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National municipal review, July, 1913

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Title:
National municipal review, July, 1913
Uniform Title:
National municipal review
Creator:
National Municipal League
Martin, John
Driscoll, Clement J.
Putnam, George Haven
Thompson, Carl D.
Munro, William Bennett
Atkinson, C.R.
James, Herman G.
Pink, Louis Heaton
Wilcox, Delos F.
Collier, John
Hopwood, E. C.
Walcott, E. A.
Mason, Edward F.
Fairlie, John A. ( Editor )
Lapp, John A. ( Editor )
Beard, Charles Auston ( Editor )
Hasse, Adelaide R. ( Editor )
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Philadelphia, PA
Baltimore, MD
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National Municipal League
Williams and Wilkins Company
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English

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serial ( sobekcm )

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Volume 1, Issue 4

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright National Civic League. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
1913
Editor
Clinton Rogers Woodruff
Associate Editors
Charles Austin Beard Adelaide R. Hasse John A. Fairlie John A. Lapp
VOLUME II
PUBLISHED FOR THE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE BY
WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY BALTIMORE 1913


NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. II, No. 3 JULY, 1913 Total No. 7
THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS
BY DELOS F. WILCOX, PH.D.1
THE Chicago street railway settlement ordinances, coming just before the day of regulation by commission, marked an era in franchise contract regulation, and in spite of the vigor of the commission movement the stimulus given to elaborate regulation by contract has not yet been checked. In 1910 the Cleveland street railway settlement and the Minneapolis gas ordinances embodied the spirit of local regulation in complex agreements which have since vied with the Chicago ordinances in public interest. Many other cities are wrestling with big franchise problems, and seeking to realize settlements patterned more or less after the “Chicago plan” or the “Cleveland plan.”
There seems to be a tendency toward more and more elaborate franchise contracts wherever private ownership or operation is regarded as temporary, and preparatory for municipal ownership or operation. Why this should be so, is clear when we consider the financial interest which the city has as the prospective owner of a great public utility. Immense property rights are involved. Sometimes the investment in a single utility is greater than the entire outstanding debt of a city. When the city is granting a franchise for the construction, reconstruction or development of such an enterprise, and looks upon it as something which the city itself will sooner or later acquire, it is only common business prudence—one of the established ways of the world—to insist that the grant of privileges shall be carefully defined and restricted, and tied up with corresponding obligations for the benefit of the city.
These are stirring days in public utility regulation. Six years ago the first public service commissions were established in two states—New York and Wisconsin. The public utilities commission idea has spread
1 Dr. Wilcox is chairman of the National Municipal League’s committee on franchises, is the author of two volumes on municipal franchises as well as sundry-other volumes dealing with municipal questions, and, since 1907, has been chief of the bureau of franchises of the public service commission for the first district, New York. See also his article on “How the Chicago and Cleveland Street Railway Settlements are Working Out,” National Municipal Review, vol. i, p. 630.
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so rapidly that now there are commissions with wide powers in about one-half of the states, and more are coming.
It has been thought by some that, the advent of commissions embodying 'the idea of continuous regulation of rates and services under the police power, sounded the death knell of the franchise contract. In certain localities, state regulation has been striding across the horizon brushing aside local ordinances and even home rule charters and accepted franchises as if they were cobwebs in the comers of the sky. People have asked: “Why do we need any elaborate franchise documents, when we have the power to regulate the utilities at any time? Why not forego the attempt to foresee the future *and to write down in a contract things which only time can prove? Why not leave all such matters to the public utilities commission, to be decided as the specific need arises?”
If public utilities are viewed as a permanent function of private corporations, so that no one has any interest in the property as such except the present owners and the users of the utility, it may be said with some show of reason that a franchise need be nothing more than a permit to occupy the public streets. If, on the other hand, ultimate municipal ownership is kept in view, either as an established policy or as a lively option, it is evident that commission regulation cannot take the place of a contract between the parties, covering at least the elements going to the determination of the purchase price, the upkeep and extension of the property, the audit of investment accounts, the amortization of the capital value out of earnings, and other kindred matters.
Commission regulation has been looked upon, either as a permanent substitute for public ownership or as a final experiment and preparation for it. Which it is, makes all the difference in the world. If it is the former, elaborate franchise contracts will not be considered necessary and the municipalization of public utilities will become more remote and more difficult from year to year. If it is the latter, regulation will not interfere with franchise contracts, except where they are devised to weaken ultimate public control, and will look with favor upon specific arrangements between cities and utility companies tending to prepare the way for municipal ownership.
As if to prove beyond peradventure that continuous regulation cannot take the place of the contract method, it was left for the public service commission having jurisdiction in New York City, though a state body created for regulatory purposes, to carry the idea of contract regulation furthest of all. The subway contracts and elevated railroad certificates signed by the commission on March 19, 1913, are volumes with an aggregate of no less than 700 printed pages. With its right hand, as representative of the city, the commission marshals 125,000 cunning words and, after many an interminable conference,, organizes them into contract form


THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS
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and requires the companies to sign them. At the same time, with its left hand, as an organ of the state, the commission holds taut the reins of regulation by administrative order, and jealously asserts its prerogative to regulate, independent of franchise contracts. The secret of the voluminous contracts in New York, as in Chicago, Minneapolis and Cleveland, is the fact that in each casq the idea of future municipal ownership dominated the negotiations.
The New York City rapid transit settlement just consummated after eight years of subway negotiations and more than twenty years of intermittent dickering with the elevated roads, constitutes the most stupendous local franchise bargain that has ever been considered by any city in the world. With a population of five million people within its municipal boundaries, New York now has three systems of local rapid transit railways, representing an aggregate capital investment of about $250,000,000 and an annual capacity of about 800,000,000 passengers. The city also has four great bridges over the East River connecting the borough of Manhattan with the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, constructed at a cost of about $100,000,000. These bridges were constructed to carry altogether twelve rapid transit railroad tracks, of which only the two tracks on the New York and Brooklyn Bridge have thus far been used to their capacity, while of the rest only the two on the Williamsburgh Bridge have thus far been used at all.
The rapid transit plans just agreed upon involve the expenditure of about $330,000,000 of new capital in transit lines, and the putting of the bridges across the East River into full use. Thus it appears that these plans call for an immediate increase of about 130 per cent in the investment in rapid transit railroads proper, and an increase of more than 200 per cent in the utilization for rapid transit purposes of the $100,000,000 investment in the bridges. The so-called “dual plan,” as embodied in the new contracts and franchises, provides for an increase of 150 per cent in the total passenger capacity of the rapid transit lines, so that, at the end of five years, with all the proposed new lines constructed, connections made and additional facilities provided, New York City’s rapid transit capacity will be at least 2,000,000,000 passengers per annum. How stupendous the plan is and how important the influence it must necessarily have upon the financial, social and industrial conditions in New York may be seen from the fact that in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1912, the total number of fare passengers carried in New York City on all the local transit lines, including the surface street cars, was less than 1,700,000,000. In other words, it is now proposed to enlarge the rapid transit system at one stroke so that it will accommodate within four or five years more than the total number of passengers now conveyed on the rapid transit lines plus the surface street railways.


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The engineering problems connected with this vast enterprise have for the most part been overcome in the construction of the old subway and the bridges. It is possible that still greater difficulties may be met in burrowing under the narrow roadways of Nassau and William streets, among the roots of the sky-scrapers of the financial district, but the engineers approach the problem with confidence, beheving that in the main the difficulties still to be encountered are similar to those which have already been overcome.
It is the political and financial aspects of the problem that have caused most of the trouble. When we reflect upon the variety of the financial interests involved, upon the complexity of the legal requirements and the multiplicity of authorities whose cooperation is required, it is a marvel that any subways at all have been constructed and put into operation in New York. It is inevitable that plans involving so much and the interests of so great a population in matters so vital to every day comfort, convenience and business success, should have been the subject of fierce controversy. Ever since the present subway was opened in 1904, the public authorities of New York have been planning, negotiating, re-plan-ning and wrestling with the problem of subway expansion, and ever since 1891 the problem of additional franchises for the improvement and extension of the elevated railroads has been acute. Nothing had been accomplished with the Manhattan Railway since J. P. Morgan headed a committee to negotiate new franchises with the rapid transit board and old Jay Gould tottered down to tell the board that the elevated railroads were one of the chief health agencies of the city, warranted to cure any disease but grip, all by reason of the atmospheric circulation induced by the rush of the trains through the upper regions of the streets. Now that a comprehensive plan of subway and elevated railroad expansion has at last been agreed upon, and the contracts signed, sealed and delivered, even the reluctant consent of the thrifty and reactionary heir of “Doctor” Gould having been secured, the country should find it worth while to pause long enough to cast an inquiring glance in the direction of New York City’s achievment, and look to see how far the metropolis is ahead of or behind its sister cities in the franchise procession.
Briefly, the dual plan, as the city’s newly adopted rapid transit policy is called, involves the following main points:
1. The elevated railroads in old New York (Manhattan and The Bronx) are to be extended and third-tracked by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the lessee of the Manhattan Railway Company, under eighty-five year franchises. The existing franchises are perpetual. The new ones for the third-tracking and extensions are to be indeterminate after ten years within the eighty-five year limit, and provision is to be made for the amortization, within that time, of the new capital invested. The Manhattan


THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS
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elevated railway, as extended and improved, is to be operated as a separate 5-cent fare system, serving Manhattan and The Bronx, with the addition of trackage rights over certain rapid transit lines to be constructed by the city, serving a portion of the borough of Queens tributary to the Queensboro Bridge, which enters Manhattan at 59th Street on a line with the southern boundary of Central Park.
2. The present municipal subway, extending north and south through the borough of Manhattan with two branches running into The Bronx, north of the Harlem River, and one short extension to the business heart of Brooklyn, now operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company under leases from the city, is to be extended by what is practically a doubling of its lines in Manhattan and The Bronx, by the addition of another tunnel under the East River to Brooklyn, by the construction of lines to serve an important Y-shaped section of Brooklyn not now served by any rapid transit lines and by the utilization of the Steinway Tunnel under 42nd Street and the East River with two extensions into the northwest portion of the borough of Queens.
The present subway was constructed with city money and equipped by the operating company. The extensions of the present subway are to be constructed half with city money .and half with money furnished by the operating company, and are to be equipped by the company. The present subway is held under two leases. One, covering the portion north of the City Hall, originally extended for a period of fifty years from 1904, with the right of renewal for twenty-five years more upon a readjustment of the rental. The other, covering the line from City Hall to Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, extended for a period of thirty-five years from 1908 with a similar right of renewal. During the renewal terms, the rentals were to be Adjusted, and at the final expiration of the leases in 1979 and 1968, the city was to get possession of the subway free of cost and to purchase the equipment at its then fair value. In all probability, the rental during the renewal periods would have been more than sufficient to pay for this equipment.
Under the new subway contract with the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the existing leases have been levelled by the extension of their original terms to December 31, 1965, and by the abrogation of the company’s right to the renewals. The new lines connected with the present subway are to be leased to the Interborough Company, and not only the new subways themselves, but the new equipment will come into the possession of the city without cost at the expiration of the new contract, some fifty-three years hence. In the meantime, however, although the city's investment of about $60,000,000 in the present subway will continue to be taken care of as a first charge on the earnings of the extended system, the company will be entitled to take out of earnings the sum of $6,335,000


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annually, representing its average annual net profits for the two-year period ending June 30, 1911, and six per cent on all new capital furnished by it, before either interest, sinking fund or profit is paid upon the city’s share of the new investment. The $6,335,000 preferential to the company represents something over thirteen per cent on the company’s present investment. When coupled with the 6 per cent upon new money immediately to be furnished by the company, this preferential payment is figured out as 8.76 per cent upon the entire amount of capital to be invested in the enlarged system prior to the beginning of operation in 1917. Following this preferential the city is also to receive 8.76 per cent upon the new money furnished by it. After the enlarged system has gone into operation, however, the company will be required to contribute one-half of the cost of additions and betterments needed from time to time, and the entire cost of the additional equipment that may be made necessary by the growth of traffic. Upon this additional money the company will receive 6 per cent annually as a preferential wedged in between its original preferential and the city’s 8.76 per cent. If anything is left after the payment of these huge preferentials and the establishment of a contingent reserve, the balance will be treated as net profits and will be divided equally between the city and the company.
The present subway, with the extensions included in the new lease to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, is to be operated for a single five-cent fare, but without transfers (except at one point) to the elevated railroads of the Manhattan Railway system, which is to be operated by the same company, and also without transfers to the other subways and elevated railroads, not operated by this company.
3. The existing elevated railroad system of Brooklyn is to be in large measure reconstructed, third-tracked and extended. As extended ft will have three lines running into Queens, serving certain limited portions of that borough not reached by the proposed extensions of the Steinway tunnel. The elevated railroads of Brooklyn now dump their passengers at the Manhattan terminals of the New York and Brooklyn bridge and the Williamsburgh bridge, but have no facilities for distributing them through the main business district of the city. It is proposed, therefore, to construct a new system of subways to provide adequate terminal facilities in lower Manhattan for the elevated railroads of Brooklyn, and to serve portions of the borough of Brooklyn not now adequately provided with rapid transit lines and not included in the V-shaped section which is to be developed as a part of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company’s area. Of the cost of these new subways the city will furnish about six-sevenths and the company about one-seventh, while the company will furnish the entire cost of equipment. This company is also to have trackage rights over the rapid transit lines to be constructed by the city


THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS
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as extensions of the Steinway tunnel in the northwestern part of the borough of Queens. It is to be noted that while the Interborough Company will operate two separate and independent systems without exchange of transfers (except as noted), the New York Consolidated Railroad Company (operating subsidiary of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company) will operate the elevated railroads of Brooklyn and the subways allotted to it as a single 5 cent fare system. But the free transfers now being given at many points between the elevated railroads of Brooklyn and the surface street car lines will be discontinued, unless future arrangements are made with the city’s approval, for their continuance. The general terms of the contracts under which the elevated roads of Brooklyn are to be improved and extended and a system of municipal subways is to be operated in con-' nection with them, are similar in most respects to the terms upon which the eity deals with the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. But the company's fixed preferential and the city’s percentage preferential are both much smaller under the Brooklyn contract than they are under the Interborough contract, thus leaving a better hope for divisible profits. The plans for the extension and third-tracking of the elevated roads are to be carried out by the company under eighty-five year franchises terminable after ten years, and the subways are to be leased for a period ending December 31, 1965, when the city will come into possession of the subway property, including both construction and equipment, without purchase. The existing elevated railroads, however, will be retained by the company under the perpetual franchises which it now holds.
The dual plan, therefore, is “dual” only with respect to the number of operating companies. With respect to operating systems it is a triple scheme. The Manhattan Railway now has a capacity of about 300,000,000 passengers. As enlarged, its capacity will be about 450,000,000. The present subway also has a capacity of about 300,000,000. As enlarged it will have a capacity to carry between 750,000;000 and 800,000,000. The elevated system of Brooklyn, as now constructed, with its inadequate terminal facilities, has a capacity of scarcely 200,000,000; while the new combined system of elevated railroads and subways to be operated by the Brooklyn company will probably have a capacity of from 800,000,000 to 900,000,000 per annum. The three systems will represent roughly an investment of $120,000,000, $250,000,000 and $210,000,000 respectively, excluding the cost of the East River bridges, three of which will be used exclusively by the Brooklyn company, and one jointly by the two companies. In the subway contracts, provision is made for the extension of either subway system from time to time in the future, the city to construct the extensions and the respective companies to equip and operate them, subject to certain terms and conditions which are calculated to protect the financial interests of the companies while at the same time leaving


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the city free to extend its rapid transit lines at any time if it has the necessary funds. One of the chief difficulties under the old subway leases has been that the city has had no power to compel the company to build or equip a foot of extensions, or even to operate an extension if built and equipped by the city.
The New York subway contracts and elevated railroad franchises are so long and so complex that many interesting details must be omitted from this analysis. It will be worth while, however, to attempt a general appraisal of these contracts and franchises in comparison with the Chicago and Cleveland settlements and in the light of fundamental principles of franchise regulation.
The big features of the Chicago settlement were the following:
1. Surrender of all outstanding franchises and inclusion of substantially the entire surface street railway system, with future extensions, under the terms of a single contract plan.
2. Definite fixing of purchase price, with increase for additional investment, and contract right of city to take over the street railways at any time upon payment of the price thus fixed.
3. First .class construction and equipment under control of impartial board of supervising engineers.
4. One-city-one-fare, the same at all hours, 5 cents for adults, 3 cents for children’from seven to twelve years old, with universal transfers except ’in the downtown business district.
5. A fixed return of 5 per cent upon capital value, plus a share in net profits to the operating companies to supply the motive for economy and efficiency.
6. Fifty-five per cent of surplus net profits to go to the city and be accumulated as a street railway purchase fund.
7. The right of the city to require a fixed mileage of extensions each year, and such additional extensions as will not reduce the companies’ surplus profits to an unreasonably small amount.
8. Right of city to regulate service subject to the approval of the board of supervising engineers.
Certain weak points in the Chicago settlement have developed. They are mainly these:
1. Inclusion of franchise values and superseded property to the extent of many millions of dollars without any provision for the amortization of this dead capital,
2. No provision for the investment of the city’s profits in the securities of the companies, thus leaving the purchase fund to accumulate in the banks at the rate of 2\ per cent, while new capital is being poured into the system drawing 5 per cent interest on par, with a 5 per cent allowance for brokerage and a 10 per cent allowance for contractor’s profit on construction included in par.


THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS
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3. No provision for purchase by the city except upon payment of the full purchase price of one or both of the systems in cash in a lump sum, thus making purchase difficult and requiring the unnecessary disturbance of the bonded debt.
4. Inadequate provision for continuous control of service by the board of supervising engineers, the initiation of service regulations being left to the city council.
5. No certain provision as to what will happen to the property at the expiration of the franchise in 1927, if the city does not choose to buy it before or at that time.
Though based upon the expectation of municipal ownership, the Chicago settlement has, through its weaknesses, made municipalization more remote and difficult. After six years the city has accumulated a purchase fund of about $11,000,000 and the purchase price has increased about $80,000,000. Dead capital alone has probably increased more than the entire accumulations of the purchase fund, though with the completion of the rehabilitation period the increase of dead capital should now cease.
The Cleveland settlement came three years later than the Chicago settlement, and while the two plans have many points in common, they are radically different in certain respects. In Cleveland, as in Chicago, all outstanding franchises were surrendered and the entire street railway system brought under the provisions of a single ordinance. Also, Cleveland fixed the purchase price at which the city can take over the property at any time. But instead of a fixed fare, division of profits and a purchase fund, Cleveland provided for service at cost by means of a sliding schedule of fares and a fixed rate of return on a fixed investment. Extensions are under the control of the city, subject to the company's ability to finance them within the limits of the fare-schedule, the maximum rate allowed being 4 cents cash fare, seven tickets for 25 cents, and 1 cent for a transfer. But if the twenty-five year franchise granted is ever allowed to come within fifteen years of expiration, then the city’s right to propose extensions will cease and the company will have the right to charge the maximum rate allowed by the schedule and use its surplus profits for amortization purposes. If subsequently the city purchases, it will get thef benefit of the amortization. The city retains a check upon new capital expenditures and repairs and renewals, and has full control of service to the extent of the company’s ability to earn its fixed return under the maximum fares allowed. Matters of dispute, if arbitrable under the law, are to be determined by arbitration.
The weak points of the Cleveland franchise are these:
1. It capitalizes several million dollars of franchise values and makes no provision for their amortization or the amortization of any part of


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the capital value except when the franchise conies within fifteen years of its expiration.
2. By absolutely fixing the company’s profit, it kills the motive for economy and efficiency supposed to be the main excuse for the continuance of the private operation of public utilities. It is thus compelled to rely upon arbitrary checks and continuous control by the city street railroad commissioner to make the dead motive act as if it were alive.
In practical operation what may be considered an over-emphasis of the low-fare idea in Cleveland has a tendency to limit extensions and to keep the standard of service down, while at the same time leaving no surplus with which to amortize the investment out of earnings for the city’s benefit. But the Cleveland plan at least has the merit of not being heartily approved by the corporations in every municipality where they are trying to get the city to pull their chestnuts out of the fire by the capitalization of ancient losses and the guaranty of future profits on a swollen investment. The Cleveland plan has faults, but from the standpoint of future municipalization, these faults are far less serious than those of the Chicago plan, even though Cleveland is not accumulating a purchase fund.
Three years are an era in these swiftly-moving days. In 1907, Chicago settled. In 1910, Cleveland settled. In 1913, New York settled. But New York’s settlement has to do with subways and elevated roads, not with surface street car lines. Yet it may be truly said that rapid transit in New York has come to be the major factor in local transportation.
In the new subway contracts and elevated railroad franchises New York has gone both forward and backward. It has not only made provision for an indeterminate franchise within a maximum time limit, but has made provision for the amortization of the entire original investment within that maximum period. It has reserved the right to terminate the contracts and recapture the subway lines in seven separate divisions. It has reserved to itself unlimited authority to compel the companies to operate extensions, the city assuming the deficits. The city has definitely assumed the risk of the rapid transit enterprises and has reduced the entire new investment in subway and elevated lines to a bond basis, with the bonus for motive offered in the form of a division of net profits with the operating companies. Cfapital as such will receive a definite and fixed return. Additional profits, if there be any, will not go to capital at all, but to the operating agencies alone. The city itself constructs the subways and retains the supervision of their equipment and of the reconstruction, extension and equipment of the elevated roads. The city has the right to object to particular items of operating expenses and maintainance, and to invoke arbitration to determine their reasonableness and propriety. In these respects—(1) amortization of the entire investment within a fixed period, (2) recapture of the subways in detail, (3) authority to require the opera-


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tion of extensions, (4) assumption by the city of the risk of the investment,
(5) actual construction and close supervision of equipment by the city, and
(6) the city’s right to challenge operating expenditures—New York may properly be said to have gone forward.
There is, however, a different side to the story. Let the reader judge for himself whether New York has not made considerable net progress backwards. The new contracts and franchises do not resettle the outstanding rights of the companies, but leave perpetual franchises undisturbed except to strengthen them, and leave long-term leases of city lines untouched except to “level” them by lopping off fag ends of little value and extending original terms of great value to the company, and by providing in a doubtful manner for an exchange of certain old and new lines in the event of recapture of the new lines by the city. The city goes into partnership with the companies, furnishes vast amounts of capital toward the construction of the new lines, sets this contribution to work to help earn the present profits of the companies and their additional interest and sinking fund charges on account of new investment, and accepts for itself what is equivalent to the second mortgage with no right to foreclose for non-payment of interest. Moreover, the city buys these second mortgage income bonds at par, while it allows the companies to take the gilt-edged first mortgage bonds at 97 with a provision for their retirement in the case of one company at 107§ and in the case of the other at 110. New York does not adhere to the one-city-one-fare principle, even as to rapid transit lines, but perpetuates three operating systems, or, if we count the Hudson tunnels, four, without requiring an exchange of transfers. The city drains its credit almost to the last dollar for rapid transit purposes alone, leaving nothing with which to meet the capital expenditures for other civic improvements bound to follow in the wake of subway expansion, and at the same time permits the companies for fifty years to take our of rapid transit earnings as a preferential the amount of their present profits, swollen by congestion and neglect. New York even provides for the expenditure of many millions of dollars in the reconstruction and improvement of the companies’ old lines, these millions to be amortized as a preferential, though the reconstructed property, maintained at the top-notch, will remain the property of the companies for all time, even though it has been paid for. While the city retains authority to compel the companies to operate any number of extensions, it has to build the extensions itself, and unless they are profitable on their own account, it will have to make good the deficits out of its own pocket. The city has the right to recapture the new lines, but all of them are to be hooked up in operation with old lines that cannot be recaptured. So, the termination of a contract in whole or in part will involve the dismemberment of an operating system, the upsetting of established habits of travel and the substitution


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of two fares for one. The New York contracts ignore the relation of surface lines to rapid transit lines and make no provision for transfers between them, except at a single point of little importance. Existing transfers to surface lines are to be cut off. With one of the companies, the hope of divisible profits is so remote that the incentive for economy and efficiency bids fair to be entirely absent, leaving the company with its guaranteed profits and interest, and its hand in the city’s pocket to spend freely the margin that ought to go to the payment of interest and sinking fund charges on the city’s investment. By the spirit of its partnership with the companies, the city pledges itself not to attack, but rather to acknowledge and protect as far as possible or necessary the perpetual franchises that might otherwise be forfeited by vigilant public officials. The new elevated railroad franchises run for a maximum period of eighty-five years although their cost is to be fully amortized in less than fifty years out of preferentials allowed for the purpose.
New York had the benefit of its own experience and the experience of Chicago, Cleveland and other cities to guide it. In this enterprise it did not start at the bottom of the well. If we were to apply to it the problem of the frog, the conundrum would have to be put something like this: “A frog finds himself half-way up the side of a forty-foot well. He starts to climb out. Every day he climbs two feet and every night he slips back four. How many days and nights will pass before he gets out?” To one looking at the fundamentally progressive principles theoretically embodied in the subway settlement and then considering the limitations put upon them in the actual working out of the bargain with the rapid transit companies, it seems likely that captious critics in the outside world may regard New York as headed right, but going backward.
The controversy over the contracts caused a sharp division among good men who might have been expected to stick together upon fundamental questions of civic policy. But the preponderating influences that put the contracts through, though stoutly proclaiming that the bargain meant municipal ownership, were cold toward the possibility of municipal operation. Official opinion in New York has very little sympathy with municipal operation of public utilities, and the city was so faint-hearted on this subject that its enjoyment of full power to operate the subways, without further legislation of any kind, scarcely furnished its negotiators with a talking point. Indeed, the enthusiasm for full municipal ownership in the technical sense seems to have been stimulated by the thought that if title to the subways and their equipment vested in the city, the companies would not have to pay taxes on the property as a charge in advance of profits. The city was at a disadvantage because the existing elevated roads were held under perpetual franchises and because the present subway had been improvidently alienated for a long period. It is orthodox among


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the politicians of the dominant-parties in New York, among the boss-selected judges and among the public officials generally, to bow the knee to vested interests. While the city’s representatives might express a mild regret that their predecessors in some other era had seen fit to hand out perpetual franchise grants and enormously profitable leases, the claim or possession of these advantages by the companies already in the field was something to be accepted as an established fact. To attack an endless franchise merely because it was corruptly acquired or acquired by the exercise of squatter sovereignty, or merely because the company claiming the franchise has failed to perform its obligations in law and equity, or to cut down by competition the exorbitant profits of an overworked monopoly, is not looked upon with favor. Official New York has great respect for the princes of this world who have money and financial power, and regards it as unethical and impolitic to inquire too closely into sources or to question titles. And so, although the law specifically authorizes the public authorities to require the surrender of old outstanding franchises as a condition of the grant of additional rapid transit rights, no official body in New York has ever seriously contemplated such action.
Coupled with this official aversion to municipal operation and this precept of official ethics that whatever a public service corpqration has, or stoutly claims, it is entitled to keep, is a timidity such as characterizes a mfl.n who is carrying all the debt he can and a good deal more than he wants to. New York City now owes nearly $1,000,000,000 net, including its contribution to the new subways. Its debt has been piled up in part by the issuance of fifty-year bonds for ten-year improvements and even for the purpose of funding current budget deficits. It has made a rule not to pay for anything now that can be saddled onto an unborn future. It rejects profits as if they were plebeian and courts extravagancies as the emblems of municipal dignity. It is always impecunious, and the unsatisfied judgments of civilization pile up against it year by year. So, now, in the city’s great crisis, when it had one last opportunity to assume a dominant r61e in the development of its own transit facilities, the official mind was deterred from aggressiveness by its tenderness for vested privileges and was restrained from independent constructive thought by reflection upon the notes in the bank.
These three things made the city’s position weak: (1) unreadiness to compel the surrender of existing perpetual franchises and long-term leases by whatever means might prove necessary, (2) unreadiness to undertake municipal operation even as a last resort, and (3) present inability to finance its big projects along established lines without help from private capital.
The New York subway contracts have the lure of a great enterprise. Though we may not approve of fifty-story buildings, yet it gives us a


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thrill of joy to look up at the Metropolitan tower, or the cathedral spires of the Woolworth building just across the corner from New York’s little old city hall. There may be more art in the weather-stained structure of a century ago, but the mighty office building with its top lost in the mist one morning and standing out in clear relief against the shining sky the next fills our untutored souls with a kind of savage joy. So this subway scheme, second only to the Panama Canal as a tremendous engineering enterprise, attracts us with its very bigness. The “boosters” have the advantage over the “knockers,” for the subway contracts, once signed, spell physical accomplishment as the immediate next step. New York’s need of additional transit facilities has been scandalous for many years, with only partial and temporary relief from time to time. The Brooklyn Bridge crush and the subway jam are barbaric institutions. Then, the profit-hunger of the real estate dealers, who hover like a Parthian army on the outskirts of the city, creates an atmosphere in which Academic discussions about franchise principles meet with scant toleration. The land-men have waited long for the expected brood of rapid transit birds to be hatched, often fearing that the eggs were rotten after all, and in the meantime have felt the frequent stings of a long tax-payers’ winter.
These considerations explain why in New York the subway debate, which from a cool academic standpoint seems to run strongly against the contracts, was decided the other way by the preponderant influences that bore in upon officialdom. The people had no voice except the voice of clamor, pro or con, for in New York franchises are not subject to the referendum.
It would fill this magazine to present in detail the provisions of the contracts and the arguments for and against them. No more subtle and complex partnership was evei devisd Law, engineering, accounting, and public policy are woven together in infinite detail. There are dozens of subjects upon which whole articles might profitably be written. The provisions in regard to recapture of lines, extensions, amortization, replacements, reconstruction, equipment, determination of cost, interest during construction, engineering and legal expenses, joint trackage rights, treatment of existing franchises, preferentials, depreciation, default, indemnity bond and deposits, operating routes, control of operating expenses, division of profits, taxes, debt discount, construction and operating accounts, “exchange of legs,”—are all interesting, controversial and important. It may be worth while, however, in bringing this article to a close to enumer-erate the chief points in the argument for and against the contracts.
In favor of the contracts, it was urged:
1. That the dual plan as a route scheme meant the first effective step in remaking New York from a highly congested, unsymmetrical, long city into a less congested, more evenly developed, round city.


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2. That the dual plan meant a great extension of the five-cent fare zones, and the provision of direct and convenient access to the business district for vast areas and populations now suffering from the inconvenience of indirect routes and double fares.
3. That the dual plan utilized to the full not only the extensive and in part unwise investments in subways and bridges already made by the city, but also the existing facilities of the rapid transit companies already in the field, thus securing a maximum of service for a minimum of new investment.
4. That the dual plan would at last put the city in control of future rapid transit development by the provision authorizing it to build and compel the companies to operate extensions whenever and wherever needed.
5. That the dual plan would enlist the cooperation of private capital to the extent of $165,000,000 of new money, without which the city could not possibly carry through the immense and beneficent enlargement of rapid transit facilities immediately necessary for the public welfare, except after long, painful and disastrous delays.
6. That the dual plan, while recognizing the right of the companies to maintain their present profits, definitely limited the preferential return on new capital to an amount substantially equivalent to interest and amortization charges.
7. That by the new contract with the Interborough, Rapid Transit Company the leases of the existing subway would be levelled and made coterminous with the lease of the new lines, thus bringing the entire subway situation to a head at one time.
8. That by the right of recapture at any time after ten years of operation, this right being applicable to the entire new subway system operated by either company, or to any one or more of several specified divisions of each system, the city would remain in continuous control of the situation with the power to shift lines from one company to the other, to throw both of the companies out and get a new operator, or to institute municipal operation.
9. That under the dual plan not only would the city own the subways and their equipment from the beginning even though it was to contribute only a portion of the cost, but the entire investment, private and public, would be amortized within the period of the contracts and possession of the property fully paid for and unencumbered by debt, would then revert to the city.
10. That the elevated railroad improvements included in the dual plan would give the quickest possible relief to existing congestion of traffic.
11. That the consummation of this vast scheme of rapid transit development would greatly stimulate the growth of the city, increase its values


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and add to its borrowing capacity and taxing resources, thus insuring the city’s ability to recapture the subways whenever it might choose to do so and making the burden of any possible deficits arising under the contracts too insignificant to be considered.
On the other hand, those opposed to the contracts, while admitting the actual soundness of some of the arguments just enumerated, and the theoretical soundness of most of them, contended that several of the advantages claimed could not actually be realized under the terms of the contracts as worked out in detail, that others were in no sense peculiar to the dual plan, and that the positively objectionable features of the contracts more than offset any possible advantages obtainable only through this plan.
Specifically, they urged:
1. That the preferentials guaranteed to the companies were exorbitant, and that those of the Interborough in particular were the result of neglected depreciation and shameless congestion of traffic, the outgrowth of the company’s reactionary policy in the past.
2. That the Interborough’s plans for financing its share in the scheme involved the payment of an outrageous tribute to J. P. Morgan and Company, the money kings, who were to get $170,000,000 of Interborough new and refunding bonds at 93§, although these bonds would easily be worth par in the open market, and in fact were to be redeemed from time to time for amortization purposes at 110, while the Brooklyn company’s financial scheme, after being worked out through the intricate convolutions of interwoven companies, showed an even worse result.
3. That the allowance of 1 per cent per annum for a sinking fund covering a period of forty-nine years would enable the Interborough to accumulate a surplus of from $30,000,000 to $60,000,000 within the life of the contract, out of which it would take care of the excessive discounts not directly chargeable to capital account under the contract, while the Brooklyn company would be enabled to charge its discounts to interest during construction, and thus keep for itself the surplus in its sinking fund.
4. That the levelling of the leases of the present subway, instead of being an advantage to the city, involved the gift of $30,000,000 or $40,000,000 more to the Interborough Company during the life of its new contract.
5. That the Interborough contract, by reason of the excessive preferentials both to the company and to the city, could never promise a division of profits, and hence would destroy the company’s motive for economy and efficiency, leaving it free, without loss to itself, to wallow in extravagance and exploit politics on the city’s margin.
6. That by reason of the deficits the city would surely have to pay, its rapid transit bonds would remain subject to the debt limit and its tax


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resources would be drained to the utmost, thus rmllifying for practical purposes the recaption scheme depended on to keep the city in constant control of the situation.
7. That in amazing disregard of the first principles of equity, if not of law, the reconstruction and improvement of existing elevated railroads was to be charged entirely to capital account, fully amortized out of earnings by an annual preferential in advance of the city’s interest on its investment, and then left at the expiration of the contracts—all paid for and maintained at the topnotch of efficiency—in the perpetual possession of the companies.
8. That the city’s subways would be hooked up by a sort of Morganatic marriage with the princely family of Perpetual Franchises, to be exploited for their benefit, and in the end cut off unfitted for independence by the habits of half a century.
9. That the franchises for the elevated railroad extensions and improvements, running for eighty-five years, represented a mere wanton and inexcusable throwing away of public rights, provision being made by which the companies would amortize out of their preferentials the entire investment in these improvements and extensions within the period of the subway contracts, namely, forty-nine years.
10. That full municipal ownership (and municipal operation if the companies were unreasonable) of a comprehensive, independent system of new subways, financed so far as necessary by rapid transit certificates secured directly on the property and income of the subways, would be infinitely preferable to an unequal partnership with discredited corporations.
There is nothing new under the sun. In 1875, nearly forty years ago, New York debated whether the elevated roads should be constructed with public or with private capital. Then as now there was a sharp divergence of opinion among the city’s official representatives. The prevailing view was that “private enterprise should most assuredly be given the preference, in all works of this character, and an opportunity should be given to private capitalists to secure the advantages of investing in an undertaking that is in such popular demand as to be morally certain of proving highly profitable and remunerative.” Should we say that the enlightened aldermen of those days, whose words we quote, were some forty years ahead of their times? or that the public officials of 1913, who have been so solicitous for the protection of private profits and who proclaim so confidently the triumph of justice and fair-dealing in the new subway settlement, are still thinking in the grooves of 1875?


SCHOOL PROGRESS IN NEW YORK CITY
HE New York school system baffles comprehension by its magni-
tude. The significant statistics of the system defy realization; like
stellar distances they are beyond mental grasp. There are 750,000 youngsters enrolled. This is an army which marching four abreast would stretch all the way from New York to Philadelphia. There was an increase of 23,000 on the rolls of day schools last year. The yearly increase involves as great an expenditure for new buildings and equipment as the total outlay in a city like Syracuse since its foundation for housing its school system. There are over 18,000 on the teaching and supervising force, not including janitors nor those on the repairing and building force. This number with their families would make a town the size of Savannah. The increase in the teachers’ salaries for the year 1912 was $3,500,000, the increase alone surpassing the total outlay for teachers in Colorado, Kentucky, Georgia, Maine, Virginia or Vermont. The appropriation last year for current expenses and new buildings exceeded $40,000,000, a sum greater than the combined revenues of the states of Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Massachusetts, Virginia and Washington, and as great as the revenue of the Empire State itself. Who can encompass such prodigious facts or fully grasp their significance?
With responsibilities so huge it would be excusable if the New York board of education and board of superintendents were content to keep moving in the old ruts without trying new experiments or making fresh advances; but, on the contrary, they are so open to fresh ideas that it is doubtful whether any school system the world over shows more courage and ingenuity in devising new ways to help the child and its parents. A brief review will prove this assertion.
A special effort has been made recently to aid slow and dull pupils so as to lessen the number who fail to win promotion. Formerly the child who fell behind in one or two major subjects was forced to repeat all the work of a grade, with the result that the number of over-age children in the grades, of children who were really too old for the class they occupied,
lMr. Martin is a member of the board of education of New York City and some years aeo was associated with the school system of London, so that he writes out of a fullness of knowledge and wide experience, which gives added force to his words. His reference to the social activities of the New York schools is supplemented by Mr. John Collier's article based on Edward J. Ward’s The Social Center, see page 455.
BT JOHN MARTIN1
New York City
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ran into the tens of thousands; while the bright children, who could easily reach the goal of graduation in a shortened time, were kept back with the average and so wasted one or more school years. Only by the use of special classes and group work, and by elastic organization can all the pupils, the backward, the ordinary and the clever alike, be given the chance to progress at the rate their faculties will allow. Father Knickerbocker has 1500 children in his classes who, recently arrived from across the Atlantic, cannot yet speak English. He has 25,000—as many as are in all the classes of all kinds of the schools of Nashville—in special classes for overage pupils, to help them to make more rapid progress and to catch up with their mates.
At the same time that this notable advance was achieved in the mental work, the work in the more popular subjects, like music, dancing, drawing and gymnastics moved forward.
Only a decade ago the high school principal who introduced dancing for his pupils was reprimanded and, only by changing fhe name to “aesthetic steps,” was he able to retain the startling innovation. Today no girl need leave school without a knowledge of a dozen graceful folk dances, which, borrowed from all the countries of Europe, have won such popularity as to modify the civilization of congested sections. May day festivals were held in the parks, when 7000 white-clad maidens danced around the May-pole and, more remarkable, displayed with wonderful rhythm and beauty, the steps and combinations that the peasants use to express their gladness in Russia, Finland, Roumania and France.
The lads, more lusty and less rhythmical, show their prowess in athletic competitions, for which most of the schools enter. The intensive form of athletics, with its unavoidable neglect of the many for the few and the glorification of the athlete, is discouraged in favor of the extensive form, which tempts every boy to join in, which fosters group loyalty, avoids th'e adulation of star performers and gives everybody a chance. Badges are given to every youngster who reaches a normal standard—can chin himself so many times on the horizontal bar, and the like. Last year 8299 won this distinction, an increase of one-third over the previous year. One employer of many young men has written:
I have come to recognize the badge given by the board of education for athletic work and particularly for good posture to be of real significance. It is rare indeed that I do not find every boy who has won a badge superior to those who have not won the badge. I wish every boy would go through your course of sprouts’ and come to us alert and strong and standing up straight—the way these fellows do.
Class athletics, a scheme by which four-fifths of the boys in a class must compete in the making of the class average record, and in which the winning class is the one that gets the most points, is fast increasing. When


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8000 boys in the grammar grades compete in class running, benefits are not being confined to a few star performers. One lad, who helped to make his class record in jumping among the best, was himself one-legged; but he out-jumped many of his two-legged mates.
A goodly number of schools have their own school athletic meets and interclass competitions in basketball, baseball, running, and so forth, while more pretentious meets, in which the schools of large districts engage, have been common. In the high schools, to the delight of the lovers of the army, marksmanship has been practised with such effect that for the third time the boys of New York city hold the championship of the United States against the competition of scores of preparatory and military schools.
For the better physical development of the girls, who, despite the suffragettes, cannot imitate their brothers in the heavier outdoor sports, no less than 269 clubs have been organized by 941 of the teachers for taking long walks together. Periodically these bands wander forth, in charge of an adult selected by the principal, many of them lasses who formerly had never dared to roam beyond their own block, in order to explore the parks, see the distant sights, or breathe the fresh air of the woods and fields. Who can measure the benefit to body and mind of such strolls, especially for those girls who have spent their narrow lives in a squalid tenement and to whom a few trees and a patch of grass are a wonder and a mystery?
Besides the city armories, which are by courtesy utilized in the winter months for the athletic meets, the board operates itself, for summer use, four superb athletic fields, finer in equipment than the aristocratic youths of Eton and Harrow enjoy. And so that spirit of fair play, strenuous endeavor and ready cooperation, which led the Duke of Wellington to declare that the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing field? of Eton is likewise being fostered on the athletic fields of New York, and fostered not in a select aristocratic class but among tens of thousands who dwell in lowly tenements and must win a livelihood by arduous toil.
Allied to physical training is the teaching of hygiene, in which, also, a transformation is taking place. The practice of healthy habits instead of the inculcation of health precepts is aimed at. It is more important for a child to learn to come to school with clean body, teeth brushed, fingernails white and get into the way of doing some simple setting-up exercises morning and night than it is to learn by rote the horrors of alcoholism or the fell dangers of tobacco. The kind of hygiene that is being taught more and more widely is illustrated by the report of a boy sanitary commissioner of one public school who writes:
My first duty is to see that every boy comes to school clean. A sanitary chart with the names of the boys written on it is kept in every class from the sixth year up. A monitor, appointed by me, marks this chart


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every morning, according to the boy’s cleanliness. At the end of every month a list of the dirty boys is given to me by the different monitors. The offenders are summoned to court, where they are tried, and, if found guilty, are sentenced by the judges.
Athletic exercises and healthy habits will sharpen hunger. “ Let good digestion wait on appetite.” With 150 special teachers of home economics —cooking, housekeeping, laundry work and nursing—the girls of the upper grades are being prepared for their destined and appropriate vocation of hometaking better than ever before since the colonial days when mother taught daughter a multitude of household arts. In well-equipped kitchens under skilful guidance bevies of white-capped girls may be seen any school day, daintily weighing and mixing, tasting and cooking, the simple dishes which every woman should be able to prepare, practising the tactics by which that great enemy of Americans, dyspepsia, may be routed.
. Meanwhile their brothers are handling hammer, chisel and saw in handy workshops under one of the 137 special instructors, who, themselves skilled artisans, command respect by their thorough workmanship. Nobody can see for the first time, without surprise, the pieces of furniture and dainty models which were shown at recent exhibitions, the work of the older lads in the grammar schools. So the city child is getting some of that allround training which the farmer’s boy gets as a matter of course on the farm, a training which has produced from the soil the most eminent Americans from President Lincoln downwards.
But indoor manual work, good as it is, is not the best for summer months. When the soft south wind blows and the sun shines through the windows beckoning to the outer air, the proper workshop is the garden. Of course in a monstrous city like New York space is lacking to give all the boys and girls a plot of soil to work; but, nevertheless, a goodly proportion have of late years been put in contact with nature’s beauties. Of window or indoor gardens there were more than 6500 blooming last year, all tended by the youngsters; and on the outdoor gardens, the property of the board of education, there were 50,287 flower pots and 82,918 vegetable plots, to say nothing of the 29,539 plots under cultivation by scholars on property not belonging to the board—an amazing record for city-bred pupils. One result was the encouragement of tens of thousands of window gardens in the homes. Literally hundreds of teachers, to whose unselfish enthusiasm the rapid development of this work is due, gratuitously aided the young gardeners out of school hours, and financial help from the city treasury and from private sources did the rest. Thus, despite its many handicaps, the most crowded city in Christendom is forging into a front place in the development of a school activity which was supposed to be peculiarly ill-adapted to massed populations.
After so much training of hand and eye naturally a fair proportion of


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the graduates are ready to learn a trade if the opportunity offers. For several years the manual training high school, the commercial high school, and the practical departments of the other high schools have given courses which prepared, somewhat indirectly, for business life. But the specific teaching of a trade, in workmanlike shops, has had only about two years’ trial—for boys in the vocational school established by the board, and for girls in the Manhattan trade school, which, established by a voluntary committee, was later taken into the school system. Both are fast enlarging and have justified themselves. The lads learn house carpentry and construction, cabinet work, wood turning, pattern making, electric wiring and installation, printing, machine shop practice, forging, plumbing, molding, bookbinding and industrial design. An automobile repair shop is about to be installed. The girls, who come mostly from homes which cannot afford more than a brief training to increase immediate earning power in trades not highly^ skilled, learn dressmaking, millinery, novelty work, machine operating and designing. The practical character of the instruction is proved by the output of goods commercially valuable. The boys’ school did, during the year, $3437 worth of work for the department and the girls’ school sold in the open market $7579 worth of goods.
Graduates of both schools show increased earning capacity and a rapid advancement when they enter shops. Case after case is reported in which a lad, within two or three months, had his wages raised to eight or nine dollars from the four or five dollars a week at which he started. At both schools teachers advise and help the graduates in getting a suitable job, the girls’ school having a secretary to do exclusively this work, and to discover the kinds of work for which there is a demand, that the school may always keep in touch with the trades. In twelve months this secretary placed 486 girls, ensuring to them proper wages and suitable surroundings.
Within a year three additional evening trade schools have been opened, including an industrial school especially for colored persons, which will add several hundreds to the 4000 men, who, last winter, registered at the existing evening trade schools. JThe notable event in the history of these schools last winter was an agreement entered into, officially, with the pattern makers’ union, under which the union will see that every apprentice to the trade attends the classes and will cooperate with the principals and the board in arranging the most beneficial curriculum and equipment. Such recognition by the workmen themselves of the value of the work done and the equal interest of employers, will turn the success of the evening trade schools, already assured, into a triumph.
Not many years ago the school buildings and grounds were shut tight for three months in the summer in New York, as in other cities, the children being left to welter on the streets while the teachers recruited at


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seashore and mountain. We have changed all that; and New York leads the way. Last summer in thirty-two different buildings vocation schools were conducted six weeks. These were not feeble imitations of the regular schools, but offered attraction which few unemployed youngsters could resist. The boys were taught Venetian ironwork, wood work, whittling (that immemorial boy’s delight), fret sawing, chair-caning and basketry. The girls (5000 of them) took cooking and housekeeping, sewing and dressmaking, millinery, embroidery, knitting, crocheting and basketry.
The making of bread and biscuit was specially emphasized; and, during the winter in many families “home made bread” has been possible because of the fact that daily lessons were given during the summer in the preparation of this staff of life.
Competent nurses gave frequent lessons on such important health matters as the cleaning of the teeth, individual drinking cups, and antiseptic preparations as well as elementary instruction in “first aid to the injured.”
No wonder the percentage of attendance was high. No truant officers were needed to bring the “reluctant schoolboy unwillingly to school.”
To help mother and to prevent the keeping of the older children at home “to mind the baby” morning kindergarten classes were also conducted in regular indoor kindergarten rooms, as well as one hundred and eleven kindergarten classes in afternoon playgrounds. These were brightly decorated with the handiwork of the little ones, and “cosy corners,” “play lands,” and “slumber lands” in comers showed where the babies were consigned. Story-telling by the teacher was general, the tots sitting wide-eyed and open-mouthed as the dramatized tale was unfolded.
In other places were playgrounds for mothers and babies, where the infants could sleep in hammock swings in the shade while the mothers, some of them “little mothers” but few years older than their charges,rested on the benches or gently swayed their infants and crooned lullabies to them.
Special attention was paid last summer to music and to song. An attempt was made to sing only good songs, the results showing a willingness on the part of mothers and children to accept higher standards. Some of the old-fashioned melodies like “Annie Laurie,” “Auld Lang Syne,” “Suwanee River” and “The Old Oaken Bucket” woke tender memories of the past to some weary mothers and gave to their children material for similar future memories.
Even the work of the vocation schools, attractive as it was, being done indoors, could properly be used only half the day. For the afternoons play for everybody was the rule at 248 centers, where over 600 teachers supervised baseball, basketball, rope quoits, handball and more formal gymnastics. In baseball a championship tournament was organized which


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roused great enthusiasm and kept teams at every center up to concert pitch. Field days were held on the public school athletic fields, when several thousand children would gather with their parents to enjoy the races and athletic features. For those who got tired of the bustle of the playground a game room and reading room offered checkers, dominoes, pictures, and puzzles, besides a collection of high class juvenile literature, provided by the New York library.
In the evenings, in some congested portions of the city, the school house roofs were equipped with electric lights and benches, small bands discoursed sweet music for part of the evening, and later the girls and women, to the bright strains, enjoyed folk and social dancing. Every place of the kind was crowded to its fullest capacity, the aggregate attendance during the season running close up to a million.
Altogether it may be claimed, in reason and with due modesty, that Father Knickerbocker did as much for his children last summer as any colleague in the world.
When the days shortened and outdoor sports and studies were no longer attractive the recreational classes for the young and blithesome and the serious classes for the studious were transfered to the warmed and lighted interiors.
Eighteen evening high schools and one hundred and one evening elementary schools, more than ever before, were opened for the winter months, for which, altogether, 112,000 pupils enrolled. No less than 40,000 foreigners enrolled for the study of the English tongue which was still to them a mystery, a fact which illustrates the unusual and burdensome difficulties with which the New York school system ever struggles. Only after two or three years’ special work on the language are such students capable of profiting from the teaching in the regular courses.
For the less studious and for the neighborhood sociability forty-three recreation centers, thirty for men and boys and thirteen for women were conducted, where gymnastics, games, music, dancing and clubs of many varieties gave amusement and development to over two million visitors in the course of the season.
In the library and game room, books carefully selected to meet the wants of the youthful readers, magazines, checkers, chess and other games, bowls and a “correspondence table” offered rest and refreshment to many weary toilers after the labors of sweat shop, store, office or factory. Many tournaments in chess and checkers were run off. One man over sixty years old missed not a single night and defeated all comers at his favorite game of checkers.
For the first time teachers of music were assigned to a number of the centers and systematic attempts were made to organize glee-clubs and choruses. Round the piano forty or fifty youngsters would gather and


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warble more or less melodiously time-honored songs like “Way Down the Suwanee River/' while, occasionally, some budding Caruso or Sembrich whom the teacher had discovered, would troll with spirit a popular air or a violinist would display his budding powers. In several of the centers small orchestras have been started. In some centers regular gymnastic squad work was maintained and creditable displays were given of exercises by groups on the horse, buck and parallel bars by the men. The women at the same time indulged in folk dancing, and athletic contests. As in the day schools, the aim in all the organized athletics was not to develop “stars,” but good all round athletes, so that the average physical development would be improved.
“A center without clubs can have little real success,” says the enthusiastic superintendent of their work. Club directors have therefore enlarged their activities until nearly 700 clubs—athletic, literary, social, musical, civic, philanthropic and so forth—were run during the winter for thousands of young men and maidens, under capable supervision, in rooms furnished by the board of education without any cost of money to the members. Such a mass of social service could hardly be duplicated in any other city. Still the work keeps growing. Boy scouts were recently added to the list of beneficiaries. Even more notable, an active competition has been started with the dance halls which have lured so many young girls to ruin.
Mixed dancing classes is at last a regular feature of the centers for girls and women. Each young man who takes part presents a certificate from the principal of his center to the effect that he is a member in good standing of one of the clubs. The music is played on a piano by a teacher regularly appointed as a pianist. Often, however, a violin or comet or both, paid for by the membership dues of the young men, adds to the gaiety of the dance. The lower forms of popular music are barred, and, of course, the turkey trot, the grizzly bear and the other indecencies which found their way into high society are rigorously barred. Thus, under the fostering guidance of the women principals, who regard carefully all the conventionalities necessary, the school is able to raise the social tone of the neighborhood.
In conjunction with committees of citizens the board of education, last winter, gave high class concerts and moving picture displays for the first time. Under the will of Mr. Pulitzer funds were provided for giving orchestral music of the highest quality in working-class neighborhoods perfectly free. The board of education gladly cooperated by loaning the superb halls and organs in various high school buildings, with the result that packed audiences heard concerts that rivalled the best performances in Carnegie Hall. On a* number of Sunday evenings, also in the high school auditoriums, concerts and lectures were given in cooperation with the Peoples’ Institute, of the character which have made Cooper Union the


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synonym for peoples’ evenings. Along with the same committee a start was also made with educational moving picture shows which drew great crowds.
All these new enterprises were supplementary to the evening lectures for adults, which, begun twenty-three years ago, have expanded into a veritable university for the people. In the season just closed extensive courses in electricity, on literature and on history were delivered, as well as shorter courses and single lectures on civics, geography, hygiene, travel, astronomy, music—on well-nigh every subject in which instruction could conceivably be desired. With 6000 lectures delivered to audiences which aggregated during the season close upon a million, this free, municipal university for the people takes rank with any institution of the kind the world over.
Altogether, the work of the New York board of education makes an amazing story, wonderful in its variety, stunning in its magnitude, incalculable in its beneficence. Yet, astonishing and inspiring as are the past achievements, there are still worlds awaiting conquest. Broad as has been the scope of the work in all its varieties it by no means covers the territory. To bring to all the children and all the people in Father Knickerbocker’s family every opportunity which any of them now enjoy will involve the outlay of more millions. But the accomplishment of the past decade gives bright promise for the next decade. A metropolis which, within a few years, has pushed forward from the rear to the front of the procession of cities, will not readily relinquish its leadership. There is every indication that the rate of improvement will not only be maintained, but may even be accelerated.


THE NEW YORK POLICE SITUATION
BY CLEMENT J. DRISCOLL2 New York City
“ J | ^HE period of clamor and falsehood seems now to be passing, and I the whole community is beginning to see how basely they have been imposed upon by the invented falsehoods which have been published, especially by those newspapers which pass among us under the name of degenerate.
“While all this falsehood and clamor against the force was going on, I watched with anxiety to see whether it was breaking down the discipline of the force, for which it was designed. I am happy now to congratulate the whole force On the admirable way in which they have conducted themselves under the most trying circumstances. Notwithstanding that one of their number was found grafting, I have faith in the force as a whole. Please communicate this to the force. It has been hard to suffer the abuse which they have gone through, except to those who consider the sources from which it came. What degenerates think of us is of no con-
1 Immediately after the murder of Herman Rosenthal and the indictment of Police Lieutenant Becker, the following investigations were inaugurated:
August 5, 1912, the board of aldermen appointed a committee to investigate the police. Its final report is now in the hands of the printer.
August 14, at a mass meeting at Cooper Union, a citizens’ committee was organized and formed into a non-official investigating body for the purpose of assisting the alder-manic committee and the district attorney. This committee filed its report with the legislature on March 19, 1913.
In September, District Attorney Whitman began a grand jury investigation of the police department, which was subsequently abandoned.
Following the confessions before the aldermanic committee of George A. Sipp and Mary Goode, implicating high police officials, the district attorney caused the indictment of many high police officials.
Early in March, the state legislature appointed a joint senate and assembly committee to investigate the New York police department. This committee did not conduct any investigation or study, but held a number of public hearings and invited former police and city officials to appear before it and give their views on how the police department should be managed. As the result of its work, a bill was introduced in the legislature creating a board of social welfare. The object of this bill was to remove from the police department .all jurisdiction over gambling and disorderly houses and to place the enforcement of the laws against these vices in the hands of a non-salaried commission. The bill passed both houses but was vetoed by Mayor Gaynor.
The only legislation affecting the police department enacted at this session of the legislature was a law creating additional deputy police commissioners to the number of 19. This was vetoed by Governor Sulzer.
2 Former deputy police commissioner and now connected with the New York Bureau of Municipal Research.
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cern. We must look to get the estimate and good will of all intelligent and good citizens.
W. J. Gaynob.”
Thus wrote the mayor of the city of New York, to his police commissioner on September 18, 1912. The letter from which the above is taken was published to the entire force on September 19, just ten days after the board of aldermen of the city had begun its investigation into the affairs of the police department.
On September 20, the police commissioner was a witness before the alder-manic police investigating committee, and in answer to a question of its chief counsel, Emory R. Buckner, defiantly stated: “ There is nothing wrong with the police department except public clamor.” Both of these statements “put heart” into the dishonest members of the force and made them more bold to obstruct the district attorney and the aldermanic committee in their researches. 10,500 members of the force had read to them the mayor’s letter quoted above.
Nine months of investigation and research by the aldermanic investigating committee, the district attorney and his grand jury, have served to show that indeed there is much more the matter with the police department than public clamor. As the result of the researches of the Curran committee and the activity of District Attorney Whitman, one police lieutenant is now in the death house at Sing Sing, convicted of murder in the first degree. Four police inspectors are in the penitentiary. Two patrolmen are behind the bars at Sing Sing. One captain of police, a self-confessed criminal, is awaiting sentence. One patrolman, confessedly a collector for high police officials, is awaiting sentence. A lawyer, who confessed as to his part in police corruption, is awaiting sentence. A sergeant of police, five patrolmen, and five “citizen go-betweens,” are under indictment for extortion, perjury, and bribery. The four police inspectors have also hanging over them many other indictments, and the district attorney is still following the trail of graft in the department pointed out to him in the confession of police captain Walsh.3
During the trial of these police barons, the workings of the “system” were laid bare, but the criminal investigation of itself would be of little value to the city except for the constructive study into the administrative methods of the department made by the Curran committee.
At the very outset of the inquiry the Bureau of Municipal Research placed at the disposal of the aldermen, without charge, its entire staff of lawyers, police experts, accountants, investigators, and stenographers. Thus Mr. Buckner was enabled to take over a well organized plant and undertake a constructive study of the department.
3 See article of C. R. Atkinson, National Municipal Review, vol ii, p. 439.


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The aldermanic committee held eighty public sessions in the aldermanic chamber of the city hall, beginning September 10, 1912, and ending March 27,1913. It received the testimony of 224 witnesses, and examined through the investigators of the Bureau of Municipal Research tens of thousands of documents on file in the police department and elsewhere. The record of the proceedings before the committee consists of 4,800 printed pages. The entire investigation cost the city $40,000. In addition to this sum, however, about $25,000 was expended by private citizens and civic agencies assisting the committee in its work.
A careful review of the printed record proves conclusively that corruption and inefficiency in the police department are for the most part due to administrative methods which make intelligent direction and accountability impossible. The organization with regard to rank was found to be without serious fault, and the record points out clearly that great reforms toward increased police efficiency can be attained with scarcely a change in the substantive law or statutes governing the creation of the department. The majority of the experts who have analyzed the record are agreed that the single change in the law needed to bring about a permanent reform is a longer term of office with added security of tenure for the police commissioner. The close observer of municipal affairs should not marvel at police inefficiency and corruption in a city of five millions of people where the police department has had eight police commissioners in eleven years. Not one of these commissioners had ever had any connection with police work prior to his appointment to command the 10,500 members of the department. Some of them were former army officials, others lawyers, politicians, and business men.
With each incoming commissioner came new rules and changes in the old regulations, and of course the “fad and fancy” of his lay mind. These “fads and fancies” and lay notions as to how a large police force should be managed, have been subject to such kaleidoscopic change that they have been productive of nothing short of chaos. No commissioner has ever been in command of the police department long enough to work out efficiently any scheme or idea of management. A commissioner to be successful must know intimately the personal history and character of all his commanding officers. He must become thoroughly familiar with the spirit and ethical standards of the entire force. Under the present system the policemen do not respect their commissioners.
Inspectors, captains, and lieutenants feel more powerful than the commissioner. They know that they are permanent, while he will probably be short-lived, and thus in passing among the members of the force one frequently hears it said: “Commissioners come and commissioners go, but the ‘system' lives on forever.”
Our policemen in New York have never been taught to understand that


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it is their sole duty to enforce the laws, but on the contrary each new com-sioner creates a new policy of enforcement. One commissioner believes in the rigid enforcement of the excise law. Another permits and encourages a liberal enforcement. Some commissioners have attempted to enforce the laws against gambling and prostitution, while still others have been frank to admit that it was not their desire that the laws against commercialized prostitution should be rigidly enforced. The result, as made clear by the aldermanic investigation committee’s record, is that the policeman realizes early in his career that the law which he is required to enforce today he must wink at tomorrow. It is but natural, then, that corruption and dishonesty must necessarily follow, because the policemen, realizing that his commissioner has no more legal nor moral right to have a policy of enforcement than he himself has, soon follows the example of his commissioner and creates his own policy of enforcement on his beat, to his own profit and gain.
A secure tenure, subject only to dismissal for proved inefficiency, would not only give the commissioner the necessary experience to become competent, but would go a long way toward breaking the backbone of the "system.”
The aldermanic committee recommended to the state legislature in a preliminary report that the commissioner be appointed by the mayor for a term of eight years, subject to removal by the mayor and also by the governor, but in either case only after charges preferred and after he has been given an opportunity to defend himself in a public hearing.
In addition to the right of the mayor to prefer charges, it was also recommended that the board of estimate and apportionment or the board of aldermen by a majority vote should be given power to prefer charges against the police commissioner, and that the mayor be compelled to give a public hearing after reasonable notice.
This would not destroy centralization of power in the mayor nor relieve him from responsibility for the entire city administration, because he could remove the commissioner at any time after a public hearing. It would, however, place him under the moral necessity of publicly justifying his action. While it is indeed proper for the mayor to advise with his police commissioner on large questions of policy, it is destructive of discipline for the mayor to interfere in matters of administration.
The police commissioner is underpaid. If the city of New York desires the entire time of a first-rate executive, it should be prepared to pay a fitting salary. The present salary of the police commissioner is $7,500 per year. This salary should be increased to at least $12,000.
To eliminate police corruption and to encourage efficiency, it is necessary that the standard of character for entrance to the force should be raised. Except for their first two years of service, the policemen as a whole are well


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paid and the inducements to bright, active young men to join the force include a pension after twenty-five years of service, a pension to their widow or dependent children or parents in the event of death in the performance of their duty, a pension in the event of their becoming disabled in the service, permanent occupation and opportunities of promotion to the various commissioned ranks. Thus the police commissioner should demand and be able to secure the services of young men of the very highest moral standing. But the aldermanic committee in its investigation discovered that the examination into the character of the men appointed was wholly inadequate and that Commissioner Waldo appointed to the force men who had sworn falsely in their applications in order to conceal previous arrests, indictments, discharges from employment, etc.
One illustration will suffice to make clear the low standard of fitness for policemen accepted by the present police administration. Michael Im-briale when applying for the position of patrolman swore that he had never been arrested. Records in the police department which were specifically called to the attention of the present police commissioner, disclosed the fact that Imbriale had previously been arrested for murder, indicted, tried, and acquitted. Later he was accused of having slashed the throat of a sixteen year old boy with a razor. He was arrested, indicted, tried, and acquitted. Subsequently he was charged by his wife with cruelty and nonsupport. The files in the police department contained many complaints against the character of this man. The boy who accused Imbriale of having slashed his neck with a razor urged the police commissioner personally, as he did also the mayor, to refuse Imbriale appointment to the police force. Notwithstanding that Imbriale swore that he had never been arrested or complained against, and notwithstanding the appeal of this boy, the police commissioner made Imbriale a policemen. When Mr. Buckner questioned Deputy Commissioner McKay and the police commissioner concerning these appointments, and particularly concerning the appointment of Imbriale, he received answers which revealed the low standard of fitness for policemen in this city:
Deputy Police Commissioner McKay (page 61$)
Q. Then if anybody can escape going to jail he is a good enough policeman for you, is that right?
A. Yes, sir; if the complaints against him are dismissed, he is a good enough policeman for me.
Q. Don’t you regard that a very low standard for a police officer?
A. I never criticize the courts.
Commissioner Waldo (page 655)
Q. Commissioner Waldo, we were going over, this afternoon, the case of one of your patrolmen, Mike Imbriale, and we have already touched this


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case before. And I find he was appointed by you on June 28, 1911. We have had, this afternoon, evidence which I do not suppose you would recall of certain protests being made regarding the appointment of Michael Imbriale, whom Commissioner Cropsey had rejected, but whom you appointed after the Civil Service Commission had recertified him, and we find, among other things, a letter from the Mayor’s office, concerning a complaint which was sent to Chief Inspector Schmittberger, on which he made a report to you. We also find a report of Commissioner McKay. It was the case of an Italian, and it was alleged that he had killed one man and cut the throat of another, although he had been acquitted by the courts on both charges. It was also alleged that he had sworn falsely regarding his ever being arrested. I wonder if you now recall anything at all about the case?
A. I do recall appointing Imbriale. I did not remember his name right away, but I recall the circumstances. In this country we have courts to try people who are charged with various crimes.
Since it is possible for a man to enter the police department with a lie upon his lips, one must not marvel when he reads in the daily press of policemen committing perjury in the courts, of policemen betraying the trusts imposed upon them by their superior officers, and of policemen selling to the highest bidder their testimony in important cases.
Incredible as it may seem, the committee discovered that a burglar previously convicted for his crime, whose picture and record adorned the walls of the Rogues’ Gallery, had passed through the gate undetected, been presented with the shield of office, and sworn in as a public protector. It was not until he displayed again his criminal traits that he was exposed, and then instead of being removed from the force in disgrace was permitted to quietly resign.
The commmittee pointed out that the lack of proper and efficient character research was one of the most striking defects of the police department. Since it was possible for a felon upon the expiration of his term of imprisonment to join the ranks of the police department undiscovered, and for perjurers whose untruthfulness was known to the department and whose false statements were a matter of record to obtain appointment, then the casual observer need not marvel at the criminal activities of a Becker, a Sweeney, a Hussey, and a Thompson, as recently disclosed. The most scientific methods of efficiency, the most skillful administration, and the most intelligent executive control, will all fail in police work unless the entrance to the force is effectively guarded against untruthful, dishonest, and immoral men. The police force of the city of New York is today suffering from the laxity of investigation of years past, and the bulk of the corruption is among the superior officers who entered the gate when it was not guarded. The city is paying the penalty through police corruption and inefficiency of the dishonest methods of appointment and promotion of many years ago. It is an undisputed fact that in the past policemen purchased their appointments


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and their promotions. Many of these men are today the officers of the department.
That there has been wide-spread blackmail levied by responsible police officials upon the keepers of gambling and disorderly houses, was indeed established by the aldermanic investigating committee. The committee made no pretense of studying the gambling and prostitution subjects as moral questions, but simply as a police problem. Viewing the enforcement of these laws from a purely administrative viewpoint, a glance at the record of the aldermanic inquiry will suffice to show that police graft and corruption are due entirely to faulty administration. While it is apparent that the present police commissioner endeavored to enforce the laws against gambling—but failed in his efforts—it is equally apparent that he did not desire or attempt to enforce the laws against prostitution except where outward conditions were disorderly. That there was graft collected is not surprising when one considers the following facts in connection with the enforcement of the laws against gambling and prostitution, brought to light by Mr. Emory R. Buckner, counsel for the aldermanic committee:
1. A total failure effectively to check the work of police officials and to punish demonstrated inefficiency or significant inactivity.
2. A stubborn confidence in the integrity of the men selected by the commissioner to supervise this work.
3. Giving to the very men accused, for their own information, letters charging them with graft, without making any independent investigation.
4. The commissioner’s lack of information as to actual vice conditions.
5. That the inspectors and captains were able to keep from the commissioner and his deputies information and the complaints of citizens. Indeed, two captains of police testified before the aldermen that they very frequently “tore up and threw in the waste basket” the complaints addressed to them by citizens.
6. Faulty methods of handling complaints sent to the commissioner.
7. The citizen complainant regarded as a hostile critic rather than as one furnishing information to the department.
8. A total lack of supervision over the testimony of policemen in the courts.
With a police commissioner having a fixed tenure of office and removable only by the mayor or the governor after a public hearing; with a searching inquiry into the character of men appointed to the police force; with the information concerning vice conditions properly used by the police commissioner, and delinquent inspectors punished for inefficiency or significant inactivity, the police department of the city of New York could easily be brought up to a high standard of efficiency, and police graft and corruption to say the least minimized.4
‘See National Municipal Review, vol. ii, p. 279.


CONDITIONS OF VICE AND CRIME IN NEW YORK AND THE RELATIONS TO THESE OF THE POLICE FORCE OF THE CITY
BY GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM2 New York
IT IS apparent from the evidence recently secured by the district attorney that the police force of the city is now, as in 1900, at the time of the appointment of the committee of fifteen, utilizing its responsibilities and the powers placed in its hands for the control of vicious and criminal conditions, for the purpose of securing gain for its members and for the powers back of the force.
The investigations carried on, in 1900-1901, by the committee of fifteen brought its members to the conclusion that the stringent laws enacted in Albany for the control of the social evil, the restriction of the sale of liquor and the suppression of gambling and of the pool-rooms, were the result of a combination between the chiefs of Tammany Hall and representatives of the up-state rural communities who had convinced themselves that it was practicable to make our great city moral by means of legislation and that their duty had been fulfilled when they had enacted laws to this end.
It is my belief, based on an experience of more than half a century as a citizen in this city, and of more than one-third of a century in work on the grand jury, that part at least of the difficulties in securing an effective 1
1 See also articles by Clement J. Driscoll in this issue, page 401, and in the April ' issue, page 279, dealing with the investigation of the police department of New York City.
•This statement on the condition of vice and crime in New York and their relation to the city’s police force was submitted by Mr. Putnam to the New York legislative committee on remedial police legislation of which Senator Wagner was chairman. This important contribution to the discussion received such scant attention both in the daily papers and at the hands of the committee that the editor feels justified in presenting it in its entirety to the readers of the National Municipal Review. Mr. Putnam is a long time observer of conditions in New York and his statement reflects not only his views as a thoughtful and public spirited observer, but os a member of the grand jury during a third of a century, as he himself points out in his statement. The committee to which this statement was submitted was appointed by the New York legislature at the instance of the representatives of Tammany Hall.
It was' the intention of the committee, according to a well informed correspondent, to prepare “a report that might offset the serious injury to the reputation of the Tammany administration which had been brought about through the action of the district attorney and by the investigations of certain citizens’ committees.” Ap-
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and trustworthy administration of our police force is due to confusion in the minds of the legislators in regard to this matter. It is the honest belief of a good many people that all forms of sin and vice are to be treated as crime and to be controlled by law, and as such control, particularly in a great city like New York, is, of course, impracticable, we have as one result a contempt for law and as another the demoralization of the officials whose business it is to enforce the law.
It was the conclusion of our committee of fifteen, as a result of investigations extending over two years, that the purpose of the Tammany organization in bringing about the enactment of such laws had been the very substantial advantages to be secured in selling the privilege of breaking the law. We arrived at an estimate (the figures could, of course, be but approximate) that during the year 1900, the amounts secured through the sale of such privileges, a sale, of necessity, conditioned upon “protection” to be given by the police to authorized breakers of the law, aggregated no less than $2,500,000. I noted a report brought into print some months back that an estimate of $2,400,000 had been arrived at as the amount secured in 1911 through similar sales of law breaking privileges.
The estimate reached by our committee of the amount so paid in 1901 was arrived at by ascertaining specific payments made weekly or monthly by certain bad houses, pool-rooms, gambling houses and liquor shops, and by multiplying these payments by the number. of concerns in the city doing a like business with similar receipts.
parently only that material was utilized by the committee as tended to put Tammany in a more favorable light.
As bearing on the same question the attention of the readers of the National Municipal Review is directed to the address of Dr. Frederic C. Howe, director of the People’s Institute of New York on “The Police, Excise and Gambling Evil: Is the Trouble with our State Laws?” made at the City Club last November, in concluding which address Dr. Howe said:
And I am morally certain of one thing in regard to these problems. If we had home rule, if this were our problem, and we were free to deal with it in our own way, if the city itself had to control it, I am certain that the first thing a mayor-elect would do would be to call into conference a group of men to help him work out that problem. I am sure he would say to them: “The most troublesome problem of all to me is this problem of vice. What will we do with it? What orders shall the board of estimate adopt? What policy shall we pursue? I want your help and assistance, your cooperation and advice.”
And such a group of men would then be able to work on that problem as they cannot work on it today. They, we, all of us would face it as our own. It could not be dodged. It could not be avoided.
And out of all the wisdom of this city, out of the immediate widespread, now impossible experimentation on the subject a program would be evolved for the social evil, the excise question and the saloon, that would be infinitely better than that which we have today. It would minimize temptation and protect the innocent. It would open recreation and alternatives to the street, the saloon, the dance hall. It would make its policy open and free to all without the payment of tribute, and would free the police from the policy of piracy that the state laws now inevitably produce.


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There was in force a business system for assessing the amounts of these payments which were graded according to the estimated weekly or monthly receipts of the concerns protected. The system of the assessment provided, however, only for a minimum payment that was exacted. Extra charges were imposed from time to time as a result, for instance, of the coming in of a new captain or a new inspector, or in connection with special requirements arising from a municipal election.
It was impossible to carry on the machinery for making such collection throughout the entire city from these various divisions of law breakers and maintaining protection for those who had paid without the use of a large number of persons, chiefly, of necessity, officials. Each roundsman, sergeant, captain, or inspector, through whose hands the money passed, must, of course, be permitted to retain a portion or a percentage for his remuneration.
The statement recently made by Mayor Gaynor that not more than fifty members of the force were now concerned with the collection of graft moneys, is a manifest absurdity in the face of the evidence that a city-wide system for the collection of such money is again in force. Our committee was forced to the conclusion that a system has been arrived at under which after the payment of the several intermediaries, a substantial portion of the funds secured went into the general Tammany treasury. Some of this money was undoubtedly used for the benevolence funds administered by the district leaders. It is my impression, based not only upon the work of these two years but upon the knowledge that has come to me in other ways, that these benevolent funds have been on the whole well administered, and that they give very valuable help in cases of real need and misery. It is evidently, however, essential that the name of the beneficiary should be on the books of the district leader, and that the voters in the family assisted must hold themselves ready for work at the primaries and at the polls and in any other channels in which their service may be required.
During the past seven years, I have had experience in work on the later committee of fourteen, which, chiefly under the able direction of the Rev. John P. Peters, has done what has seemed to be practicable to restrict the serious evils from the Raines’ law hotel—a combination of a drinking saloon and a place of assignation—that came into existence as a result of legislation attempting to prevent the sale of liquor on Sundays. The work of the Peters’ committee has reduced these houses by more than two-thirds, and the other one-third are under such supervision as keeps their business fairly satisfactory, but the law itself, a fair example of unwise legislation due to ignorant sentiment, is an absurdity, and it ought to be repealed.
It is my belief that our police force contains today, and has contained


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through the period in question, excellent material. In my grand jury investigations, I have found myself continually impressed with the good judgment, the ability and the courage shown by the.privates of the force in the handling of crime and of criminals.
It is evident, however, that no man entering .the police can have any hopes of promotion, or can even be sure of retaining his position unless he accepts the system that is in force at the time. Any criticism on his part of the actions of his superiors, any willingness to give testimony that might bring his superior into criticism, or any lack of zeal in obeying instructions for service of whatever character constitutes, of necessity, a final bar to the man’s success in the force.
Under pressure of this kind, the best material becomes promptly demoralized. The moral tone, or lack of moral tone, on the part of commissioner, inspector, or captain, comes to be promptly reflected through all the grades of the force.
Some years back, I had occasion during a municipal campaign in this city to refer in an open newspaper letter to a series of appointments made by Mayor McClellan. I was quite willing to believe that Mr. McClellan, himself a gentleman, would have preferred, by placing decent men in positions of responsibility, to secure a good record for himself and for his administration. As a fact, however, and doubtless under the pressure of instructions from the powers that had made him mayor, McClellan made some of the worst appointments that the city had known for years. He brought in, for instance, as commissioner of police a man who had been shown up by the Lexow committee investigation as a receiver of money from bad houses. This man, at that time holding a high position in the force, instead of demanding to be heard, promptly resigned from the force for the purpose of avoiding investigation. A few years later he was placed by Mayor McClellan in control of the police of the city. I had stated in print over my signature that such an appointment was not only a disgrace to the city, but was necessarily demoralizing to the police force, and for this statement I was sued for libel for an amount of $50,000. In place of making payment of the very much smaller amount which would have brought the suit to an end, (the claim was finally reduced to $1000) I insisted upon “justifying,” i.e. making good my contention. As “justification,” my counsel succeeded in getting before the court the record of the Lexow committee (which was, of course, a public document) and the jury gave verdict for the defense.
I do not myself believe that New York City, or any great community, can be made moral by legislation. I am convinced that it is unwise and unfair to bring upon a body of officials the pressure and the temptation to which the officers and the rank and file of the police are exposed in having in their hands the opportunity of selling the privilege of breaking


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the law, and who are in fact under instructions, obedience to which is essential for their own continued service, to make such sale and to extend the continued protection.
I believe that the control of its domestic affairs should be left in the hands of the voters of the city, and that the well-meaning up-state farmers, who can have no direct knowledge of our municipal conditions and difficulties, should be freed from any responsibility for the management of our problems.
The measures for the control or the supervision of vice of one kind or another would, under a home rule government, be shaped according to the standard of our own citizens. No laws can be effectively and consistently enforced which are not in accord with the ideals, the wishes, and the convictions of a substantial majority of the voters of the community. Laws which, instead of being enforced, are left as empty shams, lead to contempt for government and for the makers of law, and are demoralizing as well to the officials, who are charged with their enforcement, as to the people who are permitted to break them at will or as a result of graft payments.
If the city of New York had in its own hands the control of the liquor business, certain of the present restrictions would certainly be removed. Liquor selling on Sunday would, for instance, be permitted during certain hours on Sunday, as is found advisable in London and in other European cities.
The city would probably also decide to repeal the measures which make gambling a crime. I have myself no interest in and no sympathy with the practice of gambling; I think of it as folly which may easily develop into a vice. But I believe that if men are fools enough to be willing to throw away in this fashion money which ought to be better employed, they cannot be prevented by law from so doing and that it is unwise to make the attempt. I should, therefore, prefer to follow the practice of cities like London.
Under the methods of London, Paris and Berlin, places like the old-time Canfield’s (the attempt to control Canfield’s wasted the time of a series of grand juries), the business of which does not interfere with the peace or the quiet of the city, would be permitted to go on as long as the managers could secure fools to enrich them.
The municipal regulations ought, however, in my judgment, to be so framed as to remove from the streets suggestions or incentive for gambling. I would permit no signs, announcements, or advertisements of gambling concerns. The gambler should always be placed under the necessity of incurring some effort and of seeking the place for this special form of amusement.


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A similar suggestion would apply to the management of pool-rooms. It may possibly however be a question for consideration, whether if a pool-room be permitted to carry on business, it would not be in order to determine through some competent authority as to the necessity for the business. I have had before me in our committee rooms and on the grand jury evidence that pool rooms which undertook to receive bets ®n races, held for instance in New Orleans, had no connection whatsoever between their offices or any race courses. The so-called “winnings” were distributed at haphazard or according to the judgment of the managers in such manner as to encourage continued “investments” on the part of the fools from outside.
The question of the legalizing of bad houses, or of accepting the necessity for their existence is one attended with enormous difficulties. In our committee of fifteen, we did not succeed, after two years’ study, in arriving at any final conclusions or recommendations. In the operations of this committee and in grand jury investigations I have had before me evidence in regard to the management of certain of these houses, showing conditions that made it seem impossible to permit their continued existence but we were unable to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion as to the kind of supervision and regulation to be recommended.
It is evident, however, that a law which leaves in business houses of this class, whether the management be decent or abominable, from which regular payments are secured through the police and by the authorities back of the police, and which are closed out only when payments have been evaded or have been found impossible, is not in the interest of the community and that it is oppressive for the poor victims of the system who are themselves entitled to some protection.
The present system of supervising these houses by police officials who not only cannot be trusted as to intelligent discrimination, but who have an immediate interest in maintaining bad conditions because the profits from bad conditions are larger, is entirely unsatisfactory.
I have always found difficulty as foreman of the grand jury in inducing a majority of the voters to vote for an indictment against a liquor concern the business of which has been carried on in infringement of the law. The jurors understand perfectly that charges are brought only against a concern that has not met the requirements of the collectors. For one concern brought under charges, there will be fifty guilty of similar breaches of the law that have given the necessary satisfaction to the collectors and against which, therefore, no evidence can be obtained.
The jurors have shown more readiness to make indictments against bad houses, although with these also it was evident that the charges were as a rule brought against the house not because its management was


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particularly bad, but because it had failed to make the payment demanded.
• The higher the fine imposed upon the manager of such a house, the “madam” the greater the burden that is placed by her upon the poor women under her control. Any fresh imposition upon the houses is likely to result in a diminution of the pittance left to the women.
The enormous responsibility of supervising a situation of this kind calls, of course, for a full measure of integrity of purpose and of wisdom of management on the part of the authorities, and such integrity and such wisdom are not to be found in a force the main purpose of which is not the preservation of the peace of the community, but the securing of profits for the higher officials and for the organization back of those officials.
It is my contention that the work of the police calls for a discipline that should be fully up to the military standard, As a veteran, I may possibly have an exaggerated belief in the value of army discipline, but I may recall that this is the standard that is in force- for the police of Berlin, of Paris, and of London. In the latter city, I have for half a century been a tax payer, and I am fairly familiar with its conditions. The chief of police is a permanent official working under the direct authority of the home secretary. He retains his post for life or as long as he is physically capable of his duties, unless relieved for malfeasance or incapacity.
Believing, as said, in the wisdom of leaving our city in the control of its own affairs, I hold that the head of the city police should be appointed by city authorities. The appointment might be made by some such group of officials as those that now make up the grand jury list, for instance, the mayor, the district attorney and the judges of general sessions. The appointment should either be during good behavior, or at least for a long term of years. A man placed in such a post needs a series of years to secure knowledge of the conditions of the city and of the personnel of a force of ten thousand men. The post should be one not only of authority, but of dignity, and the salary sufficient to tempt a first class man to accept the burdensome responsibilities. Such a chief of police should be removable only under trial, a trial to be conducted under the direction of the authorities to whom he owed his appointment.
The chief should have full control over the force commanded by him; and inspectors, captains, and privates would, under my suggestion, be liable to reduction of rank or to dismissal after trial by a police court-martial,-and without the privilege of further appeal. A man dismissed from the service should, of course, forfeit his claim on the pension fund.
We cannot free a great city like New York, the gateway to the continent, from vice and crime. We can do much to prevent the exploitation of vice and crime being made a source of enormous gain to the officials who


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are charged with the duty of controlling the criminals and with the responsibility of protecting the community.
A system which brings to a police force, and to a so-called political organization back of the force, large gains through the licensing and protection of crime, tends, of necessity, to the maintenance, and even to the development, of criminal conditions, and demoralizes the government of the city and the life of the community.


THE VITAL POINTS IN CHARTER MAKING FROM A SOCIALIST POINT OF VIEW
BY CARL D. THOMPSON1 Chicago
DURING the last ten years no less than four different and new forms of municipal government have been proposed and are being tried out. The commission form came first. But no sooner was it put in operation than certain serious defects were apparent. So the “form” began to be modified. It has been undergoing that process ever since. Some of the defects appeared to be so fundamental that new plans were proposed—plans that were given new names so as to win attention and approval which the mere commission form could no longer command.
Thus we have had the so called federal plan, the Sumter or city manager plan, and now most recently the representative council plan—all modifications of the commission plan.
It is our purpose in this article to consider the vital and necessary principles in charter making and suggest a plan containing some of the features of all the newer forms, but a plan formulated with reference to the principles and practice required rather than with reference to theories or plans already advanced.
DEMOCRACY AND EFFICIENCY—BOTH ESSENTIAL
Two things are vital and fundamental to good city government; namely, democracy and efficiency. How to attain the one and keep the other, how to adapt our forms and organization to this end—that is our problem.
To attain democracy we require a truly representative body—call it council, commission or what you will—the essential point is that it be truly representative. It should be elected by the people, controlled by the people and should be in all ways a true reflection of the sentiments, ideas, interests and purpose of the people.
1 Mr. Thompson is director of the bureau of information recently established by the Socialist party in Chicago. Before that he was city clerk of Milwaukee during the administration of Mayor Seidel. Mr. Thompson has also been for several years the secretary of the special committee chosen by the National Socialist Party for the study of commission government for cities. This committee has made an exhaustive study of the questions and has made two reports to party conventions. At the last convention the committee was for a second time continued and then charged with the work of further study of the forms of municipal government, with a view to the submission of a proposed form that would be consistent with Socialist ideas and principles. This report was made to the national convention held in May. Mr. Thompson’s article is an outline of the plan submitted.
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But such a body elected by the people, representing different and often contending forces and factions, changing constantly and sometimes suddenly, never has given us efficiency. And there seems to be no promise anywhere that it ever will. Yet efficiency we must have. Especially as we are constantly extending the function of municipal government in every direction. And this is what the socialists desire most of all. They especially, above all others, have reason to desire and insist upon efficiency in municipal government. The whole success of our plans depends upon it.
It is this imperative demand for efficiency, and the lack of it under the old council forms, that has given the greatest weight to the argument for the commission form of city government.
But there are considerations that outweigh “efficiency.” Vital as it is, absolutely essential and increasingly so, there is one thing more essential and that is democracy. Efficiency may be a detriment and certainly will be unless it can be made to be efficient in the interests of the people, in the direction of the common good. Efficiency in the direction of further exploitation and plunder only makes things worse, not better. It is the direction of efficiency, the purpose to which it is put that determines its value. And the ability of the common need to make itself felt in directing efficiency is even more vital than efficiency itself.
Democracy, then, is even more vital than efficiency. Any sacrifice of democracy to efficiency cannot be regarded as a gain. It is rather a decided danger, a retrogression. The real problem then is to develop.a form of municipal government that shall contain the two.
So far, every form of municipal government that has been in operation or that has been proposed (with the possible exception of the representative plan), is defective in the matter of democracy. The representative plan is an effort to remedy this fatal defect.
THE BEPBESENTATIVE COUNCIL PLAN
This plan of city charter has been worked out by the secretary-treasurer of The American Proportional Representation League, C. G. Hoag.2 The general idea is as follows:
1. A council elected at large by proportional representation.
2. A mayor elected by the council acting as presiding officer of that body.
3. A manager elected by the council and selected with sole reference to his qualifications as an expert and efficiency in municipal administration.
•The plan was outlined in “Equity Series” and has been reprinted as American Proportional Representation League Pamphlet No. 1, January, 1913, and may be secured by addressing C. G. Hoag, Haverford, Pennsylvania. The April issue of The American City has a more recent and revised article by Mr. Hoag which presents the plan still more effectively.


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4. Heads of departments appointed by the manager with the approval of the council, chosen with sole reference to their technical administrative qualifications and kept on the professional basis for indefinite periods during satisfactory service.
It will be seen at once that this plan supplies the one most vital element missing in all commission forms of municipal government, viz., democracy. For, in addition to the initiative, referendum and recall, which are features of this as well as of all the other forms, it adds proportional representation, which is the only truly representative system and is the nearest approach to democracy that is possible. We shall discuss the details of this feature farther on.
At the same time it provides for efficiency by putting the administrative departments upon a professional and efficiency basis. It really fixes responsibility, which the commission form everywhere claims to do, but which, it has always seemed to us, it did not do by centralizing the responsibility for administrative efficiency upon one official head—the manager. And this much more may be said in its favor—it appropriates the best features of the municipal government of Germany and England while avoiding the objectionable ones.
This plan seems to the writer to be far superior to the old council plan and to all modifications of the commission form. So far it is the nearest approach to a true conception of the proper function of municipal government. Our plan described below will follow the general principles of this proportional representative plan outlined by Mr. Hoag. At one or two points we shall depart from the details of that plan and in at least one very important respect shall differ from all of them.
ESSENTIALS OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
Before discussing the details of the plan, it is well to state what seems to us to be certain essential features of municipal government in general. The following are, we believe, agreed upon by all:
1. Home rule. The first and most essential feature of efficient municipal government is home rule—the right of the city to govern itself with reference to all those matters which pertain to the city alone. Everywhere, throughout the nation there has been going on for years a very vigorous and effective movement in this direction, and a considerable degree of success has attended these efforts. Laws granting a greater or less degree of home rule to the cities have been secured in many of the states, notably California, Oregon, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, Washington, Minnesota, Texas, Nebraska, Arizona and Ohio. The recent home rule law adopted in Ohio, as a part of the new constitution of that state, is perhaps one of the best of these home rule measures. Whatever else may be done in the effort to


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secure efficient municipal government, this struggle for home rule must go on until it is completely successful.
In this connection, we may say in passing that a recent decision of the supreme court of Wisconsin declaring unconstitutional a certain state law which had been passed by the legislature of that state with a view of securing home rule for the cities, lends emphasis to the contention that has often been made that home rule to be secure must be based upon constitutional amendments. If this is the case, those who are fighting for home rule should not be content with amendments of their state laws, but should keep up the battle until their state constitutions are amended so that the victory may be final and secure.
2. Direct legislation. Practically all charter revisionists now seek to incorporate in some form provisions for direct legislation. Whether the charters are commission form, federal form, or whether an effort is made to merely improve the old form of charter, practically all agree in proposing direct legislation. The only point here to be guarded is the matter of percentages and forms required in order to make the provisions effective. The initiative should require only 5 per cent of the voters for the mere initiation of a measure, but 15 per cent or thereabouts—certainly not more than 20 per cent—to require the calling of a special election for the submission of a measure. Provision should also be made, and generally is made, for a “stay of ordinance” for a certain period of time, during which opportunity is given for a demand for referendum on the matter. The percentage required to force the submission of an ordinance which has been passed by the council and without popular vote should not be more than 15 per cent.
On the matter of the recall a special feature should be noted. Where proportional representation is introduced the recall should be made to operate against the whole group and not against a single councilman. For, if the recall could be used against an individual member of the group elected under proportional representation, the minorities would be at the mercy of the majorities. A group in the community, for example, that was large enough to command a single quota, might elect a representative to the council by some small fraction of the total vote. Whatever such a representative did would, presumably, be in conflict with the settled policy of the community as well as all the other representatives. If the recall were operative in such a case, it would be very easy for the majority parties to force such a representative out of office.
The further point to be guarded here is that the percentage required to insure a recall election shall be reasonable. It should not be so small that the stability of the municipal government could be disturbed by constant recall elections. It should not be so large on the other hand as to make it impossible to initiate the recall. We should say that experience has


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taught that a percentage of between 20 and 25 is about right for this feature of direct government.
3. A representative council. The only way to secure a truly representative council or governing body is by proportional representation. Every other method fails. The present and usual method of election everywhere is by pluralities or at best by majorities. And this is true of the commission forms as well as of the others. Where there are more than two candidates the successful ones are almost always elected by much less than a majority and sometimes by only a little more than a third of the voters. For a number of years Milwaukee was ruled by administrations elected by only a little more than a third of the voters. And this was true of the Socialist administration as well as the Republican and Democratic administrations that preceded it. Such a condition is wholly bad.
This objectionable feature is partly met in some of the commission charters by a system of two elections, the last of which is restricted to two candidates or sets of candidates, thus compelling a majority election. In others, as in the case of Grand Junction, Colorado, and Spokane, Washington, a similar result is attained by a system of preferential voting saving the expense and trouble of a second election.
But the fatal defect in all these systems is that they do not provide for minority representation. All of them eliminate all minorities from the governing body, either council or commission. This defect the proportional representation system will remedy.
ADVANTAGES OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION8
The advantages of this plan are numerous and very important. Among them may be mentioned the following:
The first and most important is, as indicated above, that it permits a representation of minorities. This advantage is so obvious that further discussion, we believe, is not necessary.
A second advantage is in the greater stability of the government. The new idea or new policy that is always struggling for expression will, under proportional representation, be gradually reflected in the council and will be represented there in proportion to its strength in the community. This permits of gradual change of policy and lessens the danger of sudden and complete overturning of things such as result from elections by majority or plurality.
3 For a discussion of the general principles of proportional representation, as well as its history, its application to municipal elections and the details of its workings, the reader is referred to a book by John H. Humphreys, secretary of The Proportional Representation Society of England on “Proportional Representation.”. See National Municipal Review, vol. i, p. 743.


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This is important also as affecting the administrative side of the work. It is difficult to secure expert and specially trained men to serve in municipal administrations that are subject to sudden overturnings and changes of policy. Such changes are likely to result in interruptions of important undertakings and change of personnel that are fatal to efficiency.
' A third advantage is that proportional representation permits, if it does not presuppose, party or group voting. It assumes that there will be differences of opinion upon matters of public policy in the municipality, just as there are similar differences in national and state affairs. It assumes that those favoring a certain policy will seek to work together in its behalf; that they will seek to effect the public policy in the direction of their convictions; and that to do so they will organize and conduct campaigns; will select candidates and seek to elect them; and that to facilitate the massing of their votes at the polls they will have ballots so designated as to enable the voter who desires to support their policies to quickly and readily choose his ballot accordingly.
THE NON-PARTISAN FALLACY
All of which is perfectly logical and quite obvious. Yet we have this astonishing fact that our whole host of municipal reformers in America have been swept off their feet with the so called non-partisan idea. As though by the simple device of striking the party name off of ballots we would eliminate, as by the stroke of a magic wand, all the evils of municipal misrule!
And the zeal with which the reformers have hunted out this witch of partisan elections and striven to drive it out is worthy of a better cause. The commission charter recently proposed in Traverse City, Michigan, for example, provides:
The ballots for election of city officers shall be separate from any other ballot and sfictM be mthout insignia, emblem, or designation, etc. (Section 26).
The charters of Grand Junction, Colorado, and of Spokane, Washington, which are worded identically the same, are even more extreme. They provide:
Nothing on the ballot shall be indicative of the source of the candidacy, or of the support of any candidate. No ballot shall have printed thereon any party or political designation or mark, and there shall not be appended to the name of any candidate any such party or political designation or mark or anything indicating his views or opinion.
Nothing could be more complete. These charters are not content with merely denying the Republicans, Democrats and Socialists the right to the use of their names as a means of helping the voter to quickly and readily


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select the ballot which will represent his conviction—they prohibit the use of any and all kinds of designations whatsoever on the ballot—anything and everything that would in any way connect an individual’s name with the policies he represents.
At this point we dissent entirely from all the proposed forms. To exclude all possible designation from the ballots seems to us unwarranted and abortive. And we frankly believe not only that a partisan or designated ballot is right but that it is the best method for securing desirable results in our civic affairs.
There are distinct differences of opinion and different policies possible with regard to municipal affairs, just as surely as there are in state affairs. There is a wide range of possible legislation and administration in which the cities are free to act as they will. The cities also have large powers in the determination of methods of taxation and the distribution of the money raised. Under the home rule laws that are being passed this range of possibilities is being constantly increased. The question of the municipal ownership of water works, gas plants, electric lighting plants, street railways or other public utility is one upon which there is and must be a difference of opinion. And upon all these matters there are choices to be made among all sorts of policies, ranging “from those of the Marxian socialist through those of the single taxer to those of the out and out believer in plutocracy.” Now, the only form of election that will enable the people to settle these questions and settle them intelligently will be such as enables them to express themselves in groups formed according to the policies advocated by the groups. And the form of ballot that will enable the voter at the polls to quickly and accurately express his purpose must be one that has some designation other than an individual’s name. If there is nothing on the ballot, no distinguishing mark, that connects the names of the candidates with the policies which they represent, is it not obvious that that kind of ballot fails to supply the voter with the information he needs at the most critical point?
It may very easily happen that certain individuals may be prominent in the advocacy of certain ideas, while the actual candidates put forth may be much less prominent. The name of the individual, therefore, is not a reliable guide to the voter. In many cases it may be no guide at all.
Furthermore, allowing the names only to stand upon the ballot, with no distinguishing or explanatory remark, gives the advantage to the men of wealth and prominence. Elections carried on upon that basis put the working classes and the common people at a disadvantage.
The strong personalities are on the other side. Individuals who own banks, railroads and great daily newspapers are not on an equal footing with individuals of the working class. The latter have no hope of matching the power and influence of the former except by group action. And the possi-


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bility of that group action must be maintained up to the very moment that the ballot is cast.
In all of this the power of the press must not be overlooked. A minority party never has a strong press at the beginning. The press is generally on the side of the majority. By constant and imposing advertising, by judicious and adroit editorial writing, and a news comment now and then, the people may be made to believe that a certain candidate stands for things for which he really does not. This is one of the most common and most dangerous tricks of a capitalistically controlled press.
The people need the assistance of very possible device with which to meet these difficulties, and above everything else, they need a designated ballot to help them connect the individual candidate with the principles he is supposed to represent, and which also serves to connect the individual with the group of people that have put him forward as their candidate, so that they, too, may be held to account for him and his course after election. These principles, it seems to us, are fundamentally essential to the integrity of municipal as well as state and national elections.
Against the elimination of national party names and national issues even more may be said. Upon this phase we quote the report of the committee on the commission "form of government made to the last convention of the Socialist party at Indianapolis, May, 1912:
There is hardly a serious problem of municipal government that can be solved at all aside from a state and national movement. Take the question of home rule. Here in the very nature of the case the city is powerless in the hands of the state legislature. The fight for home rule itself is a state and national fight. Take the question of the commission form of government itself—it has been an issue for state legislation very largely. Or consider some of our commercial and industrial problems. The real difficulties that concern a people in a city, involve state and national issues. For example, the supply of coal for a city—what can any city in America do on a problem of that sort without state and national action? The city may establish a coal yard? But that is only the merest fraction of the problem. The coal must be shipped to the city over railroads that are owned by the monopolies and trusts. The transportation of the coal becomes a problem of interstate commerce. Thus the most elemental problem of the city becomes a state and national problem, a question requiring a consistent and comprehensive program for state and national action. To undertake to solve problems of this kind by limiting our efforts to local issues, and separating our cities from state and national issues, is absurd.
It may be quite true that neither the Republican nor the Democratic national parties have anything in their platforms or programs looking to the relief of the people that live in cities. But to attempt to find relief from the evils that torment them, without state and national action, is the height of folly. If the Republican and Democratic parties have no program and nojprinciples that apply to the great problem of municipal government, so much the worse for them. Let the people know it, the sooner the better.


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Such is not the case with the Socialist party. It has a program—municipal, state and national. And each is a part of one consistent whole. The same principles for which the Socialist party stands in the state and nation apply with equal force, though with different details, to the city as well. Aid what is more, there is no solution of municipal problems apart from the principles of social democracy. And the principles of social democracy cannot be applied except through state and national action. The effort therefore to eliminate national and state issues and to prevent the organization of a state and national political party that shall have also a municipal program, is to block the way to a final solution of the problems of municipal government.
There is an issue in municipal government that is bound up inseparably with the state and national program. It is impossible to solve the municipal problems apart from these larger state and national problems. So the lines of this struggle may as well be drawn sharply and as closely as possible. We believe it to be the task of the Socialist party to bring this issue into the open and to make the people of this country realize that the struggle between plutocracy and the common people is not only a municipal struggle but a state and national one as well. And the effort to conceal this struggle by detaching the city and its issues and problems from the state and national situation, serves only to deceive the people and to prolong the period of their enslavement.
One of the chief advantages, therefore, of the proportional representative plan is that it makes possible and provides for the group or party, or, if you like it, partisan voting.
Some attempt has already been made to provide for proportional representation in some of the municipal charters. Amendments prepared by the Peoples Charter Conference of Los Angeles, 1913, include among others a provision for proportional representation. Although this particular measure was defeated the idea is evidently gaining favor in Los Angeles and its adoption seems to be only a matter of time and better understanding.
A final advantage in the proportional representative council lies in the fact that by making the body truly representative of all the interests and opinions that actually exist in the cummunity, it will obviate the necessity of constant appeal to the initiative, referendum and recall. This is, we believe, a decided gain. For while these devices are
admirable for the retention by the people of the power to check or to supplement the council’s legislation if necessary and to disentangle at any time one issue from all the others that may have been involved in the election of the councilmen, their use involves, nevertheless, a sacrifice of those opportunities for the threshing out and the amending of legislation by leaders which are offered by a representative body. A political system, therefore, which forces the people to have frequent recourse to the initiative and referendum, in order to avoid one-sided legislation, is gravely defective. The way to combine excellence with democracy in the determination of a city’s policies is to provide for the use of the initiative or the referendum on the demand of small percentages of the voters, but to provide also so


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truly representative a council that the initiative and the referendum will be demanded very seldom.4
4. A responsible executive. Another essential feature in efficient municipal government is a responsible executive. It is very desirable that there should be some point at which responsibility for the administrative work of the city can be located, and through which administrative efficiency can be seemed. . This is accomplished in the representative council plan by separating the functions of the official position, usually known as mayor, from those of administration. To do this it is proposed that the city council shall elect both a mayor and a manager. The mayor is the official head of the city, is presiding officer of the council, and holds an honorary position at a nominal salary. This follows the English system. The manager on the other hand, is the administrative head of the city government and represents executive efficiency. He corresponds to the German burgomaster. This official, being given the power of appointing the heads of the departments, makes him at once the responsible head and gives him the power to secure efficiency.
The council should be free to select a manager solely with reference to his ability and efficiency in municipal administration. They should be free to seek for such a manager anywhere in the country or in the world, for that matter. He should not be required to be a resident of the city preceding the time of his selection. This idea follows the practice of the German municipal government, which is notoriously efficient.
5. Efficient administration. Equally important as an essential of municipal government is the requirement of efficient administration. To this end the heads of all purely administrative departments should be chosen solely with reference to ability, experience and efficiency in the particular lines for which they are chosen. In other words, the heads of the departments, as well as the chief executive officers, should all be upon a professional basis rather than upon a political basis. For this reason, provision is made in this form of government for the selection of the manager by the city council rather than by a popular vote. The idea is that the city council will be able to more effectively consider the necessary qualifications of a manager for technical administrative purposes than it would be possible for the popular electorate to do.
In the same way the manager is given the right to appoint the various heads of departments. The only restriction is that these appointments •shall be subject to the approval of the city council. It would be desirable that even this limitation should be exercised with utmost care so as to give the manager the greatest possible degree of freedom in the selection of those who are to work out with him the various administrative policies.
Representative Council Plan. p. 8.


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With the two features of this form of government outlined above, we have a very decided improvement over all other proposed forms. The policy determining body being elected directly by the people reflects in exact proportion the will of the people as expressed in the various groups, organizations or parties. The administrative body, however, is selected with reference to another principle, i.e., that of efficiency.
6. Provision for progress. To the features of the municipal form outlined above, another one should perhaps be added. We shall undoubtedly have a steadily increasing extension of the functions of municipal government. The city which today owns and operates only its water plant will within the next few years undoubtedly undertake the ownership and operation of its gas plant, lighting plant and possibly its street car system. At any rate, this is the experience of cities in various countries. Again, the city which today has merely an ordinary health department will tomorrow extend its functions to care for children, to give free medical assistance to those who need it, to conduct day nurseries and perhaps to teach the mothers and help them in the care of their children. It is very desirable that these functions shall be carefully worked out and gradually introduced, so that the greatest degree of efficiency may be secured and the greatest assurance of their successful operation attained. To this end a suggestion from foreign municipal governments has already begun to be applied in some American cities. Non-salaried commissions are selected by the mayors or councils for the study of some new phase of municipal activity and perhaps for the development and conduct of the same during the period of experimentation. After the system is well wrought out and in successful operation, it then may be turned over to some department of the municipal government or made a separate department and thus, take its place as one of the regular functions of the municipal government.
Where such an arrangement seems desirable, it may be provided for by the election of such commissions by the city council.


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF THE UNITED STATES1
BY WILLIAM BENNETT MUNRO Harvard University
FIVE years ago the National Municipal League’s committee on instruction in municipal government conducted an inquiry with a view to finding out how much instruction in the subject of municipal government was undertaken by the different universities and colleges of the United States. Circular questionnaires were addressed to more than two hundred such institutions situated in every part of the Union, including educational establishments of every rank from the largest universities down to the smallest rural colleges. As result of this investigation it appeared that one or more courses devoted wholly to the subject of municipal government were offered in forty-six institutions, and that about one hundred colleges maintained general courses in political science in which a part of the instruction was devoted to municipal affairs. Tables giving in detail the information gathered at this time were printed in the Proceedings of the League for 1908.
In view of the great interest manifested in all phases of municipal government during the last few years, it was thought desirable that a new investigation somewhat along the same lines should be undertaken in 1912, with the idea of discovering how far a growing popular interest in the subject had reflected itself upon the curricula of educational institutions. In its endeavor to secure full information the committee broadened its range of inquiry somewhat and questionnaires were this time sent to about four hundred institutions, including all those of importance listed in the report of the United States Commissioner of Education. These circulars called for data concerning the number of courses devoted
1 Beginning with 1900 the National Municipal League has given attention to the subject of instruction in municipal government in the universities and colleges of the United States. Its first committee of which the late Thomas M. Drown, president of Lehigh, was chairman, investigated the instruction being given in universities and colleges. Its reports are to be found in the Proceedings of the National Municipal League for the years 1901, 1902 and 1905. This committee was followed by another on the coordination of instruction in municipal government in the universities and colleges of the United States, of which Prof. L. S. Rowe of the University of Pennsylvania was the first chairman and Prof. William Bennett Munro of Harvard the second. The reports of this committee are to be found in the volumes of Proceedings for 1908 and 1909. The present investigation was undertaken by Professor Munro with a view to ascertaining what is now being done and what should be done.—C. R. W.
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wholly to municipal government, the number of courses devoted partly to municipal government, and the figures of students enrolled in each. Likewise information was sought concerning the methods of instruction, whether by lectures, discussions, or thesis work, the text-books used, and the opportunities afforded to students for practical training in the subject. Instructors were asked by the committee to indicate any way in which the National Municipal League might be of service in improving the range of materials available for instruction in municipal government, whether by the publication of an annual yearbook of municipal affairs, or by compiling for use in college courses a syllabus and bibliography of municipal government. Replies were received from one hundred and seventy-two institutions and in all these cases full answers were given to the questions asked in the committee’s circular.
It appears from the data gathered by the committee that independent and distinct instruction in the subject of municipal government is given in sixty-four American universities and colleges as compared with forty-six institutions affording this five years ago. That is a very notable increase and illustrates the degree to which colleges are responding to the development of popular interest in this subject. Most of these institutions maintain only one course in this field of study, several of them provide two courses (as, for example, Swarthmore College, University of Cincinnati, University of Illinois, University of Wisconsin, and Columbia University), while a few of the largest institutions provide three courses. The number of enrolled students varies from five to eighty-six, the largest independent class being that of Professor Currier at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which numbers eighty-six. For the most part these courses are attended by undergraduates, but a fair sprinkling of graduate students may be found even in the general courses offered by the larger institutions.
The methods of instruction naturally show no approach to uniformity. Some instructors conduct their classes wholly or almost wholly by lectures, although this method seems to be losing ground somewhat; others prefer the system of classroom discussions based upon outside reading either in a text-book or in official material. Most instructors endeavor to combine both methods. In something more than half of the courses devoted wholly to municipal government, a thesis or written report upon an assigned topic is required. Some instructors prefer several short reports to one long thesis, particularly where undergraduates are concerned. It is the practice in a few institutions to allot a general task to the whole class, as, for example, the work of preparing a city charter. This is done by assigning certain sections to each student, requiring him to present his proposals for discussion and adoption by his classmates.


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 429
Opportunities for some sort of actual contact with the practical problems of municipal administration are afforded by fifty-five institutions. Such opportunities are of the widest possible variety and depend of course upon the location of the college. Where the institution is situated in or near a large city or a state capital, the facilities for training of this sort ought to be most abundant. It appears from the data gathered by the committee, however, that while the opportunities may not be so extensive in the case of colleges located in smaller municipalities, more work of a practical nature is really undertaken by students in these latter institutions. In many of these it is the custom to have city officials lecture occasionally to the classes, to have the students attend meetings of the council or municipal boards, and in some cases to assist in minor official investigations. Particularly at the time of'the regular municipal election a good chance is afforded to those college students who desire, by serving as checkers or watchers at the polls, to gain a firsthand acquaintance with the workings of electoral machinery.
In many educational institutions both large and small, there exist political clubs or, in some cases, city government clubs which hold regular meetings throughout the college year and secure speakers for such meetings from among the officials of neighboring cities. By means of debates on various questions of municipal government both in the classroom and at the meetings of these clubs, a useful method of stimulating undergraduate interest in the subject has been commonly employed. In a few cases the “vacation report” plan has been used with satisfactory results, each member of a college course in municipal government or of a political club being asked to make some small investigation during the Christmas or Easter recess in his home city. The results of this study are presented to his classmates after the re-opening of college.
Attention is devoted by colleges and universities, for the most part, to the study of American city government only; but some have broadened the scope of their work so as to include a study of European city government as well. Where this latter field is included, however, it is usually in an elementary way and with a view only to securing a proper background for the study of municipal administration in this country. A few instructors endeavor to follow a syllabus or outline of topics, but the majority do not appear to have pursued this plan. There seems, however, to be a strong sentiment that a suitable syllabus, if prepared under the auspices of the League or some other capable supervision, would increase the efficiency of instruction in the subject. In response to the committee’s query as to whether such a syllabus would prove of service, eighty-four instructors answered in the affirmative, while eleven expressed the opinion that such a syllabus would probably be of service. Three instructors replied with a decided negative, one expressed doubts,


430
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
and nine either expressed the opinion that a syllabus would not be of assistance to them or made no answer to the committee’s inquiry on this point. Practically all of this negative expression of opinion came from instructors in the larger institutions, while by far the greater portion of the affirmative replies came from instructors, in the smaller colleges. It appears, therefore, that the programme of instruction in municipal government at the larger institutions has been already worked out with such care that no practical benefit would probably be obtained by the preparation of a syllabus or outline, but that in the great majority of colleges the materials and methods of instruction are still at a somewhat transitional stage and that a publication of this sort, if prepared on a sufficiently flexible basis, would render a real service. The chief objection to the use of any extended syllabus is that it tends to stereotype instruction and to take from a course that quality of constant adjustment to changed conditions which is, from every point of view, extremely desirable. In the larger institutions, moreover, the printed syllabus is too often a source of undue advantage to the professional tutor and to the vendor of typewritten notes. The instructor who announces at the beginning of the year just what reading will be required from week to week, extends thereby an invitation to some bright student to prepare summaries for his classmates wherever the classes are too large to permit personal questioning of every student from day to day. As it is scarcely practicable to print a new syllabus each year, the use of such an outline might indeed, under some circumstances, prove a deterrent to progress in the methods of instruction rather than an incentive.
One of the distinct needs of present-day instruction in municipal government, it appears, is for a working bibliography of literature on the subject. Since the publication of Professor Brooks’s compilation a dozen years ago, no serious attempt has been made in any quarter to classify and make available, either for instructors, students, or the general public, the large annual output of literature on the subject of municipal administration. The time has undoubtedly come for such an undertaking and, in response to the committee’s inquiry on this point, ninety-six instructors express the opinion that a bibliography would prove of service to them. Only eight expressed themselves as having no interest in the proposal, while seven showed some doubts as to its feasibility or usefulness. An undertaking of this sort would involve a large expenditure of labor and probably some outlay in money, for the literature of the subject has been very large during the last decade; but the results of the committee’s investigations prove that from the standpoint of service both to college instruction and to the reading public, the enterprise is one which ought to be undertaken either by the National Municipal League or by some other body of men interested in the subject.


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 431
Students of municipal government have found a serious handicap to their work in the fact that we have in this country no local government yearbook corresponding to the Year Book of the United Kingdom or the German Statistisches Jahrbuch deutscher Stadte. -The annual report on the statistics of cities of over 30,000 issued by the United States Bureau of the Census is of great value as far as it goes, but it gives little more than the figures of population and the statistics of 'municipal finance, with nothing concerning the administrative organization and the non-financial activities of American cities. Moreover, this publication does not usually appear until two or three years after the date at which the statistics have been compiled. Ninety-five instructors expressed the opinion in response to the committee’s questionnaire that a municipal yearbook of the United States would prove of service to them in their work. About a dozen had doubts concerning its utility or believed that the undertaking could not be successfully carried through.
An interesting feature of the replies received on these three questions was the apparent readiness on the part of many instructors to cooperate in the preparation of a syllabus or a bibliography or a municipal yearbook. Several instructors volunteered to give a part of their own time to such enterprises if undertaken on a cooperative basis. From several colleges which do not now offer any independent instruction in municipal government the committee received the suggestion that the publication of a syllabus, bibliography or yearbook would be of importance in making independent instruction possible in their institutions.
The committee’s circular included also the following general query: “Have you any suggestion as to how the League, either through its administration of the Baldwin Prize competition or otherwise, might be of further service to instructors in municipal government?” In response to this question came a considerable number of suggestions which cannot, of course, be very easily tabulated. Some of the more important, however, ought to be mentioned. One instructor suggested that the National Municipal Review should publish every three months a short critical bibliography qf books, pamphlets and articles on current municipal affairs, and that reprints of this section of the Review should be sent to every college offering instruction in municipal government. Another suggestion was that if instructors were asked to submit for publication in the Review short articles of good quality written by their best students, this would stimulate interest in their courses. Prof. R. C. Brooks made the interesting suggestion that the National Municipal League might get together a collection of lantern slides illustrating municipal progress in both foreign and American cities, and that these slides, with brief printed explanations of each, should be loaned at nominal expense from time to time to college instructors for use at one or two


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
class meetings. This suggestion is one which appears to the committee to be very well worth adoption. From one institution comes the suggestion that special provision should be made for the enrollment of college students as members of the National Municipal League at a reduced membership fee. From another the committee received a proposal that the League should prepare and distribute to the debating societies of colleges and schools, lists of suitable topics in municipal government for intercollegiate and interscholastic debates, with suggestions as to books from which materials for such debates might be obtained. Some other suggestions received by the committee, however, were hardly so concrete in their nature. One college president, for example, expressed the hope that the League might “succeed in creating a conscience that shall lead people to refuse to remain responsible for the iniquities of our time;” but gave no hint as to the practical steps through which any advance in this direction might ever be taken.
Owing to the limited nature of their resources, many colleges have not found it possible to establish independent instruction in municipal government, but have endeavored to handle this subject in connection with their general courses in political science, sociology and economics. The courses in American government, if they are at all comprehensive in scope, must deal to some extent in the government of cities. Instruction in public finance, if it is to be made worth while, must take the student into the field of municipal taxation and accounting. Courses in sociology naturally include many topics which connect themselves directly with departments of city administration such as health, poor relief, and housing. The committee has not been able to follow up all this incidental instruction; but has endeavored in a general way to find out how much attention is given to the subject of municipal government in the regular courses on political science. Nearly every college in the country has one or more courses of this nature, and one hundred and eighteen institutions report that some attention is given to municipal government in their general political science instruction. This is a slightly larger number than the figure of five years ago. The time allotted to municipal government in general courses varies from two to thirty exercises per year. Where there are independent courses on municipal government little time is devoted to this subject in the general courses; where there is no independent instruction, the general course must supply the gap so far as it can. From some of these latter institutions intimation has come that a separate course in municipal government will be arranged whenever the resources of the college permit. The intrinsic importance of the subject seems everywhere to be recognized.


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 433
Such statistical data as lends itself to compilation in tables has been arranged as an appendix to this report. It should be stated that this tabulation does not include statistics of instruction offered in professional schools, many of which offer courses bearing directly on problems of municipal administration. Many engineering schools, for example, afford instruction in municipal engineering and sanitation; some of the larger law schools have courses in the subject of municipal corporations; the best equipped medical schools of the country give instruction in hygiene and the public health; schools for social workers give training both theoretical and practical in the methods of municipal poor relief; while schools of commerce and of business administration are giving attention to municipal accounting and kindred subjects. The amount of instruction afforded through these channels is large, but accurate statistics concerning it are somewhat difficult to obtain.
In concluding this general survey of instruction in municipal government a word or two may perhaps be said concerning the experiment in the methods of undergraduate instruction represented by the establishment of a bureau for research in municipal government at Harvard University.2 Through the generosity of two Harvard graduates the University was enabled to establish a year ago a special library and workshop for students in municipal government. In the rooms set apart for this subject a collection has been made of city charters, ordinances, and other official materials covering practically all American cities of any importance. In addition the publications of reform organizations, city clubs, research bureaus, and a host of other such organizations are secured as they appear and placed on file. All periodical publications relating to municipal affairs are also received and placed at the disposal of students. A special librarian is constantly in attendance to guide the students in their thesis work and in the making of the special reports which are assigned to them from time to time. This institution differs from the bureaus maintained by cities throughout the country in the fact that it does not have as its primary aim the supplying of information for public authorities. Its chief purpose is to afford facilities for the proper training of students in the use of first-hand materials relating to the subject. From time to time requests for data are had from city officials or from semi-official organizations, and these requests are always complied with. But the main purpose of the establishment is to afford the discipline of training rather than to secure such information as may happen at the moment to be needed by some municipal officer. The
! A list of somewhat similar bureaus in other American universities may be found in the Review for January, 1913, p. 56.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
results of the experiment during the past year have demonstrated to the entire satisfaction of those immediately concerned that this is the best way of teaching the subject. The time has gone by when a real grasp of municipal problems can be obtained by any one, whether in college or outside of it, by the study of somebody’s text-book. Intimate contact with the live, day-to-day material is what the student must have if he is to obtain mastery of even a small part of the subject.
REFERENCES FOR TABLES
(а) Incidental instruction in courses on history, sociology and government, and in debating
(б) Incidental instruction in courses on economics and government.
(c) Incidental instruction in courses on government (or political solence).
(d) Incidental Instruction in courses on economics and sociology.
(«) Incidental instruction in courses on sociology, social problems or American society.
(/) One course on municipal chemistry and one on municipal sanitation.
(0) For 1911-12; in 1912-13 there will be two courses on municipal government.
(h) A course on civics.
ft) One course given in Law School on corporations.
0) The total time given to municipal government in these three courses would be equivalent to one course, three times a week for one semester.
(k) New course.
(/) Parliamentary law, acting as city council.
(m) Course on government and sociology.
(n) Six hours to municipal government.
(0) Courses of research or seminar oourses.
(p) To be Increased to forty-five hours in 1912-13.
(g) Ten weeks to municipal government.
(r) Incidental instruction in course on economics.
(4) Incidental instruction in course on economics of engineering.
(i) Other courses treat of municipal problems.
(u) Incidental course.
(r) About thirty hours devoted to municipal government.
(10) Several courses in history, government and economics.
(x) Offered for the first time in 1911-12; registration in 1912-13 is 29.
(y) This course is entitled "American Social Conditions and Municipal Problems."


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 435
COURSES D1DVOTBD WHOLLY TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMXNT
COUBSSS DNVOT1D PARTLY TO MUNICIPAL SOVBBNMRNT
INSTITUTION 1 II.
1. Adelphl College............
2. Albany College..............
3. Allegheny College...........
I. Amherst College.............
S. Atlanta University.........
S. Barnard College.............
7. Bates College..............
8. Beloit College..............
9. Benedict College...........
10. Bowdoln College.............
II. Buohtel College............
12. Carthage College...........
13. Central University of Iowa....
14. Central Wesleyan College...
15. Clark College..............
IS. Clemson College............
17. Coe College................
18. Colby College..............
19. Colgate University.........
20. College of the City of New
York........................
21. Colorado College...........
22. Columbia University........
23. Concordia College..........
24. Cooper College.............
25. Cornell University.........
28. Dakota Wesleyan University..
27. Dartmouth College..........
28. Davidson College...........
29. De Fauw University.........
30. Dickinson College..........
31. Drury College..............
32. Earlham College............
33. Elon College...............
34. College of Emporia.........
38. Fisk University............
36. Franklin College of Indiana. ..
37. Furman University..........
38. George Washington University
39. Georgetown University......
40. Gouoher College............
41. Grlnnell College...........
WSBBB LOCATED Number Amount of time given Number of students Number Amount oi time given Number of students
! s| it (38 i | Graduates i Ji 1 Graduates
Hour* Mows
Brooklyn, N. Y... 1 48 12 i 45 67
Albany, Ore (a)
Meadvllle, Fa 1 30 36
Amherst, Uass (6)
Atlanta, Ga 2 00 17
each
New York City... 1 90 33
Lewiston, Me (c)
Beloit, Wls 1 48 12-20 1 90 38
Columbia, S. C.... tf>
Brunswick, Me,... 1 45 51
Akron, Ohio (e)
Carthage, 111 (»>
Pella, Iowa 1 45
Warrenton, Mo 1 18 13 i
Worcester, Maas... 1 30 18
Clemson College,
s. c 1 20 350 95
Cedar Baplds
Iowa (s)
WatervUle, Me.... (*)
Hamilton, N. Y... 1 75 47
New York City,.. 1 48 13 2 30 (/)
30 60 38
Colorado Springs,
Colo 2 60 53
45
New York City... 2 30 12 51 1 90 190
eaoh
Fort Wayne, Ind... 1 60 258
Sterling, Kan 2 45
eaoh
Ithaca, N. Y k»> 48 61 3 ’1 45 77
Mitchell, S. D 1 45 20
Hanover, N. H.... i 45 30 1 90 100
Davidson, N. C... (e)
Greenoastle, Ind... («)
Carlisle, Pa i 120 25 2 30 58
Springfield, Mo... 1 30 25
Richmond, Ind... 1 36 1 60
Elon College, N. C. 1 90
Emporia, Kan 1 45 34
Nashville, Tenn... (A)
Franklin, Ind 1 60
Greenville, S. C... (»)
Washington, D. C. 1 45 10-12 2-3
Washington, D. C. CO
Baltimore, Md 1 120 34
Grlnnell, Iowa 2 30 35
eaoh
Non:—Explanation of Italicized letters will be found on page 434.


436
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
COURSES DEVOTED | COURSES DEVOTED WHOLLY TO MUNICIPAL PARTLY TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT
INSTITUTION WHERE LOCATED Number Amount of time given Number of students Number Amount of time given Number of students
Under- graduates Graduates Under- graduates Graduates
Hours Hours
42. Guilford College Guilford College,
N. C 1 60 12
43. Hamllne College St. Paul, Minn 1 20 35
44. Harvard University Cambridge, Mass.. 3 90 50 5 2 90 479
90 7 4 45 14 13
45 43
4K TTavnrfnrH GnllAfA Haverford, Pa 3 45 (i) 78
each
46. Heidelberg University Tiffin, Ohio 2 45 10
each
47. Hendrix College Conway, Ark (&)
48. Hnrw GoIIa^a Holland, Mich . 1 60 35 2 60 150
60 135
49. Illinois College Jacksonville, 111..., i 45(A)
60. Illinois State Normal Unlver-
alt.y . Normal, 111 3 150 9 4
60 40
60 60
51. Illinois Wesleyan University... Bloomington, 111.. 1 30 35
52. Indiana University Bloomington, Ind. 1 90 10 2 2 (*, *>)
53. James Mil liken University... Decatur, 111 (ft)
54. Juniata College Huntingdon, Pa.. (c)
55. Kansas State Agricultural Col-
lege Manhattan, Kan.. 1 60 200
56. Knox College Galesburg, 111 1 60 1
57. Lake Forest College Lake Forest, 111... 1 30(0 25
58. Lawrence College Appleton, Wis 1 45 48 2 2 45 28 3
60 42
59. Lincoln Memorial University.. Cumberland Gap,
Tenn 1 75 25 2
60. Lincoln University Lincoln Unlver-
sity, Pa w
61. Macalester College St. Paul. Minn 2 45
60
62. Massachusetts Agricultural
College Amherst, Mass 1 45 14
63. Massachusetts Institute of
Technology Boston, Mass 1 30-45 86 2 30 300
each each
64. McMinnville College McMinnville, Ore.. (m)
65. Miami University Oxford, Ohio 1 54 17
66. Mills College Mills College, Cal. 2 45 1 30
45
67 \fl11flApn rVtllAgA. Jackson, Miss (d)
68 CoIIapa Milton, Wis »>
69. Mississippi Agricultural and
Mechanical College Agricultural Col-
lege, Miss | (6)
70. Mt. Holyoke College South Hadley, 1
Mass 1 45 40 ,
71. Muhlenberg College Allentown, Pa I (e)


INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 437
INSTITUTION WHERE LOCATED COURSES DEVOTED WHOLLY TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT COURSES DEVOTED PARTLY TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
Number Amount of time given Number of students Number Amount of time given Number of students
Under- graduates $ 1 1 o Under-1 graduates Graduates
Houn i Houn
72. Nebraska Wesleyan University University Place,
Neb 1 30 50 2 60 25
73. New York University New York City... 3 60 5 1 90 58
30 (o)
30 (o)
74. Normal College of the City of
York New York City... i 45 15-30 1 90 75
75. Northwestern University Evanston, HI 1 45 7 1 (n)
76. Oberlln College Oberlln, Ohio 1 45 22 1
77. Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio.. 1 45 15
78. Ohio University Athens, Ohio 1 45 30
79. Oregon Agricultural College. .. Corvallis, Ore 1 45 80 5
80. Oskaloosa College Oskaloosa, Iowa... (A)
81. Parsons College Fairfield, Iowa.... (m)
82. Penn College Oskaloosa, Iowa... 2 45 19
45 15
83. Pennsylvania College Gettysburg, Pa... 1 60 8
84. Pennsylvania State College State College, Pa.. 1 30 (p) 65
85. Polytechnio Institute of Brook-
lyn. Brooklyn, N. Y... 1 C ?) 45
86. Pomona College Claremont, Cal. .. 1 45 48
87. Purdue University Lafayette, Ind.... 1 90 24
88. Radcllffe College Cambridge, Mass.. 1 90 i 2 1 90 39
89. Rhode Island State College Kingston, R. I.... (r)
90. Richmond College Richmond, Va.... 1 45 20
91. Rockford College Rockford, 111 (0
92. Rutgers College New Brunswick,
N. J M
93. Smith College Northampton,
Mass 1 90 100
94. State University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa... 1 43 16 1 1 60 48
95. Stevens Institute of Technol-
ogy Hoboken, N. J «
96. St. John’s College Annapolis, Md.... (6)
97. Swarthmore College Swarthmore, Pa... 2 30 20 1 1 90 37 1
30 31 1
98. Talladega College Talladega, Ala.... w
99. Trinity College Hartford, Conn... 1 (») 15 1 90 40
00. Trinity College Durham, N. C 1 90 35
01. Tufts College Tufts College,
Mass 1 45 18
02. Union College Schenectady, N.Y. «
03 TTrUvprslt.v r>f California. Berkeley, Cal 2 60 2 90 340
45 90 36 4
04. University of Chattanooga.... Chattanooga,Tenn. M
05 TTnlvprsftv of Chlf»n. 06. University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio. o 34 22 2 50 29
34 47 50 31
07. University of Colorado Boulder, Colo..... 2 30 33 30 13 1
08. University of Illinois Urbana, 111 2 45 30 2 45
45 â–  (0 140


438
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
INSTITUTION WHERE LOCATED COURSES DEVOTED WHOLLY TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT COURSES DEVOTED PARTLY TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT
Number Amount of time given Number of students Number Amount of time given Number of students
Under- graduates Graduates Under- graduates Graduates
Hours Hours
109. University of Kansas Lawrence, Kan.... 1 45 24 2 1 75 168
110. University of Maine Orono, Me........ i 30 24 1 30 21
111. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Mich.. 1 30 20 4 1 45
112. University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn 1 45 51 1 Co)
113. University of Missouri Columbia, Mo 1 30 18 1 2 75 100
114. University of Nebraska Lincoln, Neb 3 30 36 14 each
each
115. University of North Dakota... University, N. D. 1 60 6
116. University of Oklahoma Norman, Okla.... 1 30 4
117. University of Oregon ftngArm, Or* 1 30 4 2 45 45
45 25
118. University of Pennsylvania... Philadelphia, Pa.. 1 60 15 19 1 60 20
119. University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pa 1 00 24
120. University of Rochester Rochester, N. Y. . 1
121. University of Southern Call-
fornia Los Angeles, Cal.. 1 45 16 2 2 30 40 5
60 7 7
122. University of South Carolina.. Columbia, S. C... 1 1 45 40
123. University of South Dakota... Vermillion, S. D.. («)
124. University of Texas. Austin, T**fW n 30 10 5 2 90 140
each
125. University of Utah Salt Lake City,
Utah i 90 20
126. University of Virginia Charlottes vllle.Va. 1 90(t>) 65 4
1B7 TTiUvnralt.v of WlnnnnHln MaHlflnnr Wla 2 30 48 1 2 30 60
45 40 10 45 30
128. United States Military Acad-
emy West Point, N. Y M
129. Urslnus College Collegeville, Pa. .. i 30 10
130. Utah Agricultural College Logan, Utah i 45 6
131. Vassar College Poughkeepsie, N.Y. i 45 14
132. Washington University St. Louis, Mo.. 1 60 30
133. Wellesley College Wellesley, Mass.... 2 90 20
45 17
134. Wells College Aurora, N. Y .... (»>
135. Wesleyan University Middletown, Conn 1 45 85
136. Western Reserve University... Cleveland, Ohio... 1 45 40 1 90(n) 65
137. West Virginia Wesleyan College Buchannon, W. Va. 1 30 10 1 180 20
138. West Virginia University Morgantown, W.Va. 1 30 5-10 1 30 6-12
139. Wheaton College Wheaton, HI (c)
140. Whitman College Walla Walla. Waah. 1 30 10 1 90 38
141 Wll1ftm<»t,tfl TTnlverftlt.v Salem, Ore 2 45 15 3
45 18 3
142. Williams College Williams town,
Mass 1 45 (x) 28 1
143. Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Mass... i 60 115
144. Yale University New Haven, Conn 1 90(») 100 6
145. Yankton College Yankton, S. D 1 60 7
No figures could be obtained from Brown University, the University of Chicago, or Princeton University.


SHORT ARTICLES
REVIEW OF GRAFT PROSECUTIONS AND EXPOSURES FOR THE PAST YEAR
IT IS no joy in muckraking that has led the writer to undertake to compile for the National Municipal Review a summary of the leading graft cases in America for the past year. If space permitted in this connection an attempt would be made to show that this formidable array of graft is traceable to a comparatively few eradicable causes; and further, that far from being a subject for pessimistic conclusions the scandalous revelations of the past year are a sign of approaching civic health.
In preparing this article reliance has been placed largely upon the news columns of the daily press. The compilation may not, therefore, be exhaustive but it is believed that no material fact has been misstated.
In searching newspaper columns for graft material one can hardly escape the conviction that the evils charged against newspaper exploitation of crime are more than offset by the service rendered through publicity. A compilation of editorial opinion on graft exposures for the past year would make this more evident. If we can not accept without corroborative evidence the statement of the Evening Wisconsin that “despite the revelations regarding the prevalence of grafting which have been rife of late in the United States it is probable that there is less of that sordid vice on this side of the Atlantic than on the other,” we can agree with this journal that “this is no reason for the apathetic endurance of graft that exists” and we can endorse the prediction that “graft will never be eliminated in public office until it has been driven out of private life.” It is encouraging also to read in the Pittsburg Leader that “the grafter and corruptionist are being ousted and the doors closed and locked with locks provided by progressive reforms.” And it may be good for the souls of all of us as we peruse the record of official graft to give heed to the words of warning of the Ohio State Journal: “Whenever a man loafs on a job, or adds an item of expense that does not belong, or makes a thing cost more than it ought to, he is a grafter.”
Arranged arbitrarily in the order of their apparent gravity the graft records of American communities for approximately the past twelve months seem to be as follows:
New York City. The world-wide notoriety of the Becker case is justification for its mere mention in this review, giving space chiefly to the less well known but almost equally appalling disclosures which were the outgrowth of the Rosenthal murder and the death sentence imposed upon the
439


440
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
police lieutenant. Before the winter was over three committees, one appointed by the state legislature, one by the board of aldermen and one by an organization of citizens, together with a John Doe investigation conducted by Justice Goff on the order of Governor Dix, were busily engaged in unearthing the graft of Gotham and considering ways and means of suppressing its future growth. But the practical immediate results were secured through the activity of District Attorney Whitman and the extraordinary grand juries cooperating with him. As a result the highest police officials ever brought to bar are either serving time in the penitentiary or are facing trial as this is being written.
Aside from the conviction of Lieutenant Becker and the four gunmen, the most effective work of the district attorney was done in Harlem, the section of New York City above 106th Street between the East and Harlem Rivers, considered one of the best business and residence portions of the city. Captain Walsh, who had been in command of the 126th Street Station since April, 1907, made a complete confession implicating Dennis Sweeney, James E. Hussey, James F. Thompson and John J. Murtha, in turn inspectors in the Harlem district. These men were placed on trial in the supreme court on April 29 on the charge of conspiracy in plotting to buy the silence of a resort keeper and convicted. They still await trial, on the more serious graft charges. The testimony of Captain Walsh cleared up the mathematics of the graft situation in Harlem: “I collected from saloons, gambling places and disorderly hotels. Fifteen to 20 per cent went to Eugene Fox, a patrolman who collected for me. The rest I divided with Inspectors Thompson, Hussey, Murtha and Sweeney as they took charge of the district in turn.” It is estimated that by this system $500,000 was mulcted annually from Harlem.1
In the same Harlem net the district attorney caught James F. Robinson for years Inspector Sweeney’s most trusted graft collector, getting for him a six to ten-year term in Sing Sing; Geo. A. Sipp, former proprietor of a Raines law hotel in Harlem, who made a full confession after a conspiracy had been defeated to spirit him out of the court’s jurisdiction; Policeman John J. Hartigan, convicted of perjury in swearing falsely for the system either.through a feeling of loyalty or, as is suspected, for a cash consideration; Edward J. Newell, Sipp’s former lawyer, who pleaded guilty to the charge of wilfully persuading a grand jury witness to remain out of the jurisdiction; and a number of minor police, officials. And the district attorney intimates that he has just begun to fight, his objective point being the head of the “System” at headquarters.
'Before the Curran committee, Samuel H. London, from an actual census reduced to a card index form, swore that there were 26,000 women in New York City who handed over a part or most of their earnings to men connected with the “business.”


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In his prosecutions, District Attorney Whitman was greatly assisted by women who had run disorderly resorts in the city for years. Their apparently truthful evidence concerning the amount of money the police had wrung from the fallen sisterhood was even more shocking than the revelations of the Becker trial.
Omitting numerous minor charges, dismissals and convictions in alder-manic, fire and police circles during New York’s 1912-13 campaign against graft, the unhappy condition of the metropolis in high and low places will perhaps become sufficiently evident through the mention in conclusion of the conviction of Charles H. Hyde, formerly city chamberlain, and one time law partner of Mayor Gaynor, for bribery in connection with the performance of his official duties.
Says Rabbi Lipkind:
However, amid these disconcerting revelations there are one or two compensatory features that shbw a healthy complexion, that give promise of some amelioration for the future, and one is this: The general and persistent movement toward exhaustive investigation of present conditions, for probing to the root of the evils that surround us. There seems to be an impatience with abuses that until now were considered permanent and ineradicable characteristics of America.
Chicago. In Chicago the air has been filled for the past year with charges of big and petty graft, bribery and various forms of political corruption but no such developments have resulted as in the city of New York. For a time, however, the testimony of Michael Heitler, known as “Mike de Pike,” promised material for another Rosenthal case. Heitler laid bare the alleged politicd-police graft in the old westside levee, charging Barney Grogan, saloonkeeper and west side Democratic boss with being the head of the graft syndicate of which he (Heitler) was one of the collecting arms. But Heitler is still alive and Grogan still a tower of political strength.
Equally ineffective was the attempt to involve John I. Tansey, a Roger Sullivan henchman, who was acquitted by the county civil service commission over the protest of the president of the charge of having extorted a bribe of $300 in return for which he was to see that a certain name was placed at the top of the list.
Charges of graft in connection with the purchase of property for the county hospital site and other irregularities on the county board were freely made but it is difficult to tell whether official dishonesty or political rancor is mostly responsible for these charges.
Chicago has been giving much attention during the past year to the question of segregation with special reference to conditions on the south side. Public opinion seemed to favor the wiping out of the disorderly resorts and a series of spectacular raids under the direction of Prosecuting Attorney Wayman followed. The public conscience having been thus sat-


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isfied, a sufficient number of resorts later opened up quietly in less offensive forms.
The activities of the organization known as the “United Police” were investigated by the civil service commission beginning in the latter part of December. On the 21st of January the commission reported that the United Police had raised a “slush” fund of $60,000 for the purpose of bribing the state legislature and city council but had failed in its purpose. The discredited organization thereupon disbanded and the commission issued a strong recommendation against permitting prospective successors and ordered embezzlement charges to be filed against William J. Stine, former president of the United Police and unfaithful custodian of the $60,000 “slush” fund.
A large number of cases of petty but very annoying graft have been charged during the year against the building and smoke inspectors and a few convictions have been secured. These-conditions led Mayor Harrison to appeal to the public for aid in stamping out petty grafting by city inspectors.
The graft situation developed by the local authorities and the vice investigation conducted by the senatorial welfare commission were doubtless the inspiration for the resolution offered in the state legislature by Representative Frank J. Ryan for a joint legislative investigation of the relation of public service corporations with the legislative bodies and public officials of Chicago and Cook County.2
Philadelphia. Henry Clay, director of public safety under Mayor Rey-bum for four years ending December, 1911, and Colonel John R. Wiggins and Willard H. Wall, heads of the Wiggins Construction Company, building contractors, were convicted of conspiracy to defraud the city of Philadelphia in the alteration and erection of public buildings. On April 2 they were sentenced to serve not less than eighteen months nor more than two years in the penitentiary and to pay a fine of $500 each. Suits have been begun by the city against the Wiggins Construction Company to compel it to refund $150,000 which it is alleged to have fraudulently collected from the city.
Atlantic City. Of the nine councilmen involved in the attempted million dollar concrete boardwalk swindle, three were acquitted, four confessed their guilt and two, Harry F. Dougherty and John W. Murtland, were convicted in December and sentenced to terms in the penitentiary ranging from one to three years. Dougherty was convicted on dictographic
2 Representative Ryan in an interview said : “The system, backed up by such public utilities corporations as the Peoples’ Gas, the Commonwealth, Edison and Chicago Traction Companies, has dominated certain newspapers, corrupted public departments, public officials, city councils and legislators too long.”


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evidence secured by Detective Burns. Fines of $1000 and costs of the prosecution were also imposed on each defendant.
Detroit. The arraignment in September, 1912, of seventeen Detroit aldermen and former Council Committee Clerk Edward R. Schreiter, for accepting bribes in return for municipal favors provided one of the most discussed graft sensations of the year. Schreiter confessed, the cases of seven of the councilmen were dismissed and the remaining ten were bound over and are still awaiting trial.
Clinton, Iowa. Thirty-one indictments were returned against three county officials, two former officials and three contractors and supply men, sharers in graft in the construction of bridges and other county work. As a result of the exposures, two supervisors were forced to resign and $23,000 has been refunded to the county.
West Hammond, Ind. Miss Virginia Brooks continued her campaign of the previous year against vice and graft in West Hammond. During the summer and fall of 1912 many sensational reports came from this quarter, at one time the county, state and federal governments all conducting investigations there. This spring Miss Brooks announced that the little city had become a model in clean government and morality.
Gary, Ind. Former city clerk, Harry Moose, whose disappearance in the spring of 1912 brought the bribery cases against Mayor Thos. E. Knotts, aldermen and former city officials of Gary, to a sudden conclusion, returned in November and was convicted and sentenced to a prison term. As a consequence of this trial an investigation of the official doings of Mayor Knotts was begun by the state board of accounts. On March 29 the board reported to Governor Ralston serious shortages of Knotts making him liable to criminal prosecutions. The specific charge of the board is the illegal retention of fees, fines and other moneys by Knotts acting in the capacity of police judge at the same time he was drawing a salary of $1500 as mayor.
Milwaukee and Des Moines. Charges of receiving double pay have also been made in Milwaukee and Des Moines but without any serious developments. In Milwaukee the Socialists charged the city clerk’s staff with illegally drawing two salaries from the city through receiving pay for night work on the city tax roll; in Des Moines the board of supervisors began in January an investigation of the cost of probing criminal cases brought before the grand jury, the principal charge being that police officers of the city also received compensation for appearing before the grand jury.
Bloomsburgh, Pa. An unusual case of grafting was presented to a commission for trial by the district attorney at Bloomsburgh. Three judges were accused of accepting bribes for liquor licenses but the men involved were all associate or lay judges and not regular or law judges of the court.


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In a few counties of Pennsylvania the old system of electing laymen to sit as associates on the bench with the law judges is still preserved.
Atlanta, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Denver, East St. Louis, Portland, Providence, San Francisco, Seattle, St. Louis. In the remaining larger cities of the country graft developments have not been serious. The rumors and charges in some cases were weighty enough, but they have not as yet been followed up with adequate proof that has come to the writer’s attention.
In Atlanta the smoke commission has investigated serious charges of bribery against the “smokeless” furnace interests alleged to be seeking special privileges. In Cleveland the padding of city payrolls has been charged. Columbus has investigated alleged graft in connection with city contracts for asphalt pavements. Dayton acquired much newspaper advertising through a Burns investigation with dictograph accompaniment and grand jury probe. Denver has led the list with grand jury indictments of city officials and corporate heads but there has been thus far a lack of developments promised by the initial proceedings.3 In East St. Louis charges were made by M. M. Stephens, former mayor and member of the City Protective Association, that the lawless element paid $3000 to $5000 a month for protection and that an assessment of $15,000 for a campaign fund was levied on the “bad lands.” Providence has wrestled with the question of graft in its highway department. San Francisco has brought to light but one case of embezzlement, due to faults in the check system recently put into effect in the city administration.4 Seattle has discovered corroborative evidence tending to show that, as suspected by the council, the city has been regularly swindled under the garbage collection contract. St. Louis has indulged in charges of grafting against workhouse officials and the plumbing department, with counter charges of “frame-up” on the part of the accused, all without definite result so far as heard.
3 The latest from Denver is the charge made by Sheriff Daniel M. Sullivan that nearly every policeman in Denver collects regular tribute from women with the knowledge of higher public officials. The vice district in Denver was closed recently by order of the fire and police board. Since that time, according to the sheriff, practically all the former denizens of the underworld have moved into the residence section of the city, where cadet practices are thriving unmolested. The sheriff’s charges are under investigation by the grand jury.
4 A much more serious condition has just developed in San Francisco in the matter of the alleged relations of police officers with a gang of confidence men in the city’s Italian quarter. Eight police officers were suspended by Chief of Police White pending the investigation by the commission of the charges of collusion made by convicted bunco men. The police commission later postponed its hearing until after the trial of the accused officers in the superior court, which is now progressing. The guardians of the law are charged with having received a 15 per cent “rake-off” from a gang of confidence men who secured $300,000 in one year from San Francisco’s foreign population.
Five additional policemen are involved by the immigration authorities in charges of protecting women held as undesirables for transportation.


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MINOR CASES
Bloomington, III. True bills filed against mayor and chief of police alleging omission of duty and malfeasance in office.
Canton, 0. Chief of Police Smith suspended by order of mayor and charges investigated that vice league exists among dive keepers to permit gambling, cock fighting and Sunday saloons.
Darke County, 0. Court house officials sentenced for collecting fraudulent bills.
Elkhart, Ini. Chief of police and assistant resigned while under investigation on charges of grafting in office.
Evanston, III. Investigation of charge of grafting made by “blind pig” operator against alderman.
Keokuk, Iowa. Chief of police dismissed after having been under fire for several months.
McComb, III. City weigher ousted, charged with padding weights of coal and pocketing proceeds.
Marinette, Wis. Grand jury indicted sheriff for accepting money for protection of gambling house.
Montgomery, Ala. Discrepancies in accounts of state convict department investigated and found not so large as at first thought.
Muncie, Ind. Affairs of the police department investigated. No official statement.
Newport, Ky. Henry Reusch, former delinquent tax collector, pleaded guilty of embezzling $14,000 of city funds and sentenced to a term of two to ten years in the penitentiary.
Niagara Falls. Supervisors Joseph Percy and Clifford H. Bowman convicted of having tried to bribe supervisors to vote for favored poor house architect and sentenced to terms in penitentiary. *
West Seneca, N. F. Grand jury investigated alleged charity sewer graft with special reference to statements made by Henry Lunn, convicted former chairman of toyvn board.
C. R. Atkinson.5
RECENT INTERESTING DEVELOPMENTS IN
BERLIN
THE phenomenal increase in the number of foreign visitors to Berlin within the last fifteen years has resulted in making that city as interesting to travelers now as it has been for years to students of city government. The visitor to the capital of Prussia and of the
“Lawrence College, Appleton, Wis. See article on “Recent Graft Exposures and Prosecutions” by the same author, National Municipal Review, vol. i, p. 672.


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German Empire, whether he remain for a few weeks during the summer or for an entire year finds opportunities for study and recreation, and above all the possibilities of a comfortable enjoyable daily life, unexcelled by those of any city in the world. Naturally even a laymen is interested in hearing of new developments in a government which is able to provide such well-paved, well-cleaned streets, such beautiful parks, such magnificent public buildings, such admirable transportation and such freedom from slums and other centers of poverty and filth.
To the student of city government Berlin is of particular interest because of the fact that the Prussian system of city government, which works well in little towns of 1000 inhabitants or less is just as satisfactory in the metropolis of over two and one-half million people. In France the municipal code of 1884 was not applied to Paris. In England the epoch-making municipal corporations act of 1835 and its successor the consolidation act of 1882 were not extended to the capital. In each of these cases it was thought that the general law could not be applied with advantage to the capital city of the state. In this country, the city of Washington has a form of government wholly different from that of other cities in the United States. But Berlin is governed by the same law which applies to cities of, it may be, only a few hundred inhabitants.
Inasmuch as the government of Berlin varies in no essential respects from that of other Prussian cities, it is not the purpose of the writer to treat a subject which has already been dealt with in various works in English,1 but rather to point out some recent governmental events of interest in the German capital. Two of these are of particular importance, viz., the election of a new mayor for the city proper, and the creation of a new unit of local government for the entire metropolitan area.
As is well known, the election of a mayor in a German city is as much a business* proposition as is the election of a director of a private business corporation. Political considerations are excluded and the city council acting through the administrative board goes systematically about finding the best man for the place. In the smaller cities it may be necessary to advertise in the public press for applicants to fill such a vacancy. In a city like Berlin the fact that a vacancy exists is universally known among the persons interested and of course applications would be numerous enough without any such action.
That the cities have a wide field from which to choose their mayors— the larger cities have two, a first and a second or vice-mayor—and are not necessarily restricted to officials of prior municipal experience, if there are others available who seem to be possessed of the necessary qualifica-
1 See, among others, William B. Munro, The Government of European Cities, pp. 109-208; Herman G. James, Principles of Prussian Administration, pp. 128-146. Berlin has 144 councillors, 34 members of the administrative board and two mayors.


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tions to a higher degree, is well shown in the election of the new mayor last year.2 The retiring mayor, Herr Kirschner, who served in that capacity for thirteen years in Berlin was called there from the same post in Breslau, one of the most important positions of that character outside of the capital in Prussia. Before that he had been mayor of Bromberg. He resigned the Berlin position at the age of seventy, largely because of his years, and partly because of some difficulties arising in the administration.
When the city fathers were confronted with the necessity of selecting a successor for that important position, their difficulty was not so much in finding duly qualified men as in choosing among a large number of candidates, any one of whom would have been qualified by natural ability and training to fill the post. So some of the influential men were favorably disposed toward Dr. Adickes,3 for years the mayor of the important city of Frankfort. Others inclined toward Herr Dernburg, formerly secretary of colonial affairs in the imperial government.
But the choice finally fell on Herr Wermuth, who had just resigned the position of imperial secretary of the treasury. The new incumbent of the office presents the rather unusual spectacle of a man elected to the most important municipal position in Germany, if not in Europe, without any prior experience in similar work in other cities. He had extensive administrative experience in other lines, however, in which he displayed qualities that proved his possession of the requisite executive ability.
Herr Wermuth entered the Prussian government service at an early age and was made privy councillor in the department of the interior when still a young man. In 1893 he was made president of the German commission to the World’s Fair in Chicago and was in a large measure responsible for the success of the German exhibit there. After returning to Berlin he was promoted from one position to another and finally in 1909 he was made imperial secretary of the treasury. In that capacity he displayed great energy and initiative and became one of the most prominent figures in the government. In the spring of last year he came into conflict with the chancellor on the question of the inheritance tax and resigned. A few weeks thereafter he was elected to the Berlin position and his election confirmed by the crown. Today, a man fifty-eight years of age, with undoubted capacity for administration he is expected to handle the increasingly difficult problems of the government of Berlin to general satisfaction.
In an earlier part of this paper it was pointed out that Berlin is unique as a capital in being governed by the same laws as other cities of the state, great and small. With the enormous growth of the city in recent years,
2 For the following facts concerning the retiring and the incoming mayors of Berlin, the writer is indebted to Guenther Thomas, Berlin special correspondent of the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung.
* For years a member of the National Municipal League.


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however, some problems have arisen that called for special treatment. But they are problems caused not by mere increase in population, but by the fact that this increase has been to a large extent outside of the corporate limits of the city proper. This brings us to the consideration of a second development of even greater importance than the election of the new mayor, namely the organization of the new municipal corporation for Greater Berlin.4
The urban territory consisting of Berlin and the surrounding communities comprises besides the city proper, six other “city circles” and two “rural circles”6 with a total population of over 3,500,000. The “rural circles” comprise a number of communes, the eight most important of which are regarded for the purposes of this law as independent units. As all these various public corporations constitute in reality a single urban area, there were inevitably matters which concerned them all in common and yet were not within the jurisdiction of any central authority.
Among the concerns which were especially in need of some unified treatment were the housing conditions of the poor, the park and playground facilities for the children of the working classes, and transit facilities which would give the congested areas cheap and rapid communication with the surrounding open country. These and other matters could be satisfactorily dealt with only if there were some central authority. But such central authority did not exist and twenty years ago consolidation was opposed by the fear of the Berlin authorities that the city would be burdened with the upkeep of schools, etc., for the poorer outlying districts. Since that time, however, these suburbs have attracted the wealthy taxpayers from the city proper and consequently every attempt since then to solve the difficulty by incorporation of the surrounding corporations with the city proper has been blocked by the determined resistance of the smaller communities which objected to losing their independent existence.
Finally the demand for some steps in the direction indicated above led to the creation by state law of a new corporation for special purposes which should be competent to deal with these matters without, however, swallowing the surrounding corporations which still retained their independent existence for all other purposes except those specified in the law. Unions
* For some of the facts concerning this latest development in Berlin city government, the writer is indebted to an article written by Dr. Ahrens of Berlin at the request of the Amerika Institut in that city and kindly put at the disposal of the writer by the Institut. The text of the law may be found in the official collection of Prussian laws (Preussische Gesetzsammlung), for 1911, p. 123.
6 “Circles” are administrative subdivisions in Prussia for both state and local matters and include both urban and rural communes. But the larger cities, over 25,000 inhabitants, regularly constitute “circles” for themselves called “city circles” while “rural circles” include less thickly populated areas as well as smaller urban centers. See James, op. cit., pp. 112-122.


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of local corporations for special purposes of common interest had been introduced by law in some provinces of Prussia as early as 1891 and by law of 1911 the subject was regulated for the whole of Prussia save Berlin.
The Berlin law of July 19, 1911, creates a new public corporation or union (Zweckverband Gross Berlin) of the sixteen communities mentioned above with the corporation of Berlin proper and gives it jurisdiction over the three classes of matters for which a central authority was considered most essential; street railways, building undertakings, and open areas for parks, playgrounds, etc.
The organs of government of the new corporation are constituted along the lines followed in Prussia for local government in general: a general council, an executive committee and a director.
The council is composed of one hundred representatives of the constituent corporations, under the chairmanship of the first mayor of Berlin. The councillors are apportioned among the local corporations on the basis of population, each corporation having at least one representative. To insure against control of the council by the representatives from the city of Berlin—which comprises over two-thirds of the population—there is a provision that no one of the constituent corporations may have a number of representatives on the council exceeding two-fifths of the total membership. The representatives for each unit are elected by the governmental organs thereof. Any resident of the local corporation is eligible to membership in the council provided he is eligible to a place in the local governmental organs.
Among the enumerated functions of the council are: the determination of the budget, the audit of accounts, the passage and amendment of local by-laws, the apportionment of the contributions to be levied on the different local corporations, the negotiation of loans, the framing of the general policy of the union, the management of its property, the creation and filling of corporate offices so far as not provided for in the law, the election of the director, lay members of the executive committee, and other executive officers of the union, the enactment of measures in the field of activity assigned to the union, and the acquisition and disposal of corporate realty. The council meets at least once a year on convocation of the chairman and as much oftener as the chairman or a third of the members may demand.
The executive committee consists of the first mayor as chairman, a member of the Magistrat or administrative board designated by the mayor, the first mayors of the six next largest units represented in the union, the chairman of the circle committees within the area of the union, and eight lay members chosen by the council from among persons eligible to membership in the same. The term of these lay members is fixed at six years, but may be lengthened by act of the council.
The duties of the executive committee are extensive, including the prep-


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aration of measures for enactment by the council and their enforcement after passage, the supervision of the activities of the director of the union, the adoption of measures in regard to all corporate matters not entrusted to the council, and the collection of the quotas assigned to the constituent corporations.
The director of the union is chosen by the council for a period of not less than six nor more than twelve years and his appointment must be approved by the crown. He is the chief executive officer and is directly responsible for the administration of its affairs under supervision and control of the executive committee. He is charged with the duty of preparing the measures for enactment by the executive committee.
State supervision is exercised in the first instance by the province president of Brandenburg and in the higher instance by the minister of the interior acting with the ministers of public works and of finance. Certain acts of the union require for their validity the approval of the higher authorities and certain others may be brought into question before these authorities, and in some cases before the supreme administrative court.
Considering now the scope of powers granted to the union in the accomplishment of its purposes one sees that they are very extensive. In execution of its control over means of transportation the union may either purchase or build street railways within its limits and either operate them itself or lease them to private corporations. The constituent members may still continue to build, own and operate street railways as before, so long as such undertakings do not interfere with the purposes and interests of the union.
The second class of powers comprise the right to fix the building lines and other building regulations, not only in the exercise of the powers over thoroughfares, street railways and open park areas, but also in the interests of public health, especially as regards housing conditions. Here again the powers conferred on the union are not exclusive in character so long as the local regulations of the individual communities do not conflict with the measures or interests of the union. The cost of carrying out building regulations enacted by the union are shared by it with the local corporation that has to put them into effect.
The third class of functions, namely, the care for open playground and park areas may be entrusted by the union to the local communities. But here also the union must bear its share of the expense.
The revenues of the union are obtained by apportionment among the various constituent corporations in a manner specified in the law, and these local units in turn raise the necessary funds through the ordinary process of local taxation.
It is hoped by some students of the situation that the creation of this new corporation for specified purposes will lead to an increasing centrali-


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451
zation of powers and ultimately to the complete union of all of these different areas under a full fledged municipal corporation embracing all the powers granted to any other local corporation.
Before closing this discussion of recent important events in Berlin it may not be out of place to mention the new street regulations of the city proper which went into effect this spring. The average American already feels very much in danger of being in a state of continual violation of local ordinances in a German city, but here are a few more “don’ts” to be observed in the future, in order to avoid arrest and fine.
Don’t walk three abreast and crowd your fellow pedestrians off into the street; don’t stop on the sidewalk to chat with your friends and so interrupt traffic; don’t swing your umbrella or cane or carry it in such a way that other people may fall over it or be poked with it; don’t whistle, sing, shriek, shout, or talk in a loud voice on the street where others may be disturbed; don’t litter up the streets with paper, remains of fruits, cigars or cigarettes; if you are a musician don’t leave your doors or windows open when following your vocation or avocation; if you are in charge of a truck, drive so that there be no more noise than is absolutely necessary; and if you are a lady see that your skirt does not drag along the street, for that raises dust and is unhygienic.
If these regulations are enforced as rigidly as are most police orders in Prussian cities, it will no longer be necessary to leave the city for a rest cure.
Herman G. James.8
POLLING PLACES IN THE SCHOOLS
THE SCHOOL HOUSE—THE HOPE OF THE AMERICAN
CITY
HOMER P. LEWIS, superintendent of schools at Worcester, Massachusetts, is a plump, quiet and capable man well over fifty. I asked him if public opinion in his city approved the use of schools for registration and polling places. He seemed very much puzzled and after considerable deliberation answered: “Why—er—there is no public opinion.” He explained that he had been superintendent for seventeen years and that the schools had been used for election purposes when he first assumed his duties. “Worcester,” said he, “has probably had polling places in schools for thirty years. We accept it as a matter of course.”
There is no provision in the election law of Massachusetts authorizing
3 University of Texas; Author of Principles of Prussian Administration. See also his article on “Recent English Borough Elections,” in the National Municipal Review, vol. ii, p. 271.


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the use of public buildings for such purposes. The aldermen in each city are required to designate the polling places and in Worcester they have whenever possible selected schools.
Of the forty-one polling places in use at the last election, thirteen were in schools, twelve in portable booths erected in vacant lots or in the highways, four in social halls, three in churches and only nine in rented stores. For party caucuses schools and police stations are used.
The superintendent of public buildings, George C. Halcott, estimates that the city saves about $75 a year on each polling place located in a public building.
So far as I could learn no one in Worcester is opposed to the use of the schools. Mrs. Nellie C. Thomas, a grammar school principal for twenty years, now; teaching at the North High School, said: “I have never had the slightest trouble in all my experience. In this school the men and children enter by the same door. I have to be around on election day to oversee things, that is all.”
Jane E. Millea, assistant principal at the Chandler Street School, said: “I have never heard any criticism of the use of these buildings. I have never had any trouble though I have had experience for ten years. Election usually comes when the schools are in session and I think it is helpful to the pupils, especially those in civil government classes. It gives them a practical object lesson and stimulates their interest. I always take my children down to watch the balloting. The day before we usually hold a mock election. The pupils are very much interested, even the girls, and insist that all the forms be strictly followed.” It seems that in all of the schools the children are shown the election machinery in operation and I could not find a single principal or teacher who did not think the benefits to the community and the pupils far outweighed the slight trouble caused by the interference with school work. In a few of the schools the room is ordinarily used for manual training or physical exercise. When such is the case the class has to be passed for the day. In almost all of the Worcester schools the polling place or “ward room,” as it is called, is in the basement.
The “ward rooms” in the Worcester schools are used not alone for elections but are rented to political parties for caucuses for $5 and to political leaders for rallies for $2.50 a night.
It is generally thought that the use of schools and other public buildings is dangerously new and untried. Most of the cities using public buildings have done so for the first time within the past two years. Los Angeles was among the first to try out the use of the schools and the progress of the experiment there has aroused much interest throughout the country. In the election of December, 1911, twenty-nine schools, a church and a branch library were designated for polling places. Success was so marked


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that the number of public buildings used has been increased and there is no thought of going back to the old system. The granting of suffrage to women has made it all the more important that light, commodious, dignified polling places be selected. To gage the success of the plan a circular letter was sent to the principals of the schools which were used, asking among other questions these:
Did its use interfere in any way with the regular school work?
Was there any disorder or disturbance due to such use?
Was the effect on school children good as a training in the duties of citizenship?
Aside from the large saving of expense to the city do you, from your own observation, consider the use of school buildings as polling places a beneficial move in elevating the conduct of our elections.
Of the fourteen answers but two reported any interference with school work. No disturbance was recorded excepting in one case and that was “slight.” To the last two questions every principal answered “Yes.” When it is considered that in most cases the hallways of the buildings were used it is remarkable that every principal should favor the plan.
The money saving is not the important thing. As Henry 0. Wheeler, chairman of the committee on elections of the City Club of Los Angeles points out, the social benefit is invaluable. Here are the reasons given by Mr. Wheeler for the use of public buildings: Improved environment; more comfortable quarters for election officers; instruction in citizenship to pupils; enforcement of the idea of the sanctity of the ballot; easier accessibility to the voter; permanency of polling places.
In the election of June, 1911, every school house in Salt Lake City was used. This was in vacation time. No attempt has been made to use them when school is in session. The city and county building has been designated as the polling place for a number of districts.
Twenty school houses in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and several in Madison, Wisconsin, are successfully used.
Denver is waging a great fight for the complete socialization of its schools. As the result of much agitation the buildings have at last been thrown open for public meetings and it is expected that at the next election they will be used for election purposes.
Milwaukee has used its schools in elections for two years. Of the one hundred and forty-eight polling places at the last election thirty-five were in schools. In the opinion of Ralph Bowman, director of the Milwaukee bureau of municipal research: “The arrangement has been very satisfactory.” Here, as in Worcester, basements are largely used. This is done so as not to interfere with the regular work of the schools. All new school buildings are provided with basement entrances so that they may be available for voting purposes.


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Hull House, The Commons, and other settlement buildings in Chicago, have been used for voting at irregular intervals for several years. Recently Chicago has opened its schools for political meetings and the next step is the designation of these buildings for election purposes. When requested for his views as to whether or not the use of settlement buildings had worked satisfactorily and whether it did not point the way to the use of the schools, Graham Taylor, headworker of The Chicago Commons, replied:
Everyone who has public interest and spirit in the matter knows that it would be better to use public school buildings, or if they can not be obtained, settlement buildings as polling places rather than barber shops, undertaker’s shops or the back rooms of saloons. The only reason why these private places are used is the money in it for some one, or the better facility it affords for dirty work in politics.
What about the great city of New York with its palatial new buildings —perhaps the finest in the world! Agitation there has been for some years, but progress has been slight. George McAneny, president of the borough of Manhattan, looks favorably upon the proposition and has given it some thought, but his time has been too largely occupied with subways and other matters to push it to a conclusion. Raymond B. Fos-dick, when commissioner of accounts, made an investigation into the methods of the board of elections in the fall of 1910 and again in the spring of 1911. He found that in many districts the polling places were so small that the watchers could not stand behind the guard rail that they were entirely unsuited to the purpose and in many instances were placed without regard to the convenience of the voters. Among the districts mentioned as the worst was the second assembly district in Brooklyn. I was then a resident of the second district and upon investigation found several of the stores and shops designated very small and dark. One was a club room and to reach it the voters had to go through the rear yard of a saloon. When visited, this room was used as a dog kennel. In behalf of the United Neighborhood Guild, a social settlement with which I was connected, I offered the use of two of its buildings which were very suitable for the purpose free to the city as an experiment which if successful would point the way to the use of schools and other public buildings. One of the election commissioners, J. Gratton-MacMahon, was heartily in favor of accepting the offer and thought that the other members would concur. Shortly afterwards the courts held that the mayor had to accept for commissioners of elections the candidates suggested by the political parties. Mayor Gaynor’s appointees were removed and the men selected by the two machines came into office. The offer though renewed and urged from time to time, was never acted upon and never will be until public sentiment demands it. The election commissioners are now


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under a recent statute, appointed by the board of aldermen, but they are in fact named by the parties. Polling places are supposed to be designated by the board of elections, but they are in fact chosen by the leaders in each district. The district leader does not voluntarily part with patronage.
The people are coming to their own. No party, no politician, nor any group of politicians, can stand in the way of public sentiment. If we can interest the people of New York we shall have at least some of the schools designated for the next election.
The school is the hope of the American city because it will bring us together. A great city is a federation of neighborhoods with varied interests, often speaking different languages and professing diverse religions and ideals. Because these neighborhoods do not know themselves—much less the other sections—city government has been dubbed the one signal failure of our American democracy.
The public school building, the home of the town meeting and the spelling bee in New England, is in a large city the logical capitol of a neighborhood. Here the people should meet, first of all to get acquainted, then for enjoyment, to discuss civic, social and political issues—and to vote. Neighborhood conscience is what we need in our cities, and public school centers will develop it. That larger patriotism, the lack of which we so often bewail, lies deep in the heart of the people waiting only the magic touch which will give it life.
Louis Heaton Pink.
SOCIAL CENTERS1
MR. WARD is an evangelist, a crusader. America is full of evangelists, but most of them are preaching a negative doctrine of some kind. They stand for repression—at best for prevention. Mr. Ward, on the other hand, has lifted into national consciousness a wholly constructive and astonishingly fertile area. In society nothing is real until it has entered into public opinion, and in this sense—that he has altered, on behalf of the social center, the direction of public opinion—Mr. Ward may be said to have created the social center.
His present book is not less valuable from the fact that its introductory chapters—the philosophic chapters—challenge disagreement a hundred times. Mr. Ward has the defects of his qualities. He did not happen on the social center idea as an incident of a professional career. The social
1 Probably most readers would be better advised to read The Social Center, by Edward J. Ward. National Municipal League Series. New York: D. Appleton and Company. $1.50. Postpaid $1.62.—J. C.


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center idea seized on him—it obsessed him, in a way—it filled him with the transforming power of feeling and with a certain ruthlessness which feeling gives. But it is a fighting-problem that Mr. Ward, from the beginning of his work in Rochester, confronted and still confronts.
There are three paramount feudalisms in America. One of these is the business feudalism, which largely influences the second, or political feudalism The third feudalism is the educational feudalism. To overcome any one of them would involve at least a peaceful revolution, and revolutions need impassioned leaders. Mr. Ward is a leader in the undoing of the second and third kinds of feudalism mentioned above. Is there any leader on the advance line of the struggle for educational and political emancipation, whose weapons are as wholly constructive as those of Mr. Ward?
Probably most readers would be well advised to read Mr. Ward’s book backwards, or at least to begin with the chapter on “Beginnings in Rochester.” It was of the Rochester social center work that Governor, now Justice Hughes, said: “You are buttressing the foundation of democracy.”
Mr. Ward and his Rochester co-workers were thoroughly radical. They believed that the school should not only be used for educational extension during leisure hours, and for recreation as a substitute for dancehalls and moving picture shows, but frankly and fully as a political center. The plan required imagination and a certain recklessness. Free speech is guaranteed in the American constitution, but rather in the sense of toleration than of encouragement* Certainly, American practise has not been in the direction of encouraging free speech. The primary requisites of free speech have not been provided either in urban or rural districts. Neither parks nor public buildings nor ecclesiastical buildings have been made available for free speech. ' American streets are too narrow for the convenient holding of public meetings. Free speech has had to pay its own way, through the renting of private halls, and in large cities these private halls are oftener than not parts of saloon premises. But whatever might be the passive American attitude toward free speech, the tradition about separating school from politics is an active one. It is as vague as most other traditions of the kind which are inherited and never systematically analysed by the average citizen. In Rochester, the pioneers declared, once and for all, that the promotion of unlimited and organized free speech was the first duty of government. This was bad enough. It was a challenge to American prudence and to the political feudalism which is organized into parties based on loyalty and personal interest. It was a further challenge to the view which holds the school sacrosanct in an archaic sense. Incidentally, it was a challenge to the boss-ridden common council of Rochester, and after about two years the funds for keeping the schools open were withdrawn. Mr. Ward describes the Rochester beginnings in sufficient detail.


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A further chapter, which has a bearing even wider than the social center, has been contributed to Mr. Ward’s book by Dr. Edward C. Elliott of the University of Wisconsin. It is a discussion of “The Magnified School.” Dr. Elliott states epigrammatically two of the three great reasons why social centers are right. His words may be quoted:
(1) For several decades, competent judges .... have called attention to the extravagances and conspicuous lack of sensible economy that characterize all our public doings. The consciousness of the evils of the wastage of material things is being succeeded by a sharp realization of the evils of the wastage of spiritual things. This, as I understand it, is the underlying motive of the movement to expand the school into a center for community activity.
Dr. Elliott has in mind facts like these: in New York City $54,000,000 of the investment in public school buildings is wholly idle through the 40 per cent non-use of school properties. Throughout America the people’s leisure-time is treated as idle ore—is given over to the exploitation of purely mercantile interests on which the people depend for their amusement life and in part for their political life.
Professor Elliott continues:
(2) The original constitution of the public school was dominated by individualism. It was founded to meet the elementary needs of the child. The twentieth century public school has begun to discard this individualism
for a broader principle of socialization.............The decline of the
influence of the family, the church, the workshop and of the major nationalizing traditions, has meant the increase of the domain of the school.
In other words, the economic changes of late generations have destroyed most of the old social bonds, have substituted economic for human forces, and have in a sense pulverized social life. The need of the age is the creation of new vital social bonds. Therefore, the social center.
The reader will then go back to Mr. Ward’s first chapters. He will find the third great reason for the social center. Mr. Ward says:
When the members of the electorate add to their common function of participating in the decision upon public questions, the function of consciously organizing to deliberate upon public questions, then the people become a reasoning, self-knowing being.
We can agree with Mr. Ward when he says: “This proposal goes to the heart of the whole American problem.”
Mr. Ward develops his argument as follows. The ballot-box is the implicit social center of every neighborhood and of the nation. Public opinion registers itself only through the ballot. There is no direct manifestation of the public’s soul except the ballot-box.


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Representative bodies, from town boards to the federal congress, are sub-committees of the public. They act with delegated authority. But first they discuss in an orderly manner. They gather, for their own illumination, all facts which bear on the questions which they must decide. They do not meet in livery stables or butcher shops, as do the citizens in casting their ballot. They meet in dignified and adequate buildings.
If it is necessary for the sub-committees of the electorate to discuss before acting, then the electorate itself should discuss before acting. If the subcommittees are entitled to a dignified assemblage-place, where all interests may be represented, then he electorate is entitled to an adequate and dignified place of meeting.
The schoolhouse is the logical place of meeting of that great committee of society, the general electorate. First, it is the convenient place, for school-houses are everywhere and are now idle half the time. Second, it is the proper place, because the schoolhouse stands for the interest of society in its own formative elements, and the recognition by society of a responsibility for the future. The schoolhouse further represents the recognition by society that citizenship cannot be really formed save through the informing of the children with the important facts and values of the world. The school stands for universality and the rights of science and truth.
Assuming that the school is used as the ubiquitous, permanent gathering place of the electorate, then the electorate must organize to use the schobl. This organization must include everybody or at least welcome everybody. It must have a clerk, for purposes of record and of administrative convenience. This clerk is the servant of the social center, not the supervisor, director or boss. He takes orders, not gives them.
Mr. Ward, continuing to reason from convenience and from theory, then urges that the school principal is the logical peoples’ clerk in the social center. But there should be an associate superintendent, the social center director of the general school system.
The four chapters in which Mr. Ward expounds this plan with great earnestness and positiveness, must needs convince any reader as to the main proposition. They exhibit at the same time some of the real excesses which the social center movement has taken on in more than one city and against which it needs to be safeguarded.
Briefly, the following are some of the exceptions which readers will take to Mr. Ward’s argument.
Can or should the school principal be the social center secretary? There are limits to human endurance. Moreover, though the time may come when day school work will be wholly merged into the general community life, as William Morris depicts in his News from Nowhere, it is still true that today the efficient school principal is not likely to be a very tolerant or magnetic social center secretary. The school principal deals in a disciplinary


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and somewhat arbitrary way with children. In the social center the sense of authority, which seems to be necessary in the day school, is wholly out of place. A more reasonable plan would seem to be that there should be social center leaders, salaried by the community, giving their whole time to the center and to the neighborhood contact which it involves. A second point which involves not detail but principle, is Mr. Ward’s insistence that public schools when opened as social centers should be used only by the single, all-inclusive social center organization. The fact is that there is every reason why labor unions, partisan political clubs, dancing societies, exclusive groups of all sorts, should be invited and urged to hold their meetings on public property. At present the people’s organized life flows through the saloon, the private meeting hall, the dance hall, church and pool room. It is not simply a nondescript mass of humanity that flows through these special channels, but it is cohesive social groups. Unless the social center invites these groups as groups, it will not draw to itself the social life of the people or, save very partially, the political life. Jeffersonian democracy, when logically carried out, may indeed deny to special classes and groups the right to exist, and Mr. Ward is politically (though not economically) a Jeffersonian. But as a fact of social science, and of universal experience, people tend to organize into classes, groups and clubs, and such special groups have been one of the main dynamic agencies of history. It is probable that group and club life has never been as variegated and universal as it is in America today. If the social center movement refuses to face this patent social fact, and clings to a mere logical carrying out of absolute democracy, then the social center idea cannot be generally effected save at great expense to the taxpayers, nor will it reach the mass of the people in their vital relations.
No one will dispute Mr. Ward’s ultimate ideal, in insisting that nothing shall go on in social centers except that which everybody wants and approves. But a society where the majority rules in this exhaustive sense cannot be achieved save through ages of evolution. In America the political interest has been a relatively superficial one until very recently and democracy has not sunk very deep. The public school should invite all reputable groups and see that they shall give each other elbow-room, and should then strive to develop within itself certain focal points of universal interest, around which all the groups can unite.
This conception of the social center makes the whole problem more complex and will involve slower progress than would be possible if Mr. Ward’s view—the theory of immediate absolute democracy—were true to the facts of life. But neither absolute logic nor enthusiasm will enable the social center movement to get around facts.
A third element in Mr. Ward’s argument, which will not command general agreement, is his assumption that the social center, once established on


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a democratic basis, will automatically keep itself on a democratic basis. This is not the history of democracy. It is an unsolved part of the social center question, as to how the center can be locally self-governed, with unlimited freedom of action by the majority, and yet the tyranny of the majority be avoided. Because the problem is not yet solved, it may be expected that most cities and states will not give unlimited freedom to the social center movement except as the movement works out methods and traditions which will be a guarantee of fairness to the social center minorities.
The reviewer would be sorry to have it understood that he regards these suggestions as in any sense major criticisms of Mr. Ward’s theory. In emphasizing the political element and the element of local self-government, Mr. Ward does a primary service to the social center movement and indeed to the general school movement of the country.
The other chapters in Mr. Ward’s book are: “The Branch Public Library” contributed by Dr. Charles E. McLennigan, public Librarian of Milwaukee; “The Public Art Gallery,” a description by William Dudley Foulke of the significant work which has been done in Richmond, Indiana; “Music Center,” contributed by Prof. Arnold Dresden; “The Festival Center,” contributed by E. S. Martin; “The Motion Picture Theater,” contributed by John Collier; “The Recreation Center,” contributed by Clarence A. Perry and Edward A. Stitt; “The Employment Center,” contributed by Mrs. Annie L. Diggs; “The Local University Center,” contributed by Dean Louis E. Reber, of Wisconsin University; “The Social Center in the Rural Community,” contributed by Charles W. Holman, of Texas; “The Public Health Office,” contributed by Mr. Geo. B. Young, commissioner of health of Chicago.
These papers were prepared for the Buffalo Convention of the National Municipal League in 1911, and are made timely by introductory words written by Mr. Ward. Several of these papers are rich in fact and the chapters on the rural social center and the school as a public health office are of acute value.
Mr. Ward’s book is an important chapter in the movement which may be seen, by the Americans of tomorrow, as co-equal in national meaning with the movement for the conservation of natural resources.
John Collier.2
2Of The People’s Institute; author of papers on “Leisure Time: A Problem of Conservation,” “Motion Pictures and Public Education,” “Industrial Education in the Metropolis.”


THE BAKER ADMINISTRATION OF CLEVELAND 461
NEWTON D. BAKER’S ADMINISTRATION AS MAYOR OF CLEVELAND AND ITS ACCOMPLISHMENTS
NEWTON D. BAKER became mayor of Cleveland a year and a half ago. The majority vote by which he was elected was large, and the votes carried with them an expression of personal liking and esteem that few candidates for public offices are honored with.
Mr. Baker was handicapped when he took office by a rather unusual situation. Tom. L. Johnson had left the mayor’s office but two years before, following his defeat by Herman Baehr. Whatever one may think of Tom Johnson, he will at least be compelled to admit that he was a remarkable man. His personality permeated his administration for the many years he was at the head of municipal affairs in Cleveland.
Herman Baehr, good type of substantial German citizen, gave Cleveland just such an administration as might have been expected from the man. It was wholly honest, fairly efficient, fairly progressive. Some good things were done. But Cleveland under Tom Johnson had become a city awake. The most advanced civic and social thought was discussed among all classes as they might discuss a baseball game. It was, therefore, not strange that two years of the type of administration given by Mr. Baehr was enough. Beyond doubt, the people who had repudiated Tom Johnson at the polls would have called him back; but Tom Johnson was dead.
To Newton D. Baker they turned as the ablest member and closest associate in the Johnson cabinet. His election meant that he was expected to restore to the people somewhat the same attitude and viewpoint in civic affairs that they had come to expect from the great leader who was gone. At the same time they looked to Mr. Baker for accomplishment along certain material lines which had been to a degree neglected in the heat of Mr. Johnson’s battle with the street railway company over the 3-cent fare issue. In a word Cleveland wanted a mayor who had ideals and who would do something. What Mr. Baker has been able to do in both respects is the verdict as to the success or failure of his administration. Coming, as he did, at a time when the demand for a high type of leadership was accentuated by two years of ordinary conduct of municipal affairs, Mr. Baker’s task has been the more difficult.
An educated community demands certain civic ideals, but any community demands creature comforts. In the modern municipality adequate street car transportation, lighting, water supply, municipal buildings, street cleaning, garbage collection, policing, care of paupers and indigent and a hundred and one other items of service to the community must become one of the chief tasks of any administration. It is therefore proper to


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consider what Newton D. Baker’s administration has done in Cleveland as affecting these matters.
In the street railroad situation, always a moot matter in Cleveland, a great deal has been accomplished. The elimination of alternate stops necessitated by the irregularity of Cleveland’s streets and the spacing of the streets as railway stops, has made possible a much faster schedule of service. A new power contract has.been authorized and 250 new cars, 200 of them trailers, have been purchased. An additional 100 trailers have been ordered, making 300 in all. This has practically doubled the carrying capacity of the system, while increasing the operating charge but 60 per cent. The building of several down town loops is now in progress which will make it possible to avoid sending all cars through the public square, thus reducing congestion, shortening the miles to be traveled by about two-thirds of the cars on the system, saving in operation and increasing both the convenience and rapidity of service.
Work on the new city hall has been resumed. It was begun under the Baehr administration. When Mayor Baker took office he found the plans had grown until the building promised to cost $4,000,000 or $5,000,000 instead of the limit of $2,600,000 set by the city. Mayor Baker caused a restudy to be made of several features of the matter. The mayor now has the assurance of the Builders’ Exchange which had a committee investigate and of the Thompson-Starrett Company which made an independent investigation, that the building will not cost in excess of $2,600,000. There has been some criticism of the Baker administration because of the delay in the city hall project, but Mr. Baker feels that the saving of two or three millions of dollars to the city has been worth all the criticism. Work is now in progress on the building and bids fair to proceed with expedition.
One of Cleveland’s greatest needs is a union railway station. The present structure, built generations ago, is the butt of jokes wherever Cleveland is mentioned, and properly so. Judged by the traffic it handles it is perhaps the worst station in the world. Plans for a new one have been in contemplation for some time, but Mayor Baker’s predecessor had to break off negotiations with the railroads because the city of Cleveland did not have a fee simple title to the land upon which the new station was to stand. A recent decision of the state supreme court has cleared up the trouble except for a few minor details. Mayor Baker has resumed negotiations with the railroads with the result that the prospects for a new union station in Cleveland were never as bright as now.
The lake passenger business is one of the important transportation features of Cleveland. For years the lake passenger boats, constantly increasing in size, have been winding their way to wharves along the crooked and dirty Cuyahoga River. Efforts have been made repeatedly to get these


THE BAKER ADMINISTRATION OF CLEVELAND 463
boats out of the river and to wharves along the lake front, thus giving more room for freight boat traffic in the river and affording a more attractive approach to the city. The injunction, a device which has done much to check Cleveland’s growth, was used in this case as well. Final court action has been taken, however, with the result that the city arid the boat companies have come together and great passenger and package freight wharves are to be built in the outer harbor at once.
Under Mayor Baker the department of public safety has been able to add one hundred men to the police force, to modernize the fire department with motor drawn engines and motor drawn equipment carriages, to increase the number of men in the fire department and to add to the number of companies, and to establish “flying squadrons” which having motor-equipped apparatus entirely are able to go speedily to the relief of individual companies. The police department has been reorganized which, it is believed, will add materially to the efficiency of the department. Mayor Baker took prompt action against Chief of Police Fred Kohler, whose “golden rule” policy had made him known throughout the country, and Kohler’s trial and removal from office on the charge of conduct unbecoming an officer immediately followed.
At Warrensville farms, Cleveland’s colony for its needy, ill and delinquent, there has been completed under Mayor Baker’s administration enough of a proposed tuberculosis sanitarium to care for 180 patients and another wing is now under construction. Discussing this, together with the general work at Warrensville, Mayor Baker says:
This sanitarium is now perhaps the most beautifully located, the best equipped, and the most modern tuberculosis sanitarium in the country We have at Warrensville also substantially completed the erection of two buildings for male and female insane patients respectively, and a main administration building, all of which are designed as parts of the original colony group. When they are completed the removal of insane patients into buildings of their own will greatly relieve the condition and make it possible for us to care for a greater portion of our indigent and helpless population. At the workhouse we have in process of construction as a separate wing of the main correction square group a department for women prisoners.
We have also taken city water out to the Warrensville group and have established central heating and lighting facilities, so that economy in the distribution of electric light and power and steam heat and hot water is seemed. At this place we have also bought a farm of 37 acres and are remodeling a farm house as an experiment station for the development of an institution for girls similar to the Boys Home at Hudson. Our beginning there will be largely experimental and until we have determined just the way in which the city can be most helpful in solving the problems of the dependent and neglected girl children, we will not undertake the erection of a permanent building.


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The municipal light plant which was the main issue at the time of Mayor Baker’s election, depends for its successful construction upon the ability of the city to market bonds. An amendment to the state constitution imposes grave difficulties upon all the cities of Ohio in selling their bonds and another amendment makes these bonds taxable. The municipal bond market of the state is accordingly depressed and every city in the state is having difficulty in disposing of its bonds. Cleveland authorized $2,000-000 bonds of the municipal light project of which $500,000 have been sold. With this money excavation for the building has been made. In the meantime, three large turbo-generators are under contract, a good deal of conduit work has been laid and some transforming stations have been established in various parts of the city. Cleveland already has a municipal light plant in the part of the city known as Brooklyn. Pending the completion of the new plant, additional generators have been installed in the old Division Street pumping station, practically doubling the capacity of the Brooklyn plant.
A new -activity undertaken by the Baker administration is the establishing of a central heating plant to furnish steam heat within a certain radius. The trial station has given good satisfaction and it is probable that others will be established, giving much greater convenience and materially reducing the smoke nuisance. Of this undertaking the mayor says: “This in my judgment is the most hopeful attack that has been made in the city since I can remember.”
The Baker administration has completed the West Side market house and turned it over to the public use. It is perhaps the most beautiful market in the country. Under Mayor Baker a building has been erected and machinery installed for an electric driven high pressure fire service by which the entire downtown section of the city willl be reached with a special system of pipes of large capacity, carrying water at very high pressure, pumped by electrically-driven centrifugal pumps. This is expected to reduce the insurance rate and decrease the conflagration risk of the entire business section of the city. The plant is expected to be in operation by midsummer.
Under Mayor Baker the city has been active in recreational matters. It has established a school for playground instructors with an attendance of three hundred and more. It is hoped to make the playground work more scientific, better organized and more effective than heretofore.
The city has opened two municipal dance halls at Edge water park and Woodland Hills park at which last year three cents was charged for a five-minute dance, in competition with the private dance halls where five cents was charged for a three-minute dance. Both these places were supervised carefully by a large number of attendants, excellent music was supplied, good order maintained and the young people of the city


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crowded them all last summer. Both institutions were more than self-supporting.
The city has expanded its bath house facilities, though they still are inadequate. It has done away with the hiring of impromptu bands for park concerts and has substituted a municipal orchestra under the direction of a trained musician. It is the hope that this group can ultimately become the nucleus of an established municipal orchestra which will continue its activities throughout the winter season by giving symphony concerts at popular prices.
The elimination of grade crossings has progressed rapidly under Mayor Baker. The engineering department of the city also has been busy recasting the entire method of sewage disposal of the city. Acting under an expert report from a group of engineers some fifteen years ago, the .plan was made of collecting all of the sewage of the city, sanitary and drainage water, into a great interceptor, paralleling the lake shore and emptying into Lake Erie ten miles east of the public square. The contamination of the waters of the lake by this method became manifest, and after a restudy of the problem it was determined to install sewage disposal plants, one at the mouth of the interceptor, one on the west side of the river and one far back in the Cuyahoga Valley, reversing the flow in the west side branch of the interceptor and in the river lateral, so as to carry the sewage into disposal plants where the solid matter could be extracted and sterilized and the waters neutralized before being emptied into river and lake. The plan has so far been carried forward that the city has acquired the land for the disposal plants and farms and is conducting a series of experiments with all known methods of sewage purification to determine which one is best adapted to the raw sewage output with which the city has to deal.
The city plans this year to pave thirty-five miles of streets. The largest number ever paved in any preceding year was twenty-seven. It has enlarged and modernized its garbage plant. Ash and waste paper collections have been systematized and those in charge of this work assert it is being done more efficiently than ever before.
It would be wholly unfair to give the impression that the Baker administration has escaped criticism. There is and has been a healthful amount of it. The administration is charged with delay in a number of important projects. Complaint is made of the condition of the streets, and the question of the water supply was for a time agitated as a matter in which the administration had been derelict. The administration blames litigation for most of the delays charged against it. It points to the state tax limit as a reason for inability to repair streets more rapidly. It believes the sewage disposal plans now under way and a system of filtration will solve the water problem.
Not the least of the service done his city by Mayor Baker is his tireless


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effort to bring the government to the people. Gifted far beyond the ordinary man as a public speaker, he speaks whenever and wherever there is an opportunity to discuss municipal problems. The demands on the time and energy of Mr. Baker in this respect alone are enormous. Speaking of this phase of his activity, Mayor Baker says:
I have lent a large portion of my time and a great deal of my enthusiastic interest to the discussion of municipal problems before audiences of every kind, character and description, throughout the entire city, with the thought of making Cleveland’s government a popular government in the sense that its people would have an understanding of the city problems and would be able to reflect their informed will into the activities of the city government.
As a teacher of civic things Mr. Baker has been eminently successful. In this respect he has exceedingly ably supplemented and carried further the work begun by Tom Johnson. There is perhaps no city of its rank in the United States whose people have the same clear grasp and understanding of civic and social affairs as do those of Cleveland.
In another work, also, has Mr. Baker been of great assistance to his community. The city is drafting a new charter by a commission of which Mayor Baker was elected a member and over which he presides. The charter is practically completed at the time of writing this article and is a document rich in the most progressive ideas in social and civic thought. Mayor Baker is responsible for many of the most advanced ideas in this new constitution for the city of Cleveland. It is quite such a constitution as one might expect in the city which so long had Tom L. Johnson for its leader in the past and which saw fit to elect as its mayor a year and a half ago Mr. Johnson’s ablest associate and closest friend.
Schooled by his association with Tom Johnson, Newton Baker has gone on and beyond it. He is a man of clear vision and wide vision who sees his city as something more than streets and buildings. Though the time of his administration has been but a few months more than a year and great doings are seldom done in such a narrow space, he has demonstrated that he couples the gift of accomplishment with that of vision. It is wholly improbable that the community which Tom Johnson desired to be a city set upon a hill will be hidden while Newton D. Baker is its chief executive.
E. C. Hopwood.1
‘Managing editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer.


INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL
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THE INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL IN SAN FRANCISCO
THE voters of San Francisco had an opportunity on April 22 to use in one election these three weapons of popular rule.
The initiative was used to place before the voters an ordinance reducing telephone rates for the coming fiscal year. It was proposed under the name of a Telephone Users’ Organization, but it was charged during the campaign that the organization consisted of one man who had circulated the petition as a matter of private enterprise, and had entered into contracts that he was to receive one-half of the amount saved in telephone rates during the coming fiscal year. The estimated reduction for the entire city was placed by the Telephone Users’ Organization at $600,000 a year; the estimate of the city authorities was considerably less. In the meantime the supervisors, in pursuance of law, fixed the rates for the coming year, making a considerable reduction, estimated at a total of $255,000. An attempt was made by the telephone company to prevent the submission of the initiative ordinance, and a temporary injunction was issued. It was dissolved, however, on the ground that the legality of an ordinance fixing rates initiated by petition and passed by the popular vote could not be attacked by such proceedings, and that the election must be held. The opposition to the ordinance came from two sources—the telephone company alleging that the rates proposed were unjust, and from the city authorities and some of the newspapers objecting to commercialization of the initiative. The ordinance, however, was carried by a small majority.
On petition of 5 per cent of the voters an ordinance that had been passed by the supervisors in settlement of a dispute between the city and the street railway company was referred to the voters and endorsed by a large majority.
The dispute originated in the attempt of the “United Railroads” to monopolize transportation on lower Market Street, the main thoroughfare of the city.
Under the provisions of the early railroad franchises granted in 1879, it was agreed that no more than two lines should be allowed to run on Market Street. The old Market Street railroad was at that time granted a franchise to run a double track in the center of the street, and the Sutter Street Railroad Company was permitted to run two outer tracks from the junction of Sutter Street with Market down to the ferry terminals, which handle the great trans-bay traffic in and out of the city. When the “United Railroads” in 1902 took over most of the street railroad companies in the city, it permitted the franchise of the Sutter Street railroad on lower Market Street to remain in the old company for the purpose of


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claiming that two lines were running on the street, and consequently no other could be allowed to operate on that thoroughfare.
Four years ago the city attacked this contention on the ground that by division of the franchises and the giving of merely nominal service on the lower Market Street outer tracks, the franchise had been forfeited. A judgment of forfeiture in favor of the city was given last year in the trial court and appealed.
With the completion of the first section of the municipal railroad on Geary Street, the city wished to build and operate the road from the junction of Geary and Market Streets to the ferries in order to secure a part of this rich traffic. The rights of the “United Railroads” in dispute served to block the municipal road until a final decision should be had. An agreement was therefore drawn up between the city authorities on one side, and the “ United Railroads” on the other, by which the city should have the right to run its cars from Geary and Market Streets to the ferries, and that the city on its side should permit the Sutter Street cars to run to the ferries by electric power (the original franchise had given the privilege of operating by horse or mule power and the company had not been able to secure the right to use electric power). Another part of the agreement arranged for transfer privileges between the municipal road on Geary Street and four cross town lines of the “United Railroads,” at Divisadero, Fillmore, Larkin and Kearny Streets.
The referendum was invoked by the Public Ownership Association, the ground alleged being that the city had the right already to run its cars to the ferries without any such agreement, and that the settlement was in effect the grant of a franchise to the Sutter Street Railroad Company to use the lower Market Street tracks until 1929 without exacting any compensation therefor. The agreement, however, was ratified by the voters.
Under the San Francisco charter any elected official may be recalled by petition of 10 per cent of the electors, and an election must then be held in which the incumbent is a candidate without any action on his part, and any other candidate may be nominated by filing a certificate of nomination accompanied by the affidavits of not less than ten nor more than twenty sponsors.
Under this provision a movement was initiated to recall Police Judge Charles L. Weller on the following stated grounds:
That said Charles L. Weller has since the first day of January, 1912, in his administration of said office, shown himself to be incompetent and unfit for the position he occupies:
That he has since the first day of January, 1912, frequently abused his judicial power by extending undue and unreasonable leniency to persons charged with the commission of heinous and vicious offenses, all of which


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has been subversive of public morals, and that the continuance in said office of said Charles L. Weller is a menace to the moral well-being of said city and county.
The particular occasion for the movement was a reduction of bail from $3000 to $1000 in the case of a chauffeur arrested for criminal assault on two young women. When the case was called for trial the accused had absconded, and much indignation was aroused. A number of organizations of women took up the case, and, after listening to Judge Weller’s defense, circulated petitions for his recall. Judge Weller made his defense on the ground of his good character, and the fact that “bail in like amounts in similar cases have been fixed for years in the superior and police courts.”
Only one candidate appeared against him. The recall was successful by a small majority. The election returns were as follows:
Wiley F. Crist, candidate of Recall League.................... 30,751
Charles L. Weller, incumbent recalled......................... 29,927
Crist’s majority.................................................... 824
Referendum. Proposition No. 1. “Shall the settlement ordinance be approved?”
Yes................................................................ 38,086
No................................................................. 21,861
Majority......................................................... 16,225
Initiative. Proposition No. 2. “Ordinance fixing and establishing rates to be paid for telephone service.”
For.................................................'.............. 30,710
Against............................................................ 27,801
Majority................................................. 2,909
The total vote cast was 62,876 out of a registration of about 125,000. The fact that this recall campaign was initiated largely by the women and their activity in carrying it on brought out a vote among the women of 16,967, the number of women registered and entitled to vote being 46,060.
E. A. Walcott.1
‘Executive Secretary, Commonwealth Club of San Francisco.


NOTES AND EVENTS
Professor Charles Austin Beard, Columbia University, New York, Associate Editor in Charge
ASSISTED BT
Professor Murray Gross, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia Professor Edward M. Sait, Columbia University, New York
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
The Commission Government Movement.—The New York “Sun” on commission government. A significant event in the life of any constructive movement occurs when the New York Sun ceases to harp upon it as an object of ridicule. Commission government has now reached that stage, as is demonstrated by the Sun’s long editorial of March 21, the burden of which is that if commission government is a thing which gets results, why not have it? The following paragraph contains the gist of the argument:
The knot of the matter is to get a competent, upright, civilized city government. Why blink and flinch at a mere word of unhappy connotation and an evil past? If ‘commission’ government can do the job, why not have it? The people rule just the same whether they elect three men or one man or a hundred men. If they choose to hand over their power to three commissioners, to say, ‘Here, we will elect you and we shall require of you as our delegates a city government absolutely honest, reasonably efficient, with no man or woman on the city payroll for politi9al or personal reasons, a city government by experts and men of business, and if we don’t get it out you go,’ are they not justified until experience has shown the contrary?
Recent adoptions. Since the publication of the last issue of the National Municipal Review, commission government has made rapid and important advances, of which perhaps the most notable is the adoption of the plan by the two large cities of Portland, Ore., and Jersey City. Other smaller communities which have adopted the plan during this period are Millville and Borden-
ton, N. J.; Mason City, Iowa; Hickory; Morganton, and Raleigh, N. C.; Traverse City and Battle Creek, Mich.; Fargo, N. D.; Springfield, Tenn., and Grafton, W. Va.
General Laws. Indiana. The Indiana business plan of city government outlined in our last issue has gone down to defeat. In the pamphlet entitled “What Ails Us,” Theodore F. Thieme of Fort Wayne, the author of the plan, reviews the political situation for the last three years as regards the effort to secure the adoption of this plan.
Concerning the regular commission government bill a correspondent writes:
Our last legislature, especially the house, was full of politicians and all of them optimists, and all knew, that for many years to come, every city official in the state, as well as county and state officials, were to be Democrats, and hence they would do nothing that might by any happening, give a chance for a Republican to be elected to office; and as a Republican might slip in if the commission form of government be enacted, or at least some one might get an office when he was not beholden to the Democratic party, therefore, they would have none of that kind of legislation.1
Minnesota. The bill, permitting cities to adopt the city manager plan passed the lower house, but was not reported out in the senate.
Missouri. The first of two commission government bills passed at this year’s session of the legislature is intended for the benefit of Joplin and
'See National Municipal Review, vol. 11, p.
284.
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Springfield, and provides that all the cities of the third class having a population of more than 30,000 and less than 75,000 shall hold an election on October 7 on the question of adopting the act. This law provides the commission plan in its usual form, but also contains one or two rather unique features, as for example, the method of nomination by deposit, by which any voter instead of filing a petition, may make a deposit of $10 and thereby become a candidate at the primaries. The statement of the corporate powers of the cities is unusually detailed and complete. A second statute applies to cities of the third class, but is primarily for the benefit of the smaller communities.
New York. The so-called Cullen-Levy bill, aimed to give larger corporate powers to the cities, without appeal to the legislature to pass special acts amendatory of and supplementary to the various city charters, received the unanimous support of the Democratic organization and was passed in both houses and signed by the governor. This law originated with the Municipal Government Association and was intended to put an end to the great volume of special city legislation. On the strength of it Governor Sulzer has already vetoed a number of special local city bills. The effect of the law however, because of its general form, is problematical until it has been passed upon by the courts. The other bills supported by the Association1 including the one offering an option among six simplified forms of organization, received little or no support.
Ohio. The Smith bill, providing for three optional forms, of simplified government (the commission plan, the city manager plan and the federal plan) passed during the last days of the legislative session, in April. The non-partisan elections feature was eliminated and a number of other changes in the original draft were made.
•See National Municipal Review, vol. 11, p.
285.
Pennsylvania. The Clark bill providing for the commission form of government for all third class cities without a local referendum for its adoption seems at the present time, to be in a fair way of becoming law. The necessary percentage of petitioners ‘under the initiative hag been raised from ten to twenty per cent and the petitioners must register with and be identified by the clerk of the courts in signing the papers.
This measure would affect every city in Pennsylvania except Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Scranton. It provides for a'commission of five and an elective auditor but not for the recall.2
Utah. Efforts to amend the commission government law at this year’s session of the legislature failed in every instance.
Portland, Ore. The friends of commission government won their long fight by the adoption of a new commission government charter on May 3, after a bitter newspaper controversy. In general, the charter conforms to the typical commission government scheme with the exception that the mayor is required to make the designation of members of the council to the various departments. The opponents of commission government professed to see in this arrangement a serious departure from commission government principles and made much of the idea that under it the mayor of the city would become a practical czar or dictator. But while it is not a usual feature of commission government, it is not by any means unique and follows the provisions of the laws under which Columbia, S. C., and several southern cities operate. The charter provides for a system of preferential voting, another feature which was a subject of attack. A commendable provision of the charter is the one which requires the council to enact an administrative code.
The procedure provided for the annual audit is interesting. For this occasion
2 The bill has passed both hous3s and Is In the hands of the governor, who It Is expected will approve.—C. K. W.


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the clearing house association will be invited to submit a list of qualified public accountants from which the council must choose one to conduct the examination of the city’s financial affairs.
Complete copies of the charter in pamphlet form were sent to every voter in the city.
The Los Angeles Charter Amendments. The election in Los Angeles on March 24 resulted in the adoption of a number of important amendments. The first two amendments, relating to the acquisition of public utilities and the granting of franchises were passed, as was the amendment permitting the city to exercise all corporate powers exercised by any municipal corporation in the state of California. By the terms of the fifth amendment, after the first Monday in July, all the functions of the government of the city are to be divided into nine divisions and each member of the council is to be a committeeman for such division. The functions of the several councilmen under this amendment are not those of administrative supervision, but simply of investigation. Amendment number six increases the salaries of the elective officers. Proportional representation was voted down, but the ninth amendment, relating to the appointment of a harbor commission was adopted instead of a counter amendment providing for an elective board. Amendments number twelve and thirteen provide respectively for the firemen’s and policemen’s pension fund.
The City Manager Plan. The plan of municipal government which is being tried out in Sumter, S. C., not only continues to be watched with greatest interest throughout the country, but has been already emulated by two other southern cities, Hickory and Morgan-ton, N. C. The former, a city of 3,716 inhabitants, adopted the plan on March 17. The people in Morganton liked the Hickory charter so well that they went to the legislature and had it enacted almost verb as their own. This town has a population of 2,712.
The charter revision commissions in Elyria and Youngstown, 0., have reported “city manager” charters and the Dayton commission elected on May 20 is pledged to submit a charter providing that form.
In the Wisconsin Legislature there has recently been introduced by Representative Estabrook a city manager bill prepared some months ago by Dr. Ford H. MacGregor, of the University of Wisconsin. This bill is, in some ways, the most advanced of any on this subject thus far prepared. The specific provision that applications for the position of city manager shall be secured by advertisement is a radical departure, although the commissioners in Sumter advertised on their own initiative.
H. S. Gilbertson.
*
Charter-Making in Ohio.—Ohio cities are furnishing interesting illustrations of the desirability of granting to municipalities the right to frame their own charters, and to legislate for themselves in strictly local matters. Eleven cities in the state have chosen commissions to frame home rule charters, and a number of others are considering the question. Canton, Akron and Salem are favorable to the commission form of government; Dayton, Elyria and Lakewood indicate a preference for the city manager type; the commission in Columbus has just begun its work; Youngstown and Cleveland have practically completed their charters.
Cleveland’s commission has been working since February 4. The draft of the charter was mailed to every voter, on June 1. The election will be held July 1. The commission, headed by Mayor Newton D. Baker, has held on the average of five meetings a week since it began its sessions in February.
Some of the more important features of the new charter are:
a. Non-partisan elections with primaries entirely eliminated; candidates will be nominated by petition only.


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b. A preferential system of voting with first, second and other choices.
c. The short ballot principle has been adopted. The only elective officers will be the mayor and the council.
d. Elective officials are subj ect to recall upon petition signed by 15,000 electors, in case of officials elected at large, and 600 in case of officials elected from wards.
e. The charter provides for a council of twenty-six members elected from wards for a term of two years. Its functions are limited strictly to legislation. The charter contains explicit provisions prohibiting members of the council from having any part in administration.
/. An ordinance may be placed before the council by initiative petition, signed by 5,000 electors. If not passed by the council 5,000 additional signatures will compel its submission to the people at a special election.
g. The mayor’s term is two years. He is given the power to appoint the directors of departments. He and the directors will have seats in the council with the right to take part in the dis--cussion but without the right to vote.
h. Six departments are established, namely: law, public service, public welfare, public safety, finance, and public utilities. Under each of these departments are established from three to five divisions. The council is given the power to create, discontinue, rearr nge or abolish departments and divisions and to assign appropriate functions to each of them.
i. A bureau of information and public reference is created, to be under the direction of a commissioner who will have charge of all city printing, reports, statistics and the editing of a city Record and the collection of municipal information.
j. Advisory boards, composed of unsalaried experts and citizens interested in the subject, are provided for divisions in which the director of the department thinks it would be advisable to have the services of such boards.
k. A city plan commission, with very broad powers, will have control of the works of art, the plan, design and location of buildings, street fixtures, etc., and also have the power to frame comprehensive plans for the future development of the city.
l. A civil service commission of three members to be appointed by the mayor for a term of six years. The commission will have authority not only to see that officers and employees are appointed on the basis of merit and fitness, but also
will keep a record of their efficiency in the service.
As far as can be ascertained at the present time there is practically n i doubt but that the charter will be adopted by the people. The leading newspapers have already indicated that they will give the charter their full support. Considerable opposition has been aroused over the elimination of party primaries, and the adoption of the preferential system of voting, but this opposition is limited in the main to the party leaders and workers. Cleveland will be the first city in Ohio to adopt a home rule charter.
Supreme court decision. The recent decision of the supreme court in the Toledo case will tend to increase the activity of Ohio cities in the direction of framing and adopting their own charters. The case was the first real test of the home rule amendment. Mayor Whitlock of Toledo had an ordinance passed appropriating money to establish a municipal moving picture theatre. It was intended to test the home rule provisions. The city auditor refused to issue the necessary warrants for the appropriation. A friendly suit was begun and carried to the highest court in the state. The decision has been awaited with considerable interest and anxiety by the advocates of home rule in the state.
The court held, in brief, that the home rule amendment, so far as it granted to cities which are organized under the present municipal code the right to legislate for themselves in strictly local matters, is not self-executing; that for such cities the legislature must first enumerate the powers which such cities may exercise. But the court held clearly that a city, when it frames its own charter or adopts one of the optional charters enacted into law by the legislature, can then legislate for itself in local matters.
The decision was disappointing to advocates of home rule and yet it does not prohibit the exercise of the right of home rule to the cities which go


Full Text

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1913 Editor CLINTON ROGERS l1700DRUFF Associate Editors CHARLES AUSTIN BEARD ADELAIDE R. HASSE JOHN d. FAIRLIE JOHN A. LAPP VOLUME I1 PUBLISHED FOR THE NATIONAL JIUNICIPAL LEAGUE BY WILLIAMS & WILIiINS COMPAXY BALTIYORE 1913

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. 11, No. 3 JULY, 1913 TOTAL No. 7 THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS BY DELOS F. WILCOX, PH.D.~ HE Chicago street railway settlement ordinances, coming just before the day of regulation by commission, marked an era in T franchise contract regulation, and in spite of the vigor of the commission movement the stimulus given to elaborate regulation by contract has not yet been checked. In 1910 the Cleveland street railway settlement and the Minneapolis gas ordinances embodied the spirit of local regulation in complex agreements which have since vied with the Chicago ordinances in public interest. Many other cities are wrestling with big franchise problems, and seeking to realize settlements patterned more or less after the “Chicago plan” or the “Cleveland plan.” There seems to be a tendency toward more and more elaborate franchise contracts wherever private ownership or operation is regarded as temporary, and preparatory for municipal ownership or operation. Why this should be so, is clear when we consider the financial interest which the city has as the prospective owner of a great public utility. Immense property rights are involved. Sometimes the investment in a single utility is greater than the entire outstanding debt of a city. When the city is granting a franchise for the construction, reconstruction or development of such an enterprise, and looks upon it as something which the city itself will sooner or later acquire, it is only common business prudence-one of the established ways of the world-to insist that the grant of privileges shall be carefully defined and restricted, and tied up with corresponding obligations for the benefit of the city. Six years ago the first public service commissions were established in two states-New York and Wisconsin. The public utilities commission idea has spread 1Dr. Wilcox is chairman of the National Municipal League’s committee on franchises, is the author of two volumes on municipal franchises as well as sundry other volumes dealing with municipal questions, and, since 19W, has been chief of the bureau of franchises of the public service commission for the first district, NewYork. See also his article on “How the Chicago and Cleveland Street Railway Settlements are Working Out,” NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. i, p. 630. 375 These are stirring days in public utility regulation.

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376 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW so rapidly that now there are commissions with wide powers in about one-half of the states, and more are coming. It has been thought by some that, the advent of commissions embodying ‘the idea of continuous regulation of rates and services under the police power, sounded the death knell of the franchise contract. In certain localities, state regulation has been striding across the horizon brushing aside local ordinances and even home rule charters and accepted franchises as if they were cobwebs in the corners of the sky. People have asked: “Why do we need any elaborate franchise documents, when we have the power to regulate the utilities at any time? Why not forego the attempt to foresee the future #and to write down in a contract things which only time can prove? Why not leave all such matters to the .public utilities commission, to be decided as the specific need arises?” If public utilities are viewed as a permanent function of private corporations, so that no one has any interest in the property as such except the present owners and the users of the utility, it may be said with some show of reason that a franchise need be nothing more than a permit to occupy the public streets. If, on the other hand, ultimate municipal ownership is kept in view, either as an established policy or as a lively option, it is evident that commission regulation cannot take the place of a contract between the parties, covering at least the elements going to the determination of the purchase price, the upkeep and extension of the property, the audit of investment accounts, the amortization of the capital value out of earnings, and other kindred matters. Commission regulation has been looked upon, either as a permanent substitute for public ownership or as a final experiment and preparation for it. Which it is, makes all the difference in the world. If it is the former, elaborate franchise contracts will not be considered necessary and the municipalization of public utilities will become more remote and more difficult from year to year. If it is the latter, regulation will not interfere with franchise contracts, except where they are devised to weaken ultimate public control, and will look with favor upon specific arrangements between cities and utility companies tending to prepare the way for municipal ownership. As if to prove beyond peradventure that continuous regulation cannot take the place of the contract method, it was left for the public service commission having jurisdiction in New York City, though a state body created for regulatory purposes, to carry the idea of contract regulation furthest of all. The subway contracts and elevated railroad certificates signed by the commission on March 19, 1913, are volumes with an aggregate of no less than 700 printed pages. With its right hand, as representative of the city, the commission marshals 125,000 cunning words and, after many an interminable conference, organizes them into contract form

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 377 and requires the companies to sign them. At the same time, with its left hand, as an organ of the state, the commission holds taut the reins of regulation by administrative order, and jealously asserts its prerogative to regulate, independent of franchise contracts. The secret of the voluminous contracts in New York, as in Chicago, Minneapolis and Cleveland, is the fact that in each case the idea of future municipal ownership dominated the negotiations. The New York City rapid transit settlement just consummated after eight years of subway negotiations and more than twenty years of intermittent dickering with the elevated roads, constitutes the most stupendous local franchise bargain that has ever been considered by any city in the world. With a population of five million people within its municipal boundaries, New York now has three systems of local rapid transit railways, representing an aggregate capital investment of about $250,000,000 and an annual capacity of about 800,000,000 passengers. The city also has four great bridges over the East River connecting the borough of Manhattan with the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, constructed at a cost of about $100,000,000. These bridges were constructed to carry altogether twelve rapid. transit railroad tracks, of which only the two tracks on the New York and Brooklyn Bridge have thus far been used to their capacity, while of the rest only the two on the Williamsburgh Bridge have thus far been used at all. The rapid transit plans just agreed upon involve the expenditure of about $330,000,000 of new capital in transit lines, and the putting of the bridges across the East River into full use. Thus it appears that these plans call for an immediate increase of about 130 per cent in the investment in rapid transit railroads proper, and an increase of more than 200 per cent in the utilization for rapid transit purposes of the $100,000,000 investment in the bridges. The so-called “dual plan,” as embodied in the new contracts and franchises, provides for an increase of 150 per cent in the total passenger capacity of the rapid transit lines, so that, at the end of five years, with all the proposed new lines constructed, connections made and additional facilities provided, New York City’s rapid transit capacity will be at least 2,000,000,000 passengers per annum. How stupendous the plan is and how important the influence it must necessarily have upon the financial, social and industrial conditions in New York may be seen from the fact that in the fiscal year ending June 30,1912, the total number of fare passengers carried in New York City on all the local transit lines, including the surface street cars, was less than 1,700,000,000. In other words, it is now proposed to enlarge the rapid transit system at one stroke so that it will accommodate within four or five years more than the total number of passengers now conveyed on the rapid transit lines plus the surface street railways.

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378 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The engineering problems connected with this vast enterprise have for the most part been overcome in the construction of the old subway and the bridges. It is possible that still greater difhulties may be met in burrowing under the narrow roadways of Nassau and William streets, among the roots of the sky-scrapers of the financial district, but the engineers approach the problem with confidence, believing that in the main the difficulties still to be encountered are similar to those which have already been overcome. It is the political and financial aspects of the problem that have caused most of the trouble. When we reflect upon the variety of the financial interests involved, upon the complexity of the legal requirements and the multiplicity of authorities whose cooperation is required, it is a marvel that any subways at all have been constructed and put into operation in New York. It is inevitable that plans involving so much and the interests of so great a population in matters so vital to every day comfort, convenience and business success, should have been the subject of fierce controversy. Ever since the present subway was opened in 1904, the public authorities of New York have been planning, negotiating, re-planning and wrestling with the problem of subway expansion, and ever since 1891 the problem of additional franchises for the improvement and extension of the elevated railroads has been acute. Nothing had been accomplished with the Manhattan Railway since J. P. Morgan headed a committee to negotiate new franchises with the rapid transit board and old Jay Gould tottered down to tell the board that the elevated railroads were one of the chief health agencies of the city, warranted to cure any disease but grip, all by reason of the atmospheric circulation induced by the rush of the trains through the upper regions of the streets. Now that a comprehensive plan of subway and elevated railroad expansion has at last been agreed upon, and the contracts signed, sealed and delivered, even the reluctant consent of the thrifty and reactionary heir of “Doctor” Gould having been secured, the country should find it worth while to pause long enough to cast an inquiring glance in the direction ofNew York City’s achievment, and look to see how far the metropolis is ahead of or behind its sister cities in the franchise procession. Briefly, the dual plan, as the city’s newly adopted rapid transit policy is called, involves the following main points: 1. The elevated railroads in old New York (Manhattan and The Bronx) are to be extended and third-tracked by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the lessee of the Manhattan Railway Company, under eightyfive year franchises. The existing franchises are perpetual. The new ones for the third-tracking and extensions are to be indeterminate after ten years within the eighty-five year limit, and provision is to be made for the amortization, within that time, of the new capital invested. The Manhattan

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 379 elevated railway, as extended and improved, is to be operated as a separate 5-cent fare system, serving Manhattan and The Bronx, with the addition of trackage rights over certain rapid transit lines to be constructed by the city, serving a portion of the borough of Queens tributary to the Queensboro Bridge, which enters Manhattan at 59th Street on a line with the southern boundary of Central Park. 2. The present municipal subway, extending north and south through the borough of Manhattan with two branches running into The Bronx, north of the Harlem River, and one short extension to the business heart of Brooklyn, now operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company under leases from the city, is to be extended by what is practically a doubling of its lines in Manhattan and The Bronx, by the addition of another tunnel under the East River to Brooklyn, by the construction of lines to serve an important V-shaped section of Brooklyn not now served by any rapid transit lines and by the utilization of the Steinway Tunnel under 42nd Street and the East River with two extensions into the northwest portion of the borough of Queens. The present subway was constructed with city money and equipped by the operating company. The extensions of the present subway are to be constructed half with city money.and half with money furnished by the operating company, and are to be equipped by the company. The present subway is held under two leases. One, covering the portion north of the City Hall, originally extended for a period of fifty years from 1904, with the right of renewal for twenty-five years more upon a readjustment of the rental. The other, covering the line from City Hall to Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, extended for a period of thirty-five years from 1908 with a similar right of renewal. During the renewal terms, the rentals were to be rbdjusted, and at the ha1 expiration of the leases in 1979 and 1968, the city was .to get possession of the subway free of cost and to purchase the equipment at its then fair value. In all probability, the rentdl during the renewal periods would have been more than sufficient to pay for this equipment. Under the new subway contract with the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, the existing leases have been levelled by the extension of their original terms to December 31, 1965, and by the abrogation of the company’s right to the renewals. The new lines connected with the present subway are to be leased to the Interborough Company, and not only the new subways themselves, but the new equipment will come into the possession of the city without cost at the expiration of the new contract, some fifty-three years hence. In the meantime, however, although the city’s investment of about $60,000,000 in the present subway will continue to be taken care of as a first charge on the earnings of the extended system, the company will be entitled to take out of earnings the sum of $6,335,000

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380 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW annually, representing its average annual net profits for the two-year period ending June 30, 1911, and six per cent on all new capital furnished by it, before either interest, sinking fund or profit is paid upon the city’s share of the new investment. The $6,335,000 preferential to the company represents something over thirteen per cent on the company’s present investment. When coupled with the 6 per cent upon new money immediately to be furnished by the company, this preferential payment is figured out as 8.76 per cent upon the entire amount of capital to be invested in the enlarged system prior to the beginning of operation in 1917. Following this preferential the city is also to receive 8.76 per cent upon the new money furnished by it. After the enlarged system has gone into operation, however, the company will be required to contribute one-half of the cost of additions and betterments needed from time to time, and the entire cost of the additional equipment that may be made necessary by the growth of traffic. Upon this additional money the company will receive 6 per cent annually as a preferential wedged in between its original preferential and the city’s 8.76 per cent. If anything is left after the payment of these huge preferentials and the establishment of a contingent reserve, the balance will be treated as net profits and will be divided equally between the city and the company. The present subway, with the extensions included in the new lease to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, is to be operated for a single five-cent fare, but without transfers (except at one point) to the elevated railroads of the Manhattan Railway system, which is to be operated by the same company, and also without transfers to the other subways and elevated railroads, not operated by this company. 3. The existing elevated railroad system of Brooklyn is to be in large measure reconstructed, third-tracked and extended. As extended % will have three lines running into Queens, serving certain limited portions of that botough not reached by the proposed extensions of the Steinway tunnel. The elevated railroads of Brooklyn now dump their passengers at the Manhattan terminals of the New York and Brooklyn bridge and the Williamsburgh bridge, but have no facilities for distributing them through the main business district of the city. It is proposed, therefore, to construct a new system of subways to provide adequate terminal facilities in lower Manhattan for the elevated railroads of Brooklyn, and to serve portions of the borough of Brooklyn not now adequately provided with rapid transit lines and not included in the V-shaped section which is to be developed as a part of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company’s area. Of the cost of these new subways the city will furnish about sixsevenths and the company about one-seventh, while the company will furnish the entire cost of equipment. This company is also to have trackage rights over the rapid transit lines to be constructed by the city

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 381 as extensions of the Steinway tunnel in the northwestern part of the borough of Queens. It is to be noted that while the Interborough Company will operate two separate and independent systems without exchange of transfers (except as noted), the New York Consolidated Railroad Company (operating subsidiary of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company) will operate the elevated railroads of Brooklyn and the subways allotted to it as a single 5 cent fare system. But the free transfers now being given at many points between the elevated railroads of Brooklyn and the surface street car lines will be discontinued, unless future arrangements are made with the city’s approval, for their continuance. The general terms of the contracts under which the elevated roads of Brooklyn are to be improved and extended and a system of municipal subways is to be operated in con-, nection with them, are similar in most respects to the terms upon which the eity deals with the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. But the company’s fixed preferential and the city’s percentage preferential are both much smaller under the Brooklyn contract than th:y are under the Interborough contract, thus leaving a better hope for divisible profits. The plans for the extension and third-tracking of the elevated roads are to be carried out by the company under eighty-five year franchises terminable after ten years,and the subways are to be leased for a period ending December 31, 1965, when the city will come into possession of the subway property, including both construction and equipmhnt, without purchase. The existing elevated railroads, however, will be retained by’ the company under the perpetual franchises which it now holds. The dual plan, therefore, is “dual” only with respect to the number of operating companies. With respect to operating systems it is a triple scheme. The Manhattan Railway now has a capacity of about 300,000,000 passengers. As enlarged, its capacity will be about 450,000,000. The present subway also has a capacity of about 300,000,000. As enlarged it will have a capacity to carry between 750,OOO;OOO and 800,000,000. The elevated system of Brooklyn, as now constructed, with its inadequate terminal facilities, has a capacity of scarcely 200,000,000; while the new combined system of elevated railroads and subways to be operated by the Brooklyn company will probably have a capacity of from 800,000,000 to 900,000,000 per snnum. The three systems will represent roughly an investment of $120,000,000, $250,000,000 and $210,000,000 respectively, excluding the cost of the East River bridges, three of which will be used exclusively by the Brooklyn company, and one jointly by the two companies. In the subway contracts, provision is made for the extension of either subway system from time to time in the future, the city to construct the extensions and the respective companies to equip and operate them, subject to certain terms and conditions which are calculated to protect the financial interests of the companies while at the same time leaving

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382 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the city free to extend its rapid transit lines at any time if it has the necessary funds. One of the chief difficulties under the old subway leases has been that the city has had no power to compel the company to build or equip a foot of extensions, or even to operate an extension if built and equipped by the city. The New York subway contracts and elevated railroad franchises are so long and so complex that many interesting details must be omitted from this analysis. It will be worth while, however, to attempt a general appraisal of these contracts and franchises in comparison with the Chicago and Cleveland settlements and in the light of fundamental principles of franchise regulation. The big features of the Chicago settlement were the following: 1. Surrender of all outstanding franchises and inclusion of substantially the entire surface street railway system, with future extensions, under the terms of a single contract plan. 2. Definite &ng of purchase price, with increase for additional investment, and contract right of city to take over the street railways at any time upon payment of the price thus fixed. 3. First ,class construction and equipment under control of impartial board of supervising engineers. 4. One-city-one-fare, the same at all hours, 5 cents for adults, 3 cents for children’from seven to twelve years old, with universal transfers except ‘in the downtown business district. 5. A fixed return of 5 per cent upon capital value, plus a share in net profits to the operatkg companies to supply the motive for economy and efficiency. 6. Fifty-five per cent of surplus net profits to go to the city and be accumulated as a street railway purchase fund. 7. The right of the city to require a fixed mileage of extensions each year, and such additional extensions as will not reduce the companies’ surplus profits to an unreasonably small amount. 8. Right of city to regulate service subject to the approval of the board of supervising engineers. Certain weak points in the Chicago settlement have developed. They are mainly these: 1. Inclusion of franchise values and superseded property to the extent of many millions of dollars without any provision for the amortization of this dead capital. 2. No provision for the investment of the city’s profits in the securities of the companies, thus leaving the purchase fund to accumulate in the banks at the rate of 22 per cent, while new capital is being poured into the system drawing 5 per cent interest on par, with a 5 per cent allowance for brokerage and a 10 per cent allowance for contractor’s profit on construction included in par.

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACT8 38.7 3. No provision for purchase by the city except upon payment of the full purchase price of one or both of the systems in cash in a lump sum, thus making purchase difficult and requiring the unnecessary disturbance of the bonded debt. 4. Inadequate provision for continuous control of service by the board of supervising engineers, the initiation of service regulations being left to the city council. 5. No certain provision as to what will happen to the property at the expiration of the franchise in 1927, if the city does not choose to buy it before or at that time. Though based upon the expectation of municipal ownership, the Chicago settlement has, through its weaknesses, made municipalization more remote and difficult. After six years the city has accumulated a purchase fund of about $11,000,000 and the purchase price has increased about $80,000,000. Dead capital alone has probably increased more than the entire accumulations of the purchase fund, though with the completion of the rehabilitation period the increase of dead capital should now cease. The Cleveland settlement came three years later than the Chicago settlement, and while the two plans have many points in common, they are radically different in certain respects. In Cleveland, as in Chicago, all outstanding franchises were surrendered and the entire street railway system brought under the provisions of a single ordinance. Also, Cleveland fked the purchase price at which the city can take over the property at any time. But instead of a fixed fare, division of profits and a purchase fund, Cleveland provided for service at cost by means of a sliding schedule of fares and a fixed rate of return on a fixed investment. Extensions are under the control of the city, subject to the company’s ability to finance them within the limits of the fare-schedule, the maximum rate allowed being 4 cents cash fare, seven tickets for 25 cents, and 1 cent for a transfer. But if the twenty-five year franchise granted is ever allowed to come within fifteen years of expiration, then the city’s right to propose extensions will cease and the company will have the right to charge the maximum rate allowed by the schedule and use its surplus profits for amortization purposes. If subsequently the city purchases, it will get thebenefit of the amortization. The city retains a check upon new capital expenditures and repairs and renewals, and has full control of service to the extent of the company’s ability to earn its fixed return under the maximum fares allowed. Matters of dispute, if arbitrable under the law, are to be determined by arbitration. , The weak points of the Cleveland franchise are these: 1. It capitalizes several million dollars of franchise values and makes no provision for their amortization or the amortization of any part of

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384 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the capital value except when the franchise comes within Bteen years of its expiration. 2. By absolutely fixing the company’s profit, it kills the motive for economy and efficiency supposed to be the main excuse for the continuance of the private operation of public utilities. It is thus compelled to rely upon arbitrary checks and continuous control by the city street railroad commissioner to make the dead motive act as if it were alive. In practical operation what may be considered an over-emphasis of the low-fare idea in Cleveland has a tendency to limit extensions and to keep the standard of service down, while at the same time leaving no surplus with which to amortize the investment out of earnings for the city’s benefit. B.ut the Cleveland plan at least has the merit of not being heartily approved by the corporations in every municipality where they are trying to get the city to pull their chestnuts out of the fire by the capitalization of ancient losses and the guaranty of future profits on a swollen investment. The Cleveland plan has faults, but from the standpoint of future municipalization, these faults are far less serious than those of the Chicago plan, even though Cleveland is not accumulating a purchase fund. Three years are an era in these swiftly-moving days. In 1907, Chicago settled. In 1910, Cleveland settled. In 1913, New York settled. But New York’s settlement has to do with subways and elevated roads, not with surface street car lines. Yet it may be truly said that rapid transit in New York has come to be the major factor in local transportation. In the new subway contracts and elevated railroad franchises New York has gone both forward and backward. It has not only made provision for an indeterminate franchise within a maximum time limit, but has made provision for the amortization of the entire original investment within that maximum period. It has reserved the right to terminate the contracts and recapture the subway lines in seven separate divisions. It has reserved to itself unlimited authority to compel the companies to operate extensions,’ the city assuming the deficits. The city has definitely assumed the risk of the rapid transit enterprises and has reduced the entire new investment in subway and elevated lines to a bond basis, with the bonus for motive offered in the form of a division of net profits with the operating companies. capital as such will receive a definite and fixed return. Additional profits, if there be any, will not go to capital at all, but to the operating agencies alone. The city itself constructs the subways and retains the supervision of their equipment and of the reconstruction, extension and equipment of the elevated roads. The city has the right to object to particular items of operating expenses and maintainance, and to invoke arbitration to determine their reasonableness and propriety. In these respects-(1) amortization of the entire investment within a Gxed period, (2) recapture of the subways in detail, 43) authority to require the opera

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 385 tion of extensions, (4) assumption by the city of the risk of the investment, (5) actual construction and close supervision of equipment by the city, and (6) the city’s right to challenge operating expenditures-New York may properly be said to have gone forward. There is, however, a different side to the story. Let the reader judge for himself whether New York has not made considerable net progress backwards. The new contracts and franchises do not resettle the outstanding rights of the companies, but leave perpetual franchises undisturbed except to strengthen them, and leave long-term leases of city lines untouched except to “level” them by lopping off fag ends of little value and extending original terms of great value to the company, and by providing in a doubtful manner for an exchange of certain old and new lines in the event of recapture of the new lines by the city. The city goes into partnership with the companies, furnishes vast amounts of capital toward the construction of the new lines, sets this contribution to work to help earn the present profits of the companies and their additional interest and sinking fund charges on account of new‘ investment, md accepts for itself what is equivalent to the second mortgage with no right to foreclose for non-payment of interest. Moreover, the city buys these second mortgage income bonds at par, while it allows the companies to take the gilt-edged fist mortgage bonds at 97 with a provision for their retirement in the case of one company at 1074 and in the case of the other at 110. New York does not adhere to the one-city-one-fare principle, even as to rapid transit lines, but perpetuates three operating systems, or, if we count the Hudson tunnels, four, without requiring an exchange of transfers. The city drains its credit almost to the last dollar for rapid transit purposes alone, leaving nothing with which to meet the capital expenditures for other civic improvements bound to follow in the wake of subway expansion, and at the same time permits the companies for sfty years to take our of rapid transit earnings as a preferential the amount of their present profits, swollen by congestion and neglect. New York even provides for the expenditure of many millions of dollars in the reconstruction and improvement of the companies’ old lines, these millions to be amortized as a preferential, though the reconstructed property, maintained at the top-notch, will remain the property of the companies for all time, even though it has been paid for. While the city retains authority to compel the companies to operate any number of extensions, it has to build the extensions itself, and unless they are profitable on their own account, it will have to make good the deficits out of its own pocket. The city has the right to recapture the new lines, but all of them are to be hooked up in operation with old lines that cannot be recaptured, So, the termination of a contract in whole or in part will involve the dismemberment of an operating system, the upsetting of established habits of travel and the substitution

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386 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW of two fares for one. The New York contracts ignore the relation of surface lines to rapid transit lines and make no provision for transfers between them, except at a single point of little importance. Existing transfers to surface lines are to be cut off. With one of the companies, the hope of divisible profits is so remote that the incentive for economy and efficiency bids fair to be entirely absent, leaving the company with its guaranteed profits and interest, and its hand in the city’s pocket to spend freely the margin that ought to go to the payment of interest and sinking fund charges on the city’s investment. By the spirit of its partnership with the companies, the city pledges itself not to attack, but rather to acknowledge and protect as far as possible or necessary the perpetual franchises that might otherwise be forfeited by vigilant public officials. The new elevated railroad franchises run for a maximum period of eighty-five years although their cost is to be fully amortized in less than fifty years out of preferentials allowed for the purpose. New York had the benefit of its own experience and the experience of Chicago, Cleveland and other cities to guide it. In this enterprise it did not start at the bottom of the well. If we were to apply to it the problem of the frog, the conundrum would have to be put something like this: “A frog finds himself half-way up the side of a forty-foot well. He starts to climb out. Every day he climbs two feet and every night he slips back four. How many days and nights will pass before he gets out?” To one looking at the fundamentally progressive principles theoretically embodied in the subway settlement and then considering the limitations put upon them in the actual working out of the bargain with the rapid transit companies, it seems likely that captious critics in the outside world may regard New York as headed right, but going backward. The controversy over the contracts caused a sharp division among good men who might have been expected to stick together upon fundamental questions of civic policy. But the preponderating influences that put the contracts through, though stoutly proclaiming that the bargain meant municipal ownership, were cold toward the possibility of municipal operation. Official opinion in New York has very little sympathy with municipal operation of public utilities, and the city was so faint-hearted on this subject that its enjoyment of full power to operate the subways, without further legislation of any kind, scarcely furnished its negotiators with a talking point. Indeed, the enthusiasm for full municipal ownership in the technical sense seems to have been stimulated by the thought that if title to the subways and their equipment vested in the city, the companies would not have to pay taxes on the property as a charge in advance of profits. The city was at a disadvantage because the existing elevated roads were held under perpetual franchises and because the present subway had been improvidently alienated for a long period. It is orthodox among

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 387 the politicians of the dominant-parties in New York, among the bossselected judges and among the public officials generally, to bow the knee to vested interests. While the city’s representatives might express a mild regret that their predecessors in some other era had seen fit to hand out perpetual franchise grants and enormously profitable leases, the claim or possession of these advantages by the companies already in the field was something to be accepted as an established fact. To attack an endless franchise merely because it was corruptly acquired or acquired by the exercise of squatter sovereignty, or merely because the company claiming the franchise has failed to perform its obligations in law and equity, or to cut down by competition the exorbitant profits of an overworked monopoly, is not looked upon with favor. Official New York has great respect for the princes of this world who have money and financial power, and regards it as unethical and impolitic to inquire too closely into sources or to questiofi titles. And so, although the law specifically authorizes the public authorities to require the surrender of old outstanding franchises as a condition of the grant of additional rapid transit rights, no official body in New York has ever seriously contemplated such action. Coupled with this official aversion to municipal operation and this precept of official ethics that whatever a public service corporation has, or stoutly claims, it is entitled to keep, is a timidity such as characterizes a man who is carrying all the debt he can and a good deal more than he wants to. New York City now owes nearly $1,000,000,000 net, including its contribution to the new subways. Its debt has been piled up in part by the issuance of fifty-year bonds for ten-year improvements and even for the purpose of funding current budget deficits. It has made a rule not to pay for anything now that can be saddled onto an unborn future. It rejects profits as if they were plebeian and courts extravagancies as the emblems of municipal dignity. It is always impecunious, and the unsatisfied judgments of civilization pile up against it year by year. So, now, in the city’s great crisis, when it had one last opportunity to assume a dominant rdle in the development of its own transit facilities, the official mind was deterred from aggressiveness by its tenderness for vested privileges and was restrained from independent constructive thought by retlection upon the notes in the bank. These three things made the city’s position weak: (1) unreadiness to compel the surrender of existing perpetual franchises and long-term leases by whatever means might prove necessary, (2) unreadiness to undertake municipal operation even as a last resort, and (3) present inability to finance its big projects along established lines without help from private capital. The New York subway contracts have the lure of a great enterprise. Though we may not approve of fifty-story buildings, yet it gives us a

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388 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW thrill of joy to look up at the Metropolitan tower, or the cathedral spires of the Woolworth building just across the corner from New York’s little old city hall. There may be more art in the weather-stained structure of a century ago, but the mighty office building with its top lost in the mist one morning and standing out in clear relief against the shining sky the next fills our untutored souls with a kind of savage joy. So this subway scheme, second only to the Panama Canal as a tremendous engineering enterprise, attracts us with its very bigness. The “boosters” have the advantage over the “knockers,” for the subway contracts, once signed, spell physical accomplishment as the immediate next step. New York’s need of additional transit facilities has been scandalous for many years, with only partial and temporary relief from time to time. The Brooklyn Bridge crush and the subway jam are barbaric institutions. Then, the profit-hunger of the real estate dealers, who hover like a Parthian army on the outskirts of the city, creates an atmosphere in which hcademic discussions about franchise principles meet with scant toleration. The landmen have waited long for the expected brood of rapid transit birds to be hatched, often fearing that the eggs were rotten after all, and in the meantime have felt the frequent stings of a long tax-payers’ winter. These considerations explain why in New York the subway debate, which from a cool academic standpoint seems to run strongly against the contracts, was decided the other way by the preponderant influences that bore in upon officialdom. The people had no voice except the voice of clamor, pro or con, for ic New York franchises are not subject to the referendum. It would fill this mP,gazine to present in detail the provisions of the contracts and the arguments for and against them. No more subtle and complex partnership was ever devisd Law, engineering, accounting, and public policy are woven together in infinite detail. There are dozens of subjects upon which whole articles might profitably be written. The.provisions in regard to recapture of lines, extensions, amortization, replacements, reconstruction, equipment, determination of cost, interest during construction, engineering and legal expenses, joint trackage rights, treatment of existing franchises, preferentials, depreciation, default, indemnity bond and deposits, operating routes, control of operating expenses, division of profits, taxes, debt discount, construction and operating accounts, exchange of legs,”-are all interesting, controversial and important. It may be worth while, however, in bringing this article to a close to enumererate the chief points in the argument for and against the contracts. In favor of the contracts, it was urged: 1. That the dual plan as a route scheme meant the first effective step in remaking New York from a highly congested, unsymmetrical, long city into a less congested, more evenly developed, round city.

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 389 2. That the dual plan meant a great extension of the five-cent fare zones, and the provision of direct and convenient access to the business district for vast areas and populations now suffering from the inconvenience of indirect routes and double fares. 3. That the dual plan utilized to the full not only the extensive and in part unwise investments in subways and bridges already made by the city, but also the existing facilities of the rapid transit companies already in the field, thus securing a maximum of service for a minimum of new investment. 4. That the dual plan would at last put the city in control of future rapid transit development by the provision authorizing it to build and compel the companies to operate extensions whenever and wherever needed. 5. That the dual plan would enlist the cooperation of private capital to the extent of $165,000,000 of new money, without which the city could not possibly carry through the immense and beneficent enlargement of rapid transit facilities immediately necessary for the public welfare, except after long, painful and disastrous delays. 6. That the dual plan, while recognizing the right of the companies to maintain their present profits, definitely limited the prkferential return on new capital to an amount substantially equivalent to interest and amortization charges. 7. That by the new contract with the Interborough Rapid Transit Company the leases of the existing subway would be levelled and made coterminous with the lease of the new lines, thus bringing the entire subway situation to a head at one time. 8. That by the right of recapture at any time after ten years of operation, this right being applicable to the entire new subway system operated by either company, or to any one or more of several specified divisions of each system, the city would remain in continuous control of the situation with the power to shift lines from one company to the other, to throw both of the companies out and get a new operator, or to institute municipal operation. 9. That under the dual plan not only would the city own the subways and their equipment from the beginning even though it was to contribute only a portion of the cost, but the entire investment, private and pubhc, would be amortized within the period of the contracts and possession of the property fully paid for and unencumbered by debt, would then revert to the city. 10. That the elevated railroad improvements included in the dual plan would give the quickest possible relief to existing congestion of traffic. 11. That the consummation of this vast scheme of rapid transit development would greatly stimulate the growth of the city, increase its values

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390 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and add to its borrowing capacity and taxing resources, thus insuring the city’s ability to recapture the subways whenever it might choose to do so and making the burden of any possible deficits arising under the contracts too insignificant to be considered. On the other hand, those opposed to the contracts, while admitting the actual soundness of some of the arguments just enumerated, and the theoretical soundness of most of them, contended that several of the advantages claimed could not actually be realized under the terms of the contracts as worked out in detail, that others were in no sense peculiar to the dual plan, and that the positively objectionable features of the contracts more than offset any possible advantages obtainable only through this plan. Specifically, they urged: 1. That the preferentials guaranteed to the companies were exorbitant, and that those of the Interborough in particular were the result of neglected depreciation and shameless congestion of traffic, the outgrowth of the company’s reactionary policy in the past. 2. That the Interborough’s plans for financing its share in the scheme involved the payment of an outrageous tribute to J. P. Morgan and Company, the money kings, who were to get $170,000,000 of Interborough new and refunding bonds at 933, although these bonds would easily be worth par in the open market, and in fact were to be redeemed from time to time for amortization purposes at 110, while the Brooklyn company’s financial scheme, after being worked out through the intricate convolutions of interwoven companies, showed an even worse result. 3. That the allowance of 1 per cent per annum for a sinking fund covering a period of forty-nine years would enable the Interborough to accumulate a surplus of from $30,000,000 to $60,000,000 within the life of the contract, out of which it would take care of the excessive discounts not directly chargeable to capital account under the contract, while the Brooklyn company would be enabled to charge its discaunts to interest during construction, and thus keep for itself the surplus in its sinking fund. 4. That the levelling of the leases of the present subway, instead of being an advantage to the city, involved the gift of $30,000,000 or $40,000,000 more to the Interborough Company during the life of its new contract. 5. That the Interborough contract, by reason of the excessive preferentials both to the company and to the city, could never promise a division of profits, and hence would destroy the company’s motive for economy and efficiency, leaving it free, without loss to itself, to wallow in extravagance and exploit politics on the city’s margin. 6. That by reason of the deficits the city would surely have to pay, its rapid transit bonds would remain subject to the debt limit and its tax

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THE NEW YORK SUBWAY CONTRACTS 391 resources would be drained to the utmost, thus nullifying for practical purposes the recaption scheme depended on to keep the city in constant control of the situation. 7. That in amazing disregard of the first principles of equity, if not of law, the reconstruction and improvement of existing elevated railroads was to be charged entirely to capital account, fully amortized out of earnings by an annual preferential in advance of the city’s interest on its investment, and then left at the expiration of the contracts-all paid for and maintained at the topnotch of efficiency-in the perpetual possession of the companies. 8. That the city’s subways would be hooked up by a sort of Morganatic marriage with the princely family of Perpetual Franchises, to be exploited for their benefit, and in the end cut off unfitted for independence by the habits of half a century. 9. That the franchises for the elevated railroad extensions and improvements, running for eighty-five years, represented a mere wanton and inexcusable throwing away of public rights, provision being made by which the companies would amortize out of their preferentiah the entire investment in these improvements and extensions within the period of the subway contracts, namely, forty-nine years. 10. That full municipal ownership (and municipal operation if the companies were unreasonable) of a comprehensive, independent system of new subways, financed so far as necessary’ by rapid transit certificates secured directly on the property and income of the subways, would be infinitely preferable to an unequal partnership with discredited corporations. There is nothing new under the sun. In 1875, nearly forty years ago, New York debated whether the elevated roads should be constructed with pubIic or with private capital. Then as now there was a sharp divergence of opinion among the city’s official representatives. The prevailing view was that “private enterprise should most assuredly be given the preference, in all works of this character, and an opportunity should be given to private capitalists to secure the advantages of investing in an undertaking that is in such popular demand as to be morally certain of proving highly profitable and remunerative.” Should we say that the enlightened aldermen of those days, whose words we quote, were some forty years ahead of their times? or that the public officials of 1913, who have been so solicitous for the protection of private profits and who proclaim so confidently the triumph of justice and fair-dealing in the new subway settlement, are still thinking in the grooves of 1875?

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SCHOOL PROGRESS IN NEW YORK CITY BY JOHN MARTIN' New York City HE New York school system baffles comprehension by its magnitude. The significant statistics of the system defy realization; like T stellar distances they are beyond mental grasp. There are 750,000 youngqhers enrolled. This is an army which marching four abreast would stretch all the way from New York to Philadelphia. There was an increase of 23,000 on the rolls of day schools last year. The yearly increase involves as great an expenditure for new buildings and equipment as the total outlay in a city like Syracuse since its foundation for housing its school system. There are over 18,000 on the teaching and supervising force, not including janitors nor those on the repairing and building force. This number with their families would make a town the size of Savannah. The increase in the teachers' salaries for the year 1912 was $3,500,000, the increase alone surpassing the total outlay for teachers in Colorado, Kentucky, Georgia, Maine, Virginia or Vermont. The appropriation last year for current expenses and new buildings exceeded $40,000,000, a sum greater than the combined revenues of the states of Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Massachusetts, Virginia and Washington, and as great as the revenue of the Empire State itself. Who can encompass such prodigious facts or fully grasp their significance? With responsibilities so huge it would be excusable if the New York board of education and board of superintendents were content to keep moving in the old ruts without trying new experiments or making fresh advances; but, on the contrary, they are so open to fresh ideas that it is doubtful whether any school system the world over shows more courage and ingenuity in devising new ways to help the child and its parents. A brief review will prove this assertion. A special effort has been made recently to aid slow and dull pupils so as to lessen the number who fail to win promotion. Formerly the child who fell behind in one or two major subjects was forced to repeat all the work of a grade, with the result that the number of over-age children in the grades, of children who were really too old for the class they occupied, Mr. Martin is a member of the board of education of New York City and some years aeo was associated with the school system of London, so that he writes out of a fullnes3 of knowledge and wide experience, which gives added force to his words. His reference to the social activities of the New York schools is supplemented by Mr. John Collier's article based on Edward J. Ward's The Social Center, see page 455. 392

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SCHOOL PROGRESS IN NEW YORK CITY 393 ran into the tens of thousands; while the bright children, who could easily reach the goal of graduation in a shortened time, were kept back with the average and so wasted one or more school years. Only by the use of special classes and group work, and by elastic organization can all the pupils, the backward, the ordinary and the clever alike, be given the chance to progress at the rate their faculties will allow. Father Knickerbocker has 1500 children in his classes who, recently arrived from across the Atlantic, cannot yet speak English. He has 25,000-as many as are in all the classes of all kinds of the schools of Nashville-in special classes for overage pupils, to help them to make more rapid progress and to catch up with their mates. At the same time that this notable advance was achieved in the mental work, the work in the more popular subjects, like music, dancing, drawing and gymnastics moved forward. Only a decade ago the high school principal who introduced dancing for his pupils was reprimanded and, only by changing the name to “aesthetic steps,” was he able to retain the startling innovation. Today no girl need leave school without a knowledge of a dozen graceful folk dances, which, borrowed from all the countries of Europe, have won such popularity as to modify the civilization of congested sections. May day festivals were held in the parks, when 7000 white-clad maidens danced around the Maypole and, more remarkable, displayed with wonderful rhythm and beauty, the steps and combinations that the peasants use to express their gladness in Russia, Finland, Roumania and France. The lads, more lusty and less rhythmical, show their prowess in athletic competitions, for which most of the schools enter. The intensive form of athletics, with its unavoidable neglect of the many for the few and the glorification of the athlete, is discouraged in favor of the extensive form, which tempts every boy to join in, which fosters group loyalty, avoids th’e adulation of star performers and gives everybody a chance. Badges are given to every youngster who reaches a normal standard-can chin himself so many times on the horizontal bar, and the like. Last year 8299 won this distinction, an increase of one-third over the previous year. One employer of many young men has written: I have come to recognize the badge given by the board of education for athletic work and particularly for good posture to be of real significance. It is rare indeed that I do not find every boy who has won a badge superior to those who have not won the badge. I wish every boy would go through your course of sprouts’ and come to us alert and strong and standing up straight-the way these fellows do. Class athletics, a scheme by which four-fifths of the boys in a class must compete in the making of the class average record, and in which the winning class is the one that gets the most points, is fast increasing. When

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394 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 8000 boys in the grammar grades compete in class running, benefits are not being confined to a few star performers. One lad, who helped to make his class record in jumping among the best, was himself one-legged; but he out-jumped many of his two-legged mates. A goodly number of schools have their own school athletic meets and interclass competitions in basketball, baseball, running, and so forth, while more pretentious meets, in which the schools of large districts engage, have been common. In the high schools, to the delight of the lovers of the army, marksmanship has been practised with such effect that for the third time the boys of New York city hold the championship of the United States against the competition of scores of preparatory and military schools. For the better physical development of the girls, who, despite the suffragettes, cannot imitate their brothers in the heavier outdoor sports, no less than 269 clubs have been organized by 941 of the teachers for taking long walks together. Periodically these bands wander forth, in charge of an adult selected by the principal, many of them lasses who formerly had never dared to roam beyond their own block, in order to explore the parks, see the distant sights, or breathe the fresh air of the woods and fields. Who can measure the benefit to body and mind of such strolls, especially for those girls who have spent their narrow lives in a squalid tenement and to whom a few trees and a patch of grass are a wonder and a mystery? Besides the city armories, which are by courtesy utilized in the winter months for the athletic meets, the board operates itself, for summer use, four superb athletic fields, finer in equipment than the aristocratic youths of Eton and Harrow enjoy. And so that spirit of fair play, strenuous endeavor and ready cooperation, which led the Duke of Wellington to declare that the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton is likewise being fostered on the athletic fields of New York, and fostered not in a select aristocratic class but among tens of thousands who dwell in lowly tenements and must win a livelihood by arduous toil. Allied to physical training is the teaching of hygiene, in which, also, a transformation is taking place. The practice of healthy habits instead of the inculcation of health precepts is aimed at. It is more important for a child to learn to come to school with dean body, teeth brushed, fingernails white and get into the way of doing some simple setting-up exercises morning and night than it is to learn by rote the horrors of alcoholism or the fell dangers of tobacco. The kind of hygiene that is being taught more and more widely is illustrated by the report of a boy sanitary commissioner of one public school who writes: My fist duty is to see that every boy comes to school clean. A sanitary chart with the names of the boys written on it is kept in every class from the sixth year up. A monitor, appointed by me, marks this chart

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SCHOOL PROGRESS IN NEW YORK CITY 395 every morning, according to the boy’s cleanliness. At the end of every month a list of the dirty boys is given to me by the different monitors. The offenders are summoned to court, where they are tried, and, if found guilty, are sentenced by the judges. “Let good digestion wait on appetite.” With 150 special teachers of home economics -cooking, housekeeping, laundry work and nursing-the girls of the upper grades are being prepared for their destined and appropriate vocation of hometaking better than ever before since the colonial days when mother taught daughter a multitude of household arts. In well-equipped kitchens under skilful guidance bevies of white-capped girls may be seen any school day, daintily weighing and mixing, tasting and cooking, the simple dishes which every woman should be able to prepare, practising the tactics by which that great enemy of Americans, dyspepsia, may be routed. ,Meanwhile their brothers are handling hammer, chisel and saw in handy workshops under one of the 137 special instructors, who, themselves skilled artisans, command respect by their thorough workmanship. Nobody can see for the fist time, without surprise, the pieces of furniture and dainty models which were shown at recent exhibitions, the work of the older lads in the grammar schools. So the city child is getting some of that allround training which the farmer’s boy gets as a matter of course on the farm, a training which has produced from the soil the most eminent Americans from President Lincoln downwards. But indoor manual work, good as it is, is not the best for summer months. When the soft south wind blows and the sun shines through the windows beckoning to the outer air, the proper workshop is the garden. Of course in a monstrous city like New York space is lacking to give all the boys and girls a plot of soil to work; but, nevertheless, a goodly proportion have of late years been put in contact with nature’s beauties. Of window or indoor gardens there were more than 6500 blooming last year, all tended by the youngsters; and on the outdoor gardens, the property of the board of education, there were 50,287 flower pots and 82,918 vegetable plots, to say nothing of the 29,539 plots under cultivathn by scholars on property not belonging to the board-an amazing record for city-bred pupils. One result was the encouragement of tens of thousands of window gardens in the homes. Literally hundreds of teachers, to whose unselfish enthusiasm the rapid development of this work is due, gratuitously aided the young gardeners out of school hours, and hancial help from the city treasury and from private sources did the rest. Thus, despite its many handicaps, the most crowded city in Christendom is forging into a front place in the development of a school activity which was supposed to be peculiarly ill-adapted to massed populations. After so much training of hand and eye naturally a fair proportion of Athletic exercises and healthy habits will sharpen hunger.

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396 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the graduates are ready to learn a trade if the opportunity offers. For several years the manual training high school, the commercial high school, and the practical departments of the other high schools have given courses which prepared, somewhat indirectly, for business life. But the specific teaching of a trade, in workmanlike shops, has had only about two years’ trial-for boys in the vocational school established by the board, and for girls in the Manhattan trade school, which, established by a voluntary committee, was later taken into the school system. Both are fast enlarging and have justified themselves. The lads learn house carpentry and construction, cabinet work, wood turning, pattern making, electric wiring and installation, printing, machine shop practice, forging, plumbing, molding, bookbinding and industrial design. An automobile repair shop is about to be installed. The girls, who come mostly from homes which cannot afford more than a brief training to increase immediate earning power in trades not highlyskilled, learn dressmaking, millinery, novelty work, machine operating and designing. The practical character of the instruction is proved by the output of goods commercially valuable. The boys’ school did, during the year, $3437 worth of work for the department and the girls’ school sold in the open market $757.9 worth of goods. Graduates of both schools show increased earning capacity and a rapid advancement when they enter shops. Case after case is reported in which a lad, within two or three months, had his wages raised to eight or nine dollars from the four or five dollars a week at which he started. At both schools teachers advise and help the graduates in getting a suitable job, the girls’ school having a secretary to do exclusively this work, and to discover the kinds of work for which there is a demand, that the school may always keep in touch with the trades. In twelve months this secretary placed 486 girls, ensuring to them proper wages and suitable surroundings. Within a year three additional evening trade schools have been opened, including an industrial school especially for colored persons, which will add several hundreds to the 4000 men, who, last winter, registered at the existing evening trade schools. ,The notable event in the history of these schools last winter was an agreement entered into, officially, with the pattern makers’ union, under which the union will see that every apprentice to the trade attends the classes and will cooperate with the principals and the board in arranging the most beneficial curriculum and equipment. Such recognition by the workmen themselves of the value of the work done and the equal interest of employers, will turn the success of the evening trade schools, already assured, into a triumph. Not many years ago the school buildings and grounds were shut tight for three months in the summer in New York, as in other cities, the children being left to welter on the streets while the teachers recruited at

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SCHOOL PROGRESS IN NEW YORK CITY 397 seashore and mountain. We have changed all that; and New York leads the way, Last summer in thirty-two different buildings vocation schools were conducted six weeks. These were not feeble imitations of the regular schools, but offered attraction which few unemployed youngsters could resist. The boys were taught venetian ironwork, wood work, whittling (that immemorial boy’s delight), fret sawing, chair-caning and basketry. The girls (5000 of them) took cooking and housekeeping, sewing and dressmaking, millinery, embroidery, knitting, crocheting and basketry. The making of bread and biscuit was specially emphasized; and, during the winter in many families “home made bread” has been possible because of the fact that daily lessons were given during the summer in the preparation of this staff of life. Competent nurses gave frequent lessons on such important health matters as the cleaning of the teeth, individual drinking cups, and antiseptic preparations as well as elementary instruction in ‘(first aid to the injured.” No wonder the percentage of attendance was high. No truant officers were needed to bring the ‘(reluctant schoolboy unwillingly to school.” To help mother and to prevent the keeping of the older children at home “to mind the baby” morning kindergarten classes were also conducted in regular indoor kindergarten rooms, as well as one hundred and eleven kindergarten classes in afternoon playgrounds. These were brightly decorated with the handiwork of the little ones, and “cosy corners,” ‘(play lands,” and “slumber lands” in corners showed where the babies were consigned. Story-telling by the teacher was general, the tots sitting wide-eyed and open-mouthed as the dramatized tale was unfolded. In other places were playgrounds for mothers and babies, where the infants could sleep in hammock swings in the shade while the mothers, some of them “little mothers” but few years older than their charges, rested on the benches or gently swayed their infants and crooned lullabies to them. Special attention was paid last summer to music and to song. An attempt was made to sing only good songs, the results showing a willingness on the part of mothers and children to accept higher standards. Some of the old-fashioned melodies like “Annie Laurie,” “Auld Lang Syne,” “Suwanee River” and “The Old Oaken Bucket” woke tender memories of the past to some weary mothers and gave to their children material for similar future memories. Even the work of the vocation schools, attractive as it was, being done indoors, could properly be used only half the day. For the afternoons play for everybody was the rule at 248 centers, where over 600 teachers supervised baseball, basketball, rope quoits, handball and more formal gymnastics. In baseball a championship tournament was organized which

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3 98 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW roused great enthusiasm and kept teams at every center up to concert pitch. Field days were held on the public school athletic fields, when several thousand children would gather with their parents to enjoy the races and athletic features. For those who got tired of the bustle of the playground a game room and reading room offered checkers, dominoes, pictures, and puzzles, besides a collection of high class juvenile literature, provided by the New York library. . In the evenings, in some congested portions of the city, the school house roofs were equipped with electric lights and benches, small bands discoursed sweet music for part of the evening, and later the girls and women, to the bright strains, enjoyed folk and social dancing. Every place of the kind was crowded to its fullest capacity, the aggregate attendance during the season running close up to a million. Altogether it may be claimed, in reason and with due modesty, that Father Knickerbocker did as much for his children last summer as any colleague in the world. When the days shortened and outdoor sports and studies were no longer attractive the recreational classes for the young and blithesome and the serious classes for the studious were transfered to the warmed and lighted interiors. Eighteen evening high schools and one hundred and one evening elementary schools, more than ever before, were opened for the winter months, for which, altogether, 112,000 pupils enrolled. No less than 40,000 foreigners enrolled for the study of the English tongue which was still to them a mystery, a fact which illustrates the unusual and burdensome difEculties with which the New York school system ever struggles. Only after two or three years’ special work on the language are such students capable of profiting from the teaching in the regular courses. For the less studious and for the neighborhood sociability forty-three recreation centers, thirty for men and boys and thirteen for women were conducted, where gymnastics, games, music, dancing and clubs of many varieties gave amusement and development to over two million visitors in the course of the season. In the library and game room, books carefully selected to meet the wants of the youthful readers, magazines, checkers, chess and other games, bowls and a ‘(correspondence table” offered rest and refreshment to many weary toilers after the labors of sweat shop, store, office or factory. Many tournaments in chess and checkers .were run off. One man over sixty years old missed not a single night and defeated all comers at his favorite game of checkers. For the first time teachers of music were assigned to a number of the centers and systematic attempts were made to organize glee-clubs and choruses. Round the piano forty or fifty youngsters would gather and

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SCHOOL PROGRESS IN NEW YORK CITY 399 warble more or less melodiously time-honored songs like “Way Down the Suwanee River,” while, occasionally, some budding Caruso or Sembrich whom the teacher had discovered, would troll with spirit a popular air or a violinist would display his budding powers. In several of the centers small orchestras have been started. In some centers regular gymnastic squad work was maintaked and creditable displays were given of exercises by groups on the horse, buck and parallel bars by the men. The women at the same time indulged in folk dtincing, and athletic contests. As in the day schools, the aim in all the organized athletics was not to develop “ stars,” but good all round athletes, so that the average physical development would be improved. “A center without clubs can have little real success,” says the enthusiastic superintendent of their work. Club directors have therefore enlarged their activities until nearly 700 clubs-athletic, literary, social, musical, civic, philanthropic and so forth-were run during the winter for thousands of young men and maidens, under capable supervision, in rooms furnished by the board of education without any cost of money to the members. Such a mass of social service could hardly be duplicated in any other city. Still the work keeps growing. Boy scouts were recently added to the list of beneficiaries. Even more notable, an active competition has been started with the dance halls which have lured so many young girls to ruin. Mixed dancing classes is at last a regular feature of the centers for girls and women. Each young man who takes part presents a certificate from the principal of his center to the effect that he is a member in good standing of one of the clubs. The music is played on a piano by a teacher regularly appointed as a pianist. Often, however, a violin or cornet or both, paid for by the membership dues of the young men, adds to the gaiety of the dance. The lower forms of pop’ular music are barred, and, of course, the turkey trot, the grizzly bear and the other indecencies which found their way into high society are rigorously barred. Thus, under the fostering guidance of the women principals, who regard carefully all the conventionalities necessary, the school is able to raise the social tone of the neighborhood. In conjunction with committees of citizens the board of education, last winter, gave high class concerts and moving picture displays for the first time. Under the will of Mr. Pulitzer funds were provided for giving orchestral music of the highest quality in working-class neighborhoods perfectly free. The board of education gladly cooperated by loaning the superb halls and organs in various high school buildings, with the result that packed audiences heard concerts that rivalled the best performances in Carnegie Hall. On asnumber of Sunday evenings, also in the high school auditoriums, concerts and lectures were given in cooperation with the Peoples’ Institute, of the character which have made Cooper Union the

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400 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW synonym for peoples’ evenings. Along with the same committee a start was also made with educational moving picture shows which drew great crowds. All these new enterprises were supplementary to the evening lectures for adults, which, begun twenty-three years ago, have expanded into a veritable university for the people. In the season just closed extensive courses in electricity, on literature and on history were delivered, as well as shorter courses and single lectures on civics, geography, hygiene, travel, astronomy, music-on well-nigh every subject in which instruction could conceivably be desired. With 6000 lectures delivered to audiences which aggregated during the season close upon a million, this free, municipal university for the people takes rank with any institution of the kind the world over. Altogether, the work of the New York board of education makes an amazing story, wonderful in its variety, stunning in its magnitude, incalculable in its beneficence. Yet, astonishing and inspiring as are the past .achievements, there are still worlds awaiting conquest. Broad as has been the scope of the work in all its varieties it by no means covers the territory. To bring to all the children and all the people in Father Knickerbocker’s family every opportunity which any of them now enjoy will involve the outlay of more millions. But the accomplishment of the past decade gives bright promise for the next decade. A metropolis which, within a few years, has pushed forward from the rear to the front of the procession of cities, will not readily relinquish its leadership. There is every indication that the rate of improvement will not only be maintained, but may even be accelerated.

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THE NEW YORK POLICE SITUATION BY CLEMENT J. DRISCOLL~ New York City HE period of clamor and falsehood seems now to be passing, and the whole community is beginning to see how basely they have been imposed upon by the invented falsehoods which have been published, especially by those newspapers which pass among us under the name of degenerate. "WhiIe all this falsehood and clamor against the force was going on, I watched with anxiety to see whether it was breaking down the discipline of the force, for which it was designed. I am happy now to congratulate the whole force dn the admirable way in which they have conducted themselves under the most trying circumstances. Notwithstanding that one of their number was found grafting, I have faith in the force as a whole. Please communicate this to the force. It has been hard to suffer the abuse which they have gone through, except to those who consider the sources from which it came. What degenerates think of us is of no con" T 1 Immediately after the murder of Herman Rosenthal and the indictment of Police Lieutenant Becker, the following investigations were inaugurated: August 5, 1912, the board of aldermen appointed a committee to investigate the police. Its final report is now in the hands of the printer. August 14, at a mass meeting at Cooper Union, a citizens' committee was organized and formed into a non-official investigating body for the purpose of assisting the aldermanic committee and the district attorney. This committee filed its report with the legislature on March 19, 1913. In September, District Attorney Whitman began a grand jury investigation of the police department, which was subsequently abandoned. Following the confessions before the aldermanic committee of George A. Sipp and Mary Goode, implicating high police officials, the district attorney caused the indictment of many high police officials. Early in March, the state legislature appointed a joint senate and assembly committee to investigate the New York police department. This committee did not conduct any investigation or study, but held a number of public hearings and invited former police and city officials to appear before it and give their views on how the police department should be managed. As the result of its work, a bill was introduced in the legislature creating a board of social welfare. The object of this bill was to remove from the police department 911 jurisdiction over gambling and disorderly houses and to place the enforcement of the laws against these vices in the hands'of a non-salaried commission. The bill passed both houses but was vetoed by Mayor Gaynor. The only legislation affecting the police department enacted at this session of the legislature was a law creating additional deputy police commissioners to the number of 19. This was vetoed by Governor Sulzer. 2 Former deputy police commissioner and now connected with the New York Bureau of Municipal Research. 401

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402 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW cern. We must look to get the estimate and good will of all intelligent and good citizens. W. J. GAYNOR.” Thus wrote the mayor of the city of New York, to his police commissioner on September 18, 1912. The letter from which the above is taken was published to the entire force on September 19, just ten days after the board of aldermen of the city had begun its investigation into the affairs of the police department. On September 20, the police commissioner was a witness before the aldermanic police investigating committee, and in answer to a question of its chief counsel, Emory R. Buckner, defiantly stated: ‘I There is nothing wrong with the police department except public clamor.” Both of these statements “put heart” into the dishonest members of the force and made them more bold to obstruct the district attorney and the aldermanic committee in their researches. 10,500 members of the force had read to them the mayor’s letter quoted above. Nine months of investigation and research by the aldermanic investigating committee, the district attorney and his grand jury, have served to show that indeed there is much more the matter with the police department than public clamor. As the result of the researches of the Curran committee and the activity of District Attorney Whitman, one police lieutenant is now in the death house at Sing Sing, convicted of murder in the first degree. Four police inspectors are in the penitentiary. Two patrolmen are behind the bars at Sing Sing. One captain of police, a selfconfessed criminal, is awaiting sentence. One patrolman, confessedly a collector for high police officials, is awaiting sentence. A lswyer, who confessed as to his part in police corruption, is awaiting sentence. A sergeant of police, five patrolmen, and five “citizen go-betweens,” are under indictment for extortion, perjury, and bribery. The four police inspectors have also hanging over them many other indictments, and the district attorney is still following the trail of graft in the department pointed out to him in the confession of police captain Wal~h.~ During the trial of these police barons, the workings of the “system” were laid bare, but the criminal investigation of itself would be of little value to the city except for the constructive study into the administrative methods of the department made by the Curran committee. At the very outset of theinquiry the Bureau of Municipal Research placed at the disposal of the aldermen, without charge, its entire staff of lawyers, police experts, accountants, investigators, and stenographers. Thus Mr. Buckner was enabled to take over a well organized plant and undertake a constructive study of the department. 3 See article of C. R. Atkinson, NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol ii, p. 439.

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NEW YORK POLICE SITUATION 403 The aldermanic committee held eighty public sessions in the aldermanic chamber of the city hall, beginning September 10, 1912, and ending March 27,1913. It received the testimony of 224 witnesses, and examined through the investigators of the Bureau of Municipal Research tens of thousands of documents on fle in the police department and elsewhere. The record of the proceedings before the committee consists of 4,800 printed pages. The entire investigation cost the city $40,000. In addition to this sum, however, about $25,000 was expended by private citizens and civic agencies assisting the committee in its work. A careful review of the printed record proves conclusively that corruption and inefficiency in the police department are for the most part due to administrative methods which make intelligent direction and accountability impossible. The organization with regard to rank was found to be without serious fault, and the record points out clearly that great reforms toward increased police efficiency can be attained with scarcely a change in the substantive law or statutes governing the creation of the department. The majority of the experts who have analyzed the record are agreed that the single change in the law needed to bring about a permanent reform is a longer term of office with added security of tenure for the police commissioner. The close observer of municipal affairs should not marvel at police inefficiency and corruption in a city of five dions of people where the police department has had eight police commissioners in eleven years. Not one of these commissioners had ever had any connection with police work prior to his appointment to command the 10,500 members of the department. Some of them were former army officials, others lawyers, politicians, and business men. With each incoming commissioner came new rules and changes in the old regulations, and of course the “fad and fancy” of his lay mind. These “fads and fancies” and lay notions as to how a large police force should be managed, have been subject to such kaleidoscopic change that they have been productive of nothing short of chaos. No commissioner has ever been in command of the police department long enough to work out efficiently any scheme or idea of management. A commissioner to be successful must know intimately the personal history and character of all his commanding officers. He must become thoroughly familiar with the spirit and ethical standards of the entire force. Under the present system the policemen do not respect their commissioners. Inspectors, captains, and lieutenants feel more powerful than the commissioner. They know that they are permanent, while he will probably be short-lived, and thus in passing among the members of the force one frequently hears it said: “Commissioners come and commissioners go, but the ‘system’ lives on forever.” Our policemen in New York have never been taught to understand that

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404 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW it is their sole duty to enforce the laws, but on the contrary each new comsioner creates a new policy of enforcement. One commissioner believes in the rigid enforcement of the excise law. Another permits and encourages a liberal enforcement. Some commissioners have attempted to enforce the laws against gambling and prostitution, while still others have been frank to admit that it was not their desire that the laws against commercialired prostitution should be rigidly enforced. The result, as made clear by the aldermanic investigation committee’s record, is that the policeman realizes early in his career that the law which he is required to enforce today he must wink at tomorrow. It is but natural, then, that corruption and dishonesty must necessarily follow, because the policemen, realizing that his commissioner has no more legal nor moral right to have a policy of enforcement than he himself has, soon follows the example of his commissioner and creates his own policy of enforcement on his beat, to his own profit and gain. A secure tenure, subject only to dismissal for proved inefficiency, would not only give the commissioner the necessary experience to become competent, but would go a long way toward breaking the backbone of the ‘‘ system.” The aldermanic committee recommended to the state legislature in a preliminary report that the commissioner be appointed by the mayor for a term of eight years, subject to removal by the mayor and also by the governor, but in either case only after charges preferred and after he has been given an opportunity to defend himself in a public hearing. In addition to the right of the mayor to prefer charges, it was also recommended that the board of estimate and apportionment or the board of aldermen by a majority vote should be given power to prefer charges against the police commissioner, and that the mayor be compelled to give a public hearing after reasonable notice. This would not destroy centralization of power in the mayor nor relieve him from responsibility for the entire city administration, because he could remove the commissioner at any time after a public hearing. It would, however, place him under the moral necessity of publicly justifying his action. While it is indeed proper for the mayor to advise with his police commissioner on large questions of policy, it ia destructive of discipline for the mayor to interfere in matters of administration. The police commissioner is underpaid. If the city of New York desires the entire time of a first-rate executive, it should be prepared to pay a fitting salary. The present salary of the police commissioner is $7,500 per year. This salary should be increased to at least $12,000. To eliminate police corruption and to encourage efficiency, it is necessary that the standard of character for entrance to the force should be raised. Except for their first two years of service, the policemen as a whole are well

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NEW YORK POLICE SITUATION 405 paid and the inducements to bright, active young men to join theforce include a pension after twenty-five years of service, a pension to their widow or dependent children or parents in the event of death in the performance of their duty, a pension in the event of their becoming disabled in the service, permanent occupation and opportunities of promotion to the various commissioned ranks. Thus the police commissioner should demand and be able to secure the services of young men of the very highest moral standing. But the aldermanic committee in its investigation discovered that the examination into the character of the men appointed was wholly inadequate and that Commissioner Waldo appointed to the force men who had sworn falsely in their applications in order to conceal previous arrests, indictments, discharges from employment, etc. One illustration will suffice to make clear the low standard of fitness for policemen accepted by the present police administration. Michael Imbriale when applying for the position of patrolman swore that he had never been arrested. Records in the police department which were specifically called to the attention of the present police commissioner, disclosed the fact that Imbriale had previously been arrested for murder, indicted, tried, and acquitted. Later he was accused of having slashed the throat of a sixteen year old boy with a razor. He was arrested, indicted, tried, and acquitted. Subsequently he was charged by his wife with cruelty and nonsupport. The files in the police department contained many complaints against the character of this man. The boy who accused Imbriale of having slashed his neck with a razor urged the police commissioner personally, as he did also the mayor, to refuse Imbriale appointment to the police force. Notwithstanding that Imbriale swore that he had never been arrested or complained against, and notwithstanding the appeal of this boy, the police commissioner made Imbriale a policemen. When Mr. Buckner questioned Deputy Commissioner McKay and the police commissioner concerning these appointments, and particularly concerning the appointment of Imbriale, he received answers which revealed the low standard of fitness for policemen in this city: Deputy Police Cmnmissioner McKay (page 642) Q. Then if anybody can escape going to jail he is a good enough policeA. Yes, sir; if the complaints against him are dismissed, he is a good Q. Don’t you regard that a very low standard for a police officer? A. I never criticize the courts. man for you, is that right? enough policeman for me. Commissioner Waldo (page 655) Commissioner Waldo, we were going over, this afternoon, the case of one of your patrolmen, Mike Imbriale, and we have already touched this Q.

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406 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW case before. And I find he was appointed by you on June 28, 1911. We have had, this afternoon, evidence which I do not suppose you would recall of certain protests being made regarding the appointment of Michael Imbriale, whom Commissioner Cropsey had rejected, but whom you appointed after the Civil Service Commission had recertified him, and we find, among other things, a letter from the Mayor’s office, concerning a complaint which was sent to Chief Inspector Schmittberger, on which he made a report to you. We also find a report of Commissioner McKay. It was the case of an Italian, and it was alleged that he had killed one man and cut the throat of another, although he had been acquitted by the courts on both charges. It was also alleged that he had sworn falsely regarding his ever being arrested. I wonder if you now recall anything at all about the case? A. I do recall appointing Imbriale. I did not remember his name right away, but I recall the circumstances. In this country we have courts to try people who are charged with various crimes. Since it is possible for a man to enter the police department with a lie upon his lips, one must not marvel when he reads in the daily press of policemen committing perjury in the courts, of policemen betraying the trusts imposed upon them by their superior officers, and of policemen selling to the highest bidder their testimony in important cases. Incredible as it may seem, the committee discovered that a burglar previously convicted for his crime, whose picture and record adorned the walls of ‘the Rogues’ Gallery, had passed through the gate undetected, been presented with the shield of office, and sworn in as a public protector. It was not until he displayed again his criminal traits that he was exposed, and then instead of being removed from the force in disgrace was permitted to quietly resign. The commmittee pointed out that the lack of proper and efficient character research was one of the most striking defects of the police department. Since it was possible for a felon upon the expiration of his term of imprisonment to join the ranks of the police department undiscovered, and for perjurers whose untruthfulness was known to the department and whose false statements were a matter of record to obtain appointment, then the casual observer need not marvel at the criminal activities of a Becker, a Sweeney, a Hussey, and a Thompson, as recently disclosed. The most scientific methods of efficiency, the most skillful administration, and the most intelligent executive control, will all fail in police work unless the entrance to the force is effectively guarded against untruthful, dishonest, and immoral men. The police force of the city of New York is today suffering from the laxity of investigation of years past, and the bulk of the corruption is among the superior officers who entered the gate when it was not guarded. The city is paying the penalty through police corruption and inefficiency of the dishonest methods of appointment and promotion of many years ago. It is an undisputed fact that in the past policemen purchased their appointments

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NEW YORK POLICE SITUATION 407 and their promotions. Many of these men are today the officers of the department. That there has been wide-spread blackmail levied by responsible police officials upon the keepers of gambling and disorderly houses, was indeed established by the aldermanic investigating committee. The committee made no pretense of studying the gambling and prostitution subjects as moral questions, but simply as a police problem. Viewing the enforcement of these laws from a purely administrative viewpoint, a glance at the record of the aldermanic inquiry will suffice to show that police graft and corruption are due entirely to faulty administration. While it is apparent that the present police commissioner endeavored to enforce the laws against gambling-but failed in his efforts-it is equally apparent that he did not desire or attempt to enforce the laws against prostitution except where outward conditions were disorderly. That there was graft collected is not surprising when one considers the following facts in connecGon with the enforcement of the laws against gambling and prostitution, brought tolight by Mr. Emory R. Buckner, counsel for the aldermanic committee: 1. A total failure effectively to check the work of police officials and to punish demonstrated inefficiency or significant inactivity. 2. A stubborn confidence in the integrity of the men selected by the commissioner to supervise this work. 3. Giving to the very men accused, for their own information, letters charging them with graft, without making any independent investigation. 4. The commissioner’s lack of information as to actual vice conditions. 5. That the inspectors and captains were able to keep from the commissioner and his deputies information and the complaints of citizens. Indeed, two captains of police testified before the aldermen that they very frequently ‘I tore up and threw in the waste basket” the complaints addressed to them by citizens. 6. Faulty methods of handling complaints sent to the commissioner. 7. The citizen complainant regarded as a hostile critic rather than as one furnishing information to the department. 8. A total lack of supervision over the testimony of policemen in the courts. With a police commissioner having a fixed tenure of office and removable only by the mayor or the governor after a public hearing; with a searching inquiry into the character of men appointed to the police force; with the information concerning vice conditions properly used by the police commissioner, and delinquent inspectors punished for inefficiency or significant inactivity, the police department of the city of New York could easily be brought up to a high standard of efficiency, and police graft and corruption to say the least rninimi~ed.~ 4 See NATIONAL MVNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. ii, p. 279.

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CONDITIONS OF VICE AND CRIME IN NEW YORK AND THE RELATIONS TO THESE OF THE POLICE FORCE OF THE CITY BY QEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM~ New York T IS apparent from the evidence recently secured by the district attorney that the police force of the city is now, as in 1900, at the time of I the appointment of the committee of fifteen, utilizing its responsibilities and the powers placed in its hands for the control of vicious and criminal conditions, for the purpose of securing gain for its members and for the powers back of the force. The investigations carried on, in 1900-1901, by the committee of fifteen brought its members to the conclusion that the stringent laws enacted in Albany for the control of the social evil, the restriction of the sale of liquor and the suppression of gambling and of the pool-rooms, were the result of a combination between the chiefs of Tammany Hall and representatives of the up-state rural communities who had convinced themselves that it was practicable to make our great city moral by means of legislation and that their duty had been fulfilled when they had enacted laws to this end. It is my belief, based on an experience of more than half a century as a citizen in this city, and of more than one-third of a century in work on the grand jury, that part at least of the difficulties in securing an effective 1 See also articles by Clement J. Driscoll in this issue, page 401, and in the April issue, page 279, dealing with the investigation of the police department of New York City. ‘This statement on the condition of vice and crime in New York and their relation to the city’s police force was submitted by Mr. Putnam to the New York legislative committee on remedial police legislation of which Senator Wagner was chairman. This important contribution to the discussion received such scant attention both in the daily papers and at the hands of the committee that the editor feels justified in presenting it in its entirety to the readers of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. Mr. Putnam is a long time observer of conditions in New York and his statement reflects not only his views as’a thoughtful and public spirited observer, but m a member of the grand jury during a third of a century, as he himself’points out in his statement. The committee to which this statement was submitted was appointed by the New York legislature at the instance of the representatives of Tammany Hall. It was, the intention of the committee, according to a well informed correspondent, to prepare “a report that might offset the serious injury to the reputation of the Tammany administration which had been brought about through the action of the district attorney and by the investigations of certain citizens’ committees.” Ap408

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VICE AND CRIME IN NEW YORK 409 and trustworthy administration of our police force is due to confusion in the minds of the legislators in regard to this matter. It is the honest belief of a good many people that all forms of sin and vice are to be treated as crime and to be controlled by law, and as such control, particularly in a great city like New York, is, of course, impracticable, we have as one result a contempt for law and as another the demoralization of the officials whose business it is to enforce the law. It was the conclusion of our committee of fifteen, as a result of investigations extending over two years, that the purpose of the Tammany organization in bringing about the enactment of such laws had been the very substantial advantages to be secured in selling the privilege of breaking the law. We arrived at an estimate (the figures could, of course, be but approximate) that during the year 1900, the amounts secured through the sale of such privileges, a sale, of necessity, conditioned upon “protection” to be given by the police to authorized breakers of the law, aggregated no less than $2,500,000. I noted a report brought into print some months back that an estimate of $2,400,000 had been arrived at as the amount secured in 1911 through similar sales of law breaking privileges. The estimate reached by our committee of the amount so paid in 1901 was arrived at by ascertaining specific payments made weekly or monthly by certain bad houses, pool-rooms, gambling houses and liquor shops, and by multiplying these payments by the number, of concerns in the city doing a like business with similar receipts. parently only that material was utilized by the committee as tended to put Tammany in a more favorable light. As bearing on the same question the attention of the readers of the NATXONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW is directed to the address of Dr. Frederic C. Howe, director of the People’s Institute of New York on “The Police, Excise and Gambling Evil: Is the Trouble with our State Laws?” made at the City Club last November, in concluding which address Dr. Howe said: If we had home rule, if this were our problem, and we were free to deal with it in our own way, if the city itself had to control it, I am certain that the first thing a mayor-elect would do would be to call into conference a grpup of men to help him work out that problem. I am sure he would sa to them: The most troublesome problem of all to me is this problem of vice. Ghat will we do with it? What orders shall the board of estimate adopt? What policy shall we pursue? I want your help and assistance, your cooperation and advice.” And such a group of men would then be able to work OR that problem as the cannot work on it today. They, we, all of us would face it as our own. It couh not be dodged. It could not be avoided. And out of all the wisdom of this city, out of the immediate wides read, now impossible experimentation on the subject a program would be evolvecf for the social evil, the excise question and the saloon, that would be infinitely better than that which we have today. It would minimize tempt.ation and protect the innocent. It would open recreation and alternatives to the street, the saloon, the dance hall. It would make its policy open and free to all without the payment of tribute, and would free the police from the policy of piracy that the state laws now inevitably produce. And I am morally certain of one thing in regard to these problems.

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410 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW There was in force a business system for assessing the amounts of these payments which were graded according to the estimated weekly or monthly receipts of the concerns protected. The system of the assessment provided, however, only for a minimum payment that was exacted. Extra charges were imposed from time to time as a result, for instance, of the coming in of a new captain or a new inspector, or in connection with special requirements arising from a municipal election. It was impossible to carry on the machinery for making such collection throughout the entire city from these various divisions of law breakers and maintaining protection for those who had paid without the use of a large number of persons, chiefly, of necessity, officials. Each roundsman, sergeant, captain, or inspector, through whose hands the money passed, must, of course, be permitted to retain a portion or a percentage for his remuneration. The statement recently made by Mayor Gaynor that not more than fifty members of the force were now concerned with the collection of graft moneys, is a manifest absurdity in the face of the evidence that a city-wide system for the collection of such money is again in force. Our committee was forced to the conclusion that a system has been arrived at under which after the payment of the several intermediaries, a substantial portion of the funds secured went into the general Tammany treasury. Some of this money was undoubtedly used for the benevolence funds administered by the district leaders. It is my impression, based not only upon the work of these two years but upon the knowledge that has come to me in other ways, that these benevolent funds have been on the whole well administered, and that they give very valuable help in cases of real need and misery. It is evidently, however, essential that the name of the beneficiary should be on the books of the district leader, and that the voters in the family assisted must hold themselves ready for work at the primaries and at the polls and in any other channels in which their service may be required. During the past seven years, I have had experience in work on the later committee of fourteen, which, chiefly under the able direction of theRev. John P. Peters, has done what has seemed to be practicable to restrict the serious evils from the Raines’ law hotel-a combination of a drinking saloon and a place of assignation-that came into existence as a result of legislation attempting to prevent the sale of liquor on Sundays. The work of the Peters’ committee has reduced these houses by more than two-thirds, and the other one-third are under such supervision as keeps their business fairly satisfactory, but the law itself, a fair example of unwise legislation due to ignorant sentiment, is an absurdity, and it ought to be repealed. It is my belief that our police force contains today, and has contained

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VICE AND CRIME IN NEW YORK 41 1 through the period in question, excellent material. In my grand jury investigations, I have found myself continually impressed with the good judgment, the ability and the courage shown by the,privates of the force in the handling of crime and of criminals. It is evident, however, that no man entering-the police can have any hopes of promotion, or can even be sure of retaining his position unless he accepts the system that is in force at the time. Any criticism on his part of the actions of his superiors, any willingness to give testimony that might bring his superior into criticism, or any lack of zeal in obeying instructions for service of whatever character constitutes, of necessity, a final bar to the man’s success in the force. Under pressure of this kind, the best material becomes promptly demoralized. The moral tone, or lack of moral tone, on the part of commissioner, inspector, or captain, comes to be promptly reflected through all the grades of the foTce. Some years back, I had occasion during a municipal campaign in this city to refer in an open newspaper letter to a series of appointments made by Mayor McClellan. I was quite willing to believe that Mr. McClellan, himself a gentleman, would have preferred, by placing decent men in positions of responsibility, to secure a good record for himself and for his administration. As a fact, however, and doubtless under the pressure of instructions from the powers that had made him mayor, McClellan made some of the worst appointments that the city had known for years. He brought in, for instance, as commissioner of police a man who had been shown up by the Lexow committee investigation as a receiver of money from bad houses. This man, at that time holding a high position in the force, instead of demanding to be heard, promptly resigned from the force for the purpose of avoiding investigation. A few years later he was placed by Mayor McClellan in control of the police of the city. I had stated in print over my signature that such an appointment was not only a disgrace to the city, but was necessarily demoralizing to the police force, and for this statement I was sued for libel for an amount of $50,000. In place of making payment of the very much smaller amount which would have brought the suit to an end, (the claim was finally reduced to $1000) I insisted upon “justifying,” i.e. making good my contention. As “justification,” my counsel succeeded in getting before the court the record of the Lexow committee (which was, of course, a public document) and the jury gave verdict for the defense. I do not myself believe that New York City, or any great community, can be made moral by legislation. I am convinced that it is unwise and unfair to bring upon a body of officials the pressure and the temptation to which the officers and the rank and file of the police are exposed in having in their hands the opportunity of selling the privilege of breaking

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412 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the law, and who are in fact under instructions, obedience to which is essential for their own continued service, to make such sale and to extend the continued protection. I believe that the control of its domestic affairs should be left in the hands of the voters of the city, and that the well-meaning up-state farmers, who can have no direct knowledge of our municipal conditions and difEculties, should be freed from any responsibility for the management of om problems. The measures for the control or the supervision of ,vice of one kind or another would, under a home rule government, be shaped according to the standard of our own citizens. No laws can be effectively and consistently enforced which are not in accord with the ideals, the wishes, and the convictions of a substantial majority of the voters of the community. Laws which, instead of being enforced, are left as empty shams, lead to contempt for government and for the makers of law, and are demoralizing as well to the officials, who are charged with their enforcement, as to the people who are permitted to break them at will or as a result of graft payments. If the city of New York had in its own hands the control of the liquor business, certain of the present restrictions would certainly be removed. Liquor selling on Sunday would, for instance, be permitted during certain hours on Sunday, as is found advisable in London and in other European cities. The city would probably also decide to repeal the measures which make gambling a crime. I have myself no interest in and no sympathy with the practice of gambling; I think of it as folly which may easily develop into a vice. But I believe that if men are fools enough to be willing to throw away in this fashion money which ought to be better employed, they cannot be prevented by law from so doing and that it is unwise to make the attempt. I should, therefore, prefer to follow the practice of cities like London. Under the methods of London, Paris and Berlin, places like the oldtime Canfield’s (the attempt to control Canfield’s wasted the time of a series of grand juries), the business of which does not interfere with the peace or the quiet of the city, would be permitted to go on as long as the managers could secure fools to enrich them, The municipal regulations ought, however, in my judgment, to be so framed as to remove from the streets suggestions or incentive for gambling. I would permit no signs, announcements, or advertisements of gambling concerns. The gambler should always be placed under the necessity of incurring some effort and of seeking the place for this special form of amusement.

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VICE AND CRIME IN NEW YORK 413 A similar suggestion would apply to the management of pool-rooms. It may possibly however be a question for consideration, whether if a pool-room be permitted to carry on business, it would not be in order to determine through some competent authority as to the necessity for the business. I have had before me in our committee rooms and on the grand jury evidence that pool rooms which undertook to receive bets m races, held for instance in New Orleans, had no connection whatsoever between their offices or any race courses. The so-called “winnings” were distributed at haphazard or according to the judgment of the managers in such manner as to encourage continued “investments” on the part of the fools from outside. The question of the legalizing of bad houses, or of accepting the necessity for their existence is one attended with enormous difficulties. In our committee of fifteen, we did not succeed, after two years,’ study, in arriving at any final conclusions or recommendations. In the operations of this committee and in grand jury investigations I have had before me evidence in regard to the management of certain of these houses, showing conditions that made it seem impossible to permit their continued existence but we were unable to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion as to the kind of supervision and regulation to be recommended. It is evident, however, that a law which leaves in business houses of this class, whether the management be decent or abominable, from which regular payments are secured through the police and by the authorities back of the police, and which are closed out only when payments have been evaded or have been found impossible, is not in the interest of the community and that it is oppressive for the poor victims of the system who are themselves entitled to some protection. The present system of supervising these houses by police officials who not only cannot be trusted as to intelligent discrimination, but who have an immediate interest in maintaining bad conditions because the profits from bad conditions are larger, is entirely unsatisfactory. I have always found difficulty as foreman of the grand jury in inducing a majority of the voters to vote for an indictment against a liquor concern the business ‘of which has been carried on in infringement of the law. The jurors understand perfectly that charges are brought only against a concern that has not met the requirements of the collectors. For one concern brought under charges, there will be fifty guilty of similar breaches of the law that have given the necessary satisfaction to the collectors and against which, therefore, no evidence can be obtained. The jurors have shown more readiness to make indictments against bad houses, although with these also it was evident that the charges were as a rule brought against the home not because its management was

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414 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW particularly bad, but because it had failed to make the payment demanded. The higher the fine imposed upon the manager of such a house, the “madam” the greater the burden that is placed by her upon the poor women under her control. Any fresh imposition upon the houses is likely to result in a diminution of the pittance left to the women. The enormous responsibility of supervising a situation of this kind calls, of course, for a full measure of integrity of purpose and of wisdom of management on the part of the authorities, and such integrity and such wisdom are not to be found in a force the main purpose of which is not the preservation of the peace of the community, but the securing of profits for the higher officials and for the organization back of those officials. It is my contention that the work of the police calls for a discipline that should be fully up to the military standard, As a veteran, I may possibly have an exaggerated belief in the value of army discipline, but I may recall that this is the standard that is in force for the police of Berlin, of Paris, and of London. In the latter city, I have for half a century been a tax payer, and I am fairly familiar with its conditions. The chief of police is a permanent official working under the direct authority of the home secretary. He retains his post for life or as long as he is physically capable of his duties, unless relieved for malfeasance or incapacity. Believing, as said, in the wisdom of leaving our city in the control of its own affairs, I hold that the head of the city police should be appointed by city authorities. The appointment might be made by some such group of officials as those that now make up the grand jury list, for instance, the mayor, the district attorney and the judges of general sessions. The appointment should either be duringgood behavior, or at least for a long term of years. A man placed in such a post needs a series of years to secure knowledge of the conditions of the city and of the personnel of a force of ten thousand men. The post should be one not only of authority, but of dignity, and the salary sufficient to tempt a first class man to accept the burdensome responsibilities. Such a chief of police should be removable only under trial, a trial to be conducted under the direction of the authorities to whom he owed his appointment. The chief should have full control over the force commanded by him; and inspectors, captains, and privates would, under my suggestion, be liable to reduction of rank or to dismissal after trial by a police courtmartial,.and without the privilege of further appeal. A man dismissed from the service should, of course, forfeit his claim on the pension fund. We cannot free a great city like New York, the gateway to the continent, from vice and crime. We can do much to prevent the exploitation of vice and crime being made a source of enormous gain to the officials who

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VICE AND CRIME IN NEW YORK 415 are charged with the duty of controlling the criminals and with the responsibility of protecting the community. A system which brings to a police force, and to a so-called political organization back of the force, large gains through the licensing and protection of crime, tends, of necessity, to the maintenance, and even to the development, of criminal conditions, and demoralizes the government of the city and the life of the community.

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THE VITAL POINTS IN CHARTER MAKING FROM A SOCIALIST POINT OF VIEW BY CARL D. THOMPSON1 Chicago URING the last ten years no less than four different and new forms of municipal government have been proposed and are being tried D out. The commission form came first. But no sooner was it put in operation than certain serious defects were apparent. So the “form” began to be modified. It has been undergoing that process ever since. Some of the defects appeared to be so fundamental that new planswere proposed-plans that were given new names so as to win attention and approval which the mere commiss?on form could no longer command. Thus we have had the so called federal plan, the Sumter or city manager plan, and now most recently the representative council plan-all modifications of the commission plan. It is our purpose in this article to consider the vital and necessary principles in charter making and suggest a plan containing some of the features of all the newer forms, but a plan formulated with reference to the principles and practice required rather than with reference to theories or plans already advanced. DEMOCRACY AND EFFICIENCY-BOTH ESSENTIAL Two things are vital and fundamental to good city government; namely, democracy and efliciency. How to attain the one and keep the other, how to adapt our forms and organization to this end-that is our problem. To attain democracy we require a truly representative body-call it council, commission or what you will-the essential point is that it be truly representative. It should be elected by the people, controlled by the people and should be in all ways a true reflection of the sentiments, ideas, interests and purpose of the people. 1 Mr. Thompson is director of the bureau of information recently established by the Socialist party in Chicago. Before that he was city clerk of Milwaukee during the administration of Mayor Seidel. Mr. Thompson has also been for several years the secretary of the special committee chosen by the National Socialist Party for the study of commission government for cities. This committee has made an exhaustive study of the questions and has made two reports to party conventions. At the last convention the committee was for a second time continued and then charged with the work of further study of the forms of municipal government, with a view to the submission of a proposed form that would be consistent with Socialist ideas and principles. This report was made to the national convention held in May. Mr. Thompson’s article is an outline of the plan submitted. 416

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VITAL POINTS IN CHARTER MAKING 417 But such a body elected by the people, representing different and often contending forces and factions, changing constantly and sometimes suddenly, never has given us efficiency. And there seems to be no promise anywhere that it ever will. Especially as we are const&tly extending the function of municipal government in every direction. And this is what the socialists desire most of all. They especially, above all others, have reason to desire and insist upon efficiency in municipal government. The whole success of our plans depends upon it. It is this imperative demand for efficiency, and the lack of it under the old council forms, that has given the greatest weight to the argument for the commission form of city government. But there are considerations that outweigh “efficiency.” Vital as it is, absolutely essential and increasingly so, there is one thing more essential and that is democracy. Efficiency may be a detriment and certainly will be unless it can be made to be efficient in the interests of the people, in the direction of the common good. Efficiency in the direction of further exploitation and plunder only makes things worse, not better. It is the direction of efficiency, the purpose to which it is put that determines its value. And the ability of the common need to make itself felt in directing efficiency is even more vital than efficiency itself. Democracy, then, is even more vital than efficiency. Any sacrifice of democracy to efficiency cannot be regarded as a gain. It is rather a decided danger, a retrogression. The real problem then is to deve1op.a form of municipal government that shall contain the two. So far, every form of municipal government that has been in operation or that has been proposed (with the possible exception of the representative plan), is defective in the matter of democracy. The representative plan is an effort to remedy this fatal defect. Yet efficiency we must have. THE REPRESENTATIVE COUNCIL PLAN This plan of city charter has been worked out by the secretary-treasurer of The American Proportional Representation League, C. G. Hoag.* The general idea is as follows: 1. A council elected at large by proportional representation. 2. A mayor elected by the council acting as presiding officer of that body. 3. A manager elected by the council and seIected with sole reference to his qualifications as an expert and efficiency in municipal administration. * The plan was outlined in “Equity Series” and has been reprinted as American Proportional Representation League Pamphlet No. 1, January, 1913, and may be secured by addressing C. G. Hoag, Haverford, Pennsylvania. The April issue of The American City has a more recent and revised article by Mr. Hoag which presents the plan still more effectively.

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418 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEIT 4. Heads of departments appointed by the manager with the approval of the council, chosen with sole reference to their technical administrative qualifications and kept on the professional basis for indefinite periods during satisfactory service. It will be seen at once that this plan supplies the one most vital element missing in all commission forms of municipal government, viz., democracy. For, in addition to the initiative, referendum and recall, which are features of this as well as of all the other forms, it adds proportional representation, which is the only truly representative system and is the nearest approach to democracy that is possible. We shall discuss the details of this feature farther on. At the same time it provides for eficiency by putting the administrative departments upon a professional and efficiency basis. It really fizes respon8&&, which the commission form everywhere claims to do, but which, it has always seemed to us, it did not do by centralizing the responsibility for administrative efficiency upon one official head-the manager. And this much more may be said in its favor-it appropriates the best features of the municipal government of Germany and England while avoiding the objectionable ones. This plan seems to the writer to be far superior to the old council plan and to all modifications of the commission form. So far it is the nearest approach to a true conception of the proper function of municipalgovernment. Our plan described below will follow the general principles of this proportional representative plan outlined by Mr. Hoag. At one or two points we shall depart from the details of that plan and in at least one very important respect shall differ from all of them. ESSENTIALS OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT Before discussing the details of the plan, it is well to state what seems to us to be certain essential features of municipal government in general. The following are, we believe, agreed upon by all: 1. Home rule. The first and most essential feature of efficient municipal government is home rule-the right of the city to govern itself with reference to all those matters which pertain to the city alone. Everywhere, throughout the nation there has been going on for years a very vigorous and effective movement in this direction, and a considerable degree of success has attended these efforts. Laws granting a greater or less degree of home rule to the cities have been secured in many of the states, notably California, Oregon, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, Washington, Minnesota, Texas, Nebraska, Arizona and Ohio. The recent home rule law adopted in Ohio, as a part of the new constitution of that state, is perhaps one of the best of these home rule measures. Whatever else may be done in the effort to

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VITAL POINTS IN CHARTER MAKING 419 secure efficient municipal government, this strugglg for home rule must go on until it is completely successful. In this connection, we may say in passing that a recent decision of the supreme court of Wisconsin declaring unconstitutional a certain state law which had been passed by the legislature of that state.with a view of securing home rule for the cities, lends emphasis to the contention that hasoften been made that home rule to be secure must be based upon constitutional amendments. If this is the case, those who are fighting for home rule should not be content with amendments of their state laws, but should keep up the battle until their state constitutions are amended so that the victory may be final and secure. 2. Direct legislation. Practically all charter revisionists now seek to incorporate in some form provisions for direct legislation. Whether the charters are commission form, federal form, or whether an effort is made to merely improve the old form of charter, practically all agree in proposing direct legislation. The only point here to be guarded is the matter of percentages and forms required in order to make the provisions effective. The initiative should require only 5 per cent of the voters for the mere initiation of a measure, but 15 per cent or thereabouts-certainly not more than 20 per cent-to require the calling of a special election for the submission of a measure. Provision should also be made, and generally is made, for a “stay of ordinance” for a certain period of time, during which opportunity is given for a demand for referendum on the matter. The percentage required to force the submission of an ordinance which has been passed by the council and without popular vote should not be more than 15 per cent. On the matter of the recall a special feature should be noted. Where proportional representation is introduced the recall should be made to operate against, the whole group and not against a single councilman. For, if the recall could be used against an individual member of the group elected under proportional representation, the minorities would be at the mercy of the majorities. A group in the community, for example, that was large enough to command a single quota, might elect a representative to the council by some small fraction of the total vote. Whatever such a representative did would, presumably, be in conflict with the settled policy of the community as well as all the other representatives. If the recallwere operative in such a case, it would be very easy for the majority parties to force such a representative out of office. The further point to be guarded here is that the percentage required to insure a recall election shall be reasonable. It should not be so small that the stability of the municipal government could be disturbed by constant recall elections. Itshould not be so large on the other hand as to make it impossible to initiate the reall. We should say that experience has

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420 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW taught that a percentage of between 20 and 25 is about right for this feature of direct government. 3. A representative council. The only way to secure a truly representative council or governing body is by proportional representation. Every other method fails. The present and usual method of election everywhere is by pluralities or at best by majorities. And this is true of the commission forms as well as of the others. Where there are more than two candidates the successful ones are almost always elected by much less than a majority and sometimes by only a little more than a third of the voters. For a number of years Milwaukee was ruled by administrations elected by only a little more than a third of the voters. And this was true of the Socialist administration as well as the Republican and Democratic administrations that preceded it. Such a condition is wholly bad. This objectionable feature is partly met in some of the commission charters by a system of two elections, the last of which is restricted to two candidates or sets of candidates, thus compelling a majority election. In others, as in the case of Grand Junction, Colorado, and Spokane, Washington, a similar result is attained by a system of preferential voting saving the expense and trouble of a second election. But the fatal defect in all these systems is that they do not provide for minority representation. All of them eliminate all minorities from the governing body, either council or commission. This defect the proportional representation system will remedy. ADVANTAGES OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION^ The advantages of this plan are numerous and very important. Among them may be mentioned the following: The first and most important is, as indicated above, that it permits a representation of minorities. This advantage is so obvious that further discussion, we believe, is not necessary. ’ A second advantage is in the greater stability of the government. The new idea or new policy that is always struggling for expression will, under proportional representation, be gradually reflected in the council and will be represented there in proportion to its strength in the community. This permits of gradual change of policy and lessens the danger of sudden and complete overturning of things such as result from elections by majority or plurality. J For a discussion of the general principles of proportional representation, as well as its history, its application to municipal elections and the details of its workings, the reader is referred to a book by John H. Humphreys, secretary of The Proportional Representation Society of England on “Proportional Representation.”. See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. I, p. 743.

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VITAL POINTS IN CHARTER MAKING 42 1 This is important also as affecting the administrative side of the work. It is diflicult to secure expert and specially trained men to serve in municipal administrations that are subject to sudden overturnings and changes of policy. Such changes are likely to result in interruptions of important undertakings and change of personnel that are fatal to efficiency. . A third advantage is that proportional representation permits, if it does not presuppose, party or group voting. It assumes that there will be differences of opinion upon matters of public policy in the municipality, just as there are similar differences in national and state affairs. It assumes that those favoring a certain policy will seek to work together in its behalf; that they will seek to effect the public policy in the direction of their convictions; and that to do so they will organize and conduct campaigns; will select candidates and seek to elect them; and that to facilitate the massing of their votes at the polls they will have ballots so designated as to enable the voter who desires to support their policies to quickly and readily choose his ballot accordingly. THE NON-PARTISAN FALLACY All of which is perfectly logical and quite obvious. Yet we have thc astonishing fact that our whole host of municipal reformers in America have been swept off their feet with the so called non-partisan idea. As though by the simple device of striking the party name off of ballots we would eliminate, as by the stroke of a magic wand, all the evils of municipal misrule ! And the seal with which the reformers have hunted out this witch of partisan elections and striven to drive it out is worthy of a better cause. The commission charter recently proposed in Traverse City, Michigan, for example, provides: The ballots for election of city officers shall be separate from any other ballot and shall be without insignia, emblem, or designation, etc. (Section 26). The charters of Grand Junction, Colorado, and of Spokane, Washington, which are worded identically the same, are even more extreme. They provide : Nothing on the ballot shall be indicative of the source of the candidacy, or of the support of any candidate. No ballot shall have printed thereon any party or political designation or mark, and there shall not be appended to the name of any candidate any such party or political designation or mark or anything indicating his views or opinion. These charters are not content with merely denying the Republicans, Democrats and Socialists the right to the use of their names as a means of helping the voter to quickly and readily Nothing could be more complete.

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422 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW select the ballot which will represent his conviction-they prohibit the use of any and all kinds of designations whatsoever on the ballot-anything and everything that would in any way connect an individual’s name with the policies he represents. At this point we dissent entirely from all the proposed forms. To exclude all possible designation from the ballots seems to us unwarranted and abortive. And we frankly believe not only that a partisan or designated ballot is right but that it is the best method for securing desirable results in our civic affairs. There are distinct differences of opinion and different policies possible with regard to municipal affairs, just as surely as there are in state affairs. There is a wide range of possible legislation and administration in which the cities are free to act as they will. The cities also have large powers in the determination of methods of taxation and the distribution of the money raised. Under the home rule laws that are being passed this range of possibilities is being constantly increased. The question of the municipal ownership of water works, gas plants, electric lighting plants, street railways or other public utility is one upon which there is and must be a difference of opinion. And upon all these matters there are choices to be made among all sorts of policies, ranging “from those of the Marxian socialist through those of the single taxer to those of the out and out believer in plutocracy.” Now, the only form of election that will enable the people to settle these questions and settle them intelligently will be such as enables them to express themselves in groups formed according to the policies advocated by the groups. And the form of ballot that will enable the voter at the polls to quickly and accurately express his purpose must be one that has some designation other than an individual’s name. If there is nothing on the ballot, no distinguishing mark, that connects the names of the candidates with the policies which they represent, is it not obvious that that kind of ballot fails to supply the voter with the information he needs at the most critical point? It may very easily happen that certain individuals may be prominent in the advocacy of certain ideas, while the actual candidates put forth may be much less prominent. The name of the individual, therefore, is not a reliable guide to the voter. In many cases it may be no guide at all. Furthermore, allowing the names only to stand upon the ballot, with no distinguishing or explanatory remark, gives the advantage to the men of wealth and prominence. Elections carried on upon that basis put the working classes and the common people at a disadvantage. The strong personalities are on the other side. Individuals who own banks, railroads and great daily newspapers are not on an equal footing with individuals of the working class. The latter have no hope of matching the power and influence of the former except by group action. And the possi

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VITAL POINTS IN CIHARTER MAKING 423 bility of that group action must be maintained up to the very moment that the ballot is cast. In all of this the power of the press must not be overlooked. A minority party never has a strong press at the beginning. The press is generally on the side of the majority. By constant and imposing advertising, by judicious and adroit editorial writing, and a news comment now and then, the people may be made to believe that a certain candidate stands for things for which he really does not. This is one of the most common and most dangerous tricks of a capitalistically controlled press. The people need the assistance of very possible device with which to meet these difficulties, and above everything else, they need a designated ballot to help them connect the individual candidate with the principles he is supposed to represent, and which also serves to connect the individual with the group of people that have put him forward as their candidate, so that they, too, may be held to account for him and his course after election. These principles, it seems to us, are fundamentally essential to the integrity of municipal as well as state and national elections. Against the elimination of national party names and national issues even more may be said. Upon this phase we quote the report of the committee on the commission-form of government made to the last convention of the Socialist party at Indianapolis, May, 1912: ’ There is hardly a serious problem of municipal government that can be solved at all aside from a state and national movement. Take the question of home rule. Here in the very nature of the case the city is powerless in the hands of the state legislature. The fight for home rule itself is a state and national fight. Take the question of the commission form of government itself-it has been an issue for state legislation very largely. Or consider some of our commercial and industrial problems. The real difficulties that concern a people in a city, involve state and national issues. For example, the supply of coal for a city-what can any city in America do on a problem of that sort without state and national action? The city may establish a coal yard? But that is only the merest fraction of the problem. The coal must be shipped to the city over railroads that are owned by the monopolies and trusts. The transportation of the coal becomes a problem of interstate commerce. Thus the most elemental problem of the city becomes a state and national problem, a question requiring a consistent and comprehensive program for state and national action. To undertake to solve problems of this kind by limiting our efforts to local issues, and separating our cities from state and national issues, is absurd. It may be quite true that neither the Republican nor the Democratic national parties have anyhhing in their platforms or programs looking to the relief of the people that live in cities. But to attempt to find relief from the evils that torment them, without state and national action, is the height of folly. If the Republican and Democratic parties have no programand nojprinciples that apply to the great problem of municipal government, so much the worse for them. Let the people know it, the sooner the better.

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424 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Such is not the case with the Socialist party. It has a program-municipal, state and national. And each is a part of one consistent whole. The same principles for which the Socialist party stands in the state and nation apply with equal force, though with different details, to the city as well. And what is more, there is no solution of municipal problems apart from the principles of social democracy. And the principles of social democracy cannot be applied except through state and national action. The effort therefore to eliminate national and state issues and to prevent the organization of a state and national political party that shall have also a municipal program, is to block the way to a final solution of the problems of municipal government. There is an issue in municipal government that is bound up inseparably with the state and national program. It is impossible to solve the municipal problems apart from these larger state and national problems. So the lines of this struggle may aa well be drawn sharply and as closely as possible. We believe it to be the task of the Socialist party to bring this issue into the open and to make the. people of this country realize that the struggle between plutocracy and the common people is not only a municipal struggle but a state and national one as well. And the effort to conceal this struggle by detaching the city and its issues and problems from the state and national situation, serves only to deceive the people and to prolong the period of their enslavement. One of the chief advantages, therefore, of the proportional representative plan is that it makes possible and provides for the group or party, or, if you like it, partisan voting. Some attempt has already been made to provide for proportional representation in some of the municipal charters. Amendments prepared by the Peoples Charter Conference of Los Angeles, 1913, include among others a provision for proportional representation. Although this particular measure was defeated the idea is evidently gaining favor in Los Angeles and its adoption seems to be only a matter of time and better understanding. A final advantage in the proportional representative council lies in the fact that by making the body truly representative of all the interests and opinions that actually exist in the cummunity, it will obviate the necessity of constant appeal to the initiative, referendum and recall. This is, we believe, a decided gain. For while these devices are admirable for the retention by the people of the power to check or to supplement the council’s legislation if necessuyj and to disentangle at any time one issue from all the others that may have been involved in the election of the councilmen, their use involves, nevertheless, a sacrifice of those opportunities for the threshing out and the amending of legislation by leaders which are offered by a representative body. A political system, therefore, which forces the people to have frequent recourse to the initiative and referendum, in order to avoid one-sided legislation, is gravely defective. The way to combine excellence with democracy in the determination of a city’s policies is to provide for the use of the initiative or the referendum on the demand of small percentages of the voters, but to provide also so

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VITAL POINTS IN CHARTER MAKING 425 truly representative a council that the initiative and the referendum will be demanded very seldom.4 4. A responsible executive. Another essential feature in efficient municipal government is a responsible executive. It is very desirable that there should be some point at which responsibility for the administrative work of the city can be located, and through which administrative efficiency can be secured. . This is accomplished in the representative council plan by separating the functions of the official position, usually known as mayor, from those of administration. To do this it is proposed that the city council shall elect both a mayor and a mmager. The mayor is the official head of the city, is presiding officer of the council, and holds an honorary position at a nominal salary. This follows the English system. The manager on the other hand, is the administrative head of the city government and represents executive efficiency. He corresponds to the German burgomaster. This official, being given the power of appointing the heads of the departments, makes him at once the responsible head and gives him the power to secure efficiency. The council should be free to select a manager solely with reference to his ability and efficiency in municipal administration. They should be free to seek for such a manager anywhere in the country or in the world, for that matter. He should not be required to be a resident of the city preceding the time of his selection. This idea follows the practice of the German municipal government, which is notoriously efficient. 5. Ejicient administration. Equally important as an essential of municipal government is the requirement of efficient administration. To this end the heads of all purely administrative departments should be chosen solely with reference to ability, experience and efficiency in the particular lines for which they are chosen. In other words, the heads of the departments, as well as the chief executive officers, should all be upon aprofessional basis rather than upon a political basis. For this reason, provision is made in this form of government for the selection of the manager by the city council rather than by a popular vote. The idea is that the city council will be able to more effectively consider the necessary qualifications of a manager for technical administrative purposes than it would be possible for the popular electorate to do. In the same way the manager is given the right to appoint the various heads of departments. The only restriction is that these appointments shall be subject to the approval of the city council. It would be desirable that even this limitation should be exercised with utmost care so as to give the manager the greatest possible degree of freedom in the selectionof those who are to work out with him the various administrative policies. 4 Representative Council Plan, p, 8.

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426 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW With the two features of this form of government outlined above, we have a very decided improvement over all other proposed forms. The policy determining body being elected directly by the people reflects in exact proportion the will of the people as expressed in the various groups, organizations or parties. The administrative body, however, is selected with reference to another principle, i.e., that of efficiency. 6. Provision for progress. To the features of the municipal form outlined above, another one should perhaps be added. We shall undoubtkdly have a steadily increasing extension of the functions of municipal government. The city which today owns and operates only its water plant will within the next few years undoubtedly undertake the ownership and operation of its gas plant, lighting plant and possibly its street car system. At any rate, this is the experience of cities in various countries. Again, the city which today has merely an ordinary health department will tomorrow extend its functions to care for children, to give free medical assistance to those who need it, to conduct day nurseries and perhaps to teach the mothers and help them in the care of their children. It is very desirable that these functions shall be carefully worked out and gradually introduced, so that the greatest degree of efficiency may be secured and the greatest assurance of their successful operation attained. To this end a suggestion from foreign municipal govprnments has already begun to be applied in some American cities. Nonsalaried commissions are selected by the mayors or councils for the study of some new phase of municipal activity and perhaps for the development and conduct of the same during the period of experimentation. After the system is well wrought out and in successful operation, it then may be turned over to some department of the municipal government or made a separate department and thus. take its place as one of the regular functions of the municipal government. Where such an arrangement seems desirable, it may be provided for by the election of such commissions by the city council. '

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES OF THE UNITED STATES' BY WILLIAM BENNETT MUNRO Harvard University IVE years ago the National Municipal League's committee on instruction in municipal government conducted an inquiry with F a view to finding out how much instruction in the subject of municipal government was undertaken by the different universities and colleges of the United States. Circular questionnaires were addressed to more than two hundred such institutions situated in every part of the Union, including educational establishments of every rank from the largest universities down to the smallest rural colleges. As result of this investigation it appeared that one or more courses devoted wholly to the subject of municipal government were offered in forty-six institutions, and that about one hundred colleges maintained general courses in political science in which a part of the instruction was devoted to municipal affairs. Tables giving in detail the information gathered at this time were printed in the Proceedings of the League for 1908. In view of the great interest manifested in all phases of municipal government during the last few years, it was thought desirable that a new investigation somewhat along the same lines should be undertaken in 1912, with the idea of discovering how far a growing popular interest in the subject had reflected itself upon the curricula of educational institutions. In its endeavor to secure full information the committee broadened its range of inquiry somewhat and questionnaires were this time sent to about four hundred institutions, including all those of importance listed in the report of the United States Commissioner of Education. These circulars called for data concerning the number of courses devoted 'Beginning with 1900 the National Municipal League has given attention to the subject of instruction in municipal government in the universities and colleges of the United States. Its first committee of which the late Thomas M. Drown, president of Lehigh, was chairman, investigated the instruction being given in universities and colleges. Its reports are to be found in the Proceedings of tlrc National Municipal League for the years 1901, 1902 and 1905. This committee was followed by another on the coiirdination of instruction in municipal government in the universities and colleges of the United States, of which Prof. L. S. Rowe of the University of Pennsylvania was the first chairman and Prof. William Bennett Munro of Harvard the second. The reports of this committee are to be found in the volumes of Proceedings for 1908 and 1909. The present investigation was undertaken by Professor Munro with a view to ascertaining what is now being done and what should be done.-C. R. W. 4 37

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW wholly to municipal government, the number of courses devoted partly to municipal government, and the figures of students enrolled in each. Likewise information was sought concerning the methods of instruction, whether by lectures, discussions, or thesis work, the text-books used, and the opportunities afforded to students for practical training in the subject. Instructors were asked by the committee toeindicate any way in which the National Municipal League might be of service in improving the range of materials available for instruction in municipal government, whether by the publication of an annualyearbook of municipal affairs, or by compiling for use in college courses a syllabus and bibliography of municipal government. Replies were received from one hundred and seventy-two institutions and in all these cases full answers were given to the questions asked in the committee's circular. It appears from the data gathered by the committee that independent and distinct instruction in the subject of municipal government is given in sixty-four American universities and colleges as compared with fortysix'institutions affording this five years ago. That is a very notable increase and illustrates the degree to which colleges are responding to the development of popular interest in this subject. Most of these institutions maintain only one course in this field of study, several of them provide two courses (as, for example, Swarthmore College, University of Cincinnati, University of Illinois, University of Wisconsin, and Columbia University), while a few of the largest institutions provide three courses. The number of enrolled students varies from five to eighty-six, the largest independent class being that of Professor Currier at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which numbers eighty-six. For the most part these courses are attended by undergraduates, but a fair sprinkling of graduate students may be found even in the general courses offered by the larger institutions. The methods of instruction naturally show no approach to uniformity. Some instructors conduct their classes wholly or almost wholly by lectures, although this method seems to be losing ground somewhat; others prefer the system of classroom discussions based upon outside reading either in a text-book or in official material. Most instructors endeavor to combine both methods. In something more than half of the courses devoted wholly to municipal government, a thesis or written report upon an assigned topic is required. Some instructors prefer several short reports to one long thesis, particularly where undergraduates are concerned. It is the practice in a few institutions to allot a general task to the whole class, as, for example, the work of preparing a city charter. This is done by assigning certain sections to each student, requiring him to present his proposals for discussion and adoption by his classmates.

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 429 Opportunities for some sort of actual contact with the practical problems of municipal administration are afforded by fifty-five institutions. Such opportunities are of the widest possible variety and depend of course upon the location of the college. Where the institution is situated in or near a large city or a state capital, the facilities for training of this sort ought to be most abundant. It appears from the data gathered by the committee, however, that while the opportunities may not be so extensive in the case of colleges located in smaller municipalities, more work of a practical nature is really undertaken by students in these latter institutions. In many of these it is the custom to have city officials lecture occasionally to the classes, to have the students attend meetings of the council or municipal boards, and in some cases to assist in minor official investigations. Particularly at the time of\the regular municipal election a good chance is afforded to those college students who desire, by serving as checkers or watchers at the polls, to gain a firsthand acquaintance with the workings of electoral machinery. In many educational institutions both large and small, there exist political clubs or, in some cases, city government clubs which hold regular meetings throughout the college year and secure speakers for such meetings from among the officials of neighboring cities. By means of debates on various questions of municipal government both in the classroom and at the meetings of these clubs, a useful method of stimulating undergraduate interest in the subject has been commonly employed. In a few cases the “vacation report” plan has been used with satisfactory results, each member of a college course in municipal government or of a political club being asked to make some small investigation during the Christmas or Easter recess in his home city. The results of this study are presented to his classmates after the re-opening of college. Attention is devoted by colleges and universities, for the most part, to the study of American city government only; but some have broadened the scope of their work so as to include a study of European city government as well. Where this latter field is included, however, it is usually in an elementary way and with a view only to securing a proper background for the study of municipal administration in this country. A few instructors endeavor to follow a syllabus or outline of topics, but the majority do not appear to have pursued this plan. There seems, however, to be a strong sentiment that B suitable syllabus, if prepared under the auspices of the League or some other capable supervision, would increase the efficiency of instruction in the subject. In response to the committee’s query as to whether such a syllabus would prove of service, eighty-four instructors answered in the afimative, while eleven expressed the opinion that such a syllabus would probably be of service. Three instructors replied with a decided negative, one expressed doubts,

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430 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and nine either expressed the opinion that a syllabus would not be of assistance to them or made no answer to the committee’s inquiry on this point. Practically all of this negative expression of opinion came from instructors in the larger institutions, while by far the greater portion of the affirmative replies came from instructors in the smaller colleges. It appears, therefore, that the programme of instruction in municipal government at the large: institutions has been already worked out with such care that no practical benefit would probably be obtained by the preparation of a syllabus or outline, but that in the great majority of colleges the materials and methods of instruction are still at a somewhat transitional stage and that a publication of this sort, if prepared on a sufficiently flexible basis, would render a real service. The chief objection to the use of any extended syllabus is that it tends to stereotype instruction and to take from a course that quality of constant adjustment to changed conditions which is, from every point of view, extremely desirable. In the larger institutions, moreover, the printed syllabus is too often a source of undue advantage to the professional tutor and to the vendor of typewritten notes. The instructor who announces at the beginning of the year just what reading will be required from week to week, extends thereby an invitation to some bright student to prepare summaries for his classmates wherever the classes are too large to permit personal questioning of every student from day to day. As it is scarcely practicable to print a new syllabus each year, the use of such an outline might indeed, under some circumstances, prove a deterrent to progress in the methods of instruction rather than an incentive. One of the distinct needs of present-day instruction in municipal government, it appears, is for a working bibliography of literature on the subject. Since the publication of Professor Brooks’s compilation a dozen years ago, no serious attempt has been made in any quarter to classify and make available, either for instructors, students, or the general public, the large annual output of literature on the subject of municipal administration. The time has undoubtedly come for such an undertaking and, in response to the committee’s inquiry on this point, ninety-six instructors express the opinion that a bibliography would prove of service to them. Only eight expressed themselves as having no interest in the proposal, while seven showed some doubts as to its feasibility or usefulness. An undertaking of this sort would involve a large expenditure of labor and probably some outlay in money, for the literature of the subject has been very large during the last decade; but the results of the committee’s investigations prove that from the standpoint of service both to college instruction and to the readin’g public, the enterprise is one which ought to be undertaken either by the National Municipal League or by some other body of men interested in the subject.

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 431 Students of municipal government have found a serious handicap to their work in the fact that we have in this country no local government yearbook corresponding to the Year Book of the United Kingdom or the German Statistisches Jahrbuch deutscher Stadte. .The annual report on the statistics of cities of over 30,000 issued by the United States Bureau of the Census is of great value as far as it goes, but it gives little more than the figures of population and the statistics of’municipal hance, with nothing concerning the administrative organization and the nonfinancial activities of American cities. Moreover, this publication does not usually appear until two or three years after the date at which the statistics have been compiled. Ninety-five instructors expressed the opinion in response to the committee’s questionnaire that a municipal yearbook of the United States would prove of service to them in their work. About a dozen had doubts concerning its utility or believed that the undertaking could not be successfully carried through. An interesting feature of the replies received on these three questions was the apparent readiness on the part of many instructors to cooperate in the preparation of a syllabus or a bibliography or a municipal yearbook. Several instructors volunteered to give a part of their own time to such enterprises if undertaken on a cooperative basis. From several colleges which do not now offer any independent instructionin municipal government the committee received the suggestion that the publication of a syllabus, bibliography or yearbook would be of importance in making independent instruction possible in their institutions. The committee’s circular included also the following general query: “Have you any suggestion as to how the League, either through its administration of the Baldwin Prize competition or otherwise, might be of further service to instructors in municipal government?” In response to this question came a considerable number of suggestions which cannot, of course, be very easily tabulated. Some of the more important, however, ought to be mentioned. One instructor suggested that the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW should publish every three months a short critical bibliography of books, pamphlets and articles on current municipal affairs, and that reprints of this section of the REVIEW should be sent to every college offering instruction in municipal government. Another suggestion was that if instructors were asked to submit for publication in the REVIEW short articles of good quality written by their best students, this would stimulate interest in their courses. Prof. R. C. Brooks made the interesting suggestion that the National Municipal League might get together a collection of lantern slides illustrating municipal progress in both foreign and American cities, and that these slides, with brief printed explanations of each, should be loaned at nominal expense from time to time to college instructors for use at one or two

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432 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW class meetings. This suggestion is one which appears to the committee to be very well worth adoption. From one institution comes the suggestion that special provision should be made for the enrollment of college students as members of the National Municipal League at a reduced membership fee. From another the committee received a proposal that the League should prepare and distribute to the debating societies of colleges and schools, lists of suitable topics in municipal government for intercollegiate and interscholastic debates, with suggestions as to books from which materials for such debates might be obtained. Some other suggestions received by the committee, however, were hardly so concrete in their nature. One college president, for example, expressed the hope that the League might “succeed in creating a conscience that shall lead people to refuse to remain responsible for the iniquities of our time;” but gave no hint as to the practical steps through which any advance in this direction might ever be taken. Owing to the limited nature of their resources, many colleges have not found it possible to establish independent instruction in municipal government, but have endeavored to handle this subject in connection with their general courses in political science, sociology and economics. The courses in American government, if they are at all comprehensive in scope, must deal to some extent in the government of cities. Instruction in public finance, if it is to be made worth while, must take the student into the field of municipal taxation and accounting. Courses in sociology naturally include many topics which connect themselves directly with departments of city administration such as health, poor relief, and housing. The committee has not been able to follow up dl this incidental instruction; but has endeavored in a general way to find out how much attention is given to the subject of municipal government in the regular courses on political science. Nearly every college in the country has one or more courses of this nature, and one hundred and eighteen institutions report that some attention is given to municipal government in their general political science instruction. This is a slightly larger number than the figure of five years ago. The time allotted to municipal government in general’courses vanes from two to thirty exercises per year. Where there are independent courses on municipal government little time is devoted to this subject in the general courses; where there is no independent instruction, the general course must supply the gap so far as it can. From some of these latter institutions intimation has come that a separate course in municipal government will be arranged whenever the resources of the college permit. The intrinsic importance of the subject seems everywhere to be recognized.

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 433 Such statistical data as lends itself to compilation in tables has been arranged as an appendix to this report. It should be stated that this tabulation does not include statistics of instruction offered in professional schools, many of which offer courses bearing directly on problems of municipal administration. Many engineering schools, for example, afford instruction in municipal engineering and sanitation; some of the larger law schools have courses in the subject of municipal corporations; the best equipped medical schools of the country give instruction in hygiene and the public health; schools for social workers give training both theoretical and practical in the methods of municipal poor relief; while schools of commerce and of business administration are giving attention to municipal accounting and kindred subjects. The amount of instruction afforded through these channels is large, but accurate statistics concerning it are somewhat difficult to obtain. In concluding this general survey of instruction in municipal government a word or two may perhaps be said concerning the experiment in the methods of undergraduate instruction represented by the establishment of a bureau for research in municipal government at Harvard University.2 Through the generosity of two Harvard graduates the University was enabled to establish a year ago a special library and workshop for students in municipal government. In the rooms set apart for this subject a collection has been made of city charters, ordinances, and other official materials covering practically all American cities of any importance. In addition the publications of reform organizations, city clubs, research bureaus, and a host of other such organizations are secured as they appear and placed on file. All periodical publications relating to municipal affairs are also received and placed at thedisposal of students. A special librarian is constantly in attendance to guide the students in their thesis work and in the making of the special reports which are assigned to them from time to time. This institution differs from the bureaus maintained by cities throughout the country in the fact that it does not have as its primary aim the supplying of information for public authorities. Its chief purpose is to afford facilities for the proper training of students in the use of first-hand materials relating to the subject. From time to time requests for data are had from city officials or from semi-official organizations, and these requests are always complied with. But the main purpose of the establishment is to afford the discipline of training rather than to secure such information as may happen at the moment to be needed by some municipal officer. The 2 A list of somewhat similar bureaus in other American universities may be found in the REVIEW for January, 1913, p. 56.

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434 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW results of the experiment during the past year have demonstrated to the entire satisfaction of those immediately concerned that this is the best way of teaching the subject. The time has gone by when a real grasp of municipal problems can be obtained by any one, whether in college or outside of it, by the study of somebody's text-book. Intimate contact with the live, day-to-day material is what the student must have if he is to obtain mastery of even a small part of the'subject. REFERENCES FOR TABLE% (a) Incidental instruction In cornea on hlatory, sociology and government, and in debating (b) Incidental instruction In coureea on economics and government. (c) Incidental Instruction in coursea on government (or politid ecience). (a) Incidental Instruction in coursea on economica and sociology. (e) Incidental Instruction In cornea on sociology. soclal problems or Amerioeo society. fn One cow on municipal chemhtry and one on municipal sanitation. (p) For 1911-12; in 1912-13 there will be two coursen on municipal government. (A) A come on civics. fi) One course given in Law School on corporations. (j) The total time given to municipal government in these three coursea would be equivalent to one courw, (k) New course. (I) Parliamentary law, actins BLI city council. (m) Cow on government and aociolog~. (n) Sk horn to municipal government. (0) Coursea of research or neminar oomea. (p) To be increased to forty-five hours in 1912-13. (9) Ten weeka to municipal government. (r) Incidental instruction In come on economica. (a) lucidental Instruction In course on economics of engineering. (t) Other coumea treat of municipal problem. (Y) Incidental course. (0) About thlrty hours devoted to municipal government. (w) Several coursea in history. government and economics. (2) O5ered for the first time In 1911-12; registration in 1913-13 la 29. (v) Thh course la entitled "American Social Condfttons and Municlpal Problems." three tlmea a week for one aemester.

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 435 COWBEDO DEVOllD WEOLLT TO MNICIPAI 1 QOVEF3NMEHT 1. Addphi College ................ Brooklyn, N. Y. .. 1 2. Albany College ................ Albany, Ore ....... 3. Allegheny College .............. bfeadville. Pa. .... 4. Amhant College. .............. Amhemt, MIW).. .. 6. Atlanta Univerafty.. .......... Atlanta. OS... .... 6. Bernnrd College.. ............. New York City.. . 7. Bates CoUwe~... ............... Lewlston, Me ...... 8. Beloit College .................. Beloit, WU. ....... 1 9. Benediot College ............... Columbla. 8. C .... 10. Bowdoh College., ............. BrunnwIok, Me.. .. 11. Buohtel College ................ Akron, Ohb ....... 12. Carthage cdlega. ............. Carthege, Ill ....... 13. central UnivemIty of Iowa. ... Pells, 10......... 14. Gntd Werleytm College. ..... Warrenton. ?do.. .. 15. Qark College ................... Worceater, Maas. .. 1 16. Clemson College ............... Clemson College, 8.C ............. 17. Coe College .................... cedar Raplda Lows. ............ 18. Colby College .................. Waterpllle, Me .... 19. Cob* University ............. Hamilton. N. Y... 20. College of the Clty of New York. ........................... New York City.. . 1 21. Colorado College. ............. Colorrrdo Sp-, Colo ............. 81. Colwnbla University .......... New York City.. . 2 23. Conoordla College. ............. Fort Wayne, Ind.. . 24. Cooper College.. ............... Sterling, Kan ...... 25. cornell Univwntty ............. Ih, N. Y ...... 1(0) 26. Dakota Wmleyan University.. Mitchell, 8. D ..... 27. DartmouthCollega ............ Henover, N. H .... 1 28. Davidwn College .............. Davldaon. N. C... 29. De Pam Univmity.. ......... Grmnode, Ind.. . 30. Mokinaon College. ............ Carllale, Pa ........ 1 31. Drury Coilege.. ............... Sprlnsfidd, Mo.. . 1 32, Earlham College.. ............. RIohmond, Ind.. . 1 33. Elon Cbllega ................... Elon College, N. C. 34. Collegeof Emporla ............ Emporla,Kan ..... 35. Ffak Uaveraity ................ Nashvffle, Tenn.. . 36. Franklin College of Indk~. .. Franklin, Ind.. .... 37. Furman Univwntty.. .......... Greenvllle, 8. C.. . 38. Qeorge Washmgton University Wsahlngton, D. C. 1 39. Oeolpetown UnIverslty ........ Wshington. D. C. 40. Gouoher College.. ............. Baltimore, Md ..... 41. Grtnnell College.. ............ Grinnoll, 10 wa... .. 2 D-12 2-3 36 coonsme DEVOTED PARTLY TO YVNICIPAL QOVIIBNMIT c P PI Kou 46 30 90 eaol 90 w) 45 46 18 ao 75 lO(f 30 60 45 90 60 45 aoh 45 45 90 80 uoh 60 90 45 60 !20 Number of rtudemti I $4 td 67 35 17 38 35 51 13 9110 47 80 63 I90 1118 77 Loo ao 66 34 34 Nm+E~.planatlon of italloised letters will be found on page 434.

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436 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 42. Gullford College.. ............. COUBBEB DEVOTED 1 WHOLLY TO MUNICIPAL ,' QOVERNYENT Guilford College, N.C ........... INSTITUTION 44. H-d University.. . 46. Haverford College.. ........... 46. Heidelberg Univeralty.. ....... 47. Hendrix College.. ............. 18. Hope College.. ................ 49. Illinois College ................. 50. Ilhois State Nor& Univeraity .......................... 51. Illinois Wesleyan University. .. 5% Indiana Unlveraity.. .......... 53. James Milllken University. .... 54. Juniata College.. .............. I IHaverford, Pa.. .. Tiffin, Ohio.. ..... Conway, Ark ..... Holland, Mich .... Jacksonville, Ill.. Normal, Ill ....... Bloomington, Ill. Bloomfngton, Ind Deastur, Ill. ..... Huntingdon, Pa. WHERE LOCATED 67. Lake Foreat College. .......... 68. Lawrence College.. ............ 59. Ltnooln Memorlsl University.. Lake Forest, Ill. . Appleton, Wts... . Cumberland Gap Tenn.. ......... 5 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 62. Masaaohusetta Agricultural 83. Maasachwetta Institute of College ...................... Technolo gy... ............... 04. MoMinnvUle College.. ......... 65. Mlami University.. ........... 66. Mills College.. . . R7. MilkaDs Collem. .............. Amherat, Mass., . Baaton, Mass. .... McMinnville, Ore. Oxford, Ohlo., ... Milla College, Cal Jackson. b1ba roul 90 90 45 00 15 (k 90 00 45 #0-4 54 45 45 45 68. Mllton College ................. 139. Mbstssippl Agricultural and Mechanical College. ......... Yumber o atudenta Milton, W-U. ..... I Agricultural Col! I *I $3 Zk 50 7 43 35 10 48 86 17 40 I COURSES DEVOmD PARTLY TO MUNICIPAL OVE * B 1 * da 18 Tour 00 20 90 45 15(j: eSO 45 eact 00 00 160 00 60 30 k, 01 00 30U) 45 60 75 45 00 45 30 mch 30 MENT Number of students P* 624 12 35 479 14 78 10 150 136 9 40 00 35 200 25 28 42 25 14 300 iach I a c. l 13 4 3 2

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INSTRUCTION IN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 437 -ION 72. Neb& Wesleyan Universl. 73. New York University.. ..... 74. Normal College of the City York.. ................. 75. Northwestern University.. .. 76. Oberlin College.. ............ 77. Ohio State University. ...... 78. Ohio University.. ........... 79. Oregon Agricultural College. 80. OsLaloosa College.. .......... 81. P&ITlOM College.. ............ 82. Penn College. ............... 83. Penneylvania College 84. Pennsylvania state College.. 85. Polytechnic Institute of Brool lyn. ....................... 86. Pomona College. ............. 87. Purdue University.. . 88. Radcliffe College. ........... 89. Rhode Island State College.. . 90. Richmond College.. .......... 91. Rwkfor 92. Rutgers 93. Smith College.. ............... 94. State University of Iowa.. .... 95. Stevens Inatitute of Technology.. ....................... 96. St. John’s College ... 97. SW8rthmOm College 98. Talladega College.. ........... 99. Trinity college.. ............. 100. Trinity college. .............. 101. Tufb College ................. 102. Union College. ............... 103. University of California. ..... 104. UnlVersity Of Chattanooga. .. 105. University of Chicago. ....... 106. Unlveraity of Cincinnati.. .... 107. University of Colorado. ...... 108. Unlversity of Illinofs. ........ Wmm LOCATEI: university Place Neb.. ......... New York City. New York City. Oberlin, Ohio.. . Columbua, Ohio. Athens. Ohio .... Cowallis, Ore.. . Oskalooaa. IOWS. Fairfield, Iowa.. Osknlooaa, IOWS. Evenston. Ill.... Gsttysburg, Pa. State College, Pa Brooklyn, N. Y. Claremont, Cal.. Lafayette, Ind . . Cambridge, Mass Kingston, R. I.. Richmond, Va. . Rockford. Ill.. ... New Brunawick, N.J ............ Northampton, Mesa.. ......... [OW8 city, 10~8. Eoboken, N. J.. . Annapolis, Md ... 3warthmore. Pa., rhdega, Ma. . Eartford, Conn . Durham, N. C . . Mesa. .......... gchenectady, N.1 Berkeley. Cal .... :hattanooga,Teni :hlcago. Ill. ..... 2incinnat1, Ohio. Boulder, Colo. ... rufts coilege, kb8M. 111.. ..... COUBSEB DEVOTED COUBBIB DEVOTED QOVIBNMENT I QOVE~YENT WHOLLY TO MUNfCIPhL PARTLY TO MUNlClPAL 4 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 * H w * #a 45 YOUl 30 60 30 (c 30 (t 45 46 45 45 45 0 (P 90 45 30 30 (0 ) 60 45 34 34 90 45 45 NU StL 50 15-21 7 22 15 30 65 16 20 31 15 22 47 33 30 t s M * !{ - ‘OUl 60 90 90 (n) 45 45 46 60 ,?I 45 90 90 (r ) 45 90 60 90 90 90 45 DO 90 50 50 30 15 :t) Nu st1 2 &i ::: D1 25 58 75 80 19 15 8 45 48 24 39 20 IM) 48 37 40 35 18 140 36 29 31 13 40 5 1 4 I

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438 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Lawrence, Kan.. .. Orono, Me ........ Ann Arbor, Mdloh.. Mlnnenpolle, Mlnn Columbia,Mo ..... Lincoln, Neb ...... University, N. D. Norman. Okla. ... Eugene, Ore ....... Phlladelphfa, Pa. . Pittsburgh. Pa. ... Rochester, N. Y. . Lon Angeles, Cal . . Columbia, 8. C.. . Vermllllon. S. D . . Austin, Texaa ..... Salt Lake City, Utah.. .......... Charlotteavllle,Va. Madlaon, Wh ...... West Point, N. Y Collegevtlle, Pa. .. Logan, Utah. ..... Poughkeepsle, N.Y. St. Loula, Mo ...... Wellealey, Masa . , . . Aurora, N. Y . , . . Middletown. Conn Cleveland, Ohio.. . Buchannon, W. Va. Morgantown.W.Va. Wheaton, Ill.. ..... WnUa Walla. Wash. Salem, Ore. ....... Wfflfamatown, Mass. ............ Worcester, Mass. .. New Haven. Conn Yankton, 9. D. ... INBTITUTION 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lt 2 .. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 109. University of Ksnsas.. ...... 110. Univenlty of Maine.. ....... 111. Unlvmity of Mlchlgan. ..... 11% Univerlrity of Minnesota.. ... 113. Unlverslty of Mfssouri. ...... 114. University of Nebraska ...... 115. University of North Dakota. 118. University of Oklahoma.. ... 117. University of Oregon. ....... 118. Unlvwty of Pennsylvania. 119. University of Pittsburgh. ... 120. University of Rooheater. .... 121. University of Southern California. .................... 122. University of South Carolina 123. Unlveraity of South Dakota.. 134. University of Texan. ........ 126. Unlverslty of Utah.. ........ 128. Unlversity of VIrglnla. ...... 127. Unlverslty of Wisoonsln. ..... 128. Udted StatMllftary Academy ....................... 129. Umnua College. ............. 130. Utah Agricultural College. ... 131. Vsasar College.. .............. 132. Washington Unlversity.. ..... 133. Wellesley College. ............ 134. WellaCollege. ................ 136. Wesleyan Unlverslty. ........ 136. Western Renerve Unlverslty. , 137. West Vlrglnla Wesleyan CoUeg 138. Went Vlrglnla Unlverslty ..... 139. Wheaton College. ............ 140. Whltman College. ............ 141. Wlllamette University.. ...... 142. Willlams College .............. 143. Worceater Polytechnla Inetitut 144. Yale Unlveralty ............... 145. Yankton College. ............ COUBBESDEVOTED WHOLLY TO MUNICIPAL QOVBRNMENT WHERl LOCATID 1I I u. I @ BQ IOU? 45 30 30 45 30 30 00 30 00 00 mh 45 30 30 45 30 46 46 00 45 46 30 30 30 5 (+I) 0a Number d students f ii Sb a4 24 20 51 18 36 6 4 15 24 16 10 4a 40 10 0 14 30 85 40 10 i-10 10 28 7 a !i E 0 a 4 1 14 19 2 5 1 10 1 couasEe DEVOTED PARTLY TO MUNICIPAL QOVBRNMENT 0 %e 3'. lour 75 30 45 (a) 75 -ah 30 45 45 00 30 00 45 go wh 90 O(0) 30 45 90 45 )(n) 80 30 Vumber of students fe ! JU L68 21 100 4 45 25 20 40 7 40 .40 20 05 60 30 20 17 05 20 1-12 90 I 38 45 15 45 18 60 115 )(I) 100 No figures aould be obtained from Brown Unlvereity, the University of Chlaago, or Princeton Unlverslty.

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SHORT ARTICLES REVIEW OF GRAFT PROSECUTIONS AND EXPOSURES FOR THE PAST YEAR I’ ’ IS no joy in muckraking that has led the writer to undertake to compile for the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW a summary of the leading graft cases in America for the past year. If space permitted in this connection an attempt would be made to show that this formidable array of graft is traceable to a comparatively few eradicable causes; and further, that far from being a subject for pessimistic conclusions the scandalous revelations of the past year are a sign of approaching civic health. In preparing this article reliance has been placed largely upon the news columns of the daily press. The compilation may not, therefore, be exhaustive but it is believed that no material fact has been misstated. In searching newspaper columns for graft material one can hardly escape the conviction that the evils charged against newspaper exploitation of crime are more than offset by the service rendered through publicity. A compilation of editorial opinion on graft exposures for the past year would make this more evident. If we can not accept without corroborative evidence the statement of the Evening Wisconsin that (‘despite the revelations regarding the prevalence of grafting which have been rife of late in the United States it is probable that there is less of that sordid vice on this side of the Atlantic than on the other,” we can agree with this journal that “this is no reason for the apathetic endurance of graft that exists” and we can endorse the prediction that “graft will never be eliminated in public office until it has been driven out of private life.” It is encouraging also to read in the Pittsburg Leader that “the grafter and corruptionist are being ousted and the doors closed and locked with locks provided by progressive reforms.” And it may be good for the souls of all of us as we peruse the record of official graft to give heed to the words of warning of the Ohio State Journal: ((Whenever a man loafs on a job, or adds Sn item of expense that does not belong, or makes a thing cost more than it ought to, he is agrafter.” Arranged arbitrarily in the order of their apparent gravity the graft records of American communities for approximately the past twelve months seem to be as follows: The world-wide notoriety of the Becker case is justification for its mere mention in this review, giving space chiefly to the less well known but almost equally appalling disclosures which were the, :outgrowth of the Rosenthal murder and the death sentence imposed upon the 439 New York City.

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440 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW police lieutenant. Before the winter was over three committees, one appointed by the state legislature, one by the board of aldermen and one by an organization of citizens, together with a John Doe investigation conducted by Justice Goff on the order of Governor Dix, were busily engaged in unearthing the graft of Gotham and considering ways and meansof suppressing its future growth. But the practical immediate results were secured through the activity of District Attorney Whitman and the extraordinary grand juries cooperating with him. As a result the highest police officials ever brought to bar are either serving time in the penitentiary or are facing trial as this is being written. Aside from the conviction of Lieutenant Becker and the four gunmen, the most effective work of the district attorney was done in Harlem, the section of New York City above 106th Street between the East and Harlem Rivers, considered one of the best business and residence portions of the city. Captain Walsh, who had been in command of the 126th Street Station since April, 1907, made a complete confession implicating Dennis Sweeney, James E. Hussey, James F. Thompson and John J. Murtha, in turn inspectors in the Harlem district. These men were placed on trial in the supreme court on April 29 on the charge of conspiracy in plotting to buy the silence of a resort keeper and convicted. They still await trial on the more serious graft charges. The testimony of Captain Walsh cleared up the mathematics of the graft situation in Harlem: “I collected from saloons, gambling places and disorderly hotels. Fifteen to 20 per cent went to Eugene Fox, a patrolman who collected for me. The rest I divided with Inspectors Thompson, Hussey, Murtha and Sweeney as they took charge of the district in turn.” It is estimated that by this system $500,000 was mulcted annually from Harlem.’ In the same Harlem net the district attorney caught James F. Robinson for years Inspector Sweeney’s most trusted graft collector, getting for him a six to ten-year term in Sing Sing;,Geo. A. Sipp, former proprietor of a Raines law hotel in Harlem, who made a full confession after a conspiracy had been defeated to spirit him out of the court’s jurisdiction; Policeman John J. Hartigan, convicted of perjury in swearing falsely for the system eitherhhrough a feeling of loyalty or, as is Suspected, for a cash consideration; Edward J. Newell, Sipp’s former lawyer, who pleaded guilty to the charge of wilfully persuading a ‘grand jury witness to remain out of the jurisdiction; and a number of minor police. officials. And the district attorney intimates that he has just begun to fight, his objective point being the head of the “System” at headquarters. ‘Before the Curran committee, Samuel H. London, from an actual census reduced to a card index form, swore that there were 26,000 women in New York City who handed over a part or most of their earnings to men connected with the “business.”

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REVIEW OF GRAFT PROSECUTIONS 44 1 In his prosecutions, District Attorney Whitman was greatly assisted by women who had run disorderly resorts in the city for years. Their apparently truthful evidence concerning the amount of money the police had wrung from the fallen sisterhood was even more shocking than t,he revelations of the Becker trial. Omitting numerous minor charges, dismissals and convictions in aldermanic, fire and. police circles during New York’s 1912-13 campaign against graft, the unhappy condition of the metropolis in high and low places will perhaps become sufficiently evident through the mention in conclusion of the conviction of Charles H. Hyde, formerly city chamberlain, and one time law partner of Mayor Gaynor, for bribery in connection with the performance of his official duties. Says Rabbi Lipkind: However, amid these disconcerting revelations there are one or two compensatory features that shbw a healthy complexion, that give promise of some amelioration for the future, and one is this: The general and persistent movement toward exhaustive investigation of present conditions, for probing to the root of the evils that surround us. There seems to be an impatience with abuses that until now were considered permanent and ineradicable characteristics of America. Chicago. In Chicago the air has been filled for the past year with charges of big and petty graft, bribery and various forms of political corruption but no such developments have resulted as in the city of New York. For a time, however, the testimony of Michael Heitler, known as “Mike de Pike,’’ promised material for another Rosenthal case. Heitler laid bare the alleged politicd-police graft in the old westside levee, charging Barney Grogan, saloonkeeper and west side Democratic boss with being the head of the graft syndicate of which he (Heitler) was one of the collecting arms. But Heitler is still alive and Grogan still a tower of political strength. Equally ineffective was the attempt to involve John I. Tansey, a Roger Sullivan henchman, who was acquitted by the county civil service commission over the protest of the president of the charge of having extorted a bribe of $300 in return for which he was to see that a certain name was placed at the top of the list. Charges of graft in connection with the purchase of property for the county hospital site and other irregulariiies on the county board were freely made but it is difficult to tell whether official dishonesty or political rancor is mostly responsible for these charges. Chicago has been giving much attention during the past yettr to the question of segregation with special reference to conditions on the south side. Public opinion seemed to favor the wiping out of the disorderly resorts and a series of spectacular raids under the direction of Prosecuting Attorney Wayman followed. The public conscience having been thus sat

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442 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW isfied, a sufficient number of resorts later opened up quietly in less offensive forms. The activities of the organization known as the “United Police” were investigated by the civil service commission beginning in the latter part of December. On the 21st of January the commission reported that the United Police had raised a “slush” fund of $60,000 for the purpose of bribing the state legislature and city council but had failed in its purpose. The discredited organization thereupon disbanded and the commission issued a strong recommendation against permitting prospective successors and ordered embezzlement charges to be filed against William J. Sthe, former president of the United Police and unfaithful custodian of the $60,000 “slush” fund. A large number of cases of petty but very annoying graft have been charged during the year against the building and smoke inspectors and a few convictions have been secured. These. conditions led Mayor Harrison to appeal to the public for aid in stamping out petty grafting by city inspectors. The graft situation developed by the local authorities and the vice investigation conducted by the senatorial welfare commission were doubtless the inspiration for the resolution offered in the state legislature by Representative Frank J. Ryan for a joint legislative investigation of the relation of public service corporations with the legislative bodies and public officials of Chicago and Cook County.2 Henry Clay, director of public safety under Mayor Reyburn for four years ending December, 1911, and Colonel John R. Wiggins and Willard H. Wall, heads of the Wiggins Construction Company, building contractors, were convicted of conspiracy to defraud the city of Philadelphia in the alteration and erection of public buildings. On April 2 they were sentenced to serve not less than eighteen months nor more than two years in the penitentiary and to pay a fine of $500 each. Suits have been begun by the city against the Wiggins Construction Company to compel it to refund $150,000 which it is alleged to have fraudulently collected from the city. Of the nine councilmen involved in the attempted million dollar concrete boardwalk swindle, three were acquitted, four confessed their guilt and two, Harry F. Dougherty and John W. Murtland, were convicted in December and sentenced to terms in the penitentiary ranging from one to three years. Dougherty was convicted on dictographic ZRepresentative Ryan in an hterview said : “The system, backed up by such public utilities corporations as the Peoples’ Gas, the Commonwealth, Edison and Chicago Traction Companies, has dominated certain newspapers, corrupted public departments, public officials, city councils and legislators too long.” Philadelphia. Atlantic City.

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REVIEW OF GRAFT PROSECUTIONS 443 evidence secured by Detective Burns. Fines of $1000 and costs of the prosecution were also imposed on each defendant. The arraignment in September, 1912, of seventeen Detroit aldermen and former Council Committee Clerk Edward R. Schreiter, for accepting bribes in return for municipal favors provided one of the most discussed graft sensations of the year. Schreiter confessed, the cases of seven of the councilmen were dismissed and the remaining ten were bound over and are still awaiting trial. Thirty-one indictments were returned against three county officials, two former officials and three contractors and supply men, sharers in graft in the construction of bridges and other county work. As a result of the exposures, two supervisors were forced to resign and $23,000 has been refunded to the county. West Hammond, Ind. Miss Virginia Brooks continued her campaign of the previous year against vice and graft in West Hammond. During the summer and fall of 1912 many sensational reports came from this quarter, at one time the county, state and federal governments all conducting investigations there. This spring Miss Brooks announced that the little city had become a model in clean government and morality. Gary, Ind. Former city clerk, Harry Moose, whose disappearance in the spring of 1912 brought the bribery cases against Mayor Thos. E. Knotts, aldermen and former city officials of Gary, to a sudden conclusion, returned in November and was convicted and sentenced to a prison term. As a consequence of this trial an investigation of the official doings of Mayor Knotts was begun by the state board of accounts. On March 29 the board reported to Governor Ralston serious shortages of Knotts making him liable to criminal prosecutions. The spec%; charge of the .board is the illegal retention of fees, fines and other moneys by Knotts acting in the capacity of police judge at the same time he was drawing a salary of $1 500 as mayor. Milwaukee and Des Moines. Charges of receiving double pay have also been made in: Milwaukee and Des Moines but without any serious developments. In Milwaukee the Socialists charged the city clerk’s staff with illegally drawing two salaries from the city through receiving pay for night work on the city tax roll; in Des Moines the board of supervisors began in January an investigation of the cost of probing criminal cases brought before the grand jury, the principal charge being that police officers of the city also received compensation for appearing before the grand jury. Bloomsburgh, Pa. An unusual case of grafting was presented to a commission for trial by the district attorney at Bloomsburgh. Three judges were accused of accepting bribes for liquor licenses but the men involved were all associate or lay judges and not regular or law judges of the court. Detroit. Clinton, Iowa.

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444 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW In a few counties of Pennsylvania the old system of electing laymen to sit as associates on the bench with the law judges is still preserved. Atlanta, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Denver, East St. Louis, Portland, Providence, San Francisco, Seattle, St. Louis. In the remaining larger cities of the country graft developments have not been serious. The rumors and charges in some cases were weighty enough, but they have not as yet been followed up with adequate proof that has come to the writer’s attention. In Atlanta the smoke commission has investigated serious charges of bribery against the “smokeless” furnace interests alleged to be seeking special privileges. In Cleveland the padding of city payrolls has been charged. Columbus has investigated alleged graft in connection with city contracts for asphalt pavements. Dayton acquired much newspaper adver&sing through a Burns investigation with dictograph accompaniment and grand jury probe. Denver has led the list with grand jury indictments of city officials and corporate heads but there has been thus far a lack of developments promised by the initial proceedings.3 In East St. Louis charges were made by M. M. Stephens, former mayor and member of the City Protective Association, that the lawless element paid $3000 to $5000 a month for protection and that an assessment of $15,000 for a campaign fund was levied on the “bad lands.” Providence has wrestled with the question of graft in its highway department. San Francisco has brought to light but one case of embezzlement, due to faults in the check system recently put into effect in the city admini~t~ration.4 Seattle has discovered corroborative evidence tending to show that, as suspected by thc council, the city has been regularly swindled under the garbage collection contract. St. Louis has indulged in charges of grafting against workhouse officials and the plumhing department, with counter charges of “frame-up” on the part of the accused, all without definite result so far as heard. *The latest from Denver is the charge made by Sheriff Daniel M. Sullivan that nearly every policeman in Denver collects regular tribute from women with the knowledge of higher public officials. The vice district in Denver was closed recently by order of the fire and police board. Since that time, according to the sheriff, practically all the former denizens of the underworld have moved into the residence section of the city, where cadet practices are thriving unmolested. The sheriff’s charges are under investigation by the grand jury. ‘A much more serious condition has just developed in San Francisco in the matter of the alleged relations of police officers with a gang of confidence men in the city’s Italian quarter. Eight police officers were suspended by Chief of Police White pending the investigation by the commission of the charges of collusion made by convicted bunco men. The police commission later postponed its hearing until after the trial of the accused officers in the superior court, which is now progressing. The guardians of the law are charged with having received a 15 per cent “rake-off” from a gang of confidence men who secured $300,000 in one year from San Francisco’s foreign population. Five additional policemen are involved by the immigration authorities in charges of brotecting women held as undesirables for transportation.

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DEVELOPMENTS IN BERLIN 445 MINOR CASES Bloomington, Ill. True bills filed against mayor and chief of police alleging omission of duty and malfeasance in office. Canton, 0. Chief of Police Smith suspended by order of mayor and charges investigated that vice league exists among dive keepers to permit gambling, cock fighting and Sunday saloons. Darke County, 0. Court house officials sentenced for collecting fraudulent bills. Elkhart, Ind. Chief of police and assistant resigned while under investigation on charges of grafting in office. Evanston, Ill. Investigation of charge of grafting made by “blind pig” operator against alderman. Keokuk, Iowa. Chief of police dismissed after having been under fire for several months. McComb, Ill. City weigher ousted, charged with padding weights of coal and pocketing proceeds. Marinette, Wis. Grand jury indicted sheriff for accepting money for protection of gambling house. Montgomery, Ala. Discrepancies in accounts of state convict department investigated and found not so large as at first thought. Muncie, Ind. Affairs of the police department investigated. No official statement. Newport, Ky. Henry Reusch, former delinquent tax collector, pleaded guilty of embezzling $14,000 of city funds and sentenced to a term of two to ten years in the penitentiary. Supervisors Joseph Percy and Clifford H. Bowman convicted of having tried to bribe supervisors to vote for favored poor house architect and sentenced to terms in penitentiary. West Seneca, N. Y. Grand jury investigated alleged charity sewer graft with special reference to statements made by Henry Lunn. convicted former chairman of top board. Niagara Falls. 4 c. R. ATKINSON.‘ RECENT INTERESTING DEVELOPMENTS IN BERLIN HE phenomenal increase in the number of foreign visitors to Berlin within the last fifteen years has resulted in making that city as interesting to travelers now as it has been for years to students of city government. The visitor to the capital of Prussia and of the See article on “ Recent Graft Exposures and Prosecutions” by the same author, NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, voI. i, p. 672. T SLawrenre College, Appleton, Wis.

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446 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW German Empire, whether he remain for a few weeks during the summer or for an entire year finds opportunities for study and recreation, and above all the possibilities of a comfortable enjoyable daily life, unexcelled by those of any city in the world. Naturally even a laymen is interested in hearing of new developments in a government which is able to provide such well-paved, well-cleaned streets, such beautiful parks, such magnificent public buildings, such admirable transportation and such freedom from slums and other centers of poverty and filth. To the student of city government Berlin is of particular interest because of the fact that the Prussian system of city government, which works well in little towns of 1,000 inhabitants or less is just as satisfactory in the metropolis of over two and one-half million people. In France the municipal code of 1884 was not applied to Paris. In England the epoch-making municipal corporations act of 1835 and its successor the consolidation act of 1882 were not extended to the capital. In each of these cases it was thought that the general law could not be applied with advantage to the capital city of the state. In this country, the city of Washington has a form of government wholly different from that of other cities in the United States. But Berlin is governed by the same law which applies to cities of, it may be, only a few hundred inhabitants. Inasmuch as the government of Berlin varies in no essential respects from that of other Prussian cities,' it is not the purpose of the writer to treat a subject which has already been dealt with in various works in English,' but rather to point out some recent governmental events of interest in the German capital. Two of these are of particular importance, viz., the election of a new mayor for the city proper, and the creation of a new unit of local government for the entire metropolitan area. As is well known, the election of a mayor in a German city is as much a busines$proposition as is the election of a director of a private business corporation. Political considerations are excluded and the city council acting through the administrative board goes systematically about finding the best man for the place. In the smaller cities it may be necessary to advertise in the public press for applicants to fill such a vacancy. In a city like Berlin the fact that a vacancy exists is universally known among the persons interested and of course applications would be numerous enough without any such action. That the cities have a wide field from which to choose their mayorsthe larger cities have two, a hst and a second or vice-mayor-and are not necessarily restricted to officials of prior municipal experience, if there are others available who seem to be possessed of the necessary qualifica1 See, among others, William B. Munro, The Government of European Cities, pp. 109-208; Herman G. James, Principles of Prussian Administration, pp. 128-146. Berlin has 144 councillors, 34 members of the administrative board and two mayors.

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DEVELOPMENTS IN BERLIN 447 tions to a higher degree, is well shown in the election of the new mayor last year.2 The retiring mayor, Herr Kirschner, who served in that capacity for thirteen years in Berlin was called there from the same post in Breslau, one of the most important positions of that character outside of the capital in Prussia. Before that he had been mayor of Bromberg. He resigned the Berlin position at the age of seventy, largely because of his years, and partly because of some difficulties arising in the administration. When the city fathers were confronted witb the necessity of selecting a successor for that important position, their difficulty was not so much in &ding duly qualified men as in choosing among a large number of candidates, any one of whom would have been qualified by natural ability and training to 611 the post. So some of the influential men were favorably disposed toward Dr. AdickesJ3 for years the mayor of the important city of Frankfort. Others inclined toward Herr Dernburg, formerly secretary of colonial affairs in the imperial government. But the choice finally fell on Herr Wermuth, who had just resigned the position of imperial secretary of the treasury. The new incumbent of the office presents the rather unusual spectacle of a man elected to the most important municipal position in Germany, if not in Europe, without any prior experience in similar work in other cities. He had extensive administrative experience in other lines, however, in which he displayed qualities that proved his possession of the requisite executive ability. Herr Wermuth entered the Prussian government service at an early age and was made privy councillor in the department of the interior when still a young man. In 1893 he was made president of the German commission to the World’s Fair in Chicago and was in a large measure responsible for the success of the German exhibit there. After returning to Berlin he was promoted from one position to another and finally in 1909 he was made imperial secretary of the treasury. In that capacity he displayed great energy and initiative and became one of the most prominent figures in the government. In the spring of last year he came into conflict with the chancellor on the question of the inheritance tax and resigned. A few weeks thereafter he was elected to the Berlin position and his election confirmed by the crown. Today, a man fifty-eight years of age, with undoubted capacity for administration he is expected to handle the increasingly difEcult problems of the government of Berlin to general satisfaction. In an earlier part of this paper it was pointed out that Berlin is unique as a capital in being governed by the same laws as other cities of the state, great and small. With the enormous growth of the city in recent years, 2 For the following facts concerning the retiring and the incoming mayors of Berlin, the writer is indebted to Guenther Thomas, Berlin special correspondent of the New Yorker Studs-Zeitung. a For years a member of the National Municipal League.

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448 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW however, some problems have arisen that called for special treatment. But they are problems caused not by mere increase in population, but by the fact that this increase has been to a large extent outside of the corporate limits of the city proper. This brings us to the consideration of a second development of even greater importance than the election of the new mayor, namely the organization of the new municipal corporation for Greater Berlin.4 The urban territory consisting of Berlin and the surrounding communities comprises besides the city proper, six other ((city circles’’ and two “rural circles with a total population of over 3,500,000. The “rural circles’’ comprise a number of communes, the eight most important of which are regarded for the purposes of this law as independent units. As all these various public corporations constitute in reality a single urban area, there were inevitably matters which concerned them all in common and yet were not within the jurisdiction of any central authority. Among the concerns which were especially in need of some unified treatment were the housing conditions of the poor, the park and playground facilities for the children of the working classes, and transit facilities which would give the congested areas cheap and rapid communication with the surrounding open country. These and other matters could be satisfactorily dealt with only if there were some central authority. But such central authority did not exist and twenty years ago consolidation was opposed by the fear of the Berlin authorities that the city would be burdened with the upkeep of schools, etc., for the poorer outlying districts. Since that time, however, these suburbs have attracted the wealthy taxpayers from the city proper and consequently every attempt since then to solve the difficulty by incorporation of the surrounding corporations with the city proper has been blocked by the determined resistance of the smaller communities which objected to losing their independent existence. Finally the demand for some steps in the direction indicated above led to the creation by state law of a new corporation for special purposes which should be competent to deal with these matters without, however, swallowing the surrounding corporations which still retained their independent existence for a.11 other purposes except those specified in the law. Unions 4 For some of the facts concerning this latest development in Berlin city government, the writer is indebted to an article written by Dr. Ahrens of Berlin at the request of the Amerika Institut in that city and kindly put at the disposal of the writer by the Institut. The text of the law may be found in the official collection of Prussian laws (Preussische Gesetzsammlung), for 1911, p. 123. 6 L‘Circles” are administrative subdivisions in Prussia for both state and local matters and include ‘both urban and rural communes. But the larger cities, over 25,000 inhabitants, regularly constitute “circles” for themselves called “city circles” while L‘rural circles” include less thickly populated areaa as well as smaller urban centers. . See James, op. cit., pp. 112-122.

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DEVELOPMENTS IN BERLIN 449 of local corporations for special purposes of common interest had been introduced by law in some proviuces of Prussia as early as 1891 and by law of 19 the subject was regulated for the whole of Prussia save Berlin. The Berlin law of July 19, 1911, creates a new public corporation or union (Zweckverbarid Gross Berlin) of the sixteen communities mentioned above with the corporation of Berlin proper and gives it jurisdiction over the three classes of matters for which a central authority was considered most essential; street railways] building undertakings, and open areas for parks, playgrounds, etc. The organs of government of the new corporation are constituted along the lines followed in Prussia for local government in general: a general council, an executive committee and a director. The council is composed of one hundred representatives of the constituent corporations, under the chairmanship of the first mayor of Berlin. The councillors are apportioned among the local corporations on the basis of population, each corporation having at least one representative. To insure against control of the council by the representatives from the city of Berlin-which comprises over two-thirds of the population-there is a provision that no one of the constituent corporations may have a number of representatives on the council exceeding two-fifths of the total membership. The representatives for each unit are elected by the goverpmental organs thereof. Any resident of the local corporation is eligible to membership in the council provided he is eligible to a place in the local governmental organs. Among the enumerated functions of the council are: the determination of the budget, the audit of accounts, the passage and amendment of local by-laws, the apportionment of the contributions to be levied on the different local c.xporations, the negotiation of loans, the framing of the general policy of the union, the management of its property, the creation and filling of cxporate offices so far as not provided for in the law, the election of the director, lay members of the executive committee, and other executive officers of the union, the enactment of measures in the field of activity assigned to the union, and the acquisition and disposal of corporate realty. The council meets at least once a year on convocation of the chairman and as much oftener as the chairman or a third of the members may demand. The executive committee consists of the first mayor as chairman, a member of the Magistrat or administrative board designated by the mayor, the first mayors of the six next largest units represented in the union, the chairman of the circle committees within the area of the union, and eight lay members chosen by the council from among persons eligible to membership in the same. The term of these lay members is fixed at six years, but may be lengthened by act of the council. The duties of the executive committee are extensive, including the prep

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460 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW aration of measures for enactment by the council and their enforcement after passage, the supervision of the activities of the director of the union, the adoption of measures in regard to all corporate matters not entrusted to the council, and the collection of the quotas assigned to the constituent corporations. The director of the union is chosen by the council for a period of not less than six nor more than twelve years and his appointment must be approved by the crown. He is the chief executive officer and is directly responsible for the administration of its affairs under supervision and control of the executive committee. He is charged with the duty of preparing the measures for enactment by the executive committee. State supervision is exercised in the first instance by the province president of Brandenburg and in the higher instance by the minister of the interior acting with the ministers of public works and of hance. Certain acts of the union require for their validity the approval of the higher authorities and certain others may be brought into question before these authorities, and in some cases before the supreme administrative court. Considering now the scope of powers granted to the union in the accomplishment of its purposes one sees that they are very extensive. In execution of its control over means of transportation the union may either purchase or build street railways within its limits and either operate them itself or lease them to private corporations. The constituent members may still continue to build, own and operate street railways as before, so long as such undertakings do not interfere with the purposes and interests of the union. The second class of powers comprise the right to fix the building lines and other building regulations, not only in the exercise of the powers over thoroughfares, street railways and open park areas, but also in the interests of public health, especially as regards housing conditions. Here again the powers conferred on the union are not exclusive in character so long as the local regulations of the individual communities do not conflict with the measures or interests of the union. The cost of carrying out building regulations enacted by the union are shared by it with the local corporation that: has to put them into effect. The third class of functions, namely, the care for open playground and park areas may be entrusted by the union to the local communities. But here also the union must bear its share of the expense. The revenues of the union are obtained by apportionment among the various constituent corporations in a manner specified in the law, and these local units in turn raise the necessary funds through the ordinary process of local taxation. It is hoped by some students of the situation that the creation of this new corporation for specified purposes will lead to an increasing centrali

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POLLING PLACES IN THE SCHOOLS 451 zation of powers and ultimately to the complete union of all of these different areas under a full fledged municipal corporation embracing all the powers granted to any other local corporation. Before closing this discussion of recent important events in Berlin it may not be out of place to mention the new street regulations of the city proper which went into effect this spring. The average American already feels very much in danger of being in a state of continual violation of local ordinances in a German city, but here are a few more “don’ts” to be observed in the future, in order to avoid arrest and fine. Don’t walk thee abreast and crowd your fellow pedestrians off into the street; don’t stop on the sidewalk to chat with your friends and so interrupt traffic; don’t swing your umbrella or cane or carry it in such a way that other people may fall over it or be poked with it; don’t whistle, sing, shriek, shout, or talk in a loud voice on the street where others may be disturbed; don’t litter up the streets with paper, remains of fruits, cigars or cigarettes; if you are a musician don’t leave your doors or windows open when following your vocation or ayocation; if you are in charge of a truck, drive so that there be no more noise than is absolutely necessary; and if you are a lady see that your skirt does not drag along the street, for that raises dust and is unhygienic. If these regulations are enforced as rigidly as are most police orders in Prussian cities, it will no longer be necessary to leave the city for a rest cure. HERMAN G. JAMES.( POLLING PLACES IN THE SCHOOLS THE SCHOOL HOUSE-THE HOPE OF THE AMERICAN CITY OMER P. LEWIS, superintendent of schools at Worcester, Massachusetts, is a plump, quiet and capable .man well over fifty. H I asked him if public opinion in his city approved the use of schools for registration and polling places. He seemed very much puzzled and after considerable deliberation answered: ‘I Why-er-there is no public opinion.” He explained that he had been superintendent for seventeen years and that the schools had been used for election purposes when he first assumed his duties. “Worcester,” said he, ‘(has probably had polling places in schools for thirty years. We accept it as a matter of course.” There is no provision in the election law of Massachusetts authorizing a University of Texas; Author of,Principles of Prussian Administration. See also his article on “Recent English Borough Elections,” in the NATIONAL MUNI‘~IPAL REVIIDW, vol. ii, p. 271.

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452 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the use of public buildings for such purposes. The aldermen in each city are required to designate the polling places and in Worcester they have whenever possible selected schools. Of the forty-one polling places in use at the last election, thirteen were in schools, twelve in portable booths erected in vacant lots or in the highways, four in social halls, three in churches and only nine in rented stores. For party caucuses schools and police stations are used. The superintendent of public buildings, George C. Halcott, estimates that the city saves about $75 a year on each polling place located in a public building. So far as I could learn no one in Worcester is opposed to the use of the schools. Mrs. Nellie C. Thomas, a grammar school principal for twenty years, now teaching at the North High School, said: “I have never had the slightest trouble in all my experience. In this school the men and children enter by the same door. I have to be around on election day to oversee things, that is all.” Jane E. Millea, assistant principal at the Chandler Street School, said: “I have never heard any criticism of the use of these buildings. I have never had any trouble though I have had experience for ten years. Election usually comes when the schools are in session and I think it is helpful to the pupils, especially those in civil government classes. It gives them a practical object lesson and stimulates their interest. I always take my children down to watch the balloting. The day before we usually hold a mock election. The pupils are very much interested, even the girls, and insist that all the forms be strictly followed.” It seems that in all of the schools the children are shown the election machinery in operation and I could not find a single principal or teacher who did not think the benefits to the community and the pupils far outweighed the slight trouble caused by the interference with school work. In a few of the schools the room is ordinarily used for manual training or physical exercise. When such is the case the class has to be passed for the day. In almost all of the Worcester schools the polling place or “ward room,” as it is called, is in the basement. The “ward rooms” in the Worcester schools are used not alone for elections but are rented to political parties for caucuses for $5 and to political leaders for rallies for $2.50 a night. It is generally thought that the use of schools and other public buildings is dangerously new and untried. Most of the cities using public buildings have done so for the first time within the past two years. Los Angeles was among the first to try out the use of the schools and the progress of the experiment there has aroused much interest throughout the country. In the election of December, 1911, twent’y-nine schools, a church and a branch library were designated for polling places. Success was so marked

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POLLING PLACES IN THE SCHOOLS 453 that the number of public buildings used has been increased and there is no thought of going back to the old system. The granting of suffrage to women has made it all the more important that light, commodious, dignified polling places be selected. To gage the success of the plan a circular letter was sent to the principals of the schools which were used, asking among other questions these: Did its use interfere in any way with the regular school work? Was there any disorder or disturbance due to such use? Was the effect on school children good as a training in the duties of citizenship? Aside from the large saving of expense to the city do you, from your own observation, consider the use of school buildings as polling places a beneficial move in elevating the conduct of our elections. Of the fourteen answers but two reported any interference with school work. No disturbance was recorded excepting in one case and that was (‘slight.” To the last two questions every principal answered ‘(Yes.” When it is considered that in most cases the hallways of the buildings were used it is remarkable that every principal should favor the plan. The money saving is not the important thing. As Henry 0. Wheeler, chairman of the committee on elections of the City Club of Los Angelee points out, the social benefit is invaluable. Here are the reasons given by Mr. Wheeler for the use of public buildings: Improved environment; more comfortable quarters for election officers; instruction in citizenship to pupils; enforcement of the idea of the sanctity of the ballot; easier accessibility to the voter; permanency of polling places. In the election of June, 1911, every school house in Salt Lake City was used. This was in vacation time. No attempt has been made to use them when school is in session. The city and county building has been designated as the polling place for a number of districts. Twenty school houses in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and several in Madison, Wisconsin, are successfully used. Denver is waging a great fight for the complete socialization of its schools. As the result of much agitation the buildings have at last been thrown open for public meetings and it is expected that at the next election they will be used for election purposes. Of the one hundred and forty-eight polling places at the last election thirty-five were in schools. In the opinion of Ralph Bowman, director of the Milwaukee bureau of municipal research : “The arrangement has been very satisfactory.” Here, as in Worcester, basements are largely used. This is done so as not to interfere with the regular work of the‘schools. All new school buildings are provided with basement entrances so that they may be available for voting purposes. Milwaukee has used its schools in elections for two years.

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454 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Hull House, The Commons, and other settlement buildings in Chicago, have been used for voting at irregular intervals for several years. Recently Chicago has opened its schools for political meetings and the next step is the designation of these buildings for election purposes. When requested for his views as to whether or not the use of settlement buildings had worked satisfactorily and whether it did not point the way to the use of the schools, Graham Taylor, headworker of The Chicago Commons, replied: Everyone who has public interest and spirit in the matter knows that it would be better to use public school buildings, or if they can not be obtained, settlement buildings as polling places rather than barber shops, undertaker's shops or the back rooms of saloons. The only reason why these private places are used is the money in it for some one, or the better facility it affords for dirty work in politics. What about the great city of New York with its palatial new buildings -perhaps the finest' in the world! Agitation there has been for some years, but progress has been slight. George McAneny, president of the borough of Manhattan, looks favorably upon the proposition and has given it some thought, but his time has been too largely occupied with subways and other matters to push it to a conclusion. Raymond B. Fosdick, when commissioner of accounts, made an investigation into the methods of the board of elections in the fall of 1910 and again in the spring of 1911. He found that in many districts the polling places were so small that the watchers could not stand behind the guard rail that they were entirely unsuited to the purpose and in many instances were placed without regard to the convenience of the voters. Among the districts mentioned as the worst was the second assembly district in Brooklyn. I was then a resident of the second district and upon investigation found several of the stores and shops designated very small and dark. One was a club room and to reach it the voters had to go through the rear yard of a saloon. When visited, this'room was used as a dog kennel. In behalf of the United Neighborhood Guild, a social settlement with which I was connected, I offered the use of two of its buildings which were very suitable for the purpose free to the city as an experiment which if successful would point the way to the use of schools and other public buildings. One of the election commissioners, J. Gratton-MacMahon, was heartily in favor of accepting the offer and thought that the other members would concur. Shortly afterwards the courts held that the mayor had to accept for commissioners of elections the candidates suggested by t.he political parties. Mayor Gaynor's appointees were removed and the men selected by the two machines came into ofIice. The offer though renewed and urged from time to time, was never acted upon and never will be until public sentiment demands it. The election commissioners are now

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SOCIAL CENTERS 455 under a recent statute, appointed by the board of aldermen, but they are in fact named by the parties. Polling places are supposed to be designated by the board of elections, but they we in fact chosen by the leaders in each district. The district leader does not voluntarily part with patronage. The people are coming to their own. No party, no politician, nor any group of politicians, can stand in the way of public sentiment. If we can interest the people of New York we shall have at least some of the schools designated for the next election. The school is the hope of the American city because it will bring us together. A great city is a federation of neighborhoods with varied interests, often speaking different languages and professing diverse religions and ideals. Because these neighborhoods do not know themselves-much less the other sections-city government has been dubbed the one signal failure of our American democracy. The public school building, the home of the town meeting and the spelling bee in New England, is in a large city the logical capitol of a neighborhood. Here the people should meet, first of all to get acquainted, then for enjoyment, to discuss civic, social and political issues-and to vote. Neighborhood conscience is what we need in our cities, and public school centers will develop it. That larger patriotism, the lack of which me so often bewail, lies deep in the heart of the people waiting only the magic touch which will give it life. LOUIS HEATON PINK. SOCIAL CENTERS' M 'R. WARD is an evangelist, a crusader. America is full of evangelists, but most of them are preaching a negative doctrine of some kind. They stand for repression-at best for prevention. Mr. Ward, on the other hand, has lifted into national consciousness a wholly constructive and astonishingly fertile area. In society nothing is real until it has entered into public opinion, and in this sense-that he has altered, on behalf of the social center, the direction of'public opinion-Mr. Ward may be said to have created the social center. His present book is not less valuable from the fact that its introductory chapters-the philosophic chapters-challenge disagreement a hundred times. Mr. Ward has the defects of his qualities. He did not happen on the social center idea as an incident of a professional career. The social Probably most readers would be better advised to read The Social Center, by New York: D. Appleton Edward J. Ward. National Municipal League Series. and Company. $1.50. Postpaid $1.62.-J. C.

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456 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW center idea seized on him-it obsessed him, in a way-it filled him with the transforming power of feeling and with a certain ruthlessness which feeling gives. But it is a fightingproblem that Mr. Ward, from the beginning of his work in Rochester, confronted and still confronts. There are three paramount feudalisms in America., One of these is the business feudalism, which largely influences the second, or political feudalism The third feudalism is the educational feudalism. To overcome any one of them would involve at least a peaceful revolution, and revolutions need impassioned leaders. Mr. Ward is a leader in the undoing of the second and third kinds of feudalism mentioned above. Is there any leader on the advance line of the struggle for educational and political emancipation, whose weapons are as wholly constructive as those of Mr. Ward? Probably most readers would be well advised to read Mr. Ward’s book backwards, or at least to begin with the chapter on “Beginnings in Rochester.” It was of the Rochester social center work that Governor, now Justice Hughes, said: “You are buttressing the foundation of democracy. ” Mr. Ward and his Rochester co-workers were thoroughly radical. They believed that the school should not only be used for educational extension during leisure hours, and for recreation as a substitute for dancehalls and moving picture shows, but frankly and fully as a political center. The plan required imagination and a certain recklessness. Free speech is guaranteed in the American constitution, but rather in the sense of toleration than of encouragementi Certainly, American practise has not been in the direction of encouraging free speech. The primary requisites of free speech have not been provided either in urban or rural districts. Neither parks nor public buildings nor ecclesiastical buildings have been made available for free speech. ’ American streets are too narrow for the convenient holding of public meetings. Free speech has had to pay its own way, through the renting of private halls, and in large cities these private halls are oftener than not parts of saloon premises. But whatever might be the passive American attitude toward free speech, the tradition about separating school from politics is an active one. It is as vague as most other traditions of the kind which are inherited and never systematically analysed by the average citizen. In Rochester, the pioneers declared, once and for all, that the promotion of unlimited and organized free speech was the first duty df government. This was bad enough. It was a challenge to American prudence and to the political feudalism which is organized into parties based on loyalty and personal interest. It was a further challenge to the view which holds the school sacrosanct in an archaic sense. Incidentally, it was a challenge to the boss-ridden common council of Rochester, and after about two years the funds for keeping the schools open were withdrawn. Mr. Ward describes the Rochester beginnings in sufficient detail.

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SOCIAL CENTERS 457 A further chapter, which has a bearing even wider than the social center, has been contributed to Mr. Ward’s book by Dr. Edward C. Elliott of the University of Wisconsin. It is a discussion of‘“The Magnified School.” Dr. Elliott states epigrammatically two of the three great reasons why social centers are right. His words may be quoted: (1) For several decades, competent judges . . have called attention to the extravagances and conspicuous lack of sensible economy that characterize all our public doings. The consciousness of the evils of the wastage of material things is being succeeded by a sharp realization of the evils of the wastage of spiritual things. This, as I understand it, is the underlying motive of the movement to expand the school into a center for community activity. Dr. Elliott has in mind facts like these: in New York City %54,000,000 of the investment in public school buildings is wholly idle through the 40 per cent non-use of school properties. Throughout America the people’s leisure-time is treated as idle ore-is given over to the exploitation of purely mercantile interests on which the people depend for their amusement life and in part for their political life. Professor Elliott continues: (2) The original constitution of the public school was dominated by individualism. It was founded to meet the elementary needs of the child. The twentieth century public school has begun to discard this individualism for a broader principle of socialization. . . . The decline of the influence of the family, the church, the workshop and of the major nationalizing traditions, has meant the increase of the domain of the school. In other words, the economic changes of late generations have destroyed most of the old social bonds, have substituted economic for human forces, and have in a sense pdverized social life. The need of the age is the creation of new vital social bonds. Therefore, the social center. The reader will then go back to Mr. Ward’s fist chapters. He will find the third great reason for the social center. Mr. Ward says: When the members of the electorate add to their common function of participating in the decision upon public questions, the function of consciously organizing to deliberate upon public questions, then the people become a reasoning, self-knowing being. We can agree with Mr. Ward when he says: “This proposal goes to the Mr. Ward develops his argument as follows. The ballot-box is the implicit Public opinion There is no direct manifestation heart of the whole American problem.” social center of every neighborhood and of the nation. registers itself only through the ballot. of the public’s soul except the ballot-box.

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458 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Representative bodies, from town boards to the federal congress, are sub-committees of the public. They act with delegated authority. But first they discuss in an orderly manner. They gather, for their own illumination, all facts which bear on the questions which they must decide. They do not meet in livery stables or butcher shops, as do the citizens in casting their ballot. They meet in dignified and adequate buildings. If it is necessary for the sub-committees of the electorate to discuss before acting, then the electorate itself should discuss before acting. If the subcommittees are entitled to a dignified assemblage-place, where all interests may be represented, then he electorate is entitled to an adequate and dignified place of meeting. The schoolhouse is the logical place of meeting of that great committee of society, the general electorate. First, it is the convenient place, for schoolhouses are everywhere and are now idle half the time. Second, it is the proper place, because the schoolhouse stands for the interest of society in its own formative elements, and the recognition by society of a responsibility for the future. The schoolhouse further represents the recognition by society that citizenship cannot be really formed save through the informing ’of the children with the important facts and values of the world. The school stands for universality and the rights of science and truth. Assuming that the school is used as the ubiquitous, permanent gathering place of the electorate, then the electorate must organize to use the schobl. This organization must include everybody or at least welcome everybody. It must have a clerk, for purposes of record and of administrative convenience. This clerk is the servant of the social center, not the supervisor, director or boss. He takes orders, not gives them. Mr. Ward, continuing to reason from convenience and from theory, then urges that the school principal is the logical peoples’ clerk in the social center. But there should be an associate superintendent, the social center director of the general school system. The four chapters in which Mr. Ward expounds this plan with great earnestness and positiveness, must needs convince any reader as to the main proposition. They exhibit at the same time some of the real excesses which the social center movement has taken on in more than one city and against which it needs to be safeguarded. Briefly, the following are some of the exceptions which readers will take to Mr. Ward’s argument Can or should the school principal be the social center secretary? There are limits to human endurance. Moreover, though the time may come when day school work will be wholly merged into the general community life, as William Morris depicts in his News from Nowhere, it is still true that today the efficient school principal is not likely to be a very tolerant or magnetic social center secretary. The school principal deals in a disciplinary

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SOCIAL CENTERS 459 and somewhat arbitrary way with children. In the social center the sense of authority, which seems to be necessary in the day school, is wholly out of place. A more reasonable plan would seem to be that there should be social center leaders, salaried by the community, giving their whole time to the center and to the neighborhood contact which it involves. A second point which involves not detail but principle, is Mr. Ward’s insistence that public schools when opened as social centers should be used only by the single, all-inclusive social center organization. The fact is that there is every reason why labor unions, partisan political clubs, dancing societies, exclusive groups of all sorts, should be invited and urged to hold their meetings on public property. At present the people’s organized life flows through the saloon, the private meeting hall, the’dance hall, church and pool room. It is not simply a nondescript mass of humanity that flows through these special channels, but it is cohesive social groups. Unless the social center invites these groups as groups, it will not draw to itself the social life of the people or, save very partially, the political life. Jeffersonian democracy, when logically carried out, may indeed deny to special classes and groups the right to exist, and Mr. Ward is politically (though not economically) a Jeffersonian. But as a fact of social science, and of universal experience, people tend to organize into classes, groups and clubs, and such special groups have been one of the main dynamic agencies of history. It is probabla that group and club life has never been as variegated and .universal as it is in America today. If the social center movement refuses to face this patent social fact, and clings to a mere logical carrying out of absolute democracy, then the social center idea cannot be generally effected save at great expense to the taxpayers, nor will it reach the mass of the people in their vital relations. No one will dispute Mr. Ward’s ultimate ideal, in insisting that nothing shall go on in social centers except that which everybody wants and approves. But a society where the majority rules in this exhaustive sense cannot be achieved save through ages of evolution. In America the political interest has been a relatively superficial one until very recently and democracy has not sunk very deep. The public school should invite all reputable groups and see that they shall give ecch other elbow-room, and should then strive to develop within itself certain focal points of universal interest, around which all the groups can unite. This conception of the social center makes the whole problem more complex and will involve slower progress than would be possible if Mr. Ward’s view-the theory of immediate absolute democracy-were true to the facts of life. But neither absolute logic nor enthusiasm will enable the social center movement to get around facts. A third element in Mr. Ward’s argument, which will not command general agreement, is his assumption that the social center, once established on

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460 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW a democratic basis, will automatically keep itself on a democratic basis. This is not the history of democracy. It is an unsolved part of the social center question, as to how the center can be locally self-governed, with unlimited freedom of action by the majority, and yet the tyranny of the majority be avoided. Because the problem is not yet solved, it may be expected that most cities and states will not give unlimited freedom to the social center movement except as the movement works out methods and traditions which will be a guarantee ‘of fairness to the social center minorities. The reviewer would be sorry to have it understood that he regards these suggestions as in any sense major criticisms of Mr. Ward’s theory. In emphasizing the political element and the element of local self-government, Mr. Ward does a primary service to the social center movement and indeed to the general school movement of the country. The other chapters in Mr. Ward’s book are: “The Banch Public Library” contributed by Dr. Charles E. McLennigan, public Librarianof Milwaukee; “The Public Art Gallery,” a description by William Dudley Foulke of the significant work which has been done in Richmond, Indiana; “Music Center,” contributed by Prof. Arnold Dresden; “The Festival Center,” contributed by E. s. Martin; “The Motion Picture Theater,” contributed by John Collier; “The Recreation Center,” contributed by Clarence A. Perry and Edward A. Stitt; “The Employment Center:’ contributed by Mrs. Annie L. Diggs; “The Local University Center,” contributed by Dean Louis E. Reber, of Wisconsin University; “The Social Center in the RuralCommunity,” contributed by Charles W. Holman, of Texas; “The Public Health Office,’.’ contributed by Mr. Geo. B. Young, commissioner of health of Chicago. These papers were prepared for the Buffalo Convention of the National Municipal League in 1911, and are made timely by introductory words written by Mr. Ward. Several of these papers are rich in fact and the chapters on the rural social center and the school as a public health office are of acute value. Mr. Ward’s book is an important chapter in the movement which may be seen, by the Americans of tomorrow, as co-equal in national meaning with the movement for the conservation of natural resources. JOHN COLLIER.* *Of The People’s Institute; author of papers on “LeisureTime: A Problem of Conservation,” “Motion Pictures and Public Education,” “Industrial Education in the Metropolis.”

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THE BAKER ADMINISTRATION OF CLEVELAND 461 NEWTON D. BAKER’S ADMINISTRATION AS MAYOR OF CLEVELAND AND ITS ACCOMPLISHMENTS EWTON D. BAKER became mayor of Cleveland a year and a half ago. The majority vote by which he was elected was large, N and the votes carried with them an expression of personal liking and esteem that few candidates for public offices are honored with. Mr. Baker was handicapped when he took office by a rather unusual situation. Tom. L. Johnson had left the mayor’s office but two years before, following his defeat by Herman Baehr. Whatever one may think of Tom Johnson, he will at least be compelled to admit that he was a remarkable man. His personality permeated his administration for the many years he was at the head of municipal affairs in Cleveland. Herman Baehr, good type of substantial German citizen, gave Cleveland just such an administration as might have been expected from the man. It was wholly honest, fairly efficient, fairly progressive. Some good things were done. But Cleveland under Tom Johnson had become a city awake. The most advanced civic and social thought was discussed among all classes as they might discuss a baseball game. It was, therefore, not strange that two years of the type of administration given by Mr. Baehr was enough. Beyond doubt, the people who had repudiated Tom Johnson at the polls would have called him back; but Tom Johnson was dead. To Newton D. Baker they turned as the ablest member and closest associate in the Johnson cabinet. His election meant that he was expected to restore to the people somewhat the same attitude and viewpoint in civic affairs that they had come to expect from the great leader who was gone. At the same time they looked to Mr. Baker for accomplishment along certain material lines which had been to a degree neglected in the heat of Mr. Johnson’s battle with the street railway company over the 3-cent fare issue. In a word Cleveland wanted a mayor who had ideals and who would do something. What Mr. Baker has been able to do in both respects is the verdict as to the success or failure of his administration. Coming, as he did, at a time when the demand for a high type of leadership was accentuated by two years of ordinary conduct of municipal affairs, Mr. Baker’s task has been the more difficult. An educated community demands certain civic ideals, but any community demands creature comforts. In the modern municipality adequate street car transportation, lighting, water supply, municipal buildings, street cleaning, garbage collection, policing, care of paupers and indigent and a hundred and one other items of service to the community must become one of the chief tasks of any administration. It is therefore proper to

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462 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW consider what Newton D. Baker’s administration has done in Cleveland as affecting these matters. In the street railroad situation, always a moot matter in Cleveland, a great deal has been accomplished. The elimination of alternate stops necessitated by the irregularity of Cleveland’s streets and the spacing of the streets rn railway stops, has made possible a much faster schedule of service. A new power contract has.been authorized and 250 new cars, 200 of them trailers, have been purchased. An additional 100 trailers have been ordered, making 300 in all. This has practically doubled the carrying capacity of the system, while increasing the operating charge but 60 per cent. The building of several down town loops is now in progress which will make it possible to avoid sending all cars through the public square, thus reducing congestion, shortening the miles to be traveled by about two-thirds of the cars on the system, saving in operation and increasing both the convenience and rapidity of service. Work on the new city hall has been resumed. It was begun under the Baehr administration. When Mayor Baker took office he found the plans had grown until the building promised to cost $4,000,000 or $5,000,000 instead of the limit of $2,600,000 set by the city. Mayor Baker caused a restudy to be made of several features of the matter. The mayor now has the assurance of the Builders’ Exchange which had a committee investigate and of the Thompson-Starrett Company which made an independent investigation, that the building will not cost in excess of $2,600,000. There has been some criticism of the Baker administration because of the delay in the city hall project, but Mr. Baker feels that the saving of two or three millions of dollars to the city has been worth all the criticism. Work is now in progress on the building and bids fair to proceed with expedition. One of Cleveland’s greatest needs is a union ra2way station. The present structure, built generations ago, is the butt of jokes wherever Cleveland is mentioned, and properly so. Judged by the traffic it handles it is perhaps the worst station in the world. Plans for a new one have been in contemplation for some time, but Mayor Baker’s predecessor had to break off negotiations with the railroads because the city of Cleveland did not have a fee simple title to the land upon which the new station was to stand. A recent decision of the state supreme court has cleared up the trouble except for a few minor details. Mayor Baker has resumed negotiations with the railroads with the result that the prospects for a new union station in Cleveland were never as bright as now. The lake passenger business is one of the important transportation features of Cleveland. For years the lake passenger boats, constantly increasing in size, have been winding their way to wharves along the crooked and dirty Cuyahoga River. Efforts have been made repeatedly to get these

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THE BAKER ADMINISTRATION OF CLEVELAND 463 boats out of the river and to wharves along the lake front, thus giving more room for freight boat traffic in the river and affording a more attractive approach to the city. The injunction, a device which has done much to check Cleveland’s growth, was used in this case as well. Final court action has been taken, however, with the result that the city arid the boat companies have come together and great passenger and package freight wharves are to be built in the outer harbor at once. Under Mayor Baker the department of public safety has been able to add one hundred men to the police force, to modernize the fire department with motor drawn engines and motor drawn equipment carriages, to increase the number of men in the fire department and to add to the number of companies, and tro establish “flying squadrons” which having motorequipped apgaratus entirely are able to go speedily to the relief of individual companies. The police department has been reorganized which, it is believed, will add materially to the efficiency of the department. Mayor Baker took prompt action againat Chief of Police Fred Kohler, whose “golden rule” policy had made him known throughout the country, and Kohler’s trial and removal from office on the charge of conduct unbecoming an officer immediately followed. At Warrensville farms, Cleveland’s colony for its needy, ill and delinquent, there has been completed under Mayor Baker’s administration enough of a proposed tuberculosis sanitarium to care for 180 patientsand another wing is now under construction. Discussing this, together with the general work at Warrensville, Mayor Baker says: This sanitarium is now perhaps the most beautifully located, the best equipped, and the most modern tuberculosis sanitarium in the country We have at Warrensville also substantially completed the erection of two buildings for male and female insane patients respectively, and a main administration building, all of which are designed as parts of the original colony group. When they are completed the removal of insane patients into buildings of their own will greatly relieve the condition and make it possible for us to care for a greater portion of our indigent and helpless population. At the workhouse we have in process of construction as a separate wing of the main correction square group a department for women prisoners . We have also taken city water out to the Warrensville group and have established central heating and lighting facilities, so that economy in the distribution of electric light and power and steam heat and hot water is secured. At this place we have also bought a farm of 37 acres and are remodeling a farm house as an experiment station for the development of an institution for girls similar to the Boys Home at Hudson. Our beginning there will be largely experimental and until we have determined just the way in which the city can be most helpful in solving the problems of the dependent and neglected girl children, we will not undertake the erection of a permanent building.

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464 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The municipal light plant which was the main issue at the time of Mayor Baker’s election, depends for its successful construction upon the ability of the city to market bonds. An amendment to the state constitution imposes grave difficulties upon all the cities of Ohio in selling their bonds and another amendment makes these bonds taxable. The municipal bond market of the state is accordingly depressed and every city in the state is having difficulty in disposing of its bonds. Cleveland authorized $2,000000 bonds of the municipal light project of which $500,000 have been sold. With this money excavation for the building has been made. In the meantime, three large turbo-generators are under contract, a good deal of conduit work has been laid and some transforming stations have been established in various parts of the city. Cleveland already has a munictpal light plant in the part of the city known as Brooklyn. Pending the completion of the new plant, additional generators have been installed in the old Division Street pumping station, practically doubling the capacity of the Brooklyn plant. A new *activity undertaken by the Baker administration is the establishing of a central heating plant to furnish steam heat within a certain radius. The trial station has given good satisfaction and it is probable that others will be established, giving much greater convenience and materially reducing the smoke nuisance. Of this undertaking the mayor says: “This in my judgment is the most hopeful attack that has been made in the city since I can remember.” The Baker administration has completed the West Side market house and turned it over to the public use. It is perhaps the most beautiful market in the country. Under Mayor Baker a building has been erected and machinery installed for an electric driven high pressure fire service by which the entire downtown section of the city willl be reached with a special system of pipes of large capacity, carrying water at very high pressure, pumped by electrically-driven centrifugal pumps. This is expected to reduce the insurance rate and decrease the conflapation risk of the entire business section of the city. The plant is expected to be in operation by midsummer. Under Mayor Baker the city has been active in recreational matters. It has established a school for playground instructors with an attendance of three hundred and more. It is hoped to make the playground work more scientific, better organized and more effective than heretofore. The city has opened two municipal dance halls at Edgewater park and Woodland Hills park at which last year three cents was charged for a five-minute dance, in competition with the private dance halls where five cents was charged for a three-minute dance. Both these places were supervised carefully by a large number of attendants, excellent music was supplied, good order maintained and the young people of the city

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THE BAKER ADMINISTRATION OF CLEVELAND 465 crowded them all last summer. Both institutions were more than selfsupporting. The city has expanded its bath house facilities, though they still are inadequate. It has done away with the hiring of impromptu bands for park concerts and has substituted a municipal orchestra under the direction of a trained musician. It is the hope that this group can ultimately become the nucleus of an established municipal orchestra which will continue its activities throughout the winter season by giving symphony concerts at popular prices. The elimination of grade crossings has progressed rapidly under Mayor Baker. The engineering department of the city also has been busy recasti2g the entire method of sewage disposal of the city. Acting under an expert report from a group of engineers some fifteen years ago, the .plan was made of collecting all of the sewage of the city, sanitary and drainage water, into a great interceptor, paralleling the lake shore and emptying into Lake Erie ten miles east of the public square. The contamination of the waters of the lake by this method became manifest, and after a restudy of the problem it was determined to install sewage disposal plants, one at the mouth of the interceptor, one on the west side of the river and onefar back in the Cuyahoga Valley, reversing the flow in the west side branch of the interceptor and in the river lateral, so as to carry the sewage into disposal plants where the solid matter could be extracted and sterilized and the waters neutralized before being emptied into river and lake. The plan has so far been carried forward that the city has acquired the land for the disposal plants and farms and is conducting a series of experiments with all known methods of sewage purification to determine which one is best adapted to the raw sewage output with which the city has to deal. The city plans this year to pave thirty-five miles of streets. The largest number ever paved in any preceding year was twenty-seven. It has enlarged and modernized its garbage plant. Ash and waste paper collections have been systematized and those in charge of this work assert it is being done more efficiently than ever before. It would be wholly unfair to give the impression that the Baker administration has escaped criticism. There is and has been a healthful amount of it. The administration is charged with delay in a number of important projects. Complaint is made of the condition of the streets, and the question of the water supply was for a time agitated as a matter in which the administration had been derelict. The administration blames litigation for most of the delays charged against it. It points to the state tax limit as a reason for inability to repair streets more rapidly. It believes the sewage disposal plans now under way and a system of filtration will solve the water problem. Not the least of the service done his city by Mayor Baker is his tireless

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406 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW effort to bring the government to the people. Gifted far beyond the ordinary man as a public speaker, he speaks whenever and wherever there is an opportunity to discuss municipal problems. The demands on the time and energy of Mr. Baker in this respect alone are enormous. Speaking of this phase of his activity, Mayor Baker says: I have lent a large portion of my time and a great deal of my enthusiastic interest to the discussion of municipal problems before audiences of every kind, character and description, throughout the entire city, with the thought of making Cleveland’s government a popular government in the sense that its people would have an understanding of the city problems and would be able to reflect their informed will into the activities of the city government. As a teacher of civic things Mr. Baker has been eminently successful. In this respect he has exceedingly ably supplemented and carried further the work begun by Tom Johnson. There is perhaps no city of its rank in the United States whose people have the same clear grasp and understandhg of civic and social affairs as do those of Cleveland. In another work, also, has Mr. Baker been of great assistance to his community. The city is drafting a new charter by a commission of which Mayor Baker was elected a member and over which he presides. The charter is practically completed at the time of writing this article and is a document rich in the most progressive idem in social ahd civic thought. Mayor Baker is responsible for many of the most advanced ideas in this ‘ new constitution for the city of Cleveland. It is quite such a constitution as one might expect in the city which so long had Tom L. Johnson for its leader in the past and which saw fit to elect as its mayor a year and a half ago Mr. Johnson’s ablest associate and closest friend. Schooled by his association with Tom Johnson, Newton Baker has gone on and beyond it. He is a man of clear vision and wide vision who sees his city as something more than streets and buildings. Though the time of his administration has been but a few months more than a year and great doings are seldom done in such a narrow space, he has demonstrated that he couples the gift of accomplishment with that of vision. It is wholly improbable that the community which Tom Johnson desired to be a city set upon a hill will be hidden while Newton D. Baker is its chief executive. E. C. HOPWOOD.’ LManaging editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer.

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INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL 467 THE INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL IN SAN FRANCISCO HE voters of San Francisco had an opportunity on April 22 to use The initiative was used to place before the voters an ordinance reducing telephone rates.for the coming fiscal year. It was proposed under the name of a Telephone Users’ Organization, but it was charged during the campaign that the organization consisted of one man who had circulated the petition m a matter of private enterprise, and had entered into contracts that he was to receive one-half of the amount saved in telephone rates during the coming fiscal year. The estimated reduction for the entire city was placed by the Telephone Users’ Organization at $600,000 a year; the estimate of the city authorities was considerably less. In the meantime the supervisors, in pursuance of law, fned the rates for the coming year, making a considerable reduction, estimated at a total of $255,000. An attempt was made by the telephone company to prevent the submission of the initiative ordinance, and a temporary injunction was issued. It was dissolved, however, on the ground that the legality of an ordinance fixing rates initiated by petition and passed by the popular vote could not be attacked by such proceedings, and that the election must be held. The opposition to the ordinance came from two sources-the telephone company alleging that the rates proposed were unjust, and from the city authorities and some of the newspapers objecting to commercialization of the initiative. On petition of 5 per cent of the voters an ordinance that had been passed by the supervisors in settlement of a dispute between the city and the street railway company waa referred to the voters and endorsed by a large majority. The dispute originated in the attempt of the “United Railroads” to monopolize transportation on lower Market Street, the main thoroughfare of the city. Under the p;ovisions of the early railroad franchises granted in 1879, it wm agreed that no more than two lines should be allowed to run on Market Street. The old Market Street railroad was at that time granted a franchise to run a double track in the center of thestreet,andtheSutter Street Railroad Company was permitted to run two outer tracks from the junction of Sutter Street with Market down to the ferry terminals, which handle the great trans-bay traffic in and out of the city. When the “United Railroads” in 1902 took over most of the,street railroad companies in the city, it permitted the franchise of the Sutter Street railroad on lower Market Street to remain in the oldcompany for the purpose of in one election these three weapons of popular rule. T The ordinance, however, was carried by a small majority.

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468 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW claiming that two lines were running on the street, and consequently no other could be allowed to operate on that thoroughfare. Four years ago the city attacked this contention on the ground that by division of the franchises and the giving of merely nominal service on the lower Market Street outer tracks, the franchise had been forfeited. A judgment of forfeiture in favor of the city was given last year in the trial court and appealed. With the completion of the first section of the municipal railroad on Geary Street, the city wished to build and operate the road from the junction of Geary and Market Streets to the ferries in order to secure a part of this rich traffic. The rights of the “United Railroads” in dispute served to block the municipal road until a final decision should be had. An agreement was therefore drawn up between the city authorities on one side, and the ‘I United Railroads” on the other, by which the city should have the right to run its cars from Geary and Market Streets to the ferries, and that the city on its side should permit the Sutter Street cars to run to the ferries by electric power (the original franchise had given the privilege of operating by horse or mule power and the company had not been able to secure the right to use electric power). Another part of the agreement arranged for transfer privileges between the municipal road on Geary Street and four cross town lines of the “United Railroads,” at Divisadero, Fillmore, Larkin and Kearny Streets. The referendum was invoked by the Public Ownership Association, the ground alleged being that the city had’ the right already to run its cam to the ferries without any such agreement, and that the settlement was in effect the grant of a franchise to the Sutter Street Railroad Company to use the lower Market Street tracks until 1929 without exacting any compensation therefor. The agreement, however, was ratified by the voters. Under the San Francisco charter any elected official may be recalled by petition of 10 per cent of the electors, and an election must then be held in which the incumbent is a candidate without any action on his part, and any other candidate may be nominated by filing a certificate of nomination accompanied by the affidavits of not less than ten nor more than twenty sponsors. Under this provision a movement was initiated to recall Police Judge Charles L. Weller on the following stated grounds: That said Charles L. Weller has since the first day of January, 1912, in his administration of said office, shown himself to be incompetent and unfit for the position he occupies: That he has since the first day of January, 1912, frequently abused his judicial power by extending undue and unreasonable leniency to persons charged with the commission of heinous and vicious offenses, all of which

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INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL 469 has been subversive of public morals, and that the continuance in said office of said Charles L. Weller is a menace to the moral well-being of said city and county. The particular occasion for the movement was a reduction of bail from $3000 to $1000 in the case of a chauffeur arrested for criminal assault on two young women. When the case was called for trial the accused had absconded, and much indignation was aroused. A number of organizations of women took up the case, and, after listening to Judge Weller’s defense, circulated petitions for his recall. Judge Weller made his defense on the ground of his good character, and the fact that “bail in like amounts in similar cases have been fixed for years in the superior and police courts.” Only one candidate appeared against him. The recall was successful by a small majority. The election returns were as follows: Wiley F. Crist, candidate of Redl League.. ...................... 30,751 Charles L. Weller, incumbent recalled. ............................ 29,927 Crist’s majority ................................................ 824 Referendum. Proposition No. 1. “Shall the settlement ordinance be approved?” Yes ............................................................... 38,086 ........................... No. ............................. 21,861 Majority. ......... ............ ............... 16,225 Initiative. Proposition No. 2. “Ordinance fixing and establis5ing rates to be paid for telephone service.” For.. ............................................................. 30,710 Against.. ......................................................... 27,801 Majority ........................................................ 2,909 The total vote cast was 62,876 out of a registration of about 125,000. The fact that this recall campaign was initiated largely by the women and their activity in carrying it on brought out a vote among the women of 16,967, the number of women registered and entitled to vote being 46,060. E. A. WALCOTT.~ ‘Executive Secretary, Commonwealth Club of San Francisco.

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NOTES AND EVENTS PROFESSOR CHARLES AUSTIN BEARD, Columbia University, New York, Associate Editor in Charge ASSISTED BY PROFESSOR MURRAY GROSS, Drezel Institute, Philadelphia PROFESSOR EDWARD M. SAIT, Columbia University, New York I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION The Commission Government Movement.-The New York “Sun” on commission government. A significant event in the life of any constructive movement occurs when the New York Sun ceases to harp upon it as an object of ridicule. Commission government has now reached that stage, as is demonstrated by the Sun’s long editorial of March 21, the burden of which is that if commission government is a thing which gets results, why not have it? The following paragraph contains the gist of the argument: The knot of the matter is to get a competent, upri ht, civilized city government. Why %link and flinch at a mere word of unhappy connotation and an evil past? If commission’ government can do the job, why not have it? The people rule just the same whether they elect three men or one man or a hundred men. If they choose to hand over their power to three commissioners, to say, lHere, we will elect you and we shall require of you as our delegates a city overnment absolutely honest, reasonabfy efficient, with no man or woman on the city payroll for politqal or personal reasons, a city government by experts and men of busintess, and if we don’t get it out you go, are they not justified until experience has shown the contrary? RPcent adoptiom. Since the publication of the last issue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL RBVIEW, commission government has made rapid and important advances, of which perhaps the most notable is the adoption of the plan by the two large cities of Portland, Ore., and Jersey City. Other smaller communities which have adopted the plan during this period are Millville and Bordenton, N. J.; Mason City, Iowa; Hickory, Morganton, and Raleigh, N. C.; Traverse City and Battle Creek, Mich.; Fargo, N. D.; Springfield, Tenn., and Grafton, W. Va. General Laws. Indianz. The Indiana business plan of city government outlined in our last issue has gone down to defeat. In the pamphlet entitled “What Ails Us,” Theodore F. Thieme of Fort Wayne, the author of the plan, reviews the political situation for the last three years as regards the effort to secure the adoption of this plan. Concerning the regular commission government bill a correspondent writes: Our last legislature, especially the house, was full of politicians and all of them optimists, and all knew, that for many years to come, every city official in the state, as well aa county and state officials, were to be Democrats, and hence they would do nothing that might by an happening give a chance for a Re ubccan to be elected to office; and as a lfepublican might slip in if the commission form of government be enacted, or at least some one might get an office when he was not beholden to the Democratic arty, therefore, they would have none ofthat kind of legislation.’ Minnesota. The bill, permitting cities to adopt the city manager plan passed the lower house, but was not reported out in the senate. Missouri. The first of two commission government bills passed at this year’s session of the legislature is intended for the benefit of Joplin and 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL RQVIQW. vol. II. p. asc. 470

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NOTES AND EVENTS 471 Springfield, and provides that all the cities of the third class having a population of more than 30,000 and less than 75,000 shall hold an election on October 7 on the question of adopting the act. This law provides the commission plan in its usual form, but also contains one or two rather unique features, as for example, the method of nomination by deposit, by which any voter instead of filing a petition, may make a deposit of $10 and thereby become a candidate at the primaries. The statement of the corporate powers of the citiesis unusually detailed and complete. A second statute applies to cities of the third class, but is primarily for the benefit of the smaller communities. Ncw York. The so-called CullenLevy bill, aimed to give larger corporate powers to the cities, without appeal to the legislature to pass special acts amendatory of and supplementary to the various city charters, received the unanimous support of the Democratic organization and was passed in both houses and signed by the governor. This law originated with the Municipal Government Association and was intended to put an end to the great volume of special city legislation. On the strength of it Governor Sulzer has already vetoed a number of special local citybills. The effect of the law however, because of its general form, is problematical until it hm been passed upon by the courts. The other bills supported by the Association1 including the one offering an option among six simplified forms of organization, received little or no support. Ohio. The Smith bill, providing for three optional forms. of simplified government (the commission plan, the city manager plan and the federal plan) passed during the last days of the legislative session, in April. The non-partisan elections feature wm eliminated and a number of other changes in the original draft were made. 1 See N.4TIONAL hfUN1CIPIL REVIEW, VOl. 11, p. 285. Pennsylvania. The Clark bill providing for the commission form of government for all third clas3 cities without a local referendum for its adoption seems at the present time, to be in a fair way of becoming law. The necessary percentage of petitioners .under the initiative haw been raised from ten to twenty per cent and the petitioners must register with and be identified by the clerk of the courts in signing the papers. This measure would affect every city in Pennsylvania except Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Scranton. It provides for a.commission of five and an elective auditor but not for the recnll.2 Utah. Efforts to amend the commission government law at this year’s session of the legislature failed in every instance . Portland, Ore. The friends of commission government won their long fight by the adoption of a new commission government charter on May 3, after a bitter newspaper controversy. In general, the charter conforms to the typical commission government scheme with the exception that the mayor is required to make the designation of members of the council to the various departments. The opponents of commission government professed to see in this arrangement a serious departure from commission government principles and made much of the idea that under it the mayor of the city would become a practical czar or dictator. But while it is not a usual feature of commission government, it is not by any means unique and follows the provisions of the laws under which Columbia, S. C., and several southern cities operate. The charter provides for a system of preferential voting, another feature which was a subject of attack. A commendable provision of the charter is the one which requires the council to enact an administrative code. The procedure provided for the annual audit is interesting. For this occasion Thc hill has passed both hous?s and 1s In the hands of the governor, who It 1s expected wlll approve.-C. R. W.

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472 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the clearing house association will be invited to submit a list of qualified public accountants from which the council must choose one to conduct the examination of the city’s financial affairs. Complete copies of the charter in pamphlet form were sent to every voter in the city. The Los Angeles Charter Amendments. The election in Los Angeles on March 24 resulted in the adoption of a number of important amendments. The first two amendments, relating to the acquisition of public utilities and the granting of franchises were passed, as was the amendment permitting the city to exercise all corporate powers exercised by any municipal corporation in the state of California. By the terms of the fifth amendment, after the first Monday in July, all the functions of the government of the city are to be divided into nine divisions and each member of the council is to be a committeeman for such division. The functions of the several councilmen under this amendment are not those of administrative supervision, but simply of investigation. Amendment number six increases the salaries of the elective officers. Proportional representation was voted down, but the ninth amendment, relating to the appointment of a harbor commission was adopted instead of a counter amendment providing for an elective board. Amendments number twelve and thirteen provide respectively for the firemen’s and policemen’s pension fund. The City Manager Plan. The plan of municipal government which is being tried out in Sumter, 5. C., not only continues to be watched with greatest interest throughout the country, but has been already emulated by two other southern cities, Hickory and Morganton, N. C. The former, a city of 3,716 inhabitants, adopted the plan on March 17. The people in Morganton liked the Hickory charter so well that theywent to the legislature and had it enacted almost verb:li::z as their own. This town has a population of 2,712. The charter revision commissions in Elyria and Youngstown, O., have reported “city manager” charters and the Dayton commission elected on May 20 is pledged to submit a charter providing that form. In the Wisconsin Legislature there has recently been introduced by Representative Estabrook a city manager bill prepared some months ago by Dr. Ford H. MacGregor, of the University of Wisconsin. This bill is, in some ways, the most advanced of any on this subject thus far prepared. The specific provision that applications for the position of city manager shall be secured by advertisement is a radical departure, although the commissioners in Sumter advertised on their own initiative. H. S. GILBERTSON. * Charter-Making in Ohio.-Ohio cities are furnishing interesting illustrations of the desirability of granting to municipalities the right to frame their own charters, and to legislate for themselves in strictly local matters. Eleven cities in the state have chosen commissions to frame home rule charters, and a number of others are considering the question. Canton, Akron and Salem are favorable to the commission form of government; Dayton, Elyria and Lakewood indicate a preference for the city manager type; the commission in Columbus has just begun its work; Youngstown and Cleveland have practically completed their charters. Cleveland’s commission has been working since February 4. The draft of the charter was mailed to every voter, on June 1. The election will be held July 1. The commission, headed by Mayor Newton D. Baker, has held on the average of Eve meetings a week since it began its sessions in Februarv. Some of the more important features of the new charter are: a. Non-partisan elections with primaries entirely eliminated; candidates will ha nominated by petition only.

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NOTES AND EVENTS 473 b. A preferential system of voting with first, second and other choices. c. The short ballot principle has been adopted. The only elective officers will be the mayor and the council. d. Elective officials are subject to recall upon petition signed by 15,000 electors, in case of officials elected at large, and 600 in case of officials elected from wards. e. The charter providesfor a council of twenty-sixmembers electedfrom wards for a term of two years. Its functions are limited strictly to legislation. The charter contains explicit provisions prohibiting members of the council from having any part in administration. f. An ordinance may be p+ed before the council by initiative petition, signed by 5,000 electors. If not passed by the council 5,000 additional signatures will compel its submission to the people at a special election. g. The mayor's term is two years. He is given the power to appoint the directors of departments. He and the directors will have seats in the council with the right to take part in the dis-. cussion but without the right to vote. h. Six departments are established, namely: law, public service, public welfare, public safety, finance, and public utilities. Under each of these departments are established from three to five divisions. The council is given the power to create, discontinue, reerr nge or abolish departments and divisions and to assign appropriate functions to each of them. i. A bureau of information and public reference is created, to be under the direction of a commissioner who will have charge of all city printing, reports, statistics and the editing of a city Record and the collection of municipal information. j. Advisory boards, composed of unsalaried experts and citizens interested in the sub~ect, are provided for divisions in which the director of the department thinks it would be advisable to have the services of such boards. k. A city plan commission, with very broad powers, will have cqntrol of the works of art, the plan, design andlocation of buildings, street fixtures, etc., and also have the power to frame comprehensive plans for the future development of the city. 1. A civil service commission of three members to be appointed by the mayor for a term of six years. The commission will have authority not only to see that officers and employees are appointed on the basis of merit and fitness, but also will keep a record of their efficiency in the service. AS far aa can be ascertained at the present time there is practically n doubt but that the charter will be adopted by the people. The leading newspapers have already indicated that they will' give the charter their full support. Considerable opposition ha9 been aroused over the elimination of party primaries, and the adoption of the preferential system of voting, but this opposition is limited in the main to the party leaders and workers. Cleveland will be the first city in Ohio to adopt a home rule charter. Supreme court decision. The recent decision of the supreme court in the Toledo case will tend to increase the activity of Ohio cities in the direction of framing and adopting their own charters. The case was the first real test of the home ruleamendment. MayorWhitlock of Toledo had an ordinance passed appropriating money to establish a municipal moving picture theatre. It was intended to test the home rule provisions. The city auditor refused to issue the necessary warrants for the appropriation. A friendly suit was begun and carried to the highest codrt in the state. The decision has been awaited with considerable interest and anxiety by the advocates of home rule in the state. The court held, in brief, that the home rule amendment, so far as it granted to cities which are organized under the present municipal code the right to legislate for themselves in strictly local matters, is not self-executing; that for such cities the legislature must first enumerate the powers which such cities may exercise. But the court held clearly that a city, when it frames its own charter or adopts one of the optional charters enacted into law by the legislature, can then legislate for itself in local matters. The decision was disappointing to advocates of home rule and yet it does not prohibit the exercise of the right of home rule to the cities which go

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474 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW to the trouble charters. of framing their own MAYO FESLER.’ * Ohio Cities.-Dayton. John H. Patterson, the president of the National Cash Register Company, for years a member .of the National Municipal League was elected a charter commissioner of Dayton and subsequently chairman of the commission. His victory foreshadows the recommendation of the commission form of government. One of the features of the campaign leading up to the election waa the full page advertisements discussing the merits of commission government from both sides. Columbus. Martin A. Gemunder was elected to the charter commission, receiving the highest vote. He was subsequently elected chairman.* The Canton commission began work early in March and finished April 26. The proposed charter provides for a commission of five members, one of whom shall be designated by his colleagues as president. Akron elected a charter commission on April 1. There is a strong sentiment in this city in favor of commission government. On May 12 charter commissions were convened in Elyria, Middletown, Norwood and Lakewood. The commissioners of the latter city, which is a suburb of Cleveland with a population of 17,000, have decided in favor of the city manager plan. In Toledo a council of nine members elected at large but nominated from wards has been decided upon. * Home Rule for New Haven.-The most liberal municipal legislation which the writer has ever known was granted to New Haven by the Connecticut legislature in May in the so-called home rule bill, drafted by William S. Pardee, a 1 Secretary Cleveland Clvlo League and of the 7 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVI~W. vol. 1. p. charter commiaalon. 170. member of the house from New Haven. It won ita way to the favor of the committee on cities and boroughs, and finally the houseandsenate, because of the numerous bills introduced into the legislature to amend the existing charter. Among these bills was one asking for a commission form of government. All of these bills, some progressive and some reactionary, were urged withinsistence by large bodies of citizens from New Haven and after hearings on these numerous bills the committee decided that the wisest and safest way was to report most of them adversely and grant to New Haven the right to amend and change its own charter. The bill is entitled, “Conferring upon the freemen of New Haven the right to amend the charter of the City of New Haven.” The bill covers only five pages, but it is certainly very sweepipg in the privileges which it grants to the city. New Haven has for several years been governed by a single legislative board, consisting of twenty-one members, and the law grants to this board of aldermen, or such legislative b3dy as may succeed them, the right to change the charter, which change shall be referred to the electors of the city at a special or regular municipal ele :tion, and when approved by them shall become a part of the charter of the city. The bill further provides that twenty per cent of the electors themselves may petition for a change in the charter, and that change shall be submitted to the electors, and if approved becomes a part of the charter. Thenfollows in the bill the subjects under which amendments may be drafted, and they include nearly all of the work of the city and would certainly allow the city to adopt a commission form of government if it chose. It is quite fitting that New Haven should lead in advanced municipal government, for it has always been the leader among the New England cities in that line of work. New Haven was granted the first city charter in New England, but was followed closely by four other cities in

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NOTES AND EVENTS 475 Connecticut. The next city to receive a charter was Boston, forty-eight years later, followed by Providence and then other New England cities. Since the first charter of 1784, New Haven has lived under six charters, each one of which has been a little more liberal than the one preceding, and a study of the progress of the city government is decidedly interesting. Many people who are interested in municipal government in New Haven hope to see features of the commission form of governinent incorporated into the charter, and the city run upon good business principles, but the whole question is now in the hands of the electors of the city, and the experiment must be met and tried out by the people who live under the government and pay the bills for its management. Since the passage of this bill for New Haven, a sentiment has developed for similar privileges for all the cities of the state, and it is possible that this legislature may grant to all the cities the same right of self government. ALBERT MCCLELLAN MATHEWSON.’ * Ohio Constitutional Amendments.Four more amendments will be submitted to the voters this autumn. Two deal with the question of the short ballot, the third with the right of women to hold administrative offices in institutions devoted to the care and welfare of women and children, and the last exempts from taxation state, county, municipal and township bonds. One of the short ballot amendments makes the offices of attorney general and state treasurer appointive, and the other one removes the requirements that county officers must be elective and leaves it to the legislature to change them to the appointive list if it so desires. * Michigan Constitutional Amendments. -Five constitutional amendments were submitted at the special election on April 7. Three were adopted and two defeated. Those which were adopted provided for the initiative and referendum on constitutional amendments, on 1egislaCive matters, and for the recall of elective officers, the votes being respectively 204,796 to 116,392; 219,057 to 152,3&38; 237,743 to 145,412. Two of the amendments submitted were defeated, one dealing with woman sufErage, the other providing for a fireman’s pension fund, the votes being for the first mentioned 168,738 for to 264,882 against, and for the latter 179,948 for to 206,204 against. 11. FUNCTIONS Municipal Utilities.-State versus local utility commissions. The line of demarcation between state and local control of municipal utilities continues to be a question of importance in many sections. The question is now raised in Minnesota. William D. Marks, consulting engineer, has been one of the advocates for the local commission for large urban centers on the ground that the commission is 1 A member of the New Haven common councll, 1892, and judge of the New Haven clty court,, 19051911. For the past twenty-five years he has drafted many changes to the New Haven city charter and hss been interested In munlclpal improvements. In 1896, he drafted the charter which was enacted and under which the clty Is now governed. essential for each large metropolitan community in order that the state commission may not be overloaded with work, and in order to leave to each metropolis “the right to adjust its own rates with its public service corporations.” The new public service commission law of Missouri, signed March 18, repeals the statutes under which Missouri cities were authorized to qreate local public service commissions. The League of Nebraska Municipalities which held its meeting in Lincoln, Neb., January 14, 15 and 16, adopted a resolution to the effect that the legislature should not give to the state rail*

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476 NATIONAL’ MUNICIPAL REVIEW way commission any jurisdiction over rates and services of municipal utilities without the consent of the municipality to changes in rates or service. The Canadian railway act, as revised, includes amendments meeting the request of the Union of Canadian Municipalities, making clear that the railway commission bas jurisdiction over all federally incorporated power, transmission, and telegraph and telephone companies, but reserving to municipalities the right of control over their own streets. The basis for the conflict seems to be in the fact that state control is essential for the proper regulation and protection of small urban, of interurban and of rural interests, while the larger cities especially are beginning to see the importance of home rule. The problem is to get centralized control with adaptability to local conditions. Municipal ownership is receiving renewed attention. A table prepared by Frank C. Jordan, secretary of the Indianapolis Water Company, giving the water rates for 249 cities where a meter rate is charged and all service furnished tkough meters, and 198 cities where a flat rate is charged, reveals the fact that, where the plant is municipally owned, the meter rates average 20 cents; where privately owned, 30 cents. In the flat rates, the average rate for a six-room house is $7.06 where supplied by a private company and $6.05 where supplied by a municipal plant. In the absence of data making sure that municipal plants included in their rates sinking funds and other overhead charges, this seems to point pretty conclusively to the advantage of municipal ownership of water works. a J. F. Ford, of Fort Dodge, has prepared a table showing that out of 330 cities in Iowa, 310 have municipally owned, and but 20 privately owned, water works. He finds that the cost of service is considerably lower under municipal than under private plants. In the municipal plants the rates range from 8 and 10 to 35 and 40 cents per 1000 gallons. All are self-supporting and the great majority are paying goodly profits into the city treasury. San Francisco is planning to extend the Geary Street railway which it owns and operates so as to provide adequate transportation service for the exposition of 1915. City Engineer O’Shaughnessy has estimated that the total attendance at the exposition will be 8,640,000, a daily average of 30,000, with a gross daily attendance of 40,000. The daily street car revenue he estimates at $3000, total-’ ing $864,000. If to this the fares of 10,000 workmen during the year 1914, and 2500 during the year after the exposition, are added, the grand total of estimated street car revenue is brought up to $1,239,000. Operating expenses will take two-thirds of this sum so that a gross profit of $413,000 is looked forward to. Los Angeles, according to a recent editorial in the Los Angeles Tribune, is finding municipal ownership of its water works to be a decidedly paying investment. The city purchased the water works ten years ago, and found them in such bad shape that they had to be practically rebuilt. However, despite this outlay, rates were immediately reduced 334 per cent. Further reductions have since been made until the rates in Los Angeles today are less than 10 cents per 1000 gallons. In the meantime, the city has paid off over $500,000 of the $2,000,000 of bonds issued in payment for the plant. As the city today has four times the population it had ten years ago, propositions have been submitted for the extension of the plant. The bond issue of $6,500,000, in order to finish the first unit of the aqueduct power system and to install a transmission line to the city of Los Angeles, and provide a distributing system within the city, on April 15 received an affirmative vote of 30,615 out of 51,415, but as a two-thirds vote was essential to its adoption, the proposition was defeated. ‘I Public Service,” published at the Peoples Gas Building in Chicago, an organ of the gas interests, points out that

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NOTES AND EVENTS 477 the taxpayers of Seattle, have lost $50,000 a year on their city plant. No evidence is presented as to wherein the loss occurred, or whether or not it was due to the probable fact that, in order to encourage manufacturing and commercial usage and the industrial development of the city, charges to consumers have been slightly increased over those a private concern might charge. Subway. The Missouri legislature has recently passed a constitutional amendment authorizing St. Louis to become indebted to the extent of $77,000,000 for the construction of a municipal subway. The amendment goes to the people for ratification at the fall election of 1914. If the amendment is adopted, St. Louis can issue subway bonds and can own and operate the subway. Under the proposed amendment, Kansas City is also authorized to issue subway bonds. Philadelphia and Chicago are also considering subway legislation. Detroit, on April 7, voted to adopt an amendment to the city charter providing for the municipal ownership and operation of all street railways within Detroit. The control and operation are vested in the hands of a non-salaried board of street railway commissioners, three in number, appointed and removed at will by the mayor of the city. T$ls board has full power and authority to appoint a general manager and to employ all other experts, officers and agents needed for the operation of the railway. An especially interesting section is the one requiring that: The rate of fare on said street railway system shall be su6cient to pay, and the said board shall cause to be paid: (a) Operating and maintenance expenses, including aving and watering between tracks. (bp) Taxes on the physical property of the entire street car system, the same as though privately owned. (c) Fixed charges. (d) A sufficient per cent per annum so as to provide a sinking fund to pay the principal of the mortgage bonds issued at their maturity and such other additional per cent per annum to provide in the sound discretion of the board, a sinking fund to pay the principal of the general bonds issued as soon as practicable, totheend that theentirecost of said street railway system shall be paid eventually out of the earnings thereof. The amendment is now before the courts to test its validity. Melbourne, Australia. Municipal ownership and operation of the entire system of street railways are planned for as soon as the present franchise expires, in a couple of years. Melbourne expects to follow the example of Sydney, the largest city in Australia (population 750,000), in which the street railway system is owned and operated by the state of New South Wales. In Wellington, New Zealand, also, the entire system of street cars is owned and operated by the city, as it is in Christchurch and in Dunedin, New Zealand. A Municipal Tramways Trust is under consideration for Melbourne, and suburbs. The scheme has been approved by the constituent councils. The tramways systems and suburbs and their future development and extension, including present cable and horse trams, all extensions and additions both in inner and outer areas, are to be under the control of a “municipal tramways trust,” consisting of representatives from the various municipalities interested. There are to be ten members of the trust, and a paid chairman to be elected by the trust and to hold office for five years. The chairman cannot be a member of any of the councils represented in the trust. The representation of municipalities is on a population basis, with one vote for every 5000 or part thereof of the population in the municipality. Membersof thetrustareto beelectedfor three years by the council or group which they represent, one-third to retire annually. Telephone ownership in England. The post office department of the government has become owner of the National Telephone Company’s plant. The company claimed nearly S21,000,OOO and got 212,515,264, not as much as it wanted, but probably as much as it expected. The basis of purchase by the post office was

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478 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW what is known as “tramway terms,” a phrase which interpreted means the (‘then value, exclusive of any allowance for past or future profits of the undertaking or any compensation for compulsory sale or any other consideration whatever.” The railway commissioners, Sir James Woodhouse dissenting, have admitted within this definition an allowance for the cost of raising capital. The expenses charged under this heading comprise S85,OOO for commission; 285000 for brokerage; f66,000 for discount; E3750for share capital registration duty; E2062 for stamp duty; and S1500 for advertising. As this award stands, tramway plants will increase in value every time it changes hands by reason of the money spent in raising the capital to purchase it. “Therefore,” as the editor of the Municipal Journal points out “the more it changes hands the more valuable it becomes-an unthinkable proposition.” The commissioners’ decision is important, as it would make a forbidding item in the purchase of tramways by municipalities. Returns to gas and electric companies. The relative increases and decreases of the gross and net earnings of steam railroads, of electric railways, of gas and electric companies and of industrials for each of the nine years from 1902 to 1910, have been prepared by Henry L. Doherty and Company, of New Yorlc City. The tables reveal the following increases in gross and net earnings: industrials, gross earnings increased 25 per cent, net earnings, 12 per cent; steam rodu, gross earnings increased 64 per cent, net earnings, 45 per cent; electric railways, gross earnings increased 68 per cent, net earnings, 48 per cent; gas and electric companies, gross earnings, 105 per cent, net earnings, 84 per cent. Only the industrials showed a decrease in gross and net earnings, and that only during 1904 and 1908. The phenomenal increase in gross and net earnings of gas and electric companies probably indicates the extended use of those agencies for manufacturing as well as for lighting piirposes, and also their cheaper production. It would seem from this that we should shortly expect gome diminution in rates for such services. That the day of the perpetual franchise is not entirely gone may be gleaned from the fact that the stocks and bonds of the following companies have been highly advertised recently with their perpetual franchise as a main feature of their value. The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company is issuing a series of cooperative bulletins for the guidance of their employees and for the general education of the public. The bulletins are on such subjects as: Cooperative plan, motormen and conductors, employees insurance and pensions, cooperative beneficial association, improved car service, etc. Iowa Municipal Omership Rates.Mayor J. F. Ford of Fort Dodge, Iowa, has written a paper in which he draws a comparison between the rates charged in cities where plants are municipally owned and operated and those where the service is furnished by private corporations. In securing data for this paper, Mayor Ford received information from 333 Iowa cities, 310 of which had municipally owned plants. While there is a wide difference in rates, due to different conditions in lFcalities, the statement is true that the cost of service is considerably less where municipal plants are operated than where the private plants furnish the service. Using a table prepared by the wxetary of the Indianapolis water company including 249 cities having meter service, and 198 cities having a flat rate, Mayor Ford shows that under municipal ownership, meter rates average twenty cents; under private corporations, thirty cents. In flat rates, the average for a six room house is $7.06, when supplied by a private company; $8.05 when furnished by a municipal plant. Mayor Ford feels that the information he received was overwhelmingly in favor of municipally ownecl plants. Perpetual franchises. CLYDE L. KINQ.~ 1 Of the Unlverslty of Pennsylvanla.

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NOTES AND EVENTS 479 The District of Columbia and the BruBre-Mitchell ProposaLLThe BrudreMitchell proposal, recently submitted to President Wilson, for establishing amodel government in the district, possesses the particular merit of forming a possible basis for a nation-wide movement to secure federal support for the solution of municipal problems and the establishment of municipal standards. However, it seems desirable to point out some of the obstacles existing to a realization of the plan for malting Washington in every respect a model for other cities to copy. It is rather unfortunate, from one point of view, that Washington cannot be regarded as typical of American cities in general, on account of the relatively small amount of manufacturing and large business enterprises; the absence of a large foreign population and the relative freedom from congestion, all of which result in special problems which must be met in other localities and which a survey of WasKington would barely touch upon. Washington, moreover, enjoys the unique distinction of being the nation’s capital and ,is therefore not to be compared with other American cities, but rather with the world’s capitals. Consequently, the city beautiful idea has naturally been given a preeminent rank, thus involving improvements, the cost of which would in general make them extravagant examples to follow. However, this does not offer any obstacles to giving Washington, as well as all other American cities, the benefits of the best governmental methods that can be devised. The federal government at present pays one-half the cost of local administration, and it will logically demand a controlling voice as long as it contributes any portion of the cost. Since the federal government is a very large owner of land and improvements and since local expenses generally are greatly increased 1 See arlicle on “The Federal Government as a Potentla1 Contributor to Municipal Advancement” in the supplement to Janirary. 1913. Issue, page 33. by virtue of the fact that Washington is the nation’s capital, it is generally agreed that, the nation as a whole should contribute liberally towards the operating expenses of the district. In recent years, the so-called half and half principle has several times been attacked on the ground that the federal government should not be called upon to assume so large a portion of the cost. Naturally, local sentiment is strongly opposed to changes in the present form of government through which this might be brought about. While Washington is nominally a cornmission governed city, in reality the commissioners are responsible to a municipal council, consisting of the house and senate district committees on the district. Since members of Congress would rather serve on committees having a wider field of activity or having more direct relation to the interests of the home state or home district, membership in the district committees is seldom a much sought honor. This and other factors result in many changes in membership every two years, so that few members serve long enough to familiarize themselves thoroughly with local conditions. In addi-tion, Washington is unlike any other city in the country in that its citizens are not given a direct voice in its government. From some standpoints this might be considered as an advantage, since civic advancement has too often received setbacks, before administrative or other changes undertaken have been given a fair trial, by unthinking masses controlled by political machines. The civil employees of the government generally retain citizenship in the states from which they were originally appointed and therefore do not, as a rule, manifest any deep interest in local affairs. Washington also serves as the home of many Americans who have attained business success or social prominence and who tarry only during the social season though many of them have built handsome homes. Naturally this class is not interested in suffrage. A considerable

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480 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW portion of the actual resident population is of southern extraction and is far from being free from race prejudice. The majority would therefore prefer to remain without a vote rather than to see themselves put on equal terms with the colored race, which constitutes almost 30 per cent of the entire population. From the above it will be seen that the difficulties of changing the form of government of the District of Columbia so as to serve as a model for other cities must not be underestimated. However, although the form of government is of great importance, since it should be of such a character as to furnish adequate assurance that continuity of purpose will not be endangered, and that due regard shall be paid to honesty, economy, and efficiency, it is of still greater importance to determine specifically what work a city should undertake, to investigate the methods of attaining the particular results desiredinorder to select the method best meeting the requirements and to determine the best system of administration for carrying out the program decided upon. To my mind, the principal results to be attained through the municipal survey of Wdington which is proposed as a first step, will not be through bringing to light inefficient methods and uneconomical practices which might be found in use, nor in the introduction of better methods in their stead, but rather through the recognition which would result from such a survey that it is well worth while for the nation to give serious attention to the urgent need for the solution of municipal problems in general. All interested in municipal advancement can find considerable encouragement for federal assistance from the manifold activities of the Department of Agriculture in the immediate interest of the farmer. Since the organization of the department in 1881, the total appropriations have exceeded $180,000,000, the last ten annual appropriations averaging over $12,000,000 and the appropriation for next year amounting to almost $18,000,OOO. This work has been undertaken by the federal government for various reasons. The problems confronting the farmers are of such a character that they c.annot be solved by individual effort, requiring painstaking investigation and elaborate experimentation in order to secure reliable results. Moreover, many of the problems concerning a given crop are the same throughout the whole country and the results obtained from investigations are therefore equally applicable throughout the land. Hence, the economy of investigating such problems through thoroughly organized agencies, by specially trained investigators in well equipped laboratories, experiment stations and experiment farms and in the most thorough manner. The success obtained and the inestimable benefits accruing to agriculture have naturally led to extensions of the work in every direction. This information is brought to his very door by the rural free delivery, in the form of bulletins, and even by agents of the department whose function it is to educate him in farm management and farm economics in the broadest sense of the terms. Commissions are sent abroad in his interest to report on improved methods of agriculture, to invesgate agricultural credit systems through which his effective capital may be increased. Roads are improved so as to facilitate hauling from the farm to the shipping point and finally the federal government is planning to investigate for him the methods of marketing his produce so as to yield the largest net returns. While this work has been undertaken at the instance of the farmer, it has no doubt been of direct benefit to the consumer as well. American agriculture in the 90’s was facing a serious crisis through the failure of crops resulting from droughts, the ravages of insect pests, the wide-spread prevalence of plant diseases (then little understood), etc. The small profits of farming, the long hours of hard labor, the difficulties of securing farm help and the relative

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NOTES AND EVENTS 48 1 unattractiveness of farm life led to the extensive abandonment of the farm and a further increase of the congestion of our already overcrowded cities, and something had to be done to remedy conditions. Without any question the benefits resulting to American agriculture and the allied industries through the work of the Agricultural Department have yielded returns many times exceeding the sums appropriated by the government. It is hardly necessary to point out that the urban classes of our population are equally entitled to federal consideration. Municipal problems are multiplying fast and only a few of our cities have the means to undertake their solution. Moreover, this can only be attempted with a reasonable assurance of success under the most favorable conditions, so that a comprehensive program is practically out of the question in any of them. Since the individual cities are not equipped to undertake this important work as it should be taken up, it might be suggested that much could be accomplished through their cooperation, but this is obviously impossible under existing conditions on account of the lack of authority. The remaining alternative of enlisting the assistance of the federal government is the only feasible one which offers itself and it is to be hoped that the further consideration of the BruBre-Mitchell proposal will bring this issue to an early decision. F. A. WOLFF. * Accounting Notes.-A Handbook. Unquestionably the most important event during the last quarter to those interested in municipal accounting was the publication by the Met2 Fund (New York bureau of municipal research) of a handbook on municipal accounting.’ St. Louis’ new system. A special report descriptive of St. Louis’ new accounting system was issued by Comptroller Taussig of that city in April. The system 1See review of same by Martin A. Gxniinder in “R.,ok Reviews.” Infra. was devised and installed by Peter White, C.P.A. The report which was also prepared under his direction is both interesting and instructive. The facsimile productions of the new accounting forms are of special value. Some of the defects requiring further action in order to correct them are clearly enumerated, the chief one being in the budget procedure. In devising a cost system for the park department use has widely been made of the mnemonic classification. The classiI fication of appropriations by departments, bureaus, accounts and objects has been based on an actual analysis of vouchers showing the city’s purchases. A combination of .figures and letters, (not however the mnemonics) comprises the code designations which will be used in the accounting and auditing processes. A complete index of commodities comprehended within each of the twenty standard accounts has been prepared for use of the city departments. Other classifications. In connection with the budget classifications of St. Louis above noted, accounting officers and students should also be familiar with the classifications recommended by the President’s commission on economy and efficiency; also with those developed by Chicago, New York and Cincinnati. The department of public works in Philadelphia has probably donemore in theline of cost keeping with the mnemonic symbol than any other city. Street cleaning costs. Commissioner Edwards of New York has estabkshed a bureau of efficiency and statistics, the principal function of which will be to develop unit costs of cleaning the New York streets. The system was devised with the assistance of the New York bureau of municipal research and installed in April. Owing to the varied methods employed in cleaning and the varied kinds of streets cleaned the task of devising an adequate cost system was most difficult. At the end of each month it is planned to transfer the unit costs to graphic charts for the information of the entire executive force.

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482 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Springfield also wants unit costs. Before the report of the recent survey Springfield, Mass., was published the department of streets and engineering anticipated its conclusions and retained the New York bureau of municipal research to devise and install a complete system of unit costs. Pacific coast cities also surveyed. The New York bureau also surveyed during the last quarter the city accounting and business methods of Los Angeles, Cal., and Portland, Ore., also the administrative methods of the Port of Portland. Both of the former reports, including the constructive recoirimendations, are being printed in parnphlet form by citizen committees in the respective cities.‘ HERBERT R. SANDS. PL Proportional R epr e s en t a tl on.-The election of city councils, especially in connection with the manager plan of .city government, by the “proportional” or unanimous-constituency system has been actively urged during the past few months by the American Proportional Representation League. The particular plan of proportional representation advocated for this purpose is the Hare, often called the “single transferable vote,” essentially like that used for the election of the parliament, of Tasmania and the senate of South Africa, and to be used, if the home rule bill becomes law, for both the senate and the house of Iieland. Under this plan, themembers of the council would be elected from multi-m.embered districts and preferably at large for the whole city, and each would be sent in by a unanimous-constituency of supporters built up at the election itself, without any primaries, by means of the preferential ballot used. An explanation of the system, the full text of theprovisions necessary for carrying it out, and the advantages claimed for it in connection with the manager plan are contained intheLeague’s “Pam* Thls work hss been under the dlrect supe;vlslon of ur. Sands hlmSdf.--EDITOR. phlet No. 2,” copies of which have been placed at the office of the REVIEW for free distribution to any reader who may apply for it. The idea of electing the council, under the manager plan, by the Hare system has been received with favor in many quarters, notably by individual members of several of the charter commissions now sitting in Ohio cities and by the Socialist party’s information bureau and committee on municipal government.2 In no American city at the time this is written, however, has proportional representation been actually adopted for the election of the council. Los Angeles election. On March 24, when several proposed amendments to the charter of Los Angeles were put to ,vote, an amendment providing for the election of the council by a novel method of proportional representation, devised by George H. Dunlop, was defeated. Advocates of the amendment were encouraged by the result, however, for although the campaign of education lasted but a few weeks, the amendment came within three votes per precinct of carrying and a counter proposition to go back to the ward system was defeated by over 12,000 votes. Lord Avebury’s death. I regret to have to record the death on May 28 of Lord Avebury, better known by his earlier title of Sir John Lubbock. For many yews Lord Avebury has been president of the Proportional Representation Society (of Great Britain), to whose effective propaganda work is largely due the adoption of the Hare system in Tasmania and South Africa and its incorporation in the parliament of Ireland bill. American Proportional Representation League. The general organization in this country devoted to proportional representation especially and to preferential majority voting incidentally is the American Proportional Representation League, the officers of which are as follows: President, William Dudley 2 See Subdlvlslon V1 of this department.

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NOTES AND EVENTS Foulke; vice-presidents, Prof. J. R. Commons, W. S. U’Ren, and Mrs. Louis F. Post; secretary-treasurer for Canada, Robert Tyson, 20 Harbord Street, Toronto; secretary-treasurer for the United States., C. G. Hoag, Haverford, Pa. (June 1 to October 1, Tamworth, N. H.). For work in New York and New Jersey a new organization has been formed, the Representative Government League. The officers are: President, John E. Eaatmond; secretary, W. Ward Damon; treasurer, Albert E. Woolf. The offices of this League are at Room 904, 154 Nassau Street, New York City. C. G. HOAG. * Electoral Reform.-Misso uri. The McGrath municipal primary bill follows the state primary law. Each candidate is required to file a declaration within twelve days before election naming the office to ,which he aspires. He must make a deposit of 5 per cent of one year’s salary, the money to be paid to the chairman of the city central committee. The entire cost of the primary is borne by the city. No person is permitted to vote unless he is known to be afliliated with the political party he names. The voter must obligate himself by oath or affirmation to vote the ticket of the party named. Candidates of each party must meet and formulate a city platform on the Tuesday following the primary. New York. Governor Sulaer is making an active campaign for the adoption of a real direct primary. It is expected a special session of the legislature will be called to consider it. Among the literature being distributed by the governor is a pamphlet containing his message and a report on the Sulzer bill for state-wide direct primaries and an explanation of its features. Pennsylvania. A bill for the registration and enrollment of the voters of the state according to their respective party affiliations at the time of registration has been passed. Philadelphia. The city solicitor has given an opinion that the members of the police department could be used to canvass assessors’ and registry lists of voters to check up their accuracy. * Police News.--S uff ia g e p a ia d e s . The police departments of many cities have had difficulty during the past few months in policing sufIrage parades properly, but the New York police department afTorded adequate protection to the suffrage paraders this year by assigning an officer and ten men to each 200 feet, with an adequate reserve force. A street crowd which is unable to protect suffrage paraders through motives of chivalry can easily be compelled to respect their rights by an adequate police force. Chicago report. The Chicago police report contains little of interest to the student of police administration. Its discussion of police problems is confined to about six pages. It contains no statistics of complaints and convictions, rendering the deduction of indices of efficiency impossible. About seventy pages are devoted to details of personnel of the force and to individual cases handled by the force. Reprints of the reports of bureau chiefs comprise most of the remaining pages of a pamphlet of 140 pages. Annual parades. Most of the large cities in this country have an annual police parade in spring. Almost all the members of the force take part in this parade and devote many weeks to drilling for it. It is believed that this drilling improves the morale of the force and that the martial appearance and the numerical strength of the force on parade has a salutary effect in increasing the esteem in which the force is held by the public. It is doubtful whether under modern conditions the annual police parade accomplishes either of these two results. Men who are obliged to devote to drilling a portion of the time usually devoted by them to rest and relaxation derive comparatively little benefit therefrom, especially when it is confined to only a few weeks of the year. The at

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484 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW titude of the street crowds on parade day clearly indicates that the parade exposes the men to ridicule rather than to increase the esteem in which they are held. It is believed that an annual field day for the police with athletic games in which the policemen and the members of their families take part and to which the general public is invited would do much more to improve the physical condition of the men and increase the esteem in which they are held than an annual parade. LEONHARD FELIX FULD. * New York City Health Department Promotion System.-Under the general civil service rules in force in New York City, all promotions from one salary grade to the next higher grade must be made from among the first three persons standing on the promotion eligible list as a result of a competitive exsmination in which eligible departmental employees are rated according to their responses to questions on their duties, on their length of service, and on their efficiency as rated at quarterly intervals by the efficiency board of the department. Commissioner Lederle, of the department of health, in his executive order No. 84, develops the rules in several respects : a. In cases of promotion from one salary grade to the next higher grade, he appoints absolutely the person whose name stands at the head of the eligible list instead of one of the three as required by law. b. In cases of advancement in salary within a civil service salary grade he appoints the employee highest on the promotion eligible list for the next higher grade. In the absence of a promotion eligible list he advances to the higher salary the employe having the best civil service efficiency and seniority record. c. Instead of establishing separate promotion eligible lists for each bureau and division of the department as is permitt,ed by .the civil service rules he establishes a single promotion eligible list for the entire department. As vacancies are of more frequent occurrence in the department than they are in any single bureau of the department this system increases the chances of each individual on the promotion eligible list. By this development Dr. Lederle rcmoves the subject of promotions entirely from the realm of political influences. 47 Imperial and Local Taxation in England.-There is a growing dissatisfaction among municipal corporations in England with the policy of the national government in forcing new duties upon the local governments involving ever increasing expenses for matters that in the opinion of the local authorities are national and.not local concerns. This dissatisfaction is voiced in questions in parliament and in public expression in meetings of local officers of all kinds. The London Municipal Journal scores the government in a sarcastic editorial on this point, criticising particularly the local government board (John Burns) and the chancellor of the exchequer (David Lloyd George) for their attitude in the matter and ridiculing the departmental committee on imperial and local taxation appointed in April, 1911, for not having as yet come to any conclusions on these questions. * Pittsburgh Tax Readjustment.-Practically all revenue for municipal purposes in Pittsburgh is raised by taxing real estate. About four-sevenths of this revenue is raised from the value of land, while the other three-sevenths comes from the value of improvements. There is now afoot in the city, however, an energetic movement to remove half of the present tax from real estate improvements, one-fifth of such reduction to be made each year for a period of five yers. Incidentally the measure seems to be favored by Mayor Magee, who is credited with ability to get it through.

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NOTES AND EVENTS 485 School Funds in New York City.-The question has been raised by the board of education whether or fot the finance department of the city government has the right to fix the total amount of the school appropriation and fix the amounts to be spent for specific purposes. The board contends that in so doing the finance department is assuming duties that are purely a matter of school administration while the department claims that it is compelled to take this course to protect the taxpayers. At present there is no clear definition of the legal Eitatus of the board’s claim. * St. Louis Financial Economy.-According to the Star, Comptroller Benj. J. Taussig, of St. Louis, has saved his city $4,000,000 by his arduous attention to his office, elimination of political sinecures and purchase of supplies at extortionate charges, and introduction of modern business methods and accountng in the business affairs of the city. 111. CITY PLANNING England’s Housing Problem Not Solved.-England has been working for the betterment of housing conditions for a good many years and in the course of those years has tried most known methods. Its garden city of Letchworth, its garden villages and suburbs like Bournville, Port Sunlight, Hampstead and Ealing, have won deserved recognition because of their demonstration that good housing is good from every point of view, economic and human. Its tremendous efforts to annihilate the slums by buying them up, demolishing old buildings and erecting wholesome dwellings in their place, all at public expense, have been worth their cost, if not to the cities which paid the bills, at least to the rest of the world which watched and learned that here was a sure method of bankrupting the municipality before the end aimed at had been achieved. Its individual workers, among the foremost of whom must be reckoned the late Miss Octavia Hill, showed on the other hand that hope and solvency lie in putting the burden for improvement of slum houses on the owner and the tenant, whose cooperation in working for higher standards will redound to the benefit of themselves and the community. A similar work has been successfullv carried on since 1896 AND IMPROVEMENT housing problem of the poorest paid wage earners. Last, England has tried legislation. Its housing acts of 1890 and of 1909 are tremendous in purpose and in scope. And unquestionably they have been producing results. But also unquestionably they have not produced such results as were expected. The National Housing and Town Planning Council publishes in the Municipal Journal’ a memorandum which expresses , its disappointment over the results of this legislation, gives what it believes are the reasons for the present unsatisfactory situation and proposes remedies. “It is possible,” says the council, “to travel from Aberdeen to Plymouth and not find a hopelessly unfit factory, whereas at almost every village and town en route there are houses which are quite unfit for people to live in, and if the present rate of progress in destsoying * August 3, 1912. As a result of thla agltation a bill was introduced in parliament, entitled “The Housing of the Working Claaaes Bill,” which contained many of the recommendations in the memorandum, lncludlng the proposals for state grants for housing. This bill had the support of members of all partiee though introduced as a private bill by a member of the opposition. It passed second rcading in the house of commons but was killed In committee as the result of an announcement by John Burns, president of the hv the Octavia Hill Association in Philalocal government-boald, on May I, 1913, that the ...I ..._ . ... . ~.~ delphia, while in N~~ york the late Miss sdmlnistration would not 8RnCtiOn the grants Of money called for. “The government were opposed Ellen Collins demonstrated the practicato the gmnt,$s he said, ”because in their it bility of this method of dealing with the was wrong in principle and inadequate inamount.”

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486 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW unfit houses is continued, then some slums will be existing in a hundred years’ time.” Such a prospect is discouraging to a nation which has come to realize through bitter experience that unwholesome housing is undermining its stamina and efficiency. But the reason for this slow progress is, in the council’s opinion, easily found. It is a reason quite familiar to Americans, divided responsibility. Those monumental acts of 1890 and of 1909 were mandatory in their language, as they should be if anything was to be expected of them. They were emphatic, too, in stating that houses unfit for human habitation shall be closed or destroyed and that those not in all respects reasonably fit for human habitation shall be made reasonably fit. But the duty of determining what is unfit or not reasonably fit and of acting on the determination was divided between the local authorities, many of whom are gentlemen who own houses of a kind upon which it is their duty to reach a determination, and the local government board, one of the divisions of the national government. “The attitude of the local government board in regard to the administration of the housing acts,’’ says the housing council, “has for many years been of a passive rather than an active kind, and the tradition governing this action has in effect been that the full and complete responsibility falls not upon the local government board, but upon the local authority. ” The housing council adds, “in the case of factory legislation parliament has given the work of administration to a specially organized and capable body of civil servants with one code, and only one code, to administer, and the compliance with this code, and the disagreeable task of insisting on such compliance has not been left to locally elected bodies of men, in some cases interested in the property concerned.” So England has an effective administration of its factory legislation and a non-effective administration of its housinglegislation. But instead of proposing that the lesson thus clearly set forth in its own memorandum be followed, the council recommends a half-way measure. “The problem,” it says, “is not one of defining spheres of responsibility, but taking strenuous action to deal with an evil of grave national importance . . . . thereshall beestablishedat the board afully equipped department for the purpose of stimulating housing action and definitely seeking out those areas in which housing duties are neglected and insisting on their proper performance.” In order to accomplish this the local government board shall have a staff of traveling officers who shall seek out the most insanitary districts and “without spending unnecessary time in making exhaustive inquiries” report on conditions. Then the board shall use its power to make the local authorities do their duty. This work is much like that now done in America by volunteer citizens’ associations, the national organizations supplying the necessary experts for investigation and advice, the local ones bringing the pressure to bear upon the authorities. The English plan has an advantage in that the local government board has legal powers which a citizens’ association has not, but the American method has the very great advantages that it is, first, of practical, educational value in self government and, second, that the pressure is exerted by local citizens upon their representatives, not by an outside power whose interference may be resented as that of an interloper aiming to diminish local self-government. But in the opinion of the housing council, apparently, dependence can not be placed on English citizens’ organizations. “It may be objected,” the memorandum continues, “that the local authorities will resent this ‘interference’ on the part of the board. Parliament, however, in placing these duties upon the local authorities, has recognized that local public opinionis not sufficient tosecure remedid action.”

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NOTES AND EVENTS 487 In this memorandum the failure of English housing methods to date to meet in adequate measure the greatest need is virtually admitted by the council’s argument for government aid in building houses which shall be rented at far below a fair return on the investment. “We anticipate,” it says, “that many objections will be taken on the ground of economic soundness, but as these objections were not taken in the case of Irish laborers, we fail to recognize their validity in the case of English laborers. The truth is that the whole policy of dealing with these conditions of disease is unsound from an economic point of view. . . . Parliament has, however, quite wisely determined to put an end to conditions of disease.” In other words, the English laborer does not earn enough to enable him to rent a wholesome dwelling. Living in an unwholesome dwelling his health and his efficiency are being so greatly injured that his condition constitutes a national calamity. So immediate is the need for remedial measures that it is proposed to make a whole class, the great majority industrious and willing workers, recipients of alms. But discouragement is not complete, for this situation is experted to be but temporary. The council continues, “We take the view that the charge of properly housing a workman should be a charge on the industry in which he works, and that his wage should be sufficient to enable him to pay a reaAonable rent for a proper home without my state assistance at all. Until parliament, however, decides to take action to secure this end the problem of housing the poor will remain, and action which seems to be uneconomic must, as a temporary measure, be taken in order that much graver evils may be averted.” In America there are abominable housing conditions; probably instances can be found here as bad as any in England. But have we or are we getting a class, excluding defectives who are proper subjects for state aid, who are unable to earn enough to pay an economic rent for a wholesome house? 5 Cincinnati’s Smoke Crusade+Cincinnati is setting an example worthy of emulation in a successful crusade against the smoke nuisance. In 1906 a group of public spirited men and women of this city, actuated by the desire to improve conditions hit upon a definite project of aiming to rid the city of its pall of smoke. They organized the Smoke Abatement League and for seven years this organization haa followed a consistent policy of education, for it declared that the smoke problem was an economic one and that its solution was one of education. At its seventh annual meeting in February the superintendent, Edward S. Jerome, presented a report that was a record of distinct gain. He stated that no other city in the United Sates had supported for so long a period a voluntary association having for its one object the abatement of the smoke nuisance. Emphasizing the educational aspect of the campaign, he said: It becomes more and more manifest that we are in a campaip of education. Those engaged in it realize more keenly than ever before that fitful, spasmodic efforts accom lish little. To go out and watch a smoting stack is the simplest thing in the world; to make an arrest of an offender is not difficult; to secure the imposition of a fine is comparatively an easy matter; but to actually stop the smoke-ay, ‘there’s the rub.’ This campaign requires the dissemination of literature bearing on this subject, calling attention to it and throwing light on it; it involves speaking here and there throughout the city in order to awaken interest and to keep that interest from flagging and dying out; it needs an arrest now and then of those careless and indifferent who must be made to realize that this is not a matter of opinion, but of administration of the law. It requires a happy admixture of tact and firmness to secure the cooperation of those responsible for this nuisance-and that’s the great ublic, without whose cooperation our efPorts will be well-nigh fruitless. JOHN IHLDBR.~ 1. Fleld secretary, Nstlonsl Houslng Asaoclatlon.

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488 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW And the Cincinnati Smoke Abatement League haa won that caperation. In 1912 it employed, besides its superintendent, three inspectors whose work includ’ed in twelve months 102,138 separate and distinct watchings from twenty minutes to two hours; the sending of 286 notices to offenders and 640 personal visits to plrtnts. A most important result of the work of this organization has been the passage of a new smoke ordinance by the council which prescribes that “the chicf smoke inspector shall be qualified by training and experience in the theory and practice of the construction of boilers and furnaces, proper combustion of fuel, and the theory and practice of smoke abatement.” Under a civil service examination a new inspector was appointed and has for some months been in charge of the city’ssmoke department. This is in sharp contrast to the general custom that prevails of appointing as inspectors men not qua.lified for the educational work of the position but overimpressed with the idea that their principal function is that of a police officer and the best test of their efficiency the number of arrests they can make, whether convictions follow or not and whether or not the offender has been instructed as to the correct method of handling his furnace and boiler. As soon as the new inspector waa installed the policy of his department became one of help and advice. In the future, plans for the installing of furnaces and boilers will be referred to his office, the result of which, it is predicted, will be that no more smoking plants will be constructed. * City Improvement Items.-Denver. FredeFick Law Olmsted contributes to The City of Denver his plan for developing the civic center. The plan is an ambitious one and represents the aspirations of a city that has already made considerable progress in the direction of municipal improvement. Toledo. The mayor (Brand ,Whitlock) describes at length in the Real Estate Majatzne the plans of Toledo for a civic center. San Francisco. By a vote of 45,129 to 435 against the proposition to issue $8,800,OOO of bonds to erect a city hall and create a civic center was approved. The vote waa the largest ever polled at a special election. Boston. Mayor Fitzgerald has petitioned the legislature to allow the board of street commissioners of Boston to alter and improve Copley Square by eliminating the original diagonal street across it. Sun Antonio, Texas has given a contract to Myron H. West of Chicago for the preparation of a comprehensive city plan. New YOT~ City. The court house board having charge of the selection of the plans for the new county court house to be erected within the area of the proposed civic center, has selected Guy Lowell as architect, he being one of twenty-two competitors. The cost of the building will be $10,000,000. Paris. A league for open places hm been organized. In a recent pamphlet is discussed the question of drainage and sports and the work that needs to be done in the conversion of the old fortifications into open places is described. Omaha. The suggestion has been mad9 that a boulevard be run along the path of the recent tornado. According to the Chicago News: Instead of bestowing unproductive sympathy on the people of Omaha who were victims of the tornado which struck that city on Easter Sunday, the rest of the nation’s population should congratulate them on their serene acceptance of the untoward visitation and their apparent determination to turn it to good account. That city is laying plana to make its tornado permanent1 useful. . . . The tornado struc% through a part of the city that re uires a new line of communication. 8y one hard stroke the path has been swept clean. Now ways and means are suggested for completing the job. Albany. The City Planning Association is havingremarkable success. Its weekly Wednesday noon luncheons are attended by from 150 to 200 persons and

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NOTES AND EVENTS Pa9 much enthuaiasm has been manifested. There is a strong desire to have Arnold W. Brunner prepare a plan for the city, but as yet the coaperation of the city authorities has not been secured. He has however submitted a plan for the river front improvement which has been tentatively accepted. Chicago. Jarvis Hunt has submitted plans for a great central union terminal for passenger and freight traffic which was set forth in detail in a recent issue of Chicago Commerce. Boston. The Metropolitan League has issued its third bulletin summarizing the improvements for the year 1912. Newark and Jersey City. Sundry plans have been issued by the city plan commission. Bulletin No. 2 is rt brief preliminary report prepared by George B. Ford and E. P. Goodrich. A “Report on the City Plan of Newark, New Jersey” prepared by the city planning engineer of the department of public works (C. F. Puff, Jr.) has been published by the board of street and water commissioners. “Efficiency in City Planning” is the title of a report recently submitted by E. P. Goodrich and George B. Ford to the city planning commissions of these communities. In the latter city there was a municipal exhibit held from April 28 to May 3, in which each city department showed in concrete form what it was doing for the citizens. Its city planning commission has been issuing a series of short articles dealing with street cleaning and the regulation of street traffic. New York. The annual reports of the chief engineer of the board of estimate and apportionment (Mr. Nelson P. Lewis) 4ave come to be looked upon as important contributions to constructive city planning work. Pittsburgh. An effort is making in the present legislature to secure the passage of an act giving the city the right to establish a city planning commission. Mayor Magee is greatly interested in this phase of city work. Several notable contributions have been made to a practical solution of serious difficulties. St. Paul. The commissioner of public works has published the report of the city engineer which is an interesting discussion of various phases of city development and contains a comprehensive study of its improvement. * The Harvard School of Landscape Architecture has issued its tentative classification scheme covering the fieId of city planning, which has been in preparation since the establishment of its special reference library in 1911. The scheme is intended not only to provide for the classification of reference material-books, pamphlets, maps, plans, photographs, plates, and post cards in the library, but also to serve t19 a basis for the arrangement of notes and other professional data. It will be used in classifying the titles in the bibliography of city planning now being compiled jointly by the Library of Congress and the school. It has further interest in suggesting aspects of the field on which as yet little has been published. The scheme is constructed on the general principles of the Library of Congress classification, whicjl was found to contain no adequate provision for the particular field of city planning. A similar scheme for landscape architecture, in which also the Library of Congress classification scheme is deficient, has been developed by the school and will be issued later. The preliminary outline may be obtained at ten cents. The complete city planning classification scheme was published June 1 by the University at fifty cents a copy. * Dresden Allotment Gardens.-Allotment gardening in and about Dresden is a flourishing and popular industry.’ For a nominal sum any citizen may rent a plat of ground on the edge of the town, well. I According to Vlce-Coneul General R. C. Tred

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490 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW which may be used to grow vegetables or flowers or may be fitted up as a recreation spot for his family. A committee exists whose business it is to see that general uniformity of scheme prevails amongthe amateur gardeners. The usual rent is 2 cents a square yard per annum. Most of the allotments are laid out on otherwise useless tracts of land on the outskirts of the city. They are usually owned by private persons, but in some instances the city is the original owner, and rents the ground to someone else, who subdivides it and re-rents it in small areas. The lessees come from all walks of life. The greatest. beneficiaries are small tradespeople, postal employees and industrial workers who put in their spare time to good use by growing vegetables and flowers. This scheme is especially important and feasible in cities ranging in population from 200,000 to 500,000 where the densely crowded centers are not too far from the edge o the town. * Continuous House Cleaning in Detroit. -The sanitary committee of the Detroit Health League is weary of occasional well-doing and has decided upon having fifty-two “clean-up weeks” in the year instead of one. The dommittee is to be composed of three delegates from the .board of commerce, each civic organization, and each fraternal organization in the city. The city is laid out into two divisions with two chairmen over each division; each ward is to have two supervisors and each precinct is to have aids to the supervisors. In this way the whole city is laid out and responsibility fixed. Mrs. Mary S. Seabold is the secretary of the committee. * Troy Civic Betterment.-The Troy Chamber of Commerce is making an effort to bring about civic improvement by way of the various small civic association and fraternal societies which are urged to induce their members toimprove their properties and lawns, plant flowers and shrubbery, and remove waste and unsightly conditions. Good results are already evident from the effort. CP Central Park Creators to be Honored. -The New York City Club isfostering a movement to provide a suitable memorial to Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux to whose efforts the city is indebted for its celebrated Central Park, the first in America designed in the beginning for public purposes. CP Vacuum Street Cleaners.-Manchester, England, is testing a patent vacuum stre?t cleaner invented by J. and P: Hill of Sheffield, and the experiments so far indicate that the new cleaner is far superior to the old type in that there remain no sweepings to be cleared up by manual labor and that dust raised by the horse dram broom is avoided. CP The Home and School League of Philadelphia has made an appeal to its members to cooperate with the bureau of highways and street cleaning in improving the condition of the city streets, The women and children are asked to act m volunteer inspectors and to assist in arousing interest in the condition of the streets among the citizens in their own neighborhood. * City Planning.-The April number of Landscape Architecture is devoted to the city planning studies submitted to the National Conference on City Planning at its Chicago meeting.

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NOTES AND EVENTS IV. POLITICS 49 1 The Recent Overturn in Houst0n.L The primary election for mayor and city commissioners of Houston on March 7 resulting in the complete defeat of the administration party marked the culmination of ’ an extremely bitter conflict. The administration had been in office for eight .years, in fact ever since the commission form of government was there introduced, but the only member of the commission returned in the primaries was the finance commissioner who refused to run on the administration ticket. Mayor Rice was not a candidate for reelection, but eudorsed a Mr. Geiselman, a butcher and meat dealer, for the place. Of the three daily papersin Houston two were anti-administration organs and one supported the administration candidates. The issues involved in the election, according to the views of the two sides were as follows. The administration claimed to have expended money for large municipal improvements such as many miles of streetpaving and sewer building, and therefore to be unable for lack of money to have the streets and open ditches kept as clean as might have been desired. As it was, the lack of funds necessitated the incurrence of large debts for permanent improvements, which debts were fought by many influential citizens who, in the eyes of administration supporters, were not used to modern city conveniences and refused to be taxed for them. The anti-administration forces, on the other hand, accused the authorities of extravagance in administration and of letting contracts without calling for competititive bids. But the keynote of the campaign, as both sides admit, was the complaint that the administration 1 The writer is indebted for a very Interesting survey of the Houston situation, from which many of the facts here stated are taken, to a communication from Frank Putnem, late commissioner of the clty of Houston to study the administration of European cities. Mr. Putnam was a warm supporter of the former administration. refused access to the books. According to the administration supporters the authorities complied ,with the law in rendering an annual account and merely refused access to the books to representatives of hostile newspapers who wished to use certain items as a basis for attack. The successful candidate, Ben Campbell, Baid after the election: I announced my candidacy for office because I did not think that Houston was getting her money’s worth in city government and because the people are not allowed full information as to the public affairs. The result ihdicates that the people had the same idea. There was not enough competitive bidding for contracts with the city. The business was conducted in perfunctory manner in the open sessions of the board of commissioners . His view seems to have been born out by the election returns which showed a victory of nearly two to one for the Campbell ticket. The other successful candidates were J. J. Pastoriza, finance commissioner under the former administration who declining to run for renomination on its ticket; H. A. Halverton a merchant of the city and one-time alderman; Matt Drennan a business man and former alderman, and Dave Fitagerald, a deputy tax collector. The results of the primary were of course virtually conclusive and were confirmed in the regular election on April 14, the only opposition ticket being that of the Socialists. It may be of interest to note what Frank Putnam, a student of municipal affairs and warm supporter of the Rice administration, thinks of the result of the election in Houston. He sums up his conclusions in these words “The average voter sees more clearly a small fault of administration than a large benefit; it is still easily possible for a brilliant sophist, if eloquent, to sway the majority to mob-madness, the more easily if he is aided by widely circulate1 newspapers willing for business reasons

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492 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW to distort by misrepresentation and suppression essential facts concerning the faction which they oppose; government by newspaper may soon become as much a menace to sound public service as government by public service corporations.” We might add the interesting assertion by the same person that Mr. Geiselman, the butcher candidate “was opposed by hundreds of workingmen voters on the ground that being a plain workingman he was not a sufficiently. elegant figure to represent the city on formal occasions.” Nevertheless he was the only candidate “who spoke no evil of any man,” never lost his temper nor descended to personalities but confined his platform and his very brief public talks to a consideration of the issues of public service. HERMAN G. JAMES. 9 The St. Louis Election.-A complete new municipal ticket ww elected in St. Louis on April 1-the mayor, comptroller, collector, president of the board of public improvements, auditor, treasurer, marshal, assessor, city register, inspector of weights and measures, twenty-eight members of the house of delegates and a president and six members of the city council. Six former members of the city council hold over for two years longer, as do also the mayor’s mid-term appointees. The recent administration was Republican. The election did not present any issue in so far as party platforms were concerned. They were all practically identical. The election resolved itself largely into a question of personal fitness. St. Louis is neither a Democratic nor a Republican city. The margin between the two parties has been so small for a long time that a comparatively slight influence could swing the election either way. In this situation the newly reorganized municipal voters’ league was able to play a conspicuous part. While not endorsing any one of the four candidates for mayor, the other nominees on the general ticket endorsed by the municipal voters’ league were elected almost without exception and all by a margin of between two and three thousand votes in a total vote of 115,000. The voters’ league had much less effect in electing ward representatives. A Republican mayor waa elected largely through independent strength and the support of an evening paper run on Hearst lines. St. Louis elected a Democratic comptroller, a Democratic president of the board of public improvements by a plurality of 85 votes, and three Republican and three Democratic councilmen. It is gratifying to note that men who had been in office and were running for regleetion were reelected where their record showed them conspicuously fit and were defeated where their record showed them to be unfit. A clean record waa the qualification of the municipal voters’ league and the league controlled just about enough votes-three to four thousand-to swing the election either way. On the whole, St. Louis will have the next four years, a strong municipal administration. The most interesting feature of the whole campaign was the nominations under the new municipal primary act recently passed by the legislature. It was St. Louis’ first experience with a good party primary. The primary was the means for putting out of existence the “big boss” in politics. One Democratic candidate for mayor, backed by a “big boss,” although well qualified, waa beaten by an opponent of unsuspected strength because of the popular feeling against bossism. The city also elected a board of freeholders to draft a new charter for the city, following the defeat of a proposed new charter two years ago. Popular government is really becoming an actuality in St. Louis. It has within six months adopted an initiative and referendum amendment to the charter, authorized the drafting of a new charter, secured a fairly effective primary act and

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NOTES AND EVENTS 493 elected as strong a municipal ticket as could be secured from the candidates presented. ROGER N. BALDWIN. 9 Mayor Thum’s Administration.-One of the most interesting municipal documents of the year is the report submitted by the mayor of Pasadena, Cal., William Thum, in May, giiring in detail-the work done during his administration of the affairs of that beautiful and well managed city. Pasadena has just turned its government over to five commissioners under charter amendments adopted last year. Mayor Thum is a believer in the new sytem, and it was largely through his influence and with his earnest support that the change was made. Unfortunately for Pasadena, Mr. Thum positively refused to be a candidate for a place on the commission; and thereport of his stewardship made when he retired is convincing proof of the city’s loss in his return to private life. In fact, commission government will have to make an unusual record in Pasadena if it shall improve upon the pace set by this modest and unpretending business man in his administrationof its affairs. Mayor Thum gave the city the enormous advantage of having its business conducted with all the care and attention to detail which characterizes the management of a well organized private business. He gave it all of his time; working almost day and night to systematize and coordinate the departments and the administration as a whole. He organized and, under many difficulties, put into successful operation an efficiency bureau. He caused an expert valuation of the properties of the various water companies of the city to be made, and succeeded in effecting a purchase of them on a just and mutually satisfactory basis. He ably championed the cause of municipal ownership and operation of the electric light business, under exceptionally trying conditions; and both the water and light departments made creditable records of efficiency. With a large and wise prevision, he negotiated with the neighboring and adjoining cities of South Pasadena, Alhambra and Los Angeles for joint conduct of municipal enterprises in which they have a com. mon interest. Taken by and large, Mayor Thum’s official record is really monumental. JOHN J. HAMILTON. 9 Cuban MunicipalE1ections.-The Gaceta Adrninistrativa of Havana gives the returns from the late elections for mayors of the Cuban municipalities. The elections were for a period of four years beginning in December, 1912, and the results by provinces were as follows: Pinar del Rio, conservatives 9, liberals 6; Habana, conservatives 9, liberals 13; Matanzas, conservatives 9, liberals 10; Santa Clara, conservatives 17, liberals 11; Camaguey, conservatives 4, liberals 1; Oriente, conservatives 10, liberals 6. In all six provinces therefore, there were elected conservative mayors in 58 municipalities and liberal in 47. 9 London County Council.-Every three years there is an election for members. There are 58 electoral divisions in the administrative council. The city division returns four members and all the other 57 two each, making a total of 118. As a result of the election held this year the membership of the council is made up as follows: municipal reformers, 67; progressives, 50; labor, 1. The municipal reformers gained 9 seats and the progressives 3. The losses were sustained by the labor and socialist parties. The only present labor member of the council is Miss Susan Lawrence. cp Philadelphia’s Public Service Committee of One Hundred was organized as a result of the last meeting at which Mayor Blankenburg was the main speaker on April 14. This committee, of which James Mapes Dodge, president of the

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494 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Link Belt Manufacturing Company, was its efforts to electing members of council chosen chairman, has worked hard for a who will support the policies of the single legislative chamber elected at mayor. The committee pledges itself large. Failing in securing that at this to divorce the business affairs of the session of the legislature it will devote city from politics. V. CONFERENCES AND ASSOCIATIONS American Art Commissions.-On May 13, a meeting of the members of American art commissions was held in New York, upon the invitation of the past and present members of the art comruission of that City. Representatives of nearly every one of the fifteen municipal art commissions of the country were present. Two states (Connecticut and Massachusetts) have appointed art commissions and the federal government has appointed a national fine arts commiseion, and representatives of these were present. After an address of welcome by Mayor Gaynor, the discussion of the appointment, jurisdiction and work of art commissions was participated in by nearly everyone present. An unusual but very successful feature of the conference was the absence of any prepared paper. No set address at all was delivered. It was all discusson. This applied both to the morning and afternoon sessions. At the morning session the veto power of art commissions was the chief topic. There appeared to be a general agreement that, so fdr as a work of art is concerned, there should be an absolute power of disapproval, either of the work itself or of its location. The term “work of art” in this connection is that used in nearly all legislation creating such commissions, which may be stated aa follows: “The term ‘work of art’ shall include all paintings, mural decorations, inscriptions, stained glass, statues, reliefs, or other sculptures, monuments, fountains, arches, or other structures, intended for ornament or commemoration.” With regard to buildings it appeared to be the more general opinion that art commissions should not have an absolute, but merely a suspensory veto power conferred upon them; so that if it is necessary to proceed immediately with a building for utilitarian reasons, this can be done through the passage, by the particular municipality concerned, of an ordinance directing the prosecution of the work notwithstanding the disapproval of the art commission; provided, a stated majority (generally selected as two-thirds) of the aldermen or councilmen so vote. The importance of giving the power of excess condemnation to cities where art commissions have been appointed was emphasized by the suggestion that where this power is put into execution, art commissions be given authority to pass upon the buildings to go up on the excess property re-sold The suggestion was made that, in the caae of such buildings, the veto power should be absolute. It wa.s generally agreed that the jurisdiction of art commissions should extend not merely to works of art, but to public buildings of all kinds and to all structures of private or semi-public institutions that extend over streets; that it should include the lay-out of parks, parkways, play-grounds and the grounds of public buildings; and that it should also extend to the designs of buildings erected in whole or in part by state or city aid, whether that aid be in the form of appropriation of money or of the setting &side of land for their occupancy. The method of appointing art commissions was discussed slightly. It appeared to be generally agreed that the legislation should in some way limit the choice of the appointing power to a class of men whose judgment would be expert -that is, that the choice should not be from the general public. The example

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NOTES AND EVENTS 495 of Pennsylvania was cited, in which the choice is: A painter, a sculptor. an architect, a member of acommission having control of a public ark in said city. not holding any other o&ce under the city government, and four other persons, not engaged in the practice of the profession of paint,ing, sculpture, or architecture, but, at the date of their appointment, members of the governing body or teaching force of a corporation or corporations organized under the laws of this commonwealth and conducting a school of art or architecture in said city. , There was some support of the appointment of an entirely professional art commission, but there was not sd6cient time for the suggestion to be thoroughly considered. Want of time also prevented discussion as to whether the jurisdiction of art commissions should extend to private dwellings, provided the necessary constitutional changes could be secured, as to which diametrically opposed views were entertained. The afternoon session, held in theMet~opolitan Museum, was devoted chiefly to a discussion of the work of state art commissions and of their methods of appointment. This is a little known field in this country and the two existing statutes are very different. In order t,o present the matter more satisfactorily at the conference next year, to arrange for which a committee was appointed, the chair was authorized to appoint another committee of five, to draft model statutes for both state and municipal art commissions. The committee, appointed since the meeting, consists of John B. Pine, chairman, Arnold VC'. Brunner, both of New York; Andrew Wright Crawford, of Philadelphia; James G. Cutler, of Rochester and Frederick Law Olmsted, of Brookline. At the dinner at the University Club, the New York Art Commission was again the host. The speeches were informal, only one or two individuals having been notified that they would be expected to speak; volunteer speakers were called for and the call was generally responded to. This informal method of holding a convention was an unqualified success. The absence of any paper at all, and the admirable and informative discussions of suggestions proved the lack of wisdom in programmes where three, four or five papers are provided for at one session. In the writer's judgment, one paper is always sufEcient, provided the authorities in charge of the convention know that it is a good paper; if they have not knowledge that it is a good paper, they ought uot fo permit it to be given. The wrrk of art commissions, which has teen growing very quietly for the fifteen years since the appointment of the Boston and New York art commissions, is apt to receive a great impetus in the near future owing to the general realization that when a building is erected, it is erected for a century or more, and the best thought ought to be secured. Expecially is this the case where the cost of such expert advice is so slight. A example of this is shown by the recently issued report of the art jury of Philadelphia, in which the following figures are given: The total cost of forty-five of the sixtyseven submissions made or considered during the year, the total cost as est,imated by the departments or bureaus making the submissions or as shown by contracts, was $9,132,819.00. The total cost of maintaining the art jury during the year,. including equipment and other expenses of the initiation of a new Department, was $3,933.58. One point clearly demonstrated at the meeting is the distinction between the functions of city planning commissions and art commissions. An art commission is really a jury. It does not initiate; it passes judgment upon plans submitted to it. The work of city planning commissions is essentially formative in character. The duty of such a commission is to foresee and to forecast, to propose and to initiate. There has been some confusion in the minds of individuals with regard to the functions of these two bodies, each of which is a new department of city government. This es

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496 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW sential difference between the two should be kept in mind, especially in the formative stages of the work of the two bodies. ANDREW WRIGET CRAW FORD.^ * The Fifth National Conference on City Planning, held at Chicago in May, differed from the preceding meetings in two important ways. For the first time since its organization the conference met west of the Alleghanies in that wideawake section where city planning has manifested its greatest strength. The conference also, for the first time, undertook to supplement its papers and discussions by the presentation of actual plans, drawings and sketches to illustrate more specifically than papers can, some of the ways in which city planning problems may be advantageously worked out. The chairman of the conference, Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, with the cooperation of the members of the executive committee, outlined a city planning program. The subject wad presented under three distinct heads: (1) The development of a city planning movement, including a discussion of the organization of unofficial activities and of official bodies to be charged with the duties of city planning; (2) the principal steps in the preparation of a city plan after the machinery for its preparation is established; (3) methods of putting a city plan into execution. The program which Mr. Olmsted proposed may be Summarized as follows: First, to obtain a knowledge of the facts through a city survey covering information as follows-the facts of the physical environment of the people of the city, the social facts concerning the people themselves and the reactions between them and their physical environment, then the economic and financial facts as to the resources of the community and especially the possible means of bringing those resources to bear upon 1 Secretary of tho Art Jury of Philadelphia. public improvements; finally, the facts as to the legal and administrative conditions which must be reckoned with in any and a11 attempts to change or control the physical environment. The next step in the progrem after the survey is to forecast the probable future growth of the city and to define the more important problems to be met in planning its control. After this, as a third step, is the necessity to seek out tentative solutions of these problems, and the fourth and final step is to collate and compare all the serious projects, to pass judgment upon them and by a process of selection, elimination, and mutual adjustment, to weld them into a selfconsistent and sensible general plan of procedure to be put into execution as opportunity permits. In concluding his paper, Mr. Olmsted pointed out that since the problem is not merely to make a plan, but to cultivate the habit of planning and of following a plan, the people who most need the training and enthusiasm that come with propagandist effort are the permanent officials them: selves. But whether the action is official or unofficial, the early activities areapt to bemainly educational. Among the most effective educational devices is the preparation and publication of whatmay be calledastudyfor acity plan, of which we have had many illustrations during the last four or five years. This study is an indication of what city planning means, presenting the principal aspects, a survey of conditions, a statement of problems, and presentation of solutions and explanation of their adjustment to each other so as to form a consistent whole. The report on the study in city planning, in two parts, was read by the chairman of the committee, Mr. John Nolen. The first consisted of brief general comments on the plans and on some of the directly related principles which underlie the problems which these plans attempt, in a measure, to solve. The second part gave special comments by the committee on the merit of particular

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NOTES AND EVENTS 497 features of each plan. The main purpose of this study in city planning was not that of a competition; so far as possible, it was a cooperative enterprise inaugurated as a means of bringing together, in a form to facilitate comparison, a variety of sound methods each having its own advantages. The tract of land which participants in the study were asked to lay out, consisted of about five hundred acres, which was assumed to be located on the outskirts of a growing city with a population of approximately 500,000 and about four miles from the center of the city. The original cost of the land was $2,500 an acre. The demand was estimated to be mainly for the erection of dwellings and for such other purposes as are normally incidental to such a development -retail stores, local places of amusement, schools, churches etc. Practically half of the population, it was assumed, was engaged in or dependent upon work in nearby factories. The majority of families were to occupy dwellings rentable for from $15 to $30 a month. In its attempt to appraise the more important ideas embodied in the plans submitted by the participants, the committee adopted an outline as a basis for comparison which included all the principal problems of streets, the location and character of civic and neighborhood centers, provision for recreation, the distribution of private property into zones with regard to use and income and the size, shape, and proportion of both blocks and lots. The committee gave not a little attention also to a consideration of finances and methods covering all costs and problems involved in estimating the income on the investment. Significant figures of special interest, based on the statistical statements were as follows: the relative area of property devoted to streets, to parks and to lots ranged from 20 to 28.5 per cent, averaging 25.9 per cent for streets; from 5.5 to 12.9 per cent, averaging 9.3 per cent for parks; from 63 to 74.5 per cent, averaging 64.8 per cent for lots. The average number of families provided for is 6,287, the density of population per acre being 70.1 In some respects, the most important paper presented at the conference was that on transportation in city planning by Milo R. Maltbie, of the public service commission, New York City. His paper was discussed at length. In general, the opinion seemed to prevail that the demand for the construction of subways was in many cases unwarranted and should be restrained; furthermore, that the control of transportation development by the city, which Mr. Maltbie advocated, was of the utmost importance. The 6nal paper was presented by George E. Kessler of St. Louis, and gave the actual distribution of the cost of the Kansas City boulevards. The method followed was that of a form of special assessment against benefited land. In practice the procedure is an amplification of the theory of single land tax. The large financial burden of acquiring land and making permanent improvements has been equably distributed. Land values have been stable and the system has tended toward a segregation of sections for industrial, commercial and residential use. Cambridge, Mass. JOHN NOLEN. * Chicago City Club’s Housing Exhibition.-The growing realization of the importance of good housing not only to the individual but even more to the community and to such important factors in the community aa its industrial, commercial and labor interests, is illustrated by the attention attracted by the qhicago City Club’s housing exhibition. A new element has entered into that’ “city building” which our associations of commerce were organized to further, and it is now recognized that merely to secure new industries or to providemeans for the expansion of existing industries 1The full report of the committee with reprcductlons of the plans has been prlnted aa a supplement. to LQ~SCQ~~ Architffitwa for April, 1913.

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498 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW is not sufficient. There must also be provided homes for the people who are to man these industries, and the city or town which can provide the best homes within the means of the workers will have an advantage of constantly increasing importance. The central feature of the exhibition is a series of some forty plans for the development of a quarter section in an outlying district of Chicago. The competition was not limited to local men, so though the first prize was won by a Chicagoan, Wilhelm Bernhard, the second was won by Arthur C. Comey of Cambridge, Mass., and the third by Albert Lilienberg, chief of the town planning commission of Gothenberg, Sweden, in collaboration with Mrs. Ingrid L. Lilienberg. These plans show a radical departure from the typical rectangular street system which reached its apotheosis in Chicago. Mr. Bernard, in fact, stated that he desired to eliminate as much aa possible the through running traffic from Chicago proper and so designed his street system that through traffic could find no’ direct means of crossing the tract. While this would undoubtedly tend to preserve the individuality of the district and to safeguard its residential character it is at least a question whether a lack of any through streets would not make even so small a piece of land as a quarter section somewhat less desirable aa a unit in the greater Chicago of the future. Mr. Comey seems to lay greater stress upon the fact that the district is not to be sufficient unto itself but is to be an integral part of the city and so provides a .diagonal thoroughfare leading from the corner nearest the down town section of the city. Such a thoroughfare would prove a convenience not only as a part of the street system of the whole city, but also for the district itself, a considerable proportion of whose inhabi!ants must be presumed to have their business down town and so find this radical way a most acceptable short cut to the corner where the transit lines cross. It is notable that the Club in drawing up the rules for the competition limited the possible population of the quarter section to 1280 families. This did away with any temptation which some contestants might have felt to show monumental “model” tenement houses. There are a few multiple dwellings indicated on the plans, but the great majority of the people are given opportunity to live in homes instead of barracks. As a background for the plans the club arranged a very interesting exhibition of existing housing at home and abroad. This exhibition was exceptionally well arranged so that the visitor is gradually led from one phase of the question to another in an orderly sequence which makes the whole more understandable and more interesting. Several organizations .cooperated with the Club in this, the Woman’s City Club, the Woman’s Club, etc., under the direction of Edward L. Burchardl of the School of Civics and Philanthropy. The exhibition is divided into four parts: (I) Historical types of dwellings in Chicago from 1830 to date; (11) Types of dwellings now being erected in Chicago; (111) “In darker Chicago;’’ (IV) Idealistic housing in Europe and America. I Part IV contains not only photographs and plaps of the well known garden city and garden suburb developments in England, Germany and the United States but also a very enlightening series of views and maps illustrating the zoning system of the Germany cities. To these Charles B. Ball added a map of Chicago showing how that city might be divided into zones providing ‘constantly better type of housing as the crowded down town district is left farther and farther behind. In connection with the exhibition the City Club held a series of nine discussions on the housing problem. Among the speakers at these discussions were Ewart G. Culpin, secretary of the British Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, Charles B. Ball, chief sanitary nicipal Leasue. 1 A Member of the councll of the National Mu

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NOTES AND EVENTS 49g inspector of the Chicago health department, George E. Hooker, civic secretary of the City Club, John Ihlder, field secretary of the National Housing Association, John C. Kennedy and Peter H. Bryce of the department of the interior of Canada. JOHN IHLDER. * International Congress on School Hygiene.-America for the first time in the history of the International Congress on School Hygiene will be the host of the experts from all parts of the world when this year from August 25-30 the Congress meets at Buffalo, the citizens of which have subscribed $40,000 to cover the expenses. The objects of the Buffalo Congress are: (1) To bring together men and women interested in the health of school children; (2) To organize a program of papers and discussions covering the field of school hygiene; (3) To assemble a school exhibit representing the best that is being done in school hygiene; (4) To secure a commercial exhibit of practical and educational value to school people; (5) to publish the proceedings of this congress and distribute them to each member. The National Muncipal League will' be represented at this Congress by the following delegates: Isaac Adler, Ron. James G. Cutler, Joseph T. Alling, Rochester, N. Y; Charles W. Andrews, Virgil G. Clymer, A. C. Chase, Syracuse, N. Y; Hon. Merwin K. Hart, Rt. Rev. Charles T. Olmsted, D.D., Thomas R. Proctor, Utica, N. Y; Munson Havens, Mayo Fesler, Warren S. Hayden, Cleveland, Ohio. f St. Louis Conference of Federations.To provide an opportunty to get together, hear and discuss common problems, the executive officers and the chairmen of the executive committee of each of the social federations and associations meet once a month in a monthly conference of federations. It can take two kinds of action: First, it can hear and refer a problem to the proper federation or association for action; second, after action, it can unite the federations in common support of one another, and in this .connection maintains a state and a municipal legislative committee for securing necessary legislation. From reports of the various federations the conference prepares a comriunity program setting forth the most important issues facing the city and the people. * The Union of Canadian Municipalities meets this year in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, July 15-17. Among the subjects that will receive special attention are putting watered stock into public utility corporations, provisions for the welfare of working population, interprovincial highways, wants of rural municipalities, treatment of garbage vs. incineration, improved system of water filtration and purification, under-representation of cities, town planning, experience of a general city manager. f World's Christian Citizenship Conferexe.-The second Conference will meet in Portland, Oregon, June 29 to July 26. Representative men from all of the Christian countries of the world have been invited to gather to discuss and consider the problems of peace and war, emigration and immigration, education and religion, the family and divorce, prison reform and civil service, intemperance, the social evil, dependents and delinquents, and the bases of Christian citizenship. * The Seventh International Purity Congress will be held at Minneapolis, November 7-12. This organization has been devoting its attention to combating the white slave traffic. f The Union of Quebec Municipalities has been organized with Alderman Lnriviere as president and Talbot M. Papineau as secretary.

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500 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VI. EDUCATIONAL AND ACADEMIC The Socialist Party Informatlon Department and Research Bureau.-In November of 1912 the Socialist party established at its national headquarters in Chicago an information department and research bureau. For a number of years the need of such a department has been felt throughout the party circles. The election of a thousand or more Socialists .to public office,l which put them in positions where accurate information on specific problems was an absolute necessity, served to emphasize this need. As a result the national secretary, in his annual report to the national convention in 1912, and several special committees joined in urging the establishment of the department. Acting upon these recommendations the national executive committee organized the department and put it in operation. The scope of the department is wide. In general it answers the inquiries of the party membership on all matters concerning the socialist movement. The service is rendered without charge, and while established particularly for the party membership is not limited to them. Special attention is given to labor problems, conditions of labor, wages, hours, occupational diseases, industrial accidents, etc; And in keeping with this the departrncnt has given especial attention to the matter of labor legislation. With twenty-one2 representatives in the state legislatures of nine diffcrent states the legislative program of the Socialist Party is becoming more and more important. One of the first things the department did was to make a complete collection of all the measures introduced by the Socialists in previous sessions of the state legislaturein Wisconsin, with 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REIVIPJW, vol. 1, p. 492. 2 One of the Kansas Socialists waa ousted by what Socialists regard ea a most high-handed procedure in the state senate after his election had been autained by court procedure. Another representative in Illlnoia has just lost hia seat In a re-oount. the addition of such other measures as could be collected from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. A complete set of these bills, numbering over 425 measures, was sent to each legislative group in the nine different states. The department also specializes in municipal problems. Particular attention is given to the form of government, to municipal ownership, efficiency in administration and the more technical problems of municipal government.s In the nature of the case particular attention is given to measures and means for improving the conditions of labor. In addition to these specific problems the department deals with the more general social and economic problems, such as poverty, vice, crime, coijperation, immigration and the like. It also concerns itself with all Socialist Partymethods and tactics. So far no printed publications have been put out, but each week the national office of the party mails to several hundred Socialist and labor publications throughout the country a weekly bulletin. The information department has two or three or more pages each week in this bulletin. As to the methods of Tork followed by the department obviously the first task is the collection of material and information from which the inquiries are to be answered. As the funds of the party available for this purpose were limited, calls were made for volunteer contributions to socialist writers and publications. A surprising response was met with immediately and material on labor, economic and social problems has been gathering rapidly. Several special students of the Socialist movement have provided generously from material gathered through years of research, and in this way thebeginnings of a reference department have been gathered. The method of classification 8 See p. 416, thin Issue.

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NOTES AND EVENTS 501 adopted is an adaptation of the method used by the congressional library and all the materal is being thoroughly indexed. A most interesting feature of this department is the various lines of co6perating forces that have been brought together. The Intercollegiate Socialist Society of the United States, has in its membership some of the most noted scholars in the university circles of the country. Its secretary, Harry Laidler at once upon the organization, of the department offered the services of the organization in cooperation. Special subjects have been assigned to the various students and already many lines of research work are under way. An organization of lawyers numbering 178 located in 36 different states has also volunteered its services gratis to help the Socialist party in its legal problems through the department. The International Socialist Bureau of Brussels, which is a department similar in nature to the bureau here, is also cooperating. And shortly following the establishment of the American bureau, the Socialist organizations of England organized one in that country and there is talk of a similar department among the French socialists. All of these bureaus will naturally work in cooperation. In view of the fact that a great deal of the scientific literature on social, civic and economic problems, as well as on questions of municipal and state government, is elaborated in the foreign countries, it is of especial significance that the information bureau in this country has at its command a score or more of secretaries representing the different languages. These men have already been put to work on the translation of periodicals, pamphlets and books on various subjects that are thought to be of value for the work of the Socialist party. In addition to these cooperating forces and effort is being made to gather a corps of consulting engineers, scientists and specialists to assist in the mechanical and engineering problems of the party. Already expert accountants, electrical engineers, civil engineers and scientists, men who are specialists in their lines, have volunteered their services in cooperation with the party. When occasion arises the bureau is able to put a group of Socialists elected to a city council in touch with some of the best and most competent authorities in America along technical lines. In this way it is hoped that the various administrations of the Socialist party, when elected, will be enabled to show the highest possible degree of efficiency. In addition to the distinctly socialist forces an effort is being made to set up cooperation with all lines of technical information. To this end the department seeks to cooperate with the municipal reference libraries that are being developed throughout the country; with the legislative reference libraries in the various states; with public libraries and technical organizations. The membership of individuals or organizations of the Socialist party in such societies as the International Association of Labor Legislation, the Proportional Representation League, the Direct Legislation League, the Academy of Political and Social Science, the National Municipal League, etc., makes it possible for the bureau of the socialist party to get the very best of service along the lines bandled by these organizations. The members of the party who have been organizing the department realize tliat it will take time to build it up to the standard desired. But all of the plans are laid upon a broad basis and with an idea of enlarged possibilities of future usefulness. The director, Carl D. Thompson, was formerly city clerk of Milwaukee, during Mayor Seidel's administration. * The New Academy of MunicipalAdministration in Duesse1dorf.-The appearance of the first annual report of the Dusseldorf Academy of Municipal Ad

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502 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL' REVIEW ministration calls attention to the latest undertaking of this progressive Prussian city. The proposal for the establishment of a training school for municipal officials originated almost simultaneously on motion of Dr. Brandt a member of the city council of Diisseldorf and at the suggestion of Professor Stier-Somlo of the University of Bonn, in June 1911. The idea waa prompted by the ever increasing need for trained men in the administrative positions especially of the smaller cities and towns in Westphalia and the Rhine Province. The mayor of Diisseldorf instructed a member of the administrative board of the city to enlist the collaboration of Professor Somlo and within a month a scheme for the establishment of such an Academy in Dusseldorf was approved by the city council, a board of directors was appointed from among the membership of the council and 10,000 marks appropriated for preliminary expenses. The Prussian ministry of education regarded the proposed Academy as a public institution of instruction and hence subject to the same regulations and supervision as other institutions of that nature. It was necessary therefore to receive the approval of the central authorities and this was given in October 1911. In the same month the institution was opened and the lectures began. The ends of the Academy are twofold. First it is meant, to offer training for those intending to enter the career of local administration, and second it is to offer opportunities for those already in the work to extend their knowledge of the problems involved. It has the rank of a regular institution of higher learning, for the conditions of admission for those desiring a certificate of examination are the same as those for other Prussian institutions of higher learning. The instruction is offered for the most part by men who have been admitted to the privilege of lecturing in a university and for the rest by experts in particular fields of municipal administration. The regular course of study, however contemplates only one full academic year's work, although this period is regarded as a minimum and may not be sufficient for every student. The new undertaking has apparently by no means a smooth road to travel. In the neighboring city of Cologne a somewhat similar institution existed which required, though not absolutely, a period of study of two years. The friends and supporters of the Cologne institution seem to have made strenous efforts to discredit the new Diisseldorf Academy in every way by designating it as a secondary school rather than aa an institution of higher learning. They pointed to the further fact in support of their contention that state control was exercised over the Dusseldorf Academy by the district president instead of by the province president as in the case of the Cologne Academy. But the parity of the two institutions was disclosed by a public communication issued by the minister of public instruction at the request of the mayor of Dusseldorf. The Academy is a municipal institution supported by local revenues. The board of directors comprises the first mayor of the city, one member of the administrative board and six members of the city council. There are also representatives of other local governmental units on the board and this number is to be increased. The appointment of all members of the board as well as of the director of the Academy and of all the teaching staff must be confirmed by the state authorities. The report for the first year of activity of the Academy shows a total attendance of 130 regular students and 49 nonmatriculated students. The first budget comprised about 50,000 marks, exclusive of costs of fitting up a municipal building for the purpose. In the winter semester 1912-1913 more than twenty different courses of lectures were given by a force of twenty-four instructors and included among others the following subjects; criminal law, constitutional law, law of muncipal corporations, ad

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NOTES AND EVENTS ministrative authorities, general political science, and administrative law in general and of particular branches. In addition to these a number of single public lectures by authorities from elsewhere were arranged, and to supplement this technical work lectures on general sociological subjects were also offered. Practical investigations of administrative authorities in action are required of all students. In view of the growing recognition of the fact that our municipal administration in the United States can never be raised to any satisfactory level without some organized means of training persons for administrative positions, this experiment of a progressive German city cannot fail to be of interest and value.’ * The Philadelphia City Club’s Wisconsin Expedition.-One of the most remarkable educational adventures that ever took place in this country was the City Club’s expedition to the University of Wisconsin. It consisted of 120 persons. The purpose was to study carefully, under the guidance of the faculty of the university, the remarkable educational venture and triumph that the university has wrought through its extension division; because in Wisconsin, better than anywhere else in the world, perhaps, the educational institutions and the government of the people are securely associated for the public welfare, Not only the faculty of the university from President Van Hise and Dean Reber down to the last instructor of the division wm at the service of the expedition, but the citizens of Madison associated themselves with the university to make the expedition’s stay in Madison as comfortable and as delightful as possible. The program for the three-days’ stay from May 22 to May 24, inclusive, occupied every moment of the time. It was all of a piece and was an endeavor to show through personal testimony and 306. 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIIW. vol. 1. p. by actual demonstrations of results the “Wisconsin idea” as that idea has been embodied in the institutions and induatries of that state. The program culminated in a masterful address by President Van Hise at the Golf Club Friday noon. The President reviewed the work of the extension division from its beginning to the present hour, and his words were an exposition of the “Wisconsin idea” of educationthe teaching of man what he wants to know. Perhaps the address was more than an exposition-somewho listened to it called it a defense. I am inclined to .think that it was both. Men and women who have been accustomed to hearing great speaking for great causes agreed that this address stands high among the foremost efforts of able educators. The Friday luncheon was devoted to an exposition by experts of certain characteristic institutions of Wisconsin. The railroad and public utility commission,; the industrial commission; tax commission; legislative reference department; and the board of public affairs. With the possible exception of President Van Hise’s address already mentioned, these addresses brought us closer to what is known as the “Wisconsin idea” than any others of the program. Friday night came the faculty dinner. The club’s speakers vied with one another in their endeavor to gather up the impressions of the three-days’ visit. They all sounded the same note, some more and some less. It had all been a very remarkable experience. It had brought a fresh vision of the great power of education. It had revised some notions that needed revision, and it had suggested new points of view and new endeavors for the state of Pennsylvania. Well towards the close of this evening’s program the Secretary of the City Club, Hubert W. Wells, asked the toastmaster to yield his place to the mayor of Philadelphia and then, addressing the mayor proposed certain resolutions. The resolutions were adopted by a unanimous rising vote. The secretary then went

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW on to say: “Mr. Toastmaster, I have been asked to condense into a sentence or two the impressions of this expedition as to the work of the university’s extension division. I think that I can phrase it thus : One of the memorable sentences inDean Reber’s address Thursday morning was this, ‘The University of Wisconsin endeavors to find out what a man wants to know and then to teach him what he wants to know rather than to tell him what he needs to know and to teach him what he needs to know.’ I can’t help feeling that at the heart of this policy rests the conviction that to teach a man what he wants to know is the very. best possible preparation for teaching him what he needs to know. Through the golden gate of that experience he will pass to where his teacher can teach him in accordance with accepted standards. I should like to add a word which shall bring to our hosts what we are beginning to call the ‘Philadelphia idea.’ It runs thus: ‘Efficiency in democracy is the security of democracy.’ ” What will be the outcome of the expedition? Two things we trust: First, the coijrdination of our great institutions of learning in a common endeavor for a better use of the teaching force of these institutions towards raising the general level of the masses of our population; Second, the creating of a public sentiment which shall demand of these institutions of learning an attitude that shall endeavor to meet the needs of the plain man as he comes seeking information with reference to the things that most concern him. The Wisconsin experience was an inspiration to these ends because it demonstrated not what might be done but what has actually been done when serious people set their minds to that training of the masses which is the salvation of democracy. HUBER‘P W. WELLS. * A Vocational Bureau Investigation.Starting vocation bureaus to find jobs for children or to guide children into vocations would be nothing short of organizing a system for exploiting boys and girls. Such is the conclusion reached by Miss Alice P. Barrows of the Vocational Education Survey of the Public Education Association of New York City, who has been conducting.for a year and a half an investigation with reference to the children who leave school to go to work. She finds that there are no jobs for children under sixteen that they ought to take. Miss Barrows declares that children need training for the trades they are going to enter. They should not be blindly guided into jobs. It is useless to guide children when those who attempt to guide them know so little about modern complex trade conditions. Before the survey was made, the average person assumed that the chief reason for children leaving school to go to work was economic pressure, the need to earn money for the family soas to keep the wolf from the door. Miss Barrows found out the reasons why children left school, and economic pressure is the least potent and the least frequent one. Pupils leave for a thousand and one reasons, and every pupil who leaves haa more than one reason to give. The most striking thing found was the apathy of parents and children toward school. More than two-thirds of the children and more than three-fourths of the parents had no conviction that it was worth while to spend more time in school. Parents could not understand that itwaa worth a sacrifice to keep their children there. Children at work get little or no training. They are given jobs which do not develop them, but are merely dead routine. The years between fourteen and sixteen are worse than wasted; they are positively harmful in their effect. The investigators were impressed with the great dynamic force latent and struggling for expression in these boys and girls, the force of human adolescence, with its honesty, its fine courage, its high resolve, its determination to overcome every difficulty. Yet, these children were

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NOTES AND EVENTS 505 found to be restless in their work because they were not given the chance to exprrss their growing powers, because their jobs did not allow them to think, act or develop. Moreover, Miss Barrows observed among these child workers an unvoiced but ever-present feeling of protest against the lack of individual attention and training, and against t.he military discipline and inexplicable tasks. They want a “job where they can learn.” These facts left the investigators with a feeling of skepticism about the desirability of guiding children into vexations. The survey was organized to find answers, if possible, to the following questions: Why do children leave school in large numbers as soon as they are fourteen? What becomes of them? Will vocational guidance aid ’ them? Said Miss Barrows : Vocational guidance is something that has always been practised, cobsciously or unconsciously, wherever there were growing children. If the school, the family and the shop were as closely related as they used to be in the days of the little red schoolhouse, vocational guidance would have remained one of the unconscious duties of the family. But with the complex growth of industrial life, the school, the family and the shop have all become strangers to one another, with the result that it is necessary that the welfare of the children become a subject of more conscious thought. The realization of this necessity by people all over the country has suddenly resulted in a widespread movement for vocational guidance. But what the children want is vocational training. The kernel of truth in this popular movement for vocational guidance is the need of vocational training for children. Vocational guidance should mean guidance for training, not guidance for jobs. * Official Municipal Gazettes.-The official gaaetteis one of therecognizedmeans of supplying accurate information to citizens concerning the activities of a government. Of the leading nations of the 1 Compiled by Henry J. Harris. Llbrary of Congress, Washington. world, the United States is perhaps the only one which does not publish such a journal of official information. In view of the absence of a federal gazette, it is a matter of considerable interest to find that about a score of our American dies have attempted to publish journals supplying information of a general nature concerning the operations of all the departments of the city government. In many cities certain departments or bureaus publish bulletins covering only the operations of their own division of the government, the bulletins of the health departments being the best known of this type. In the Library Journal for April, 1911 (vol. 36, no. 4), is a two page bibliography by Clinton Rogers Woodruff entitled “Municipal Periodical Literature.” This article lists six official journals of information published by municipal governments; the rest of the publications listed are unofficial, though relating to municipal. activities. The following is a partial list of cities which publish official journals of a general nature, together with the titles of the journals; additions and corrections will be gratefully received by the compiler: Atlantic City, Commission Government. Boston, Mass., Monthly Bulletin; issued by the statistics department. Baltimore, Md., Municipal Journal; issued semi-monthly. Burlington, Ia., Proceedings of the City Council under the Commission Plan of Government; monthly. Centralia, Wash., Monthly Summary Proceedings and itemized statement in detail of the receipts and expenditures of the city commission. Chattanooga, Tenn., Municipal record; issued monthly. Colorado Springs, Colo., Summary of Proceedings and Department Reports; issued monthly. Denver, Colo., The City of Denver; issued semi-monthly by the cit and county of Denver. Successor to Zenver Municipal Facts. Houston, Texas, Progresshe Houston; issued monthly. Lexington, Ky., The City of Lezington.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Los Angeles, Cal., Los Angeles Municipal News; published weekly b the municipal newspaper commission hom April 17, 1912 to April 9,1913. Memphis, Tenn., Commission Government. New York, N. Y. The City Record; issued daily by the board of Czty Record. .
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NOTES AND EVENTS 507 ly engaged in social and civic work; Dr. Herman M. Biggs, member of Governor Sulzer's public health commission, Henry BruBre, director of the bureau of municipal research,'Lee V. Hanmer of the Russell Sage Foundation, Franklin Mathews of the school of journalism at Columbia, Porter R. Lee, of the New York School of Philanthropy and John Ihlder, field secretary of the National Housing Association. The introductory lecture will be by Robert W. de Forest, a Yale gaduate who has been a leader in so many forms of social and civic work that it would be useless to try to enumerate them. Clinton Rogers Woodruff, Pennsylvania, 1889, will close the course and drive home the points made by his predecessors. Among the other prominent speakers whose degrees were received at other colleges are Dr. Edward T. Devine, director of the New York School of Philanthropy, Schiff professor of social economy at Columbia and a director of the relief work in San Francisco after the earthquake and at present rendering similar service in the Ohio flood district, John M. Glenn, director of the Russell Sage Foundation, Prof. J. W. Jenks, for many yearsprofessor of political economy and politics at Cornell and a member of the United States immigration commission, and Munson A. Havens, secretary of the Cleveland Chamber of Comkerce, which has earned the honorary title of chamber of citizenship. JOHN THLDER. * The Portland, Oregon, Survey.-A comprehensive survey of the educational system of the city has been undertaken by a committee appointed by a taxpayers' meeting. The work was commenced on April 7 and will continue until completed in the fall. The members of the survey are: ElwoodP. Cubberly, director in charge; Frank E. Spaulding, who will cover instruction and courses of study; Fletcher B. Dressler, to whom had been assigned the subject of buildings andsanitation; J. H. Francis who will look after vocational training; Lewis M. Terman to whom has been assigned school hygiene and supervision; Edward C. Elliot, is the general consulting expert. Professor Cubberly is head of the department of education at Stanford; Professor Spaulding is superintendent of schools at Newton, Mass.; Mr. Dressler is an expert from the United States bureau of education; Mr. Francis has been euperintendent of the Los Angeles schools since 1910, Dr. Elliot is director ofthe course for the training of teachers at the University of Wisconsin, and Professor Terman is associate professor of education at Stanford. rL' Philadelphia Plans Education of Municipal Employees.-In order to promote the advancement of municipal employees, Mayor Blankenburg, of Philadelphia, in cooperation with the superihtendent of schools of the city, has selected a committee of eight members from the faculties of the high schools of the city to act aa an advisory committee to give helpful counsel to municipal employees concerning the means and methods of educational improvement. A large number of municipal employees have already availed themselves of the opportunity and are being individually guided in courses of study of many grades and character including arithmetic, English, civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, chemistry, bacteriology, social science, accounting and scientific office management. * The Leipzig Library.-As a quasi municipal enterprise the proposed library of German literature is worthy of note. It is to be established in Leipzig as a result of the combined efforts of the Saxon government, the city of Leipzig and the Borsenverein of German publishers. It is proposed to collect the whole literature of the German empire in German and in foreign languages issued from January 1, 1913. The build

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508 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ings will be erected by the Saxon government at a cost of $714,000 on a site embracing 107,640 square feet, donated by the city of Leipzig. Title is to be in the Borsenverein, but the Saxon government and the city of Leipzig will each be represented in the administration and will each contribute towards the maintenance of the library. * The Indiana Legislative Reference Department of the state librarywas made an independent bureau by the last general assembly and the appropriation was largely increased. The bureau is under the control of a board consisting of the governor, state librarian, president of the two state universities (Purdue and Indiana), and one additional member appointed by the governor. For this position Governor Ralston appointed Evans Woollen, president of the Fletcher Trust and Savings Co., of Indianapolis. John A. Lapp was chosen director of the bureau, Ethel Cleland librarian, and Charles Kettleborough statistician and draftsman. Prof. Frank G. Bates of the university of Indiana will continue his work in charge of the municipal reference division of the bureau. 9 The Baldwin Prize for 1913 has been awarded to Miss Sybel Edelweiss Loughead, a student at Radcliffe College, and to Edward A. Lawlor of Harvard. The prize this year was for the best essay on the subject of “The Best Sources of City Revenue,” The judges were George’C. Sikes, secretary of the Chicago bureau of efficiency, and Dr. LeGrand Powers of the United States census bureau. It is the first time a woman has won the prize. * School Surveys.-The New York burenu of municipal research has devoted a number of weekly bulletins to arousing public interest in school affairs and the encouragement of school surveys. Among the cities wheresuchsurveys have been or are to be made are St. Paul, Portland, Ore., Milwaukee, Atlanta. Ohio has provided for a statewide survey. * “The City of Lexington” is the title of a monthly paper issued by the city of Lexington, Kentucky. Volume 1, no. 1, appeared on April 15. In its salutatory it declares: With this issue The City of Lezington joins the ranks of municipal publications which are rapidly growing in numbers with the hope that it may contribute its small part to the general fund of knowledge and experience which is to make city government throughout the land more efficient. * “The Municipality” for April appears in enlarged form and with a considerable number of new features. This magazine is the official organ of the League of Wisconsin Municipalities and is edited by Ford H. MacGregor, secretary of the League, and a member of the advisory editorial board of the NATIONAL MIJNICIPAL REVIEW. * “The Nation’s Business” published by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States appears in a new and enlarged form. It is much more attractive and effective. * A Selected List of Municipal and Civic Books has been published by The American City (93 Nassau Street, New York). It is an interesting , publication of 56 pages and can be had upon npplicat,ion.

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NOTES AND EVENTS VII. SOCIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 509 Public Health Notes.-A decline in the general death rate is reported from many cities for 1912 and will probably be shown in the state reports and for the whole registration area when the vital statistics become available. Even more notable, it seems probable, will be the 1912 typhoid record, which for many cities was markedly lorn. Typhoid in 1910 was high in many cities, but its steady decline since then has brought a few American cities down well toward the low level of progressive European cities. An important contributing factor in the falling general and typhoid rate is given the remainder of the space available for public health notes in this number of the NATIONAL MUNICIPALREVIEW. Milk is receiving a large amount of attention from health boards, civic organizations, and individuals in various parts of the country. Naturally the greatest progress in the municipal control of the public milk supply is being made in those cities which under their charter or else under general statelegislation have ample powers to enact and enforce such milk ordinances as seem to them necessary and expedient. Unfortunately there is a woeful lack of such power in some states. Thus Maasachusetts, in many ways a pioneer in public health measures, has not yet given its eities power over so obviously important a matter as insisting that milk for house consumption shall be sold in nothing but sealed glass bottles. The question went to the state supreme court a few years ago, which decided that Boston had no right to insist on such a measure. For several years past the Massachusetts legislature has refused to pass milk legislation which has been strongly urged in the interests of public health. The opposition springs from the agricultural interests, the milk contractors and from those who are opposed to increasing the powers of the state board of health, in which it has been proposed to vest certain powers of central control. The New York legislature of 1913 was also unfriendly to extending public control of the milk supply. It refused to pasls bills containing the substance of the proposals discussed before the conference held under the auspices of the New York Milk Committee on February 5.1 New York City continues to make progress in the control of its milk supply. Besides inspection on the dairy farms, at shipping points and in the city it began in 1912 to require all milk sold in the city to be divided into three grades and labelled accordingly: Grade A, recommended for Infants and Children, subdivided into (1) certified or guaranteed milk; (2) inspected milk, raw; (3) selected milk, pasteurized. Grade B, recommended for adults, subdivided the same as (2) and (3) above. Grade C, for cooking and manufacturing purposes only (i.e. so recommended) includes (1) raw milk not conforming to grades A or B; condensed skimmed milk andcondensed or concentrated milk. It does not appear that there is anything to prevent a purchaser of milk for home consumption from using Grades B or C for infants and children or Grade C for adult consumption, but if he does SO it will be knowingly and at his om risk. Milk sold for immediate consumption, aa in restaurants, etc., must be either grade A or B. Copies of the New York milk rules, which cover many other essential points besides grading and labelling, may be obtained from the department of health, Centre and Walker streets. A valuable article on the sanitary control of local milk supplies through local official agencies, by Ernst J. Lederle, commissioner of health, New York City, appeared in the Medical Record (New York) for December 14, 1912. As regards New York City, it may be added that its right to inspect milk at the point of production in the country 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL R~VIEW. vol. 11.. P. 313.

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510 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and its right to require milk consumers to cleanse milk containers before they are returned to the milk dealer have both been upheld recently by the higher courts of the state.’ Important studies of the milk supply of Rochester, N. Y., have beenmade recently by Dr. John R. Williams, secretary of the milk commission of Monroe County. In The Common Good (Rochester) for March, 1913, Dr. Williams tells why our milk is going to cost more. To sum up his conclusion in one of his own sentences: “This study leads to the conclusion that the fundamental error which has defeated the endeavors of sanitarians in their efforts to procure clean milk is mainly economic in character and accordingly amenable only to economic solution.” He also points out the gross common error of buying milk with no regard for anything except bulk. Purity and nutritive value shbuld be regarded and paid for accordingly. The Civic Club of Philadelphia (1300 Spruce street) has recently called attention to the same general points (as well as some others) as are emphasized in the last paragraph,a in the course of its investigation of the cost of living series. It asks householders nineteen questions about the price, quality and other features of the milk which they use daily Regulations calling for better milk houses (stone, brick or concrete) at the country dairies from which Pittsburgh gets its milk supply have led to the sort of talk regarding a probable milk famine which often follows a serious effort to improve any milk supply. Such famines never materialize. At the same time milk consumers should realize that the actual producer of milk gets only a small percentage of the retail price of the commodity and that for the most part milk prices of today are based on milk production under insanitary conditions. A milk quarantine was declared by ‘See Bull. Dept. of Health of New York City 2 Leaflet 111, Cost and quality of milk. February and March, 1913. the health authorities of New Orleans, against mik from dairies near Mobile, Ma., in May of this year. Proposed stricter regulations governing the milk supply of Mobile led the local dealers there to threaten to send their milk to New Orleans, thus leaving Mobile short. Dr. Dan T. McCall, health officer of Mobile, wired the fact to Dr. W. T. O’Reilly, of the New Orleans board of health, with a request for cooperation, which was granted in the manner stated. A Cleveland, Ohio, regulation prohibiting the sale of milk at retail otherwise than in glass bottles, has been declared reasonable by the circuit court of Cuyahoga County, in a suit brought against the Board of Health of Cleveland.s Milwaukee, Wis., has won a notable legal victory in a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court upholding its right to exclude from the city milk from tuberculous cows, to inspect dairy herds, to insist on the tuberculin test, and to order cows found suffering from tuberculosis to be killed. Apparently the decision is broad enought to cover the general right of dairy inspection and milk regulation as a condition precedent to its sale within a city. The court held that the ordinance was a valid exercise of the police power of the city, under its charter from the state. The ordinance had previously been sustained by the Wisconsin courts. Appaqently the decision will be of general application throughout the United States-wherever cities and towns have been granted legislative power to control their milksupplies. If so, it is one of the most important court decisions affecting public health ever handed down. A new or at least unusual element in the country-wide campaign for pure milk is federal inspection and prosecution. In May it was reported that agents of the United States department of agriculture had detected many dairymen in southern Illinois shipping impure and *January Bull. Ohio Stale Board o/ Health.

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NOTES AND EVENTS 51 1 adulterated milk to St. Louis. Analyses in government laboratories are said to have shown abnormally high bacterial contents. Most of the dealers involved pleaded guilty and were fined $10 and costs on the submission of evidence by the government. M. N. BAKER.^ 9 School Lunches in New York City.The New York School Lunch Committee has decided to ask the board of education to establish lunches in all schools, the equipment to be furnished by the board and the direction to be in the hands of a committee appointed by the board to serve without pay. In 1911-12 lunches were served in seven schools with results that make the committee favor their extension. About 12 per cent of the pupils at each school attend. The lunches are of the penny an article variety with the provision that each child shall spend the first penny for a bowl of soup. The report claims that there has been a noticeableimprovement inscholarship and health in the children who take advantage of the lunches and that they are especially necessary in cases where parents are unable to provide nourishing lunches from home because of poverty or employment during the day. The children are kept from the streets with their invitation to truancy and from the penny push carts whose offerings are not nourishing. It seems impossible to carry on the work without a deficit. A satisfactory lunch costs more than the children are paying and a rise in price has been found to result in so great a falling off in sales that the cost is greatly increased and the benefits practically lost. However the problem is not one of cost for the deficit is insignificant in comparison with the total cost of the child’s education and the efficiency of schooling is much increased. The problem seems rather to serve a proper lunch, keep the cost with1 President, board of health, Montclair, N. J. in reasonable limits, and then to charge enough to keep it from seeming a charity and at the same time not discourage its use. * Massachusetts Civic League Fighting the “Three Decker.”-Throughout the state three-flat apartment houses, popularly known as “three deckers,” are found in such numbers that they may well be called the “Massachusetts type” of tenement. They are the result of attempts on the part of builders to escape the requirements of the law and ordinances of the various communities which aim at the preservation pf decent living conditions in houses containing more than four families. The Massachusetts Civic League is urgently supporting a measure now before the state legislature regulating the further buildof wooden three deckers which are at the present time not only an evasion of the law and an exceedingly dangerous fire risk but also subversive of good morals, good health andwholesome life. The aim of the bill is to so guard the construction of each room, the relation of each house to the lot on which it stands, and all alterations and maintenance, that the house may at all times be fit for human occupancy. * Philadelphia Civic Club Busy Exploring the Cost of Living.-The Civic Club of Philadelphia is conducting a comprehensive study of the cost of living. Through ward branches and a seriesof question pamphlets put directly into the hands of householders, the club hopes to obtain enough definite information respecting prevailing methods of purchasing household supplies, sanitary conditions in supply market places, prices and advancement in prices in Merent sections of the city, and other data that will enable it to formulate a constructive program to improve present conditions. Already a pamphlet survey of the situa

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512 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tion with respect to meat and butter has been made.’ * Dutch Bureau of Social Advice.-Suggested by the need of workingmen for a specific and inexpensive place where they could get advice on practical subjects, the Central Bureau of Social Advice, of Amsterdam, wm created in 1898 with three definite objects at the bash of the organization: (1) To give information regarding institutions and regulations in the interest of workingmen; (2) to collect and assort data for that purpose; (3) to form a library. The organization began with about 150 subscribers and with total receipts in the first year of about $600. The total number of subscribers is now about 700 and the receipts $4,200. Information is given not only to subscribers but to anybody that asks for it. A fee is asked unless the inquirer is absolutkly unable to pay. Some of the subjects upon which advice and information have been given are cooperation, savings, loans, pensions. illness, burial funds, people’s lodging houses, labor contracts, regulations in commercial enterprises, measures against unemployment, municipal-workmen regulations, minimum salaries andmaximum hours regulations. When t,he question is of importance it is submitted to experts before an answer is given. 9 Manhattan Recreation Census.-In order to settle a controversy started by a statement of a city official that the people do not care for the recreation facilities furnished by the city but prefer tomake useof the commercialized amuse1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. 11, p. 280. ments found at dance halls, pool rooms, and moving picture shows,. the People’s Institute, through its department of recreations, is planning to take a census at intervals of two months of all people engaged on Saturday afternoon and evening in any sort of amusement. The count will include all children playing in the streets and all children and adults at parks and playgrounds, moving picture shows, pool rooms, bowling alleys and dance halls. One thousand census takers will be put into the field. * Massachusetts Chic League Advocating Sunday Play.-The Massachusetts civic league has introduced a bill in the state legislature the aim of which is to make it lawful to be present at and to take part in games, play and recreation on the Lord’s Day after one o’clock in the afternoon, subject to such regulations and conditions as the local governments may prescribe; but it is provided by tbe bill that no charge directly or indirectly shall be made for the presence at or view of or participation in any such games, play or recreation. The provisions of the bill, if passed by the legislature, become applicable in a local community upon acceptance by a majority of the voters at an election to be called to settle the question. 4 New York City Orchestra.-Sometime ago New York City appropriated $10,000 for providing concerts in public school buildings throughout the city, and as a result the city orchestra ww organized and gave its first concert on March 2. The concerts of the orchestra have been growing in popularity and attract especially large crowds on Sunday afternoon.

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NOTES AND EVENTS VIII. PERSONAL MENTION 513 Chief Kohler’s Dismissal.-On March 17 Frederick Kohler, widely known as the “golden rule chief of police” was dismissed from the service. The dismissal was the outcome of his trial before the civil service commission on charges of (1) conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentlemen, (2) conduct subversive to the good order and discipline of the police department, and (3) gross immorality,-charges based on three alleged clandestine visits to n private home during the absence of the occupant’s husband. The defense was vigorously contested, Kohler testifying in his own behalf and summoning more than a score of witnesses, but without avail. Kohler’s dismissal was noteworthy aa showing the high standard of personal conduct demanded of Cleveland officials even in a field of action where many communities are wont t.o condone personal misconduct so long &tq departmental efficiency is maintained. The civil service commission in passing sentence took occasion to commend Kohler’s official conduct, stating that it regarded “Frederick Kohler as a police officer of exceptional intelligence and ability,” and calling attention to the fact that not even a suspicion of dishonesty or corruption had been held against Kohler or his subordinates. Entering the department as a patrolman in 1889, Kohler was rapidly promoted and was appointed chief of Police by Tom L. Johnson in 1903. Arecognized master of criminology, he was once characterized by Theodore Roosevelt as the “best chief of police in America.” His “golden rule” policy which was widely heralded throughout the country was, in Rhort, to make as few arrests as possible. In practice, its main features consisted in taking intoxicated men to their homes rather than to the police station and in warning first offenders in small mat,ters. The policy was not applied to known criminals nor in connection with serious offenses. While the wisdom of the rule has been subjected at times to harsh criticism, on the whole it has worked well in Cleveland. Kohler’s successor as chief is W. S. Rowe, who has been connected with the police department of Cleveland for thirty-three years, and has served as inspector of police since 1903. E. M. HALL, JR.’ * Dr. Werner Hegem=.-For the purpose of promoting a wider knowledge of town planning and especially the achievements of European countries along this line the People’s Institute of New York arranged with Dr. Hegemann of Berlin, to visit America and make surveys of town planning needs and deliver lectures on the subject throughout the country. Dr. Hegemann, one of the best known experts in Germany upon this subject, is now publishing a threevolume work upon town planning. He promoted and was secretary of the Berlin Town Planning Exhibit of 1909 as well as that of Dusseldorf. Dr. Hegemann arrived in this country in March last and spent from a week to ten days in the cities of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Syracuse, Cleveland and Sacramento, making surveys andsuggestions as to the possibilities of town development and planning especially along the lines of transportation and suburban development. He also lectured in New York, Wilmington, South Williamsport, Pa., Rochester, Columbus, Hamilton, Ohio, Indianapolis, Minneapolis, Davenport, Chicago and Denver. Dr. Hegemann made substantial contributions to the transportation problem in Chicago, Philadelphia and New York by emphasizing its fundamental importance to the whole subject of town planning and urged the construction of better and newertypes of elevatedstructures in preference to subway construction. He cited the examples of Berlin 1 Assfstant secretary, Clevelend CIvfc League.

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514 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and Paris, where the elevated has been made both beautiful and practically noiseless in comparison with the elevateds which have been erected in New York and Chicago. He will be in California in June and then returns to NewYork, where he plans to remain until September studying American town planning and transportation conditions. After that he leaves for South America on a trip around the world for a world wide study of this subject. * Frank J. Goodnow, Eaton professor of administrative law and municipal science in Columbia University, on April 5 sailed for Pekin where he will act as expert legal adviser to the government of the Republic of China. He will be consulted in the very important work of drafting the new Chinese constitution. The appointment, which runs for three years, came indirectly through Dr. C. W. Eliot. While visiting China about a year ago, Dr. Eliot was informed that, seriously as the need of such an adviser was felt, in the disturbed condition of Europe application to any particular state would be apt to arouse jealousies. On his advice a request was made throughour state department to the Carnegie Endowment for the recommendation of a man familiar with the republican governments of France and the United States. Professor Goodnow brings to his new duties unusual qualifications. As a student of government and a publicist his reputation stands high both in Europe and America. He is the author of numerous works on administrative law, municipal government, and other subjects. His expert authority has been recognized by various appointments in the public service. He was a member of the committee to revise the New York City char’ter in 1900-1901, of President Taft’s commission on efficiency and economy, and of the committee of the National Civic Federation on public ownership in 1905-1906. More recently he conducted, with Dr. F. C. Howe, an official investigation into the public school system of New York City. He has been an active member of the National Municipal League and the American Political Science Association. Professor Goodnow graduated from Amherst in 1879 and from the Columbia law school three years later. He holds the degree of LL.D. from Amherst, Columbia, and Harvard. * J. G. Schmidlapp of Cincinnati, a well known member of the National Municipal League, spent a considerable sum in the building of two groups of houses in Norwood and one in Oakley near Cincinnati, with the idea that they should be rented to workingmen at much less than the prevailing figures and still pay a net profit of 5 per cent on the investment. According to the Chicago Tribune the experiment has been a success. Mr. Schmidlapp is also engaged in a pioneer experiment in another direction. In memoryof his daughter he has founded a bureau for women and girls, which he endowed with a fund of $.500,000. Under its direction financial assistance is provided to allow young women to finish their education. Work is found for applicants and an investigation made of the industrial experience and capabilities of each girl. * Hen, George McAneny, president of the borough of Manhattan, will deliver the Dodge lectures on the responsibilities of citizenship at Yale for the year 1913-14. The title of his lectures ,will be “Municipal Citizenship.” Those who have previously given the lectures are Governor Baldwin of Connecticut, former Ambassador Bryce, Justice Hughes, Lyman Abbott, Elihu Root, the late Bishop Potter, the late Justice Brewer and Hon. William Howard Taft. * Prof. Augustus Raymond Hatton of Western Reserve University has taken a prominent part in various charter move

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NOTES AND EVENTS 515 ments in Ohio cities. He is a member of the Cleveland commission and has spoken in a number of places. He has also drafted a bill to carry out the frome rule amendment embodying three optional forms of city government. * Hornell Hart has been elected civic secretary of the Milwaukee City Club. He is a graduate of Oberlin and a postgraduate in economics and sociology at Madison. He is a son of Hastings H. Hart of the Russell Sage Foundation and a nephew of Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart, formerly chairman of the executive committee of the National Municipal League. * Frank A. Hutchins, to whom perhaps more than to any other man, Wisconsin owes its library development, was the guest of honor at a recent dinner in Madison at which he was presented with a testimonial in the shape of a beautifully bound volume of letters from over one hundred friends. * Norman Hapgood and associates have acquired possession of Harper's Weekly. Mr. Hapgood is deeply interested in municipal affairs and for some years was a member of the council of the Na-' tiond Municipal League. * Charles G. Haines, professor of political science at Whitman College and secretary of the League of Pacific Northwest Municipalities, has been made an associate editor of Paci$c Municipalities published in San Francisco. * Prof. Charles E. Merriam of the University of Chicago was elected on the Progressive ticket to the board of aldermen at the election held in April. * Dr. Herman G. James of the department of government in t,he University of Texas has been appointed a member of the advisory editorial board of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. * Lewis R. Works has been elected president of the Los Angeles Cit.y Club as a result of a preferential election.

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DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATION AND JUDICIAL DECISIONS1 EDITED BY JOHN A. LAPP Legislafins Re/eracs Department o/ fhe Indiana Sfals Library R~CHARD W. MONTAGUE, EsQ., Portland, Ore. In charge o/ Judicial Dscwiona Recent Housing Legislation.-This phrase in the United States should properly be applied to legislation passed since 1910, for at that time we entered upon what was virtually a new era. During the ten years preceding there had been some interest in housing betterment, and in a few of the largest cities this interest had been keen. But it so happened that the city which took the lead in housing betterment during the first decade of the century, New York, had in its long, solidly built rows of tall tenement houses a condition peculiar to itself. Consequently its reformers came to look upon housing as practically synonymous with tenement housing and the law they secured in 1900, the most effective legislation up to that time enacted in America, dealt only with buildings housing three or more families. New York's successful fight attracted national attention and many other cities in the country were inspired to follow. In some cities,. as in Chicago where the definition of a tenement house was made to cover buildings housing two or more families, some of the standards established in New York were raised. But in many of the smaller cities which imitated the metropolis not only were New York standards not raised, they were in some instances distinctly lowered. Perhaps the most unfortunate feature of this flattery, however, was the spreading throughout the country of an impression that the tall tenement house was in some degree a sign that the city possessing it LA review of the Important featureu of state legis!ation affectlng munlclpalltlaq for the year 1913 wlll be publlshed In the October leaue of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIeW. thereby demonstrated to the world that it was growing to metropolitan proportions. Just how much this impression was responsible for the increase of multiple dwellings it is, of course, impossible to say, but there is no doubt that it had considerable effect not only in stimulating tenement house building but also in blinding public spirited citizens to the fundamental defects of 'these multiple dwellings and to their bad effects upon the community. But there was one good result of this imitation. Those who drafted legislation for the smaller cities or backed the investigations designed to show the need for legislation made frequent demands upon the New York tenement house committee for advice and assistance. These demands finally convinced the committee, especially Robert W. deForest and Lawrence Veiller, that the problems of the smaller cities should be studied in the light of their own needs, not handled as if they were merely smaller editions of New York problems. For this purpose the National Housing Association was organized whose members and directors represent all parts of the country. At the same time Mr. Veiller drafted a model tenement house law following somewhat the lines of the New York law which he had drafted ten years before but embodying also the results of his years of experience as an administrator of the New York law and as director of the committee which has aided in defending that law in the legislature and the courts. Needless to say this model law sets higher standards than were possible in New York, for the smaller cities have 516

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DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATION 517 still the opportunity to defend themselves against abuses which in New York have become entrenched. Louisville, was the first to use the model law as the basis for its legislation and on March 21, 1910, Governor Wilson signed it. Louisville, however, still thought only of tenement houses. To Columbus, Ohio, belongs the credit of having really inaugurated the new era by enacting in March, 1911, a housing code which applies to small houses as well as to tenements. The Columbus code was the result of an investigation by a local committee directed by Otto W. Davis which showed that while Columbus had bad tenement house conditions it had in far greater quantity bad small house conditions. Mr. Veiller was called into consultation and as a result the Columbus housing code, based upon the model law but made to apply to all classes of dwellings, was drafted and finally passed by the city council. Since then housing workers have had before their eyes a new ideal. Their purpose now is not simply to make tenement houses as harmless as possible, but is to make and keep our cities what most of them claim to be, cities of homes. This does not mean that in all cases they have been able to live up to their ideal. The tenement house tradition has become too firmly established to be overthrown at once, especially in communities where tenement houses already exist in considerable numbers. So California in 1909 and 1911 and Connecticut in 1911 passed tenement house laws which marked considerable advances over previous legislation] but left them far short of the mark set by Columbus. Even the Massachusetts law for towns (1912) applies only to buildings sheltering three or more families, but the proposed Massachusetts law for cities now before the legislature raises this to two families. In all these states such legislation is looked upon merely as a first step in controlling an abuse of great magnitude. San Francisco since the fire had become a city of wooden tenements; Hartford and other Connecticut cities had followed the evil examples of New York and Boston; Massachusetts is famous-or infamous-for the three deckers it has permitted to 611 its cities and towns. But there is evidence that the new ideal is potent. In spite of tradition and of opposition based upon a misconception of the effect a housing code will have on certain private interests. Duluth succeeded (1912) in securing a code similar to that of Columbus, and Kansas City has drafted one of the same kind which is now before its municipal legislature. Cleveland and Detroit also have drafted or are putting the finishing touches on ordinances. The Indiana legislature has just passed a new law which will apply to all cities of the state. Pittsburgh (1912) has passed local ordinances which greatly strengthen the older state law and apply it to small houses. Seattle is draftinganew code. Schenectady drafted an ordinance, but has also decided to join the other five second class cities of New York state in working for a state law which will apply to them all. This law is now being drafted. Could this brief statement have been written a few months later it is safe to prophesy that the list of existing recent housing legislation would be considerably longer, for there were never before so many states and cities working for housing regulation. But as it is enough has been done to show that new standards must be set by the city which would keep in the vanguard; that in spiteof old habits of mind housing legislation in the future must take in all kinds of dwellings] not merely that which from practical necessity was singled out by the early reformers. JOHN IHLDER. 0 Noxious Weeds.-Legislation governing the removal of noxious weeds from property exists in some form or other in most of our large cities. A few of the very largest municipalities, however, seem to have considered such measures

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518 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW unnecessary. New York and Boston have no ordinance at allon thesubject. In Chicago, weeds are cut by the city only when they interfere with the sidewalk. A state law of 1872 providing for thc destruction of the Canadian thistle was amended in 1892 to cover all noxious weeds, but this was declared unconstitutional by the courts in 1906. With the above exceptions the large cities generally have adopted measures looking to the control of the weed nuisance. Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Louisville, New Orleans, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Buffalo and Salt Lake City are cities that have ordinances on the subject. Seattle has a good ordinance applying to thistles. In Minneapolis, the weed question is dealt with in a state law most thoroughly Pittsburgh is given the power to cause “putrid substances, whether animal or vegetable, to be removed from any lot” and Milwaukee is empowered by its charter to “cause noxious weeds to be abated as other public nuisances.’’ The Indianapolis ordinance, adopted in 1910, aEords a good example of the city ordinances providing for meed removal by the city in case of failure so to do by the property owner. The ordinance decljtres the growth of reeds and other rank vegetation on rea‘ estate to be injurious to public health, and a nuisance. Owners of real estate must cut and remove all weeds on or before July 1 of each year. In the event of failure to comply with the regulations the board of health will have the work done and the cost thereof will be assessed against the owner in the same manner as the cost of street sweeping and sprinkling. No notice need be sent to the property owner, but the weeds may be cut by the board of health any time after July 1. Violation entails also a fine of not more than $25. The ordinance adopted in Salt Lake City in August, 1912, is a good example of another class. By its provisions, weeds higher than one foot are declared to be a nuisance. The penalty is a fine of not more than $60. New Orleans and Louisville each have two ordinances on the subject of weed removal, there being in both cases separate regulations for weeds in lots and weeds in sidewalks and gutters. In Louisville the two ordinances are enforced by different authorities. Los Angeles has a penal and a civil ordinance, the latter having recently been enacted to provide for the removal of the weeds by the city and the assessment of the cost thereof against the property owner. Enforcement of the provisions of weed ordinances is delegated to various authorities. In Buffalo the matter is entrusted to the deputy street commissioner; in Kansas City, the street cleaning department. Health authorities are in charge of enforcement in Indianapolis, Pittsurgh, Atlanta and Louisville (as regards lots); the board of public works in New Orleans, Los Angeles and Louisville (as regards side6alks and gutters); the police department in Salt Lake City, Cincinnati and Seattle. In Riverside, California, a small city that has adopted weed legislation, the inspection is done by the board of park commissioners, violations being reported to the superintendent of streets, who then must take action. The most effective weed ordinances are those which provide some way for the removal of weeds by municipal authorities in case the property owner fails to do so himself. The legislation adopted in Buffalo, Indianapolis, Los Angeles and the state of Minnesota provides that in case of failure of the property owner to comply therewith the city may have the cutting done and the cost assessed against the owner as a tax. In Kansas City under these condit’ons the weeds are cut by the municipality and a bill sent to the owner or occupant of the premises; this city, however seems to have been denied the right of assessing the cost. Pittsburgh and Detroit have this power of assessment, but it does not appear to be used in the former city, and in the latter it was found to be cheaper for the city to cut the weeds in the first place at its own

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DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATION 519 expense, rather than to undertake inspection and the sending of notices to owners of property. This applied particularly to the non-resident owner. At any rate, Detroit makes no use of its powers in this direction. The ordinance recently adopted in Los Angeles contains most elaborate provisions regarding the assessment and collection of weed taxes. In some cases a certain date is specified before which weeds must be cut. In Indianapolis, as mentioned before, this date is July 1; Los Angeles has two dates, May 15 and August 31. In Seattle notice is given each May in the daily press reminding the public of the necessity of ‘removing thistles. In other instances there is no such specific date, it merely being provided that at any time, in. case of violation, notice shall be sent to the property owner. Such regulations are incorporated in the ordinances of Kansas City, New Orleans, Atlanta and Louisville. In Minneapolis, the state law provides that notice shall be sent on complaint; this is also the cme in Cincinnati. In Riverside, California, it is the duty of the park commissioners to make the complaiat to the street superintendent, who then must send the notice. In those cases where the city authorities are allowed to have the weed cutting done and assessment made, it is easy to deal with the out-of-town property owner. The Minnesota law provides for personal service of notice whenever possible, but that “if there be no person in the county on whom service of notice can properly be made, of which the certificate of the officer serving such notice shall be prima facie evidence, the subsequent procedure shall be the same as though service had been made.” The experience of Detroit with the out-oftown or non-resident property owner in this respect has been mentioned prevlously. ANDREW LINN BOSTWICK.~ 1 Municipal reference Iibrarlan. St. hula Puhlie Library. Qxiet Zones Near Hospitals..-Noise regulations are usually included in a number of ordinances which deal with occupations and actions involving such noises. It is evident that in these cases a compilation of a city’s regulations of this character involves a great deal of labor. The comparative scarcity of comprehensive single laws on the noise question lends interest to the matter of establishment of quiet zones near hospitals. In the case of the cities having such regulations we find excellent examples of general ordinances dealing with all unnecessary noises, applying, of course, only in the immediate neighborhood of such institutions. In some cases the zones of quiet are automatically created within a specified distance of all hospitals, while other cities have enacted laws that are merely permissive, authorizing the establishment of these quiet zones when desirable. The ordinance in force in Chicago is a good example of the mandatory type: Zones of quiet established. There is hereby created and established a z0n.e of uiet in all territory embraced within a 3 istance of 250 feet of every hospital in the city of Chicago. Signs to be posted. It shall be the duty of the commissioner of public works to place, or cause to be placed, on lampposts or some other conspicuous place, on ever street or streets on which any hoepitarmay be situated, and at a distance of not less thian 250 feet, ineither direction, from such hospital, signs or placards displaying the words, NOTICE -ZONE OF QUIET. Disturbing noises-nuisance-penalty. The making, causing or permitting to be made of any unnecessary noise, or the playing of itinerant musicians, upon the public streets, avenues or alleys within any such zone of quiet, which disturbs or which may tend to digturb the peace and quiet of any of the inmates of any hospital located therein, is. declared to be a nuisance, and is prohibited.. Every person who shall be guilty of .a violation of any of the provisions of this section shall be subject to a fine of not less than two dollars nor more than fifty dollars for each offense.‘ 11911 Code. P. 789.

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520 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The ordinance in force in Cincinnati is almost identical with the above, except the placing of the signs is the duty of the director of public service. New York has an ordinance that may be taken as typical of the permissive type: The several borough presidents are authorized to erect, within their discretion, on lamp-posts, or, in the absence of lamp-posts, on such posts as the may find occasion to erect, at corners oAntersecting streets, avenues or thoroughfares on which may be located a hospital, lying-in asylum, sanatorium or other institution reserved for the treatment of the sick, a sign or signs displaying the words NOTICE-HOSPITAL STREET, and such other warning or admonition to pedestrians or drivers to refrain from making any or such noises or .fast driving as may tend to disturb the peace and quietude of any or all of the inmates of any such institution. Any person guilty of making any unnecessary noise or a failure to drive at a speed not faster than a walk on any of the streets, avenues or thoroughfares which have hereunder been designated as “hospital streets” and for which such warning signs have been displayed shall, upon conviction or upon a confession of guilt, be fined in a sum not exceeding ten dollars ($lO).l Buffalo has an ordinance that is practically the same as that of New York, except the health commissioner is empowered to establish the quiet zones. Cleveland, by ordinance of March 14, 1910, provides for quiet zones within 250 feet of hospitals. In Louisville, an ordinance (1911) makes any unnecessary noise unlawful within 200 feet of any hospital or infirmary, and authorizes those in charge of such institutions to erect warning signs if they wish to. In Milwaukee, two ordinances are pending. One provides for regular hospital zones of quiet, and the other empowers the health commissioner to declare a quiet zone, erecting the necessary signs, within 100 feet of any building in which a person is dangerously ill-an attempt to apply I Ord. app. July 2, 1907, Code 1912, p. 58. quiet zone regulations to private houses in which there ia sickness. ANDRH~W LINN BOSTWICK.~ * Creating Residential and Industrial Zones.-Owners of residence property in our cities incur loss because no home neighborhood is safe from the invasion by commercial or manufacturing concerns that reduce the value of the surrounding property for residence uses. This has a tendency to produce a marked instability in values and cause those investing their savings in homes or flat buildings to be deprived of the profitable use of their investments. A committee appointed in Chicago to consider the question of protecting residential districts from such encroachments has drafted an appropriate bill so amending the state, cities and villages act as to give the city authorities full power in the premises. It has been approved by the city council and recommended by that body to the legislature for .passage. Under this bill power is given the city council to “establish and create exclusively residential districts, to prohibit the erection therein of buildings other than residences; to prescribe the general character of residence buildings to be erected in such districts, and to prohibit the carrying on of any business in such districts except upon the consent of a majority of the property owners, measured by street frontage; to direct the location and regulate the construction and maintenance of factories, manufacturing or business establishments, and stores, in residence districts in which a majortiy of the street frontage is used exclusively for residence purposes.” The Minneapolis council on February 28 and April 11, passed ordinances classifying and designating certain buildings, business occupations, industries and enterprises as, business industries and defining and designating certain districts * St. LOUIS Munlolpal Reference Library.

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DEPARTMENTOF LEGISLATION 52 1 in the city as industrial and residential districts, within which such buildings, occupations or enterprises may or may not be maintained or carried on. FREDERICK REX.‘ * The Problem of Social Vice.-It is now little more than two years when the report of the Chicago vice commission was made public. The very first paragraph of the report sharply demands the repression of public prostitution in the name of parenthood and childhood and the physical shd moral integrity of future generations. It is only since the publication of this report that there has been a marked awakening of the public conscience as to the meaning of this grave and terrible problem, challenging alike the existence of the home and the stability of our social system. This awakened interest is easily deciphered in the ordinances passed and measures introduced endeavoring to lessen or repress commercialized vice and the concomitant evils attending it. Commissions to investigate the traffic in women have been formed or appointed in a number of cities, notably, New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Washington, Minneapolis and Portland, Ore. Even a great national political party has entered the lists and by its pronouncement in favor of a minimum wage law for women has sought to render less possible the prospect of the daughters of the poor becoming the rich man’s sport and plaything. The Minneapolis council passed an ordinance on October 25, 1912, creating a public morals commission consisting of nine citizens appointed by the president of the council, this commission to investigate the moral conditions and social vice existing in the city and to submit a report on the same to the mayor and the council every three months, or oftener, with such recommendations as will promote public morals. The new police ordinance passed by the Chicago council 1 Munlclpal Reference Llbrary. Chlca?o.IIl. December 30, 1912, fixes the responsibility for “the supervision of the strict enforcement of all laws and ordinances pertaining to all matters afTecting public morals” upon the shoulders of a second deputy superintendent of police who “shall not be a member of the police force.” In addition, its municipal court has recently established a branch known as the morals court for the adjudication of all cases arising from the social evil. The select committee of ’the Chicago council appointed to investigate the social evil, in a preliminary report, dated May 5, recommends among other things, constant repression with a view to total annihilation and the utter elimination of commercialized and segregated vice. Portland, Ore., on October 23, 1912, passed two ordinances directed at the evil. The aim of the first ordinance is to provide a keener sense of stewardship toward the community for the proper conduct of property by its owners by requiring all buildings used as hotels, apartment, rooming, lodging, boarding and tenement houses or saloons, to have placed on the same a plate bearing the name of the owner, of such size and distinctness as will render it easily legible to persons passing along the street. The other ordinance provides for the regulation of hotels, rooming and lodging houses for the purpose of increasing the hazard under which an immoral landlord may attempt to traffic in immorality. Proprietors of such buildings are requested to give a surety bond of $1000 to the city as a guarantee for the faithful observance of the ordinance, such bond to be forfeited after a second conviction for the violation of the ordinance in the municipal court. A more complete ordinance than the Portland ordinance providing for the placing of name plates on the front of buildings was introduced in the New York board of aldermen March 19, 1912, by Alderman Stapleton, and referred to the committee on laws and legislation. Thus farthecommittee has failed tomake a report on it. FRZDERICX REX.

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1 State officee, institutionnandcounties ................... All officee and municipelities state offioes. Institutbuu andwunties ficee and com~ SlOIlE courts, state of................... ................... ................... State and county No provhion All offioes Cities and tom Offices STATE Supervision of state officen and institutions under direction of department of accountfng and banking .......................... No law in e5& .............................. .............................. No law in e5ect No law in e5ect No law In effect .............................. .............................. .............................. Examination of cities and towns less than 6000 population on application or petition Alabama.. ....... ArhOna.. ........ drkanrras ........ Callfornla.. ..... Colorado.. ....... Delaware.. ...... Florida. ......... Georgia.. ........ Idaho.. .......... Illinois. .......... Indlana. ......... Iowa.. ........... State Supervision of Municipal Accounts, Under Existing Legislative Enactments Prior to 1913, 2 SUPERVIBOI CONTBOL Governor Governor .............. State board Audltor of sta control Comptroller .............. .............. .............. State insuran commlsrrion Auditor of sts state board aooounta Auditor of sta 3 OFFICIAL TITLE OF EXAMININQ OFFICER Chief examiner of public acts State examiner .................. Superiotendent of Publlc examiner accounts .................. .................. ................... ................... State examiner Auditor of public State examiner account9 .................. 4 BTAT OFFIC X X ...... X L X ..... ..... X x L ...... 6 STATE INBTITUTIONB I X ........ x X X ........ ........ ........ x X X ........ 6 om11 X x ....... X L ....... ....... ....... x ....... X ....... __ 7 TOWNSHIP3 ....... ....... ....... X ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... I ....... 8 Includlng legislative approprb tloneforanyw son, institution or organhation All precinct offica .................. Including all dfs buraing 0fticIala .................. Courts and commlsrrione .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ClvU and School cities and tom Cltles and towne 10 91 INSTALLATION OP REMARHS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNT0 No provision ..............................

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state institutions Kansas. ......... Kentucky.. ..... Loulsiana. ....... Mame. ........... Maryland. ...... Massachusetts.. . Mlehlgan.. ...... Mlaneaota ....... Mtssisslppi.. .... Mtssourl.. ....... MO3 tam... ...... Nebraska.. ..... Nevada.. ....... New Hampshlrc New Jersey ..... Governor Governor Governor Governor Governor Audltor of the commonwemlth Audttor general Department of public examlaei State revenue department Stnte bard of examiners .................. Auditor of publlc accounts Governor ................... Department of Bcoounts state accountant State Inspector and examher Supervisor of pub 110 8ooounta State auditor State audltor Dlrector bureau ol statisties .................. Public examiner State revenue agent .................. State accountant State accountant State auditor .................. Auditor of acoounta ........ ........ ........ ........ X ....... ....... X ....... ....... ....... ........ ........ X ........ ........ ........ ........ ....... ........ ................... .................. Munloipd corpora. tlone, police and road dhtrlct luriea .................. Clty of Baltimore Citles and towns (on petition) .................. Cities (over 50,OOC pop ulatlon) towns and villagea(onrequest1 All municipalities and levy boards Clty fire depart ment relief asso. clationa .................. .................. .................. .................. .................. Compiled by F. H. Irwin, dlrmtor, munictpal stathtw, Indlana State Board of Accounts, Indianapolla, Ind. x Indlostes that the office h subject to supervtsion. No provision All officea No provialon state offices, inat105CeS tutions, cities and towns State officea and InstltUtlOne All officea No provision ................... state lnetltUtIOns County treasurer's office State officea, Inatituttonsand countlea ................... Gteta oftices and LnstitUtlOM Examlnatlon of'countiea on Wrftten order of governor . ............................. ............................. ............................. ............................. ............................. ............................. ............................ ............................ No law fn effeot ............................ ............................. Examlnatfon of count lea, cltlea and towns affeeted through local examination baud0 No law 14 effect .............................

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1 Vermont.. ! State Supervision of Municipal Accounts, Under Existing Legislative Enactments Prior to 1913-Continued ........................... STATE New Mexico.. ... New York.. ..... North Carolina. North Dakota. . ohlo.. ........... Oklahoma.. ..... Oregon.. ......... Pennsylvania.. .. Rhode Island. .. South Carolina.. South Dako ta... Tennessee. ...... Texaa ............ Utah.. ........... 2 SUPERVISORY CONTROL Traveling audito and bank exam iner State comptrollei ................. Board of control Bureau of inspeo tion and supervision of publfc Offices Governor .................. Auditor general .................. roint legislative commlssion Governor ' Zomptroller State auditor .................. 3 OFFICIAL TITLE 01 EXAMININQ OFFXCEB Traveling audito and bankexam her Chief accountant ................. ................. Chlef inapeOtor and supervisor State examiner and inspector .................. .................. .................. .................. Executive accountant Revenue agent Examiner of pub lic Bccounta .................. 4 STATE OWICE! X ....... ....... X X X ....... X ........ X X X ........ X 5 BTATE NSTITU. TION3 __ X ....... ....... X X X ....... X ....... 'I X X ....... X ....... 6 3UXTIE ~ X X ........ ....... X X ....... ....... ....... ....... X X ....... hunty treas urer ....... ~ .~ 7 TOWNSHIPS __ ....... ....... ....... ....... X ....... ....... ....... ....... ........ ....... ........ ........ ....... ....... __ 819 lsges (population of 3000 or more) ................. 10 REMAEKE ............................. Zitiea of first che excluded, alao the four countlea comprising the city of Greater New York No law in effect ........................... ............................ ............................ No law in effect Supervision of state expenditures only No law in e5ect ............................ Iaw amended 1013 seasion. Examination of counties on request ............................. No law in effect ............................ No law In effect

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V 1 r gin la. ........ Wmhlngton.. .... All taxing diatrlcta Includfn~ clvll and school cltled and towna M tarlng districts Includlw clvll and school cltlm and towns Cltles. tom and Vllhgen School dIstrlcts,/ cltles and tow118 (on request) West Vlrglnla ... All officee All officea All offiees (on request) All officee Wlaconsln.. ..... Wyomlng.. ..... Governor Bureau of i~peotlon and supervialon of public OffiM Stata tax commla sloner State tax cornmu aioner Qovernor State amountant Chief ilupector and supervbor Chlef Inspector and superviaor Amuntlng dlrectar Stata examiner x Indlcates that the oBcs ia subject to aipervlslon. ........ I X X X ........ X X ........ X ............................ ........................... ............................ ............................. Supervlslon &o of all financhl htltutlons cn t3 cn

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The Columbus Wire Code.LThe Columbus wire code was approved October 28, 1912. It is designed to prevent fires, accidents or injuries to persons and property. Its real purpose is to remove the “wire nuisance” as an interference with the work of the fire department. The superintendent of the fire and police telegraph is made the chief executive officer under the code. Among his duties are: (1) To supervise and regulate the placing, stringing and attaching of all telegraph, telephone, electric light wires, guy wires, and trolley wires in the city. (2) To inspect all electrical wires or apparatus which may become dangerous to life and property; if dangerous, to condemn the wires and order either the removal or the placing of them on safe condition. (3) To keep records of conduits, poles and apparatus outside of the buildings of each concern doing buainess in Columbus, and having telegraph, telephone, electric light, or electric power lines. Maps, descriptions, and periodical reports are to be made by the concerns when so requested. The information to be requested includes the number and location of poles and posts, number of crow arms on each, number of wires attached, and the location of subways and manholes. The superintendent is given the right to enter any building, subway, manhole to make tests of electrical wires or apparatus. All poles now standing and those to be erected, and all covers for manholes now in service or to be placed in service must be branded or stenciled with the registered mark of the corporation owning them. Before a corporation can erect a line of poles or construct a subway, a map of the route must be submitted to the superintendent together with other details of construction, and his approval secured. All corporations are required to take every reasonable precaution to prevent contact between the high tension wires and other wires. The superintendent is authorized to use the police power of the 1 Ordinance no. 28876. city to cause the removal of all wires maintained in violation of this ordinance * Uniform Sidewalks, Columbus, Ohio.aAll sidewalks hereafter constructed must be of cement, 5 feet wide, and located SO that the outside line of the walk will not be less than 3 feet from the outside line of the curbstone. All grades and levels are to be fixed ‘by the chief engineer of the city. No depressions for making driveways or entrances to private or public property will be allowed. The plans and specifications for kind and quality of materials will be open to public inspection in the chief engineer’s office. No work can be started on a sidewalk until the chief engineer is notified. All work is to be under his inspection, and no bills are to be paid for the construction of a walk until it has been accepted and approved by the chief engineer in writing. CHARLES WELLS REEDER.~ CHARLES WELLS REEDER.‘ * Inliiative and Referendum-St. Louis. -The voters adopted at the Novembei election the initiative and referendum amendment to the city charter. Fifteen per cent of the registered voters may now require any proposed ordinance either to be passed by the city assembly or submitted to the people. No franchise for any public utility becomes effective except by a vote of the people. This latter seems to apply to all franchises even for minor switching and other privileges. * Saloons.4rdinances passed by the city commission of Pontiac, Michigan, in December, 1912, make it unlawful for any “posted” man to enter a saloon. Another ordinance puts a penalty upon minors entering saloons. Milwaukee has also recently passed an ordinance prohibiting the entrance. of minors into saloons. 3 Ohb Stste Uuiveraity Library. 6Ordinaoce no. 26811. Dated Novembm 25, 1912. 4 Ohio State Uuiveralty Library.

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DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATION 527 Telegraph and Telephone Poles.-An ordinance of Pontiac, Michigan, taxes telegraph and telephone poles 30 cents per pole per year. The ordinance is being contested by the companies concerned. 11. JUDICIAL DECISIONS Limitation on the 1nitia:ive.-The people of Seattle have been informed by the supreme court of Washington (Dolan vs. Puget Sound Traction Light & Power Co.)’ that their legislative power under the initiative and referendum is not coextensivewith the power of thecity council. The court held that “the power to grant franchises is a sovereign power.” That it might be delegated by the state to a city, but it is not within the power of the city unless expressly so delegated. One might think that when the legislature of a-state authorizes a city to frame its own charter and that all the powers, duties and functions skall be as provided therein as to its own government, the right to grant franchises would be included. In this case a franchise was granted violating the terms of the city charter reserving to the city council or the people the right to acquire “all the property of the grantee within the limits of the public streets” that it should not include any valuation for the franchise itself; and that “every ordinance making any such grant shall contain a reservation of these rights of the city council and the people.” The ordinance in question did not reserve these rights. The court found the ordinance valid and the charter provision void, on the ground that the legislature had vested in the city the power to grant franchises. That granting franchises is a subject of legislative authority and that “the legislative authority of the city means the mayor and city council.” The court fortified its position by the argument that general law enacted by the legislature is superior to and supersedes all “freeholder charter” provisions inconsistent with it. This is a principle which has some possibilities as a means 1130 Psc. 352. of sapping the strength of the “home rule” idea in city government. * Police Power Again.-An ingenious argument in limitation of our old friend the police power was demolished by the supreme court of California in ez parte Montgomery.* The city of Los Angeles has the power under its charter to licence, regulate or prohibit certain named establishments and businesses. Lumber yards, however, are not among them. When a city ordinance made it unlawful to operate lumber yards in certain prescribed residence districts, the contention was raised that the naming of certain businesses in the charter limited the power of regulation to those named. The court construed the list as an enumeration rather than a limitation, and held that nothing contained in the charter could affect the constitutional grant made to the city and that under that grant the city is entitled to exercise the whole police power of the state, so far as local regulations are concerned, subject only to the control of the general laws. The court considered a lumber yard not per se a nuisance but a legitimate subject for regulation by the city. * The Heft of the Loaf.-The supreme court has often qualified as a dietary expert but in the case of Schmidinger vs. City of Chicago,J it had a new phase of the culinary problem to deal with. The city of Chicago by municipal ordinance fixed the weight of the standard loaf of bread at one pound, and to protect that standard forbade the making or selling 1125 Pac. 1070. 8 33 8. C. R. 182.

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528 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEN of loaves not up to it, or a specified fraction or multiple thereof. The court decided, after careful consideration, that, while the ordinance might cause some inconvenience to those deprived of the privilege of selling baked bubbles surrounded by a crust, as bread, it was not such an unreasonable or arbitrary exercise of the police powers as to be void under the fourteenth amendment. That an attempt to compel s baker to give full weight charged for does not involve the taking of property without due process of law to such an extent as to nullify the attempt. The court also had to meet the hoary contention that the freedom of contract guaranteed by the fourteenth amendment was interfered with. In accordance with a well established habit, however, the appellant was informed that there is no absolute freedom in that regard, and that any rights to contract for 'under weight loaves that might be claimed by the citizens of Chicago were not so fundamental aa to stand in opposition to an otherwise legitimate exercise of the police power of the city. * Excess Condemnation and the Constitution.-The decision of Judge Sulaberger in the Philadelphia case is of great importance as a precedent even if it is not the determination of the court of laat resort. The possibility of the best results from the city planning movements now so popular are largely dependent on the power of excess condemnation. Pennsylvania cities were given this right in 1907 as to lands within 200 feet of parks, playgrounds, etc., and the further right to sell the land so condemned subject to restrictions. This power is one that has made the large city-betterment plans of European cities possible and in many cases profitable. The constitutionality of the act giving the right is upheld by the court in explicit terms. The hands of those interested in improving the physical aspects 3f municipal life have 'been tied too long by our deification of the individual, and decisions which seem to give men, as opposed to man, a chance are being hailed with delight by the great majority of public spirited citizens. * City vs. County Local Option.-An interesting question as to the right of a Michigan city to limit the number of its saloons has recently been raised at Saginaw. Michigan has local option with the county as the unit. A charter amendment was adopted by the people limiting the number of ealoons to one to every 500 inhabitants. The bonding committee of the city council proceeding to act on the amendment was confronted with the objection, sustained by the city attorney, that the charter amendment is illegal and unconstituti'onal because in conflict with the home rule actand the constitution. That the general law gives the council the power to fix the number of saloons by ordinance, but that the electors of the city have no such authority. The city attorney seems to have plenty of precedent and authority in support of his position and the people of Saginaw are placed in the rather anomalous position of having to attempt to get done through their elected officials something they thought they had already done for themselves. The power of direct legislation is recent and in some respects the extent is not well defined nor the limits well estabished. Situations like that at Saginaw are sufficiently absurd and should not long be possible. * Ports as Municipal Corporations.The Oregon statute prescribing the method for the organization of ports was before the court in State ez rel Watt ua. Port of Bay City.' Under L.O.L. section 6115, it is provided thst if the territorial limits of the district to be organized as a port do not include the county as a whole theyshall not extend beyond I la9 he. R. 496.

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DEPARTMENT OF LEGISLATION 529 the natural watershed of any drainage basin, etc. In this case the court held that the petition for the organization being in regular form, the. notice of election properly given, the returns properly made and the proclamation of the formation of the port duly and properly entered, the finding of the county court that the port had been regularly organized and incorporated and the entry of such finding in the journal is res judicata as to every fact necessary to constitute a valid corporation including the location of the boundaries. That the time for objection to the inclusion of land in such boundaries is during proceedings in the county court and prior tosuch finding and that no such question can thereafter be raised by quo warranto. PP Parks and Railways in Conflict.-A decision of great importance to Chicago is Cliicago City Railway Company us. South Park Commissioners.' The decision confirms the right of the city, about which there ought never to have been much doubt, to control its own streets. In this instance the limits of the authority of theparkcommi5sioners over streets taken over as parks and the intersections of boulevards with public streets was considered. The railway company refused to comply with the conditions prescribed by the park commissioners and disputed their jurisdiction under the theory that it was authorized to build as it proposed under the franchise upon which it was operating and that the authority of the commissioners was not exclusive. The court found that the control of the park commissioners as to park and boulevard uses is exclusive but that the city's authority over the intersections of the boulevards and public streets was not entirely taken away and that such intersections remained parts of the public streets under the concurrent jurisdiction of the park board and the city. That while the city retained the sole power to permit the laying out and 1101 N. E. 201. maintenance of street railways and while the park board could not prevent the construction of a street railway across the intersections, it did have the right to require that the work be done subject to such reasonable limitations and conditions as would cause the least interference with their use as driveways and boulevards. This ruling makes possible the continuation of the park system and permits the park plans to be carried out without being broken into too seriously by the railways. At the same time the park board is not confirmed in any such authority as will permit it to interfere seriously with legitimate and reasonable traffic plans. * The Baseball Peril.-The question as to the liability of a city for the death of a passerby resulting from summer evening baseball was before the court in Goodwin us. Reidsville.2 The police apparently sympathized with Young America to the extent of permitting the game to go on in the street. A passerby was injured by the ball and a claim set up against the city in consequence. The court made thedistinction between the governmental and legislative and the private and ministerial functions of a municipal corporation, holding that the maintenance of order and enforcement of the laws for the safety of the public is a governmental function and that in respect thereof such a corporation is immune from suit. This distinction is a simple enough one in principle and is one very often made by the courts, yet the frequency of the cases in which it has to be applied indicates that it is not particularly well understood. The court further announced that the question as to whether the playing of baseball was or was not prohibited by ordinance was of no importance. That the duty of the city to prevent injury and maintain order was the same in either case, being an act governmental in its '76 9. E. 232,

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NATIONAL MUNIClPAL REVIEW nature for a violation of which duty the city is exempt from suit. 9 Who Owns the Streets.-The right of a village to its streets was considered by the New York Supreme court in the case of the Northern Westchester Lighting Company us. President and Trustees of Village of 0ssining.l The lighting company was upheld by the court in its contention that the only interest of a municipal corporation in its streets is that of the public in the highways and that it has no interest in protecting the rights of abutting owners of the fee against interference with the highway by third persons without the consent of auch owners. In this case the company was making use of the streets for its own purposes without reference to the interests of the village in furtherance of its business in carrying gas to other towns and villages. The village authorities could not see the propriety of their streets being torn up solely for the benefit of others. The court was of the opinion however that the municipal authorities having once given consent to the use of their streets by the company for the purpose of conveying gas, could not object to such use during the life of the franchise and that the fact that the gas was to be furnished to other towns and villages was not material. * Perpetual Franchises.-The supreme court of Iowa ha, in State ex re1 County Attorney us. Des Moines City Railway Companyla overruled the claim of the company to a perpetual franchise. The terms of the original franchise are somewhat ambiguous in that its duration is not mentioned. The rights on certain streets were however made exclusive for a period of thirty years. The court makes a distinction between the case of a municipal corporation 1139 N. Y. 8. 373. 1140 N. W. R. 437. granting a franchise for the use of the streets by public service corporations and contracting with water companies for water for fire or other purposes the former being done by it as agent for the state and the latter in its private capacity. Relying on this distinction it holds that the muncipality is dependent on a grant by the state for its authority to grant franchises and that under the Iowa code a city council may not grant a perpetual franchise directly or indirectly. Thus disposing of the claim that since the city had acquiesced in the making of valuable improvements under the terms of a supposedly perpetual franchise it was estopped from disputing it. The public corporations hold onto their"perpetual" franchises with remarkable tenacity, but are gradually being made to recognize that there must be limits to all things. 9 Necessity for Securing Leave of Absence.-The rather too common spectacle of a city employe attempting to collect pay for time he did not work for the city waa before the court in Reilly us. City of New York.3 The New York city charter contains a provision authoriaing heads of departments to deduct from the salaries of subordinates for absence without leave. The contention was raised in this case that where the absence is due to illness or other unavoidable causes such as would constitute a suflicient ground for asking leave of absence, the absence of the formality ought not to prejudice the position of the employe. The court could not see the matter in exactly that light, however, and held that the power conferred on the head of the department being unquestioned, illness or disability where not of such a sudden and disabling character as to prevent the application for leave of absence being made, could not be set upon as a reason for over-riding the decision of the department head. C. D. MAHAFFIE. 8 139 N. Y. 8. 718.

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS I. CRITICAL AND INTERPRETATIVE EDITBID BY JOHN A. FAIRLIB Profmaor of Political Scimw. Unioudy of IUinoia Municipal Debts in Massachusetts.L The Massachusetts bureau of statistics, has been gathering, tabulating, and publishing in annual reports general statistics of municipal finances, including not only data regarding receipts and expenditures, but debt. It had undertaken, however, no extensive special investigation of any one branch of the subject until somewhat unexpectedly called upon two years ago by the passage of an order in the senate on February 14, 1911, to make a report not later than March 1 following as to what cities and towns had outstanding indebtedness, other than temporary tax loans, “against which no sinking funds are being accumulated or for the extinguishment of which no annual payments of principal are being made.” Obviously, within such a short period as two weeks, it was impossible to make a thorough inquiry covering the entire state, but by careful examination and tabulation of such information as was already on file in the department and by as much research as competent clerks working overtime could give to the matter by examining files of city and town documents, a report was made within 1 Outstandlng Indebtedness of Certain Cities and Towna of Massmhuetts. Burmu Of Statiatia, YUnicipaZ Bulbtin No. 4, March, 1911. Report of a Speclal Inveatigation Relative to the Indebtedness of the Cities and Towns of the Commonwealth. Massachusetts Bureau of Statiatica, April 15, 1912. Report of the Joint Special Committee on Municipal Flnance, to the Great and General Court. Massachusetts House Reports, no. 1803. Boaton. January, 1913. Report of a SpecIal Investigation Relative to the Sinklng Funds and Serlal Loans of the Cities and Towns of the Commonwealth. Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics, March 5, 1913. the ,time limit. This is the report published as Munin‘pal Bulletin No. 4. The immediate raison d’ltre of this inquiry was a petition then pending in the legislature from the town of Danvers for permission to issue a refunding loan to extinguish a 6 per cent demand note for $20,000, given by the town in 1875, and on which interest payments for thirty-five years had aggregated $42,000; and the holder suddenly demanding payment, it could not be met. The legislature accordingly thought it might be advisable to ascertain the extent to which municipal indebtedness consisted of loans of this character which were being permitted to run on indefinitely with no provision being made for payment, and also the extent to which the principal of trust funds (which probably exist in Massachusetts municipalities more generally than in any other state) gad been used, interestbeingpaid on the same so that they constitute a liability instead of an asset. Numerous examples of this method of handling trust funds are pointed out in this first report, which in view of the shortness of the time allowed for the inquiry, had but scratched the surface of the question, and recommended that the whole question be given further careful consideration before any attempt should be made to Iegislate on the subject. The legislature of 1911 adopted this suggestion by authorizing the bureau of statistics to make a more complete investigation and providing the necessary funds for the purpose. During the following autumn and winter, accordingly, a careful canvass was made of the facts regarding municipal indebtedness in every one of the 354 municipalities of 531

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532 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW the State, particular reference being had to the manner in which debt had been inourred with respect to the various restrictions of the statutes. The results of this investigation were embodied in a report made to the legislature on April 15, 1912, which reviewed the manner in which the general law relating to municipal indebtedness had operated since its passage in 1875, with some incidental discussion of the operation of the supplementary act passed in 1885, ostensibly placing a tax limit of $12 in the $lOOO, on the amount which could be raised by cities. for local municipal purposes. The manrier in which the law had proved ineffective for the accomplishment of its purpose seemed to suggest the necessity of a thorough revision, and this was embodied in a draft of a bill printed on page 215 of the report. The chief purpose of this proposed legislation was to limit the amount that could be borrowed in anticipation of taxes; to prevent the refunding of such temporary loans (an abuse which had grown so that at the present time a considerable portion of what is substantially fixed or permanent debt has been foupd, on investigation, to have originated in purely temporary loans); to classify what is ordinarily described as ,funded debt according to the purpose of the loan, and in determining the time limit of the various classes of loans, not to permit the life of the same to extend beyond the life of the improvement, so far as practicable to fix upon the same; then to prohibit borrowing for any other than the several specified purposes. This theory of classifying municipal loans by specifying in a general statute certain particular purposes for which it is deemed legitimate to incur debt, and fixing definiteperiods for which these several debts shall be allowed to run, seemed to offer, the best remedy for borrowing on account of current expenses, and if adhered to, a practical method of stopping the same. No one, aparently, has ever been able to define the term “current expenses” in such a way that the evil of borrowing on this account could be prevented by a simple statutory provision prohibiting the same; for what is a current expense under certain conditions and in some municipalities may partake sufficiently of the nature of a permanent improvement or a capital outlay as to wrlrrant the issue of debt in other municipalities. Instead, therefore, of prohibiting borrowing for current expenses, it was proposed to permit borrowing for certain specified purposes and to prohibit borrowing for any other, and to make the list of specified purposes sufficiently inclusive so that. a municipality need not be hampered in its growth by any obstacles in the general statute calculated to prevent its issuing debt for properly legitimate purposes. In other words, it was intended to give the municipalities as large powers of local government in this respect as are safe without necessitating resort to the legislature for special legislation any more than is necessary,-but on the other hand, to compel individual municipalities to come to the legislature and prove their case when they wish to borrow for some purpose not specifically permitted by the general law and which, conceivably, it might be proper to permit in individual cases, but especially dangerous to allow as a general proposition. One other important feature of this revision was the exclusion of any provision for and, indeed, the prohibition of the further establishment of sinking funds, and the stipulation that all municipal indebtedness shall be issued hereafter by the serial method. This method has already been adopted by Massachusetts with reference to its own financial policy, and voluntarily by numerous individual cities and towns, including the city of Boston, which no longer issues any sinking fund debt for general purposes; and it was now proposed to make this method of providing for the payment of municipal indebtedness universal in Massachusetts, which will be the first state, to make this the exclusive

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REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS 533 method for the payment of municipal debts. The legislation above outlined in part as embodied in the report of April 15, 1912, was referred for further consideration to a special committee appointed to sit during the recess and to report to the legislature this year. This committee labored very faithfully and conscientiously during the last summer and autumn, taking the former reports and data as a basis in large measure for their inquiries, but approaching the subject from a somewhat difTerent angle, namely, by personally summoning the mayors and financial officers of every city in the state and the selectmen and financial officers of a large number of towns. These officials were examined in person, and the committee was well satisfied at the conclusion of its labors that the worst conditions reported as having been found were in no sense exaggerated, and that the contention that a thorough revision of the statutes should be made was well founded. The committee, went into certain branches of the general subject, such as the assessment and collection of taxes, which the previous inquiry did not purport to cover and which fall more closely within the jurisdiction of the tax commissioner’s office. The result of the committee’s review of the reports of the bureau and its own investigations were embodied in a report which it made to the current legislature. The recess committee took the bill and made certain changes in the same as the result of further conferences and consideration, and certain additional perfecting changes have also been made by the standing committee of the present legislature to which the matter was referred and which has been giving additional public hearings on the subject during the past two months, being now about to make a final report to the Legislature; and there seems to be no doubt but that the bill now agreed upon will pass. Both the recess committee of the last legislature and the standing committee of the present legislature which have considered this subject, (notwithstanding their membership have been composed, of course, of men of different political parties who have naturally been animated by varying personal points of view) have been dominated by a single, distinct desire to enact a piece of legislation having for its sole purpose the public welfare; and in view of the diEerences which generally arise’in the consideration of such matters, it is worthy of note that the recess committee’s report was the result of a unanimous agreement on the part of the members, and it seems probable that the committee of the present legislature having the matter under consideration will also be unanimous in its conclusions. A special report has also been made relating to sinking funds and serial loans. This subject naturally fell within the scope of the report which was made last year, but was the result of a special order intended to provide for a more particular investigation of this matter,the findings, which are the result of actual computations in theBureau of Statistics of some 1,200 sinking funds, merely serving to fortify the recommendations already made and to justify the proposition to prohibit the further establishment of sinking funds and to force the issue of all municipal indebtedness henceforth by the serial method. CHARLES F. GETTEMY. Boston, ici ass. * Municipal Statistics.’-The U. S. census bureau publishes annually financia1 statistics of all cities in the United States having a population of 30,000 or over. In the 1910 report 184 municipalities are 1 Financial Statistlca of Citlzs, 1910. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D. C. Cloth, 9 x 12; 308 pp. Statistic8 of Municipal Flnances, Massachusetts. 1909. Published by Charles F. Gettemy. DIrector of the Bureau of Statistics. Cloth, 6 x 91, 348 pp. Comparative Statistics. Cttics of Ohlo. 1911. Published by the Bureau of Inspection and Supervlslon of Public Offices. Paper, 6 x 91, 222 pp. Report, Munlclpal Accounta. Iowa. 1912. Publlahed by the Department of Finance and Munlcipal

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534 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW represented. It aims to include all local government activities whether these are administered by a single municipal corporation or by a number of independent government bodies. The first twentyfive pages are devoted to a discussion of the general scope and character of the work and its object. There is also an explanation of accounting terminology, but this is not so extensive as in some of the earlier reports. About sixty pages are given over to a discussion of the general tables, which, together with the summary tables that are included, constitutes a valuable part of the report. The statistics are almost wholly financial in character and are arranged in thirty-seven tables. In general, the facts presented in these tables relate to 'municipal receipts and payments, amount and value of public properties and improvements, indebtedness, per capita and per cent distribution of receipts and payments, rtssessed and full value of property and tax levies, receipts and expenditures and other information relating to schools. There is considerable sub-classification under each of these heads. The general plan of presentation of the financial transactions of municipalities is the result of careful study and experiment extending over a number of years. The avowed aim is to supply such information as will be of definite assistance to those engaged in directing the affairs of cities, and for the accomplishment of this purpose it is well designed. Throughout the Mrtssachusetts repqrt there is evidence of the definite aim of those in charge to present information of such a character and in such a manner as to be of direct assistance in the financial administration of cities. A noteworthy feature in this connection is the Acoounta. John L. Bleakley, Auditor of State. Cloth, S+ x 8+. 235 pp, Aanual Report of the Department of Municipal Malre of the Provlnce of Saskatchewan. 1908-10, paper, 6+ x 10, 96 pp.; 1910-11, paper, 6+ x 10. '88 pp.; 1911-12, paper, l?+ x 10. 98 pp. section of analysis tables, in which the results of a study for the years 1907, 1908, and 1909 of the relation which current revenue receipts bear to current revene expenditures are shown. The extent to which cities have sufficient revenue to meet their current expenses, and the proportion of their revenue expended for maintenance, for interest, and for debt requirements are set forth in these tables in a manner which will emphasize for the local officials the importance of information of this kind. The statistics presented are chiefly financial in character. They deal in order with the following subjects: Summary of financial transactions; receipts from revenue; payments for maintenance and interest; indebtedness; and cash balances. Under each of these main divisions there are numerous sub-divisions. Statistics are shown separately for cities, for towns over 5000, and for towns under 5000. Special comment should be made of the summaries of financial transactions which present in a comprehensive manner all the financial transactions of each municipality for the year. The classification follows in the main the lines laid down by the census bureau. Several pages are devoted to an explanation and definition of the terms used. There are no balance sheets for the cities andno physical statistics are given. The Ohio report contains statistics for the seventy cities in the state. In addition there is a copy of the Ohio uniform public accounting law. The statistics are financial in character. There are eleven tables in all. Of these seven deal with receipts and expenditures, one deals with assets and liabilities, and three exhibit information of a supplementary character, such as salaries, wages, tax levies, miles of paved streets, miles of sanitary sewers, per capita receipts and expenditures, etc. The statistics are comprehensive, and abundant detail has been introduced, but the report lacks a satisfactory summary of the financial transactions for each city.

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REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS 53s The classification is on a somewhat different basis than that employed by the census bureau and Massachusetts report, and to an extent a different terminology has heen employed. An interesting feature of the report is the statement of assets and liabilities of the cities. This should be of distinct administrative value to the local o5cials. The per capita figures indicate an attempt to make the statistics of value for purposes of comparison. No figures for the public schools are given. The Iowa report contains statistics for 90 of the 101 cities and 630 of the 723 incorporated towns in the state. The statistics for the towns are shown separately from those for the cities. The part of the report relating to the cities contains 17 tables. The fist 9 of these show the receipts and expenditures in totals and in detail. Table 10 deals with indebtedness, and the remaining6 tables present miscellaneous information, such as the assessed value of property, taxes levied, value of municipal possessions, salaries and wages, per capita receipts andexpenditures, etc. Tables 16 and 17 contain physical statistics relating to public service industries and to other city enterprises. There are 4 tables of statistics for the towns which exhibit information of the same character as that shown for the cities but with less detail. The claasification varies in certain of its features from that employed in the other reports, and in some cases different terms are used. There is room for improvement in the mechanical arrangment of the different tables, and a few typographical errors have found their way into the report. Figures for the public schools are not included, and there is also lacking a satisfactory summary of the financial transactions for each city. The report contains a list of the city and town officers in Iowa and a series of extracts from the law governing the municipalities of Iowa. The Saskatchewan reports contain general information relating to various phases of municipal organization in that province. Lists are given of the cities, the towns, the villages, the rural municipalities, and the local improvement districts together with the principal officers of each. The reports contain no financial statistics. In considering reports such as the foregoing one naturally raises the question as to their purpose. In general, this may be said to be two-fold. .First: they should provide local officials with information which will lead to a more efficient municipal administration. Secondly: these reports should furnish the general public with accurate information concerning the scope, character, and cost of municipal activities. In order that this two-fold aim may be carried out effectively, it is essential that the classification of financial transactions should be logical, consistent, and ‘directly adapted to administrative needs. It is obvious that much information can be presented in reports such as these which is of no direct value in the solution of the practical problems of municipal administration, and to a certain extent information of such a character is contained in the reports under consideration. On the other hand, the statistics should be complete. The facts relating to every phase of municipal activity should be reported whether these are administered directly by the municipal corporation or by other local government bodies. The absence of statistics relating to the public schools in the Ohio and the Iowa report has been noted. It is essential, furthermore, that the information be presented in a manner that will emphasize such facts as are of particular significance. The reports will be of little administrative value to the average local official unless this is done. To this end the mechanical arrangement of the report is a matter worthy of careful study. Attention has been called to the summary of financial transactions in the Massachusetts report. Such a statement is of value because it presents on

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW opposite pages of the report in a concise and yet a comprehensive manner all the financial transactions of each municipality for the year. The mechanical arrangement of the statement is especially to be commended. When the information relating to any one city is spread over a number of pages it is much more difficult to get a clear idea of the true financial situation of that city. Special mention should also be made of the analysis tables of the Massachusetts report and the description of the general tables in the census report. All the reports contain per capita figures to an extent, and some of them have introduced per cent figures which are valuable in this respect, but there is still much opportunity for improvement. Numerous pages of statistics are apt to prove very uninteresting, and if the reports are to accomplish their chief purpose, it is essential that they embody suggestions and hints to the local officials for the proper utilization of the information they contain. The reports would be of greater value for purposes of comparison if auniform terminology andclassification were adopted. Modifications will always need to be made in order to conform to such peculiarities as there may be in the conditions of municipal organization in the different states, but it would be highly desirable if the different state reports followed more closely than they do the classification and terminology employed by the census bureau. If this were done attention would more readily be directed to defects in the general scheme of municipal organization in the different states and their elimination could be brought about. Total figures are of little value for purposes of comparison. For this reason it is very desirable tohave unit costs shown in the reports which will reflect both the quantity and quality of the service. In time it is to be hoped that it will be possible to establish standards for the cost of the various phases of municipal administration. All the reports point out the fact that there is still a lack of ready cooperation on the part of some local officials in the preparation of these reports, but they also emphasize a growing understanding and appreciation on the part of the greater number of suchofficials and of the public at large of the significance of this work. 0. R. MARTIN. University of Illinois. * Assessment of Real Estate in the District of Columbia.-The committee on the District of Columbia of the house of representatives in April, 1812, delegated a subcommittee to make an inquiry into the assessment and taxation of real estate in the district. The report of this subcommittee was submitted August 20, 1912.1 Mr. Henry George, Jr., of New York directed the inquiry. The committee found an utter lack of method in the assessment of both land and improvements; the sole standard utilized in either was the “assessorid naked judgment.” The 1ega.l requirement that land and buildings should be separately assessed was complied with in merely a nominal way and the further requirement that each should be assessed at its true value, not at all. As sales in Washington are made on the square-foot basis, the assessor has used this method in assessing land. But in applying it, he has made no allowance for the fact that the square-foot unit is a variable quantity. He has ignored the necessity of adjusting it with reference to such considerations as the depth, corner location, and alley access of each individual lot. The result has been that comparable lots, adjacent to one another have frequently been assessed at the same rate per foot though their depth has varied 50 per cent. Under the Hoffman-Neil1 rule the front half of a 100foot lot is worth two-thirds of its entire value, and the rear half only one-third. Lots adjacent to corner lots, moreover, 1 62d Congreea, 2d Seaalon, How Report No.1215.

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REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS 537 have in many instances been assessed at only 40 per cent of the corner rate when no such disproportion in values has existed. When requested by the committee to produce tables showing the factors of value employed in the assessment of buildings, the assessor was unable to do so. On investigation, the committee found buildings that really encumbered the ground on which they stood to be heavily assessed. The old Shoreham Hotel is cited as an instance. Although this is an antiquated structure that should have been torn down to give place to a modern building, it had up to the time of the last assessment been assessedat $200,000 when it was increased to $300,000. All increase in the value of this property had obviously been an increase in landvalueand should havebeen so assessed. An increased assessment in land value would, however, have necessitated a readjustment of the land value assessments of the entire square and the adjacent squares. The committeediscoveredsquare after square of small homes where the building value, already heavily assessed, had been increased 20, 25 and 30 per cent although the structures had in no wise had their value enhanced by repairs or by any additional improvements. In one square, the buildings of which were all old, the increase was 35 per cent. A mechanic, for instance, who had painted the porch of his small home at a cost of 50 cents had had his building assessment increased by $500. The real estate in the district has theoretically been assessed at two-thirds of its true value. In 1911-12 the total real estate assessment was $330,000,000. On this basis, if accurately assessed, the true value of the real estate would have been $4495,000,000. But the assessed value on being raised to 100 per cent constituted only two-thirds of the true value. The committee estimated the true value to be $744,000,000. This under-assessment of real estate did not attach equally to land and improvements, but overwhelmingly to land. Land with a true value of $504,000,000 was assessed at $170,000,000, or at onethird of its true value. Improvements, on the other hand, with a true value of $240,000,000 were assessed at $160,000,000 or at two-thirds their true value. In 1894 the land value was 59 per cent and the improvement value 41 per cent of the assessed real estate value. This preponderance of land value has steadily lessened since that time to the point of disappearance. In 1912, the land value was 51 per cent and the improvement value 49 per cent of the assessed real estate value. For the purposes of its investigation the committee divided the district into five areas: the small-home area; the middle-class area; the fine-residence area; the business area; and the suburban area. Examined in this manner, the assessments revealed the grossest discrimination between class and class and between land and improvements. Land in the area possessing the 40,000 small hpmes waa assessed at 60 per cent of its true value; that in the middle-class area at 50 per cent; that in the fine-residence area at 30 per cent; and that in the. business and suburban areas at 20 per cent. Improvements in the small-home area were assessed at 90 per cent of their true value; in the middle class and business are= at 71 per cent; in the suburban area at 67 per cent; and in the fine-residence area at 60 per cent. Real esBate in the district as a whole was assessed at 663 per cent of its true value. But in the small-home area it was assessed at 73 per cent of its true value, an overaasessment of more than 6 per cent on the basis of assessment. In the middle-cIass area, however, it was assessed at only 61 per cent of true value; in the fine-residence area at 38 per cent; in the business area at 37 per cent; and in the suburban area at 25 per cent. The district has a fixed tax rate of 14 per cent. Had 100 per cent of ths

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538 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW sessed value been identical with true value, this rate would have been equivalent to 1 per cent. But as the taxable assessment in the district is two-third of the full assessment and as the full assessment happened to be but twothirds of true value, this tax rate when applied amounted to only two-thirds of one per cent. If the District had had a tax rate of one per cent on a full and true value assessment in 1911-12-a tax rate equivalent to one of 14 per cent on a two-thirds assessment of true value-its revenue from the taxation of real estate would have been $2,490,000 more than it actually was. Large as this increase in the tax levy on real estate would have been-50 per cent of the one imposedthe increase would not have affected the small-home area. In fact, the taxes paid by this area in that year exceeded by more than 10 per cent the amount that it would have paid under a 1 per cent tax rate on a true value assessment. Not so, however, with the other areas. The middle-class area would have had its tax levy on real estate increased by 8 per cent; the fine-residence area by 42 per cent; the business area by 45 per cent; and the suburban area by 63 per cent. No city has a more scientific system of assessing real estate than New York. The testimony of Lawson Purdy describing the assessment machinery in this city is one of the most interesting and valuable portions of the report submitted by the committee. When analyzed the recommendations of the c6mmittee simply mean the adoption of the system that has been so successful in New York. The committee made five important recommendations of general interest: (1) that real estate be assessed at its full value instead of two-thirds value; (2) that the fixed rate tax of 14 per cent be repealed; (3) that real estate be assessed annually instead of triennially; (4) that land-value maps be published; and (5) that standard units of value be established in determining the separate assessments of land and improvements. To facilitate assessment at full value the committee recommended the enactment of a.law requiring the true consideration in all real estate transfers to be recorded. With true value as the basis of assessment, overassessments and underassessments are more apparent and therefore more easily corrected. An accurate assessment based on a percentage of true value entails a greater amount of work on the assessor than a full value assessment. He must first ascertain the full value and then proceed to calculate the percentage of assessment. ‘ A full value assessment saves this computation. Assessment at part value, moreover, gives a low tax rate the appearance of a high one. This artificial stimulation of the tax rate, instead of infusing city administrations with a burning zeal for economy, results either in the non-performance of much necessary work, or in its payment out of borrowed money when it should really be charged to current revenue. The borrowing power of many cities has as a consequence of this policy been seriously abused. The power to incur indebtedness, being based on the assessed valuation, is narrower, and for that reason, all the more precious in a city having a partial assessment than in one having a full assessment. When assessments are at 15 and 20 per cent of true value, as they are in many cities, the temptation to borrow for current purposes is almost irresistible. A 1 per cent levy on true value when translated into terms of a tax rate becomes 5 per cent, $5 in the $100. The tax rate should always be fixed by budgetary requirements, not by statute. If the fixed tax rate is larger than that required by a city, it will result in extravagance and waste. If it is too small, it will result, either, in the throttling of necessary expenditure; in the tapping or retention of undesirable sources of revenue; or, in the borrowing of money for current account. As the committee stated, a triennial assesment is not (‘an honest way of making an assessment.” An annual as

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REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS 539 sessment of real estate greatly improves the administration’of the assessing department. The assessors being practically the whole time in the field become expert valuers. This secures uniformity of assessment. The annual assessment of real estate, moreover, increases the revenues of a city in that the increment in land value is intercepted every twelve months instead of every three years. It is also true that if real estate is not assessed annually, land of a declining value will be overassessed a large part of the time. Triennial assessments necessitate large and abrupt increases in the assessment of property rising in value. This excites much dissatisfaction among owners. Annual assessments to a large extent overcome this diffculty in that the increases are smaller and more gradual. HERBERT S. SWAN. ?1: New Sources of City Revenue. The commission on new sources of city revenue, which submitted its report to Mayor Gaynor, January 11, approached its work with the attitude that the burden of local government should rest on those forms of property that represent values largely created by the community itself. New sources of revenue were not sought with any view to lessening the taxation of real estate. It seemed perfectly proper to the commission that real estate should bear the great bulk of municipal expenditure. The tax levy on real estate is at present about 95 per cent of the total tax levy and 77 per cent of the total budget. The recommendations made by the commission if immediately adopted, were estimated to add $4,000,000 to the city’s income in the first year. This amount would increase annually over $1,000,000 until in the tenth year the increase would be about $15,000,000, and in the twentieth year about $30,000,000. Unearned increment tax. The most important recommendation of the Commission is that for a tax on future increases in land values. It does not, however, favor the methods of levy and collection for such a tax thus far followed in other countries; but proposes an increment tax of 1 per cent per annum, upon all increments of land value, as shown by comparison with the assessed valuations for the year 1912, and to be in addition to the general tax levied upon all real estate. On the basis of the average increase in land values in New York City during the past decade, such a tax would yield a revenue of $1,500,000 in the first year, increasing until in the tenth year the yield would approximate $15,000,000. Miscellaneous sources of revenue. Other recommendations include the grant of broader licensing powers to the city, an extension of the practice of selling city privileges and concessions at public auction, the wider use of water meters, and taxing thp privilege of conducting hack stands at. its full commercial value. Tax on signs and billboards.-A more specific recommendation is that each square foot of the area of billboards, signboards and electric signs be assessed at one per cent of the value per front foot of the land occupied (the basis for assessing land in New York) and taxed at the rate of two per cent per annum on the assessed valuation so ascertained. The city now derives an annual revenue of about $10,000 from license fees on electric signs; but billboards now pay no revenue to the city. Adequate rentals for vault space.The commission recommends that the charge for the privilege of constructing and using vaults under the sidewalks and streets of the city be made an annual payment based upon the assessed land value per front foot of the adjacent real estate, in place of the present nominal payments. Excess condemnation. The commission also recommends the support of the pending amendment to the state constitution, granting to cities the power of excess or additional condemnation.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The ability of the city to coordinate land values along public improvements into its most usable form would increase the taxable value of real estate, and a part of the value recouped to the public would diminish the cost of many public improvements. Miscellaneous recommendations. Other recommendations of the commission are: 1. That a special commission be appointed to report on possible economies in the city administration. 2. That a new sinking fund policy involving the purchase and cancellation of city obligations when below par be considered. This would considerably expedite the amortization of the city’s debt and increase the earnings of the sinking fund. 3. That assessment bonds be excluded in the computation of the city’s borrowing power. 4. That the principle of special assessment be applied to the construction of rapid transit railroad extensions. 5. That an earnest effort be made to secure a Ggher rate of interest than two per cent on deposits of city money. 6. That the city takeover the franchises and property of the subway conduit companies. 7. That no form of real property, such as churches or cemeteries, beexempt from assessment for local improvements. 8. That the city sell to better advantage the asset which it has in the commercial use of garbage and other forms of city wastes. 9. That the special franchise tax be amended. 10. That city prison labor be more intelligently organized with reference to the needs of city departments for supplies and material. 11. That all miscellaneous sources of revenue now diverted to pension funds or to quasi-public institutions be paid directly into the city treasury; and that in so far as such contributions are necessary or desirable for the future they be made by direct budget appropriation. 12. (a) That all taxable personal property not now liable to some special and exclusive tax be subjected to a tax of three mills on the dollar inlieuof the present rate; (b) that indebtedness be no longer offset against taxable assets; and (c) that personal property amounting to less than ten thousand dollars be exempted from taxation. 13. That the remaining relics of the payment of county officers by feesfor services rendered be discontinued; that such officers be paid definite salaries; and that the fees received for rendering public services be turned into the public treasury. 14. That the mandatory legislative acts prescribing the payrolls of county offices be repealed, and that the board of estimate be made responsible for county appropriations. 15. That the city create a system of wholesale markets and discontinue its present system of retail markets. 16. That all animal-drawn vehicles be licensed. 17. That the motor vehicle tax be increased. 18. That certain departmental fees be increased. 19. That the method of disposing of unneeded personal property owned by the city be improved. 20. That real estate owned but no longer needed by the city be sold and the proceeds be applied to the acquisition of needed real estate. HERBERT S. SWAN.’ * Municipal Asphalt Plant.-In the District of Columbia appropriation bill, approved June 26, 1912, there was included an item of $5000 “to enable the commissioners of the District of Columbia to make a thorough investigation of the desirability and cost of establishing a municipal asphalt plant . . . . ” The investigation has been made by Davis E. McComb, and his report dated December 31, 1912, has been published 1 Chlef lnveatlgator for the cornmisslon.

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REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS 541 as House document no. 1195 of the 62d Congress, 3d session. The first part of the r'eport is a description of the work done in cities having municipal asphalt plants; namely, Detroit; Brooklyn; Cincinnati; Kansas City, Mo.; St. Louis, Toledo; Columbus, 0.; Indianapolis; Omaha; Hamilton, Ontario; Toronto; Dayton, 0.; Milwaukee; Denver; New Orleans, Pittsburgh; San Francisco; Spokane; Seattle; Winnepeg, and Cleveland. The information reported concerning these plants includes the followingpoints : Date of installation of plants; kind of work done, either new, repair, orL'cut work;'' cost of physical plant and equipment; capacity in square yards; statistics concerning amount of work done, with cost; number of men employed, and wages paid; cost of materials used; number of working days in the year; description of mechanical equipment; and occasionally comments on the condition of the asphalt streets in these cities. In a number of appendices detailed information is presented on the subject of asphalt paving work, with a sketch of the proposed municipal plant in the district. These subjects are: (1) volume of asphalt work; (2) number of days work was suspended on account of weather conditions, 1911-1912; (3) materials required for asphalt topping and binder; (4) estimated cost of asphalt pavement; (5) materials required for concrete base and cost of same; (6) cost of haulingmaterials for ashalt pavement; (7) cost of inspection; (8) operations of portable plant in November, 1912; (9) comparison of prices of work under contract with estimate cost, if work is performed by the district; (10) estimate of cost of installation of municipal plant for the district. Acting on this report, the commissioners of the District of Columbia have included in their estimates for 19131914, an item of $9O,OOO for establishing and operating a municipal asphalt plant. CHARLES WELLS REEDER.~ 1 Ohio State Untverslty Library. New York City Art Commission.-The report of this commission for the year 1911 is especially important, even though two years behind time, because it chronicles the little suspected value of the work of the art commission of the city of New York, and gives some idea of what that city has been saved from through the operations of this commission. Readers of the NATIONAL MIJNICIPAL REVIEW probably realize that this commission is an unpaid commission, formed under a state law which assures a membership of high grade. Robert W. De Forest is president and John Quincy Adams is the efficient acting secretary. The commission has offices in the old city hall in New York City, and it treats its work seriously insisting on being consulted about everything that is to be placed in the public eye and on the public property. The report in question is broad in its view and admirable in its form. A consultation of it is recommended to those who are desirous of seeing American cities put in possession of power to prevent the assaults of bad taste and self interest which so seriously interfere at present with city efficiency. J. HORACXI MCFARLAND. * Municipal Surveys.-The growing interest in municipal government is evidenced by the number of reports issued presenting a general survey of municipal organization and activities in various cities. Such reports are being prepared in different communities by different methods and with widely varying scope, Peter White, C.P.A., has prepared a detailed report to the committee of audit of Bridgport, Conn., on the organization and procedure of each permanent board, commission, committee and office of the city government,-except those connected with courts, education and elections. The board 'of education of Newark, N. J., has published a series of twenty-eight leaflets on various aspects and problems of local government in

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW that community. The Wilksbarre, Pa., chamber of commerce has issued a brief report on efficiency of the Wilkesbarre city councils, by R. Nelson Bennett, which undertakes to show that many of the improvements secured under commission government are already practiced by the city councils and government of Wilkesbarre. The new commission government of Jackson, Miss., has issued (April 1, 1913) the first number of the Jackson Commission Government Record, to be issued quarterly, giving a record of the proceedings and work of the municipal government. * Municipal Appropriations.-The greater attention now being given to the preparation of municipal budgets is illustrated by the publication and analysis of detailed statements of appropriations for a number of cities. The efficiency division of the Chicago civil service commission published, under date of November 15, 1912, a report on an inquiry into appropriations and expenditures of the bureau of streets of that city, with special reference to the bases of distribution by wards. Baltimore has published in full the appropriation ordinance for the year 1913, giving a detailed statement of the amounts appropriated for each department and office. The Dayton (Ohio) bureau of municipal research has published a report on the appropriationd of that city for the fiscal half year ending June 30, 1912. * St. Louis Municipal Accounts.-Under date of April 15, Comptroller B. J. Taussig of St. Louis submitted to the municipal assembly, with his approval, a comprehensive report by Peter White, C. P.A., who has had charge of an investigation and reorganization of the accounting system of the city, covering a period of two years. This includes extensive discussions, with copies of forms, of such matters as uniform classification of accounts, reorganization of budget procedure, control 'of disbursements, reorganization of departmental procedure and general considerations.1 * Municipal Finances in Minnesota.Prof. E. V. Robinson of the University of Minnesota and director of the department of research and statistics of the Minnesota tax commission has prepared for the commission a valuable report on the cost of government in Minnesota. The larger part of this report presents the results of a comprehensive survey of muncipal finances, including cities, villages and school districts. 1 See Department of Notee and Events, p. 181.

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DEPARTMENT OF REPORTS AND DOCUMENTS 11. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL EDITED BY MISS ADELAIDE R. Hmsi Chief of the Dioiairm of Documen&, New Pork Public LiCm General CITIZENS' UNION OF NEW YORK CITY. The work of the Citizens' Union, 19121913. 32 p. 12". NEW YORR CITY. Statement of the plans and purposes of the committee. 2 leaves. 8". The "platform" of the fuslon party. Thla body was organized in the Sprinp of 1913 with the object of securing to the city in the munlclpal election due ln November 1913, a government exempt from Tammany control. CIVIC CLUB OF ALLEGHENY COUNTY. Annual report, 1911-1912. 48 p. illus. 8". CITIZENS' MUNICIPAL COMMITTEE OF An exceptionally vital organiaatlon. A copy of the report will be a valuable additlon to every collection bearing on civlc progress. CIVIC CLUB OF BERKELEY, Calif. Berkeley Civic Bulletin. Vol. 1, no. 9-12. March-May, 1913. p. 77-132. 8". No. 9. March 15. Detailed revlew of pending Callfornia legislation of general interest (constitutional amendments; educational legislation; soclal relations; workmen's compensation; blue sky legIslation; game legislation; moral legislation; red light lnjunctlon and abatement bill). No. 10. Notaeen. No. 11. April 15. Social centers (soclal center movement in the Unlted States; swlal center movement in Berkeley; prowed plan for organization of soclal centers in Berkeley). No. 12. May 15. Report of the committee on watersupply to the Clvic Club of Berkeley. May 15, 1913. 2maps. Contains a chapter on the history of the HetchHetchy water supply, and one on the public ownership of water supplies. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SUFFRAGE LEAGUE. The government of the District of Columbia. A memorial. Wmhington, 1913. 18p. 8". (U. S. 62. cong. 3 sess., sen. doc. 1138.) GALE, ZONA. Civic improvement in the little towns. March, 1913. 28 p. 8". American Civic Association, Union Trust Bufldlng, Washlngton, D. C. Series2, no. 7. Price, single copiea, 25 cents. KAISER, JOHN B. American municipal documents. A librarian's view. 4 p. Reprinted from Speclal Llbrarles, June, 1913. KONGRESS F~~RSTADTEWESEN, 1. Diisseldorf, 1912. Verhandlungen. 1913. Bd. 1-2. illus. 4". Published under the auspices of the alty of DUsseldorf. by A. Bagel, Diisseldorf at $2.25. OHIO. Ohio roster of township and Compiled by Chas. H. Graves, secretary of state. PASADENA, Calif. Final report of the mayor to the city council of Pasadena, May5, 1913. 32 p. 8". Thla report la made at the close of the admlnlstratfon of Mayor Wllllam Thum. The dlatinctlve feature of the report is the explicit and detailed preaentation of the work of government. Paaadena Is &st and foremost a residential city, which, the mayor polnts out, createa civic demands not existing with a non-resident population. Conalderable attention IS given to the publlc utilitiea of Pasadena. municipal officers. 1912-13. 491 p. TAX ASSOCIATION BULLETIN, Oakland, No. 5. May 1913. The legal and leglalatlve side Calif., monthly. of municipal and county reorganbation. 4 p. TORONTO, ONT. Toronto Civic Guild Monthly Bulletin. v. 2, no. 2-5. December 1912, January-February 1913. 4" Vol. 2, no. 2. Miscellaneous, chiefly relatlng to town planning. Vol. 2, no. 3. Town planning and clvic Improvement. An address by C. H. Mitchell, 6rat vicepresident of the Toronto Civic Guild at the lnsugural meeting of the Ontario Town Plannlng Congress, at Berlin, December 11. 1912. 12 p. Vol 2, no. 5. Skyscrapers on narrow streeta (leading article). 8 p. Speclal Legislation Number. Text of clty and suburban plans act (1912). Apartment house prob543

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544 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW lem. Helghtof bulldlngs. Street widening. Preservation of scenio beauty. A New Brunswick Town planning act. The Park situatlon in Toronto. 8 p. The Bulletin is publlshed by the Toronto CIVIC Guild as evidence of the Guild's deep interest in town planning and Improvement. The secretary of the Guild Is Frederlck L. Rlggs, 923 Traders Bank Bulldlng, Toronto. A feature of the Bulletin Is a list of magazine articles In each number bearing on town planning and Improvement. WEIL, A. LEO. Present day evils and public sentiment. An address before the alumni and members of the Washington Literary Society and the faculty and students of the Univkrsity of Virginia, February 22, 1913. 18 p. 8". On the ideals of citizenship. See also below under the heading "Water Supply" the tltle beglnnlng "Dlscusaion of Depreclatlon." Accounting See also below under the heading "Water Supply" the title beginning "Discmaion of Depreclation." ACCOUNTINQ SYSTEM OF TEE MARYLAND STATE ROADS COMMISSION. (Engineering and Contracting. April 16, 1913, p. 449451.) Taken from a paper read by H. G. Shlrley, chief engineer of the commission, on Ootober 2, 1912. before the Amerlcan Good Roads Aasoclation. The fact that It 1s a practical paper ona method applicable to munlcipal awuntlng, a subject very much on the tapis at the moment, seemed to warrant the inclusion of thla title. Bureau of municipal research. Handbook of municipal accounting. 1913. xxx, 318 p. 8". NEW YORK STATE. Comptroller's office. Uniform system of accounting for cities of the second clam. 1912. vi. 116 p. 8". NEW YORK CITY. Prescribed by the comptroller In accordance with section 38 of the generalmunicipal law. OAKLAND, CALIF. Tax Association. See below under the headlng "Taxation." ST. LOUIS, Mo. Comptroller's office. Special report transmitting report of the bureau of revision of accounts and methBulletin no. 4. ods submitted to the municipal assembly. April 15, 1913. 2G p., 49 forms. 4". The comptroller is B. J. Tausslg. The work of inveatlgstion and reorganization of the accounting system of the city WBB carried out under authority of city ordinance 25,780, by Peter Whlte, C.P.A. STATE (THE) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF AcCOUNTINQ. Established under ordinance. Description and explanation for towns and cities. 1913. 14 leaves. 8". Deacribing the books and forms to be used by eaoh officer, the manner in whioh they are to be used, the clerical dutiee of each o$cer, and the manner and form of making hLa monthly reports. Manufactured, designed and installed by The News-Dbpatch Printing L Audltlng Company, Shawnee. Okla. Bill Boards and Out-Door Advertising MONTREAL, Canada. By-law concerning illuminated signs. Adopted December, 1912. 3 p. 8". Bridges BOWEN, 8. W. Municipal bridge approach, St. Louis. (Engineering News, v. 64, no. 3. January 16, 1913. 14 columns, 10 half tones) KOESTER, FRANK. Bridges and bridge approaches. (American City, May 1913, p. 467472, illus.) The fourth of a series of articles on engineering In city planning, embodylug some of the many practld lessons which American citlen may learn from European practice. MAINTENANCE OF GREAT CITY BRIDQES. (Engineering Record. v. 67, no.4. January25, 1913. 7) columns, 5 half-tones.) NEW YORK CITY. Department of bridges. Annual report for the yearending December 31, 1912. Embracing a summary of reports for the years 19051912 inclusive. 357 p., plates, folding diagrs. 8". No reports had been printed by thla department since that for 1904 was Issued. Special attention has been given to the proposed architecturaland traffic developmenta of the terminals of the four great Eaat River bridges of Manhattan borough.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 545 Building Construction ACKERMAN, FREDERICK L Building laws and their disaatrous influence upon tall buildings. (Journal American Institute of Architects. May 1913, p. 192 CUBIIYP, HORACE. The London building Iaw and the development of property. (Architect andcontract Reporter, London. v. 89. no. 2301. January 24, 1913. 3 columns.) NEW YORK CITY. Ordinances. Building and health lam and regulations affecting the, city of New York. The building code, the sanitary code, the tenement house law, etc. 1913. 96 p. 4’. Rice, 25 cents. Includes plumbing rules and regulations ea approved by the several borough superintendents of buildings; Regulations of the bureau of buildings for the testing of new materlals of construction; Revised regulations of the bureau of buildings covering the erection and conversion of bulldings to be used for the putpose of moving pictures shows, music halls or any other public entertainment for the accomcdatlon of not more than 3M) people: General order of February 13, 1912, relatlve to fireproof booths for moving pictures; Rdes governing buildings used for dancing achwh; Rules and regulations of the bureau of buildings governing open air moving picture and vaudeville shows; Regulations for the construction, impeation and operatlon of elevators; Do. governing the conatuction of !ire eaespes; Do. governing the conatruction, alteration, operation and hs8pection of mechanlcsl amusement devices and escalators; Do. reinforced concrete regulatlons; Provlsiona contained In permit from bureau of hrghways to place bullding materials on street: Resolutions adopted by the board of estimate and apportionment governing width of roadways and sidewalks intended to prevent ereotlon of buildings whlch would encroach on streets laid out upon the city maD; Ordinance regulating placing of electric signs: Ordinances regulating courtyard and partition fences and walk. The above regulations and ordinances aceompany and supplement the building de. The following regulatiom etc. accompany the sanitary code and the tenement house law: Lodging house regulations; Regulatlons for the construction of new fire escapes; Bulleths 20-24 issued by the Tenement House Department; Blasting regulationa-rulea of the municipal explosives commlssion relating to exploaives and blaatlng; Gnrage regulations; Sale of fireworks. -195.) Brookln Eagle Library, No. 121. RAY, DAVID H. The future skyscraper. (Building Progress. v. 3, no. 1. January 1913, 13 columns. 5 halftones.) Mr. Ray ts chlef engineer of the bureau of buildlugs of New York City. SOME IMPORTANT CASES UNDER THE LONDON BUILDINQ’ACTS. (Journal Royal Society of British Architects, London. v. 20, ser. 3, no. 1. November 9, 1912. 53 columns.) TILDEN, C. J. Kinetic effects of crowds. (Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers. v. 39. no. 3. March 1913, p. 325340; illus.) A notable oontributbn to a clsss of literature that Is not very large. The loas of life due to the collapse of temporary structures for ceremonial purpmes or of struotures such as piersetc. subjected to sudden and irregular welght. ia sufEciently mest to make every contribution to the literature of the subject of value. TORONTO, Ont. Toronto Civic Guild Monthly Bulletin. v. 2, no. 5. See above under the heading “ General.” Buildings AQGRANDISSEYENT DE L’HOTEL DE VILLE DE PARIS et transformation des Services Municipal et Gn6ral. (1’Architecture, Paris. 26e annee, no. 1. January 4, 1913. 23 columns. 5 page plate 2 cuts. No.2. January 11,1913. 1 column, 4 halftones and 4 page plates.) Cab Stands NEW YORK CITY. Mayor’n message with text of proposed general cab ordinance framed by a specially appointed commission. April 22,1913. (City Record. April 24, 1913. p. 3773-3775.) Report of the special committee appointed February, 1912, to investigate the hack and taxicab situation. May 27, 1913. (City Record, May 22, 1913, p. 453154819; May 29, 1913, p. 5071-5073.) The ordinance submltted by thb committee WBB slgned by Mayor Gaynor on June 3,1913. The text Is printed In full in The City Recordof June 7.1913, p. 5381-5382. Census Moscow, Russia. Travaux du Bureau Statistique de la ville de Moscou. Livraison 1. Principaux r6sultats pr6liminaires du dhombrement de Moscou du 6 mars 1912. Partie 1. Relev6 de la

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW population, logements et immeubles de Moscbu et faubourgs. 1913. 38 p. 4". Relazione sul V censimento generale della popolazione e sul I censimento industriale. Napoli, 1912. 35,s p. 19 diagrs., 2 maps. Obl. f O. NAPLES, Italy. A more elaborate report than any yet attempted by any American city. The diagrams, OT charts, show among other facts, numbers of famillea, congestion and density of population, area of streets and open Dlaces, of monuments, of public and prlvate gardens. Charities CLEVELAND, 0: Chamber of Commerce. The Cleveland federation for charity and philanthropy a.3 proposed by the committee on benevolent associations of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce. January 7, 1913. 32 p. 8". YOUNQSTOWN, 0. Central Council of Social Agencies. Report. 16 p. 8". Liat of officers and members, text of constitution and by-laws, with a special report by the chairman, J. Warner, on the clearing house of the council. Charters CLEVELAND, 0. Chamber of Commerce. Proposals for the city charter. Report of the committee on legislation, with appendices: Reports of committee on city finances and committee on municipal sanitation. Adopted by the board of directors, April 4, 1913. 18 p. 8". Progress of charter reform. (American City, May, 1913, GILBERTBON, H. S. p. 4874.) A short article, but full of the sort of information frequently called for at the Ubrary reference desk. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY. List of works relating to city charters, ordinances, and collected documents. 1913. 383p. 4". Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Library. A mhleading title. It la not a lbt of worka relating to city charters, etc., but a llat of charters, ordinances and collected documents. PORTLAND, ORE. Charter of the city of Portland &B amended. Including amendments providing for a commission form of government drafted by the charter committee appointed in pursuance of a resolution adopted by the Council, February 13, 1913. 180 p. 8". Amendments providing for commlasion form of government were voted on May 3, 1913. Compiled and arranged by A. L. Barbur, auditor of Portland. The new oharter adopted by Portland. Ore., makes some intereating changea in regard to the power of the city government cver publlc utility corporations operating in the city. The commission now has the general superviaion and power of regulation of all the utilities operating there, and provides for aa rigid an accounting from the public service corporationa as from the city officials themselves. The city sleo haa the power to own and operate public utility corporations whlch it may construct itself or take over, paying for it by the lasue of public utility certfficatea secured by a mortgage on the utility purchased and not a general obligation to the clty. The commiaeion h the power of compulsory inveatigatlon of corporations and the right to determine what is the reasonable rate for servlca rendered. Franchlaaa are to be regarded aa property and taxed as such, with the additional provlalon that no franchlae shall be granted for a longer period than twenty-five years and that there shall be no exclusive franchises. Child Welfare HARTFORD, Conn. Fourth annual report of the juvenile commission for the year ending April 30, 1913. 87 p. 8". Notable an being the first and up to the present the the only such municipal commhaion In the Unlted Statea. Thla report la of especial value because during the year covered by it a committee of the commhsion undertook to make a survey of that portion of the population of Hartford under 12 years of age. In addition the report comprlses. p. 51-73, a bibliography of child welfare. city Planning ATTERBURY, G R o s v EN o R . Model towns in America. January, 1913. 9 leaves, illus. 8". National Boualng Association Publicationa no 17. Addreas 105 E. 22d st., New York City. Reprinted from The New Suburb Number of Scribner's Magazine. .hice 10 cents the copy. Hopedale, Mass., Roland Park, Md., Gary, Ind., Whitlneville, Maas., Forest HI& Gardens, Long Island, N. Y. CLAY, 5. H. City building. 1913. Mr. Clay la searetary of the Lexington, Ky., Commercial Club. The purpwe of the book IS to give practical help to commercial searetarlea In promoting civic welfare. Prlce, $5. 164p. 8".

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BIBLIOGRAPHY FORD, FREDERICK L. Report on railroad station approach and harbor front improvements. 1912. 32 p., 10 plates, 1 map. 8". FORD, GEORGE B. Scientific city planning. (Engineering and contracting. May 14, 19l-3.) City Planning, Chlcago, May 7. Paper read at the Fifth Natlonal Conference on GARDEN VILLAGE (THE), Hull, England. (The Builder, London, v. 104, no. 3653, February 7, 1913, 13 columns, 6 half-tones. ) GOODRICH, E. P. AND GEORGE B. FORD Housing report to the city plan commission of Newark, N. J. Newark, 1913. 75 p., illus. 8". A statement of principles taken from this report la printed in American Clty, May 1913, p. 473-480. GREAT BRITAIN. Report of the departmental committee appointed by the president of the board of agriculture and fisheries to inquire and report as to buildings for small holdings in England and wales.' 1913. 122 p., 37 folding plans. f O. Price la. 3d. While this report chiefly concerns agricultural holdings it is probably of sufficient value to those intereated in suburban development to warrant its inclusion here. HUGHES, HAROLD T. The principles to be observed in laying out towns treated from the architectural standpoint. (Journa1,Royal Institute of British Architects, v. 20, ser. 3, no. 3, December 7, 1912, 13 p., 8 half-tones; no. 4, December 21, 1912,s p.) KIRKSVILLE, Mo. Civic Improvement League. Second annual bulletin of the league. April, 1913. "For acleaner and more beautiful Kirksville." 44 p., illus. 8". LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE. A quarterly. April, 1913. City-planning number. @ 97-144. 4'. Price, 60 cents the CODY. Contents: City-planning course at the University of Illinois. by Charles M. Robinson, p. 97-lq0. A waateful competition Pulitzer Fountain competition in N. Y. City). The BiUerioa town Dlan, by Warren H. Manning, p. 108by Charles D. Lay, p. 101-107, ffl~. (The, Joseph 118, Uus. A brief survey of recent city-planning reDorta in the U. S., by Theodora Kimball, p. 119134. MAWSON, THOMAS H. AND H. VIVIAN. Two notable addresses on town planning and housing. By Messrs. Mawson and Vivian to whom Calgary owes much. 1913. 20 p. 8". Printed by the Calaary, Alberta, city planning NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY. Selected list of references bearing on the city plan of New York. 1913. 15 p. 4O. Reprinted from the Bulletin of the Llbrary for May, 1913. 05cial Town Planning and Expert Advice. Architaata' and Builders' Journ. v. 37, no. 945 Feb. 15, 1913.2t columns.) commlseion. PERROT, EMILE G. Discussion on garden cities. 1913. 6 leaves, illus. 8". Description of an induatrlsl village on garden clty Iinea, being built at Marcus Hook, Penn., for thg American Viscose Co. by Ballinger and Perrot, architects and Engineers, Philadelphia. POPE, ROBERT A. A model suburb designed by R. A. Pope, town planner, for the Boston Dwelling House Company, at Forest Hill, Boston. 4 p. 8". Philadelphia. Bulletin 1 of the Suburban Planning Association, PORTLAND, Ore. Greater Portland. Official organ of Greater Portland Plans Association. vol. 1, no. 2. March, 1913. 14 p., illus. 4'. Speolal parks and playgro~nds number. Five cents the COPY. PRAY, JAMES S. AND THEODORA KIMBALL. A city-planning classificat,ion. Preliminary outline (printed as manuscript). Harvard University Press, May, 1913, 11 p. 4". Price, ten cents the copy. PUBLIC LEDGER, Philadelphia. OnMarch4,1913, thePhiladelphia Public Ledger, a widely known dally paper, began the publication of a weekly section devoted to city planning, architecture and rd estate. The chairman of the committee on public information of the American Instistute of Architects hae been aaslsting the Publlc Ledger in the presentation of material. He mggeplta

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548 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW that here la an opportunity which lies open in other cities. Certainly It fa unneocessary to enlarge upon the educatlonal possibIlItiea with which such work might be fraught. PUTNAM, FRANK. City government in Europe. Houston's inquiry into municipal organization and administration in the principal cities of Great Britain and Germany; with a report of findings and recommendations for Houston's guidance in developing a great seaport on the Gulf of Mexico. Published by the City of Houston, Texas, 1913. 137 p., pls. 8". ST. LOUIS, Mo. City plan commission. St. Louis central traffic-parkway recommended by the city plan commission. July, 1912. 31 p., pls., 1 folding map. 8". TORONTO, Ont., Toronto Civic Guild Monthly Bulletin, v. 2, no. 3, 5. See above under heading "General." TOWN PLANNING from an Engineering Aspect. (Builders' Guide, Philadelphia, v. 28, no. 1, January 1, 1913,54 columns). UNWIN, RAYMOND. Notes on the town planning act memorandum. (Journal Royal Institute of British Architects, v. 20. ser. 3, no. 4; December 21, 1912. 33 columns.) WACXER, CHARLES H. The Chicago plan. (Journal Western Society of Engineers, January, 1913, p. 15-21.) Civil Service CHICAGO, Ill. Civil service commission. Analysis of employment and departmental organization charts. March, 1913. Outline report of work of the efficiency division. Civil Service Commission, 1909-1912. 99 p. 4", CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ASSOCIATION. Bibliography of civil service reform. 3d edition. Published by the women's auxiliary to the Civil Service Reform Association. 1913. 72, xvi p. 8". Commission Government MUNRO, WILLIAM B. Should Canadian cities adopt commission government? January, 1913. 13 p. Bulletin no. 6 of the Departments of Hlatory and Polltical and Economic Science in Queen's University, Canada. Select list of references on commission government for cities. 1913. 70 p. 4". Finance BOSTON, Mass. Finance Commission. Reports and communications. vol. 8. 1913. 205p. 8". The Boston finance commlsaion 1s wsentially a probing commbslon. The original act creating the commbslon contemplated a temporary body. A subsequent act continued the cornmlaelon. Owlng to the manner of publication the collxtor may havesome difficulty In collatlng a tile of the reports. For his benefit an outline collation Is glven. Fwst Commlsslon: Appointed under order of the city councll of Boston of March 7, 1907. UNITED STATES. Library Of Congress REPORTS Vol. 1. Appointments, organlaation and communications. Boaton, 1908. 560 p. Vol. 2. Reports and communications. Boston, 1909. 304~. Vol. 3. Reports of Metcalf and Eddy, consulting civil engineers, upon the water department, the sewer division of the street department, and mbcellaneous matters. Boston, 1909. 1226 p. Vol. 4. Report of Samuel Whlnery, consulting civil engineer, upon the street departments, Boston, 1809. 333 p. Second commission: Appolnted under section 17, Chapter 488, acts of 1909. A permanent commission appointed by the Governor. RB1PORTS Vol. 5. Appointments, organlaation and wmVol. 6. Not sem. Vol. 7. Reports and communlcations. Boston, 1912. 320, 256 p. In a number of inatanoes parts of them volumes have been lasued separately with new paghatton. The volumes are issued both in paper and In clotk binding. Not all the volumes bear a volume number. These volumed reports do not correspond to the annual reports made to the General Court. CALIFORNIA. Controller's office. Annual report of financial transactions of municipalities and counties for the year 1912. 107 p. 8". Compiled and published by authority of chap. 550, statutes of 1911. This Is the second report made under the act. munlcatlons. Boaton, 1910. 143 p. MASSACHUSETTS. Joint special committee on municipal finance. Report January, 1913. 103 p. 8". House document 1803, 1913.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 549 NEW YORK CITY. Finance department. Financial summary for the quarter ending March 31, 1913. 25 p. 8'. The 6rst number of a new series. In It the comp troller proposes givlng a current summary of the city's financial activfties. In this &st number it is shown that the fiscal transactions of the city equal In amount those of the ten next largest cities In the country colpbined. Government A study of the organization and procedure of each permanent board, commission, committee and office (except those concernedwith courts, education and elections). Report of Peter White, C.P.A. (Ill., Mo.), to the committee of audit. February, 1913. 170, 112 p. 4". BRIDGEPORT, Conn. The supplement (112 p.) contains a digest of the statutes and ordlnancea governing each permanent board, commission, committee and office of the city except those concerned with courts, eductlon. and elections. It is prepared by Fred. W. Powell. The address of Peter White is Harris Truat Building, chlcapo, Ill. Home Rule MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK STATE. Home Rule Advocate. vol. 1, no. 1. May, 1913. 12p. 4". Housing ALBANY, HOME BUILDING COMPANY. History and development of the Albany Home Building Company, Albany. December, 1912. 20 p., illus. 8'. ARONOVICI, CAROL. Report on housing conditions in Springfield, Mass. Prepared for the Housing Committee of the Union Relief Association, December 1, 1912. 39 p., illus. 8". BOSWORTH, MARION. Housing conditions in main line towns. An investigation made under the direction of the committee on investigation of the Main Line Housing Association. n.d. 46 p., illus. 8". An inveatlgation of housing conditions In certain suburbs of Philadelphia on the main line of the Pennsylvania Rallroad. CHICAGO SCHOOL OF CIVICS AND PHILANTHROPY. The housing problem literature in central Chicago libraries. 1912. 40 p. 8". Bulletin 16 of the School. NORTON, GRACE P. Chicago housing conditions, VII. Two Italian districts. (American Journal of Sociology, January, 1913, p. 509-542, illus.) Earlier artlclea In the series have dealt with housing conditions among the Jews. the Bohemians on the west aide, the Lithuanians backof thestockyards, the Poles on the northwest side, the Slavic peoplo clustering about the steel milla in South Chicago, and the negro. VEILLER, LAWRENCE. Room overcrowding and the lodger evil. February, 1913. 15 p. 8". National Houalog Association Publications no. 18. Address 105 E. 22d str., New York Clty. Price, five cents the copy. WOODWARD, WILLIAX Building bylaws and regulations as affecting the housing of the working classes. (Architect and Contract Reporter, London, v. 89, no. 2304, February 14, 1913, 4 columns.) Liquor NEW YORK CITY. Board of inebriety. Laws relating to public intoxication and inebriety. Revised to March 15, 1913. 8 p. 8". Markets NEW YORK CITY. Report of the special committee on push-carts and markets, April 22, 1913. (City Record, April 24, 1913, p. 3763-3764; May 1, 1913, p. 40214022. The committee of seven waa apppinted by the rules committee of the board of aldermen, pursuant to a resolution of July 9, 1912. The present report deals only with the puah-cart problem for thereaaon that action on this subject waa believed by the committee to be an Immediate need. A further report on public markets Is promised at an early day. The mayor, on December 18. 1912, appointed a committee of three citizens to consider the push-cart question. No report appears, &B yet, to have been made by the mayor's committee. In 1906 a commission appointed by Mayor McClellan, made an extended report on this subject peculiar to the metropolis, and of no mean import relative to the cost of living, congestion of population and traffic In those localities where the push-cart system obtalns.

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550 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW SPIEGELBERG, MRS. FLORA. Some suggestions in regard to the present agitation for the establishment of municipal wholesale terminal markets from a consumer's point of view. 1913. 15 p. 8". Mra. Spiegelberg. la a member of the advlaory board to the mayor'a terminal market commlasion of New York Clty. WILLIAMBON, C. C. Selected references on markets and marketing. (Special Libraries, v. 4, no. 3, March, 1913, p. 49-52.) Milk Supply DUNKIRK, N. Y. Milk ordinance. Its production, care and sale. Passed by the common council on February 4, 1913. 2 leaves. 4". MARTEL, H. La production et le contr8le sanitaire du lait destine aux Parisiens. 1912. (Annales d'Hygiene Publique, v. 18, p. 344-360.) NEW YORK MILK COMMITTEE. Infant mortality and milk stations. By Philipp Van Ingen and Paul E. Taylor. 1913. 167 p. 8". Addreaa: New York Mllk Commlttee, 105 E. 22d street, N. Y. City. Price $1.00. Sixth annual report for the year ending December 31, 1912. 79 p. 8". A citirena' committee, the admlrable work of whioh In preventing the mte of infant lives, oan not be too highly commended to the attention of all oivlo workera. The splendid efforta of thia committee have succeeded in reduoing infant mortality in New York City to 106, during 1912. The metropolla IS thereby phd In the first rank among the larger cities of the world in the work of baby savlng. Motion Pictures NATIONAL BOARD OF CENSORSHIP OF MOTION PICTURES. Suggestions for a model ordinance for regulating motion picture theatres. 1913. 15 p. 8". Price ten eanta the copy. Addreaa: 50 Madlaon Ave., New York City, NATIONAL BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS. Suggested ordinance to regulate the installation, operation and maintenance of motion picture machines. November, 1912. 8 p. 8". Adopted by the Natlonal Board of Flre Underwriters and the Natlonal Fire Proteotlon Aasoclatlon. NEW YORK CITY. Report of the minority of the committee on lawsand legislation transmitting text of an ordinance relative to motion picture theatres March 18, 1913. (City Record, March 1913, p. 2509-2510.) Report of the majority and minority of the committee on laws and legislation submitting the Folks ordinance providing for the regulation of moving picture theatres. (City Record, May 8, 1913, p. 42964299.) Committee on Law and Legislation. Report submitting an ordinance relative to motion picture theatres. (City Record, May 22, 1913, p. 48234826.) Mayor Gaynor's message vetoing the Folks moving picture ordinance. June 3,1913. (City Record, June 4, 1913, p. 5279-5282.) This theaecond tirneslnce the firat Introduction of a moving picture ordinance In New York City on December 12, 1911, that Mayor Gaynor has sent in a veto meaaage on the ordlnance. On th3 first occasion the inaertlon of a oenaorahlp proviao ellcited the mayor's veto. In the present cam the mayor vetoed the ordinance, beoauae. at the instance of the proprletors of the cheap theatrea, the proviaion In the ordlnance, aa framed, regulatlng the aeating captmity of galleriea in motion ploture theatres. was cut out of the ordinance aa paaaed. the mayor clalming that by thh action an injustice had been done to the proprietors of the "movies." Municipal Museums ST. LOUIS, Mo. City Art Museum. Special exhibition catalogue. A collection of small bronzes by American artists. Series 1913. no. 7. 12 p. obl. 8". Municipal Ownership DISTBICT OF COLUMBIA. Letter from the President of the board of cornmissioners transmitting report of investigation made as to the desirability of establishing a municipal asphalt plant and recommending the establishment of such a plant. December 31, 1912. 45 p. 8". U. 5. 62 cong., 3 aeaa., House doc. 1195.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 55 1 THUM, WILLIAM, AND C. W. KOINER. Answers to criticisms on Pasadena's municipal light plant. 1913. 15 p. 8". Reprinted from the Palrodeno Stor of February 10.1913. The objaat of the article WBB to analyae the alleged unjust attaokes made on Pasadena's municipal llghting plant, In order that the owners mtght better understand their opponents. UNITED STATES. Committee on appropriations. Municipal asphalt plant for the District of Columbia. Supplement to hearings before sub-committee. 62d Congress, 3d session. 1913. 16 p. 8". Municipal Papers Atlantic City Commission Government. Published monthly by the city. vol. 1, no. 1. March 10, 1913. LOS ANQELES, Calif. Los Angeles Municipal News, v. 1-52, April 17, 1912; April 9, 1913. Thls paper waa discontinued with the isaue of April 9, 1913. ATLANTIC CITY, N. J. Ordinances See also under "Charters." Ordinances on a special subjeot are entered under that subject; see, for instBnce. Water Supply. NEW YORE CITY. Code of ordinances and the sanitary code, the building code, the park regulations with addenda of all amendments to January 1, 1913, and regulations of municipal explosives commission, adopted January 3, 1912, aa amended to January 1, 1913. Compiled and annotated by Arthur F. Cosby. New York: The Banks Law Publishing Company, 1913. xvii, 511 p. 8". There are no copies of this for free distributlon. The prlce la 12.50. It is revised annually. Pageants LANQDON, WILLIAM C. The pageant (American City, of St. Johnsbury, Vt. May, 1913, p. 481-487.) The pageant of St. Johmbury was celebrated in 1912. The "book of the words" of the pageant, which. it seems, is the proper form of expression when referrlng to pageants. may be obtained from Charles E. Peck, secretary of the pageant committee. St. Johnsbury. Vt. Price, 25 cents the copy; postage 3 cents. In 1911 a pageant of Thetford was celebrated in Thetford, Vt.. and the book of the words of this pageant may be obtalned from Miss Margaret Fletcher, secretary of the pageant committee, Theb ford. Prlce 25 cents the copy; postage 3 cents. Parks and Playgrounds HALLE A. S., Germany. Beitrage Bur Statistik der Stadt Halle a. S. Heft 21. Die Sportvereine in HaIle und die Sportanlagen in Halle, 1911-1912. 77 p. 8". Outdoor recreation centers In Halle compared with those of other cities. LIQUE (LA) POUR LES ESPACES LIBRES, L'ASSAINISSEMENT ET LES SPORTS. Declassement des fortifications et conversion de la zone en espaces libres. Paris, n.d. 31 p., 4 maps. 8". M. Leopold Mourgues la secretary of the Llgue. Address Paris, Rue Scribe, 7. Pr~ce, 1 fr. MAWSON, THOMAS. The laying out of public parks. Report to the Preston, England, corporation. (Surveyor and Municipal and County Engineer, London. January 10, 1913. p. 4748.) NOLEN, JOHN. General plan of a park and playground system for New London, Conn. Boston: Press of Geo. H. Ellis Company. 1913. 41 p., illus., 1 plan. 8". PARKER, GEORQE A. Making the parks self-supporting. (Park and Cemetery, Chicago, v. 22, no. 11, January, 1913, 8 columns.) PORTLAND, Ore. Annual reports of the ParkBoard, 1908-1912. 123p., plates, 7maps. 8". These reports had not. it seems, heretofore been published separately. The Park Board believes that at the commencement of the park project which Is being actively prosecuted, it is very vltal that publlc understandtng of it shall be such as to insure support when it is imperative and toward that end It proposes henceforth to publish separate annual reports. In additton to the regular adminlatrative reports thls volume includes a special communication from the park board to the citizens of Portland (p. 77 et seq) urglng Immedhte action on the need of sufficient park holdings. Maps of varlou American cities showing SDEC~ given over to Dark property by each city aa well as charm showing respectively the per cent of city area commlsed In park property and the

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552 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW number of persons to each acre of park property make the report espealally useful. &e also above under "Clty Planning," the aubtitle. Portland, etc. SCHULTZE, ERNST. Amerikanische Volksparke. (Karperliche Erziehung, v. 8, p. 291-298; 355-365, October, December, 1912.) , Description of parka, playgrounds and baths In New York, Chicago, Boston and other American cities. Well illustrated. SHIPPS, GUY L. Municipal recreation centers. (Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, v. 25, p. 96-99, December, 1912.) An address at the International Kindergarten Union Meeting, Dea Molnes, Ia. Glves a short hietory of the playground movement. TORONTO, Ont. Toronto Civic Guild Monthly Bulletin. v. 2, no. 5. See above under the heading "General." Police CITIZENS' UNION OF NEW YORK. The Searchlight, v. 3, no. 2, March, 1913. Special police number. Police reconstruction. 8 p. 8". CITY CLW OF PHILADELPHIA. Bulletin, v. 6, no. 18, April 23; 1913, p. 404416. This number la taken UP with a consideration of police progress in Phlladelphia during 1912. There are addreaaes by Hon. George D. Porter, Director of the Department of Public Safety, Captain M. H. Ray, alde to director Porter and Major James Robinson, superintendent of pollce. There Is also a chart of the organlaation of the police department and a sample alarm. NEW YORK CITY. Rules and regulations Police Department, City of New York. May 15, 1913. 101, xxi p. 12". ~ Police department investigation committee (I' CurranCommittee"). Final Report of the special committee on investigation of the police department, June 10, 1913. (City Record, June 12, 1913, p. 5603-5632.) At the time of writing the report had not been, printed In pamphlet form, nor WBB the chairman of the committee certain that It would be so printed. A very limlted number of copies of the hesrmgs held by the committee have been printed. They are held by the officialstenographer, W. Goldburg, 170 Broadway, New York Clty, at $96 the set. Port Development BOULOGNE 8. m., France. Chambre de Commerce. Port de Boulogne sur Mer. No. 8. Plan du port et de la ville de Boulogne. September, 1912. Scale 1:10,000. 29 x 4@ in. With marglnal text relative to tr&c and navlgatlon and construction of the harbor. CRESSON, B. J. AND CHARLES W. STANIFORD. qeport on the mechanical equipment of New York harbor. December 19,1912. 67p., 36 plates, 1 folded plan, 11 diagrams. 8". Report no. 22, New York City department of GREAT BRITAIN. . Board of trade. Port of London. Copy of order authorizing (certain therein named persons) to hold inquiry 'and report to the board of trade upon certain by-laws made by the port of Londonauthority as to the licensing of lightermen and watermen in the port of London, together with copy of their report and of correspondence arising thereon. 1913. 11 p. f". (Cd. 6700.) Price lid. Address H. M. Stationery Otiice, SAMPLE, WILLIAM C. Dock design and construction in Fort William and Port Arthur, Ont. (Canadian Engineer, May 1, 1913, p. 643-648, illus.) STANIFORD, CHARLES W. Modern pier construction in New York harbor. (Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 39, no. 5, May, 1913, p. 1089-1107; illus.) TORONTO, Ont. Toronto waterfront development, 1912-1920. 32 p,, illus. 2 foldg. pls. Obl. 4". docku and ferries. London. A beautifully equipped volume prepared by the board of harbor commissioners of Toronto. The huge development, which Is being planned by the commiaslon appointed under the Act of 1911, IS the outcome of owperation between the Dominion. the American federal government and the municipal government of Toronto. The completed work It Is estimated will cost t19,030,000. Public Utilities AMERICAN CITIES COMPANY, Jersey City, 'N. J. Second annual report to

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 553 the stockholders for the year ended December 31, 1912. 6 leaves. 4". ARNOLD BION J. In the district court of the United States for the western district of the western division of Missouri. Kansaa City Railway and Light Company, complainant no. 3720 vs. Metropolitan Street Railway Company, et al., defendants. Report to Hon. William C. Hook, circuit judge, on the value of the properties of the Metropolitan Street Railway System of Kansas City. In three volumes. v. 1, n.p., n.d., 226 p., folding tables, maps. 8". Report on an interurban electric railway terminal system for the city of Cincinnati. Submitted to the Cincinnati interurban rapid transit commission. October, 1912. n.p., n.d., 163 p., plates, folding tables. 8". Recommendations for proposed merger ordinance for surface and elevated railway properties in the city of Chicago, based upon the February 11, 1907, ordinances. Made to the sub-committee of the Committee on Local Transportation of the Chicago City Council. March 6, 1913. 1 leaf, 34 p. 8". BYLLESBY, H. M. The great problem of the public service corporation. December, 1912. 16 p. 8". Reprinted from the New York Commercial, December 14. 1912. The H. M. Byllenby Company is a firm of engineers with ofices in Chlcago, Insurance Exchange Building, and New York, Trinity Building. Other earlier publications of this company are: "Securities of waterpower companies as investments," ed. 2, March 1912. 59 p. 8'. "The Regulation of public utilitiea," ed. 2, December 1911. 29 p. 8". eta. etc. CHICAQO RAILWAYS COMPANY. Fifth annual report for the year ending January31, 1913. 4p. 8". Report of Henry A. Blair, chairman to the board of directors, April 23, 1913. 31 p. 8". MARYLAND PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION. The protective Telephone Association of Baltimore city vs. the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of Baltimore City, etc. Petition and complaint regarding telephone rates and. service. Filed March 31, 1913. 50 p., 1 leaf. 4". NEW YORK CITY. Board of estimate and apportionment. The City of New York acting by the public service commission for the first district and Manhattan Railway Company, Interborough Rapid Transit Company and New York Municipal Railway Corporation. Certificates, contracts 3 and 4 and supplementary agreements for joint use of tracks constituting "The Dual Subway System." March 19, 1913. v p. 8". Board of estimate and apportionment. Bureau of franchises. Report no. 113-115. 1913. 4". No. 113. January 2, 1913. Need of legislation wih respect to stage coach companies In the City of New York with suggestions as to amendmenta to the Transportation Corporations Law and the Chtyter. 14p., Imap. 4". No. 114. January 27, 1913. Upon the appllcation of the Coney Island and Brooklyn Rallroad Company for a franchise to construct and operate a street surface railway along Fourth Avenue. 16 p., 1 map. 4O. No. 115. March 5, 1913. Upon the applications of the Merchants' Refrigerating Co. and the Harrison Street Cold Storage Co. for a modffication of the former company's charter. 8 p. 4". Board of estimate and apportionment. Resolutions 21-22. 1913. p. No. 21. Approval of propoaed contract to be entered into with the New York Municipal Railway Corporation. No. 22. Same, InterboroughRapidTransit Company. NEW YORK STATE. Conservation commission. Cheap electricity for all. 15 p. 12". 177-281. Argument for the utiliaation of the wasted hydroelectric power of the state. and the consequent benefit toevery community in thestate in improved light and power service. PLAIN (k) STATEMENT OF THE PROJECT TO FURNISH TEE PEOPLE WITH CHEAP LIGHT AND POWER. 8 p., 1 map. 12". This pamphlet ie prepared by the commlttee reg resenting the chambers of commerce and boards of trade of the ca~ital district of New York State, the object being to demonstrate the advantages to be derived from the enactment of the Murtaugh-Patrie

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554 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW bh. opment and dtatribution of cheap light and power. These bh contemplate 8 state-wide devalPUBLIC SERVICE CORPORATION OF N. J. Fourth annual report for the year ending December 31,1912. 39 p., 1 map. 8". SPRING VALLEY WATER COMPANY, 8an Francisco, Calif. Report of the president of the company for the year ending December 31, 1912. Presented to the shareholders at the annual meeting April 9, 1913. 8 p. 8". VICTORIA, Australia. Railway commissioner. Victorian railways. The application of electric traction to the Melbourne railway system. 1913. viii, 73 p., 26 folding plates. f". The problem in Melbourne, a city of 626,400 population, la the transportation of auburban pasaenger tra50. Purchasing of Supplies See below under the heading "Supplies." Railway Terminals The compiler felt warranted In including thia headlng owing to the fact that both physically and economically railway terminals exert a powerful influence on the municipal corporate body. In New York City, indeed, in the cnae of the Buah Terminsla the municlpallaation of this huge plant hm been under aoneideration. BUSFIELD, J. L. Freight terminals and freight handling at terminals. (Canadian Engineer, May 8, 1913, p. 676680; May 15, 1913, p. 707-710, illus.) Terminal passenger stations: their design and operation. (Canadian Engineer, May 29, 1913, p. 789-791, illus.) NEW YORK CITY. Report of committee on terminal improvements, Board of Estimate and Improvement, upon organization of rail terminal facilities upon the west side of Manhattan Island and the elimination of surface operation by the New York Central Railroad Company upon the streets of the city. 47 p. 4". OPENING OF TEE NEW GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL, New York City. (Engineering Record, v. 07, no. 7, January 15, 1913, 10 columns, 6 half-tones.) RAILWAY TERMINALS IN LARGE CITIES and the latest Chicago terminal project. (Engineering News, v. 69, no. 9, February 27, 1913, 4 columns.) Refuse Disposal NEWARK, N. J. Facts regarding refuse collections. February, 1913. 3 leaves. nar.. 8". Publtshed by the board of street and water oommtsaioners. STANIFORD, CHARLES W. Report on the disposal of city wastes with accompanying map showing opportunities for disposition. February, 1913. 18 p., 1 leaf, 1 folding map. 8." New York Clty. Department of docks and ferriea. Report no. 23. Relatea to New York City only. UNITED STATES. Bureau of foreign and domestic commerce. City cleaning abroad. Dally Consular and Trade Raporta. May5, 1813, p. 625-829. Vancouver, Cape Town and Johanneaburg only. Schools See BhO "VOCatlOnal Work." CIVIC CLUB OF ALLEGHENY COUNTY. Open-Air School Committee. First report, 1912. 14 p., illus. 8". CLEVELAND, 0. Chamber of Commerce. Continuation schools. Report of the committee on education. Adopted by the board of directors, April 4, 1913. 14 p. 8". GREENOCK, Scotland. School board. Annual report (2d) of the school medical inspector for the year ending July 31, 1912. 67 p. 8". HIATT, JAMES S. The child, the school, and the job. 12 p. December, 1912. A study of child wage-earners based on the school censusof Phlladelphla, June 1912. Public Education Association. H~BBS, W. W., and others. An inquiry into the causes of student delinquency. 1912. 22 p. 8". Reprinted with additloas for private clrculation .from the School Review, vol. 20. no. 9. November.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 555 1912. The coijperating authors are E. Dudley Parsons, D. H. Holbrook and W. H. Shephard, all of Minneapolis, Minn. NEW YORK CITY. Commissioners of Accounts. Report on the Brooklyn disciplinary training school for boys. By J. T. Mahoney and H. M. Rice. 1913. 31 p. 8". PAISLEY, Scotland. School board. Annual report (2d) of the medical inspection of school children, 1911-12. 60 p. 8". PUBLIC EDUCATION ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA. Study number 41. The public schools of Philadelphia. A statement of their organization, finance, equipment and activities. 43 p. February, 1913. PUBLIC EDUUTION ASSOCIATION OF TEE CITY OF NEW YORE. Bulletin 9, February, 1913. Shall the schools serve lunches? 7 p. 8". RENFREW COUNTY, Scotland. Committee on Secondary Education. Medical Inspection of school children in the year ending July 31, 1912. Summary of results by the advisory school medical officer. 27 p. 8". SCOTLAND. Local government board. Report (1st) on the medical inspection of school children in Scotland, 1911. 111 p. 8". The report is for the school year ended July, 1911. It waa made in December, 1912 and printed in 1913. The report, in addition to a detailed adminlstratlve account, contains a hlatory of the medical inapection of schoola in Scotland. WESTCHESTER COUNTY RESEARCH BnREAU. School reports in Westchester County. A study of local school conditions by Alexander J. Inglis. 1912. 29 p. 8". E5ciency aeries bulletin 3. Dr. Inglla Is Prcfeaaor of education in Rutgera College. The addresa of the Weatcheater County Research Bureau Is 15 Court St., White Plains, N. Y. Sewage Disposal NEW YORK STATE. Metropolitansewerage commission. Preliminary reports on the disposal of New York's sewage. of the sewage of the lower Hudson, lower East River and bay division. February, 1913. 66 p., 8 plates. 4". Same. VII. Critical reports of Dr. Gilbert J. Fowler of Manchester, England, and Mr. John D. Watson of Birmingham, England, on the projects of the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission, with special reference to the plans proposed for the lower Hudson, lower East River and bay division. February, 1913. 33 p. 4". UNITED STATES. Bureau of foreign and domestic commerce. Disposal of sewage in Europe. Daily conaular and trade reports. March15. 1913. p. 1281-1291. One of a series of articles on this subject, the &at having appeared in 1910. Scientific Management COOKE, MORRIS L. Address on scientific management. 1913. Speech delivered before the Western Economlc Association, at Chicago, March 13, 1913. Itwaa printed in full In the Chicago Inter-Ocean of March 23, 1913. Mr. Cooke fa dlrector of public works of Philadelphia. the fist city in the nation to teat the usefulness of scientific management in municipal affairs. Smoke Abatement BENNER, R. C. The cost of an industrial nuisance. (American City, May, 1913, p. 496-497.) Dr. Benner is connected with the Department of Industrial Research, of the University of Pittsburgh. CHICAGO, Ill. Department of smoke inspection. Notes on smoke abatement, April 1, 1913. 5 folios. Department of Smoke Inspection. Methods of approaching the smoke problem. April 1, 1913. 5 folios. Typewritten. Social Evil BUREAU OF SOCIAL HYGIENE. Commercialized prostitution in New York City. By George J. Kneeland. With a supplementary chapter by Katharine Bement Davis. Introduction by John D. Rockefeller. Jr. New York: The VI. Study of the collection and disposal Century Company, 1913. xii, 334 p. 8".

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556 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The addreas of the Bureau of Soclal Hygiene la P. 0. Box 679, New York City. The Bureau came into exbtence 84 a result of the work of the special grand jury which inveatlgaged the whlte slave traffic in New York Clty during the first half of the year 1910. The Bureau ww organbed In the wlnter of 1911, the members at preaent being two well known New York phllanthrcp kta, one lawyer and Miss Davis, the superintendent of the New York State Reformatory for Women. One of the first things undertaken by the Bureau WVBB the eatabllahment, adjacent to the Reformatory. of 8 laboratory of sd hygiene. The prwent volume is the first inthe serieaof publications projected by the Bureau. The second volume, it is announced will be a report on proatitutlon in Europe by bfr. Abraham Flerner and the third volume wffl deal with European police syatems. The latter will be the work of Raymond B. Foadick, late commlssioner of Accounts of New York Clty. KITE, ELIZABETH 5. Research work in New Jersey. March, 1913. 27 p., 3 charts. 8". Published by the New Jersey department of charities and corrections. containe report on SOCid conditlona in the pine belt. The Lackey famlly. The D!xon-Oaborn situation. Whlle not an inquiry into municipal condlticna, the volume takesitaplace with the inquiries being made in various cltiea looking to the regulation of the social evil. PHILADELPHIA, PENNA., VICE COMMISSION. A report on existing conditions with recommendations to the Hon. Rudolph Blankenburg, mayor of Philadelphia. Published by the Commission, 1913. viii, 164p. 8". Outaide of Philadelphia thia report la handled by the American Vigilance Association, 168 Fifth Ave., New York Clty. Price 40 cents the copy. SYRACUSE, N. Y. The social evil in Syracuse. Being the report of an investigation of the moral conditions of the city conducted by a committee of eighteen citizens. 1913. 127 p. 8". The report le handled by the American Vigilance Aaaoclation, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. Price 35 cents the copy. Social Surveys THOMPSON, CARL W. AND G. P. WARBER. Social and economic survey of a rural township in southern Minnesota. April, 1913. v. 75 p., illus. 4". Publiahed by the bureau of research in agrloulturd economics, department of agriculture, University of Minneaota, w its Studiea in Economics, no. 1. Streets AVERAGE UNIT PRICES OF PAVEMENTS constructed in 1912 in 568 cities. (Engineering and Contracting, April 2, 1913, p. 373-389.) CHICAGO, Ill. Civil service commission. Report on appropriations and expenditures. Bureau of streets, department of public works. 1912. 64 p., foldg. tables, diagrams. 8". Inquiry conductad at requeat of the committee on finance of the city councll and the special commission regarding ward appropriations, July 15November 15, 1912. Uniform atandarb and percentages for ward eatlmates and appropriations. CONNELL, WILLIAM H. Municipal highway organization. (American City, May, 1913, p. 526-530.) Mr. Connell is chief of the bureauof highways and street cleanlng, Philadelphia. The-above paper la an abstract of a lecture given In the advanced course in highway engineering at Columbia University, in March, 1813. FOX, RICHARD T. Street cleaning in downtown Chicago. (Journal Western Society of Engineers, February, 1913, p. 119-136, illus.) HALDEMAN, B. A. The planning of city streets. (EngineeringandContracting, May 14, 1913, p. 544-548.) Abstraot of a paper read before the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia. LACOMBE, C. F. Street lighting systems and fixtures in New York City. (American City, May 1913, p. 516-519, illus.) NEW YORK CITY. Public works department. Borough of Manhattan. Instructions of the bureau for the guidance of its inspectors of street paving. 1912. 43 p. 12". Printed in full in Engineering and Contracting, April a, 1813, p. 37&3&1. RICHARDSON, CLIFFORD. History of Fifth Avenue asphalt pavement, New York. January 4, 1913. 10 p. nap. 8". Reprlnted from Engineering Record, January 4, 1913.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 557 SMITH, FRANCIS P. Maintenance of street mphalt pavements. *(Canadian Engineer., May 15, 1913, p. 727-730.) versity. Abatract of 8 lecture deliveredat Columbia Uni'WEST, MYRON H. A report on the layout, paving and general treatment of the streets of San Antonio, Texas. 1913. 22 p. f". Supplies CLEVELAND, 0. Chamber of Commerce. Report of the committee on city finances, recommending the establishment of a city central storeroom. 1913. 8 p. 8". Munlcipal socounting report, no. 3. Approved by the board of dlrectors, Aprjl8, 1913. NEW YORK CITY. Report submitting plan of proposed system for the central purchase and distribution of supplies for the city of New York. Together with all the forms necessary to carry the system into full operation and effect. March 15, 1913. 72 p. 8". Prepared by William A. Prendergast, comptroller. The Merchants' Aasoclatlon of New York diatributes this report with an inaert sllp advising a careful study of thla report 88 It prop0888 a plan for atopping very extensive waste in clty management. OAKLAND, Calif. Tax association. See below under the heading "Taxation." Bulletin no. 4. Taxation CEDERSTROM, SIO. Unjust taxation. Compilation of facts and figures showing injustice and inequality in real estate taxation. 1913. 28 p. 8". Privately prlnted by Mr. Cederstrom at 201 Montague str., Brooklyn, N. Y. Mr. Cederstrom i~ an expert appraber. The author has put into thia book a lot of figures which he haa been collecting for several years, showing that, desplte the fact that realtyvaluea have receded in manysecttonsof Brwklyn, tax aasessora have steadily Increased aaseasments untll in many wes the assessed value i~ far in excess of the market value. The booklet is for the purpose of alding in the bringing about a readjustment of tsxlng methods. The whole question of taxing realty is atirrfng Greater New York at present and many organgations are forming to effect a standardization. NEW YORK TAX REFORM ASSOCIATION This association has recently reprinted the following pamphlets. Address: 29 Broadway, N. Y. Pmdy. Lswson. Abolltlon of personal taxation. Address by the president of the department of taxes and assessments, New York City, before the &st state conference on taxation, Utlca, N. Y., January, 1911. 1813. 5 p. 8'. Fell, C. P. Collection of tax= by forecloaure. Address before the second state conference on taxation, BuiTdo, N. Y., 1912. 1913. 8 p. 8'. Rumsey, D. Inter-state comlty and double taxation. Address by former asat. corporation counsel, N. Y. City, before the second state conference on taxation, Buffalo, N. Y.. 1912. 1913. 8 p. 6". OAKLAND, Calif. Tax association. Bulletin (monthly), no. 4, April, 1913. No. 4. 4 p. Accountlng system for Oakland. Charter fund campaign. City manager plan. Centralized purchaalng. PENNSYLVANIA. An Act amending (certain acts) and providing for the classification of real estate for purposes of taxation into two classes; to wit, the buildings on land, and the land exclusive of building, and by providing for the assessment of a less tax upon the buildings than upon the land exclusive of the buildings, in cities of the second class. Approved May 15, 1913. 4 p. 8". POLLOCK, WALKER W. Philadelphia's assessment ifroubles. A constructive program for their cure. December, 1912. 8 p. 8'. Prepared for the City Club of PhLladelphfa. Mr. Pollock Is prealdent of the Manufacturers' Appralsal Company, Cleveland, 0. Traffic See also Cab Stands. AMERiCAN SOCIETY OF MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS. Report of committee on trdc on streets and roads. Col. J. W. Howard, chairman. The report was presented to the Soclety In November 1912. It is reprinted in full with commendatory comment in Surveyor and Municipal and County Engineer of January 10, 1913, p. 36-38. ARNOLD, BION J. AND T. W. MAYES. Report on street railway traffic requirements of Toronto.

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558 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REV1 EW The report was made public late in April, 1913. A synopeis of it Is printed In CanadIan Englneer. April 24, 1913, p. 620. BLANCHARD, A. H. Valueof the traffic census in the economical design of highways. (Engineering and Contracting, January 22, 1913, p. 97.) Congress, 1012. GREAT BRITAIN. Home office. Return showing the number of accidents resulting in death or personal injury known by the police to have been caused by vehicles in streets, roads, or public places during the year ending the 31st day of December 1912. 16 p. f". (House of Commons Paper 516.) An annual return. The fiat was made In 1908. Price 2d. each. Can be secured from H. M. Statlonery Office, London. Paper read before the Ameriaan Good Roads JERSEY CITY, N. J. Rules for the regulation of street traffic, city of Jersey City, N. J., authorized by the board of police commissioners. January 1, 1913. 15 (1) p. 12". Dhtrlbuted by courtesy of the City Betterment NEW YORK CITY. Report of the special committee on speed regulations. April 15, 1913. (City Record, April 17, 1913, p. 34163419.) An aldermanic committee appomted March 10, 1912, the Hon. Ralph Foh, chairman. The committee had previously reported on January 21. 1913 (City Record, January 23, p. 545-5471. The present report submita an ordinance to take effect on June 1, 1913, and haa been voted on in the aikmative. The existing local ordinanco (sea. 364 municipal code) and the state motor vehicle law, popularly known BS the Callan law (oh. 374, laws 1QlO). had heretofore regulated the speed of vehicular traffic in the streets of New York. The codict in the provhions of these two enactments are pointed out in the report of the aldermanic committee. NEWARKER (THE). February, 1913, Devoted to the transportation problem in Newark, with a full atatement of a proposed solution of the problem, prepared by Mr. John L. O'Toole of the publicity department of the public service. Sold at ten cents the copy. Published monthly by tho Free Public Library of New Jersey. Interests. Jersey City, 46 Monteornery St. vol. 2, no. 4, p. 253-271, illus. 8". SOHIER, WILLIAM D. The traffic census aa apreiiminary to road improvement. (Engineering and Contracting, Chicago, January 22, 1913, p. 94-97.) Good Roads Congress. Abstract of a paper read before the American Vocational Work ALDEN, GEORGE I. A plan for the better education of boys and girls who leave the grammar school toseek employment in the unskilled industries. 1913. 10 p. obl. 8". Read before the Worcaster Public Education Asaociatlon, January 13, 1013. BUSSER, RALPH C. The German system of industrial schooling. 63 p. February, 1913. From a special consular report. A survey of the organlaation, scope, and aims of German vocatlonal education. Through Ita system of general and special trade achoola cloeely adapted to local needs and often under direction of the manufacturersor the gnlld, Germany is increasing the efficlency of its industrial organization to a degree not approached In any other country. Public Education Aaaociation, Study number 40. VOCATION BUREAU OF BOSTON. Record of the Bureau. 1913. 28 p. 8". Addresa: 6 Beacon Str., Boaton, Mass. Water Supply BURLINQTON, Vt. Water ordinance, city of Burlington, Vt. 1913. 15 p. 12O. COOLEY, LYMAN E. The diversion of the waters of the Great Lakes by way of the Sanitary and Ship Canal of Chicago; a brief of the facts and issues. 1913. viii, 216 p., maps, diagrams. 8". DAYTON, 0. Bureau of municipal research. Afplan:;.to'place the water works upon a self-sustaining basis. 1913. 29 p. 8". CIVIC CLUB OF BERKELEY, CALIF. Berkeley Civic Bulletin, v. 1, no. 12, May 15, 1913. See above under heading 'I General.'' DISCUSSION OF DEPRECIATION and a comparison of rates and bookkeeping

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MINUTES OF THE COUNCIL MEETING 559 methods of municipally and privately owned water works. (Proceedings American Water Works Association, 1912, v. 32, p. 325-349.) GREAT BRITAIN. Local Government Board. Metropolitan water supply. 1913. 32 p. 8". Extract from the Annual Report of the local government board for 1911-1912. FINAL (THE) COMPLETION AND OPERATION OF THE Los ANQELES AQUEDUCT. (Canadian Engineer, January 9, 1913, p. 134-138, illus.) NEW YORK CITY. Department of water supply, gas and electricity. Bulletin 1-4. 8". No. 1. Economy and efficiency in the department of water supply, gas and electricity. January, 1913. 16 p. No. 2. Standard suecfficatlons, uniform prccedure and forms relating to coal. February, 1913. 43 p. No. 3. Functional clssslfication of expenditures. March, 1913. 38 p. No. 4. Report on the work done for the prevention of water waste. Cost of the same and results accomplished thereby. 29 p., 3 olates. 8'. Board of water supply. Catskill water supply. A general description. January, 1913. 32 p., illus. 8". OKLAHOMA CITY. Report to the mayor and board of commissioners of COUNCIL Council Meeting of the National Municipal League.-The April meeting of the council of the National Municipal League was held in the New York City Club, April 25, 1913, at 4 p.m., with Vice-president Camillus G. Kidder in the chair, the president, Mr. Foulke, being abroad on account of his health. The report of the referendum vote taken among the members of the council and advisory committee showing a decided preference in favor of Toronto, that city was unanimously selected as the place of the next annual meeting and the dates fixed for November 1% to 15, 1913. The executive Oklahoma City on an improved water supply for the city. February 15, 1913. 232 p., maps, diagrams. 8'. The board of engineers which made the report was composed of Hiram PhUips, of St. Louis, John W. Alvord of Chicago and J. W. Bllltngsley of Houston. TORONTO, Ont. Report upon the existing water works system and upon an additional water supply., 1912. 153 p., 27 plans. 8". The report of a board of experts consisting of Isham Randolph of Chicago, T. Alrd Murray, J. G. Sing and Willis Chipman of Toronto. UNITED STATES. Engineer department. Hetchy-Hetchy Valley. Report of advisory board of army engineers to the secretary of the interior on investigations relative to sources of water supply for San Francisco and bay communities. February 19, 1913. 146 p., illus., folding map, diagrams. 8". In thls connection see above under the heading "General" the title Civic Club of Berkeley. Berkeley Clvic Bulletin, no. 12. VARONA, I. M. DE. Organization of the Bureau of water supply, New York City. (Proceedings 32d annual convention of the American Water Works Association, 1912, p. 61-74.) MEETING committee was made the committee on arrangements. The secretary reported 2531 members on the rolls as of March 31, the close of the fiscal year. The treasurer presented the following report for the year ending March 31,1913. mmm Cash.. . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,015.38 Dues uncollected. . . . . . . . . . . . . 850.47 Inventory account.. . . . . . . . . . . . 3,214.44 Sundry debtors account.. . . . . . 97.67 Office furnlture., . . . . , , , . , , . . . . 173.50 $5,151.44

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW LIABILITIEB National Munlclpal League AcW. H. Baldwln priae fund. .... 110.00 High school prize fund. ........ 95.00 George Burnham, Jr.. ......... 250.00 Unpaid voucher account.. ..... 931.49 INCOME AND OUTQO ACCOUNT March 31, 1913 Salartes and Clerical Work.. ........... Postage. ...... ....... Prmting and s ............... Traveling expense.. .................... General expenae.. ..................... National Munlclpal Review Office rent.. ................ News cllpplngs.. ...................... $5,151.44 $7,287.21 1,949.68 1,551.13 225.41 510.40 891.72 4,801.00 750.00 900.36 $18,956.92 Membershlp dues. ..................... 112,715.00 Sales Proceedings.. .................... 233.41 Appleton books.. ...................... 255.48 Interest and &count .................. 24.11 Life membership dues ................. 100.00 Contributions.. ........................ 3,081.42 National Municipal Review Fund.. ... 2,227.50 Review pub. fund.. ................... 60.00 Publfahlng fund.. ...................... 250.00 $18,966.92 In response to the request of the editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, the policy of the council with regard to the publication was considered at length, at the conclusion of which a motion was introduced wherein the executive and publication committees were authorized to publish the REVIEW bi-monthly if that were deemed feasible. On motion of A. Leo Weil, Esq., of Pittsburgh the following committee to nominate officers and members of the council for the 1913-14 was elected: Camillus G. Kidder, Orange, N. J., chairman; Robert S. Binkerd, New York; Charles J. Bonaparte, Baltimore; Lawson Purdy, New York; Charles C. Burlingham, New York. The secretary was requested to communicate with members of the council and other prominent members of the League to the end that local prizes simi-lar to the Cincinnati prize might be started in order to stimulate interest in municipal questions and in the work of the National Municipal League. Mr. Kidder reported the formal organkation of the American section of the International Committee for the Consideration of the Liquor Problem, and the acceptance by the Hon. William H. Taft of the honorary chairmanship of that committee. The following delegates were chosen to the Fourth International Congress on School Hygiene: Isaac Adler, Ron. James G. Cutler, Joseph T. Alling, Rochester; Charles W. Andrews, Virgil H. Clymer, A. C. Chase, Sykacuse; Hon. Merwin K. Hart, Rt. Rev. Charles T. Olmsted, D.D., Thomas R. Proctor, Utica; Munson Havens, Mayo Fesler, Warren S. Hayden, Cleveland. The secretary reported that the executive committee had appointed Mr. M. N. Baker as the League’s representative on the committee headed by the Hon. George McAneny to provide for the visit of the British Cities and Town Planning Exposition to this country. Reports from committees then being in order, Mr. Kidder reported from the committee on the liquor problem, Mr. Childs from the committee on state municipal leagues, Mr. Cohen from the committee on electoral reform, Mr. Burnham from the committee on city budgets and accounting, Mr. Woodruff from the joint committee on the selection and retention of experts in municipal government, stating that the committee had performed the work assigned to it and that it should be discharged after the joint report waa published, which would be very shortly. Written reports in the shape of outlines of work in hand were presented from the committees on franchises: Delos F. Wilcox, chairman; municipal reference libraries and archives, H. E. Flack, chairman; sources of revenue, E. L. Heydecker; municipal courts, Harry Olson; civic education, A. W. Dunn, and civic secretaries, Elliot H. Goodwin.

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BOOK REVIEWS 56 1 Concerning Mr. Dunn’s report which was presented by Mr. Weil, the executive committee was authorized to make the appropriation asked for by Mr. Dunn. Mr. Woodruff reported at length from the committee on municipal program, reciting the fact that Professor Goodnow was going to China, Mr. Guthrie on a foreign mission, and that Dr. Rowe waa already in Panama, and that Mr. Deming has been compelled to resign on account of the pressure of work incident to his recent ill health. The following names were suggested for the vacancies: Laurence A. Tanzer, Robert Treat Paine, Delos F. Wilcox, J. W. S. Peters, A. Leo Weil. BOOK REVIEWS OLD TOWNS AND NEW NEEDS: ALSO THE TOWN EXTENSION PLAN. By Paul Waterhouse and Raymond Unwin. TheManChester University Press, 1912. New York: Longmans, Green and Company; 36 cents. This little volume embraces the two Warburton lectures delivered at the University of Manchester in 1912 by acknowledged experts in city planning. The first is a sort of analysis of the philosophy of the subject-an inquiry whether there can be anything like a definite and scientific method in this new field of municipal endeavor. The conclusion seems to be negative: large and generous plans for old and well established towns are of little value, because the perpetual flux in town development defeats the best laid schemes. The perfect plan of one generation-witness Sir Christopher Wren’s project for rebuilding Londonmay be rendered obsolete or even a positive hindrance by theunforeseen developments of the next. The smaller urban units which are absorbed into growing metropolitan areas are usually changed so radically by their new associations that the original plotting is ill-suited to the new needs; and so on. But Mr. Waterhouse does not preach the gospel of despair, in spite of this cold water thrown upon millennia1 aspirations. On the contrary he says many pertinent, helpful, and eminently practical things about meeting the urgent difficulties of congested traffic; and at every turn he puts up timely warnings for those who would rush in with new diagrams on white paper before analyzing their problems properly. Mr. Unwin looks upon a larger horizon, and considers such radical matters as land taxation and German ways of doing things. He is more discursive than Mr. Waterhouse and prefers to touch many points rather than to prove a general thesis. He criticises English methods of raising IocaI revenues from rates, speaks of planning in Diisseldorf, Cologne, and Chicago, describea Mr. Howard’s garden city idea, shows how many great things have been wrought to make cities more convenient and inviting, explains what can be done under the recent English town planning act, and by much ingenious figuring fain would demonstrate that landlords will be just as prosperous and happy under the new law as they were before. This is really the great problem before English-speaking town planners: how to make the city beautiful and leave the princely revenues of ground lrtndlords undisturbed. They are in the position of those estimable gentlemen who labored to convince Charles I that the conduct of the Long Parliament (until 1649 of course) was compatible with his enjoyment of full royal prerogatives. CHARLES A. BEARD. New Milford, Conn.

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562 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW THE LAW AND PRACTICH OF TOWN PLANNING. Edited by Randolph A. Glen, M.A., LL.B., and Arthur D. Dean, Solicitor of the Supreme Court. London: Butterworth and Company, pp. xxxii, 283. This is an English book for English readers. The result of much painstaking research and compilation, it is one of those cheaply issued volumes which are making easily available to English workers a mass of valuable data on municipal development. Because it does contain this data, it has, however, considerable interest for Americans. It contains parts ii and iv and the schedules of the housing and town planning act of 1909, annotated: it includes circulars, memoranda and orders of the local government board and other boards relating to town planning; it contains model clauses for town planning schemes; outlines for various plans; and the housing and town planning powers obtained by the London county council in their new general powers act. In short, it is an attempt, as the preface declares, “to place before local authorities preparing or considering whether or not to prepare or adopt town planning schemes, and owners and occupiers of land for which a town planning scheme is in course of preparation or is likely to be prepared, all the legal and other useful information now available.” All this material ia brought as much up to date as January 21, 1913. Furthermore, it is made readily available by most complete indices and cross indices. These include tables of statutes in chronological order and of cases in alphabetical order. A chapter on town planning abroad gives data for New Zealand, Transvaal, Orange River Colony, Italy, Sweden, Prussia and Germany, but says nothing about the United States. This suggests how little the book is intended for American readers. Nevertheless, American students of municipal progress are likely to find it of value for reference in their libraries. CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON. Rochester, N. Y. * STREET PAVEMENTS AND PAVING MATERIALS. A manual of city pavements: the methods and materials of their construction. For the use of students, engineers and city officials. By Geo. W. Tillson, C.E. New York: John Wiley and Sons. $4.00 As its subtitle states this book is for a limited reading public, not because it is technical but because the portion of the public interested in such a subject is restricted. The book is of great value, not only to the persons indicated above, but also to secretaries of chambers of commerce, boards of trade, good government leagues, and organizations that have as their object the investigation of municipal affairs. The student of government or of city planning will find matters of interest treated in a readable and non-technical manner. As the editor states, “the main idea of the work has been to have it practical, so that an engineer unacquainted with the subject could obtain sufficient information to prepare specifications for, and intelligentlysupervise the construction of, pavements.” He attains his object. The book contains an outline of the earliest roads; a chemical analysis ofthe various kinds of stone; a consideration of the chief materials for road building from a geographical and chemical standpoint, namely, asphalt, brick, cement, cement mortar and concrete. These chapters deal with the various sources of these materials, their composition, their relative merits, the best methods of mixing and the many considerations of a scientific nature affecting them and their use. These chapters are valuable to an engineer in aiding him to understand the causes and effects of weather, chemical elements, different methods of mixing. The author follows with a chapter on the theory of pavements of valuenot

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BOOK REVIEWS only to the technical person but to any student ‘of paving. Then follow chapters of a very practical nature devoted to a minute consideration of each type of paving, stone, asphalt, brick, wood, broken stone and concrete. These chapters trace the first examples of each type, give a careful description of the best varieties in use with specifications; costs worked out in such a way that any engineer with a few changes in figures to meet local conditions could work out a set of comparative costs; relative traction merits; and many practical hints as to the best way of making and laying the pavements. One chapter then is devoted toeachof the following subjects; plans and specifications; the construction of street car tracks in paved streets; width of streets and roadways; asphalt plants; and the protection of pavements. Data is obtainable on any of the many subjects treated which cannot help being valuable tp those studying street construction. The book is evidently written with the intention of giving all the facts in the author’s possession without bias or prejudice. If, in estimating the relative value to be placed upon the various elements entering into a pavement, he has given figures which to the layman may seem only personal opinion, the reader can place considerable confidence in the practical experience of the author. The book is an exhaustive survey of 600 pages into one of the most neglected subjects in municipal government. It is too bad that the typographical work is not equal to the subject matter. REQINALD MOTT HULL. Cambridge, Mass. clr FIRE PREVENTION. By Peter J. Mc Keon. New York: The Chief Publishing Company, 1912.’ This volume of 250 pages is described in it,s sub-title as “ a treatise and text1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIZIW, VOI. Ii., p. 368. book on making life and property safe against fire” and is designed to meet the needs of “inspectors, fire marshals, business men, building managers, shop foremen, superintendents of institutions, janitors, engineers, matrons, and housekeepers.” This characterization, it will be observed, includes about the entire range of professional and lay interest in a subject that is commanding wide and growing attention on account of its direct bearing upon a program of scientific management and conservation of national resources. Facts, almost staggering in their proportions, have recently been placed before the citizens and taxpayers of the country by a group of investigators and engineers regarding the economic and social waste occasioned by preventable fire. It has been shown that the value of property annually destroyed by fire in this country reaches the enormous total of $250,000,000. This is about onefourth of the annual value of the new buildings constructed annually. To this amount must be added $150,000,000 for the expense of protective measures. Here is an average annual charge of over $3 per capita of population, as against a corresponding charge of about 30 cents per capita in western Europe. In addition to this stupendous property loss, there is the shameful annual loss of more than 1500 lives, and 5000 serious accidents which are the direct results of fires. While this immense property loss is in large part covered by insurance, it is obviously a dead loss to the country at large and not a transfer or redistribution of wealth, such as takes place in ordinary commercial or industrial exchange. Fire insurance is simply a device for distributing among a large number of individuals this economic dead loss which does not work to the advantage of any one. About one-half of the premium collected by insurance companies goes to pay the fire losses on insured property; the other half of the premium goes into the expenses and profits of the insurance business.

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564 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW The actual fire waste of the country is therefore far beyond the amount paid in the form of insurance losses. The reasons for an American per capita fire waste ten times that of western Europe are not difficult to find. Better building codes and more strict enforcement of the law; the more general use of brick, stone, and cement in construction, partly on account of the scarcity and high cost of wood; the lower height and smaller floor space of buildings; and the silent influence of long established habits of caution, are some of the advantages which account for the lower unit cost of fire waste in Europe. The engineering and actuarial data regarding fire waste, fire prevention, and fire protection in this country until recently have been almost entirely in the hands of the fire insurance interests. Obviously, as the premiums paid for insurance are so fixedas to cover the entirelossthrough fires as well as the expense and profits of the business, it has not been to the business interest of fire insurance men to promote a broad program for reducing fire waste. The present volume gathers up and putsinto available form much of the data that has recently been developed by independent agencies for the study and prevention of fire waste. In spite of certain regrettable defects in typography and style, the material here collected has very definite value to the student of fire prevention. In a series of about sixty chapters on important aspects of building construction, protection and occupancy, the writer summarizes, with considerable force and with frequent illustration and diagram, the principles and practices underlying modern fire prevention. Such factors of building construction as fire walls, fire doors, shafts and belt holes, fire shutters, fire escapes and exits are treated in a simple, direct, and helpful way. In the treatment of equipment for the proper protection of buildings, emphasis is placed upon the automatic sprinkler, the automatic alarm, stand pipes, chemical extinguishers, fire pails, and systematic inspection. The dangers of bad housekeeping and occupancy occasioned by refuse-filled cellars, halls, and adjacent yards, unsafe gas jets and engines, uncovered lights and defective flues; the effectiveness of many simple precautions, such as fire drills, periodic cleaning-up and systematic inspection, receive proper attention in several brief chapters. It is regrettable that page references were not inserted in the table of contents to enable the reader to refer quickly to the several chapters. This defect is partly overcome by the references contained in the index; but the subject matter of fire prevention is so largely unfamiliar to most readers that the chapter headings rather than the specific topics contained in the index must be the main guides. The verylarge amount of recent, practical data makes the book an invaluable one to any beginner in the science of fire prevention and will doubtless prove of much interest and value to more advanced students when supplemented by such technical engineering data as may be obtained from the current publications of the National Fire Protective Association of Bostonand the Underwriters Laboratories of Chicago. JESSE D. BURKS. Philadelphia. * MBDICAL INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS. By Luther Halsey Gulick, and Leonard P. Ayres. Revisedand reprinted. New York Survey Associates, 1913, pp. xx, 224; $1.50. A careful and exhaustive statement of the purpose of medical inspection, its cost, its results, its methods, and some of the problems of its administration. The authors of the book have made it a practical manual for the guidance of school authorities and teachers in establishing such inspection by detailed accoiints of methods used in many cities and numerous forms of reports and rec

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BOOK REVIEWS 565 ords. A chapter is devoted to the history and present status of the work in this country. During the past few years medical inspection has been made a part of the school activities in nearly half of the cities of the United States. Twenty states now provide for it by statute; 443 of the cities of this country have systems of medical inspection. Most of these employ school physicians and many of them school nurses. New laws compelling school attendance of all children have brought into the schools many children who are unable to keep up with others of, the same age. Medical inspection has shown that this backwardness is intimately connected with physical defects, and that the large sums spent annually on carrying these childrenovertheworkof ayear forthesecond time could be made much less bysimple measures for correcting these defects. The work takes the form of school inspections with whose results the parents are made acquainted. In some cities the school physician invites consultation. In some free hospital treatment and clinics are available. The employment of school nurses has been undertaken in many cities and their work is coming to be recognized as one of the most important factors in linking school and home, especially in those sections of the large cities that have a foreign population. Through school nurses the effeztiveness of inspection is increased many times. Throughout the book the writers have confined themselves to statements of actual experience and have not made it a record of individual views. Clear statement and well selected material make the volume exceedingly valuable. EDWIN RAY GUTHRIE. Central High School, Philadelphia. s STATUTE LAW MAKING IN THE UNITED STATES. By Chester Lloyd Jones. Boston: The Boston Book Company. 327 pp. Only in recent years has any attention been given to the form of statutes in the United States, and this work of Professor Jones should prove a handy aid to the legislator. The second or principal part is devoted to thedraftingof bills, the matter in which practical advice is most needed. The first part considers constitutional limitations, and justly criticises their increasing bulk in the newer constitutions of the western states; the third part, “Legislative Expedients,” considers methods of improving the form of bills and the legislative sanction to laws. Professor Jones contemplates the increase of statute making in years to come, an opinion which, except as to merely administrative law, some students may not be inclined to agree with, especially in view of the increasing frequency of the popular referendum: “The importance of statute law in the life of every modern nation will continue to increase. A dynamic civilization necessitates easy and rapid adjustment of law to changing economic conditions. Law evolved by custom alone cannot keep up with the developments of our modern life, and the state must resort to new rules made to fit newconditions. In all countries law-even statute lawmust as as a rule follow, not lead, economic and social advance” (p. 306). Accepting this to be the fact, such work as that of the present author will be the more needed. On page 7 we notice many errors in the dates given for the original constitutions of the states, our author having relied upon Thorpe’s American ChaTteTS, Constitutions and Organic Laws, instead of seeking the original sources. Thus, if we are correctly informed, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia adopted constitutions in 1776; Georgia and New York in 1777; it is true that the constitution of South Carolina was held to be but an ordinary statute. Some others of these were brief, and some were never submitted to the people. Nevertheless, for the sake of historical accuracy, correction should be made. On pages 10-11 is a most interesting tabulation of the date and period of legislative sessions,

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566 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW with the number of the state senates and houses of representatives, their termof service and pay; the author justly criticises the arbitrary limitation of the length of session. Law-making by initiative is criticised as not, as it were, “due process” of legislation; in that the persons affected by the law may have no due notice and hearing. The advocates of these changes will doubtless reply that this is far more true of bills in the legislatures. In the same chapter we find an excellent discussion of special and local legislation. The important constitutional limitations on the form of statute making are those requiring unity of subject, the origin of revenue bills in the lower house, the restrictions against local or special laws; the enactment or revival of laws by reference (pt. ii, ch. 3). Special chapters are given to the titles to bills; to the preamble; the enacting clause, and, longest of all, the subject matter; with an excellent chapter on the language of the statutes and one on repeals, the time of taking effect, on amendments and on resolutions. The recommendations on the subject of the form of bills would seem proper matter to be taken up by the state commissions on uniform law. S-mething might have been said on the advisability of numeration by chapter, not by date only, of annual laws; their arrangement-not to be alphabetical but topical or, at least, chronological; and the official publication of revisions. But as a whole we find the book an excellent pioneer in a hitherto neglected subject. F. J. STIMSON. Harcard University. * THE INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM. A pamphlet published by the National Economic League, 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Massachusetts, 1912. 25 cents paper; 50 cents cloth, postage prepaid. This pamphlet contains affirmative arguments submitted by Senator Robert L. Owen, William Allen White, Frederic C. Howe and Prof. Lewis J. Johnson; and negative arguments by Senator George Sutherland, Emmet O’Neal, Frederick P. Fish and Charles F. A. Currier, with a keen rebuttal by Professor Johnson for the afErmative and a rather unsatisfactory rebuttal for the negative by Prof. C. F. A. Currier. The affirmative seems to favor the indirect initiative with a state pamphlet of the character issued in Oklahoma in which the legislature’s position is submitted in carefully prepared arguments, the opposing argument being drawn up by a committee representing the petitioners. The affirmative feels that the initiative and the referendum improve the status of the voter, enlist new talent for public service, are a safeguardagainst mob rule, have significant educational value and have met with splendid success wherever used. The argument against direct legislation points out particularly the technical character of acts often submitted under the initiative and the referendum, urging that the people cannot vote intelligently on such subjects as the candle power for the head light of a locomotive, county boundaries, salaries of district judges, three-fourths verdict in civil cases, etc. Professor Johnson in his rebuttal points out that for the solution of such questions, the people have at hand the advice of experts to the same extent that the legislators have, and that such questions have been and must ever be submitted under constitutional amendments CLYDE L. KINCI. University of Pennsylvania. 5 THE FOUNDATIONS OF FREEDOM. Middleton, England: John Bagot, Ltd. 1912. 4d. This series of twenty-two essays on the taxation of land values is useful in several respects though the general tone of the whole is over-eulogistic and oratorical. The authors hail from the four quarters of the globe, four Americans being well represented both in space and

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BOOK REVIEWS 567 ideas. Probably the most trenchant ind impressive essay is the one contributed by Bolton Hall on charity. Several of our conservative notions anent philanthropy receive quite a jolt, even though we refuse to follow the writer to the ultimate acceptance of his own ideals. Mr. Fillebrown of Boston writes in his usual terse way on equal rights to land. Several others possess the real merit of’logic made convincingly interesting. But as in much of their literature, the single taxers are here prone to wearisome prolijtity and overfond of refsrring to Progress and Poverty aa a veritable Koran-thereby creating doubt in some minds as to their individual originality or ability to do their own thinking. But to those who know only the “dangerous little” about the single tax doctrine, a dip into this little volume will do no harm-except to the eyes; the typography leaves a good deal to be desired. C. LINN SEILER. Philadelphia. * A ‘POLITICAL PRIMER FOR THE NEW VOTER. By Bessie Beatty. San Francisco: Whitaker and Ray-Wiggin Company, 1912, pp. 76. The title of Miss Beatty’s little book should give a fair guess at its purpose. But from the introduction it appears that it is intended as a textbook in elementary schools as well aa a handbook for the new voter. It is, however, suited neither to school child nor new voter-least of all to the new voter who is foreign born. It is far from being simple enough for its proposed students and readers. Phrases like “the destruction of party autocracy” abound. “Reconstruction,” “public service corporations,” and the like are without definition or explanation. It is in many cases inaccurate, carelessly written and printed. The sketch of the history and policies of the Democratic and Republican parties is not sdciently adequate to be informing for its declared purpose. And there is the handicap for wide use that nearly all the illustrative examples of the workings of our state governments are taken from California. The book is thus to a large extent a description of conditions existing in that state, often existing in that state alone. But this primer still has distinct value, a value that is in part suggestive. There has long been need of an elemental book of civics, brightly and interestingly written, as is this, but also very carefully and very simply written, prepared with a clear knowledge of what our American boys and girls need to know, of whatand this should be a separate book-our foreign born new citizens and prospective citizens need to know of our political life and government and of their civic duties. There is a further virtue in this primer. The spirit of the book is admirable, broadly patriotic with a very persuasive enthusiasm for every good cause, marking a wide difference from the dull and stereotyped books of civics that have too long been imposed on our young people. The chapters on socialism and the legal status of women are excellent. So, too, is the account of California’s recent legislation, its progressive achievements and program. JOHN FOSTER CARR. New York. .o THE MUNICIPAL YEAR BOOK OF TEE UNITED KINGDOM FOR 1913. Founder and Director, Robert Donald; Editor, Albert E. Cave. London: The Municipal Journal, Ltd. 15 shillings, The present volume contains 1150 pages as compared with 1131 in the 1912 volume. It is divided into 28 sections and besides giving information concerning the local government board and municipal corporations in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, it contains full information about the London government and urban district councils. Then there are a number of sections devoted to specific topics like housing, markets, baths, free public libraries and public cemeteries. The section on town planning has been entirely rewritten and constitutes a short treatise on the prac

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tical execution of the provisions of the act of 1909. Two entirely new tables have been added to the section relating to local taxation. One of these gives an analysis of the county rates and assessable values in English counties, and the other gives the rates, valuations, etc., of Scottish burghs. The entire book has been very thoroughly revised during the year. The last section of the book contains a list of municipal societies with a statement of their objects and the names and addresses of the officers. It is to be hoped that another year will see an adequate American municipal year book. * THE BRITANNICA YEAR BOOK. New York: The Encyclopedia Britannicn Company, 1913. $1.75. THE AMERICAN YEAR BOOK. Edited by Francis G. Wickware. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1913. $3.50. The first year book to be issued by the publishers of the Encyclopedia Britannica and intended to keep that important publication up to date, contains 1226 pages and is edited by Hugh Chisholm, the editor of the Encyclopedia. Naturally it gives more attention to international and national politics and developments than to local matters. It is to be hoped that future issues will be fuller in this latter respect. Under the heads of the various states and countries treated there are brief references to local elections and to somelocal developments, but it has no comprehensive and cob dinated treatment of municipal problems and the consideration accorded municipal events under the state and national heads in some cases is fairly full, in others slight almost to the point of neglect. Prof. Edward M. Sait of Columbia University, one of the assistant editors of the department of Notes and Events of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, contributes a full and satisfactory review of political developments in this country during the years 1911-1912. The third volume of The American Year Book was prepared under the direction of a supervisory board representing national learned societies. Included in these is the National Municipal League, the secretary of which contributes the department ?n municipal government. In addition to one whole section being devoted to this subject various phases like public services and public works are treated under other heads. A cornprehensive index adds greatly to the value of the book. The American Year Book, as its name indicates, is mainly devoted to the consideration of American events and movements, although foreign ones are included where they have a boaring on world movements in which America takes its share or where they have an American meaning or application. Both of these year books abound in useful tables and statistics and list of officials, and both also have excellent necrologies. * H.4ND BOOK OF MUNICIPAL ACCOUNT IN^. Prepared by the Metz Fund from Descriptive and Critical Data Collected and Constructive Recommendations made by the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York. New York: D. Appleton and Company. $2.00. This volume is evidently a work prepared with care and based on much practical experience, but somewliat too abstract for the general, transitory class of municipal accounting officers. It is however a guide of a high order for such officials as have acquired some insight and experience in municipal affairs and who assume their tasks with a serious notion of duties and responsibilities. Two important points are clearly emphasized in the book, points that cannot be too often brought to one’s attention. 1. That the condition of the cash account is no indication whatever of the state of affairs maintaining in the city or the standing of the city as a business institution. The books of most municipal corporations will show little more than an itemized account of cash receipts and payments. Contracts for very important public improvements are entered

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BOOK REVIEWS 569 into and when the last payment has been made to the contractor the transaction will entirely disappear from the general books and a valuable asset in which the taxpayer has invested large sums of money ceases to play any part in the city’s live records. All resulting statements therefore to the public are inaccurate and misleading. 2. The absolute necessity of scientific reports for the guidance of administrative and executive officers, guidance without which their acts are necessarily uncertain, crude and wasteful. These points are clearly stated and hints given for their practical application. The value however of some of the enclosed exhibits is doubtful owing to the different terms used in the various states to specify certain transactions. Again, concrete duties and methods of procedure entailed upon officials in different states are far from being the same, which at times makes it difficult to fully comprehend the value of any given exhibit. In order that a journal entry may be appreciated and correctly made the transaction itself in all of its concrete details must be thoroughly understood. Explanatory footnotes appended to the exhibits would therefore be a great help. The main value of this very excellent work lies in its bringing to notice fundamental truths for general guidance and methods for practical application. The old rules of thumb methods so common in municipal administration are rapidly drawing toward a close, and books of this kind are to be heartily welcomed for indicating the true lines which sooner or later we will all be compelled to follow. Columbus, 0. MARTIN A. GEMUNDER. BOOKS RECEIVED THE AMERICAN SPIRIT. By Oscar S. Straus. New York: The Century Company. $2.00. CITY BUILDING. By S. H. Clay. Cincinnati: Clark Publishing Company. THE CIVIC THEATRE, IN RELATION TO THE REDEMPTION OF LEISURE. By Percy Mackaye. New York: Mitchell Iiennerly. COOPERATION IN NEW ENGLAND, URBAN AND RURAL. By James Ford, P1i.D. New York: Survey Associates, Inc. $1.50. man. New York: The MacniilIan Company. 94.00. IMMIGRATION. By Henry Pratt Fairchild. New York: The Macmillan Company. $1.75 cy A. Harris. and Sons, Ltd. 2/6. AND HIGHWAYS. By Clifford Richardson. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. $2.00. DIRECT LEGISLATION IN OREGON. By Allen H. Eaton. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. $1.00. ESSAYS IN TAXATION. By E. R. A. SeligLONDON AND ITS GOVERNMENT. By PerLondon: J. M. Dent ASPHALT CONSTRUCTION FOR PAVEMENTS THE OREGON SYSTEM: THE STORY OF THE REDUCTION OF DOMESTIC FLIES. By Edward H. Ross. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. THE MAKING OF A TOWN. By Frank L. McVey. Chicago: A. C. McClwg and Company. $1.00. SPECIFICATIONS FOR STREET ROADWAY PAVEMENTS. By S. Whinery. New York: RllcCraw-Hill Book Company. $1.00. THE SUPREME COURT AND UNCONSTITUTIONAL LEGISLATION. By Blaine Free Moore, Ph.D. New York: Columbia University. Longmans, Green and Company, agents. $1.00. THE WAYBACK CLUB. A Text-book on Progressiveism in Wisconsin, with an Analysis of the Initiative, Referendum and Recall. Crsndon, Wis.: Crandon Publishing Company. REPORT OF THE PHILADELPEIA BABY SAVING Snow, with the Proceedings of the Conference on Infant Hygiene, Philadelphia, May 18-26, 1912. Published by the Executive Committee, Child Hygiene Association, Real Estate Trust Building, Philadelphia. $1.00. THE CONVENTION OF THE ROYAL BURGHS OF SCOTLAND, 1913.

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Statement of the Ownership, Management, etc., of the NATIONAI MUNICIPAL REVIEW, published quarterly at 2419-21 York Road, Balti more, Md., required by the Act of August 24, 1912. Name of Post-Office Address Editor, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, 703 North American Bldg., Philadelphia Publisher, National Municipal League, 703 North American Bldg., Phila. Owners (if a corporation give names and addresses of stockholders holdinl 1 per cent or more of total amount of stock): National Municipal League a voluntary organization without stockholders; William Dudley Foulke Richmond, Ind., president; Clinton Rogers Woodruff, 703 North America] Bldg., Philadelphia, secretary; George Burnham, Jr., Philadelphia, treasurer M. N. Baker, Montclair, N. J., chairman, executive committee. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders, holding 1 pe cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities: None CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF, EDITOR. Sworn to and subscribed before me this fifteenth day of Feburary, 1913. EMMA D. CHAPPELL, (Seal) Notary Public. Commission expires January 18, 1917. INDEX TO NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ALSO TITLE PAGE. The editor has prepared a detailed index to Volume I of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW which will be sent on application to members of the National Municipal League and subscribers who desire it. Address NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, 703 NORTH AMERICAN BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA.