying out and supervising the construction of rapid transit railroads takes about three-quarters of the time of the commission and is responsible for more than 60 per cent of its total expenditures, amounting to between $600,000 and $700,000 R year. This has led to some public misapprehension as to the cost of a regulating commission. A short history and description of the existing subway, the Brooklyn loop subway, the Fourth Avenue subway, and the Interborough subway completes the sixty-nine pages of what is necessarily a bare r6sum6 of four years’ work. A. E. PINANSKI. * City Plan Reports and CommissionsrDallas has been one of the most progressive cities of the Southwest and this carefully devised plan is an outgrowth of this progressiveness. In fact it is the first city in that section to go at its problem in a thorough-going, careful way, AsfarbackaslWthecityretained Mr. Kessler to prepare plans for the state fair grounds, a year later the park board came into being, and in 1910 the chamber of commerce organized the city plan and development. This body and the park board are responsible for this report, which may perhaps be best described as a characteristic piece of Kessler work, designed not for “the I A Clty Plan for Dallaa: Report of Park Board’ Prepared by George E. Kesrrler. 1912. CIty Plan Association Report. St. hula. 1911. Report on Dock and Pier Development Harbor District No. 1. The Harbor and Subway Comml8sion of the City of Chicago. 1912.

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS building of the city, but to formulate recommendations for rebuilding along broader lines.” Mr. Kessler believes with all the modern city planners that the need for a city plan would not be evident unless both the commercial and social life of the community seriously felt “the hampering effects of the existing natural and artificial barriers preventing rational expansion of business and residential districts.” This report is particularly valuable because it discusses and suggests plans for a city which in an exaggerated form presents the difficulties attendant upon the.expansion into a great city of a village at a temporary railroad terminus, no special thought having been given in the interim to the needs of the increasing population and business. In calling attention to this report and plan mention must in all fairness be made to the Dallas News, which has been a pioneer in the movement, not only in Dallas and in Texas, but throughout the Southwest. The city plan commission of St. Louis, created by the city by virtue of an ordinance, is an evolution. For five years the Civic League through committees had been conducting voluntary efforts to encourage city planning. The board of public improvements and the municipal assembly have taken important steps along modern lines in the direction of a city plan. In 1910 public spirited St. Louisans formed a city plan association, composed of citizens who paid from their own pockets the expense of investigation, and the preparation of suggestions for a city plan. It prepared a very valuable report upon the subject of city planning for 8t. Louis. The movement had gained such strength through these several efforts that the city plan commission was created by ordinance within the year. The scheme of this official organization is one that promises effective results. The commission is composed of six city 05cials and nine citizens. The former are the heads of the legislative and technical departments of the municipal government, the others are appointed by the mayor. The theory of this scheme of organhation is that it brings into close intimate relations upon the work of city planning the heads of departments and branches of the government having most to do with city planning, and a sufficient number of citizens to represent fairly the various sections and interests of the city concerned in the movement. In the provisions for the duties of the commission the ordinance is comprehensive. The commission is “to suggest the state and municipal legislation necessary to carry out the recommendations of the commission,” and these recommendations are to include: (a) Improvement of the river front; (b) extension of streets and the supervision of the opening of subdivisions; (c) improvement of surroundings of Union Station; (d) a system of widening and opening various through streets so as to make the city more cohesive aad less disjointed; (e) control of nuisances; (j) a playground, park and boulevard system; (9) location of public buildings; (h) encouraging the location of manufacturing establishments in designated districts; (i) extension of conduit district for wires; (j) extension of granitoid sidewalk districts, and for the regulation of same in the residence districts so as to provide for the planting of trees and for su5cient soil space to assure their growth; (k) such other improvements as will tend to make St. Louis a better city. This report contains a number of excellent addresses on city planning, sundry maps and bird’s-eye views and an account of the situation in St. Louis just prior to the creation of the commission. Chicago has far reaching plans of civic improvement, looked after by Ycvera1 boards and commissions. One of the latter charged with suggesting the ways and means for increasing and im

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW proving the water front facilities, has just presented to the city council a report respecting the construction of initial piers in what is known as Outer Harbor District No. 1. It considers in great detail a project involving an expenditure of $.5,ooO,ooO on the lake front at the mouth of the Chicago River. These plans have been approved by the harbor committee of council. The city plan commission is at work on a lake front park,also on certain harbor and dock development and widening of the Illinois Central right of way. The first plan submitted was not found satisfactory; and asecondproposed agreement between the Illinois Central Railroad and the south park board has been drawn up. The main essentials contemplated in the improvement will stand; that is, the outer harbor development and perhaps the location of the Field Museum on the lake front; but certain other provisions with regard to the proposed contract between the Illinois Central and the south park board may be changed. Differences of opinion have arisen a8 to these plans, but the prevailing idea deems to be that expressed in a platform recently promulgated: We believe it of paramount importance that the matter be determined in such a way that the future development of the city will not be injured; that the propert,y will not be unnecessarily destroyed, or the value of the same needlessly impaired; that the scant means of access to the South Side will be enlarged rather than cut down; that allowance be made for the commercial as well as the purely industrial development of the city; that an attractive residence district be not further injured; that the proposed park shall be accessible to the people; that the view of the lake and the ark be not unnecessarily obstructed; tiat the railroad be not made an impossible barrier, and that the factors which go to constitute it a nuisance be eliminated as far as possible. Portland, Oregon, will shortly be the subject of a comprehensive report, both a municipal commission and a Greater Portland plans association being at work on the subject. E. H. Bennett of Chicago is preparing the plans. Arnold W. Brunner has been retained by Albany, N. Y. to prepare plans for that city. Los Angeles has had an interesting experience in city planning work. In August, 1910, the council passed a resolution providing for a city planning committee to serve without pay. Having no appropriation to work with it accomplished but very little. In January, 1912, at a joint meeting of the City Club and the Lo8 Angeles Polytechnic High School Civic Center, a resolution was passed approving the suggestions for carrying out a city plan made by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., in an address before the City Club on January 0, and requesting the mayor and council to reorganize the city planning commission to consist of one member each of the park commission, board of public works, harbor commission, municipal art commission, board of public utilities, playgrounds commission, board of public service commissioners, health department, and three citizens not otherwise connected with the city government to be appointed by the mayor. This resolution also approved Mr. Olmsted’s suggestion that not less than $10,000 be appropriated for the work of the commission; and also that the City Club send to the mayor of every city in Lo8 Angeles County contiguous to LO8 Angeles, a copy of Mr. Olmsted’s address with the request that the governing bodies of such cities take active steps in accordance with Mr. Olmsted’s suggestions to form a local city planning commission, and that the board of governors of ,the club take steps to call a meeting of the city planning commissioners of all said cities including LO8 Angeles for the purpose of organizing a metropolitan planning commission. In reply to the invitations sent out to the various cities only one answer

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 455 has been received, that of Mayor Thum of Pasadena, who endorsed the idea. CLINTON ROQERS WOODRUFF. Ilr The Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency.-The Chicago bureau of public efficiency came into existence in August, 1910. It was an indirect outgrowth of the Chicago commission on city expenditures, commonly known as the Merriam commission. This was an official body created by resolution of the city council, and appointed by the mayor. Its membership comprised aldermen and citizens. Mr. Charles E. Merriam, professor of political science in the University of Chicago, then a member of the city council, was chairman. He had introduced the resolution calling the commission into existence. Another important member of the commission was Mr. Walter I;. Fisher, now secretary of the interior by appointment of Yresident Taft. Mr. Fisher also acted as counsel for the commission, without compensation. When the Merriam commission, after about a year and a half of brilliantly successful activity, was about to terminate its labors, it was felt that there should be some unofficial agency to continue the same general lines of work. The Merriam commission, as the creature of the city council, of course confined its investigation to the expenditures of the city government, strictly speaking. The territory comprising Chicago is cursed with a multiplicity of governing bodies, most of which escape the light of publicity that is directed upon the city government. There is the county government, the sanitary district, and several independent park boards. The board of education, the library board and the tuberculosis sanitarium also have separate taxing powers, though their trustees are named by the mayor of the city. It was thought that it would be highly beneficial to have an unofficial body, following in general the methods of the Merriam cornmiasion, make studies of the organization, activities and expenditures of all these governing bodies and outline plans for the betterment of the public service. It was not a very diilicult task to secure from public spirited citizens pledges of contributions sufficient to maintain such an agency for two or three years. It was styled the Chicago bureau of public efficiency. The trustees, nine in number, are named by the board of directors of the City Club. The chairman of the board of trustees is Mr. Julius Rosenwald, president of Sears, Roebuck & Company, and prominent in many lines of business and civic activity. The other trustees are Mr. Alfred L. Baker, banlcer and stock broker, recently chosen president of the City Club; Mr. Onward Bates, engineer; Mr. Clyde M. Carr, president of the J. T. Ryerson & Son Company;. Mr. George G. Tunell, an official of the Santa FB Railroad; Mr. Charles R. Crane, of the Crane Company, at one time president of the Municipal Voters' League; Dr. Henry B. Favill, physician, president of the City Club at the time the bureau was organized; and Mr. Charles E. Merriam and Mr. Walter L. Fisher, already mentioned as prominent in the work of the Merriam commission. The first director of the bureau was Mr. Herbert' R. Sands, formerly connected with 'the New York bureau of municipal research,who had been brought to Chicago to assist in the work of the Merriam commission. Mr. Sands remained as director until January 1 last, when he resigned the position and returned to take up certain lines of work in the east. Following the retirement of Mr. Sands, Mr. Harris S. Keeler, formerly legal counsel of the bureau was placed in charge of the work as director. The staff of the Bureau at the present time comprises twelve persons. There is a director, secretary (devoting half time to the work of the bureau), seven accountants and investigators, two sten

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456 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ographers, and an office boy. Very recently the staff has been increased by the employment of two accountants and investigators formerly connected with the Milwaukee bureau of economy and efficiency, which has gone to pieces since the recent change of administration in Milwaukee. At the outset it was planned to carry on studies of practically all the different governments simultaneously. The work was found so difficult, however, that it was soon deemed advisable not to try to conduct so many lines of activity at once. Consequently, some of the investigations which had been undertaken were discontinued for a while. During the period of its existence, the bureau has issued fifteen publications. In two instances these publications were of reports prepared by the Merriam commission, for the printing of which the city had failed to make provision. The bureau simply printed these. documents as a means of making the material in them available for general public use. Three reports prepared and published by the bureau were based upon studies made by engineering experts, two relating to street paving and the third to electrolysis of water pipes. These reports attracted favorable comment from engineering magazines. Many of their recommendations were made the basis of action by the city authorities. The most elaborate report issued by the bureau is that relating to the park governments of Chicago. It represents more than a year’s investigation by several members of the staff. Chicago has three large park districts, one in each division of the city, and seven smaller park districts, making ten in all. Each of these park districts constitutes an independent governing body, with its own tax levying powers and its separate board of commissioners. The report was a detailed study of the activities of these bodies. Its most striking conclusion was that $500,000 a year could be saved by the merging of all these park governments with the city, to effect which will require action by the legislature of the state. The hope is expressed that the general assembly to meet next January will make provision for the unification of the park goyernments of Chicago, as recommended. One report dealt with the “Proposed purchase of voting machines by the board of election commissioners of the city of Chicago,” being a discussion of the specifications and a criticism of some of the features of the proposed contract. Another report was a statement to the voters explaining why two propositions to be submitted to a referendum vote ought to be defeated. The legislature had passed two laws relating to the municipal court of Chicago which, among other things, made substantial advances in the pay of the judges and of the chief clerk and chief bailiff of the court and their assistants. The bureau contended that the salary advances were not warranted. The two laws were rejected by 5 large majority of the people of Chicago on the referendum vote. At the present time the bureau is concentrating its attention upon the county government, to the exclusion of practically all other lines of inquiry. Cook County has many administrative officials elected by popular vote, who are to alarge degree independent of any central governing authority and responsible only to the people. The result is confusion, absence of fixed responsibility, and lack of cooperation. Such supervisory control as exists is exercised by the board of county commissioners, that makes the appropriations for the salaries and other expenses of the various county officers, and by the judges of the circuit court, who, by a peculiar provision of the Illinois constitution, are empowered to fix the numberof employees of the treasurer, sheriff, coroner, recorder of deeds and the clerks of each of the five courts of record of Cook County. The bureau early began a study of county budget making and in January, 1911, published a report on the Methods

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 457 of Preparing and Administering the Budget of Cook County. In this report it was pointed out that the judges, while charged with the duty of fixing the number of employeesin certainof the principle county offices, were not provided with funds with which to employ expert assistance to enable them to perform their duty understandingly. It was suggested that the county board should make an appropriation for this purpose. No attention was paid to the recommendation. Later the bureau, in a formal letter to the judges, offered to make an investigation of the county fee offices and to submit reports thereon. This offer mas accepted by the judges. The first report submitted was that of the office of recorder, published in Sept.cmber, 1911. The office waa found to be remarkably well managed, on the whole. Reports on the offices of coroner, sheriff, and clerks of the circuit and superior courts were submitted to the judges early in December. Attention was called to serious abuses in the coroner’s office, which the coroner announced he would proceed at once to correct. In the sheriff’s office certain decreases in the staff were recommended and it also was suggested that salaries in some instances were too high. In the reports dealing with the offices of the circuit and superior court clerks, there were suggestions for reorganization, for the introduction of typewriters and other modern devices, and for a reduction in the number of employees. In the face of these reports, the judges granted requests for more employees in most of the offices. Thereupon the bureau issued a public statement upon “the judges and the county fee offices,” in which the judges were sharply criticised. The judges, who resented the criticism passed upon them by the bureau, pleaded that most of the reports were presented too late for consideration. Arrangements are being made for more cordial cooperation this year. The bureau is continuing its investigations with a view of submitting reports on offices not covered last year, and of making supplementaryr ecommendatjons on offices which were made the subjects of reports last year. All the officials involved offered the bureau investigators full access to their offices except the county treasurer, who obstructed the work for a time. In October, 1911, the bureau issued a publication dealing with that situation, entitled, A Plea for Publicity in the Ofice of County Treasurer. Since that time the county treasurer has expressed a willingness to cooperate with the bureau and is giving its investigators access to the facilities which they need for the preparation of the report on the office for the judges. In its studies of these offices the bureau not only makes recommendations within the power of the head of the office to carry out, but also suggests plans for improvement that call for legislative action and the cooperation of other governing agencies. GEORQE C. SIKES. Chicago. * Vocational Training.-The City Club of Chicago has published an extensive and valuable report on vocational training in Chicago and other cities. This is the outcome of a study of the problem for over two years, proposed by the club committee on public education in November, 1909, and carried out by the generosity of Mrs. Emmons Blaine. The dctailed investigations were made by graduate students in the university of Chicago; and the material thus gathered has been put in form and recommendations formulated by a sub-committee, consisting 6f Ernest A. Wreidt, William J. Bogan, principal of the Lane Technical High School and George H. Mead, chairman of the the committee on public education. These recommendations were approved by the general committce in June,l911; but the responsibility for the report rests upon the sub-committee. After an introduction summarizing the

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Surface oar subways.. . . . . . . Rapid translt subways.. . . . Rapid transit elevated IInes Total .......... . ..... ... .. conclusions and recommendations, the main body of the report deals with the study of industrial and commercial education (below the college grade) in Chicago and a number of other American cities, notably New York, Boston, St. Louis, Cleveland and Cincinnati. This includes both private and public schools, elementary and secondary, industrial and commercial training and trade schools. The fundamental conclusion urged is that vocational and trade education should be introduced into the school system as an essential part of the educational system and in no illiberal sense. In Chicago, as in other cities, nearly half of the children do not complete the eighth grade in the elementary schools; while investigation showed that those who leave school before completing the elementary course do not retain what has been learned in the lower grades. This is believed to be caused by the elementary curriculum undertaking more than can be accomplished by a large percentage of the children; while those who approach the age of fourteen (the age of compdsory attendance) lose interest in a school which does not appeal to the vocational motive. The report does not recommend any general changes in the existing curriculum; but favored additional opportunitiesfor those not reached by the present methods. Specific recommendations are for the establishment of a two year vocational school admitting boys and girls at 13 years of age, who have completed six grades in ordinary schools; elementary industrial schools for over-age children below grade seven; optional and vocational courses in grades seven and eight; trade schools for boys and girls; day continuation schools; industrial, technical and trade courses in the high schools; and the establishment of acentral highschool of commerce. 9 City Planning Notes.-Charles K. Mohler has prepared for the committee on traffic and transportation of the City MILES DOUBLB TRACX ‘OeT ~8.30 $29.740.000 11.23 43.030.000 20.30 in. 150.000 39.91 $82.620.000 ~~

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 459 The May issue of Special Libraries is devoted entirely to a bibliography of city planning, prepared by the Library of Congress and the landscape department of Harvard University, in cooperation with state and legislative reference libraries. * New Orleans Civil Service Commission. -The annual report of the Board of Civil service commissioners for the city of New Orleans covering the operations of the board during the year 1911 bears out in all respects the experience of the past as to the small result which follows from a system of examinations which are wholly non-competitive. In 1896 a stringent and comprehensive civil service law providing for the competitive system was enacted, but in 1900 a new law was adopted which effectually removed the “starch” from the system. This law provided for a civil service commission made up of the mayor, the treasurer and the comptroller of the city and two citizens to be appointed by the mayor, who were to hold offlce during the term of the appointing powers. The examinations were made non-competitive by a provisionthat thecommissionin thecaseof every vacancyshould certify a list of all the candidates who passed and the head of department could select anyone he saw fit. The report of the commission consists of three paragraphs, the first reading “We respectfully submit,” etc., and the last “The secretary’s report covers the operations of the commission and its expenditures are represented in the tabulated forms.” The remaining paragraph contains this cryptic utterance: An im artial administration in restraint orlax indulgence in dealing with standards of intelligence, has been maintained and the exercise of the privilege of emergency has not been permitted to enter into the service of the greater responsibilities. The report of the secretary shows that two examinations were held during the year, in which 40 applicants took part and 35 obtained the required percentage. The “operations of the commission’’ regarding the labor service of the city are described in the following paragraph, quoted verbatim, from the secretary’s report: , Number of applicants examined for the labor service 00, of which 00 passed; applicants who failed to ac uire the required ercentage 00; ap %cants disqualifiec? by operation of yaw 00, or 00 per cent of those who passed these examinations. ELLIOTT H. GOODWIN. New York City. * New York City Pavements.-At the request of a joint committee representing the Chamber of Commerce, the Merchants Association, the Board of Transportation and the Automobile Club of America, Mayor Gaynor appointed in October, 1911, a committee to report on the present condition of the pavements of New York City and to make suggestions for their improvement. The report of this committee, published in March, 1912, is accompanied by a series of reports of sub-committees and appendices, with a considerable number of illustrations showing defects in existing pavements. The general conclusions of the report are that The pavements of the city are and probably alwaya have been very inferior to those of the first-class cities of the old world. . . . Many of our pavements, and especi’ally those which are much used for heavy trucking, are in a condition injurious alike to the health and economic welfare of the community‘ they are rough, uneven, often broken and obstructed, expensive to clean and impossible to clean properly; they are inconvenient to use; excessively costly to maintain and are altogether a serious handicap on the property of the city. After stating the conditions which explain why the pavements are so bad, the report presents a series of recommendations for changes in legislation, organization, contract terms and methods of administration.

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460 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Boston Finance Commission.-The annual report of the Boston finance commission includes, in addition to the report proper, a section of official communications, a chronology of the Boston public schools, and a reprint of the report on the Boston school system, which was notedin the Aprilnumber of REVIEW. During the year the commission held 114 meetings and 155 hearings; 31 reports were published, and 21 additional unpublished reports were made. Desides the study of the Boston school system, the most important investigations dedt with civil pensions, the city clerk’s department, better fire protection, .and street lighting and refuse disposal contracts. The financial record for the year shows a marked increase in appropriations; and the commission criticizes extravagance in pay rolls and the lack of proper accounting for traveling and other expenses. On the other hand, the borrowing power has been exercised with care and moderation, and the award of contracts shows a marked improvement over the record of Mayor Fitzgerald in his first term. In reference to the charter amendments of 1909, the finance commission considers that they have worked well and improved many branches of city administration. The effort to reduce the number of signatures required for nominating petitions (5000) is opposed. ?c Milwaukee Bureau of Economy and Efficiency.-Since the notice in the January number of the REVIEW, the Milwaukee bureau of economy and efficiency has issued ten additional bulletins on its work. These deal with plumbing and house drain inspection, water works efficiency (three bulletins), garbage collection, health department (three bulletins) and the last presents a summary of the eighteen months work of the bureau. Appropriations on account of the bureau’s work were $5,000 in 1910, $18,000 in 1911, and $15,000 for 1912. In addition, appropriations to city departments to be expended under the guidance of tho bureau, have been made for about $12,000. The total expenditures to December 31, 1911, have been $33,096.14. As to results, the recommendations of the bureau already adopted and installed are saving each year as much as the ‘first year’s expenses of the bureau. If all the recommendations are carried out, the total savings are estimated at $150,000 to $200,000 ~i year. On the other hand the bureau recommends increased expenditure in some directions in order to secure the greatest efficiency. This is notably the case in the health department, where an increase in the force of inspectors is recommended, to cost $32,000 a year.‘ * Water Supplies.-The annual report of the Pennsylvania state water supply commission for 1909, recently published, discusses public water supplies and water rates, and presents water supply statistics and the laws of Pennsylvania affecting water and water companies. The bulletin of the Milwaukee bureau of economy and efficiency on water wastes survey reaches the conclusions that all water consumers (private and public) be supplied with meters, that the city maintain or inspect service pipes, that new mains be tested and that the city purchase recording meters. From the eighth annual report of the Metropolitan Water Board (England), it appears that since the present board took over the water supply of London from the private companies in 1904, a number of additional storage reservoirs have been constructed, more than doubling the storage capacity. In addition to the 62 storage reservoirs, the metropolitan water supply works include YO service reservoirs for filtered waters, 264 engines and 6,?07 miles of water pipes. The metropolitan water district contains over seven million population; and the aggregate water supply for the year 191011 averaged 32 gallons per capita. Plans 1 See page 420.

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 461 Steam railroads . . . . . . Street, auburban and Interurban rallroads. Natural gas companies Electrlo light companlen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telephone cornpanlea.. for additional water supply, by the construction of additional reservoirs in the Thames Valley, have been approved, based on an estimated population of 12,OOO,OOO in 1941. ?o City Manuals and Registers.-The reports and publications issued by various municipal authorities have become so numerous and voluminous in most of our larger cities that the ordinary citizen finds it difficult to secure any general view of the municipal government and is apt to become confused by the details of the rpecial reports. A few cities aremaking some effort to present a summary of general information by the publication of a city manual or municipal register. The Municipal Regisler for the city of Boston contains the rules of the city council, a survey of the city departments and lists of officials. The Providence City Manual includes the Mayor’s message, lists of city officers and employees, election statistics and financial statements. The Municipal Register of Hartford, Conn., is more bulky, containing the Mayor’s message, annual reports of the city departments and the city ordinances. The Year Book for the city of Charleston, S. C., includes similar information. The Chicago City Manual prepared by the city statistician, contains lists of officials and brief accounts of the various city departments with some data on other local authorities. A comparison of these manuals shows that each of them could be improved in various ways. There is certainly a distinct need for an official publication that will give in a well edited volume of convenient size the more important facts as to the organization and activities of the local government. * Sanitary Surveys.-Mrs. Caroline Bartlett Crane of Kalamazoo, Mich., has prepared and published a number of reports on sanitary and social conditions in Nashville, Tenn., Erie, Pa., Saginaw, Mich., Rochester, N. Y., and seventeen cities in $167,453,818 $571,281,620 32,683,904 123.044.180 20,881,531 78,486,270 6,387,934 29.373.430 21,654,529 81,116.110 the state of Minnesota. The Minnesota report is the most comprehensive, including Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth as well as many smaller municipalities; and presenting the results of her investigation in a seriesof comparative studies on different topics, such as water, sewers, street sanitation, garbage collection and disposal, smoke nuisance, milk supply, meat supply, markets and food factories, hygiene and sanitation of school houses, housing problems, and almshouses and jails. These surveys have been made at the invitations of local associations and officials. That in Minnesota, on invitation from the state board of health and the Federation of Women’s Clubs, with the cooperation of the State Medical Association, the local medical societies, and the commercial clubs of Minnesota, St. Paul and Duluth. In Rochester the survey was undertaken on the invitation of the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union, seconded by the mayor and a qumber of official and unofficial organizations. * Ohio Tax Commission.-The second annual report of the Ohio tax commission shows some remarkable results from the centralization of the assessment of public utiIity companies in that state under the tax law of 1910. The assessed valuations of some of the more important classes of such utilities for 1910 and1911 are shown below. ASSEMXID VALUm 1910 1 1911 All publlc utllltles.. $263,191,480 $9812,862,833 The assessed value of real estate waH also increased from $1,656,944,031 in 1910

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462 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW to $4,223,138,080 in 19!1,-an increase of 154 per cent. The increase in public utility assessments was more than 350 per cent. 9 Public Recreation.-The committee on public recreation of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce has submitted a report to the board of directors, which was approved February 29, 1912. The scope of the committees’ work includes playgrounds, parks, dance halls, moving picture shows, pool rooms and other amusement resorts. The report recommends the issue of $1,OOO,OOO in bonds for playground purposes; and the creation of a department of public recreation to administer the municipal undertakings and to inspect and regulate public resorts under private management. An interesting table presents data as to municipal and school playgrounds in twenty-eight United States cities and inToronto, Canada and Birmingham and Liverpool, England. 9 City and County.-The Proceedings of the American Political Science Association contain a series of papers on the relations between city and county government in a number of the metropolitan communities in the United States, which were read at the eighth annual meeting held in Buffalo, December 27-30, 1911. The titles of the papers: The City and County in Massachusetts, by 0. C. Hormell; The relation of County to City Government in New York; by Arthur Ludington; Cook County and Chicago, by F. D. Bramhall; The Scheme of Separation of City and County Government, in Saint Louis, its History and Purpose, by Truman Post Young; and Consolidated City and County Government of San Francisco, by Percy V. Long. 9 Census Statistics.-The bureau of the Census has issued a bulletin on PO ulation containing an abstract of population statistics for 1910. In addition to more general data, a number of tables present statistics of urban population, classified according to size. One table dealing with the population of the metropolitan districts emphasizes the importance of the suburbs of large cities. Twenty-five metropolitan districts of over 200,000 population have a total of 22,088,331 inhabitants, nearly twenty-five per cent. of the total population of continental United States. The New York district has a population of 6,474,568; the Chicago district, 2,446,921; the Philadelphia district, 1,972,342; the Boston district, 1,520,470; and the Pittsburgh district, 1,042,855. 9b Special Libraries.-The monthly bulletin published by the Special Libraries Asssociation contains many items of interest to students of municipal affairs. In the issues for the past eight months, the following may be noted: September 1911, a short article on the International Municipal Congress and Exposition, held in Chicago; November, 1911, public utilities references; December, 1911, papers on municipal reference libraries and a select list of references on rates charged for public utilities in various cities; January 1912, a list of societies of state municipal and other governmental officials; February, 1912, public utilities references; March, 1912, current references on fire insurance and allied subjects. 9 St. Louis Park Report.-The annual report of the park department of St. Louis, Mo., for, the year ending April 30, 1911, includes, in addition to the report on parks, the report of the public recreation commission on public playgrounds, public baths and comfort stations. During the year 1911, the aggregate attendance at the twelve public playgrounds was 839,290, nearly double the attendance of three years before. Dwight F. Davis, a member of the council of the National Municipal League, has been appointed one of the park commissioners.

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS 463 Chicago Organization Charts. -The efficiency division of the civil service commission of the city of Chicago has published a second series of charts of organization, dealing with all departments of the city government as in effect February, 1912. These charts show the various lines of authority and responsibility titles, classification, grades, number and salaries of positions and the total number and compensation of employees assigned to the various departments. fb “The Celebration of the Fourth of July by Means of Pageantry” is the title of a volume issued by the division of recreation of the Russell Sage Foundation, with suggestions for future celebrations. It is prepared by William Chauncy Langdon who was master of the pageant at Thetford (see NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, page 76) with an article and notes on the music by Arthur Folwell, the suppervisor of municipal concerts in New York City. s Blue Valley Parkway, Kansas City, Mo. -A special report for the Blue Valley Parkway, Kansas City, Mo., has been prepared by the board of park commissioners. It is designed to show how a naturally beautiful section of the country near Kansas City can be developed both as a thing of beauty and as a means of affording pleasure and recreation to the people. The volume is well illustraced by photogravures and maps. s The Chicago Juvenile Court.-TheSuruey for March 30, 1912, contains a careful statement of the recent effort to undermine the juvenile court of Chicago, under the title Probation and Politics. This includes a summary of the noteworthy report of the committee, headed by Prof. Willard E. Eotchkiss of Northwestern University. * Birmingham, A1a.-The Survey for January 6, 1912, is a special Birmingham number, with articles on the spirit of the founders, Birmingham’s civic front, water and waste, conservation of health, conservation of childhood, steel workers in the Birmingham district and a cash nexus for crim (discussing the Alabama convict labor system). s The City Club of New York has published an address on “The Australian Ballot System of Massachusetts,” by Richard Henry Dana, Esq., of Boston, in which he answers some of the fallacious arguments advanced against the results of its operation in that state. The Metz fund of the New York bureau of municipal research has issued a series of (12) short talks on municipal accounting and reporting. REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED CONSTITUTION AND RULES. Metropolitan Borough Standing Joint Committee tee. London, England. SECRETARY’S ANNUAL REPORT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS. October 1911. THIRTY-EIGHTH REPORT OF THE COUNCIL FOR THE YEAR 1911. Association of Municipal Corporations. PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE CAROLINA MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION. Held at Raleigh. N. C., in 1911. REVIEW OF LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS OF SESSION OF 1911. By the joint legislative committee of Direct Legisla-tion League of Washington, State Federation of Labor, Farmers’ Union. State Grange, Tacoma.

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464 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS OF TEE AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPII COMPANY, for the year 1910. TEE ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC SERVICE CORPORATIONS. Alfred E. Holcomb. TRANSIT CONDITIONS IN SYRACUSE AND VICINITY. New York Public Service Commission, Second District. BOSTON CITY CHARTER. CHARTER TINKERING AGAIN. Boston Charter Association, February 1912. THE CONSOLIDATED CITY AND COUNTY GOVERNMENT OF SAN FRANCISCO. Percy V. Long, city attorney of the city and county of San Francisco. SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF CITY SERVICE COMMISSIONERS OF THE CIW OF MILWAUKEE. RULES AND REGULATIONS, CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSIONERS CINCINNATI. March 1912. REPORT OF THE CENTRAL COUNCIL OF CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS ON CIVIC WORE IN ST. LOUIS. THE INTER-RELATION OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS. Mary E. Richmond, Boston. American Unitarian Association. PROGRAM SUMMER SESSION. Chicago School of Civics and Philanthrophy. TIES. By Harvey S. Chase, Alexander Hamilton Institute, New York City. MUNICIPAL FINANCES IN RHODE ISLAND. By George H. Weber, commissioner of industrial statistics. ANNUAL REPORT OF FINANCIALTRANSACTIONS OF MUNICIPALITIES AND COUNTIES OF CALIFORNIA, FOR TEE YEAR 1911. A. B. Nye, State Controller. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT OF MUNCIPALIBUDGET ESTIMATES, 1912, CITY OF PEILADELPFIIA. Prepared by the Bureau of Municipal Research. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE NEW YORK CITY COMMISSION ON CONQESTION OF POPULATION. BOSTON’S HOUSING PROBLEM. Preliminary Report of a Committee ,appointed by the Economic Club of Boston. THB RECENT PROHIBITION MOVEMENT IN THE SOUTH. W. H. Thomas. Address bdore the National Municipal League, reprinted from the Montgomery Journal, November 16, 1911. THE LICENSE QUESTION AND ITS PROPER FORM. By Hugh F. Fox, secretary United Brewers Association. THE FIRE WASTE. Address of Walter L. Fisher before the National Fire Protection Association, 1911. THIRTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF TEE BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS, CITY OF GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. Transmitting the Report of the General Manager, etc. FORTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE GRAND RAPIDS PUBLIC LIBRARY. THAT CITY. By John Cotton Dana. Reprinted from the Pedagogical Seminary, September, 1911. SPECIAL INVESTIGATION NUMBER OF THE NEW YORK STATE HOSPITAL BULLETIN. REPORT FOR TEE YEAR 1910 OF THE ART COMMISSION OFTEE CITY OFNEWYORK FORTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FAIR. MOUNT PARK ART ASSOCIATION. Phil adelphia 1912. GARY, INDIANA, AMERICA’S MAGIC CITP. R0LATION TO TRUE TEMPERANCE RETEE STUDY OF A CITY IN TH0 SCEOOLS OF 1906-1912.

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL LEGISLATION EDITED BY JOHN A. LAPP Legislative Reference Department of the Indiana State Library I-REVIEW OF CERTAIN FEATURES OF STATE LEGISLATION AFFECTING MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT Baltimore.-The 1912 session of the Maryland legislature passed several laws relating to Baltimore. One of these laws empowers the city to expend $2,000,000 for extending the underground conduits for wires. Another provides for annual sewerage rates or charges for all houses connected with the sewerage system. These charges are based on the number of stories, the frontage and the fixtures. A charge of 25 cents per front foot is to be imposed upon vacant or unimproved lots. This law, however, does not become effective unless approved by a majority of the voters at the November election, 1912. The charter was amended by givirig additional power to the city over the use of streets and sidewalks for signs, poles, planting of trees, etc. The city is also given the power to establish, own and operate a municipal ferry and to provide by ordinance for abatements of any or all taxes on property used in manufacturing. Another law which is a very important one, in view of the fact of the extension of the water system, provides a new system for the condemnation of property for municipal purposes. Heretofore, when the city wished to condemn property for public purposes, outside of the city, the proceedings were had before a sheriff's jury but under the new law provision is made for the appointment of appraisers to determine the value of the property to be taken, with the right of appeal to the courts. In case of appeal, however, the trial will be had before a jury of the court and not before a sheriff's jury. The legislature also passed a law providing for a special tax for improved paving. This tax is so much'per front foot on property abutting on streets which have an improved pavement laid at the expense of the city and the amount of the tax is determined by the width of the street. The tax is to be levied for ten years only. At the present time, Baltimore is spending a $5,000,000 loan for improved paving and the special tax is to be added to this fund, in order to make it possible to pave the entire city. As a number of streets have been paved by special assessments, the tax was made applicable to those streets already paved st the public expense and to those streets to be paved out of the $5,000,000 loan. About twenty-five miles will be paved this year. The proposed charter for Baltimore passed the legislature with several amendments but was vetoed by the governor at, the request of the charter commission, which was appointed in 1909. This commission had submitted the charter to the legislature of 1910 but it failed to pass at that time. In this proposed charter, the bicameral council was abolished and a singlelbranch council consisting of fourteen members was substituted. This was amended in the legislature by increasing the council to twenty-six members, one to be elected from each ward and two at large. The legislature also eliminated the provisions for a non-partisan primary and election and the recall of elective officials. These two amendments had been added by the commission and a citizen committee of fifty and presented to the 1912 session of the legislature. By increasing the membership of the council to twenty-six and eliminating the provisions for non-partisan primaries and elections, the members of the charter commission considered that the legislature had failed to comply with 465

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466 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the platform pledges of both political parties and consequently requested the governor to veto the bill. It was also stated that since the charter was not to go into effect until 1915 any way, there was little reason for submitting the charter at this time, since there would be another session of the legislature in 1914. The charter as finally passed arid vetoed by the governor, however, contained provisions which many thought were an improvement over the present charter, among the provisions being: The merit system, the substitution of single heads in place of boards for several departments, ‘the introduction of improved business and accounting methods, the increase of the powers of the boards of estimates and awards, etc. * People’s Court, Baltimore.-The magistrate and constable system in Baltimore was as bad a8 it has been largely because both justices snd constables were dependent entirely upon the fee system. Any intelligent measure of reform would, therefore, involve, in the first instance, the substitution of fixed salaries paid by the city for the fees paid by the litigants themselves to officials. The new people’s court consists of five justices of the peace, appointed by the governor of Maryland from among the body of magistrates appointed by him. This device was adopted in analogy to the prevailing system, by which the police magistrates and the magistrrttes for juvenile causes had already been appointed. The presiding justice of the people’s court will receive an annual salary of $2500, and the four associate justices will each receive the same salary. All magistrate cases will either be made returnable before the presiding justice or may be removed by any party to the presiding justice whose duty it is to apportion all cases for trial before himself and the associate justices, in such manner as will best expedite their triul and promote the ends of justice. All other justices than those of the people’s court will receive a salary of $10, and no more, per annum, for the performance of all civil judicial duties. All fees are required to be paid to the chief constable and by him covered into the treasury of Baltimore. As a consequence, all civil justices cases will inevitably be tried in the people’s court. The necessity for resorting to these devices arises out of the fact that the constitution of Maryland seems to provide for not less than twentyfour justices of the peace for Baltimore, a considerably greater number than is needed. The payment of adequate salaries to all of those would impose a heavy burden upon the taxpayers. The five justices of the people’s court will, it is believed, be able to try all civil magistrate cases. The minimum number of constables apparently permitted by the constitution, twenty-four, is provided for in the new law; one of these, the chief constable, with a salary of $1800, is constituted the clerk of the people’s court. Two assistant constables at salaries of $1200 each compose his office force. Five assistant constables at salaries of $1200 each act as court clerks to the respective justices of the people’s court. Five additional assistants receiving (lo00 each act as court bailiffs andthe remaining eleven assistants at the same salary, serve the processes of the court. If the arrangement above outlined proves satisfactory, it is believed that it will not be difficult to secure an amendment to the state constitution abolishing the magistrate and constable systems, and permitting the establishment of an effective municipal court. In any event, the new court cannot fail to be a decided improvement over the obsolete system which it succeeds. HORAC~ E. FLACR. 4 Weights and Measures Laws City Sealers.-The general trend of weights and measures legislation seems to be

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL LEGISLATION 467 toward a uniformity, although no authorized association has issued a model uniform law on the subject. A system which establishes standards, with conformity to United States standards, and units of weights and measures, provides strict rules and regulations for inspection, defines clearly powers and duties of o5cials, properly penalizes violation of the provisions, ensures their enforcement, substitutes salaries for the fee system and above all, provides an organization which branches logically from the state officer down to the o5cer of the small community, leaving, however, the appointing power to state, county, city or town o5cials as the case may be, roughly summarizes the essentials of a good type of weights and measures law, and one which from the point of view of the work of the city sealer now under consideration would be most advantageous to the public. The weights and measures laws of 1911 may be grouped into two classesone, of new laws affecting the whole state syotem of standards of weights and measures and their inspection; the other, of lesser laws or amendments of already existing statutes. These latter, found in the session laws of Arkansas, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Utah, consist for the most part in merely strengthening weak places in old laws. In the first group, that of the new state laws, we find enactments in California, Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey and Pennsylvania and such an amendment of the existing code in Wisconsin regarding a state organization as makes practically a new statute. In reviewing these new laws, particularly as they affect the city sealer, it seems unnecessary to dwell on the points included almost universally and which are, generally speaking, similar, such as general duties and powers, penalties, standards and units (these latter are often embodied in a separate law). Attention is given, rather, to the municipal sealer, in his relations with the higher powers, in exceptional points of administration, work, appointment, etc. These new laws may be separated into two groups-those which attempt to provide a thorough state system, and those which stop far short of the possibilities of the subject. These latter are: California, Maine, Minnesota and Pennsylvania, althqugh in reality, Minnesota should stand apart from either group as its new law is a radical departure from all the other laws, in that the department of weights and measures it creates, is a department of the railroad and warehouse commission, which body appoints the commissioner of weights andmeasures and controls the department, which, through its chief and its employees, carries on the entire work of inspection in the state doing away entirely with the previously existing system of local officials;-BIO,OOOis appropriated forthe work. In the new California law, there are two distinct weaknesses, from the view point of central control. First, the only direct relation the local sealers, who are appointed by the local governing body, have with the state government, lies in their receipt from the secretary of state, of copies of the state standards which he must test once in two years. Further, the question of salary of the local officer is left entirely to the local government, which is also authorized to fix the fees and charges to be exacted and to disburse the funds collected by the sealers. The Maine law is merelx a step in the right direction. It supplements existing laws regarding local inspection of weights and measures by appointing the state commissioner of agriculture to hold also the office of state sealer and giving him power to enforce the statutes controlling county and municipal officers, and to test local standards, but the last duty, unfortunately is required only every ten years. Pennsylvania made the beginnings of R state system by enacting two laws. The first creates a bureau of standards in the department of internal affairs, which tests local standards and requires annual

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468 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW reports from local officers, and the second deals very briefly with the powers and duties of local sealers, providing, among other things, that city sealers are appointed by the mayor and their salaries fixed by ordinance and that the local government bear the expense of local set6 of standards. The group of laws which have been left to the last to review are of comprehensive scope, although varying in detail, with definite connection between the state officer in charge of weights and measures inspection and the local officials. In Connecticut, this state officer is the Superintendent of state police, in Indiana, he is the state food and drug commissioner and all local officers are his deputies, in Montana, he is the secretary of state, in New Jersey, he is a separate officer whom the governor appoints, and in Wisconsin, the office is transferred from the chief of the engineering department of the State University, to the dairy and food commissioner. These officers, by different names, all have similar duties of various sorts, including inspection of state standards, in Connecticut and Indiana once every two years, and in Montana, New Jersey and Wisconsin, once every five years, visits to local sealers, inspection of their work and issuance or regulations for their control in varying degrees-in Montana, the rules and regulations of the state sealer if approved by the governor, have the effect of the law itself. In Indiana and Montana (again with the governor’s approval) they have the power ,of removing inspectors who fail in or neglect their duty, with, in Indiana, the privileges granted to the one so removed of a hearing before the state board of health and an appeal to the circuit or superior court of the county. In all these states, with theexception of Connecticut, reports are required of the city sealers, to be submitted annually in Indiana and Wisconsin to the mayor, monthly in Montana, to the state sealers, and annually in New Jersey to the state superintendent of weights and measure. City sealers, in all these states, are appointed by the local body which appoints officers-in Connecticut the city must be of 25,000 population, otherwise the county sealer has jurisdiction-xcept in Wisconsin in the case of cities of over 5000 inhabitants where they are appointed by .the mayor under civil service rules. In New Jersey, also, civil service rules apply to city sealers. Two states make requirements for eligibility for office of sealer, Indiana and New Jersey. In Indiana, the person seeking the office of local sealer must either be in the position at the time the law goes into effect, have had recent experiences in the duties and work of the office, or pass an examination given by the state commissioner. The New Jersey law distinctly states that not only must the state superintendent possess scientific and technical knowledge of the construe. tion and use of weights and measures but that his assistants and local officers must have sufficient scientific knowledge to inspect and report on technical conditions of standards. Salaries of city sealers are determined by the body which appoints them in all five states; in Connecticut, not to exceed $loOO; In Indiana from $1500 to $1800 for cities of the first class, and $1200 to $1500 in cities of the second class; in Montana, no limit is placed and the fees collected are divided, 75 per cent to the city and 25 per cent to the state; in New Jersey the salary must not exceed $1500. Each law provides that all weights and measures in the state must be tested at least once every two years except Montana where a yearly inspection is required and a semi-annual test of public weighing machines. In New Jersey every inspector in the state is expressly empowered to weigh commodities in transit. In Montana, peddlers and hawkers must take their scales to a sealer for inspection and this class of merchants are forbidden the use of ice scales. Montana and Wisconsin both give particular attention to standards for milk and cream bottles. The new form of Wisconsin’s law does away en

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL LEGISLATION tirely with county sealers, all inspection except that in cities being carried on from the state office, in this step approaching in a slight degree the new Minnesota law above noted which has only state inspection. ETHEL CLELAND. Indianapolis, Ind. Ir Taxation Affecting Municipalities.The constitutions of more than threequarters of the states require uniform taxation of all property. Because of this limitation few changes in taxation are made that affect municipalities only, and most tax legislation is necessarily of a general character. As a rule, municipal taxes are levied in the same way as taxes in rural districts and for state and county purposes. The most important recent change in municipal taxation was probably in California where, pursuant to aconstitutional amendment ratified in 1910, all operating property of public service corporations is now exempted from local assessment and taxation, and in lieu thereof such corporations now pay a gross earnings tax to the state. This plan follows substantially the Pennsylvania system. The chief reason for the change was the increasing difficulty of assessing public service corporation property, especially when running through many tax districts. Last year the receipts were sufficient to replace the direct state tax heretofore levied on property locally assessed, and this gain offsets, on the average, the loss to local revenues due to the exemption. The Pennsylvania legislature (1911) abolished the “classification”. of real estate in second-class cities (Pittsburgh and Scranton), under which undeveloped real estate within the city limits had been classified as agricultural and paid only one-half the city rate. In Pittsburgh this system had resulted in gross abuses, land being kept as pasture near the heart of the city and profiting by this low tax rate as well as under-assessment; while the added burden fell upon the owners of improved property assessed at full city rate, and especially upon the small home-owners. Another injust.ice was abolished at the same time. Pittsburgh had been divided into school districts, each of which paid the entire cos: of the schools within its boundaries. Thus the districts with small homes and many children paid a very high rate, while in the business sections, with few children and high values, made largely by the expenditures of the people in the small homes, the rate was trifling. Now there is a uniform rate for schools throughout the city. Ohio enacted (1911) a tax limit law, whereby the maximum rate in any district may not exceed ten mills ($1.00 on the $100) for all purposes (state, county, school, township and municipal) except interest and sinking fund, and the city rate cannot exceed five mills. The total rate may be increased by a vote of the people but not to exceed 15 mills. There is complaint from some districts that their revenue is insufficient and opinions regarding the success of the law vary. Massachusetts adopted (1911) a constitutional amendment permitting “excess condemnation,” under which cities are authorized in connection with opening streets or parks, to condemn adjoining land sufficient for building lots which can then be leased or sold. The purpose is two-fold-to enable cities to recoup some of the expense of public improvements by securing the added value which such improvements give to abutting land; and to give control over the character of buildings to be erected opposite a park or along a thoroughfare. In Canada there have been notable changes in municipal taxation. For several years British Columbia has required, by general law, that land should be assessed at full value while buildings should not be assessed for taxation at more than 50 per cent of their value, and has provided that city councils might reduce the percentage as they saw fit. Vancouver reduced the percentage to 26 and finally exempted improvements entirely two years ago.

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470 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW In the province of Alberta cities and villages have, for some years, been empowered to exempt personal property and improvements from taxation. At the last session of the legislature this exemption was made compulsory in rural municipalities, villages and towns, and hereafter all local taxes must be levied on the value of land only, there being no tax upon personal property, improvements or business. Cities are governed by special charters and are not affected by these amendments. Most of the cities have a similar system, raising their revenues from taxes on land values, franchises, and business tares based on area of premises occupied. A. C. PLEYDELL.’ $ City Forestry.-The science of forestry is nowhere better illustrated than in the progressive care which many cities are taking of the trees within the limits of the public ways and places and the advice and assistance to private owners in the development of tree planting and care. Scores of cities have adopted ordinances prohibiting mutilation of trees on the streets and providing for their scientific care by expert foresters. State legislatures have given permissive legislation and have also passed direct regulatory measures. New Jersey has done more perhaps than any other state in this line. A model shade tree law was passed in 1893 and under it, shade tree commissions have been established in several of its cities. Not all have secured the best results but some, notably Newark have succeeded in permanently beautifying their cities. So widespread was the interest in that state that a permanent association of shade tree commissioners was formed in 1910. Massachusetts’ cities have also been active in municipal forestry work and Springfield, Fitchburg and Boston have regular foresters. Buffalo, N. Y.; ‘Secretary New YOI k Taft Reform Amooiatlon. Cleveland, Ohio; Pittsburg and Philadelphia, Pa. : Detroit, Saginaw and Grand Rapids, Mich.; New Orleans, La.; Providence, R. I.; St. Louis, Mo.; Milwaukee, Wis. ; .Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minn. ; Jamestown, N. Y.; Manhattan, Kansas; Chicago, Ill.; and the village of Glen Ellyn; Denver and Colorado Springs, Colorado, and Oklahoma City have done much through their city foresters or park boards to care for forestry development. An interesting and significant move has been made recently by the state department of agriculture of Texas to interest the’cities of that state in the care of trees. A deputy commissioner is visiting the cities and urging their cdperation with the state department in that direction and the work to be developed is expected to be done partly by the state board. This will enable all cities large and small to avail themselves of the best service at small cost. The state forestry departments of other states and the national forestry bureau are also aiding the movement by means of educational literature and advice. The chief limitation to the foresters has been the lack of sufficient funds to accomplish results, the appropriation being often so small as to limit the foresters’ work to advisory and educational activity. Typical of the powers granted to shade tree commissions and city foresters is that found in Newark, although most cities have not so much latitude. The Newark shade tree commission which consists of three free holders who serve without compensation is given “exclusive, and absolute control and power to plant, set out, maintain, protect and care for shade trees in any of the public highways.” The commission is also given control of the public parks. Trees are planted on the streets by order of the commission after a public conference and hearing. The streets to be planted are chosen and the places for trees marked. Notice is given to abutters and suggestions of changes are heard. The cost of the plnnting ia paid hy y)-i*i:Ll

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL I;EGISLATION 471 assessment on the real estate abutting the improvement. Only the actual cost is assessed. On request the commishion plants trees for private owners and collects the cost by bill. The commission takes care of all trees plaDted on the highways, watching, spraying, training, watering and replacing. Tree planting and trimming are prohibited without the permission of the commission to insure systematic development. Another service which city foresters are called upon to do is the prevention and eradication of tree pests. The Massachusetts’ cities have generally combined the duties of preventing the gypsy and brown-tail moth with the work of the forester. The thousands of pests which prey upon the trees make this an essential part of the work. The development of city forestry is just in its infancy but it is certain to increase with the increasing appreciation of civic beauty. Cities have hardly realized yet the possibilities of beauty which the systematic cultivation of trees throughout its limits will give. The city subjects the trees to unnatural strains upon their life and these must be counteracted by tree care and prohibitory legislation. The Newark shade tree commission says of the necessity for municipal control: Adequate municipal control secures for the tree expert planting, pruning, mulching, spraymg, etc. Take .the operations of pruning and spraying. When these have been left to private initiative, they have either been entirely neglected, or the operation so inexpertly performed (in many cases) to result in the ruin of the tree. It is pitiful-the trees that have been done for forever by unskilled pruning and spraying. In a word, the treaiment of treesis an expert profession; vate initiative, as a rule, ignores ti% vital fact; intelligent municipal control accepts the fact and acts upon it. * TrafEc Rules.-The board of public works for the city of Manchester, N. H., has established an extensive and detailed code of traffic rules which took effect May 13, though without penalty in the event of violation until June 17. Whether traffic can be so minutely regulated as is attempted, remains to be seen. The regulations are adopted by authority of section 2, chapter 359, laws 19ll‘(which chapter created the board) wherein it is provided that : The board shall have full charge, supervision, management and control of the building, constructing, repairing and maintaining of all highways . they shall have the power to regulate’the traffic and travel upon, the placing of incumbrances in, and the moving of buildings through the highways of said city. . . . The boardshallmake such rules and re lations governing the conduct of the Ksiness contemplated under this act as they may deem expedient, and they shall, for the carrying out of the purposes of this act, have all the powers now by law vested in the board of street and park commissioners, and the various city departments and officials of said city now having control of the matters covered by this act. * Ohio Referendum.-Last winter the Ohio legislature passed the Crosser initiative and referendum law which vests in 15 per cent of the electorate power to hold up legislation. Under the provision of this law an ordinance of the city of Akron is being held up for a vote by the people until next November. Commenting upon this a local newspaper says that “Wehave no quarrel with the referendum principle as embodied in the Crosser law. It might work out well if there was provision for immediate decisions of debatable questions. But any law which places in the hands of 15 per cent of an electorate the power to hold up legislation for ahost a year and perhaps nullify the will of the people is logically out of place on the statute books. The bill may be entirely legal and capable of enforcement yet the law makes it possible for a public service corporation by securing sufficint -igna-. tures to a referendum petitiori to huld up a desirable reform for months.” Another

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472 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW newspaper points out (‘that immediate decisions of questions held up by referendum would involve almost constant elections and entail upon the community ik bankrupting expense. ” * Norfolk, Va.-City council by virtue of authority granted by a recent act of legislature has reduce,d the number of councilmen from 64 to 40 and redistricted the city into five wards instead of ten as at present. The council first attempted to make a still smaller council and passed an ordinance fixing the number at twentyfive allowing a salary. The mayor disapproved the measure and the number was fixed at forty without pay.‘ JUVENILE COURTS Delaware, Wilmington-Juvenil e Courts.-By an act of April 4, 1911, the legislature of Delaware created a juvenile court for the city of Wilmington. The court is given sole and exclusive jurisdiction in all cases relating to delinquent, dependent or neglected male children seventeen years or under, and female children eighteen years of age or under. The judge of the court is appointed by the governor for a term of 4 years. The chief probation officer is appointed by the judges of the superior court and receives an annual salary of $lOOO. Volunteer probation officers, men or women, are appointed by the Judge of the juvenile court, and serve without pay. The duties of the probation officers are confined to the investigation of cases, procuring and collation of information and the general charge of juvenile offenders, Any reputable resident of Wilmington is authorized to report ascertained delinquencies. The general public so far as lawful are cxcluded from the hearing. The incarceration of any child under 14 years of pge in a jail or police station is forbidden. The court is authorized to place juvenile offenders in their own homes under custody of a probation officer, or in a suitable family, or remand them to nry institution for the care of children. A board of visitation, appointed by the judge of the juvenile court, who serve without pay are required to visit and inspect each detention institution once annually.2 Indiana.-By an act approved March 2, 1911, the time for electing the judge of the juvenile court of Marion County wa8 chaqged, and fixed to be held in November, 1914 and 1918, and every.four years thereafter.$ * Tennessee, Hamilton County (containing Chattanooga) ,-An act approved March 28, 1911, created a juvenile court for Hamilton County, held by the judge of the city court of Chattanooga for which he received no additional compensation. This court is given exclusive jurisdiction in the enforcement of laws regulating the conduct of delinquent children, under sixteen years of age, and contribution delinquency of adults. Probation officers are appointed by the judge and their duties are confined to the service of warrants, custody, detention and supervision of juvenile offenders, who must while swaiting a hearing be separately confined. The disciplinary destination of proved delinquents include, the criminal court, industrial schools, reformatory, reputable private family, homes of offenders.‘ I! Tennessee, Knox County (containing city of Knoxville).-The juvenile court of Knox County was created by an act approved July 3, 1911. The court is presided over by the recorder of the city of Knoxville who serves without compensaRobert E. Steed. C!ty Clerk. Norfolk. 9 1911. p. 709. a 1911, p. 139. 4 1911, P. 488.

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CURRENT MUMCIPAL LEGISLATION 473 tion. The judge pro tern. is appointed by the governor and ultimately elected by the qualified voters of Knox County for the constitutional period. The clerk is appointed by the judge and serves without pay. The regular probation officers, one man and one woman, who each receive a salary of $60 per month and the assistant probation officers, who serve without compensation, are appointed by the judge and their duties include the seryice of citations, custody, detention and supervision of delinquents and dependents. The court exercises original and exclusive jurisdiction over all matters involving dependent or delinquent children under dxteen years of age. Formal citation proceeds on the presentation of information respecting the unlawful irregularities of any juvenile offender by any reputable person possessing such knowledge. The sentence of the court may embrace the imposition of a fine, commission to the workhouse, house of detention or industrial school apprenticeship in a reputable family or surrender of jurisdiction to the criminal court. An appeal is made to lie to the circuit court. Confinement in the county jail or lockup is forbidden; separate places of detention for white and colored offenders is required. The judge is required to inspect all detention institutions annually.' c New York, Buffalo.-An act of July 14, 1911, revised the charter of Buffalo by providing for the establishment of the children's court. The judge is elected for a term of ten years, any resident elector of Buffalo being eligible, and removable by the appellate division 'of the supreme court, his compensation being fixed by the common council. The clerk is appointed by the judge. The jurisdict,ion of the court is made to extend to all cases involving delinquency of persons sixteen years of age and (inder and his concurrent jurisdiction to the contributory delinquency of adults. The court is divided into two parts, one the children's court, the other for the trial of adults. No child may be detained longer than thirty days, nor under any circumstances taken to the police station. The judge is required to appoint at least three probation officers, one of whom must be a woman, their compensation being provided by the common council. Children may be adjudged in need of care and protection or subjected to merited punishment. The city is required to provide a detention home presided over by a superintendent. * New York, NewYork City.-New York, by alaw approved July20,1911, amended a previous act relating to the subject of juvenile delinquency by providing that in the arraignment of children the officer having the child in charge is required to notify the parent., guardian or custodian of the child. The clause of the law making it unlawful to taka a child to any police station for temporary detention was omitted.a c Wisconsin, Beloit.-On June 19, 1905, the legislature of Wisconsin created a municipal court in the city of Beloit and defined its powers and jurisdiction. On May 10, 1911,5 the legislature gave this court concurrent jurisdiction with the county court over applications for the commitment of dependent children to the state public school at S~arta.~ c Municipal Court of Cleveland, Ohio.The law creating a municipal court in Cleveland was amended in numerous particulars by an act6 of the last general assembly. The court now consists of seven judges, one of whom is achief justice, elected by the people for a term of four years. 1 1911, p. 1669. 2 1911, p. 1729. : 1911, p. 1944. 4 Charles Kettleborough. 8 1911. p 120,

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474 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL R.EVIEW The court has original jurisdiction in civil cases within the city limits as follows: 1. In all actions in which justices of the peace have jurisdiction. 2. In all actions under $lo00 in which courts of common pleas have jurisdiction. 3. In all actions or contracts not to exceed $25,000. , 4. In all actions to enforce the collections of the court’s own judgments. 5. In all actions for the sale of personal property under mortgage. 6. In all actions for the sale of real estate under liens. 7. In all actions in the nature of creditors’ bills in aid of execution. 8. In all actions in the nature of interpleader. The court has appellate civil jurisdiction in all actions from a court of a justice of the peace, both in the cityof Cleveland and in the county. The court, also, has jurisdiction in every ancillary and supplemental proceeding, now conferred upon the court of common pleas and justice of the peace. Jurisdiction of all misdemeanors and of all violations of city ordinances is likewise vested in the court. In civil actions, if a jury is demanded, it is composed of six men, unless a smaller number is agreed upon, or a full quota of twelve is demanded. In criminal cases, the jury is to be composed of the twelve men. The solicitor of the city of Cleveland is the prosecuting attorney for the court. Provision is also made for probation officers, clerk, bailiff and other officials. By terms of the act, the police court of Cleveland and all its officials cease to exist after January 1, 1912. CHARLES WELLS REEDER.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA PROFESSOR CHARLES A. BEARD, Columbia University, New York, Associate Editor in Charge. ASSISTED BY PROFESSOR MURRAY GROSS, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia DR. EDWARD M. SAIT, Columbta University, New York I. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT. Home Rule for Ohio Cities.-The constitutional convention of Ohio has submitted to the voters of the state probably the most radical home rule provisions of any of the eight or nine states which have thus far granted local autonomy to municipalities. The proposal, as it passed the convention on May 27, was not in the formoriginallysubmittedbythe conference of Ohio Cities, and the friends of home rule will await with some anxiety the first decisions of the courts, if the amendment is adopted at the special election to be held in September. As the amendment is now worded, there is a possibility of an ultra-conservative court holding that all charters and ordinances adopted by a city under the home rule provisions will be subjected to any general law which the Legislature may wish to pass. The advocates of the proposal sought to give the cities all powers of local self government subject only to such laws as affected the welfare of the state as a whole. The Anti-Saloon League insisted that the provisions should make impossible local control of the liquor traffic. In the fight to secure these changes, the extent of local autonomy was considerably curtailed, or at least its extent will be in doubt until the courts have rendered a decision on the general principles involved. The proposed amendment is much longer andmore detailed than was originally intended, and consists of fourteen sections which are in brief as follows:1. Municipal corporations are divided into cities and villages; those having a population of 5000 or more are cities; all others are villages. 2. The city or village may determine the form of its government in either of three ways: (a) A ‘municipality may adopt its own charter by electing a commission of fifteen to frame the charter and submit it to the people for ratification. (b) The legislature may pass a general or special act which a city or village may adopt by a majority vote. (c) The legislature shall by general law pravide for the government of cities-laws which will automaticall take effect in all cities or villages which $0 not take steps to secure their own charters in the manner indicated above in “a.’ and “b”. 3. Under‘‘anyform of munici a1 government municfpalities shaE have authority to exercise all powers of local self-government and to adopt and enforce within their limits such local police, sanitary and other regulations aa are not in conflict with general laws.” 4. Municipalities may acquire, construct, own, lease, operate ubIic utilities and may issue mort ae;e gonds therefore beyond the genera! limit of bonded indebtedness prescribed b law, but such mortgage bonds shall be a Hen onlyon the property and revenues of the public utility itself. 5. Municipalities may exercise the right of excess condemnation in appropriating property, provided the bonds issued to pay for such excess shall be a lien only upon the property acquired for the improvement and the excess. 6. The general assembly is given authority to limit the power of municipalities to levy taxes and incur debts for local purposes; to require uniform reports from cities as to their financial condition; and to provide for the examination of the accounts of all municipalities or of public utilities operated by the municipality. If the amendment is adopted it will take effect on January 1, 1913. In all probability, steps will be immediately 475

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476 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW taken by a number of the cities to elect a charter commission to frame new charters. In the meantime, the Ohio Municipal League will begin the preparation of measures to be submitted to the legislature which convenes in January. The opposition to the home rule poposal came chiefly from the anti-saloon or “dry” forces in the convention, and the public utility corporations. The corporations claimed that the provisions were wholly unfair to existing private companies because they made it possible for a municipality to enter into competition with a privately owned plant, and after depreciating its value by unequal competition, to condemn such plant and take it over at its depreciated value. This argument for a time had some weight with the convention, but when an amendment was submitted by the public utility interests which would have practically nullified the municipal ownership provisions, the convention rejected it by a large majority and sefpsed to consider any further compromise. Municipal home rule in Ohio six months ago was a hazy, indefinite desire on the part of the cities. It is now embodied in a definite, concrete, constitutional amendment, supported by practically every city and newspaper in the state. Its adoption in September is assured if any of the other forty-two ‘amendments are accepted by the people. . MAYO FISLER. * New Home Rule Charters in Minnesota.Severa1 Minnesota cities have recently framed or are engaged in framing new charters, among these are St. Paul, Minneapolis, Anoka, St. Cloud, and Glenwood. The St. Paul charter commission has completed its work, but will not formally submit the proposed charter to the mayor until after the city election in May. If the charter were submitted now it would have to be voted upon at the regular city election when its defeat wouId be almost a certainty, since four-sevenths of all those voting at that election would have to vote for the charter in order to secure its adoption, though not a single ballot were cast against it. If the charter is submitted at a special election it stands a better chance of adoption. Under the charter of 1900 the mayor had the power to appoint practically all the heads of departments, but not the power of removal. To prevent a new mayor from raiding the departments and appointing his henchmen, the departments were placed in charge of boards. For example, police, fire, water, parks and workhouse, were under the control of five boards of five members each, serving for five . years, one member retiring each year. The board of public works’ and control had three members each; the school board, seven; the library; nine; (appointed by the District Court), and equalisation, eleven. The mayor could appoint only one new member each year and since the mayor’s term was two gears he could not secure a favorable majority on any of these boards, unless he secured a reelection, excepting only public works and control of which be could gain the majority in his second year. Having no power of removal the mayor had little power of controlling the departments, beyond calling the presidents of the boards to a monthly conference, asking for reports and giving advice and admonition. The departments were also independent of the council, excepting that the maximum Hum appropriated each year was fixed by that body. Since the charter stated exactly the maximum sum which could be spent by each board annually, the council could do little more than appropriate that sum. When the maximum became inadequate, m it did within three or four years after the adoption of the charter, amendments were secured raising each sum slightly. Finally tiring of these recurring home rule amendments, the legislature was induced to abolish the limitations entirely in 1909. Of course these financial limitations, absurd as they may seem, were a necessary part of a system of administration,

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 477 which so completely scattered power and concealed responsibility. The proposed charter retains the bicameral council, the upper house con-, sisting of nine members elected at large every second year, the lower consisting of twelve aldermen from as many wards chosen at the same time and for the same term. The administrative system is altered materially. A single commissioner is placed in charge of police, fire, health and public works; boards are retained for parks, water, schools, libraries, and some minor services. The mayor appoints and may remove these heads of departments, and all others, including city engineer, treasurer, and purchasing agent. The subordinates in all departments ranking below the heads and deputy heads, excepting all employed in the legal department, and teachers and school officers are placed under civil service rules. In place of the former lump sum limitations upon the expenditures of the departments, there is a percentage limitation on the amount that can be raised by taxation for each purpose. There is also a budget committee composed of the mayor, comptroller, president of the common council, president of the assembly, and president of the board of aldermen. The majority of the budget committee are therefore not connected with the administrative departments, and of course are not responsible for results in doing the work of the city. The powers of the city council are all itemized in detail but much more logically and systematically stated than in the old charter. The council is expressly given authority to regulate the rates of all public service companies holding franchises from the city. An annual license tax equal to 5 per cent of the gross earnings is imposed upon all such companies within the city. The recall of all elective officers, excepting municipal justices and constable is provided for on petition of 20 per cent of the total vote cast for the office in question. There is a compulsory referendum on all grants or renewals of franchises and on certain bond issues. There is no power of initiative granted beyond that allowed by the constitution in securing new charters or amendments. The Minneapolis charter commission has agreed to the initiative, referendum, recall and civil service provisions. The municipal court is to remain as at present. The commission is at present working on the following report of a plan of organization of government presented by Prof. W. A. Schaper, a member of the commission. I The council should be retained but there should be only one alderman from a ward. The whole number should not be less than eighteen. There are two ways of selecting the additional five aldermen: Plan I. The ward lines may be rearran ed so as to create five additional warfs; or, Plan 11, the five aldermen may be elected at large. Which alternative we select will depend on how many other officials are to be elected at large and what their functions are to be. The present method of conducting a large part of the department business of the city through the committees of the council should be discontinued and the council should have legislative functions only. I1 In place of the present illogical and cumbersome administrative organization of the city, I suggest that there be established seven departments, somewhat as follows: 1. Department of city. records 2. Department of law 3. Department of health and hospitals Under this department should be placed all the health and hospital work of the city, organized into proper branches with a subordinate officer in charge (a) TBe city hospital (b) Hopewell hospital (c) Quarantine hospital (d) The case of the poor (e) Garbage collections (may be transferred to public works) (f) Inspection services (g) City bacteriologist .and all other health activities of the city 4. Department of public works (or the city engineer)

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478 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW This department should have charge of all the engineering work of the city, embracing under proper subdivisions : (a) Streets, sidewalks, and bridges (abolishing the thirteen street (b) The city sewers (c) The city waterworks troller) (a) Office of city accountant (b) Office of city treasurer (c) Office of city assessor 6. Department of ,public safety This should embrace: (a) The city police (b) The city firemen (c) The city building inspector (d) License inspector, etc. (e) Workhouse 7. Department of parks and public commissioners) 5. Department of Finance (or clty compUnder this department should come three subdivisions : grounds. Here should be grouped all the activities of the present park board. I11 The heads of these departments may Plan I, by electing .five of them at 1. The mayor, head of the department of ublic safety 2. The controffer, head of the department of finance 3. The city engineer, head of the department of public works 4. The commissioner of health, head of the department of health and hospitals 5. The &mmissioner of parks, head of the department of parks and public grounds and appointing the remaining two : 6. City attorney, and 7. City clerk, by the city council on nomination of the “conference committee”-the mayor’s board Plan I1 provide$ for the election of only two of these heads of departments by the people: 1. The mayor, head of the department of public safety 2. The city controller, head of the department of finance, and the appointment of the remaining five by the mayor. 3. The city engineer, head of bhe department, of public works be selected by one of two plans: large 4. The commissioner of health, head of the department of health and hospitals 5. The commissioner of Darks. head of department of ‘parks and piiblic grounds 6. The city attorney, with the approval of the council 7. The city clerk, with the approval of the council The next most important change in the present system is to introduce a proper correlation between these departments. This can be done by providing that there shall be an administrative board, or commission, called perhaps “the conference committee,” consisting of the heads of the five leading departments of the city government, with the mayor as chairman, the city attorney as its legal adviser, and tho city clerk aa its secretary, the three othe: officers being the city controller, the commissioner of public works, commissioner of health and hospitals, and the commissioner of parks and public grounds. The conference committee should be entrusted with the general conduct of the city’s business including: (a) Letting of contracts (b) Acquiring lands except for school purposes (c) Pro osing the annual budget (4 M a f: ‘ng appointments within the departments on recommendation of the head of the department in accordance with civil service rules. (e) Making reports and recommendations as to change in ordinances. .(f) Transacting all business in open daily meetings and keeping a record of all transac tions to be reported to the city council at the following meeting V The most important change of all and the most needed one is a proper correlation of the city departments with the legislative body, the city council. It is proposed to require the mayor and the four other heads of leading departments composin the conference cornmittee to attenf all council meetings; to take part in the discussions (but to have no right to vote); to prepare the annual budget for the city council (subect to the action of the board of tax i evy); to make re orts and recommendations when callelfor and to answer Sli questions asked of them by members of

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 479 the council relating to the conduct of the city’s business in any department. The city attorney will attend these meetings aa legal adviser, and the city clerk, will of course, act as the secretary of the council. By this plan complete articulation is assured, first among the departments, through the daily meetings of the conference committee, and between the departments and the city council through the bi-weekly meetings of the council. It provides for a complete centralization of authority for the doing of the city’s business, a large representative council to the people to make the ordinances,vote the taxes, appropriate money, decide all the important policies of the city after hearing the expert and responsible heads of departments discuss the questions in open council meeting and after gublic hearings; it provides a joint nancial plan for the city and county through the present board of tax levy. The board of tax levy which fixes the maximum rate of taxation for city and county purposes is in many respects the best feature of the present system. In fact the princi le of coordination established by that goard in framing the budget is the one which forms the basis of this new lan. The board of tax levy consists ofthe chairman of the board of county commissioners; the county auditor representing Hennepin County; the mayor, city controller, president of the park board, president of the school board and chairman of the ways and means committee of the council. This is in fact a joint city and county conference committee composed of important heads of departments, meeting once a year to determine the budget for city and county purposes and make their recommendations to the council and county board. It is now proposed to extend the principle of this scheme and adopt it to the conduct of all the important business of the city. The plan proposed is a lo ‘cal outgrowth of the board of tax levy wfich saved the present chaotic administrative system from complete paralysis and enabled the city to get along as well as it has. There is one other principle that has been taken from the present system in planning the proposed new frame of government. It is found in the organization of the present police department. The mayor is the responsible head of the police department under the present charter. The chief of police is the working expert head in actual charge of the police work. The mayor is elected by the voters of the whole city. He is res onsible politically to the people for tge policy carried out in olice matters. In a similar way, if the &st alternative of the proposed plan of electing department heads is adopted there will be a responsible manager for each of the other four great departments of the city, finance, health and hospitals, public works, and parks, elected by the voters. Under each general manager will be the real working permanent head of the department in direct charge of the work. I claim that the proposed scheme contains all the strong points in the commission plan and none of its faults and presents all the really sound features of our present plan. I should state that the proposed new school and library board is not included here. It would be proper to provide that the president of the joint school and library board should be permitted to sit on the mayor’s conference committee while the annual budget is being considered. The only other city authority not covered is the proposed civil service commission which should be independent of the regular administrative system of the city. There are of course some minor offices like the gas inspector, city weigher, city statistician, and others that are not mentioned. These, it is understood, can be easily allotted to their proper departments.’ Two events have occurred since the last issue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW which will make a material change in the charter situation in this state. On May 7th St. Paul adopted the commission plan of government by a vote of 20,640 to 4137, and on May 17 the supreme court handed down a decision in State us. City of Mankato, holding that the charter of the city and the act of 1909 which, in express terms, permits cities to adopt the “commission plan,” are constitutional. For the past two years a charter commission appointed by the district court, under the home rule provision, has been engaged in drafting a new charter for St. Paul. The commission completed and published a draft on the federal plan retaining the existing bicameral council, Init, introducing the merit system, initittivc, referendum and recall, the non

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480 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW partisan ballot and centralising the administration in the mayor. The charter commission decided not to risk submission, preferring to wait until the city election was over, when a special charter election could be secured. This delay gave the enthusiasts,for the cpmmission plan their opportunity. Through the Current Topics Club a draft of a charter on the commission plan had been prepared. This was submitted as an amendment to the existing chalrter on petition of 10 per cent of the voters to take effect in 1914. Such an amendment requires the approval of three-fifths of the qualified voters participating in the elections to carry. There were two other very popular amendments submitted at the same tide. Number 1 authorizes the payment of special assessment taxes in five to ten annual installments; number 2 permits the city to undertake certain street work itself instead of letting'it out by contract; number 3 establishes the commission plan. WILLIAM A. ECHAPER. * St. Paul and Real Home Rule.-At the last session of the legislature a constitutional amendment was submitted to the voters of the state and will be voted upon next autumn giving a majority of the voters a right to adopt a new charter or to amend the old. Many Minnesota cities are interested and none opposed, so that the amendment is likely to be ratified. It gives broader powers to the fifteen freeholders appointed by the courts, who make up thecharter commission; and authorizes any form of government for a city of the state that does not violate the constitution. At the present time the requirement of the Minnesota constjtution that a city charter must provide for an elective mayor and a city council is held by some technical lawyers to invalidate the commission plan charters of the state. In St. Paul the charter commission is working rapidly upon a new borne rule charter on the federal plan. The mayor is to have large appointing power and may remove at pleasure; and there are to be a bicameral council, several boards and three administrative commissioners. 5 Municipal Home Rule in New York.An important' movement for municipal home rule has been undertaken in New York state by the newly formed Municipal Government Association of which Mayor John K. Sague, of Poughkeepsie, is president. The purpose is to unite the efforts of all city and village aasociations and groups that are advocating home rule. The commission government movement, which has been thoroughly organized in a number of cities, has pooled issues with the Association. Wherever there is a strong civic organization in a city or village, it has been invited to affiliate. Agents are now making trips'through the state, doing organization work, and delegations from all sections will visit the Republican and Democratic party conventions in September to urge the adoption of adequate home rule planks in the party platforms. In a memorial to the Third Annual Convention of Mayors of the State of New York held at Utica in the middle of June, The Municipal Government Association advocated the following program: 1. Protection in the constitution of a $eld of unmolested local self-government. This amendment should change the existing legal presumption against the powers of city governments, by declaring that cities and villages are granted full power of local self-government, and that no enumeration of specific power shall exclude powers coming with this general grant. To this should be added the ability on the part of a city to make its own charter or form of organization. 2. Municipal empowering act. There must be a broad general expansion of power granted to city governments in order to.enable them to meet their growing problems. 3. Municipal organization act. For the purpose of securing governmental organizations which will more efficiently and responsibly exercise these powers, cities should have the option of choosing

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 48 1 by referendum vote among a number of simplified forms of city organization. These principles may be embodied in a number of forms or types, including a mayor and council plan and a commission form, which should be provided in a general municipal organization act. The details of each such form should be left in the control of the commission, board of directors, or legislative body under the form adopted by any particular '?hese two acts would cut in two the number of times a city has to go to the legislature for needed power or for charter amendments. 4. Non-partisan municipal elections act. Such an act should provide for the election of municipal officers, without the use of national party names or emblems, permitting cities more nearly to determine city elections on city issues. 5. Uniform municipal reporting act. In place of hard and fast limitations on the power of city governments, we urge that every city of a class be required to report its financial transactions on uniform schedules. Costs should be reduced to units so that a citizen of any city could compare with other similar cities the cost of a yard of pavement, of a street light, of the collection of a ton of garbage, etc. 5 J. 0. HAMITT. Proposed Changes in Denver Charter.-Early last year two committees took up the question of adopting commission government in Denver. One of these, appointed by the chamber of commerce, divided equally in making it.s recommendations; and the chamber, by a vote of 437 to 321, endorsed the mayor form with some modifications. The other committee, representing the Direct Legislation League of Colorado and thirteen other organizations, reported in October an amendment which would fundamentally alter the existing charter. The amendment provided for non-partisan nominations by petition, nine elective officers (five being commissioners), preferential voting, the extension of the classified civil service to cover all subordinate offices, and the initiative, referendum and recall. A petition for its submission to the people at a special election was signed by nearly 20,000 voters, or 12,000 more than required for the purpose under the state constitution. On December 11, however, the board of aldermen refused to call a special election. Their action was based upon the opinion of City Attorney Lindsley that the amendment must be submitted as eleven separate amendments or that a charter convention should be called in view of the fundamental character of the changes proposed. Legal proceedings were then begun; first the district court issued a writ of mandamus compelling the council to call an election and then an appeal against the order was taken to the supreme court. Meanwhile other petitions were circulated. The Republican organization secured the requisite number of signatures for the submission of six charter amendments enlarging the powers of the mayor, reducing the number of elective officers and substituting for the bi-camera1 council a body of seven elected at large. On January 9 the board of supervisors passed an ordinance calling a special election to vote upon these amendments. 5 Pueblo, Colorado, New Charter.-The proposed new charter for Pueblo voted upon last September, contains some unusual civil service provisions. The charter provides for a government along commission lines, a council consisting of five commissioners elected for two years. The section dealing with the civil service provides for a civil service commission to be elected at large in the same way as the members of the council and for a classification of all the employees of the city departments, including the chiefs of the departments; and empowers the commission to appoint a city comptroller by a majprity vote and remove him from office for incompetency or malfeasance in office by an unanimous vote. It also empowers the commission to appoint and remove the judge of the municipal court; and to appoint, after suitable examination, judges and registrars of elections.

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482 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Oriental Municipal Government.-In the Citizens Bulletin (Cincinnati), of February 10, there is a most interesting address on “Municipal Governments in the’Far East.” The address was given before the Cincinnati City Club, by Harvey N. Shepard, of Boston, and is a review of the government of cities and villages of the far east, beginning with India. The striking thing that he brings out is the amount of home rule that these countries have in their local affairs, very much more than the average American city. In India, for example, formore than a thousand years the cities have had democratic local self-government, absolutely caring for their affairs without let or hindrance from anyone. Kings and emperors have come and gone in all this period; dynasties have risen and fallen; conquests have been made throughout the land; but the municipal government affairs in all this period have not been disturbed. In India there are 760 municipalities governed by a council which is generally elective. Burma, however, is different from India. The government there was a despotism until the British took control and only since 1874 have democratic institutions been brought in. In the Philippine Islands there are nearly 700 municipalities with over 12,000 elective officials. The local government in Australia and New Zealand are generally well known. In China there are two classes of cities, the international city, and the native city. This applies, however, chiefly to the port cities. When you go into the country where the majority of the Chinese people live an entirely different condition of things prevails. Here they have the same sort of democratic village communities that one finds in India. On this point Mr. Shepard‘s words are as follows: When we hear of the establishment of a republic in China and inquire whether it will last, we must bear in mind that the great bulk of Chinese people have hid the same sort of training in their town meetings which fitted the New England people before the revolution for self-government. A large part of Mr. Shepard’s address is given up to municipal government in Japan, where the system of local government and education is largely based on Prussian and French models, all of which have come into the country since 1878. The supplement to this number of the Citizens Bulletin consists of a statistical chart published by the municipality of Nagoya, Japan, showing a yearly comparison of the condition of the municipality for a series of years. Among the tables are the following: Area and extent. Air temperature for a period of ten Precipitation and weather for ten years. Dwellings and population for ten years which also shows the number of males, females and the average per dwelling. The number of living births, etc., for ten years, one of the columns indicating the living births per 100 residents for each year. The number of deaths (residential population) for a period of ten years, one column showing the deaths per 100 residents for ten years. Number of deaths classified by diseas’es. Number of foreigners residing in the city. A long series of statistics on education; another on shrines and temples; another on commerce, industry, factories; the value of principal products; deposits and loans in the banks; savings deposits and loans in the savings banks. Postoffice savings deposits. Railway passengers and freights. Hotels and inns, for a period of five years, giving the number of hotcls, the number of lodgers, Japanese and foreign, and the sverage per day. Mail matters for a period of ten years. Telegraphs. Electric railways, including the number of miles, average number of passengers per dny, for a period of ten years. years.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 483 Hospitals and physicians. Number of cases of infectious diseases, for a period of ten years. Total revenue and expenditure of the municipality of Nagoya. Municipal tax and the average burden thereof, which includes the average burden per person for each year which for 1900 was 1.27 yen, and 1909, 3.29 yen. The national tax and average burden thereof, for a period of five years. It is safe to say that there is not an American city that collects the data which would make possible such a detailed report of the condition and the various activities of the people, and of the municipality. SAMUEL R. RANCK. (I? Charter Revision in Springfield, Mass. -The charter revision committee of Springfield, Mass., has issued‘two reports comprehensively outlining two divergent phases of the movement in the United States to adopt better systems of city government. In several important respects, both phases show similar features. They provide for election at large of all elective city officers instead of election of some by wards; for the elimination of party labels from the ballot; for assurance of elections by majorities; for short ballots; for expert administration; for greater centralization of powers; and for a large measure of home rule. Both aim at the abolishment of caucuses and both are designed to do away with the cumbersome bicameral system which has retarded expeditious work in many cities. In respect to the two forms or frameworks of city government outlined by the reports: One provides for a mayor, or chief executive, vested with large powers, including complete control of the administrative functions of the city and for a common council of seven members in which all municipal legislative powers is lodged, but which is deprived of administrative jurisdiction. The power to appoint and remove city clerk, city auditor, city solicitor, directors of finance, public safety and public works is placed in the hands of the mayor. The other form provides a commission system-a mayor, who is to be director of public safety; a director of finance; a director of public health and charity; a director of public works; and a director of public property: all five to be elected for four years. This plan is subject to provisions of initiative and referendum as well as the recall. (I? Commission Government in Nebraska. On April 19 last Lincoln, Neb., voted on the question of adopting the commission form of government a8 provided by the “Banning law” of 1911. The question carried by a vote of 1982 for to 1911 against. This vote is not regarded as a true index of the sentiment of the city on the commission idea or plan, for many who favor such a systemwere lukewarm in supporting the law in question. In 1909 Lincoln voted to adopt a commission system by a large majority on a representative vote. Five Nebraska cities have voted on the question of adopting the commission plan of government provided by the “Banning law” of 1911, as follows: Omaha-adopted September 2, 1911vote 5477 for to 2291 against. Beatrice-adopted October 4, 1911. Nebraska City-adopted January 16vote 289 for to 179 against. Grand Island-rejected March 19vote 325 for to 745 against. Lincoln-adopted April 19-vote 1982 for to 1911 against. In Nebraska City the new system went into effect April 8. In Lincoln it will not go into effect until May, 1913. In Omaha it went into effect May 27 and in Beatrice, April S. * The Virginia Commission Government League, in view of the approaching annual meeting, has made public n preliminary

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484 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW report of its efforts during the past year to bring about more adequate commission government legislation in Virginia. After a thorough investigation of commission government throughout the United States, the executive committee of the League came to the conclusion that the commission form amendment passed by the last legislature of Virginia violated, by the provision that various fee officers should be elected by popular vote, the principle that under a genuine commission plan the commissioners should have the power of appointing all other city officials. The League is now conducting a vigorous campaign of education and hopes to win out in its fight to have the amendment modified to correct its handicap. I 5 American Ballot Laws, Arthur C. Ludington’s admirable study of American ballot laws, 1888-1910, orginally published a8 Bulletin No. 40 of the New York State Library, has been republished in the bound volume of the State Library report. The study is a comparative tabulated digest of the ballot laws of the forty-six states and of the territories of Arizona and New Mexico in force November 8,1910, and a brief chronological survey of certain features of the ballot laws-enacted by each of these states and territories during the last twenty years. 1: Charter-Making in America and Effective Voting is the title of an article in the March issue of Representation, the journal of the Proportional Representation Society of England. The author, C. G. Hoag, declares the weakness of the American commission charters on both the executive and legislative sides can be eliminated at a stroke by enlarging the council a little, electing it by the single .transferable vote in many broad constituencies and letting it appoint the chief executives instead of assuming their functions. * Voting by the Yard is the picturesque way in which the Short Ballot Bulletin calls attention to the grotesquely long ballot which voters at the recent New York primaries were called upon to use. The Los Angeles Express illustrates the same idea by having three men standing one above the other and holding the 14 feet long ballot. Omaha rivaled New York, having a ballot 7 feet long. When one takes into consideration the relative population of Omaha and New York, the former has in proportion a longer ballot. 5 The Government of German Cities is the title of a pamphlet issued by the City Club of New York. It contains the address of His Excellency Count Johann H. Von Bernstorff, the German ambassador, before the club, and Dr. Frederick C. Howe’s address on the same occasion on “HOW the German City Cares for its People.” f Pennsylvania Executive for Commission Government.-In a speech before the Lancaster Chamber of Commerce, Governor Tener of Pennsylvania declared himself in favor of commission government for cities. f Atlantic City on May 14 by a vote of 3304 to 2182 adopted commission form of government.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA IT. FUNCTIONS 485 Efficiency Records in New York.-In a small private business organization there is no need for efficiency records. The head of the business enjoys a permanency of tenure and he is brought daily into such close and intimate contact with his employees that he possesses personal knowledge of the efficiency of each employee, which he can utilize not only in maintaining the efficiency of his working force, but also in determining which employees shall be promoted in salary or in position. The need of efficiency records first becomes felt when the organization becomes so large that the head of it does not come into personal contact with all of his subordinates and if in addition either the head of the organization or his principal supervising subordinates do not enjoy a permanent tenure the need of efficiency records kept contemporaneously becomes even greater. In the various departments of the municipal public service the head of department enjoys an exceedingly short tenure of office and comes into personal contact with very few of the hundreds of employees under his jurisdiction. He is obliged to rely upon the reports of his supervising subordinates who also do not enjoy the same stability of tenure found in the case of similar men in private life. This condition of affairs renders it imperative that therecords of the employees’ efficiency be carefully kept. Under the efficiency record system which has been installed in the civil service of the city of New York, the supervising officer most closely in touch with the work of the employees is required to furnish quarterly a descriptive report upon theefficiency of the employees under his jurisdiction. In this report he divides his employees into three classes. In the first class he places those who have performed their duties satisfactorily. In every office this class ought to include a large majority of the employees and in the case of these employees the reporting officer need give only their names and their titles. In the second class he places those whose work has been more than satisfactory-those who have distinguished themselves by marked intelligence and zeal in the performance of their duties. These employees are selected by the reporting officer, by establishing a standard of average efficiency among the subordinates under his jurisdiction and then picking out for special ’mention those employees whose work has been distinctly superior to the grade of work performed by the majority of his employees. In the case of these superior employees it is required that the reporting officer furnish in addition to the name and the title of the employee a specific statement of his reasons for considering his work above the average of his office force. The reason assigned by the reporting officer must give the particulars in which the employee’s work excels that of the other employees under his jurisdiction. In the same manner the reporting officer places in a third class those whose work has been less than satisfactoiy or unsatisfactory. Theseare the employees whose work has been distinctly below that of the average of his department or bureau. For those who are placed in this unsatisfactory class reasons must also be assigned, givingtheparticulars of the unsatisfactory character of their work. On the report blank on which these efficiency reports are made a separate page is reserved for the employees of each of these three classes, This report blank is a four-page blank. On the first page are printed the instructions to the reporting officer and at the bottom a space is reserved for the date and the signature of the reporting officer. The second page is for the names and the titles of the employees who belong to the satisfactory class. The third page is intended for the names, the titles and the particulars of those who are considered to be in the “more than satisfactory’J

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48 6 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW or “above the average” class and the fourth page is reserved for the names, the titles and the particulars of the “less than satisfactory’’ or unsatisfactory class. In the preparation of these quarterly efficiency reports each bureau chief and other reporting officer establishes a standard of average efficiency for his bureau and classifies his employees in accordance therewith. When promotions are made however as the result of a promotion examination the employees of all. the bureaus of the department are brought into competition and it would be unjust to rate competitively their records which have been prepared in accordance with varying bureau standards. Under such a system the employees under the jurisdiction of a lenient marking officer would be rated ‘(more thansatisfactory” (‘or above the average” for the same grade of work as other employees under a more severe marking, officer might be rated merely ‘(satisfactory” or “average” or even “less than satisfactory” or “below the average.” To obviate this difJiculty and prevent this injustice there has been provided under the New York system for the keeping of efficiency records a board of promotion for each department of the municipal government. The board of promotion consists of at least three superior administrative officers of the department, designated by the appointing officer of the department subject to the approval of the Municipal Civil Service Commission. In the actual administration of this efficiency record system the members of the board of promotion are generally the more important bureau chiefs or other supervisory administrative officers of the department and the appointment is made by the head of the department. This board of promotion holds a meeting quarterly for the purpose of considering the efficiency reports submitted by the rating officers of the department and at these quarterly meetings it assigns definite ratings to all the employees subject to its jurisdiction. The board of promotion organizes by the election of a chairman and the designation of a clerk to keep and transcribe stenographic minutes of its deliberations and to make the entries in the efficiency record book of the department. The board considers separately each of the reports submitted to it. It may in its discretion accept the reports as submitted or it may change the reports as they affect individual employees. If in the exercise of its discretion, however, it sees fit to change a report, the members of the board are required to state the reasons for this change in the minutes of the board of promotion. Employees, who have been reported by their superiors tt9 having performed satisfactory service and in whose cme the promotion board agrees with the report of the employee’s superior officer, are rated “C” on all items of their efficiency record. In the case of those who have been reported for sufficient reasons as being either more or less than satisfactoryand in the case of those who having been reported as being nearly satisfactory are considered by the members of the promotion board for reasons specified in their minutes, to be either more or less than satisfactory, the board is required to assign definite marks in each of the six items of their efficiency record. These items are quality of work, quantity of work, general conduct, executive ability and capacity for initiative, average general efficiency and punctuality. The average general efficiency mark is the average of the ratings given on the first four items of the efficiency recordquality of work, quantity of work, general conduct, and executive ability and capacity for initiative. The mark for punctuality which includes attendance, is kept separately. No mathematical formula is required to be followed in determining the mark for average general efficiency; the determination of the relative weight to be attached to each of the component elements of this mark is left entirely in the diseretion of the promotion board. It is therefore allowable to rate an employee “C” in

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 487 three of the four items of his efficiency record and yet give him an average general efficiency mark of “B,” if in the opinion of the promotion board the fourth item of the record on which he was given a rating of “B” is more important than the other three items of his record, in the case of that employee. The marks are entered in specially prepared efficiency record books supplied to each department by the civil service commission. The efficiency record books, the original quarterly reports to the promotion board and the minutes of the promotion board‘s meetings are inspected at regular intervals by an examiner of the civil service commission. This inspection not only affords an opportunity for the introduction of such additional safeguards as may be deemed necessary to protect the integrity of the records, as, for example, the time-stamping of each report with the date of its receipt, the initialing of all changes in the marks entered in the efficiency record book, etc., but also presents an opportunity to the heads of the various departments to discuss the needs of the department from the point of view of its personnel with a representative of the civil service commission, who can report to the commissich such suggestions and recommendations of the heads of departments as seem to possess practical m’erit. A detailed report is submitted by the examiner after each departmental inspection. Once each year a transcript of the marks entered in the efficiency record books of each department is sent to the civil service commission and entered upon the efficiency record cards kept by the civil service commission for each employee in the city service. These efficiency records are kept for all employees in the competitive class of the civil service, exceptingthemembers of the uniformed police and fire-fighting forces. Furthermore no efficiency records are kept by the civil service commission for school-teachers, laborers and employees in the city service who are not subjected to examination. In every promotion examination the average percentage of each candidate is determined by his percentage on his written examination and his percentage on his efficiency record and seniority. A weight of 50 per cent is attached to the written examination and a weight of 50 per cent is attached to the efficiency record and seniority. No candidate can have his name placed upon a promotion eligible list hoaever unless he secures at ,least 70 per cent in his written examination. LEONAARD FELIX FULD. New Jersey Utilities Law.-Two of the most distinctive features of the public utilities law of New Jersey passed at the 1911 session are the powers given to the state commission to attach conditions to the approval of local franchises and to require public utilities, including street railways, to make extensions. Section 24 of the act provides that No rivilege or franchise hereafter grantea to any public utility as herein defined, shall be valid until ap roved by said board (the board of pubfie utility commissioners), such approval to be given when, after hearing, said board determines that such privilege or franchise is necessary and proper for the public convenience and properly conserves the public interests, and the board shall have power in so approving to impose such conditions as to construction, equipment, maintenance, service or operation as the public convenience and interests may reasonably require. The extension clause is paragraph (c) of section 17, which authorizes the board to compel any public utility “to establish, construct, maintain and operate any reasonable extension of its existing facilities, where, in the judgment of said board such extension is reasonable and practicable and will furnish sufficient business to justify the construction and maintenance of the same, and when

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488 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the financial condition of the said public utility reasonably warrants the original expenditure required in making and operating such extension.’’ At the 1912 session of the legislature Senator Pierce introduced a general indeterminate franchise bill drafted by Dr. Delos F. Wilcox. This bill included the main features of the Wisconsin act together with a number of improvements suggested by the sub-committee of the National Municipal League’s committee on franchises at the Richmond Conference. The bill failed of passage, receiving seven affirmative votes as against six in the negative, eleven votes being needed for passage. Senator Pierce says an indeterminate franchise measure will get through next year. Unfortunately, at the 1912 session a fiftyyear franchise bill slipped through both houses and was repassed over Governor Wilson’s veto. The governor declared himself in favor of the indeterminate franchise, but in New Jersey bills can be passed over a veto by a bare majority vote, and in 1912 both houses were politically opposed to the governor. Perpetual franchises were the rule in New Jersey until a few years ago, but in 1906 a law was passed limiting local grants to twenty years, or forty years if approved by a referendum vote. In 1908 this law was amended to exempt all cities and towns of less than 12,000 inhabitants from its provisions and establish for them a straight fiftyyear limit. By the 1912 act this limit was made general and the referendum wss eliminated. Those who argued in favor of the measure urged that the supervisory powers of the state board would keep the long-term franchises from being dangerous. * Ownership of Public Utilities.-In a recent public address, Arthur S. Huey, vice-president of H. M. Byllesby and Company, the big firm of public utility operators, said some very interesting things about public regulation. “The ownership of utilities in this country,” said he, “is an outgrowth of economic conditions; not of a design to acquire the rights or property of other people, or to usurp functions belonging to others. . . . . Most efficiently and economically conducted as monopolies, public utilities are properly subject to regulation by the state and by the municipality. No monoply, however beneficent, should be permitted to exist without legal safeguards to protect the public.” He called attention to the claim that it was difficult, if not impossible, to find first-class engineers free from corporation influence, who would accept investigation work for cities. He said that however true this might have been formerly, the condition was rapidly passing away as a result of the establishment of state public service commissions and the training of engineering experts by them. He also stated that on the part of the companies there had been during the last few years a much keener realization of their obligations to the public and to their patrons than formerly. He said that all discussions of the ownership, operation and regulation of public utilities had but one object, namely, the assurance of upto-date, adequate service at the lowest reasonable rates. “Penalizing a utility company for improvements and economies by reducing the return on invested capital to mere interest ‘rates, and repeating this process whenever ability and effort produce additional net earnings, is detrimental to the best interests of the public,” said he. He called attention to the keen competition among cities and said that in view of the many demands for the use of public funds and credit in enterprises closed to private capital, such as public improvements, water supply, public buildings, parks, fire protection, civic sanitation, etc., it was not good business judgment for cities to go heavily in debt in order to invest capital in electric, gas, telephone and street railway enterprises, when private capital was

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 489 already interested and was willing to work “with all the initiative and vigor of private enterprise for a very reasonable compensation.” He argued that the financial machinery of cities moved slowly and laboriously and hindered the prompt and adequate development of utilities under municipal control. “In cities in which municipal ownership exists,” said he, “the old fashioned and coqtly idea of ‘building up plants out of earnings’ and ‘making plants pay for themselves’ still prevails. The privately owned utility company obtains new capital, having learned by expensive experience that utility properties simply cannot be built up and extended from earnings, and at the same time render satisfactory service at low rates.” * San Francisco Affairs.-As a result of the great fire, San Francisco is extending and improving its protection against fire. The city’s new system now comprises about 30 miles completed and in operation. A splendid pumping plant has been finished and was placed in operation May 1. This gives water from the bay at a 300 pound pressure to a considerable part of the down-town district. The fresh water reservoir at the top of Twin Peaks over 800 feet above the city base was opened with ceremonies of dedication on May 12. This will furnish water by gravity. It is expected that nearly 60 miles of the new system will be in operation by the end of the year and a total of over 75 miles completed with the present appropriations, which now reach $5,6000,000. With the completion of this great work, San Francisco will be well protected against fire, and an abundance of water can be furnished at every hydrant with any pressure up to 300 pounds to the square inch. Ample provision has been made against breakage of pipes, such as was caused by the destruction following theearthquake of 1906. The work of actual construction has begun on the Panama Pacific Exposition site, where the swamp lands are being filled in and the buildings now in that area are being removed to make way for exposition structures. The auditor has turned in to the Supervisors an estimate of the municipal expenses for the coming year which he places at a total of $12,859,935, one million dollars over the expenses carried by the last budget. The estimated rate of taxation of the city is $2.0523. This budget will be revised, however, by the board of supervisors. City Attorney Long has rendered a written opinion to the the civil service commissioners that the constitutional amendment adopted October, 1911,places under civil service rule all of the offices enumerated in the charter as civil service offices, viz: county clerk, assessor, tax collector, sheriff, auditor, recorder, coroner, clerks and stenographers of justices’ and police courts, police department, fire department, board of election commissioners, board of health, and all heads and departments controlling public utilities. Mayor Rolph has appointed anadvisory conference on charter amendments which is working on his inaugural recommendations with respect to the need of indeterminate franchise for public utilities, the exclusion from the bond limit of profit paying investments and the revision of the residence clause of the charter limiting the power of the city to utilize outside talent in its affairs. The $8,8OO,OOO bond issue for the purchase of land for a civic center and the construction of a city hall was approved by the voters on March 28, by 45,133 to 4,435. * Bode Island in 1912 joined the list of states having public utilities commissions, but the act establishing the commission is in some respects weak and incomplete. For example, no authority to control stock and bond issues or even to prescribe uniform systems of accounts or to require financial reports

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400 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW is given to the commission. In regard to local franchises, contracts and regulatory ordinances, it is expressly provided that they shall be deemed to be subject to :he continuing control of the commission in the exercise of the powers enumerated in the act. Any utility corporation may appeal to the commission from any order of the local authorities relative to construction or service. This act is of special interest to Providence, which contains over 40 per cent of the entire population of the state. The franchise situation in Providence is unique. The street railways, the gas works and the electric light and power plant are all operated under %-year exclusive franchises expiring July 1, 1912. The electric light franchise situation is complicated by the city’s contract for public lighting and the street railway situation has been made more complex by certain state legislation under which the company claims rights in perpetuity. In 1911, the city employed Bion J. Arnold to give expert advice relative to the local transportation problem and Prof. Wm. D. Marks to report on electric lighting and power problems. Providence is very conservative, and although Alderman Kelso has been making a persistent fight for city ownership of all public utility fixtures in the streets, the indications are that the exclusive franchises will be renewed for another period of twenty years.’ * Hutchinson, Kansas, has the distinction of being the first commission governed city to decide by popular vote not to return to the old council system. At the election on April 2 the question of retaining the form was settled affirmatively by a majority in every precinct in the city (in all over 1100 majority) notwithstanding the fact that it was necessary to vote “no” if the ballot was to be counted for the commission plan. This election was made compulsory by the special legislative act of 1911* ‘Dr. Deloa F. Wllcox. Wee paw 107 under which Hutchinson has been operating since it became a first class city. This act was drawn by the enemies of commission government in Hutchinson and was calculated to produce an inefficient administration by cutting down salaries and changing other features of the laws of 1909. That the people are enthusiastic advocates of commission government is shown by the overwhelming majority given it in this election. Three years ago the friends of the commission mustered a majority of eight. C. A. DYKSTRA. * Trackless Trolleys Abroad.-In a recent address before the Institution of Municipal Engineers (England), Horace Boat gave some interesting figures relative to the cost and earnings of trackless trolleys in Great Britain and on the Continent. Among their advantages as compared with the regular electric tramways is the fact that only about oneseventh as much capital is required to construct them. It is also noted that their maintenance charges are small, that the breakdown of one car does not tie up the line, and that they do not claim a monopoly of the street, for the reason that they can “career all over the road.” The trackless trolleys are suited to sparsely settled suburban districts and to inter-town routes. If storage battery cars succeed in cities and trackless trolleys prove feasible for suburban and interurban street car transportation, there is no telling what will happen to the immense investments in existing street railways. * Single Tax.-The new commission charter of Everett, Washington, provides for the single tax in the following language : The assessment, levy and collection of taxes on real and personal property for all corporate or municipal purposes of the city of Everett, and to provide for the payment of the debts and expenses

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 491 thereof, shall be uniform in respect, to persons and property therein: Provided, that for the years 1912 and 1913 there shall be exempt from such taxation 25 per cent, and for the years 1915, 50 per cent and for the year 1916, 75 per cent, and thereafter 100 per cent, of the value of all buildings, structures and improvements, and other fixtures of whatsoever kind upon lad with in said city. Nothing herein shall affect property in said city exempt from taxation under the laws of the State of Washington. 5 Oregonhas been havingapractical demonstration of the clash between state and local interests in the regulation of public utilities. In Portland an initiative proposition for a local public utilities board was voted on and rejected. The legislature of the state had already enacted a public utilities law, which would have been in conflict with the local commission scheme in Portland. While the local commission bill was pending and before it was defeated at the polls, its friends took up the cudgels against the state law, and appealed to the referendum, thus postponing the time when the law will become elective until after the fall election this year, when it will probably be ratified by the people. f The Municipal Tramways of Leicester, England, were operated last year (1911) on a 60 per cent ratio. The tramways cover twenty miles of streets and are double-tracked except for about three miles, The total revenue for the year was a little over $700,000, and $40,0oO of the surplus was appropriated to the relief of rates. The average fare paid was 2 cents and the average haul was a little qver two miles. Electric traction was introduced in 1904 and the total capital investment to date has been about $3,540,000. * New York’s Civil Service. Elliot H. Goodwin, the secretary of the National Civil Service Reform League, declared in a speech before the Cincinnati City Club, “Under Mayor Gaynor today we have a better enforcement of the civil service law than ever existed before. We have better public service, and we are not going back. As compared with Van Wyck in 1900, the present administration is far more efficient; there is hardly any comparison to be made.“ f In Bournemouth, England, the general manager of the municipal tramways has been experimenting lately with a prize or bonus scheme for the “best takings” for motormen and conductors on each route for a three months’ period. He claims that the results have been very satisfactory. In addition to receiving a prize, the first man on each route will have the right to wear a gold star on the arm. f Columbus, Ohio, now has eight tickets for a quarter and universal transfers from the local street railway company. This reduction of rates is in accordance with the terms of a franchise granted in 1901 when Dr. Washington Gladden waa a member of the city council. Under this grant the company waa required to reduce its rates to,the present level when its gross receipts reached $1,750,000 a year. * Salt Lake City Adopts Plan for Parking.-Plans for a great parking and boulevard system for beautifying the city have been adopted by the board of park commissioners of Salt Lake City. It is asserted that the improvements will cost 11,500,OOO and will give the city a group of parks and bouleyards second to none in the country. * Recall of Public Officials.-A carefully prepared list of references on this subject has been prepared\ by Charles Wells Reeder of the Ohio State University and published in the Bulletin of Bibliography for April.

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492 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 111. POLITICS Socialist Municipal OfEce Holders.The following kist of Socialists elected to municipal office 1908-1911 was prepared for the Daily Socialist of Chicago. It is admittedly incomplete, but it shows the growth of political Socialism. SOCIALIST OFFICERS ELECTED IN 1908 MASSACHUSETTS Haverhill-Ward assessor. MINNESOTA Norman County-Attorney. Puposky-Commissioner. MISSOURI Fornfelt-Mayor, two aldermen. Mode y-Const able. NORTH DAKOTA Berdella-School director. PENNSYLVANIA McKeesport-School controller. UTAH Eureka-Mayor, recorder, marshal, justice, 1 hree councilmen. WASHINGTON Outlook-Justice of peace, constable. WISCONSIN Milwaukee-State senator, four members state legislature, ten aldermen, six euper visors. Two Rivers-Assessor. SOCIALIST OFFICERS ELECTED IN 1909 COLORADO Grand Junction-Mayor. Reubens-Clerk of school board. IDAHO ILLINOIS Flora-Police magistrate. Mattoon-Member school board. INDIANA Knightsville-Town marshal. MASSACHUSETTS Haverhill-State representative MINNESOTA Miapah-Supervisor. Oaks-Super visor. Wilton-Supervisor. OHIO Cleveland-Assessor. PENNSYLVANIA Coral-School director. Janesville-Inspector of elections.. Whitaker-City clerk, school board, entire board of aldermen, police magistrate. UTAH Robinson-Treasurer. WISCONSIN Brantwood-Town chairman, town clerk, Milwaukee Three school directors, school clerk. alderman. SOCIALIST OFFTCERS ELECTED IN 1910 ARKANSAS Bonanza-Two members school board. Brentwood-Justice of peace, constable Havana-Justice of peace, two school McRae-Justice of peace, constable, Minerva-Justice of peace, constable, Truman-Two justices of peace. (resigned). directors. school director. road overseer. CALIFORNIA Dos Palos-Justice, constable. Eureka-Alderman. Huntington Beach-Two school direc tors. COLORADO Coal Creek-Two councilmen, member school board. CONNECTICUT Roc kville-Alderman.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 493 IDAHO Port Hill-Road overseer, school trustee. ILLINOIS Marissa-Alderman. Pearl-Justice of peace, school director. INDIANA Richmond-Constable. IOWA Guilford Township-Two trustees, township clerk, justice of peace, two constables, assessor, school director. KANSAS Clay Center-Coroner. MASSACHUSETTS Haverhill-State representative. MINNESOTA Mirpah-Supervisor. Norman County-Attorney (re-elected). Oaks-Supervisor, justice of peace. Puposky-Town supervisor. St. Hillaire-Village president. Two Harbors-Member state legislature, chairman school board, treasurer school board. Wilton-Justice of peace, school clerk. MISSOURI Blodgett-Justice of the peace. Cardwell-Justice of peace. Fornfelt-Two members of school board. Moorehouse-School director. Morley-Justice of the peace, constable Spurgeon-School director. Broken Bow-Alderman, member of (reelected). NEBRASKA school board. NEW JERSEY Glassboro-Justice of peace, constable. North Haledon-Two school trustees. NORTH DAKOTA Nineteenth District-Member state legRerdella-School director, school treasislature. urer, assessor. om0 Byesville-Five councilmen, two assessors, marshal. OKLAHOMA Blanchard-Clerk of school board. PENNSYLVANIA Reading-State representative. Highspire-Councilman. Grand Saline-Justice of peace. Theodore-Constable. TEXAS UTAH WASHINGTON Battle Ground-Director. Chelan-Councilman. Clayton-Justice of peace. Malo-Justice of peace, constable. Outlook-Justice of peace (reelected), constable (reelected). WEST VIRGINIA Dungriff-Justice of peace, constable. Elkins-Magistrate, councilman. WISCONSIN Alouex-Chairman town board. Beloit-Coroner. Brantwood-School clerk. Grand Rapids-Coroner. Manitowoc-Coroner. Milwaukee-Congressman, sen at o r , twelve assemblymen, district attorney, sheriff register of deeds, coroner,county treasurer, county clerk, clerk of courts, ten supervisors. Two Rivers-Assessor (reelected). WYOMING Superior-Justice of peace. SOCIALIST OFFICERS ELECTED IN THE SPRINQ OF 1911 ARKANSAS Mena-Alderman. Winslow-Mayor, recorder, councilman. Berkeley-Mayor, two commissioners, CALIFORNIA member board of education.

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494 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Chic-Member board of education. Eureka-Alderman (reelected), police judge, school director, two library trustees. Huntington Beach-School director. Nimshaw-School trustee. Rancho-School trustee. San Bernardino-Councilman. Santa Crua-City commissioner. San Luis Obispo-AId,erman. Sausalito-School trustee. SawtelleSchool trustee. Watts-Mayor. Coal Creek-Two councilmen. Nederland-Mayor, three trustees. Victor-Mayor, city clerk, treasurer, six COLORADO aldermen. FLORIDA Duval County-Justice of peace. IDAHO Coeur d’Alene-Mayor, treasurer, city clerk, four councilmen. Orofino-School trustee. Stites-Two aldermen. ILLINOIS Beckemeyer-Trustee. Belleville-Alderman. Canton-Six aldermen. Davis-President village board, three Dorrisville-Mayor. Grafton-Mayor. Granite City-Mayor, three aldermen. La Salle-Alderman. Maryville-Clerk, trustee. Matt oon-Alderman. O’Fallon-Mayor, two aldermen, city Pana-Alderman. Pearl-Village trustee. Riverton-Police magistrate. Rockford-Two park commissioners, two Spaulding-Clerk, six trustees. Thayer-Village president, three trustees, member school board. trustees. marshal, street commissioner. aldermen. INDIANA IOWA Belle Plain-Councilman. Colfax-Councilman, member school board. Liberty Township-(Bussey, Everist, Maryville, Hamilton)-Three township trustees, township clerk, two justices of peace, two constables. Madrid-Mayor, councilman. Muscatine-Two aldermen, two school directors. KANSAS Altoona-Police judge. Arma-Mayor, police, judge, four alderCoffeyville-County coroner, county surColumbus-Councilman. Curransdle-Mayor. Dunkirk-Three members school board. Fredonia-Three aldermen. Girard-Mayor. Fort Scott-City attorney, three alderFrontenac-Two councilmen. Oakley-Councilman. Osage City-Two aldermen. Rosedale-Alderman. Scammon-School director, school treasSimpson-Two constables (one resigned.) Washington Township-(,Crawford Co.) -Township clerk, trustee, treasurer, two justices of peace. men. veyor. men. urer. Winfield-Councilman. MAINE Mechanics FallsLTwo members board of selectmen. MASSACHUSETTS Salem-Aldermen. MICHIQAN Benton Harbor-School trustee. Boyne City-Alderman, supervisor. Flint-Mayor, three aldermen, assessor, two supervisors, constable, school trustee, justice of peace. Greenville-Mayor, treasurer, two aldermen, two supervisors, two constables. Portland-Clerk. Holland-Alderman, constable.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 495 Kalamazoo-Mayor. Muskegon-Alderman. South Frankfort-Village president , clerk, treasurer, three trustees, assessor, township treasurer. Wilson-Mayor, four town officials. MINNESOTA Bellingham-Member school board, school clerk. Brainerd-Three aldermen, one member school board. Eagle Bend-President council, recorder, two councilmen, justice of peace, constable, assessor, member school board. La Porte-Mayor. Miapah-Assessor, supervisor. Oaks-Town clerk, constable, justice Pillager-Village ticket. Puposky-Supervisor of assessments, assessor, road overseer, town supervisor. St. Hillaire-Village president. Ten Strike-Mayor, three aldermen. Two Harbors-Mayor, four aldermen, city assessor, justice of peace (one alderman expelled). Wilton-Road overseer, two constables. Biloxi-Councilman, of peace. MISSISSIPPI MISSOURI Buffalo-TownshiR carried. Cardwell-Mayor, alderman, president of school board, four members of school board, marshal. Edna-Councilman, president school board, member school board, two members village board. Gibson-Mayor, two school directors. Maplewood-Councilman. Minden Mines-Mayor, marshal, police judge, three members board of edu-cation, collector. Moorehouse-Alderman, school director. Mountain Grove-Alderman. NeoshoSchool director. Spurgeon-School director. West Plains-Member school board. Westport-Member school board. Willow Springs-Councilman, marshal. MONTANA Basin-School trustee. Butte-Mayor, treasurer, five aldermen, Helena-Alderman. Kalispell-Alderman. Lewistown-Alderman. Miles City-Alderman. Walkerville-Alderman. police, judge. NE BRASKA Beatrice-Mayor. Broken Bow-Alderman. Havelock-Police judge. North Platte-Councilman, police judge. Red Cloud-Mayor. Wymore-Mayor, clerk, treasurer, two aldermen. NEW JERSEY North Haledon-Two school trustees. NEW YORK Endicott-School trustee. NORTH DAKOTA Buford-Township clerk, three supervisors, two justices of peace, two constables. Deslacs-Chairman board of trustees, village trustee, justice of peace, clerk. Devils Lake-Three aldermen. Fargo-Alderman. Hamilton Township-Two school trusLakota-Aldermen. Antlers-Four or five officers. Coalgate-Two aldermen, two school Harrah-Marshal, police judge. Krebs-Four councilmen, two members Wilburton-Alderman. Coquille-Mayor. Medford-Councilman. tees. OKLAE OMA directors, assessor. school board. OREGON PENNSYLVANIA New Castle-Councilman. Oil City-Member select council, member common council, two school comptrollers, inspector of elections.

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496 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Rockland-School director, registrar and assessor, judge of elections, inspector of elections. SOUTH DAKOTA Brookings-Alderman. Howard-Alderman. Milesville-Three members school board (one resigned). Ontario-Township supervisor, treasurer, township clerk, justice of peace, chairman school board, road overseer. TEXAS Big Springs-Constable. Dalhart-Alderman. Grand Saline-Justice of peace. Stonewall County-Four precinct officers, justice, constable, two county commissioners (all but justice resigned). VERMONT Barre-Lister . Bennington-Village attorney. Grauitesville-Lister. VIRGINIA East Radford-Two councilmen. WASHINGTON Edmonds-Mayor, clerk, treasurer. North BellinghamCouncilman. (ReSpokane-Commissioner of public works. pudiated by party.) (Repudiated by party.) WEST VIRGINIA Charleston-Councilman. Star CityLMayor (unseated), recorder (unseated), four councilmen. WISCONSIN Brantwood-Justice of peace. Cliff ord-Supervisor, assessor. EIroy-Alderman. Grand Rapids-Two councilmen. Green Bay-Justice of peace. Kid-Assessor. Manitowoc -Mayor, alderman, two supervisors. Marinette-Supervisor. Mellen-Assessor, comptroller, alderman. Milwaukee-Mayor, treasurer, attorney, comptroller, two civil judges, twenty aldermen. Montfort-Marshal, constable, two justices of peace, two board members, Osceola-Councilman. Racine-Alderman, justice of peace. Sheboygan-Alderman, school superinSheboygan Falls-Three members of Superior-Two aldermen, county superWest Sweeden-Town chairman, clerk, W hitewater-Alderman , three c onst avisor. school board. visor. assessor, treaaurer. bles, police judge. WYOMING Walcott-School director. SOCIALIST OFFICERS ELECTED IN NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER 1911 COLORADO Grand Junction-Commissioner. CONNECTICUT Bridgeport-Councilman. ManchesterSelectman. INDIANA Diamond-Trustee. Farmersburg-Marshal. Millersburg-Trustee,.clerk, marshal. Normal City-Trustee. Shelburn-Secretary, treasurer, two trusShirley-Trustee, treasurer, clerk, marSpencer-Marshal. Staunton-Two trustees, clerk, treasurer, marshal. tees. shal. KENTUCKY Newport-Commissioner MASSACHUSETTS Haverhill-State legislator (re-elected). MICHIGAN IZalamaaoo-Charter revision commisSaginaw-Four charter commissioners. sioner.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 497 MINNESOTA Clearwater County-County commisCrookston-Mayor, alderman,constable. Eddy Township-Supervisor, treasurer, assessor, town clerk, justice of peace, three membsrs school board, constable. sioner. ' Leon Township-Constable. Norman County-Surveyor. Thief River Falls-Five councilmen. Twin Valley-Recorder, three councilmen, justice of peace, street commissioner, constable. NEB RAS KA Banner County-Treasurer. Hayes Center-County surveyor, county coroner. NEW JERSEY Elizabeth-Two aldermen, thirteen justices of peace, six police judges, two constables, four pound keepers. North Haledon-Tax collector. Rockaway-Mayor. Auburn-Alderman, county supervisor. Johnstown-School board. Schenectady-Mayor, eight aldermen, president of council,comptroller, treasuTer, two assessors, member of state legislature, county superintendent of poor, eight supervisors, constable. NEW YORK NORTH DAKOTA Hutichon TownshipTownship supervisor, four school officers. OHIO Akron-Two councilmen, two assessors. Amsterdam-Mayor. Ashtabula-President of council, councilman at large, member school board, three assessors, constable, justice of peace, township trustee. Bamhill-Mayor, marshal, clerk, treasurer, four councilmen, assessor (township). fethel-Two members board of public affairs, two judges of elections, clerk of elections. Cambridge-Two trustees, school board, Canton-Councilmen, assessor, mayor Carleton-Two councilmen. Cincinnati-Member school board. Cleveland-Member constitutional convention. Columbus-Four councilmen, four assessors, threemembers boardof education. Coke-Constable. Conneaut-President council, three alCoshocton-Justice of peace. Cuyahoga-Councilman, constable. , Dayton-Two councilmen, one member board of education, three assessors. Donet Township-Justice of peace. East Liverpool-Councilman, justice of peace, member of board of education, township assessor. (contest). dermen, assessor. Findlay-Alderman, assessor. Fostoria-Mayor, councilman, assessor. Hamilton-Vice-mayor, five councilmen, Kent-Constable. Lima-Mayor, two councilmen. Linden Heights-Mayor, councilman, assessor, marshal. Lorain-Mayor, two councilmen, two assessors. Martins Ferry-Mayor, president council, five councilmen, city treasurer, constable, four assessors, me m be r school board,township clerk,two township trustees. two assessors, constable. Massillon-Councilman. Midvale-Elected complete ticket . Mineral City-Mayor, five councilmen, clerk, marshal, three members board of public affairs, justice of peace, member of board of education. Mineral Ridge-Mayor. Mount Vernon-Mayor, councilman, asNiles-Councilman. Osnaburg-Mayor, four councilmen. Rittman-Four councilmen, marshal. St. Marys-Mayor and all Socialist canSalem-Mayor. Sayre-Constable. Sugar Gyove-Mayor-two counoilmen, sessor. didates except auditor. treasurer, constable, assessor. marshal, member school board.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Toledo-Two councilmen, assessor. Toronto-Mayor, three members board Valley Township-Three trustees, clerk, Wadsworth-Three councilmen, treasof public service. treasurer, constable, as3essor. urer, marshal, assessor. OKLAHOMA Rock Falls-Treasurer school board. OREQON Grants Pass-Two councilmen,surveyor. La Grande-Two councilmen. PENNSYLVANIA Allegheny County East Deer Township-Three school directors, road overseer, auditor, inspector of elections, judge of elections, const.able. East McKeesport-Two councilmen, two school directors, auditor. East Pittsburgh-Several. McKeesport-Select councilman, common councilman, constable, several precinct officers. North Versailles-Clean sweep. Patton-Four schooldirectors, five members board of supervisors. Pitcairn-Two councilmen, four school directors, auditor, constable, two inspectors of elections. judge of elections. Pittsburgh-Jury commissioner, many minor election officials. Turtle Creek-Five councilmen, justice of peace, four school directors, judges of elections, inspectors of elections. Verona-Some. Wall-Two councilmen, two school directors. Wilkinsburg-Judge of elections, three inspectors of elections. Wilmerding-Auditor, register-assessor, school director, judgeof elections, three inspectors of elections. Beaver County Fallston-Four councilmen. Rochester-Auditor. P ulas ki Towns h ip-Supervisor, four school directors, judge of elections, inspector of elections. White Township-Supervisor, two school Berks County Reading-Five councilmen, twenty-five election officials, two constables, two ward assessors. Bedford County Broad Top Township-Five school direct,ors, and whole township ticket except constable. directors. Blair County A 1 t oona-S ome . Juniata-Three councilmen. Tyrone-Two councilmen. Chester County North County Township-School direcClearfield County Du Bois-Justice of peace. Falls Creek-Justice of peace. tor. CTaWfOTd COUnty Meadville-Two inspectors of elections, Dauphin County Harrisburg-Assessor. Lykens-Councilman , inspector. Sw atara-Inspector. Wisconisco-Two school directors, road supervisor, constable, two judges of elections, two inspectors, two assessors. Eagle County Corry-Two city councilmen, one inspecErie County Corry-Two city councilinen, one inspector of elections. Girard-Councilman. tor of elections. Fayette County South Connelsville-Burgess, justice of peace, constable, four councilmen, five school directors, three auditors, judge of elections, inspector of elections. General-Several constables and a number of election officers. Lawrence Countu Ilnaeltlell-Clean Sweep. Ncw C:wtle-Mayor, three councilnieii.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 499 Luzerne County Napticoke-Councilman. South Williamsport-School director. Williamsport-Councilman. Lycoming County Montgomery County Pottstown-Three councilmen, assessor, constable, two judges of elections, three inspectors of elections. Northumberland County Pott’s Grove-Assessor, two auditors, three school directors, judge of elections, inspector of elections. Sunbury-Treasurer, auditor, five members of council, seven members of school board. Trevorton-Overseer of poor. Potter County Roulette-Entire township ticket except Venango County General-Two aldermen, ten school directors, four road supervisors, three auditors, six assessors, three constables, two justices of peace, seventeen election officers. Cranberry Township-Several township officials. Franklin-Commissioner. Oil City-Five councilmen, two aldermen, constable, judge of elections. Emlenton-School director, road commissioner, justice of peace, inspector of elections. two auditors. Floyd-School director. Kennerdell-Constable, judge of elecPittsville-Inspector of elections, reg. Washington County \vest Brownville-Councilman, justice of peace, constable, inspector. Westmoreland CounQy tions. assessor. Derr y-Some. Irwin-Several. South Greensburg-Two councilmen, two members school board, justice of peace, high constable, constable, inspector. Trafford City-Two councilmen,. two school directors. Youngwood-Some. General-Ten councilmen, ten school directors, two justices of peace, high constable, two borough constables, supervisor, two auditors, quite a few election boards. County Unknown Crestline-Solid. Wheaton-All borough candidates. RHODE ISLAND Providence-State representative. UTAH General-Four mayors, one president town board, four commissioners,fifteen councilmen, two clerks, two treasurers, two recorders. Bingham-Two members town board of trustees. Cedar City-Mayor, treasurer. Eureka-Mayor, recorder, treasurer, four Fillmore-Two councilmen. Mammoth-Mayor, treasurer, recorder, Manti-Two councilmen, recorder, preMunroe-Councilman. Murray-Mayor, commissioner, auditor. Salt Lake City-Commissioner. Stockton-Village president, two trusTintic-Constable. councilmen. councilman. cinct judge. tees. WASHINQTON Bremerton-Two councilmen. Concrete-Some claimed. Edmonds-Mayor, clerk, attorney, treasurer, four councilmen. Everett-Three councilmen. Granite Falls-Some claimed. Seattle-Member school board. Tukwila-Mayor, clerk, treasurer, ma shal, three councilmen. WEST VIRGINIA Wheeling-Township clerk, township trustee.

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500 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW SOCIALIST OFFICERS ELECTED IN JANUARY, 1912 MINNESOTA Dulut h-Alderman. WEST VIRGINIA Adamston-Mayor, recorder, five counMiami-Mayor, two councilmen. Star City-Mayor, recorder, five councilmen. Prof. Robert F. Hoxie, University of Chicago, who has studied carefully the Socialist movement in this country, has this to say about the foregoing list: This list of elected Socialist officials is based on newspa er re orts, investigations made by 2. W. ! Ghent, the records of the national secretary of the Socialist party and returns from more than a thousand letters of inquiry and questionnaries sent out from the University of Chica 0. It is to be regarded as a trial list only%ut strongevidencepoints to the fact that it does not give an exaggerated statement of the number of socialist officials recently electcd in the United States. A casual examination of this list brings out the following significant points concerning the Socialist movement in this country: 1. There are at present (April 1, 1912) between eleven and twelve hundred Socialist office holders in the various states of the union. 2. The reat mass of these office holders were eyected in the year 1911 3. The political power of the Socialist party is a3 yet almost entirely confined to municipalities. 4. It is not however confined to any one section of the country but is broadlv cilmen. pervasive. 5. The special seat of Socialist power seems to be in the northern central and middle western states. 6. Its successes are to be found both in urban and industrial and in rural or agricultural communities, and 7. If the present rate of increase of power is mamtained the Socialist party will have to be reckoned with as a really formidable political force within the next half dozen years. Investigation shows that these Socialist successes represent on the whole a liberal and progressive type of socialism -not ultra theoretical or revolutionarywhich stands for honest and efficiency of administration and a {road and practical program of social reform. As such they are, in the opinion of the writer, one phase of the progressive, democratic movement which is sweeping the country. 9 Law Breaking in Atlantic City.-For many years the situation in Atlantic City concerning law breaking has been of greater or less interest depending upon the agitation which was going on concerningit. During all this time, with a very few exceptions, there has been open disregard of the laws regarding the sale of liquor, especially on Sunday. There has also been more or less open violation of other laws, particularly those against ’ gambling, prostitution, election fraud and graft. These violations were seldom if ever taken by the county or municipal officers before the grand jury. When the excise investigation was made by the Fisk legislative committee in 1908 the officials answered on this point to the effect that where evidence had been secured and presented the grand juries had always failed to indict. They therefore claimed that to collect other evidence of the same character and to present it to the same or similar grand juries would result in nothing except unnecessary expense to the county or the city and that they were justified in omitting to secure it. This policy on the part of the grand jurors had been the result of the continuance in office of one set of sherifEs for a great many years. Three men only were sheriff of the county in twenty-four years, one of whom served twelve years of the twenty-four, after which his son succeeded him and appointed his father deputy sheriff. Under these sheriffs a system of drawing grand juries composed largely of license holders, law breakers, office holders, and the immediate associates, business partners and relatives of these and others amenable to “influence” waa developed. Four or five eminently respectable parties were placed on each grand jury in order to give it a good

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 501 appearance. Such grand juries did not want to and would not indict for the above mentioned crimes. To retain the control of the sheriff’s oEce andtheappointment of grand juries of this character it became necessary “to elect the sheriff.” This was accomplished by the practically open purchase of votes and the use of repeaters. It was not unusual for from two to five hundred repeaters to be brought into Atlantic City for election purposes. After a recent election it was reported that two colored women disguised themselves as men and each of them voted more than ten times in different precincts! Instances of individual repeaters having voted as many as thirty and forty times are generally credited. From refusal to indict for certain crimes it was but an easy step to the holding of indictments over the heads of law-abiding citizens who attempted to enforce the law in order to coerce them to take or to refrain from taking action as might be desired. This was applied in particular to one of the local newspapers. The “last straw”was theindictdictment for libel early in 1911 of Harvey Thomaa, the editor of The Atlantic Review. The, effect of the indictment of Mr. Thomas was quite the reverse of what was expected, for it precipitated the publication by The Review of a great deal of information concerning the conditions, and these exposures were so important and so full of detail that the attention of the governor and the supreme court justice for the district was obtained. The legislature also took cognizance of the situation and sent down the Macksey investigating committee to probe the county. The report of the committee laid bare the very serious condition of affairs. To meet it the legislature authorized the attorney-general or his assistant to go into counties where certain conditions existed and take charge of the prosecutions. This they did, however, without avail, for grand juries refused as before to indict. They then made thediscovery that the sheriff had illegally removed certain register books from the county clerk’s office. This was the basis upon which Justice Kalisch of the supreme court disqualified him from selecting the grand jury which was to pass upon his own case and appointed two elisors to draw it. It thus followed that the “elisor grand jury” of Atlantic County was drawn. This was said to be the second grand jury ever drawn by elisors in the United States. (A third, which found many indictments, waa drawn later under direction of Judge Swayze in Hudson County, New Jersey.) With the assistance of Attorney-Genera1 Wilson and Assistant AttorneyGeneral Gaskill, this elisor grand jury first made a thorough investigation of election matters. They indicted the sheriff promptly, and as the investigation progressed the following officers also : the county auditor, the postmaster, five freeholders, the city water commissioner (who was the “boss” of the city and the county), two councilmen, the city clerk, the city engineer (who was also county engineer), the building inspector, the city electrician, two tax assessors, a comptroller’s clerk, the boardwalk inspector, a commissioner of the board of health, an inspector of the board of health, a tax clerk, a water department clerk, a policeman and a city detective. Following these indictments for election frauds, evidence was presented against about ninety of the license holders for Sunday liquor selling and true bills found. Later on these pleaded “non-vult” and were fined $00 each, which they paid. The sale of liquor on Sunday was discontinued and the town was dry on that day, but after twenty “dry” Sundays some have been “wet. ’ Guests of hotels having licenses, who order liquors on Saturday and acquire title to them on that day,areserved with them on Sunday. A number of graft cases were also presented, and some of the indictments above recited were for graft. Evidence

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502 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW of misconduct in office on the part of the county judge was considered and it being found that his actions hadbeen taken under the cover of his office SO that he could not be indicted, a presentment was made to the governor requesting that he take proper steps for his impeachment. Later on before a “struck jury” the attorney-general tried two of those indicted for elections frauds and they were found guilty. He then tried the local “boss,” Louis Kuehnle, who was water commissioner, for participating unlawfully in the awards of contracts and he also was found guilty. He has since been sentenced to a fine of $1000 and one year in state prison at hard labor. This created one of the greatest political sensations known to Atlantic City for years, and uadoubtedly signalizes a victory for Governor Wilson in his campaign against corruption in local municipal affairs. Later four freeholders and the county engineer (also city engineer) were convicted of graft. In still another election case for the abduction of an election officer, the jury disagreed, nine being for conviction. These defendants later pleaded non-vult, as did a number of others. In only one case tried has there been an acquittal. ,Still other caseB are to be tried. The bills for $9O,OOO for extras for the Timber water main (a $226,000 contract) on account of which the water commissioner was found guilty, have been tied up in the court and will probably not be paid.‘ dr Des Moines.-The recent election in this city seems to have excited more than the usua1,amount of comment because of an apparent effort to create the impression that the commission form of Government was losing ground. The headlines put over the despatches from Des Moines indicate this clearly. Here are some of * These notea have been furnlshed by one who baa takenanactlve part in theeventswhlch he dcaerihes. -TIIF. EDIroQ. them: “Des Moines Losing Commission Form;” “Des Moines Recounts;” “Des Moines Backslide;” “The Plan in Jeopardy;’’ “Des Moines CommissionGovernment in Dissolution;” “A Revised Example;, “Commission Fiasco at Des Moines.” The Editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW desirous of securing a first hand impression wrote to a number of careful correspondents in the city and the following slightly abridged letter represents the consensus of opinion among them, although some of them put the matter somewhat more strongly. Dear Sir:-I have your letter of the 26th ultimo, which calls attention to notes in the papers about our recent election. I have included some observations on thk point in a letter which I mailed you some days ago. As a matter of fact, there is no dissatisfaction with the commission government, as such, in the city of Des Moines. If the matter were put up to a vote of our people today, whether we should retain the new form or return to the old form of mayor, councilmen, board of public works, city wards, log-rolling, party distinctions, long ballots, etc., 90 per cent of our vote at least would sustain the newer form. . It is true that the election retired three members of the city council, who had served since the beginning of the commission form. The two members who had served but two years were returned, Mayor Hanna receiving the largest vote that any one ever received for any public office in the city. The new superintendent of public safety received the largest vote that any commissioner ever received. The other successful condidates were all elected by very good majorities. J. G. Berryhill, who waa perhaps the leading factor in introducing the commission plan in this city, explains the election as merely a change in the personnel of the commission. I think that is hardly a complete answer and that the election sigrufies also in some measure at least, a change in the policy of the city. John MacVicar was, of course, retired to private life and with him two men who were held to be responsible with him for certain policies in the conduct of the city affes. Now supposing it to be mere1 a change in personnel, this change is test

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 503 explained upon the ground that there has been a great deal of rather unseemly contention of a personal character in the council, and Mr. MacVicar has been held to be responsible for these conditions. It was felt also, that he had come to represent the big business and corporation interests, and that he had forgotten the masses of the people. Explaining it as a matter of policy, the chan e is the result of the policy of expenjing large sums of money in the heart of the city, rather to the neglect of improvements in the outer parts of the city Des Moines has been ambitious to make great improvements during the last five years, and these improvements have generally been secured by the wide awake business interests in the form of splendid bridges, munici a1 buildings, radical changes of grad)es, etc., in the heart of the city. These expenditures finally disregarded expense, as for instance, the tearing down of a very good steel bridge with perhaps u) years of life yet in it, and the erection of a fine new %foot wide concrete arch bridge in its place. The council had been cautioned by Mayor Hanna against this very policy during the last two years, and had been warned of what would happen, but this advice was not well taken. It has been reported abroad that the recent election was the result of weariness on the part of our people in moral cleanliness and a return to a wide open town policy. Nothing could be further from the truth. It is true, the defeated candidates gras ing at straws to save going down, &d attempt to make it appear that that was the Issue. The fact of the matter is, however, that there never has been a council more fully committed to moral cleanliness and general humanitarian policies than the present one. This is evidenced by the fact, that in the mayoralty fight, Mayor Hanna received from 65 to 84 per cent of the vote in all the residence precincts, while in the other, known as the liberal precincts, his opponent whose manager made a strong appeal to these elements, divided the vote evenly with him, and of the total vote, he received 10,700 against 5000. The new superintendent of public safety received about two-thirds of 'all the votes cast and his appointment to the department of public safety was hailed with delight by all the best people of the city. Our new chief of police and our new police judge were the appointments of Mayor Hanna and the new superintendent of public safety and are men whose lives and character are in themselves a guarantee of the best possible moral conditions and their appointment has been received with almost universal satisfaction, excepting among the ultraliberal element. Finally the personality of Mr. MacVicar became a strong element in the cam aign. He is a man of strong ersonahy, making warm friends an2 equally ardent enemies. The people came to regard him as a czar, and the result was in a large measure a personal rebuke to him. The defeat of the other men, particularly of Mr. Schramm was because of his subservience during the past four years to Mr. MacVicar. It should not be allowed to get abroad that our people have rebuked the new form of government, unless it be true that they have done so, and this, almost no one in Des Moines would be willing to say. I thin it is important that your magazine have the facts and give them such currency as you feel they deserve. * London Municipal Politics.-The London Municipal Society is publishing an interesting series of leaflets in aid of the campaign of the Municipal Reform party against the Progressives, or ProgressiveSocialists. These leaflets seek to influence the London voter to oppose the Progressives in elections for the London county council and for the borough councils. They also are directed at some of the measures of the Liberal government which affect London. The principal objections to the Progressives are that they desire to extend the practice of municipal trading, that thay have in the past been responsible for extravagance and high taxes, that they have favored awarding contracts for public work and supplies to foreigners rather than paying somewhat higher prices at home and thus giving employment to London laborers, and that they have opposed the commercial audit of the accounts of municipal enterprises. The Municipal Reformers claim that recent increases in the London tax rate have been caused by unfair action of the radical (Liberal) government. It is

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504 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW alleged that through its measures and departments the government has forced upon London new and large expenditures for services not of a purely local character which merely benefit the county of London, but for services of a national character for the benefit of the nations as a whole and that it has made no increased grants to London to meet this additional expenditure. Though the Municipal Reform party is avowedly campaigning against socialism, the program put forward in its campaign literature would, in America, probably have to meet the charge of being in some respects advanced in the direction of socialism. The party undertakes to give an efficient administration of the municipal electric tramways and to provide new routes where required by the public. It is pointed out that three years of Progressive socialism gave but thirteen miles a year of new tramways while four year of Municipal Reform gave sixteen miles a year. The Municipal Reformers also propose to continue the building of houses on the London county council estates and to sell these houses to workingmen on a small payment plan similar to that of building societies. In adtiition, their program includes the feeding of necessitous children, the free medical inspection and treatment of children, the provision of open air schools for children in delicate health, the clearance of slum areas, the provision of open spaces and play grounds, the payment of the trade union rate of wages rather than the adrard of contracts to foreigners at somewhat lower rates, the inspection of the sources of the London milk supply, the strict enforcement of the law in respect to the adulteration of food and drugs, and the registration and inspection of lodging houses, bake houses, dairies, laundries, slaughter houses, and workshops. The Municipal reformers boast that they have bought new parks and enlarged those already cxisting, that they have supplied lakes for the people to boat on, that they have provided swimming accommodations, and that they have give more band concerts than the Progressives. The foregoing measures outline a fairly progressive policy for a party whichis directing its special fight against municipal social ism. WILLIAM H. GLASSON. B Women at Work: This letter from Miss Virginia Brooks gives in graphic form an account of her splendid work in the little town in Indiana near Chicago, which she has made her home: According to your request I will tell you a few of my activities in West Hammond. You have probably read of my long fight, extending over a year and a half to rid West Hammond of a raft ring that has been assessing the #ole5 out of house and home for rotten improvements, which represented about 25 cents on the dollar. I might run over the incidents briefly. I was a musician by profession and knew little of business or property, when I was confronted with $20,000 worth of assessments on a little piece of property left to my mother by my father upon his death. That November, 1910, three days after the receipt of the assessments, I put my furniture in storage and with my mother, came to Hammond feeling I must do somethin , but not knowing where to begin. 30 sooner had I stepped into the town, than I was aware that the streeta were made of inferior material and poor workmanship, in fact one street was under construction, and 80 raw was the poor work, that the Poles were threatenin the lives of the workmen. This resufted in my interviewing all the inspectors and workmen on the different unprovements and collecting evidence which I turned over to the state’s attorney, wlio would not give me any assistance . I have stopped election after election, where the grafters tried to turn West Hammond into a city. I have stopped rotten paving and been kicked b policemen controlled by the cli ue adthrown into jail and persecuted%y the friends of the grafters. I have had judgments against me by judges that were hired by them and almost every indignity waged against me to the naming of the worst dive here, the “Vir ‘nia” BufIet. In spite of the grafters, Phave succeeded in electing to office this spring an entire anti-graft ticket and at the coming meet

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 505 ing of the board will close down all of the notorious dives in West Hammond. I have saved for the Poles near1 $21,000 on reductions of over-charge1 assessments. I have suceeded in ousting an old clique who for years had been grafting on the school board, and being elected myself to the office of president. This means that I will introduce into the neglected school, manual training, domestic science, free night school, free kindergarten, and a play-ground. I have established a settlement house in Hammond, Ind., right across the state line, where the boys and girls have night classes, and where mothers who work can take their babies for care. There are some 32,000 Poles in this region and the future looks to great achievement. 5 Pittsburgh.-Several months ago the Voters’ League of Pittsburgh (which was responsible for the making and proving of the charges against the old council, and which resulted in so many of their members going to jail or paying heavy fines for corrupt practices in office) reached the conclusion that certain departments of Mayor Magee’s administration were inefficiently and corruptly managed. Its executive committee exhausted every effort to bring about changes in the three departments, (public safety, public works and health) without public exposure. It was the hope through simple legal procedure, to bring about changes in the administrative officers without exposure or trial. The council, however, disapproved of the various plans offered and by resolution passed unanimously on April 30 called upon the League to fle its charges. They were prepared, ready to be filed at the meeting of the council May,7, when certain business men asked that action be again delayed. The League consented to the delay. After two weeks no solution was offered and the League’s charges were accordingly made to the Council and the trials demanded. Up to this point there was nothing very unusual, although the charges were serious and far-reaching; but irrespective of their political or factional affiliations, the papers of the city ignored the charges made by a responsible organization, which had on more than one occasion “made good.” To quote from the bulletin which it issued and sent 100,OOO copies directly to the voters of the city so that they might know: “The concurrent attitude of our papers would seem to indicate that they are acting together to suppress the charges and keep the public in ignorance thereof.” The council has arranged for a hearing of the charges with Judge Robert S. Frazer as presiding officer. President Weil of the League haw declared that it is ready to produce 1000 witnesses to prove the charges which involve not only gross and corrupt mismanagement, but the corrupt alignment of the administration with those back of the social evils of the city. 5 Lapeer, Mich.-A community in which a large majority of the electors are Protestants, has a Roman Catholic priest, Father Dunnigan, as Mayor. He owes his election not only to his personal popularity, but to his attitude on the liquor question. Although a total abstainer he believes that there should be a certain number of saloons. The town had onginally gone dry though this had not solved the problem, so Father Dunnigan suggested a sufficient number of licenses to meet reasonable needs. It is believed that he has the liquor question fairly well in hand. Among his first acts the mayor repeated the annual order for the spring cleaning of streets and alleys, and for the first time in the history of the community the citizens have taken the matter seriously. As mayor, Father Dunnigan is a member of the school board and this year the high school has added two departments, manual training and domestic science. 5 Milwaukee.-As one result of the defeat of the Socialists at the recent elec,tion the legislature passed the non-partisan election law which abolished all

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506 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW IV. MEETINGS AND ORGANIZATIONS party titles in municipal elections. The bill applies to all cities of the state, in other words they get the benefit of the hard work which has been done in Milwaukee. In commenting on this enactment, Frederic C. Morehouse, president of the City Club, said: That the reform could not be instituted by the cordial-cooperation of all three parties is to be deplored; but I do not see that, under the circumstances, this could have been helped. And by determining the matter just now, when the longest possible time must elapse before an election is to be held under the new law, we are enabled to treat it on its’merits, without reference to its possible effect upon the man’s candidacy. I think it was articularly statesmanlike of Governor dcGovern to urge the matter at this special session, and not permit the matter to be knocked between parties and individual interests in the next legislature.” Seattle’s Election.-At the recent election in Seattle there were twenty-seven proposed amiendments to the city charter submitted to the electorate, three city propositions, four bond issues, and eight port of Seattle propositions. The single tax amendments were defeated as were also those regarding publicity of candidates for office, the public welfare section, city newspaper proposition and the mayor’s veto. The street railway franchise was defeated and the idea of municipal telephones approved. The Bogue civic plans were defeated. Of the twentynine recommendations made by the Seattle Municipal League on amendments, bond issues and city propositions, nineteen carried. * The Oberlin College Civic Club has recently done an excellent piece of practical work in publishing, after a careful investigation of the facts, a report to the voters of Lorain County on the character of the candidates for local offices. This report was evidently taken seriously by the electors, for all of the recommendations of the club were followed in the primary, with one unimportant exception. Professor Geiser’ and the Club should be congratulated on the results of this piece of public service. * Du1uth.-On May 8 the voters of Duluth adopted provisions providing for the recall, the initiative and the referendum. Of 6669 ballots recorded, 5331 voted for the amendment. A three-fifths vote was necessary. * Omaha electors chose a commission of seven on May 8. The ticket headed by Mayor Dahlman (who has served two terms) was elected by a substantial majority over the Citizens Union ticket. The Buffalo Municipal League.-In his last report, Mr. Melvin P. Porter, the secretary-treasurer of the League, summarized the year’s work as follows: Though great improvement has been made in the type of city and county officials elected since the League began its work, the League reached the conclusion that efficient and economical city government is impossible under the complications of the present antiquated charter. Therefore, beginning with the cam aign of 1910, the League attempted two ttings in addition to its usual report on the records of candidates : 1. To secure from each candidate for the state legislature a pledge to “do all in his power to permit the city of Buffalo to vote on a new charter, as the city legally requested in a referendum in November, 1909 [under the Public Opinion Ordinance].” This pledge waa si ed in 1910 by all senators elected frorn%rie County and by three of the nine assernblymen, two of whom belonging to the party then in the minority of Albany had relatively little power. 2. To secure the defeat of aa many as possible of the Erie County state legislators, who ignored the city’s request for 1 See pnge 355.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 607 the mere right to vote on a new charter and the election in their places of men desiring to serve the city. In 1910 one such man in each house was signally defeated and re laced by Mr. Burd in the senate and &a. LaReau in the assembly. In 1911, foreseeing that Mr. LaReau, whose party normally receives on1 about one-third of the votes in his dlstrict, could not be re-elected, the League early took steps to insure the nomination of a Republican, Mr. Horton, who would be equally insistent on the city’s right to vote on a new charter. Two assemblymen who refused to sign the League’s charter pledge were defeated ill the first and third districts by men who signed. Another in the fifth district was elected by only 69 plurality, and would have been replaced by a man who signed if there had been money to mail the League’s report to the voters, as was done in the third district, where a defeat by 256 votes in 1910 when no circularizing was done, was changed to a victory with 1199 lurality this year after the League’s circuyars had been mailed to the voters. Last year’s above charter pledge still binds all Erie County senators for the remainder of their term. They ought again to be able to have the senate pass the charter bill. Instead of having, as in 1910, only three assemblymen pledged, two of them of the minority party, the League now has five, the entire re resentation of the majority party, plefged to the following much stronger pledge: “If elected to the Assembly, I will do all in my power to permit the city of Buffalo to vote on a new charter, as the city requested in a referendum in November, 1909; but I will remain free personally to approve any other charter and will oppose the forcing of any charter upon the city until this submission to the voters. Mr. Porter has prepared for the League a program embracing “The Ten Commandments of a City Charter” as follows: (A.) POWER CONCENTRATED in a single small council, executive m well as legislative, and in each member as head of a department. (B.) ACCOUNTABILITY TO VOTERS secured (prior to election) through a short ballot, permitting intelligent voting, and direct nomination or preferential voting-selection as well as election by the voters, election at large, accountability to all the voters; and (after election) the referendum, voters’ veto for amisrepresentative act, the initiative, voters’ power to compel a desired act, the recall, voters’ prompt replacement of a bad official, publicity of meetings, etc., involving simple rulcs of order, and appointments subject to the merit systern * Philadelphia Taxpayers’ Committee.The taxpayers’ committee on city finances of Philadelphia, a committee organized to conduct proceedings to secure the administration of the financial affairs of the city in accordance with the constitution and the laws of the state of Pennsylvania, has issued a report for 1910-11, in which it reviews its efforts to arouse in a “majority of the citizens of Philadelphia a sense of the outrages upon civic decency practiced in the administration of the city affairs.” This report shows that seventeen civil proceedings were instituted by the committee to prevent unlawful acts and six criminal prosecutions started to bring to justice city officials and contractors on grounds of illegal and fraudulent conspiracies. The civil proceedings included litigation to prevent practices that had grown up whereby a large amount of city work was done before an appropriation had been made or a contract executed to cover it; against improper methods of computing the debt limits of the city and illegal loans; against conspiracies between officers of the city and street paving and street cleaning companies; illegal supplemental contracts and extra and improper payments under contracts; and absence of competitive bids under contract grants as required by law. In addition to these proceedings, the committee gathered and vigorously presented evidence to the Catlin commission brought into existence by a resolution of the senate of Pennsylvania to investigate charges of immoral and dishonest. conduct against public officials of the commonwealth. Although this evidence was presented t,o a commission that was later declared by the courtx ns not having sufficient authority t,o pro

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NATIO, JAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ceed, it did much to educate the people by its exposures of wrongdoing in the municipal affairs of the city of Philadelphia. The summary of the evidence produced before the commission by the committee, given by the report, alleges that bids for city work were repeatedly rejected because favorite contractors had not entered the lowest bid; that work that could have been done’ by the city without additional cost was made to involve the city in contracts amounting to $1,360,000; that the route of the Northeast Boulevard, in course of construction, was changed to benefit lands owned by members of the city council and political leaders, and that later this land, although originally assessed at only 81,200,ooO brought to the owners not only damages of $1,200,000 for 160 acres taken for boulevard purposes but also a new assessed valuation of $2,100,000 on the 970 acres remaining; that real estate was sold to the city at fictitious values by members of the city councils through the agency and cover of trust companies; and that the failure of administrative officials to require contractors to fulfill provisions of contracts meant annually large losses,to the municipality. The committee, of which Logan M. Bullitt, Esq., is chairman, and Thos. Raeburn White, Esq.,’ counsel, has now actively before it a disposal of the civil and criminal proceedings, and is endeavoring to give the present administration the benefit of the large amount of information which it has accumulated about the affairs of the city. It intends to endeavor to secure such legislation at the next session of the legislature of Pennsylvania as ite investigations have shown necessary to prevent a recurrence of the evils which led to the formation of the committee. 9 Dr. Delos F. Wilcox, Chief of the bureau of franchises of the publicservice commission, New York, and joint aulMr. White la a member of tlie Council of the Natlonal Municipal League. thor with James W. 3. Peters of the subcommittee report on a model street railway franchise presented to the National Municipal League at Richmond, made a trip through the middle west during the past winter, speaking before the City Clubs of Chicago, Kansas City, St. Louis and Cincinnati. In Chicago he spoke on’ “The Decapitalization of Public Utilities;” in KansasCity on “The Conservation of the Streets;” in St. Louis, on “Municipal Public Utilities,” and in Cincinnati on “Urban Aspects of Conservation.” Everywhere he urged the civic necessity of the cities regaining and keeping absolute control of the streets. To this end he advocated the central principles of the “Model Franchise,” namely, an indeterminate grant with a practicable purchase clause and the establishment of a sinking fund to provide for the retirement of the capital out of earnings and the gradual reduction of the purchase price. He criticised particularly the Chicago street railway settlement, because the ordinances made no provision for a reduction of the capital account until the city is able to pay the full amount of the purchase price. He pointed out that starting with n purchase price of $50,000,000 as of June 30,1906, the street railways of Chicago stood on the books at more than $125,000,000 before the close of 1911, while the city’s purchase fund with its meagre accumulations would amount to only about ~7,500,000 at the close of the fiscal year. In other words while the city was accumulating a purchase fund of $7,500,000 the purchase price increased $75,000,000. The worst of it, to Dr. Wilcox’s mind, was that of the present purchase price a very large sum, estimated atabout $35,000,000, represents old franchise and scrap values and property which has disappeared in the process of reconstruction. The Chicago ordinances should have provided a fund for writing off this dead capital beFore there were any surplus profits for anybody. Dr. Wilcox also criticised the Chicago ordinances be

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 509 cause they made no provision for the investment of the city’s ‘purchase fund, with the result that while the companies are all the time putting in new money and drawing5 per cent interest on it, the city has to content itself with letting its money lie in the banks at 22 per cent. He everywhere urged the necessity of making public utility investments safe, as much like municipal bonds as possible. If the money which people put into these properties is safe, said he, there is no excuse for offering any bonus or additional reward over the minimum rate to induce capital to come in. Indeed, if the investors are sure of their interest, sure that the integrity of the property. itself will be preserved and that the investment will gradually be paid off, it will be almost impossible to drive capital away because it will be so anxious to get in. In Cincinnati, where the city was in the midst of negotiations in regard to a union depot and railroad terminal franchise, Dr. Wilcox applied the principles of the model franchise to the particular local problem. Everywhere, he urged, the streets are the symbols of democracy and the political success of our institptions depends largely upon our ability to free the local and national highways from the encroachments of private interests. The American people is suffering from an overload of individualism and the veryleast that can be done to restore the balance between public and private interests is the conservation of the highways as public property free from special easements. * Intercollegiate Civic League Convention.-A hundred and fifty students representing universities in all parts of the country assembled at Columbia University on April 11 for the sixth annual convention of the Intercollegiate Civic League. Delegates came from such distant points as Missouri, Minnesota, and North Dakota. The programme included a session at which the policy of the League and the activities of the clubs were discussed, a dinner at the City Club, and a second day spent in Washington where the delegates were received by President Taft, Chief Justice White, Attorney General Wickersham, Ambassador Bryce, Speaker Clark, Senator Borah, and Congressman Underwood. During the informal discussion the national parties were subjected to a criticism which waa especially significant as coming from eastern aa well as western men. Mr. Clyde Duffy said that in North Dakota “we cannot tell the difference between a progressive Republican and a Democrat; I vote in the Republican primaries and at the same time I am president of the Woodrow Wilson Club.” The Harvard delegates precipitated a spirited debate by urging the formation of civic clubs in women’s colleges and their admission to the League. A decision in the matter was postponed. In various ways a lively interest in problems of city government was shown. The California Club has been investigating the question of municipal ownership for Mayor Wilson of Berkeley; the Western Reserve Club has done useful work for the Municipal Association of Cleveland; the Pennsylvania Club has caperated with the Philadelphia House Commission and other local organizations; and the Williams Club, which has 275 members, has accomplished truly notable results by undertaking a social survey of neighboring towns and by investigatingthrough committees such questions as child labor, milk supply, drainage, and housing. R. Bayard Cutting, who as chairman of the executive committee successfully guidedthe up-building of the League from the time of its formation in 1906, waa presented with a lbving cup, he having resigned some months before the convention. The present Chairman is William M. Chadbourne of New York City, a member of the council of the National Municipal League.‘ ‘Edward M. Bait

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510 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW League of California Municipa1ties.For fourteen years the League of California Municipalities has been doing good work and the year just closed was the most useful of the series. The Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Convention is the first bound volume to be issued. It is full of practical advice and suggestions for all sorts of officials, especially those of the smaller communities. One of the most interesting papers is that of the city solicitor of Pasadena on Recent Court Decisions Affecting Municipalities. The chief case noted was that of the Contra Costa Water Company us. Oakland‘ which among other things, refused to hold that a rate which afforded 54 per cent net revenue was not codscatory. Pavement and street improvements generally, water supplies and sewerage and taxation are some of the questions considered. There are 362 pages of interesting matter, inadequately indexed. * The St. Louis City Club which, under its constitution, is prohibited from taking action on any public matters and therefore being chiefly a forum for the discussion of public affairs, has recently canvassed its membership of 1000 in order to secure the active co-operation of as many members as possible in the work of those organizations which do actively engage in propaganda and committee work. Practically all the charities, settlements and other social service organizations have been given opportunity to put in applications for volunteer workers and the City Club public service committee is busily engaged in bringing together the men and the opportunity. Between nearly three hundred men out of the membership of one thousand replied to the circular of the committee. * California Equal Suffrage League.The Civic Center, in San Francisco, founded by the College Equal Suffrage 1113,001. 860. League, has been reorganized in order to work more efficiently for improved legislation and political education. Instead of a “center” in San Francisco from which all other portions of California would be covered, the directors have organized chapters in different sections of the state to work in connection with a state board of representatives from the several chapters. Branch chapters have already been organized in San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Alameda, Sacramento and Stockton. 5 The St. Louis Civic League has been developing an interesting work in forming its membership into ward groups along the same general plan as that of the Pittsburgh civic commission. In addition to assisting the League in carrying out its program, through local assistance in the wards, these committees are also serving to bring into closer contact the various organizations in the wards interested in public affairs, for instance, the women’s clubs, school patrons’ organizations, improvement associations and church clubs. * The Pittsburgh Voters League in ,a recent bulletin calls attention to the insufficient and improper inspection of work done for the city or supplies purchased by the city and urges that an adequate system of inspection and audit be established. It says that “It is necessary only for council to make it a part of all contracts for work done or supplies furnished that they be inspected, audited and approved by some authority independent of the one letting the contract.” 5 New York State Mayors Conference.The third annual Conference of Mayors of New York State convened in Utica June 10-12. Five sessions were held, at which were discussed such phases of municipal government BR home rule, aldermanic activities in municipal gov

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 511 ernment, steps in dealing with the social evil, testing efficiency of public schools, solving the municipal lighting problem, street railway franchises, and readjusting a city for greater efficiency. * First International Municipal Congress and Exposition held in Chicago, September18-30, 1911,l has publish'ed its proceedings in a pamphlet of 167 pages. It contains outlines of papers on such subjects as municipal accounting and efficiency, city planning, woman in the municipality, city chartars, reduckion of fire waste, cost of health departments, and garbage disposal. * Laramie, Wyoming, Civic Association. -Following the visit of Clinton Rogers Woodruff, secretary of the National Municipal League, prominent citizens of Laramie gathered together May 10 and organized the Laramie Civic Association. Mayor Stiltzer was elected president, and A. W. McCullogh secretary. * The Illinois Mayors' Association met May 30 and 31 in Evanston. They devoted a large portion of their sessions to a discussion of serious social problems and public utilities and services generally. * The St. Louis Municipal Art League has been merged into the St. Louis Civic League, thus affording a very interesting example of merger for other cities to study. * The Los Angeles Municipal League has broadened the scope of its activities to include county affairs. V. ACADEMIC AND EDUCATIONAL European C iv i c-Tour.-The Boston chamber of commerce-trip to Europe last summer proved the worth of study on the spot under good leadership of the various problems of civic administration and development. Realizing the value of this idea, ,but believing that the scope and variety and choice of subject might be vastly impr ved another trip has been planned this summer by a newly formed organization called the InternationaI Civic Bureau. The committee of arrangement consists of Frederick C. Howe, who was one of the directors of the Boston trip; of George B. Ford, the Columbia University city-planning lecturer, and R. R. Miller who has been conducting hips in Europe for the last seven years. The party as planned sailed from New York on June 27 and return, arriving in New York about September 1. The trip willvisit leadingEnglish, Dutch, Belgian, French and German cities of municipal interest. In each of these places those things will be visited for which the city is noted in a civic way and everywhere the places visited will be under the guidance of local authorities who can open the doors and explain things in a way that the private individual traveling alone is quite unable to equal. A particular point is being made of the fact that most such tours are too much study and not enough tour; this tour is arranged so that it will be a real vacation as well as an education and inspiration. This is done by making a great feature of pure recreation, recreation of an unusual sort which will bring the members of the party in direct contact with the play of the people of the country.2 * Civic Education Through Debating.The Debating League for education in citizenship in New York City has been recently proposed and sponsored by the 'Lice page 14G. ZFroiu George B. Ford.

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512 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW People’s Institute. It will include a number of allied groups, viz.: the public day and night high schools; and an independent group composed of such societies as the Y. M. C. A., the Y. M. H. A., the Educational Alliance, Cooper Union Graduate Club, etc., and several societies representing the various collegiate institutions of New York City. Each group or branch, for purposes of competition, will be considered independent of the other branches. All branches however, will be subject to the governing body, the central board, which will have jurisdiction over all inter-society activities. Any society, wishing to become a member of any group, can do SO by merely making application to the central board and subscribing to its rules and by-laws. The central board will in nowise have power to interfere with the internal affairs of the respective societies or exact any financial obligation. The central board, which is composed of men of reputation and prominence in New York City, will provide prizes, subjects for debate, times and places of meeting, judges, bibliographies, etc., settle disputes and other matters as may arise from time to time. The triangular system of debates is to prevail. Under this system all societies come in contact with one another, debate both sides of each problem, and can join or sever their connection with the League at any time without derangingmaterially the plans for any one debating years. * Cincinnati Prize.-The National Municipal League has established through the generosity of some of its members in Cincinnati an annual prize of twenty dollars, to be called the “Cincinnati Prize,” to be awarded to the student, in any department of the University of Cincinnati who submits the best original essay on a subject bearing upon the municipal government or the civic life of the city of Cincinnati. The subject selected. for the 1912 competition is “Municipal Service Reform.” The essays submitted contained (a) an analysis of the laws of Ohio relatingto the civil service of cities, (b) a critical review of the manner in which such laws have been administered in Cincinnati; (c) a compnrison 1t9 to efficiency between the civil service commission of Cincinnati and similar commissions in other Ohio cities; (d) notices of good features in civil service laws governing other American cities which are not embodied in the municipal civil service laws of Ohio; (e) a discussion of the practical operation of miinicipal civil service laws together with suggestions for their improvement and better administration. Elliot H. Goodwin, Esq., Secretary of the National Civil Service Reform League, and Max B. May, Esq., of Cincinnati, were the judges of the prize which was awarded toMaurice B. Hexter, Class of 1912, University of Cincinnati. * City Planning Bibliography.-The Special Libraries Association has issued as the regular May issue of Special Libraries, an extensive bibliography of city planning, prepared by the division of bibliography of the Library of Congress and the landscape architecturedepartment of Harvard University, in coaperation with several state and legislative reference libraries. City planning is defined as “the intelligent control and gu’idance of the physical conformation, growth and alteration of cities, towns, or considerable parts thereof considered in their entirety.” The bibliography is divided into two main parts, the fwst a list of general works, magazine articles, bibliographies and periodicals devoted to the subject; the second a list of materials relating to different cities and localities. In-this latter part 172 American cities and towns are listed with references to their plan, besides 72 cities in Great Britain, Canada, India, Australia, Germany, France, AWtria, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, Roumania, $pain, Switzerland and Sweden. There are 62 page8 of closely printed references. The publication may be oh

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 513 tained for 25 cents from Guy E. Marion, secretary Special Libraries Association, 93 Broad Street, Boston, or John A. Lapp managing editor of Special Libraries, State Library, Indianapolis, Ind. .JF The Association Technique of Paris, France, has recently issued a small pamphlet devoted to the treatment of open spaces in the cities. The report contains many references to conditions in the United States showing particularly the influence of the American playground movement on the development of parks on the continent. The pamphlet quotes, with some amusement, an art.icle from the New York Herald in 1906 comparing American and European park development bringing out the contrast of the artificiality of European parks as compared to the naturalness of American parks. The article which was entitled “Central Park Beats Them All” seems to have somewhat aroused the publishers of the pamphlet. The pamphlet shows clearly the tendency everywhere toward increasing the service of the parks to the community. .JF A Cuban Municipal Journal.-During the past ten years Dr F. Carrera y Justix has been unremitting in his efforts to arouse interest in municipal affairs throughout the island of Cuba. Seven years ago he established a municipal journal entitled Revista Nunicipal y de Intereses Economicos, and at the same time organized a bureau of information which is placed at the disposal of municipal officials throughout the island. The bureau furnishes such officials with material on all questions relating to municipal affairs and gives them technical advice on matters relating to municipal policy. This bureau has done very important service in improvingmunicipal conditions in Cuba, and the work of Dr. Carrera y Justix deserves the recognition of American students of municipal conditions. * “The American City’’ is developing most satisfactorily from month to month. It is improving as rapidly in its quality as it is increasing in its quantity. Its illustrated discussion of current municipal problems cannot but fail to be of great help to all students in municipal problems. Its new editor, Harold S. Buttenheim, is making it a publication well worth while. The June number is specially devoted to the work of women apropos of the approaching meeting of the General Federation of Womens’ Clubs. * The Civic League of St. Louis has issued this year a more comprehensive list of speakers on civic and social questions than formerly in order to meet the grow-ing interest in a wider range of subjects. This list of speakers is Rent broadcast to organizations and individuals in the city and largely influences the makeup of the programs of local neighborhood improvement associations, women’s club6 church societies, and the like. Practically every topic of local current interest is included in the list. .JF The National Association of Loca! Government Officers (British) has recently published a pamphlet containing its constitution and a brief history of’thc association.

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514 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VI. JUDICIAL DECISIONS’ Recent Civil Service Decisions.-In Illinois in the case of People ex Tel. James W. Gullett, et. al. us. James S. McCullozrgh, the Illinois supreme court recently upheld the constitutionality of the civil service law approved June 10,1!U. Suit was brought by three clerks in the office of the secretary of state to secure a writ of mandamus directing the auditor of public accounts to issue to the petitioners warrants on the state treasurer for the amounts due them upon payrolls certified by the secretary of state without the certification of the state civil service commission. The jurisdiction of the commission over the office of the secretary of state wm disputed on the grounds that the civil service act as far as it applied to officers whose offices are created by the constitution was null and void. This case was of importance because had it been decided against the constitutionality of the law as it applied to these departments it would have seriously limited the extent of the merit system in Illinois. Fortunately the court upheld the constitutionality of the law. In Philadelphia on April 1 the court of common pleas, no. 2, handed down a decision in the case of Smith et al. us. the City of Philadelphia ef al., in which it held that patrolmen in Philadelphia who had been appointed from eligible lists arranged by districts held their positions illegally. This case was started four years ago by the Pennsylvania Civil Service Reform Association. It grew out of the fact that the last civil service commission had divided an eligible list for patrolmen into thirty-five separate lists corresponding to the thirty-five police districts in the city. Under this system whenever the director of public safety wished to make appointments of patrolmen certifications were made not from the general list, but from the specific district list for the district to which apPortland (Ore.) Bar. LPrepared by Rlohard W. Yontague, Eaq., of t.he pointments were to be made. The result of this was that it was very easy for a person who stood almost at the bottom of the list to secure appointment from a district list which he headed; and the practice grew up of persons on an eligible list effecting a change of residence so as to get placed on a district list where their rating would give them a high position and, after having secured appointments, moving back to their place of original residence. In these ways the effectiveness of competitive examinations for the police department in Philadelphia was seriously weakened, if not practically destroyed. In its decision the court held that this procedure of dividing up eligible lists by districts was entirely contrary to the law. It said: “To establish mere residence as an index of knowledge was beyond the power of the civil service commission. Its mode of ascertaining proficiency is not by caprice or conjecture, but by competitive examination.’ The result of the decision has been to invalidate the employment of about 1000 patrolmen at present in the service of the police department in Philadelphia. In order not to obstruct public business, however, these officers will be continued for a short time, but if they wish to secure permanent appointments it will be necessary for them to enter an open competitive examination. In New York the court of appeals in the cme of Simon us. Maguire has upheld the action of the New York City civil service commission in putting in the competitive class the position of probation officer in the New York City inferior courts. The decision of the court is unusually striking in that it unanimously reverses the unanimous decision of the appellate division holding that the position should be exempt. The decision of the court of appeals is based mainly on the case of People ex rel. Schau us. McWilliams, in which it was held that thc courts could not interfere in the actiw of a civil service commission on the ques

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 515 tion of classification where there was Wisconsin-Home Rule.-In the 1911 room for reasonable men to differ as to session of the Wisconsin legislature a sowhat the classification should be. In the called “Home Rule” .bill was passed. opinion which accompanied the decision, The act gave every city the power to however, the court distinctly laid down alter or amend its charter or to adopt a that the declaration in the statute that new charter by convention. a position is confidential does not ips0 Every city, in addition to the powers Page law reorganizing the inferior courts it to alter or mend its cyarter, or to contained a clause declaring that the a&pt a new charter by convention, in probation officers were the confidential i:: ~~~~~r~~~~~~e~~~~~a~~~ t:: emPIoYeeS of the justices, and this clause declared to have all powers in relation was one of the main grounds on which to the form of its government and to the appellate division held that the posithe conduct of its municipal affairs not The ,jeciin COIltraVeIltiOn Of Or withheld by the constitution or laws, operative generally the highest court is of great importhroughout the st&e. tance to the merit system in New York City in keeping the probation officers out The constitutionality of the act was of politics, and the municipal civil servtested before the supreme court of the ice commission has taken a high stand in state, arising from the question of a proinsisting that all the probation officers, posed alteration of the charter by Milwho had been appointed without exmiwaukee in order to allow the city to connation following the decision of the lower duct the business of furnishing its citicourt that the placeswere exempt, should zens with ice. The court handed down be &missed and their places filled by a decision1 against the constitutionality appointments from the eligible list. of the act. The decision is based on In another case-that of Merritt VS. the grounds that, since the constitution Kraft-the New York court of appeals provides, that “it shall be the duty of upheld the lower court in refusing to the legislature . . . . to Provide for the reverse the action of the state civilservorganization of cities” and since the ice commission in transferring from the legislative power is vested in the senate competitive to the exempt class the thirand assembly, a municipal organization teen positions of examiners of stock transcan only be created by legislative act, fers in the state comptroller’s ofice. The that is, by legislative charter, and a legiscourt handed down no opinion, resting lative delegation of authority to make a its decision on the ruling in the case of city charter or a part of it is a delegation ‘ People ex rel. Schau vs. McWillians, of legislative Power and void. referred to above, and the appellate diviThe decision strengthens the principle sion in its decision did not enter into the that “Home Rule” in order to stand the merits of the question of classification in test of the courts must be based not 0x1 any way whatsoever. In a third case, legislative act alone but on a ConStitUinvolving the question of the classificational provision expressly authorizing it. tion of sixty special excise agents in the New York State Department of Excise, the state civil service commission in refusing to transfer these positions from thecompetitiveclsss, where theyhad been for fifteen years, to the exempt class. facto make that Position exemptThe now possessed, is hereby ven authortion should be made exempt. (1911, ch. 476.) GEORQE TIEFENTHALER. the court on similar grounds haa upheld 4 Complications Under Direct Primary Laws.-The indifference to party divisions in these days when party names are discharged of their significance gives rise to amusing-and to party managers vexROBERT w. BEECHER. 1 Slate of Wisconsin, et re2. C4r2 T. Mueller us. Cad D. Thompson, City Clerk of the City of Milwaukee. New York.

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516 NATIONAL MUN atious-complications under the direct primary laws. It frequently happens that members of one party receive nominations to minor offices in another, and in a pumber of instances men have been actually chosen members of the election committees of the opposite party. It may be that these confusions are merely the tempprary effects of a new and complicated system, but there is much ground for the belief that the direct primary system presupposes valid and vigorous party divisions, and having performed an indispensable service in breaking up the intrenched and inveterate rule of bosses it should now be superseded, certainly in municipal elections by some method less exigent of popular attention in minor details and more responsive to broad currents of opinion. Provisions of the New York direct primary, especially those prohibiting the placing of a name more than once, have been held unconstitutional by the supreme court in New York. RICHARD W. MONTAOUB. Portland, Oregon. 5 Charter Revision In Michigan.-Decisions previouslymentioned in this column to the effect that Michigan cities must &end their charters by a general revision, not piecemeal, have been firmed. A contention that the provision permitting such revisions applied only to cities jncorporated under the general act was not sustained by the court, which held in Gallup v. Sagward that cities having legislative charters came under the law. 5 Municipal Pure Food Laws.-A conviction for violation of pure food ordinances passed by the city of Chicago was upheld by the supreme court of Illinois' despite the contention that the state law did not cover the particular offense, and being later than the city ordinance, impliedly repealed it. The power thus pre96 Northeastern Reporter 872. 1 Chicago u. Ice Cream Manufacturing Company. CIPAL REVIEW served to municipalities to legislate upon matters of food cleanliness and adulteration as they arise is manifestly of the utmost importance. I! Elections-Ballots.-The order in which the names of candidates shall appear on the ballot is the subject of a decision in Chicago. The court there held that the election board had no right to determine the order but that that function should be performed by the county clerk. The later legislation on this point most usually follows the Minnesota plan whereby the order is changed at intervals in the printing. Undue importance has probably been attached to this feature of the long ballots now in use. An analysis of a number of cases where it was insisted that results were materially affected by position on the ballot, showed that candidates placed lower down were readily elected where there was any ascertainable ground of preference-identification with a popular cause, a better known or better liked personality, etc., and that the choice of the better position was traceable as a cause only where all were obscure or unimportant. When that condition exists there is little hope of good results anyway. * Parks in Denver.-The supreme court of Colorado construing the constitution of the state with a commendable purpose to recognize and carry out its obvious intent holds the people of Denver* have every power in making a charter possessed by the legislature, and that notwithstanding the failure to enumerate parks in a list of the objects for which land may be condemmed, the city may provide for the purchase and condemnation of lands for parkways. * Commission Charters in 0klahoma.The technical objections to the adoption of commission charters in Oklahama aris2 Landanm u. Dmnm, 119 Paolfic 167.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 517 ing out of failure to observe certain formalities in the election have been declared insufficient, and the charter held properly adopted by the supreme court in the case of Mitchell u. Carter, decided March 12. The commission form of government has also recently been declared constitutional by the court of last resort in Nebraska. Pueblo Charter Declared Legal.-On April 6 the Pueblo charter was upheld by the courts and a temporary halt in the contest over its legality brought about by the decision of Judge Rizer sustaining the city commissioners in, the quo warranto proceedings instituted to oust them from office. VII. SOCIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS The City as a Socializing Agency.The March number of the American Journal of Sociology contains several articles of interest to students of the city problem. Several of them were papers presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Society. The first paper is by Frederic C. Howe, on the City as a Socializing Agency, in which he lays emphasis on the physical basis of the city plan, his contention being that in America thus far we have been care takers rather than architects, and that our cities may be likened to the business man who neglects his factory in his efforts to perfect his system of bookkeeping. Too little attention has been given in America to the city plan. The laying out of streets for a city Mr. Howe believes is worthy of as much thought as the planning of a cathedral. In America, we have failed to regard the city as a permanent thing, and have given no attention toits site, to the site of buildings, parks, etc.,plannedin advance of the city’s needs. We have neglected its plumbing and at the same time its superstructure, all of which are matters of community concern. The second paper is on the Urban Habit of Mind, by Howard B. Woolston, of the College of the City of New York. Mr. Woolston pleads for the recognit,ion on the part of the citizens that the city is more than a place, a corporation, or a political unit,-that in reality it is a spiritual unit, “growing, enlarging, and striving for a realization of an adjusted order in which all men may share.” The third article, by Jane Addams, is on Recreation as a Public Function in Urban Communities. In this paper Miss Addams maintains that the comradeship that grows out of the opportunities of the athletic field may become the basis for a new citizenship. * Municipal Cleanliness and Sanitation.-The movement for municipal cleanliness and sanitation is rapidly gaining strength, and, in Washington, D. C., found expression in the city cleaning week designated by the commissioner for April 15-20. Baltimore is undergoing a thorough renovating under the stimulus of the Women’s Civic League, which has declared relentless war against waste, flies, smoke and improper refuse disposal. The workers of the League have been organized as “walkers” and “talkers,” carrying the campaign to the doors of the citizens. In Chicago, the Woman’s City Club is conducting an eBective campaign for city cleanliness by conductinga photographic contest for which amateur photographers under twenty years of age submitting Chicastreets in good and bad condition and school buildings that are what they should be and those that are not. The New York School Hygiene Association hacl outlinetl a definite program for school sanitation. It calls for discontinuance of the common drinking cup; for the substitutiop of moist for dry sweeping; for specific rules as to methods of cleaning and sanitation of ,school buildings;

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$18 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW for three lessons a week in hygiene for grammar grades instead of one as heretofore, and for adequate instruction in normal and training schools in methods of teaching personal and social hygiene. (0 Denver Civic Parade.-Denver Municipal Pack, in its issue of May 11, gives a graphic account of the Denver civic parade, held May 8. Although many European cities have been holding similar parades as a means of educating the citizen and tax-payer in regard to governmental matters and to stimulate civic pride, Denver is the first city in America to carry out the idea to complete proportions. The parade was three and a half miles long, completely presenting the activities of the city, its departments and the county of Denver. It was a great lesson in the amount of work being done by the city, the number of menand women and pieces of equipment it requires to conduct the affairs of the government, and in general the progress that has been made in the past few years along municipal lines. A great civic parade was one of the unique features of the National Municipal League’s meeting in Los Angeles, July 8-12. cp International Movement for the Beautification of Cities.-A popular booklet in French has been recently issued dealing with the international movement for the beautification of cities. The booklet which is by Georges Benoit-Levy is entitled La Ville et son Image and its seventy pages are profuse with maps and photographs of landscape work in the United States, Great Britain and Europe. Besides the popular presentation of much recent material concerning particularly American conditions there is a section of valuable references to the leading authorities on the new landscape art both here and abroad. The movement in England is given particular mention and one entire chapter ia devoted to the playground movement in the American cities. The booklet brings out in a striking way international unity in developing the health and beauty of our cities. cp Voluntary Idleness in Berlin.-On March 4, the Kommunalkommission of the Prussian Herrenhaus made a rzport on the proposed law for the regulation of voluntary idleness and failure to provide. During the discussion of the report on March 7, the mayor of Berlin made the statement that the number of the voluntary idle is perhaps nowhere as great as it is in Berlin. Over 5000 persons are accommodated nightly in the municipal refuge. Upon being put to vote, a majority voted in favor of the measure. In the event of its becoming a law, it will be operative on October 1. * Philadelphia Vice Commission.-On June 1, Mayor Blankenburg, of Philadelphia, announced the appointment of a commission of twenty-one citizens, with William Clarke Mason, Esq., chairman, to study the problem of vice in Philadelphia and to make recommendations for minimizing or eliminating the evil in the city. (0 Texas Housing Problem is the title of “a study of physical conditions under which the other half lives,” reprinted from the Galveston-Dallas News in November and December of last year. These newspapers have done a splendid work in bringing to the attention of the residents of Texas cities the actual housing conditions existing in them. * Chicago Summer School of Civics.The Chicago Summer School of Civics and Philanthropy, of which Prof.Graham Taylor is director, opened on June 24 and will continue to July 26. The sessions will be devoted particularly to Community Cooperation for Social Service.

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EVENTS AND PERSONALIA 519 Landscape Architecture and Civic Problems.-Phelps Wyman, of Minneapolis, ha issued a pamphlet on Landscape Architecture, its Application to Civic and Semi-public Problems, which combines in a happy way art and commercialism. * The withdrawal of Robert C. Brooks, professor of political science, from the faculty of the University of Cincinnati to return to Swarthmore College has brought forth expressions of universal regret from the student body of the University of Cincinnati. The University Weekly News refers to the loss of the University: “He has resigned, his resigThe Recreation Of Basnation has been accepted, and still we shout out oppositi~n to it.?* Frank G. Henderson, former secretary of Mayor Alexander of Los Angeles, has been appointed a member of the public service commission of Los Angeles to fill ton is making a novel attempt to popularize the parks Of the city by conducting a series of informal Saturday afternoon walks and outings in the parks of Boston and vicinity. * Recreatioo Centers.-The Playground for April contains a detailed statement concerning recreation centers in the leading states and cities of the country. It also contains a list of the available playground workers. 5 Personal Mention.-E. 0. Edgerton has resigned as secretary of theLos Angeles Municipal League to accept an appointment at the hands of Governor Johnson as a member of the new state board of public utilities. Charles D. Willard has been elected to succeed to the vacancy. The many friends of Mr. Willard will be delighted to learn that his health will permit him to reassume the position which he filled with so much usefulness and credit. Howard Strong has been elected general secretary of the Cleveland Municipal Civic and Commerce Association which represents the merger of several business bodies into one strong, vigorous organization. Mr. Strong for ten years has been an assistant secretary of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. Frederic C. Howe, former State Senator of Ohio, author of The City, the Hope of Democracy has been elected director of the People’s Institute of New York in succession to the late Charles Sprague Smith. the vacancy caused by the resignation of Parley M. Johnson. The appointment is a promotion for the merit Mr. Henderson manifested as secretary to the mayor. Among the appointments made by Governor Johnson of California has been that of Dr. JohnR. Haynes of Los Angeles as amember of thestate boardof charities. Dr. Haynes is one of California’s best known public men, and has been conspicuously identified with the movement for direct legislation and perfection of a direct primary system for his state. On an indictment charging him with taking money unlawfully in connection with a paving contract while chief executive, Mayor Edwin W. Packer of Long Branch was fined $500 and costs by the court after pleading non vult. At Richmond, President Foulke of the National Municipal League referred to the splendid work which had been done by Dr. Adickes. the mayor of Frankfort, Germany. Whereupon, the Hon. Walter L. Fisher, secretary of the interior, who was presiding, said: do not know that it will help to explain the problem which President Foulke has been discussing this evening, but perhaps it will interest him and you, as it has me, to know that Dr. Adickes, the Ober Burgermeister of Frankfort, is a member in regular and ordinary standing of the National Municipal League.” Professor Frank Greene Bates, formerly of the University of Kansas, haa

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW been appointed associate professor of economics in Indiana University. He is to take charge of the work in municipal government which is to be materially extended, and also of the bureau of municipal research, which is to be established at the state library in Indianapolis. The Kansas City civil service commission has been entirely reconstructed by Mayor Yost who recently assumed office. The term of one of the members of the board expired, and the other two were removed for refusing to comply with the mayor’s request that they should withdraw certain certifications of men who had passed the civil service examination and were suing for the commission to which they and the civil service commission thought they were legally entitled. The removal of Messrs. John H. Thatcher and James W. Peters can only be regarded in the light of a misfortune for they had worked hard ahd with great success to establish the merit system permanently and intelligently in Kansas City. There is no indication that the mayor’s action waa intended to destroy the merit system, for his new appointees are excellent men, but they cannot hope to equal forsome time to come the effective work .which Messrs. Thatcher and Peters did. . BOOKREVIEWS CITY GOVERNMENT BY COMMISSION. Edited by Clinton Rogers Woodruff. New York: D. Appleton andcompany. $1.50. COMMISSION GOVERNMENT IN ERICA AN CITIES. Ernest S Bradford, Ph.D. New York: The Macmillan Company. $1.25. COMM SSION GOVERNMENT NUMBER OF “THE ANNALS.” November, 1911. Issued by the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Philadelphia. $1.00. Clinton Rogers Woodruff’s book on City Government by Commission, the first volume of the series undertaken by the National Municipal League, makes an admirable campaign textbook for the use of commission government partisans. It is rather surprising that a book which, in so marked a degree argues in favor of commission government should be the first of the National Municipal League series, seeing that the League is not at all committed to the new plan. One would at least have expected a less one-sided discussion of the subject. Mr. Woodruff is the editor of this volume. and himself writes ten of the chapters. The other contribut,ions are taken from the proceedings of the National Municipal League. The editor should have contented himself with arranging the material in logical order and filling in when necessary. Mr. Woodruff’s first three chapters, for example, might well have been omitted. The articles by Professor Munro, Mr. Ryan, and Dr. Bradford afford asufficient introduction to the subject. The popular arguments for commiasion government, as stated by Mr. Woodruff, are cogent and pointed Especially strong are the paragraphs dealing with its representative character. The case of the opponents is not, however, as adequately stated as one would like. Extracts from an extemporaneous discussion of the subject are hardly suitable as a thorough presentation of the other side. Mr. Wilcox’s objections are largely theoretical. He disbelieves in the union of legislative and executive power in the same hands, but does not give reasons which are convincing. The analogy between a city and a business corporation, however, he disposes of in short order, by showing that in practical operation, the directors of corporations, except certain small ones, are mere figureheads. The analogy still further loses its force when we re

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BOOK REVIEWS 521 call that the functions of a city government are largely public and governmental, and thus totally different from those of a business corporation. The article, entitled “Applicable to Large Cities” ,calls up a very pertinent question with regard to government by commission. Mr. Deming believes that the objects sought in commission government, viz., simplicity , directness, and concentration of responsibility, can be secured in some other way than by the adoption of the commission plan. Boston rejected the commission plan and yet accomplished substantially the same objects. On the other hand Mr. Mixer has unlimited faith in the applicability of commission government to any and all cities. To cite Washington as an example of commission government, is, however, hardly correct, since in Washington the commissioners of the District of Columbia act under the strict control of Congress. The New York board of estimate and apportionment is not analogous, since it is very largely a financial body, and has no administrative powers, even though its members hold executive and administrative offices. An elective board of aldermen also has something to say about New York City’s finances. Admiral Chadwick’s article on the Newport plan is properly included as offering an apparently successful alternative to commission government more in line with our traditional ideas. The chapters on the results of commission government are open to the criticism that they lay undue emphasis upon financial achievements and increased public improvements. It will be noticed that nearly all of these cities seem to have at once launched out upon extensive programs of municipal improvements. This is an excellent way, of course, to impress the popular imagination with the success of the new plan of government. One would like to see a more detailed account of the results in practical administration in the police and fire departments, the henlth department, and in the departments of streetcleaning and garbage disposal, A book of this kind has its inherent limitations. We perhaps rather hastily called it a campaign text-book. It is at,least designed to make a popular appeal and therefore cannot afford to be too analytical and scientific. We would have liked to have seen, however, a little more extended account of the various forms which the commission idea has assumed throughout the country, and a more definite and authori, tative answer to the question most frequently asked concerning the commission plan-“Does it work wdl?” Dr. Bradford’s book, entitled, Commission Government in American Cities, is written in thoroughly scholarly fashion. The treatment is elaborate in detail but the details are well managed. Part 1 is historical, geographical, and descriptive. The development of commission government from the Galveston experiment to the present is traced; its rapid progress from city to city, and state to state, is shown; and the various forms in which it appears are described. Dr. Bradford has explained in a most careful and painstaking way, the various adaptations which each city has made of the commission plan. Part 2 of the book is analytical. The essential principles of city government by commission are set forth, following which the various cities are compared with reference to the working out of those principles. Such questions as the size of the commission, whether wholly or partly renewed at one time, the advantages of election at large, the amount of time given by the commissioners to the duties of their offices and the concentration of municipal authority are critically discussed. The fmal chapters are given to a consideration of the various checks upon the power of the commission. Public opinion is the ultimate check. But to facilitate the action of public opinion, many commission charters include ini

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52 2 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tiative, referendum, recall, non-partisan primaries, nomination by petition, etc. Most charters contain publicity features and civil service provisions. All of these devices are analyzed and their efficacy as checks upon the arbitrary exercise of power appraised. Up to the present, according to Dr. Bradford, the results of commission government have been everywhere satisfactory. The definite location of responRibility has greatly improved the financial condition of cities; while in the fields of public health and police administration, civic beautification projects, etc., substantial progress is apparent. The influence af political parties has evidently heen reduced to a minimum and a genuine popular interest in municipal affairs awakened. In the last chapter but one, Dr. Bradford has stated in five pages a few of the principal objections to city government by commission. It would seem as if more space should have been given to the opposing arguments and, insofar as Dr. Bradford has failed to present adequately the other side, his book is slightly open to the charge of partiality. Dr. Clyde King, of the University of Pennsylvania, has performed a distinctly meritorious service in collecting and editing the admirable series of articles contained in the November issue of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. The men who write these articles, for themost part, possess first hand acquaintance with the operation of commission government in their own states and cities. This local flavor adds considerably to the interest and value of the series. The volume opens with a number of articles on the underlying principles of commission government and its operation in several states and cities. Especially valuable as tracing the earliest development of the commission plan is the contribution of Prof. William Scroggs, entitled “Commission Government in the South.” That the commission idea did not originate in Galveston is revealed by Professor Scroggs’ description of government by commission as it existed in New Orleans from 1872 to 1882; in Mobile from 1879 to 1887; and in Memphis from 1882 to 1891. In all these cases the commission expedient seems to have been adopted as a last resort against impending bankruptcy. The outcome in each case was a decided improvement in financial conditions. In part two several specific problems of commission government are dealt with. Dr. Delos F. Wilcox presents a complete and modern franchise policy which, however, has no special application to commission government. L. G. Powers, of the United States census bureau, writes concerning “Budget Provisions in Commission-Governed Cities.” His plea is for complete, lucid, and intelligible budgets as the most effective means of keeping the people in close touch with their government. This, however, can be equally well accomplished under the usual type of municipal government. Elliot H. Goodwin, secretary of the National Civil Service Reform League, says that only seven of the eighteen states which have passed laws for commission government, have incorporated the merit system, and only about onethird of the commission charters have civil service provisions. Mr. Goodwin believes that such provisions should be a part of every commission charter. Complete reliance for good appointments cannot be placed in the integrity or sense of responsibility of the members of the commission. To obviate control of the civil service commissioners by the city commission, the civil service could be made a state affair. In part three Messrs. Cooper, Carpenter and Holly state their objections to the commission idea. The former dislikes the combination of legislative and executive authority in the same persons and advocates a complete separation of the two departments, which obviously would make necessary some sort of

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BOOK REVIEWS 523 political party organization in order to produce a unified municipal policy. The second gentleman is in sympathy with the commission idea, but laments the fact that in Colorado Springs, of which city he particularly writes, the new charter has failed to induce first rate men to run for office. On the whole the case against commission government is hardly better stated than in the books of Messrs. Woodruff and Bradford. This number of the Annals is the most satisfactory treatment of commission government yet published. The subject is not approached with Dr. Bradford’s spirit of investigation and analysis. But, on the other hand, more sources of information are drawn upon and a wider range of opinion reflected. These articles bring one into intimate touch with commission government and its present problems, and in that fact their chief value lies. FRANCIS W. DICKEY. Western, Reserve University. * THE REFERENDUM IN AMERICA, ToGETHER WITH SOME CHAPTERS ON THE INITIATIVE AND TEE RECALL. By Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911, pp. xii, 533. This is a new edition of the author’s well-known book on the referendum which appeared a dozen years ago. But it is not a revised edition. The first fifteen chapters are reprinted just aa they appeared in the earlier issue and to these are added four new chapters (covering about 150 pages) which deal with the working of the initjative and referendum during the last decade, with the recall, and with the relations of direct legislation to representative government. When Dr. Oberholtzer’s work was first placed at the disposal of students it received a cordial rcception, and deservedly so, for there was little available on the subject at the time and the historical chapters of the book were of great value. They were accurate, inclusive, and wellwritten. As much cannot be said, however, of the supplementary chapters in the new edition. The discussion of direct legislation during the years 1900-1911 is not adequately comprehensive nor has the author been able to trace the spread of the initiative and referendum during this later period with the clarity which marked his earlier chapters. The twentysix pages on “The Local Referendum” are particularly unsatisfying, for they contain little more than a melange of odds and ends in the way of .facts and figures drawn from all over the country. These facts and figures are presumably correct and they may have, in the municipalities to which they relate, some local interest. But in a general discussion such as that which the author undertakes they serve no end but to dishearten the reader. Inhis chapter on “ TheReferendum vs. The Representative System” we have Dr. Oberholtzer’s present-day views on the new democracy. Few men have better equipped themselves by observation and study for expressing authoritative opinions in this field of contemporary political discussion; but what the author has to say in his concluding pages is rather disappointing. There is an absence of that power of sober and dispassionate analysis which showed itself so plainly in Dr. Oberholtzer’s writings of ten or twelve years ago and which commended the first edition of the present work so favorably to serious students. The new chapters are reactionary in tone and some of the author’s conclusions are drawnfromdata which many of us would regard as clearly inadequate. Extracts from the writings of avowed partisans are incorporated freely, and the implication is conveyed to the reader that these fairly reflect the views of men well qualified to pass judgment upon the system of direct legislation as it has been working in Oregon and elsewhere (pp. 503M07). If the withor intended his concluding chapters to be

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524 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW merely a partisan presentation of the case against the initiative, referendum and recall, his pages will doubtless pass muster as such. In the preface of the book he professes a desire to correct misapprehensions concerning his own personal attitude toward direct legislation. That desire, he may rest assured, has been adequately fulmed. It is to be regretted, however, that Dr. Oberholtzer could not have found space and sympathy for some at least of the arguments in favor of the new weapons of democracy. To ignore these is not to answer them, nor does such policy fully satisfy an author’s obligations toward his own readers. WILLIAM BENNETT MUNRO. * PROCEEDINQS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CHAR~TIES AND CORRECTION. Thirty-eighth Annual Session, held in Boston, Mass., June 7-14,1911, Edited by Alexander Johnson. The Report of the Proceedings of the National Conference lay on the reviewer’s table, and a member of the household glanced at it with the remark, “That looks terribly dry!” It is to be feared that many of the persons who ought to know what it contains will fail to read it for just that reason. There is something appalling in the very title “Proceedings,” and if the book could be published under some other, it would find a wider reception. But it is not dry. If one only can be induced to read the president’s address, by that veteran social worker, Homer Folks, he will realize that the things which were discussed in Boston are the very things which the average citizen is thinking about now, often with an uneasy feeling that he knows very little about them and knows not where to turn for authoritative information. Indeed the average citizen ought to be acquainted with what Frederick Howard Wines tells in his address on county jails, and what Mrs. Kelley says about minimum wage boards, and what Jacob A. Riis says about bad housing; he needs to hear, for his encouragement, of what is being done with delinquents and criminals in Cleveland and Indianapolis and Kansas City, experiments of constraining interest. He ought to read Dr. Devine’s “Social Program,” and a dozen other papers which space will not permit one even to name. These are all written by experts, and are the fruit of close and long contact with actual conditions; there is little abstract theorizing, for the men and women who speak have learned their subjects by working with humanity, and not from books. Occasionally, the treatment of a subject seems to be one-sided, and this is particularly the case in the important question of sex hygiene, which was touched upon by the conference only at one point and from one angle. The paper on venereal disease, by Dr. Frederic Bierkoff of New York, does not represent the best conclusions of investigators in this field, either in its bold proclamation that society must deliberately provide for the satisfaction of sexual desire out of wedlock, nor inits consequent plan of “segregated” districts where prostitution’shall be permitted, with medical inspection as a safeguard against disease. A new committee appears in the list of those who prepared the program for the Conference, namely, that on “The Church and Social Work.” It is a hopeful sign when such a subject is brought definitely before the gathered social workers of the nation, and the nine papers which the committee presents, including its report, made by the chairman, Dr. Washington Gladden, are all worthy of attention. They are all thoughtful and abreast of the times, and the writers have been chosen to represent the differing elements of the religious forces of the nation with admirable impartiality. Not the least stimulating part of the volume, is in the brief reports from the states, in which the progress of the year is noted. On the whole, the reports are encouraging, particularly those which relate to increased care for the public health. This phase of social work has

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BOOK REVIEWS laid hold upon public interest more, perhaps, than any other. There is still need of education to make men realize that the moral contagions are more subtle and more deadly than the germs that produce physical disease. Philadelphia. GEORQE LYNDE RICHARDSON. * THE WIDTH AND ARRANQEMENT OF STREETS. By Charles Mulford Robinson. The Engineering News Publishing Company of New York. When one contemplates the stupid fashion in which streets are engineered in most American cities at the present time and their utter lack of adaptation to the new and additional burdens placed upon them in our increasing population and with our changed transportation facilities, it seems remarkable that a work such as Mr. Robinson has given US did not long ago appear and become a standard of reference. Under the curious and unreasonable construction which prevails in most American cities that there is no jurisdiction over outlying territory, not within the city’s limits, many communities are faced with fearful and wonderful arrangements of streets, utterly unfit to be taken in as part of an organized system. These are the results of real estate planning, without any reference whatever to any other object than the selling of the most lots, of the smallest size, at the highest price, in many instances. The difference in treatment one iinds abroad is significant. It is assumed in German cities, for instance, that the town has a right to know what is to be done on the land which it is later to take under its wing. Mr. Robinson’s book comes as part of the growing movement for sane town making, and is an admirable presentation of its subject in brief and easily comprehensible form. Comparisons are made and instancesprovidedwhich ought to give the intelligent student oppor$2.00. tunity to do his own community good service. The divisions of the book make it easy to quickly refer to any particular part of this important subject. To many thoughtless makers of streets there will be something new in the suggestion that streets may be standardized unwisely, and that there is a relation between street width and housing as well as between street width and land values. The discussion of main traffic streets and suggestions as to how to lessen the excessive cost of the wide streets with which many American cities have thoughtlessly saddled themselves, is comprehensive. One chapter discusses the provision of central control of street making, and three chapters take up the planting of minor streets for residence purposes. The relation of public reservations other than streets to the articulate frame of the city occupies an important chapter. The illustrations presented are not as many in number as might have been desired, although they are’very much to the point. The physical character of the book is rather in unpleasant contrast to Mr. Robinson’s previous excellently designed books. It is unfortunate that there should be any mechanical lack in a work itself so important. The book as a whole is very heartily commended as 8 practical. and valuable adjunct in doing the best with all community extensions and in modern city planning. J. HORACE MCFARLAND. Harrisburg, Pa. * THE AMERICAN YEAR BOOK, 1911. New York and London: D. Appleton and Company, 1912; pp. xx, 863. The second annual volume of the American Year Book continues on the same general lines the work so well begun in the volume for 1910, but with many modifications in detail. Several additions have beenmade to the list of learned and technical societies represented on

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526 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the supervising body, which now numbers 38. Dr. S. N. D. North has retired as managing editor; and his place has been taken by Mr. Francis G. Wickware. A good many changes appear in the list of contributors, which haa been increased to a total of 119. The main divisions and most of the chapter headings remain as before; but some new subjects have been introduced, a few have been dropped and others rearranged. There are new chapters in problems of population, foreign history, public health and hygiene, and public services. A considerable part of the book deals with municipal problems. Clinton Rogers Woodruff writes the chapter on municipal government, which discusses new city charters, municipal research, municipal accounting, city planning, congestion and housing, vice investigations, police, fire and fire prevention, nuisances and municipal associations. In addition, many of the other chapters contain sections on municipal matters. The chapter on social economy and social questions considers parks and playgrounds, regulation of amusements, housing and city-planning, and the liquor problem. The chapter on public sewices includes accounts of public service commissions, municipal ownership, lighting, water supply and sewage disposal; and several of these topics are also noted in the chapter on engineeripg. There are also sections dealing with municipal civil service, state and local finance, docks, wharves and water fronts, and urban school systems. On all these subjects the reader will find the work a valuable source of reference and information on some of the latest developments in this country. The Year Book as a whole performs a distinctly useful service; and the attention given to municipal affairs is as much as could be expected in a general work of this sort. It does not, however, fill the place of such specialized annuals as the Municipal Year Book of the Unitctl Kingdom or the Kom?nunalcs Jahrbuch for German Cities; and there is still need for a work similar to these dealing with the progress of cities in the United States. JOHN A. FAIRLIE. University of Illinois. * THE CITY SCHOOL AS A COMMUNITY CENTER. THE RURAL SCHOOL AS A COMMUNI~P CENTIR. Being Parts I and I1 of the Eleventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Pp. 78 and 75. Published by the University of Chicago Press. 1911. Price 50.78 each, postpaid. Previous to 1900 there was in the United States little effort to use the public schools as community centers. The decade from 1900 to 1910 was marked by a rapid advance in the education of public opinion in favor of such use and by experimentation in a few favored centers of population. The decade from 1910 to 1920 promises to be one of widespread development in the utilization of the school plant for various community purposes. The two parts of the 1911 Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education include accounts of typical experiments that have been tried in various parts of the country along these lines. The purpose of these accounts is to enable other communities to learn of the possibilities and difficulties of putting into practice what has already been achieved in some of the most advanced communities. The contributors to the volumes are specialists who have made conspicuous success in organizing the various phases of community activity which they discuss. They have described in a concrete way the extent and character of the work carried on under their direction, giving methods employed, results secured, concrete incidents, difficulties, criticiRms, suggestions, and comparisons with similar work in other communities. The topics discussed in the city book are adult education, public lectures, vacation playgrounds, organized 8th

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BOOK REVIEWS 527 letics, evening recreation centers, civic and social centers, and home and school associations. The contributors are H. M. Leipziger, C. A. Perry, Sarah E. Hyre, R. D. Warden, C. W. Crampton, E. W. Stitt, E. J. Ward, and Mrs. E. C. Grice. The topics discussed in the rural book are community work in the agricultural high school and in district schools, rural school extension through boys’ . and girls’ agricultural clubs and in relation to better housekeeping, rural school libraries, development of an appreciation of art through rural schools, and organized recreation in rural schools. The contributors are E. C. Crockeron, Miss Jessie Field, F. W. Howe, E. C. Bishop, A. B. Graham, 0. J. Kern, M. T. Scudder and B. M. Davis. S. CHESTER PARKER. The University of Chicago. * THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. By Frederic J. Haskins. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. $1.00 net. In the preface to this volume Mr. Haskins says: “It is not designed as a treatise on the science of government, nor as an exposition of the political structure of theunited States. It is, rather, an effort to tell in the ordinary language of everyday life what the government does and how it does it.” With this clearly defined purpose in mind the author has further presumed an almost total ignorance of the details of administrative government on the part of the reader, and has then proceeded, by means of bold and often extravagant figurative language, .and generous blocks of highly colored descriptive matter, to draw a sweeping and vivid sketch of the external appearance of the governmental machine. The treatment is in no sense analytical, and far from exhaustive; but it does afford an extraordinarily clear and succinct account of the more evident features of the various departments and bureaus of the government. The statistics are given in the form of striking comparisons which sometimes approach the picturesque. The following paragraph, taken from the chapter on the Panama‘Canal, which is perhaps the most interesting part of the book, shows how the author uses this scheme to gain his effects: It took the French as many years to discover that they could not build a 15foot canal as it will take the United States to make a finished waterway 40 feet deep; and it cost the French as much to make a failure of their project as it will cost the United States to make a success of its undertaking. The constant use of such methods of exposition tends to arouse a doubt as to the accuracy of statement; but it is this device that attracts and holds one’s attention, and which makes the book more like a novel and less like a text-book. To the taxpayer who wonders where his money goes, it should prove a source of great satisfaction, and may, in fact cause him to wonder why he is not required to contribute more to the maintenance of this complex organization. To the merely curious, who are unable to understand the functions of the various departments, it should, despite the lack of a detailed index and suitable subheadings, prove a mine of information. OSWALD RYAN. Harvard University. * THE WIDER USE OF THE SCHOOL PLA~T. By Clarence Arthur Perry. Charities Publication Committee, New Yoric. $1.25. The re-issue of LhiB book is welcomc, ns Mr. Perry’s work is not only the standard book of reference on the wider use of the school plant, but is the sole book of reference as yet in existence. Tho book, from a descriptiye standpoint, is substantially up-to-date. Probably if it were re-written today a stronger emphasis would be laid on the ideas of democracy, of civics, and of the development of the school as a community and family institution rather than an extension school for various classes and age

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528 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW groups among the people. That is to say, the book would reflect the social center inspiration which has become nation-wide and has resulted in nationwide organization during the past year. But this inspiration has not yet expressed itself in definite results and the book, though written from an anterior standpoint, is descriptively up-to-date. Mr. Perry deals, sympathetically and accurately, with three main developments of the public schools: (1) special classes and formal instruction after school hours; (2) recreational activities after school hours in the school building, especially for young people; (3) the use of the school building as a civic center, of which the Rochester experiment is the noteworthy example. Mr. Perry’s method is to describe vividly and fully a typical activity along one of the above lines and then to mention the significant developments of similar kind both in this country and abroad. A good sense of proportion is evident throughout the book; its author has evidently certain broad theoretical principles which he keeps carefully in hand, but his selection of material is made always from the standpoint of the inquiring mind hterested in a local problem of school development. As a handbook of comparative research this volume is quite necessary to any student of American school problems. JOHN COLLIER. New York. * HIQHWAY ENQIN&INQ. As presented at the Second International Road Congress, Brussels, 1910. By Arthur H. Blanchard and Henry B. Drone. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Cloth; 6 x 9 ins.; pp. 299. $2. The first International Road Congress was held at Paris in 1908, and the second at Brussels in 1910. At the latter there were 2118 members from 38 countries in attendance and 124 papers and reports were presented and discussed. The authors of this book have rendered a valuable service by compressing into 300 pages the meat of the 2200 pages of official PToceedings, published by the Permanent International Association of Road Congresses (Albert Neahieu, SecrBtaireGBnBral des Bureau Exhutif de 1’Association Internationale Permanente des CongrAs de la Route, Paris, France). Among the many topics discussed at the Brussels Congress these may be named : economics and materials of highway engineering; road foundations and drainage; gravel, water-bound, and bituminousbound macadam; brick, concrete, stone block and wood block pavements; street maintenance, including cleaning, watering] and removal of snow and ice; road signs; public service conveyances; highway bridges; and automobile tires. Special mention should be made of the few pages on “Dust Prevention by the Use of Palliatives” and the “Conclusions Adopted by the Congress.” The papers and discussions under each topic are arranged by the country of the participant, and the names of the participants are given. These names include a number of well-known American highway engineers. While the proceedings as a whole were conducted by engineers, and for engineers, a large part if not all of the c0ntent.s of the volume before us is well within the easy understanding of any intelligent person and would be of interest and value to municipal and state officials and to public-spirited citizens generally who desire to be informed on road and street construction and maintenance. ’ M. N. BAKER. Montclair, N. J. 3, CHILDREN’S GARDENS FOR PLEASUHE, HEALTH AND EDUCATION. By Henry G. Parsons. New York. Sturgis and Walton Company. Teachers, settlementlworkers, village and civic improvement associations will

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BOOK REVIEWS 529 acknowledge their indebtedness to Mr. Parsons for the simple concise guide for a practical plan for children’s gardens that he has presented from his full experience in’ DeWitt Clinton Park in New York. The author makes no pretense of reaching out into the highways and byways; he plainly states in his preface, “that it seemed Wise to adhere to the type of garden in which ideas and methods to be shown were developed.” This brings us to a fair consideration of this attractively illustrated little book, whose fitly chosen photographs leave nothing to be interpreted between the lines. The application of training takes precedence over the practice and shows by a series of paragraphs, comprising nine short chapters, that lessons of health, wealth, and happiness following in the wake of pure air, economy, and play may be derived from observation in the garden and create and instil in the young mind “the dignity and honor of manual labor.” In the first ten chapters of the second part from the “General Equipment, Care of Tools, and Remarks” to the “Work After Planting” there is an attention to detail that will appeal to all those who want to know precisely the modus operandi. It literally covers the question from seed time to harvest, and what’s more fills in the interim between the sowing of the seed and the first crack made in the soil by the embryo plant. Sunlight, air, water, soil, earthworms and about a half dozen other specials bring you to the end of this pocketable sized, inexpensive book that you can take to the garden, “read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest.’’ Pittsburgh, Pa. H. MARIE DERMITT. .* HAZELL’S ANNUAL FOR 1912. Edited by Hammond Hall. London: Hazell, Watson and Viney, Ltd. This is one of the standard books of reference that one must have at hand, if one is to keep fully abreast of the times. The present volume, the twenty-seventh in the series, contains 7000 references, mainly British. It affords an admirable complement to the American Year Book (see page 525). The population figures are interesting. On April 2, 1911, the population of the United Kingdom stood at 45,216,665, an increase of 9.1 per cent for the decade. The figures for London (4,522,961) show a decrease of 0.3per cent. The only other English city showing a decrease is Ralifax. According to the Annual “generally there is a marked decline in the rate of growth of the large towns as compared with that in the previous decennial period.” It is pointed out, however, that a falling off in the rate of increase does not necessarily imply any decline in prosperity. As the population resident within the boundaries of the town approaches “more and more nearly that destiny which under the local circumstances may be regarded as the point of saturation, the tendency is for further increase to slacken within and probably to accelerate without, the town limits, simply because there is less and less room left within for new buildings. The growth of large urban communities can only be measured by considering jointly the population of the central area and of all its suburbs.” The Annual contains a good outline of the housing and town planning act of 1910, and some interesting facts concerning the “compensation features’’ of the recent liquor legislation. C. R. W. * .TEE BOY AND HIS GAXG. By J. Adams Puffer, Director of Beacon Vocation Bureau. Boston: Houghton Mfin Company. “Good citizens are sometimes quite as much the product of good gangs, as of good schools or good homes.” In this final sentence Mr. Puffer indicates the importance of the subject which he treats to every one who is interested in the improvement of municipal government, to the study of which it is a distinct con

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tribution. He shows that the “gang” instinct is not only the product of uncounted generations of heredity, and so inevitable, and therefore to be reckoned with, but that, properly directed, and given legitimate expression, it has extremely valuable educational possibilities. The pressing necessity of a general awakening to the facts which he has set down is suggested by the appalling statement that “about one boy out of every five in most of our large cities is arrested before the age of twenty-one.” Is this the best our cities can do for their boys? And can citizenship be raised to its highest level under such conditions? Mr. Puffer’s careful study of sixty-six separate gangs brings out much that is important, even though many of his conclusions do not difTer from those of previous investigators. His recommendations to parents, teachers and social workers are sensible, practical and sympathetic. He is especially urgent about the need of public play-grounds, athletic fields and swimming pools; and gives unreserved approval ‘to the Boy Scout movement. GEORGE LYNDE RICHARDSON. Philadelphia. * SOCIOLOGY AND MODERN SOCUL PROBLEMS. By Prof. Chas. A. Ellwood of the University of Missouri. A volume in text book style of some three hundred pages contains up-to-date and readable material of interest to students of city life. While the book is intended as an elementary text in sociology for pupils giving a short time to the subject, it contains a number of chapters on special American problems viewed in the light of sociological principles. The chapters on “Immigration,” “The Negro,” “The Problem of the City,” “Socialism in the Light of Social Theory” and “Educational Progress” are full of facts and summaries of conclusions. The chapter on “The Problem of the City” deals chiefly with the city as a social factor in its influence on the individual and on social institutions. An admirable summary of remedies for the evils of city life is given. The bookis an especially good one to put in the hands of beginners interested in civic or social work. ROGER N. BALDWIN. St. Louis. * MUNICIPAL CIVICS. By Albert A. Giesecke, Ph.D. Volume 5 of the Cornell Study Bulletins for Teachers. This volume fulfills the modest purpose of indicating concisely, with abundant references, the elementary facts which a teacher of civics should know. Likewise, through questions, it invites on the part of the student the kind of thought which, if followed out, will give, conviction and personality to the’ teacher’s knowledge. The value of a book written as a guide to the teacher in acquiring elementary knowledge and in distributing that knowledge evenly through the various branches of his subject, may be questioned. Certainly, such a volume tends to standardize the ability of the teacher by leading the mediocre teacher to acquire the essential knowledge. The exceptional teacher would tend to vault entirely over a book of this sort. As for the poorly educated teacher, it is perhaps doubtful whether he would experience a very vivid awakening of interest through reading Professor Giesecke’s book. JOHN COLLIER. New York.

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BOOK REVIEWS 53 1 BOOKS RECEIVED CHANQING AXERICA. Edward Alsworth New York: D. Appleton and ComRoss. New York: The Century Company. $1.50 net. pany. $1.20 net. SEWAGE DISPOSAL. George W. Fuller. FIRST READER FOR FOREIGNERS. Mary New York: McGraw-Hill Book ComF. Sharpe .New York: American Book pany. 1912. $6.00. ’Company. SHORT TALKS. Nos. 1 to 7. National Fund for Promoting Efficient MuniciDETHRONEMENT OF THE CITY Boss. pal Accounting and Reporting. Xew John J. Hamilton. New York: Funk York. and Wagnalls Company. $1.20. SMOKE, d STUDY OF TOWN AIR. Julius HAPPY HUMANITY. FrederikVan Eeden. B. Cohen and Arthur G. Rushton. New York: Doubleday, Page and New York: Longmans, Green and Company. $1.25, postage 15 cents. Company. $1.40 net. A report with special LAND. Edwin Cannan. London: P. reference to conditions existing in S. King and Son. Pp. 215.3s. 6d. net. the city of New York. Second EdiLANDSCAPE GARDENING STUDIES. Samtion. Edited by Edwin R. E. Seliguel Parsons. New York: John Lane man. NewYork: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. Company. $1.50. STATE AND LOCAL TAXATION. Fifth LAW OF LIGHT. R. G. Nicholson Combe. Annual Conference. Under the ausPhiladelphia: Cromarty Law Book pices of the National Tax Association, Company. held at Richmond, Va., September 5 LITTLE STORIES OF ENGLAND. Maud to 8, 1911. Addresses and ProceedBarrows Dutton. New York: Ameriings. Columbus, Ohio: National Tax can Book Company. Association. 1912. LONDON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. ThirWACKER’S MANUAL OF THE PLAN OF tieth Annual Report. 1911. CHICAGO. Municipal Economy. SpeEVIL. Jane Addams. New York: The of Chicago, under the auspices of the Macmillan Company. $1.00. Chicago Plan Commission, by Walter Phinney Munroe. New York: DoubleTeachers’ Handbook for same. day, Page and Company. $1.25. CONCENTRATION AND CONTROL: A SOLUTION OF THE TRUST PROBLEM IN THE CLASSIZIED AND DESCRIPTIVE DIRECUNITED STATES. Charles R. Van Hise. TORY OF THE SOCIAL, CIVIC AND RELIQNew York: The Macmillan Company. IOUS RESOURCES OF NEW YORIC. $2.00 net. Twenty-first Edition. Published by THE INITIATIVE , REFERENDUM AND REthe Charity Organization of New York. CALL. Edited by William Bennett 1912. Munro. New York: D. Appleton PUSAL, FOR RESIDENCES, HOTELS AND THE VALUATION OF PUBLIC SERVICE INSTITUTIONS. Henry N. Ogden and CORPORATIONS. Robert H. Whitten, H. Burdett Cleveland. New York: Ph. D. New York: The Banks Law John Wiley and Sons. Pp. 132, 52 figs. Publishing Company. 1912. $1.50 net. THE RECORD OF A CITY. By Rev. THE REGULATION OF MUNICIPAL UTILIGeorge F. Kenngott. New Y or k : TIES. Edited by Clyde L. King. The Macmillan Company. GOVERNMENT BY COMMISSION, OR THE THE HISTORY OF LOCAL RATES IN ENGTHE SOCIAL EVIL. A NEW CONSCIENCE AND AN ANCIENT tidy prepared for study in the schools NEW DEMANDS IN EDUCATION. James D. Moody. 1912. NEW YORE CHARITIES DIRECTORY: A PRACTICAL METHODS OF SEWAGE DISand Company. $1.50 net.

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R.ECENT MUNICIPAL DOCUMENTS MJSS ADELAIDE R. HASSE Chief of the Bureau of Documents, New York Public Library Administration in General AACHEN, Germany. Bericht uber die Verwaltung und den Stand der Cemeinde-Angeiegenheiten im Rechnungsjahr 1911. 39p. 4'. BATTERSEA,MetrOpOlitaLn borough. Annual report of the council for the year ended31st March, 1911. xvi, 307 p. 8'. BERLrN,Germany. Gemeinde-Blatt der Hauptu. Besidenzstadt. Jahrg. 53. 1912. no. 1-15. January 7-April 14. BORDEAUX, France. Procbs verbaux des seances du conseil municipal. 1912. no. 1-2. February, 9-23. p. 142. BOSTON, Mass. City Record (weekly). v. 3, no. 50-52. December, 16-30, 1911. p. 943-990. v. 4, no. 1-17. January 6-April 27, 1912. p. 1-356. 4". 186 p. f". AU bids and contracts awarded, as well as departmental notices, are published in the City Record. An abstract of the paper read by Nelson P. Lewis, chief engineer of the New York City board of estimate and apportionment, before the Munlclpal Engineers of New York City on September 27, 1911, on "City Planning," is prlnted In v. 3, no. 51. A description of the opening of the world's 6rst higher municipal college in DUsseldorf, Germany, in October, 1911, is printed in V. 4, no. 1. V. 4, no. 6 contains a comparative table showing department expenditures to December 1 of each year for five perloda to 1912. It also contains the text of the address of Mayor Fltegerald. made on Febrwy 5, 1912. An account of the workers' school of municlpal government of Chlcago, U., is given in V. 4. no. 9. Boston has just awarded a contract for the disposal of city waste. V. 3, no. 60, contains the council proceedings relative to the contract, v. 3, no. 52 contains the report of the finance commhlon on the 881118 subject; v. 4, no. 3, contains the text of a report of a committee of the Chamber of Commerce on the refuse contract and v. 4, no. 7 contalns the text of the contract and of the speclfications for the dhposal of garbage and refuse for ten years. No. 12 contains a reply of the bath trusbea to a critlcism of the department by the finance commission. No. 15 contains a letter from Mayor Fitegerald relative to the consolidation of certain city departments; and on p. 291-292 of the same number is a chronological sketoh of the Boston water department. In 1911 (ch. 413, Acts of 1911) Massachusetts passed a laborers' retirement act applicable to Boston. No. 17,1912, of the City Record contsins a schedule of pensions awarded under the act. Organization of the city government of Boston for the year 1912. 39 p. 12O. In addition to lists of officers and rules of the city councll there are, on p. 28-39, "Boston Statistics," prepared by the statistics department. BRU", Austria. Mitteilungen des Stadtrates der Landeshauptstadt Brunn (monthly). 1912, January-February. Vital statlstlcs, municipal kitchen, employment bureau, bureau of child hygiene. BRUSSELS, Belgium. Rapport present6 au conseil communal en seance du 2 octobre 1911 par le college des bourgmestres et Bchevins. 885 p., foldg. tables, charts. 8". Chapter 1 Includes a report on the condition of the ancient as well as the current municipal archives. In 1910 a fund waa created providing for cinematographic archives, Le., the cinematographic preservation of any event of public interest suchaa the visit of foreign sovereigns and dignitaries, the opening of parliament, etc. In its archives branch the city also malntalns a collection of photographs of local interest, and a oollection of contemporary archives of economic interest on the line8 of the Rhelnisch-Westfrilischeu Wirthchaftaarahiv at Cologne.. It is proposed 60 collect printed 88 well rm manuscript material from commercial houses, theatres, hotels, banks etu. for permanent deposit. Chapter 2 relatea topopulation and to vital statistics. There are detailed age, nationality and profession tables, tables showing the charaater of buildings by streets and tables ahowlng housing conditions. Chapter 3 relates to the civil guards, chapter 4 to the electorate, chapter 5 to finances, ahapter 6 to public aafety (fireand police), chapter 7 to medical statistics, public health and hygiene. Including food and drug inspection and bullding inspection. Brueaela regulates the social evil by medical inspection. There is a classified table of such lnapectiona each year from 1881 to 1910. There is a chart showing annual average deaths from specified causes, 1867-1910, maps of the city showing density of population and mortality rate from principal zymotic disedses, infantile mortality, and deaths from tuberculosis. also a chart showing, by months, therelation of deaths from certain diseases to the weather. 535

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536 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Chapter 8 relates to public works (public buildings, traotloneystems, publlcgmunda,p~kn,etC.). chap ter 9 relates to water supply and comprises comparative tables of consumption, receipta and expenditures. 18051910. Chapter 10 relatea to gaa works. There is a table sh wing quantity of gss Bold each year, since its installation in I875 to 1910. Chapter 11 relatea to street cleaning, including house refuae dlspossl. A report of Dr. Van Campenhout, connected with the plant. on the operations of the BN~ sela incineration plant la printed on p. 581, et seq. There is a table showing the annual operation8 of the street cleaning service from 1881 to 1910. Chapter 13 relates to public instruction and the fine arts and includes reports on all public and private educational inatitutiona in Brusaela, and on the dramatic and musical preaentationa of the year. It includes a report on the work of the committee on Old-Bruasels for the preaervation of buildings and architectural fragments: ale0 a report on local pageante and feativala. Chapter llrelatea toinstitutionsof mutual aid, chapter 15 to churches, chapter 18 to publlo charities and includes a report of the committee on intercommunal funds agaimt involuntary idleness. CAEN, France Bulletin municipal de la ville de Caen. Annee 20, no. 1. 1912, January. CROYDON, England. Council minutes and incidental papers, from 9th November, 1910, to 3d October, 1911. With index. v. 29 in 2 pts. Contalna reports no. 1-75, including all the cuatomary reporta on munfcipal activities. The expiration of the preaent water committee is made the occasion for reviewing the proceedings of the committee for the psat five yeara (doc. 75). The anhual report of the medical oftice? contains a syllabus of lectures to parenta on care of children, etc. The report of the achool canteen committee (doc. 42) desorlbes in detail the provlaion for underfed school children. DENVER, Col. Denver Municipal Facts (weekly). v. 4, no. 13-17. 1912, March 30-April 27. No. 14 givea an account of the largeat sale of improvement bonds in the history of Denver, via., $2,7W,oOO civic center bonda, on Aprll2, 1912. DIJON, France. Bulletin municipal officiel de la ville. Annee 17, sene 2. 1912, no. 1-2. January-February. At the bnd of each number 1s printed the Bulletin menauel de statlstique of the Bureau d'Hygi8ne for the preceding month. DURBAN, Natal. Mayor's minute with departmental reports, appendices, and balance sheets, for the municipal year ended 31st July, 1911. 1912. 317 p. Durban's ' municipal undertakings are water, tramwaya, electric light, market, the native market and telephones. The city elm maintains public batha. a museum. io6logical gardena, a musical director, a municipal tuherculosia bureau. HAVRE, France. Budget supplhentaire de l'exercice 1911. Expos& li p. 8". Addresa of the mayor to the councll in support of the supplementary budget, reviewing its several pmvIBlons. HOUSTON, Texas. Progressive Houston. v. 3, no. 9-11. January-March, 1912. No. 9 gives an account of the recent land show and of the extensive viaduct construction now prcceeding. No. 11 contains the annual reports of the city departmenta. ' JOHANNESBURG, Transvaal. Minutes of the municipal council. 1913. Minutes of the special meeting of January 30, contain urgency reports of the public health committee. relating chiefly to amall-pox and the plague. LATJNCEBTON, Tasmania. Mayor's valedictory address and departmental reports. 1911. 44 p. 8". MAGDEBURG, Germany. Bericht iiber die Verwaltung und den Stand der Gemeinde-Angelegenheiten der Stadt Magdeburg fir die Zeit vom 1. April. 1910, bis 31. Mars 1911. xii, 545 p. f". Vital statbMcs, labor conditions. mills supply, invalid insurance, police, building construction, parks, fires, street cleaning. slaughterhouses. municipal water-workn, gaa work, electricity plant, public health, batha. 8ohoola, museums, oity orchestra and city theater, poor, sick and accident insurance, industrial and commercial courts, legal aid bureau, labor bureau, municipal savings bank. MINNQAPOLIS, Minn. Annual reports of the various city officers for the year 1910. v.p. go. MONS, Belgium. Rapport sur l'administration et la situation des affaires de la ville pendant l'ann6e 1910. 238, Viii p. 8". MUNICH, Germany. Miinchener Gemeinde Zeitung (semi-weekly). Jahrg.

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL DOCUMENTS 537 40, no. 94-104, November 29-December 30, 1911. Jahrg. 41, no. 1-22, January %March 18, 1912. -Sitzungsberichte des Magistrats, Gemeinde-Kollegiums, etc, Jahrg. 40, no. 95-104, November 29-December 30,1911. p. 1615-1771. Jahrg. 41, no. 1-30, January &April 17, 1912. p. 1-334. 4". Pagee 211-218 IFebruary 3, 1912) comprise a diecussion of the revlaion of the municipal contract s-m. Reference is made to the exemplary system in operation in Saxony and ita beneficent effect on labor. Pages 247-253, 388-396. 400-413 contain discussions relative to the feedtng of poor school children, themafntenanceof soupkftchens, etc. Reference is made to the installstion of simllar arrangementa by an Amertcan, Count Rumford, In Bavaria several hundred years ago. Pages 358-366, 566-567 relate to compulsory vocational schools. Pages 387, 525-528 relate to the proposed publication of a municlpal year-book. Pages 484-501, 543-558, relate to the establishment of a fund for insurance against unemployment. Pages 595-596, 643-659 relate to the organizatlon of a consumers' league confined to public employes. Pages1298-300 contaln a report of the proceedings at the opening of the new market. OSWEQO, N.Y. Journal of the common council from January 1, 1910, to January 1, 1911. 307 p. 8". PARIS, France. Bulletin municipal officiel de la ville de Paris (daily). Ann6e 31. no. 33-100, February 2-April, 1912. p. 729-1972. A report (27. p. ,4'.) of the meeting on December 23,1911, of the commission on Old Paris accompanies the Bulletin of February 3.88 a supplement. Pagea 1224-1226 contaln a proposition to the municipal council for a special municipal tax on spirlts and for the establishment of dispensaries for combating tuberculosis. Theae two measures, it is expected, wffl counteract the decline in the birthrate, which, at the preaant rate, it is estimated will fall to 189,000 for the whole of France In 1930. Pages 1281-1305 comprlae the census of Paris, taken March 5. 1911. Pages 1321-1334. 1402-1414, 1465-1472, contain diecussions in the municipal council on Improper police protection in Paris and in the suburbs. Pages 13721381 contsin a discussion of the hospital and asylum system of Psris, prefaced by a brief historical r6sumB of its development since the Revolution. Pages 1506-1510 relate to a modification of the taximeter tariE. Pages 1596 et seq. contain a discusmion relative to a proposed municipal bureau of labor to regulate social hygiene, free employment, unemployment and housing conditions. Pages 1602-1607, and 16941695 contain the discussion of the report on civil retmmenta. M. Paul Virot, the father of the report, in opening the dlscuasion, reviews the history of eid retirements In France since the passage of the first law for their installation in 1853. Pages 1R731674 relate to proposed housing schemes. PITTSBURQH, Penna. Annual reports of the executive departments of the city for the year ending January 31, 1911. 2 v. go. QUEDLINBURG, Germany. Bericht iiber die Verwaltung und den Stand der Gemeinde-Angelegenheiten der Stadt Quedlinburg fiir das Rechnungsjahr 1 April, 1910-1911. 140 p. 4". Municipal savings bank, school savings banks, slaughter housea. 48th annual report of the munlcipal gaa works (1910-11), 26th annual report of the municipal water works (1910-llL 8th annurtl report of the municipal electriclty plant (lQlC-ll), of the municipal bath, police, building contruction. food inspection. fires, schools, poor, employment bureau. REVERE, Msns. Annual reports of the several boards of town officers, heads of departments, etc., for the municipal year ending March 4, 1912. 520 p. The building lam of the town are under revision. The text of the proposed laws is printedon p. 103-MR. RICHMOND, Ind. Reports of the city controller and other officers for the year ending December 31, 1911. 46 p. 8". Onp.13 therearetables showing reapactively the rece~pta, construction expenses and operating expenses for each month of each year, 1907-1011, of the municipal electric light plant. RIXDORF, Germany. Rixdorf in alter und neuer Zeit. 69 p., I l., 3 maps, illus. 8". ST. Pmcas, England. Annual report of the borough council for the financial year ended 31st March, 1911. 429 p. Metropolitan borough. The greater part of the volume is taken up by the 55th annual report of the medical officer, Dr. John F. J. Sykes. Dr. Syken has a sincere appreciation of the value of the chlld aa a mdcipal eseet and describes with vigor the promotion of"mothercraft" in St. Pancraa, Including the care and education of the child. He urges the converglng into one channel, pi.. schoolsof mothercraft, of all the moneys needed for mainte nance of milk depots, day nurseries, nursery schools, etc. SAN FRANCISCO, Gal. Municipal Record. v. 4, 1911, no. 51-52. p. 393-408. v. 5, 1912, no. 1-17. Summary of proceedings of boards and commlssions (supervisors, lire and police commiasioners, p. 1-140.

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538 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW boards of educatlon and of health), weekly progress report of bureau of architecture. street cleaning department, bureau of engineerlng. The inaugural message of Mayor Rolph, January 8, 1912, dealing with matters of great civic Importance, Is printed In full in v. 5, no. 2. V. 5, no. 3, contains the supervisors' declaration in favor of a new city hall and a CIVIC center; no. 5 contains a report of the investlgation into the alleged waste of city funds; no. 8 contains a report on the purcbase of the Spring Valley Water Company's properties by the city. NO. 14 gives an account of the preliminary steps taken by the Supervisors for the erection of a city hdl and the creation of a oivic center authorlred by the voters on March 28, 1912, when they sanctioned the lasue of $8,8Ml,000 bonds for this purpose. No. 16 has a note on the munlcipal reference library provided for by the Supervisors. SHANGHAI, China. The IlIunicipal Gazette. v. 5, 1912. January-March. no. 218-231. p. 1-94. KO. 231 (March 22, 1912) contalns the report of the annual meeting of rate payers. TOURS, France. Bulletin municipal de la. ville. 1911, no. 8. September 29. p. 753-833. Abattoirs See also below Statistics (Berlin, Duisburg, Halle a. S., Johannesburg, KJnigsberg I. Pr., Mhn and hloscow. Russla); also above Admlnlstratlon In General (Magdeburg). See also under Chartera and Ordinances. DORTMUND, Germany. Verwaltungsbericht des Vieh und Schlacthofes fur das Betriebsjahr 1910-11, unter Beriicksichtigung der seit der Erilffnung verflossenen 25 Jahre. 33p., 2 foldg. tables. Archives See above Administration in General (Brueaels). Budgets CHEMNITZ, Germany. Haushaltsplan der Stadt Chemnitz auf das Jahr 1912. 2 p. l., 85 folios. 4". HAVRE, France. Budget suppl6mentaire de l'exercice 1911. 51 p. 4'. -Budget de l'exercice 1912. 172 p. f". K~NIQSH~~TTE 0. S., Germany. Haushaltsplan fur das Jahr 1912. 169 p. 4". N~~RNBERG, Germany. Voranschlag fur den Gemeindehaushalt der Stadt Niirnberg fur das Jahr 1911. 329,102,134 p. 4". PAWTUCKET, R. I. Estimated receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year ending December 31, 1912. 24 p. 8". RIXDORF, Germany. Haushaltsplane der Stadt Rixdorf 1911. 336, 51-74 p. f". SAARBR~~CKEN, Germany. Haushaltsplane fur das Rechnungsjahr 1912. 225p. Building Construction See also above " Admlnlstratlon In General" (Berlin, Brussels, Magdeburg, Quedllnburg, Revere, San Francisco); below under Statistics (Duisburg, Halle a. S., Johannesburg, Milan, Munich); also under Police (London, England). CLEVELAND, Ohio. The revised building code. April 1,1911. 2 p.l., 193 p. Census See above "Admlnlstratlon in General" (Parls) Charters and Ordinances Speclal codes are entered under specific subjects; see, for Instance, above, "Bullding Construction." The Public Health Reports, Issued weekly by the U. 9. Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, contain, in each number, ordinances and departmental regulations pertaining to hygiene. The following is analysls of the ordinances which have appeared in the Public Health Reports from February 28 April 19, 1912. Abattoirs: Saginaw, Mlch. July 17, 1911. v. 27. p. 182. San Diego, Cal. August 18, 1911. ib., p. 185. Brookline, Mass. November 8.1911. v. 27, p. 519. Orange, N. J. October 2, 1911. v. 27, p. 555. Brookline, Mw. November 6, 1911. v. 27, p. 550. Connehville, Pa. July 18, 1911. Ib., p. 492. Brwkllne, Mass. November 8,1911. v. 27, p. 462. Freeport. Ill. February 5, 1912. Ib., p. 494. Greensboro, N. C. Julv 11, 1911. ib., p. 482. Holland, Mlch. October 2, 1911. Ib., p. 464. Louisville, Ky. August 8, 1911. lb., p. 465. Orange, N. J. October 2,1911. Ib., p. 485. Wilmlngton, N. C. July 1, 1911. ib., p. 486. Torrlngton, Conn. July 1, 1911. Ib., p. 493. East Orange, N. J. November 18, 1911. v. 27, p. Barber Shop Inspection: Bhth, Marriages and Death Certificates: ceaspwls: * .Food and Drug Regulation: Ice Supply: 492.

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL DOCUMENTS Milk Supply: Brookline, Maas. November& 1911. v. 27, p. 228. Columbus, Ohlo. November 14, 1911. ib., p. 613. Dallas, Texaa. October 16, 1911. ib., p. 645. Jackson, Tenn. December 14,1911. ib.. p. 613. Loa Angeles, Cal. November 28,1911. ib., p. 616. Mansfield, Ohio. July 7, 1911. ib., p. 646. New York Clty. January 4, 1912. ib., p. 434. Newport. Ky. July 13, 1911. Ib., p. 647. Orange, N. J. October 2. 1911. ib.. p. 618. Piqua, Ohlo. July 31, 1911. ib., p. 228. Tacoma, Wash. January 3, 1912. ib., p. 267. Orange, N. J. October 2, 1911. v. 27, p. 494. Brookline. Maas. November 6,1911. v. 27, p. 491. Chattanooga, Tenn. August 28, 1911. Ib., p. 198. Cumberland, Md. August 7, 1911. ib., p. 551. Detroit. Mich. October 10, 1911. ib., p. 492. Piqua, Ohio. July 3, 1911. ib., p. 226. Plainfield, N. J. July 7, 1911. Ib., p. 231. Torrington, Conn. July 1, 1911. ib., p. 5.23. Binghamton, N. Y. JuIy 28, 1911. v. 27, p. 196. Blomington. Ill. August 5, 1911. v. 27, p. 196. Brookline, Maw. November 6, 1911. ib., p. 266. Orange, N. J. December 1,1911. ib., p. 522. St. Paul, Minn. July 14, 1911. ib., p. 200. Freeport, Ill. February 5, 1912. v. 27, p. 521. Cincinnati, Ohlo. September 6, 1911. Ib., p. 491. East Orange, N. J. November 16, 1911. v. 27, p. Holland, Mich. October 2, 1911. ib., p. 494. Wflrnington, N. C. July 25. 1911; December 7, Towels-Common Use: Water Supply: Mosqulto Extermination: Nuiaances: Public Health and Vital Statlstics: Refuse Disposal: Second Hand Clothing-Sale: Spitting: Stables: 520. 1911. ib.. p. 495, 555. Detrolt, Mich. January 23, 1912. v. 27, p. 520. Wilmlngton. N. C. January 23, 1912. v. 27, p. 523. BREMEN, Germany. Gesetzblatt der‘ freien Hansestadt Bremen, 1911. vii, 268 p. 8”. OGDEN, Utah. Revised ordinances including all ordinances of a general nature in force March 1, 1910, and all franchises and special grants. Revised, compiled and arranged by James H. Devine. liv, 664 p. 8”. Child Welfare See above “Admlnlstration In General” (Briinn, Croydon, Miinlch, St. Pancras); also below “Public Health and Vltal Statistics” (Boston, Brookllne, Mflwaukee); also “Statistics” (Halle a. S.) City Planning See also the Aprll, 1912, Issue of Landscape Architecture for “A Brief Survey of Recent City-Planning Reporta In the U. S.” Special Llbrarles, v. 3, no.5 (May 1912), p. 61123. contains a Check lisl of references on city planning. Slngle Copiss may be purohased for 25 cents by addressing Special Libraries Association, 93 Broad St.. Boaton, Mass. LEWIS, NELSON P. City planning; paper read before the municipal engineers of New York City, September 27, 1911. (Boston City Record. v. 3, no. 51. 1911.) DENVER, Cd. See above “Administration in General.” ROCHESTER, N. Y. A city plan for Rochester. A report prepared for the Rochester Civic Improvement Committee by Arnold W. Brunner, Frederick Law Olmsted and Bion J. Arnold. 1911. 39 p:, 2 maps. illus. 4’. ST. LOUIS, Mo. A list of books and articles on city planning and civic centers. Compiled and annotated by Jesse Cunningham, Librarian of the municipal reference branch of the St. Louis Public Library. 1912. 12p. 8”. S~N FRANCISCO, Cal. See above “Administration in General.” Employment Bureaus See above “Administration in General” (Quedllnburg), and below “ Statlstics” (Dubburg). Finance CAMBRIDGE, Mass. Annual report of the city auditor for the year ending March 31, 1911. 184 p. 8” Charles H. Thurston. city auditor. EDINBURGH, Scotland. Municipal and other public accounts published in the year 1911. v. p. Robt. Paton, city chamberlain. The accounts proper are preceded by an Introductory memorandum describing the nature of the several accounts. The statements regpecting asseesable rentala and local rates (p. 331-346) are cumulative from 1880 to 1912. On p. 347-353 are tabular statements showing police capltal expendlture for 32 years from 1879 to 1911. On p. 468-469 Is a table showing recelpta and

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540 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW expenditures of the Edinburgh and Leith corporations’ gas commfasionera from date of comtitutlon. vfa., July 31, 1888. to May, 1811. On p. 470-471 is a tableehowingamount of gaa made, sold, etc., for the 10 years ended May 15, 1911. HOUSTON, Texas. Annual report of D. C. Smith, Jr., city comptroller, for the year ending February 28, 1911. (In: Reports of city officials 1911. p. 61-93.) ,-Annual report of T. C. Dunn, city treasurer, for the year ending February 28, 1911. (In: Reports of city officials, 1911. p. 95-101.) -Annual report of J. L. Gaston, chairman finance and revenue committee, for the year ending February 28, 1911. (In: Reports of city officials, Los ANGELES, Cal. Report of the auditor of the financial affairs of the corporation in its capacity as acity for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1911. p. 8”. John 5. Myera, city auditor.. Pages 108-188 are given over to a tabulation of data relating to bonds. water, valuations, taxes, etc. On p. 115 is a statement of valuations and rates for each 6acal year from 1880-1861 to 1011-1812. Followlng this there are tables showing annual clearances at the clearing from its organization in 1887 to 1911; expenditpres of the city each year 1899 to 1911, statement of various bond issues, comparative tables of outlays. salaries and expenses, 1008-1 91 1. 1911. p. 13-16.) MILAN, Italy. Conto consuntivo dell’ anno 1910.. Milano, 1911. v.p. 4”. and expenditures for each year from 1897 to 1910. Contah a comparative table of classified receipts OGDEN, Utah. Monthly financial stateIncludes summary of proceedings of the board of ment. 1912. February-March. commissioners. PARMA, Italy. Bilancio preventivo per I’esercizio 1911. Parma: P. Grazioli, 1910. v.p. f”. -Bilancio preventivo per l’esercizio 1911. Relazione della giunta municipale. Parma, 1911. 46, xxxiii p. f”. PLAUEN i. V., Germany. Rechnungsiibersichten der Stadtgemeinde Plauen i. V. auf das Jahr 1910. 33 leaves. 4’ PROVIDENCE, R. I. Annual report (65th) of the city auditor showing the receipts and expenditures for the year ending September 30, 1911. 188 p. 8”. ST. PAUL, Minn. City comptroller’s and departmental estimates for the year 1912 67 p. obl. 8”. W. H. Farnham, comptroller. Fires See alao above “Administration In General” (Berlin, Bruasela. Buffalo, Magdeburg, Quedlinburg, San Francisoo); also below “Statistics” (Florence, Johannesburg, Milan. Moscow). EDINBURQH, Scotland. Report of the city fire brigade for the year ending 31st December, 1911. 11 p., 1 map. 4”. On p. 10 is a table showing the numbei of calla received by the department elnoe its organlzation in 1824. .A detalled plan of Edinburgh, Leith and Portobello with suburbs, showing fire stations and fires, accompanies the report. MANISTEE, Mich. Annual report of the board of police and fire commissioners for the year ending Mnrch 20, 1911. MELBOURNE, Vict. Report (20th) of the metropolitan fire brigades board for the year 1910. 52 p. f”. On p. 5 there is a table showing the value of rateable property, the amount of contributions by the munlcipallties with& the metropolitan fire district and the rate per E, each year from 1891 to 1910. 43 p. go. Food and Drug Regulation See below “Public Health and Vital Statistics” (Cincinnati. Hartford, Salt Lake City,San Francisco. Troy). See also “Nilk Supply,” and also above under “Charters and Ordlnances.” Historic Monuments Preservation See also above “Admintstration in General” (Bnursels) and below “Statistics” (Berlin). PARIS, France. Commission du Vieux Paris. Compte rendu du seance du samedi 23 Dicembre, 1911. 27 p. 4”. A commisaion for the preservation of monuments and landmarka. Industrial and Commercial Courts See above “Administration in General” (Magdeburg) and below “Statistlea” (Halle a. ,S., K6ntgsberg!. Pr.)

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CURREKT MUNICIPAL DOCUMElLITS 54 1 Insurance (Old-age, Invalid, Unemployment.) See above “Administration In General” (Magdeburg, Munich); ah below “Ststistlcs” (Berlin, Duisburg, Hall a. 9.1 Municipal Government CHICAGO, Ill. Account of the workers’ school of municipal government. (Boston City Record, 1912. v. 4, no. 9.) DOSSELDORF, Germany. Account Of opening of college for training in municipal governments. (Same v. 4, no. 1.) Municipal Reference Libraries CHICAGO, Ill. Account of opening of the Civics Room in the Chicago Public Library on May 1, 1912. (Chicago Public Library. Book Bulletin. v. 2, no. 5.) ST. LOUIS, Mo. The Municipal Reference Branch of the St. Louis Public Library, extension and scope. (Library Journal? May, 1912, p. 286.) See above under “Administration in General.” SAN FRANCISCO, Cal. Milk Supply See also above “Admlnistration in General” (Magdeburg); also below “Public Health and Vital Statiatica” (Hartford, New York City, San Francisco); also below “Statistics” (Halle a. 6.) See also under “Charters and Ordinances.” ST. LOUIS, Mo. Proposed ordinances for the regulat.ion of the milk supply of St. Louis. Submitted by a committee of the Civic League. Jan., 1912. 32 p. 8”. Markets See also above “Administration in General” (Bruwln, Durban, Quedlinburg); also below “Statistics” (Dulsburg, Halle a. S., Johannesburg, Kenlgsberg 1. Pr., Milan, Moscoy, Munich). BERLIN, Germany. Preis-Zusammenstellungen des statistischen Amts. (monthly) 1911, no. 11-12. NovemberDecember. 1 sheet. 4’. Weekly price lists of meata as obtaining at the municipal comestlbles at the municipal marketa. Labor See also above “Administration in General” (Brflnn, Magdeburg, Paris); also below “Statiatica” (Berlin, Halle a. S., Khigsberg i. Pr.. Moacow, Munich). BRUSSBLS, Belgium. Report on intercommunal funds against involuntary idleness. See above “Administration in General.” Legal Aid Bureaus See above “Administration in General” (Magdeburg); also below “Statistics” (Halle a. S.). Light and Power Plants See above “Administration in General” (Brusaels, Durban, Magdeburg, Quedlinburg, Richmond. Ind.) also “Finance” (Edinburgh); also below ”Statistics” (Berlin, Duiaburg, Halle a. S., Johannesburg). Municipal Kitchens See above“Administrat1on in General” (Munichl. Municipal Pageants See above”Administrat1on in General”(Bruseels). Municipal Savings Banks See slso above “Administratlon in General” (Magdeburg. Quedlinburg); also below ”Statistics” (Berlin, Duisburg, Halle a. 9.. Khlgsberg 1. Pr.. Munich). FREIBURG, i. BR., Germany. Stiidt.ische Sparkasse Freiburg i. Br. Rechenschafts-Bericht fur das Jahr 1910. 11 (I) p. 4O. On the laat page le a table showing annual operations of the savings bank from 1890 to 1910. Municipal Theatres See also above Administration In General” (Magdeburg). DORTMUND, Germany. Berkht des Stadttheaters in Dortmund fur das Jahr 1910-11 (7 spieljahr). 4 pp. 4”. Parks See also above “Adminlstration in General” (Bnmels, Durban, Magdeburg).

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542 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW SEATTLE, Washington. Eighth annual report of the board of park commissioners for the calendar year.1911 with statistics and data 1890 to 1911. 112 p., foldg. tables, 1 map, plates. 8". Roland W. Cotteril, secretary park board. Seattle has a total park area of 1024 acres, and a total playground area of 87 acres, besides 15 mllea of boulevards. On p. 104-105 there are tables showing annual recelpta and expenditures. 1891-1911. On p. 106 there is a table showing land purchases and payments for parks, playgrounds, boulevards, respectlvely from 1890-1911. CHATTANOOQA, Tenn. General features of a park system for Chattanooga, Tenn. Report to the board of park commissioners. By John Nolen. 27 p., 6 p!s., 1 map. 8". ROCHESTER, N. Y. Park commission the 1911 report. 84 p., 22 pls. 8". Begins with ereview of the orlgin of the Rochester park system. Contains text of the penal Ordinances relating to the use of parks and parkways. Playgrounds BUFFALO, New York. First annual report of the playground cornmission of the city of Ruffalo for the year ending December 31, 1910. 63 p. illus. 8". Plumbing Inspection See below "Public Health and Vital 'Statistics" (Hartford, San Franclsco, Ttoy.) Police See above " Adminlstratlon in General" (Brussels. Buffalo, Magdeburg, Paris, Quedlinburg, San Francisco); also above "Finance" (Edinburgh); also below "Statistics" (Florence, Munloh). LONDON, England Report of the commissioner of police of the metropolis for the year 1910. 75 p. f". On p. 21 is a table showing the number of new housea bullt. new streets and squares formed with their length In miles and yards each year from 1880 to 1910. There are also tables relative to licensed cabs and public motors and classified tables of vagrants, prostitutes, drunkards, etc., apprehended each year from 1891 to 1910. MANISTEE, Mich. See above under "Fires." Poor See below "Statlstlcs" (Berlin, Halle a. S.). Public Baths See also above "Administration in General" (Boston, Durban, Magdeburg, Quedllnburg); also below "Statistics" (Berlin, Florence, Munich). DORTMUND, Germany. Betriebsbericht der Verwaltung der stadtischen Badeanstalten fur das Rechnungsjahr 1910 (ende 31 MBrs 1911.) 15 p. 4". Public Buildings See below "Public Works" (Buffalo). Public Health and Vital Statistics See also above "Admlnlatration in General" (Brussels. Dijon, Magdeburg); also below "Stat15 tics" (Berlin, Duisburg, Florence, Johannesburg, Konlgsberg 1. Pr., Milan. Moscow, Munich). See nlao above "Charters and Ordinances." AEERDEEN, Scotland. Report of the 113 p. medical officer of health for 1910. 8". Matthew Hay, medical officer, On p. 8 Is a table showing marrlage, birth and death rates per 1000 In Aberdeen from 1856 to 1910. The decline in the birth-rate of Aberdeen from 1871-75 to 1909-10 IS noted as being 22 per cent. The relatlon of the decline of the birth-rate to the marriage-rate is discussed and reference is made to the increase of illegitimate births and decrease of the marriage-rate in years of Industrial depression. The excess of male blrths and the subject of cau8~9 of such changes In the human community is briefly alluded to. By the operation of the notificatlon of blrths act it was posaible In 1910, for the first tlme In Aberdeen, to obtain Informatlon regarding the number of stillbirths. A specil inqulry was made, the result of which is published as an aupendlx to the report. On p. 13 is a table showing the fertility of marriages in Aberdeen in five-year periods from 1866 to 1910. On p. 59, at seq, la printed the text of a circular lssued by the ssnltary lmpector regarding the destruction of rats. Considerable space h given to the cam of the tuberculous. Facing p. 60 is a chart showing tuberculosis mortality In Aberdeen from 1856 to 1910 In quinquennial periods for all ages and both sexes. An isolation pavilion for tuberculosla patienta was opened In 1911 and a system of voluntary notification of all forms of tubemdoah w~d Dut In operatlon in the same year. The report to the town council whlch was responalble for each of these Innovations is printed In full, p. 64, et seq.

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL DOCUMENTS 543 The medical officer of health la also the administering authority for the inspection of workshops, factories, bakeahopa and dairies. Plans for alterations on the construction of new buildings for any of the above-mentioned purpoaea must be approved by the medical officer of health. The regulation of offensive trades and of slaughterhouses. of the housIng of the working classes and of the corporation lodging house, is also within the jurisdiction of the health officer. An extended note is made of the unsuccessful1 fight of the town council before a wmmittee of the House of Lords, in 1911, to secure powers to take from the River Avon an entlrely new water supply for the city. Extensive works for the drainage improvement of the city are still under way. The Installation of a refuse Incinerat'or is urged. AUBURN, N. Y. Report of the health department (monthly). 1912, JanuaryMarch. Chiefly vital statistics and aanitation. BERLIN, Germany. Wochenberichte des statistischen Amts. Jahrg. 41. 1912 no. 1-13. Week beginning December 30, 1911, to March 14, 1912. vital statistic3 only. BESANGON, France. Statistique d6mographique et medicale. Ann6e 22, no. 1-6: 1912, January-March. BOSTON, Mass. Monthly bulletin of the health department. v. 1, no. 1-2. 1912. January-February. p. 1-53. Vital atatisties and cud hygiene. No. 2 gives an account of the bureau of child hygiene created in March, 1910. CINCINNATI, 0. Weekly report of the board of health. v. 3, no. 1-17. 1912, January 6-March 23. Vltal atatistics, sanitary. food, milk and school inapectlons. HARTFORD, Conn. Vital statistics. Issued monthly by the health department. 1912, January-March. -27th annual report of the board of health for the year ending December 31, 1911. 60 p. 8". Includes reports of the bacteriologist, the milk Inspector, the food Inapector, the sanitary Inspector and the plumbing Inspector. MILWAUKEE, Wisc. The HealtholoPubished monthly by the health gist. department. v. 2, no. 1-3. 1912, January-March. Vital statlatics, sanitation and child hygiene. NEW ORLEANS, La. Statement of mortality for the month of JanuaryMarch, 1912. NEW YORK CITY. Communicable news. Issued periodically for the information of employees of the division of communicable diseases, department of health, N. Y. C. v. 2, no. 1-9. 1912, January 1-April 1. No. 7 givea the returns of the second census of tuberculous children In New York City, taken February 23, 1912. An outline of the consolidation of all extradepartmental agencies in the clinic dlstrlcta of Manhattan, the Bronx and Brooklyn to effect nn anti-tuberculosis campaign, is given in no. 9. -Monthly bulletin of the health department. v. 2, no. 1-3. 1912, January-March. No. 1 contain8 the text of the new milk regulations of the health department; no. 3 an account of the history (1798-1912) of the health department. -Weekly report of the health deNew Series, v. 1, no. 1-15. partment. 1912, January-April 13. Vital statlatics only. PORTLAND, Me. Report of deaths and contagious diseases (monthly). Issued by the health board. 1912, JanuaryFebruary. ROME, Italy. Bollettino demograficometeorico. Anno 41, 1911, weeks ending December 23, 30. Vital statistics. ST. PAUL. Minn. Monthly bulletin of the health department. v. 1, no. 1-3. 1912, January-March. SALT Lake CITY. Statement of vital statistics (monthly). Published by the health board. 1912, January. In addition to vital statistics includes report of sanitary inspector, veterinary and dairy and food Inspector. SAN ANTONIO; Texas. Vital statisPublished by the health tics (monthly). department. 1912, January-February. Chiefly vital statlatics and sanitsry Inspection.

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544 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW SAN FRANCISCO, Cal. Bulletin of the department of health (monthly). 1912, January. 20 p. In addition to vital statistics, includes reportn of sanitary, food, dairy, milk, market, truck garden, industrial and dumbing inapectlons, also a report on school medical inspection. TROY, N. Y. Official report of the health officer (monthly). 1912, JanuaryMarch. In addition to vital statistics Includes meat, food milk and plumbing inspection returns. UNITED STATES. Public Health and Marine h-mpital Service. Municipal ordinances, rules, and regulations pertaining to public hygiene. Adopted from January 1, 1910, to June 30, 1911, by cities of the United States having a population of over 25,000 in 1910. 1912. 24413. 8". (Reprint from Public Health Reports no. 70.) Public Libraries BROOKLINE, Mass. Fifty-fifth annual report of the trustees of the public library for the year ending December 31,1911. 21 p. 8". The library la particularly active in lta work with ohildren. Comment is made on the reaponaibllity of the library in this regard, it being the only public effort made In Brookhe to lnterest and amuse chlldren on Sundays. ELIZABETH, N. J. Third annual report of the free public library. December, 1911. 16 p. 8". FRANKFURT am. Bericht uber die Verwaltung der Stadtbibliothek. 27 Jahrg. 1910-11. 10 p. 4". HOUSTON, Texas. Annual report of Houston Lyceum and Carnegie Library for the year ending February 28, 1911. n.p., n.d. (In: Report of city officials JOHANNESBURQ, Transvaal. Record of the public library, 1911. 24 p. 8". NEW BEDFORD, Mask Sixtieth annual report of the trustees of the free public library for the year 1911. 52 p., 1 pl. 8". 1911. p. 189-192.) NEWARK. N. J. The free public library of Newark, 1910. Twenty-second annual report. (In: Reports of city officers 1910. p. 267-295). John C. Dana, librarian. The Newark Museum Association and the Science Museum have quarters in the library bullding. NEWTON, Mass. Free library. Annual report of the trustees for the year ending December 31, 1911. 20 p. 8". SOMERVILLE, Mass. Music scores and literature in the public library of Somerville. November, 1911. 73 p. 12'. TROY, N. Y. Seventy-seventh annual report of the public library, 1911. 16 p. 8". WALTHAM, Mass. Annual report of directors and librarian of the public library for the year ending January 31, 1912. 11 p. 8". Public Works See also above "Adminlatratlon in General" (Houston, Munich, San Francisco). BUFFALO, N. Y. Eighteenth annual report of the department of public works for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910. 1224 p., 11. The report proper la preceded by a map of the population of the city by wards, 1910; chart of the oivio government of Buffalo, 1910; and a chart of the organization of the department of public works. The report proper comprlaes the 18th annual report of the bureau of englneering (p. 57-8931, the 18th annual report of the bureau of water (p. 695-1023). the 18th annual report of the bureau of bullding (p. lO%-llOl), the 18th annual report of the bureau of atreeta (p. 1103-1224). On p.lOl,et seq..ia a statement of the department's method of reporting epeclal franchlae taxea which la followed by a tabular classified statement of special franchise sssessmenta each year from 1907-1908 to 1909-1910. A map of the proposed site (290 acres) of the J. N. Adam Memorlal Hospital followa p. 134. This hospltal la the municipal tuberculosla hospital. The report of the bureau of water Includes (p. 700,et aeq.) a brlef historical deaoription of the Buffalo waterworka. Following p. 1001 la a tabular statement of water malna laid from 1868 to 1910, comprik ing at present a total of 548 miles. The report of the building bureau includes a tabular statement of the estimated valuation of the real estate of the school department, and of the expenditures for police and fire department buildings each year 1892 to 1908-1910. The report of the bureau of streets com

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CURRENT MUNICIPAL DOCUMENTS prises reports on’ the collectlon of refuse, etc.,and the second annual report of the Refuse Utilization Plant. SEATTLE, Washington. The city of Seattle. Forms for local improvement procedure under chapter 98 of the laws of Washington for 1911 and ordinance no. 27732. 30 p. f”. Refuse Disposal 9ee also above “Administration in General” (Boston, Brussels, Buffalo); also below “Street Cleaning” (Stockholm). See also under “Charters and Ordinances.” NEW YORK CITY. Rules and regulations for the transportation of refuse material from the city of New York adopted at a meeting of the board,of health onApril 9,1912. (In: City Record April 16, 1912. p. 3187-3188.) OHIO. Report of D study of the collection and disposal of city wastes in Ohio. 1910. Supplement to the 25th annual report of the state board of health. 1911. 290 p., 8 pls., illus. 8”. Sanitation See also above “Public Health and Vital Statlatics” (Auburn, Hartford, Milwaukee, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Francisco); alao below’ ’Statlstiw” (Mflan). CHICAGO, Ill. Bulletin of Chicago School of Sanitary Instruction. Department of health (weekly). v. 6 (new series), no. 1-16. 1912, January 6April 20. Whole no. 730-745. SEATTLE, Washington. Bulletin of the Seattle School of Sanitary Science. v. 5, no. 1-3, 1912, January-March. School Hygiene See above “Public Heslth and Vital Statistlea” (Cincinnati, San Franctwo). School Meals See above “Administration in General” (Munich), also below “Statistic$” (XIllan). Schools See also above “ddminlatration In General” (Brussels, San Francisco); also below “Statistics” (Halle a. S.). KANSAS CITY, Mo. Fortieth annual report of the board of directors of the school district of Kansas City, for the year ending June 30, 1911. 361 p. illus. 8”. Sewage Disposal PITTSBURGH, Penna. Report upon sewage disposal to N. S. -Sprague, Superintendent of bureau of construction. January 30, 1912. By Allen Hazen. 71 p.,3 plans. Social Evil See above ”Administration in sele), and Pollce (London). Statistics General” (BrusBERLIN, Germany. Monatsberichte des statistischen Ads. Jahrg. 39, no. 10-12. 1911, October-December. p. 151 -200. Jahrg. 40, no. 1-2. 1912, January -February. p. 1-32. Contents uniformly divided into three rubrics. vir.. Weather, vital statistics and ststlatical reports of the various city departments. The arrangement of the latter is fairly uniform and comprises the following: building construction, fires, realty transactions, water supply for household purposes. street cleaning, sewerage, electric supply works, transportation facilitiea, public batha. abattoir, quarantine, municipal savings bank, invalid and old age insurance, the homeleea, poor,orpnam, beggars, hospitals. reformatories. care of the insane, labor conditions. A 2-page supplement of the February number comprises a tabulation of the vital statlstios of Berlin for 1911 with a recapitulation for the four preceeding years. DUISBURG, Germany. Statistische Monatsberichte. Jahrg, 4, no. 11-12. 1911, November-December. p. 233-281 Vital statiatica, poor, munlcipal employment bureau. sick insurance, rail and brldge traffic, abattoirs, prices of comeatiblea, municipal savings banks, etc., gas, water and electricity, building construotion. and, in each number, a comparative r&um6 at the end. FLORENCE, Italy. Bollettino statistico mensile. 1912. no. 1-2. January -February. Vital atattatica, police, baths, iirea, tramwaya. FRANKFURT a. /hI. Beitrage zur %atistik der Stndt. N. F. Heft 8. Tnbel

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW larische ubersichten betreffend den Zivilstand der Stadt in den Jahren 1901-1910. clxi, clxxviii p. 4”. HALLE a. S., Germany. Statistische Monatsberichte der Stadt Halle a. S. Herausgegeben vom statistischen Amt. Jahrg. 6. 1912. no. 1-2. JanuaryFebruary. Vital statistlca, bullding construction, wholesale and retail prices, Invalid and old age Insurance. labor bureau, poor, libraries, legal aid bureau, bureau of chlld hygiene, mllk depot, lndustrlal and commerclal courts, food inspection. municipal abattolr, gas. electrlclty and water supply, savlngs bank, street railways and schools. JOHANNESBURG, Transvaal. Municipal statistics for the month of JanuaryMarch, 1912. Vital statistics, bullding construction, municipal electric and gas plants and tramways, fires and water supply, municipal llve stock market and abattoir. K~NIGSBERG i. Pr. Monatsberichte des statistischen Amtes der Stadt. Jahrg 20. 1912, January-February. Vltal statbtics, abattoir, retail and wholesale prices, municlpal savings bank, street railways, labor bureau, industrial and commerclal courts, tonnage of the port. LAUNCESTON, Tasmania. The city of Current statistics, organization of city governLaunceston. 1911. 5 p., I leaf. 16’. ment, with a brief history of same. MILAN, Italy. Bollettino statistic0 mensile. dnno 28. 1912, JanuaryFebruary. Sanitary Inspection, vltal statistlcs, abathira, price of foodstuffs, charities, buildlng construction,, fires. trams. Includes also a summary of councll mlnutea. -Dati statistici, a corredo del resoconto dell’amministrazione comunale. Anno 28. 1910. xxix, 455, 185, 13, 11, 8, xi p. 4’. Detailed retroactive statIstlcn1 tables on meteorology, births. deaths and marriages, traffic, varloua Imposts, schools, prices of food stuffs, Hghtine, water aupply. Accompanying the maln report am the following: “Statistlca del movimento della popolaalone e delle prlnclpall cause di morte per gll annl dal 1898 a1 1910 per 1 compartlmentl del Regno e le plir Importanti cltta ltaliane ed estere.” 185 p. ThLs table shows statistics for the 19 largest Italian cltles and 40 of the largest non-Italian cities. “ Ufficio dell’abltaalone. Relaalone. Relaaionl statbtlca.” Anno 3. 1910. 13 p. “Fondo di prevldensa del personale dlpendente dda Societh Cenerale Edison dl Elettricita addetl a1 servlzlo delle tramvie clttadine. 11 p. “Refeaione scolastica. Anno 1909-1910. 8 p. I‘ Statlstica del servblo estlnalone lncendl. Anno 1910.” xi p. Moscow, Russia. Bulletin statistique mensuel de la ville de Moscou. 1911, December. no. 12. Vltal statisblcs, price of comestibles. stock market and abattoirs, munlclpal tramways, labor bureaus, firm. MUNICH, Germany. Statistischer Monatsbericht der Stadt. 1912, January-February. Vltal statistics, bulldlng constructlon, baths. prlces of food stuffs, police. municipal savings bank, munlclpal labor bureau, etc. -Wochenberichte des statistischen Amtes. 1912, no. 9-14. Week beginning February 25-March 31. Chiefly vital statistics and prlces of foodstuffs. OMAHA, ’ Neb. Municipal statistics. Published monthly by city comptroller. no. 1-11. June l9l1-.4prilJ 1912. Chiefly financial and tax statistics. Street Cleaning See also above l‘Admlnhtratlon in General” (Berlin, Brussels. Magdeburg. San Francisco). STOCKHOLM, Sweden. Stockholms renhillningsvasen frh aldsta tider till v’ara dagar. Med 113 illustrationer. Af Karl Tingsten. 1911. vii, 168 p.4’. Street Railways See also above “Statistics” (Florence, Halle a. S., Johannesburg, Hfinigsberg 1. Pr.. Mllan, Moscow). DORTMUND, Germany. Stadtische Strassenbahn, Dortmund. Bericht vom 1. April 1910 bis 31. Marz, 1911. 4 p. f”.

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CURRENT MVNICIPAL DOCUMENTS 547 Streets See above “Public Works” (Buffalo). Taxation See above “Administration In General” (Paris,, ale0 “Flnance” (Edinburgh, La Angeles), alao “Flres” (Melbourne), slso “Statistics” (Omaha). Trafiic Regulation See ‘also above “Administration In General” (Bruaaels, Paris), Police (London), a1so”Statistics” (Berlln, Dubburg). GREAT BRITAIN. Board of Trade. Report (4th) of the London Traffic Branch of the Board of Trade, 1911. 162 p., 8 maps. fa. A section of the report deals with population and migration of population In relation to traffio. The report includes a traffic census. The maps show respectively, density of population of Greater London In 1911, a comparison of the eame in 1901 and 1011, the electric railways and electrio and home tramways in Greater London, etc. Tuberculosis Eradication See above “ Administration In General’’ (Durban, Paris), also “Public Works” (Buffalo). Water Supply and Sewerage See ah above “Administration In General” (Berlin. Bmton, Brussels, Croydon, Durban, Magdeburg, Quedlinburg. San Franclsco), also “Public Works” (Buffalo), also “Statistioa” (Hde a. S., Johannesburg). See also under “Charters and Ordinances.” AUBURN, N. Y. Report (18th) of the water board for the year ending December 31, 1911. 23 p. 8”. During the year the city built a hypochlorite disinfecting plant for the treatment of the potable water supply. A list of cltles uaing the hyoochlcrite treatment is given. Comment is also made on the increased use of the filtration method of treating municioal water supply. In 1890 la than 200,000 Demons in the Upited Statea were being supplled with filtered water; in 1900 the number had increased to 1,868,000 and In 19M to 3,160,000. In 1911 over 22 per cent of the city population of the Unlted States were being supplied with filtered water. The average dally consumption of water in Auburn In 1911 waa 6,307,748 gallons, or a per capita rate of 180 gallons. The tot.d water service revenue to the city for the year WRBB 1104,015. Willlam J. Henry Is president. of the board. BURLINGTON, Vt. Forty-fourth [sic, i.e., 45thI annual report of the water department. December 31, 1911. 18 p. 8”. The water works system of the city of Chicago, Report of Dabney H. Maury to the Chicago commission on city expenditures. Published by the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency. December, 1911. 50 p., foldg. tables. 8”. When the commlssion on city expenditures (“Memiam Commlsslon”) waa dlsrolved In ADril, 1911, four of the twenty-one repoh made by the commlssion to the city council, remained unprinted. The Chicago Efficiency Bureau has undertaken to print these four reports, Maury’s Report on the water works’ system behg the first so printed. CHICAGO, I11 DORTMUND, Germany. Bericht uber den Betrieb des stildtischen Wasserwerks zu Dortmund vom 1. April, 1910, bis dahin 1911. 10 p., 1 chart. 4”. LEWISTON, Me. Annual report (31st) of the water board for the fiscal year ending February 28, 1911. 34 p. 8”. On p. 5 is a table showing receipts and expenditures each year, 1880-1911, on p. 6 a table showtng annual cost of construction 1878-1911, and on p. 14 the annual pumping record, 1880-1910. LONDON, Canada. Thirty-third annual report of the board of water commissioners for the year ending November 30, 1911. 69 p. 8”. The year marked the advent of hydro-electric power in London. On p. 52 is a table showtng the surplus revenue of London waterworks for each of the paat twenty-eight years, vfx., from 1884 to 1911. The report includes the first annual report of the electrical department which had been In operation but nine months. The ornamental street lighting equipment has been overhauled and numerous cuts show the various types of cluster Ilghta in use. Schenectady, N. Y. Twenty-sixth annual report of the bureau of water to November 1, 1911. 43 p. George Haltzmann, superintendent. Includes, p. 29-43, the rules and regulations of the depsrtment. NOTHI: The population of the cities, etc., included in the preceding list is as follows: Aachen, 150,008; Aberdeen, 163,084; Auburn, 54,668; Battersea, 167,793; Berlin, 2,064,153; Besancon, 56,367; Bordeau. 251,917; Boston, 670,585; Bremen, 246,827; Brookline. 27,792; Brunn, 108,944: Brussels, 665,806; Buf

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548 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW falo, 423,715; Burlington, 20,468; Caen, 44,442; Cambridge, 104.839; Chattanooga, 44,604; Chemnlta, 286,455; Chlcago, 2,185,283; Clnclnnatl. 364,463; Cleveland, 560,663; Croydon, 169,559; Denver, 213. 381; Dijon. 89,806; Dortmund, 214,333; Durban, 89,165; Diisseldorf, 356,733; Edinburgh, 320,315; Elizabeth. 73,409; Florence, 198,408; Frankfurt a. M., 414,598; Freiburg I. Br.,22,472; Hallea. S.,180,496; Hartford 98.015; Ham, 163,883; Houston, 78,800; Johannesburg, 120,411; Konlgsberg, 1. Pr., 248,059; Konigshiitte 0. Soh., 72.642; Launceston, 21,046; Lawtston. 26.247; London (Eng.), 4,227,954; London (Ont.), 46,300; Loa Angel-. 319,198; Magdeburg, 279,629; Manlatee, 12.381; Melbourne, 581,500; Milan, 490,084; Milwaukee, 373.857; Minneapolis, 301,408; Mons, 27,252; Moscow, 1,481,200; Munich, 596,467; New Bedford, 96,652; New Orleans. 339.075; New York Clty, 4,766,883; Newark, 347,469; Newtown, 30,806; Niirnberg, 332,539; Ogden, 25,580; Omaha, 124,096; Oswego, 23,368; Parts, 2,888,110; Parma. 48,523; Pawtucket, 51,622; Pittsburgh, 533,905; Plauen, 76,471; Portland, 58,571; Providence. 224,326; Quedllnburg, 23,373; Revere, 18,218; Rlchmond,22,324: Rkdorf. 237,369; Rochester, 218,149; Rome, 434.943; Saarbriicken, 105,101; St. Pancraa, 218.453; St. Paul, 214,744; Salt Lake Clty, 92,777; San Antonlo. 96,614; San Francisco, 416,912; Schenectady, 72,826; Seattle, 237,194; Shanghai, 433,250; Somervffle, 77,236; Stockholm, 341,986; Troy, 76,813; Walth, 27,834.


NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
VOL. 1
JULY, 1912
No. 3
THE TAXATION OF FRANCHISES IN CALIFORNIA
BY PROFESSOR CARL C. PLEHN University of California
A LITTLE over thirty years ago after a period of popular agitation against the Chinese the railroads and the “money power,” California adopted a new constitution, which at that time was held up to the world as the acme of radicalism.1 It proved, however, far less radical than was feared. Now, again, and all within two years, California has attracted wide attention as a state that is prone to make daring experiments in matters of government. She has adopted, by large popular majorities, the direct primary, including the senatorial and presidential primary, the initiative, an enlarged use of the referendum, the recall of all elective officers including judges, women’s suffrage, the bifurcated legislative session, county home rule under freeholders’ charters, an employers’ liability law, a public utilities commission law, constitutional provision for municipal ownership of public utilities, and a new tax system, together with other lesser so-called radical measures. While the subject of this paper, the taxation of franchises, is a product of both the old and the new radical movements, it is not in itself radical in character, on the contrary it is an experiment in the direction of justice in taxation that the most conservative state might, try to advantage.
The constitution of California, adopted in 1879, contained certain provisions in regard to taxation, so novel as to arouse wide interest. Among them may be mentioned: the taxation of mortgages, as representing an interest in the property by which they were secured, in the hope of making the money-lender pay the tax; the separate listing of land, apart from the improvements upon it; the assessment of cultivated and of unculti-
1 Readers not familiar with what the Hon. James Bryce has called “that surprising document by which California is now governed” will find a convenient summary of it in his American Commonwealth.
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vated lands of the same quality and similarly situated at the same rate; the assessment of land in small divisions; and the taxation of franchises. The experiment in regard to the taxation of mortgages broke down in 1899 and was finally abandoned in 1910, at the time of, but not as a part of, the adoption of a new system of taxation. That experiment may be regarded as having given a negative result, for it demonstrated, in a peculiarly clear and convincing manner, that the tax on the mortgage was inevitably shifted to the borrower. But, just as in many scientific experiments, a negative result is as valuable as an affirmative one, in that it adds to the sum of human knowledge, so this experiment has been worth while. The provisions as to the listing and assessment of land may seem to be small details of administrative procedure, but they have proved to be of great service in the direction of greater accuracy and certainty in tax administration, and have been copied, or rediscovered, as in the case of New York, in a great many other states.
The inclusion of franchises in the list of taxable property brought striking results, almost at once, in so far as the taxation of the great public service corporations was concerned. But in its wider application to other classes of companies, it had a fitful life until new vigor was infused into it by the changes made at the time of the adoption of the new system of state taxation in 1911. The change which gave it new life was the transfer to the state of the taxation of all franchises of every kind and nature and the prohibition of the imposition of any taxes thereon by the cities or other divisions of local government.2 This change .has made it practically impossible to evade the taxes on franchises.
That municipalities should be debarred from taxing the franchises granted to street railways, gas and electric companies, water companies, telegraph and telephone companies and others using the public streets and from taxing the franchises of other classes of companies doing business in the cities, may seem at first sight an anomaly. The anomaly is, however, not so great as it seems. In the first place, all the rest of the property in the cities has been practically exempted from the payment of any state tax. In the second place, the cities are not debarred from obtaining revenue from the granting of the franchises. But that revenue must take the form of a rental for the franchises, regarded as public property. In fact, since 1897, all companies to which any municipality has the power to grant the use of the public streets must pay to the municipality, after the first five years, at least 2 per cent of the gross receipts obtained from the enjoyment of the franchises, and the cities are at liberty to drive a
2 The sole exception is that taxes for the payment of the principal and interest of city, county, and district bonds outstanding when the tax system was changed, are nominally assessed against the franchises, although paid by the state out of the proceeds of its taxes.


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better bargain if they can. But all the taxes, in the narrower sense of that term, levied upon the franchises go to the state. In the case of all the public service corporations, except water companies, the taxes paid to the state are computed upon the basis of the gross receipts, but they are expressly declared to be taxes upon the property and franchises, and are in lieu of all other taxes thereon. In the case of all the other corporations, including mercantile, manufacturing, and mining, the franchise is considered to be the equivalent of the corporate excess, that is, the difference between the aggregate value of all the corporation's holdings, as shown by the value of the stock and of the bonds and the value of its tangible property that is placed upon the rolls of the counties.
The substance of the change is, that, while heretofore, franchises of every class have been taxable in the same manner as any other property for state, county, and municipal purposes, they are now taxable for state purposes only. Moreover, while, heretofore, only the conspicuous special franchises of the public service companies have been regularly and effectively reached, now, these, as well as all others, are reached and taxed.
The full significance of the present system of taxing franchises cannot be understood without going back to its first introduction in the constitution of 1879. Its history since then is full of instruction, not alone as to the nature of the present franchise tax in California, but also as certain very fundamental principles in connection with the taxations of corporations everywhere..
No distinct mention of franchises, as taxable property, is to be found in the old constitution of 1849, nor in the codes or the statutes, prior to 1880. Still the definition of taxable property was, even at that time, broad enough to include franchises, and there is some evidence that they were occasionally taxed. But in the long article on revenue and taxation in the constitution of 1879 there are two references to the taxation of franchises. The first is in the definition of taxable property, which reads: “The word ‘property,’ as used in this article and section, is hereby declared to include moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, dues, franchises, and all other matters and things,real, personal, and mixed, capable of private ownership; . . . .”
The second is in the provision for the application of the unit rule in the taxation of railroads, which reads: “The franchise, roadway, roadbed, rails and rolling stock of all railroads operated in more than one county in this state shall be assessed by the State Board of Equalization at their actual value, . . . ” The origin of these phrases is therefore of interest.
An examination of the Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention3 shows that intricate as the matter is, the members of the
* Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of California, convened at the City of Sacramento, Saturday, September 28, 1878. E. B. Willis and P. K. Stockton, official stenographers. Sacramento, State Printer, 1880. Hereafter, in this article, referred to as “Debates and Proceedings.”


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the convention had a very definite plan of taxation in mind which they expressed by including the franchises of corporations among the taxable property. The word “franchises” as indicating a class of taxable property appears in the records of the convention for the first time in a resolution introduced by Mr. Dudley, of Solano, the very first resolution to be introduced with reference to taxation. It provided for an article on Taxation, the first section of which was to read: “Taxation shall be equal and uniform throughout the state. All property in this state, not exempt under the laws of the United States, except property belonging to the state, county, or other municipal corporation, shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as provided by law. The word ‘property,’ as used in this article and section, is hereby declared to include all moneys, credits, dues, franchises, investments in bonds, stocks, joint stock companies, and all other matters and things capable of ownership and having value in exchange.”4 * Whether the use of the term franchises in this connection originated with Mr. Dudley is not clear. That gentleman’s chief interest, as it appeared later, was in the second section of his resolution which provided for an income tax and he had nothing to say, in regard to the taxation of franchises, in the subsequent debates.8
As the debates proceeded it gradually became clear that the politico-social origin of the idea that franchises should be taxed was to be found in the movement for the taxation of mortgages, credits, and all forms of intangible property.6 The proposal to call a convention for.the revision of the constitution was made sometime before the outbreak of those popular agitations which afterwards played so large a part in the decision of the people to hold the convention and which in large measure determined the choice of the delegates. Many of the delegates insisted that the real cause of the calling of the convention was the dissatisfaction of the people with a decision of the Supreme Court, reversing previous decisions, and holding that mortgages were not taxable property under the old constitution.7 The platforms of several of the dominant party factions in the convention
4 Debates and Proceedings, p. 95.
6 It is interesting to note that the definition of taxable property finally adopted by the convention, and cited in part above, followed somewhat closely the wording of the resolution first introduced. Yet that language disappeared in the report of the committee on revenue and taxation, and did not reappear until close upon the final revision. But the word franchise was in every one of the resolutions considered by the convention and in every one of the amendments offered thereto. This unanimity is very remarkable in view of the wide differences of opinion that prevailed upon other points.
* For a full discussion of the origin and history of the taxation of mortgages,see an Article in the Yale Review for May, 1899, by the writer of this paper.
7 People vs. Hibernia Bank, 51 Cal., 243.


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had declared for the taxation of mortgages and other credits, or that all property should be taxed no matter what its character was.8
When the article on revenue and taxation came back from the convention’s committee on revenue and taxation, it contained the following direct reference to the taxation of franchises. “Sec. 2. All property, including franchises, capital stock of corporations or joint stock associations, and solvent debts, deducting therefrom debts due bona fide residents of this state, .... shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as directed by law.”9 The sixteen days’ debate on this article had barely begun before it was clear that this section had to be read in connection with: “Sec. 17. The value of the capital stock of a corporation shall be assessed in the county in which the principal place of business is located, and separately from all other property belonging thereto; and such stock shall be assessed at its market value when the assessment is made. The real and other personal property of such corporation shall be assessed in the several counties respectively in which the same is situate. The value of such stock, over and above the aggregate value of such real and other 'personal property, according to such assessment, shall be taxed in the county in which the principal place of business of such corporation is located; and the value of such real and other personal property shall be taxed in the several counties respectively in which the same is situate. The shares of stock belonging to the stockholders in such corporations shall be exempt from taxation; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not apply to railroad corporations.”10 Here we have a clear and distinct provision for the taxation of the corporate excess. It soon became clear that the committee had adopted one of the two conflicting plans of different groups of delegates. One was to tax the stock of corporations as well as the property, much as these same delegates wished to tax the mortgages and the property by which the mortgages were secured; the other was, as proposed by the committee, to tax all the property, including everything that gave value to the stock, but not to tax the stock in addition thereto. Section seventeen seems to have been the committee’s interpretation, for administrative purposes, of the term franchises.
As the discussion proceeded those members of the convention who had clear and pronounced views on taxation divided themselves into two camps. One contained those who regarded the property tax as a tax on property in the objective sense, that is, as a tax on things irrespective of the owners. These were opposed to the taxation of credits, mortgages, or other forms of intangible property that were representative of other property, such as,
8 Davis, W. J., History of Political Conventions in California, 1849-1892. Sacramento, State Library, 1893.
9 Debates and Proceedings, p. 831.
10 Debates and Proceedings, p. 831. The italics are mine.


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choses in action and the like, but they were not necessarily opposed to the taxation of intangible property when such property was not representative in character. Among the latter kinds of property would be, of course, franchises. The other camp contained those who regarded the property tax as a tax on persons in proportion to what they owned, that is, in proportion to their property. These, of course, wanted all credits and representative property taxed. Some of them would permit a man to deduct what he owed from what was owing to him, but many of them would not make even that concession. The clearer thinkers among the latter sub-group admitted that this would be double taxation, but advanced the claim that it would not matter as the doubling of the rolls would cut the tax rate in two. Inasmuch as franchises could reasonably be regarded as taxable property from both points of view the term fell, as it were, in neutral territory between the two camps and hence was regarded as belonging to both. That franchises should be taxed was, thus, tacitly admitted by both sides without a clear perception of the fact that they arrived at this conclusion by different lines of reasoning. This unanimity of opinion would have been fatal to our search for an expression of what the delegates meant by the term franchises, for it would have prevented its being discussed, had it not been for the fears and misgivings of the representatives of the mining districts. These representatives saw, or thought they saw, in the provisions for the taxation of franchises and especially in section seventeen, a danger to the mining corporations. There was a strong faction in the convention, composed of various elements, that was openly hostile to corporations and corporate power. The farmers were especially anxious to curb the railroads, while the workingmen’s party and other groups were more generally opposed to “the money power.”11 As it was clearly impossible to impose restrictions on corporations, without affecting those engaged in mining, the representatives of the mining districts were continually put upon the defensive, and in no case more so than in the face of the proposal to tax the stock and the property of the corporations. They saw, even in the committee’s proposal to tax the tangible property in the mining coun-
11 The following are some of the most extreme expressions of a feeling that seems to have been prevalent: On October 5, 1877, the so-called “Kearney Party” adopted the following resolution:
“We propose to destroy the great money power of the rich by a system of taxation that will make great wealth impossible in the future.” Davis, Political Conventions, p. 366.
On January 24, 1878, the Workingmen’s party adopted a platform, and among the resolutions proposed for this, but not adopted,was the following: “Sec. 11. Millionaires and money monopolists are destructive to the happiness and dangerous to the liberty of the people, and we demand that they be made impossible by a proper system of taxation.” Ibid., p. 380.


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ties and the franchise, or the corporate excess, in the cities, where the offices of the companies usually were located, a grave danger. That was that the companies might fare* badly between the two assessors. Joined with this was the very natural desire of the mountain counties where the mines were located to retain the entire taxes upon the mines.
The attack of the mining delegates brought out the meaning of the term franchise. Among the delegates who frequently and emphatically voiced the alarm of the mining delegates was Mr. Gregg, who on one occasion said: “Now the capital stock of corporations'in some form, certainly, should be taxed, or the franchises should be taxed. I am satisfied that corporations owning franchises of great value should be taxed. The Spring Valley12 franchise should be taxed. But when you tax the capital stock of corporations you turn the greater portion of the tax into the treasury of the city and county of San Francisco, because nearly all the stock is owned there. Franchises include the capital stock13 and if you tax the one you should not tax the other. Then, again, when you tax the franchise and capital stock of corporations you are endangering the mining interests of the state.”14 15 Very early in the debates it became apparent, as indeed is shown in this citation and in the replies thereto, that the delegates understood the term franchises to apply to all classes of corporations whether they had special privileges or not. No other interpretation of the two sections proposed by the committee is possible. Mr. Shafter said: “It is" quite correct to tax franchises, the right to do business, and the visible property only” (i. e., “only” in the sense of excluding the stock) “as these constitute all there is of value belonging to corporations.”16
It was Mr. Howard who first threw light on the meaning of the term by drawing upon the decisions of the courts. He quoted from the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of the Delaware Railroad Tax, 18 Wall., 231, as follows:
‘ ‘ The state may impose taxes upon the corporation as an entity existing under its laws, as well as upon the capital stock, or its separate corporate property. And the manner in which its value shall be assessed, and the rate of taxation, however arbitrary or capricious, are mere matters of legislative discretion.”16
“A franchise, the Supreme Court says, ‘Is the privilege or the right of association in a particular manner to accumulate property and to make
12 The Spring Valley Water Company supplies the city of San Francisco with /ater.
13 Apparently he meant to say that franchises are included in the value of the stock.
14 Debates and Proceedings, p. 850.
15 Ibid., p. 854.
18 Ibid., p. 867.


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money. The grant of a corporate existence is the grant of special privileges to the corporators enabling them to accumulate property, free from individual liability.’ ”17
Finally the convention agreed to strike out the provisions for the taxation of the capital stock, apparently on the ground that a majority of the members were convinced that to tax both the stock and the property, including the franchise, was double taxation. In this shape the article was reported out of the committee of the whole and although the convention did not hestitate to*reopen the debate on many of the matters under controversy yet the decision of the committee of the whole on the taxation of franchises was not disturbed.
A side light on the meaning of the term franchise as it was understood by the convention is thrown by the use of the term in the sections relating to corporations, their formation and their powers. There it is used in such phrases as: “all existing charters, grants, franchises, special or exclusive privileges;” “any franchise or charter” and in other similar expressions which show that the convention understood that the mere right to be a corporation was a franchise.
Immediately after the adoption of the constitution by the people the political code was amended to carry the new provisions of the constitution into effect. The definition of taxable property was taken over bodily from the new constitution and, of course, carried with it the taxation of franchises. Then section 3640 was rewritten. That section had stood since 1872 in the following form: “The owner or holder of stock in any firm or corporation, the entire capital or property whereof is assessed, must not be assessed individually for his stock in such firm or corporation.” There was nothing in this that was contrary to the decision of the convention to tax the property of corporation and not the stock as such. But the definition of taxable property, as quoted above, said, that the word “property” included “moneys, credits, bonds, stocks, dues, franchises,” etc., and the legislature seems to have thought that it was left to it to provide for the taxation of stock. The section as revised read: “each person, firm, or corporation owning or having in his or its possession any of the shares of the capital stock of any corporation, association, or joint stock company, shall be assessed therefor.18 If the corporation, association, or joint stock company has its principal place of business in this state, the assessable value of each share of its stock shall be ascertained by taking from the market value of its entire capital stock the value of all property assessed to it, and dividing the remainder by the entire number of shares into which its capital stock is divided. The owner or holder of capital stock in corporations, associations, and joint stock companies whose principal place
17 Ibid., p. 890.
18 It will be observed that this was a direct reversal of the old section.


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of business is not within this state, must be individually assessed for such stock. Shareholders, in the statement required by section 3629 of this code, shall specify the number of shares of stock held by them, and the name of the corporation. The owner of shares of stock to be entitled to the deduction provided for in this section must produce to the assessor a certificate of the assessment of the property of the corporation, association, or joint stock company.” This was in effect a legislative reenactment of the provision for the taxation of the corporate excess which had been rejected by the convention, with the difference that the excess was to be assessed to the stockholder and not to the corporation.
The enactment of this section of the law opened up the question as to whether the constitution still required the taxation of the stock as well as of the property and the franchise of corporations. One of the assessors apparently decided for himself that the law as laid down in the section above quoted was unconstitutional and declined to assess shares of stock. A taxpayer, claiming that the omission of the stock of corporations from the tax rolls unduly increased his share of the taxes, went into court for an order directing the assessor to assess the shares of stock in corporations. This case is commonly known as Burke vs. Badlam (57 Cal.' 599), and is important as being given at a time when the proceedings of the convention were still fresh in the minds of many, and were consequently easier of interpretation than they would have been later. The decision was that “to tax the property and franchise and also the stock is double taxation.” This rendered the greater part of the revision of section 3640 of the political code invalid and it was apparently on that account that the whole of it was repealed, the next year. But meanwhile the provision of that section as to the valuation of the stock had been adopted by some of the assessors as the method for arriving at the value of the franchise. On the same day that the legislature repealed this section, and in the same bill, it enacted a new section of the code which still stands as section 3608 and which reads: “Shares of stock in corporations possess no intrinsic value over and above the actual value of the property of the corporations which they stand for and represent; and the assessment and taxation of such shares, and also all corporate property, would be double taxation.” One of the code commissioners has since sneeringly referred to this as “ a bit of subtle reasoning” but, although this may be true of it and although this provision may not be directive law, it is nevertheless a record of legislative conviction and a statement of principles that cleared the atmosphere at a very troubled time.
At the time that the decision in the case of Burke vs. Badlam was handed down, the court had before it another case, decided shortly afterward, involving the validity of the tax on franchises, that was the case of the San Josi Gas Company vs. January (57 Cal. 614). An assessor had


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valued the franchise of a gas company at $130,000 and the company resisted the payment of the tax. “In making the valuation,” says the court, “he estimated the combined aggregate market value of the shares of the capital stock of the corporation, held and owned by the shareholders at $240,000 and from that aggregate deducted the combined aggregate value of all the taxable property of the corporation, including real estate and improvements thereon, personal property, money, and street mains, and found the result $130,000, and assessed the franchise at that sum.” This assessment had been appealed to the county board of equalization, but had been sustained. In this particular case the franchise was one granted directly by the constitution of the state and might be enjoyed by anyone. As it did not represent a monopolizable right it might have been, possibly, regarded as different from a special and exclusive privilege. On this point the constitution as it then stood said:19 “in any city where there are no public works owned and controlled by the municipality forsupplying thesame with water or artificial light, any individual, of company duly incorporated for such purpose under and by authority of the laws of this state, shall, under the direction of the superintendent of streets, or other officer in control thereof, and under such general regulations as the municipality may prescribe for damages and indemnity for damages, have the privilege of using the public streets and thoroughfares thereof, and of laying down pipes and conduits therein, and connections therewith, so far as may be necessary for introducing into and supplying such city and its inhabitants either with gaslight or other illuminating light, or with fresh water for domestic and all other purposes, upon the condition that the municipal government shall have the right to regulate the charges thereof.”20 The decision was that the franchise was taxable. As to the value fixed thereon the court held that that was a matter to be left to the discretion of the assessor and found no fault with the method used. It said further: “In a pecuniary sense, the value of franchises may be as various as the objects for which they exist, and the methods by which they are employed, and may change with every moment of time; but that franchises are property, and are to be taxed in some method in proportion to value, is a part of the paramount law of the state.”
The whole matter was gone over again, shortly afterward, in the case of the Spring Valley Water Worfcs vs. Schottler (62 Cal. 69), which is the forerunner of a long series of cases in which the same principles are reaffirmed and extended. The assessor had valued the franchise of this corporation at $5000, but the county board of equalization, reviewing his work, had raised the valuation to $5,000,000. This is the company which supplies the city of San Francisco with water. The attorney for the company claimed that “the difference between the value of the tangible property
13 This provision was amended in 1911.
21 Article xi, Sec. 19, of the state constitution.


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and the aggregate value of the stock of the corporation is composed of various elements, among which may be enumerated the skill, ability, and enterprise with which the business is conducted, the fortunate conditions and circumstances surrounding it, the custom which has been gained by the steady pursuit of the business for a number of years and by course of judicious and honorable dealing with the public.”
The court in its decision, first reviewed the mode of making the assessment, or valuation. It said: “It appears from the record in this case that the Board of Supervisors, in the exercise of its powers of equalization, assessed the franchise of the Water Works by taking the aggregate market value of the shares of stock in the company on the 7th day of March, 1881, and deducting therefrom the value of the real and personal property of the company, and held the difference to be the value of the franchise. The market value of the stock was shown to the board by testimony of witnesses. Such a mode of arriving at the value of the franchise appears to have been adopted by the assessor-in the San Josi Gas Company vs. January, 57 Cal. 614, and this mode was held to be within the powers vested in the assessor. It was also impliedly approved as a correct method in Burke vs. Badlam, above cited.” Nor was the court unmindful of the fact that the rule of assessment laid down in section 3640 of the political code had been repealed. But it drew the inference from the passage of section 3608, which declared that the property and not the shares of stock should be taxed; that the legislature intended that all property including the franchise should be taxed. In this connection it said: “no doubt it was their intention” (i.e., that of the legislators) “to tax everything in the shape of property owned by the corporation; that everything entering into and giving value to the shares should be taxed. It cannot be doubted that the legislature, in acting upon the subject of revenue and taxation in the session of 1881, did not intend to leave the system in relation to so important a matter in such shape, that so large an amount of property as indicated by the difference between the market value of the shares of corporations and the value of the tangible property of such corporations should escape taxation. To come to any other conclusion, would be to impute to that body a most culpable dereliction of duty.”
In answer to the contention made by the attorney for the company, and cited above, the court said: “it is contended that good-will enters into and forms an element in the value of the shares of stock. No case has been produced to us, nor have we been able to find any, holding or even intimating that this is so. We find no such element of value in the least hinted at, by anyone who has written on the subject, nor has any such been called to our attention. We cannot recognize any such element as giving value to the shares of a trading corporation. It would be strange to predicate good-will as pertaining


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to or extending to an abstraction, to an artificial being, invisible, intangible and existing only in contemplation of law. ”21
I have been unable to find any case since then in which the courts have attributed good-will to a corporation, except in one case in which the court upheld the notion that a corporation could purchase the name and goodwill of a person whose business it bought up and took over. But in the dissenting opinion in the Bank of California case, which will be referred to below, two of the justices use language that implies the possibility that in their opinion some elements of good-will may enter into the corporate excess.
This decision, by approving the method of arriving at the value of the franchise, had the effect of giving life to a section of the code that had been repealed. Indeed the old section 3640 is much more alive today than some other section of the code that have not been repealed.
Another series of cases involving the assessment of franchises arose in connection with the assessment, by the state board of equalization, of the railroads, operating in more than one county. These need delay us but for a moment. The main question was not the taxability of the franchise nor the method of valuation, but whether a railroad that received its franchise or a franchise from the federal government enjoyed also another franchise from the state and if so whether it could be assessed and taxed by the state upon its franchise, state or federal. It was finally decided that the franchise exercised within the state was taxable by the state and that such taxation was not an attack upon the privileges granted by the federal government.22
The rules laid down in the cases so far cited have been confirmed over and over again. But all of the earlier cases dealt with the franchises of public service corporations, and mainly with the right to use the public streets, although all the other franchises possessed and enjoyed by such companies were, by the method of valuation, also included. The question whether the franchise of a corporation not possessing special privileges was taxable, and could be valued in the same manner, came up much later in a series of cases of which the Bank of California vs. San Francisco (142 Cal. 276) may be taken as the leading one. It is clear that a bank has no special or exclusive privileges and yet the franchise of that bank was assessed at $750,000 and the assessment was sustained. The amount of the assessed valuation of the franchise was arrived at by deducting from the aggregate value of the stock of the bank the sum of the exempt holdings plus the assessed value of the real estate, money, and other taxable property of the bank and taking a fraction of the remainder as the assessable
21 The italics are not in the original.
22 People vs. Central-Pacific Railroad Company, 105 Cal. 576. Also California vs. Pacific Railroad Cos., 127 U. S., 1.


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value of the franchise. The reasons for taking only a part (about one-fourth) of the corporate excess seem to have been two: first, a concession to the general practice of under-assessment of all property, a practice that is entirely illegal, but prevalent; and second, a desire to omit from the assessment any element of good-will. The latter seems to have arisen from a fear that the courts might hold that good-will could not be taxed under the term franchise. But if that was the fear it was ill-founded, for on that point the court said that even if good-will had been included, the assessment would still have been valid, for “ everything that gives value to the shares of a corporation shall be assessed as property of the corporation.”
As this decision has been followed in a number of other cases it may now be said that it is the settled law that every corporation has a taxable franchise and that its value is equal fo the corporate excess or the difference between the market value of the stock and the value of the corporation's plant as assessed for purposes of taxation. In the language of the courts there are three kinds of such franchises that are taxable: (1) the franchise “to be” a corporation; (2) the franchise “to do” business as a corporation; and (3) the various special privileges specifically granted by the state or by some other branch of government.
Although this has been the law since 1879, its administration has been far from uniform or effective. All special franchises in the great cities as well as the franchises of the great railroads have been assessed and taxed, with varying severity from 1880 to the present time. These offered no difficulties, except the administrative ones, of ascertaining the market value of the stock. But the “common franchises” of corporations of miscellaneous classes were very irregularly assessed and taxed. In 1897 there were no franchises whatever assessed in thirty out of the then fifty-seven counties of the state and after years of discussion there were in 1910 only forty-three counties out of the then fifty-eight, in which these franchises appeared on the tax rolls. In the large cities the practice grew up of placing nominal valuations upon the franchises of mercantile, manufacturing, and mining companies, in short upon all companies other than public service companies and banks which could not, by changing their “principal place of business,” move out of the assessor’s district, while in the country and in the smaller cities the franchises were ignored. Gradually, the assessors in the large cities raised some of these assessments, notably, in the case of some of the large oil companies, but the only effect was to drive the companies to move away. It was to cure these evils, that, when the new system of state taxation was adopted, the entire taxation of franchises was transferred to the state.
The constitutional amendment adopted by the people, November 8, 1910, was drawn for the purpose of separating state from local taxation as to sources of revenue. It transferred to the state all the taxes upon


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public service corporations, except water companies, all taxes upon banks, except the taxes upon the real estate of the banks. The classes of companies included are enumerated as: “railroads, including street railways, whether operated in one or more counties, sleeping car, dining car, drawingroom car and palace car companies, refrigerator, oil, stock, fruit, and other car-loaning and other car companies operating upon railroads in this state; companies doing an express business on any railroad, steamboat or stage line in this state; telegraph companies; telephone companies; companies engaged in the transmission or sale of gas or electricity; insurance companies; banks, banking associations, savings and loan societies, and trust companies; and taxes upon all franchises of every kind and nature.” It provided that the taxes upon the public service corporations should be computed upon the basis of the gross receipts, and that those on the banks should be in proportion to the book value of the capital stock; and all these taxes were expressly declared to cover the franchises of such companies. There remain, then, to be taxed as franchises, eo nomine, all otherfranchises, which in the language of the recent statute23 are defined as follows: “ These franchises^ shall include the actual exercise of the right to be a corporation and to do business as a corporation, under the laws of this state and the actual exercise of the right to do business as a corporation in this state when such right is exercised by a corporation incorporated under the laws of any other state or country, also, the right, authority, privilege, or permission to maintain wharves, ferries, toll roads, and toll bridges, and to construct, maintain or operate, in, under, above, upon, through, or along any streets, highways, public places, or waters, any mains, pipes, canals, ditches, tanks, conduits, or other means for conducting water, oil, or other substances.”
The gain made by transferring the taxation of these franchises to the state was at once apparent. The taxes could not be dodged by the mere transfer of the'“principal place of business” to another place. Such a transfer is very easily effected, all that it requires is notice to the Secretary of State, and the opening of an office, however small. Even if the company transferred its office to some other state, it would, if it still continued to do business within the state, be taxable for a franchise. So too are foreign corporations coming into the state. In 1910, as nearly as can be ascertained, the total assessed value of the franchises, other than those of the railroads operating in more than one county, in the forty-three counties in which alone they were assessed, was a little over $29,000,000. In 1911 the state assessed the common franchises and the others that are taxable eo nomine at over $160,000,000. In other words over $130,000,000 of heretofore untaxed, but always taxable, property was found and was taxed.
sa,Chapter 335, Statutes of California, 1911.


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Some of the common, franchises were found to be very large in value. Thus in the case of one group of affiliated companies the aggregate franchises were assessed at over $12,000,000; in another similar group at $8,000,000; and in another single company at $3,500,000.
The constitution as now amended provides that franchises shall be assessed “at their actual cash value, in the manner to be provided by law.” But the legislature made no further provision than to place the duty of assessing the franchises upon the state board of equalization, which board has been vested with the entire administration of the state revenue system. Since the legislature did not venture to provide a new rule for the valuation of the franchises the board followed the time honored methods, approved by the courts and which we have just reviewed. As any other method would probably imply a different definition or meaning for the term franchise from that in which it has been understood to have been used in the constitution it would be of doubtful constitutionality. But the legislature did add one restriction, not in the constitution, and contrary to the accepted meaning of the term franchise, and that was, that, in making the assessment due allowance must be made for good-will. This would seem to exempt from taxation a certain class of property heretofore taxable and to do so without constitutional grant. It is, therefore, difficult to determine the effect of this statutory provision until it has been passed upon by the courts. So far the courts have not distinctly recognized the possession of good-will by a corporation, except in the one case where a corporation had bought out and taken over the name and the good-will of an individual, whose business the corporation had absorbed. All of the elements of value that it has been sought to bar out by the use of the term “good-will” have been repeatedly held to be part of the corporate franchise, or the corporate excess.
Nor does the law in any way inhibit the taxation of good-will, other than in this anomalous provision. But the assessors have never made a practice of assessing good-will, although it mi'ght be urged that it is their duty so to do.
Thus far in this paper I have referred solely to the use of the stock as the basis for determining the aggregate value of the corporation’s plant and franchises. For a long time, however, the practice has prevailed of including the market value of the bonds, of other mortgage interests, and of other securities which, in the language of section 3608 of the political code, also, “stand for and represent the property” of the corporation. This practice is so obviously a proper one that it has never been questioned in the California courts and they have never been called upon to pass upon it directly. , The question was not likely to arise by reason of certain provisions of the constitution. Thus, so far as the railroads and other public service corporations were concerned, the constitution, until 1910, expressly provided that the corporations should pay all the taxes upon their property


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and the bondholders, as such, should be exempt. In interpreting this the court has said that a tax upon the bonds of railroad companies of this state secured by a mortgage upon the value of their property, which is required to he assessed at its full value to such companies, is double taxation forbidden by the constitution.24 This is a clear recognition of the representative character of the bonds. Furthermore it was ruled, even under the constitution as it stood prior to 1910, that “the bonds of private domestic corporations secured by mortgage or deed of trust can only be taxed by assessing the value of the security as an interest in the property encumbered for their payment. They cannot be assessed as mere personal debts or credits, and such assessment is void.”25 That extends the same principle to other than public service corporations, and is tantamount to saying that silch bonds were never assessable if all the property of the corporation is taxed, because the bonds, like the shares of stock, stand for and represent the property.
The repeal of the mortgage tax provisions of the constitution in 1910 and the accompanying provisions to the effect that “a mortgage, deed of trust, contract, or other obligation, by which a debt is secured, when land is pledged as security for the payment thereof, together with the money represented by such debts, shall not be considered property subject to taxation” extended the same principle heretofore laid down for public service corporations to all classes of corporations and even to private individuals. The federal courts have distinctly ruled that it is proper to include bonds in determining the value of the corporation’s property. That was in the case of the Atcheson, Topeka and Santa F6 Railway Company vs. Sullivan, 173 Federal Reporter, 456.
There are many corporations whose stocks and bonds are not dealt in on the stock exchange and whose shares and other securities are not often bought and sold in a way to determine a market value. In these cases the value of the stocks and bonds has to be determined by an appraisal, made, as nearly as may be, in the same manner as the market value would be determined if the stocks and bonds were bought and sold in the market. That is to say, there should be considered the amount of the property held and its character, the earnings available for distribution, either in the form of dividends to the stockholders, or of interest to the bondholders, or carried to surplus, or reinvested in betterments, the value that arises from the fact that it is a “going concern” and the future prospects as to continued, increasing or decreasing earnings. Of these, the earnings are the most important and if no other method is available they may be capitalized at rates approximately equal to the rates shown by the market value of similar classes of securities.
24 Estate of James G. Fair, 128 Cal., 607, and subsequent cases affirming.
25 Ibid.


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It is almost needless to say that the more rigid enforcement of a tax, which had been so largely evaded for over thirty years, has given rise to some opposition and more discussion. The opponents of the taxation of franchises do not deny that the franchises are taxable property and have been so under the constitution and the laws of the state for over thirty years. The criticism is directed mainly against the propriety of the tax from the point of view of public policy. The critics fall into two groups:
(1) there are those who argue that the franchise “to be” and “to do” has no value above the legal expenses and fees which it costs to obtain a charter and that all the rest of the corporate excess is due to good-will or to the ability and energy of the men at the head of the company and that the latter elements should not be taxed; (2) there are those who argue that corporations should not be taxed on their franchises, because they often compete with firms and partnerships, which pay no tax of a similar character.
Back of the whole criticism is the feeling that corporations are being regulated, taxed, and otherwise “interfered with” more than is good for “business.” It must be admitted that there is a multitude of taxes falling upon corporations, although the total burden may not be large. First, there is the federal tax on the net earnings in excess of $5000, then the city and county tax on real estate and tangible personal property, then the state license tax, based upon the authorized capital stock, then the state franchise tax. While the last two can and probably should be combined, and made payable in one lump sum, yet they should be so combined that the identity of each may be preserved.
The argument that a franchise is worth only what it costs to reproduce it is catchy and specious in the extreme. It rests upon a misunderstanding of the meaning of the term. That meaning was fully set forth in the case of the Spring Valley Waterworks vs. Schottler, above cited. If instead of using the term “franchise,” which is, perhaps, capable of misinterpretation, the constitution had said “corporate excess.” or had laid down the rule that corporations should be taxed upon the property they held of every class including the value of the intangible property over and above the items of tangible property that could be found, no one would have thought of this particular ground for criticism. That that is precisely what is meant by the term as used in the constitution and the statutes of California has been abundantly demonstrated. Of the 18,000 corporations assessed for a “franchise” last year there were none which did not show a corporate excess far larger than the mere cost of obtaining a charter. Nor is this excess value due solely to the business ability of the men in charge. Hen may come and men may go but the corporation and its corporate excess go on for ever. It was said when the tax was first assessed that it would drive many corporations to disincorporate and to turn themselves into partnerships. If such had been the case it would have been partial evi-


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dence that the franchise or the right to be a corporation was of little value to the incorporators. But the number of disincorporations has not proven to be any larger than has been the case in past years, when this tax was not so fully enforced. Those companies which have disincorporated have done so, in most instances, because their business had been completed or had proven a failure. The privilege of being a corporation is a valuable privilege conferred by the state and as the state does not force this privilege upon anyone it certainly has the right to hedge it about with such restrictions, and to impose upon it any burdens, as it deems wise.
The second of the two arguments of the critics is not an argument against the taxation of franchises, but, in so far as it has any significance, is an argument in favor of the taxation of individuals and partnerships-upon their good-will and the “value of a going concern,” either by the way of license taxes or by other appropriate means. If there be any inequality in the present system it should be corrected by taxing those who now escape their fair share of the public burdens, not by releasing those who have now for the first time been effectively reached.


GERMAN MUNICIPAL SOCIALISM AS ILLUSTRATED BY ULM
BY KARL FREDERICK GEISER1 Oberlin, Ohio
THE recent German election which returned one hundred and ten Social Democrats to the imperial parliament suggests a continued tendency away from the laissez faire principle and a deepening of the national social instinct. The growth of national socialism in Germany has not, however, tended to minimize the local activities of the city. In other words, the extension of the central authority over local matters, which in the last decade has been very marked in the German empire, as also in the German states, has not resulted as might have been expected, in the curtailment of municipal powers. While local affairs have, in the best sense, become national affairs, they have become so because of the fact that Germany recognizes the importance of the local problem in its relation to citizenship. She has not merely allowed, but compelled the city to manage its own affairs and solve its own problems.
In America, too, there has recently been a marked tendency toward national socialism, and with it a curtailment by the national government of the powers of the states. The states in turn, recognizing that the loss of power to the national government has been due to the inefficiency of their own legislatures to meet the problems within their borders, have awakened to self-consciousness, turned their attention to local affairs, and, among other things, reorganized their city governments. This municipal reorganization has compelled the people to face many new problems. Cities being corporations of delegated powers, the question of home rule and municipal socialism will have to be met in this new readjustment.. With a strong public sentiment favoring home rule the city now has the opportunity to demonstrate its fitness for self-government. But what particular activities shall the municipalities take upon themselves?—that is the question.
If the study of municipal history shows any one thing more clearly than another, it is this: that unless the cities do purge themselves of their oligarchy, the state will again, as it has in the past, be compelled to draw the lines of interference more closely and assume control of local matters. It is therefore instructive to turn to the German cities which can furnish many valuable lessons and ask, “What do ye more than others?” With a view to suggesting, therefore, what municipal activities a city may safely take upon itself without destroying that individual initiative which we
1 Professor of Political Science in Oberlin College.
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Americans still regard as of the essence of democracy, I shall briefly outline the municipal activities of a single south German city whose population comes within the range of those American cities in which the commission form of government has proved successful, that is, cities not exceeding a population of one hundred thousand.
The city of Ulm is generally regarded as being one of the best governed cities in Germany. It has without doubt made the greatest progress in social reforms and has perhaps extended its authority over a wider field of activities than any other city of the middle class. Moreover, it would be difficult to find a city anywhere whose consciousness of self-mastery over its own fortunes is more pronounced. Beautifully situated upon the confluence of the Danube and the Blau, with a history reaching back into the Middle Ages, with its far-famed cathedral, rivalled in Germany only by that at Cologne on the Rhine, with its varied industries, with its just pride in its city hall and its architectural beauty, with its many poor, with all the problems of growth and expansion—this city of fifty-six thousand souls is worthy of study.
Not only in Ulm but in all German cities the great social problem is the housing problem. The political economists and political leaders, of whatever school or party, have come to recognize that the social unrest which is sending annually thousands of discontented voters into the ranks of the Social Democratic party and threatening the stability of the empire itself, must, as everything else under the sun, have a cause. The cause has been determined and by unanimous consent of the leaders it has been agreed that the strength of the nation lies in the contentment and happiness resulting from the ownership of a home. Mein Heim, meine Welt, is an old adage that finds a quick response in every German heart. Given the opportunity to acquire ownership of a home, you have created an honest enthusiasm for the “God of things as they are” and quenched the springs of discontent. So reason the German leaders, and the mayors of the German cities, being among these leaders, have applied the new remedy against social unrest by inaugurating a program of municipal socialism which to the average American seems appalling, yet which upon close examination, at least in Ulm, has already accomplished significant results and seems to have placed within the city’s grasp the control of her natural resources and the mastery of her own destiny.
Of all German cities Ulm is generally recognized as the leader in the land and housing-reform movement. It has more completely perhaps than any other city solved the problems of the poor. â–  It has decided, for itself at least, the question whether the large tenement, or the single-family dwelling, shall be the dominant type in housing its poorer population. There is something to be said in favor of both systems. The large tenement house is cheaper and where land is valuable, it may be necessary to


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insure a proper return for capital. But the financial consideration is not as important as health and happiness, and every effort should be directed to secure the latter. Private enterprise must of course be guided first of all by the financial returns and the history of the housing question in Ulm, as in most German cities, has demonstrated the futility of depending upon private enterprise to solve the problem. The city felt compelled to take a hand in the matter since the ultimate responsibility, both by imperial and state legislation, for social betterment must be met by the municipality.
It must not be assumed that Ulm rushed thoughtlessly into a program of municipal socialism. She had long encouraged private builders and private capital to furnish houses for her working classes, and when the old unsanitary districts in the Alstadt were first torn down and new quarters erected, private enterprise took part, but the houses erected by private capitalists were too high priced for those with small means and small incomes. The city therefore undertook, at first on a small scale, municipal housing. From a hospital fund established in 1888 a large tenement was erected for hospital and city employees. It consisted of a three-story building enclosing twenty-one dwellings, nine of which contained three living rooms, and twelve, two living rooms to a dwelling. Besides the living rooms, each dwelling contains a kitchen, lavatory, alcove, cellar, fuel-room and wash-room These dwellings bore a rental ranging from $38 to $58 year, according to size and location. This was the first experiment, and though the rents were much lower than the average rental of similar houses in the city, the experiment was not a decided success. Families living under a common roof, using a common stairway and a common courtyard, found these conditions very unsatisfactory. The renters sought more private quarters and the city soon found itself with empty houses on its hands. Other means had to be devised to meet the situation. At the suggestion of the mayor and council the Building Society of Ulm was established. It was organized as a joint stock company and in 1891 it purchased of the city at the nominal price of $1.25 an acre per square metre a vacant tract and erected, subject to the plans of the city architect, a number of double houses, placed far enough apart to allow to each family sufficient room and light, with a rental ranging from $35 to $70 a year. This project which provided homes for 480 persons, was met with some opposition by the property owners of the city, though the number of houses thus erected did not materially affect the rents, neither did it provide homes for the lower classes, nor stimulate an interest in individual ownership in general. Naturally these new houses were rented to those whose income was such as to insure prompt payment of dues and a sure return to capital.
This second experiment convinced the city authorities that the problem of homes for the poor would not be solved by private enterprise nor by


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societies assisted financially by the state or municipality. It became evident that unless the poorest laborers were furnished homes many would become entirely dependent upon the city; that their small incomes would be entirely used to pay a profitable rent to private builders. Moreover, if the city depended upon private capital to house its indigent population, land would fall into the hands of speculators who would build the crowded tenement for large profits and all hope of individual ownership among the poor would vanish. Here was a new problem the city had to face. But the authorities met it in a scientific spirit. With the terms of the problem clearly before them, a far reaching and comprehensive policy on a socialistic basis was outlined. Direct financial aid would obviously be unwise as it would merely give temporary relief and emphasize the element of dependence. Forces must be set in motion and motives stimulated which would automatically operate among the poor in a way to encourage industry and frugality, to inspire hope and discourage discontent and the feeling of dependence; could this be accomplished, the question would be half solved.
Clearly a policy resting upon the basis of love of home and family, of frugality—in a word, a policy quickening those noble sentiments which are rooted in the ownership of home—would strike at the root of discontent. Accordingly in 1893 the authorities began a new building project to meet the needs of the poorest classes. The city itself was to furnish the ground and build the houses, complete in every detail, and sell them to the tenants on easy terms. These houses were built with due regard to the interests and wishes of those for whom they were intended. A tract of land owned by the city was set apart for this purpose and of the total area 63 per cent was devoted to gardens and courts, 20 per cent to buildings, and 17 per cent to streets, thus providing an abundance of air and sunlight, courts for children and sufficient garden space for each family.
In the first three series of houses erected the two-family house was the type adopted, and in the allotment to tenants large families were given choice of location. The capital required for the prosecution of this project which amounted to nearly $500,000 came from three sources. The purchasers of the homes furnished a little over one-fourth of the entire amount, but the greater part was supplied in the form of loans from the Wurttem-berg Insurance Company, and the Savings Bank of Ulm. That this experiment was successful is evident from the fact that many of these homes are already clear of debt. In view of the fact that nearly all of these h: uses are occupied by large families with exceedingly small incomes, this showing is nothing short of remarkable. The houses are sold by the city with the privilege of repurchase at any time within one hundred years, and while the total cost of each dwelling ranges from $1500 to $1800, the annual payments do not exceed $65 to $95, including interest on investment at 3 per cent


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plus 2| per cent amortization. If no misfortune prevents meeting the payments annually, the entire indebtedness becomes liquidated at the end of twenty-three years.
Should a purchaser in the meantime leave the city, the house is taken back by the city without loss to the owner. In case of death of the head of the family, or of sickness, or other misfortune which curtails the income, the city extends credit or defers the obligation according to the needs of the owner and in various ways carries the delinquent family over the period of misfortune. After continuing the policy of erecting the two-family dwelling house, the city in 1903 erected 107 single-family houses at a cost of $1750 each, including a fair-sized lot. The plan of purchase was essentially the same as in the case of those mentioned above and this type of dwelling of course made family life and living conditions in general still more favorable.
FIm is unique in the housing question in this, that it is the only city in Germany that undertakes actually to build and equip a complete home to sell outright to purchasers, but she also, like many other German cities, aids indirectly in the housing problem by granting long leases, at nominal rates, of city land, to various building societies and factories for housing purposes. These leases are granted, however, on condition that the societies build within a definite period, and of course all buildings erected are subject to strict building ordinances framed with a view to securing the most hygienic homes possible; and at the expiration of these leases the property reverts to the city. To encourage these societies in carrying on the housing project, the city extends them loans on easy terms to the extent of 90 per cent of the value of the property. In thus placing municipal land at the disposal of building societies, and in loaning money on credit, Ulm has directly and indirectly assisted materially not only in providing homes for the indigent poor, but also for the middle class. Nor have these activities merely resulted in securing homes to classes that would otherwise have become a burden upon the city. In the new quarters thus erected under the most sanitary conditions, the rate of mortality has been reduced to 8.5 per thousand, compared to an average of 16 per thousand in other parts of the city, and 30 per thousand in the suburb of Soefiingen.
Ulm has thus demonstrated the possibility of greatly reducing mortality by a wise building policy alone, a lesson American cities have yet to learn. Some of the English cities have achieved similar results. The labor villages of Bournville near Birmingham, and Port Sunlight near Liverpool, have, by similar housing methods reduced the mortality to less than 8 per thousand, compared to London’s labor quarters of 30 to 40 per thousand. In these two English colonies the infant mortality is 92.5 per thousand, compared to England and Wales’ general average of 134.7 per thousand. But to return to Ulm, the city has directly, or through


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assistance to societies and individuals, furnished 998 homes, representing a population of 5700 souls, in the last twenty years. In other words, the city has provided homes for one-tenth of its population; and these facts have greater significance than mere figures may indicate. Every new house erected in a new quarter releases a family from an old quarter and relieves the pressure of congestion. Every family assisted to the ownership of a home thereby gains a permanent interest in the city, pays taxes into the city treasury, and in a thousand ways contributes to the municipal welfare.
As already stated, these houses were built upon land already owned by the city. In fact the land question is the key to the housing question. It is impossible to have cheap homes where land is high priced, and if we remind ourselves of the fact that agricultural lands in Germany are often valued at $500 per acre, we can readily appreciate the difficulties of a poor man purchasing a home in a city where prices are proportionately high. This fact has induced the great majority of German cities to municipalize land. Frankfort owns, exclusive of streets, 59.5 per cent of the land within the corporate limits; Augsburg, 54.2 per cent; Strassburg, 40.5 per cent; Hanover, 43 per cent, and Ulm, 90 per cent. This ownership gives the city perfect control and direction of its expansion and growth. Through the far-sighted policy of its efficient Oberbiirgermeister, Herr von Wagner, famed far and wide as one of Germany’s most expert municipal administrators, Ulm early inaugurated a land policy which has resulted in making that city today a model in municipal housing.
“Go to Ulm if you wish to learn how these things should be” is what the student of municipal housing hears on every hand in Germany; and English cities frequently send a delegation there to study conditions. Space forbids details, but since 1891 Ulm has purchased in round numbers a total of 1500 acres at an expense of $2,650,000. Of this amount 500 acres have been disposed of at a price exceeding the total cost of all the land purchased, thus leaving 1000 acres free of debt which is now yielding an annual net revenue of $18,750 from this source alone. Instead therefore of this colossal undertaking being an expense or burden upon the city, it has been a chief source of revenue. Nor is it strange that this should be so. While American cities have frittered away possibilities of handsome incomes—sufficient to pay the running expenses of the city— from the streets, by long and gratuitous franchises to transportation and lighting companies; and through perverted notions of individualism and private enterprise have allowed real estate men and land speculators who toil not to enrich themselves at the expense of the homebuilder, Ulm has kept these fundamental resources to herself—or better, has acquired them by applying business principles to municipal politics. This land policy is pursued by many German cities—in fact by all—to a large extent. Like


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the American farmer of the middle west, who is financially rated by the number of fertile acres to which he holds a deed, so the fortune of a German city is measured in terms expressed by the ratio of real estate ownership to the total corporate area.
In spite of the large number of social activities, of extensive public works, of increase in salaries to officials, Ulm has the lowest tax rate of any of the larger German cities, and its financial condition is such that a future competence is insured. Sites for schools, hospitals, lighting plants, water works and other municipal activities necessary to a growing city, may be located upon city land long after the city has grown far beyond its present limits. Meantime, the property thus owned, instead of being a burden is turned to good account. Over one hundred acres are devoted to so-called “Leaf Gardens” to the number of three hundred, which are rented to different families as private grounds and from which the city derives no inconsiderable revenue.
The municipal activities are not, however, limited to an efficient financial administration, important as this-may be. The philanthropic and humane spirit is no less manifest in institutions which have recently been established and in the care of the poor and unfortunate. Since 1902 the school system has been equipped to meet the needs of feeble-minded children; in the lower and middle grades special courses for pupils who stammer, of which for some reason there are many, have been added. A school physician was appointed in 1906 to supervise the health, and he was also clothed with authority to send children suffering from infirmities to health resorts, the expenses in such cases being borne in part, however, by the society for infirm children. A year later a dental clinic was added to the public school system. Thirty per cent of all school children have free tuition and free books, while free car fare is furnished when necessary, to those living at a remote distance from the school. Since 1905 the city has undertaken to furnish pure milk for infants and weaklings at 3 cents per liter, with a view to reducing infant mortality. In' addition to this, the city gives annually $800 to the Society for the Protection of Infants. The cooperation of the city with these charitable societies in behalf of infants has resulted in reducing the infant mortality in Ulm from 208 in 1905 to 122 in 1910.2 In 1908 an institution under the direction of the city physician, assisted by a matron, was established to care for and give instruction in incipient cases of tuberculosis. It provides hospital accommodations, isolation, outdoor work, and furnishes, when necessary, proper food. In 1911 the city furnished this institution, free of charge, with 45,000 liters of pure milk. In all these provisions the city has taken the position that the humblest citizen is entitled to the best possible means of securing and
2 This applies to deaths within a year after birth.


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maintaining health; and in line with this policy the municipality purchased, in 1905, a picturesque wooded tract, beautifully situated in the valley of the Blau, about four miles from the city, to be used as an outdoor health and pleasure resort, free to all citizens.
But perhaps the most unique and unusual municipal activity is that of a pension to the veterans who fought against Austria in 1866 and also to those engaged in the Franco-Prussian war. This of course is a pure gratuity on the part of the city, as the granting of pensions is a function of the state; but it illustrates the wide range of activities of the German city. It is granted as a modest honorarium in recognition of the poorly paid services to the state in time of need. Veterans with an income of less than $225 a year, receive $25, while those with an income from $225 to $300, receive annually $12.50, in all cases a residence of ten years being required; but those who have been convicted of crime or have been inmates of almshouses, are excluded. The total amount thus granted by the city was, in 1911, $2000. In 1898 an information bureau was established to give legal advice free of charge to the poor; and if necessary, to defend or prosecute suits in their behalf. The unemployed also have the benefit of a municipal labor bureau, and of loans from the city to tide them over a period of unemployment.
Municipal undertakings are always prosecuted with a view to furnishing, so far as possible, continuous employment and with a view to dividing the labor equitably among the unemployed. Difficult as this may seem, the city has, nevertheless, for the last ten years, so distributed the public work as to furnish to each unemployed laborer employment connected with some department of the city to the value of $45 during the winter season. In fact, the general policy of the city in regard to the care of the poor has been to reduce, on the one hand, almsgiving to a minimum by furnishing so far as possible employment, and on the other hand, to reduce the cost of living by controlling in various ways the price of the necessities of life. Thus in the fall of 1911 over 2000 bushels of potatoes were sold to the poor at cost. The exorbitant price of meats induced the city to establish a fish market, and recently the council entered into a five-year contract with an agricultural society to deliver one-sixth of the city’s pork supply at a constant, fixed and reasonable price; and similar arrangements are to be made in regard to beef. City interference has likewise kept the price of milk within reasonable limits. From 1899 to 1908 the city created a fund to assist financially, widows, children and the unemployed, and a special labor ordinance provides compensation for certain wage earners for the loss of earnings incurred by sickness, “fest days,” and military service.
In spite of the numerous social activities here mentioned, it should not be assumed that Ulm has rushed headlong into municipal socialism or


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that the city has by its socialistic policy stifled individual initiative. Ulm has simply socialized those resources, of which land is the most conspicuous example, which in America are used by the few—or may .be used by the few—to exploit the many. She has interfered in behalf of the poor, to prevent this class from becoming entirely dependent, as a matter of self-protection. Moreover, she has preferred always to aid the cause of the lower classes indirectly by assisting numerous voluntary charitable institutions and enlisting the interest and sympathy of a majority of the well-to-do citizens. Such an extensive municipal policy obviously can only be carried to a successful issue by an efficient mayor and a wise council and a staff of administrative experts in the various departments. All this Ulm has. The present mayor, Herr von Wagner, has occupied his present position for a quarter of a century and is universally loved and respected. The land policy through which Ulm now controls her destiny was deliberately inaugurated by him at the beginning of his first term of office, when other cities of Germany looked upon the municipalization of land as of doubtful wisdom. But time has justified the wisdom of his course. The council has proved its competence to meet the present social needs and, at the same time, to place the city upon a sound financial basis. It has cost many a struggle and much anxiety on the part of the authorities, but because of this very fact the results have been all the more appreciated. Both the authorities and the citizens generally now entertain the confident hope that the municipal activities now under way will in the words of their famed Biirgermeister, “bridge the chasm of discontent and bring men of all parties and beliefs to a more perfect social consciousness, and, with the help of God, unite all in the high purpose of an effective social service in the body politic.”


EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT
BY JESSE D. BERKS, PH.D.1 Philadelphia
STANDARDIZATION is today regarded by many enthusiasts as a sort of Aladdin’s lamp, possessing the potency and magic of that famous talisman for accomplishing the purposes of man. Ardent devotees look forward to the time when every form of human activity will yield to its magic, and most of the abstacles to human efficiency will in this way be surmounted. Whatever be one’s conception of the part which standardization is ultimately to play in the industrial and social program, the standardization process is certain for many years to be a dominant factor in the development of higher efficiency in most fields of enterprise. Already in the field of industrial and commercial organization, salesmanship and advertising, medical and educational practice, religious and philanthropic activity, and of a hundred other types of enterprise, systematic efforts are being made to discover and establish standards of organization, equipment, procedure, method, output, results, and cost.
Many of the consequences of such efforts are in fact already so familiar as to be commonplace. Standard guage railway tracks, car couplers, air brakes, and operating agreements make possible unbroken transcontinental train service. Standard telegraph equipment, codes, and news service, lie back of the daily newspaper. Standard typewriter keyboards facilitate the distribution of machines and the availability of operators. Waterpipe manufactured at a hundred different factories may be joined in the same water supply system by standard threaded joints. The doors of a score of colleges are opened to a candidate for admission by the passing of a set of standard entrance examinations. Standards established by the Carnegie foundation are beginning to make possible a distinction between real and pseudo medical colleges; between “universities” that confer degrees for educational attainment and those that confer degrees for revenue only. Dr. Wiley’s consistent program for standardizing food and drug labels is making it more and more possible for a consumer to buy what he pays for. The effective standardizing of official control over weights and measures in several states is beginning to insure to the purchaser the full quantity of goods for which he pays.
There is a somewhat general misconception of the meaning of standardization which should at once be corrected. A “standard ” is often thought of as implying an arbitrary, fixed or invariable basis of action, involving
1 Director, Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadelphia.
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EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 365
possibly the idea of perfection. As used in modern industrial and municipal research, however, the term has none of this suggestion of final and unchang-able authority. It implies rather a working basis which, after careful consideration of available facts, is accepted for the time as the best that can be devised. There is no assumption that a standard is not subject to amendment at any time; provided only the proposed modifications be subject to tests as rigorous as those applied in the formulation of the original standard. Standardization thus defines a method rather than a fixed result—a method of scientific research and of continuous and progressive revision based upon fact-tests as distinguished from opinion-tests.
It is a matter of common observation that very few standards, in the sense here defined, have received general recognition in city management. It is practically true that no specific problem of administration has been solved by two municipalities in the same way. Even among the departments of a given city, it is common to find wide variation in such matters as the classification of receipts and expenditures; method of handling requisitions, orders, bills, and stores of supplies and materials; preparation of financial estimates; handling and filing of correspondence and current records; supervision of janitorial and messenger service; formulation and publication of reports; and scores of other functions that might readily be subjected to scientific tests and standardization.
Substantial beginnings, however, have been made during the past few years in the standardization of municipal organization and operation. Standard charter provisions, ballot laws, and financial statements for many years have been subjects of discussion at the annual conferences of the National Municipal League. The remarkable growth in popular favor of the short ballot and commission government indicates that interest in standardization of this nature, affecting the distribution of functions and the general form of municipal government, has increased rather than declined during recent years. There is today a strong disposition, however, to place the emphasis upon the details of administrative method and departmental organization, rather than upon the general problems of political control or upon the organic form of government. There is a growing realization that standards of work done, results accomplished, and cost incurred applicable 365 days of each year between elections and intelligible to citizens, taxpayers and officials alike, constitute a factor more essential to municipal efficiency than a ballot of standard brevity or a commission of standard personnel.
It has taken a long time for the citizen-stockholders of American city-corporations to grasp the important fact that, without standards by which to measure concrete administrative results, all attempts to determine the efficiency of a clerk, a health officer, a mayor, a city council, an “administration, ” a policy, a method of management, a ballot law, or a charter must


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be uncertain or futile. We have not been quick to see that the primary purpose of a municipality is not to furnish occasional opportunities for casting ballots, revising charters, or recalling officials, but to promote and protect the health, education, safety, convenience, and happiness of its citizens; and that efficiency standards must therefore be stated in terms of community service rather than in terms of ballot laws or charter powers.
The present rapidly growing appreciation of the city’s possibilities as an agency of community welfare accounts for the wide-spread effort to find units of measurement and standards of practice that shall make possible a definite appraisal of municipal efficiency in terms of community service rendered, community results obtained, community, cost incurred. Standard specifications for supplies, equipment, and service; standard cost records; standard qualifications and salaries for officers and employees; standard classifications of revenues and expenses; standard forms for records and accounts; standard methods of inspection, audit, and financial control; are merely items in a program of social measurement and interpretation. The ultimate purpose of this program is to enable citizens and officials to apply specific efficiency tests to administrative methods, and results; to subject their judgment to the measure of fact; to give and to receive intelligent appreciation or discriminating criticism. Only on some such basis can a community secure for itself the invaluable results of informed and exacting citizenship, on the one hand; or of economical and efficiency public service on the other.
The advantage that invariably accrues to a community when standards are developed and put into force might be illustrated by numerous examples. A very few will serve the present purpose:
1. By standardizing its method of taking the school census, Philadelphia recently increased its portion of state school funds $75,000.
2. By standardizing its requirements as to the temperature and cleanliness of milk, its methods of milk inspection and its program for teaching mothers how to care for babies, Philadelphia saved the lives of more than a thousand babies in 1911.
3. By standardizing its medical inspection service, Philadelphia is now getting the physical defects of school children corrected, whereas formerly they were only reported and registered.
4. By standardizing the business methods of its bureau of water, New York increased its water revenues $2,000,000 a year.
5. As a result of fuel standardization, under which coal is purchased by heat capacity instead of by weight alone, the Board of Education of New York saved $900,000 in seven years.
6. Standardization of the quantity, quality, and form of official reports, books and of the City Record, has enabled New York to make an annual saving of $1,2000,000.


EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 367
7. By standardizing specifications for milk, a large city hospital last year showed how $30,000 could be saved and applied to some of the urgent needs of its patients for which provision had not hitherto been made.
8. Among the many significant results of the studies made by the President’s commission on economy and efficiency is the discovery that by standardizing envelopes used in the government service, an annual saving to the government of $250,000 or more could be secured.
Without multiplying illustrations, it may be said that wherever intelligent effort has been made to determine standards of organization, administrative methods, specifications, work done, needs to be met, and unit of cost, results similar to these have followed. Better service and lower cost mean not only saving in taxes but saving in health, education, convenience, and mortality. One hundred thousand dollars saved by applying heat-unit standards to the purchase of coal, without the least magic can be transmuted into clean streets, reduced infant mortality, better housing conditions, additional playgrounds, industrial education for children who are now driven from school, or into one of the hundreds of other forms of community welfare for which adequate support is now lacking.
With the money now being spent by American cities, officials now in office have adequate powers to insure enormously more efficient government even without further changes in charters or ballot laws, provided citizens and officials will look for results rather than resolutions and demand that haphazard methods in city management be replaced by clearly defined standards of procedure.
In view of the definition of standardization proposed above, it is obvious that many municipal standards must vary in detail with the physical and social conditions of the communities concerned. Standards of snow removal applicable in Boston will have very limited application to New Orleans. Standards of school house construction, street paving, fuel cost, sewage disposal, water supply, transit facilities, street lighting, an,d industrial education must vary with climate, natural resources, topography and economic pursuits. On the other hand, there are broad limits within which uniformity of practice may reasonably be expected. The following suggestions are offered as to standards that should find general application in the field of municipal management:
1. In the performance of a large proportion of its functions, a municipality must meet precisely the same technical problems that a private enterprise meets in the discharge of similar functions. Such are the functions involved in the constructions of bridges, sewers, reservoirs, streets, buildings, and other public works; the operation and maintenance of water systems, lighting plants, street railways, and other municipal service enterprises ; the purchase of supplies, the disposal of ashes and sewage, the repairs of buildings and equipment; the collection and safe-keeping of moneys;


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the maintenance of accounts, the audit of claims, the exercise of financial control, and the preparation of financial estimates and reports.
2. In the most highly developed private business it has proven advantageous to reduce to writing all standards of practice, so that responsibility for knowledge of the standards may be fixed and consistency of practice promoted. Besides being more easily understood and enforced, definitely formulated standards are more readily modified than indefinite, vague assumptions. Such formulation of standards is open to the charge of being useless “red tape” only when the standards are of the expression of arbitrary opinion; not when they are the result of scientific determination.
3. The functional type of management has proven its superiority in commercial and industrial enterprises. Briefly stated, this type of administration provides that each man in an organization perform those functions for which by training or native capacity, he is best qualified; that the final authority in each specific branch of an organization be placed in the hands of the one person best equipped to exercise such control; that no member of the organization be required to perform service that can be satisfactorily performed by another person whose service is less valuable; that no individual be expected or permitted to make decisions in matters for which he has not the requisite qualifications and the necessary information.
Some of the consequences of applying the methods of functional management in municipal administration will be these:
a. City councils and boards of aldermen will demand evidence as a basis for action; their functions will be limited to the consideration of general programs and the fixing of policies, instead of being extended to details of administrative practice which obstruct rather than aid executive officers.
b. Department heads will be selected on the basis of technical qualifications and administrative capacity; and these officers will give their attention to the study of community needs; to the collection, classification, and interpretation of facts; and to the utilization of such facts in the formulation of adequate standards and the development of an intelligent program of public service.
c. Bureau and division chiefs will be functional specialists, each in his own field; with definite responsibility and authority in all administrative matters requiring expert judgment.
d. Employees will be selected for the lower grades of service with a view to training them in the service for positions of higher grade.
e. Men will be retained in the service so long as they give evidence of appropriate efficiency; when they are no longer competent to render efficient service, as a measure of economy and justice, they will be either dismissed or pensioned. Adequate protection will be afforded every officer and employee by making provision for standardized service records, on the basis of which his efficiency may be accurately determined.


EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 369
/. Salaries will be standardized according to grades of service rendered ; the requirements of each position being determined by scientific inquiry rather than by unsupported opinion.
g. Provision will be made for distinct bureaus to perform, for the entire city government, special functions requiring expert service which the general departments are now commonly expected to carry on independently, each in its own way, to the financial and operative disadvantage of the city. The functions which can be thus segregated to advantage in a given community can be determined only by proper research. Among those which will probably be thus segregated, the following are suggested:
(1) Central purchasing agency and storehouse, which shall give the city the benefit of central buying; to departments the benefit of prompt action; and to dealers the benefit of prompt settlement and businesslike treatment.
(2) Interdepartmental janitorial service, which shall assume responsibility for the care of physical plants, including cleaning and minor repairs, which is often wastefully and unsatisfactorily placed upon the departments separately.
(3) Municipal messenger service, which shall provide for prompt and direct communication between offices; avoiding the delays incident to communication by mail and reducing the expense of separately maintained departmental messenger service.
(4) Emergency clerical force of the necessary number of employees trained in the methods of the city departments, from which occasional clerical service may be obtained on requisition by officers having seasonal or periodical requirements for such service. Such an emergency corps may not only facilitate the performance of municipal work at times of special need, but make possible reductions in the regular force of employees maintained by departments whose requirements fluctuate regularly.
(5) Printing and publication service, which shall standardize specifications for printed forms, records, reports, and advertising and handle the details of printing contracts and the publication and distribution of officials reports.
(6) Machine and repair shop, which shall make ordinary repairs of fire engines, automobiles, and other municipal equipment requiring machine work.
(7) General repair service, which shall make ordinary repairs and alterations in municipal buildings and structures.
(8) Municipal garage and transportation service, which shall maintain the city’s automobiles and other vehicles for transportation of persons and things; providing service to departments on requisition, as needed, and accounting in detail for all service thus rendered.


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(9) General inspection service, which shall scrutinize work done and goods furnished to the city, in order to determine the quantity and quality of service or goods; thus providing an effective check and verification by an independent agency. Most men cannot hold themselves to their highest standard of efficiency unless they are constantly stimulated by the prospect of a rigid and impartial appraisal of their work. No one factor of efficient control is more commonly neglected in'municipal management.
(10) A general agency of standardization and research, which shall collect, classify, and interpret data regarding the administrative problems of each department of the city government; make such information available to officials and to citizens, in order that inefficient methods of management may be eliminated and efficient methods installed; and thus promote the development of a constructive municipal program based upon adequate knowledge and consideration of community needs.
4. A standardized system of accounts is a fourth essential to intelligent city management. Without means for determining currently, promptly, and accurately the main facts concerning a city’s financial operations and results, officials will find it increasingly difficult to meet the growing demand for evidences of honesty, economy, and efficiency in the public service. Accounting methods are everywhere needed that will show clearly what the city owns and what it owes; what revenues have become available and what expenses have been incurred for specific periods; what appropriations have been made for specific purposes and in what amounts contracts have been entered into that will eventually become a charge upon such appropriations; what amounts have been paid under each contract and what liabilities remain to be discharged; what specific expense has been involved in each specific kind of activity included in the municipal program, and what results have been accomplished.
5. Most important of all the standards essential to efficient city administration is an informed, alert, and exacting citizenship. It is only recently that citizens have come to see that the management of a city means a good deal more than meeting a few so-called “issues” in spectacular fashion; that it means solving, day in and day out, innumerable definite problems calling for clear knowledge and effective action, as well as public spirit and honest intentions.
With the realization that public business, in large measure, is an administrative and non-political matter, is coming a new conception of the business of citizenship. Citizens are now seeking to inform themselves concerning the problems of management which public officials are called upon to solve; concerning the equipment provided for carrying on the city’s business, the administrative methods employed, and the results accomplished in the various fields of municipal activity. It is becoming clear that the sue-


EFFICIENCY STANDARDS IN MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT 371
cessful management of public business is just as exacting, calls for as close application and as high standards of methods and procedure as the successful management of private enterprises; and that it is unintelligent and ineffective for voters, taxpayers, newspaper writers, and legislators to express opinions, to reach conclusions, and to formulate' these into law, without adequate and explicit knowledge of organization, methods, and results.
The definition and formulation of municipal standards have hitherto been concerned mainly with the technical and business aspects of city government. This is not because those who are interested in the promotion of government efficiency consider technical and business methods as anything more than a means toward the chief end. It is rather because definite business standards are seen to be the first essential in the accomplishment of the higher purposes of cities. The program of municipal efficiency is fundamentally a program of community welfare; the purpose being to equip city government not only to do most advantageously the work already committed to it, but to extend its responsibilities to public needs not yet met by public service.


FINANCIAL RESULTS UNDER THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT
BY ERNEST S. BRADFORD, PH.D.1 Washington, D. C.
IN TWO fields of municipal' administration, the financial and the engineering, have the results obtained in the cities operating under the commission form been so clearly marked as to command generally favorable opinion from students of this new type of city government. In the care of streets and paving, bridges, and lighting, and in general, the engineering activities of the city, and in municipal finance, there has been clearly evident an increase in efficiency. The raising and expenditure of funds is intimately connected with every other function of the city, and a study of financial results deals with a fundamental phase of municipal government.
Of the two hundred cities which have installed or have voted to install the commission form, more than sixty have had—or will have had by May, 1912—two years trial or more; nearly thirty have been operating for over three years. Galveston and Houston, Texas, the earliest commission centers, furnish naturally more extensive data on account of their large experience—Galveston since September, 1901, and Houston, since July, 1905. A group of Texas cities including Dallas, Fort Worth, Denison, Greenville, and El Paso, date from early in 1907, and Lewiston, Idaho, and Mandan, N. D., from later in the same year. Des Moines and Cedar Rapids, la., and Leavenworth, Kans., began in April, 1908; and Haverhill and Gloucester, Mass., High Point, N. C., Huntington and Bluefield, W. Va., Ardmore and Tulsa, Okla., Colorado Springs, Berkeley and San Diego, Calif., Wichita, Hutchinson, Independence, and two other Kansas cities, Bismarck and Minot, N. D., and Sioux Falls, S. D., in the early part or middle of 1909. These are the cities to which we look for the most helpful information upon the subject under consideration, and to others of at least two years’ experience, where the data are definite.
1 Ernest S. Bradford, formerly fellow in political science of the University of Pennsylvania, is an economist and statistician of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Washington, D. C. He has published bulletins on municipal gas lighting and water works for the legislative reference library of Wisconsin, and has made a special study for the National Municipal League of the commission form of city government, being a member of its committee on that subject. His recently published Commission Government in American Cities (Macmillan, November, 1911) is the outgrowth of these studies.
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THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT 373
CLEARING UP OLD DEBTS
One of the earliest efforts of the commission in the pioneer cities of Texas was directed toward wiping out the floating indebtedness of one kind or other, which had been allowed to accumulate, and to begin the early retirement of the city’s bonded debt.
The commission in Galveston paid $200,000 of. outstanding scrip and due bills, previously issued for labor and supplies.2 Houston cleared up within the first eight months of its commission rule $400,000 of similar indebtedness.3 Parsons, Kansas, which when it adopted the small-board plan was issuing warrants stamped “Unpaid for lack of funds,’’ has since taken up $12,000 of these warrants, and has a considerable surplus in the treasury.4
Dallas started its new administration with an overdraft in the general fund of $129,575, which the commissioners reduced within twelve months to less than $50,000. The existence of these items of floating debt in so many of our American cities is an indictment of the inefficiency of municipal government heretofore existing. Something has been wrong. Has it been the system of government, or the men who administered it?
The retirement of city bonds has also been vigorously attempted—sometimes a large amount, sometimes a smaller sum having been paid. To retire bonds without increasing taxes, or issuing other bonds, is no easy matter, unless a thorough and scientific study of finances shows where savings can be effected; and the results secured indicate that such study has been given to the details of income, and to their readjustment. San Diego (40,000 population) reduced its municipal debt by $59,200 in the first year under the commission, at the same time lowering the rate of taxation. Gloucester, Mass. (25,000 population), cut off $18,000 of similar indebtedness, during the first twelve months following the installation of the commissioners. Leavenworth retired $20,000 of bonds on which it had been paying interest for the preceding thirty years, besides $119,750 of its one-half share of the county debt. Galveston (37,000 population) in the ten years following September 18,1901, paid $1,124,362 of its bonded debt, including $555,000 of grade-raising bonds. Emporia has similarly paid off over $15,000 since the commissioners were inaugurated. Other smaller cities have retired less amounts.
LIVING WITHIN MUNICIPAL INCOME
So simple a matter as living within the income of the city had never previously received much attention from the councils of many of our cities.
2 See statement of board of commissioners, issued 1907.
5 Figures furnished by commissioner of finance and revenue.
4 See Beard, Digest of Short Ballot Charters, p. 74519.


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If at the end of the year expenditures exceeded revenue, scrip was issued, or bonds; perhaps the tax rate was increased, but that always created unfavorable comment and was avoided if possible. But no sooner had the “board of directors” taken charge of city affairs than a change of policy occurred in many municipalities. The first Des Moines commission found a deficit of $175,000 left by the outgoing administration,—outstanding judgments and other claims. These it met by a bond issue, the amount being too large to be paid out of current revenue, even if increased by economies, and with a clear field went on to meet current expenses. The statement of the auditor, John W. Hawk, shows that at the end of every fiscal year there has been an excess of cash over claims varying from about $15,000 to over $56,000. The installation of modern bookkeeping methods has enabled the commissioners to know where this revenue came from and where it was spent, and in Des Moines, Mankato, Leavenworth, Emporia, and Houston, it preceded the successful placing of the city on a sound financial basis. Harvey S. Chase and Company, the well known accountants of Boston, after a detailed study of the receipts and expenditures in the various departments of the city of Haverhill, Mass., reported that “the running expenses of the city in 1909 have been kept inside of the $12 tax limit. Such a result has not been achieved in Haverhill for many years past. The present administration deserves much commendation for its foresight and vigilance in supervising the city expenditures, and in holding down the totals to the limits indicated. Comparing this result with what happened in previous years when borrowing money for various classes of running expenses was the rule, rather than the exception, the achievement appears to be a notable one.” The report recommends further improvements in bookkeeping methods.
These results have been accomplished by reducing operating expenses in some' cases, in others, by increasing municipal revenue (without increasing the tax rate), or by both. Galveston cut down the cost of its police department $60,000 in five years, by means of reduced salaries and a decrease in the number of men, methods not feasible, however, for all cities. The waterworks income was increased by $115,000 without material addition to the costs of operation. The offices of the assessor and the collector of taxes were consolidated. In Houston, the positions of controller and secretary were combined, and a saving effected of $2100 a year. Houston also employed the cashier of a bank to act as city treasurer at a salary of $600 a year, as contrasted with a former annual expense of $2,720. City funds on deposit with banks have been made to yield a considerable return in the way of interest; in Cedar Rapids $2,100 during 1908 alone; Houston, $40, 000 in less than five years;6 in Galveston,—including interest 5
5 Data supplied by commissioner of finance and revenue, up to January 1, 1911.


THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT 375
on taxes,—from September 18, 1901, to December 31, 1910, $136,451.® Discounts for cash have been utilized in Cedar Rapids, Houston, and other cities, effecting an appreciable economy in each instance. Small items are worth saving, argue the commissioners, as well as large ones.
The cost of city lighting has been lowered in Dallas, from $73 to $60 per arc light per year; in Des Moines from $95 to $75, and then to $65, for all night arcs; in Houston from $80 to $70 per arc per year. Water meters have been installed in many cities, and the wasting of water checked. It is true that this is not confined to cities governed by a commission, but is clearly marked in the cities which are so governed. In Houston, the price of gas has been cut from $1.50 per 1000 cubic feet to $1.15 per 1000 cubic feet.
RATE OF TAXATION
This revision of the current municipal revenues has permitted an actual decrease in the tax rate in many cities. Houston lowered its rate from $2.00 to $1.90, then $1.80, and finally $1.70 per $100. Cedar Rapids reports a slight reduction. San Diego lowered the rate from $1.48 to $1.30 per $100 of valuation. Other cities have had slight reductions. The policy of temporarily reduced taxes to be made up by increases in some later administration—a policy thoroughly unsound—has not found favor with the commissioners, in most instances; and in some cases an increase of taxes has been necessary. This has been due sometimes to the failure of a previous administration to provide sufficient funds to meet the expenditures of the following year or years, as at Kansas City, Kans., and Appleton, Wis., with the result that the first commission has been compelled to raise enough money to meet the deficit of the preceding year as well as current needs. This has required a temporary increase of the tax rate, where not offset by most unusual economies in administration.
INVESTING IN NEW MUNICIPAL PROPERTY
New investments by the city—the wise provision for the future manifested, like any other expanding business concern, in the purchase of additional equipment and property—may prevent an immediate reduction in the rate of taxation, but be sound municipal policy, nevertheless. The acquisition of real estate for new parks or school houses and play grounds— land which can be purchased at a low cost at present, but which is certain to be held at a largely enhanced valuation in the near future; the construction of bridges needed to furnish access to a certain section of the city and to permit its development; the purchase of a municipal lighting plant; all these may be the soundest sort of civic finance, if wisely planned and exe-
• Data supplied by city auditor.


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cuted. Thisiswhat L. G. Powers, of the Bureau of the Census,refers to when he speaks of “the wise and necessary increase in municipal expenditures which is called for everywhere in recent years by the fact that cities are finding out how, by enlarged public expenditures, their governments can be made to assist the people to added health, comfort, strength and pleasure.”7
When the first commission of Cedar Rapids purchased a large island in the Cedar River, near the business heart of the city, for the location of its future city hall and civic center, the expenditure of $106,500 for a site possessing such capacities for usefulness and beauty, and the sale of the old city hall property for $66',500, was an example of the foresight which it had proved impossible to exercise previously on account of the jealousies of ward councilmen. Houston invested $56,000 in new parks in 1907; $18,000, in 1910; $340,000 for eleven new school houses, since 1905; other sums for new bridges and sewers. Des Moines is creating a civic center and a park system which will be the pride of the Iowa Capital and of undoubted practical advantage to that community. Cedar Rapids extended streets, sidewalks, sewers and paving, and built the new Sixteenth Avenue Bridge. San Diego laid forty-one miles of new water mains in the first twelve months under the commission, and paved and graded more streets than during any similar period before. Dallas bought land for parks. Haverhill completed twice as much street paving in the same time and with the same money as formerly. Instances of this sort can be multiplied. This expansion of municipal properties and improvements, while it went on under the former council system, was neither as adequate nor as well planned as it has been under the responsible rule of the “people’s directors.” There should be no attempt to pave all the streets of the small town with asphalt, nor to supply a costly sewage disposal plant to the village of half a thousand, and just how far to go in this respect should be studied with some care, for each municipality; but the failure of councils to provide improvements to keep pace with the needs of our urban centers has been so glaring a fault in the past that it will be doubtless a long time before there is a general oversupply of municipal facilities in our cities. Such improvements will make the centers of moderate population more healthful, cheerful and habitable, and tend to check the rush to the great cities.
CITY PLANNING
And with a small board, directly responsible to the people, it is much more easy for citizens to secure the consideration and adoption of a comprehensive “city plan.” Dallas has laid out a system of improvements
7 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, November, 1911, Budget Provisions in Commission-governed Cities, p. 134.


THE COMMISSION FORM OF CITY GOVERNMENT 377
along broad lines, which it is already proceeding to develop. Cedar Rapids engaged an expert to study its park system, drives and general features, and outline a comprehensive scheme of city beautifying and convenience, in accordance with which it acquired its island center, as a beginning. Memphis and Chattanooga, Omaha and Oakland, Walla Walla and San Diego, are formulating city plans also. This is not confined to commission governed cities, but the latter have a double advantage over municipalities operating under the old aldermanic form; citizens can secure action more easily and promptly where the governing body is directly responsible to the voters; and a small board is more able to take prompt and effective measures to put such a plan into operation than the larger and more loosely organized council-mayor-and-departments. With a fairly definite city plan outlined, the determination of financial questions becomes vastly simpler, as their bearing upon other phases of municipal development is made clear.
The results so far secured under the commission form may be said to show in the field of finance a clear improvement over those attained under the former common type of municipal government. Debts have been paid, bonds retired, revenues increased, expenses reduced, and many wise investments made in additions to city property. What is needed now is a city plan—a definite policy well worked out in each field of municipal development, determined upon by citizens after thorough discussion, and started into operation by a governing body responsive to the people and so organized as to insure prompt, continued and efficient action.


WHAT WISCONSIN IS DOING FOR ITS
CITIES1
FEATURE of the recent New York budget exhibit was the likeness
of'Father Knickerbocker, life size,-gazing in wonderment upon some
statistics relative to. the city of which he is the personification. “New York, the second largest city in the world; population, 5,000,000”— a city with more Jews than there ever were in Palestine; more Germans than in any city in Germany except Hamburg and Berlin; more Bohemians than there are in Prague; and more Italians than there are in Rome. “ 1,500,000 increase in ten years; equivalent to the combined populations of Boston, Kansas City, and San Francisco.” More people respond to the authority of the mayor of New York than did to the first President of the United States; and the employees of the city constitute an army larger than marched with Sherman to the sea. “Area, 327 square miles; 5,000 miles of highway; 2000 miles of sewers; 341 miles of water front.” A birth every four minutes; a death every seven minutes; a marriage every eleven minutes. Annual school bill, $30,000,000; $15,500,000 for police protection; $8,250,000 for fire protection; $10,000,000 for charities. Cost of a single election, over $1,050,000. Bonded debt, over $800,000,000. Total budget for 1912, $174,000,000.
This gives but a general idea of the immensity to which our municipal business has grown. The expenditures of Chicago, St. Louis, Philadelphia and Boston are second only to those of New York. Compared with the •aggregate expenditures of our cities, the expenditures of our national government shrink to insignificance. Even the construction of a Panama Canal does not outclass in magnitude the project of New York’s new water supply. We are only now beginning to take our cities seriously. They have sprung upon us unawares. When our constitution was adopted there were no cities in the modern sense of the word. The largest city in the United States, Philadelphia, had a population of but a little over 30,000, while New York was about the size of Madison. But 3.3 per cent of our population was urban; today over 40 per cent of the entire population of the United States lives in cities of 4000 and over. We are becoming
lAn address delivered before the Minnesota Academy of Social Science.
2 Head of the Municipal Reference Bureau, University of Wisconsin, and instructor in political science at the same institution. He is also the author of an important brochure on City Government by Commission, alderman in the city of Madison, secretary of the League of Wisconsin Municipalities and editor of its official organ, The Municipality.
BY FORD H. MACGREGORl 2 The University of Wisconsin
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an urban nation. Over 30,000,000 people are living in cities and towns, and that number is rapidly increasing. The American city, with its great problems of administration and business management, has come to be the social, economic, and political problem of the day. The twentieth century belongs to the city.
Now, ours is an age of specialization, of experts; an age of the division of labor in which the old axiom “If you want a thing done well, do it yourself,” has given way to the new one, “If you want a thing done well, get someone to do it, who knows more about doing it than you do”—get an expert. This principle, as a rule of conduct, has been gaining ground for many years in almost every walk of life except, perhaps, the administration of our cities. We have employed architects to devise and supervise our buildings, doctors to cure our ailments, and lawyers to secure our divorces but have elected grocerymen, merchants, blacksmiths, lawyers, professors to run our cities—honest men, but little versed in the affairs of a great city. Probably no other one thing is more responsible for the failure of municipal government in America. We have failed to devise an adequate system of administration, failed to develop a professional class of municipal officials and usually failed to place the blame for its failure where it belongs.
The same has been true in state legislation. We have placed on the bench lawyers of high ability, backed up by a great mass of jurisprudence and precedents, to pass upon laws made by farmers, mechanics, and merchants. The Judge’s has been the easy job, for in addition to this great mass of jurisprudence, he has had the advantage of briefs and opinions of trial lawyers on both sides of the case, while to the farmer legislator has been left the task of fitting the laws into the complex social, economic, and political conditions of the times, and into the constitutional framework of the nation in such a way as to stand the test of the courts. All the experts have been on the side of the courts. In other words, talent has has been used to tear down the laws instead of to build them up. It was left for the state of Wisconsin, through the Legislative Reference Department of the Free Library Commission, to place for the first time information and talent behind the legislator.
It has now gone one step further and is attempting to perform through various agencies a similar service for the cities of the state—to collect facts and information on all the varied subjects of municipal activity and municipal government, and to place that material, together with expert service, at the disposal of the city officials and tax payers of the various cities of the state.
The two channels through which it is attempting to perform this service are the state university and the various commissions at the capital—the tax commission, the railroad commission, and the newly created state affairs commission. The most important and most direct of these two


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channels is the state university, and it is to this one to which I wish to direct attention.
Municipal government is the most difficult of all kinds of government. It is difficult because of the multitudinous functions which it has to perform, and because of the exceedingly complex conditions under which it must perform them. Municipal government touches the citizen at more points and is of more vital importance to his interests than any other branch of government with which he comes in contact. It collects more taxes from him and spends more money. With this enormous concentration of population in cities and the enormous expenditures of money which it envolves, a great number of new problems have arisen. As cities have become crowded, questions of housing and sanitation have appeared. As traffic and business interests have grown, problems of paving, dust prevention, and smoke abatement have been met— problems of water purification and sewage disposal, of milk and food inspection, problems of organization and administration, of accounting, regulation of public services, and special assessments, and a hundred and one other problems and questions incident to growth and the spread of social intercourse. And with every change in the social, economic, and political conditions of the country more of these problems arise. With every invention of a labor saving device, and with every new combination of capital, their number is increased and their complexity multiplied. Great power plants are being developed, Heating plants, water power, and electric plants, and other great industrial enterprises, which use the streets, and furnish services to the citizens of our cities are being added daily, and these must be regulated and controlled. These are great problems, and problems with which the ordinary official, even though diligent, cannot familiarize himself during his short and busy tenure without assistance.
Yet these problems must be solved and solved largely in the same way they have been solved in other cities where similar problems have appeared. Municipal experience must be drawn upon. The mistakes of other cities must be avoided and the benefits of their successful experiments seized upon. London has had a sewage problem for a thousand years; Rome a housing problem for a much longer time. How have these problems been met? How did France solve the dust problem for her macadam roads following the introduction of the automobile? With what success have motorists been taxed for road maintenance in Massachusetts and the East? What cities have bath houses, comfort stations, play-grounds? How much did they cost and what are their plans? How are municipal buildings insured? What is the relative cost of the collection of garbage in different cities, or what is the most successful system of sewage disposal or water purification? What has been done and is being done along these


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lines in the various cities of the country and of the world? Many of these new problems in America are old ones in Europe.
Now, these are the problems which the city official has to meet, and surely they are among the most complex with which public officials have to deal, for not only do they involve questions of policy, upon which there may be legitimate differences of opinion, but questions of business requiring the highest degree of business sagacity and judgment, where a mistake one way or the other always means the same thing — higher taxes. If these problems are to be solved and solved wisely, if each city is to benefit by the success of other cities and profit by their failures, city officials must have access to all the available information and data to be had upon these various subjects. They must compare notes. For the failure of our municipal government in the past rests not so much with the system, although that has been bad, nor with the character of our officials, although that too has sometimes been bad, as with the fact honest officials have been uninformed. I am among those who believe that the average aider-man is an honest and well-meaning man. I think he is an over-abused official in this country. But the fact remains that he lacks information on the questions of city administration, and he has neither the time nor the facilities for getting it. When a question of the milk supply, of a wheel-tax ordinance, or of compelling the gas company to lay its mains before the street is paved, comes up, he is in a quandry to know what to do. Now grocers and merchants are good business men, and given the necessary data and information on which to form judgment upon a municipal proposition, they make the finest kind of councilmen. Heretofore, their judgments have been guesses many a time, and the wonder is that they have guessed as wisely as they have, considering the magnitude of the problems involved. Expert knowledge has been on the side of the private corporations, on the side of the street car companies, the telephone companies, and the gas and power companies. Now, why should men who are successful in their private business make such dismal failures in handling public business? Why should we have a failure in the erection of a garbage crematory or sewage disposal plant? Frequently, because we have not profited by the experience of other cities. We are still experimenting with a type of crematory which was abandoned in England and on the continent more than fifty years ago. Most of these problems have been solved somewhere. Why, then, can’t we have the data which will show how they have been solved? This is what the university, through the Municipal Reference Bureau of its extension division aims to do. It aims to place in the hands of the city officials information and data upon all the varied subjects of municipal activity and municipal government— to be a bureau of information, a clearing house for municipal experience and experiments.


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For years the list of questions was the only way to get unformation of any kind, and committees of municipal societies have made nuisances of themselves with their numerous attempts at collecting all kinds of information. City officials are constantly imposing upon each other in this way, and newspapers have often taken up the practice. The city official either does not reply, or fills in the blanks with the least possible trouble. The result upon the questioner is either confusion or great danger of misunderstanding and consequent misleading. It is this laborious task that is undertaken by the Municipal Reference Bureau.
But every city cannot maintain a separate municipal reference department. 'New York, Baltimore, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Mil-wuakee,Kansas City, and such large cities can and do maintain such departments, but the small and growing city which is in greatest need of such assistance cannot do so. To perform this service for all the cities of the state is the purpose of the Municipal Reference Bureau of the university extension division. It aims to collect and furnish to the citizens of the state information on all subjects of municipal organization and administration, public works, public utilities, and public service rates, municipal employment, paving, sewage disposal, water supplies, and water purification, garbage disposal, parks and playgrounds, housing, street cleaning, street sprinkling, dust prevention, smoke abatement, city planning, civic centers, art commissions, care of city trees,, schools, charities and corrections, health and sanitation, accounting methods; comparative statistics, commission government, home rule, civic organizations, markets, comfort stations, and all the other subjects of municipal interest, and to collect and maintain a file of charters and ordinances, and reports of the principal cities of the United States.
This is a tremendous job and takes time, money, and effort. But we are making a start. We are doing something where nothing was done before. The bureau has been in existence but two years, but during that time it has collected material upon all the subjects mentioned and many more and in addition has answered over 2,000 inquires for information on questions relating to municipal problems. The bureau has collected probably the most complete library on commission government which has been collected since that movement started. This information has been compiled and published in a bulletin of the university which is sent free to any citizen of Wisconsin. The first edition was exhausted within three months, but a second edition has already been published. Similar bulletins are now in preparation on municipal fire insurance, city planning, municipal legislation affecting tuberculosis, commission government for counties, wheel tax ordinances, and kindred subjects.
The Municipal Reference Bureau of Wisconsin has exceptional facilities for gathering this information and securing expert advice for the cities of


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the state. The capitol and university being in the same city, it has advantages not available where these institutions are separately located. Besides unusual library facilities, it not only has the cooperation of the various departments of the university and the expert advice and professional knowledge of professors in their particular lines, but the legislative reference department, the state railroad commission, and the other state departments and commissions at the captiol cooperate to assist cities in the proper solution of these great problems. In this way the bureau is able to give to the municipalities of the state the advice and assistance of experts in practically every branch of municipal administration and the problems of cities, in addition to the information and data collected upon all the varied activities of the city of today.
An illustration will suffice to show how this works out. A small city in the northern part of the state wished to install a sewer system. It hired a young draftsman to design one, paid him for his work, and was about to begin its construction, when the question arose as to whether this system should be a combined sanitary and storm water system or whether there should be a separate system for each. The council being divided, they applied to the Municipal Reference Bureau for advice. The bureau informed them that this would depend upon whether the state board of health required them to purify their sewage or not, and called their attention to the fact that their plans must be approved by the state board of health. This was the first they knew about such a requirement, and when they did submit them, the board of health refused to approve them. In their extremity they turned again to the Municipal Reference Bureau, and that bureau sent Professor Davis, of the engineering department, a hydraulic and sewage expert, to go over the ground and advise them what to do.
The purpose of the bureau is not to give the professional service itself, but to advise what should be done, and to save the cities from making such mistakes as was first made in this instance. It does not compete with the consulting engineer, but advises when a consulting engineer should be secured. Its aid and assistance is absolutely non-partisan, non-political, and free, and the correspondence and cooperation of the cities of the state is heartily solicited. The sole purpose of the bureau is to serve the cities and citizens of the state, and to relieve the city officials from the laborious task of collecting this indispensable information.
Whether this work pays or not is best determined by the demand for it. We are beginning to take our cities seriously. We are beginning to be appalled by the magnitude of their expenditures, and we want to administer them in the best and cheapest way possible. We are tired of needless experimentation; we want to know what other cities have done.


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Nor do these demands come from this state alone, but from every state in the Union. Inquiries on the subject of commission government, for instance, have been received in a single morning from cities representing as high as nine states. During the last two weeks the number of requests for our bulletin on Commission Government has averaged from twenty-five to thirty a day.
Although a few different cities have had local municipal reference bureaus for a number of years, Wisconsin was the first state to establish a state bureau for the service of all the cities of the state. But although this bureau has been in operation only two years, it cannot now claim the distinction of being the only one of its kind. The Universities of Illinois and Kansas have already established similar bureaus, and the Universities of Nebraska, Oregon, and Washington have in preparation at the present time, plans for similar bureaus at those universities respectively.
There is a great demand for this kind of information, and the number of such bureaus is bound to increase.
The university, through its extension division, also offers to city officials and to those looking forward to service for the city comprehensive courses of instruction in municipal government, local administration, and municipal and civic progress. It also offers through the lecture department popular lectures on municipal subjects, such as “ City Government by Commission,” “American Municipal Progress,” “City Planning,” “City and Town Promotion,” and similar subjects.
The activity of the state directly, through its commissions at the cap-itol, can hardly be said to have been fairly begun. By our public utility law the railroad commission is given a wide supervisory power over our public utilities. It is given power to prescribe accounts for public utilities, and to require the making of annual reports. It also has supervisory power over franchises to a large extent; franchises must be approved by the railroad commission in certain regards. In the case of contests between the city and the public service corporation, the city is given the assistance of the experts of the commission. Whereas formerly all the experts were arrayed on the side of the corporation, now some of the best experts on transportation and allied subjects are to be found on the side of the public. The state is able to employ and retain for the cities men whom the individual city could not afford to retain for itself.
At the last session of the legislature, the state tax commission was given power to require annual reports from cities upon uniform schedules prepared by the commission showing their receipts and expenditures in summary and detail, and to publish these statistics for the benefit of the cities. It was also authorized to design a uniform system of accounts and to install the same in any city desiring the same. This system has been designed and the commission now stands ready to install it in any city that so desires.


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The city of Madison has already voted to have the system installed, and other cities will undoubtedly follow in the near future.
The newly created state affairs commission is not given power over cities directly, but it is authorized to cooperate with all public and civic organizations in promoting the economy and efficiency of public administration in all its branches. A movement has-already been started to unite all these departments and agencies into a school of municipal efficiency and municipal service, and to secure for the service of the cities the cooperation of all these departments in the most effective manner possible. Not much can be said of this movement as yet, but that it will be crystal-ized within a very short time is a veritable certainty. We have had too little “home rule” in legislation, and too much “home rule” in administration. What we need now is cooperation, central supervision and-control, and the assistance of all the potential forces of the state in the administration of our cities and the solution of our municipal problems. We of Wisconsin believe we are on the right track.


PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT
WORKS1
BY REGINALD MOTT HULLs Cambridge, Massachusetts
THE preferential system of voting is no new thing. For some years students of government have advocated some simple method which would eliminate the primary election, and allow the voters automatically to get behind an acceptable candidate. Methods of cumulative voting and other plans of preferential voting have been suggested, but it remained for Hon. James W. Bucklin of Grand Junction, Colorado, to devise one which was easily administered and which enabled the voter to express his will.
Proceeding upon the Grand Junction plan as a model, Prof. Lewis J. Johnson of Harvard University and others recently drafted a charter for Cambridge which passed the Massachusetts Legislature and only narrowly failed of adoption by the people of Cambridge upon referendum.
The preferential system is believed, however, to have been the chief cause for the hearty support of the strongest backers of this charter, and to have met the opposition of none but those who were opposed to the charter on other grounds. It had the support of practically all the nonpolitician leaders of local public sentiment and the open opposition of none whose standpat or .doctrinaire bias had not been previously well established. Voters at first were inclined to think preferential voting complicated, but this impression was readily dispelled by making mock elections illustrating the system a regular feature of charter meetings.
Spokane, influenced by the favor which preferential voting had received in Cambridge, as well as by its success in Grand Junction, adopted a charter of the same kind and held its first election under it, March 7, 1911, and Pueblo, Colorado, a near neighbor of Grand Junction, has followed suit.
In order to understand some of the advantages of the preferential system, the evils which it eradicates should be briefly enumerated.
The primary was at first abused in the same way that the caucus was by members of one party voting in the primary of the opposite party. With the primary held on the same day, in the same place, with the voter re- 1 2
1This paper was omitted from the April issue of the National Municipal Review because of lack of space. Mr. Hull has availed himself of the opportunity afforded by the delay carefully to revise it and to add some important new data so that it is in many respects a new article.
2 Reginald Mott Hull is secretary to the Cambridge Tax Payers’ Association and assistant in government at Harvard University; he was also assistant secretary of the original Boston finance commission.
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PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS
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quirecl to announce his party, this evil was stopped but another disadvantage followed, namely, that the voter was not able to support good men on the tickets of both parties. The inexpediency of this is apparent. The average voter who takes part in the primary is a party man. That is the kind of a voter that is surest to come out. The machine thus has an advan-. tage. Independents are deterred from participation in the primary by the necessity of appearing as party men. Moreover if half the voters come out for the primary it is considered a satisfactory number. That vote is divided approximately equally between the two parties; a majority of that half nominates. The candidates, therefore, are likely to be machine men, nominated by a small minority, and all of them unacceptable to the majority of all the voters. In other words, the voter on election day must choose between nominees of mere political machines.
The preferential system of voting, in conjunction with the short ballot, nomination by a few petitioners, and the elimination of party designations puts an end to the primary and its attendant evils. •
In the method of voting proposed in Cambridge, any fifty voters could secure a place op the final ballot for the name of their nominee for any elective office. Election is by the city at large, to a highly paid, conspicuous position for a three year term, with no party designation, no primary, and, after the first year, with never more than two offices in the city council to be filled annually. Every candidate stands on his own feet,—no boss dictates who shall, or shall not run. The man who can survive this test must win on his own merit and not merely drift into office on a party label unknown to most of his fellow citizens.
The preferential ballot enables the voters of the city in one election to arrive at a majority choice irrespective of the number of candidates, provided there is anyone in the list of candidates acceptable to a majority. If there is none such in the list it is obviously not the fault of the preferential ballot. Besides we get the next best thing and the only thing possible with such a list of nominees, a legitimate plurality election; i.e., a plurality election based on a full and free expression of choice by the voters in place of the customary one in which a voter with only one choice must vote against all the candidates but one, though there may be several excellent names in the list.
Beware of the man who tells of an absolute majority system. There is no such thing. What goes by that name is always something which merely chokes off candidates by a primary election or by dropping low men as in some of the older preferential systems and forcing an appearance of majority for what in fact is only a plurality candidate. A man is no true majority candidate unless in a free and open field and with full range of choice by the voter he has the support of the majority. No system of voting will make up for a lack of acquaintance or support. We must, in


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a word, either have a majority man among the nominees, or put up with a plurality choice in fact, if not in form.
The modern preferential ballot is arranged like the ordinary Australian ballot except that instead of one column for crosses there are three provided, headed “first choice,” “second choice,” and “other choices” respectively. The voter places a cross in the first column after the name of his first choice for that office, and in the second column after the name of his second choice. If there are others acceptable, and still others quite undesirable, the voter will place a cross after all the other acceptable men in the third column. This means that he not only has the opportunity to vote for all the good men, but also thus against all the undesirable ones.
If some candidate polls a majority of all the votes in the first column, he is elected. Failing that, the first and second choice votes are added together. The candidate, now highest, wins, if he has a majority. If no man can command a majority of the firsts and seconds, meaning that there are a number of nearly equally desirable candidates, the choices in the third column are now added in. The highest man then wins whether he has a majority or not—for he is the man on the list behind whom the greatest number of voters are found to have gathered after each has specified all whom he cares to support.
This will always result in a majority selection unless the list of candidates happens to contain no one on whom the majority can freely and automatically unite—a condition clearly not due to the system of voting.
Under our present system the voter can vote for but one man whatever the number of good or bad candidates, and the chances are that the undesirable man will win, because the machine can prevent the scattering of its vote among a lot of nominees whereas, if the citizens had a real opportunity for free expression a large majority might have gotten together behind some independent candidate. For instance, one man was elected mayor of a Massachusetts city about a year ago by 1800 votes out of 7200; the 5400 other votes being divided nearly equally among four other candidates. The primary partisan system to prevent such mishaps has to choke off, in the interest of harmony, desirable candidates, in order not to risk a party defeat through a split ticket. Then the irony of it is that after the citizen has been deprived of the opportunity of voting for any but ma’chine candidates, blame for the failure of the present system is attributed to the fact that some abstain from voting in the final election!
The present system necessitates the expenditure of large sums of money and a great deal of time and energy to be nominated or elected. Under the preferential system no money or time need be expended in campaigns. A man can be elected on his reputation as is shown by the fact that the president of the Chamber of Commerce was elected to the Spokane city council during his absence from the city.


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389
The result of the first election in Grand Junction, November 2, 1909, is given below.
FIRST choice SECOND CHOICE CHOICES TOTAL
For commissioner of public
affairs
D. W. Aupperle 465 143 145 753
*W. H. Bannister 603 93 43 739
N. A. Lough 99 231 328 658
*E. R. Lutes 41 114 88 243
Edwin M. Slocumb 229 357 326 912
Thos. M. Todd (elected) 362 293 396 1,051
Total 1,799 1,231 1,326
For commissioner of water and
sewers
Bostwick W. Vedder (elected).. 1,605
Scattering
For commissioner of finance and
supplies
♦Leon J. Chapman 837
H. F. Vorbeck (elected) 902
Total 1,739
For commissioner of highways
*John W. Armstrong 397 109 84 580
•Robert M. Hardinge 26 29 33 88
Henry B. Potorf 266 242 267 775
Thos. H. Rader 535 311 130 976
S. J. Scovill (elected) 555 384 236 1,175
Total 1,779 1,075 750
For commissioner health and
civic beauty
Chas. Gasho 608 125 733
Chas. K. Holmburg (elected)... 750 200 950
D. S. Wright 401 343 744
Total 1,759 668
Total votes cast
1,847
Majority,
924


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The starred men were the anti-charter and minority candidates, the others the pro-charter and majority candidates.
Omitting reference to an unessential detail in the Grand Junction practice, that of “dropping the low man”—a complication not likely to be widely adopted, and without influence on this result—the decision was drawn from the foregoing figures, according to the principles above stated, as follows:
There being no majority in first choice, the firsts and seconds were added together. Then the leading candidate, Bannister, provided he had had a majority, would have won.
There being no majority by combined firsts and seconds, the first, second and other choices were added together, and Todd, the candidate then leading, won.
Under the usual system the minority would have beaten the majority and elected Bannister.
Under the Des Moines-Los Angeles or Seattle plan, that of second elections, there would have resulted a bitter contest between Aupperle and Bannister, neither of whom had a majority of the people behind them.
Result of second election in Grand Junction, Colorado, November 7, 1911
FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE THIRD CHOICE TOTAL
For commissioner of finance and supplies
(P)—Edward J. Olson, out first 307 912 1219
(P)—H. F. Vorbeck,* elected 1405 227 1632
(R)—John R. Wentworth 1123 114 1237
For commissioner of highways
(R)—L. E. Blackstone 1174 119 52 1345
(P)—W. W. Goodman, out second 330 558 278 1166
(P)—James H. Rankin, elected 1011 326 81 1418
(P)—S. J. Scovill,f out first 255 513 488 1256
For commissioner of health and civic beauty
(R)—C. H. Crawford, out second 535 265 64 864
(P)—Charles K. Holmburg,* elected 975 241 70 1286
(R)—Frank Thompson 631 169 42 842
(P)—John J. Weigmann 353 653 229 1235
(P)—James Woods, out first 221 297 549 1067
Total vote east
2936
•Rejected. fDefeated for reflection. P—Progressives. R—Reactlonai ies-


PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 391
One weakness of the Grand Junction plan of dropping the low man is apparent from the above schedule. Mr. Scovill running for commissioner of highways was out on first choice being the low man. His total vote, however, was larger than the man who was dropped out on his second choice. It should be noted also that here too as in the first election the reactionary (Mr. Blackstone) would, under the ordinary system of elections, have been elected as he had the highest number of first choices.
This system seems to be free from the worst objections to the previous systems of preferential voting which have attracted no general favor. They overdid the straining for “scientific” accuracy. They were too complicated. They involved the fundamental fallacy in expecting the voter to select not only his first and second choices, but to grade definitely all his others as third, fourth and so on indefinitely.
This assumes a precision of choice in the mind of the voters which cannot possibly exist except in the rarest cases. The Grand Junction plan as proposed in Cambridge seems clearly the one for practical use. It fits the established habits of our voters under our Australian system, is undoubtedly as scientific as the nature of the case warrants, and more perfectly than any other system seriously proposed protects the community from rule by a machine or any other organized minority.
The most serious objection to it is that in a close election a voter might by his second or other choices contribute to the election of his second or other choice man over his first choice man. But as an offset to this risk he has by the same means a greatly increased chance of getting some one acceptable to him instead of no one, supposing his first choice to have proved hopeless. In any case, a man of the type acceptable to the great body of voters is sure to be selected so far as this is humanly possible. Moreover, the counting can be done in the precincts or districts and completed under the conditions most conducive to fairness and calmness. The final return is compiled from tally sheets, and that—the final and most exciting part of the work—can readily be checked up by anybody.
The Grand Junction plan is admirably adapted to the support of all the clearly acceptable candidates as distinct from the objectionable or doubtful. It is assumed that a first choice may be clear in the voter’s mind, and possibly a second, but that beyond this niceties in the gradation of choices are illusory. The voter is thus enabled quickly to make his crosses after all the names he cares to support without need of facing the vexatious task of making up his mind whether this man is sixth and that man is seventh choice or vice versa. Rather than go through this process many would doubtless refrain from voting for these men at all—thus robbing them of support which they ought to have and which the Grand Junction system makes it easy to give them.


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If a voter wishes to express only one choice, he is, of course, free to do so. It is his duty to do so if there is only one acceptable candidate. But such voters are likely to be organization men bound to some boss or else supporters of a good nominee up for reelection. In the former case they are almost sure to be a minority, and likely to lose anyway—if not a minority, they will win and ought of course to win. In the other case the probably preeminent claims of the candidate should make him an easy winner in the first column. If he has no such claims the result ought to include the other columns, and the voter who expresses no second choice for fear of hurting his first one puts his candidate’s interest ahead of the public interest provided there are other good nominees and provided any of the rest are thoroughly bad.
The Grand Junction system, with the minimum of turmoil and expense, selects from a large number of nominees a safe choice in a manner far more likely to reflect the calm, candid judgment of the voters than either the second election system or such alleged majority selection as is arrived at in the pulling and hauling of repeated balloting at a nominating convention. The voter has only to make a few crosses on a ballot, put the ballot in the box and await results. The result is known before the excitement can become very bitter. Contrast this with second elections or repeated ballot-ings!
An extraordinary nonsensical objection to the Grand Junction result should be mentioned. It seems incredible that it should influence anybody, but the politicians make it a serviceable talking point among their followers. They say: “There were 3305 votes cast against Todd at Grand Junction and only 1051 for him and he ought not to have Won.” Of course, the absurdity of this contention can be seen from the fact that there were only 1847 voters in the entire city of whom 1051 had expressed their preference for Todd. Moreover, even granting as a concession to this type of mind for argument’s sake that there were 3305 votes against Todd, there were even more against each of the other candidates—“3617 against” Bannister, the favorite of those who argue this way, to 739 for him.
The fact is there were only 794 voters (the difference between Todd’s total vote and the total number of voters) who did not want Todd for mayor, and of the 1155 who put in a first-choice vote for a pro-charter candidate 1051 voters automatically came to agreement on Todd.
Another advantage of the preferential system is drawn from this election in Grand Junction. Campaigns will be carried on with less mud-slinging than in former days. Every decent candidate will bid for the second and third choices of the friends of the other candidates by abstaining from unjust criticisms. But if there is a sharp line between enforcement aDd non-enforcement of law, or any other definite issue of good and bad govern-


PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 393
ment, all the candidates of each class will freely criticize those of the other class. Such lines will be sharply drawn. Probably each side will be able to find two or three or more candidates in the list who will adequately represent its point of view. The majority will be able automatically to get behind some man who commands their confidence.
Ballots cannot readily be spoiled. If a man marks more than one choice for any one man, only the highest of them is counted, and he does not lose his vote for that man. If a voter marks first choices for two men that means that he does not show which of the two he prefers and each receives one second choice. If he marks more than two first or two second choices, those votes are credited in the “other choices.” Whatever preferences the voter unmistakably expresses will be counted.
Anyone drafting a charter along the lines of the Cambridge charter ought to consult the Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts, 1911, Chapter 531, especially sections 48 to 53, inclusive.
In October, 1909, Mayor N. S. Pratt, of Spokane, appointed a committee of seventeen citizens to report upon the general plan of a new charter. After five months’ investigation this committee advised a commission charter and recommended that a board of freeholders be elected to frame such a charter. The city council objected to this. After petitions had been filed, the citizens, by mandamus proceedings, compelled the city council to appoint September 27, 1910, for the freeholders’ election. This committee submitted the new charter which embodied the Grand Junction plan of preferential voting with the Cambridge modifications, except that the commissioners are not elected to a specific office, as in Grand Junction and in the proposed Cambridge charter. The Spokane charter was adopted by popular vote December 28, 1910 and the first election was held March 7, 1911.
The circumstances and results of this notable election are in brief as follows:
Population of the city 104,000 (in 1910).
Twenty-five signatures nominate.
Nomination for city council of five without designation of specific office to be held.
Council elects one of its number mayor, and distributes departments among its members.
Four year terms. Salaries $5000.
Number of candidates, 92 ; arranged alphabetically on ballots.
Number of ballots cast 22,058. (Women vote.)
The following letter from a responsible citizen of Spokane, gives further information:


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March 21, 1911.
. . It is the common consent that our election has given us a
most superior body of men. It is common remark that it has given us the best commission in the United States.
C. M. Fassett, public utilities commissioner. In ideals he is a man of the highest type; in capacity he stands among the best men of the west. He has through his own efforts acquired a fortune and is not making any personal profit from his $5000 salary. He was elected during his absence from the city. He is president of the Spokane Chamber of Commerce.
W. J. Hindley, mayor, is regarded as one of the strong men of the northwest—an able orator, of intense force, activity, and virility.
Z. A. Hayden, public safety, is a very successful lumber man and in the past managed a series of large lumber concerns throughout the northwest—a very successful man and a man of high ideals.
D. C. Coates, public works, formerly lieutenant governor of Colorado, a member of the freeholders charter committee, father of the local preferential system, a member of the typographical union, a socialist, because he has ideals and sympathizes for the laboring man he is called “radical;” but we, formerly his opponents, now know him and admire him very much. His training as presiding officer of the Colorado senate, aids him very much in expediting the proceedings of the council ....
Robert Fairley, finance, for years city comptroller, an honest straightforward man, familiar with the finance department, and on account of his general familiarity with the city government of the past, of great help in the period of transformation ....
The whole city is enthusiastic over the change and over our new city officials. I have not heard of a single criticism of the preferential system. The people are satisfied with it. It has “ delivered the goods” they think. The only men of those among the first twenty candidates who were representative of the liquor interests were Funk and Ome, who also carried a large labor and special interests vote. The liquor men were helpless and felt unable to control the system ....
Even with a large list of candidates, the voters were not confused. The fear of too large a number of candidates is exaggerated. Moreover, it is not undesirable in a free open campaign before the people. The candidates went before the people. Hundreds of meetings were held over the city. We discussed candidates day and night; the large number of candidates caused almost every precinct to be represented by one candidate at least, and caused a local lively interest and discussion that was of great value. The people generally were inspired by a desire to get the best men and they succeeded. We are all proud of the high tone of the campaign and our present pride and satisfaction will not permit any other kind of a campaign hereafter. The undesirable and improper candidates found their level.


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At the general municipal election held on March 7th, the following instructions were officially given.
To vote for any person, mark a cross [X] in a square [â–¡] to the right of the name.
Vote first choice for five candidates, or ballot will be void. Second and third choice is not compulsory.
Vote only five first choices, and only five second choices.
Vote as many third choices as you wish.
Vote your first choices in the first column.
Vote your second choices in the second column.
Vote in the third column for all the other candidates whom you wish to support.
Do not vote more than one choice for any one candidate, as only the one choice will count.
All distinguishing marks make the ballot void.
If you wrongly mark, tear, or deface this ballot, return it and obtain another from the election officers.
Spokane, Washington
Five commissioners to be elected
CITY COMMISSIONERS FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE ADDITIONAL CHOICES TOTAL
S. A. Anderson 4,661 1,734 617 7,012
‘David C. Coates 6,272 861 392. 7,525
W. J. Doust 2,752 2,544 1,169 6,465
N. W. Durham 4,604 1,552 494 6,650
‘Robert Fairley 12,779 1,692 547 15,418
*C. M. Fassett •. 6,284 1,815 459 8,558
Leonard Funk 4,007 1,523 564 6,094
F. M. Goodwin 3,243 1,753 722 5,718
*Zora E. Hayden 4,260 2,400 734 7,394
‘William J. Hindley 7,513 1,755 628 9,896
J. Grier Long 3,891 2,802 703 6,693
M. J. Luby 4,304 2,170 825 7,299
N. S. Pratt 3,365 1,587 651 5,603
'Successful candidates.
There were 92 names on this ballot; only the highest are given. The smallest vote was 143. None of the names of the men elected stood near the head of the ballot.
The first election under the preferential system in Pueblo was held on November 7. According to the local press the men elected are capable, efficient, favorable to the new charter and apparently not in' league with the special interests. Under the Pueblo charter the voter is allowed but one first, one second and one third choice. A fatal weakness in this is that in case there were six good candidates and one machine candidate, the good candidates would be likely to split the decent vote in half and the machine man be elected by a minority. Another disadvantage is that there may


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be more than three good men deserving support, in which case the expression of the will of the voter is hampered.
All five of the commissioners elected at this election required all three choices to give them the necessary 4117 votes to elect. There were 55 candidates for the five commissionerships; 18 for three civil service commis-sionerships; 14 for the three water trustees. The total vote cast was 8,234. In addition to the five commissioners three civil service commissioners and three trustees of the water works were elected at the same election. The vote was as follows:
Pueblo, Col.
Summary of successful candidates
City commissioners
CANDIDATES FIRST CHOICE SECOND CHOICE THIRD CHOICE TOTALS
Donnelly 3,256 771 424 4,451
Lannon 1,714 1,125 613 3,452
Duke (Thos.) 2,166 821 437 3,419
Prevost 1,667 1,106 514 3,287
Burton 1,987 642 437 3,066
Civil service commissioners
King 3,410 496 3,906
Doertenbach 2,045 868 310 3,223
Campbell (J. E.) 2,104 636 317 3,057
Trustees water works
Reno 1,711 1,154 1,200 398
Vieth 350 210
De Tienne 314 154

Majority first choice votes 1822.
The Grand Junction system of preferential voting is devised for the sole purpose of protecting the rights of the majority in the election of officers. Our worst evils in city government have come from the ease with which selfish minorities have been able to control.
There is but one thing which a majority of the citizens want and that is efficient business like administration of the city’s business, and responsiveness to the popular will whether it be for retrenchment or expansion. Elections reflecting the will of the majority can be attained by direct and easy nominations, the elimination of the primary and by the preferential system of voting. Responsiveness to the people is secured partly by these


PREFERENTIAL VOTING AND HOW IT WORKS 397
and partly by the initiative, referendum and recall. Of course, neither the preferential system nor any other system of voting will by itself alone, bring about the best government, although the lack of it may prevent the best results. Neither will a combination of these and other good features insure good government if the people are apathetic to their own best interest. But the preferential system, direct legislation and other modem ideas will make it reasonably easy for citizens to get the best government of which they are capable. More than this no form of government can do.3
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Grand Junction Plan of City Government and its Results. By James W. Bucklin, Chairman Charter Conventions. Published in the October, 1911, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
Charter of the City of Spokane, Washington. Published by the Commissioners.
New Charter for the City of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Published by the Cambridge Charter Association. Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts, 1911, Chapter 531.
Boston Common, October 12 and 19, 1911.
Harvard Illustrated Magazine.
Boston Common, September 24, 1910.
APPENDIX
For the further elucidation of Mr. Hull’s paper its discussion at the hands of the members is herewith given.
Lieutenant Shaw: (Mr. Dana in the chair): Will Mr. Hull kindly inform me if, in considering what kind of ballot to adopt, the method of rejecting any because it was too complicated was considered?
Mb. Hull : We felt that the Grand Junction system combined in the best way simplicity of ballot, ease of understanding, and simplicity of computation by the election officers.
Lieutenant Shaw: If the mixed population of Johannesburg and Pretoria has very successfully worked the Hare-Spence system, why could not Cambridge do so?
Mb. Hull: Perhaps it could. The Hare-Spence system however drops the lowest man. In the Grand Junction system, everybody stands equally all the way through.
Lieutenant Shaw : What is the method of nomination in Spokane? How many names are required?
Mb. Hull: Twenty-five names. Ninety-five men were nominated in Spokane; three dropped out before the election by declining to accept renominations.
Db. Habt: In ordinary elections the children of light are sometimes successful by the elimination of the children of the world; in other words, they get in by the splitting of the predominant party. Now, in this matter, it seems to me that the children of the world could elect either one of their candidates against the children of light.
3 The writer desires to record that in preparing this paper he has had the close cooperation and counsel of his colleague, Prof. Lewis J. Johnson, who has had much experience with popularizing preferential voting, and to whom he acknowledges his indebtedness.


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Mr. Hull: That may be, but I have tried to beat this system; I have usually tried it this way, divide the groups into equal parties less one; the minority is organized as the crooks, and the majority as “goo-goos,” as we call them in Boston, and you can never get a crook elected until one of the goo-goos casts a vote for one of the crooks.
Mr. Harold S. Buttenheim: I had a conversation with the commissioner of public works of Spokane, and brought up that question with him, and he said that he considered that the very strongest point in favor of the preferential system. He said that men who voted according to the dictates of any political machine, if they were to go to the polls to vote for a particular man, and pick out five men and vote for them, if those men had a second choice, their vote for second choice would often be along the right line. There was nothing that could prevent their making two choices or three choices, and he said that some men would make better selections than you would suppose from their adherence to the machine, and that they felt in Spokane that it had worked out that way, notwithstanding the long list of candidates to be voted on. I might also say in connection with the method of nominating in Spokane and other places where there is a long list, there is a method in use in the Canadian cities by which, instead of a lot of people being voted for who had no possible chance, every candidate who gets his name on the ballot has to deposit fifty dollars with the election officials with the understanding that if he polls a certain percentage of the votes his money will be returned, and if he does not it will not be returned to him. In that way they eliminate a great many candidates who have no earthly chance.
Mr. Porter: I think the long list of candidates is not a profound danger. In England, where it is very easy to nominate anyone, they ordinarily have a very short list of candidates. I think after the system has been tried a few years the futility of a great many men being on the ballot will be shown, and they will not be nominated. No system has been devised that will prevent a man of the politician type being elected by the organized majority, but the idea of the voting systems is to keep the man who has an organization from coming in on a minority, which they are doing constantly. They have been able to do it heretofore by the vote of the good men being scattered among several candidates, and the man who is organized wins.
Mr. F. S. Spence (Toronto): The statement made by the gentleman about the Canadian cities is partially correct and partially not. We have a statute that provides that in parliamentary elections a candidate must put up $200, and if he does not poll half of the vote of the successful candidate, the money stays where he puts it, in the possession of the government. If he does, the money is returned. That only applies to parliamentary elections; there is no such restriction about municipal matters. In municipal matters, where there is the freest possible nomination, we never have any trouble from the superfluity of candidates. In our last election there were three candidates to be elected in every ward; we had elections in every ward, and the highest number nominated in any ward was five.
With regard to this preferential voting, of course it is mathematically correct when you come to elect candidates to a single office; but when you come to elect three or four candidates, like aldermen in a ward, or two or three members in a constituency, then it leaves a great deal to chance in the way you dispose of the surplus ballots.
Lieutenant Shaw: Mr. Spence’s remark suggests a difficulty that does not exist in the Hare-Spence system, that is, the great chance in disposing of the surplus vote. There is a mathematical way of arranging that so that certainly the second and third choices will be distributed according to the size of the district; and in what is known as the district the Hare-Spence system will invariably give the minority representation exactly according to voting strength. That is exact mathematical justice.


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BALLOT ILLUSTRATING PREFERENTIAL VOTING
INSTRUCTIONS. — To vote for a candidate make a cross (X) in the appropriate space.
Vote your FIRST choice in the FIRST column.
Vote your SECOND choice in the SECOND column.
Vote ONLY ONE FIRST choice and ONLY ONE SECOND choice for any one office.
Vote in the THIRD column for ALL THE OTHER CANDIDATES whom you wish to support.
DO NOT VOTE MORE THAN ONE CHOICE FOR ONE PERSON, as only one choice will count for any candidate.
If you wrongly mark, tear or deface this ballot return it and obtain another.
ONE MAN TO BE ELECTED FOR EACH OFFICE
Supervisor of Administration (Mayor) First Choice Second Choice Other Choices
Charles E. Hughes
Champ Clark
John A. O’Gorman
Nelson W. Aldrich
Richard Croker
Robert L. Owen
Joseph W. Folk
Robert M. LaFollette
Woodrow Wilson
William J. Bryan
Chauncey M. Depew
Boies Penrose
Theodore Roosevelt

Supervisor of Finance
Bourke Cockran
Leslie B. Shaw
John A. Sullivan
Nathan Matthews

Supervisor of Public Works First Choice Second Choice Other Choices
Guy C. Emerson
John Mitchell
Stephen O’Meara

Supervisor of Health
H. W. Wiley

Supervisor of Public Property
Gifford Pinchot
Richard A. Ballinger



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Mb. Hull : As I look upon it, the ballot in Spokane is the most democratic thing I have ever heard of. To have a list of ninety-two candidates, where there are perfectly free nominations, means the utmost democracy. No man is dependent upon the machine, no man is dependent upon a boss. A man goes before the whole people, he has got to win on his merits, and where there are very few offices to be filled, as will be the case in Cambridge after the first year, you have the voters’ attention fixed on the men and he is bound to pick out the best man. In regard to the number of men on the ballot, what is the use of going on the ballot when you are going to be snowed under? There is no advertising value in that today.
Another thing, this preferential system of voting is intended to represent a majority which so far has never been represented. We have plenty of minority representation. I have not pretended to cover minority representation; what the preferential system is intended to do is to represent a majority of the people, who have never been, so far as I can see, heretofore adequately represented. Anyone who is interested enough to look at the report of the Royal Commission appointed to inquire into the electoral system, and also Mr. Bucklin’s report of the Grand Junction system, and the Spokane charter, will find this worked out so as to show how mathematically accurate these things are.
Chairman Dana : I will say that in Massachusetts we have had since 1889 a system by which independent candidates can be nominated by only fifty signatures, and we have not suffered from unduly long ballots.


SHORT ARTICLES
THE NEED FOR A PUBLIC UTILITIES BILL IN PENNSYLVANIA
MUCH is being said nowadays about the proper exercise of the police power and the necessity for the enactment of a certain class of legislation which makes for the health, the safety, the convenience, the morals and the general welfare of the people. I am in entire sympathy with such legislation. And Pennsylvania today has many such humane and progressive laws upon her statue books; and more in contemplation.
Many of these statutes may well be amended and extended; or, in some cases, repealed and a new statute enacted, framed in the light of our present enlarged knowledge and experience of the evils and the desired remedies.
This observation is especially applicable to the Act approved in May, 1907, providing for the appointment of a railroad commission and prescribing its powers and duties. In point of fact the “powers” of this commission are unworthy of the name. They are simply recommendatory.
Because of the impotency of this statute and my belief that Pennsylvania should have a real public utilities bill, I publicly declared, prior to my election, that I was in favor of the passage of a proper utilities bill. I am still in favor of the passage of such a measure.
Public service corporations are the creatures of the state. The commonwealth grants to such corporations special rights, franchises and privileges; and it is no longer debatable that in return for such grants, the commonwealth may justly require of such corporations the performance of special duties, chief among which are that they shall render and furnish to the public, safe, adequate and sufficient service and facilities; and that they shall charge for such service only just, reasonable and non-discriminatory rates and fares.
To this end, therefore, it is proper, in the interest of the public, that there should be a duly appointed administrative body or commission, vested with the power and authority to supervise and regulate all public service companies doing business within this commonwealth. Such commission should be authorized to act either upon its own initiative or upon complaint of any citizen alleging the rendering of inadequate service or the charging of exorbitant rates or the non-performance or violation of any of its duties under the law. And the supervision and regulation of such companies, it has always seemed to me, should cover or extend to their incorporation, consolidation and reorganization.
In this connection my further thought is that a public service bill should provide for the supervision and regulation by the commission of the issu-
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ance of the stocks and bonds of such corporations, not only at the time of their creation, but particularly, under our existing statutes, upon the reorganization of such companies after foreclosure sale. Such a requirement would likely end the crying evil of over capitalization and “watered stock,” and insure the practical enforcement of the provision of the constitution forbidding the issuing of stocks and bonds except for money, labor done or money or property actually received, and making null and void all fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness. If the commission be required to give its certificate of valuation and approval before the issuance of such stock and bonds, the result will be to give the commonwealth’s stamp of validity and full value to all stock and bonds of such corporations issued by Pennsylvania companies.
Manifestly, however, if the regulation and supervision of such public service companies is to count, the commission must be invested with full power and authority, after proper investigation and hearing, to make, not merely “recommendations” but findings, rulings and orders which shall be binding upon the corporation and all its officers, directors and agents: Therefore to this end, the commission must be authorized and empowered to enforce obedience of such orders in the courts, not only by injunction, mandamus and other well known legal proceedings, but also to punish, as for contempt, any persons who refuse to obey its subpoenas requiring their presence or the production of books and documents at its hearings; as well as to impose fines and penalties upon the corporation and its officers and agents for disobedience of such orders and decrees. In this way only can the orders and rulings of this commission be made effective.
I repeat the present commission has no such powers.
Of course it must not be lost sight of that such public service corporations are, nevertheless, in a certain sense, private corporations; that is, in their relation to their stock-holders, who are entitled to a reasonable return or dividend on their investment in the capital stock of the company.
In this view, our supreme court has said that public service corporations in Pennsylvania are entitled to look for a rate of return, if their property will earn it, not less than the legal rate of interest; and that a system of charges that yields no more income than is fairly requisite to maintain the plant, pay fixed charges and operating expenses, provide a suitable sinking fund for the payment of debts and pay a fair profit to the owners of the property, cannot be said to be unreasonable. This must be taken, however, with the qualification or proviso that such corporations must in any and every event, render proper service at reasonable rates and perform all their duties to the public. The performance of such duties is a first consideration or pre-requisite; and must always take place as a condition precedent to the declaration and payment of dividends.


LIGHTEK TAXATION OF BUILDINGS
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Moreover, in framing such a public service law, care should be taken that its provisions are not so drastic as to affect or retard the proper business developments of these companies. The interest of the patrons or consumers of the companies, i. e., of the patronizing public, must, of course, be considered as we have indicated; also must the interest of the investors,
i. e., the stockholders and bondholders. And lastly in the framing of such a statute, it should be borne in mind, in the interest of the state and the general welfare of all the people therein, that the successful business development of such public service companies is an important and essential element in the industrial life of the Commonwealth and of her prosperity and eminence as a state; and in this regard appeals to, concerns and affects every citizen within her borders.
John K. Tenek.1
LIGHTER TAXATION OF BUILDINGS AS A HOUSING REFORM MEASURE
ONE measure which the New York Committee on Congestion of Population presented at Albany this year aroused the keenest discussion and will no doubt continue next winter to be one of the livest issues before the state legislature. It is novel in that it seeks to relieve the overcrowding of New York tenements through a change in the city’s tax laws.
As is generally known, the land and housing problems in New York are in some ways more acute than in any other great city. It is not only that the acreage population in certain sections is the densest in the world. Prevailing rents are so high that most families find from a third to a fourth of their entire income going to the landlord. This causes the crowding of large numbers into a few rooms, often dark and unsanitary, and obliges a considerable proportion of the poorest tenement dwellers to bring a shifting stream of boarders into the family group.
To the great majority of New York City parents it is most difficult if not impossible to provide wholesome and adequate homes for their children. The prevalence of juvenile delinquency, the 28,000 new cases of tuberculosis every year and the yearly expenditure required by the city of over $10,000,000 in its public institutions for the dependent and incapacitated are evils flowing largely from this source.
For ten years the city has had a tenement house law which prescribes for new buildings certain requirements as to lighting, size of rooms, fire proofing and sanitation. About one million persons—or one-fifth of the population—now live in tenements built under this law and are measurably
'Governor of Pennsylvania.


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benefited by its safeguards. But if these restrictions have had any effect upon room crowding it has been in the direction of accentuating the problem. Building has been made more expensive, building operations have been thus discouraged, the pressure of a rapidly growing population upon available housing facilities has intensified and rents have been increased.
The congestion committee agrees that the present restrictive legislation is necessary. It has, in fact, proposed further measures along the same line, especially one for restrictions in the height of buildings varying for different districts or zones. The committee believes however that the tendency of restrictive legislation already referred to should be balanced by such a change in taxation policy as will tend to encourage building and to moderate rents.
The change recommended is the gradual reduction of the tax rate on all buildings until at the end of five years it shall be only one-half of the rate on all land in the city. As land and improvements are already assessed separately, the only change would be in the rate.
In the thickly settled districts there are thousands of worn out buildings which are really unfit for occupancy. The owners hesitate to replace them with modern structures because, after bearing the heavy initial expense, they will be severely penalized in increased tax bills. Under the proposed act that deterrent penalty would be appreciably lightened. In the same way less discouragement would be placed in the path of the manufacturer who desires to move his industry out of the tenement sweatshops and to house his employees in substantial and suitably located factories.
Even in the borough of Manhattan there are some eight thousand parcels of unimproved land and an equal number with merely nominal improvements. In outlying boroughs thousands of acres are being kept out of use in anticipation of the rise in value. Obviously the proposed transference of tax burdens from improvements to land would increase the carrying charges on such parcels and incline the owners to improve or to sell.
Since the total land values of the city are nearly double the total building values, the tax ratio of one to two would have to be reached by a considerable lowering of the building rate together with a much slighter increase in the land rate. It would mean about four dollars per thousand more on land and about seven dollars per thousand less on buildings. With the exception of a few sections such as lower Broadway, Fifth Avenue and Times Square, any property suitably improved for the district in which it is located would have its tax bills reduced.
Building of individual homes in the outlying sections would be encouraged and this would help to relieve the pressure at the centers of dense population. The owner, or prospective owner, of a $2000 lot with $5000 improvement—a fairly typical case—could figure on paying $8 per year more on his lot as against $35 less on improvements, or a net yearly saving of $27.


LIGHTER TAXATION OF BUILDINGS
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The main objection seems to be to the very principle of treating the two forms of property differently. Everyone knows, to be sure, that wise governments do make discriminations. In custom duties they make different tariffs for necessaries and for luxuries. They have one social purpose in putting a heavy tax on liquor stores and another purpose in exempting churches and hospitals. If they tax sales of corporate stock they do not therefore tax sales of merchandise. To give some attention to the social effects and to make some effort to determine upon whose shoulders the burden ultimately rests is recognized as being essential for reaching any sound basis.
But lands and buildings have long been dealt in together under one undiscriminating term, as “real estate.” For this reason many fail to see that no two forms of property are governed by more essentially different— by more nearly opposite—economic laws. This needs to be made clear if an intelligent policy of taxation is to be secured. Some of the more obvious differences may be pointed out here.
1. The quantity of land within a given area is practically fixed by nature. The number of buildings varies greatly from year to year.
2. A high tax rate on buildings tends to check the buildings supply. High taxation of lands has no such effect. ‘ In fact, land held out of use is brought into the active market.
3. Taxes in buildings are reflected in rents. Heavier taxes means fewer buildings and higher rents. That is, improvement taxes are paid by the tenants. Land taxes must be paid by the owner; they cannot be shifted.
4. Buildings values are produced and increased by the industry and enterprise of the individual owner. Land values arise almost wholly from the growth of the community and from its pressing need of places in which to live and work. New York land values go up over $700 for every person added to the census rolls.
5. Buildings tend to deteriorate from year to year; land tends to grow more valuable. With all the immense labor and wealth put into New York building operations in the last century, the total building values are now little more than half of the total land values which have been created by the marvellous growth of the town.
6. Increase in the actual, tangible useful wealth within the city is checked by a tax that discourages building. A tax on land does not have this effect.
7. Expenditure of public revenues—especially upon schools, docks and other permanent improvements—causes a direct increase in land values. Building values are not benefited in the same way.
Raymond V. Ingehsoel 1
1 Chairman of the New York Congestion Committee.


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PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS ON MUNICIPAL
AFFAIRS
THE appearance of the National Municipal Review makes timely a survey of the publications already devoted to municipal affairs. In this article an attempt is made to classify and characterize briefly the private periodical publications of the United States which deal with the problems confronting American cities. No mention is made of publications in languages other than English or of periodicals published in Canada and England. Neither does the present article include periodical publications issued by the cities themselves. Annual publications are also omitted and, with possibly one or two exceptions, nothing is said of periodicals no longer current. Even within the field thus narrowed down it is not claimed that this list is complete. It is believed, however, that all important titles are referred to in one or another of the eight classes or groups into which municipal periodical publications are, for our present purposes, divided.
1. The first of these groups includes periodicals which deal with municipal affairs in general and which are of much more than local interest and importance. After Municipal Affairs was discontinued this class was practically unrepresented until the American City (New York) appeared in September, 1909. This attractive monthly treats of the city in its external aspects chiefly. The National Municipal Review thus enters a clear field and will undoubtedly stand forth as the leading representative of this first class.
2. To the second class may be assigned the organs of various state and local municipal leagues. The City Hall-Midland Municipalities (Marshal-town, Iowa) is probably the most widely known in this class. This monthly review serves as the official bulletin of the League of American Municipalities, the League of Iowa Municipalities, the League of Nebraska Municipalities and the League of Kansas Municipalities. It contains some articles of permanent value, along with many shorter and less important ones, and gives much space to the programmes and proceedings of the leagues which it represents. The Municipality (Madison, Wisconsin), the bimonthly organ of the League of Wisconsin Municipalities, is chiefly valuable for Wisconsin cities. It does, however, publish a few valuable articles of general interest. Pacific Municipalities (San Francisco, California), published monthly as the official organ of the League of California Municipalities, although addressed primarily to California city officials is also of more than local significance, especially in matters of sewage disposal, sanitation and fire prevention. The Municipal League News, representing the Municipal League of Seattle, is a vigorous four-page weekly.


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3. Similar in many respects to the publications just mentioned are the official organs of local civic bodies organized to promote good government, pure politics and efficiency and decency in municipal affairs generally. Of this type no worthier representative can be cited than the Albany Citizen, formerly published by the Civic League of Albany, an organization formed, “To create public sentiment in favor of a better administration of public affairs; to bring enlightened public sentiment into action; to secure the nomination and election of honest and efficient public officers; to labor for the enactment and strict enforcement of laws that will make for the moral and political cleanliness of the city; and to encourage every movement that will make Albany a better place in which to live.” In realizing this aim The Albany Citizen must have been an efficient means and one notes with regret that it has “ceasedpublication,” a fate constantly threatening publications of this sort. The City Club of Philadelphia aims, among other things, to “conduct a campaign of education by giving efficient publicity to those facts that will help create an intelligent public opinion on municipal questions” and thus to aid in the betterment of municipal conditions in Philadelphia. This “efficient publicity” is promoted by the weekly Bulletin, the chief feature of which is the publication of an address delivered at its Saturday luncheon by some person qualified to speak on municipal topics of special interest in Philadelphia. Many of these addresses, it is needless to say, are of considerable value in the literature of municipal affairs. The City Club of Chicago publishes a Bulletin of much the same character. The City Club of New York also issues a small monthly Bulletin of two to four pages, but does not print full reports of its Saturday luncheon addresses. Although it contains some notes on important pending municipal questions, the Bulletin of the City Club of New York is intended to serve as a report upon club interests only; it does not aim to touch matters in which the club has not taken some part. The Civic Bulletin, published bi-monthly by the Civic League of St. Louis, likewise confines itself to matters in which the League is active. On the other hand, the Civic League Bulletin, of Newport, Rhode Island, while especially concerned with local problems, endeavors to bring to the attention of members of the League interesting municipal experiments and solutions elsewhere. City Affairs, published monthly by the Good Government Association of Boston, is designed to keep its members in touch with municipal questions and especially to furnish information in regard to the records of candidates for office and other data of importance to the independent voter. In this class of municipal publications are to be found at least three conducted by women’s organizations. The Bulletin of the Woman’s Municipal League of New York is of interest chiefly to members of the various branches of the League, the purpose of which is “ to promote among women an intelligent interest in municipal affairs, and to aid in securing permanent good gov-


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eminent for the city of New York without regard to party or sectional lines.” The Civics Bulletin is published “from time to time” by the Civic League of Norwalk, Connecticut, a woman’s club “organized for concerted effort toward making Norwalk a perfect city.” The Civic Club Bulletin published monthly during the club year by the Women’s Civic Club of Philadelphia is a very creditable club organ.
4. One may treat in a separate group all publications purely local in character, though not nominally published as the organ of some civic or reform organization. The Citizens Bulletin of Cincinnati desires to contribute to the reform of municipal conditions in Cincinnati. It regularly summarizes the council proceedings and reprints much from other periodicals for the benefit of the local constituency. The Common Good of Civic and Social Rochester (Rochester, New York) is a most interesting publication. One gets from it the feeling that it reflects an awakened social conscience and heralds an advanced movement for better municipal conditions. The Public Officials Magazine (Terre Haute, Indiana) when started in January, 1910, was described on its outside cover as “ a monthly magazine devoted to the news of the public officials of Indiana.” Although these words have now been dropped, the paper is still essentially for local circulation. More space is given to the subject of good roads than to any other topic. Signed articles are usually by Indiana state or local officials. City Life and Municipal Facts is a weekly controlled by the Allied Real Estate Interests of New York City. Local municipal affairs, within a limited range, are treated in a popular way. In New York City the number of public employees, municipal, state and federal, especially in the police and fire departments, is large enough to support two weekly newspapers. The Civil Service Chronicle and Police Chronicle has no special value in the study of the larger problems of municipal affairs. It aims to promote the interests of civil service employees, especially in the police and fire departments. The Chief is another weekly that lays special emphasis on matters of interest to the personnel of the police and fire departments.
5. A survey of the periodical literature touching municipal affairs would be incomplete without mention of certain publications not primarily concerned with municipal problems. The American Political Science Review publishes considerable matter of current interest along the line of municipal topics. Good Government (New York), the official journal of the National Civil Service Reform League, is naturally of interest wherever municipal civil service reform is an issue. The Government Accountant (Washington, D. C.) has a regular department of municipal accounting, conducted by an expert accountant. The Boston Common, while not in any strict sense a municipal weekly, should exert an important influence for better municipal conditions in Boston. It is distinctly “progressive” in its policies and quite unique as regards its management.


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6. Another class of periodicals consists of those which exist primarily to advance the city’s commercial interests. They often take a hand in the discussion of local municipal problems, however, for enlightened business interests always demand good government and a clean, healthful and attractive city. Publications which exist primarily for “boosting” purposes thus contribute to the literature of municipal affairs. The Municipal Development Magazine of Chicago is engaged in promoting the organization of chambers of commerce and business interests generally. The monthly Board of Trade Journal of Portland, Oregon, is purely commercial; Progress, published by the Atlanta chamber of commerce, is “boosting” Atlanta and the South in general; and through Greater Dayton, the local chamber of commerce is booming Dayton. The Board of Trade and Engineering Journal, Scranton, Pennsylvania, is local in interest and handles municipal affairs from the business viewpoint. The Providence Board of Trade Journal, while devoted in the main to promoting the business interests of Providence, does publish a few articles on municipal matters and has an ably edited “welfare department.” The Worcester Magazine, published monthly by the Worcester Board of Trade, is another business organ which publishes a few articles on municipal government. Of the same sort are Western New England, published monthly by the Springfield board of trade; the Board of Trade Journal, Portland, Maine; and The Detroiter published monthly under the direction of the publicity committee of the Detroit Board of Commerce. It seems to be the rule that the larger the city the more attention is paid by the chamber of commerce journal to civic affairs. In Boston the weekly Chamber of Commerce News discusses local municipal problems, such as taxation, harbor facilities, fire prevention, public utilities, transportation problems and city planning. Chicago Commerce, published weekly by the Chicago Association of Commerce, also discusses problems of this class and has a “foreign municipal service” which ought to be very useful in furnishing data regarding European cities in a popular form. In New York the Monthly Bulletin of the Chamber of Commerceof the State of New York concerns itself only incidentally with municipal affairs, as in the matter of port facilities for the city. Greater New York, the Bulletin of the Merchants’ Association of New York, began publication March 4th, 1912. It aims to inform members of what the Association is doing and to call attention to matters of importance to the trade and welfare of New York.
7. Problems of municipal engineering and public utilities are touched upon to some extent in each of the classes of periodical publications already mentioned, but they are dealt with more fully in a group that may best be considered as forming a separate class. Municipal Engineering (Indianapolis, Indiana) is valuable for its articles on concrete construction, paving,


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sewerage, waterworks, street lighting, parks, garbage disposal, bridges, etc. Fire and Water Engineering discusses the engineering aspects of water supply and fire prevention. The Illuminating Engineer the Magazine of Good Lighting (New York) contains much information in regard to the lighting of streets and public buildings. Occasionally articles of value on such subjects as sewage disposal and paving appear in the Engineering News (New York). Probably the most valuable publication in this class is the Municipal Journal and Engineer. Editorially it says of itself: “We try to keep this the standard periodical for officials of cities and waterworks and other corporations conducting public utilities; also for contractors engaged in constructing such work. We publish practical information of all kinds which will be useful to all of these in their official or business capacities, the news of municipal doings and nothing else.” One of the most valuable features of the Municipal Journal and Engineer is a monthly “municipal index” in which are listed and classified all articles treating of municipal topics appearing in the leading periodicals. On the problems of paving Good Roads (New York), “a weekly journal of road and street engineering and contracting” is of considerable interest. The Electric Railway Journal and various electrical and gas lighting reviews of purely technological nature treat fully the engineering side of public utilities. The public service corporation’s side of controverted questions of public ownership and regulation is set forth in Public Utilities (Chicago).
3. In an eighth and final group reference should be made to publications devoted more or less exclusively to one or another of the pressing social problems. The most important of these is undoubtedly The Survey (New York) which approaches municipal affairs from the point of view of constructive philanthropy. In all matters of public and private philanthropy, housing, immigration, etc., The Survey is an indispensable guide. Vigilance (New York), published monthly by the American Purity Alliance and the National Vigilance Committee, serves as a clearinghouse of information in regard to what cities are doing in regulating and checking the “social evil.”
Charles C. Williamson, Ph.D.'
THE MUNICIPAL MARKET SITUATION
UNDER modern commercial conditions, with the development of several grades of middlemen, the law of supply and demand, so far as the consumer is concerned, has become more or less a dead letter. The consumer in our large cities finds that large crops of fruit and vegetables mean little or nothing to him. He used to read with much
Chief of the division of economics and sociology, New York Public Library


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satisfaction that there was to be a large apple crop, that the peaches were to be plentiful and that potatoes were to be had in abundance, for he knew that these staples would be reasonable. Now, news of this kind is received with derision.
Samuel Lewis Shank, mayor of Indianapolis, who has gained fame by his personally conducted cut-price sales of potatoes, poultry and other articles, in the public market of his city, has said that the only solution of the high-cost-of-living problem, was by bringing the producer and the consumer together. He has satisfied himself and the people of Indianapolis, that his “municipal purchase and sales agent” idea is effective in reducing the artificially inflated prices of foodstuffs.
There can be no doubt in the minds of those of us who have given municipal affairs any serious and studied consideration but that our cities have been allowed to grow up, with no thought of the future. It is said that our non-interference policy, with respect to the food supply, has resulted in the so-called high cost of living. Others maintain that there has been a corresponding increase in the cost of living in most countries of the civilized world and that we cannot hope to find a solution of this problem by any special municipal policy.
Municipal markets are not new in this country. Fifty years ago every city and a good many towns had a public market place. St. Louis1 once had three or four great markets. Chicago has today three squares upon which market houses once stood. A generation ago every small town in the south and southwest had a central market place. Most of these communities have outgrown these centers. The privately owned market, grocery and butcher shop have supplanted them. This is true, in a measure, of Great Britain and Ireland as it is of the United States. Yet, in some cities, at home and abroad, great and small public markets still exist and prosper.
Municipalities throughout the country have the right, by law, to establish markets, control and supervise the sales within them. A few of our cities have taken up the movement for the establishment of modern markets or market centers, but, till now, the interest has been unenthusiastic on the part of the city’s officials. Charlestown, New York, Washington, D. C., and other large cities including Boston, Baltimore, New Orleans, Rochester and Indianapolis, have partially established a market system or have maintained the markets that were handed down from the former generation. Yet in all of these cities the activity has not been commensurate with the local needs. Municipal markets, as established in the United States, are, generally speaking, in their first stages of development. No American city has deliberately framed a comprehensive plan,
Vid. Municipal Journal and Engineer, April 27, 1910, for article on St. Louis.


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much less carried one into effect, for developing public markets along the most approved modern lines, to meet the growing needs of an enlarged territory and an ever increasing population. Such public markets as still exist in the larger cities of the east fall short of market administrative qualities characteristic of many European cities, particularly upon the continent.2
Nowhere in the United States is there a municipal market governed and controlled exactly as are those of Europe. Prices are not regulated by a standard of value; a great deal of marketing is wholesale, especially in the east, the farmers and truck gardeners being anxious to dispose of their products; and the personal element in buying has been supplanted by the telephone. Shopping at Faneuil Hall, Boston, hardly pays nowadays unless one has a large family or buys for a boarding house. The utter lack of a statistical valuation of the commodities, and the establishment of a standard price upon which all business must be transacted, is partly responsible for the lack of any real benefit to the city.3
Baltimore is the center of the “eatables,” due in large measure to the geographic position of the city. Its markets are opened on different days of the week. The fact that there are eleveD markets where one may trade, and find the same things, has caused the housewives and shoppers, in general, to trade at one market. This is done, likewise, because many mar-ketmen rent stalls in different markets. These marketmen buy direct from the producer without the intervention of the middleman. Should a producer, coming to Baltimore, desire to sell his products himself, he would find it necessary to line up his wagon along the street. In Baltimore the idea of a market has spread, not because of any active regulation on the part of the city, but because the location of the city made a market a con-paratively simple success. The system seems to be rather loose and about all that is asked on the part of the city administration is the price of the stalls. The prices asked for the products, as far as the city is concerned, is of no importance.
Baltimore4 is forging to the fore in the market situation, nevertheless. Her citizens buy eagerly and come regularly for their products. In the near future, Baltimore will attempt to establish regulations along constructive lines. The eleven markets give the city 2 per cent on the investment. Because of the fact that the people of Baltimore are accustomed to buy their product at these markets, there would be strong opposition if an attempt were made to abandon them. The Lexington market, in Baltimore, is the largest and finest in the United States, covering four blocks lengthwise.
2 Mass. House Doc. No. 1750, report commission on cost of living, 1910, pp. 566 seq.
2 J. N. Pardee, With a Boston Marketman, New England Magazine, 27 : 450-63.
4 Arch., 50 :33 S. ’07.


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Chicago has no market building, simply a market place. Retail buying is practically unknown in the street. And yet Chicago is the closest market in the country. One can buy almost all products of the soil for less money here than elsewhere in America. On account of its railway facilities the city is the fruit market for the world. Everything sells in Chicago. Things are bought unseen by the commission men and things must be sold.
New Orleans is, perhaps, the best example of city leased markets where the revenue derived is about $185,000 annually. The city likewise operates four markets of its own which yield a revenue of $10,000 a year. In this instance, the city possesses a monopoly and the few private enterprises that exist are under the right of reversion to the city.
In spite of the conditions which appear to exist in the larger American cities where municipal markets have been established, good financial returns have resulted. Boston nets a profit of $60,000 a year; Baltimore about $50,000; New Orleans something like $75,000. Of the 158 cities in the United States having 30,000 inhabitants according to the last special report of the Census Bureau, 54 made returns of market receipts and expenditures for the year 1907. In 25 cities, having receipts amounting to $10,000 and over, the total receipts from markets and public sales aggregated $1,252,405, or $865,237 more than the expense of maintenance. These facts indicate a danger which must be avoided and that is the renting of stalls at a profit and then surrounding the market places with rigid regulations. Such action might counteract the good results that should come from an open market.
Municipalities have, in nearly every instance, the right to establish municipal markets, and yet, in cities of 100,000 inhabitants and over, more than half have no municipal market buildings under city supervision. In all cities from 25,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, hardly .one-third have municipal markets and in nearly every instance this qualification means the possession of market halls or centers where stalls are rented to the farmers and gardeners.
It is quite evident that our markets are organized on the style of the forestaller—a plan that has for its ultimate object the building up of a large private business. These private interests are necessarily built up through the tax which the consumer must pay. While it is true that the cost of living in Baltimore is lower than in any other eastern city, this is' not due to the fact that markets are fairly well established, but, on the other hand, to the geographic position of the city. If the present markets in our cities are to survive and be of lasting benefit to the communities in which they are located, it is absolutely necessary that there be a systematic organization under municipal control. In a number of towns and cities where markets are in operation only a few truck farmers appear, offering their goods for sale. Madison, Wisconsin, built a municipal market two


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years ago at a cost of $55,000 and on account of the lack of interest taken in the project, by the city officials and members of the council, the market and the market center is not fulfilling its purpose.
Dr. Madison C. Peters, New York City, opened his war on the middleman January 27, 1912, with volleys of carrots, potatoes, onions, beets and other vegetable ammunition. Within five minutes after his. store began business, it is reported, fifty women and boys with baskets were on hand and in two hours his stock was bought out. Thus was the inspiration of Mayor Shank of Indianapolis transferred to New York.
“It has gone so well,” said Louis Steinfeld, financial backer of the scheme, “that we shall open four more stores.” Dr. Peters’ prices are given below:
Potatoes....................................10 lb., 25c. 4c. lb.
Carrots..................................... 1 lb., 21c. 4c. lb.
Cabbage..................................... 1 lb., 2c. 5c. lb.
Apples...................................... 2 lb., 5c. (7 ap) 5c. for 2
Turnips...................................... 1 lb., 2Jc. 4c. lb.
Beets....................................... 1 lb., 21c. 4c. lb.
Parsnips.................................... 1 lb., 2ic. 4c. lb.
Onions....................................... 1 lb., 4c. 6c. lb.
In a letter dated November 21, 1911, Henry B. Gniffke, of Dubuque, Icwa, says in part.
The greatest thing to happen to us was the discovery by a Des Moines newspaper, that the cost of living in Dubuque was very much less than in any city near its size in the middle west, and the cause for this state of affairs, while scarcely a matter of government, comes so close to the life of the municipality that I will briefly outline this discovery.
The Des Moines Register and Leader sent out a list of some thirty articles of staple foods, and requested the price be sent from some thirty cities of the middle west of about the same population. On potatoes, for example, at least 70 per cent lower than Des Moines. The list was sent back for verification. It was correct. Then the mayor of Des Moines sent his secretary here to investigate, then the mayor himself came. Since then we have had delegations from all around us, sent here by the city governments, to learn how we solved the high cost of living. We were not aware of it until others discovered it for us. We have always boasted of the largest city market in the United States. In season hundreds of gardeners and farmers from the country around in Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois, occasionally coming twenty-five miles, back up to the curbstone in the neighborhood of the city hall, lining many blocks, and sell their vegetables, garden truck, flowers, butter, eggs, preserves, fruit, poultry, etc., direct to the consumer, who visits the market by the thousands between the hours of seven in the morning and noon. This institution, where producer and consumer deal without the intervention of the middleman, was not really appreciated here until others discovered its real value for us. It took root here over seventy years ago, grew and prospered, but it was only this summer (1911) that we discovered that the high cost of living was solved here.


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“The Dubuque market,” says H. H. Bliss, “has been a fixture here for many years. City ordinances have fixed the position of the grocer so that he can do nothing to regulate prices or interfere with the farmer in any way. He is even forced to allow the public to take first pick at the market. And yet, grocers are doing a good business in Dubuque. Fairness has injured no one. The increased trade has more than made up for the reduction in price.”
In September, 1911, one dollar would buy the following in Dubuque:
One peck potatoes............................................... $0.15
One dozen ears of sweet corn........................................10
One-half dozen cucumbers............................................05
Quart of beans......................................................05
Head of lettuce.....................................................05
One dozen eggs......................................................17
Four pounds Concord grapes..........................................06
One-half dozen carrots..............................................07
One head of cabbage.................................................05
One-fourth dozen canteloupes........................................05
One peck of apples................................................ 10
One egg plant.......................................................10
Total......................................................... $1.00
At the recently established market place in Des Moines, between 100 and 200 farmers gather on the city hall lawn and in the streets adjacent thereto between the hours of 5 o’clock and 10 o’clock in the morning, without paying any license or rent. They are permitted to sell direct from their wagons to the city consumer. The result has been that they received approximately 50 per cent more for their produce than the commission men paid them before, while the city buyers get their produce for approximately 50 per cent less than was paid formerly. By compelling the sellers to display large cards stating whether they are gardeners or hucksters, the public is enabled to discriminate and to purchase direct from the man who grows.5
A municipal store, bonded by the city government or perhaps by the state of Oklahoma, in case it develops that the municipality has not the power, is a plan now said to be on foot for reducing the cost of living in Oklahoma City. An initiative petition with that end in view is now being prepared, it is said, and will be circulated for signatures soon. It is claimed that Oklahoma is the only state in the union where such a store can be operated under the constitution, the organic law of the state providing that the state may enter into any business with the sole exception of agriculture. The parties at the head of the movement claim that the city derives this power from the constitution as a part of the state government, there being nothing in the charter prohibiting it.6
6 Iowa Homestead, October 5, 1911; Woman’s Home Companion, February, 1912.
• Municipal Journal and Engineer, v. 31, December 7, 1911. Note. (P. 31.)


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With a view to solving the cost-of-living problem, Mrs. Julian Heath of New York has organized the Housewives’ League. The object of this organization is to bring the fanners and the city housekeepers closer together, and by attempting to abolish the middleman, to obtain better prices for the farmers and to reduce the household expenses of the city housekeeper. About one hundred thousand women are enrolled, and branches are being formed in all parts of the country. It was probably the Housewives’ League that brought down the price of butter last February when fifty and sixty cents a pound was being asked for that commodity. A boycott was started in New York; Pittsburg took it up; Toledo followed suit.
The New York City Club has had a committee investigating the food markets of New York for some time and a portion of that committee’s report has recently appeared in one of the city club’s bulletins. It is recommended that a Market Department with a Commissioner at its head should be established where alleged unjust monopoly could be investigated and prosecuted, unjust discrimination on the part of common carriers prevented, unjust competition corrected, uneconomic handling of food supplies be minimized, and quality, grade and price of food stuffs be constantly supervised. At an early date the club will issue a printed pamphlet embodying findings of the Club’s Committee together with a noteworthy article by Hon. Cyrus C. Miller, President of Borough of the Bronx, upon city markets in this and other countries.
Two hundred representative citizens of Lynn, Massachusetts, gathered in the council chamber recently at a so-called high cost of living hearing to discuss ways and means of reducing the food bill of the average citizen. The question of the establishment of a municipal market where groceries and provisions could be purchased direct from the producers without the middleman’s charges, was discussed. Legal lights agreed that such an act would be unconstitutional, the supreme court of Massachusetts having so decided in 1902, when the question of the establishment of municipal coal yards was agitated. Mayor William P. Connery therefore suggested that the citizens urge their representatives in the legislature to take action looking toward the resubmission of the question to the supreme court, the personnel of which has materially changed since 1902.
In an effort to reduce the high cost of living a city market is to be established in Aurora, Illinois, the council decided to open a mart on a centrally located downtown site on March 1. With its establishment peddling by farmers or hawkers within the city limits will be forbidden. The success of the Joliet market influenced the aldermen in this action. Before Thanksgiving Day dressed turkeys were selling on the Joliet city market for 18 cents per pound, while in Aurora, the price was 25 cents.


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Hundreds of farmers, members of grangers, farmers elevator companies and shipping associations, in Minnesota, were represented at the first annual farmers cooperative marketing convention of the northwest, held at St. Paul, March 6, 7 and 8.
It is evident from the recent steps7 which have been taken to decrease the cost of living that there are going to be a good many markets or market centers established in the United States in the near future, in an endeavor to equalize prices. It has been satisfactorily shown that in some instances prices charged the ultimate consumer were out of proportion to the prices received by the original producer. There is still some doubt in the minds of many that the retailer is the blamable factor in the high cost of living situation. More systematic plans in inaugurating municipal markets iD our urban communities must determine whether markets and market centers will solve the situation.
In municipal regulation of markets, the cities must enter the field with caution and knowledge. The ownership of the market halls, the installation of proper officials, the preservation of sanitary conditions, the bringing of the producer and the consumer together, and the assurance to both the producer and the consumer that they have a right to a place in the market should be among the first considerations. Systematic organization is, without doubt, of first importance. The municipal market seems to be a necessity, from the standpoint of economics and society. If no effort is made to furnish the people with the necessities of life at a reasonable price, we may only hasten a corner in the food market.
Don E. Mowry.
Madison, Wisconsin.
BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE OF KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI
THE board was created by ordinances. It consists of five members, serving for three years each, appointed by the mayor, but the successors to retiring members must be nominated by the remaining members of the board, which arrangement makes the board practically self-perpetuating. This provision was incorporated to keep the board as free from partisan political pressure as possible. The board voluntarily established the precedent of asking the Federated Charities of the city to nominate members to fill vacancies. All employees of the board are chosen by civil service competitive examinations.
t Ibid. October 23, 1907; April 1, 1908; April 27, 1910; May 25, 1910; June 8, 1910; June 29, 1910; July 20. 1910; March 22, 1911; August 16, 1911.


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This board is unique in the fact that it includes in one system and under one board various activities that are generally operated independently in other cities. It operates the municipal farm and the women’s reformatory, which are for men and women misdemeanants respectively, and conducts a parole system which is applicable to both. Thus it covers the correctional institutions.
It is charged with the duty of investigating all private charities that solicit money from the public and issues a list of endorsed charities worthy of public support. It maintains a registration bureau for the exchange of information on cases between all the private charities and furnishes investigators to gather information on all applicants for help at any of the charities and make and execute constructive plans for putting them on their feet. Thus it fulfills the functions usually assigned to the associated charities.
The board conducts housing investigations and causes evils to be remedied. In other words, it carries on the functions of a tenement commission. It maintains as a regular municipal activity a free legal aid bureau such as is conducted by private societies in numerous other cities.
The dance halls of the city are under the supervision of its recreation department and an inspector attends each one. An ordinance is pending placing the censorship of motion picture films under the same department. The department has conducted an investigation and will make a report on all forms of commercial recreation.
Factory inspection, a bureau of labor statistics reporting on working conditions and an employment bureau are the activities of the board for improving working conditions. In the winter months a public rock quarry has been maintained to give work to the surplus of unemployed men. The place usually occupied by the municipal lodging house is filled by buying board and lodging at a private institution called The Helping Hand Institute for those temporarily destitute and unable to work.
The board acts as trustee for the Welfare Loan Agency, a philanthropic enterprise whose field is suggested by its name.
District superintendents are placed in all the poorer sections of the city and instructed to study the district thoroughly and utilize all the available machinery, not only of the board but of society in general, to improve the environment of the people.
The policy of the board is briefly summarized in its annual report as follows:
1. It lays emphasis on justice before charity and on prevention rather than cure.
2. It agrees that the burden of caring for the poor should be laid upon the entire community through taxation rather than be provided for by the voluntary gifts of the generous minority.


BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE OF KANSAS CITY 419
3. It believes that social action should be based on accurate knowledge and investigations should both precede and accompany all efforts to improve social conditions.
4. It strives for harmonious cooperation with all existing agencies, both public and private, and does not duplicate the work of any.
5. The board gives no public outdoor relief except in cases where the bread winner of the family is a city prisoner, and then only on the basis of actual destitution, and upon the recommendation of the superintendent of the Provident Association.
6. It gives no subsidies to private charities.
The total expense of the board during its first year’s operations, which closed April 18, 1911, was $145,155.38. It may be worth while to briefly enumerate what practical results have been achieved through this outlay.
The research bureau has, through its endorsement scheme, protected the public from solicitors for unworthy charities. Nobody knows how much has been saved in this way, but if the unendorsed charities themselves are to be believed, their operations have been greatly curtailed. Several have ceased to operate.
We know from actually following up our cases that $13,000 worth of improvements have been made on houses on which our housing investigators made complaints. These are direct benefits to the poor.
We have no way of estimating yet the benefits of the other investigations in this department but believe them to be very much worth while. The actual benefits of the department surely run up to three times the cost which was $5896.
The department for the homeless and the unemployed prevents a great deal of loss through unemployment. The total amount of$ll,796.05 spent in employing men at the municipal quarry was all money that would have actually been needed in the form of relief, but this quarry enabled us to save all but $1907.47 of this money—a saving of $9888.58. The employment bureau secured many temporary jobs where the amount of money earned was reported back by the men. The amount thus reported was $12,115.57. Even if those who did not report because they stayed at permanent jobs, and all the others not reporting earned at just the same rate as those reporting, the total for all would amount to $15,117.07. The amount spent in temporarily housing and feeding the 4,924 different homeless people who could not possibly pay was $4900.20. Who will say that the city did not make a good investment in paying 45 cents per day for the board and lodging of these people?
The social service department has been setting families to rights so that they could support themselves and has kept some from giving up the fight. The benefits are the best charity money can buy.
The welfare loan agency has loaned $24,022.07 at about 2 per cent per


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month in competition with the loan sharks who loan at 10 per cent per month. Figuring the difference in rates on the loans actually in force from December 1, 1910, to April 18, 1911, the period falling within our fiscal year, the saving to the citizens was $4472.27. This is an activity promoted by the board without a cent of cost to the city.
The legal aid bureau has collected for poor litigants $6046.40, most of which would have been absolutely lost if it had not been for the timely aid of this bureau.
The gains secured through our recreation department by shielding the youth from evil influences in connection with dance halls are moral and cannot be computed in money. It was well worth while to warn the mothers of 250 young girls, sixteen years of age or under who were found at public dances with no responsible escorts. This is one of several benefits of the department.
The following items in regard to the parole department are significant: The board has disbursed upon needy families where the bread winner was in prison, $1029. The parole department has collected from delinquent husbands in non-support cases during the past fiscal year, $8,346.21 and turned over the same to the neglected wives. Our paroled men have actually earned $166,832 during the time they would have been in the work-house if it had not been for their parole. The prisoners made improvements at the. Farm worth $6186.24 more than the maintenance of the institution cost.
L. A. Halbert.1
THE MILWAUKEE BUREAU OF ECONOMY AND EFFICIENCY
THE establishment of the Milwaukee Bureau of Economy and Efficiency late in 1910 marked the advent of a new era in municipal efficiency work, for this bureau was instituted by resolution of the common council, financed by public funds, and from its inception was an integral part of the city government. It was the beginning of general municipal efficiency work undertaken by the municipality itself.
The advantages of this plan of organization over that of bureaus privately financed are immediately apparent: cooperation on the part of department heads and employees; free access to all records and accounts; accurate knowledge of business and operating methods; and an assurance that the recommendations of the bureau will be given careful consideration.
Organization within the city goverment, however, is not without its disadvantages : the recommendations of the bureau might be regarded as made
1 General superintendent of the board of public welfare of Kansas City.


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from partisan motives rather than based on thorough efficiency investigations; and every change of administration endangers the continuance of the work.
Its relation to the city government gave the bureau a distinctive method of procedure. Instead of being satisfied with merely discovering weakness and inefficiency in city methods, this bureau used the information obtained in its investigations as the basis on which to construct plans of reorganization to the end that these defects may be overcome. The scope of the work of the Milwaukee bureau was perhaps broader than that of any other similar organization. It included both an efficiency and a social survey. The city exists for its citizens, and year by year the scope of its activities broadens to embrace new fields of social service. In its social survey the bureau aimed to discover to what extent, for example, housing taws were enforced. The efficiency survey, in its study of the department concerned, had before it the findings of the social investigation, and determined why the housing laws were not enforced and how they could be enforced. The work in the two fields of activity of the bureau results not only in bringing to a high standard of efficiency the daily routine of departments, but in developing all of the activities that properly appertain to them.
In its survey of the efficiency of operation, studies were made of the organization, operation, accounting, finance and business methods of the several departments of the city government. These efficiency studies followed the same general lines of procedure as are followed in efficiency work for industrial corporations.
The effecting of ideal reorganizations in a municipality, however, is seriously handicapped by budget restrictions. It was the aim of the bureau, therefore, to reorganize each department or activity so that the highest degree of efficiency might be attained with the expenditure of the funds available, and to secure economy in operation by eliminating waste, preventing duplication of effort, and establishing high standards of individual efficiency. Further, its knowledge of the activities of all city departments enabled the bureau to suggest plans for properly coordinating and correlating them, pointing out opportunities for increased service, and indicating points of overlapping.
The Milwaukee bureau was under the direction of Prof. John R. Commons, with Dr. B. M. Rastall and Mr. Leslie S. Everts as associates. There was a small permanent staff which was augmented as occasion demanded by special investigators.
A very distinctive feature in the organization of the bureau was the staff of consulting experts. This staff was made up of a group of the country’s foremost experts in organization, engineering, accounting, health and sanitation, finance and taxation, and social work. One or more of these


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experts reviewed critically every piece of work before it left the office for submission to the department. The value of such expert criticism cannot be overestimated.'
From the very outset of the work the bureau had the advantage of thorough cooperation of allied civic and state organizations, such as the state board of public affairs, industrial commission, tax commission, and the University Settlement, and at various times such organizations as the Merchants’ and Manufacturers’ Association, Milwaukee Society of Engineers, the City Club of Milwaukee, and the Advertisers Club offered their cooperation and assistance.
Without this cooperation the bureau would have found it very difficult, if not impossible, to effect some of its studies and reorganizations. Among these were the water works reorganization, in which study the railroad commission gave active assistance and finally ordered the installation of the system; the tax study, for which the tax commission loaned some of its men, and the studies of housing conditions, milk supply, newsboys, garnishment of wages, unemployment, and free legal aid, in which the industrial commission and private organizations cooperated by loaning some of their employees and printing some of the reports.
The basis for all reorganization work in the individual departments was the preliminary survey of the legal provisions, organization, operation, and accounting procedure of the entire city. This survey was conducted at the beginning of the work and was practically completed before any of the reorganization studies were begun.
This survey gave the directors a comprehensive view of the problems to be attacked and enabled them to plan the work of the bureau so as to obtain the maximum results in the time covered by the appropriation.
The situation as shown by the preliminary survey was about as follows. The deputy comptroller (with whom cooperation was immediately established) had begun work on a scientific budget, and on a proper method of control to be exercised by him over the accounts of the various departments. Offset against this undoubted advantage was the fact that all of the work to be undertaken by the bureau was pioneer in nature. Ihere were no well trodden paths to follow.
Based on the preliminary survey, however, a general scheme of reorganization was formulated by the directors. Later, as the work developed in the two departments in which reorganization work was attempted, namely the public works and health departments, standard practices in procedure, costs, and accounting were determined upon, so that the departmental accounts might be connected up with the controlling accounts of the city comptroller, and so that there would be no ragged edges in the finished pieces of work.


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The most comprehensive study undertaken and completed by the bureau was the reorganization of the water department, which, with the exception of a few points necessitating legislation, went into operation January 1, 1912, upon the order of the Railroad Commission of Wisconsin.
The problems of this department as brought out by a detailed study of operation, were approached from every possible angle. Organization, accounting and business procedure, water losses, electrolysis, the efficiency of plant operation and the adequacy of the system were the subjects of special investigations.
A water wastes survey was made during the summer of 1911 to determine the losses in the water distribution system and the methods to be followed in eliminating them. By the use of pitometers, tests were made on the pumps in each pumping station and the slip for each pump determined. Several of the pumps were operating within the limit of accuracy of the pitometer, but in others the percentage of slip was found to be very high. Sections of the distribution system were surveyed for water losses with the result that several large leaks were discovered. Calculations were made showing that 23 per cent of the total water consumption is lost by underground waste, misuse, or illegal use. Several recommendations were made for the elimination of this waste, which, it is believed, can be accomplished at a far greater annual saving to the city than the costs involved.
An electrolysis survey was made to discover to what extent return currents from the rails of electric railway companies are damaging the underground iron and steel structural work in the city. Recommendations made for minimizing this evil are under consideration.
Two efficiency studies were conducted, one to determine the present operating efficiency of the water works plant, including intakes, pumping stations, reservoir, and distribution system, and to make recommendations to be carried out in the immediate future; and the other to determine the adequacy of the present plant and to make plans for the future growth of the system to care for the needs of the city twenty years hence.
An entire revision of the water department as to organization, business practice, accounts and records, to embrace all of the recommendations set forth in the detailed study and the special surveys was completed. A modern and comprehensive accounting system with a complete schedule of accounts and a full set of forms was designed and the procedure indicated for all the divisions of the department.
The studies of the bureau in the health department embraced all of its activities. The preliminary survey brought out the necessity of much detailed investigation and reorganization in order to place that department on a high standard of efficiency. Reports with constructive recommendations were made upon the following: division of education and


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publications; sanitary inspection; communicable diseases; meat and food inspection; milk supply; records and statistics; the health laboratory, and general reorganization.
In cooperation with the chief of the bureau of education and publications, the bureau of economy and efficiency laid out a plan of work for this newly organized activity of the health department, pointing out the opportunities that exist in Milwaukee for the direct education of the public in health matters; showing where the health department can secure cooperation both in its campaign for education and its direct health work; and indicating the means for accomplishing these results.
The plans for the reorganization of the division of sanitary inspection include the transfer of outdoor nuisance inspection to the police department and the concentration of effort on pure health work.
A serious obstacle to efficiency was discovered when the bureau pointed out instances, notably in the inspection of milk, in which the importance of some minor phases of the work was being over-emphasized to the detriment of the work as a whole. The greatest hindrance to efficient work in the health department lay in its faulty organization. There was no definite location of responsibility among employees and related activities were scattered throughout the organization. In its reorganization plans the bureau endeavored to overcome this defect. It proposed to concentrate in one division under the direction of an expert epidemiologist, all efforts to check the spread of communicable diseases and to group all classes of food inspection under a chief inspector. In addition to indicating what it believes to be the proper functions of the health department and planning the organization necessary to perform its various activities, the bureau designed the necessary systems for a complete record of the work performed.
Among other organization studies completed by the bureau were those concerning the refuse incinerator, street cleaning and sanitation, collection of garbage and ashes, special assessments, ward labor efficiency, consolidation of house drain and plumbing inspection, public structures, bureau of sewers, board of examiners of stationary engineers, consolidation of fire and police alarm telegraph systems, and the municipal reference library. The social studies included free legal aid, free employment bureaus, garnishment of wages, women’s wages, housing conditions, and street trades.
In the study of the conditions which the city government must meet, the bureau has frequently pointed out problems which it felt could best be solved through the united efforts of interested citizens. To this end it recommended the creation of commissions, composed of representative citizens without regard to political affiliations, to study special problems, and by making actual tests in operation, to devise means of solving


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them. Following these suggestions, a housing commission, a market commission, a tuberculosis commission, a child welfare commission, and a special milk committee of the latter commission, were appointed. A recreational survey was also made preliminary to adopting a comprehensive plan for the development of recreational facilities. The bureau assisted these commissions in laying out their plans and cooperated with them at every stage of the development of their work. It never was the idea of the bureau that these special commissions should be a permanent feature of city government. They were established to discover the solution of certain definite problems; as soon as satisfactory solutions are reached, and the work of the commissions becomes routine operation, they should be discontinued and the work transferred to the proper department of the municipal government.
Many times it was found possible to make consolidations and reorganizations effecting an immediate money saving, and at other times future savings were made possible through capital expenditure, but such savings were considered as a by-product to efficiency. In some instances, notably in the reorganization planned for the health department, the bureau did not hesitate to recommend increased expenditure to secure the desired efficiency.
Although the bureau was organized as a part of the city government, it was not connected with any of the municipal departments nor did it constitute a department by itself. Its work was rather in the nature of a special investigation under the direction of the finance committee of the common council. This form of organization was not intended to be permanent. With the change of administration in Milwaukee in April the bureau as formerly constituted ceased to exist. The mayor and council are now investigating the feasibility of continuing the work of the bureau under some form of permanent organization established by ordinance.
In its eighteen months of work the temporary bureau pointed out means by which the administrative machinery could be operated to conduct the functions of government more efficiently, it showed how the records of municipal transactions could be made intelligible and enlightening, and it was the inspiration for increased social service. If efficiency work is placed on a permanent basis, the municipality should receive these benefits in increasing measure each year.
John E. Treleven and P. H. Myers.1
'Mr. Treleven was secretary of the Milwaukee bureau of economy and efficiency and Mr. Myers was the accountant.


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REFORMS WHICH ARE STILL ABIDING
THE reform movement in Portland, Oregon, commenced in a small way about twenty-five years ago. It has in common with similar movements in' the United States progressed ever since, with such accumulated momentum, carrying along such a whirlwind of dust and chaff, that sometimes its friends have become a little bewildered and have wondered whether or not the remedies were not almost as bad as the disease. Let us take stock of it.
In the first place we cannot separate municipal reform movements from county, state and national reforms or estimate their effects apart from each other, hence we will drop the word municipal and consider only such reforms as abide which affect the city’s life.
The first great step in Oregon was the Australian or secret ballot, and this with the registration of voters which came along about the same time were sufficient in themselves to revolutionize the city’s life, and they abide unquestioned and afford an absolutely decent, orderly and self-respecting method of determining the city’s will. Through them the public recovered its voice and freedom of choice, and this in itself is so great a thing that we are compelled occasionally to recount the old conditions to remind ourselves what a change has been wrought by these first steps alone.
Twenty-five years ago in Portland the voting booths were a scandal and disgrace. The parties furnished their own ballots and marched their bought voters to the polls and saw them vote the paper given them; burly ruffians acted as challengers and maltreated voters of the opposite factions. In one case one of these sat a short distance away from the polls with his shot-gun over his knees defying the officers, and they had no intention of touching him, for he was of their faction. The police force was only a political club to hammer voters into line for particular factions or men and the city was kept in an uproar by the efforts of such men and factions to get control of the force. This disgraceful struggle was periodically transferred to the state legislature, and “pocket city charters” were formulated and passed for this purpose alone without the citizens ever seeing them. The control of the police meant the control of at least 3000 voters, 20 per cent of the then city vote, and to keep the police in line they were allowed to make merchandise of the laws and blackmail the helpless and the weak. Crime and vice were openly commercialized and promoted and he was the best man politically who utilized these vile agencies most effectively. Worst of all it was publicly recognized as the only way to play the game and the participants had no comprehension what a vile way it was; in fact they thought they were patriots. On one occasion small pictures of General U. S. Grant were utilized as tokens identifying bribed voters who had made good delivery and were cashed at $2.50 each at a booth


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just around the corner. Nor was the city of Portland alone in this. New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Chicago could in one form or another and on a scale of much greater magnitude match this description.
The Portland politicians of that day had good reason to
Weep that they bin Too small to sin,
To the lights of their desire.
In all Oregon such a thing now as a bribed voter is unknown. It is an extinct species. Violence at the polls has been done away with, and voting is decent, reasonable and orderly. For good or for evil what is recorded is the will of the people.
Twenty-five years ago it was bad form and spelled ruin to vote outside of party lines and the city was used as a football of the partisan game, kicked hither and thither at the will of corrupt politicians, and incidentally governed by the state legislature. Now the city is a free city and political partisanship in city affairs is an unknown quantity. In fact the campaign against party ties has in state and national affairs gone so far and been so successful that responsible party management has practically been done away with. Whether for good or for evil remains yet to be demonstrated. But in any event the city is free and that is a great gain in itself. Whether the direct primary in state and national elections must be modified or controlled is another question that can be settled in due time after proper experiments has been made of it.
Greatest of all reforms, however, growing as it has almost entirely out of the arrest of public attention by the struggle for specific reforms, is the new civic consciousness that has been created and is now assuming full power. Never in our history has civic and political consciousness been more in evidence, or the civic or political conscience of the mass so much in control of municipal affairs as now. Dozens of clubs and leagues and improvement societies bear witness to the community spirit that is being developed, and if perchance this community spirit is a little too critical and a little too much interested in the purely materialistic development of the city and has its eye a little too much concentrated on the real estate market and incidentally “boosts” and brags too much, it must be forgiven it, for these are the natural defects of a young and vigorous youth which having accomplished great things looks confidently and a little boastfully forward to accomplishing still greater things and especially likes to have the world take note of its doings. It is a defect of taste and not of intention.
In response to this critical attitude of the public and this awakened public consciousness the performance of their duties by the civic officers has greatly improved. The auditor’s and city engineer’s offices are much more efficient and effective than they were twenty years ago. Some of this


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increased effectiveness is due to the natural growth of the city’s business and its natural standardization, but more of it is due to the response of the officers to the persistent and more enlightened demand of the public.
The whole city has been paved with hard surface pavements within the last few years, and the work has been comparatively well and economically done.
Magnificent new bridges, sewerage and water systems, municipal docks, and public structures of different descriptions are' under way or finished and millions of dollars of public moneys are being spent and no suspicion of jobbery or connivance is entertained.
The franchise rights of the city and its rights and responsibilities in connection with its dealings with the public service corporations are carefully looked after and are jealously guarded by an active and awakened public interest.
It is a new city of Portland now as compared with the old city of twenty five years ago, and its reformation has been exceptionally thorough and complete. If in the twenty-five years that are coming on one-tenth as much change for good is wrought comparatively as has been wrought in the last twenty-five years the best governed cities of Europe will have to look to their laurels, for the reformation spirit has come to Portland and is abiding.
Thomas N. Strong.1
THE PUEBLO LANDS OF SAN DIEGO
THE equable climate and splendid harbor of San Diego have won for this city world-wide renown, but few are familiar with the fact that in still another way this city stands uniquely apart from other cities of this country. This practically unknown resource is the possession of about 7000 acres of land within her limits.
When California became a state, all of the pueblo of San Diego, the bounds of which are within the present city limits, was deeded to the city by the federal government. This made San Diego the possessor of nearly all the lands within her limits. During the early days, when the idea of permanent municipal ownership was not given serious consideration, many acres were disposed of by sale and gift, until only the land now in its possession remained. This land is located ten miles north of the city proper and bordering the coast for about five miles. It lies on a high plateau immediately above the precipitous cliffs of the shore line. On the east the land stretches away to the foothills in a comparatively level mesa and on the
1 Mr. Strong waa president of the Central Municipal League which was one of the pioneers in initiating the reforms to which he refers. For a number of years he was also one of the vice-presidents of the National Municipal League.


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sky line can be seen the mountains from Lower California to the Sierra Madras. The west presents an unbroken view of the Pacific for miles along the coast, where the passing vessels are constantly visible and on a clear day San Clemente and Catalina Islands can be plainly seen. The location is one of the most picturesque that can be found on the whole Pacific coast.
For years this land was used for grazing purposes by neighboring cattlemen and little thought was given to its value or future use. Not until 1908 was any definite action taken toward its development. At that time a clause was inserted in the new charter, through the farsightedness of some of the leading citizens, exempting all of the pueblo lands from sale until 1930 and providing a tax of 2 cents on every $100 of assessment value of city property for its improvement. The idea at the time was that this improvement should be largely along the line of the establishment of a municipal forest.
The proposition of creating a forest in Southern California, where there are no forests naturally, except upon the highest mountains, would seem to most people hardly feasible. The only thing which brings such an undertaking within the realms of possibility is that the eucalyptus tree of Australia is adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of this section even better than to the conditions of its native land. This tree has virtually changed the landscape of California. It is to be found from one end of the state to the other along the driveways and streets and in the parks. Only within the last few years, however, has the eucalyptus been recognized in this country for its timber value. The fact that the hardwood supply of our country was fast diminishing, brought to the attention of our people the fact that it would be necessary to plant forests to supplyfuture demands. The rapidity of growth of the eucalyptus, its general usefulness and its adaptability to the conditions of California, made it apparent that the establishment of eucalyptus forests in California, which would become of commercial value in a comparatively short time, was an undertaking worthy of serious consideration by those interested in our future timber supply. The possibility of San Diego creating a municipal forest upon its pueblo lands, was recognized as an undertaking that would not only beautify this land, but prove to be a good investment from a commercial standpoint as well.
After the adoption of this amendment, no definite action was taken until November 1910, when a pueblo forester and assistant were appointed to begin the work of establishing the forest. During the first year 40,000 trees were set out and a permanent headquarters and nursery established for carrying on the future work. The land where the trees were planted was thoroughly prepared and the very best of subsequent care given. Many of these trees at the end of one year are 10 feet in height and at least 2 inches in diameter at the base. During the spring of 1912 100,000 addi-


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tional trees were set out and the conditions give promise that these will make equally as good a growth. These trees are set 680 to an acre and at the end of the third year will be available for fence posts. At this time the groves will be materially thinned leaving about 200 trees to the acre to come to maturity as timber trees.
It was not until the actual development of this land was under way that the many possibilities of its development were realized. Hundreds of acres of the comparatively level mesa are ideally adapted for agricultural purposes and could be leased to material advantage as small farms for the raising of vegetables and small fruits. At present a few hundred acres are being used by the city for raising hay for the use of farm stock and that of the different departments, which has proven to be a great saving in this line. With the rapid growth of the city, this land, owing to its superb location, will soon be particularly desirable for suburban homes, and will no doubt be ultimately leased by the city for this purpose.
The possession of this land and the establishment of a municipal forest and farm offered a splendid opportunity for the city to solve some of its sociological problems by the establishment of an institution where a class of men, who through lack of employnent, were dependent upon the city, could be given assistance. During the last winter a camp was established upon the land for this purpose. A system by which each man was given ten days’ work, with his board and bunk and fifty cents a day, was inaugurated, and the men worked in clearing land and planting trees. A few hundred of the unemployed of the city took advantage of this opportunity to gain assistance. Many who were arrested by the police for vagrancy and drunkenness were sent out by the court in lieu of a jail sentence and were helped in this way. This plan has proven to be a complete success and has been of great help to the men as well as a saving to the city. All the trees planted this year have been set out by these men. In nearly every case the men have been efficient workers and no trouble had been experienced in any manner.
It is doubtful if a better plan than the establishment of a municipal forest and farm could be adopted by any city. It is not only a good investment commercially, but is a saving to the taxpayer in taking care of an element who are a burden to the community, in such a way that they become self-supporting and are enabled to take their proper place in society. It is doubtful if San Diego will ever dispose of this land as the possibilities of its development along the most advanced ideas of municipal government are unlimited. San Diego expects, through this development, to put herself forward as one of the most progressive cities of the country.
Max Watson.1
Pueblo Forester, City of San Diego.


RECENT ACTIVITIES OF CITY CLUBS
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RECENT ACTIVITIES OF CITY CLUBS
THERE was a time when it was thought that the citizen’s duty to his government ended at the polls, and eighteenth century statesmen resented the formation of political clubs as a meddlesome interference with the rights of governing persons. In our day, however, citizens, through their special associations for labor legislation, prison reform, purification of milk supply, and a hundred other public purposes, are threatening to take possession of large fields of legislation and administration by a process of “peaceful penetration.” Private citizens are now doing work which was once regarded as the peculiar function of official persons; they are analysing questions of law-making and enforcement; they are drafting laws, watching administrative officers, employing experts to find out better ways of doing public business, and creating public sentiment on matters of policy. The line between public authorities and private interest is broken down.
In the sphere of municipal government, city clubs have for several years taken the lead as general non-partisan assocations. The older institutions, such as the City Club of New York, continue to thrive and justify their ways in affairs municipal. The St. Louis Club, now in its second year has found a place in that community under the secretaryship of Gustavus Tuckerman, and is growing steadily in the range of its activities and in membership. The Chicago club is just settling down to better work than ever in its new club house.1 The Milwaukee club is in process of reorganization. It is being transformed from a dinner club into a real civic association. It has employed Charles A. Hanson, as civic secretary, and is at work increasing its membership to 1000 with a view to erecting a permanent home for the club. The proposals for the new club house are interesting: “We do not look forward,” they say, “to luxurious quarters. We shall not abandon our democracy. But whatever we shall have will be worthy of the club and such that both men and women members will be proud of it. The only restriction anticipated between members is that bed rooms to be provided (at a profit to the club) will constitute a section of the building exclusively for men. . . . No bar to be in-
stalled, no liquors except soft-drinks, sold in the house.” The roll of members contains appropriately enough the names of Dr. Bading, the new mayor, Victor Berger and Carl D. Thompson.
The objects of the several clubs, as publicly announced, are strikingly similar. The St. Louis club states that its chief purpose is that of providing “an open forum for the discussion of public affairs.” The purpose of the Milwaukee club is “to bring together in intimate association, men, who are sincerely seeking the best interests of our city; to create within
1 See National Municipal Review, 245.


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the club an ideal of civic betterment, by providing, through addresses at noonday luncheons, through ample literature and otherwise, the best thought of the day in civic matters; to disseminate civic knowledge by newspaper publicity and by bulletins to be published by- the club and widely distributed; to promote a spirit of cooperation among the citizens in public matters.”
In turning over the club programs for recent months one cannot help being impressed with the wide range of interest shown and the practical nature of the matters discussed. It would be hard to imagine a theme which has not been up for discussion in some form at the various clubs. St. Louis takes a preferential vote of the members on the several live subjects of the hour and the program committee is guided by the results. The program of that club for the winter of 1911-12, falls into eleven general divisions: the administration of justice, trusts and corporations, social reform; industrial problems; political reform; local municipal problems; social occasions; the Far East; health; education; and general municipal problems. Among the distinguished speakers before the club have been President Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Louis D. Brandeis, Governor Harmon, Henry George, Jr., Champ Clark, Dr. Wiley, Dr. W. H. Maxwell, Francis J. Heney, Dr. Delos F. Wilcox, Ella Flagg Young, and Jane Addams. The Boston club entertained the delegates to the convention of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, in September, 1911, gave receptions to distinguished persons visiting the city during the winter, and listened to talks upon subjects ranging from town planning by Raymond Unwin to detective experience by William J. Burns. The Boston program for the past winter, although it contains a number of themes of local municipal interest, seems to have looked more to general information and entertainment than to the detailed analysis of Boston’s pressing problems.
The Philadelphia City Club on the contrary confined its activities rather closely to the instant need of things, for the winter’s program contains such topics as supplying Philadelphia with electricity for light and power, the development of the parkway, vice commission for Philadelphia, who are responsible for grossly insanitary conditions in Philadelphia? It must not be thought, however, that there is a want of catholicity in the Quaker City, for the City Club also listened to addresses by Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, Dr. E. Dana Durand, Dr. Wiley, and Harvey N. Shepard.
New York’s City Club conducted during the winter fifteen Saturday luncheons and a number of important evening meetings at which subjects of general and local interest were under discussion. The club entertained His Excellency, Count von Bemstorff and has published his address on German cities. The Los Angeles club took up such matters as the city charter, the proposed municipal newspaper, the Good Government


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and Socialist candidates for the school board, single tax, taxation, social hygiene, public baths, and the work of the legal aid society. The Milwaukee club has been merely a forum, meeting at various hotels, and listening to speeches and discussion by members and guests on civic affairs.
As it was their bounden duty, the women of Los Angeles, enfranchised in October, 1911, have organized a city club of their own. In fact, the new association came into existence in June of that year—a few months before their victory at the polls, and pending the erection of a home of its own is pleasantly located in the Higgins Building. The purpose of the club is to bring together in informal association ‘‘those women who are genuinely interested in the improvement, by independent and disinterested methods, of the civic and economic conditions of the community in which they live, in order that, by friendly intercourse, exchange of views, accurate information, and united activities, intelligent and effective cooperation in the work for good government for the City and County of Los Angeles may be secured.” It is to be regretted that space does not permit the publication in full of the program of the new club for the year 1911-1912, for it is a model in comprehensiveness, balance, pertinency, and fair-mindedness. It embraces a wide range of topics of practical interest, a hearing of the candidates of all parties in current elections, a consideration of constitutional amendments to be voted on, and discussions of immediate local and national political issues.
It must not be thought, however, that much and appropriate talk is the sole purpose of the city club, even though the essence of democracy is government by discussion. Each of the clubs under survey investigates special local problems and prepares reports of immense practical value. Although non-partisan in character the clubs give a great deal of attention to immediate questions of city politics and administration, and co-operate with officials and local bodies in the execution of varied public programs.
For example, the City Club of St. Louis, in conjunction with the Civic League has just held a civic exhibit displaying the work of the several municipal departments and civic organizations of the city which, it is hoped, may be the precursor of an annual budget exhibit conducted by the municipal authorities. In addition to the usual committees the St. Louis club has a special committee on public service which is designed to serve as an intelligence office to bring together volunteer workers and opportunities for civic service.
The City Club of Los Angeles reports that it has accomplished two important things during the past few months: It has started a movement which will mean the acquirement by the city of the old Normal School site for municipal purposes—a municipal auditorium being one of the buildings in view. The club has succeded in getting both the city and


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the county to adopt the idea of using the school buildings as polling places. This idea was tried out last December and proved a great success, saving a heavy expense and surrounding the polls with a good environment. In January, 1912, the club began work on the reorganization of the city planning committee.
Chicago’s City Club through its committees on parks, playgrounds, and baths, and education, has been studying the relation of the public school buildings to the recreational facilities of the parks, and has made some pertinent recommendations to the city authorities to the effect that needless duplications of facilities can be avoided, with decided economy, by the use of park lands for school purposes and the school buildings for recreational facilities.
In New York City, the City Club has been specially active in the subway developments and the preservation of the City Hall Park. The club strongly supported the constitutional amendments making possible the establishment of a special court for condemning private property for public use and conferring upon cities in the state the power to make excess condemnations—both of which were defeated at the election of 1911 by the vote of the up-state districts. The club secured the repassage of these amendments slightly modified at the session of 1912. Club members have been well represented on important official city commissions. The committee work of the New York Club has been so successful that its methods are worthy of special study. By special request William F. Howes, the committee secretary, furnishes the following brief account of the plans which have been worked out to secure effective committee services:
A gentleman of considerable experience, well known to the National Municipal Review’s readers, said a year or more ago in my hearing that no system of voluntary committees ever had worked or ever would work successfully. The experience of the New York City Club up to that time went a long way toward bearing him out. A year’s experience since has convinced us that proper machinery with intelligent direction can effect constant and important results. A plan devised by Robert S. Binkerd, the club’s secretary, is already working well and will undoubtedly work much better.
The committees are appointed as a result of the expressed interests of the club members. Every member, on election, is invited to serve upon a committee of his choice. He is also requested to file a “special interest” blank. In the fall of each year the membership is recanvassed and preliminary committee meetings held to which all members interested are invited to bring suggestions. A thorough reorganization follows.
Two of the club’s committees, both meeting weekly, have always done remarkably effective work. These,—the legislation committee handling all city bills introduced into the state legislature and the committee on city affairs handling the calendars of the board of estimate and the board of alderman,—have been made feeders for the others. The number of matters coming before these two committees during the year is, of course,


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enormous. Many require specialized knowledge. Such are immediately referred to the appropriate committees and reports are requested, and received on a fixed date, usually within one week. Thus nearly every committee is constantly receiving definite material to work upon and the stereotyped excuse of the chairman that “ there did not seem to be anything for him to call his committee together for” is unavailable.
The two civic secretaries are responsible for the preparation of material for the central committees and for making their final action effective after it has received the endorsement of the trustees of the club.
In Grand Rapids a part of the work of a city club is done by the municipal affairs committee of the board of trade, which formerly had as secretary John Ihlder. During 1911, the committee arranged lectures by Dr. L. H. Gulick, William Dudley Foulke and other experts in public affairs. The former came at the instance of the committee in support of its work for “a healthier city.” The latter spoke on “ Conservation in Municipalities” and during his visit to the city met several members of the new charter commission who took advantage of the opportunity to secure some valuable “pointers” for their undertaking. As a result of a lecture by Mr. Ihlder a special committee was appointed to start a movement for better housing in Grand Rapids. A sub-committee on street lighting has been busy with the problem of a more modern system of lighting, especially for the business streets. Another sub-committee on a more beautiful city set in motion a committee on parks and boulevards which put through a law incorporating an association to acquire land and develop parks and boulevards. This new association began to secure results at once and is now in possession of a large and valuable acreage which will be developed for public uses.
Charles A. Beard 1
THE BLANKENBURG ADMINISTRATION
ON DECEMBER the fourth last, Philadelphia’s new administration was inaugurated. In the campaign immediately preceding, the candidates for the mayoralty had pledged themselves to provide, if elected, administrations that should be both business-like and nonpartisan. Rudolph Blankenburg was elected after one of the bitterest and closest fought municipal campaigns in the history of the city. He had been known for many years as an advocate of those principles upon which he had made his fight and also as a consistent opponent of the party organization that for a generation had been intrenched in the city hall, and the beginning of his administration was received with a high degree of satisfaction and optimism. His first official action, the
1 Associate Professor of Politics, Columbia University.


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naming of his cabinet, was received with general approval. George W. Norris was appointed director of wharves, docks and ferries, George D. Porter of public safety, Herman Loeb of supplies, Morris L. Cooke of public works, Dr. Joseph S. Neff of public health and charities and Cyrus D. Foss, Jr., as mayor’s secretary.
The new administration at once found many difficulties in the way of putting into effect the pledge for a business administration so vigorously advanced by the mayor-elect. The financial condition of the city was far from prosperous. A debt for current operating expenses was carried over from the previous administration and careful tabulation of income and routine expenditures showed a deficit of some $4,000,000. In addition to current demands upon the city revenue, pressing needs appeared for a multiplicity of improvements requiring extraordinary expenditures. As a partial cure for the situation schemes of economy were considered. The payroll was pruned and the system of purchasing supplies revised. The department of supplies, when the new director took control was carrying an overdrawn account and payments made by it were necessarily so tardy that many business men refused to compete for contracts. This difficulty has been remedied, however, by an appropriation of councils and with the funds at hand, the department is now in a position to pay promptly, and this, together with the fact that all bidders are squarely treated, has made possible the pm-chasing of city supplies with a closeness approximating that of a private corporation—a condition both novel and gratifying.
These economies with similar ones in the letting of contracts for public works in other departments, although they may show a marked saving, will not be sufficient to satisfy the need for large improvements. An unfinished parkway, running diagonally from city hall to Fairmount Park must be pushed to completion at large cost; a subway under Broad Street is insistently demanded by a closely populated and extensive section of the city lying to the north of city hall; wharves and docks are required for the river fronts as the development of the city’s harbor facilities and shipping trade is making a strong appeal to the popular imagination,— and the constitutional borrowing capacity of the city has almost been reached. It will therefore be readily understood that a puzzling problem has been presented to the new administration, the solution of which has been sought with considerable ingenuity, but without conclusive success as yet. It was supposed that an amendment which became part of the state constitution by adoption at the election in November at which the new mayor was elected, would simplify the situation. Under it, the borrowing capacity of the city was extended so that it was enabled to issue bonds for the purpose of building subways, wharves, docks and other improvements that would return sufficient upon the investment made to


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pay the interest upon the bonds and provide a sinking fund for their redemption. But the validity of the bonds which may be issued under the amendment has been questioned so pertinently that it is doubtful if the procedure indicated by the amendment may be made use of.
Notwithstanding the difficulties affecting large work, the department of wharves, docks and ferries has presented an excellent plan for constructive procedure in developing the harbor facilities of the city and a recent ordinance introduced in councils provides for the extension southward of the city’s marginal avenue, the most ambitious project of its kind that has been seriously considered for many years. In the department of public health and charities much activity has been manifested. The city’s charitable institutions were found to be inadequate and steps are being taken to build a new and large asylum in the upper end of the city at a considerable distance from the congested center of population. The department of public works has found it necessary to revise the personel of its department as preparatory to efficient work. Apparently, it had not before been considered necessary to secure engineers for the work of the department. The new director has secured as his assistant an engineer from the United States navy and as the head of his bureau of highways another engineer of standing. The larger questions most immediately facing this department have to do with the sewerage system of the city, which had been pronounced inadequate, and with the extensive repair of the highways which have fallen into disrepair from long continued neglect. An estimate fixes the sum required to place the streets in good condition, and to open those needed for immediate development, at $4,000,000. The department is preparing to undertake both of these improvements after careful deliberation as to the best course to be pursued and after securing expert advice both in this city a*nd elsewhere. From this brief review of the activities of the several departments it would appear that considerable progress has been made in the establishment of a business administration.
The pledge of a non-partisan administration carried to its legitimate conclusion has resulted in an even more striking difference in character between this and other administrations than the new business principle and its effect is more immediately noticeable. The new mayor for many years was a staunch believer in civil service rteform. One of his first acts was the appointment of three civil service commissioners,—Frank M. Riter, Lewis H. VanDusen and Peter Bolger—who were in sympathy with civil service reform and could be relied upon to execute the civil service law with integrity. Since 1885, examinations for certain parts of the city’s service had been provided by statute and in 1906 a well drafted and complete civil service law was provided for Philadelphia, but the enforcement of civil service requirements had never been sufficiently


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strict to impress their existence seriously on the city’s civil service. For generations, public office and political office were synonymous and it was generally assumed by men trained in practical politics that the new administration would play the game as previous administrations had played it. Shortly after the inauguration of the new mayor, numberless appeals for political preferment were made to him and the offices of the several directors were besieged with applicants and with political characters interceding for their favorites. It seemed to be inconceivable that the administration honestly intended to persist in a non-partisan course.
It was pointed out time and gain, with much vehemence and considerable logic, that the administration must take a part in politics not only for its own protection, but for the protection of the good citizens who placed it in power, and unless it did so, councils, the majority of whom were not administration men, could thwart its activities, and the state legislature would rip it out of office. These arguments, however plain, have produced but little effect. The new mayor has answered them by attempting something entirely new in the administration of the city’s government. He has taken the public into his confidence. He is himself a ready speaker and an appealing one. He and the officers of his cabinet have been called upon time and again to attend dinners and public functions and at them, the mayor makes known his stand upon public questions; his department of public works has organized a bureau of public instruction which provides speakers upon questions concerned with the plans for the city’s development; the department of public health has working with it a committee of one hundred interested citizens who have undertaken to aid in the development of the new charitable projects which are being undertaken and to assist in every way in making the department’s work successful; in the department of public safety, the hearings of all policemen and firemen to be tried are thrown open to the public; and public questions generally are discussed with a frankness that for manifest reasons could not have been indulged in by preceding administrations.
There is a prevalent conviction that the new mayor’s intentions are of.the best. His sincerity of purpose is unquestioned and thus far his novel course has been successful. Councils have acted with him and there has been but one occasion when it was necessary to test his power. This arose in connection with an ordinance supported by the mayor which councils refused to acquiesce in. The mayor called a special session, the newspapers supporting his position wrote editorials upon the question, printed the names of the councilmen who had voted for and against the ordinance, and when councils met pursuant to the call, there was discovered a complete reversal of opinion and .the mayor’s position was endorsed with a generous majority.


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This method of “playing the game” is something quite new for Philadelphia. The ideal of a non-partisan municipal government was a real conception to a negligible group of those who had taken an active part in the campaign and in fact to very few citizens at large. The sudden transformation from the venerable system of political favoritism to a theory of non-partisanship has naturally caused a shock to well-established notions of duty due by an elected candidate to his followers and has given rise to lively discussion and dispute which has not, however, moved the mayor from his position. Looking broadly at the accomplishments of the present administration, one matter at least is clear. It has raised a new standard of government in Philadelphia and has awakened the belief that a non-partisan and business-like administration is not an impossibility.
T. Henry Walnut.1
COMMUNITY DOCTORS2
MEDICAL examination of schools and scholars, especially in this country, is still in the experimental stage. There are still many questions open for discussion; much room for improvement regarding our present methods of examination and administration.
It has been my observation that the medical inspection of schools in the United States is not having adequate results, mainly through the failure to provide trained men and women for this work. It is a distinct specialty, involving wide training, accurate and rapid diagnosis, coupled with great skill in dealing with social conditions, parents, teachers, school boards and the like. And yet this work is generally trusted to a young and inexperienced doctor who accepts the position simply as a preliminary step in working up his medical practice. He does not devote to the study the concentrated attention that he would give to a permanent career. This is because the salaries paid to medical school inspectors in America are absurdly small. In England these salaries are sufficiently adequate to enable men and women to look forward to this work as affording scope for permanent careers. To intrust the care of our school children to inexperience, low paid young medical practitioners, who do the work as a “pot boiling” job, is unfair to the children and to the physician.
The present volume on Examination of Schools and Scholars can not fail to impress the reader with the importance of this branch of medical work on the future welfare of society. The statement was made at a
1 Counsel and Secretary of the Civil Service Reform Association of Pennsylvania and member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
“Medical examination of schools and scholars. Edited by T. N. Kelynack P. S. King and Son, London, Publishers.


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meeting of the School Hygiene Association of New York City that the physician of the future would serve less and less in the capacity of family doctor and more and more as the community doctor; that he would devote a decreasing amount of time in studying and curing individual cases of disease, and a proportionately increasing amount of time in teaching the laws of health and preventive medicine.
The efforts of guarding the community health through attention to the health of the school child by means of medical examination, not for contagious diseases but for physical defects, is a striking instance of this “humanizing medicine.” The present volume aims to “provide school medical officers, managers of schools, educationalists, and all interested in the national care of the health of our children, with a complete, reliable guide to every department of medical school service.” It consists of a collection of studies by thirty-six men of several nationalities, who are experts in their respective lines. Men who might be termed “community doctors” in the sense above referred to. It provides material gathered from sources dealing with every aspect of the question, and the status of medical examination in fourteen countries is told of. The provision adopted by the different countries in respect to medical inspection of schools is of general interest.
The English law of 1907 provides for the compulsory examination of children in the public elementary schools. Scotch laws contain a clause providing that every teacher be thoroughly familiar with the importance of school and personal hygiene, a special training being provided for this purpose. Sweden has had medical school officers since 1830. Wales, though far behind England in this matter, has employed in the school medical service 127 medical officers as well as about 15 school nurses and a few health visitors whose duties consist of assisting the school medical officers, a fair percentage for the size of the country. Ireland is far behind the other countries in the matter of school accommodations of many sorts and is unworthy to rank with the other of the British Isles in medical inspection, so Dr. James Alexander Lindsay tells us. New Zealand also has made but little organized endeavor in the direction of medical schools inspection. France claims the honor of instituting the first scheme for the medical inspection of its school children. As far back as 1783 the matter was brought up for discussion, though nothing was definitely adopted till after the revolution. In Norway the medical examination on schools and scholars is still in its beginning, but every indication points to this form of social good reaching a speedy perfection in that country. The discussion of this question as it concerns other countries are all of value to those practically interested in this movement.
The bulk of the book deals with the different phases of medical inspection as it exists in England, with chapters on the inspection of schools and


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school buildings, a description of necessary equipments for medical examination, danger signals of defects, and other points relative to the matter of school and personal hygiene. The chapter dealing with dental conditions in elementary school children, should prove of special value. The investigation of some tens of thousands of records of school children in this country have proved that the average child having decayed teeth, several cavities, requires something over five months longer to complete their elementary school course than do those children not affected this way. Children with painful teeth chew their food less effectively, in many cases eat less also, in either case a fundamental factor in nutrition has been interfered with, the ultimate results being a lessened vigor. I cite this as an example of the importance of dental inspection as well as the medical examination.
The chapter on open air schools is of sufficient interest to create a desire for the possible establishment of more of this kind of institutions. This is the preventive medicine exemplified, and the excellent results obtained point to the influence the open air school promises to bring to bear on elementary education in general.
The appended bibliographies to each chapter are comprehensive, and, for assistance to those desiring further study will prove of practical value.
At present practically every state in the union has laws dealing with medical examination of schools, but in many cases the child is examined and the diagnosis filed away for future reference and nothing actually happens to the child. There are not enough doctors to give sufficient examinations and there are not enough nurses to see that the prescriptions of the doctors are carried out. If this volume aids in the correcting of the fault which lies behind the trouble in America—the inadequate salaries paid—it will have served as a means to an excellent end, in this country if no further.
Luther H. Guuick.1
A MUNICIPAL NEWSPAPER
THE Los Angeles Municipal News is a weekly, 12-page newspaper of ordinary newspaper size and appearance, published by the city of Los Angeles. Sixty thousand copies are printed in each weekly edition and distributed free throughout the city.
In its news columns the paper confines itself almost entirely to news items relating to the city government, but not exclusively so; its news field being limited rather by the discretion of the commission in charge then by any hard and fast rules governing its publication. Municipal news is featured in the paper by being given the prominent positions and the big headlines.
1 The Department of Child Hygiene of the Russell Sage Foundation.


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The editorial policy of the paper follows the official policies of the city, as the same have been determined by the city charter, and express vote of the people, or by city ordinance. The editorial policy of the paper is instructive and descriptive, rather than argumentative or exhortatory.
When any municipal question is actively under discussion before the people, that is to say, before the official policy of the city has been determined in the matter, The Los Angeles Municipal News appoints two special writers, each of whom writes a special column—one on each side of the question under discussion—and the two columns are published side by side properly headlined as the arguments for and against. The two special writers, though appointed and paid by the paper, each consult freely with the friends of the side of the controversy which they represent, and in a very large measure present the arguments for that side in accordance with the wishes of the leading proponents thereof. This provision for a hearing for each side of active public questions is one of the most highly appreciated features of the paper.
Each political party, whether national or local, that polls 3 per cent of the vote of the city at any regular election, is allowed the free use of one column in each issue of The Los Angeles Municipal News. In these columns, each carrying appropriate headlines to indicate the respective parties to which they belong, the political parties are allowed to express their positions on public questions in their own way, free from any censorship whatsoever by the management of the paper, excepting that the matter published in the columns must be lawful for publication. The city administration or the newspaper itself may be freely criticized in these party columns. At the present time there are five of these party columns, to wit: .Republican, Democratic, Socialist, Socialist-Labor and Good Government. Some of the parties use their columns only for the discussion of national or state questions, and refrain from taking any part in the discussion of municipal issues, and some visa versa; while others set no such limitations upon themselves.
The Los Angeles Municipal News accepts ordinary commercial advertising of approved classes. As illustrating the kinds of advertising that are barred, the paper will accept no medical advertisements, no advertisements of stocks and bonds that are not listed on a regular stock exchange unless the same have paid dividends regularly for the past three years, and no liquor advertisements.
The voters of Los Angeles established The Los Angeles Municipal News by a very large majority vote on an initiative ordinance creating the newspaper, which ordinance was submitted to a popular vote at the regular city election in December, 1911. The voters sought to establish a paper which would have three leading characteristics:


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1. It should give prominence to municipal matters and not allow them to be side-tracked for the sensations of the day.
2. It should publish the municipal news accurately, not coloring its news columns with bias of any kind.
3. It should make ample provision for the publication of the arguments on each side of live public questions.
The feeling of the voters was strong that the affairs of the city were altogether too much in the hands of the privately owned newspapers, whose news columns often contained bias, and whose editorials displayed a onesided advocacy.
The scheme of The Los Angeles Municipal News, above outlined, has been regarded by some as the extreme of ridiculous foolishness, and by others as possessing almost immeasurable potentialities for municipal betterment.
At the time of the writing of this article, five issues of the paper have been printed. Owing to limited financial resources, the typographical appearance of the paper is not as yet first class, but is gradually improving. Its reception by the voters of the city has been, on the whole, favorable, and the friends of the enterprise are unshaken in the confidence that it has a field to fill and is sure to succeed.
The original plan contemplated a 40,000 edition of an 8-page paper; but all issues so far have been of 60,000 12-page papers. This enlargement of the original plans has been made possible by the fact that the advertising receipts have been larger than was anticipated. The advertising receipts, whatever they may amount to, go to the support of the newspaper, together with a regular cash appropriation of $700 a week from the city treasury.
George H. Dunlop.1
President of the Municipal Newspaper Commission of Los Angeles City.


DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS
Edited by John A. Fairlie
Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois
Five British Municipal Annuals.1—
These five British annuals bear eloquent testimony to the activities of British municipalities, and to the interest of the British public in municipal affairs— for without such interest it would be impracticable to publish such compendious volumes.
Leading position is deservedly given to The Municipal Year Book, which from modest beginnings has developed into a volume of more than eleven hundred pages. The book is about equally divided in space between (1) a classified official directory, accompanied by a few leading historical and statistical facts and by an outline of municipal undertakings, and (2) more detailed information regarding municipal activities, grouped topically. In the first part the arrangement is by incorporated municipalities, county councils, urban districts and rural districts, classified
1 The Municipal Year Book of the United Kingdom for 1912. Albert E. Cave, Editor. London: The Municipal Journal, Ltd. Cloth; 6x9iln., pp. 1131-fxxxlx. 15s., net. American price, $6, net.
The Local Government Annual and Official Directory, 1912. Officially corrected. Edited by S. Edgecumbe Rogers. London: The Local Government Journal Office (27a FarrlngdonStreet). Cloth; if x 7 in .; pp. 292. Is. 6d., net; American price, 60c., net.
The Publio Health Service Directory and Year Book, 1911. Compiled by the Editor of “The Medical Officer." London: Hodgetts, Ltd., 36 White-friars Street, E. C. Cloth; 10 x 6 ins.; pp. 374. 7s. 6d., net; American price, 93.
The Water-Works Directory and Statistics, 1911; Including Alphabetical Index of Officials and List of Associations of Water Engineers. London: Hazel), Watson, & Viney, Ltd., 52 Long Acre, W. C. Cloth; 54 x 8J in.; pp. 414 + Ivii. 10s. 6d., net; American price, |4.25 net.
The Gas Works Directory and Statistics 1911-1912—(Revised to August, 1911). With a list of Chairmen, Managers, Engineers and Secretaries, and lists of Associations of Engineers and Managers. London: Hazel), Watson, & Viney, Ltd., 52 Long Acre, '.V. C. Cloth; 54x84 in.; pp. Ixviii -j- 491. 10s. 6d., net; American price 14.25, net.
further by the grand divisions of the United Kingdom. In the second part water supply, gas supply, tramways, motors in municipal service, electricity supply, housing of the working classes and town planning, education, markets and slaughter houses, baths and work-houses, libraries, sewage disposal, fire protection, indebtedness, local taxation returns, and still other topics are taken up. The water, gas and some other sections are almost wholly statistical.
The various sections are provided with brief introductions, some of which outline the governing parliamentary legislation. The housing and town planning act of 1909 is given in full. Altogether these introductions sketch nearly the whole scheme of British local government.
While the grouping together in sections of information on water supplies, gas supplies, education, and other municipal functions has obvious advantages for anyone who wishes to compare what is being done in a given line in various places it has the disadvantage of not giving a complete picture of the activities of each municipality. Where the information is statistical much space is saved by the grouping ahd comparisons are facilitated, but" where the facts are in the form of text the segregation grouping seems to have but little advantage. It should be added, however, that in many cases some information as to local undertakings is given in the first part of the volume.
The . Tear Book gives information for none but municipally-owned undertakings, thus necessitating references to other year books for information regarding privately-owned water supplies, gas works or tramways. While this is in some respects an inconvenience it may be excused in view of the wide scope


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of the work and the large size which the book has attained within its self-imposed limits.
As a whole The Municipal Year Book well deserves the high regard in which it is held by students of municipal government on both sides the Atlantic.
The Local Government Annual and Official Directory is a handy little volume which seems to be well worth its modest price. For London and the boroughs comprising the county of London a little general information is given; otherwise the information is confined almost wholly to population and to the names of two or three officials of each locality included.
The most surprising of the five annuals is The' Public Health Service Directory and Year Book, now published for the second time, and extending to 374 closely printed octavo pages. It contains a public health calendar, showing for each day of the year what meetings and examinations of direct interest to health officials are to be held in the principal British cities. This is followed by a statement of conditions for obtaining degrees and diplomas in public health from fifteen universities and other institutions in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, and a brief account of the powers and duties of medical officers of health.
There is next given for each city, borough, county, urban and rural district in Great Britain its population, area, medical officer of health, sanitary inspector, city engineer, public analyst, bacteriologist, health visitor and various other officials having to do more or less directly with public health. For the smaller places, of course, only a few of the positions exist. Salaries paid are given in many instances. Officials concerned in the medical inspection of school children are given for each “education authority.” This section is prefaced by a statement regarding the work and powers of these medical school officers.
The information outlined is all and
perhaps more than one might expect in a health directory which has only reached its second year, but in addition there is a whole series of Who’s Who in public health work, arranged alphabetically under medical officers, public analysts, school dentists, veterinary officers, sanitary inspectors (men and women separately), health inspectors, inspectors of midwives, and school nurses. These separate directories are prefaced with brief articles, especially contributed, on the functions of the school dentist, and so on, including one entitled Women in Public Health Work, by Mabel Portlack.
The volume concludes with a list of isolation hospitals, by cities and towns, with numbers of beds; size of nursing staffs, dates established, and names of medical officers and matrons in charge a Who’s Who of hospital matrons; and a long list of national and local health societies, their secretaries and objects.
Aside from its mass of carefully prepared information the Public Health Directory is impressive for the evidence of training and of important positions held by many of the men and women listed in its various directories, and particularly for the fact that there appears to be a sufficient permanency of tenure of these officials to warrant going to so much pains to collect and publish their names and records. While we have in the United States a considerable number of health officials who have held office continuously for many years they are few in number and for the most part could show little special education or training for their work.
The Water Works Directory and Statistics and the Gas Works Directory and Statistics present in concise well arranged form the ownership (public and private), leading officers, general character and extent of plants, prices charged and a small amount of financial information for the water and gas works of the United Kingdom. The water works are arranged alphabetically for the whole kingdom, but the gas works are given separately


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for England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Each directory contains an alphabetical list of the officials included under the various cities and towns. In the Water Works Directory death rates are given and a few water analyses.
Neither the gas or water works directory gives summaries of any kind, not even the number of works included. The small general municipal directory is likewise without summaries. The Municipal Year Book gives the total number of municipal corporations,county councils, urban districts and rural districts, with aggregate populations in each case. Other summaries are given, but not all that one might desire or perhaps expect. For instance, it would be interesting to know how many places in the United Kingdom have refuse destructors. A few minutes’ work on the part of a single editorial assistant and the printing of the results of the count would answer this question for scores of people. Other valuable summaries could be made with a slight outlay of labor for compiling or expense for paper and printing, both for The Municipal Year Book and the gas and water works directories. But there is more reason to be thankful for the wealth of information given than to complain of a few omissions.
Unfortunately we now have no American annuals like those under review, with the exception of Brown’s Directory of American Gas Companies. This was not always so. The Statistical Tables of American Water Works was published once in two years from 1883 to 1887 and was succeeded by The Manual of American Water Works, which was published annually for three years and again in 1897, since which it has not been reissued. In 1902 The Municipal Year Book was published, in part as a successor of the Manual, but with an idea of covering in less detail the whole municipal field, including both public and private undertakings.
As both the Manual and the Year Book were edited by the reviewer it is not fitting that much should be said about
them here, except that they did not yield sufficient return to warrant the vast amount of labor and the heavy-outlay entailed by the collection and compilation of the returns and the preparation of the editorial summaries which formed a part of each volume. Even as far back as 1896, the year covered by the last Manual, there were 4125 more or less complete water works in the United States and Canada. To present descriptions and statistics of these required more than six hundred large, closely printed pages, although the historical and descriptive matter given in the first editions was omitted. The Municipal Year Book, though confined to cities and towns of the United States having 3000 population and over, presented information for 1527 places. An American water works annual for 1912, on the lines of the 1897 Manual, would probably include 6000 to 8000 water works and require a thousand pages or more, while an American municipal year book of such scope as the British annual would require several volumes of like size, especially if an attempt were made to outline the local government of each of our 46 states. Fortunately the federal bureau of the census gives us a considerable body of municipal statistics every year for places of 30,000 population and upwards, and less frequently for smaller places, down to 8000. Some of our states also publish municipal statistics. (See notice of federal and state collections of municipal statistics in this number of the National Municipal Review.
. M. N. Baker.
Upper Montclair, N. J.
*
Federal and State Collections of Municipal Statistics.1—The United States bureau of the census, the states of Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Indiana and
1 Statistics of Cities having a Population of Over 30,000 —1909, Washington, D.C.; Bureau of the Census. Cloth; 9 by 12 1ns.; pp. 353.
The Cost of Municipal Government In Massachusetts.—Statistics of Municipal Finances for the Year


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Iowa, the province of Ontario and possibly some other states and provinces are now publishing yearly volumes of municipal statistics. The federal statistics are limited to cities of 30,000 and over, although figures for cities down to 8000 were brought out some years ago. As a rule, the state reports cover cities, towns or villages and rural districts. Most of the statistics are financial, but in alternate years the bureau of the census gives a considerable body of physical statistics as well, and some of the state reports also contain a few physical statistics. For the most part, the financial statistics deal with totals for each city or department, rather than with unit figures—such as per capita costs or debts, rates of taxation, etc. The census reports and the reports of some of the states give totals by groups of cities or for all the cities or other municipalities included.
The slowly growing number of states that are making provision for the collection and publication of municipal statistics gives promise of better things in the future. The promise is greatest where the state department charged with collecting statistics prescribes the accounting system and audits the accounts, as is done in Ohio. In the other states under consideration the state department seems to have no power beyond that of requiring reports in accordance
1908-9. Third Annual Report. Boston, Mass.: The Director of the Bureau of Statistics. Stiff paper; 6 by 9} ins.; pp. 233.
Special Report on Municipal Accounts by the State Comptroller.—Albany, N. Y. Paper; 6x9 Ins.; pp. 119.
Comparative Statistics Cities of Ohio, 1910.—Columbus, Ohio: Department of Auditor of State, Bureau of Inspection and Supervision of Public Offices. Paper; by 9 ins.; pp. 238.
First Annual Report of Inspection and Supervision of Public Offices of Indiana.—Indianapolis, Ind. Cloth; 6 by 9 1ns.; pp. 377.
Statistics of Cities and Towns of Iowa.—Fourth Annual Report, 1910-11.—Des Moines,Iowa: Department of Finance and Municipal Accounts. Cloth;
6 by 9 1ns.; pp. 237.
Municipal Statistics of Ontario.—Part III of Bureau of Industries, 1908. Toronto, Ont.: Department of Agriculture. Paper; 6 by 9i Ins.; pp. 160.
with forms prescribed by the departments, which must be uniform for all municipalities, or for all within each class. The Massachusetts statute was amended in 1910 so as to permit the department to install and audit accounts for any city and town, on petition therefrom. The New York law makes it the duty of the department to formulate and prescribe uniform accounts. The Indiana law provides for field examiners of municipal accounts, which presumably might be interpreted to mean a more or less complete audit. The Iowa report noted herewith states that with few exceptions the uniform system of accounts prescribed by law has been adopted throughout the state.
Turning now to the individual reports it is fitting to consider first the one issued by the bureau of the census. The latest of these yet published is for the year 1908. The cities included are distributed over .the whole United States. The statistical scheme followed is an elaboration of the one devised by a committee of the National Municipal League, after years of study. The aim is to conform with good accounting practice and to classify departmental statistics along functional lines. The main statistical divisions are assets, liabilities, expenses, interest, outlays and revenue, payments and receipts, but there is considerable sub-classification. Some eighty pages of text are employed by way of introduction and analysis, including an explanation of the accounting terminology used and general tables of analysis and summary. The report was prepared by Mr. Le Grand Powers, assisted by Mr. E. H. Maling, and sets a high standard for the state bureaus to follow. None would be quicker than the census officials to admit that there is room for improvement in its subsequent reports. Such deficiencies as exist, however, are largely due to difficulties inherent in any attempt to present on a truly comparable basis the statistics of cities scattered through forty independent commonwealths, with little making towards uni-


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formity save the fact that the census bureau is engaged annually in the attempt to so re-combine non-uniform statistics as to make them uniform.
The Massachusetts report covers 33 cities, 71 towns of more than 5000 population and 143 (of 250) towns of smaller size, together with three towns in the Boston metropolitan district. The figures for each group are separately presented. The plan of the report is similar in many respects, but less comprehensive, than that of the census report. Naturally, more statistics are given for the cities than for the towns and more for the larger than smaller towns. Summaries for the whole state and also a section on accounting terminology are included. There are few or no physical statistics and few unit figures. Mr. Charles F. Gettemy is director of the Massachusetts bureau of statistics.
The first state collection of municipal statistics of New York was published in 1908 or early 1909. That report covered 39 of the 42 cities of the second and third classes, 423 of the 438 villages, and 56 of the 57 counties of the state. The classification was departmental rather than functional, but the departments were in considerable measure along unctional lines. The report just issued and now before us appears to cover the yearending September 30,1910. It is about a third of the size of the first report and as over half its contents is text, while the first one had but little text, it will be seen that fewer statistics are given in the later than in the earlier report. A considerable part of the text deals with the examination of the accounts of a number of counties and a few cities and villages, which exposed many irregularities. No summaries or analyses of the statistical tables are given. The statistics for 1909-10 were taken from such reports as were filed at Albany. A considerable number of counties and cities and many villages are not represented. The range of statistics is limited and the classification does not agree closely with that of any other of the reports.
The report for Ohio includes returns for 70 cities. Broadly, its classifications are similar to those of the census and of Massachusetts, but they differ materially in some particulars and are much more detailed. All three reports follow functional as well as accounting lines. The Ohio report gives the salaries paid to many classes of officials and clerks. It also includes some per capita statistics of receipts, expenditures, indebtedness and sinking funds. State summaries are lacking.
The Indiana report covers 462 cities and towns, 311 school corporations, 1017 school and civil townships, counties of the state and various state institutions. The arrangement of the places is by counties, which is very inconvenient from nearly every point of view. The statistics are not so comprehensive as those given in the federal, Massachusetts and Ohio reports. In fact, little is given except classified inventories of property owned, outstanding indebtedness, and balances, receipts and disbursements. There is a brief introduction and totals for the state are given. William A. Dehority is state examiner of Indiana.
The report for Iowa embraces 101 cities arranged in order of population (75, 626 to 1626, by the U. S. census of 1910), and some 650 towns, arranged alphabetically. Aside from lighting prices and waterworks rates and figures most of the statistics for Iowa are financial. A functional classification is followed. Disbursements, receipts and cash balances are given, but there appear to be no statements of assets and liabilities. State totals are freely given, at the head of table columns, but summaries and analyses for the whole state are not presented. A directory of municipal officials is given and also a digest of the municipal laws of the state.
The latest Ontario report at hand gives receipts, disbursements, assets and liabilities for the year 1907 for the various classes of municipalities, townships and counties, with comparative aggregates


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for the whole province for a decade. A second division contains population, area, assessed valuation, and exemption from taxation for the year 1908. Some of these figures are also presented in total for the province for a period of ten years. The first group of figures is arranged alphabetically by localities, for the whole province, but for the last group the arrangement is first by counties, then alphabetically.
A study of the foregoing outline of the various reports listed brings out two striking facts: (1) each report follows a plan of its own, and (2) nearly all the figures are totals for a department, a whole city or a state. The federal report has a resemblance of uniformity which would probably be found to be seriously lacking in fact, if one could go back to the original computations of returns, made necessary by the different systems of classification which prevail .throughout the country.
Finally, it seems pertinent to ask of how much real value, besides satisfying the curious, are these hundreds of pages of statistics, dealing as they do almost wholly with mere totals, containing either little or no interpretative analysis or summary and practically no unit figures? Even per capita figures would be of little value without some kind of weighting which would take into account the quality as well as the quantity of the service rendered; and even then allowances would need to be made for variations in local conditions. These remarks are made not to discourage such statistical computations, but to show rather how much yet remains to be done before municipal statistics are put on a sound basis of comparability and utility. The task thus far has been long and wearisome. Little has yet been accomplished except to show a comparatively few people how inadequate is American municipal accounting as a whole and how lacking we are in those systematic physical statistics without which unit costs are impossible. So far as financial statistics are concerned, unit costs alone
throw any large clear light on municipal efficiency, and such costs must reflect quality as well as quality.
M. N. Baker.
Montclair, N. J.
*
Metropolitan Sewerage Commission of New York.1—The question of sewage disposal is being made the subject of thorough study by the city of New York with the object of protecting the harbor of the Metropolis against pollution.
Pollution, as applied to the water of a great seaport, has a meaning quite different from that which attaches to this term as applied to the water of reservoirs, lakes or bodies of sea water in which shellfish are grown. Harbor waters must unavoidably be contaminated with sewage matters to some extent because of shipping. The peculiar problem which must be faced by New York and other cities similarly situated is to prevent the pollution of its navigable waters to such an extent and in such ways as will produce a nuisance or disease.
New York’s sewage disposal problem is being studied by a board of engineers created by the state and city of New York and known as the Metropolitan sewerage commision. It was brought into existence in 1906, reorganized in 1908 and will complete its labor by May,
i Reports made by the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission of New York:
Digest of the Data Collected Before the Year 1908 Relating to the Sanitary Condition of New York Harbor. 1909.
Preliminary Report: Metropolitan Sewerage Commission of New York. March, 1910.
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal In the Metropolitan District of New York and New Jersey. April, 1910.
Report on the Discharge of Sewage from the Proposed Passaic Valley Sewer of New Jersey. May, 1910.
Report on the Discharge of Sewage from the Bronx Valley Sewer. July, 1910.
Preliminary Report No. 1: Study of the Collection of the Sewage of New York City to a Central Point for Disposal. September, 1911.
Preliminary Report No. 2: Description of the Four Principal Drainage Divisions In that Part of the Metropolitan Sewerage District which lies In New York State. November, 1911.


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1913. The total cost of the investigation made by the commission, including the preparation of plans for main drainage and such sewage purification works and improved outfalls as are necessary will be about $200,000.
The commission has stated with all possible clearness its sense of the importance of putting a stop to the unrelated and unsanitary methods of sewage disposal which have been followed in the metropolitan territory of New York and New Jersey, and has urged that prompt action be taken to establish an effective system of conservancy to protect and improve the condition of the harbor. This system of conservancy should be carried out under the direction of an interstate commission having equal jurisdiction in New York and New Jersey. The practical measures of conservancy recommended by the commission are main drainage,such as has been adopted by London, Paris, Berlin, and other great cities of the world, and works for finally disposing of the sewage in accordance with modern scientific principles.
Up to the present the sewage of New York and neighboring cities has been discharged into the harbor through numerous outlets in the belief that the destructive effects of the salt water and the flushing movements of the tide would cause the offensive materials to disappear. The commission has found that the benefits to be derived from the natural forces are much less than has been supposed and that the tidal movements cause the sewage to oscillate back and forth for long periods of time instead of of being carried promptly to sea. A floating buoy which was set adrift by the commission pursued a long' and devious course, but was picked up four days later within 1000 feet of where it was originally released.
The total quantity of sewage discharged into New York harbor at the present time is about 700,000 gallons per twenty-four hours, or sufficient to fill one of the largest navigable channels of the harbor for a distance of about a
quarter of a mile. By 1940 the commission estimates that the population will be double what it is today and the quantity of sewage will be correspondingly increased. There will thus be an ever increasing burden of polluting matter discharged into the harbor, unless pro-tect ve measures are adopted.
The injurious consequences of pollution are described by the commission as including the production of extensive deposits of sludge, discoloration of the water, production of offensive odors and danger to health through bathing, the collection of driftwood and the gathering of shellfish either from planted beds or from natural growths near the outskirts of the harbor. Considerable emphasis is placed upon the offense to the sense of decency produced by the appearance of the sewage at the surface o" the water, among the docks and piers, parks and other much frequented places.
Owing to the density of which most of the water front of New York is already settled, the commission considers it impossible to find sufficient available land for the location of works for the complete purification of the sewage. The cost of carrying the sewage through trunk sewers to the ocean appears to be prohibitive. It would cost an excessive sum of money to collect all the sewage to one central point in the country and there purify it by biological methods. The only land at all suitable for the disposal of he sewage by irrigation is on Long Island and the immense area, over 80 square miles, which would be required for this purpose make this method of disposal impracticable. In the commission’s opinion, it will be necessary to utilize what is called the “digestive capacity’’ of the harbor water for the assimilation of most of the sewage.
It is proposed to collect the sewage of New York to a number of centrally located points near the water front and there remove as much of the impurities as necessary and carry them to sea in tank steamers. For the purpose of collecting the sewage, the commission


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proposes the division of the city into five main drainage districts. For each of these districts a system of arterial collecting sewers leading to disposal works works is being designed.
A number of printed reports have been issued by the commission. A volume of 550 quarto pages with numerous maps, tables and other illustrations was published in April, 1910. This volume has been in much demand by engineers and municipal and state officials in the United States and other countries. It is now out of print and can be consulted only in such libraries and public offices as have received it. Smaller reports have been issued from time to time and others will be published until the qom-mission goes out of existence. A second quarto volume, similar in form to the first and containing much original data, is now in press. In it the commission reports upon the present sanitary condition of the harbor and the degree of cleanness necessary for the waters.
At the forthcoming International Congress on Hygiene and Demography, to be held in Washington in September, the Metropolitan sewerage commission of New York will give a full exhibition of its work, using maps, plans, diagrams and models to illustrate its numerous methods and results of research and the plans and projects which it proposes.
Geoboe A. Soper.
New York.
*
Public Utilities Regulation in New York City.—The New York public service commission for the first district has recently published an illustrated pamphlet on State Regulation of Public Service Corporations in the City of New York, which is an easy reading, instructive and interesting summary of the work of the public service commission for the first district, from 1907 to 1911.
In an introductory summary this pamphlet sets forth, in facts and figures, the changes and improvements which have been made in the service and prop-
erty of public service corporations in New York City and on the city’s rapid transit lines, in the four years following the creation of the commission in July 1,1907. A few of the most striking follow:
More than 5000 complaints have been received and investigated; traffic in the subway has grown from a daily average of 456,000 to 758,000, and revenue car mileage has increased from 37,184,940 to 57,110,868. On the street surface lines all cars have been overhauled and repaired and new cars purchased; life saving fenders and wheelguards have been installed on all surface cars at an expense of $300,000 to $400,000; and the number of persons killed on all transportation lines has decreased from 500 in the fiscal year 1907-1908 to 334 in the fiscal year 1910-1911. Transfer privileges between intersecting surface car lines in Manhattan and the Bronx, which were cut off after the Metropolitan street railway system went into bankruptcy, have been ordered restored at 151 points.
On the elevated railroads, the total number of revenue passengers carried has increased from 282,924,273 to 301,449,-292, and the average daily number of passengers has increased from 775,133 to 825,886. Regulations for the maintenance of comfortable temperature in the cars in the subway, on the elevated and on surface car lines have been established. The commission has obtained from the legislature appropriations aggregating $500,000 as the state’s one-quarter of the expense of eliminating grade crossings in Greater New York; and under these appropriations has ordered eliminated a number of dangerous grade crossings.
In rapid transit work, the Brooklyn extension and the Van Cortlandt Park extension of the existing subway have been completed and opened to traffic. Permanent improvements to the subway, including the lengthening of station-platforms, have been made at a cost of more than $3,000,000. Contracts for the Fourth Avenue subway in Brooklyn—a four track subway, four miles in length—


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have been let, and the work is practically completed. The contract price is nearly $16,000,000.
One of the first acts of this commission was to conduct an investigation into the condition of the surface car system in Manhattan and the Bronx. This investigation held in 1907, disclosed conditions involving over-capitalization, misuse of company funds, neglect of road and equipment leading to serious deterioration, etc., and was followed by the placing of the entire metropolitan street railway system in the hands of receivers.
The business of furnishing gas and electricity in New York City is in the hands of monopolies. In Manhattan and the Bronx the gas business is handled largely by the Consolidated Gas Company and its affiliated concerns, while the electric business is mainly done by the New York Edison Company, and its affiliated corporations. It is the duty of the commission to test all gas and electric meters before they are placed by the company. In the first four years of its existence the commission made 1,378,627 tests of gas meters. It will not be very long until every gas meter set in the city of New York will have been tested and sealed by the public authorities.
As the commission has the power to reduce the rates of gas and electric companies, if found to be unreasonable, it has conducted several proceedings involving the question of rates and contracts. New York Edison Company met the commission’s requests in a spirit of fairness, and, on July 1, 1911, put into effect a new tariff embodying a complete revision of rates. These revised rates are now in effect and according to an estimate made by the company, they amount to a saving to their customers of $1,250,000 per annum. A complaint against the Queen’s Borough Company resulted in reduced rates which are now in effect.
A provision of the law forbids public service corporations under its jurisdiction to issue new bonds or stock without
the approval of the commission. Therefore the commission has been called upon from time to time to pass upon applications for its approval of various issues of proposed securities by various companies. The decisions of the commission as to security issues were contested in the courts only in two instances.
This report concludes with a brief description of the commission's rapid transit work. The duty of laying out and supervising the construction of rapid transit railroads takes about three-quarters of the time of the commission and is responsible for more than 60 per cent of its total expenditures, amounting to between $600,000 and $700,000 a year. This has led to some public misapprehension as to the cost of a regulating commission. A short history and description of the existing subway, the Brooklyn loop subway, the Fourth Avenue subway, and the Interborough subway completes the sixty-nine pages of what is necessarily a bare rdsumfi of four years’ work.
A. E. Pinanski.
*
City Plan Reports and Commissions'—
Dallas has been one of the most progressive cities of the Southwest and this carefully devised plan is an outgrowth of this progressiveness. In fact it is the first city in that section to go at its problem in a thorough-going, careful way. As far back as 1904 the city retained Mr. Kessler to prepare plans for the state fair grounds, a year later the park board came into being, and in 1910 the chamber of commerce organized the city plan and development. This body and the park board are responsible for this report, which may perhaps be best described as a characteristic piece of Kessler work, designed not for “the
â– A City Plan for Dallas: Reportof Park Board' Prepared by George E. Kessler, 1912.
City Plan Association Report. St. Louis, 1911.
Report on Dock and Pier Development Harbor District No. 1. The Harbor and Subway Commission of the City of Chicago. 1912.


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building of the city, but to formulate recommendations for rebuilding along broader lines.” Mr. Kessler believes with all the modern city planners that the need for a city plan would not be evident unless both the commercial and social life of the community seriously felt “the hampering effects of the existing natural and artificial barriers preventing rationaj expansion of business and residential districts.”
This report is particularly valuable because it discusses and suggests plans for a city which in an exaggerated form presents the difficulties attendant upon the. expansion into a great city of a village at a temporary railroad terminus, no special thought having been given in the in