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National municipal review, April, 1915

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National municipal review, April, 1915
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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Philadelphia, PA
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
1915
Editor
Clinton Rogers Woodruff
Associate Editors
John A. Fairlie Herman G. James
Adelaide R. Hasse Howard L. McBain
VOLUME IV
PUBLISHED FOR THU
national municipal league
BT
THE RUMFORD PRESS
concord, h. e.
1915


NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. IV, No. 2 April, 1915 Total No. 14
CHILDREN IN THE CITIES
BY MRS. FLORENCE KELLEY1 New York
HENCEFORTH in rating cities, a new element is to be included in the standard, namely, the municipal care of the children. For they are the future of the city. We who are here, are the present and the past. Many of us embody the ideas of the last century. But the future of Baltimore is in the cradle, the kindergarten and the schoolroom. Not its form of municipal government, not its wealth, or its port, or the railroads, or the famous art gallery, or even Johns Hopkins will by future students be deemed so important as the deaths of the children.
So little, however, do we Americans appreciate this fact, that we do not, in any city, know how many are born in a year, or how many in each thousand die. Even though all deaths may be registered, the exact 'proportion of the survivors cannot be known because the whole number of births is nowhere known. Doctor Goler, health commissioner of Rochester, N. Y., pioneer in the municipal crusade against death among city babies hopes, after a dozen years of continuous effort, that he now registers 90 per cent of the births.
1 Mrs. Kelley is secretary of the National Consumers’ League and has won a national reputation as an effective worker in the cause of improving social conditions in urban centers. This address, which was given before a crowded audience at the Baltimore meeting of the National Municipal League, calls attention in a very vivid way to the necessity for immediate attention to the question of the care to be given to children in the cities. When one considers how much attention is given to the care and treatment of dumb animals and contrasts it with the attention given to human beings, one wonders where the sense of perspective is in American people. In connection with this address it is suggested that the reader refer to Mrs. Kelley’s informal remarks at the Thursday morning meeting of the League, reported on page 175 of the January issue.
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In New York City for several years efforts have been made to learn how many are born in a year, and we have been witnessing a strange spectacle. Whenever Tammany was in office the official birth rate fell, and whenever Tammany went out of office the official birth rate rose. This phenomenon was due to a simple mechanical device used by Doctor Lederle whenever he was commissioner of health. Following up every certificate of the death of a child, he had the birth records searched to learn whether that child’s birth was properly registered. If it was not, the midwife, or physician, and the parents were notified, publicity threatened, and ultimate prosecution in case of continued neglect. With every month of Doctor Lederle’s continued search, physicians, midwives, and parents became increasingly careful, and the official birth rate rose. After he had been out of office a month, the search relaxed and people began to grow careless. The official birth rate fell. He came back into office, and it rose again. There might, of course, have been some coincidence, something aside from the fear of prosecution. It might happen that the real birth rate was conspicuously higher one year than the next, but it is not probable.
When we have to admit that we do not know how many children are born in a city where great care is taken to learn the facts, it is a safe assumption that we do not know them in the other cities of the country.1
There is at present no standard municipal procedure for ascertaining what children are born. In Rochester, city nurses, school teachers, health inspectors and all other available social agencies are pressed into the service of enquiry after new babies, to supplement the records made by physicians and midwives. But in a neighboring. city, a few hours ride from Rochester, no effort is made beyond perfunctory compliance with the state law. And even this perfunctory compliance would be less than it is, if there were not always parents and older boys and girls seeking birth records as the basis of working papers. The New York state child labor law thus incidentally promotes the municipal registration of births.
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN’S DEATHS
Since we do not know how many are born each year, we naturally do not know where they are all born. But the health authorities do know where they die, and I plead for having this made common knowledge. So far as I have been able to learn, not one city publishes in any popular form the geographical distribution of children’s deaths.
Great was the surprise on learning some years since that the highest death rate was not in the most congested part of New York City, where
1 See Federal Children’s Bureau Infant Mortality Series No. 3, Infant Mortality Results of a Field Study in Johnstown, Pa., based on births in one calendar year. 1915.


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the tenement crowding is greater than anywhere in the world. It had been assumed that that was where people died—where the air was bad, the rooms were dark, the crowding frightful. But the census showed that the proportion there was not so great as elsewhere. It was greater on the lower west side, in the little houses with air and light and yards. That one official illumination of this dark subject reversed our preconceived ideas.
In not one city is there a widespread, alert, interest in knowing where, within its borders, the children chiefly die. Yet this is obviously the first thing to be learned. No city publishes a continuing series of maps showing from day to day, or from week to week, or even from month to month, or year to year, the location of deaths. Some cities have in the office of the board of health a map on which the place of each child’s death is indicated by a pin. Many boards gather, with more or less accuracy, for their own use and exhibit in their own offices this" data, the exclusive possession of the commissioners. But I have tried in vain to subscribe to the series of municipal maps, in any city, whereby I could see at a glance in what streets and blocks and boroughs, or wards, or districts, children died on each day of the year. Their deaths are not thought important enough to justify so expensive a publication.
We need a series of infant mortality maps showing deaths of children before the first birthday and before the fifth birthday, and those of children of the age of compulsory school attendance, between entrance at school and the sixteenth birthday. Still other maps should show the nature of the disease.
No city tells the geographical facts so clearly and continuously that the newspapers are interested in publishing them as news. Let us effectively ask the newspapers to introduce these items among their Sunday morning war news. We wish to know, at the beginning of every new week, how many babies were born during the preceding week, how many died, and of what, and where? And how many children died before the fifth birthday, and how many before the sixteenth?
So long as mothers did not know that children need not die, we were not so keen for the disheartening, shameful knowledge of the number and place of the deaths week by week. We strove for resignation, not intelligence. A generation ago we could only vainly mourn. To-day we know that every dying child accuses the community. For knowledge is available for keeping alive and well so nearly all, that we may justly be said to sin in the light of the new day when we let any die.
To this statement the exceptions are those born with non-venereal fatal malformations, and those who develop obscure disorders of the heart or other organs, the mystery of which science has not yet penetrated. Even venereal disease can now be combatted both before and after birth. But the public is nowhere allowed to know how far hered-


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itary syphilis is to blame. Dr. Prince Morrow long ago pointed out that, since we are kept in ignorance of this cause of death, our vital statistics are vitiated and our activities so far paralyzed.
Important and interesting in the future weekly maps and chronicles will be the itemized reports from all the institutions, voluntary and municipal, to which children are entrusted. For they are killed by the same agencies in institutions as outside of them. Without such full and exact records, our effort to save all the lives can never be wholly successful.
If we knew that cholera or bubonic plague were imminent for the year 1915, we should interrupt other activities to prevent that one danger, and no expenditure would be too great for the life-saving task. For either disease would stir our imagination. Or if word should reach this company that one child was being killed in the streets, how we should rush to its rescue! Yet how little we care when the children die by hundreds. I feel safe in risking the assumption that not one person in this room knows how many under one year of age have died in this city, or in his own home city since New Year’s day.
A dozen years ago, Doctor Goler achieved in Rochester a spectacular cut in the death rate of little children during the summer, by affording clean milk, handed out by skilled nurses, subject to the direction of competent physicians, to the least intelligent mothers, who had previously been under the care of midwives, or incompetent medical men, or even of quacks. Every municipality attempting such work now knows that, in the first, second and third summer, it can get conspicuous cuts in the death rate.
Since Doctor Goler’s demonstration, the cities have shown sustained interest in milk stations, which are in some cases municipal. By the records of the best milk stations, however, we stand accused. For how can we answer the question: Why do we not assure clean milk to all? Why does any corner grocery still purvey foul milk? Why is the milkman not made as responsible a servant of the public as the postman? Is not life more than letters? We have all the knowledge and power requisite; why then do we not apply this knowledge and this power? The only answer that suggests itself is that, in a given city, the whole people do not yet know that this is so.
Convincing evidence is moreover accumulating that there is a limit beyond which the reduction of infant mortality by means of milk stations cannot be carried. Poverty comes in, with insufficient food for the mother, before the child’s birth, and for mother and child during its first year. We have not the requisite foundation of knowledge for acting intelligently upon these less conspicuous, but not less effective, causes of infant mortality.1 When Victor Berger represented Milt'^ukee in con-
1 See U. S. Children’s Bureau Infant Mortality Series No. 3 referred to above.


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gress, he learned that the city of Washington was not paying sufficient wages to those employed in its humbler tasks. The government of the United States is responsible for the administration of Washington, and pays half the cost. Yet the city was paying wages so low that it was impossible for these humblest employees to keep their families in good health. It will probably never be possible to learn where children die of slow starvation due to insufficient pay allowed their fathers by the cities, until there are more representatives who, like Mr. Berger, insist upon knowing.
In a general way, we are aware that bad housing, also, is a cause of infant mortality. But for want of maps, the degree of identification is imperfectly seen. We are not equipped to show the relation clearly even in one city between housing and the deaths of children.
Vaguely we know that little children especially need sunshine and fresh air. In New York City, it is difficult in certain parts to walk on the sidewalks on sunny days, because of the crowds of baby carriages, with babies sleeping in them. The visiting nurses tell mothers in the tenements that one way to keep babies alive and well is to keep them out of doors in the air and sunshine. But why, if they are to benefit by the air and sun, must they be on the sidewalks? Why are we all, from East-port to San Diego, so infatuated with back fences that we keep the children in the streets, and leave the wonderful inheritance of land behind their homes sacred to unsewered filth below ground and the family wash overhead? Why should the family wash not be provided for in a reasonable part of the space? Why should it be forever a fetich to which the oncoming generations are sacrificed?
Parks, playgrounds, pageants, water sports, athletic fields, and school gardens we have begun, hither and yonder, in one city or another to provide. But we have been slow, indeed, to reserve the most accessible spots for the most needy candidates, the backyards as gardens adjoining their homes, assured by the municipality to the tenderest, youngest little ones.
In Greater New York where land is fabulously costly, a larger acreage is idle behind the houses than is embraced in all the parks and playgrounds, which we establish so far away that only the older boys and girls can reach them. Thus enormous parks in the Borough of the Bronx are usually empty most of the week, a dozen [miles distant from the congested district where babies need outdoor life all the time.
New York City paid $3,000,000 for Seward Park to be used as a playground, a little scrap of land bounded by streets so filled with automobiles that it is exceedingly dangerous for a child of ten to try to reach it. Seward Park is surrounded in every direction by tenement houses with back yards sacred to the family wash, while little children are on the


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sidewalks, swallowing dust and suffering from noise, or in the streets getting run over. Not far from Seward Park, in the year 1914, five little pupils in one primary school were killed by being run over.
We waste both costly city land and precious lives. If we do not adopt the proposed changes because they are good and reasonable, and adapted to saving life, by making air, light and sunshine accessible to those who most need them, we shall be driven to them by sheer necessity of keeping boys and girls away from ice-wagons, trucks, motor cars, motor cycles, and trolley cars.
For parks and streets we spend lavishly—paving, lighting, policing and decorating them. My plea is that, wisely applied, vastly smaller sums devoted to the land in the rear of the homes would save thousands of young lives.
Whenever, by the popular use of current infant mortality maps, the public becomes enlightened as to particular blocks in which children die in largest proportion, it will doubtless be relatively easy to apply to back yards the right of eminent domain, or whatever other right the municipality asserts when it takes private land for parks and streets. The obvious place to begin is wherever the infant mortality rate is highest. If, as has been suggested, there are yards so foul that they do not lend themselves to the transformation into gardens, what a stimulus to action that hideous fact affords!
Whenever some city awakens to the need of organizing the space back of the houses with the care which we now confine to the front, there will be needed, not policemen—they can be left in the streets—but physicians, nurses and kindergartners or Montessori teachers. With the rear spaces used as gardens for those too young for school—at command for outdoor life by day and night, in rain and sunshine, winter and summer—these municipal friends can protect life and keep the peace far more readily than the police have ever yet succeeded in doing in the streets. Wherever the map reveals a high infant mortality rate, there should obviously be permanently in charge of the garden a highly skilled nurse to teach the mothers, and a physician from the board of health. We act as though boys and girls needed the care of the city only on entering school. Then we provide, indoors, teachers, doctors, and nurses, as a matter of course.
Trees and seats, hammocks for naps, and awninged platforms for hot or rainy days, would cost but little—nothing compared with doctors’ bills and burial charges. The expensive element will be the salaries for professional men and women who may reasonably be expected to reduce the death rate by detecting the earliest symptoms of ailing children, guarding the quality of the milk supply, observing while there is yet time all such sinister signs and omens as mothers with the best intentions so commonly fail to note until too late.


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The unhappy little mothers who now slave away their out-of-school hours lugging babies, will be freed from cruel slavery when hammocks replace their young arms and aching, too often crooked, backs. This will be not the least of the benefactions conferred, when we urbanize our minds sufficiently to make collective use of our priceless heritage of wasted land behind the houses in our cities.
I wish to record my conviction that a close connection exists between our lack of intelligent action and the irresponsible position of women in relation to municipal activities. In my incessant travel I find in Portland, Oregon, in Los Angeles, in Denver—in any city where mothers, teachers, nurses, carry a full share of responsibility as citizens—a livelier enquiry why and where children die, than in our sleepier Eastern cities, a finer rivalry to keep all the children alive, and happy, and good.


WOMAN’S WORK FOR THE CITY
BY MABY BITTER BEARD1 New York City
THE President of the United States has written a history of the American people in five large volumes. It is typical in one respect. A visitor from Mars reading it would imagine that there had been no women in this part of the universe from the landing of the Pilgrims to the present day for scarcely a mention of women can be found in all the hundreds of pages. Apparently “George” has done it all. We learn to our own surprise that a small band of “men” known as Quakers have exerted a considerable influence on the course of our national life and that “men” pushed forward the frontier line of civilization.
The knell of that sort of history is rung. Women are now studying history for themselves. They know the part which women played in the Quaker movement; they know about the contributions to American civilization made by pioneer mothers who bore children on the western trail or in the rude cabin, who also labored in the open fields beside the men, who shared and braved every danger and who, by reason of their sex, were subject to especial perils; they know that women entered this country in earliest times as indentured servants and were sold on the ship’s auction block for the same price as men and for the same service; they know something about the heroines of industry as well as its captains; they do not forget the Triangle fire when they read of Bull Run and Vicksburg. Knowing these things women are no longer content with a history that ignores their existence or takes them for granted. Women want true histories if histories there be. We grant, however, that we shall have to supply the new data in all probability and so the silent partner is acquiring a speaking voice.
The quiet consciousness of past achievement and larger plans for the â– future might well be preserved in a golden silence if the effects of silence were not so bad. These effects penetrate to the school room and influence the formative years of thought and feeling. Men have made the world; boys strut in consequence. Women have done nothing more important than bear sons; girls therefore smirk and take refuge in powder
'Mrs. Beard is the wife of Professor Charles A. Beard of Columbia University and is well known for her active work along social and industrial lines, especially in connection with the shirt waist strike and the Triangle fire. Mrs. Beard has just finished a volume on “Women’s Work in Municipalities,” which is being published in the National Municipal League Series. She is also joint author with Professor Beard of a volume entitled “American Citizenship.”
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-puffs to be busy at something. If a controversy arises as to the achievements of the unrecorded sex, there are no readily available data for the teacher or girl student to bring to bear upon the question to prove to swaggering boys that bluster is no longer a proper manly occupation. Woman’s work for the city offers one group of data to prove that women are effective members of society, but it must always be remembered that city problems are bound up with state and national politics and are not isolated interests even to women.
Only the barest outline can be given in my twenty minutes of the municipal work of women. None of the details can be filled in for it would be a graceless undertaking to recite a mere catalogue and I should not be able to dwell at all upon the significance of woman’s participation in civic life which is the more important thing for us. Women have not performed their municipal deeds for purposes of self or sex aggrandisement.
First then we find that women throughout our land have tried to make their cities more beautiful by means of parks, fountains, lakes, monuments, boulevards, civic centres, tree planting, window boxes, shrubs, rubbish cans, and, most satisfactory of all, by the elimination of slums. As comprehensive city planning has at last awakened the interest of men so it has finally come to the close attention of women. The woman who has given up an affection for the many-colored crazy quilt and substituted an interior color scheme in her home is no longer content with an exterior world that is painful to look at and deteriorating to live with. The women of Colorado Springs, among others, have been insistent upon a city plan and we now notice among women’s organizations in general a marked tendency to talk, if not less about billboards, at least more about congestion; certainly less about tablets to departed soldiers and jurists and more about homes for the living; less about art exhibits and more about the location of factories. In other, words the larger aspects of civic beauty now appeal to women and indicate the democracy in art that is developing within, their ranks.
We find that women—a veritable army of them—have also sought to make their cities more healthful places in which to live. They have approached the problem of public health from many angles: hospitals, sanatoria, women physicians, children’s clinics, district nursing, the reduction of infant mortality, occupational diseases, unnecessary noises, flies, mosquitoes, vermin, dust, sanitation, impure water, food and milk, standards of living, medical inspection, open-air schools, pre-natal care of mothers, baby derbies, vacation camps, safety, baths, laundries, overwork, unemployment, vital statistics, relief, investigation, social service aids and prevention. In these various directions they have initiated experiments, served in advisory capacities, held public office, investigated in a scientific way, raised funds, agitated, educated, legislated


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(in suffrage states), and pointed out next steps. More significant, however, than what they have actually done for public health is the growing recognition by women of the industrial and political aspects of health.
For instance, in years gone by, women would have stood by the tub or faucet and thanked bountiful providence for water of any amount or description; but now, as they stand there, their minds reach out through the long chain of circumstances that connect the faucet and tub with the gentlemen who sit in aldermanic conclave. Indeed, the work of the women of New Orleans in the establishment and perfection of the water system so that human life in New Orleans might be better conserved may well rank in American history with the battle of New Orleans. By their action—conservative women coming out to vote against all tradition, when public weal demanded it of them—the women of New Orleans have saved more lives than Jackson’s army destroyed there—all for the glory of it.
This is the vital thing about women’s work in cities: that they are leaving behind the “thank-heaven-it-is-no-worse” stage and the “lady-bountiful” stage in their social development and are coming into the stage of thinking things out and fixing responsibility. This leads to striking results as far as women are concerned. It means the steady elimination of the petty and personal, the search for facts and the willingness to assume responsibility for constructive political and administrative work.
In the search for some of the most useful facts upon which to base municipal policies, women have been trained and capable investigators. They are well adapted to the intimate questioning which home inquiries always involve. To that large and growing branch of public service that is concerned with women and babies, to which women have drawn attention, they have brought especial interest and devotion. Even a cursory glance at the recent and most satisfactory surveys of housing conditions, wages, infant mortality and conditions of labor reveals the service rendered by women in the assemblage of social facts.
Women are investigating minutiae and discussing large generalizations drawn therefrom. They are doing more. They are preparing themselves as municipal experts and in some cities already are serving as food experts, sanitary experts, experts in efficiency, education, charities and corrections, in welfare-planning and in budget-making. In Chicago two women were recently given seats on the charter commission. To prepare themselves for expert suggestion and management, women like Mary McDowell of Chicago, have visited European cities and studied the best methods of street cleaning and garbage disposal. Women like Caroline Bartlett Crane have disciplined themselves by study and experience to serve as skilled advisers to civic organizations laboring upon municipal improvements.


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Through their interest and activities as private citizens women are qualifying also to serve the government of cities in legislative, executive and judicial capacities. In legislative hearings upon all manner of municipal problems, we find women presenting facts and arguments, and subjecting proposed measures to minute scrutiny. We find them also at budget hearings, suggesting and criticising, stirring public opinion and seeking to crystallize it. And where they have the vote, as in Chicago, we read of their heroic efforts to oust unfit aldermen and establish higher notions of aldermanic office. In a few western cities we find them making beginnings in service upon city councils.
In executive capacity, women have officiated as mayors, town clerks, •auditors, deputy marshals, and police officials. In the scores of offices which they have filled we have heard no rumors of scandal or wilful neglect of duty. That they have served with skill, good conscience, and a high sense of their public obligations seems to be the universal testimony. Moreover, it is a matter of common knowledge that many a municipal politician in office owes the success of his technical administration to the efficiency of a woman under-secretary or the public support rendered his administration by interested women.
Women are even assuming “judicial ermine” in a small but nevertheless important way. As probation officers with semi-judicial duties, they have demonstrated their capacity to unite efficiency with humanity and enlightenment. As judges in juvenile and delinquency courts they are showing that they know the law and can apply it with discrimination and good effect. Through help in legal aid societies, through probation associations, through juvenile protective associations, and through bureaus of social adjustments women are administering justice by helping to prevent cases from coming into court or securing a proper trial when they do come into court. All justice is not spoken by the gentleman of the wig and gown. Lay women know this better than lawyers. To name the women who have served as public servants in the administration of public justice would more than occupy the time at my disposal.
Women have done much to create public opinion and conduct experiments in the solution of civic problems before the government has been ready to assume the burden. Every step in municipal progress in this country has been marked by private experimentation. In this experimentation, women have been pioneers and leaders in many fields. In education, for example, they have been instrumental in many cities in trying out kindergartens, manual and physical training, domestic science, vocational training and guidance, open-air schools, new methods of teaching, and new branches of study. I shall not here detain you with details of their labors in this field. In fact, in this audience that would be a work of supererogation.
In corrections, women have awakened to the gross error which they


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have committed in leaving the study and prevention of delinquency of girls to men alone and they are making tardy but earnest reparation for their long neglect. Higher standards of morals, for example, are demanded of girls out on probation than are demanded of boys, and women begin to realize that those for boys must reach the same level.
In recreation, housing, civil service reform and agitation against unfair discrimination against women on the civil service list, in social service and the centralisation and co-ordination of relief and preventive agencies women have produced results which command respect.
Step by step women have entered the municipality in many such fields testing, proving, experimenting and securing the incorporation of their labors in the public program, only to find themselves excluded at this point from further participation in the work they have begun. More than one important municipal function devised and tried out by women is now in the hands of professional politicians who know little and care little about the successful outcome of the experiment thus committed to their care. Sometimes this usurpation is carried on thoughtlessly but sometimes we find men who have the temerity to tell women that they ought to go on interminably to experiment, to raise money, and to prove the value of municipal enterprises and then either await a spontaneous invitation to share the further governmental power, or to go on forever, not even murmuring about their exclusion from the powers of government.
It is significant, however, that a great majority of the leaders in women’s work in municipalities are no longer content with surrendering their functions when they become most interesting and important. Without desiring to introduce any controversial element here, I should be leaving my survey half-finished if I should overlook the resistless advance of the educated women’s opinion in regard to the ballot as an indispensable instrument in the progress of women’s work in municipalities. Without claiming for the women’s clubs any monopoly of learning and wisdom, I think I may safely say that they have been active in every field of women’s work for civic betterment. The records of their hundreds of meetings show this. The first light kindled in many a benighted town has been kindled by the women’s club. The direction of their interest in their biennial conventions is steadily swinging toward the governmental aspects of their work. As they have thought of women’s problems in cities—sanitation, disease, education, transportation, labor conditions, parks and playgrounds, wages and hours of work—they have inevitably seen their interrelation and their connections with politics and administration. For them to have done otherwise would have been to remain mental children. Having had practical experience with the obstacles to efficient and humanitarian city governments, they have realized that the voter on election day holds the key to the city’s progress. They^first


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thought of working upon him to arouse Mm to a sense of his responsibilities. They went to see him, pointed out to him municipal needs, presented possible achievements, discussed with him party programs and the positions of various candidates and urged him to vote in harmony with the public welfare. Results were seldom satisfactory, and, remembering the old school book adage held before them from infancy: “If you want a thing well done, do it yourself,” they have finally accepted the philosophy and last June, in national convention asembled, the club women agreed that indirect influence must give way to the direct expression of the will •of women as well as of men in governmental affairs.
Other organizations of women, having tried to install good governments by activity among male voters in preparation for city elections, have followed up both successes and failures in that direction by activity in behalf of universal suffrage and the participation of women in public administration. In this hour of universal education, at this stage of their experience, women cannot in reason and in conscience bend their every effort in all spheres of municipal improvement and yet remain indifferent to the problem of who shall control the most potent instrument for civic advancement known to mankind, namely, the city government itself. Thus woman’s work in municipalities moves by many paths to the ballot, not as a reward of merit for work done (though that matter should not be overlooked) but as an indispensable instrument for the direction of those institutions already municipalized and in the extension of municipal functions in the future.
Many women are spurred on to seek political power by the knowledge that their existence is at present largely if not completely ignored when some vital matters like unemployment are up for consideration by the city government. Men seem to forget that millions of women have to work as wage-earners subject to the same variability of employment as men. All too often the eyes of the mayor and the council are upon the labor vote and women have to appear at the city hall to remind the authorities of the extent to which they suffer from fluctuations in trade. Usually they are ignored when public efforts are made to meet the problem, and have to fall back upon privately organized relief.
The attempt to limit girls’ education to domestic science also appears to many women as a menace. Other problems, governmental in character, that now attract the consideration of women are those of the mother teachers, sex education, the social evil, the absorption and co-ordination by the city of private relief and preventive agencies, ice plants, school hygiene, markets, and the like. Since the federated club women, the federated teachers, the organized women physicians have all within the past year asked for the extension of the franchise to them, it is evident that those so vitally concerned in municipal problems are realizing their peculiar civic responsibilities and are now ready to assume them with


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enthusiasm, and what is more important, a reasonable degree of intelligence.
If I were speaking to women alone,. I might fall into the habit which men generally have of preaching to them. In that case I would plead for greater earnestness on the part of women, for there can never be too much of that on the part of either men or women. I would plead with women to care more, for all things can be done by those who care enough. I would not speak of the past, but of the future; not of achievements, but of ungrasped opportunities.
While my object to-day has been to explain rather than to preach, to describe what has been rather than to forecast what will be, I rejoice that the time has now come when every woman must think and feel for others not of her own little circle. Many there are who still live languidly—too lazy to care; many there are so overworked that they have no time to think. Some are still afraid—afraid to make a man’s world a people’s world. But “the gates of the future are wide open.” The forces not of our own choice or making are driving us on, stirring the convictions of women, entering the boudoir as well as the tenement, drawing forth the drone, filling the poor with hope, diverting money from personal adornment to social uses, forcing us to question anyone’s right to undeserved leisure, giving work to the intelligent, revealing women of initiative, judgment, leadership, disinterestedness, and devotion. It is in the light of the new spirit created by these forces that we see the promise of the city that is to be, that we dream “the patriot’s dream, that sees beyond the years thine alabaster cities gleam undimmed by human tears.”


WOMEN IN OFFICE
BY JANE CAMPBELL1 Philadelphia
EVERY year that brings an accession to the electorate of a large number of women voters, sees an increase in the number of women holding office. This is especially true of school positions, the offices of town or county clerk and a few other minor places, which seem to fall naturally to them.
Appointive positions are increasing rapidly, and women are being given some of the most responsible offices in the country, and as showing the trend of public opinion, it is now not a matter of surprise to see women occupying the new position of office-holders.
The elections during the last year were watched with great interest throughout the country, for the woman’s vote was -felt to be an unknown quantity. As a general thing the woman voter cast her ballot in favor of reform measures, and some of the western towns furnished striking examples of this. For instance in the town of Ottumwa, Iowa, where women have a small measure of suffrage, 2,000 women voted on a measure for municipal ownership of street lights and the proposition carried.
The registration in Kansas was exceedingly heavy; one woman, Mrs. Harriet Harper, who registered, was 102 years old—probably the oldest woman in the state. The election returns showed a large increase in the vote.
The California vote was a record-breaking one, women showing as great interest in casting their ballots as did men, and the majority of the reform measures voted upon were carried, such as the “red light” bill aimed at commercialized vice, the “blue sky” law, a severe blow to dishonest investment companies, the anti-prize fight measure, and the Torrens land law, which it is hoped will end the title guarantee monopoly. The California election is a direct refutation of the assertions made by the opponents of woman-suffrage that women will not vote, or, if they do, will not vote for reform measures, for in California the women did both. Probably the oldest woman in California, who was the first woman to register in the state, Mrs. Lydia Sharpless, 104 years old, voted at the last election.
In almost all places where women were legal voters, they were quite alive to its importance. In Chicago, 75 per cent of the women who registered voted, and cast 123,991 ballots, and they were debarred from
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. iii, p. 145.
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voting for some of the most important officers such as county commissioners, who control poorhouses, hospitals and other institutions in which women are interested.
Women county and town clerks, school superintendents, tax assessors and collectors were elected in considerable numbers in some of the western states, notably Nebraska and Illinois.
One small village in Illinois, Palos Park, which has only between three and four hundred residents, the women voters outnumbering the men by ten, voted to have a commission form of government, and intend making their village a veritable garden spot. Although it possesses so few inhabitants yet it covers two miles of territory, so the enthusiastic women have ample space in which to inaugurate their plans for beautifying the village.
The accounts of the various women office-holders almost invariably speak in high terms of their efficiency and trustworthiness, and as the world has become accustomed to the woman in the professions of law and medicine, so will it in time become accustomed to the woman in office.
MAYOR
Illinois—Kingston Mines. Mrs. Kate York.
Oregon—Troutville. Mrs. Clara Larrson, who was elected by a majority of five over her male opponent.
Utah—Kanab. Mrs. Mary Howard, who is also president of the town council.
TREASURER
Utah—Kandb. Mrs. Luella McAllister.
Washington—Hillyard (a suburb of Spokane). Mrs. Lida M. Goode. Mrs. Goode is serving her third term. The system is up-to-date and one of the best if not the best in the state.
MARSHAL
Michigan—Chesaning. Miss Blanche D. Ingalls.
New Jersey—Rutherford. Mrs. Agnes V. Goetchins, with full police authority.
SHERIFF
Pennsylvania—Washington. Mrs. Jennie W. Weimer is deputy sheriff for Greene County. Her husband is sheriff of the county.
JUDGE
Colorado—Eagle Co. Mrs. Lydia B. Tagule.
Kansas—Mitchell. Mrs. Mary H. Cooper, probate judge.
Missouri—St. Louis. Mrs. E. C. Bunge and Miss Catherine Dunn. Both are also probation officers.
Washington—Seattle. Miss Reah H. Whitehead is justice of the peace.
Washington—Tacoma. Miss Nelda Jaeger, first woman police judge in Tacoma.
POLICE
Women as police officers are becoming more and more popular and during the last year among those appointed were the following:
Kansas—Topeka. Miss Elizabeth N. Auburn.
Illinois—Chicago, has ten in all, among them being Mrs. Lulu B. Burt (an expert with the revolver, in a recent contest making a score of 92 out of a possible 100) and Mrs. Mary Boyd, Miss Clara Olsen.
Indiana—-Cary. Mrs. Mary Azymonga, Mrs. Ruth M. Charlton.
Indiana—Muncie. Mrs. Thomas F. Hart.
Massachusetts—Boston. Mrs. Anna Steinauer.


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New York—Kingston. Mrs. M. G. Michael, who is also a member of the board of health.
Ohio—Cleveland. Miss Pearl E. Kray. Miss Kray is mounted and covers 25 miles a day.
Pennsylvania—Pittsburgh has four women police officers and Williamsport has one. South Carolina—Columbia has one police woman.
Wisconsin—Racine. Miss Rose M. Webers.
PROBATION' OFFICERS
Probation officers are also gaining popular recognition. A few new ones to be noted are:
Nevada—Tonopah, has recently appointed one.
Pennsyhanior—Carbon Co. Miss Florence Hughes.
Pennsylvania—Philadelphia. Mrs. Mary E. Passmore looks after juvenile delinquents.
Women are filling more legal positions than ever before, in some cases as deputies or clerks, in others as heads of departments. A partial list of those elected or appointed during the last year is here given.
COUNCILLOR
Utah—Kanab. Two women occupy this position, Mrs- Blanche Hamblin and Mrs. Ada Seigmiller.
DISTRICT ATTORNEY, ETC.
California. Assistant district attorney in federal court, Mrs. Annette Abbot Adams. California—Los Angeles. Assistant prosecuting attorney, Miss Margaret Gardiner. California—San Francisco. Bond and warrant clerk, Mrs. Jean E. de Greayer (adjusts cases involving women and children).
Delaware—Georgetown. Deputy Recorder of Deeds for Essex County, Miss Lucy Wilson.
Illinois—Chicago. Misses Fanny Freck and Myrtle D. Johnson—map draughtsmen in county recorder’s office.
Illinois—Chicago. Adele Whitgreave, deputy clerk in boys’ court.
Illinois—New Grier. Miss Gertrude M. Thurston, supervisor of township. Elective. Illinois—Chicago. Carolyn Grimsby and Catherine Madden—deputy clerks in court of domestic relations.
Pennsylvania—Philadelphia. Miss Georgeanna Hopkins, chief, and Miss Mary E.
Clendenin, special agent of the domestic relations branch of the municipal court. Pennsylmniar^unburu. Miss Sara Stout, clerk in prothonotary’s office.
Texas—Dallas. Miss Eula Lowe, assistant county attorney.
COUNTY CLERK
Washington—Wahkiakum Co. Miss Mary C. Cooper. (Said to be highly efficient.) Nebraska—has two county clerks and one coroner.
TOWN CLERKS
California—Santa Barbara. Miss Christian Hohnberg. (Elected three to one over male opponent, women voters were a factor in her election.)
Connecticut—Naugatuck. Miss Lillian W. King, assistant town clerk and assistant registrar of vital statistics. •
Illinois—Camargo. Miss Jessie Lelsinger.
Illinois—Rushville. Miss Nora Trimble.
New Jersey—MilviUe. Miss Hdlen Myers. Miss Myers was appointed, though other town clerks as a usual thing are elected.
Utah—Kanab. Mrs. Tamar Hamblin.
An office to which a number of women were elected especially in Illinois was that of tax collector. A few women were chosen as tax assessors.
TAX ASSESSORS
Eight Chicago women were made deputy tax assessors, their special duty being to investigate personal property holdings of women and children.
Illinois—Danville. Elizabeth Coton.
Texas—Travis County. Mrs. Carrie Hill, tax assessor for the county.
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TAX COLLECTORS
Illinois—Aledo. Miss Dora Lofgren.
Barrington. Mrs. Carrie Martin.
Braceville. Miss Nellie Moffett.
Camargo. Miss May Haddow.
Carthage. Miss Carrie Merrill.
Champaign. Miss Harriet Cumberland.
Christian. Mrs. Minnie Patterson.
Clintonia. Miss Maud Doty.
Dry Point. Gertrude Dowell.
Greenfield. Mrs. Fannie Davis.
Hillsboro. Mrs. Maude H. Masters.
Hunt City. Mrs. Katharine Lewis.
Lewiston. Mrs. Clara Bennett.
Martin. Mrs. Grace Hutson.
Mercer. Miss Emma Cowan.
Mount Carroll. Mrs. Rebecca E. Anks.
Mount Hope. Mrs. Della Hooper.
North Litchfield. Miss Dolly Helm.
Neponset. Mrs. George A. Reed.
Ohio. Mrs. Anna Spencer.
Pecatonica. Mrs. Nellie Markham.
Ranloul. Mrs. Gertrude Peterson.
Rock Creek. Mrs. E. C. Dick.
Secor. Miss Louise Kilbury.
Sycamore. Mrs. lone Beach.
Toledo. Miss Ethel B. Albin.
Tompkins. Miss Grace Bricker.
Wade. Mrs. Nacy Mathemy.
Texas—Travis County. Mrs. Eli H. Miller.
MISCELLANEOUS OFFICES
Women are now filling a number of miscellaneous offices throughout the country, many of them carrying grave responsibilities but the incumbents from all accounts give general satisfaction. Among these positions may'be enumerated:
Colorado—Denver. Mrs. Mary Wolfe Dargin is registrar and chief of Federal land office. Delaware—Wilmington. Miss Gladys Holmes Tilney, law librarian in the court house.
Rehdboth Beam. Miss Elsie Magee, secretary, board of public works.
Illinois—Chicago. Mrs. W. C. Keough, statistician of sanitary district. Miss Edith Abbott, compiler of crimes statistics.
Massachusetts. Mrs. Mary H. Dewey, member of state board of labor and industries. Missouri—St. Louis. Miss Elizabeth Rumboldt, head of recreation department of city government.
Pennsylvania. Mrs. Jean K. Foulke, farm adviser of homes in state agricultural department.
Pennsylvania—Philadelphia. Miss Neva Deardorf, chief of bureau of vital statistics of bureau of health.
Pennsylvania. State commission to establish a cottage colony for the insane on a state reserve—Mrs. George H. Earle, Mrs. E. B. Haworth, Mrs. Alexander Laughlin,
Dr. Mary N. Wolfe.
Wyoming. State librarian, Miss Frances Davis. Winifred Stewart, deputy commissioner on public lands—an important state office. Cheyenne. Miss Bertha Meyers, deputy to the commission on Finance. (Miss Meyers is known as one of the best accountants in the city of Cheyenne.)
CITY PLANNING
Massachusetts—Boston. Miss Emily G. Balch, member of city planning board and of immigration committee. Somerville. Mrs. Barbara Galpin, city planning board of Somerville.
In the field of health, hygiene, sanitation and medicine, women enter a domain which seems to appeal especially to them and they fill an ever-increasing number of offices which deal directly with all such subjects.
Connecticut—New Haven. Mrs. Henry Wade Rogers is a member of the Improved Housing Association.
District of Columbia. Misses Margaret Dinsmore and Mary Louise Simpson are inspectors of work rooms where women are employed.


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Illinois—Chicago. Miss Mary McDowell is a member of the commission of councils to make a study of the collection and disposal of garbage. Miss Lucy C. Owen is an assistant. , Dr. Clara Seippel is assistant city physician.
Iowa. Has women factory inspectors.
New York—New York City. Misses Juliet Arden, Deborah Sabsovich and Charlotte Stolberg are inspectors of the bureau of fire prevention.
HOSPITALS
Illinois—Cooke County. Miss Ada Belle McCleery is chief of the tuberculosis hospital.
Massachusetts—Boston. Dr. Sara G. Dyer is an interne in New England hospital for women and children. Worcester. Dr. Helen J. LeMaistre and Louise M. Ingersoll are internes in Worcester memorial hospital.
New Jersey. Marietta B. Squire is a member of the board of examiners for nurses.
New York—New York City. N. M. Goems, assistant night superintendent in St. Luke’s hospital. Katharine R. Drinker, interne in New York infirmary for women and children. Ossining. Miss Mabel Jarrett, assistant superintendent of Ossining hospital.
Pennsylvania—Philadelphia. College Hospital, recent internes are Doctors Slayton, Bauer, Lentz, Boland and Taylor. Woman’s Hospital—Doctors Downie, Waide-lich, Smith, Rose and Coughlen are late additions to the number of internes. Beading. Miss Jane B. Cross, graduate of Jefferson College, superintendent of Reading hospital.
Texas—Houston. Miss Helen Lynn, superintendent of nurses in municipal hospital.
Women are now found in increasing numbers on poor boards and in a variety of charitable and settlement organizations which have for their object the bettering of the conditions that confront the poor.
OVERSEERS OF THE POOR
New Jersey—Jersey City. Miss Anita Irish. Stone Harbor. Miss M. L. Van Thuyne. Trenton. Mrs. Era H. Mansell.
New York—Blackwell’s Island. Two women are on the staff, a physician and a warden to look after women prisoners.
Pennsylvania—South Bethlehem. Mrs. Marcella McGovern, poor agent.
REFORMATORIES
Massachusetts—Sherbum. Mrs. Jessie D. Holder, superintendent of Massachusetts reformatory for women.
New Jersey. Mrs. Fielder, wife of Governor Fielder, and Mrs. Elinor C. Stewart, are members of board of managers of state reformatory of New Jsrsey.
CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS, PUBLIC HEALTH,
SOCIAL SERVICE SETTLEMENTS
California—San Francisco. Dr. Maude Wilde, chairman of public health department.
Illinois—Cook County. Miss Amelia Sears, chief of social service bureau of Cook County. Chicago. Mrs. Leonora Z. Meader, chief of social service bureau of Chicago. Miss Mary E. McDowell, head resident of University of Chicago settlement.
New Jersey. Elizabeth Mackenzie, tenement house supervisor.
New York. Dr. Katherine Bement Davis, head of department of charities and correction.
Oklahoma. Miss Kate Barnard, state commissioner of charities. Miss Estelle Blair, assistant.
Washington. Mrs. R. C. McCredie, member of state board of health.
JURY SERVICE
Illinois—Chicago. In detention hospital jury of women physicians to decide on mental disorders of women, appointed in judge's court for the insane.
Washington—Montesano. Women serve as jurors.
SCHOOLS
State Officers
Arkansas. Miss Eva Reichardt, state organizer of the school improvement association. Only woman state officer in Arkansas.
California. Dr. Margaret Schallenberger, state commissioner of education for the elementary schools of California. Mrs. Charlotte Gale, member of board of trus-
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County Officers
Kentucky—Rowan Co. Mrs. Cora Wilson. Stewart, county superintendent.
New York—Auburn. Mrs. Julia C. Ferris, school commissioner.
Nebraska. Forty-eight county superintendents.
Texas—Travis Co. Miss Maude Douglass, county superintendent.
Local School Boards
Delaware—Dover. Mrs. Sarah Cooper, Mrs. Mary Draper, Mrs. Jennie McIntosh, members of school board. Elective.
Illinois—New Grier Township. Miss Katherine P. Gisling, trustee.
New Hampshire—Franklin. Mrs. Ellen E. Webster. (New city charter gives school suffrage to women.) Nashua. Miss Ruth H. French.
New Jersey—Hammonton. Mrs. H. McD. Little. Moorestown. Mrs. Frances Herr and Mrs. M. M. Perkins. Mount Holly. Mrs. Alice Kent Stoddard and Mrs. Ida Tomlinson. Vineland. Mrs. Martha Morris. (The Vineland woman’s club marched in a body to the polls to cast votes for Mrs. Morris.)
New York—Delhi. Mrs. John C. Stoddart and Mrs. S. F. Adee.
North Dakota—Dickenson. Has a popular woman member of the school board.
STATE SENATORS
Arizona. Mrs. Frances Willard Munds.
Oregon. Miss Kathryn Clark.
STATE REPRESENTATIVES
Oregon—for Douglass County. Miss Marian B. Towne.
Utah. Mrs. Howard King, Dr. Jane Skofield.
Arizona also elected a woman from Apache County to the lower house of the state legislature—Mrs. Rachel Berry. Almost every county in Arizona elected a woman for some office.
FEDERAL POSITIONS
A number of federal positions have been given to women, for some of which a woman seems to be specially fitted. Among them may be mentioned:
Ohildren’s Bureau. Chief, Miss Julia Lathrop; statistical expert, Miss Helen L. Sumner; child welfare, Miss Estelle Hunter; expert on sanitation, Dr. Grace L. Meigs; expert on social service, Miss Emma O. Lundberg.
Bureau of Chemistry. Dr. Mary E. Pennington, Miss Albert Read, Miss Ruth C. Greathouse, Miss Maude L. Mason.
Bureau of Plant Industry. Mrs. Flora Wambaugh-Patterson, mycologist.
Federal Labor Commission. Miss Gertrude Bamum, represents women and children. U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations. Mrs. J. Borden Harriman.
National Vocational Education Board. Composed of nine members to investigate and report. Miss Florence Marshall and Miss Agnes Nestar are the two women members.
Special examiner appointed by U. S. District Court of Oregon. Mrs. Mary E. Bell. (Mrs.
Bell held hearings in government suits against telegraph and telephone companies.) Women's National Rivers and Harbors Congress. Mrs. Lovell White, president of California branch.
Panama Exposition—California, Los Angeles. Mrs. F. C. Porter, member of Los Angeles County board for the exposition. Wisconsin, Elm Grove. Mrs. Adda F. Howie, head of dairy section for World’s Congress of Farm Women at Panama-Pacific Exposition. (Mrs. Howie is said to have the finest herd of Jersey cattle in the county.)
The above list does not include the names of all the office-holding women of the country, only those that have been elected or appointed to office during the past year, and even this list 'is but a partial one, but it is enough to show that women can and do hold office and fulfil their duties in a manner acceptable to the community.


PROBATION—A PRACTICAL HELP TO THE DELINQUENT
BY HON. JAMES A. COLLINS1 Indianapolis, Ind.
IT IS not the purpose of this paper to present a theory for dealing with the poor and unfortunate who daily crowd the police courts, but to describe the actual working of a definite plan.
The first piece of legislation in Indiana looking toward a more humane method of dealing with offenders against the law was the indeterminate sentence law in 1897. The old system of measuring out a definite amount of punishment for so much crime was replaced by this law, which provided a minimum and maximum prison term and gave the trustees of the penal institutions the power to parole prisoners at the expiration of the minimum term. In other words, the state, instead of merely imprisoning those who broke her laws sought by this new system to make of them better citizens. While apparently revolutionary in character, this law was but an application of the principle embodied in the state constitution of 1816 and again in that of 1851, “The penal code shall be founded upon the principles of reformation and not of vindictive justice.”
Since this law has been in operation more than six thousand persons have been paroled from the reformatory and state prisons. A decided majority of these lived up to the conditions of their parole and during that period earned for themselves more than a million dollars. These facts alone demonstrate the wisdom and justice of this new method?of dealing with those who pay their debt to society by serving a term'of imprisonment.
The legislature of 1903 made a wider application of this principle in the enactment of the juvenile court law. This law created a separate court in Marion County (Indianapolis) for the trial of juvenile offenders. It also provided for the establishment of a volunteer probation system, and it prohibited the incarceration of any children, coming within the scope of the law, in the same building, yard or enclosure with adult convicts.
Before the enactment of the juvenile court law, no legal method existed in this state by which juvenile offenders could be accorded any treatment
1 Judge Collins was elected judge of the city court in Indianapolis in 1909 and served four years. In 1914 he was elected judge of the Marion criminal court, taking office on January 1, 1915. He has taken an active part in civic affairs and in the work of the Episcopal Church, especially along social lines.
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different from that accorded to adults. This law with its provision for adequate investigation, before trial, of all children brought into the court, and its other provision for the appointment of volunteer probation officers opened the way for a definite, permanent, method of dealing with such offenders. To these provisions of the law is due almost entirely the success of the Marion County juvenile court in working out the great problems of juvenile reformation.
The records of the juvenile court show that more than 1,800 children brought into the court, charged with violations of the law, have been placed on probation under the supervision of volunteer probation officers, and of this number only about 15 per cent have failed to respond to good influences and have been committed to institutions for more rigid discipline.
The volunteer probation officers who serve in the Juvenile Court belong to no particular class or creed. Men and women, white and black, Catholic, Protestant and Hebrew have all gratuitously joined in this great movement for the social regeneration of the children of the city. This volunteer probation system has proven to be not only a moral, but a practical force in the community. Through its influence hundreds of boys have found steady employment; girls and destitute children have been placed in good homes; poor children suffering from physical defects have been provided with needed treatment by expert physicians without any expense to the parents; and through the personal contact of the probation officer home conditions have been improved and parents aroused to a keener sense of their obligation to their children.
An extension of this beneficent principle was made possible in 1907 by the enactment of a law under which courts may exercise the right to suspend sentence or withhold judgment in the case of adults. This measure made possible the application of the probation system in the administration of justice in circuit and criminal courts and in courts having concurrent jurisdiction by implication in city courts also.
The power to suspend sentence in many cases where the circumstances seemed to justify has saved many novices in crime from undergoing the harsh punishment that would otherwise be meted out to them and that seems to be contrary to the constitutional provision that “All penalties shall be proportioned according to the nature of the offense.” As Judge Roby formerly of the appellate court of Indiana has well said, “The system under which a father and husband pleading guilty to a charge of larceny based upon the taking of a bundle of oats or a loaf of bread was sent up, was often absolutely sure to work brutal injustice. That it continued as long as it did is a remarkable fact.”
The magnitude of the problem affected by this legislation is neither understood nor appreciated except by the few who officially come in contact with the police courts. During the four years prior to January


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3, 1910, 37,904 persons were adjudged guilty in the city court of Indianapolis. Of this number 25,686 were committed to the workhouse and the jail. The majority of these cases were disposed of at a morning session averaging about two hours. It was no uncommon experience for the presiding judge to dispose of a slate comprising a hundred or more cases at a rate greater than one a minute. By such methods the spirit of our constitutional provision was ignored and the first trivial offense was punished with the same rigor that was meted out to the hardened criminal.
No statistics are available showing what number or proportion of these convictions were for first offenses, but unquestionably the percentage was large, for the reason that this court has jurisdiction in cases of misdemeanors and violations of city ordinances over all boys who have passed the full age of sixteen and girls who have passed the full age of seventeen. A trifling percentage of the total number convicted escaped the penalties imposed by a suspension of the sentence. The rest answered for their offenses by paying fines or by incarceration in the jail, the workhouse or correctional department of the woman’s prison.
To administer justice properly in a police court the presiding judge should earnestly endeavor to distinguish between the delinquent and the criminal—the occasional and the chronic violator of the law; and to give sufficient time for careful investigation of the merits of each case; and to see that while the community is protected, the rights of the individual, especially of the poor and ignorant and uninfluential individual, be not overlooked. Of the 25,686 persons committed to the jail, the workhouse and correctional department of the woman’s prison from our police court during the period above referred to, how many were benefited by incarceration? The imprisonment of some no doubt benefited the state and the public. A large number, however, receive the sentence imposed not because of criminal acts or criminal instincts, but because, unaided, they could not resist besetting temptations. To such as these, a term in the jail or workhouse was not a term in a house of correction, but a term in a house of corruption. Once the barred doors closed behind the unhappy prisoner his lot was the common lot of all. He became the forced associate of criminals; his self-respect was gone; his will was weakened; and his mind was prepared to receive instructions in crime proffered to him on every hand. He must of necessity come from such a place a less desirable citizen.
Recognizing the seriousness of the evils, I pledged the people of Indianapolis, in the municipal campaign of 1909, that if elected judge of the city court, I would introduce a probation system as a means of helping delinquent' men and women.
In its strict sense, “Probation is a judicial system by which an offender against penal law, instead of being punished by a sentence, is given an opportunity to reform himself under supervision, and subject to conditions


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imposed by the court, with the end in view that if he shows evidence of being reformed no penalty for his offense will be imposed.”
The probation system inaugurated in the city court of Indianapolis contemplates the following:
First. The suspended sentence: During the three years that this plan has been in force sentence has been suspended in 574 cases and judgment withheld in 6,681. The majority of these were first offenders. In those cases where the judgment was suspended the court has had to set aside the suspension of sentence and commit the defendants in five cases, and where the judgment has been withheld less than 2 per cent have been returned to court for a second or subsequent offense.
While there is no provision under the law for the employment of paid probation officers, adequate supervision in 575 cases was made by good citizens who volunteered to serve in that capacity. These probationers were required to furnish the court a monthly report signed by the probation officer. Time will not permit the details of these reports. Each tells its own story of heroic efforts toward right living.
Second. Paying fines on installments: Could you witness, as I have on many a Monday morning, the pitiable scenes of wives and mothers and sobbing children, crowding the corridors of the city court pleading with officers and attaches of the court to say a word to the judge in behalf of a husband or father, you would then understand the need of a different system of dealing with this class of people,. Much of their suffering came from the assessment of the fines which the defendant was unable to pay or replevy. He was imprisoned not because the court believed he should be imprisoned, as there was no term of imprisonment added, but because he was unable to pay the fine. In other words, he was imprisoned for debt—a form of punishment which was abolished in this country many years ago. To reach this situation and to aid this particular class a plan was introduced for the collection of money in small payments to be applied on fines and costs.
In those cases where a defendant had others dependent upon him for support he has been released on his own recognizance and ^he case held under advisement for thirty or sixty days, as the circumstances seemed to justify. At the expiration of which time he was required to report to the court that he had paid in the amount designated as the fine and costs to be entered against him. In the three years that this plan has been in operation $27,410 has been paid in by probationers. On a number of occasions the court has made recommendations to the governor for executive clemency and whenever a parole has been granted the defendant has been directed to pay his fine and costs to the probation officer of the city court.
This plan operates to the benefit of the defendant in several ways: It saves him his employment; it saves his family from humiliation and


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disgrace, as well as from the embarrassment incident to imprisonment; but more than all, it saves him his self respect. It has also resulted in a reduction in the number of commitments to the jail and the workhouse, which has meant a large saving in maintenance to the county and an increase in the revenues of the common school fund.
Third. Drunkenness and the pledge system: No unfortunates appeal more strongly to the court than those having the liquor habit. In all cases of first offenders charged with being drunk and in those cases where the defendant had others dependent upon him for support, the court has made it a condition on withholding judgment or suspending the sentence that the defendant take the pledge for a period varying from six months to one year. Under this plan 302 persons have taken the pledge and of this number all but 26 have kept the same faithfully.
In the severe cases where the defendant was bordering on the delirium tremens; he was committed to the workhouse and the superintendent informed of his condition. While there are no special arrangements for the treatment of inebriates at the workhouse the superintendent has successfully provided a separate department. These cases are thoroughly examined by the workhouse physician and such medical and special attention are given to them as the circumstances seem to justify. With these inadequate facilities a splendid work is now being done among this class of unfortunate and harmless offenders. When the family or relatives could afford it, persons have been sent to institutions to be treated for the liquor habit and our records show but one failure. Where the financial condition of the defendant was such that he could not pay for the treatment arrangements have been made for the payment of the money into the probation department in weekly installments thus assuring for the defendant the benefit of the paid treatment and the institution the satisfaction of the debt.
Fourth. Medical and surgical treatment: Men suffering from physical defects have frequently been before the court charged with offenses entirely out of harmony with their antecedents and environments. In these cases the court has been able to call to its assistance some of the best surgeons of the city and has received the support and co-operation of the superintendent of the city hospital.
Fifth. The criminal code is absolutely silent upon the question of recovery for loss or damage to property and injuries to the person growing out of criminal acts except that in cases of malicious trespass the court may fine a defendant a sum equal to twice the amount of the property damage. To fine a person double the value of the property damaged and because of his failure to pay the same, to place the additional burden on the citizen of supporting him in the workhouse or jail seems in itself an absurdity. As a part of the probation plan the court requires every person charged with any offense involving the loss or damage to property


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and injuries to the person to make full and complete restitution to the injured party before the final disposition of the case. â–  Upon a proper showing that restitution has been made, the court is then in a position to take such action as the other facts in the case justify. Under this plan more than $5,000 has been recovered and turned over to the proper parties.
Sixth. To Amos W. Butler and Demarchus C. Brown, of the board of state charities, is due the credit for the suggestion of a separate session for the trial of women and girls. Like all innovations connected with matters pertaining to the police, it was first looked upon as a fad and predictions were freely made that because of the nature of the work and the rapidity with which it must be discharged the life of the plan would be short. But notwithstanding the criticism, it has become established as a permanent method of dealing with the delinquent women of the city. The local council of women by their efforts have made it a practical reality. With their aid and assistance the legislature of 1911 enacted a law providing for the appointment of a court matron in cities of the first and second class and this act prescribed her duties as follows: “She shall, under direction of the judge of the city court, investigate and report to such judge upon the past histories, conditions of living, character, morals and habits of all women and girls awaiting trial in such city court and shall have supervision of such women and girls while not in actual custody until final disposition of the charge or charges against them.”
Out of 478 cases investigated under direction of the court matron only 49 were fined or committed to the jail or correctional department of the woman’s prison and in the remaining cases the investigation disclosed that the facts would not justify imprisonment and the court either suspended the sentence or withheld judgment.
All cases involving domestic trouble have been added to the special work brought into the separate session. As a result of the investigation of 328 of these, less than 25 per cent of the offenders were committed to the jail or the workhouse. In the majority the court has withheld judgment and the defendant has been required to take the pledge and the wife has been directed to furnish the court with a written report on the first of each month as to the conduct of the offending husband.
Since January 3, 1910, the court has disposed of 43,881 cases. It would be impossible to convey through the medium of this paper the results that have been obtained in the transaction of this stupendous amount of business through exercising a friendly interest in these unfortunates.
Financially considered there has been a great saving to the county in the cost of maintaining its penal institutions in that there has been a reduction of 50 per cent in the number of commitments; $27,410.00 has been collected from probationers who because of inability to pay under the old


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method would have been committed to the jail or workhouse; and there has been a gain of $3,144.75 to the common school fund.
The results of a system of justice are not to be measured wholly by dollars and cents. Of far greater significance is the moral uplift.
The reports to the court show that home conditions have improved; that men have abstained from the use of intoxicating liquor; that employers have been enlisted in taking a more friendly interest in employees; that many have joined churches, and in other ways have added to a higher standard of living.
A probation system established in every court in this state exercising criminal jurisdiction would be a profitable investment so far as the public is concerned, but better than all it would mean the social regeneration of thousands of men and women.


THE CITY’S HOUSEKEEPING
BY HUGH MOLLESON FOSTER1 . New York City
SUPPOSE a landlady bought her groceries of a grocer who was a friend of a friend, simply because he was such, and not recommended to her for any other qualification; how long would her business last? Yet that is what the city of New York has done.
Unbusinesslike as it may sound, it is no exaggeration, and still we have much to congratulate ourselves upon, for the present methods of purchasing supplies for the municipal government are far better than they were a few years ago. The improvement is chiefly due to various officials,, past and present, who are often far more conscientious than the general public seems to believe. It is not so many years ago that business with the city went by favor. A dealer who wanted to do business with the city had to do it in the “good old fashioned way”—by political pull. A business man might contribute to “the organization,” or do a favor for the “boss,” and, if he made his contributions large enough and did favors often enough, at last he got “in right.”
A commissioner owed his appointment as head of a department to the mayor and the mayor owed his election to “the organization”—and that is “the boss.” The situation was like a pair of scissors rivetted in the middle and by proper manipulation of the handles it was easy enough to unite the points; and so the commissioner and the contractor were-brought together. Such a relation does not necessarily imply graft nor does it entail any impropriety of a milder sort, but there were undoubtedly many instances of abuse. Ordinary business men prefer to give orders to friends or friends of friends and nothing is said; but private business may do many things which if attempted in public affairs would raise an outcry. Public protest against this system of favoritism became so acute and so general that even those engaged in it realized that the time had come for a change. It was demanded that all business men should have equal opportunities of doing business with the city.
Then the first step, in the subsequent development of the present method of purchasing supplies for the city, was taken. Provision was made in the charter that all items amounting to $1,000 or over must be purchased by contract after advertising and public letting, and this arrangement gave competitors the equal opportunity they had sought. Soon, however, the restriction was evaded. If an item amounted to $1,000 or more, it was split up into two or more orders and so kept under the mark and once more given to the favored ones. This lapse to the old
1 Connected with the bureau of standards of the New York Board of Estimate and Apportionment.
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abuse was in turn overcome by a new provision in the charter. It was provided that all goods of one kind of which a year’s consumption amounted to $1,000 or more, must be bought by contract. That is, all canned goods, dry groceries and so forth, for instance, were advertised and awarded in one contract; but this allowed what are known as “split bids”—bids low on some items and high on others, but making an average just low enough to win. The contractor then delivered inferior goods on the low-priced items and so the city was defrauded.
This method again has been recently improved. All canned goods, say, may be advertised in one list; but awards are made item by item. The lowest bidder on peaches gets the contract for peaches and the lowest bidder on apricots gets the contract for apricots and so on, each item being awarded by itself and irrespective of any other. This absolutely defeats the evil of split bids. The advantage becomes more apparent the longer the list of goods of one classification.
Let us suppose now that our hypothetical landlady bought her groceries by telephone and never looked at them when they were delivered.
The next step that was taken, though not so wide in its application, was-even more effective in its tendency toward economy, concentration and system. This step was taken by the comptroller.
The charter stipulates that the comptroller shall authorize for payment all claims against the city only upon the certification of an auditor of accounts that the supplies have been delivered or the work performed and that the prices therefor are reasonable and just, and an auditor so certifies only upon the certification of an inspector, after the last has .actually ascertained the facts.
It was the desire to strengthen his knowledge upon which payments were based that induced the comptroller to organize his division of inspection. Of course inspection had been done before that, but in a haphazard and unsystematic way. Under the present well regulated inspection service the work is thoroughly systematized and the results have been beyond expectation. The city is divided into districts with an inspector or two in each and to the larger receiving points a special inspector is assigned with a clerk to check quantities. All purchasing agents of the various departments are required to send to this division duplicate copies of their orders at the time that these are sent to the dealers. In this way inspectors are notified before the delivery of the goods and so have opportunity to inspect all supplies. The inspectors are authorized to inspect all supplies delivered and all work done and to examine all books and records in connection therewith, and it is their duty to pass upon quantity, quality and the reasonableness of prices. Besides, they are required to make special investigations and to report suggestions for the general betterment of the service. When the inspector finds that the quality of the supplies does not conform to the specifications, their rejec-


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tion is recommended to the department to which they have been delivered. When the price is found to be exorbitant, by comparison with prices obtained elsewhere for the same article, a compromise with the dealer is arranged. The other departments have co-operated generously in inspection work and the results have been far-reaching.
The average layman would find it difficult to believe the enormous amounts of goods of inferior quality which are rejected every year and the great number of high prices which are cut to the “reasonable and just” limit. These are not the only benefits effected by inspection. All contractors now realize that their goods will be subjected to a rigid inspection and usually govern themselves accordingly, so that the average quality is far better than it was a few years ago. This realization, although it may be negative in form, has great moral effect and is none the less real and preventive because it can not be recorded in words and figures.
Suppose our hypothetical landlady bought a French chop for one boarder and an English chop for another.
The latest phase of this development of businesslike management of supplies is the most comprehensive and important thus far undertaken. It is so not only in the immediate work done, but more especially in strengthening all that has gone before. This improvement also came from the comptroller. Comptroller Metz established the division of inspection and Comptroller Prendergast established the standardization commission.
The function of this commission, as its name implies, is to bring order out of the chaos which previously prevailed. Thus far the commission has issued standard specifications for coal, forage, ice, fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, soap and other supplies. These specifications have been ratified by the board of estimate and apportionment and are now binding upon all the municipal departments. In time it is intended to include all supplies, so that there will be a fixed standard of quality for all supplies which the city buys, such as all well-regulated large business organizations enforce.
Suppose our hypothetical landlady bought beef of one butcher at 35 cents a pound one day and of another butcher at 25 cents a pound the next day.
What next? What will be the next step in the great experiment of reducing the purchase of supplies for the city to the most economical basis? The question naturally arises and many answers as promptly respond. Why not standardize prices? Prices of course depend upon supply and demand, it will be smugly retorted, and that opens the vista to the whole tossing sea of political economy and even a buyer of so large a calibre as the city of New York can hardly say what it will pay and what it will not pay for a given article. Certainly no fixed price for


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any given article can be long maintained, but if all the forces now engaged In purchasing and so scattered, should be concentrated in one department and information collected on a scale equal to that in previous standardization work, results may well be achieved which would far surpass what has already been done.
The standardization of prices should not be allowed to interfere with the commissioners of the various departments in their prerogative of the purchase of supplies. Each commissioner assumes the responsibility for the administration of his department, and therefore must retain the authority of declaring what the requirements of his department are. Otherwise a charge of mismanagement could be shifted by the commissioner on to the shoulders of those who had deprived him of his power of purchase. In order to provide against this, each commissioner should have in the purchase or supply department or bureau his own representative to name the supplies required for his department in kind and quantity. The function of the supply department, in the standardization of prices, should be only to regulate prices by reduction, concentration and uniformity; and, as to the supplies themselves, to control the distribution thereof. The representative of the commissioner should receive all requisitions from his department and also act as a special purchasing agent for supplies of one kind. All these representatives should constitute a board of purchasing agents subordinate to a director and all, together with the director, should be of the classified service. The director should be subject to a board of purchase composed of the mayor, the comptroller and the president of the board of aldermen. By some such arrangement as this the purchases of supplies of one kind could be combined in one transaction, so that prices could be greatly reduced; and records could be kept by each purchasing agent showing the quantities consumed in his department, so that distribution could be regulated and waste obviated, or at least decreased.
Suppose the hypothetical landlady with 78 boarders allowed each boarder to buy his own salt and pepper, or even butter and meat, and then send the bills to her.
There are 78 parts of the municipal government listed in the budget at present. Seventeen of these are regularly constituted municipal departments, and the others are: The mayorality, chamberlain, Bellevue and allied hospitals, the College of the City of New York, Hunter College, and various boards, commissions, associations, libraries, courts, the presidents of the boroughs and so forth. All these buy their supplies separately and a large proportion buy goods of the same kind.
The largest two items definitely named in the budget are forage and fuel. Twenty-five branches of the municipal government buy coal, each buying independently of all the others and each under annual contract; so that for coal alone there are 25 contracts issued in the name of the city


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every year. Until recently each department drew up its own specifications; so that there was considerable disparity in British thermal units, ash, moisture, volatile matter and other elements of the requirements. The coal bill for the city for the year 1912 amounted to over $2,000,000 and, like most other items, is on the increase from year to year.
Fourteen branches of the municipal government buy forage under conditions similar to those of the purchase of coal, and there are thus 14 contracts for forage every year. The bill for forage amounts to nearly $1,000,000 a year.
These two items are taken as instances, but there are so many others that it may be loosely said that the city buys nearly every article of commerce. It is difficult to name many things the city does not buy from apples to zinc. All items over $1,000 are required to be bought under contract, but this regulation leaves an enormous number of smaller items which are bought by open market orders. In all transactions of both kinds all the departments and other branches of the municipal government act independently, so that many may be buying the same article at the same time from the same dealer at the same or different prices. In this way purchasing is diffused through dozens of channels, at a consequent waste, which might be concentrated into one transaction at a corresponding reduction in cost; because buying in greater quantities would command lower unit prices.
In the case of goods bought under contract the procedure is rather complicated. The amount required for a given department for one year is determined by ascertaining from all bureaus, divisions and institutions in the department the amount each will need and adding these together. Then the specifications, for articles not yet standardized, governing the quality, are drawn up and the full contract, with all its legal technicalities, is written and must be submitted to the corporation counsel for his approval. Notices are then published in The City Record of amounts required, specifications, points of delivery and the date when sealed bids will be received; and samples, to which the goods delivered must conform, are placed on exhibition to guide prospective bidders. The contract form itself is now ready for the printer. Prospective bidders must file a bond with the comptroller for the faithful performance of the contract. Upon the date named the bids are opened by the head of the department, or his representative, in the presence of the competitors and a representative of the comptroller and the contract is awarded to the lowest bidder. The successful bidder files another bond with the comptroller and after all preliminary financial requirements are satisfied the comptroller approves the sureties and the contract becomes valid. After the date upon which the contract goes into effect those who are to use the goods make requisition on the storekeeper, who transmits it to the purchasing agent, who issues an order to the contractor, who


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makes delivery to the point designated; and the business of supplying the city in that instance has begun. This procedure is duplicated in all the other departments at the same time.
In the case of goods bought by open market order the procedure is simpler. Those who are to use the goods make requisition on their immediate superior, who approves and transmits it to the head of the department for his approval. The latter forwards it to the purchasing agent, who, at his discretion, gets prices from various dealers or not and then issues the order; and the goods are delivered. This procedure is also duplicated in all the other departments.
So far as possible supplies are bought from wholesalers; but in many instances, because the departments buy independently, the quantities are so divided as to preclude buying except from retailers. Coal, for instance, is so subdivided that it is bought from retailers in the city. If all the coal for the municipal government were bought in one transaction, a contract of such size would warrant the attention of mine owners. Coal pockets could be built in each borough and sufficient quantities stored to guard against a rising market or famine due to strikes. The cost of building these coal pockets would be only an initial expense and that of operating them would be slight in comparison with the great reduction in the cost of coal, which would be perennial. On the same principle, almost all other supplies could be bought from original producers and thus eliminate the middlemen’s profits.
All this waste of money in purchasing supplies and time and labor of employees in duplication of the work, might be saved by the establishment of a properly organized department of purchase. It may seem that the present departments are numerous enough, but this addition should more than justify its existence in the great economy effected. It has been urged that the commissionership of such a department would be too great responsibility for one man. A commission might be formed of three men to divide the work. These should have as subordinates the present purchasing agents of the various departments, fitness to be determined by competitive examination, and other employees throughout the city at present engaged in supply work should be taken as the force for the new department. General storehouses should be established in the different boroughs and subsidiary storehouses in the outlying districts, if such are found necessary.
Under this arrangement all branches of the municipal government, with the approval of the officials in charge, would make requisition direct upon the department of purchase. In the case of goods bought under contract, all of the same kind would be bought under one contract; and in the case of goods bought by open market order, all of the same kind would be bought by one order. The change from many to one transaction would effect great economy.
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Such a plan has been objected to on the ground that it would deprive the commissioners of the various departments of their power of purchase. On the other hand the change would be a relief. As a matter of fact, under the present method of purchasing little discretion is left to the commissioner except in his approval of the necessity of the purchase. The actual purchasing is delegated to the purchasing agent, or some other subordinate, and in the case of goods bought under contract it becomes a mere matter of routine, and in the case of goods bought by open market order any good purchasing agent, except for items too small for such consideration, gets estimates from several dealers. Little more is required of the commissioner than the final decision in controversies over the acceptability of goods delivered; but, as such controversies are frequent, this responsibility, from his point of view, is quite enough. By the plan proposed the commissioner would be relieved of this distasteful task and be allowed more time and energy for the more efficient administration of his department.
The work of the department of purchase might be apportioned in one of two ways: According to the kinds of supplies or according to the departments. By the first arrangement all lumber, for instance, would be bought by one buyer and his assistants; and by the second arrangement all supplies for the department of health, for instance, would be bought by one buyer and his assistants. In either case all the data collected by the department of purchase should, of course, be available for all the employees of that department. In no case should the prerogatives of the commissioners be curtailed, because they are held responsible for the administration of their departments. The necessity, or even the advisability, of expenditure should still be left entirely to the commissioners and the sole function of the department of purchase should be to provide every means for the best possible economy in purchasing.
All the supplies for the city of New York cost about $20,000,000 a year. By concentrating many transactions into one a saving should be effected which, at a conservative estimate, should reach 25 per cent, or $5,000,000 every year. As the price of supplies and the quantities required by the city increase from year to year, the total cost increases; but so should the saving effected by the proposed method increase proportionately. To this must be added saving in time by simplification of procedure and further saving in labor by reducing the present enormous multiplication of clerical work.
Any railroad or other large business organization which did not follow the method outlined above, would go out of business as promptly as the hypothetical landlady cited at the beginning of this article.


PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS THE NOISE
NUISANCE
BY IMOGEN B. OAKLEY1
Philadelphia
A FEW years ago I went to one of the college settlements of Philadelphia to speak to an audience of women toilers who had been gathered from the neighboring tenements. I told them what the city was doing for them, and what they could do for the city in return, and incidentally I asked them what they considered the greatest evil in their crowded tenement life.
One woman rose and said, “I speak for every woman here. What we cannot stand is the noise. It never stops. It is killing us. We work hard all day and need sleep and rest at night. No one can sleep till midnight and all the noise begins again at five. Many of us have husbands who work all night and must get their sleep during the day, but they get no sound sleep with all the noise that goes on about us. You can get away from the noise during the summer, but we cannot. We are right here in the middle of it all our lives. Now, what can your civic club do for us?”
I had to tell her we could do nothing. There are no laws against useless noise in Philadelphia. Complaints can be made, of course, under the general law of nuisance; but to go to a magistrate, make the necessary complaints, and attend a series of hearings would take more time and more money than any of those women have at their disposal. Although the civic club could do nothing then to help those tired-out women, it began at once an agitation against useless noise.
The first thing I did personally was to make a list of the useless noises which I could hear from my own window, and I found that between 5 a.m. and midnight there was an entirely useless and preventable noise on an average of every five minutes. I sent this list to a widely-read paper, and its publication brought me a shower of letters each one telling of some useless noise that tormented the writer and thanking me for bringing the subject of noise to the attention of the public. The large majority of these letters came from the tenement districts, and taught me two important facts: First, that the people of the slums do not like
1 Mrs. Oakley is chairman of the committee on noise of the American Civic Association and for many years was chairman of the committee on civil service reform of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs. She has been actively identified with civic movements during the past 25 years, holding at various times prominent positions.
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noise, as popularly supposed; they hate it, and second, the demand thal; useless noise be stilled is not merely to protect those who are ill, but to protect those who are well; to prevent them from becoming ill.
Apologists for noise say that those who differ with them are nervous cranks; that they imagine discomfort when none exists; that they are the idle rich who would not hear the noise if they had something to keep their minds and bodies busy.
My numerous suffering correspondents disprove the theory. They are not the idle rich, they are the toiling poor, they have more than enough to do. Many of them never heard the words “nervous invalid,” yet they say they are dying of noise. When they claim that constant noise is undermining their health, they are simply in accord with the best medical science. Dust and noise, say our physicians and sanitarians, are two great evils of the day. Dust because it steals into the remotest corners of our homes bearing with it countless miscroscopic enemies, and noise because of its destructive effect upon our nerves.
No arguments are needed to prove the effect of noise upon the auditory nerve. Doctor Clarence Blake of Boston, one of the most eminent of the world’s aurists says: “Diseases of the ear are increasing with the increase of noise. If the noise of our cities is to continue, we shall be a deaf race. As the eye requires intervals of darkness so the ear requires intervals of silence to keep it in perfect health.”
It is a singular thing that the ear is the only organ of sense that has no legal protection. The law forbids offensive odors. It insists upon the cleanliness of all articles which the public touches. It does not allow disgusting or indecent signs; billboards are condemned because they offend the eye. It enacts pure food rules and regulations, thereby protecting the health through the sense of taste, but it leaves the ear the helpless victim of every assaulting sound.
Logically the ear should receive the most protection from the law since it is itself defenseless. We can use deodorizers and disinfectants against foul smells; we can close our eyes to offensive sights, but our ears must remain open to the most offensive sounds. The ear, too, is the shortest avenue to the brain. The editor of the Journal of Pediatrics asked as long ago as 1897, “May it not be possible that much of our startling increase in insanity is due to the continuous noise of our cities? May not the brain be affected by the ceaseless assaults through the ear?” The Boston Medical Surgical Journal in 1890 declared noise to be “a nuisance and a danger.” The American Journal of Public Hygiene in 1906 claimed that noise is harmful to healthy persons:
First, because it necessitates concentrated attention, thereby increasing the liability to nervous fatigue; and
Second, because it interferes with the necessary amount of sleep. Ordinary attention does not produce fatigue; it is a normal action of the


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brain, but when concentrated and absorbed attention is required, nervous fatigue is produced in exact proportion to the amount of concentration. To listen or to think in the midst of noise requires intense concentration, which produces nervous fatigue, and this fatigue produced and reproduced day after day leads indubitably to neurasthenia. Almost all sick persons are in a state of pathological fatigue, and loud, disagreeable noises increase this fatigue to the danger point.
The same journal is responsible for the statement that good mental work cannot be done in noisy surroundings. It is quite true that operatives in mills and drivers of rattling drays may seem to acquire a considerable immunity to noise, but we must remember that these occupations do not involve much thought, and moreover, as yet no one has tried to get at the sufferings which these operatives and drivers doubtless endure.
Habituation to noise may be possible to persons of exceptionally strong nerves and power of concentration, but even though habituation be seemingly achieved, the work done under the influence of noise is inferior to that done amid quiet surroundings.
On this same subject of habituation, Professor Sedgwick, of Boston, says that people in crowded cities are in a constant state of nervous fatigue and the fact that many of them do not like the quiet of the country is a proof of their pathological condition.
The noise apologists who insist that noise is not harmful when we become accustomed to it, must be reminded that we can grow so accustomed to foul air that fresh air becomes absolutely disagreeable, yet no one would argue from this that foul air is not injurious, or that it is as good for the lungs as fresh air.
But bad as are the nervous effects of continuous noise, sudden and intermittent noises are infinitely more to be dreaded. Each loud and sudden noise produces a distinct nerve-shock and these shocks often repeated cause a loss in nerve-vitality. Immunity to such noises can never be attained for the sound waves of the air thrown into violent action by a loud sudden noise, strike actual physical blows upon the auditory nerve and a constant succession of such blows inevitably injures and finally destroys the delicate mechanism of the ear. Bells, whistles, gongs, and the startling shrieks of street-vendors are therefore more injurious to the health than the continuous roar of railway trains, or the monotonous whirr of machinery in mills and factories.
The London Lancet declares that street noises are potent factors in undermining the health of city-dwellers, especially brain-workers, making them neurasthenic and unfit for long-continued effort, and it warns the public that as a national danger the possible “Yellow Peril” fades into insignificance beside the present and actual “Yelling Peril” which makes pandemonium of our streets.


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Under the heading “Police news” a London paper reports that a boy was taken in charge for whistling and shouting at night. The magistrate inquired about the neighborhood. “Neighborhood of gentry,” said the officer. “First-class people need first-class sleep,” was the decision of the magistrate, and the boy was committed for disturbing the peace. The sentiment is growing that all classes of people need first-class sleep. According to the Philadelphia Medical Journal every physician and every educated person should wage incessant war against unnecessary noises:
First, because it is certain they increase the sick-rate by murdering sleep. Second, because they increase the death-rate by destroying the vital and recuperative powers of the sick. Third, because they dull and brutalize the nervous system of those who have to withstand their pathogenic influence. Fourth, because they serve to make the sensitive and cultured separate themselves in their search for quiet from the masses, thus serving to intensify the license of the noise-makers by lessening the checks upon their crimes.
Dr. Ernest J. Lederle, late health commissioner of New York City, in an address before the international congress of scientists, held in St. Louis in 1903, asserted that nervous prostration and our intense American excitability are due quite as much to the nerve-racking noise of our cities as to the strain and rush of our daily lives, and he was convinced that the time had come—and this was in 1903—when physicians must take cognizance of the fact that noise is an element to consider in the cause of disease, and that the prevention of unnecessary noise is as much the duty of the medical profession as the prevention of unnecessary dirt. Doctor Lederle called upon boards of health throughout the country to take prompt action for the suppression of all noises that cannot be proved to be unavoidable.
All of the authorities I have quoted agree that loud sudden noises are the most injurious to the nerves and they agree also that whistles, bells, gongs, street pianos, the crowing of roosters, the barking of dogs, and the outcries of street-vendors are loud and sudden noises, and must be stopped except when they can be proved to be unavoidable. Bells and whistles cannot be classed as unavoidable noises in this day of cheap and universal clocks. Even church-bells, tender as are the memories connected with them, and pleasant as they sound in the far-away distance, are disturbing as near neighbors. I have a letter from a stenographer—and stenography is classed with the fatigue-producing occupations since it requires concentrated attention—in which she says, “I take rapid dictation all day amid the distracting noise at the corner of Fifth and Chestnut streets, and I go home tired out and needing rest. The street-vendors and street-pianos prevent sleep in the early evening, and I am wakened every morning at 5 by the bells of a near-by church. They ring at 5,


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at 5.30, at 6, at 6.30, at 7, at 7.30 and then it is time for me to get up, having been deprived of two hours’ sleep by what seems to be an entirely unnecessary noise.”
Our American public opinion against aggressive sectarianism ought to support any attempt to prohibit the ringing of church-bells. For why should a Quaker be wakened by a Roman Catholic bell; or a Presbyterian by an Episcopal bell, or a Methodist by a Baptist bell? If church-bells could be so constructed that they would be guaranteed to waken only the members of the church in which they are hung, they could be tolerated, but so long as they continue to arouse believers in opposing faiths, our non-sectarian laws ought to be strong enough to silence them.
We shall have to consider that the gongs of the automobiles and the trolleys are to a certain extent unavoidable at present, but the international congress of aurists that met in Boston in 1913 maintained that all swift-moving vehicles should carry a horn emitting a musical note, or scale, and that this musical sound should be the same for all vehicles; the startling, clanging gong to be resorted to only in sudden danger to life.
We can find no excuse for the street pianos. correspondents from the tenements beg to have them suppressed. “The children have their public playgrounds now,” they say, “and do not need the diversion of the street-piano.” The street-musician has really developed into a blackmailer. He has learned that the noise he makes is disagreeable, and he refuses to leave unless he is paid for leaving.
According to a story emanating from a New York paper, an Italian organ-grinder in that city was arrested for some trivial offense.
“What do you make a week?” asked the magistrate.
“About twenta-five dolla,” answered the grinder.
“What!” exclaimed the magistrate, “twenty-five dollars a week for grinding an organ!”
“Oh no, sare, notta for grind; for shutta up and go way.”
The objection to street-music is no new thing. More than a generation ago a number of distinguished Englishmen addressed a memorial to parliament on this very subject. The letter was written by Charles Dickens and among those who signed it were Tennyson, Millais, Holman Hunt, John Leech, Wilkie Collins, and, of course, Thomas Carlyle.
“Your correspondents,” wrote Charles Dickens, “are professors and practitioners of one or other of the arts and sciences. In their devotion to their pursuits, tending to the peace and comfort of mankind, they are daily interrupted, harassed, worried, wearied, and driven nearly mad by street-musicians. They are even made especial objects of persecution by brazen performers on brazen instruments, beaters of drums, grinders of organs, bangers of banjos, dashers of cymbals, worriers of fiddles, and bellowers of ballads, for no sooner does it become known to those pro-


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ducers of horrible sounds that any of your correspondents have particular need of quiet in their own homes than the said homes are beleaguered by discordant hosts seeking to be bought off.”
Street vendors can be silenced without injury to their trade if housekeepers will follow the advice offered by my correspondents from the tenements. Written notices saying that ice, coal, fruit, vegetables, or what not, are desired within, can be placed in the window for all dealers in such commodities to see. This simple plan, which prevails in New England cities, saves time to the housekeeper and vocal energy to the vendor, beside relieving from annoyance all that large class of people who do not desire to buy.
Newsboys can sell as many papers by offering them quietly, as by standing on corners and giving vent to inarticulate howls. It will be difficult to silence these youngsters for they really enjoy shouting. I once stopped a boy who I knew belonged to a well-to-do family and asked, “Why are you selling papers?” He grinned, and answered, “Because I like to holler.”
In point of fact, all newsboys should be removed from the temptations of the streets, and sent to continuation-schools where they could learn trades that would ensure them an honest living, and their places as sellers of papers should be taken by elderly men and women and cripples.
If noise is injurious to the nervous system, it follows that it is the unrelenting foe of the thinker, the writer, the artist, and the musician. Edmund Yeates, the Celtic poet, asks why America has made so small a contribution to the fine arts, and then answers the question himself:— “I stayed in an American town,” he says, “where a railway train with clanging bell went up and down the main street every hour of the day and night. Perhaps the arts await till some Apollo shall arise and slay that python.” ^
Boards of health, as Doctor Lederle says, have power to put an end to senseless and useless noises. If they can compel a man to be vaccinated lest he give his neighbor smallpox, they can surely compel him to cease from noises that produce nervous prostration. If they can prevent him from polluting his neighbor’s water-supply with typhoid germs, they can forbid him from congesting his neighbor’s air with sounds that breed insanity.
Apologists for noise urge with an apparent show of reason that since there must be in every city so much noise that is unavoidable, it is foolish to rail against the relatively small amount that is avoidable, but the unavoidable noise of the city is the very reason why the avoidable noises should be stilled. There is so much noise that we must endure that it has become an imperative duty to the public health to silence all those noises that are unnecessary. The prayers of the night workers must not go unanswered.


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Modern civilization brings with it much labor that cannot cease with the going down of the sun. Shall the street-cleaners, telegraphers, night-watchmen, railway-employees, toilers in iron and steel, printers, reporters, editors, doctors, nurses—shall all these great and growing armies of toilers that work through the night for the public comfort and convenience, be allowed to take their needful sleep during the day, or shall their rest be broken and their lives shortened by the utterly useless noises made by bells and whistles, shouting vendors, shrieking newsboys, and blaring street-pianos? No one would be permitted as a means of advertisement to flash light into the weary eyes of these sleepers, yet vendors,. pedlers, newsboys and grinders flash all manner of noises into their ears with impunity. If such noises are to go on, it must be in places where sleep is unnecessary, and illness unknown.


THE MOVEMENT FOR CITY STREET TREES-A SURVEY
By CARL BANNWART1 Newark, N. J.
THE appearance of a city is its chief material asset. The calibre of a city’s people, as a whole, is exactly expressed in the outward and visible aspect of their municipal home. Now there is nothing that gives tone to this aspect like well-kept parks and well-treed streets. More and more this is coming to be noted; and increasingly is attention being given to the adorning of city streets with trees. Also it is seen that to depend on private initiative in this matter will not do. What is needed is to bring the planting, nurture, care and protection of street trees under municipal control, and such control concentrated in a single department specializing in the one thing, viz.: street trees.
What municipal control of shade trees can do may best be illustrated by what it has done; and as we have first-hand knowledge of what it has done in Newark, we may be pardoned for citing the experience of that town—though it is our own. In 1904, Newark, acting under a state law, created a shade tree commission. To this body (of three members) was committed the “exclusive and absolute control and power to plant, set out, maintain, protect and care for shade trees in any of the public highways of the municipality.” In 1905 a supplementary law transferred to the commission’s control the care and improvement of “the public parks belonging to the municipality or any department in the government thereof.” In 1906 the commission was empowered “to pass, enact, alter, amend and repeal ordinances for the protection, regulation and control” of such parks and “of all shade trees” situate “in the public highways” of the city. And, now, briefly, what has come of this?
1. It at once raised the status of the then existent street trees. These fine, old stately growths which had come down to us out of the past from the fathers, but which for so long had been strangers to considerate treatment, were now seen to be set apart as objects of government’s special care, as wards of a municipal department specially created to care for and protect them, and empowered to enforce considerate treatment of them. Here was the germ of what has since unfolded into a public sentiment which had not theretofore existed: A new and unique sentiment in favor of the trees, that goes on increasing.
2. It has saved thousands of the older trees which would otherwise have
1 Secretary Shade Tree Commission of Newark.
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perished through insect attack, through the carelessness or malice of men, the bitings of horses.
3. It has resulted in the setting out of nearly 27,000 young trees, 180 miles of Newark’s streets having been thus planted since the inception of the shade tree commission. Picture this! One hundred and eighty miles of new plantings, adorning the streets, gladdening the eye, cooling and purifying the air, and enhancing the city’s beauty and health and wealth.
4. The creation of a tree department has resulted in the establishment of a city nursery.
5. The inclusion of the city parks in the work of the shade tree commission has brought them under specialized care, so that these parks have put on new beauty. Washington, Lincoln, Military and the other parks are a standing exhibit to passing thousands every day of what can be achieved for civic beauty by the embodiment of the shade tree idea in a municipal commission.
6. It has secured both for street trees and for parks scientific, technical care. The importance of this cannot be overestimated. The treatment of trees, as also of parks, is an expert profession. Expert planting, pruning, mulching, spraying, etc., are absolutely necessary, not only to the welfare and beauty, but to the very life of the trees. Take the operations of pruning and spraying, for examples. When these have been left to private initiative, they have either been entirely neglected or the operation was so inexpertly performed (in many cases) as to result in the ruin of the tree.
7. The creation of a shade tree commission made possible a most fruitful educational propaganda concerning trees. The work of planting the streets and beautifying the parks of the city has been in itself a direct educative influence, as is obvious. But in addition to this the commission has been able to awaken, encourage and stimulate an enlightened interest in trees, in the several values of them, in their beauty, their healthgiving qualities, their agency in cooling and purifying the air, their real estate worth.
Such are some, but by no means all, of the uses which a municipal tree department may serve. It goes without saying that the results pointed out could hardly be achieved by an individual, or by any body of individuals other than a municipal commission. Such results, it is manifest, are practicable only to a municipal body, clothed with authority.
But now for a look abroad. How is the cause faring up and down this big land of ours?
Among the larger cities which go in for the municipal planting, care and control of street trees, Washington is easily foremost. It has been at it a long while; it has kept to a continuous policy; and it has used horse sense. Many avenues have been planted and now present delight-


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ful vistas of mature trees; yet Washington does not rest on its laurels. There is much proof to even the casual observer that the trees are continually watched and tended. When a gap is created by the failure of this or that larger tree, that gap is promptly closed with a new planting. And it is manifest that in planning for the streets the trees were part of the original concept, and were not lugged in later as a mere afterthought. Accordingly, the sidewalks are everywhere wide enough to permit the planting of trees, and this is so even on business streets. Washington is the youngest of the great capitals; but it was started upon a broad foundation. And with the years the concept of its founder is unfolding in splendor.
Buffalo deserves mention next after Washington. It has had a park board for a long time, but has had a bureau of street forestry for only seven years. In 1908, the park board created this new bureau and went to work with vigor on the street tree proposition. From the beginning they had a good start in the matter of parkways already planted. In the six years they have set out 15,000 street trees. They have had their own troubles with the insect problem; but not so much as elsewhere. Owing to the cold winters the pests are not so numerous there, either as to number or species. The Buffalonians are generous in their appropriation of funds for tree work. Their tree department is one of the most efficient in the country.
At Rochester one finds a bright city addressing itself to its tree problems through a municipal tree department, lately created. The same is true of three towns not far away, Ithaca (Cornell), Glens Falls, and Geneva, the latter the seat of the New York State agricultural experiment station and of Hobart College.
Syracuse is another community that has lately joined the shade tree fraternity, and, moreover, is working at it. Syracuse University has a school of forestry, recently established, including the first definite course on street silviculture. By means of its extension department it is aiding in New York state in the shade tree idea. The city has recently appointed a city forester, a graduate of that school—a good beginning. The park superintendent and the city forester have exclusive control of existing trees and power to set out new plantings. With proper appreciation of trees as a decorative factor and of the splendid possibilities of that city set on its seven hills, we may expect results if the municipal authorities will grant sufficient funds. At present they give about $7,000 per year for the maintenance of their 45,000 trees, which means about 15 cents per tree per annum. Much of this is spent in taking down dead trees. (The park department of the city of Paris pays $1.25 per tree per annum; the city of Newark, 50 cents.)
The department of street forestry is bringing its guns to bear upon those having control of the purse-strings in Syracuse, pointing out that


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time is the greatest factor in creating well-treed streets, and that no time is to be lost therefore in setting out the trees and nursing them along. At the best, there will be a wait of ten years after planting before considerable results become manifest. Young trees glorify the vista by the second year, but a decade is needed to bring about even a promise of the stately beauty of their full maturity.
Baltimore has just awakened to the necessity for a municipal tree department. Baltimore is within an hour’s ride of Washington, and the shining example of the latter city is bound to have effect. It has broad residential streets; and this of course works to the great advantage of street trees as also their congeners, street parkways. In other words street conditions as related to planting possibilities are superb. And •even these conditions are being improved by a process of narrowing roadways and widening sidewalks. Moreover the paving commission, in letting contracts for the prosecution of its own work, so conditions such •contracts as to provide for the setting out of trees. Again, Baltimore has .a generous and unique source of revenue for the maintenance of its parks and parkways. Every time you board a trolley car and drop your nickel in the slot, you are dropping nine per cent of that nickel into the park maintenance fund. This annual fund which is now about $600,000, and is increasing, is used at present for park work only; but the time is coming, without any doubt, when a portion of it will be employed in the planting, murture, and maintenance of street trees.
Baltimore also has a city forester. For the present, he is the municipality’s representative and agent in the matter of street trees. He is well supported in his efforts by tree-loving citizens of all classes except in the important matter of appropriation.
We wish we had better things to report of Philadelphia; but at present the care of street trees there forms but a sort of side line in the work of the park department which has been charged with the control of the trees under Pennsylvania shade tree law. Unofficial neighborhood “campaigns” are helping some. The city appropriated $20,000 this year for its trees. Not a large sum as compared with the $34,000 of Newark (which has much less population), or the $50,000 of Buffalo (also less population), or the $43,000 of Washington (still less population).
Pittsburgh, Wilkes-Barre, and West Chester are among the other communities that have accepted the state law and are assuming the care of the street trees.
Cleveland, advertising itself as the “Forest City,” is beginning to handle the problem; and there are Urbana, Alton, and Peoria doing the same. Peoria’s chamber of commerce is taking the matter up; a straw that shows the way the wind blows. Urbana’s beginnings are under the .auspices of neighborhood clubs and the tutelage of the University of Illinois. The university teaches by lectures, given gratis.


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Chicago, too, is in the procession. It has had a working city forester for five years. Now these things go to show that the great middle west is waking up; and when that energetic country once takes hold in earnest, there’ll be something doing.
Our own people in New Jersey make a fine local and collective showing. There are fifty-two shade tree commissions throughout the state each keeping arbor day all the year round in its own little corner. When you consider that each of these commissions radiates information and influence for the municipal care of trees, that the state forester, pathologist and entomologist in season and out of season dispense expert advice and encouragement—and that the state department of instruction also gives the shade tree idea an occasional boost, you begin to see that if the progress is gradual it is nevertheless steady and increasing in size, strength and going qualities.
Newark has planted 27,000 trees in ten years and is jealously guarding them. Jersey City has set out 10,000 in eight years. East Orange and South Orange, East Rutherford, Passaic, Irvington, Belleville, Nutley, Montclair, all of New Jersey, have each done considerable planting reaching into the thousands and are studying and solving the problems for their cities.
Greater New York is taking hold in all her boroughs. Not so long ago, as men not yet old remember, Manhattan Isle as to many of its residence streets was a veritable grove of trees. What “old New Yorker” can forget the glory of the verdure of the olden East Broadway, or of Elm street that took its name from the towers of spreading green that lined its walks, or of old Marion street with its maples, or Prince street, or Lafayette place, or Waverly place, or Washington place, and so many, many thoroughfares of the fine old town all “awave with trees.” But a perverse generation came upon the scene, and in the name of progress the “practical” man had his benighted, Philistine way with the trees.
New York has begun to repent, and to lament its folly, and the first stirrings of a purpose to make reparation are manifest. Private individuals and civic organizations are at work—and successfully so—reviving the ancient New York spirit that loved and fostered trees. These private workers have made rapid and important advances in the last few years, insomuch there is now ground for believing that government will take the thing up and create a tree department. One of the encouraging signs is that the park department has taken the street tree proposition under its wing and is acting as foster-parent to it. However, what is needed is a separate department that will make street tree work its one work, concentrating and specializing on that.
And when this has come to pass may New York be found working under a statute like New Jersey’s, and here’s wishing the same for all our sister cities up and down the land. For New Jersey, we make bold to say, has


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the model shade tree law. Imitation is the sincerest flattery, and we are thus flattered by Pennsylvania and other neighboring states adopting and adapting New Jersey’s shade tree law.
Springfield, Mass., is a striking example of the fine results of a municipality making it its business to care for its trees. Walk up State street from Main! Note the majestic elms on this broad highway. As you pass the intersecting streets, look north and south on each and see, as far as eye can reach to left and right, the towering rows of lofty trees waving their green tops in the breeze, the sun glinting through the verdant roof that forms an arch high up above the road.
The like amplitude of stately old trees, some of them of century age, adorns all the older residence districts of Springfield; while “on the hill” where the city is spreading towards the east the newly opened streets are glorious with young trees. Both old trees and young are thriving. No tree that is dead, or unsightly past remedy, is allowed to stand. The city takes it down forthwith. The most sedulous care is bestowed on all trees, whether old or young. All this, remember, by the municipality itself, through its city forester. Appropriations for tree work are generous. The like policy prevails, and the like results are manifest, in nearly all the municipalities of Massachusetts.
There is not space to tell of Hartford, and New Haven, and Providence, of Charleston, and Savannah, and Atlanta, of New Orleans also, and St. Louis, of San Francisco and Palo Alto and Riverside and the rest. All these are entitled to a good report of municipal shade tree work, or its beginnings and stand as encouragements to all shade tree brethren everywhere, and cheer us on to higher things.
Further, the agricultural experiment stations, the universities, and the state foresters have taken to the movement. Previously these were occupied with only the academic phase, but of late they have entered into its practical direction within their state boundaries. The state experiment stations of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wyoming; the Cornell University landscape staff, the Syracuse University school of forestry, the Illinois University school of landscape architecture, issue free compendiums and give free lectures to spread the principles of correct planting and modes of nurture and maintenance.
In New Jersey the state forester has brought about a state federation of shade tree commissions. Already this has achieved much and gives promise of achieving much more. It has, for one thing, already solidified shade tree sentiment throughout the state; and given new power to the shade tree propaganda. At the conferences of this federation, tree officials, foresters, entomologists and pathologists discuss tree methods and problems with rich practical results. Action has been taken toward a more stringent quarantine to save the state from invasion by insect pests and tree diseases from beyond its boundaries. The state plant


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pathologist also visits and bestows expert advice wherever requested by local communities, no expense to be entailed on such communities other than the expert’s travelling expenses.
Much, very much, remains to be done. The shade tree movement is yet far from “the stature of a perfect man.” The present is, in comparison with what ought to be, a “day of small things.” Nevertheless a survey of the movement throughout the country yields data big with promise for the future. There is every reason to be of good courage and to go forward.


MUNICIPAL BONDS AS POPULAR INVESTMENTS
WHY ARE MUNICIPAL BONDS GROWING MORE POPULAR AS INVESTMENTS; AND WHAT EFFECT IS THE WAR HAVING UPON MUNICIPAL FINANCING
BY HOWARD F. BEEBE1 New York
THE very noticeable increase in the interest of investors in municipal bonds has been attributed by the writers of many financial articles solely to the exemption from the operations of the federal income tax which this form of investment enjoys. Granting that this exemption has had an important influence in bringing about a wider interest in municipal bonds, a careful study will show many other influences working toward the same end.
In order to trace and appreciate the relative importance of these influences, it is necessary to retrospect to about 1890 which will carry one back to the severe business and financial depression of the early ’90’s. At this time the rapidly accumulating wealth of that character which seeks employment by investment in bonds was finding it increasingly difficult to secure a relatively attractive return on municipal obligations of the larger and better known communities, and even then was looking to bonds of the newer western and southwestern communities to obtain a satisfactory income return. Many investors whose natural disposition was to purchase municipal securities were turning to other channels, chiefly railroads and so-called public utility corporations, for the investment of their funds. However, with the first signs of business depression and decreasing earnings on the part of the railroads, attention again was centered upon municipal bonds with the result that except during the acute stages of the depression municipal securities were much sought after and this resulted in a steady rise in their prices and correspondingly decreasing return on the investment until in the period between 1900 and 1902 they had attained such a high level that a great many investors again turned their attention to other forms of security. The rapidly increasing deposits of savings banks throughout the eastern portion of the United States and the restricted fields in which these deposits might be legally invested contributed largely to the high level of prices attained by municipal bonds during this period. Although the 1907 panic was of comparatively short duration, its aftermath brought about a heavy
Manager, Municipal Department, Harris, Forbes & Co., New York.
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demand for municipal bonds and it was only a very short time after conditions had readjusted themselves when they reached a level of prices fully as high as had prevailed prior to this great financial disturbance.
These brief references to what actually happened to the price level of municipal bonds lead one to the conclusion that the present demand is largely attributable to the disposition on the part of investors of all classes, both institutional and private, to turn under unusual and disturbed conditions to that form of investment which is freest from possibility of loss and to that end be willing to accept a smaller return than would satisfy them under normal conditions.
Again reverting to the period of 1890 we find many investors who still remembered the many defaults and compromises growing out of the conditions produced by the Civil War and the issuance of so-called “bonus bonds” to aid the construction of new railroads, the establishment of manufacturing and other industrial plants by communities with more ambition than sound judgment and securities which were obligations in name only of the municipalities issuing them. That these troubles grew out of unwise and in many cases dishonest financing and that the losses were incurred by individuals seeking a rate of return on their investment out of all proportion to what could have been secured from conservatively issued bonds, was overlooked by a large proportion of investors who knew of the various litigations revolving about this class of security, with the natural result that a very decided prejudice was established in the minds of many intelligent investors and the market for municipal bonds except those of the larger and better known cities was thereby considerably restricted. That a large majority of the defaults and repudiations in connection with state and municipal bonds were the logical outcome of loose and vicious public financing is well known by everyone who has given the subject any study. As the years have passed and municipal financing has gradually been placed on a more scientific basis, defaults and losses have become almost unknown and a great many investors who held an unreasoning prejudice against municipal bonds have come to realize that many of the repudiations of the past were more or less justified, and that those who have used reasonable caution and care in making their selections have had no cause for complaint. It has also become more generally known that a repudiating municipality has no chance of permanently evading the payment of any of its justly contracted indebtedness where the issue has passed through the hands of a competent and reliable investment banking house which can be depended upon to make its own independent investigation, see that the bonds are legally and regularly issued and to take necessary and energetic action to obtain satisfaction in case of delay in payment or actual default.


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Of prime importance to many investors in bonds of all classes is their ready convertibility into cash or their use as collateral in borrowing large sums of money. Municipal issues as a rule have been quickly placed in the hands of permanent holders and therefore few have been listed or at all actively dealt in when listed, on the important exchanges. This resulted in a false belief that a ready market could not be found without undue sacrifice in times of financial stringency. This belief was heightened by the practice of some municipalities selling their bonds to local investors without having the legal proceedings in connection therewith passed upon by competent and well known legal advisers and who took no thought of the possible necessity of reselling. When such bonds seek a market those banking houses who would buy them are restrained by two important considerations: first, the fear that through some serious legal mistake by the city’s counsel, which is usually composed of attorneys appointed more for political reasons than for legal ability, the bonds have not been legally issued; and secondly, because responsible bankers do not feel justified in asking their clientele to buy bonds which they in turn would find difficult to remarket. J
The experience .of our own house over a long period of years covering a number of serious financial disturbances is that a block of municipal bonds, issued by either a large or small municipality, which had been originally purchased by well known and reputable bankers, can be marketed at a satisfactory price under conditions which make it impossible to sell any other form of security except at a great sacrifice. In fact, clients of ours desiring to raise money during the 1907 panic found it more profitable in a large majority of cases to sell municipal bonds than other securities. During the period of great uncertainty following the opening of the present conflict in Europe, municipal bonds were the first class of security to recover their market equilibrium, and the demand for them continues unabated with the natural result of a steadily advancing market price. The recent protracted period during which the important stock exchanges were closed to trading served to impress upon many people that “listing” does not necessarily mean ready marketability under any and all conditions.
During long periods of great industrial and commercial activity marked by much real or apparent prosperity there is a notable absence of scrutiny of the possibilities of financial trouble and loss under less favorable conditions. In the buoyant spirit of the time a desire for increase of income causes the investor to be less critical and he waives his conservative requirements in the selection of his securities. From about the latter part of the year 1896 this country has enjoyed an almost continuous period of industrial, commercial and financial prosperity and expansion with its accompanying accumulation of wealth. What, then, was more natural than the growing belief that the old rules for the selection of


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investments were needlessly conservative? However, with decreasing industrial earnings, the reducing or passing of dividends, defaults in the payment of interest or principal on poorly secured bonds, realization that real estate does not always sell for more than is paid for it, there comes a reaction and investors give more thought to the safeguarding of their principal and are willing to accept the relatively smaller return which goes with the more conservative security. The recruits to the ranks of municipal bond buyers in the past six or seven months has been greater than at any time during my experience of seventeen years in the investment banking business. One very noticeable and interesting feature of the present situation is the large number of active business men who are purchasers of municipal bonds. As a rule, they are seeking comparatively short maturities with the expectation of selling their bonds or using them as collateral for loans as soon as the needs of their business require more capital.
A comparison of municipal bonds in the various corresponding grades with railroad, public utility and industrial bonds will show them to return a lower income at all times, which of course is justified by their freedom from losses caused by depressed business conditions, poor management, inimical legislation, etc. This difference has in recent years tended to decrease, due no doubt to the increasing supply of municipal bonds as the country has developed and the municipalities have taken upon themselves the construction of public utilities requiring the expenditure of large sums of money which heretofore had to a much larger extent been owned and operated by privately owned corporations. The confidence of the investing public in other types of investment under prosperous conditions as before mentioned and the readiness with which they are then purchased at a small difference in yearly income has also been a factor. When the prospective investor cast about for a security of the highest degree of safety as he did upon realizing the alarming state of affairs attending the sudden declaration of war in Europe, and found that municipal bonds would yield very close, to the income from other forms of high grade security, it is not surprising that he was at once attracted to them, blow long they may be obtained at such relatively attractive terms cannot be foretold, but it is certain for the present they are to be purchased at a most inviting level of prices.
To the net income from municipal bonds must be added the freedom from tax as personal property in many cases, and the interest is not subject to the federal income tax law. Most people seem to assume that in drawing this last named statute, Congress exempted the interest from municipal bonds for political reasons, but it is more than likely that the framers were convinced that not to do so would have been sufficient grounds for the courts to hold the law, or at least that portion of it providing that such income be treated as taxable, unconstitutional. That


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this would have been unconstitutional is held by many able lawyers and they point to the famous decision of the United States supreme court in the case of Pollock vs. Farmers Loan and Trust Company in which it was held that the federal income tax law of 1894 was unconstitutional and serving as an important precedent for future legislation. Where an individual’s taxable income does not exceed $20,000 per* annum, the federal income tax saving would not be great; assuming the investment to net five per centum per annum, it amounts to five hundredths of one per cent and of course to a corresponding amount in proportion to the annual yield. However, as the amount of the annual net income increases and becomes subject to the “additional tax” provision of the law, this exemption becomes of greater importance and reaches the point where it in effect adds thirty-five hundredths of one per cent to the net income from the investment; for an example, to such an individual the net income from a municipal bond yielding 4| per cent is equivalent to 4.815 per cent from a security not exempt. This has no doubt had a decided influence on persons of great wealth in their determination to invest at least a portion of their funds in municipal bonds. This tax exemption feature appeals to another class of individuals for a somewhat different reason; it is well known that the very burdensome and foolish tax laws of many states dealing with taxation of personal property have led, in fact, driven large numbers of persons, who would cheerfully pay any reasonable taxes, to avoid payments of tax on a substantial portion of their invested property. Under the laws of their respective states they have been obliged to file an annual statement of their property holdings and in most cases to swear to its accuracy. While the federal income tax law provides explicitly for the keeping secret of the returns made thereunder many people fear the possibility of this information coming to the hands of their local tax officials, in which event they would not only become liable for back taxes but under the laws of some states for heavy penalties as well. One does not wonder why such persons find a strong attraction in municipal bonds, independent of their annual return, as the income does not have to be even mentioned in their income tax return, for that purpose being treated as if it had not been received. Still a third class are attracted by the fact that the vexatious “certificates of ownership” do not have to accompany the collection of interest on municipal bonds. The writer recently helped a wealthy investor to make up his income tax return and despite his income being well over $100,000 per year, he did not have to file a return as less than $3,000 was derived from sources other than municipal securities.
The rapid increase in the indebtedness of municipalities has been much commented upon of late. The alarm with which this tendency has been viewed by many students of municipal affairs is hardly justified by a careful study of all the conditions and facts involved.


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If the municipality of to-day did not afford more service of various kinds to its inhabitants and taxpayers, and they are one and the same whether they pay their money directly to the tax receiver or not, than the one of twenty or even five years ago, we would indeed have reason for concern. I venture to say that any reader of this article would find it hard to call to mind any city of size which has not greatly improved in recent years, and if he can it would be one in which he would prefer not .to reside. This improved condition cannot be attained without the expenditure of money. Why then should we not measure the results of expenditures at the time of considering the debts created in connection therewith? A perusal of the United States census reports will throw some very interesting light on this subject, particularly those figures dealing with the assets of the various cities. Suffice it to say that the figures set forth therein, particularly those dealing with the “realizable” and “unrealizable” assets, as they are termed, will tend to dispel the grave misgivings of those who have them. Should one care to carefully compile all the various services which his local government performs in his behalf and their cost to him if done by private agencies and which twenty-five years ago were so attended to and paid for, I have no doubt he would view his growing tax bills with less concern; and speaking of tax bills leads me to state that so long as they are the necessary accompaniments of public debts they will act as a powerful and efficient brake on the vehicle of municipal progress, whose motive power is supplied by money. If one has doubts of this, let him listen to the din now being raised by a multitude of taxpayers in New York City. Many of these same people a few years ago were loudest in .their clamors for public improvements. To be sure, many were real estate holders and speculators who expected to dispose of their taxable property to others at advanced prices, and had not anticipated the paying of increased tax bills themselves. It should be borne in mind that many of the most expensive municipal improvements are or will be self supporting, and in numerous instances the debts in connection therewith are being amortized and will be eventually retired.
This logically brings us to the laws governing the creation and payment of public debt. It is not so many years ago that the statutes of many eastern and southern states made very inadequate provision for the payment of the principal of loans negotiated by their sub-divisions, while now there are but few which do not require that annual taxes in sufficient amount to pay the entire indebtedness as it matures shall be levied and collected. And few indeed are those which by constitutional or legislative enactment seek to restrict the taxing power to the point of making it uncertain that they will be able to promptly meet their debts under any and all conditions. Alabama is still in that unenviable position, but there are encouraging signs there that the thinking people of


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the state, and that as usual does not seem to include the members of her legislature, are awakening to the fact that they are paying more than their neighbors in the adjoining states for money borrowed for public purposes. The reason is generally known by well posted bankers and investors throughout the country and the people of Alabama have refused entirely too long to listen to good advice on the subject. The readers of the National Municipal Review are, no doubt, well acquainted with the admirable law which became operative in Massachusetts January 1, 1914 and which deals very effectively with all public financing in that state.1 Such widespread comment has been made upon the merits of the new Massachusetts law, that the assumption by many has been that numerous other states have been and are as lax as Massachusetts had been in the past. This is not the case. My own belief is that Massachusetts in correcting a long-standing abuse may find she has swung too far in the opposite direction. Why should the taxpayers of the next twenty or thirty years be called upon to liquidate the entire debt created at this period for the acquisition of lands and the constructing of permanent improvements, which will permanently benefit the community and bring a continuous revenue for an indefinite time? It would seem that such debt could be amortized over a span of fifty years with perfect safety. Too much emphasis, on the other hand, cannot be made upon the importance of paying the last of a public debt within the life of the improvements made with the proceeds of the loan.
To summarize the reasons for the pronounced and growing popularity of municipal bonds with investors, I should say the most potent are the following:
(a) The long-standing prejudices have gradually worn away under the better understanding of the reasons for old defaults and repudiations, and the knowledge that there will be no repetition of those unfortunate conditions which brought them about.
(b) A realization that they can be marketed under unfavorable financial conditions as well or better than other forms of property.
(c) The enlightenment which has come in recent years on the fundamental weaknesses of all private or corporate securities as compared with the fundamental strength of securities payable by the taxing power.
(d) The relatively good income which may now be had from an investment in this class, of security.
(e) The obvious advantages under the federal income tax law, and the certainty that this tax will grow heavier rather than lighter.
(f) The growing scope of municipal functions insures a steady supply of all grades of municipal bonds.
(g) The steadily improving laws governing the issuance and payment of public debts.
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. iii, pp. 474 and 682.


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That the war in Europe has played a definite part in municipal financing up to the present time is certain.1 Whether it will bear with equal force later is not so certain although it will no doubt continue to have some bearing on all forms of finances for many years to come. The disturbance caused by the declaration of war served to emphasize the decided and fundamental differences between securities payable from taxes and those dependent upon the successful and profitable operation of privately owned enterprises. This has resulted in a widespread increase in the interest of the investing public in municipal bonds to the end that it is comparatively easy for municipalities to borrow on advantageous terms such funds as they need. Authorization of new loans has* not appeared in any great quantity as yet, most of the financing being for the purpose of funding temporary obligations or of paying for work actually contracted for before August 1. At the November elections when many loans were voted upon by the electors there was a noticeable disposition to vote down any but the most needed improvements, and if human inclination runs true to form this tendency will continue as long as business and industrial conditions continue in an unsatisfactory or even uncertain state, and taxpayers “feel poor.”
The end of the war will witness the necessity of funding the enormous war loans which are being made so prodigally in a temporary form. Will these evidences of governmental debt of the leading old world nations come here in large quantities? The answer to this question is one which will have a tremendous influence on the course of all financing in this country, but that answer depends on so many developments which the wisest cannot foresee at this time, that he would be a rash man indeed who would dare to make any definite predictions. We may however speculate on how results abroad may affect us here. It is very generally agreed that any terms of peace which do not insure a lasting cessation of hostilities would leave matters in a deplorable state. It is certain that under such a condition but little of the European government debt would lodge here. If, however, the contrary prevails there is the chance that home financing would be obliged to compete. The physical and financial conditions of the nations at war at the end of conflict would also have to be taken into account, as they would bear directly upon the recuperative power of those countries and the ability to pay their staggering loads of debt caused by the greatest economic waste the world has ever known. That debt created for no human good should be paid in full in a short term of years seems the only sound finance, yet it appears certain this millstone will hang about the neck of the old world for a long time. Most holders of municipal bonds have been actuated in their purchases by a conservatism that will probably tend to restrain them from investing heavily if at all in foreign government securities. On the other hand,
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. iv, p. 1.


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other classes of investors will no doubt purchase them if they are offered on alluring terms, and this will absorb their funds and corporate financing will suffer and be obliged to pay a higher rate for the money it must have. Thus in turn will the municipal buyer be attracted to other home securities he would buy, if the terms are sufficiently attractive, and it is likely that the municipalities will find it necessary to pay a correspondingly higher rate for their borrowing. To confound the situation still more, it is well established that great conflicts between nations, with their consequent stagnation of trade and industry, tend to pile up great sums of unemployed capital and that not for years does this vast wealth find employment in its usual channels. It may be that this will answer the problem of Europe’s financing and result in the establishment of a rate of interest which will allow us to proceed on our financial way without serious disturbance.


MUNICIPAL REVENUES IN OHIO
BY S. GALE LOWBIE1 Cincinnati
THE subject of taxation is always vital in Ohio. For many years, agitation has been carried on in an effort to reform a revenue system devised for an agricultural community to meet the necessities of a state wherein more than half the population resides in cities. Like all modern municipalities, those of this state have been called upon to render year by year a greater variety of public services. The conception of the city’s function has grown and duties have been undertaken which a few years ago were not included within the. scope of its activity. The very grouping of large numbers of individuals in a comparatively restricted area has made it imperative that the city exercise as a municipal function what was formerly carried on by individual effort. This is one of the economies of co-operative effort rendered not only possible, but imperative, by modern city life. It is not peculiar to Ohio cities ; it is the law of progress in all modern governments. This extended program, however, necessitates an increasing public expense, but with all these new demands for public service, new revenues for financing them have not been found. On the contrary funds already enjoyed have been curtailed. During the last few years especially, the situation has become more acute and the cities have been confronted on the one hand with the imperative necessity for the extension of municipal services, and upon the other with the gradual shrinkage of public revenues available for municipal purposes. For this reason, our problem of municipal finance is a serious one.
The chief sources of municipal revenue for Ohio cities are the general property tax, the cities’ share of the receipts from licensing the sale of liquor and cigarettes, the returns from franchise taxes on public utilities and incidental licenses and fees imposed upon certain businesses and occupations. The most important revenue producer is the general property tax, from which some 60 per cent of the funds raised for the support of municipal government, exclusive of the maintenance of the schools, is derived. In the enjoyment of this income, however, the cities have been confronted with a tax law which has curtailed in a way to threaten serious consequences the returns which may be expected
JDr. Lowrie is professor of Political Science in the University of Cincinnati and in charge of the municipal reference library of the city of Cincinnati. For a time he was director of the legislative reference bureau at Columbus. See article on “Cincinnati's Charter Campaign,” vol. iii, p. 730.
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from this source. The tax limitation, or the “Smith Law” as it is popularly known, became effective January, 1911. Prior to this time, tangible property was assessed at varying percentages of its true value and the rates differed throughout the state from 1.4 per cent to 6.7 per cent, the average rate being 2.5 per cent, and in the cities 3.5 per cent. Intangible personalty, although required by the constitution to be taxed, was not generally represented upon the tax lists.
The Smith law was passed pursuant to a theory that if the tax rate were low, intangible property would appear on the duplicate, and might be assessed at the same rate as realty as the constitution requires. It was believed that if property were listed at its true value, sufficient funds would be secured for the maintenance of government, and the tax burden would not rest onerously upon any class of. taxpayers, consequently a rate of 1 per cent levied upon all taxable property would yield ample funds for the support of the public service. Fearing that even so low a rate upon a full assessment would produce such funds that extravagance would be encouraged, the law makers further provided that the aggregate amount of taxes to be levied in any taxing district in 1911 should not exceed the aggregate amount levied in 1910; but that in succeeding years the 1910 levy might be exceeded by 6 per cent in 1912, 9 per cent in 1913 and by 12 per cent in 1914 and in all succeeding years. Thus after 1914, the total amount of funds which might be secured from taxation should not exceed 112 per cent of the yield in 1910. Additional limitations were incorporated which fixed the maximum levy which might be provided for the city at five mills; for the school district, at five mills; for townships, at two mills; and for the county at three mills. However, the sum total of these levies together with the state levy should not exceed ten mills upon the dollar valuation.
In order to determine what adjustments might be made to keep the sum total of these levies within the limitations, a county budget commission was created, consisting of the county auditor, the county prosecutor and the mayor of the largest municipality within the county. This commission was granted power to adjust the tax levies that the total rate in any taxing district should not exceed the 1 per cent limitation.
The effect of this law was to increase greatly tax valuations, particularly with respect to reality; personalty valuations were made somewhat greater, but not to the extent anticipated by the sponsors of the measure. Although the law did not become effective until January 1, 1911, by the time the general assembly convened in 1913, serious difficulty had been experienced in securing sufficient funds to operate the municipalities, schools, and other political subdivisions of the state. The provision that the taxes levied were not to exceed those raised in 1910, plus a certain percentage, operated as a hardship in many taxing districts where the 1910 rate had been especially low because of balances from previous


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years or for unusual causes. Even in other districts, the law was found to restrict unduly the conduct of public business. It proved very popular, however, particularly in the rural districts where it was felt to constitute a guarantee against excessive taxation. Consequently, it was difficult in a general assembly, in which the rural portions of the state are accorded a fuller representation than are the more populous sections, to secure even a slight modification of the law. The minor concessions made, which removed the limitation to the increase in revenue from taxation to a certain percentage based upon the 1910 revenue, and which was soon to become absolutely fixed, and the change in the personnel of the county budget commission so that in the larger cities, the city solicitor should replace the county prosecutor, were secured with great difficulty; and until ninety days had elapsed after the law was passed it was not at all certain but that a referendum would be demanded and the law submitted to the people. During the present session of the general assembly [1915], bills are pending to restrict even more completely the tax levying powers of the political subdivisions. The concession gained by the cities in securing a second member of the county budget commission in the larger cities, and by the schools in having a representative in smaller districts, was lost by a decision of the supreme court to the effect that since this work affects the entire county, it cannot be performed by a municipal officer. This would logically preclude the mayor of the largest municipality as well from serving on this commission; and it is probable the law will be so amended as to deprive the cities of this representative and to confer the power of fixing the tax rate for all cities and school districts of the county upon county officers.
The provision of the law respecting the debt service of cities is operating greatly to restrict the revenues which may be enjoyed for running expenses. The law provides that interest and sinking fund for bonds issued prior to 1910 shall be without the limitation of the law; but that for bonds issued subsequent to this time, interest and sinking fund charges shall be within the limitations and preferred claims. As the cities are paying off or refunding earlier bonds and issuing new securities, the debt service to be met within the limitations is constantly increasing and thus curtailing the amount available for other purposes. This is rapidly affecting, not only a limitation upon the debt incurring powers of cities, but is operating as a serious restriction upon their funds available for current expenses.
The law provided, however, that in case any taxing district found itself unable to secure sufficient revenue within the limitation of the ten mills, authority might be obtained by a vote of the people, to fix the maximum limitation at fifteen rather than ten mills on the dollar valuation. Nearly every municipality in the state has been forced to avail itself of this provision, and submit to the voters annually the proposal to increase the tax


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rate in this way. The undesirable feature is thus injected into our municipal financial system of uncertainty as to the amount of revenue available for the ensuing calendar year until the issues of the November elections are determined. Thus far the people have sanctioned the additional levy. The possibility is always present, however, that this issue may fail and the cities be forced to operate upon an exceedingly restricted basis. The largest cities of the state have found even the levy authorized by a vote, which is the largest permitted by law, to be far too small to supply their imperative needs.
During this last year, however, two events operated to increase to a slight extent the amount of revenue available for cities from taxation. The first was the enactment of a tax law, providing assessors should be appointed rather than elected. This has resulted in not only a more economical but a more efficient assessment and has returned a greater amount of property for taxation. This law, however, has been unpopular in certain quarters, and it is possible that the present general assembly will return to an elective system of choosing these officers. Whether -or not this is done, it is probable that the tax lists will shrink rather than enlarge at the next assessment, as the increase was made up in many instances of personal property which may be exchanged for non-taxable securities before the next tax listing period arrives. Another action on the part of the state provided more revenue, which might be available for cities within the tax limitation by decreasing the state levy from .961 to .45 of a mill. This was done not to secure more funds for cities, but because the new tax assessing machinery had operated to increase the state revenue to a greater extent than was needed. When, however, Akron attempted to increase the tax rate for 1914 above that levied in 1913, the tax commission ordered the county auditor to disregard the new rate and levy again the rate established in 1913.
Next to the general property tax, the most important source of municipal revenue is the liquor license. A license fee of $1,000 is assessed each retail liquor dealer in the state; 30 per cent of this revenue goes to the state treasury and 20 and 50 per cent respectively to the county and municipality in which the saloon is located.1 Returns from this source, however, have been greatly reduced by the operation of a constitutional amendment which became effective in 1912, limiting the number of saloons to one for every 500 inhabitants. The loss of this revenue falls particularly heavily upon the large municipalities, already suffering from lack of funds. No attempt has been made to replace these monies with other revenues. Cleveland lost in this way between five and six hundred thousand, and Cincinnati nearly four hundred thousand dollars. While in the other municipalities, the total decreases were not so great, yet the embarrassment because of lack of funds is just as evident.
1 Some cities maintaining infirmaries receive 70 per cent of the revenue.


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Other revenues upon which the cities of the state rely for the support of governmental activities, such as franchise and occupation taxes, and receipts from licenses and fees, have generally not been affected as have the two major sources of city revenue by state legislation. The cities have been compelled to resort to these miscellaneous revenues for a considerable portion of their receipts; and licenses and occupational taxes imposed by cities of the state are generally higher that are to be found in other municipalities throughout the country. '
Not only has the income of Ohio cities been reduced by legislative action, but recent laws have placed new burdens upon the cities. State legislation resulting in expense to cities has been the establishment of municipal courts, an eight-hour day for public work; such humanitarian legislation as workmen’s compensation for city employees, pensions for the blind and for widowed mothers; and the holding of special elections either by mandatory state laws on questions referred by the state legislature, or under the initiative and referendum or home rule provisions of the state constitution.
Another constitutional amendment which had a serious effect upon the finances of Ohio municipalities is the provision established in 1912 making public bonds subject to taxation. The result of this change has been to increase the interest rate which public bodies hav« been forced to pay without increasing to any appreciable extent the amount of intangible personalty assessment; 4 per cent Cincinnati bonds which previously sold readily at a premium now found no market, and even bonds bearing 4.5 per cent interest were placed with some difficulty. This was largely owing to the state of the money market, but the effect of the constitutional amendment has been to demand higher interest rates. This requires a larger fund annually for sinking fund and interest purposes and a corresponding decrease in the amount of funds available for current expenses. A constitutional amendment to repeal this provision submitted a year ago met defeat. Many of the cities of the state have resorted to borrowing to provide money which a sound fiscal policy would demand meeting from current revenues. Other cities have borrowed in anticipation of taxes; This is a policy which cannot long continue, but is resorted to frequently to meet present emergencies and in the hope that the future will see an alleviation of the difficulties now confronted.
There is scarcely a city in the state from which examples might not be selected to show the straits to which the cities and schools have been placed because of the lack of public revenues and the growing demand for municipal services. In Cleveland the mandatory audit of public accounts required by the charter was abandoned because of the expense. Street repair work has been greatly neglected and borrowing has been resorted to in order to conduct city government. In Cincinnati, funds imperatively needed for the support of the schools and for educational purposes


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have been lacking and there is scarcely a municipal department that has not had its activities seriously curtailed. Funds required for the repair of streets have not been available, and it has been necessary to issue bonds for this purpose. In Columbus, it was propos'ed to dispense with the work of public recreation, but objections from the citizens resulted in providing funds for this purpose at the expense of the public health service.
In Toledo, the mayor suggested that all public officers subscribe a month’s salary to relieve the drain on the public exchequer. In Dayton, the position of safety director has never been filled, and the city manager has performed this service. In Akron, it was thought for a time that it would be necessary to close the public library for one month, although funds for its maintenance were subsequently discovered. There is scarcely a phase of public service which has not been crippled by lack of money for its support.
So critical did this situation become that the Ohio Municipal League at its meeting in 1914, failing to secure state legislation to relieve a condition becoming constantly more embarrassing, urged the passage of a bill authorizing the appointment by the governor of five persons to serve without compensation and report to the general assembly in 1915 on the fiscal status of the municipalities of Ohio. Pursuant to such a law, a commission was appointed which has submitted the following recommendations :
1. That the state abandon its policy of resorting to the general property tax for a portion of its revenue;
2. That a portion of the automobile fees be surrendered to municipalities;
3. That all sinking fund levies be placed outside the ten mill limitation and be separated from levies for general purposes, and in fact that the restrictions upon the borrowing capacity of municipalities be limited to a restriction upon the issuance of bonds rather than upon the ability of public bodies to meet these liabilities as they accrue. This would take the entire sinking fund and interest levies from within the tax limitation law;
4. That a constitutional amendment be proposed exempting public bonds from taxation;
5. That municipalities be authorized to borrow from their special funds in anticipation of the collection of taxes;
6. That there be no change in the law that would give cities a portion of the corporation taxes;
7. That the cities receive no greater portion of the liquor license revenues.
The state tax now amounts to .45 of a mill of which .3 mill is for the construction of state highways and is without the tax limitation law. The remainder except a slight tax for interest on the state debt is for education. The tax for highways might well be supplied


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from some other state source, but the educational institutions of the state need a permanent revenue, such as a mill tax affords, because the constitution precludes permanent appropriations. However, this tax is at present so small that it is necessary to supplement it by annual appropriations by the general assembly Either this tax should be increased and placed without the tax limitation law, so as to afford a permanent source of revenue for the educational institutions and at the same time release funds needed for municipalities, or it should be abandoned and another form of permanent support such as a fixed percentage of the gross revenues of the state be determined upon.
With respect to the granting of the cities a portion of the automobile fees, allowing sinking fund levies to be made without the tax limitation, authorizing cities to borrow from special funds, with proper safe-guards, and abolishing the tax on public bonds, there can be little doubt but that the committee has called attention to needed reforms. Very great differences of opinidn exist respecting the propriety of giving to the cities the revenue from saloon licenses. The Ohio Municipal League recommended in 1914, that this constitute a municipal revenue. The committee finds, however, that this is a revenue subject to great fluctuations depending upon the shifting policy of the state and localities respecting the sale of liquor, and also recognizes that burdens are imposed upon the states and counties as well as upon the cities because of the excessive use of alcoholic beverages. It suggests that the division of revenue now approximates justice. Any proposal to change this policy would precipitate a bitter fight between the liquor interests and the prohibition advocates, always nearly equally divided in the general assembly. The prohibitionists fear that the granting of revenue from the saloon to local divisions would discourage the prohibition of the sale of liquor under the local option law. Consequently, it is doubtful whether the recommendation of the league would meet with favor.
The 1915 meeting of the Ohio Municipal League was again given over to a discussion of municipal revenues and, under the auspices of the league, a conference was held widely representative of cities, chambers of commerce and civic organizations. This conference went on record as favoring a constitutional amendment providing for the classification of property for taxation and the granting of home rule in matters of taxation to the counties of the state respecting any sources of revenue which the state should not deem necessary to use for its own support.
The cities of Ohio are in a grave predicament, because in the most vital question of municipal finance, their destinies are controlled by a legislature in which members from rural communities predominate. It is very difficult for these legislators to appreciate the needs and obligations of urban communities. The feeling is general that the taxpayers of the cities are not contributing to governmental expense in the same


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proportion as are the property holders of rural communities, and that the conduct of city government is fraught with great extravagance. Consequently a deaf ear is turned to the most earnest entreaties that the cities be allowed to tax themselves for the adequate support of their own government. Compared with the conduct of the state, county and village governments, the cities of Ohio are operated upon an economical and efficient basis. Until they can free themselves, however, from the control of a rural legislature, it is doubtful whether effective remedies may be found to relieve what is becoming a most critical situation among the cities of the state.
5


SHORT ARTICLES
READING’S REVISION OF ASSESSMENTS
BY HON. IBA W. STRATTON1 Reading, Pa.
THE revision of the assessment of Reading, Pa., real estate which was recently made by the city council acting as a board of revision, is of interest, as the same conditions which called for it in Reading call just as loudly elsewhere; and the same powers and similar or more thorough-going methods are free to be used in other cities.
The conditions are these: In the first place the appraisements of real estate, on which are based the taxes furnishing the main municipal revenues, have been grossly incorrect and unequal; no proper system has been employed in making them; and they have naturally been affected by improper influences.
In the second place, and of even greater importance, assessments have been made so as to discriminate unfairly and unwisely against up-building enterprise, and encourage obstruction of such enterprise; for the unwarranted favoring of idle or inadequately improved sites has enabled the holders to reap such unearned profits in the enhanced values that result from general progress alone, as to encourage do-nothing tactics.
It has been quite generally felt and believed that such inequitable conditions exist, and this feeling and belief has been demoralizing and has had a damaging effect on public-spirited movements; yet actual facts bearing on the subject of inequitable assessments have been practically hidden so that effective demand for correction has been very slow in developing.
As mayor I have repeatedly called the attention of the old council-manic bodies to the unequal assessments; and in May, 1913, submitted an enlightening copy of business property assessments as taken from the books of the city assessors. This list was published in the newspapers, and helped to direct general attention to palpable undervaluations as compared with ordinary residence properties; but nothing was done to correct them in the following assessment.
1 Mr. Stratton is mayor of Reading, the largest third class city in Pennsylvania, and president of the League of Third Class Cities of Pennsylvania. He has taken an active part in the movement for commission government and is now actively identified with the movement to make it possible for third class cities in Pennsylvania to have city managers. He is also backing the suggestion of a state department of municipalities.
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The Reading Chamber of Commerce then took up the matter of determining actual conditions. Through its committees on taxation and real estate the chamber had a systematic appraisement made, at its own expense, of nine complete city blocks, including six in the main business section, one section composed largely of manufacturing establishments, one expensive residence section, and one ordinary residence section. In this unofficial appraisement the main work was done by expert municipal appraisers; local real estate experts and the interested public generally determining merely the street-frontage values, which were used under the Somer’s system, in calculating the land or site values. The net improvement values as determined by well-established appraising rules, such as are applied to all classes of real estate for general business purposes, were added to these lot values.
The detailed results of this unofficial, but systematic sample assessment, compared with the corresponding assessments taken from the assessor’s books, were opened to public inspection, and the general results were published. These convincingly proved that the old assessments were unreliable and unequal, ordinary residence properties in particular being shown to be unfairly burdened in comparison with expensively located and inadequately improved properties.
The four councilmen elected at large under the provisions of the Clark bill, with myself as hold-over mayor, took office in December, 1913. Before May 1, 1914, a precept was issued requiring the hold-over assessors to make a complete reassessment; and any needed assistance in making it a systematic one was offered. The assessors complied in a way with the legal requirement, going through the usual useless formula; but they returned practically the old assessments, excepting as to added improvements, on September 1, 1914.
This brought the matter up to the council acting in its legal capacity as a board of revision and appeal. Its powers and duties in the premises were carefully considered in the light of the law itself and court decisions bearing upon it, and the difficult work was undertaken of revising the assessments submitted so as to equalize them as far as was practicable in the limited time available.
Briefly stated, the net results of this revision by the board, after hearing and decision of appeals, was an addition of about four millions to the taxable appraisements; this addition affecting high-priced properties mainly, and admittedly tending to equalize the appraisements as a whole. The entire work including the hearing and determining of appeals, was completed by December 1, 1914, as required; and there is nothing to indicate that either its legality or fairness is seriously questioned.
As to the legality of this procedure, and the general lines now authoritatively laid down in Pennsylvania for effecting a proper appraisal of real estate for municipal purposes, there seems to be already established a satisfying certainty. And moreover these lines seem to follow so closely


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the most advanced and correct principles, as to put this state in the front of progress in this very important movement. To support this optimistic view I will briefly state the situation as I find it.
The act of June 27, 1913 (the Clark bill), by which cities of the third class have been governed since December, 1914, follows previous acts relating to third-class cities in defining the duties of the board of revision and appeal, the council being constituted as such board.
Article XV, Section 14, provides that the board may require the city assessor, in any year, to make and return a full, just, and equal assessment of property in whole or part, as it may deem advisable; that it may revise, equalize or alter such assessments, in any and every year, by increasing or reducing the valuation either in individual cases, or by wards, or parts of wards, and shall hear and determine all appeals. That the assessment so corrected, and copied shall be and remain a lawful assessment subject only to court appeals.
In Rees, Appellant v. City of Erie, decided January 5, 1914,1 the supreme court of the state authoritatively defined these legal powers and duties of the board of revision, in affirming Judge Benson “for the reasons stated in the findings and opinion of the learned Court of the common pleas.” This opinion, thus broadly approved by the highest court of the state, is a reliable support for progressive action in municipal assessing, as will be seen from a brief review of the case.
The triennial assessment returned by the assessors of Erie, was radically revised by the board of revision and appeals; the valuation of land alone being increased in varying amounts on 10,905 taxables, decreased on 67 taxables, and left unchanged on 69 taxables, while the valuations on buildings and improvements returned by the assessors were not changed. The total valuations were raised from over $33,000,000 to over $48,000,-000. The board refused to hear appeals unless reduced to writing. The court held that the board did not exceed their authority, and that their assessment constituted the lawful assessment; overruling all the plaintiffs’ contentions after enlighteningly discussing them. The court said:
Uniformity of valuation for tax purposes is a mandate of the fundamental law of the state, and we think that under the Act of 1895 the board of revision of taxes and appeals is charged with the duty of so revising, equalizing, or altering the assessments returned by the board of assessors as to accomplish that end. . . . The basis or standard of
valuations to be adopted by them for the purpose of securing uniformity lies in their good judgment.
Nor do we think that the assessment should be set aside for the reason that the same ratio of value has not been applied to land as to buildings and improvements. . . .
The latter often fail to bring anywhere near their real value of cost of construction while the former sell more readily at near their true value.
Thus it is clear that the council, in its capacity as a board of revision, is not only empowered but is “charged with the duty,” of providing
1 243 Pennsvlvania State ReDOrts. D. 189.


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uniformity of taxation; even though it involves the setting aside of the work of the city assessor. The Clark bill, however, when in full operation, insures harmony of action, for it provides for the appointment of the assessor by the council; and such harmonious action should be readily agreed upon, in the public interest, even before appointments are so made. As an experienced and satisfactory assessor would naturally be preferred by the council in making an appointment to the office, such agreement is especially desirable, and in view of the clear lines now laid down, should not be difficult. In any case, however, the council as such, as well as in its capacity as a board of revision, is in duty bound to do all that is possible to secure a prompt and convincing equalization of assessments.
And the main essential to accomplishing this is authoritatively recognized, namely, the separate valuation of land and improvements. This has not only been satisfactorily adopted by many of the most progressive cities of the country, and approved by the highest court in our own state, but has even been made mandatory, as to cities of the second class, by our state legislature, by the act of May 15, 1913. Third-class cities would certainly do well to adopt it as well as to provide systematic methods of determining both land and improvement values.
Moreover this act of May 15, 1913, and the supreme court decision referred to, clearly show that land and improvements values should not only be separately determined but also differently treated. The reasons for this are clear enough. Neither individual or municipal wisdom and enterprise can increase the amount of land which nature provides and positively limits; but they can control the quantity and the character of buildings and other improvements. Site values inevitably come and constantly increase with population and general progress, while improvement values, which represent human enterprise and labor, inevitably depreciate with age. Even a good second-hand building is apt to sell something like a second-hand machine, while an unsuitable building, however costly, may be a mere encumbrance to a good site. These facts must be fairly recognized in order to fully secure a wise and equitable assessment of taxes. The provision for gradual exemption of fifty per cent of building and improvement values which the state legislature included in this act of May 15, 1913, was a wise one which ought to be extended to all municipalities. The immediate essential to real progress however is that separate valuations of land and improvements be systematically made, for otherwise a fair equalization of assessments cannot be attained.
With the way thus opening to a really equitable distribution of the burdens of taxation, we can reasonably hope to secure before long that public-spirited support of municipal improvement movements which is necessary to proper progress.


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COMMENT ON THE DAYTON CHARTER
BT LENT D. UPSON1 Dayton, 0.
DAYTON is the first large city to attempt municipal betterment through city manager government, and this fact together with the unusual circumstances attending its adoption, has directed a significant interest to the experiment. Many communities impressed by this example of local government have endeavored to put its larger principles into operation. Some of these have copied intact the Dayton charter, while others have accepted the administrative provisions with slight change.
Doubtless a charter most carefully prepared would; under operation, develop points for improvement. This could not be less true of the Day-ton document, which in spite of painstaking thought on certain sections, was written in a limited time by business men. The wide use of the Dayton document as a model suggests the indicating of certain alterations, the need of which has developed through a year’s experience. The notations are illustrative of the necessity of care and experience in charter drafting, and are not meant as an exhaustive recital of charter defects.
It so happens that all of the larger cities and most of the smaller ones with city manager government have placed the legislative powers in a small board, elected at large without regard to political party. Irrespective of the improvement in administration generally attending the adoption of the city manager plan, it has not been definitely proven that a small council chosen in the manner indicated contributes materially to this result.
Indeed, the amount of newspaper criticism and street talk based upon misinformation and prejudice prompts the belief that there is a failure to filter the facts of government down to an interested public—an error which some elements suggest might be corrected by bringing the legislative body closer to the people. It is advanced that a method by which the several political and social elements in the community might be represented would stimulate a more friendly attitude among discordant groups, and would require such representatives to place themselves definitely on record on propositions which are criticised solely for political expediency. In other words, responsibility would minimize fault-finding. This problem of representation can have only an empirical solution, and Dayton having discarded the ward system and its evils, awaits with interest the results of a trial of proportional representation.
'Director, Dayton Bureau of Municipal Research.


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That the provision in the Dayton charter permitting the recall of the city manager is an error, has been generally conceded. The city manager is solely an administrative officer engaged to carry out the legislative policies of the commission. If he fails in these administrative duties, the commission has made the mistake of appointing an incompetent person; if measures are unpopular, it is the fault of the commission which ordered them put into effect. Granted that in the public mind the city manager will always be the most important person in the city government; that administrations will succeed or fail upon the manager’s achievements— yet in the last analysis it is the employers who should be held responsible.
The charter-framers of Dayton were not insensible to these principles, but believed that to have so radical a departure in city government approved, it would be necessary to offer an additional safeguard in the possibility of recalling the city manager. As the public has come largely to realize the purely administrative duties of the city manager, it seems feasible to eliminate this objectionable feature of the charter.
The charter provides that the first meeting of the city commission shall be “on the first Monday of January following the regular municipal election.” Under such circumstances it might so happen that the city would be without government, or at least its officers without authority to expend funds from January 1 until the first Monday in the month. This section should be remedied, calling for a meeting of the commission, and the passing of an appropriation ordinance on the first business day of the year.
It has been provided that the city attorney shall be appointed by the city manager, while his assistants are chosen subject to civil service regulations. Question has been made as to the policy of subordinating this office to chief executive. Numerous questions may be proposed, relating particularly to the financial administration of the city, in which it might be advisable that the opinion of the city attorney be unbiased by his relationship with the officer directly responsible for such financial considerations. Not infrequently the desire of an administration to show immediate results proves inimical to the best interests of the tax payers, although the latter are theoretically protected by law. For example, by the refunding of bonds to the advantage of the operating fund; by bond issues for purposes approaching current operation, etc. In such instances the legal adviser of the city should be in the position to advance an independent opinion. It has been suggested that the city attorney, or the chief financial officer, preferably the former, be appointed directly by the commission, but this diversion from centralized authority has never been tried.
The vital feature of the prescribed accounting procedure of Dayton is in the words “accounting procedure shall be devised and maintained for the city, adequate to record in detail all transactions affecting the


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acquisition, custodianship and disposition of values . . . . ” With
this sanction, the director of finance has opened a complete set of books including a general ledger, and is prepared to furnish an accurate balance sheet of all city funds. In fact, Dayton has installed a financial system comparing favorably with that employed in large private business, and •which is equalled by few cities in the country. The charter further requires that distinct summaries and schedules shall be presented for each public utility owned and operated. This should be amended to include public industries, such as garbage disposal plants, public markets, etc.
Under the present requirement the city manager signs both the order for goods or services and the voucher by which the payment for such is authorized. It is doubtful if the manager should be compelled to sign either of these documents, as he has no personal knowledge of, and little time to investigate, the merits of the thousands of business transactions occurring.
To centralize the city government the charter provides that the board of sinking fund trustees shall consist of the city commission, the city manager, and the director of finance. A commission with its many varied duties has little time or interest in technical sinking fund procedure. Even in Dayton such a fundamental procedure as the change from the serial to sinking fund plan of debt retirement secured scant consideration. Further, intrusting the custodianship of sinking fund money with the same body that creates indebtedness may not be assumed always to operate to the interest of the tax payers. Occasions might be when the legislative body would issue bonds which, while permitting a favorable showing by the administration, might be illegal as well as impolitic. Examples are bonds for equipment, regular engineering, and refunding purposes. Under the present circumstances if such indebtedness were refused by bond buyers the legislative body acting as sinking fund trustees might purchase the questionable issue. On- the other hand, an independent board of sinking fund trustees would probably be inclined to act only for the broader concern of the public. Reduction in salaried positions, though not the centralization of administration, could be secured equally well by creating a sinkingtfund commission to serve without pay, and by providing that the city treasurer or accountant should act as secretary.
Purchasing provisions of the charter do not provide that the purchasing agent shall buy other than supplies and materials, although the local agent has extended his activities to include certain contractual services known in budgetary parlance as “ contractual services ” or “ services other than personal.” Charter amendment should be made to demarcate the sphere of the agent; or at least to designate minimum activities, leaving their extension to the option of the city manager. Probably centralized purchasing would be profitable for telephone service; repairs by contract


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or open market order, whether to equipment, building or structures; insurance, both fire and liability; public utility services except transportation charges; and other contractual services such as legal advertising, boarding of live stock, rent of lands and buildings, storage of equipment, horseshoeing, etc.
Definite charter provision should be made for the creation of a stores fund with which goods may be purchased, stored and sold to departments without profit; for the reimbursement of this fund by warrants drawn against the proper appropriation codes when stores are delivered; and as to the method of adjusting the account at the close of the fiscal year. Authorization should also be made for the sale of services and supplies between departments where the transfer of charges is one of account and no money passes through the city treasury.
It would also be well to specify more clearly the circumstances surrounding emergency orders, requiring that the facts of the emergency shall be certified to the purchasing agent within twenty-four hours after the purchase is made, and that a confirming order shall be immediately sent to the vendor. In this connection the creation of departmental petty cash funds should be definitely allowed, carefully limiting their use so as to minimize abuse.
Further provision should be made that when bids are opened, and before contracts are let, the figures should be public to competitors and to citizens sufficiently interested to inquire at the purchasing agent’s office. To this end bids should be tabulated upon standard sheets and become permanent records. Objection has been made that the publicity of bids in contrast to the practice of private firms is not conducive to lowest prices. On the other hand, secrecy of bids places the purchasing agent liable to the temptation of deals with corrupt vendors, and robs the public and competitors of easy means of detection. This situation, as in Dayton, may be remedied by administrative order, but a model charter should leave no vagueness of this character.
If city advertising is done exclusively in a daily newspaper of general circulation which bids the lowest price per unit for such services, there is a remarkable saving in charges of this character. However, the Day-ton charter does not permit a municipal journal to be substituted in case a newspaper contract has been entered into, although frequently it would be advantageous to do so. With certain extensive ordinances such as the city budget, building code, traffic rules, etc., newspaper publication is not only expensive, but it is not particularly effective. In such instances it would be desirable to publish in pamphlet form as an issue of a journal which would be less expensive, furnish a means of permanence, and allow for distribution among persons affected or interested.
The absurdity of certain of the Dayton civil service provisions will


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be so apparent to even the casual student of government that these sections merit only brief mention and discussion:
(a) The unclassified service includes the heads of divisions, as well as of departments, thereby removing the promotion incentive for employees, and offering a stimulus to the creation and extension of divisions by an unscrupulous administration interested in extending the spoils system.
(b) The chief examiner is empowered to fill vacant positions, after consultation with the city manager, from the entire eligible list. Certainly such a provision lays the merit system wide open to abuse, and might even nullify it were the appointing officers so inclined. The city manager of Dayton is appointing from the top of the eligible list, but a change in the administration policies would permit the filling of vacancies with ward politicians of minimum ability.
(c) Contrary to approved practices, it is provided that discharged employees are entitled to a public hearing before the civil service board. Such a program will find little defense among persons familiar with civil service practice. A recent experience of Dayton with a public hearing of this kind has proven this scheme to be conducive to insubordination, makes the departmental head reluctant to discharge incompetents, and furnishes an opportunity for the creating of political capital by the opposition.
There are a number of commendable features in the civil service chapter, notably those relating to the standardization of salaries, requiring a probationary period of appointment, certification of all pay rolls, and the prevention of political activity on the part of employees. These should be retained, but certainly the other provisions cited are in urgent need of amendment.
The principal weaknesses of the special assessment sections relate to the levying of assessments previous to the making of improvements. It is impractical for the city engineer to estimate exactly.the cost of improvements, in consequence of which the figures are usually excessive, necessitating rebates at the conclusion of the construction. However, when this amount is small, and no demand is made by the tax payer, the surplus is turned into a fund to meet small deficiencies. The devising of some plan which will eliminate these difficulties without involving the objections arising from fixing the assessments after the improvement is made would be an interesting study.
The extensive use which municipalities are now making of special assessments for purposes other than public improvements, should prompt some provisions for the treatment of these funds aside from the regular assessment procedure. Where assessments are used for special street lighting, vault cleaning, sidewalk cleaning, weed cutting, street flushing, street sprinkling, etc., regular budgetary appropriations should be made for these services, with the stipulation that the assessment income should be turned into the general fund as a regular revenue; and that in those cases in which such assessment is placed on the tax duplicate it should be returned when collected to the general fund.
Some exception has been taken to the franchise regulation which pro-


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Mbits the regranting of a franchise prior to one year of its expiration, a section included to prevent francMse jobbing by a controlled legislative body. It has not been infrequent in municipal history for a council to annul a franchise and in its place grant a new one for a long period. On the other hand it is frequently to local advantage to secure improvements from public utilities, or the union of separate companies, in return for a new franchise granted before the expiration of the older ones. Probably with the other safeguards which have been thrown around the granting of franchises this section might be eliminated.
No sections of the Dayton charter have been more widely copied than those relating to appropriations, doubtless because this cihy has been one of the few to detail appropriation procedure. However, after the experience derived from the preparation of two budgets under these sections, and with a knowledge of the more recent developments in budget making, certain minor changes urgently recommend themselves:
(a) The fiscal year should begin, not necessarily with the calendar year but at a time when the principal payments of accrued city revenues are anticipated.
(b) The classification of expense estimates should be uniform for the main functional divisions of each department, rather than “as nearly uniform as possible.”
(c) The clause requiring that the first publication of the budget be made after the public hearings should be changed to read before. This was an unintentional error. A provision requiring that the manager’s estimate of expense be published parallel with the appropriations of the commission has been found unnecessary.
(d) Recently considerable change in budget procedure has been suggested by the publication of a budget program for the city of New York for 1915, as devised by the New York bureau of municipal research. The details are too long to be discussed here but are worthy of consideration by any charter drafting body.
In providing for the salaries and compensation of employees, the charter states that the city manager shall fix the number and salaries of officers and employees excepting those in the division of fire and police, and the heads of departments. Such a section is theoretically unsound as delegating to an appointive officer powers which should be retained by the legislative body which is responsible to the people. This was recognized by the city manager of Dayton who voluntarily relinquished this charter right, and the salaries and period of service of each employee are made an integral part of the appropriation ordinance.
The charter by requiring that the money shall be in the treasury before obligations are entered into automatically limits the period of contract to one year. In the main, this has proven beneficial but absolutely prevents long-term contracts for public lighting, garbage disposal, etc. Contracts of this character should be exempt from this provision.
These are some of the important changes found desirable in the Dayton charter after one year of operation. Doubtless there are others which further experience will develop. This document was never presented as the last word in charter-making, but claims to be only a step in advance


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over those in common use. Cities contemplating the adoption of the Dayton model of government should profit by the weaknesses which have arisen, remembering that the most adequate charter, if it contains administrative procedure, will require periodic amendment in order to take advantage of improvements developed through the experience of their own and other cities.
WHAT GLASGOW DOES FOR ITS POOR
BY HARVEY N. SHEPARD1 Boston
IT IS seldom now we take up a book, or even a pamphlet, dealing with the modern city, that we do not find in it some reference to the city of Glasgow, and its wonderful achievements. We read in terms of praise of its police and fire service, the excellence and cheapness of its water supply, the cleanliness of its streets, its tramways, its gas and electric works, and its parks, playgrounds, libraries, art galleries, museums and concerts. All these things are interesting, and are worth serious investigation; but they are to be seen in other cities, both in Great Britain and upon the continent, and to some extent in our own country. In some other directions, however, Glasgow not only was the pioneer, but also in one or two of them it remains to-day almost alone. They are its lodging houses, its family home, and its workmen’s dwellings. The last have been provided also in several other cities, notably in London, Liverpool, and Manchester, and in Germany; and the first have been provided also in a few other cities; but, so far as I know, the second remains unique. It was these then which I wished to see, when I had the good fortune to be a few days in Glasgow, in the early part of August of this year.
Armed with a letter of introduction to the lord provost, I made nay way, one morning, to the magnificent municipal building in St. George’s square. The courtesy and attention which were given to me were most gratifying; and especially when we recall that this was at the beginning of the great war, and the authorities were busy in helping to muster the forces of the kingdom to defend Belgium against a treacherous invasion.
1 Mr. Shepard, who is now a member of the State Civil Service Commission of Massachusetts, was formerly president of the Boston Common Council when that was the governing body of the city and has served upon many commissions relative to municipal matters. He has delivered many addresses upon municipal matters in the west and south and has given lectures in the School of Law of Boston University upon city government.


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Nevertheless, no sooner had I stated my errand than messages were despatched to put me into communication with the men, who best could give me the information which I sought. Meanwhile I was invited to luncheon with the city officials in the municipal building; and there I met the manager of the city improvements department, William C. Menzies. He placed himself at once at my disposal; and, when luncheon was over, we went in his car to the municipal lodging houses.
As in most large cities, there were in Glasgow, some forty years ago, a great many common lodging houses, conducted by private enterprise, where men and women were crowded together in dark and stuffy rooms, without any of the conveniences for health or decency. It was well known, both there and elsewhere, that these places were hotbeds of misery, disease, and vice. But there, and up to that time nowhere else, the municipal authorities decided to apply a remedy. In other cities, while the evil was just as bad and as well known, it was looked upon as a necessary, though unfortunate evil, and beyond remedy; at least by the municipality. But Glasgow, with creditable courage, gave way to no such doctrine of despair and determined to act.
With rare insight, it recognized that to destroy such unsavory abodes, without providing others, better and healthier, for those unfortunate people, who from choice or necessity frequented them, would be not to remedy but to intensify the evil. It therefore was not content with condemning them, but began at the same time to construct and equip municipal lodging houses, of which there are now, 1914, seven, six for men and one for women. They are stone buildings, three to five stories in height, and of the most substantial character.
Every lodger has his own separate room, with a bed and chair. The bed has a wire spring, an hair or fibre mattress, coarse sheets, a blanket, a coverlet, a pillow, and a pillow case. All these are aired, cleaned, and washed, after the lodger has gone in the morning; or, if he remains more than one night, whenever he does go; and always at least once a week. The whole number of these little bedrooms, in the seven lodging houses, is 2,235.
In every house there is a large recreation room, where the lodgers may chat, play games, or read; and where in the winter concerts and other entertainments are given. There also is a large dining hall; and abundant accommodation, with plenty of cooking utensils, in an adjoining kitchen. A shop for the sale of provisions and groceries is provided in each house; and in two of them cooked meals are supplied. Each lodger also can have the use of a small locker, with a key. And in addition there are facilities for washing his clothes, and hot air drying rooms.
Another altogether unique enterprise, though in principle it is only a development of the lodging house, is the family home. Difficult as it is for a workman to find for himself clean and comfortable lodging within


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his means, the difficulty is far more serious, when he is a widower with several young children. Usually he cannot hire an housekeeper or a nurse, even at meagre remuneration; and therefore, when he goes to work, his children must be locked in the dwelling or left in the streets; and their food comes by chance or through the good offices of some kind neighbor.
To meet the needs of this class the family home was opened in 1896. It contains 160 separate bedrooms, a dining hall, a kitchen with gas fires and steam boilers, a nursery, playrooms, baths and lavatories. All the rooms are warmed by hot water and are lighted by electricity. Meals are provided for the children, those of school age are sent to school, the others are looked after by nurses, and the cleanliness of all is seen to carefully. If a child develops symptoms of disease, a physician is called at once; and if it appears to be infectious the child is removed to an hospital. The home has proved a boon to many a perplexed man; and many children who have grown up within its walls, retain a kindly recollection of its associations.
As in other European cities, there goes with the widening of existing streets and the construction of new streets a larger taking of land than is required merely for the area of the streets. The authorities take a sufficient area to make possible a well-considered plan for the consistent development of the whole. For example, in an old portion of Glasgow, there was a densely inhabited area of about ninety acres, with narrow, circuitous, and inconvenient lanes and passages; a menace to its moral and physical welfare. This area was taken by the city, and all the buildings were torn down. After the construction of the new streets, the city proceeds to erect buildings. Where there are valuable street frontages, shops, warehouses, and other business premises, are provided. In some cases only the ground floor is given over to business, with workmen’s tenements on the upper floors. Upon all the less valuable sites workmen’s dwelling houses only are built. Upon this and other like areas there are now 2,200 apartments suitable for and let to the poorest classes; and in addition the city is about to erect 80 more three-story buildings, having 72 dwellings of one and two apartments. Of these 2,200 apartments 592 are of one room, 1,334 of two, 237 of three, and 16 of more than three.
Each of the lodging houses is under the care of a superintendent and one to three wardens, with a staff of women, who come daily to do the cleaning and making up of the beds. The family home is managed by a superintendent and matron, with a staff of servants and nurses. The soiled linen from all these houses is sent to the city’s steam laundry, which I found equipped with the most modern machinery. A caretaker lives in each of the workmen’s buildings, and is thus brought into close touch with the tenants, and enabled to make daily inspection of the prop-


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erty. All are under the control of the manager, Mr. Menzies, who is appointed by the council's city improvements committee.
It is worth while to notice the different method of administration of such matters in Great Britain and in the United States. So marked has been our distrust of our cities, and especially of their councilmen, that, if such an enterprise were begun here, it is certain it would be administered by a commission, probably appointed by the state, or, if not, then by the mayor. Under no circumstances would it be left to a committee of the council. The British have far more confidence in their elected representatives than we have. The exaltation of the executive, and the powerlessness of the legislative branch of city government, are as incomprehensible to them as is our interference in municipal matters by the state.
Another matter equally worthy of notice is the term of office. Mr. Menzies need not fear that he will be displaced, because the membership of the council, which chooses him, changes every year. He is as secure in his position as is a judge upon the bench. The only requisites are capacity and faithfulness. And in this connection it must be remembered there are no civil service laws, as with us, applicable to the cities of the United Kingdom. The cities have a right to change their officials as they please. They are bound by no artificial bonds. They are bound, however, much more strongly by a high sense of honor, developed, as it only can ever be developed, by trust. The people believe their council-men will do their duty, and they do it.
In conclusion we want to know what these things cost the people who use them, and how much of a burden they are to the city. In the lodging houses a man pays eight to twelve cents a night; and this sum includes his clean and comfortable bed, the use of the recreation and dining halls and lavatories, the kitchen range and cooking utensils, and facilities for washing his clothes. If he takes a locker he deposits twelve cents, which are given back to him when he returns his key. The food, or cooked meals, as he may prefer, are supplied to him at equally moderate prices. In the family home the rent charge for a bedroom, including heating, lighting, and cleaning, with the use of dining and recreation rooms, and all the other privileges of the home, is $1.32 a week. Regular meals are cooked and supplied to him at the lowest possible charge. For his children’s meals he pays forty-four cents a week a child. If the number of his children is not more than three he pays nothing additional for their bed; and if he has more than three he pays also sixteen cents a week for each additional child. In the workmen’s dwellings an apartment of one room rents at $22.50 to $27.50 a year; an apartment of one room with a small bedroom, at $27.50 to $30 a year; and an apartment of 'two rooms at $35 to $42.50 a year.
At these prices the revenue from the lodging houses was, until the


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year 1908, sufficient to pay all expenditures, including interest and depreciation. That was a year of industrial depression, and the cost for the first time was in excess of the revenue. The following years have shown a continual gain, and were it not for the unfortunate war, which so severely burdens every enterprise, the lodging houses would again prove to be remunerative. The working expenses of the family home for the year 1910 exceeded its revenue by 1250; and in this case include a charge for interest and sinking fund. Although a small loss is thus shown, the gain in the health and morals of the children, and the relief to the anxiety of their fathers, are of far more account. The workmen’s dwellings show a surplus balance of revenue. The expenses in all cases include charges for water, the lighting of common stairs and halls, and rates and taxes upon the properties, exactly as though they were in private ownership.
In 1876 the city council passed an order that in one of the areas, belonging to the municipality, there should be no sale of intoxicating liquors, and made this binding upon the land, so that not a single public house has been, or can be, established upon it. In 1890 the city went a step further in this direction of social reform, and made the order applicable to all its lands, so that now there is not a single public house in the very numerous properties under the control of this department.
EMERGENCY RELIEF IN PHILADELPHIA
BY W. ARTHUR WARNER1
Philadelphia
THE city of Philadelphia appropriated $50,000 for the relief of the unemployed and thereby furnished a causus belli that has thrown the local social forces into serious conflict.
In October a meeting was held in city hall under the auspices of the finance committee of councils. Rile> M. Little, secretary of the Society for Organizing Charity, in behalf of his own and other organized charitable societies, made a statement showing that there were about 70,000 men out of employment in the city, and urging on the city authorities to undertake public improvements at once and thus relieve the suffering and hardship with legitimate work for the unemployed. This report did not meet with the favor of the members of the finance committee. They did not accept the suggestion that public works be started at this time to give employment, and they did not seem convinced that there were only 70,000 unemployed.
The committee’ subsequently found a strong ally in a remarkable,
1 Secretary of the Home Missionary Society of Philadelphia.


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popular and new social movement in Philadelphia. The suffering in the war zone in Europe touched the hearts of our privileged classes, and they organized an impulse to help into a committee called the Emergency Aid Committee. This committee did splendid service, especially for the Belgian relief. Quite naturally the suffering at home this winter started a similar effort for the poor in Philadelphia. The committee at once formed a home division of emergency relief. Women of leisure are serving actively in the field, a large amount of sewing is given to women, and about $8,000 a week is being spent for the relief of the poor. A number of clergymen, bankers, editors, and men of affairs were added to the committee to aid in raising the necessary funds. Their original plan was to work in co-operation with, and largely through the machinery of the various organized charitable agencies. This committee concurred in the opinion of the finance committee of councils, that “careful investigation revealed the existence of an appalling amount of distress among the citizens of Philadelphia,” and they also “believed that it was beyond the present capacity of existing charitable and social agencies to relieve it.” They then asked councils to make an appropriation of $50,000 to be distributed through them for the relief of the unemployed. They totally ignored the request of the major and the organized charitable societies that the city give not charity but employment by increasing the public works. Councils passed the bill appropriating the $50,000, and the mayor signed it, giving his reasons in a statement issued to the public. Among other things he said: I * * * * 6
I admit and deplore the existence of a large amount of unemployment, probably not
as great as in 1893-94 or in 1907-08, but still very considerable. I yield to no one in the city in anxiety to be of service at this time; but I am firmly convinced that this appropriation is unsound in principle, impossible of satisfactory administration in practice and calculated to defeat its own ends. The money of the city is money raised by taxation, and should be devoted to purely public purposes, and not distributed in charitable relief through any private agency, however worthy.
In times of distress citizens who are blessed with more of this world’s goods than is absolutely necessary for their well-being should increase their charitable contributions, even to the point of denying themselves luxuries and comforts which they would otherwise be justified in enjoying. Municipalities should increase their public works, so as to give employment to the greatest possible number of those who would ordinarily be employed in private enterprises.
Public funds should not be appropriated, however, to charitable relief. Such appropriations largely fail to reach the really worthy, while they attract and exite the cupidity of the unworthy, both in the city and out of the city. This is not theory. It is a fact which has repeatedly been demonstrated to such an extent that the appropriation of public funds for charitable relief has been almost unknown for 20 years, and is not being attempted by any other city at this time. Its effect in this city will be to multiply the applications for charitable relief, to lessen the sources of private charity, and to impose an intolerable burden upon any churches, societies, committees or individuals who may undertake to administer the relief.
In view of these facts, it may be asked why I approve the appropriation, and I
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think it only fair that I should frankly state my reasons. I approve it because it has not been declared illegal by the city solicitor. I also approve it because many citizens and many members of the Emergency Aid Committee do not appreciate the facts stated and they honestly believe that they are not facts.
They will not be accepted as facts upon my say so, or that of any other individual. I believe that nothing but actual demonstration will convince the community of their truth, and that $50,000 is not too great a price to pay for such a demonstration.
I, therefore, approve the appropriation, in order that the demonstration may be had, firmly believing that this demonstration will convince every intelligent person of the unwisdom of the appropriation, and end once and for all the agitation for any similar requests in this or any other city.
Four of the largest charitable organizations stated at once that they thought it unwise for them to partake in the administration of public monies. The danger of becoming involved in political questions was an important factor in their decision. In answer to many inquiries they issued a statement to the public in which among others these reasons were given for their position in the matter:
In the light of past experience, here and in other cities, we are compelled to regard such legislation as unwise and productive of evil results to the poor and to the community.
The announcement of such relief measures, accompanied, as in this case, by wide-spread publicity and advertisement, attracts from within the city, and from neighboring towns and states, great numbers of applicants, many of them from the classes that prey upon the community. No other large cities, as far as we can learn,,have made special relief appropriations.
The history of public outdoor relief, with the impossibility of investigation and of suiting the remedy to the needs of each individual case, points to a consequent increase of dependency. It tends to diminish among the poor self-effort and self-respect, and weakens their whole moral fibre. The self-respecting among the unemployed want work, not charity.
Public relief funds discourage private generosity and benevolence.
We think that the emergency aid, the churches, charitable organizations, employers and individuals can, by co-operation and the support of a generous public, meet the present situation without city funds and can quietly and efficiently administer to the individual needs of each case as necessity requires. Of the first 700 applicants to the emergency aid 600 already were under the care of existing charities. We believe that the experience gained in administering the $50,000 fund will show it to be unwise for Councils to make further appropriations for relief.
Large appropriations should be made for public improvements, as other cities are doing, thereby giving real work to the unemployed at real wages.
Within three weeks of the announcement of the passage of the appropriation one organized society reported that new applications for relief jumped 66 per cent “among them many demanding as their right a share of the city funds.”
The Emergency Aid Committtee discontinued their previous working arrangement with and through these organized societies. An evident attempt of some to use this difference of opinion to increase the widespread criticism of the methods of organized charity failed, and wiser


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counsels restored much of the consideration and courtesy that at first existed between these groups intent upon a common social service.
During the week of February 7-14 the committee and the organized societies have received a splendid support from the generosity of the citizens of Philadelphia proving a large public confidence in both.
WAR AND HOUSING
BY JOHN IHLDER New York City
AT THE present moment we who get our information about the European war from the newspapers are chiefly concerned with the outcome of individual battles; but those who are directing affairs, who are looking about for the means that will enable them to continue a long-drawn and desperate struggle, are probably more concerned about things at which the newspapers as yet do not hint. As the weeks go on it becomes more and more apparent that final victory will rest with those who have the greatest staying power, those who have the greatest reserves upon which to draw.
This, of course, is no news. England’s wealth, its uninterrupted commerce, Russia’s uncounted millions of peasants are factors that have already been dwelt upon; but only here and there have appeared in the special correspondence hints at what may in the end prove the deciding factor, the quality of the individual men in the contending armies. How important this factor is we may realize by remembering England’s experience in the Boer War when it had difficulty in finding among the people of its swarming industrial cities recruits who measured up to standards which had been lowered to meet the emergency. Now England must send out vastly greater armies than she did in 1900. What will be the quality of those armies? Mere numbers do not tell. The ability of the army at present in the field offers us no test, for that army is composed of her professional soldiers, men who were accepted before the drain had begun, reinforced by the first and the best of the volunteers. When the long strain begins it will be borne, or it will not be borne, by those who are now drilling in the parks at home. What account will they give of themselves?
Some months ago, before the war began, the Atlantic Monthly published an article by Vernon L. Kellogg on “Eugenics and Militarism.” With Mr. Kellogg's argument against militarism we are not now concerned, we wish simply to quote some of his figures.
For example, in the decade 1893-1902, out of a total of 679,703 men offering themselves for enlistment in England, 34.6 per cent were rejected as unfit for service, 9 per cent were rejected after three months’ provisional acceptance, and 2.1 per cent were discharged as


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invalids within two years, making thus a total of 40 per cent of all those applying that were turned back into the civil population as not physically fit men. In 1911, of the 64,538 men who offered themselves for enlistment in England, Scotland, and Wales, 28,900, or 44.78 per cent, were rejected for physical unfitness by the examining board. More than 63 per cent of all the applications for enlistment from the city of Edinburgh were rejected, and more than 57 per cent of those applying in Leeds. In London, 36 per cent were rejected.
And these figures by no means reveal the closeness of this selection, for the requirements of height and chest measurements are so well known that men obviously under size or obviously infirm do not offer themselves, or if they do are at once rejected by the recruiting sergeants, so that they never reach the regular examining boards. Evidence presented to the inter-departmental committee on physical deterioration in the United Kingdom indicates that out of every one hundred men who offer to enlist in the British army only forty are accepted, sixty being returned to the civil population as physically unfit. And although it may be objected that the Sower of the British working classes do not offer themselves for enlistment, yet it is admittedly true that the British army is not composed exclusively, or, indeed, by any means largely, of British riffraff. While many, perhaps a majority, of the applicants for enlistment are men out of work, a condition of temporary unemployment in Great Britain is by no means a certain indication of incompetency. No observer of present-day industrial conditions in England would claim this for a moment.
At any rate, this possible criticism of the shunning of the army by the better classes of young men can have no bearing in the case of the French and German conditions, where compulsory service obtains. In these countries all the young men arriving at military age each year are liable to service, a certain proportion of them being chosen by lot to join the colors. The annual contingents, or “classes,” are examined, man by man, by carefully chosen boards, to determine the physical fitness or unfitness for military service of all this youth of France and Germany.
As a result of these personal examinations, France has, for nearly one hundred years now, regularly rejected as physically unfit from 30 to 40 per cent of those examined each year. Prussia has rejected, for many years, from 35 to 50 per cent. (This is, of course, I should mention in passing, no basis of comparison between the male youth of France and that of Prussia, for any slight difference in the requirements as to height or bodily condition, or in the rigor of applying the recruiting regulations, would account for the differences in proportion of rejected.)
Such figures as these have caused the military leaders of the European nations much thought. Organization, training, discipline may be essential. The successful working out of problems of strategy may win a campaign; but back of them all lies the quality of the private in the ranks. If he is below par all else is useless.
Germany, perhaps, realized this first. The boy is father to the man. He must be taken care of that he may become suitable material for an efficient army. So Germany began to improve the conditions under which its children are born and reared. It attacked the housing problem.
England had already been awakened to the menace of its bad housing, but it was the Boer war that shocked it wide-awake. So England, too, has been making tremendous efforts to improve the homes of the mass of its people. Those who have recently visited England after an absence of many years claim to notice a decided improvement. England and


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Germany, however, still have their slums which bring forth disease and degeneracy. In this time of stress their power may well be limited by the extent of these, their paper strength turned into actual weakness. For the products of the slum are not good enough to be food for powder, they would but hamper their own army; they are not good enough to do the nation’s work while better men are fighting for them. Yet they must be fed and clothed and sheltered.
We in America have no immediate cause to fear such a dramatic demand upon our staying power as that which the great nations of Europe are trying to meet. But in less spectacular ways we too are engaged in a competition the result of which depends upon the quality of the individual citizen. We too have permitted the creation of slums which bring forth disease and degeneracy. They are in our small cities and towns as well as in the great centers of industry. We have been granted peace and opportunity to rid ourselves of these handicaps. Shall we too wait until war or need for a conscript army makes us take decisive action?
A COMMUNITY SECRETARY
BY GRAHAM TAYLOR1 Chicago
WHAT you are doing here in Neillsville to-day in forming your community association and inaugurating the civic secretary of your city looks almost like rediscovering America.
Our New England forefathers took possession of the new soil with one of the oldest things they could have brought from the old world— the town. From the English “shire,” the Teutonic “tun,” the Norwegian “thing,” the still older primitive “village community,” the “Aryan household,” and the “ancient city,” they brought their township and planted it here in the new world as the people’s most primitive possession, their most universal heritage.
The New England town meeting was the beginning of a new democracy, as the old world’s forms of it had been the survival of the people’s liberty. From Plymouth Rock onward their town meeting was the political meeting of the church members, as the church was the religious organization of the citizens. Thus at the center of every town the Pilgrim Fathers planted their “center church.” Connecticut’s shield bears as the sign of the new conquest a rod with three vines intertwined about it. They were the first three towns clinging to the churches, or
'Being the address of Graham Taylor, president of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, on the occasion of the inauguration of Walter P. Schatz as Civic Secretary of Neillsville, Wis. See article on “Civic Secretaryship as Public Service,” vol. iii, p. 756.


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the first three churches clinging to the town. Whichever it was, they meant and made the town to be like the “ancient city,” not chiefly a place, not merely a population, not a collection of houses and streets, but a federation of families. The discoverers centered the soil and themselves at the town, the church, the school, all at one center.
America needs rediscovery. For, our local communities gradually lost their center. As religious faiths varied, the one church could no longer be the center for the whole community with its many sects. As political parties sprang up, the town meeting became divisibly partisan and could no longer be the center for the co-operation of the whole community. As population became cosmopolitan, the people were divided by race, language, custom and class. Only a free public school was left as the one bit of common mother-earth which we all own, to which we all have equal claim, where we all have right to be on equal terms.
Here at the common school we are beginning over again to discover local centers for American life. Here on common ground you are getting together as our freemen forbears used to do on Boston Common, and on the village greens across the seas. Your new “community association” is the old town meeting revived and readapted in non-partisan form to give free expression to public opinion and the co-operative action of the community as a whole.
At one center you are pooling your all inclusive interests—economic, recreational, educational. The importance of making the prosperity of your city dnd the adjoining country the concern of all, instead of the special interest of any few, is well emphasized by providing for commercial, industrial and agricultural sections in your organization. Property interests have divided us too long, instead of constituting an interest common to us all. Progress is impossible where sought by a few at the expense of the many.
It is a sign of the new times that business men are catching sight of the larger aspects of their trades and crafts. They are realizing that if the community fails their business cannot succeed. And the town is realizing that it cannot succeed if its business fails. In their trade organizations and trade unions, in their commercial associations and federations of labor, business men, both capitalists and laborers, employers and employes, are serving their town to serve themselves, and in serving themselves seek to serve their town. This new civic patriotism in commerce and industry begets the new hope of industrial peace and community prosperity. If we leave the commercial development of the town to the few, and think it to be none of our business, they cannot succeed, as Miss Margaret Woodrow Wilson well reminds you, “without public opinion, without community spirit back of them. Thejmost effective way of promoting any special community interest


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is for the community as a whole to assume the responsibility of promoting that interest.”
By including an agricultural section and closely allying it with sections devoted to commercial, industrial and municipal interests, your com* munity association is bridging the chasm between town and country, the great city and “down state.” Your practical demonstration that their interests are one, reciprocal and indivisible, may possibly hasten the end of that foolish'cleavage between city and country representatives in our state legislatures which deadlocks the movement for new state constitutions, for home rule charters and for social legislation. Public welfare can be promoted in neither city nor country without the co-operation of each with the other, much less by either at the expense of the other.
Recreation is identified with industry in your community interests, play with work, leisure with labor. At last the leisure problem is regarded as great as the labor problem. Your section on recreation and your civic secretary will promote interests as vital to the community and as valuable to its life as its commercial, industrial and agricultural interests. The foundations for efficiency in team-work both in industry and citizenship are best laid by team-play in youth. The well-directed playground is as valuable an educational asset of any community or family or church as their day school or Sunday school.
Most significant of all you are doing here to-day is the emphasis laid upon the fact that public education is the most public thing there is, the one interest which is most common to all. The fact that your board of education has taken the initiative in creating the' office of civic secretary of Neillsville and including that official in the staff of the public school system, while sharing his services with the commercial, industrial, agricultural and municipal interests of the same community, is the unique, outstanding feature of this occasion.
While Neillsville is the first place in which a civic secretary’s whole time has thus been secured by the school authorities and shared with these other community-wide interests, many other towns and cities have led the way along parallel lines in the same general direction. Wisconsin’s public school buildings housed 20,000 community assemblies of adult citizens during the past season. Seventy-two Wisconsin cities and towns have begun to use their school-houses as polling places. There are nearly 200 men and women employed by Wisconsin school boards in organizing and directing the community uses of public school plants outside of regular school hours. One Wisconsin city has spent $39,000 annually for the past four years in social center development and finds it a most profitable and economical investment.
Most suggestive of what is sure to follow is the fact that nine public school principals in Wisconsin have been made village or town clerks. What this means in the increase of efficiency both in public school teach-


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ing and in civic administration is indicated by the statement of one of these school principal-town clerks: “While I consider that my training for teaching made me a somewhat better town clerk, I am positive that my work and experience as town clerk have made me a much better teacher.” This combination of the function of the old New England town clerk with the function of school principal is logically implied in the town meeting use of the public school-house. The United States Commissioner of Education, Philander P. Claxton, reports that for the first time in the nation’s history the increase in the numerical proportion of women to men entering public school service has ceased and there is a slight but real and extremely significant relative increase in the number of men going into public school work. And his explanation of this is that strong men are beginning to see that public school work is to serve the children of the community not only,'but its youths and adults as well.
Miss Wilson in her message to the citizens of Neillsville on this occasion finely ratifies this opinion by saying, “When school superintendents or their associates and school principals are made the servants of all of the community, instead of serving just the younger half, then their position will in my opinion be the highest in the community and first-rate men all over this country will be attracted to such positions.”
This assumption by the public schools of the functions hitherto fulfilled by the voluntary agencies of private citizens, is only a part of the very general tendency for the state, county and city to take over the humanitarian service long regarded as the prerogative of the church. This tendency, so far from being either derogatory to, or a supersedure of, the churches, is the most public recognition of their success, as certified by the fact that the state thus takes up, carries on and extends this much of their work. It proves that the ideals of religion ministered through the churches are getting into law and administration. It means not that religion is being secularized, but that the secular is becoming religious.
At a great industrial and social crisis in English history, one of the prophets who turned the tide from its destructively revolutionary tendency toward its constructively evolutionary development, thus interpreted this very turn which our public affairs are taking: “Politics have been separated from household ties and affection, from art and science and literature. While they belong to parties, they have no connection with what is human and universal; when they become politics for the people, they are found to take in a very large field; whatever concerns man as a social being must be included in the’m. Politics for the people cannot be separated from religion.”
The service of your civic secretary, therefore, may well be welcomed by every pastor, parent and teacher as an aid in making it easier to grow up good than bad in Neillsville. Every householder and property


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owner, and every public-spirited citizen and city official should co-operate with him in giving security and enhanced value to property by making it harder to do wrong and easier to do right in Neillsville. The best that the homes, the schools and the churches seek and work for will thus be transformed into the practical policies and progressive achievements of the community. Education and religion will thus at last be free to translate their ideals, standards and efficiency into social action.
What Liberty H. Bailey hopes for the country church will also be realized by each rural community whose citizens follow your lead:
“ In some great day The country church Will find its voice And it will say:
“I stand in the fields Where the wide earth yields Her bounties of fruit and grain;
Where the furrows turn Till the plowshares burn
As they come round and round again;
Where the workers pray With their tools all day
In sunshine and shadow and rain.
“And I bid them tell Of the crops they sell And speak of the work they have done;
I speed every man In his hope and plan And follow his day with the sun;
And grasses and trees,
The birds and the bees I know and feel ev’ry one.
“And out of it all As the seasons fall
I build my great temple alway;
I point to the skies But my footstone lies
In the commonplace work of the day;
For I preach the worth Of the native earth—'
To love and to work is to pray. ”1
1 In inducting Mr. Schatz to the office of civic secretary, Professor Taylor said:
“As your teacher, Walter P. Schatz, I ask you publicly to answer this question: Do you accept, and will you faithfully fulfil as best you can, the trust committed to you by your fellow-citizens as civic secretary of Neillsville, to serve and promote the commercial, municipal, recreational and educational interests of all the people, without fear or favor? ”
Upon Mr. Schatz’ assent, Professor Taylor added, “God help and speed you in so doing.”


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VOTERS’ LEAGUES AND THEIR WORK
BY BOBEBT E. CUSHMAN Columbia University
IT GIVES a comforting sense of civic piety to berate the municipal voter for his ignorance and indifference. Orthodox and respectable persons have done this since municipal voters were. And the object of all this scolding still goes to the polls complacent and uninformed, makes a hasty selection of names from the substantial portion of the city directory which he finds on the ballot, and leaves the voting booth good-naturedly uncertain whether the John Jones for whom he voted for alderman is president of the first national bank or the bartenders’ union. With unconscious satire we call this process municipal democracy. In the shadow of the voter’s ignorance have moved the forces of corruption which have made American city government a reproach. But a decade or so ago, an eminently sensible idea came to groups of public-spirited citizens in some cities where conditions had grown wellnigh intolerable. The idea was that city government could never really improve so long as the common citizen continued to know nothing about the character and qualifications of most of the men for whom he voted, and that the common citizen would never be informed about these matters until some one undertook, systematically and thoroughly, the job of informing him. It was to undertake this job that voters’ leagues were organized, and in the last election they threw the spotlight upon candidates and issues in more than a dozen of the largest cities in the country.
It is a wholesome cure for political pessimism to look periodically at these organizations and the work they do.1 A Voters’ league in its simplest form, and its form is always simple, is a body of citizens, several hundred strong, working through an executive committee and paid secretary. Membership is usually open to any one who is interested enough to pay the annual dues or to make a minimum contribution.2 The executive committee is, with one or two exceptions,3 a self-perpetuating oligarchy which has absolute authority, with accompanying responsibility, to determine matters of policy and direct the labors of the secretary, the man who does the work. Expenses are met by the annual dues, voluntary subscriptions of members, and special gifts from men of wealth who believe in the work of the league. Contributions from candidates
1 See article by Dixon Ryan Fox, “ Voters ’ Leagues and their Critical Work, ’' National Municipal Review, vol. ii, p. 664.
2 A voter must be duly accepted for membership in the Citizens’ Union of New York. 3 The executive committee is elective in the Civic League of Cleveland, one fourth being chosen each year.


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are not accepted, and in most cases all the sources of income are made public. The whole mechanism lends itself to direct and efficient action.
The voters’ league undertakes the highly important task already suggested of presenting to the voter facts about candidates for office—facts which he ought to have, but which he will not, and in most cases cannot, gather for himself. This is no simple task. It means a minute and painstaking examination of the record of public officers. In Boston, for example, the Good Government Association selected 20 measures of general interest and showed how every city councilman seeking re-election last fall had voted or failed to vote upon each one. It involves a laborious search into the character and fitness of multitudinous aspirants for office, many of whom have no eagerness to help lift the obscurity which surrounds their past careers. In many cases the leagues give to candidates a chance to commit themselves, sometimes to pledge themselves, upon important issues. Thus a sort of platform of principles was presented, before the last election in Cleveland, to those running for city council, while a similar opportunity to declare himself was given to each local candidate for the constitutional convention by the New York Citizens’ Union. The data obtained in these ways, sifted and weighed, form the basis for the endorsement of some candidates and the denunciation of others. The possession of facts justifies plain speaking and the following excerpts from the last election bulletins indicate that the leagues do not beat about the bush either in praise or blame.
August Meyer, Twelfth Ward. Saloon; completing first two years of service which should be his last; extremely poor record. The only important vote to Meyer’s credit was for civil service classification. .On all other questions treated in this report Meyer’s vote was not creditable. He was largely to blame for defeat of scientific salary revision as stated in the report on that subject, and yet he advocated large increases in excess of all recommendations. Present but not voting on confirmation of appointments to sewerage commission. Absent 2 out of 100 sessions; present but not voting on 36 roll calls; absent 4 out of 52 committee meetings. Wholly incompetent and treated as a joke in the council. Should be retired.
Joseph Delehanty. Lithographer; resides 1431 E. 34th st.; age thirty-seven; parochial school training; formerly ball player with National League; bears a good reputation for honesty and industry; has had no experience or training which would fit him for the duties of councilman; signed League’s platform.
John A. Zangerle. Present auditor; resides 7107 Detroit ave.; age forty-eight; public school and university training; board of education 1890-91; member quadrennial board of assessors 1910-11; elected auditor in 1912; finishing first term; has instituted a number of improvements in the business methods of the office; has compiled and published valuable statistics on county finances; has uniformly observed the merit principle in appointments; he has been a thoroughly efficient auditor.
Sometimes these verdicts are rendered only upon candidates for city and county office, but frequently the local delegation in the state legislature also claims the attention of the league. At least four of these organizations1 confine their energies entirely to the effort to secure the
1 Those in Boston, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.


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nomination and election of good men. This is due to the conviction, as expressed by the secretary of the Minneapolis Voters’ League, that “you cannot well combine the work of a critical organization like ours with work along constructive lines.” Most of the leagues do, however, exert their influence in other directions. The Citizens’ Union of New York has permanent committees on the building code, city planning and the like. The Illinois Voters’ League is trying to effect a reform in the procedure of the general assembly.
Perhaps the most striking instance of this type of work, however, is-the five-year campaign for a new city charter, waged and won by the Municipal League of Buffalo. But whether engaged in judging candidates or in other kinds of civic activity, the leagues never lose sight of the fact that their raison d’etre is to educate the voter.
■ How do these voters’ leagues make their influence felt? How do they bring the facts they have collected to the voter’s attention? The easiest way is, of course, through the columns of the press, and the leading papers are, as a rule, glad to print as news-matter the report of a league. Printed bulletins and circulars containing recommendations upon candidates are also prepared. In some cases this literature is sent to a rather limited mailing list, three or four thousand names in Milwaukee for example. The Cleveland organization last fall reached in this way about one-third of the registered voters, while in Pittsburgh every citizen received the bulletin relating to city and county candidates. Some of the leagues depend upon the candidates they have endorsed to circulate their literature; in any case the facts are within easy reach of any citizen who cares to have them.
It is not possible to measure statistically the influence which these organizations for good government exert. “I do not believe,” writes the secretary of the Pittsburgh Voters’ League, “that the election of a candidate recommended by the league measures fifty per cent of the effective value of the organization. The greatest good accomplished by publishing reports on candidates is to force all parties and factions to put up a better class of candidates. I believe we have had much to do with raising the standard of candidates for political office in this district. I have never, therefore, allowed myself to analyze the election returns.”
Perhaps in a majority of cases the electing of approved candidates has been subordinated to the impartial presentation of facts about all candidates, and very frequently the voters’ league has committed what, from the standpoint of those intent upon winning an election, was a tactical blunder, by endorsing several worthy aspirants in the face of a solidified opposition, thus inviting defeat by encouraging the good government forces to split their vote.1 But the leagues do help in electing
1 The Municipal Voters’ League of St. Louis, however, refuses to recommend more than one candidate in such a case.


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good men. It is a significant tribute to their power that candidates anywhere should be willing to pay for the distribution of their bulletins, and, as a Milwaukee editor put it, “We have sometimes noticed that aspirants for office generally set a lot more store by the commendation of the league than they pretend to when they fail to get it.” In November rather more than half of the candidates endorsed by the Voters’ League were, elected in Buffalo, from two-thirds to three-fourths in Cleveland, while the Good Government Association elected all three of its candidates to the city council in Boston. Other less definite reports seem to indicate that a goodly proportion of the recommendations made by voters’ leagues everywhere were followed at the polls.
It is not surprising that this should be so. These organizations enjoy the confidence of the people because they merit that confidence. In the first place, they are disinterested. Their enemies may sneer at them as “community busybodies and professional uplifters,” but they cannot charge them with using their influence for personal or partisan ends. Such an accusation would be refuted by practically every page of every bulletin the leagues have issued. Men of all parties are endorsed and men of all parties are condemned. The leagues do not put forth candidates of their own, but merely pass impartially upon those named by the regular parties. In the mayoralty contests where the character and qualifications of the candidates are matters of common knowledge, they make no recommendations at all, thus showing their desire to be free from any taint of partisanship. In the second place, these organizations do not try to domineer. If, in their opinion, two candidates are of equal merit, they say so. Every candidate deemed worthy is endorsed, no matter how numerous his competitors. “In this district all the legislative nominees of the three chief political parties are men of standing and ability for the positions they seek” is a statement frequently found in the bulletins issued. The voter is guided in his choice, but not coerced; he has little reason to feel that the league is trying to mark his ballot for him. But the highest claim that the voters’ league has upon the confidence of the citizen is' that its conclusions are based upon concrete facts. It has pleaded for no one, thundered against no one. But it has dispassionately put into black and white how this councilman voted on the franchise grab ordinance, whether that candidate for the legislature believes in the short ballot and home rule for cities, whether the aspirant for the position of coroner has adequate professional training. First, last, and always it deals in hard facts. This is the reason why it has an influence and why that influence will increase.
The more important voters’ leagues now active are:
Boston, Citizens’ Municipal League; Good Government Association.
Buffalo, Municipal League of Buffalo.


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Chicago, Municipal Voters’ League.
Cleveland, Civic League of Cleveland.
Denver, Civic League of Denver.
Illinois, Legislative Voters’ League of the State of Illinois.
Milwaukee, Municipal Voters’ League.
Minneapolis, Voters’ League.
New York City, Citizens’ Union of New York.
Pittsburgh, Voters’ League.
Portland, Ore., Municipal Association.
St. Louis, Municipal Voters’ League.
Seattle, Municipal League of Seattle.
Wheeling, W. Va., Municipal Voters’ League.
MOTOR BUS DEVELOPMENTS AND POSSIBILITIES
BY WILLIAM RICHARD LITTLETON University of Pennsylvania
THE motor bus is the natural born enemy of the street railway corporation. It is an enemy which is. growing in strength and size each year as we see more clearly its many advantages and possibilities. As the motor bus in London is replacing the horse-drawn vehicles, so will the motor bus in this country replace the street railroad by its greater efficiency, or at least cause it to become a lesser factor in the great and ever-increasing problem of municipal transportation.
One of the great advantages of the motor bus is that each is an independent unit. The cost of operation and maintenance is far below that of the trolley car. Ihere need be no central power plant, and the expensive track and overhead wires that' have for years disfigured our streets are entirely eliminated. A breakdown or accident to one bus does not interfere with the others, whereas a broken wire or derailed car will tie up the. street car line for hours. Besides the decreased expense of installation, bus lines can be rerouted at the discretion of the city authorities to suit the convenience of the public. Experimenting with new routes into the suburbs or within the city can be readily tried with little or no expense. It can bring about the rapid development of a sparsely populated section because its mobility enables it to run anywhere. If the new route does not pay, there is no great loss incurred through the laying of track and wire.
The bus can maintain a slightly higher average rate of speed than a tramway. It can start and stop more quickly and the establishment of an express service makes increased rapid transit a certainty by having a certain number of buses on the route stop only at designated points.
New York City has been one of the pioneers in this country in adopting the motor bus as a means of transportation. In a recent report by the bureau of franchises to the franchise committee, on an application now


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pending before the board of estimate and apportionment, made by four companies for the right to operate motor buses in the Borough of Manhattan, it was set forth that the aggregate length of all routes covered by the application is more than 150 miles. Each of the four applicants has asked for routes connecting the residential sections on the east and west sides of Central Park with what may be termed the hotel, theatre, wholesale and retail districts, containing also the terminal railway stations of the Pennsylvania and Long Island railroads at 33d Street and Seventh Avenue, and the New York Central and New York, New Haven and Hartford railroads at 42d Street. The routes which have been selected on the upper west side of the borough in addition to the west side route, are upon thoroughfares in which there are practically no street surface railways, and are designed to give special local service, as well as service in connecting the east and west side lines extending into the business district.
It is apparent that the motor bus companies are willing to give good service and the territory mentioned is completely covered. Nevertheless, in an effort to lay out a comprehensive system, the applications have been almost wholly disregarded because many more routes have been applied for than are necessary to form a comprehensive system. The experience which the city has had with the operation of motor buses has been so limited that it is believed the city should be very conservative in the number of routes which it authorizes in the beginning.
Many of our western cities are at present giving the auto bus serious and careful consideration. In Los Angeles, it has been estimated that , forty thousand nickels which formerly were given daily to the street railways in payment for transporation, now go to the men who operate the five cent fare automobiles.
Some drivers figure on the wear and tear on the car, others merely consider the cost of gasoline. These latter say that a cent and three quarters or two cents a mile will cover the cost of operation, while the former add a cent for deterioration of their machines. These figures are for five passenger cars, the kind most commonly used.
One of the pioneers in auto transportation in Los Angeles has estimated carefully on the cost of running his five passenger car per day. He makes 18 round trips daily, averaging 50 cents a round trip and thus taking in $9 every day. All this is not net to him, however, as he figures the wear and tear on his automobile and the cost of operation at 3 cents a mile and the round trip is a matter of eight miles. But even then there is a profit of 14.68 a day.
Besides several double-decked bus lines in Los Angeles, there are some eighty automobiles on a single route; while other lines increase the number of machines so used to between 250 and 300; and the prediction is made that when the men thus engaged perfect their organization and establish new routes, that fully twice as many machines will begin service.
The strongest argument set forth by the people is that they get home


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more quickly; and with the public taking that view, and the owners of automobiles willing to carry them for five cents, the prediction is that in time the auto buses will entirely supersede the street cars, not only of Los Angeles but in all large cities throughout the world.
It is the opinion of City Attorney Stephens of Los Angeles that the council could not compel the auto bus people to take out franchises; but he expressed the opinion that these concerns could be regulated. The question as to what extent the bus lines can be regulated is before the utilities board and the council. Compelling operators of bus lines to file indemnity bonds is one method sought for regulation. This has been objected to on the ground that street car lines have not been compelled to file indemnity bonds. Another method suggested for regulation was that of requiring them to run on regularly stated routes and on a definite schedule.
Notwithstanding the fact that the commissioners of Pasadena, Cal., have passed restrictive ordinances on the operation of motor bus lines, the taxpayers protective association placed itself on record as favoring a new motor bus ordinance. A. C. Ong on behalf of the bus people declared that if the citizens of Pasadena were fully aware of the effect of this sweeping ordinance on the interests of every citizen of Pasadena, that 90 per cent of the taxpayers and residents would gladly petition the rescinding of the drastic measures taken. He said that auto bus drivers should be encouraged, and that an ordinance should be enacted that will extend further advantages and accommodations to the residents of the city.
Ira F. Thompson, attorney for the Pacific Motor Coach Company, which had been denied the privilege of running over one section of the* route between Pasadena and Los Angeles, said that it was all done in the interests of the Southern Pacific, who own and control the electric lines. It is evident from this that the future success of the motor bus cannot be accomplished without a long, hard fight, a fight against wealth, well-established interests, whose power to control municipal legislation is practically unlimited in many instances.
Chicago has been quite successful in the establishment of an auto-bus line. The Chicago Automobile Transportation Company has made application for permission to run a line of double-decked buses, each with a capacity of thirty-five passengers, the fare being ten cents. The service will include trips through the park system and will carry passengers from “the loop” to their houses in a fourth less time than is taken by the street cars.
In looking for past experience and actual costs of operation, it is necessary to refer to the cities of Europe. There the auto bus has been running longer and has been more extensively used than in any of our American cities. City ownership there has already begun. Subject to the approval of Parliament, Birmingham, England, proposes to purchase some 30 omnibuses and plant for $165,000. This purchase will give the city the monopoly of the motor omnibus service within its boundaries under the


1915] .
MOTOR BUS DEVELOPMENTS
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agreement that, while through omnibuses from outside points may be run by the original company into the city and by the city into the country, neither is to pick up any but through passengers within the limits of the other's activities.
The cost per mile ranges from 13.374 d. to as low as 4.83 d. In nearly every case the buses operate in different districts where the roads are not of the best. In showing exact calculations per car mile in different cities of England we have:
Birmingham................................. 9.288 d.
Oldham..................................... 13.374 d.
Rotherham.................................. 6.78 d.
Sheffield.................................. 6.675 d.
Warringdon................................. 7.636 d.
Wolverhampton............................. 8.287 d.
As showing the extent to which motor omnibuses are being called into municipal service, it is interesting to note that nearly fifty local authorities now operate, or have power to operate, these vehicles.
In making a fair comparison between the motor bus and the street car, we must take into consideration the fact that the bus travels over a municipally-owned highway, wearing down and depreciating the road, while the street car furnishes its own surface and pays for its depreciation. Nevertheless there is nothing to indicate that the wood-paved roads, as a whole, were costing more to maintain. It was stated definitely that in Westminster, England, wood-paved roads have cost less to maintain and that this year the cost was less than it was eight years ago. In taking a certain road the car mileage of the buses was calculated and allowing that the levy for this form of traffic would be f d. per car mile, £4000 would have been received, whereas the total cost of maintenance was only £2800. It was also clearly stated that the effect of the motor bus was no different from that of any other form of traffic, provided the road was suitable and was kept in a reasonable state of repair; the motor bus was reasonably proportioned in the weight of the load on the wheel in contact with the road surface and that therefore, so far as ordinary wear and tear were concerned, the motor bus did no more harm than the standard type of motor car; that the motor car travelling at high speed did as much damage when the road was in a bad state as the heavier vehicle travelling at the slower speed usual with such vehicles. It may be taken that wherever there is a road on which more than 1,000 buses run per day, the amount collected from a levy on those buses will more than cover the total cost of the maintenance of the roadway, even if provided with the most expensive pavement.1
1 Motor buses in England have unexpectedly been of national as well as local aid. It is stated that several thousands of London motor buses and drivers have gone to the front and rendered invaluable aid in transport work. Practically the whole of the single decked motor buses have been converted into motor ambulances.
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[April
Taking into consideration the case of the street car, the rail is at a fixed level and does not wear equally with the other material forming the road structure; the vehicles using the side of the road track each other; in other words, the traffic is concentrated, and therefore the wear is very severe. Wood paving, when it forms the whole surface of a road without car rails, may be allowed to wear away to the extent of an average of 2\ inches, but it would be impossible to allow a roadway 10 feet wide to wear 2j inches; if the wear shows more than If inches, the paving becomes so bad that it has to be removed and renewed. Therefore, if the road is in regard to half its width taken up by car rails, the remaining half costs nearly twice as much to maintain as the whole road did formerly—i. e. before the car rails were laid, and the relief to the ratepayer is of little or no account.
In summing up the facts it is plainly apparent that the many advantages of auto bus transportation give a municipality:
(1) Quicker and easier service.
(2) An increase of revenues.
(3) An elimination of excessive noise.
(4) A better chance for expansion and increased suburban and inter-urban service.
(5) An opportunity for increasing the beauty of the city by the elimination of car tracks and overhead wires, and for an appreciation of street width.1
1 Concerning the use of motor buses, the Municipal Journal of July 24,1913, editorially said:
The adopting of motor buses by Huntington, Ind., in place of street cars running on rails, raises the question whether the time has come or is coming when this can be adopted as a more or less general practice by small cities and villages. With more perfect roads and improved motors it is certainly more practicable than it was ten years ago.
There are several arguments in favor of buses as compared with cars running on tracks. Some of these are mentioned in the article, but there are others, among them the following: No special area of street is turned over to a private corporation. The smoothness and life of the roadway pavement are not lessened by the presence of rails throughout its length. _ No poles or wires are necessary (the underground trolley is too expensive a construction for small communities). The noise of steel tire on steel rail is avoided—a most serious objection on residence streets. It would not be possible for one or two property owners to prevent the operation over a given route by refusing their consent to laying track in front of their properties, as is so often done where trolley lines are proposed and even needed. A mistake in judgment in locating a route is by no means irreparable—a change requires only the consent of the franchise granting power. In fact, the route might be changed from hour to hour during each day, as the users of the buses desired to go to or from the factories, the shopping district, the amusement center, etc. A temporary obstruction, such as repairing a road, need occasion little inconvenience to buses other than making a detour of a block.
A serious question is whether the cost of power and of maintaining heavy buses traveling over roads never as smooth as rails, especially when the power is in the form of storage batteries as compared with a central power house, can be kept low enough to make the enterprise a paying one with 5-cent fares.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION. •
Commission and Commission-Manager Government. — The last few months have presented a period of incubation rather than of actual accomplishments in the adoption of new city charters. A number of important movements are pending and new laws have been introduced in this year’s legislatures which later on may bring forth very considerable advances.
For example, in Iowa a bill has recently been introduced providing for the adoption of the commission-manager form. In this state there have been several cities employing city managers under the old system. This, however, has proved, apparently, a rather unsatisfactory practice, and the plan now is to secure the city-manager feature in a more stable form. It is regretted that the law proposed does not give the city manager the powerful control which is really necessary in order to carry out the idea of expert management. Iowa seems to think of the city manager as a sort of superintendent of public works.
In Indiana a bill was introduced in February providing for an optional law permitting any city to adopt either the regular form of commission government or the city-manager form. In a general way this bill conforms to the orthodox plans.
A joint committee of the two houses of the Massachusetts legislature reported early in the year in favor of the passage of a law which would permit Massachusetts cities to adopt any one of four forms of simplified government. One of these is the city-manager form and another provides for the commission form of the regular type. Doubtless the action of this committee was affected by the long and thorough discussion of the city-manager plan and the federal form which has been going on during the past few months
295
in Springfield before the citizens committee of one hundred. This committee, composed of representatives of all of the civic bodies in the city, decided on January 22, by a vote of 58 to 45 in favor of the commission-manager system. The latter virtually represented a compromise between the advocates of the straight out commission plan and those who favored the federal system, for up to this year there has been practically no sentiment in favor of the city-manager form.
San Diego, California, which has been for some years operating under the commission plan, voted recently on the adoption of what may be termed a “freak” charter, providing among other things for the return to a very complicated system with a number of elected administrative officers. In spite of very bad weather the people turned out in sufficient numbers to down this proposition by a large majority. The plan now is to have a city-manager charter submitted to the people in time for action by this year’s session of the California legislature.
A bill prepared by the Missouri League of Municipalities, providing for the commission-manager form has been introduced in the legislature and has been recommended, with slight amendments, out of committee in both houses. If the bill passes it is likely that the University of Missouri will establish a curriculum for the training of municipal executives.
An event of some significance is the adoption in Hoboken, New Jersey, of the commission form by a majority of three votes in a. total of about 7,000. This was the third attempt to adopt the plan in that city. Other cities which have adopted the regular commission plan since the first of December are Santa Monica, California; Effingham, Highland Park, Joliet, Coal City and Sterling, Illinois; Harrods-


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1915 Editor CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Associate Editors JOHN A. FALRLIE ADELAIDE R. HASSE HERMAN G. JAMES HOWARD L. MCBAIN VOLUME IV PUBLISHED FOR TEB NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE BY THE RUMFORD PRESS CONCORD, l?. E. 1915

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. IV, No. 2 APRIL, 1915 TOTAL No. 14 CHILDREN IN THE CITIES BY MRS. FLORENCE KELLEY’ New YOTIC ENCEFORTH in rating cities, a new element is to be included in the standard, namely, the municipal care of the children. H For they are the future of the city. We who are here, are the present and the past. Many of us embody the ideas of the last century. But the future of Baltimore is in the cradle, the kindergarten and the schoolroom. Not its form of municipal government, not its wealth, or its port, or the railroads, or the famous art gallery, or even Johns Hopkins will by future students be deemed so important as the deaths of the children. So little, however, do we Americans appreciate this fact, that we do not, in any city, know how many are born in a year, or how many in each thousand die. Even though all deaths may be registered, the exact proportion of the survivors cannot be known because the whole number of births is nowhere known. Doctor Goler, health commissioner of Rochester, N. Y., pioneer in the municipal crusade @gainst death among city babies hopes, after a dozen years of continuous effort, that he now registers 90 per cent of the births. 1 Mrs. Kelley is secretary of the National Consumers’ League and has won a national reputation aa an effective worker in the cause of improving social conditions in urban centers. This address, which waa given before a crowded audience at the Baltimore meeting of the National Municipal League, cab attention in a very vivid way to the necessity for immediate attention to the question of the care to be given to children in the cities. When one considers how much attention is given to the care and treatment of dumb animals and contrasts it with the attention given to human beings, one wonders where the sense of perspective is in American people. In connection with this address it is suggested that the reader refer to Mrs. Kelley’s informal remarks at the Thursday morning meeting of the League, reported on page 175 of the January issue. 197

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April In New York City for several years efforts have been made to learn how many are born in a year, and we have been witnessing a strange spectacle. Whenever Tammany was in office the official birth rate fell, and whenever Tammany went out of office the official birth rate rose. This phenomenon was due to a simple mechanical device used by Doctor Lederle whenever he was commissioner of health. Following up every certificate of the death of a child, he had the birth records searched to learn whether that child’s birth was properly registered. If it was not, the midwife, or physician, and the parents were notified, publicity threatened, and ultimate prosecution in case of continued neglect. With every month of Doctor Lederle’s continued search, physicians, midwives, and parents became increasingly careful, and the official birth rate rose. After he had been.out of ofice a month, the search relaxed and people began to grow careless. He came back into office, and it rose again. There might, of course, have been some coincidence, something aside from the fear of prosecution. It might happen that the real birth rate was conspicuously higher one year than the next, but it is not probable. When we have to admit that we do not know how many children are born in a city where great care is taken to learn the facts, it is a safe assumption that we do not know them in the other cities of the country.‘ There is at present no standard municipal procedure for ascertaining what children are born. In Rochester, city nurses, school teachers, health inspectors and all other available social agencies are pressed into the service of enquiry after new babies, to supplement the records made by physicians and midwives. But in a neighboring city, a few hours ride from Rochester, no effort is made beyond perfunctory compliance with the state law. And even this perfunctory compliance would be less than it is, if there were not always parents and older boys and girls seeking birth records as the basis of working papers. The New York state child labor law thus ihcidentally promotes the municipal registration of births. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN’S DEATHS The official birth rate fell. Since we do not know how many are born each year, we naturally do not know where they are all born. But the health authorities do know where they die, and I plead for having this made common knowledge. So far as I have been able to learn, not one city publishes in any popular form the geographical distribution of children’s deaths. Great was the surprise on learning some years since that the highest death rate was not in the most congested part of New York City, where 1 See Federal Children’s Bureau Infant Mortality Series No. 3, Infant Mortality Results of a Field Study in Johnstown, Pa., based on births in one calendar year. 1915.

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191 51 CHILDREN IN THE CITIES 199 the tenement crowding is greater than anywhere in the world. It had been assumed that that was where people died-where the air was bad, the rooms were dark, the crowding frightful. But the census showed that the proportion there was not so great as elsewhere. It was greater on the lower west side, in the little houses with air and light and yards. That one official illumination of this dark subject reversed our preconceived ideas. In not one city is there a widespread, alert, interest in knowing where, within its borders, the children chiefly die. Yet this is obviously the first thing to be learned. No city publishes a continuing series of maps showing from day to day, or from week to week, or even from month to month, or year to year, the location of deaths. Some cities have in the office of the board of health a map on which the place of each child’s death is indicated by a pin. Many boards gather, with more or less accuracy, for their own use and exhibit in their own offices this’data, the exclusive possession of the commissioners. But I have tried in vain to subscribe to the series of municipal maps, in any city, whereby I could see.& a glance in what streets and blocks and boroughs, or wards, or districts, children died on each day of the year. Their deaths are not thought important enough to justify so expensive a publication. We need a series of infant mortality maps showing deaths of children before the first birthday and before the fifth birthday, and those of children of the age of compulsory school attendance, between entrance at school and the sixteenth birthday. Still other maps should show the nature of the disease. No city tells the geographical facts so clearly and continuously that the newspapers are interested in publishing them as news. Let us effectively ask the newspapers to introduce these items among their Sunday morning war news. We wish to know, at the beginning of every new week, how many babies were born during the preceding week, how many died, and of what, and where? And how many children died before the fifth birthday, and how many before the sixteenth? So long as mothers did not know that children need not die, we were not so keen for the disheartening, shameful knowledge of the number and place of the deaths week by week. We strove for resignation, not intelligence. To-day we know that every dying child accuses the community. For knowledge is available for keeping alive and well so nearly all, that we may justly be said to sin in the light of the new day when we let any die. To this statement the exceptions are those born with non-venereal fatal malformations, and those who develop obscure disorders of the heart or other organs, the mystery of which science has not yet penetrated. Even venereal disease can now be combatted both before and after birth. But the public is nowhere allowed to know how far heredA generation ago we could only vainly mourn.

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200 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ApriI itary syphilis is to blame. Dr. Prince Morrow long ago pointed out that, since we are kept in ignorance of this cause of death, our vital statistics are vitiated and our activities so far paralyzed. Important and interesting in the future weekly maps and chronicles will be the itemized reports from all the. institutions, voluntary and municipal, to which children are entrusted. For they are killed by the same agencies in institutions as outside of them, Without such full and exact records, our effort to save all the lives can never be wholly successful. If we knew that cholera or bubonic plague were imminent for the year 1915, we should interrupt other activities to prevent that one danger, and no expenditure would be too great for the life-saving task. For either disease would stir our imagination. Or if word should reach this company that one child was being killed in the streets, how we should rush to its”rescue! Yet how little we care when the children die by hundreds. I feel safe in risking the assumption that not one person in this room knows how many under one year of age have died in this city, or in his own home city since New Year’s day. A dozen years ago, Doctor Goler achieved in Rochester a spectacular cut in the death rate of little children during the summer, by affording clean milk, handed out by skilled nurses, subject to the direction of competent physicians, to the least intelligent mothers, who had previously been under the care of midwives, or incompetent medical men, or even of quacks. Every municipality attempting such work now knows that, in the first, second and third summer, it can get conspicuous cuts in the death rate. Since Doctor Goler’s demonstration, the cities have shown sustained interest in milk stations, which are in some cases municipal. By the records of the best milk stations, however, we stand accused. For how can we answer the question: Why do we not assure clean milk to all? Why does any corner grocery still purvey foul milk? Why is the milkman not made as responsible a servant of the public as the postman? Is not life more than letters? We have all the knowledge and power requisite; why then do we not apply this knowledge and this power? The only answer that suggests itself is that, in a given city, the whole people do not yet know that this is so. Convincing evidence is moreover accumulating that there is a limit beyond which the reduction of infant mortality by means of milk stations cannot be carried. Poverty comes in, with insufficient food for the mother, before the child’s birth, and for mother and child during its first year. We have not the requisite foundation of knowledge for acting intelligently upon these less conspicuous, but not less effective: causes of infant mortality.‘ When Victor Berger represented MilJ-wkee in con1 See U. s. Children’s Bureau Infant Mortality Series No. 3 referred to above.

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19151 CHILDREN IN THE CITIES 201 gress, he learned that the city of Washington was not paying sufficient wages to those employed in its humbler tasks. The government of the United States is responsible for the administration of Washington, and pays half the cost. Yet the city was paying wages so low that it was impossible for these humblest employees to keep their families in good health. It will probably never be possible to learn where children die of slow starvation due to insufficient pay allowed their fathers by the cities, until there are more representatives who, like Mr. Berger, insist upon knowing. In a general way, we are aware that bad housing, also, is a cause of infant mortality. But for want of maps, the degree of identification is imperfectly seen. We are not equipped to show the relation clearly even in one city between housing and the deaths of children. Vaguely we know that little children especially need sunshine and fresh air. In New York City, it is difficult in certain parts to walk on the sidewalks on sunny days, because of the crowds of baby carriages, with babies sleeping in them. The visiting nurses tell mothers in the tenements that one way to keep babies alive and well is to keep them out of doors in the air and sunshine. But why, if they are to benefit by the air and sun, must they be on the sidewalks? Why are we all, from Eastport to San Diego, so infatuated with back fences that we keep the children in the streets, and leave the wonderful inheritance of land behind their homes sacred to unsewered filth below ground and the family wash overhead? Why should the family wash not be provided for in a reasonable part of the space? Why should it be forever a fetich to which the oncoming generations are sacrificed? Parks, playgrounds, pageants, water sports, athletic fields, and school gardens we have begun, hither and yonder, in one city or another to provide. But we have been slow, indeed, to reserve the most accessible spots for the most needy candidates, the backyards as gardens adjoining their homes, assured by the municipality to the tenderest, youngest little ones. In Greater New York where land is fabulously costly, a larger acreage is idle behind the houses than is embraced in all the parks and playgrounds, which we establish so far away that only the older boys and girls can reach them. Thus enormous parks in the Borough of the Bronx are usually empty most of the week, a dozen lmiles distant from the congested district where babies need outdoor life all the time. New York City paid $3,000,000 for Seward Park to be used as a playground, a little scrap of land bounded by streets so filled with automobiles that it is exceedingly dangerous for a child of ten to try to reach it. Seward Park is surrounded in every direction by tenement houses with back yards sacred to the family wash, while little children are on the

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202 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April sidewalks, swallowing dust and suffering from noise, or in the streets getting run over. Not far from Seward Park, in the year 1914, five little pupils in one primary school were killed by being run over. If we do not adopt the proposed changes because they are good and reasonable, and adapted to saving life, by making air, light and sunshine accessible to those who most need them, we shall be driven to them by sheer necessity of keeping boys and girls away from ice-wagons, trucks, motor cars, motor cycles, and trolley cars. For parks and streets we spend lavishly-paving, lighting, policing and decorating them. My plea is that, wisely applied, vastly smaller sums devoted to the land in the rear of the homes would save thousands of young lives. Whenever, by the popular use of current infant mortality maps, the public becomes enlightened as to particular blocks in which children die in largest proportion, it will doubtless be relatively easy to apply to back yards the right of eminent domain, or whatever other right the municipality asserts when it takes private land for parks and streets. The obvious place to begin is wherever the infant mortality rate is highest. If, as has been suggested, there are yards so foul that they do not lend themselves to the transformation into gardens, what a stimulus to action that hideous fact affords! Whenever some city awakens to the need of organizing the space back of the houses with the care which we now confine to the front, there will be needed, not policemen-they can be left in the streets-but physicians, nurses and kindergartners or Montessori teachers. With the rear spaces used as gardens for those too young for school-at command for outdoor life by day and night, in rain and sunshine, winter and summer-these municipal friends can protect life and keep the peace far more readily than the police have ever yet succeeded in doing in the streets. Wherever the map reveals a high infant mortality rate, there should obviously be permanently in charge of the garden a highly skilled nurse to teach the mothers, and a physician from the board of health. We act as though boys and girls needed the care of the city only on entering school. Then we provide, indoors, teachers, doctors, and nurses, as a matter of course. Trees and seats, hammocks for naps, and awninged platforms for hot or rainy days, would cost but little-nothing compared with doctors’ bills and burial charges. The expensive element will be the salaries for professional men and women who may reasonably be expected to reduce the death rate by detecting the earliest symptoms of ailing children, guarding the quality of the milk supply, observing while there is yet time all such sinister signs and omens as mothers with the best intentions so commonly fail to note until too late. We waste both costly city land and precious lives.

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19151 CHILDREN IN THE CITIES 203 The unhappy little mothers who now slave away their out-of-school hours lugging babies, will be freed from cruel slavery when hammocks replace their young arms and aching, too often crooked, backs. This will be not the least of the benefactions conferred, when we urbanize our minds sufficiently to make collective use of our priceless heritage of wasted land behind the houses in our cities. I wish to record my conviction that a close connection exists between our lack of intelligent action and the irresponsible position of women in relation to municipal activities. In my incessant travel I find in Portland, Oregon, in Los Angeles, in Denver-in any city where mothers, teachers, nurses, carry a full share of responsibility as citizens-a livelier enquiry why and where children die, than in our sleepier Eastern cities, a finer rivalry to keep all the children alive, and happy, and good.

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WOMAN’S WORK FOR THE CITY BY MARY RITTER BEARD’ New York Citv HE President of the United States has written a history of the It is typical in one T respect. A visitor from Mars reading it would imagine that there had been no women in this part of the universe from the landing of the Pilgrims to the present day for scarcely a mention of women can be found in all the hundreds of pages. Apparently “George” has done it all. We learn to our own surprise that a small band of “men” known as Quakers have exerted a considerable influence on the course of our national life and that “men” pushed forward the frontier line of civilization. Women are now studying history for themselves. They know the part which women played in the Quaker movement; they know about the contributions to American civilization made by pioneer mothers who bore children on the western trail or in the rude cabin, who also labored in the open fields beside the men, who shared and braved every danger and who, by reason of their sex, were subject to especial perils; they know that women entered this country in earliest times as indentured servants and were sold on the ship’s auction block for the same price as men and for the same service; they know something about the heroines of industry as well as its captains; they do not forget the Triangle fire when they read of Bull Run and Vicksburg. Knowing these things women are no longer content with a history that ignores their existence or takes them for granted. Women want true histories if histories there be. We grant, however, that we shall have to supply the new data in all probability and so the silent partner is acquiring a speaking voice. The quiet consciousness of past achievement and larger plans for the .future might well be preserved in a golden silence if the effects of silence were not so bad. These effects penetrate to the school room and influence the formative years of thought and feeling. Men have made the world; boys strut in consequence. Women have done nothing more important than bear sons; girls therefore smirk and take refuge in powder 1Mrs. Beard is the wife of Professor Charles A. Beard of Columbia University and is well known for her active work along social and industrial lines, especially in connection with the shirt waist strike and the Triangle fire. Mrs. Beard hm just finished a volume on “Women’s Work in Municipalities,” which is being published in the National Municipal League Series. She is also joint author with Professor Beard of a volume entitled “American Citizenship.” American people in five large volumes. The knell of that sort of history is rung. 204

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19151 WOMAN’S WORK FOR THE CITY -puffs to be busy at something. If a controversy arises as to the achievements of the unrecorded sex, there are no readily available data for the teacher or girl student to bring to bear upon the question to prove to swaggering boys that bluster is no longer a proper manly occupation. Woman’s work for the city offers one group of data to prove that women are effective members of society, but it must always be remembered that city problems are bound up with state and national politics and are not isolated interests even to women. Only the barest outline can be given in my twenty minutes of the municipal work of women. None of the details can be filled in for it, would be a graceless undertaking to recite a mere catalogue and I should not be able to dwell at all upon the significance of woman’s participation in civic life which is the more important thing for us. Women have not performed their municipal deeds for purposes of self or sex aggrandisement. First then we find that women throughout our land have tried to make their cities more beautiful by means of parks, fountains, lakes, monuments, boulevards, civic centres, tree planting, window boxes, shrubs, rubbish cans, and, most satisfactory of all, by the elimination of slums. As comprehensive city planning has at last awakened the interest of men so it has finally come to the close attention of women. The woman who has given up an affection for the many-colored crazy quilt and substituted an interior color scheme in her home is no longer content with an exterior world that is painful to look at and deteriorating to live with. The women of Colorado Springs, among others, have been insistent upon a city plan and we now notice among women’s organizations in general a marked tendency to talk, if not less about billboards, at least more about congestion; certainly less about tablets to departed soldiers and jurist? and more about homes for the living; less about art exhibits and more about the location of factories. In other words the larger aspects of civic beauty now appeal to women and indicate the democracy in art that is developing within. their ranks. We find that women-a veritable army of them-have also sought to make their cities more healthful places in which to live. They have approached the problem of public health from many angles : hospitals, sanatoria, women physicians, children’s clinics, district nursing, the reduction of infant mortality, occupational diseases, unnecessary noises, lies, mosquitoes, vermin, dust, sanitation, impure water, food and milk, standards of living, medical inspection, open-air schools, pre-natal care of mothers, baby derbies, vacation camps, safety, baths, laundries, overwork, unemployment, vital statistics, relief, investigation, social service aids and prevention. In these various directions they have initiated experiments, served in advisory capacities, held public office, investigated in a scientific way, raised funds, agitated, educated, legislated

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206 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April (in suffrage states), and pointed out next steps. More significant, however, than what they have actually done for public health is the growing recognition by women of the industrial and political aspects of health. For instance, in years gone by, women would have stood by the tub or faucet and thanked bountiful providence for water of any amount or description; but now, as they stand there, their minds reach out through the long chain of circumstances that connect the faucet and tub with the gentlemen who sit in aldermanic conclave. Indeed, the work of the women of New Orleans in the establishment and perfection of the water system so that human life in New Orleans might be better conserved may well rank in American history with the battle of New Orleans. By their action-conservative women coming out to vote against all tradition, when public weal demanded it of them-the women of New Orleans have saved more lives than Jackson’s army destroyed there-all for the glory of it. This is the vital thing about women’s work in cities: that they are leaving behind the “ thank-heaven-it-is-no-worse” stage and the “ladybountiful” stage in their social development and are coming into the stage of thinking things out and fking responsibility. This leads to striking results as far as women are concerned. It means the steady elimination of the petty and personal, the search for facts and the willingness to assume responsibility for constructive political and administrative work. In the search for some of the most useful facts upon which to base municipal policies, women have been trained and capable investigators. They are well adapted to the intimate questioning which home inquiries always involve. To that large and growing branch of public service that is concerned with women and babies, to which women have drawn attention, they have brought especial interest and devotion. Eve? a cursory glance at the recent and most satisfactory surveys of housing conditions, wages, infant mortality and conditions of labor reveals the service rendered by women in the assemblage of social facts. Women are investigating minutiae and discussing large generalizations drawn therefrom. They are doing more. They are preparing themselves as municipal experts and in some cities already are serving as food experts, sanitary experts, experts in efficiency, education, charities and corrections, in welfare-planning and in budget-making. In Chicago two women were recently given seats on the charter commission. To prepare themselves for expert suggestion and management, women like Mary McDowell of Chicago, have visited European cities and studied the best methods of street cleaning and garbage disposal. Women like Caroline Bartlett Crane have disciplined themselves by study and experience to serve as skilled advisers to civic organizations laboring upon municipal improvements.

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19151 WOMAN’S WORK FOR THE CITY 207 Through their interest and activities as private citizens women are qualifying also to serve the government of cities in legislative, executive and judicial capacities. In legislative hearings upon all manner of municipal problems, we find women presenting facts and arguments, and subjecting proposed measures to minute scrutiny. We find them also at budget hearings, suggesting and criticising, stirring public opinion and seeking to crystallize it. And where they have the vote, as in Chicago, we read of their’ heroic efforts to oust unfit aldermen and establish higher notions of aldermanic office. In a few western cities we find them making beginnings in service upon city councils. In executive capacity, women have officiated as mayors, town clerks, auditors, deputy marshals, and police officials. In the scores of offices which they have filled we have heard no rumors of scandal or wilful neglect of duty. That they have served with skill, good conscience, and a high sense of their public obligations seems to be the universal testimony. Moreover, it is a matter of common knowledge that many a municipal politician in office owes the success of his technical administration to the efficiency of a woman under-secretary or the public support rendered his administration by interested women. Women are even assuming “judicial ermine” in a small but nevertheless important way. As probation officers with semi-judicial duties, they have demonstrated their capacity to unite efficiency with humanity and enlightenment. As judges in juvenile and delinquency courts they are showing that they know the law and can apply it with discrimination and good effect. Through help in legal aid societies, through probation associations, through juvenile protective associations, and through bureaus of social adjustments women are administering justice by helping to prevent cases from coming into court or securing a proper trial when they do come into court. All justice is not spoken by the gentleman of the wig and gown. To name the women who have served as public servants in the administration of public justice would more than occupy the time at my disposal. Women have done much to create public opinion and conduct experiments in the solution of civic problems before the government has been ready to assume the burden, Every step in municipal progress in this country has been marked by private experimentation. In this experimentation, women have been pioneers and leaders in many fields. In education, for example, they have been instrumental in many cities in trying out kindergartens, manual and physical training, domestic science, vocational training and guidance, open-air schools, new methods of teaching, and new branches of study. I shall not here detain you with details of their labors in this field. In fact, in this audience that would be a work of supererogation. In corrections, women have awakened to the gross error which they Lay women know this better than lawyers.

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208 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April have committed in leaving the study and prevention of delinquency of girls to men alone and they are making tardy but earnest reparation for their long neglect. Higher standards of morals, for example, are demanded of girls out on probation than are demanded of boys, and women begin to realize that those for boys must reach the same level. In recreation, housing, civil service reform and agitation against unfair discrimination against women on the civil service list, in social service and the centralisation and co-ordination of relief and preventive agencies women have produced results which command respect. Step by step women have entered the municipality in many such fields testing, proving, experimenting and securing the incorporation of their labors in the public program, only to find themselves excluded at this point from further participation in the work they have begun. More than one important municipal function devised and tried out by women is now in the hands of professional politicians who know little and care little about the successful outcome of the experiment thus committed to their care. Sometimes this usurpation is carried on thoughtlessly but sometimes we find men who have the temerity to tell women that they ought to go on interminably to experiment, to raise money, and to prove the value of municipal enterprises and then either await a spontaneous invitation to share the further governmental power, or to go on forever, not even murmuring about their exclusion from the powers of government. It is significant, however, that a great majority of the leaders in women’s work in municipalities are no longer content with surrendering their functions when they become most interesting and important. Without desiring to introduce any controversial element here, I should be leaving my survey half-finished if I should overlook the resistless advance of the educated womei’s opinion in regard to the ballot as an indispensable instrument in the progress of women’s work in municipalities. Without claiming for the women’s clubs any monopoly of learning and wisdom, I think I may safely say that they have been active in every field of women’s work for civic betterment. The records of their hundreds of meetings show this. The first light kindled in many a benighted town has been kindled by the women’s club. The direction of their interest in their biennial conventions is steadily swinging toward the governmental aspects of their work. As they have thought of women’s problems in cities-sanitation, disease, education, transportation, labor conditions, parks and playgrounds, wages and hours of work-they have inevitably seen their interrelation and their connections with politics and administration. For them to have done otherwise would have been to remain mental children. Having had practical experience with the obstacles to efficient and humanitarian city governments, they have realized that the voter on election day holds the key to the city’s progress. They,first

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19151 WOMAN’S WORK FOR THE CITY thought of working upon him to arouse him to a sense of his responsibilities. They went to see him, pointed out to him municipal needs, presented possible achievements, discussed with him party programs and the positions of various candidates and urged him to vote in harmony with the public welfare. Results were seldom satisfactory, and, remembering the old school book adage held before them from infancy: “If you want a thing well done, do it yourself,’’ they have finally accepted the philosophy and last June, in national convention asembled, the club women agreed that indirect influence must give way to the direct expression of the will of women as well as of men in governmental affairs. Other organizations of women, having tried to install good governments by activity among male voters in preparation for city elections, have followed up both successes and failures in that direction by activity in behalf of universal suffrage and the participation of women in public administration. In this hour of universal education, at this stage of their experience, women cannot in reason and in conscience bend their every effort in all spheres of municipal improvement and yet remain indifferent to the problem of who shall control the most potent instrument for civic advancement known to mankind, namely, the city government itself. Thus woman’s work in municipalities moves by many paths to the ballot, not as a reward of merit for work done (though that matter should not be overlooked) but as an indispensable instrument for the direction of those institutions already municipalized and in the extension of municipal functions in the future. Many women are spurred on to seek political power by the knowledge that their existence is at present largely if not completely ignored when some vital matters like unemployment are up for consideration by the city government. Men seem to forget that millions of women have to work as wage-earners subject to the same variability of employment as men. All too often the eyes of the mayor and the council are upon the labor vote and women have to appear at the city hall to remind the authorities of the extent to which they suffer from fluctuations in trade. Usually they are ignored when public efforts are made to meet the problem, and have to fall back upon privately organized relief. The attempt to limit girls’ education to domestic science also appears to many women as a menace. Other problems, governmental in character, that now attract the consideration of women are those of the mother teachers, sex education, the social evil, the absorption and co-ordination by the city of private relief and preventive agencies, ice plants, school hygiene, markets, and the like. Since the federated club women, the federated teachers, the organized women physicians have all within the past year asked for the extension of the franchise to them, it is evident that those so vitally concerned in municipal problems are realizing their .peculiar civic responsibilities and are now ready to assume them with

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210 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April enthusiasm, and what is more important, a reasonable degree of intelligence. If I were speaking to women alone, I might fall into the habit which men generally have of preaching to them. In that case I would plead for greater earnestness on the part of women, for there can never be too much of that on the part of either men or women. I would plead with women to care more, for all things can be done by those who care enough. I would not speak of the past, but of the future; not of achievements, but of ungrasped opportunities. While my object to-day has been to explain rather than to preach, to describe what has been rather than to forecast what will be, I rejoice that the time has now come when every woman must think and feel for others not of her own little circle. Many there are who still live languidly-too lazy to care; many there are so overworked that they have no time to think. Some are still afraid-afraid to make a man’s world a people’s world. But “the gates of the future are wide open.” The forces not of our own choice or making are driving us on, stirring the convictions of women, entering the boudoir as well as the tenement, drawing forth the drone, filling the poor with hope, diverting money from personal adornment to social uses, forcing us to question anyone’s right to undeserved leisure, giving work to the intelligent, revealing women of initiative, judgment, leadership, disinterestedness, and devotion. It is in the light of the new spirit created by these forces that we see the promise of the city that is to be, that we dream “the patriot’s dream, that sees beyond the years thine alabasher cities gleam undimmed by human tears. ”

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WOMEN IN OFFICE BY JANE CAMPBELL’ Philadelphia VERY year that brings an accession to the electorate of a large number of women voters, sees an increase in the number of E women holding office. This is especially true of school positions, the offices of town or county clerk and a few other minor places, which seem to fall naturally to them. Appointive positions are increasing rapidly, and women are being gven some of the most responsible offices in the country, and as showing the trend of public opinion, it is now not a matter of surprise to see women occupying the new position of office-holders. The elections during the last year were watched with great interest throughout the country, for the woman’s vote was felt to be an unknown quantity. As a general thing the woman voter cast her ballot in favor of reform measures, and some of the western towns furnished striking examples of this. For instance in the town of Ottumwa, Iowa, where women have a small measure of suffrage, 2,000 women voted on a measure for municipal ownership of street lights and the proposition carried. The registration in Kansas was exceedingly heavy; one woman, Mrs. Harriet Harper, who registered, was 102 years old-probably the oldest woman in the state. The election returns showed a large increase in the vote. The California vote was a record-breaking one, women showing as great interest in casting their ballots as did men, and the majcrity of the reform measures voted upon were carried, such as the “red light” bill aimed at commercialized vice, the “blue sky” law, a severe blow to dishonest investment companies, the anti-prize fight measure, and the Torrens land law, which it is hoped will end the title guarantee monopoly. The California election is a direct refutation of the assertions made by the opponents of woman-suffrage that women will not vote, or, if they do, will not vote for reform measures, for in California the women did both. Probably the oldest woman in California, who was the first woman to register in the state, Mrs. Lydia Sharpless, 104 years old, voted at the last election. In almost all places where women were legal voters, they were quite alive to its importance. In Chicago, 75 per cent of the women who registered voted, and cast 123,991 ballots, and they were debarred rom 211 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. iii, p. 145.

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212 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April voting for some of the most important officers such as county commissioners, who control poorhouses, hospitals and other institutions in which women are interested. Women county and town clerks, school superintendents, tax assessors and collectors were elected in considerable numbers in some of the western states, notably Nebraska and Illinois. One small village in Illinois, Palos Park, which has only between three and four hundred residents, the women voters outnumbering the men by ten, voted to have a commission form of government, and intend making their village a veritable garden spot. Although it possesses so few inhabitants yet it covers two miles of territory, so the enthusiastic women have ample space in which to inaugurate their plans for beautifying the village. The accounts of the various women office-holders almost invariably speak in high terms of their efficiency and trustworthiness, and as the world has become accustomed to the woman in the professions of law and medicine, so will it in time become accustomed to the woman in office. MAYOR Illinois-Kingston Mines. Mrs. Kate York. Oregon-Troutville. Utah-Kunab. Mrs. Clara Larrson, who was elected by a majority of five over her male opponent. Mrs. Mary Howard, who is also president of the town council. TREASURER Utah-Kanab. Mrs. Luella McAllister. Washington-Hillyard (a suburb of Spokane). Mrs. Lida M. Goode. Mrs. Goode is The system is up-to-date and one of the best if not the serving her third term. best in the state. MARSHAL Michigan-Chesaning. Miss Blanche D. Ingalls. New Jersey-Rutherford. Mrs. Agnes V. Goetchins, with full police authority. SHERIFF Pennsylvania-Washington. Mrs. Jennie W. Weimer is deputy sheriff for Greene County. Her husband is sheriff of the county. JUDGE Colorado-Eagle Co. Kansas-Mitchell. Missouri-St. Louis. Mrs. E. C. Runge and Miss Catherine Dun. Both are also Washingto-Seattle. Miss Reah H. Whitehead is justice of the eace. Washingtm-Tacoma. Miss Nelda Jaeger, first woman police ju&e in Tacoma. Mrs. Lydia B. Tagule. Mrs. Mary H. Cooper, probate judge. probation officers. POLICE Women as police officers are becoming more and more popular and during the last year among those appomted were the following: Kansas-Topeka. Miss Elizabeth N. Auburn. Illinois-Chicago, has ten in all, among them being Mrs. Lulu B. Burt (an expert with the revolver, in a recent contest making a score of 92 out of a possible 100) and Mrs. Mary Boyd, Miss Clara Olsen. Indiandary. Indiana-Muncie. Mrs. Thomas F. Hart. Massachusetts-Boston. Mrs. Anna Steinauer. Mrs. Mary Azymonga, Mrs. Ruth M. Charlton.

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19151 WOMEN IN OFFICE 213 Nsw Yurk-Kin#un. Mm. M. G. Michsel, who ie also a member of the bosrd of health. Ohio--cleveland. Miss Pearl E. Kray. Miss Ihy k mountad and covers 25 miles a da Pmna&an&Pittdnmgh has four women police ofticera and Williamsport has one. South CaTolina-Colum& has one pohce woman. Wiwnsin-Rmcins. Mlss Rose M. Webers. PROBATION OFFICBRS Probation officera are also gaining popular recognition. A few new ones to be noted are : Nevada-Tonupah, has recently a Pen~lvancc--cWbon Ca. MiesErence Hughes. Penn&unia-Phitnrtelphia. Mrs. Mary E. Pasamore looks after juvenile delinquents. Women are filling more legal positions than ever befpre, in some ewes as deputies or clerk, in othm as h.eads of departments. A partial ht of those elected or appointed durmg the last year 1 here gven. Utah-Kd. Two women occupy this position, Mrs. Blanche Hamblin and Mra. inted one. COUNCILLOB Ada SeigmiUer. DIBTRICT ATTORNEY, ETC. California. Assistant district attorney in federal court, Mrs. Annette Abbot Adam. Cdifmbh Anqeb. Assistant prosecuting attorney, Miss Margaret Gardiner. Cdiforniu+an i%a?mkco. Bond and warrant clerk, Mm. Jean E. de Qreayer (adjusts case8 mvolving women and children). Delaware-Georgetown. Deputy Recorder of Deeds for Essex County, Miss Lucy Wilson. ZUinoia--chicaqo. Misses Fanny Freck and Myrtle D. Johnson-map draughtsmen in count recorder’s office. ZUimdh~Adele Whitgreave, de uty clerk in boys’ court. IUinoia-New Mk Gertrude M. bhurston, supervieor of township. Elective. IUiwiu-Chicap. Cy-olyn Grimsby and Catherme Madden-deputy clerk in court Penn hia-PhiWeZphia. Mh George.wa Hopkina, chief, and Mk.8 Mary E. Pmn&ania-Su~ Mlea Sara Stout, clerk m prothonotary’s office. Tetaa--D&s. Mise ula Lowe, assietant county attorney. of domeatio relatwm. aendenin, special agent. of the domestm re@ions brmch of the mumcipal court. COmmY CLmBK Washing~Wahkiahm Co. Miss Mary C. Cooper. (Sd to be highly efiicient.) Nebrauh-ha~ two county clerks and one coroner. TOWN cLER1cB CaZifmria--sCarta Barbara. Mh Christian Holm-. (Elected three to one over de opponent, women votv were a factpr in b~ -on.) registrar of vltal @atietica. town chb as a ueua~ thmq are efected. Connectinct-NouqatzlcB. Mise Llllutn W. I(mg, assletant tom Clerk and wistmt IUinoia-Chmgo. Mlea Jessie Le. . New Jaseyddilyillc. Mlee Helen M era. Mh Myera WBB appointed, though other Utuh-Kad. Mra. Tamar Hamblin. An office to whioh a numbez df women were elacted w~pecially in Illinois was that of tax collector. A few women weke ohma BB twt aaseesora. IUinois--RushoiUs. Miss -Nora Trmb ’”g” e TAX hesFeeOBS Eight Chicago women were made deputy tsx -om, the& spechl duty being to mvwigata personal ropert holdings of women and children. ~~inoie--~anviue. EliaabetK Cotqn. Tezas-Travis County. Mrs. Came Hill, tax aaaeasor for the county. 2

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW TAX COLLECTOR8 IUi&Aledo. Mks Dora Lofgren. Barringtun. Mrs. Carrie Martin. Braceville. Miss Nellie Moffett. Camrgo. MIES May Haddow. Carthage. Miss Carrie Merrill. Champuign. Miss Hqriet Cumberland. Chrbcian. Mrs. Mhe Patterson. Clinkmia. Miss Maud Doty. Dry Point. Gertrude Dowell. Green eZd. Mrs. Fannie Davis. H&Ys&ro. Mrs. Maude H. Maaters. Hunt City. Mrs. Katharine Lee. Lewiah. Mm. Clara Bennett. Martin. Mrs. Grace Hutson. Mercer. Miss Emma Cowen. Mount Carroll. Mrs. Rebecca E. A&. Mount Ho e. Mrs..Della Hoo r. . NorlhLitc&ield. MlssDoll 3 Nepwnset. Mrs. George A:3keed?. Ohw. Mm. Anna per. Pecatonico. Mrs. elheMarkham. Ranloul. Mrs. Gertrude P.eterson. Rock Creek. Mrs: E. C. Dick. Sm. MissLou~seKdb Sycumme. Mm. Ione Bex. , Toledo. Miss Ethel B. &.in. Tompkins. Miss Grace Bricker. Wads. Mm. Nacy Mathemy. TeUrcl-Truuis County. Mrs. Eli H. Miller. MIWELLANEIOUS OFFICE8 Women are now filling a number of +ceIlaneoy offices throughout the counq, my of them carrying grave responabilities but the lncumbents from all sccounta gwe rend satisfaction. Among these ositioq may be enumerated: ohado-Denver. Mrs. Mary WO& Dar trar and chief of Federal land office. Delaware-Wilmi ton. Miss Gladys Ho~~~~ law librarian in the court house. Rehoboth Beax Miss El& Magee, secretq-, toard of public w?rka. IZZinois-Chicugo. Mm. W. C. Keqqh, statletman of sslutasy hhct. Miss Edith Abbott, compiler of crmes statistics. Massachusetts. Mrs. Mary H. Dewey, member of state board of labor and industries. dfthUOu?++?t. Louis. Miss Elizabeth Rumboldt, head of recreation department of city government. Penneylvunia. Mrs. Jean H. Foulke, farm adviser of homes in state agricultural department. Pennqilvaraio-PhiladeEphia. Miss Neva Deardorf, chief of bureau of vital statistics of bureau of health. Pennqlvania. State commission to establish a cottage colony for the insane on a state reserve-Mrs. George H. Earle, Mrs. E. B. Haworth, Mrs. Alexander LaughLin, Dr. Mary N. Wolfe. Wyoming. State librarian, M@ Frances Davis. Winifred Stewart, deput co&sioner on public lands-an important state office. Cheyenne. Mles Bertza Meyers, deputy to the commission on Finance. (Miss Meyers is known as one of the beat accountants in the city of Cheyenne.) CITY PLANNING Massachusetts-Boston. Miss Emily G. Balch, member of city plsnning board and of immigration committee. Somerville. Mrs. Barbara Galpin, city planning board of Somerville. In the field of health, hygiene sanitation and medicine, women enter a domain which seems to ap al especially to them and they fill an ever-increasing number of offices which deal cf%ctly with all such subjects Conneeticut-New Haven. Mrs. Henry Wade Rogers is a member of the Improved Housin Association. District of 8o:olu4nbia. Misses MLgaret Dinsmore and Maxy Louise Simpson are htspectors of work rooms where women are employed.

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19151 WOMEN IN OFFICE 215 Zllinois-Chicago. Zowa. Has women factory inspectors. New York-New York City. Miss Mary McDowell is a member of the commission of councils to Miss Lucy C. Owen is an Misses Juliet Arden, Deborah Sabsovich and Charlotte make a study of the collection and disposal of garbage. assistant. . Dr. Clara Seippel is assistant city physician. Stolberg are inspectors of the bureau of fire prevention. HOSPITALS Illinois-Cooke County. Miss Ada Belle McCleery is chief of the tuberculosis hospital. Massachusetts-Boston. Dr. Sara G. Dyer is an interne in New England ho ital for women and children. Worcester. Dr. Helen J. LeMaistre and Louise M.?ugersoll are internes in Worcester memorial hospital. New Jersey. New York-New York City. N. M. Goerns, assistant night superintendent in St. Luke's hospital. Katharine R. Drinker, interne in New York mfirmary for women and children. Ossining. Miss Mabel Jarrett, assistant superintendent of Ossining hospital. College Hospital, recent internes are Doctors Slayton, Bauer, Lentz, Boland and Taylor. Woman's Hospital-Doctors Downie, Waide lich, Smith, Rose and Coughlen are late additions to the number of internes. Reading. Miss Jane B. Cross, graduate of Jefferson College, superintendent of Reading hospital. Texas-Houston. Miss Helen Lynn, superintendent of nurses in municipal hospital. Women are now found in increasing numbers on poor boards and in a variety of charitable and settlement organizations which have for their object the bettering of the conditions that confront the poor. New Jersey-Jersey City. Miss Anita Irish. Stone Harbor. Miss M. L. Van Thuyne. New York-Blackwell's Island. Two women are on the staff, a physician and a warden Pennsylvania-South Bethlehem. Massachusetts-Sherburn. Mrs. Jessie D. Holder, superintendent of Massachusetts New Jersey. Mrs. Fielder, wife of Governor Fielder, and Mrs. Elinor C. Stewart, are Marietta B. Squire is a member of the board of examiners for nurses. Pennsylvania-Philadelphia. OVERSEERS OF THE POOR Trenton. Mrs. Era H. Mansell. to look after women prisoners. Mrs. Marcella McGovern, poor agent. lU3FORMATORIE.S reformatory for women. members of board of managers of state reformatory of New Jsrsey. CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS, PUBLIC HEALTH, SOCIAL SERVICE SETTLEMENTS California-Sun Francisco. Dr. Maude Wilde, chairman of public health department. Illinois-Cook County. Miss Amelia Sears, chief of social service bureau of Cook County. Chicago. Mrs. Leonora Z. Meader, chief of social service bureau of Chicago. Miss Mary E. McDowell, head resident of University of Chicago settlement. Elizabeth Mackenzie, tenement house supervisor. Dr. Katherine Bement Davis, head of department of charities and correction. Miss Kate Barnard, state commissioner of charities. Miss Estelle Blair. assistant. New Jersey. New York. Oklahoma. Washingtm. ZUinois-Chicago. Washington-Montesano. Women serve as jurors. Mrs. R. C. McCredie, member of state board of health. JURY SERVICE In detention hospital jury of women physicians to decide on mental disorders of women, appointed in judge's court for the insane. SCHOOLS State Oflcers Arkansas. Miss Eva Reichardt, state organizer of the school improvement association. Calijornia. Dr. Margaret Schdenberger, state commissioner of education for the Mrs. Charlotte Gale, member of board of trusOnly woman state officer in Arkansas. elementary schoola of California. toom nF "+"to mnrmnl "nhn-1

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216 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April County Oficers Kentucky-Rowan Co. Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart, county superintendent. New Yo~k-Auburn. Mrs. Julia C. Ferris, school commissioner. Nebraska. Forty-eight county superintendents. Texas-Travis Co. Miss Maude Douglass, county superintendent. Local School Boards Delaware-Dover. Mrs. Sarah Cooper, Mrs. Mary Draper, Mrs. Jennie McIntosh, members of school board. Elective. Illinois-New Grier Township. New Hampshire-FTanklin. (New city charter gives school suffrage to women.) Nashua. Miss Ruth H. French. New Jersey-Hammnton. Mrs. H. McD. Little. Moorestown. Mrs. Frances Herr and Mrs. M. M. Perkins. Mrs. Alice Kent Stoddard and Mrs. Ida Tomhon. Vineland. Mrs. Martha Morris. (The Vineland woman’s club marched in a body to the polls to cast votes for Mrs. Morris.) Miss Katherine P. Gisling, trustee. Mrs. Ellen E. Webster. Mount Holly. New York-Delhi. North Dakota-Dickenson. Mrs. John C. Stoddart and Mrs. S. F. Adee. Has a popular woman member of the school board. STATE SENATORS Arizona. Mrs. Frances Willard Munds. Oregon. Miss Kathryn Clark. STATE REPRESENTATNES OTegOn-fOT Douglass County. Miss Marian B. Towne. Utah. legislature-Mrs. Rachel Berry. some office. Mrs. Howard King, Dr. Jane Skofield. Arizona also elected a woman from Apache County to the lower house of the state Almost every county in Arizona elected a woman for FEDERAL POSITIONS A number of federal positions have been given to women, for some of which a woman seems to be specially fitted. Among them may be mentioned: Chikiren’s Bureau. Chief, Miss Julia Lathrop; statistical expert, Miss Helen L. Sumner; child welfare, MISS Estelle Hunter; expert on sanitation, Dr. Grace L. Meigs; expert on social service, Miss Emma 0. Lundberg. Bureau of Chemistry. Dr. Mary E. Pemington, Miss Albert Read, Miss Ruth C. Greathouse, Miss Maude L. Mason. Bureau of Plant Industry. Fedwal Labor Commission. Miss Gertrude Barnum, re resents women and children. U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations. Mrs. J. Borxen Harriman. National Vocational Education Board. Composed of nine members to investigate and report. Miss Florence Marshall and Mlss Agnes Nestar are the two women members. Special examiner appointed by U. S. District Court of Oregon. Mrs. Mary E. Bell. (Mrs. Bell held hearings in government suits against telegraph and telephone companies.) Women’s National Rivers and Harbors Congress. Mrs. Love11 White, president of California branch. Panama Expositwn-Califomia, Los Angeles. Mrs. F. C. Porter, member of Los Angeles County board for the exposition. Wisconsin, Elm Grove. Mrs. Adda F. Home, head of dairy section for World’s Congress of Farm Women at Panama-Pacific Exposition. (Mrs. Howie is said to have the finest herd of Jersey cattle in the county.) Mrs. Flora Wambaugh-Patterson, mycologist. The above list does not include the names of all the office-holding women of the country, only those that have been elected or appointed to office during the .past year, and even this list-is but a partial one, but it is enough to show that women can and do hold office and fulfil their duties in a manner acceptable to the community.

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PROBATION-A .PRACTICAL HELP TO THE DELINQUENT BY HON. JAMES A. COLLINS’ Indianapolis, Ind. T IS not the purpose of this paper to present a theory for dealing with the poor and unfortunate who daily crowd the police courts, but to describe the actual working of a definite plan. The first piece of legislation in Indiana looking toward a more humane method of dealing with offenders against the law was the indeterminate sentence law in 1897. The old system of measuring out a definite amount of punishment for so much crime was replaced by this law, which provided a minimum and maximum prison term and gave the trustees of the penal institutions the power to parole prisoners at the expiration of the minimum term. In other words, the state, instead of merely imprisoning those who broke her laws sought by this new system to make of them better citizens. While apparently revolutionary in character, this law was but an application of the principle embodied in the state constitution of 1816 and again in that of 1851, “The penal code shall be founded upon the principles of reformation and not of vindictive justice.” Since this law has been in operation more than six thousand persons have been paroled from the reformatory and state prisons. A decided majority of these lived up to the conditions of their parole and during that period earned for themselves more than a million dollars. These facts alone demonstrate the wisdom and justice of this new rnethodP’of dealing with those who pay their debt to society by serving a term’nf imprisonment. The legislature of 1903 made a wider application of this principle in the enactment of the juvenile court law. This law created a separate court in Marion County (Indianapolis) for the trial of juvenile offenders. It also provided for the establishment of a volunteer probation system, and it prohibited the incarceration of any children, coming within the scope of the law, in the same building, yard or enclosure with adult convicts. Before the enactment of the juvenile court law, no legal method existed in this state by which juvenile offenders could be accorded any treatment Judge Collins was elected judge of the city court in Indianapolis in 1909 and served four years. In 1914 he was elected judge of the Marion criminal court, taking office on January 1, 1915. He has taken an active part in civic affairs and in the work of the Episcopal Church, especially along social lines. I 217

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218 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April different from that accorded to adults. This law with its provision for adequate investigation, before trial, of all children brought into the court, and its other provision for the appointment of volunteer probation officers opened the way for a definite, permanent, method of dealing with such offenders. To these provisions of the law is due almost entirely the success of the Marion County juvenile court in working out the great problems of juvenile reformation. The records of the juvenile court show that more than 1,800 children brought into the court, charged with violations of the law, have been placed on probation under the supervision of volunteer probation officers, and of this number only about 15 per cent have failed to respond to good influences and have been committed to institutions for more rigid discipline. The volunteer probation officers who serve in the Juvenile Court belong to no particular class or creed. Men and women, white and black, Catholic, Protestant and Hebrew have all gratuitously joined in this great movement for the social regeneration of the children of the city. This volunteer probation system has proven to be not only a moral, but a practical force in the community. Through its influence hundreds of boys have found steady employment; girls and destitute children have been placed in good homes; poor children suffering from physical defects have been provided with needed treatment by expert physicians without any expense to the parents; and through the personal contact of the probation officer home conditions have been improved and parents aroused to a keener sense of their obligation to their children. An extension of this beneficent principle was made possible in 1907 by the enactment of a law under which courts may exercise the right to suspend sentence or withhold judgment in the case of adults. This measure made possible the application of the probation system in the administration of justice in circuit and criminal courts and in courts having concurrent jurisdiction by implication in city courts also. The power to suspend sentence in many cases where the circumstances seemed to justify has saved many novices in crime from undergoing the harsh punishment that would otherwise be meted out to them and that seems to be contrary to the constitutional provision that “All penalties shall be proportioned according to the nature of the offense.” As Judge Roby formerly of the appellate court of Indiana has well said, “The system under which a father and husband pleading guilty to a charge of larceny based upon the taking of a bundle of oats or a loaf of bread was sent up, was often absolutely sure to work brutal injustice. That it continued as long as it did is a remarkable fact.” The magnitude of the problem affected by this legislation is neither understood nor appreciated except by the few who officially come in contact with the police courts. During the four years prior to January

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19151 PROBATION-A HELP TO THE DELINQUENT 219 3, 1910, 37,904 persons were adjudged guilty in the city court of Indianapolis. Of this number 25,686 were committed to the workhouse and the jail. The majority of these cases were disposed of at a morning session averaging about two hours. It was no uncommon experience for the presiding judge to dispose of a slate comprising a hundred or more cases at a rate greater than one a minute. By such methods the spirit of our constitutional provision was ignored and the &st trivial offense was punished with the same rigor that was meted out to the hardened criminal. No statistics are available showing what number or proportion of these convictions were for first offenses, but unquestionably the percentage was large, for the reason that this court has jurisdiction in cases of misdemeanors and violations of city ordinances over all boys who have passed the full age of sixteen and girls who have passed the full age of seventeen. A trifling percentage of the total number convicted escaped the penalties imposed by a suspension of the sentence. The rest answered for their offenses by paying fines or by incarceration in the jail, the workhouse or correctional department of the woman’s prison. To administer justice properly in a police court the presiding judge should earnestly endeavor to distinguish between the delinquent and the criminal-the occasional and the chronic violator of the law; and to give sufficient time for careful investigation of the merits of each case; and to see that while the community is protected, the rights of the individual, especially of the poor and ignorant and uninfluential individual, be not overlooked. Of the 25,686 persons committed to the jail, the workhouse and correctional department of the woman’s prison from our police court during the period above referred to, how many were benefited by incarceration? The imprisonment of some no doubt benefited the state and the public. A large number, however, receive the sentence imposed not because of criminal acts or criminal instincts, but because, unaided, they could not resist besetting temptations. To such as these, a term in the jail or workhouse was not a term in a house of correction, but a term in a house of corruption. Once the barred doors closed behind the unhappy prisoner his lot was the common lot of all. He became the forced associate of criminals; his self-respect was gone; his will was weakened; and his mind was prepared to receive instructions in crime proffered to him on every hand. He must of necessity come from such a place a less desirable citizen. Recognizing the seriousness of the evils, I pledged the people of Indianapolis, in the municipal campaign of 1909, that if elected judge of the city court, I would introduce a probation system as a means of helping delinquent’ men and women. In its strict sense, “Probation is a judicial system by which an offender against penal law, instead of being punished by a sentence, is given an opportunity to reform himself under supervision, and subject to conditions

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220 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April imposed by the court, with the end in view that if he shows evidence of being reformed no penalty for his offense will be imposed.” The probation system inaugurated in the city court of Indianapolis contemplates the following : First. The suspended sentence: During the three years that this plan has been in force sentence has been suspended in 574 cases and judgment withheld in 6,681. The majority of these were first offenders. In those cases where the judgment was suspended the court has had to set aside the suspension of sentence and commit the defendants in five cases, and where the judgment has been withheld less than 2 per cent have been returned to court for a second or subsequent offense. While there is no provision under the law for the employment of paid probation officers, adequate supervision in 575 cases was made by good citizens who volunteered to serve in that capacity. These probationers were required to furnish the court a monthly report signed by the probation officer. Each tells its own story of heroic efforts toward right living. Second. Paying fines on installments: Could you witness, as I have on many a Monday morning, the pitiable scenes of wives and mothers and sobbing children, crowding the corridors of the city court pleading with officers and attaches of the court to say a word to the judge in behalf of a husband or father, you would then understand the need of a different system of dealing with this class of people.. Much of their suffering came from the assessment of the fines which the defendant was unable to pay or replevy. He was imprisoned not because the court believed he should be imprisoned, as there was no term of imprisonment added, but because he was unable to pay the fine. In other words, he was imprisoned for debt-a form of punishment which was abolished in this country many years ago. To reach this situation and to aid this particular class a plan was introduced for the collection of money in small payments to be applied on fines and costs. In those cases where a defendant had others dependent upon him for support he has been released on his own recognizance and +he case held under advisement for thirty or sixty days, as the circumstances seemed to justify. At the expiration of which time he was required to report to the court that he had paid in the amount designated as the fine and c6sts to be entered against him. In the three years that this plan has been in operation $27,410 has been paid in by probationers. On a number of occasions the court has made recommendations to the governor for executive clemency and whenever a parole has been granted the defendant has been directed to pay his line and costs to the probation officer of the city court. This plan operates to the benefit of the defendant in several ways: It saves him his employment; it saves his family from humiliation and Time will not permit the details of these reports.

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19151 PROBATION-A HELP TO THE DELINQUENT 221 disgrace, as well as from the embarrassment incident to imprisonment; but more than all, it saves him his self respect. It has also resulted in a reduction in the number of commitments to the jail and the workhouse, which has meant a large saving in maintenance to the county and an increase in the revenues of the common school fund. Third. Drunkenness and the pledge system: No unfortunates appeal more strongly to the court than those having the liquor habit. In all cases of first offenders charged with being drunk and in those cases where the defendant had others dependent upon him for support, the court has made it a condition on withholding judgment or suspending the sentence that the defendant take the pledge for a period varying from six months to one year. Under this plan 302 persons have taken the pledge and of this number all but 26 have kept the same faithfully. In the severe cases where the defendant was bordering on the delirium tremens; he was committed to the workhouse and the superintendent informed of his condition. While there are no special arrangements for the treatment of inebriates at the workhouse the superintendent has successfully provided a separate department. These cases are thoroughly examined by the workhouse physician and such medical and special attention are given to them as the circumstances seem to justify. With these inadequate facilities a splendid work is now being done among this class of unfortunate and harmless offenders. When the family or relatives could afford it, persons haye been sent to institutions to be treated for the liquor habit and our records show but one failure. Where the financial condition of the defendant was such that he could not pay for the treatment arrangements have been made for the payment of the money into the probation department in weekly installments thus assuring for the defendant the benefit of the paid treatment and the institution the satisfaction of the debt. Fourth. Medical and surgical treatment: Men suffering from physical defects have frequently been before the court charged with offenses entirely out of harmony with their antecedents and environments. In these cases the court has been able to call to its assistance some of the best surgeons of the city and has received the support and co-operation of the superintendent of the city hospital. The criminal code is absolutely silent upon the question of recovery for loss or damage to property and injuries to the person growing out of criminal acts except that in cases of malicious trespass the court may fine a defendant a sum equal to twice the amount of the property damage. To fine a person double the value of the property damaged and because of his failure to pay the same, to place the additional burden on the citizen of supporting him in the workhouse or jail seems in itself an absurdity. As a part of the probation plan the court requires every person charged with any offense involving the loss or damage to property Fifth.

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222 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April and injuries to the person to make full and complete restitution to the injured party before the final disposition of the case. Upon a proper showing that restitution has been made, the court is then in a position to take such action as the other facts in the case justify. Under this plan more than $5,000 has been recovered and turned over to the proper parties. Sixth. To Amos W. Butler and Demarchus C. Brown, of the board of state charities, is due the credit for the suggestion of a separate session for the trial of women and girls. Like all innovations connected with matters pertaining to the police, it was first looked upon as a fad and predictions were freely made that because of the nature of the work and the rapidity with which it must be discharged the life of the plan would be short. But ‘notwithstanding the criticism, it has become established as a permanent method of dealing with the delinquent women of the city. The local council of women by their efforts have made it a practical reality. With their aid and assistance the legislature of 1911 enacted a law providing for the appointment of a court matron in cities of the first and second class and this act prescribed her duties as follows: “She shall, under direction of the judge of the city court, investigate and report to such judge upon the past histories, conditions of living, character, morals and habits of all women and girls awaiting trial in such city court and shall have supervision of such women and girls while not in actual custody until final disposition of the charge or charges against them.” Out of 478 cases investigated under direction of the court matron only 49 were fined or committed to the jail or correctional department of the woman’s prison and in the remainipg cases the investigation disclosed that the facts would not justify imprisonment and the court either smpended the sentence or withheld judgment. All cases involving domestic trouble have been added to the special work brought into the separate session. As a result of the investigation of 328 of these, less than 25 per cent of the offenders were committed to the jail or the workhouse. In the majority the court has withheld judgment and the defendant has been required to take the pledge and the wife has been directed to furnish the court with a written report on the first of each month as to the conduct of the offending husband. Since January 3, 1910, the court has disposed of 43,881 cases. It would be impossible to convey through the medium of this paper the results that have been obtained in the transaction of this stupendous amount of business through exercising a friendly interest in these unfortunates. Financially considered there has been a great saving to the county in the cost of maintaining its penal institutions in that there has been a reduction of 50 per cent in the number of commitments; $27,410.00 has been collected from probationers who because of inability to pay under the old

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19151 PROBATION-A HELP TO THE DELINQUENT 223 method would have been committed to the jail or workhouse; and there has been a gain of $3,144.75 to the common school fund. The results of a system of justice are not to be measured wholly by dollars and cents. The reports to the court show that home conditions have improved; that men have abstained from the use of intoxicating liquor; that employers have been enlisted in taking a more friendly interest in employees; that many have joined churches, and in other ways have added to a higher standard of living. A probation system established in every court in this state exercising criminal jurisdiction would be a profitable investment so far as the public is concerned, but better than all it would mean the social regeneration of thousands of men and women. Of far greater significance is the moral uplift.

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THE CITY’S HOUSEKEEPING BY HUGH MOLLESON FOSTER^ .New York City UPPOSE a landlady bought her groceries of a grocer who was a friend of a friend, simply because he was such, and not recomS mended to her for any other qualification; how long would her business last? Yet that is what the city of New York has done. Unbusinesslike as it may sound, it is no exaggeration, and still we have much to congratulate ourselves upon, for the present methods of purchasing supplies for the municipal government are far better than they were a few years ago. The improvement is chiefly due to various officials,. past and present, who are often far more conscientious than the general public seems to believe. It is not so many years ago that business with the city went by favor. A dealer who wanted to do business with the city had to do it in the “good old fashioned way”-by political pull. A business man might contribute to “the organization,” or do a favor for the “boss,” and, if he made his contributions large enough and did favors often enough, at last he got “in right.” A commissioner owed his appointment as head of a department to the mayor and the mayor owed his election to the organization”-and that is “the boss.” The situation was like a pair of scissors rivetted in the middle and by proper manipulation of the handles it was easy enough to unite the points; and so the commissioner and the contractor were brought together. Such a relation does not necessarily imply graft nor does it entail any impropriety of a milder sort, but there were undoubtedly many instances of abuse. Ordinary business men prefer to give orders to friends or friends of friends and nothing is said; but private business may do many things which if attempted in public affairs would raise an outcry. Public protest against this system of favoritism became so acute and so general that even those engaged in it realized that the time had come for a change. It was demanded that all business men should have equal opportunities of doing business with the city. Then the first step, in the subsequent development of the present method of purchasing supplies for the city, was taken. Provision was made in the charter that all items amounting to $1,000 or over must be purchased by contract after advertising and public letting, and this arrangement gave competitors the equal opportunity they had sought. Soon, however, the restriction was evaded. If an item amounted to $1,000 or more, it was split up into two or more orders and so kept under the mark and once more given to the favored ones. This lapse to the old ‘Connected with the bureau of standards of the New York Board of Estimate and Apportionment. 224

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19153 THE CITY’S HOUSEKEEPING 225 abuse was in turn overcome by a new provision in the charter. It was provided that all goods of one kind of which a year’s consumption amounted to $1,000 or more, must be bought by contract. That is, all canned goods, dry groceries and so forth, for instance, were advertised and awarded in one contract; but this allowed what are known as “split bids”-bids low on some items and high on others, but making an average just low enough to win. The contractor then delivered inferior goods on the low-priced items and so the city was defrauded. This method again has been recently improved. All canned goods, say, may be advertised in one list; but awards are made item by item. The lowest bidder on peaches gets the contract for peaches and the lowest bidder on apricots gets the contract for apricots and so on, each item being awarded by itself and irrespective of any other. This absolutely defeats the evil of split bids. The advantage becomes more apparent the longer the list of goods of one classification. Let us suppose now that our hypothetical landlady bought her groceries by telephone and never looked at them when they were delivered. The next step that was taken, though not so wide in its application, was *even more effective in its tendency toward economy, concentration and system. The charter stipulates that the comptroller shall authorize for payment all claims against the city only upon the certification of an auditor of accounts that the supplies have been delivered or the work performed and that the prices therefor are reasonable and just, and an auditor so certifies only upon the certification of an inspector, after the last has .actually ascertained the facts. It was the desire to strengthen his knowledge upon which payments were based that induced the comptroller to organize his division of inspection. Of course inspection had been done before that, but in a haphazard and unsystematic way. Under the present well regulated inspection service the work is thoroughly systematized and the results have been beyond expectation. The city is divided into districts with an inspector or two in each and to the larger receiving points a special inspector is assigned with a clerk to check quantities. All purchasing agents of the various departments are required to send to this division duplicate copies of their orders at the time that these are sent to the dealers. In this way inspectors are notified before the delivery of the goods and so have opportunity to inspect all supplies. The inspectors are authorized to inspect all supplies delivered and all work done and to examine all books and records in connection therewith, and it is their duty to pass upon quantity, quality and the reasonableness of prices. Besides, they are required to make special investigations and to report suggestions for the general betterment of the service. When the inspector finds that the quality of the supplies does not conform to the specifications, their rejecThis step was taken by the comptroller.

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226 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Aprit tion is recommended to the department to which they have been delivered. When the price is found to be exorbitant, by comparison with prices obtained elsewhere for the same article, a compromise with the dealer is arranged. The other departments have co-operated generously in inspection work and the results have been far-reaching. The average layman would find it difficult to believe the enormoua amounts of goods of inferior quality which are rejected every year and the great number of high prices which are cut to the “reasonable and just” limit. All contractors now realize that their goods will be subjected to a rigid inspection and usually govern themselves accordingly, so that the average quality is far better than it was a few years ago. This realization, although it may be negative in form, has great moral effect and is none the less real and preventive because it can not be recorded in words and figures. Suppose our hypothetical landlady bought a French chop for one boarder and an English chop for another. The latest phase of this development of businesslike management of supplies is the most comprehensive and important thus far undertaken. It is so not only in the immediate work done, but more especially in strengthening all that has gone before. This improvement also came from the comptroller. Comptroller Metz established the division of inspection and Comptroller Prendergast established the standardization commission. The function of this commission, as its name implies, is to bring order out of the chaos which previously prevailed. Thus far the commission has issued standard specifications for coal, forage, ice, fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, soap and other supplies. These specifications have been ratified by the board of estimate and apportionment and are now binding upon all the municipal departments. In time it is intended to include all supplies, so that there will be a fixed standard of quality for all supplies which the city buys, such as all well-regulated large business organizations enforce. Suppose our hypothetical landlady bought beef of one butcher at 35 cents a pound one day and of another butcher at 25 cents a pound the next day. What next? What will be the next step in the great experiment of reducing the purchase of supplies for the city to the most economical basis? The question naturally arises and many answers as promptly respond. Why not standardize prices? Prices of course depend upon supply and demand, it will be smugly retorted, and that opens the vista to the whole tossing sea of political economy and even a buyer of so large a calibre 5s the city of New York can hardly say what it will pay and what it will not pay for a given article. Certainly no fixed price for These are not the only benefits effected by inspection.

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19151 THE CITY’S HOUSEKEEPING 227 any given article can be long maintained, but if all the forces now engaged in purchasing and so scattered, should be concentrated in one department and information collected on a scale equal to that in previous standardization work, results may well be achieved which would far surpass what has already been done. The standardization of prices should not be allowed to interfere with the commissioners of the various departments in their prerogative of the purchase of supplies. Each commissioner assumes the responsibility for the administration of his department, and therefore must retain the authority of declaring what the requirements of his department are. Otherwise a charge of mismanagement could be shifted by the commissioner on to the shoulders of those who had deprived him of his power of purchase. In order to provide against this, each commissioner should have in the purchase or supply department or bureau his own representative to name the supplies required for his department in kind and quantity. The function of the supply department, in the standardization of prices, should be only to regulate prices by reduction, concentration and uniformity; and, as to the supplies themselves, to control the distribution thereof. The representative of the commissioner should receive all requisitions from his department and also act as a special purchasing agent for supplies of one kind. All these representatives should constitute a board of purchasing agents subordinate to a director and all, together with the director, should be of the classified service. The director should be subject to a board of purchase composed of the mayor, the comptroller and the president of the board of aldermen. By some such arrangement as this the purchases of supplies of one kind could be combined in one transaction, so that prices could be greatly reduced; and records could be kept by each purchasing agent showing the quantities consumed in his department, so that distribution could be regulated and waste obviated, or at least decreased. Suppose the hypothetical landlady with 78 boarders allowed each boarder to buy his own salt and pepper, or even butter and meat, and then send the bills to her. There are 78 parts of the municipal government listed in the budget at present. Seventeen of these are regularly constituted municipal departments, and the others are: The mayorality, chamberlain, Bellevue and allied hospitals, the College of the City of New York, Hunter College, and various boards, commissions, associations, libraries, courts, the presidents of the boroughs and so forth. All these buy their supplies separately and a large proportion buy goods of the same kind. The largest two items definitely named in the budget are forage and fuel. Twenty-five branches of the municipal government buy coal, each buying independently of all the others and each under annual contract; so that for coal alone there are 25 contracts issued in the name of the city .

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228 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April every year. Until recently each department drew up its own specifications; so that there was considerable disparity in British thermal units, ash, moisture, volatile matter and other elements of the requirements. The coal bill for the city for the year 1912 amounted to over $2,000,000 and, like most other items, is on the increase from year to year. Fourteen branches of the municipal government buy forage under conditions similar to those of the purchase of coal, and there are thus 14 contracts for forage every year. The bill for forage amounts to nearly $1,000,000 a year. These two items are taken as instances, but there are so many others that it may be loosely said that the city buys nearly every article of commerce. It is difficult to name many things the city does not buy from apples to zinc. All items over $1,000 are required to be bought under contract, but this regulation leaves an enormous number of smaller items which are bought by open market orders. In all transactions of both kinds all the departments and other branches of the municipal government act independently, so that many may be buying the same article at the same time from the same dealer at the same or different prices. In this way purchasing is diffused through dozens of channels, at a consequent waste, which might be concentrated into one transaction at a corresponding reduction in cost; because buying in greater quantities would command lower unit prices. In the case of goods bought under contract the procedure is rather complicated. The amount required for a given department for one year is determined by ascertaining from all bureaus, divisions and institutions in the department the amount each will need and adding these together. Then the specifications, for articles not yet standardized, governing the quality, are drawn up and the full contract, with all its legal technicalities, is written and must be submitted to the corporation counsel for his approval. Notices are then published in The City Record of amounts required, specifications, points of delivery and the date when sealed bids will be received; and samples, to which the goods delivered must conform, are placed on exhibition to guide prospective bidders. The contract form itself is now ready for the printer. Prospective bidders must file a bond with the comptroller for the faithful performance of the contract. Upon the date named the bids are opened by the head of the department, or his representative, in the presence of the competitors and a representative of the comptroller and the contract is awarded to the lowest bidder. The successful bidder files another bond with the comptroller and after all preliminary financial requirements are satisfied the comptroller approves the sureties and the contract becomes valid. After the date upon which the contract goes into effect those who are to use the goods make requisition on the storekeeper, who transmits it to the purchasing agent, who issues an order to the contractor, who

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19151 THE CITY’S HOUSEKEEPING 229 makes delivery to the point designated; and the business of supplying the city in that instance has begun. This procedure is duplicated in all the other departments at the same time. In the case of goods bought by open market order the procedure is simpler. Those who are to use the goods make requisition on their immediate superior, who approves and transmits it to the head of the department for his approval. The latter forwards it to the purchasing agent, who, at his discretion, gets prices from various dealers or not and then issues the order; a.nd the goods are delivered. This procedure is also duplicated in all the other departments. So far as possible supplies are bought from wholesalers; but in many instances, because the departments buy independently, ihe quantities are so divided as to preclude buying except from retailers. Coal, for instance, is so subdivided that it is bought from retailers in the city. If all the coal for the municipal government were bought in one transaction, a contract of such size would warrant the attention of mine owners. Coal pockets could be built in each borough and sufficient quantities stored to guard against a rising market or famine due to strikes. The cost of building these coal pockets would be only an initial expense and that of operating them would be slight in comparison with the great reduction in the cost of coal, which would be perennial. On the same principle, almost all other supplies could be bought from original producers and thus eliminate the middlemen’s profits. All this waste of money in purchasing supplies and time and labor of employees in duplication of the work, might be saved by the establishment of a properly organized department of purchase. It may seem that the present departments are numerous enough, but this addition should more than justify its existence in the great economy effected. It has been urged that the commissionership of such a department would be too great responsibility for one man. A commission might be formed of three men to divide the work. These should have as subordinates the present purchasing agents of the various departments, fitness to be determined by competitive examination, and other employees throughout the city at present engaged in supply work should be taken as the force for the new department. General storehouses should be established in the different boroughs and subsidiary storehouses in the outlying districts, if such are found necessary. Under this arrangement all branches of the municipal government, with the approval of the officials in charge, would make requisition direct upon the department of purchase. In the case of goods bought under contract, all of the same kind would be bought under one contract; and in the case of goods bought by open market order, all of the same kind would be bought by one order. The change from many to one transaction would effect great economy. 3

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230 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April Such a plan has been objected to on the ground that it would deprive the commissioners of the various departments of their power of purchase. On the other hand the change would be a relief. As a matter of fact, under the present method of purchasing little discretion is left to the commissioner except in his approval of the necessity of the purchase. The actual purchasing is delegated to the purchasing agent, or some other subordinate, and in the case of goods bought under contract it becomes a mere matter of routine, and in the case of goods bought by open market order any good purchasing agent, except for items too small for such consideration, gets estimates from several dealers. Little more is required of the commissioner than the final decision in controversies over the acceptability of goods delivered; but, as such controversies are frequent, this responsibility, from his point of view, is quite enough. By the plan proposed the commissioner would be relieved of this distasteful task and be allowed more time and energy for the more efficient administration of his department. The work of the department of purchase might be apportioned in one of two ways: According to the kinds of supplies or according to the departments. By the first arrangement all lumber, for instance, would be bought by one buyer and his assistants; and by the second arrangement all supplies for the department of health, for instance, would be bought by one buyer and his amistants. In either case all the data collected by the department of purchase should, of course, be available for all the employees of that department. In no case should the prerogatives of the commissioners be curtailed, because they are held responsible for the administration of their departments. The necessity, or even the advisability, of expenditure should still be left entirely to the commissioners and the sole function of the department of purchase should be to provide every means for the best possible economy in purchasing. All the supplies for the city of New York cost about $20,000,000 a year. By concentrating many transactions into one a saving should be effected which, at a conservative estimate, should reach 25 per cent, or $5,000,000 every year. As the price of supplies and the quantities required by the city increase from year to year, the total cost increases; but so should the saving effected by the proposed method increase proportionately. To this must be added saving in time by simplification of procedure and further saving in labor by reducing the present enormous multiplicatibn of clerical work. Any railroad or other large business organization which did not follow the method outlined above, would go out of business as promptly as the hypothetical landlady cited at the beginning of this article.

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PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS THE NOISE NT. JISANCE BY IMOQEN B. OAKLEY~ Philadelphia FEW years ago I went to one of the college settlements of Philadelphia to speak to an audience of women toilers who had been A gathered from the neighboring tenements. I told them what the city was doing for them, and what they could do for the city in return, and incidentally I asked them what the3 considered the greatest evil in their crowded tenement life. What we cannot stand is the noise. It never stops. It is killing us. We work hard all day and need sleep and rest at night. No one can sleep till midnight and all the noise begins again at five. Many of us have husbands who work all night and must get their sleep during the day, but they get no sound sleep with all the noise that goes on about us. You can get away from the noise during the summer, but we cannot. We are right here in the middle of it all our lives. Now, what can your civic club do for us?” I had to tell her we could do nothing. There are no laws against useless noise in Philadelphia. Complaints can be made, of course, under the general law of nuisance; but to go to a magistrate, make the necessary complaints, and attend a series of hearings would take more time and more money than any of those women have at their disposal. Although thecivic club could do nothing then to help those tired-outwomen, it began at once an agitation against useless noise. The first thing I did personally was to make a list of the useless noises which I could hear from my own window, and I found that between 5 a.m. and midnight there was an entirely useless and preventable noise on an average of every five minutes. I sent this list to a widely-read paper, and its publication brought me a shower of letters each one telling of some useless noise that tormented the writer and thanking me for bringing the subject of noise to the attention of the public. The large majority of these letters came from the tenement districts, and taught me two important facts: First, that the people of the slums do not like 1 Mrs. Oakley is chairman of the committee on noise of the American Civic Association and for many years was chairman of the committee on civil service reform of the Genera1 Federation of Women’s Clubs. She has been actively identified with civic movements during the past 25 years, holding at various times prominent positions. 231 One woman rose and said, “I speak for every woman here.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April noise, as popularly supposed; they hate it, and second, the demand thaf useless noise be stilled is not merely to protect those who are ill, but to protect those who are well; to prevent them from becoming ill. Apologists for noise say that those who differ with them are nervous cranks; that they imagine discomfort when none exists; that they are the idle rich who would not hear the noise if they had something to keep their minds and bodies busy. They are not the idle rich, they are the toiling poor, they have more than enough to do. Many of them never heard the words “nervous invalid,” yet they say they are dying of noise. When they claim that constant noise is undermining their health, they are simply in accord with the best medical science. Dust and noise, say our physicians and sanitarians, are two great evils of the day. Dust because it steals into the remotest corners of our homes bearing with it countless miscroscopic enemies, and noise because of its destructive effect upon our nerves. No arguments are needed to prove the effect of noise upon the auditory nerve. Doctor Clarence Blake of Boston, one of the most eminent of the world’s aurists says: “Diseases of the ear are increasing with the increase of noise. If the noise of our cities is to continue, we shall be a deaf race. As the eye requires intervals of darkness so the ear requires intervals of silence to keep it in perfect health.” It is a singular thing that the ear is the only organ of sense that has no legal protection. It insists upon the cleanliness of all articles which the public touches. It does not allow disgusting or indecent signs; billboards are condemned because they offend the eye. It enacts pure food rules and regulations, thereby protecting the health through the sense of taste, but it leaves the ear the helpless victim of every assaulting sound. Logically the ear should receive the most protection from the law since it is itself defenseless. We can use deodorizers and disinfectants against foul smells; we can close our eyes to offensive sights, but our ears must remain open to the most offensive sounds. The ear, too, is the shortest avenue to the brain. The editor of the Journal of Pediatrics asked as long ago as 1897, “May it not be possible that much of our startling increase in insanity is due to the continuous noise of our cities? May not the brain be affected by the ceaseless assaults through the ear?” The Boston Medical Surgical Journal in 1890 declared noise to be ((a nuisance and a danger.” The American Journal of Public Hygiene in 1906 claimed that noise is harmful to healthy persons: First, because it necessitates concentrated attention, thereby increasing the liability to nervous fatigue; and Second, because it interferes with the necessary amount of sleep. Ordinary attention does not produce fatigue; it is a normal action of the My numerous suffering correspondents disprove the theory. The law forbids offensive odors.

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19151 PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS NOISE NUISANCE 233 brain, but when concentrated and absorbed attention is required, nervous fatigue is produced in exact proportion to the amount of concentration. To listen or to think in the midst of noise requires intense concentration, which produces nervous fatigue, and this fatigue produced and reproduced day after day leads indubitably to neurasthenia. Almost all sick persons are in a state of pathological fatigue, and loud, disagreeable noises increase this fatigue to the danger point. The same journal is responsible for the statement that good mental work cannot be done in noisy surroundings. It is quite true that operatives in mills and drivers of rattling drays may seem to acquire a considerable immunity to noise, but we must remember that these occupations do not involve much thought, and moreover, as yet no one has tried to get at the sufferings which these operatives and drivers doubtless endure. Habituation to noise may be possible to persons of exceptionally strong nerves and power of concentration, but even though habituation be seemingly achieved, the work done under the influence of noise is inferior to that done amid quiet surroundings. On this same subject of habituation, Professor Sedgwick, of Boston, says that people in crowded cities are in a constant state of nervous fatigue and the fact that many of them do not like the quiet of the country is a proof of their pathological condition. The noise apologists who insist that noise is not harmful when we become accustomed to it, must be reminded that we can grow so accustomed to foul air that fresh air becomes absolutely disagreeable, yet no one would argue from this that foul air is not injurious, or that it is as good for the lungs as fresh air. But bad as are the nervous effects of continuous noise, sudden and intermittent noises are infinitely more to be dreaded. Each loud and sudden noise produces a distinct nerve-shock and these shocks often repeated cause a loss in nerve-vitality. Immunity to such noises can never be attained for the sound waves of the air thrown into violent action by a loud sudden noise, strike actual physical blows upon the auditory nerve and a constant succession of such blows inevitably injures and finally destroys the delicate mechanism of the ear. Bells, whistles, gongs, and the startling shrieks of street-vendors are therefore more injurious to the health than the continuous roar of railway trains, or the monotonous whirr of machinery in mills and factories. The London Lancet declares that street noises are potent factors in undermining the health of city-dwellers, especially brain-workers, making them neurasthenic and unfit for long-continued effort, and it warns the public that as a national danger the possible “Yellow Peril” fades into insignificance beside the present and actual “Yelling Peril” which makes pandemonium of our streets.

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234 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April Under the heading “Police news” a London paper reports that a boy was taken in charge for whistling and shouting at night. The magistrate inquired about the neighborhood. “Neighborhood of gentry,” said the officer. First-class people need first-class sleep,” was the decision of the magistrate, and the boy was committed for disturbing the peace. The sentiment is growing that all classes of people need first-class sleep. According to the Philadelphia Medical Journal every physician and every educated person should wage incessant war against unnecessary noises : First, because it is certain they increase the sick-rate by murdering sleep. Second, because they increase the death-rate by destroying the vital and recuperative powers of the sick. Third, because they dull and brutalize the nervous system of those who have to withstand their pathogenic influence. Fourth, because they serve to make the sensitive and cultured separate themselves in their search for quiet from the masses, thus serving to intensify the license of the noise-makers by lessening the checks upon their crimes. Dr. Ernest J. Lederle, late health commissioner of New York City, in an address before the international congress of scientists, held in St. Louis in 1903, asserted that nervous prostration and our intense American excitability are due quite as much to the nerve-racking noise of our cities as to the strain and rush of our daily lives, and he was convinced that the time had come-and this was in 1903-when physicians must take cognizance of the fact that noise is an element to consider in the cause of disease, and that the prevention of unnecessary noise is as much the duty of the medical profession as the prevention of unnecessary dirt. Doctor Lederle called upon boards of health throughout the country to take prompt action for the suppression of all noises that cannot be proved to be unavoidable. All of the authorities I have quoted agree that loud sudden noises are the most injurious to the nerves and they agree also that whistles, bells, gongs, street pianos, the crowing of roosters, the barking of dogs, and the outcries of street-vendors are loud and sudden noises, and must be stopped except when they can be proved to be unavoidable. Bells and whistles cannot be classed as unavoidable noises in this day of cheap and universal clocks. Even church-bells, tender as are the memories connected with them, and pleasant as they sound in the far-away distance, are disturbing as near neighbors. I have a letter from a stenographer-and stenography is classed with the fatigue-producing occupations since it requires concentrated attention-in which she says, “I take rapid dictation all day amid the distracting noise at the corner of Fifth and Chestnut streets, and I go home tired out and needing rest. The street-vendors and street-pianos prevent sleep in the early evening, and I am wakened every morning at 5 by the bells of a near-by church. They ring at 5,

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19151 PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS NOISE NUISANCE 235 at 5.30, at 6, at 6.30, at 7, at 7.30 and then it is time for me to get up, having been deprived of two hours’ sleep by what seems to be an entirely unnecessary noise.” Our American public opinion against aggressive sectarianism ought to support any attempt to prohibit the ringingof church-bells. For why should a Quaker be wakened by a Roman Catholic bell; or a Presbyterian by an Episcopal bell, or a Methodist by a Baptist bell? If churchbells could be so constructed that they would be guaranteed to waken only the members of the church in which they are hung, they could be tolerated, but so long as they continue to arouse believers in opposing faiths, our non-sectarian laws ought to be strong enough to silence them. We shall have to consider that the gongs of the automobiles and the trolleys are to a certain extent unavoidable at present, but the international congress of aurists that met in Boston in 1913 maintained that all swift-moving vehicles should carry a horn emitting a musical note, or scale, and that this musical sound should be the same for all vehicles; the startling, clanging gong to be resorted to only in sudden danger to life. We can find no excuse for the street pianos. My correspondents from the tenements beg to have them suppressed. “The children have their public playgrounds now,” they say, “and do not need the diversion of the street-piano.” The street-musician has really developed into a blackmailer. He has learned that the noise he makes is disagreeable, and he refuses to leave unless he is paid for leaving. According to a story emanating from a New York paper, an ItaIian organ-grinder in that city was arrested for some trivial offense. “What do you make a week?” asked the magistrate. “About twenta-five dolla,’’ answered the grinder. “What !I1 exciaimed the magistrate, “twenty-five dollars a week for “Oh no, sare, notta for grind; for shutta up and go way.” The objection to street-music is no new thing. grinding an organ!” More than a generation ago a number of distinguished Englishmen addressed a memorial to parliament on this very subject. The letter was written by Charles Dickens and among those who signed it were Tennyson, Millais, Holman Hunt, John Leech, Wilkie Collins, and, of course, Thomas Carlyle. “Your correspondents,” wrote Charles Dickens, “are professors and practitioners of one or other of the arts and sciences. In their devotion to their pursuits, tending to the peace and comfort of mankind, they are daily interrupted, harassed, ‘worried, wearied, and driven nearly mad by street-musicians. They are even made especial objects of persecution by brazen performers on brazen instruments, beaters of drums, grinders of organs, bangers of banjos, clashers of cymbals, worriers of fiddles, and bellowers of ballads, for no sooner does it become known to those pro

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236 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April ducers of horrible sounds that any of your correspondents have particular need of quiet in their own homes than the said homes are beleaguered by discordant hosts seeking to be bought off.” Street vendors can be silenced without injury to their trade if housekeepers will follow the advice offered by my correspondents from the tenements. Written notices saying that ice, coal, fruit, vegetables, or what not, are desired within, can be placed in the window for all dealers in such commodities to see. This simple plan, which prevails in New England cities, saves time to the housekeeper and vocal energy to the vendor, beside relieving from annoyance all that large class of people who do not desire to buy. Newsboys can sell as many papers by offering them quietly, as by standing on corners and giving vent to inarticulate howls. It will be difficult to silence these youngsters for they really enjoy shouting. I once stopped a boy who I knew belonged to a well-to-do family and asked, “Why are you selling papers?” He grinned, and answered, “Because I like to holler.” In point of fact, all newsboys should be removed from the temptations of the streets, and sent to continuation-schools where they could learn trades that would ensure them an honest living, and their places as sellers of papers should be taken by elderly men and women and cripples. If noise is injurious to the nervous system, it follows that it is the unrelenting foe of the thinker, the writer, the artist, and the musician. Edmund Yeates, the Celtic poet, asks why America has made so small a contribution to the fine arts, and then answers the question himself :- “I stayed in an American town,” he says, “where a railway train with clanging bell went up and down the main street every hour of the day and night. Perhaps the arts await till some Apollo shall arise and slay that Boards of health, as Doctor Lederle says, have power to put an end to senseless and useless noises. If they can compel a man to be vaccinated lest he give his neighbor smallpox, they can surely compel him to cease from noises that produce nervous prostration. If they can prevent him from polluting his neighbor’s water-supply with typhoid germs, they can forbid ‘him from congesting his neighbor’s air with sounds that breed insanity. Apologists for noise urge with an apparent show of reason that since there must be in every city so much noise that is unavoidable, it is foolish to rail against the relatively small amount that is avoidable, but the unavoidable noise of the city is the very reason why the avoidable noises should be stilled. There is so much noise that we must endure that it has become an imperative duty to the public health to silence all those noises that are unnecessary. The prayers of the night workers must not go unanswered. python.” t

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19151 PUBLIC HEALTH VERSUS NOISE NUISANCE 237 Modern civilization brings with it much labor that cannot cease with the going down of the sun. Shall the street-cleaners, telegraphers, nightwatchmen, railway-employees, toilers in iron and steel, printers, reporters, editors, doctors, nurses-shall all these great and growing armies of toilers that work through the night for the public comfort and convenience, be allowed to take their needful sleep during the day, or shall their rest be broken and their lives shortened by the utterly useless noises made by bells and whistles, shouting vendors, shrieking newsboys, and blaring street-pianos? No one would be permitted as a means of advertisement to flash light into the weary eyes of these sleepers, yet vendors, pedlers, newsboys and grinders flash all manner of noises into their ears with impunity. If such noises are to go on, it must be in places where sleep is unnecessary, and illness unknown.

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THE MOVEMENT FOR CITY STREET TREES-A SURVEY BY CARL BANNWART~ Newark, N. J. HE appearance of a city is its chief material asset. The calibre of a city’s people, as a whole, is exactly expressed in the outward T and visible aspect of their municipal home. Now there is nothing that gives tone to this aspect like well-kept parks and well-treed streets. More and more this is coming to be noted; and increasingly is attention being given to the adorning of city streets with trees. Also it is seen that to depend on private initiative in this matter will not do. What is needed is to bring the planting, nurture, care and protection of street trees under municipal control, and such control concentrated in a single department specializing in the one thing, vie. : street trees. What municipal control of shade trees can do may best be illustrated by what it has done; and as we have fist-hand knowledge of what it has done in Newark, we may be pardoned for citing the experience of that town-though it is our own. In 1904, Newark, acting under a state law, created a shade tree commission. To this body (of three members) was committed the “exclusive and absolute control and power to plant, set out, maintain, protect and care for shade trees in any of the public highways of the municipality.” In 1905 a supplementary law transferred to the commission’s control the care and improvement of “the public parks belonging to the municipality or any department in the government thereof.” In 1906 the commission was empowered “to pass, enact, alter, amend and repeal ordinances for the protection, regulation and control” of such parks and “of all shade trees” situate “in the public highways” of the city. These fine, old stately growths which had come down to us out of the past from the fathers, but which for so long had been strangers to considerate treatment, were now seen to be set apart as objects of government’s special care, as wards of a municipal department specially created to care for and protect them, and empowered to enforce considerate treatment of them. Here was the germ of what has since unfolded into a public sentiment which had not theretofore existed: A new and unique sentiment in favor of the trees, that goes on increasing. 2. It has saved thousands of the older trees which would otherwise have 1 Secretary Shade Tree Commission of Newark. And, now, briefly, what has come of this? 1. It at once raised the status of the then existent street trees. 238

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19151 MOVEMENT FOR CITY TREES-A SURVEY 239 perished through insect attack, through the carelessness or malice of men, the bitings of horses. 3. It has resulted in the setting out of nearly 27,000 young trees, 180 miles of Newark’s streets having been thus planted since the inception of the shade tree commission. Picture this! One hundred and eighty miles of new plantings, adorning the streets, gladdening the eye, cooling and purifying the air, and enhancing the city’s beauty and health and wealth . 4. The creation of a tree department has resulted in the establishment of a city nursery. 5. The inclusion of the city parks in the work of the shade tree commission has brought them under specialized care, so that these parks have put on new beauty. Washington, Lincoln, Military and the other parks are a standing exhibit to passing thousands every day of what can be achieved for civic beauty by the embodiment of the shade tree idea in a municipal commission. 6. It has secured both for street trees and for parks scientific, technical care. The importance of this cannot be overestimated. The treatment of trees, as also of parks, is an expert profession. Expert planting, pruning, mulching, spraying, etc., are absolutely necessary, not only to the welfare and beauty, but to the very life of the trees. Take the operations of pruning and spraying, for examples. When these have been left to private initiative, they have either been entirely neglected or the operation was so inexpertly performed (in many cases) as to result in the ruin of the tree. 7. The creation of a shade tree commission made possible a most fruitful educational propaganda concerning trees. The work of planting the streets and beautifying the parks of the city has been in itself a direct educative influence, as is obvious. But in addition to this the commission has been able to awaken, encourage and stimulate an enlightened interest in trees, in the several values of them, in their beauty, their healthgiving qualities, their agency in cooling and purifying the air, their real estate worth . Such are some, but by no means all, of the uses which a municipal tree department may serve. It goes without saying that the results pointed out could hardly be achieved by an individual, or by any body of individuals other than a municipal commission. Such results, it is manifest, are practicable only to a municipal body, clothed with authority. But now for a look abroad. How is the cause faring up and down this big land of ours? Among the Iarger cities which go in for the municipal planting, care and control of street trees, Washington is easily foremost. It has been at it a long while; it has kept to a continuous policy; and it has used horse sense. Many avenues have been planted and now present delight

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240 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April ful vistas of mature trees; yet Washington does not rest on its laurels. There is much proof to even the casual observer that the trees are continually watched and tended. When a gap is created by the failure of this or that larger tree, that gap is promptly closed with a new planting. And it is manifest that in planning for the streets the trees were part of the original concept, and were not lugged in later as a mere afterthought. Accordingly, the sidewalks are everywhere wide enough to permit the planting of trees, and this is so even on business streets. Washington is the youngest of the great capitals; but it was started upon a broad foundation. And with the years the concept of its founder is unfolding in splendor. It has had a park board for a long time, but has had a bureau of street forestry for only seven years. In 1908, the park board created this new bureau and went to work with vigor on the street tree proposition. From the beginning they had a good start in the matter of parkways already planted. In the six years they have set out 15,000 street trees. They have had their own troubles with the insect problem; but not so much as elsewhere. Owing to the cold winters the pests are not so numerous there, either as to number or species. The Buffalonians are generous in their appropriation of funds for tree work. Their tree department is one of the most efficient in the country. At Rochester one finds a bright city addressing itself to its tree problems through a municipal tree department, lately created. The same is true of three towns not far away, Ithaca (Cornell), Glens Falls, and Geneva, the latter the seat of the New York State agricultural experiment station and of Hobart College. Syracuse is another community that has lately joined the shade tree fraternity, and, moreover, is working at it. Syracuse University has a school of forestry, recently established, including the first definite course on street silviculture. By means of its extension department it is aiding in New York state in the shade tree idea. The city has recently appointed a city forester, a graduate of that school-a good beginning. The park superintendent and the city forester have exclusive control of existing trees and power to set out new plantings. With proper appreciation of trees as a decorative factor and of the splendid possibilities of that city set on its seven hills, we may expect results if the municipal authorities will grant sufficient funds. At present they give about $7,000 per year for the maintenance of their 45,000 trees, which means about 15 cents per tree per annum. Much of this is spent in taking down dead trees. (The park department of the city of Paris pays $1.25 per tree per annum; the city of Newark, 50 cents.) The department of street forestry is bringing its guns to bear upon those having control of the purse-strings in Syracuse, pointing out that Buffalo deserves mention next after Washington.

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19151 MOVEMENT FOR CITY TREES-A SURVEY 241 time is the greatest factor in creating well-treed streets, and that no time is to be lost therefore in setting out the trees and nursing them along. At the best, there will be a wait of ten years after planting before considerable results become manifest. Young trees glorify the vista by the second year, but a decade is needed to bring about even a promise of the stately beauty of their full maturity. Baltimore has just awakened to the necessity for a municipal tree department. Baltimore is within an hour’s ride of Washington, and the shining example of the latter city is bound to have effect. It has broad residential streets; and this of course works to the great advantage of street trees as also their congeners, street parkways. In other words street conditions as related to planting possibilities are superb. And even these conditions are being improved by a process of narrowing roadways and widening sidewalks. Moreover the paving commission, in letting contracts for the prosecution of its own work, so conditions such .contracts as to provide for the setting out of trees. Again, Baltimore has .a generous and unique source of revenue for the maintenance of its parks and parkways. Every time you board a trolley car and drop your nickel in the slot, you are dropping nine per cent of that nickel into the park maintenance fund. This annual fund which is now about $600,000, and is increasing, is used at present for park work only; but the time is coming, without any doubt, when a portion of it will be employed in the planting, nurture, and maintenance of street trees. For the present, he is the municipality’s representative and agent in the matter of street trees. He is well supported in his efforts by tree-loving citizens of all classes except in the important matter of appropriation. We wish we had better things to report of Philadelphia; but at present the care of street trees there forms but a sort of side line in the work of the park department which has been charged with the control of the trees under Pennsylvania shade tree law. Unofficial neighborhood “campaigns” are helping some. The city appropriated $20,000 this year for its trees. Not a large sum as compared with the $34,000 of Newark (which has much less population), or the $50,000 of Buffalo (also less population), or the $43,000 of Washington (still less population). Pittsburgh, Wilkes-Barre, and West Chester are among the other communities that have accepted the state law and are assuming the care of the street trees. Cleveland, advertising itself as the “Forest City,” is beginning to handle the problem; and there are Urbana, Alton, and Peoria doing the same. Peoria’s chamber of commerce is taking the matter up; a straw that shows the way the wind blows. Urbana’s beginnings are under the .auspices of neighborhood clubs and the tutelage of the University of Illinois. Baltimore also has a city forester. The university teaches by lectures, given gratis.

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242 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ApriI It has had a working city forester for five years. Now these things go to show that the great middle west is waking up; and when that energetic country once takes hold in earnest, there’ll be something doing. Our own people in New Jersey make a fine local and collective showing. There are fifty-two shade tree commissions throughout the state each keeping arbor day all the year round in its own little corner. When you consider that each of these commissions raciates information and influence for the municipal care of trees, that the state forester, pathologist and entomologist in season and out of season dispense expert advice and encouragement-and that the state department of instruction also gives the shade tree idea an occasional boost, you begin to see that if the progress is gradual it is nevertheless steady and increasing in size, strength and going qualities. Newark has planted 27,000 trees in ten years and is jealously guarding them. Jersey City has set out 10,000 in eight years. East Orange and South Orange, East Rutherford, Passaic, Irvington, Belleville, Nutley, Montclair, all of New Jersey, have each done considerable planting reaching into the thousands and are studying and solving the problems for their cities. Greater New York is taking hold in all her boroughs. Not so long ago, as men not yet old remember, Manhattan Isle as to many of its residence streets was a veritable grove of trees. What “old New Yorker” can forget the glory of the verdure of the olden East Broadway, or of Elm street that took its name from the towers of spreading green that lined its walks, or of old Marion street with its maples, or Prince street, or Lafayette place, or Waverly place, or Washington place, and so many, many thoroughfares of the fine old town all “awave with trees.” But a perverse generation came upon the scene, and in the name of progress the “practical” man had his benighted, Philistine way with the trees. New York has begun to repent, and to lament its folly, and the first stirrings of a purpose to make reparation are manifest. Private individuals and civic organizations are at work-and successfully so-reviving the ancient New York spirit that loved and fostered trees. These private workers have made rapid and important advances in the last few years, insomuch there is now ground for believing that government will take the thing up and create a tree department. One of the encouraging signs is that the park department has taken the street tree proposition under its wing and is acting as foster-parent to it. However, what is needed is a separate department that will make street tree work its one work, concentrating and specializing on that. And when this has come to pass may New York be found working under a statute like New Jersey’s, and here’s wishing the same for all our sister cities up and down the land. For New Jersey, we make bold to say, has Chicago, too, is in the procession.

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19151 MOVEMENT FOR CITY TREES-A SURVEY 243 the model shade tree law. Imitation is the sincerest flattery, and we are thus flattered by Pennsylvania and other neighboring states adopting and adapting New Jersey’s shade tree law. Springfield, Mass., is a striking example of the fine results of a municipality making it its business to care for its trees. Walk up State street from Main! As you pass the intersecting streets, look north and south on each and see, as far as eye can reach to left and right, the towering rows of lofty trees waving their green tops in the breeze, the sun glinting through the verdant roof that forms an arch high up above the road. The like amplitude of stately old trees, some of them of century age, adorns all the older residence districts of Springfield; while “on the hill” +here the city is spreading towards the east the newly opened streets are glorious with young trees. Both old trees and young are thriving. No tree that is dead, or unsightly past remedy, is allowed to stand. The city takes it down forthwith. The most sedulous care is bestowed on all trees, whether old or young. All this, remember, by the municipality itself, through its city forester. Appropriations for tree work are generous. The like policy prevails, and the like results are manifest, in nearly all the municipalities of Massachusetts. There is not space to tell of Hartford, and New Haven, and Providence, of Charleston, and Savannah, and Atlanta, of New Orleans also, and St. Louis, of San Francisco and Palo Alto And Riverside and the rest. All these are entitled to a good report of municipal shade tree work, or its beginnings and stand as encouragements to all shade tree brethren everywhere, and cheer us on to higher things. Further, the agricultural experiment stations, the universities, and the state foresters have taken to the movement. Previously these were occupied with only the academic phase, but of late they have entered into its practical direction within their state boundaries. The state experiment stations of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wyoming; the Cornell University landscape staff, the Syracuse University school of forestry, the Illinois University school of landscape architecture, issue free compendiums and give free lectures to spread the principles of correct planting and modes of nurture and maintenance. In New Jersey the state forester has brought about a state federation of shade tree commissions. Already this hasachieved much and gives promise of achieving much more. It has, for one thing, already solidified shade tree sentiment throughout the state; and given new power to the shade tree propaganda. At the conferences of this federation, tree officials, foresters, entomologists and pathologists discuss tree methods and problems with rich practical results. Action has been taken toward a more stringent quarantine to save the state from invasion by insect pests and tree diseases from beyond its boundaries. The state plant Note the majestic elms on this broad highway.

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244 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April pathologist also visits and bestows expert advice wherever requested by local communities, no expense to be entailed on such communities other than the expert’s travelling expenses. Much, very much, remains to be done. The shade tree movement is yet far from “the stature of a perfect man.” The present is, in comparison with what ought to be, a “day of small things.” Nevertheless a survey of the movement throughout the country yields data big with promise for the future. to go forward. There is every reason to be of good courage and .

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MUNICIPAL BONDS AS POPULAR INVESTMENTS WHY ARE MUNICIPAL BONDS GROWING MORE POPULAR AS INVESTMENTS; AND WHAT EFFECT IS THE WAR HAVING UPON MUNICIPAL FINANCING BY HOWARD F. BEEBE' New YOT~ HE very noticeable increase in the interest of investors in municipal bonds has been attributed by the writers of many financial articles solely to the exemption from the operations of the federal income tax which this form of investment enjoys. Granting that this exemption has had an important influence in bringing about a wider interest in municipal bonds, a careful study will show many other influences working toward the same end. In order to trace and appreciate the relative importance of these influences, it is necessary to retrospect to about 1890 which will carry one back to the severe business and financial depression of the early '90's. At this time the rapidly accumulating wealth of that character which seeks employment by investment in bonds was finding it increasingly difficult to secure a relatively attractive return on municipal obligations of the larger and better known communities, and even then was looking to bonds of the newer western and southwestern communities to obtain a, satisfactory income return. Many investors whose natural disposition was to purchase municipal securities were turning to other channels, chiefly railroads and so-called public utility corporations, for the investment of their funds. However, with the first signs of business depression and decreasing earnings on the part of the railroads, attention again was centered upon municipal bonds with the result that except during the acute stages of the depression municipal securities were much sought after and this resulted in a steady rise in their prices and correspondingly decreasing return on the investment until in the period between 1900 and 1902 they had attained such a high level that a great many investors again turned their attention to other forms of security. The rapidly increasing deposits of savings banks throughout the eastern portion of the United States and the restricted fields in which these deposits might be legally invested contributed largely to the high level of prices attained by municipal bonds during this period. Although the 1907 panic was of comparatively short duration, its aftermath brought about a heavy T 'Manager, Municipal Department, Harris, Forbes & Co., New York. 4 245

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246 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April demand for municipal bonds and it was only a very short time after conditions had readjusted themselves when they reached a level of prices fully as high as had prevailed prior to this great financial disturbance. These brief references to what actually happened to the price level of municipal bonds lead one to the conclusion that the present demand is largely attributable to the disposition on the part oE investors of all classes, both institutional and private, to turn under unusual and disturbed conditions to that form of investment which is freest from possibility of loss and to that end be willing to accept a smaller return than would satisfy them under normal conditions. Again reverting to the period of 1890 we find many investors who still remembered the many defaults and compromises growing out of the conditions produced by the Civil War and the issuance of so-called “bonus bonds” to aid the construction of new railroads, the establishment of manufacturing and other industrial plants by communities with more ambition than sound judgment and securities which were obligations in name only of the municipalities issuing them. That these troubles grew out of unwise and in many cases dishonest financing and that the losses were incurred by individuals seeking a rate of return on their investment out of all proportion to what could have been secured from conservatively issued bonds, was overlooked by a large proportion of investors who knew of the various litigations revolving about this class of security, with the natural result that a very decided prejudice was established in the minds of many intelligent investors and the market for municipal bonds except those of the larger and better known cities was thereby considerably restricted. That a large majority of the defaults and repudiations in connection with state and municipal bonds were the logical outcome of loose and vicious public financing is well known by everyone who has given the subject any study. As the years have passed and municipal financing has gradually been placed on a more scientific basis, defaults and losses have become almost unknown and a great many investors who held an unreasoning prejudice against municipal bonds have come to realize that many of the repudiations of the past were more or less justified, and that those who have used reasonable caution and care in making their selections have had no cause for complaint. It has also become more generally known that a repudiating municipality has no chance of permanently evading the payment of any of its justly contracted indebtedness where the issue has passed through the hands of a competent and reliable investment banking house which can be depended upon to make its own independent investigation, see that the bonds are legally and regularly issued and to take necessary and energetic action to obtain satisfaction in case of delay in payment or actual default.

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19151 MUNICIPAL BONDS 247 Of prime importance to many investors in bonds of all classes is their ready convertibility into cash or their use as collateral in borrowing large sums of money. Municipal issues as a rule have been quickly placed in the hands of permanent holders and therefore few have been listed or at all actively dealt in when listed, on the important exchanges. This resulted in a false belief that a ready market could not be found without undue sacrifice in times of financial stringency. This belief was heightened by the practice of some municipalities selling their bonds to local investors without having the legal proceedings in connection therewith passed upon by competent and well known legal advisers and who took no thought of the possible necessity of reselling. When such bonds seek a market those banking houses who would buy them are restrained by two important considerations: first, the fear that through some serious legal mistake by the city’s counsel, which is usually composed of attorneys appointed more for political reasons than for legal ability, the bonds have not been legally issued; and secondly, because responsible bankers do not feel justified in asking their clientele to buy bonds which they in turn would find difficult to remarket.1 The experience.of our own house over a long period of years covering a number of serious financial disturbances is that a block of municipal bonds, issued by either a large or small municipality, which had been originally purchased by well known and reputable bankers, can be marketed at a satisfactory price under conditions which make it impossible to sell any other form of security except at a great sacrifice. In fact, clients of ours desiring to raise money during the 1907 panic found it more profitable in a large majority of cases to sell municipal bonds than other securities. During the period of great uncertainty following the opening of the present conflict in Europe, municipal bonds were the first class of security to recover their market equilibrium, and the demand for them continues unabated with the natural result of a steadily advancing market price. The recent protracted period during which the important stock exchanges were closed to trading served to impress upon many people that “listing” does not necessarily mean ready marketability under any and all conditions. During long periods of great industrial and commercial activity marked by much real or apparent prosperity there is a notable absence of scrutiny of the possibilities of financial trouble and loss under less favorable conditions. In the buoyant spirit of the time a desire for increase of income causes the investor to be less critical and he waives his conservative requirements in the selection of his securities. From about the latter part of the year 1896 this country has enjoyed an almost continuous period of industrial, commercial and financial prosperity and expansion with its accompanying accumulation of wealth. What, then, was more natural than the growing belief that the old rules for the selection of

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248 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April investments were needlessly conservative? However, with decreasing industrial earnings, the reducing or passing of dividends, defaults in the payment of interest or principal on poorly secured bonds, realization that real estate does not always sell for more than is paid for it, there comes a reaction and investors give more thought to the safeguarding of their principal and are willing to accept the relatively smaller return which goes with the more conservative security. The recruits to the ranks of municipal bond buyers in the past six or seven months has been greater than at any time during my experience of seventeen years in the investment banking business. One very noticeable and interesting feature of the present situation is the large number of active business men who are purchasers of municipal bonds. As a rule, they are seeking comparatively short maturities with the expectation of selling their bonds or using them as collateral for loans as soon as the needs of their business require more capital. A comparison of municipal bonds in the various corresponding grades with railroad, public utility and industrial bonds will show them to return a lower income at all times, which of course is justified by their freedom from losses caused by depressed business conditions, poor management, inimical legislation, etc. This difference has in recent years tended to decrease, due no doubt to the increasing supply of municipal bonds as the country has developed and the municipalities have taken upon themselves the construction of public utilities requiring the expenditure of large sums of money which heretofore had to a much larger extent been owned and operated by privately owned corporations. The confidence of the investing public in other types of investment under prosperous conditions as before mentioned and the readiness with which they are then purchased at a small difference in yearly income has also been a factor. When the prospective investor cast about for a security of the highest degree of safety as he did upon realizing the alarming state of affairs attending the sudden declaration of war in Europe, and found that municipal bonds would yield very close to the income from other forms of high grade security, it is not surprising that he was at once attracted to them. Xow long they may be obtained at such relatively attractive terms cannot be foretold, but it is certain for the present they are to be purchased at a most inviting level of prices. To the net income from municipal bonds must be added the freedom from tax as personal property in many cases, and the interest is not subject to the federal income tax law. Most people seem to assume that in drawing this last named statute, Congress exempted the interest from municipal bonds for political reasons, but it is more than likely that the framers were convinced that not to do so would have been sufficient grounds for the courts to hold the law, or at least that portion of it providing that such income be treated as taxable, unconstitutional. That

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19151 MUNICIPAL BONDS 249 this would have been unconstitutional is held by many able lawyers and they point to the famous decision of the United States supreme court in the case of Pollock vs. Farmers Loan and Trust Company in which it was held that the federal income tax law of 1894 was unconstitutional and serving as an important precedent for future legislation. Where an individual’s taxable income does not exceed $20,000 per: annum, the federal income tax saving would not be great; assuming the investment to net five per centum per annum, it amounts to five hundredths of one per cent and of course to a corresponding amount in proportion to the annual yield. However, as the amount of the annual net income increases and becomes subject to the “additional tax” provision of the law, this exemption becomes of greater importance and reaches the point where it in effect adds thirty-five hundredths of one per cent to the net income from the investment; for an example, to such an individual the net income from a municipal bond yielding 44 per cent is equivalent to 4.815 per cent from a security not exempt. This has no doubt had a decided influence on persons of great wealth in their determination to invest at least a portion of their funds in municipal bonds. This tax exemption feature appeals to another class of individuals for a somewhat different reason; it is well known that the very burdensome and foolish tax laws of many states dealing with taxation of personal property have led, in fact, driven large numbers of persons, who would cheerfully pay any reasonable taxes, to avoid payments of tax on a substantial portion of their invested property, Under the laws of their respective states they have been obliged to file an annual statement of their property holdings and in most cases to swear to its accuracy. While the federal income tax law provides explicitly for the keeping secret of the returns made thereunder many people fear the possibility of this information coming to the hands of their local tax officials, in which event they would not only become liable for back taxes but under the laws of some states for heavy penalties as well. One does not wonder why such persons find a strong attraction in municipal bonds, independent of their annual return, as the income does not have to be even mentioned in their income tax return, for that purpose being treated as if it had not been received. Still a third class are attracted by the fact that the vexatious “certificates of ownership” do not have to accompany the collection of interest on municipal bands. The writer recently helped a wealthy investor to make up his income tax return and despite his income being well over $100,000 per year, he did not have to file a return as less than $3,000 was derived from sources other than municipal securities. The rapid increase in the indebtedness of municipalities has been much commented upon of late. The alarm with which this tendency has been viewed by many students of municipal affairs is hardly justified by a careful study of all the conditions and facts involved.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April If the municipality of to-day did not afford more service of various kinds to its inhabitants and taxpayers, and they are one and the same whether they pay their money directly to the tax receiver or not, than the one of twenty or even five years ago, we would indeed have reason for concern. I venture to say that any reader of this article would find it hard to call to mind any city of size which has not greatly improved in recent years, and if he can it would be one in which he would prefer not .to reside. This improved condition cannot be attained without the expenditure of money. Why then should we not measure the results of expenditures at the time of considering the debts created in connection therewith? A perusal of the United States census reports will throw some very interesting light on this subject, particularly those figures dealing with the assets of the various cities. Suffice it to say that the figures set ferth therein, particularly those dealing with the “realizable” and LLunrealizablef’ assets, as they are termed, will tend to dispel the grave misgivings of those who have them. Should one care to carefully compile all the various services which his local government performs in his behalf and their cost to him if done by private agencies and which twenty-five years ago were so attended to and paid for, I have no doubt he would view his growing tax bills with less concern; and speaking of tax bills leads me to state that so long as they are the necessary accompaniments of public debts they will act as a powerful and efficient brake on the vehicle of municipal progress, whose motive power is supplied by money. If one has doubts of this, let him listen to the din now being raised by a multitude of taxpayers in New York City. Many of these same people a few years ago were loudest in.their clamors for public improvements. To be sure, many were real estate holders and speculators who expected to dispose of their taxable property to others at advanced prices, and had not anticipated the paying of increased tax bills themselves. It should be borne in mind that many of the most expensive municipal improvements are or will be self supporting, and in numerous instances the debts in connection therewith are being amortized and will be eventually retired. This logically brings us to the laws governing the creation and payment of public debt. It is not so many years ago that the statutes of many eastern and southern states made very inadequate provision for the payment of the principal of loans negotiated by their sub-divisions, while now there are but few which do not require that annual taxes in sufficient amount to pay the entire indebtedness as it matures shall be levied and collected. And few indeed are those which by constitutional or legislative enactment seek to restrict the taxing power to the point of making it uncertain that they will be able to promptly meet their debts under any and all conditions. Alabama is still in that unenviable position, but there are encouraging signs there that the thinking people of

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19151 MUNICIPAL BONDS 251 the state, and that as usual does not seem to include the members of her legislature, are awakening to the fact that they are paying more than their neighbors in the adjoining states for money borrowed for public purposes. The reason is generally known by well posted bankers and investors throughout the country and the people of Alabama have refused entirely too long to listen to good advice on the subject. The readers of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW are, no doubt, well acquainted with the admirable law which became operative in Massachusetts January 1, 1914 and which deals very effectively with all public financing in that state.' Such widespread comment has been made upon the merits of the new Massachusetts law, that the assumption by many has been that numerous other states have been and are as lax as Massachusetts had been in the past. My own belief is that Massachusetts in correcting a long-standing abuse may find she has swung too far in the opposite direction. Why should the taxpayers of the next twenty or thirty years be called upon to liquidate the entire debt created at this period for the acquisition of lands and the constructing of permanent improvements, which will permanently benefit the community and bring a continuous revenue for an indefinite time? It would seem that such debt could be amortized over a span of fifty years with perfect safety. Too much emphasis, on the other hand, cannot be made upon the importance of paying the last of a public debt within the life of the improvements made with the proceeds of the loan. To summarize the reasons for the pronounced and growing popularity of municipal bonds with investors, I should say the most potent are the following: (a) The long-standing prejudices have gradually worn away under the better understanding of the reasons for old defaults and repudiations, and the knowledge that there will be no repetition of those unfortunate conditions which brought them about. (b) A realization that they can be marketed under unfavorable financial conditions as well or better than other forms of property. (c) The enlightenment which has come in recent years on the fundamental weaknesses of all private or corporate securities as compared with the fundamental strength of securities payable by the taxing power. (d) The relatively good income which may now be had from an investment in this class of security. (e) The obvious advantages under the federal income tax law, and the certainty' that this tax will grow heavier rather than lighter. (f) The growing scope of municipal functions insures a skeady supply of all grades of municipal bonds. (g) The steadily improving laws governing the issuance and payment of public debts. This is not the case. See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. 5, pp. 474 and 682.

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252 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April That the war in Europe has played a definite part in municipal financing up to the present time is certain.' Whether it will bear with equal force later is not so certain although it will no doubt continue to have some bearing on all forms of finances for many years to come. The disturbance caused by the declaration of war served to emphasize the decided and fundamental differences between securities payable from taxes and those dependent upon the successful and profitable operation of privately owned enterprises. This has resulted in a widespread increase in the interest of the investing public in municipal bonds to the end that it is comparatively easy for municipalities to borrow on advantageous terms such funds as they need. Authorization of new loans has'not appeared in any great quantity as yet, most of the financing being for the purpose of funding temporary obligations or of paying for work actually contracted for before August 1. At the November elections when many loans were voted upon by the electors there was a noticeable disposition to vote down any but the most needed improvements, and if human inclination runs true to form this tendency will continue as long as business and industrial conditions continue in an unsatisfactory or even uncertain state, and taxpayers " feel poor." The end of the war will witness the necessity of funding the enormous war loans which are being made so prodigally in a temporary form. Will these evidences of governmental debt of the leading old world nations come here in large quantities? The answer to this question is one which will have a tremendous influence on the course of all financing in this country, but that answer depends on so many developments which the wisest cannot foresee at this time, that he would be a rash man indeed who would dare to make any definite predictions. We may however speculate on how results abroad may affect us here. It is very generally agreed that any terms of peace which do not insure a lasting cessation of hostilities would leave matters in a deplorable state. It is certain that under such a condition but little of the European government debt would lodge here. If, however, the contrary prevails there is the chance that home financing would be obliged to compete. The physical and financial conditions of the nations at war at the end of conflict would also have to be taken into account, as they would bear directly upon the recuperative power of those countries and the ability to pay their staggering loadsof debt caused by the greatest economic waste the world has ever known. That debt created for no human good should be paid in full in a short term of years seems the only sound finance, yet it appears ceftain this millstone will hang about the neck of the old world for a long time. Most holders of municipal bonds have been actuated in their purchases by a conservatism that will probably tend to restrain them from investing heavily if at all in foreign government securities. On the other hand, 'See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. iv, p. 1.

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19151 MUNICIPAL BONDS 253 other classes of investors will no doubt purchase them if they are offered on alluring terms, and this will absorb their funds and corporate financing will suffer and be obliged to pay a higher rate for the money it must have. Thus in turn will the municipal buyer be attracted to other home securities he would buy, if the terms are sufficiently attractive, and it is likely that the municipalities will find it necessary to pay a correspondingly higher rate for their borrowing. To confound the situation still more, it is well established that great conflicts between nations, with their consequent stagnation of trade and industry, tend to pile up great sums of unemployed capital and that not for years does this vast wealth find employment in its usual channels. It may be that this will answer the problem of Europe’s financing and result in the establishment of a rate of interest which will allow us to proceed on our financial way without serious disturbance.

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MUNICIPAL REVENUES IN OHIO BY s. GALE LOWRIE‘ Cincinnati T” E subject of taxation is always vital in Ohio. For many years, agitation has been carried on in an effort to reform a revenue system devised for an agricultural community to meet the necessities of a state wherein more than half the population resides in cities. Like all modern municipalities, those of this state have been called upon to render year by year a greater variety of public services. The conception of the city’s function has grown and duties have been undertaken which a few years ago were not included within the,scope of its activity. The very grouping of large numbers of individuals in a comparatively restricted area has made it imperative that the city exercise as a municipal function what was formerly carried on by individual effort. This is one of the economies of co-operative effort rendered not only possible, but imperative, by modern city life. It is not peculiar to Ohio cities; it is the law of progress in all modern governments. This extended program, however, necessitates an increasing public expense, but with all these new demands for public service, new revenues for financing them have not been found. On the contrary funds already enjoyed have been curtailed. During the last few years especially, the situation has become more acute and the cities have been confronted on the one hand with the imperative necessity for the extension of municipal services, and upon the other with the gradual shrinkage of public revenues available for municipal purposes. For this reason, our problem of municipal finance is a serious one. The chief sources of municipal revenue for Ohio cities are the general property tax, the cities’ share of the receipts from licensing the sale of liquor and cigarettes, the returns from franchise taxes on public utilities and incidental licenses and fees imposed upon certain businesses and occupations. The most important revenue producer is the general property tax, from which some 60 per cent of the funds raised for the support of municipal government, exclusive of the maintenance of the schools, is derived. In the enjoyment of this income, however, the cities have been confronted with a tax law which has curtailed in a way to threaten serious consequences the returns which may be expected 1Dr. Lowrie is profemor of Political Science in the Univeraity of Cincinnati and in charge of the municipal reference library of the city of Cincinnati. For a time he was director of the legislative reference bureau at Columbus. See article on “Cincinnati’s Charter Campaign,” vol. iii, p. 730. 254

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19151 MUNICIPAL REVENUES IN OHIO 255 from this source. The tax limitation, or the “Smith Law” as it is popularly known, became effective January, 191 1. Prior to this time, tangible property was assessed at varying percentages of its true value and the rates differed throughout the state from 1.4 per cent to 6.7 per cent, the average rate being 2.5 per cent, and in the cities 3.5 per cent. Intangible personalty, although required by the constitution to be taxed, was not generalIy represented upon the tax lists. The Smith law was passed pursuant to a theory that if the tax rate were low, intangible property would appear on the duplicate, and might be assessed at the same rate as realty as the constitution requires. It was believed that if property were listed at its true value, sufficient funds would be secured for the maintenance of government, and the tax burden would not rest onerously upon any class of taxpayers, consequently a rate of 1 per cent levied upon all taxable property would yield ample funds for the support of the public service. Fearing that even so low a rate upon a full assessment would produce such funds that extravagance would be encouraged, the law makers further provided that the aggregate amount of taxes to be levied in any taxing district in 1911 should not exceed the aggregate amount levied in 1910; but that in succeeding years the 1910 levy might be exceeded by 6 per cent in 1912, 9 per cent in 1913 and by 12 per cent in 1914 and in all succeeding years. Thus after 1914, the total amount of funds which might be secured from taxation should not exceed 112 per cent of the yield in 1910. Additional limitations were incorporated which &xed the maximum levy which might be provided for the city at five mills; for the school district, at five mills; for townships, at two mills; and for the county at three mills. However, the sum total of these levies together with the state levy should not exceed ten mills upon the dollar valuation. In order to determine what adjustments might be made to keep the sum total of these levies within the limitations, a county budget commission was created, consisting of the county auditor, the county prosecutor and the mayor of the largest municipality within the county. This commission was granted power to adjust the tax levies that the total rate in any taxing district should not exceed the 1 per cent limitation. The effect of this law was to increase greatly tax valuations, particularly with respect to reality; personalty valuations were made somewhat greater, but not to the extent anticipated by the sponsors of the measure. Although the law did not become effective until January 1, 1911, by the time the general assembly convened in 1913, serious difficulty had been experienced in securing sufficient funds to operate the municipalities, schools, and other political subdivisions of the state. The provision that the taxes levied were not to exceed those raised in 1910, plus a certain percentage, operated as a hardship in many taxing districts where the 1910 rate had been especially low because of balances from previous

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256 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ApriI years or for unusual causes. Even in other districts, the law was found to restrict unduly the conduct, of public business. It proved very popular, however, particularly in the rural districts where it was felt to constitute a guarantee against excessive taxation. Consequently, it was difficult in a general assembly, in which the rural portions of the state are accorded a fuller representation than are the more populous sections, to secure even a slight modification of the law. The minor concessions made, which removed the limitation to the increase in revenue from taxation to a certain percentage based upon the 1910 revenue, and which was soon to become absolutely fixed, and the change in the personnel of the county budget commission so that in the larger cities, the city solicitor should replace the county prosecutor, were secured with great difficulty; and until ninety days had elapsed after the law was passed it was not at all certain but that a referendum would be demanded and the law submitted to the people. During the present session of the general assembly [1915], bills are pending to restrict even more completely the tax levying powers of the political subdivisions. The concession gained by the cities in securing a second member of the county budget commission in the larger cities, and by the schools in having a representative in smaller districts, was lost by a decision of the supreme court to the effect that since this work affects the entire county, it cannot be performed by a municipal officer. This would logically preclude the mayor of the largest municipality as well from serving on this commission; and it is probable the law will be so amended as to deprive the cities of this representative and to confer the power of fixing the tax rate for all cities and school districts of the county upon county officers. The provision of the law respecting the debt service of cities is operating greatly to restrict the revenues which may be enjoyed for running expenses. The law provides that interest and sinking fund for bonds issued prior to 1910 shall be without the limitation of the law; but that for bonds issued subsequent to this time, interest and sinking fund charges shall be within the limitations and preferred claims. As the cities are paying off or refunding earlier bonds and issuing new securities, the debt service to be met within the limitations is constantly increasing and thus curtailing the amount available for other purposes. This is rapidly affecting, not only a limitation upon the debt incurring powers of cities, but is operating as a serious restriction upon their funds available for current expenses. The law provided, however, that in case any taxing district found itself unable to secure sufficient revenue within the limitation of the ten mills, authority might be obtained by a vote of the people, to fix the maximum limitation at fifteen rather than ten mills on the dollar valuation. Nearly every municipality in the state has been forced to avail itself of this provision, and submit to the voters annually the proposal to increase the tax

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MUNICIPAL REVENUES IN OHIO rate in this way. The undesirable feature is thus injected into our municipal financial system of uncertainty as to the amount of revenue available for the ensuing calendar year until the issues of the November elections are determined. Thus far the people have sanctioned the additional levy. The possibility is always present, however, that this issue may fail and the cities be forced to operate upon an exceedingly restricted basis. The largest cities of the state have found even the levy authorized by a vote, which is the largest permitted by law, to be far too small to supply their imperative needs. During this last year, however, two events operated to increase to a slight extent the amount of revenue available for cities from taxation. The first was the enactment of a tax law, providing assessors should be appointed rather than elected. This has resulted in not only a more economical but a more efficient assessment and has returned a greater amount of property for taxation. This law, however, has been unpopular in certain quarters, and it is possible that the present general assembly will return to an elective system of choosing these officers. Whether -or not this is done, it is probable that the tax lists will shrink rather thanenlarge at the next assessment, as the increase was made up in many instances of personal property which may be exchanged for non-taxable seeurities before the next tax listing period arrives. Another action on the part of the state provided more revenue, which might be available for cities within the tax limitation by decreasing the state levy from .961 to .45 of a mill. This was done not to secure more funds for cities, but because the new tax assessing machinery had operated to increase the state revenue to a greater extent than was needed. When, however, Akron attempted to increase the tax rate for 1914 above that levied in 1913, the tax commission ordered the county auditor to disregard the new rate and levy again the rate established in 1913. Next to the: general property tax, 'the most important source of municipal revenue is the liquor license. A license fee of $1,000 is assessed each retail liquor dealer in the state; 30 per cent of this revenue goes to the state treasury and 20 and 50 per cent respectively to the county and municipality in which the saloon is located.' Returns from this source, however, have been greatly reduced by the operation of a constitutional amendment which became effective in 1912, limiting the number of saloons to one for every 500 inhabitants. The loss of this revenue falls particularly heavily upon the large municipalities, already suffering from lack of funds. No attempt has been made to replace these monies with other revenues. Cleveland lost in this way between five and six hundred thousand, and Cincinnati nearly four hundred thousand dollars. While in the other municipalities, the total decreases were not so great, yet the embarrassment because of lack of funds is just as evident. 1 Some cities maintaining infirmaries receive 70 per cent of the revenue.

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258 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April Other revenues upon which the cities of the state rely for the support of governmental activities, such as franchise and occupation taxes, and receipts from licenses and fees, have generally not been affected as have the two major sources of city revenue by state legislation. The cities have been compelled to resort to these miscellaneous revenues for a considerable portion of their receipts; and licenses and occupational taxes imposed by cities of the state are generally higher that are to be found in other municipalities throughout the coustry. Not only has the income of Ohio cities been reduced by legislative action, but recent laws have placed new burdens upon the cities. State legislation resulting in expense to cities has been the establishment of municipal courts, an eight-hour day for public work; such humanitarian legislation as workmen's compensation for city employees, pensions for the blind and for widowed mothers; and the holding of special elections either by mandatory state laws on questions referred by the state legislature, or under the initiative and referendum or home rule provisions of the state constitution. Another constitutional amendment which had a serious effect upon the finances of Ohio municipalities is the provision established in 1912 making public bonds subject to taxation. The result of this change has been to increase the interest rate which public bodies have been forced to pay without increasing to any appreciable extent the amount of intangible personalty assessment; 4 per cent Cincinnati bonds which previously sold readily at a premium now found no market, and even bonds bearing 4.5 per cent interest were placed with some difficulty. This was largely owing to the state of the money market, but the effect of the constitutional amendment has been to demand higher interest rates. This requires a larger fund annually for sinking fund and interest purposes and a corresponding decrease in the amount of funds available for current expenses. A constitutional amendment to repeal this provision submitted a year ago met defeat. Many of the cities of the state have resorted to borrowing to provide money which a sound fiscal policy would demand meeting from current revenues. Other cities have borrowed in anticipation of taxes. This is a policy which cannot long continue, but is resorted to frequently to meet present emergencies and in the hope that the future will see an alleviation of the difficulties now confronted. There is scarcely a city in the state from which examples might not be selected to show the straits to which the cities and schools have been placed because of the lack of public revenues and the growing demand for municipal services. In Cleveland the mandatory audit of public accounts required by the charter was abandoned because of the expense. Street repair work has been greatly neglected and borrowing has been resorted to in order to conduct city government. In Cincinnati, funds imperatively needed for the support of the schools and for educational purposes '

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19151 MUNICIPAL REVENUES IN OHIO 259 have been lacking and there is scarcely a municipal department that has not had its activities seriously curtailed. Funds required for the repair of streets have not been available, and it has been necessary to issue bonds for this purpose. In Columbus, it was propos'ed to dispense with the work of public recreation, but objections from the citizens resulted in providing funds for this purpose at the expense of the public health service. In Toledo, the mayor suggested that all public officers subscribe a month's salary to relieve the drain on the public exchequer. In Dayton, the position of safety director has never been filled, and the city manager has performed this seruice. In Akron, it was thought for a time that it would be necessary to close the pubIic Iibrary for one month, although funds for its maintenance were subsequently discopered, There is scarcely a phase of public service which has not been crippled by lack of money for its support. So critical did this situation become that the Ohi6 Municipal League at its meeting in 1914, failing to secure state legislation to relieve a condition becoming constantly more embarrassing, urged the passage of a bill authorizing the appointment by the governor of five persons to serve without compensation and report to the general assembly in 1915 on the fiscal status of the municipalities of Ohio. Pursuant to such a law, a commission was appointed which has submitted the following recommendations : 1. That the state abandon its policy of resorting to the general property tax for a portion of its revenue; 2. That a portion of the automobile fees be surrendered to municipalities; 3. That all sinking fund levies be placed outside the ten mill limitation and be separated from levies for general purposes, and in fact that the restrictions upon the borrowing capacity of municipalities be limited to a restriction upon the issuance of bonds rather than upon the ability of public bodies to meet these liabilities as they accrue. This would take the entire sinking fund and interest levies from within the tax limitation law; 4. That a constitutional amendment be proposed exempting public bonds from taxation; 5. That municipalities be authorized to borrow from their special funds in anticipation of the collection of taxes; 6. That there be no change in the law that would give cities a portion of the corporation taxes; 7. That the cities receive no greater portion of the liquor license revenues. The state tax now amounts to .45 of a mill of which .3 mi11 is for the construction of state highways and is without the tax limitation law. The remainder except a slight tax for interest on the state debt is for education. The tax for highways might well be supplied

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260 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April from some other state source, but the educational institutions of the state need a permanent revenue, such as a mill tax affords, because the constitution precludes permanent appropriations. However, this tax is at present so small that it is necessary to supplement it by annual appropriations by the general assembly Either this tax should be increased and placed without the tax limitation law, so as to afford a permanent source of revenue for the educational institutions and at the same time release funds needed for municipalities, or it should be abandoned and another form of permanent support such as a fixed percentage of the gross revenues of the state be determined upon. With respect to the granting of the cities a portion of the automobile fees, allowing sinking fund levies to be made without the tax limitation, authorizing citiep to borrow from special funds, with proper safe-guards, and abolishing the tax on public bonds, there can be little doubt but that the committee has called attention to needed reforms. Very great differences of opinidn exist respecting the propriety of giving to the cities the revenue from saloon licenses. The Ohio Municipal League recommended in 1914, that this constitute a municipal revenue. The committee finds, however, that this is a revenue subject to great fluctuations depending upon the shifting policy of the state and localities respecting the sale of liquor, and also recognizes that burdens are imposed upon the states and counties as well as upon the cities because of the excessive use of alcoholic beverages. It suggests that the division of revenue now approximates justice. Any proposal to change this policy would precipitate a bitter fight between the liquor interests and the prohibition advocates, always nearly equally divided in the general assembly. The prohibitionists fear that the granting of revenue from the saloon to local divisions would discourage the prohibition of the sale of liquor under the local option law. Consequently, it is doubtful whether the recommendation of the league would meet with favor. The 1915 meeting of the Ohio Municipal League was again given over to a discussion of municipal revenues and, under the auspices of the league, a conference was held widely representative of cities, chambers of commerce and civic organizations. This conference went on record as favoring a constitutional amendment providing for the classification of property for taxation and the granting of home rule in matters of taxation to the counties of the state respecting any sources of revenue which the state should not deem necessary to use for its own support. The cities of Ohio are in a grave predicament, because in the most vital question of municipal finance, their destinies are controlled by a legislature in which members from rural communities predominate. It is very difficult for these legislators to appreciate the needs and obligations of urban communities. The feeling is general that the taxpayers of the cities are not contributing to governmental expense in the same

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19151 MUNICIPAL REVENUES IN OHIO 26 1 proportion as are the property holders of rural communities, and that the conduct of city government is fraught with great extravagance. Consequently a deaf ear is turned to the most earnest entreaties that the cities be allowed to tax themselves for the adequate support of their own government. Compared with the conduct of the state, county and village governments, the cities of Ohio are operated upon an economical and efficient basis. Until they can free themselves, however, from the control of a rural legislature, it is doubtful whether effective remedies may be found to relieve what is becoming a most critical situation among the cities of the state.

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SHORT ARTICLES READING’S REVISION OF ASSESSMENTS BY HON. 1% w. ST RAT TON^ Reading, Pa. HE revision of the assessment of Reading, Pa., real estate which was recently made by the city council acting as a board of revision, is T of interest, as the same conditions which called for it in Reading call just as loudly elsewhere; and the same powers and similar or more thorough-going methods are free to be used in other cities. The conditions are these: In the first place the appraisements of real estate, on which are based the taxes furnishing the main municipal revenues, have been grossly incorrect and unequal; no proper system has been employed in making them; and they have naturally been affected by improper influences. In the second place, and of even greater importance, assessments have been made so as to discriminate unfairly and unwisely against up-building enterprise, and encourage obstruction of such enterprise; for the unwarranted favoring of idle or inadequately improved sites has enabled the holders to reap such unearned profits in the enhanced values that result from general progress alone, as to encourage do-nothing tactics. It has been quite generally felt and believed that such inequitable conditions exist, and this feeling and belief has been demoralizing and has had a damaging effect on public-spirited movements; yet actual facts bearing on the subject of inequitable assessments have been practically hidden so that effective demand for correction has been very slow in, developing. As mayor I have repeatedly called the attention of the old councilmanic bodies to the unequal assessments; and in May, 1913, submitted an enlightening copy of business property assessments as taken from the books of the city assessors. This list was published in the newspapers, and helped to direct general attention to palpable undervaluations as compared with ordinary residence properties; but nothing was done to correct them in the following assessment. 1 Mr. Stratton is mayor of Reading, the largest third class city in Pennsylvania, and president of the League of Third Clms Cities of Pennsylvania. He has taken an active part in the movement for commission government and is now actively identified with the movement to make it possible for third class cities in Pennsylvania to have city managers. He is also backing the suggestion of a state department of municipalities. 262

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19151 READING’S REVISION OF ASSESSMENTS 263 The Reading Chamber of Commerce then took up the matter of determining actual conditions. Through its committees on taxation and real estate the chamber had a systematic appraisement made, at its own expense, of nine complete city blocks, including six in the main business section, one section composed largely of manufacturing establishments, one expensive residence section, and one ordinary residence section. In this unofficial appraisement the main work was done by expert municipal appraisers; local real estate experts and the interested public generally determining merely the street-frontage values, which were used under the Somer’s system, in calculating the land or site values. The net improvement values as determined by well-established appraising rules, such as are applied to all classes of real estate for general business purposes, were added to these lot values. The detailed results of this unofficial, but systematic sample assessment, compared with the corresponding assessments taken from the assessor’s books, were opened to public inspection, and the general results were published. These convincingly proved that the old assessments were unreliable and unequal, ordinary residence properties in particular being shown to be unfairly burdened in comparison with expensively located and inadequately improved properties. The four councilmen elected at large under the provisions of the Clark bill, with myself as hold-over mayor, took office in December, 1913. Before May 1, 1914, a precept was issued requiring the hold-over assessors to make a complete reassessment; and any needed assistance in making it a systematic one was offered. The assessors complied in a way with the legal requirement, going through the usual useless formula; but they returned practically the old assessments, excepting as to added improvements, on September 1, 1914. This brought the matter up to the council acting in its legal capacity as a board of revision and appeal. Its powers and duties in the premises were carefully considered in the light of the law itself and court decisions bearing upon it, and the difficult work was undertaken of revising the assessments submitted so as to equalize them as far as was practicable in the limited time available. Briefly stated, the net results of this revision by the board, after hearing and decision of appeals, was an addition of about four millions to the taxable appraisements; this addition affecting high-priced properties mainly, and admittedly tending to equalize the appraisements as a whole. The entire work including the hearing and determining of appeals, was completed by December 1, 1914, as required; and there isnothing to indicate that either its legality or fairness is seriously questioned. As to the legality of this procedure, and the general lines now authoritatively laid down in Pennsylvania for effecting a proper appraisal of real estate for municipal purposes, there seems to be already established a satisfying certainty. And moreover these lines seem to follow so closely

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264 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April the most advanced and correct principles, as to put this state in the front of progress in this very important movement. To support this optimistic view I will briefly state the situation as I find it. The act of June 27, 1913 (the Clark bill), by which cities of the third class have been governed since December, 1914, follows previous acts relating to third-class cities in defining the duties of the board of revision and appeal, the council being constituted as such board. Article XV, Section 14, provides that the board may require the city assessor, in any year, to make and return a full, just, and equal assessment of property in whole or part, as it may deem advisable; that it may revise, equalize or alter such assessments, in any and every year, by increasing or reducing the valuation either in individual cases, or by wards, or parts of wards, and shall hear and determine all appeals. That the assessment so corrected, and copied shall be and remain a lawful assessment subject only to court appeals. In Rees, Appellant v. City of Erie, decided January 5, 1914,‘ the supreme court of the state authoritatively defined these legal powers and duties of the board of revision, in affirming Judge Benson “for the reasons stated in the findings and opinion of the learned Court of the common pleas.” This opinion, thus broadly approved by the highest court of the state, is a reliable support for progressive action in municipal assessing, as will be seen from a brief review of the case. The triennial assessment returned by the assessors of Erie, was radically revised by the board of revision and appeals; the valuation of land alone being increased in varying amounts on 10,905 taxables, decreased on 67 taxables, and left unchanged on 69 taxables, while the valuations on buildings and improvements returned by the assessors were not chaxed. The total valuations were raised from over $33,000,000 to over $48,000,000. The board refused to hear appeals unless reduced to writing. The court held that the board did not exceed their authority, and that their assessment constituted the lawful assessment; overruling all the plaintiffs’ contentions after enlighteningly discussing them. ‘The court said: Uniformity of valuation for tax purposes is a mandate of the fundamental law of the state, and we think that under the Act of 1895 the board of revision of taxes and appeals is charged with the duty of so revising, equalizing, or altering the assessments returned by the board of assessom aa to accomplish that end. . , . The basis or standard of valuations to be adopted by them for the purpose of securing uniformity lies in their good judgment. Nor do we think that the assessment should be set aside for the reason that the same ratio of value has not been applied to land aa to buildings and improvements. . . The latter often fail to bring anywhere near their real value of cost of construction while the former sell more readily at near their true value. . Thus it is clear that the council, in its capacity as a board of revision, is not only empowered but is “charged with the duty,” of providing 1 21.1 Pennsvlvania State ReDorts. D. 189.

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19151 READING’S REVISION OF ASSESSMENTS 265 uniformity of taxation; even though it involves the setting aside of the work of the city assessor. The Clark bill, however, when in full operation, insures harmony of action, for it provides for the appointment of the assessor by the council; and such harmonious action should be readiIy agreed upon, in the public interest, even before appointments are so made. As an experienced and satisfactory assessor would naturally be preferred by the council in making an appointment to the office, such agreement is especially desirable, and in view of the clear lines now laid down, should not be difficult. In any case, however, the council as such, as well as in its capacity as a board of revision, is in duty bound to do all that is possible to secure a prompt and convincing equalization of assessments. And the main essential to accomplishing this is authoritatively recognized, namely, the separate valuation of land and improvements. This has not only been satisfactorily adopted by many of the most progressive cities of the country, and approved by the highest court in our own state, but has even been made mandatory, as to cities of the second class, by our state legislature, by the act of May 15, 1913. Third-class cities would certainly do well to adopt it as well as to provide systematic methods of determining both land and improvement values. Moreover this act of May 15, 1913, and the supreme court decision referred to, clearly show that land and improvements values should not only be separately determined but also differently treated. The reasons for this are clear enough. Neither individual or municipal wisdom and enterprise can increase the amount of land which nature provides and positively limits; but they can control the quantity and the character of buildings and other improvements. Site values inevitably come and constantly increase with population and general progress, while improvement values, which represent human enterprise and labor, inevitably depreciate with age. Even a good second-hand building is apt to sell something like a second-hand machine, while an unsuitable building, however costly, may be a mere encumbrance to a good site. These facts must be fairly recognized in order to fully secure a wise and equitable assessment of taxes, The provision for gradual exemption of fifty per cent of building and improvement values which the state legislature included in this act of May 15, 1913, was a wise one which ought to be extended to all municipalities. The immediate essential to real progress however is that separate valuations of land and improvements be systematically made, for otherwise a fair equalization of assessments cannot be attained. With the way thus opening to a really equitable distribution of the burdens of taxation, we can reasonably hope to secure before long that public-spirited support of municipal improvement movements which is necessary to proper progress.

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266 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April COMMENT ON THE DAYTON CHARTER BY LENT D. UPSON' Dayton, 0. AYTON is the first large city to attempt municipal betterment through city manager government, and this fact together with D the unusual circumstances attending its adoption, has directed a significant interest to the experiment. Many communities impressed by this example of local government have endeavored to pu.t its larger principles into operation. Some of these have copied intact the Dayton charter, while others have accepted the administrative provisions with slight change. Doubtless a charter most carefully prepared would, under opehtion, develop points for improvement. This could not be less true of the Dayton document, which in spite of painstaking thought on certain sections, was written in a limited time by business men. The wide use of the Dayton document as a model suggests the indicating of certain alterations, the need of which has developed through a year's experience. The notations are illustrative of the necessity of care and experience in charter drafting, and are not meant as an exhaustive recital of charter defects. It so happens that a11 of the larger cities and most of the smaller ones with city manager government have placed the legislative powers in a small board, elected at large without regard to political party. Irrespective of the improvement in administration generally attending the adoption of the city manager plan, it has not been definitely proven that a small council chosen in the manner indicated contribtrtes materially to this result. Indeed, the amount of newspaper criticism and street talk based upon misinformation and prejudice prompts the belief that there is a failure to filter the facts of government down to an interested public-an error which some elements suggest might be corrected by bringing the legislative body closer to the people. It is advanced that a method by which the several political and social elements in the community might be represented would stimulate a more friendly attitude among discordant groups, and would require such representatives to place themselves definitely on record on propositions which are criticised solely for political expediency. In other words, responsibility would minimize fault-finding. This problem of representation can have only an empirical solution, and Dayton having discarded the ward system and its evils, awaits with interest the results of a trial of proportional representation. 1 Director, Dayton Bureau of Municipal Research.

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19151 COMMENT ON THE DAYTON CHARTER 267 That the provision in the Dayton charter permitting the recall of the city manager is an error, has been generally conceded. The city manager is solely an administrative officer engaged to carry out the legislative policies of the commission. If he fails in these administrative duties, the commission has made the mistake of appointing an incompetent person; if measures are unpopular, it is the fault of the commission which ordered them put into effect. Granted that in the public mind the city manager will always be the most important person in the city government; that administrations will succeed or fail upon the manager’s achievementsyet in the last analysis it is the employers who should be held responsible. The charter-framers of Dayton were not insensible to these principles, but believed that to have so radical a departure in city government approved, it would be necessary to offer an additional safeguard in the possibility of recalling the city manager. As the public has come largely to realize the purely administrative duties of the city manager, it seems feasible to eliminate this objectionable feature of the charter. The charter provides that the first meeting of the city commission shall be “on the first Monday of January following the regular municipal election.” Under such circumstances it might so happen that the city would be without government, or at least its officers without authority to expend funds from January 1 until the first Monday in the month. This section should be remedied, calling for a meeting of the commission, and the passing of an appropriation ordinance on the first business day of the year. It has been provided that the city attorney shall be appointed by the city manager, while his assistants are chosen subject to civil service regulations. Question has been made as to the policy of subordinating this office to chief executive. Numerous questions may be proposed, relating particularly to the financial administration of the city, in which it might be advisable that the opinion of the city attorney be unbiased by his relationship with the officer directly responsible for such financial considerations. Not infrequently the desire of an administration to show immediate results proves inimical to the best interests of the tax payers, although the latter are theoreticplIy protected by law. For example, by the refunding of bonds to the advantage of the operating fund; by bond issues for purposes approaching current operation, etc. In such instances the legal adviser of the city should be in the position to advance an independent opinion. It has been suggested that the city attorney, or the chief financial officer, preferably the former, be appointed directly by the commission, but this diversion from centralized authority has never been tried. The vital feature of the prescribed accounting procedure of Dayton is in the words “accounting procedure shall be devised and maintained for the city, adequate to record in detail all transactions affecting the

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268 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April acquisition, custodianship and disposition of values . . . . ” With this sanction, the director of finance has opened a complete set of books including a general ledger, and is prepared to furnish an accurate balance sheet of all city funds. In fact, Dayton has installed a financial system comparing favorably with that employed in large private business, and .which is equalled bj few cikies in the country. The charter further requires that distinct summaries and schedules shall be presented for each public utility owned and operated. This should be amended to include public industries, such as garbage disposal plants, public markets, etc. Under the present requirement the city manager signs both the order for goods or services and the voucher by which the payment for such is authorized. It is doubtful if the manager should be compelled to sign either of these documents, as he has no personal knowledge of, and little time to investigate, the merits of the thousands of business transactions occurring. To centralize the city government the charter provides that the board of sinking fund trustees shall consist of the city commission, the city manager, and the director of finance. A commission with its many varied duties has little time or interest in technical sinking fund procedure. Even in Dayton such a fundamental procedure as the change from the serial to sinking fund plan of debt retirement secured scant consideration. Further, intrusting the custodianship of sinking fund money with the same body that creates indebtedness may not be assumed always to operate to the interest of the tax payers. Occasions might be when the legislative body would issue bonds which, while permitting a favorable showing by the administration, might be illegal as well as impolitic. Examples are bonds for equipment, regular engineering, and refunding purposes. Under the present circumstances if such indebtedness were refused by bond bujers the legislative body acting as sinking fund trustees might purchase the questionable issue. On. the other hand, an independent board of sinking fund trustees would probably be inclined to act only for the broader concern of the public, Reduction in salaried positions, though not the centralization of administration, could be secured equally well bj creating a sinking,fund commission to serve without pay, and by providing that the city treasurer or accountant should act as secretary. Purchasing provisions of the charter do not provide that the purchasing agent shall buy other than supplies and materials, although the local agent has extended his activities to include certain contractual services known in budgetary parlance as “contractual services” or “services other than personal.” Charter amendment should be made to demarcate the sphere of the agent; or at least to designate minimum activities, leaving their extension to the option of the city manager. Probably centralized purchasing would be profitable for telephone service; repairs by contract

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19151, COMMENT ON THE DAYTON CHARTER 269 or open market order, whether to equipment, building or structures; insurance, both fire and liability; public utility services except transportation charges; and other contractual services such as legal advertising, boarding of live stock, rent of lands and buildings, storage of equipment, horseshoeing, etc. Definite charter provision should be made for the creation of a stores fund with which goods may be purchased, stored and sold to departments without profit; for the reimbursement of this fund by warrants drawn against the proper appropriation codes when stores are delivered; and as to the method oE adjusting the account at the close of the fiscal year. Authorization should also be made for the sale of services and supplies between departments where the transfer of charges is one of account and no money passes through the city treasury. It would also be well to specify more clearly the circumstances surrounding emergency orders, requiring that the facts of the emergency shall be certified to the purchasing agent within twenty-four hours after the purchase is made, and that a confirming order shall be immediately sent to the vendor. In this connection the creation of departmental petty cash funds should be definitely allowed, carefully limiting their use so as to minimize abuse. Further provision should be made that when bids are opened, and bcfore contracts are let, the figures should be public to competitors and to citizens sufficiently interested to inquire at the purchasing agent’s office. To this end bids should be tabulated upon standard sheets and become permanent records. Objection has been made that the publicity of bids in contrast to the practice of private firms is not conducive to lowest prices. On the other hand, secrecy of bids places the purchasing agent liable to the temptation of deals with corrupt vendors, and robs the public and competitors of easy means of detection. This situation, as in Dayton, may be remedied by administrative order, but a nodel charter should leave no vagueness of this character. If city advertising is done exclusively in a daily newspaper of general circulation which bids the lowest price per unit for such services, there is a remarkable saving in charges of this character. However, the Dayton charter does not permit a municipal journal to be substituted in case a newspaper contract has been entered into, although frequently it would be advantageous to do so. With certain extensive ordinances such as the city budget, building code, traffic rules, etc., newspaper publication is not only expensive, but it is not particularly effective. In such instances it would be desirable to publish in pamphlet form as an issue of a journal which would be less expensive, furnish a means of permanence, and allow for distribution among persons affected or interested. The absurdity of certain of the Dayton civil service provisions will

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270 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April be so apparent to even the casual student of government that these sections merit only brief mention and discussion : (a) The unclassified service includes the heads of divisions, as well aa of departments, thereby removing the promotion incentive for employees, and offering a stimulus to the creation and extension of divisions by an unscrupulcus administration interested in extending the spoils system. (b) The chief examiner is empowered to fill vacant positions, after consultation with the city manager, from the entire eligible list. Certainly such a provision lays the merit system wide open to abuse, and might even nullify it were the appointing officers so inclined. The city manager of Dayton is appointing from the top of the eligible list, but a change in the administration policies would permit the filling of vacancies with ward politicians of minimum ability. (c) Contrary to approved practices, it is provided that discharged employees are entitled to a public hearing before the civil service board. Such a program will fmd little defense among persons familiar with civil service practice. A recent experience of Dayton with a public hearing of this kind has proven this scheme to be conducive to insubordination, makes the departmental head reluctant to discharge incompetents, and furnishes an opportunity for the creating of political capital by the opposition. There are a number of commendable features in the civil service chapter, notably those relating to the standardization of salaries, requiring a probationary period of appointment, certification of all pay rolls, and the prevention of political activity on the part of employees. These should be retained, but certainly the other provisions cited are in urgent need of amendment. The principal weaknesses of the special assessment sections relate to the levying of assessments previous to the making of improvements. It is impractical for the city engineer to estimate exactly.the cost of improvements, in consequence of which the figures are usually excessive, necessitating rebates at the conclusion of the construction. Howei er, when this amount is small, and no demand is made by the tax payer, the surplus is turned into a fund to meet small deficiencies. The devising of some plan which will eliminate these difficulties without involving the objections arising from fixing the assessments after the improvement is made would be an interesting study. The extensive use which municipalities are now making of special assessments for purposes other than public improvements, should prompt some provisions for the treatment of these funds aside from the regular assessment procedure. Where assessments are used for special street lighting, vault cleaning, sidewalk cleaning, weed cutting, street flushing, street sprinkling, etc., regular budgetary appropriations should be made for these services, with the stipulation that the assessment income should be turned into the general fund as a regular revenue; and that in those cases in which such assessment is placed on the tax duplicate it should be returned when collected to the general fund. Some exception has been taken to the franchise regulation which pro

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19151 COMMENT ON THE DAYTON CHARTER 271 hibits the regranting of a franchise prior to one year of its expiration, a section included to prevent franchise jobbing by a controlled legislative body. It has not been infrequent in municipal history for a council to annul a franchise and in its place grant a new one for a long period. On the other hand it is frequently to local advantage to secure improvements from public utilities, or the union of separate companies, in return for a new franchise granted before the expiration of the older ones. Probably with the other safeguards which have been thrown around the granting of franchises this section might be eliminated. No sections of the Dayton charter have been more widely copied than those relating to appropriations, doubtless because this cifiy has been one of the few to detail appropriation procedure. However, after the experience derived from the preparation of two budgets under these sections, and with a knowledge o the more recent developments in budget making, certain minor changes urgently recommend themselves: (a) The fiscal year should begin, not necessarily with the calendar year but at a time when the principal payments of accrued city revenues are anticipated. (b) The CIassification of expense estimates should be uniform for the main functional divisions of each department, rather than “as nearly uniform as possible.” (c) The clause requiring that the first publication of the budget be made after the public hearings should be changed to read before. A provision requiring that the manager’s estimate of expense be published parallel with the appropriations of the commission has been found unnecessary. (d) Recently considerable change in budget procedure has been suggested by the publication of a budget program for the city of New York for 1915, as devised by the New York bureau of municipal research. The details are too long to be discussed here but are worthy of consideration by any charter drafting body. This was an unintentional error. In providing for the salaries and compensation of employees, the charter states that the city manager shall fix the number and salaries of officers and employees excepting those in the division of fire and police, and the heads of departments. Such a section is theoretically unsound as delegating to an appointive officer powers which should be retained by the legislative body which is responsible to the people. This was recognized by the city manager of Dayton who voluntarily relinquished this charter right, and the salaries and period of service of each employee are made an integral part of the appropriation ordinance. The charter by requiring that the money shall be in the treasury before obligations are entered into automatically limits the period of contract to one year. In the main, this has proven beneficial but absolutely prevents long-term contracts for public lighting, garbage disposal, etc. Contracts of this character should be exempt from this provision. These are some of the important changes found desirable in the Dayton charter after one year of operation. Doubtless there are others which further experience will develop. This document was never presented as the last word in charter-making, but claims to be only a step in advance

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272 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April over those in common use. Cities contemplating the adoption of the Dayton model of government should profit by the weaknesses which have arisen, remembering that the most adequate charter, if it contains administrative procedure, will require periodic amendment in order to take advantage of improvements developed through the experience of their own and other cities. WHAT GLASGOW DOES FOR ITS POOR BY HARVEY N. SHE PARD^ Boston T IS seldom now we take up a book, or even a pamphlet, dealing with the modern city, that we do not find in it some reference to the city of Glasgow, and its wonderful achievements. We read in terms of praise of its police and fire service, the excellence and cheapness of its water supply, the cleanliness of its streets, its tramways, its gas and electric works, and its parks, playgrounds, libraries, art galleries, museums and concerts. All these things are interesting, and are worth serious investigation; but they are to be seen in other cities, both in Great Britain and upon the continent, and to some extent in our own country. In some other directions, however, Glasgow not only was the pioneer, but also in one or two of them it remains to-day almost alone. They are its lodging houses, its family home, and its workmen’s dwellings. The last have been provided also in several other cities, notably in London, Liverpool, and Manchester, and in Germany; and the first have been provided also in a few other cities; but, so far as I know, the second remains unique. It was these then which I wished to see, when I had the good fortune to be a few days in Glasgow, in the early part of August of this year. Armed with a letter of introduction to the lord provost, I made my way, one morning, to the magnificent municipal building in St. George’s square. The courtesy and attention which were given to me were most gratifying; and especially when we recall that this was at the beginning of the great war, and the authorities were busy in helping to muster the forces of the kingdom to defend Belgium against a treacherous invasion. 1Mr. Shepard, who is now a member of the State Civil Service Commission of Massachusetts, was formerly president of the Boston Common Council when that wm the governing body of the city and has served upon many commissions relative to municipal matters. He has delivered many addresses upon municipal matters in the west and south and has given lectures in the School of Law of Boston University upon city government. I

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19151 WHAT GLASGOW DOES FOR ITS POOR 273 Nevertheless, no sooner had I stated my errand than messages were despatched to put me into communication with the men, who best could give me the information which I sought. Meanwhile I was invited to luncheon with the city officials in the municipal building; and there I met the manager of the city improvements department, William C. Menzies. He placed himself at once at my disposal; and, when luncheon was over, we went in his car to the municipal lodging houses. As in most large cities, there were in Glasgow, some forty years ago, a great many common lodging houses, conducted by private enterprise, where men and women were crowded together in dark and stuffy rooms, without any of the conveniences for health or decency. It was well known, both there and elsewhere, that these places were hotbeds of misery, disease, and vice. But there, and up to that time nowhere else, the municipal authorities decided to apply a remedy. In other cities, while the evil was just as bad and as well known, it was looked upon as a necessary, though unfortunate evil, and beyond remedy; at least by the municipality. But Glasgow, with creditable courage, gave way to no such doctrine of despair and determined to act. With rare insight, it recognized that to destroy such unsavory abodes, without providing others, better and healthier, for those unfortunate people, who from choice or necessity frequented them, would be not to remedy but to intensify the evil. It therefore was not content with condemning them, but began at the same time to construct and equip municipal lodging houses, of which there are now, 1914, seven, six for men and one for women. They are stone buildings, three to five stones in height, and of the most substantial character. The bed has a wire spring, an hair or fibre mattress, coarse sheets, a blanket, a coverlet, a pillow, and a pillow case. All these are aired, cleaned, and washed, after the lodger has gone in the morning; or, if he remains more than one night, whenever he does go; and always at least once a week. The whole number of these little bedrooms, in the seven lodging houses, is 2,235. In every house there is a large recreation room, where the lodgers may chat, play games, or read; and where in the winter concerts and other entertainments are given. There also is a large dining hall; and abundant accommodation, with plenty of cooking utensils, in an adjoining kitchen. A shop for the sale of provisions and groceries is provided in each house; and in two of them cooked meals are supplied. Each lodger also can have the use of a small locker, with a key. And in addition there are facilities for washing his clothes, and hot air drying rooms. Another altogether unique enterprise, though in principle it is only a development of the lodging house, is the family home. Difficult as it is for a workman to find for himself clean and comfortable lodging within Every lodger has his own separate room, with a bed and chair.

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274 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April his means, the difficulty is far more serious, when he is a widower with several young children. Usually he cannot hire an housekeeper or a nurse, even at meagre remuneration; and therefore, when he goes to work, his children must be locked in the dwelling or left in the streets; and their food comes by chance or through the good offices of some kind neighbor. To meet the needs of this class the family home was opened in 1896. It contains 160 separate bedrooms, a dining hall, a kitchen with gas fires and steam boilers, a nursery, playrooms, baths and lavatories. All the rooms are warmed by hot water and are lighted by electricity. Meals are provided for the children, those of school age are sent to school, the others are looked after by nurses, and the cleanliness of all is seen to carefully. If a child develops symptoms of disease, a physician is called at once; and if it appears to be infectious the child is removed to an hospital. The home has proved a boon to many a perplexed man; and many children who have grown up within its walls, retain a kindly recollection of its associations. As in other European cities, there goes with the widening of existing streets and the construction of new streets a larger taking of land than is required merely for the area of the streets. The authorities take a sufficient area to make possible a well-considered plan for the consistent development of the whole. For example, in an old portion of Glasgow, there was a densely inhabited area of about ninety acres, with narrow, circuitous, and inconvenient lanes and passages; a menace to its moral and physical welfare. This area was taken by the city, and all the buildings were torn down. After the construction of the new streets, the city proceeds to erect buildings. Where there are valuable street frontages, shops, warehouses, and other business premises, are provided. In some cases only the ground floor is given over to business, with workmen’s tenements on the upper floors. Upon all the less valuable sites workmen’s dwelling houses only are built. Upon this and other like areas there are now 2,200 apartments suitable for and let to the poorest classes; and in addition the city is about to erect 80 more three-story buildings, having 72 dwellings of one and two apartments. Of these 2,200 apartments 592 are of one room, 1,334 of two, 237 of three, and 16 of more than three. Each of the lodging houses is under the care of a superintendent and one to three wardens, with a staff of women, who come daily to do the cleaning and making up of the beds. The family home is managed by a superintendent and matron, with a staff of servants and nurses. The soiled linen from all these houses is sent to the city’s steam laundry, which I found equipped with the most modern machinery. A caretaker lives in each of the workmen’s buildings, and is thus brought into close touch with the tenants, and enabled to make daily inspection of the prop

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19151 WHAT GLASGOW DOES FOR ITS POOR 275 erty. All are under the control of the manager, Mr. Menzies, who is appointed by the council’s city improvements committee. It is worth while to notice the different method of administration of such matters in Great Britain and in the United States. So marked has been our distrust of our cities, and especially of their councilmen, that, if such an enterprise were begun here, it is certain it would be administered by a commission, probably appointed by the state, or, if not, then by the mayor. Under no circumstances would it be left to a committee of the council. The British have far more confidence in their elected representatives than we have. The exaltation of the executive, and the powerlessness of the legislative branch of city government, are as incomprehensible to them as is our interference in municipal matters by the state. Mr. Menzies need not fear that he will be displaced, because the membership of the council, which chooses him, changes every year. He is as secure in his position as is a judge upon the bench. The only requisites are capacity and faithfulness. And in this connection it must be remembered there are no civil service laws, as with us, applicable to the cities of the United Kingdom. The cities have a right to change their officials as they please. They are bound, however, much more strongly by a high sense of honor, developed, as it only can ever be developed, by trust. The people believe their councilmen will do their duty, and they do it. In conclusion we want to know what these things cost the people who use them, and how much of a burden they are to the city. In the lodging houses a man pays eight to twelve cents a night; and this sum includes his clean and comfortable bed, the use of the recreation and dining halls and lavatories, the kitchen range and cooking utensils, and facilities for washing his clothes. If he takes a locker he deposits twelve cents, which are given back to him when he returns his key. The food, or cooked meals, as he may prefer, are supplied to him at equally moderate prices. In the family home the rent charge for a bedroom, including heating, lighting, and cleaning, with the use of dining and recreation rooms, and all the other privileges of the home, is $1.32 a week. Regular meals are cooked and supplied to him at the lowest possible charge. For his children’s meals he pays forty-four cents a week a child. If the number of his children is not more than three he pays nothing additional for their bed; and if he has more than three he pays also sixteen cents a week for each additional child. In the workmen’s dwellings an apartment of one room rents at $22.50 to $27.50 a year; an apartment of one room with a small bedroom, at $27.50 to $30 a year; and an apartment of ‘two rooms at $35 to $42.50 a year. At these prices the revenue from the lodging houses was, until the Another matter equally worthy of notice is the term of office. They are bound by no artificial bonds.

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276 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April year 1908, sufficient to pay all expenditures, including interest and depreciation. That was a year of industrial depression, and the cost for the first time was in excess of the revenue. The following years have shown a continual gain, and were it not for the unfortunate war, which so severely burdens every enterprise, the lodging houses would again prove to be remunerative. The working expenses of the family home for the year 1910 exceeded its revenue by $250; and in this case include a charge for interest and sinking fund. Although a small loss is thus shown, the gain in the health and morals of the children, and the relief to the anxiety of their fathers, are of far more account. The workmen's dwellings show a surpIus balance of revenue. The expenses in all cases include charges for water, the lighting of common stairs and halls, and rates and taxes upon the properties, exactly as though they were in private ownership. In 1876 the city council passed an order that in one of the areas, belonging to the municipality, there should be no sale of intoxicating liquors, and made this binding upon the land, so that not a single public house has been, or can be, established upon it. In 1890 the city went a step further in this direction of social reform, and made the order applicable to all its lands, so that now there is not a single public house in the very numerous properties under the control of this department. EMERGENCY RELIEF IN PHILADELPHIA BY w. ARTHUR WARNER' Philadelphia T" E city of Philadelphia appropriated 350,000 for the relief of the unemployed and thereby furnished a causus belli that has thrown the local social forces into serious conflict. In October a meeting was held in city hall under the auspices of the finance committee of councils. Riley M. Little, secretary of the Society for Organizing Charity, in behalf of his own and other organized charitable societies, made a statement showing that there were about 70,000 men out of employment in the city, and urging on the city authorities to undertake public improvements at once and thus relieve the suffering and hardship with Iegitimate work for the unemployed. This report did not meet with the favor of the members of the finance committee. They did not accept the suggestion that public works be started at this time to give employment, and they did not seem convinced that there were only 70,000 unemployed. The committee subsequently found a strong ally in a remarkable, Secretary of the Home Missionary Society of Philadelphia.

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19151 EMERGENCY RELIEF IN PHILADELPHIA 277 popular and new social movement in Philadelphia. The suffering in the war zone in Europe touched the hearts of our privileged classes, and they organized an impulse to help into a committee called the Emergency Aid Committee. This committee did splendid service, especially for the Belgian relief. Quite naturally the suffering at home this winter started a similar effort for the poor in Philadelphia. The committee at once formed a home division of emergency relief. Women of leisure are serving actively in the field, a large amount of sewing is given to women, and about $8,000 a week is being spent for the relief of the poor. A number of clergymen, bankers, editors, and men of affairs were added to the committee to aid in raising the necessary funds. Their original plan was to work in co-operation with, and largely through the machinery of the various organized charitable agencies. This committee concurred in the opinion of the finance committee of councils, that “careful investigation revealed the existence of an appalling amount of distress among the citizens of Philadelphia,” and they also “believed that it was beyond the present capacity of existing charitable and social agencies to relieve it.” They then asked councils to make an appropriation of $50,000 to be distributed through them for the relief of the unemployed. They totally ignored the request of the major and the organized charitable societies that the city give not charity but employment by increasing the public works. Councils passed the bill appropriating the $50,000, and the mayor signed it, giving his reasons in a statement issued to the public. Among other things he said: I admit and deplore the existence of a large amount of unemployment, probably not as great as in 1803-94 or in 1907-08, but still very considerable. I yield to no one in the city in anxiety to be of service at this time; but I am firmly convinced that this appropriation is unsound in principle, impossible of satisfactory administration in practice and calculated to defeat its own ends. The money of the city is money raised by taxation, and should be devoted to purely public purposes, and not distributed in charitable relief through any private agency, however worthy. In times of distress citizens who are blessed with more of this world’s goods than is absolutely necessary for their well-being should increase their charitable contributions, even to the point of denying themselves luxuries and comforts which they would otherwise be justified in enjoying. Municipalities should increase their public works, so as to give employment to the greatest possible number of those who would ordinarily be employed in private enterprises. Such appropriations largely fail to reach the really worthy, while they attract and exite the cupidity of the unworthy, both in the city and out of the city. It is a fact which has repeatedly been demonstrated to such an extent that the appropriation of public funds for charitable relief has been almost unknown for 20 years, and is not being attempted by any other city at this time. Its effect in this city will be to multiply the applications for charitable relief, to lessen the sources of private charity, and to impose an intolerable burden upon any churches, societies, committees or individuals who may undertake to administer the relief. In view of these facts, it may be asked why I approve the appropriation, and I Public funds should not be appropriated, however, to charitable relief. This is not theory. 6

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278 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April think it only fair that I should frankly state my reasons. I approve it because it has not been declared illegal by the city solicitor. I also approve it because many citizens and many members of the Emergency Aid Committee ao not appreciate the facts stated and they honestly believe that they are not facts. They will not be accepted as facts upon my say so, or that of any other individual. I believe that nothing but actual demonstration will convince the community of their truth, and that $50,000 is not too great a price to pay for such a demonstration. I, therefore, approve the appropriation, in order that the demonstration may be had, bnly believing that this demonstration will convince every intelligent person of the unwisdom of the appropriation, and end once and for all the agitation for any similar requests in this or any other city. Four of the largest charitable organizations stated at once that they thought it unwise for them to partake in the administration of public monies. The danger of becoming involved in political questions was an important factor in their decision. In answer to many inquiries they issued a statement to the public in which among others these reasons were given for their position in the matter: In the light of past experience, here and in other cities, we are compelled to regard such legislation as unwise and productive of evil results to the poor and to the community. The announcement of such relief measures, accompanied, as in this case, by widespread publicity and advertisement, attracts from within the city, and from neighboring towns and states, great numbers of applicants, many of them from the classes that prey upon the community. No other large cities, as far as we can learn,,have made special relief appropriations. The history of public outdoor relief, with the impossibility of investigation and of suiting the remedy to the needs of each individual case, points to a consequent increase of dependency. It tends to diminish among the poor self-effort and self-respect, and weakens their whole moral fibre. The self-respecting among the unemployed want work, not charity. Public relief funds discourage private generosity and benevolence. We think that the emergency aid, the churches, charitable organizations, employers and individuals can, by co-operation and the support of a generous public, meet the present sitqation without city funds and can quietly and efficiently administer to the individual needs of each case as necessity requires. Of the first 700 applicants to the emergency aid 600 already were under the care of existing charities. We believe that the experience gained in administering the $50,000 fund will show it to be unwise for Councils to make further appropriations for relief. Large appropriations should be made for public improvements, as other cities are doing, thereby giving real work to the unemployed at real wages. Within three weeks of the announcement of the passage of the appropriation one organized society reported that new applications for relief jumped 66 per cent “among them many demanding as their right a share of the city funds.” The Emergency Aid Committtee discontinued their previous working arrangement with and through these organized societies. An evident attempt of some to use this difference of opinion to increase the widespread criticism of the methods of organized charity failed, and wiser

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19151 WAR AND HOUSING 279 counsels restored much of the consideration and courtesy that at first existed between these groups intent upon a common social service. During the week of February 7-14 the committee and the organized societies have received a splendid support from the generosity of the citizens of Philadelphia proving a large public confidence in both. WAR AND HOUSING BY JOHN IHLDER New YOT~ City T THE present moment we who get our information about the European war from the newspapers are chiefly concerned with the outcome of individual battles; but those who are directing affairs, who are looking about for the means that will enable them to continue a long-drawn and desperate struggle, are probably more concerned about things at which the newspapers as yet do not hint. As the weeks go on it becomes more and more apparent that final victory will rest with those who have the greatest staying power, those who have the greatest reserves upon which to draw. This, of course, is no news. England’s wealth, its uninterrupted commerce, Russia’s uncounted millions of peasants are factors that have already been dwelt upon; but only here and there have appeared in the special correspondence hints at what may in the end prove the deciding factor, the quality of the individual men in the contending armies. How important this factor is we may realize by remembering England’s experience in the Boer War when it had difficulty in finding among the people of its swarming industrial cities recruits who measured up to standards which had been lowered to meet the emergency. Now England must send out vastly greater armies than she did in 1900. What will be the quality of those armies? Mere numbers do not tell. The ability of the army at present in the field offers us no test, for that army is composed of her professional soldiers, men who were accepted before the drain had begun, reinforced by the first and the best of the volunteers. When the long strain begins it will be borne, or it will not be borne, by those who are now drilling in the parks at home. What account will they give of themselves? Some months ago, before the war began, the Atlantic Monthly published an article by Vernon L. Kellogg on “Eugenics and Militarism.” With Mr. Kellogg’s argument against militarism we are not now concerned, we wish simply to quote some of his figures. For example, in the decade 1893-1902, out of a total of 679,703 men offering themselvea for enlistment in England, 34.6 per cent were rejected aa unfit for service, 9 per cent were rejected after three months’ provisional acceptance, and 2.1 per cent were discharged as A

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280 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April invalids within two years, making thus a total of 40 per cent of all those applying that were turned back into the civil population as not physically fit men. In 1911, of the 64,538 men who offered themselves for enlistment in England, Scotland, and Wales, 28,900, or 44.78 per cent, were rejected for physical unfitness by the examining board. More than 63 per cent of all the applications for enlistment from the city of Edinburgh were rejected, and more than 57 per cent of those applying in Lee&. In London, 36 per cent were rejected. And these figures by no meam reveal the closeness of this selection, for the requirements of height and chest measurements are so well known that men obviously under size or obviously infirm do not offer themselves, or if they do are at once rejected by the recruiting sergeants, so that they never reach the regular examining boards. Evidence presented to the inter-departmental committee on physical deterioration in the United Kingdom indicates that out of every one hundred men who offer to enlist in the British army only forty are accepted, sixty being returned to the civil population as physically unfit. .And although it may be objected that the flower of the British working classes do not offer themselves for enlistment, yet it is admittedly true that the British army is not composed exclusively, or, indeed, by any meam largely, of British riffraff. While many, perhaps a majority, of the applicants for enlistment are men out of work, a condition of temporary unemployment in Great Britain is by no means a certain indication of incompetency. No observer of present-day industrial conditions in England would claim this for a moment. At any rate, this possible criticism of the shunning of the army by $he better classes of young men can have no bearing in the case of the French and German conditions, where compulsory service obtains. In these countries all the young men arriving at military age each year are liable to service, a certain proportion of them being chosen by lot to join the colors. The annual contingents, or “classes,” are examined, man by man, by carefully chosen boards, to determine the physical fitness or unfitness for military service of all this youth of France and Germany. As a result of these personal examinations, France has, for nearly one hundred years now, regularly rejected w physically unfit from 30 to 40 per cent of those examined each year. (This is, of course, I should mention in passing, no basis of comparison between the male youth of France and that of Prussia, for any slight dserence in the requirements as to height or bodily condition, or in the rigor of applyhg the recruiting regulations, would account for the dzerences in proportion of rejected.) Prussia hw rejected, for many years, from 35 to 50 per cent,. Such figures as these have caused the military leaders of the European nations much thought. Organization, training, discipline may be essential. The successful working out of problems of strategy may win a campaign; but back of them all lies the quality of the private in the ranks. If he is below par all else is useless. Germany, perhaps, realized this first. The boy is father to the man. He must be taken care of that he may become suitable material for an efficient army. So Germany began to improve the conditions under which its children are born and reared. It attacked the housing problem. England had already been awakened to the menace of its bad housing, but it was the Boer war that shocked it wide-awake. So England, too, has been making tremendous efforts to improve the homes of the mass of its people. Those who have recently visited England after an absence of many years claim to notice a decided improvement. England and

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19151 A COMMUNITY SECRETARY 281 Germany, however, still have their slums which bring forth disease and degeneracy. In this time of stress their power may well be limited by the extent of these, their paper strength turned into actual weakness. For the products of the slum are not good enough to be food for powder, they would but hamper their own army; they are not good enough to do the nation’s work while better men are fighting for them. Yet they must be fed and clothed and sheltered. We in America have no immediate cause to fear such a dramatic demand upon our staying power as that which the great nations of Europe are trying to meet. But in less spectacular ways we too are engaged in a competition the result of which depends upon the quality of the individual citizen. We too have permitted the creation of slums which bring forth disease and degeneracy. They are in our small cities and towns as well as in the great centers of industry. We have been granted peace and opportunity to rid ourselves of these handicaps. Shall we too wait until war or need for a conscript army makes us take decisive action? ,A COMMUNITY SECRETARY BY GRAHAM TAYLOR‘ Chicago W HAT you are doing here in Neillsville to-day in forming your community association and inaugurating the ciyic secretary of your city looks almost like rediscovering America. Our New EngIand forefathers took possession of the new soil with one of the oldest things they could have brought from the old worldthe town. From the English “shire,” the Teutonic “tun,” the Norwegian “thing,” the still older primitive “village community,” the “Aryan household,” and the “ancient city,” they brought their township and planted it here in the new world as the people’s most primitive possession, their most universal heritage. The New England town meeting was the beginning of a new democracy, as the old world’s forms of it had been the survival of the people’s liberty. From Plymouth Rock onward their town meeting was the political meeting of the church members, as the church was the religious organization of the citizens. Thus at the center of every town the Pilgrim Fathers planted their “center church.” Connecticut’s shield bears as the sign of the new conquest a rod with three vines intertwined about it. They were the first three towns clinging to the churches, or ‘Being the address of Graham Taylor, president of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, on the occasion of the inauguration of Walter P. Schatz as Civic Secretary of Neillsville, Wis. See article on “Civic Secretaryship as Public Service,” vol. iii, p. 756.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April the first three churches clinging to the town. Whichever it was, they meant and made the town to be like the “ancient city,” not chiefly a place, not merely a population, not a collection of houses and streets, but a federation of families. The discoverers centered the soil and themselves at the town, the church, the school, all at one center. For, our local communities gradually lost their center. As religious faiths varied, the one church could no longer be the center for the whole community with its many sects. As political parties sprang up, the town meeting became divisibly partisan and could no longer be the center for the co-operation of the whole community. As population became cosmopolitan, the people were divided by race, language, custom and class. Only a free public school was left as the one bit of common mother-earth which we all own, to which we all have equal claim, where we all have right to be on equal terms. Here at the common school we are beginning over again to discover local centers for American life. Here on common ground you are getting together as our freemen forbears used to do on Boston Common, and on the village greens across the seas. Your new “community association” is the old town meeting revived and readapted in non-partisan form to give free expression to public opinion and the co-operative action of the community as a whole. At one center you are pooling your all inclusive interests-economic, recreational, educational. The importance of making the prosperity of your city and the adjoining country the concern of all, instead of the special interest of any few, is well emphasized by providing for commercial, industrial and agricultural sections in your organization. Property interests have divided us too long, instead of constituting an interest common to us all. Progress is impossible where sought by a few at the expense of the many. It is a sign of the new times that business men are catching sight of the larger aspects of their trades and crafks. They are realizing that if the community fails their business cannot succeed. And the town is realizing that it cannot succeed if its business fails. In their trade organizations and trade unions, in their commercial associations and federations of labor, business men, both capitalists and laborers, employers and employes, are serving their town to serve themselves, and in serving themselves seek to serve their town. This new civic patriotism in commerce and industry begets the new hope of industrial peace and community prosperity. If we leave the commercial development of the town to the few, and think it to be none of our business, they cannot succeed, as Miss Margaret Woodrow Wilson well reminds you, ‘I without public opinion, without community spirit back of them. Thefmost effective way of promoting any special community interest America needs rediscovery.

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19151 A COMMUNITY SECRETARY 283 is for the community as a whole to assume the responsibility of promoting that interest.” By including an agricultural section and closely allying it with sections devoted to commercial, industrial and municipal interests, your community association is bridging the chasm between town and country, the great city and “down state.” Your practical demonstration that their interests are one, reciprocal and indivisible, may possibly hasten the end of that foolish8cleavage between city and country representatives in our state legislatures which deadlocks the movement for new state constitutions, for home rule charters and for social legislation. Public welfare can be promoted in neither city nor country without the co-operation of each with the other, much less by either at the expense of the other. Recreation is identified with industry in your community interests, play with work, leisure with labor. At last the leisure problem is regarded as great as the labor problem. Your section on recreation and your civic secretary will promote interests as vital to the community and as valuable to its life as its commercial, industrial and agricultural interests. The foundations for efficiency in team-work both in industry and citizenship are best laid by team-play in youth. The well-directed playground is as valuable an educational asset of any community or family or church as their day school or Sunday school. Most significant of all you are doing here to-day is the emphasis laid upon the fact that public education is the most public thing there is, the one interest which is most common to all. The fact that your board of education has taken the initiative in creating the‘ office of civic secretary of Neillsville and including that official in the staff of the public school system, while sharing his services with the commercial, industrial, agricultural and municipal interests of the same community, is the unique, outstanding feature of this occasion. While Neillsville is the first place in which a civic secretary’s whole time has thus been secured by the school authorities and shared with these other community-wide interests, many other towns and cities have led the way along parallel lines in the same general direction. Wisconsin’s public school buildings housed 20,000 community assemblies of adult citizens during the past season. Seventy-two Wisconsin cities and towns have begun to use their school-houses as polling places. There are nearly 200 men and women employed by Wisconsin school boards in organizing and directing the community uses of public school plants outside of regular school hours. One Wisconsin city has spent $39,000 annually for the past four years in social center development and finds it a most profitable and economical investment. Most suggestive of what is sure to follow is the fact that nine public school principals in Wisconsin have been made village or town clerks. What this means in the increase of efficiency both in public school teach

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284 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April ing and in civic administration is indicated by the statement of one of these school principal-town clerks : ‘‘ While I consider that my training for teaching made me a somewhat better town clerk, I am positive that my work and experience as town clerk have made me a much better teacher.” This combination of the function of the old New England town clerk with the function of school principal is logically implied in the town meeting use of the public school-house. The United States Commissioner of Education, Philander P. Claxton, reports that for the first time in the nation’s history the increase in the numerical proportion of women to men entering public school service has ceased and there is a slight but real and extremely significant relative increase in the number of men going into public school work. And his explanation of this is that strong men are beginning to see that public school work is to serve the children of the community not only, but its youths and adults as well. Miss Wilson in her message to the citizens of Neillsville on this occasion finely ratifies this opinion by saying, “When school superintendents or their associates and school principals are made the servants of all of the community, instead of serving just the younger half, then their position will in my opinion be the highest in the community and firstrate men all over this country will be attracted to such positions.” This assumption by the public schools of the functions hitherto fulfilled by the voluntary agencies of private citizens, is only a part of the very general tendency for the state, county and city to take over the humanitarian service long regarded as the prerogative of the church. This tendency, so far from being either derogatory to, or a supersedure of, the churches, is the most public recognition of their success, as certified by the fact that the state thus takes up, carries on and extends this much of their work. It proves that the ideals of religion ministered through the churches are getting into law and administration. It means not that religion is being secularized, but that the secular is becoming religious. At a great industrial and social crisis in English history, one of the prophets who turned the tide from its destructively revolutionary tendency toward its constructively evolutionary development, thus interpreted this very turn which our public affairs are taking: “Politics have been separated from household ties and affection, from art and science and literature. While they belong to parties, they have no connection with what is human and universal; when they become politics for the people, they are found to take in a very large field; whatever concerns man as a social being must be included in thcm. Politics for the people cannot be separated from religion.” The service of your civic secretary, therefore, may well be welcomed by every pastor, parent and teacher as an aid in making it easier to grow up good than bad in Neillsville. Every householder and property

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19151 A COMMUNITY SECRETARY 285 owner, and every public-spirited citizen and city official should co-operate with him in giving securit.y and enhanced value to property by making it harder to do wrong and easier to do right in Neillsville. The best that the homes, the schools and the churches seek and work for will thus be transformed into the practical policies and progressive achievements of the community. Education and religion will thus at last be free to translate their ideals, standards and efficiency into social action. What Liberty H. Bailey hopes for the country church will also be realized by each rural community whose citizens follow your lead: “In some great day And it will say: Where the wide earth yields Where the furrows turn Till the plowshares burn Where the workers pray With their tools all day The country church Will find its voice “I stand in the fields Her bounties of fruit and grain; As they come round and round again; In sunshine and shadow and rain. “And I bid them tell Of the crops they sell I speed every man In his hope and plan And grasses and trees, The birds and the bees And speak of the work they have done; And follow his day with the sun; I know and feel ev’ry one. “And out of it all As the seasons fall I point to the skies But my footstone lies For I preach the worth Of the native earth-‘ I build my great temple alway; In the commonplace work of the day; To love and to work is to pray.”l 1 In inducting Mr. Schatz to the office of civic secretary, Professor Taylor said: “As your teacher, Walter P. Schatz, I ask you publicly to answer this question: Do you accept, and will you faithfully fulfil as best you can, the trust committed to you by your fellow-citizens as civic secretary of Neillsville, to serve and promote the commercial, municipal, recreational and educational interests of all the people, without fear or favor? ” Upon Mr. Schatz’ assent, Professor Taylor added, “God help and speed you in so doing.”

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286 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April VOTERS’ LEAGUES AND THEIR WORK BY ROBERT E. CUSHMAN Columbia University T GIVES a comforting sense of civic piety to berate the municipal Orthodox and respectable And the object of all this scolding still goes to the polls complacent and uninformed, makes a hasty selection of names from the substantial portion of the city directory which he finds on the ballot, and leaves the voting booth goodnaturedly uncertain whether the John Jones for whom he voted for alderman is president of the first national bank or the bartenders’ union. With unconscious satire we call this process municipal democracy. In the shadow of the voter’s ignorance have moved the forces of corruption which have made American city government a reproach. But a decade or so ago, an eminently sensible idea came to groups of public-spirited citizens in some cities where conditions had grown wellnigh intolerable. The idea was that city government could never really improve so long as the common citizen continued to know nothing about the character and qualifications of most of the men for whom he voted, and that the common citizen would never be informed about these matters until some one undertook, systematically and thoroughly, the job of informing him. It was to undertake this job that voters’ leagues were organized, and in the last election they threw the spotlight upon candidates and issues in more than a dozen of the largest cities in the country. It is a wholesome cure for political pessimism to look periodically at these organizations and the work they do.‘ A voters’ league in its simplest form, and its form is always simple, is a body of citizens, several hundred strong, working through an executive committee and paid secretary. Membership is usually open to any one who is interested enough to pay the annual dues or to make a minimum contribution.2 The executive committee is, with one or two exception^,^ a self-perpetuating oligarchy which has absolute authority, with accompanying responsibility, to determine matters of policy and direct the labors of the secretary, the man who does the work. Expenses are met by the annual dues, voluntary subscriptions of members, and special gifts from men of wealth who believe in the work of the league. Contributions from candidates 1 See article by Dixon Ryan Fox, “Voters’ Leagues andtheir Critical Work,” NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. ii, p. 664. 2 A voter must be duly accepted for membership in the Citizens’ Union of New York. 3 The executive committee is elective in the Civic League of Cleveland, one fourth voter for his ignorance and indifference. persons have done this since municipal voters were. I being chosen each year.

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19151 VOTERS’ LEAGUES AND THEIR WORK 287 are not accepted, and in most cases all the sources of income are made public. The whole mechanism lends itself to direct and efficient action. The voters’ league undertakes the highly important task already suggested of presenting to the voter facts about candidates for office-facts which he ought to have, but which he will not, and in most cases cannot, gather for himielf. It means a minute and painstaking examination of the record of public officers. In Boston, for example, the Good Government Association selected 20 measures of general interest and showed how every city councilman seeking re-election last fall had voted or failed to vote upon each one. It ,involves a laborious search into the character and fitness of multitudinous aspirants for office, many of whom have no eagerness to help lift the obscurity which surrounds their past careers. In many cases the leagues give to candidates a chance to commit themselves, sometimes to pledge themselves, upon important issues. Thus a sort of platform of principles was presented, before the last election in Cleveland, to those running for city council, while a similar opportunity to declare himself was given to each local candidate for the constitutional convention by the New York Citizens’ Union. The data obtained in these ways, sifted and weighed, form the basis for the endorsement of some candidates and the denunciation of others. The possession of facts justifies plain speaking and the following excerpts from the last election bulletins indicate that the leagues do not beat about the bush either in praise or blame. Saloon; completing fist two years of service which ahould be his last; extremely poor record. The only important vote to Meyer’s credit wm for civil service classification. .On all other questions treated in this report Meyer’s vote was not creditable. He was largely to blame for defeat of scientific salary revision as stated in the report on that subject, and yet he advocated large increases in excess of all recommendations. Present but not voting on conhation of appointments to sewerage commission. Absent 2 out of 100 sessions; present but not voting on 36 roll calls; absent 4 out of 52 committee meetings. Wholly incompetent and treated as a joke in the council. Should be retired. Lithographer; resides 1431 E. 34th st.; age thirty-seven; parochial school training; formerly ball player with National League; bears a good reputation for honesty and industry; has had no experience or training which would fit him or the duties of councilman; signed League’s platform. JOHN A. ZANCIERLE. Present auditor; resides 7107 Detroit ave.; age forty-eight; public school and university training; board of education 1890-91; member quadrennial board of assessors 1910-11; elected auditor in 1912; hishing first term; has instituted a number of improvements in the business methods of the office; has compiled and published valuable statistics on county finances; has uniformly observed the merit principle in appointments; he has been a thoroughly efficient auditor. Sometimes these verdicts are rendered only upon candidates for city and county ofice, but frequently the local delegation in the state legislature also claims the attention of the league. At least four of these organizations1 confine their energies entirely to the effort to secure the This is no simple task. AUGUST MEYER, Twelfth Ward. JOSEPH DELEHANTY. 1 Those in Boston, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.

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288 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April nomination and election of good men. This is due to the conviction, as expressed by the secretary of the Minneapolis Voters’ League, that ‘(you cannot well combine the work of a critical organization like ours with work along constructive lines.” Most of the leagues do, however, exert their influence in other directions. The Citizens’ Union of New York has permanent committees on the building code, city planning and the like. The Illinois Voters’ League is trying to effect a reform in the procedure of the general assembly. Perhaps the most striking instance of this type of work, however, is. the five-year campaign for a new city charter, waged and won by the Municipal League of Buffalo. But whether engaged in judging candidates or in other kinds of civic activity, the leagues never lose sight of the fact that their raison d’etre is to educate the voter. ~ How do these voters’ leagues make their influence felt? How do they bring the facts they have collected to the voter’s attention? The easiest way is, of course, through the columns of the press, and the leading papers are, as a rule, glad to print as news-matter the report of a league. Printed bulletins and circulars containing recommendations upon candidates are also prepared. In some cases this literature is sent to a rather limited mailing list, three or four thousand names in Milwaukee for example, The Cleveland organization last fall reached in this way about one-third of the registered voters, while in Pittsburgh every citizen received the bulletin relating to city and county candidates. Some of the leagues depend upon the candidates they have endorsed to circulate their literature; in any case the facts are within easy reach of any citizen who cares to have them. It is not possible to measure statistically the influence which these organizations for good government exert. ‘I I do not believe,” writes the secretary of the Pittsburgh Voters’ League, “that the election of a candidate recommended by the league measures fifty per cent of the effective value of the organization. The greatest good accomplished by publishing reports on candidates is to force all parties and factions to put up a better class of candidates. I believe we have had much to do with raising the standard of candidates for political office in this district. I have never, therefore, allowed myself to analyze the election returns.” Perhaps in a majority of cases the electing of approved candidates has been subordinated to the impartial presentation of facts about all candidates, and very frequently the voters’ league has committed what, from the standpoint of those intent upon winning an election, was a tactical blunder, by endorsing several worthy aspirants in the face of a solidified opposition, thus inviting defeat by encouraging the good government forces to split their vote.’ But the leagues do help in electing 1 The Municipal Voters’ League of St. Louis, however, refuses to recommend more than one candidate in such a case.

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19151 VOTERS’ LEAGUES AND THEIR WORK 289 good men. It is a significant tribute to their power that candidates anywhere should be willing to pay for the distribution of their bulletins, and, as a Milwaukee editor put it, “We have sometimes noticed that aspirants for office generally set a lot more store by the commendation of the league than they pretend to when they fail to get it.” In November rather more than half of the candidates endorsed by the Voters’ League were. elected in Buffalo, from two-thirds to three-fourths in Cleveland, while the Good Government Association elected all three of its candidates to the city council in Boston. Other less definite reports seem to indicate that a goodly proportion of the recommendations made by voters’ leagues everywhere were followed at the polls. These organizations enjoy the confidence of the people because they merit that confidence. In the first place, they are disinterested. Their enemies may sneer at them as community busybodies and professional uplifters,” but they cannot charge them with using their influence for personal or partisan ends. Such an accusation would be refuted by practically every page of every bulletin the leagues have issued. Men of all parties are endorsed and men of all parties are condemned. The leagues do not put forth candidates of their own, but merely pass impartially upon those named by the regular parties. In the mayoralty contests where the character and qualifications of the candidates are matters of common knowledge, they make no recommendations at all, thus showing their desire to be free from any taint of partisanship. In the second place, these organizations do not try to domineer. If, in their opinion, two candidates are of equal ,merit, they say so. Every candidate deemed worthy is endorsed, no matter how numerous his competitors. “In this district all the legislative nominees of the three chief poIitica1 parties are men of standing and ability for the positions they seek” is a statement frequently found in the bulletins issued. The voter is guided in his.choice, but not coerced; he has little reason to feel that the league is trying to mark his ballot for him. But the highest claim that the voters’ league has upon the confidence of the citizen is’that its conclusions are based upon concrete facts. It has pleaded for no one, thundered against no one. But it has dispassionately put into black and white how this councilman voted on the franchise grab ordinance, whether that candidate for the legislature believes in the short ballot and home rule for cities, whether the aspirant for the position of coroner has adequate professional training. First, last, and always it deals in hard facts. This is the reason why it has an influence and why that influence will increase. It is not surprising that this should be so. The more important voters’ leagues now active are: Boston, Citizens’ Municipal League; Good Government Association. Buffalo, Municipal League of Buffalo.

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290 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ApriI Chicago, Municipal Voters’ League. Cleveland, Civic League of Cleveland. Denver, Civic League of Denver. Illinois, Legislative Voters’ League of the State of Illinois. Milwaukee, Municipal Voters’ League. Minneapolis, Voters’ League. New York City, Citizens’ Union of New York. Pittsburgh, Voters’ League. Portland, Ore. , Municipal Association. St. Louis, Municipal Voters’ League. Seattle, Municipal League of Seattle. Wheeling, W. Va., Municipal Voters’ League. MOTOR BUS DEVELOPMENTS AND POSSIBILITIES BY WILLIAM RICHARD LITTLETON University of Pennsylvania HE motor bus is the natural born enemy of the street railway corporation. It is an enemy which is.growing in strength and size each year as we see more clearly its many advantages and possibilities. As the motor bus in London is replacing the horse-drawn vehicles, so will the motor bus in this country replace the street railroad by its greater efficiency, or at least cause it to become a lesser factor in the great and ever-increasing problem of municipal transportation. One of the gritat advantages of the motor bus is that each is an independent unit. The cost of operation and maintenance is far below that of the trolley car. lhere need be no central power plant, and the expensive track and overhead wires that have for years disfigured our streets are entirely eliminated. A breakdown or accident to one bus does not interfere with the others, whereas a broken wire or derailed car will tie up the street car line for hours. Besides the decreased expense of installation, bus lines can be rerouted at the discretion of the city authorities to suit the convenience of the public. Experimenting with new routes into the suburbs or within the city can be readily tried with little or no expense. It can bring about the rapid development of a sparsely populated section because its mobility enables it to run anywhere. If the new route does not pay, there is no great loss incurred through the laying of track and wire. The bus can maintain a slightly higher average rate of speed than a tramway. It can start and stop more quickly and the establishment of an express service makes increased rapid transit a certainty by having a certain number of buses on the route stop only at designated points. New York City has been one of the pioneers in this country in adopting the motor bus as a means of transportation. In a recent report by the bureau of franchises to the franchise committee, on an application now T

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19151 MOTOR BUS DEVELOPMENTS 291 pending before the board of estimate and apportionment, made by four companies for the right to operate motor buses in the Borough of Manhattan, it was set forth that the aggregate length of all routes covered by the application is more than 150 miles. Each of the four applicants has asked for routes connecting the residential sections on the east and west sides of Central Park with what may be termed the hotel, theatre, wholesale and retail districts, containing also the terminal railway stations of the Pennsylvania and Long Island railroads at 33d Street and Seventh Avenue, and the New York Central and New York, New Haven and Hartford railroads at 42d Street. The routes which have been selected on the upper west side of the borough in addition to the west side route, are upon thoroughfares in which there are practically no street surface railways, and are designed to give special local service, as well as service in connecting the east and west side lines extending into the business district. It is apparent that the motor bus companies are willing to give good service and the territory mentioned is completely covered. Nevertheless, in an effort to lay out a comprehensive system, the applications have been almost wholly disregarded because many more routes have been applied for than are necessary to form a comprehensive system. The experience which the city has had with the operation of motor buses has been so limited that it is believed the city should be very conservative in the number of routes which it authorizes in the beginning. Many of our western cities are at present giving the auto bus serious and careful consideration. In Los Angeles, it has been estimated that ,forty thousand nickels which formerly were given daily to the street railways in payment for transporation, now go to the men who operate the five cent fare automobiles. Some drivers figure on the wear .and tear on the car, others merely consider the cost of gasoline. These latter say that a cent and three quarters or two cents a mile will cover the cost of operation, while the former add a cent for deterioration of their machines. These figures are for five passenger cars, the kind most commonly used. One of the pioneers in auto transportation in Los Angeles has estimated carefully on the cost of running his five passenger car per day. He makes 18 round trips daily, averaging 50 cents a round trip and thus taking in '$9 every day. All this is not net to him, however, as he figures the wear and tear on his automobile and the cost of operation at 3 cents a mile and the round trip is a matter of eight miles. But even then there is a profit of $4.68 a day. Besides several double-decked bus lines in Los Angeles, there are some eighty automobiles on a single route; while other lines increase the number of machines so used to between 250 and 300; and the prediction is made that when the men thus engaged perfect their organization and establish new routes, that fully twice as many machines will begin service. The strongest argument set forth by the people is that they get home

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292 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April more quickly; and with the public taking that view, and the owners of automobiles willing to carry them for five cents, the prediction is that in time the auto buses will entirely supersede the street cars, not only of Los Angeles but in all large cities throughout the world. It is the opinion of City Attorney Stephens of Los Angeles that the council could not compel the auto bus people to take out franchises; but he expressed the opinion that these concerns could be regulated. The question as to what extent the bus lines can be regulated is before the utilities board and the council. Compelling operators of bus lines to file indemnity bonds is one method sought for regulation. This has been objected to on the ground that street car lines have not been compelled to file indemnity bonds. Another method suggested for regulation was that of requiring them to run on regularly stated routes and on a definite schedule. Notwithstanding the fact that the commissioners of Pasadena, Cal., have passed restrictive ordinances on the operation of motor bus lines, the taxpayers protective association placed itself on record as favoring a new motor bus ordinance. A. C. Ong on behalf of the bus people declared that if the citizens of Pasadena were fully aware of the effect of this sweeping ordinance on the interests of every citizen of Pasadena, that 90 per cent of the taxpayers and residents would gladly petition the rescinding of the drastic measures taken. He said that auto bus drivers should be encouraged, and that an ordinance should be enacted that will extend further advantages and accommodations to the residents of the city. Ira F. Thompson, attorney for the Pacific Motor Coach Company, which had been denied the privilege of running over one section of the route between Pasadena and Los Angeles, said that it was all done in the interests of the Southern Pacific, who own and control the electric lines. It is evident from this that the future success of the motor bus cannot be accomplished without a long, hard fight, a fight against wealth, wellestablished interests, whose power to control municipal legislation is practically unlimited in many instances. Chicago has been quite successful in the establishment of an auto-bus line. The Chicago Automobile Transportation Company has made application for permission to run a line of double-decked buses, each with a capacity of thirty-five passengers, the fare being ten cents.’ The service will include trips through the park system and will carry passengers from “the loop” to their houses in a fourth less time than is taken by the street cars. In looking for past experience and actual costs of operation, it is necessary to refer to the cities of Europe. There the auto bus has been running longer and has been more extensively used than in any of our American cities. Subject to the approval of Parliament, Birmingham, England, proposes to purchase some 30 omnibuses and plant for $165,000. This purchase will give the city the monopoly of the motor omnibus service within its boundaries under the City ownership there has already begun.

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19151 . MOTOR BUS DEVELOPMENTS 293 agreement that, while through omnibuses from outside points may be run by the original company into the city and by the city into the country, neither is to pick up any but through passengers within the limits of the other's activities. In nearly every case the buses operate in different districts where the roads are not of the best. In showing exact calculations per car mile in different cities of England we have: The cost per mile ranges from 13.374 d. to as low as 4.83 d. Birmingham. ............................. 9.288 d. Oldham. ................................. 13.374 d. Rotherham. .............................. 6.78 d. Sheffield. ................................. 6.675 d. Warringdon. .............................. 7.636 d. Wolverhampton ........................... 8.287 d. As showing the extent to which motor omnibuses are being called into municipal service, it is interesting to note that nearly fifty local authorities now operate, or have power to operate, these vehicles. In making a fair comparison between the motor bus and the street car, we must take into consideration the fact that the bus travels over a municipally-owned highway, wearing down and depreciating the road, while the street car furnishes its own surface and pays for its depreciation. Nevertheless there is nothing to indicate that the wood-paved roads, as a whole, were costing more to maintain. It was stated definitely that in Westminster, England, wood-paved roads have cost less to maintain and that this year the cost was less than it was eight years ago. In taking a certain road the car mileage of the buses was calculated and allowing that the levy for this form of trafic would be Q d. per car mile, S4000 would have been received, whereas the total cost of maintenance was only X2800. It was also clearly stated that the effect of the motor bus was no different from that of any other form of traffic, provided the road waa suitable and was kept in a reasonable state of repair; the motor bus was reasonably proportioned in the weight of the load on the wheel in contact with the road surface and that therefore, so far as ordinary wear and tear were concerned, the motor bus did no more harm than the standard type of motor car; that the motor car travelling at high speed did as much damage when the road was in a bad state as the heavier vehicle travelling at the slower speed usual with such vehicles. It may be taken that wherever there is a road on which more than 1,000 buses run per day, the amount collected from a levy on those buses will more than cover the total cost of the maintenance of the roadway, even if provided with the most expensive pavement.' 'Motor buses in England have unexpectedly been of national as well as local aid. It is stated that several thousands of London motor buses and drivers have gone to the front and rendered invaluable aid in transport work. Practically the whole of the single decked motor buses have been converted into motor ambulances. 7

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294 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April Taking into consideration the case of the street car, the rail is at a fixed level and does not wear equally with the other material forming the road structure; the vehicles using the side of the road track each other; in other words, the traffic is concentrated, and therefore the wear is very severe. Wood paving, when it forms the whole surface of a road without car rails, may be allowed to wear away to the extent of an average of 2+ inches, but it would be impossible to allow a roadway 10 feet wide to wear 24 inches; if the wear shows more than lt inches, the paving becomes so bad that it has to be removed and renewed. Therefore, if the road is in regard to half its width taken up by car rails, the remaining half costs nearly twice as much to maintain as the whole road did formerly-i. e. before the car rails were laid, and the relief to the ratepayer is of little or no account. In summing up the facts it is plainly apparent that the many advantages of auto bus transportation give a municipality: (1) Quicker and easier service. (2) An increase of revenues. (3) An elimination of excessive noise. (4) A better chance for expansion and increased suburban and interurban service. (5) An opportunity for increasing the beauty of the city by the elimination of car tracks and overhead wires, and for an appreciation of street width.[ 1 Concerning the use of motor buses, the Municipal Journal of July 24,1913, editorially said: The adopting of motor buses by Huntington, Ind., in place of street cars runninq on rails, raises the question whether the time has come or is coming when this can be adopted as a more or less general practice by small cities and villages. With more perfect roads and improved motors it is certainly more practicable than it waa ten years ago. There are several arguments in favor of buses aa compared with cars runnin on tracks. Some of these are mentioned in the article, but there are others, among taem the following: No special area of street is turned over to a private corporation. The smoothness and life of the roadway pavement are not lessened by the presence of rails throughout its length. No poles or wires are necessary (the underground trolley is too expensive a construction for small communities). The noise of steel tire on steel rail is avoided-a most serious objection on residence streets. It would not be possible f9r one or two property owners to prevent the operation over a given route by refusing their consent to laying track in front of their roperties, as is so often done where trolley lines are proposed and even needed. A rnistaie in judgment in locating a route is by no means irreparable-a change requires only the consent of the franchise granting power. In fact, the route might be changed from hour to hour during each day, as the users of the buses desired to go to or from the factories, the shopping district, the amusement center, etc. A temporary obstruction, such as repairing a road, need occasion little inconvenience to buses other than making a detour of a block. A serious question is whether the cost of power and of maintaining heavy buses traveling over roads never as smooth as rails, especially when the power is in the form of storage batteries as compared with a central power house, can be kept low enough to make the enterprise a paying one with 5-cent fares.

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION. * Commission and Commission-Manager Government. -The last few months have presented a period of incubation rather than of actual accomplishments in the adoption of new city charters. A number of important movements are pending and new laws have been introduced in this year’s legislatures which later on may bring forth very considerable advances. For example, in Iowa a bill has recently been introduced providing for the adoption of the commission-manager form. In this state there have been several cities employing city managers under the old system. This, however, has proved, apparently, a rather unsatisfactory practice, and the plan now is to secure the city-manager feature in a more stable form. It is regretted that the law proposed does not give the city manager the powerful control which is really necessary in order to carry out the idea of expert management. Iowa seem to think of the city manager as a sort of superintendent of public works. In Indiana a bill was introduced in February providing for an optional law permitting any city to adopt either the regular form of commission government or the city-manager form. In a general way this bill conforms to the orthodox plans. A joint committee of the two houses of the Massachusetts legislature reported early in the year in favor of the passage of a law which would permit Massachusetts cities to adopt any one of four forms of simplified government. One of these is the city-manager form and another provides for the commission form of the regular type. Doubtless the action of this committee was affected by the long and thorough discussion of the city-manager plan and the federal form which has been going on during the past few months 295 in Springfield before the citizens committee of one hundred. This committee, composed of representatives of all of the civic bodies in the city, decided on Januaq 22, by a vote of 58 to 45 in favor of the commission-manager system. The latter virtually represented a compromise be tween the advocates of the straight out commission plan and those who favored the federal system, for up to this year there has been practically no sentiment in favor of the city-manager form. Sun Diego, California, which has been for some years operating under the commission plan, voted recently on the adoption of what may be termed a “freak,’ charter, providing among other things for the return to a very complicated system with a number of elected administrative officers. In spite of very bad weather the people turned out in sufficient numbers to down this proposition by a large majority. The plan now is to have a city-manager charter submitted to the people in time for action by this year’s session of the California legislature. A bill prepared by the Missouri League of Municipalities, providing for the commission-manager form has been introduced in the legislature and has been recommended, with slight amendments, out of committee in both houses. If the bill passes it is likely that the University of Missouri will establish a curriculum for the training of municipal executives. An event of some significance is the adoption in Hoboken, New Jersey, of the commission form by a majority of three votes in a. total of about 7,000. This w~18 the third attempt to adopt the plan in that city. Other cities which have adopted the regular commission plan since the first of December are Sunta Monica, California; Efingham, Highland Park, Joliet, Coal City and Sterling, Illinois; Harrods

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April burg, Hopkinswille and Middlesboro, Kkntucky; Eaton Rapids, Michigan; and Asbury Park, New Brunswick and Bayonne, New Jersey. In Tucson, Arizona, the Republican ticket elected last November waa pledged to employ a city manager and to follow as far as the law allowed, the general plan which goes with that office. Success attended the party and C. K. Clark, a non-resident of the city and the state was appointed to the position. Although the mayor ‘and council retain the legal right to make appointments, they,promise not to exercise it except upon recommendations of the city manager. A charter providing for a commission of twelve members and a city manager was adopted in Sherman, Texas, on March 6.1 * Elective Coroners Condemned. -On June 13, 1914, at the request of the New York City Club, Mayor Mitchel ordered the commissioner of accounts to make an investigation of the accounts and methods of the coroners’ offices throughout the city. This investigation was immediately begun, and the report of the commissioner has recently been transmitted to the mayor. The worst fears of those who had seen glimpses of the coroners’ office in action were found to be amply justified. The report of the commissioner shows that the coroners’ office represents a combination of abused power, obscurity, irresponsibility, inefficiency and malfeasance in office to an extent that could hardly have been increased had the system been designed to give the worst administration possible. Of the 65 men who held the office of coroner since the consolidation of Greater New York, not one was found to have been qualified by training or experience for the adequate performance of his duties. Nearly all had been nominated “to balance the ticket,” to represent a given race, religion, class, or faction. Most of them have been absurdly ignorant 1 H. 9. Gilbertaon, New York. aa to the legal and medical aspects of their work. Favorite causes of death have been assigned without shadow of reason to doubtful cases, and terms rejected by modern science as meaningless have frequently been used in the statements of the causes of deaths.’ The coroners’ physician has been a law unto himself. Such disciplinary power as is possessed by the board of coronew has been used to harass and embarrass the most competent of all of their physicians, and not to improve in any way the character of their medical work. Aa an example of the utter incompetence of coroners’ physicians, there were submitted 800 inquisition papers, 40 per cent of which, or 320 caaw, showed a complete lack of evidence to justify the certified cause of death. One case in particular where the coroner’s physician applied his favorite cause of death-hronic nephritis or Bright’s disease-was found to be a murder case in which the deceased came to his death by a fracture of the skull caused probably by a hammer blow. The undertaker found a gaping wound in the head which even the most superficial examination could not have failed to discover. The coroners’ juries have proved aa incompetent and corrupt as the coroners’ physicians. Juries have frequently been packed with friends of the defendants hefore them, and as frequently have been used as a means of petty extortion. The records of the casw have been meager, uninforming and practically valuelesa. In July, 1914, after the investigation was begun, papers in 431 cases, involving , possible criminality, were filed with the district attorney. Sixty-three of these were over three years old, and nearly two hundred were over one year old, notwithstanding the fact that such records are required by law to be filed forthwith with the district attorney. The coroners’ system instead of detecting crime has become a notorious agency for shielding defendants and concealing crime, particularly in cases of criminal abortion. Coroners have frequently abused their powers to compel the employment of favorite undertakers by the unfortunate

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 297 families of deceased persons. Probably no other department of the city has ever given so little of real value for so large a cost. The maintenance of the present elective system amounting to $172,000 per year has been an utter waste. The coroner, supposed to be a medico-legal officer, has had to engage a mediocre physician to perform the medical functions mentioned above, and were he required to engage a lawyer of like calibre to perform his legal functions, the travesty would be complete. With this condition of official incompetence and criminality before them, it is no wonder that the citizens of New York are determined to rid themselves of this scandalous abuse of power. A bill has been introduced in the state legislature, abolishing the office of coroner, and entrusting his magisterial functions to the judiciary, while placing the responsibility for criminal investigation entirely in the hands of the police department. In place of the corrupt coroners’ office, a competent system of medical examination is to be established. Such a system has been in successful operation in Massachusetts for forty years. Under it, skilful and experienced pathologists will determine how deceased persons came to their deaths, and for the bt time the science of legal medicine will be used to protect the community. Such a system will result in a saving of at least $50,000 a year, besides removing an ugly stain upon the city’s record. It is hoped that New York will succeed in freeing itself from the excessive cost and degrading influence of the elective coroners’ system.’ * Public Service Day with the Mechanical Engineers.-At the annual meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, held in New York City, December 14, 1914, there was an all-day session, under the auspices of the public relations committee, on the general subject the engineer in public service. 1 From Wayne D. Heydecker, Assistant Secretary of the City Club. Director Cooke of the department of public works, Philadelphia, in a paper entitled “Controlling Factors in Municipal Engineering,” emphasized the necessity for the cultivation on the part of the engineering profession of a broader interest in public matters. He pointed out further that the matter of viewpoint and genuine public interest are as essential to the engineer who is advising a city na are ability and experience, and that judging by this standard there are in certain fields of engineering, particularly in public utilities, almost no engineers who are at present availabIe for the service of the public and who at the same time have had sufticient experience for large undertakings. Systematic and aggressive advertising methods as an agency for developing an appreciation on the part of the public of all the factors entering into the problems of municipal engineering. “Training for the Municipal Service in Germany’’ was the title of a paper read by Prof. Clyde Lyndon King, of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. King gave in detail the courses, given in many German colleges, which prepare adequate ly for the municipal service. Instances were cited of tendencies in some American universities along this line and the conclusion was reached that while American universities are doing much, they-are not offering the practical, definite preparation for public service that is being offered by many German institutions, and that the courses of study offered and the plans for municipal colleges in Germany point to endless possibilities for adaptation in the courses and work being offered in American colleges and universities, to the end that the public employe may be more adequately and efficiently trained for the work he will be called upon to perform. * The Utilities Bureau.--The trustees of the bureau, which was organized in November, 1914, met on December 30 in Philadelphia. Director Cooke of the department of public works, waa chosen acting director; Dr. Charles R. Van Hise, President of the University of Wisconsin,

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April was chosen as president of the board of trustees; Mr. S. S. Fels, as treasurer, and Dr. Clyde Lyndon King, secretary. ‘It was decided that the activities of the Bureau should include, among other things, the following: 1. To collect and collate data from all available sources as to rates, service standards, and cost factors in municipal utilities. 2. To prepare these data so that they may be of service to cities, public bodies, interested citizens, and corporations. . 3. To assist cities by study and advice as to their utility problems. 4. To codify the decisions of public service commissions and other judicial or quasi-judicial bodies affecting utility matters. 5. To obtain and maintain a list of engineers, lawyers, accountants, valuation and other qualified experts. 6. To publish and disseminate information pertaining to the service standards, rates, franchises, public contracts and any and all other matters of interest and value to the public and to corporations, regarding the construction, operation, maintenance and regulation of public utilities. 7. To encourage the introduction of cost keeping methods, similar to those found in the industries, among all utilities whether publicly or privately owned, and to develop standard forms and methods for reporting basic facts as to utility matters. 8. In general, to serve as a national agency in which American cities may cooperate in exchanging data as to rates, service standards, and cost factors in municipal utilities. 1 * Utility Notes.-Electric Plant for Trenton. Mayor Frederick W. Donnelly of Trenton, New Jersey, submitted in November, 1914, a special message to the commissioners urging that the city buy up at once the water rights owned by the Trenton water power company with the 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL RIFYIEW, vol. iii, p. 7b1. thought of developing electric power in a plant municipally owned and operated. The mayor pointed out that such a plan would “lay the foundation for future development” and “will make municipal problems easier and freer for subsequent bodies to follow.” He referred to the project w one “vital to the future development of Trenton, its manufacturers and its citizens in general. That the Delaware River, flowing past our door, offers great opportunity for development far beyond the power already obtained from the stream, L a matter of common knowledge and comment among experts engaged in the work of developing natural resources. And the time is, and should not be far distant, when improvement and development to consume the entire flow of this river will be made and this vat amount of power, now going to waste, utilized in the form of electrical energy, in our industries and municipalities.” Duluth Water Plant.-The year, ending January 1, 1915, was a prosperous one for the Duluth water plant, according to the statement made to its patrons by R. A. Reed, the manager. His statement of gross income and expenditures is as follows: Total gross earnings from Cash from city for hydrant From city 3 mill tax. ..... private customers ...... $534,896.12 rentals. ................ 49,546.70 24,554.90 ~~ $608,997.72 Interest on bonds. ........ 151,026.07 Depreciation reserve. ..... 73,411 .OO Sinking fund.. ........... 106,443.32 Operating expenses. ....... $278,117.33 $608,997.72 Mr. Reed contends that the $74,101.60, coming in from cash and the one-half mill tax levy from the city is not adequate compensation for the fke protection furnished. A physical valuation is now under way, however, upon which the proper proportion of fire protection costs can be definitely determined. In other

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 299 cities the size of Duluth, this item varies from 30 to 40 per cent of the total cost. The depreciation reserve and sinking fund moneys are being invested in extensions which earn the department 8 per cent in cash. The extensions are being granted as faat as petitions are signed. This does not use up all of these funds, however, by an amount in excess of $100,000, and it is suggested that this sum be invested by the water department in increasing the city's lighting facilities for serving cwtomers in Western Duluth with electricity as well as with gas. Cleveland's municipal light plant 1 is still furnishing electric current at a maximum of three cents to private consumers, though the Cleveland electric illuminating company has appealed to the Ohio public service commission to over-rule the ordinance fixing this rate. Cleveland officials presented figures to show that the Cleveland municipal light plant had been furnishing three cent light at a profit for more than a year. The company contended that, on the figures for its own plant, this cannot be done. The Municipal Home Rule League of Pennsylvania has presented a bill in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, repealing the present public service company law. The opposition to the law k based on the ground that it deprives cities of needed rights and powers. An alternative measure is supported by the Home Rule League, granting to the Public Service Commission powers over common carriers and other public utilities serving the state at large, the local courts to have jurisdiction over the affairs of local communities. * Sari Francisco's Street Railway.a-The hancial report of the Geary Street municipal railway of San Francisco for the year ending December 31, 1913, shows the following : 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL Rmrm, vol. iii, * See NATIONAL MVNICIPAL Rmv~m, vol. ii. pp. p. 773. 467. 476; vol. iii, p. 554. Operating revenuea. ................... $444,747.73 Passenger revenues. ... $444,393.13 Rent of buildings.. .... 354.60 Wayand structu rea.... 5,659.a7 Equipment.. .......... 10,581.35 Traffic.. ............... 81.75 Conducting transport* tion.. ................ 182.097.13 General and Miacellaneouu ................. 8,389.94 General (comparison charges required by charter). ............. 4.587.33 Depreciation-1 8% of gross revenue.. ...... 80,054.59 Operating expenses.. .................. 291.431.36 Net operating reveque.. .............. 163,316.37 Add miacellaneous income from municipal bonds owned.. .................. 1,328.64 Gross income, lea8 operating expenses.. 154,845.01 Deductions from income.. ............ 109.340. M Net profit for year ................... .$ 45.304.47 That this net profit is inclusive of the expenditures which the opponents to public operation often claim are never included, is shown by the facts that the general expenditures include $29,628.54 for the cost of elections; $11,450.00 for legal services, and $1,192.79 for miscellaneous expenditures, classified w follows: Engraving bonds, $620; bond books $115.79; bond circulars and advertising sales, $107, installation of accounting procedure, $350. Operating expenses are 65.5 per cent of operating revenues, the net operating revenue being 34.5 per cent of the total operating revenues. The amount laid aside for depreciation included under operating expenses is 18 per cent of the gross revenue. The following expenditures were made for road and equipment: For road, $1,312,665.33; for equipment, $348,802.97. The number of cars in use in December, 1912, was 9; the number in' use in December, 1913, 39. The number of revenue passengers carried during the year wa8 8,882,996.' * Detroit United Railway.-Prof. Edward W. Bemis is engaged in mafig the appraisal of the Detroit United Railway which will be used a8 a basis for the purchase of the railway by the city. Other 1 From Prof. Clyde L. King.

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300 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April “experts” have been on the case. Professor Cooley of Michigan University submits an appraisal on April 1, while Prof. David M. Friday, of that institution, is the franchise expert in the employ of the company. * Telephones.-The Manitoba government telephones have made a distinct, growth in the six years since they were taken under public ownership, according to the official statement issued by Commissioner George A. Watson. The gain in subscriptions from January, 1908, to January, 1914, was 31,768, an average annual gain of 5,294. The province claims that this average of 9.7 telephones per 100 population is higher than in any other similar section of the North American continent, the highest average elsewhere being 8.8 telephones per 100 population. The average in the city of Winnipeg is 11.1 telephones per 100 population. The average in the balance of the province is 8.2 telephones per 100 population. “Many uncomplimentary remarks and statements have been passed recently,” says Commissioner Watson, “applying to public ownership generally, but upon analysis it is usually found the statements or remarks are issued for se&h or other reasons, and intended to discourage the public in participating in the government ownership of public utilities.” More or less reliable information, of a negative character, on government telegraph and telephone systems can be gleaned from an address delivered by F. G. R. Gordon at the fifteenth annual meeting of the National Civic Federation, Friday, December 4, 1914.’ $7 Ice as a Public Utility.-Bakersfield, California, has adopted a charter which declares ice to be a public utility. So far as we are advised no other city in the west has taken that advanced step. To quote the San Bernardino Sun, “Even Los Angeles will be compelled to admit that for once it has overlooked something in the way of innovations. Other cities ‘From Dr. Clyde Lyndon King, University of Penmylvania. have assumed the right to make and sell ice, and the courts have upheld the assumption, on the theory that it is only another form of water, the right to deal in which municipally, is long established. Courts may also have viewed ice as in itself something of a necessity and proper for municipal ownership. But the Bakersfield move involves quite another question. If ice is a public utility, the recently adopted constitutional amendment puts the regulation of all utilities into the hands of the railroad commission, which is really a full-fledged public utility commission, and therefore the regulation of the price of ice is in future to be controlled by this body.” d One Meter Reader and One Bill, instead of three readers and three bills, for water, gaa and electric service is the recently adopted practice of Bonn, Germany, under municipaI ownership. * Municipal Markets.--In November, a municipal market was established in Chttanoogca, Tennessee. Stalls are rented at 50 cents a front foot; but the commissioner in charge has authority to raise the amount to 75 cents at the end of six months, and to one dollar at the end of twelve months. From all reports, the market is proving a great success. The annual report of the superintendent of markets, of Columbus, Ohio, for the year 1913 shows the following: Receipts from all markets $33,292.33 Expenses for all markets. . 20,800.00 Total net receipts. . . . . . . 12,492 .OO The superintendent of market points out that the receipts would have been greater had it not been for the flood which occurred in March, 1913, during which bueiness waa crippled, and heavy losses resulted.’ $7 Salem to Regulate Its Housing.-When on June 26, 1914, Salem, Maasachusetts, suffered the penalty of ’neglect, she had at least begun to think of reforming. The 1 From Dr. Clyde Lyndon King.

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. 19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 30 1 flames that swept away so large a part of her dwellings gave her the opportunity to build something better than the crowded wooden three-deckers which had already been condemned by the city plans commission as a menace to health and life. At first it seemed that Salem had learned only one lesson by the fire, the wisdom of using a less inflammable material than frame in its building construction. Fortunately, however, the work of rebuilding was not undertaken with a rush. Before many projects had been actually started winter checked operations. This gave time for thought and as a result Salem will ptobably set far higher standards for her dwellings in the future than she did in the past. The burned area is under control of a state-appointed rebuilding commission which has unusual power in determining the character of buildings that may be erected. Though it has not adopted a code and though its policy has not been definitely announced, the new buiIdings which have received its sanction and are now under way provide more adequately for both health and safety than did their predecessors. The most discouraging thing about them is the apparent tendency toward large brick barracks. The lead in developing this type of dwelling haa been taken by the Naumkeag miUs to house some of its employees. over this district the authority of the city officials is for the time being in abeyance, at least so far as control over building is concerned. Yet it is to the city authorities that we must look for the best response to the lessons of the fire. The Salem planning board, successor to the city plans commission, has taken up the work of the latter and drafted a housing ordinance. The form set by the model housing law was followed with modifications of detail. It is hoped that this code will have the effect that similar codes have had in Columbus and Duluth in encouraging the erection of single family houses and so give the Salem of the future reason to look back upon June 26 as the day of a new birth to a better social life than it knew before. This wholesome tendency toward a higher type of dwelling is being encouraged by the rebuilding trust, a body financed with money from the Salem relief committee, which is giving financial aid to home builders. Its influence is being thrown on the side of the single family house, and with its influence go plans, specifications and practical advice.' * Public Health Notes.-A Public Health Exhibit was held under the auspices of the City Club of Chicago during December and January. Among the subjects emphasized were ventilation, fresh air schools and other means of combating tuberculosis and the health inspection of school children. As a further protection of the milk supply of Montclair, N. J., the board of health has recently required that all milk dealers must iile certscates signed by reputable physicians to the effect that all employes who handle milk sold in the town are free from communicable diseases. Other requirements to hure safer milk have also been added to milk .regulations which were already strict and comprehensive. Copies of these milk regulations may be secured from Chester H. Wells, health officer, Montclair, N. J. A record death rate for New York City was attained in 1914-13.4 per 1,000, compared with 13.76 for 1913 and 14.1 for the registration area of the United States in 1913. The New York infant mortality rate for 1914 waa 95 and for 1913 it was 102 per 1,000 births-records to be proud of and which should put many other cities to shame. An intensive study of infant mortality in Johnstown, Pa., made by the children's bureau of the United States department of labor, showed 271 deaths per 1,000 births during the year in the poorest section of the city, which was five times the rate in the best residentia1 section. Other striking comparisons are: An infant death rate of 256 per 1,000 among babies whose fathers earned less than $10 a week, compared with 84 where the fathers earned $25 or more per week; 198 per 1,000 in houses 'From John Ihlder, Field Secretary. National Housing Assoriation.

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302 ’ NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April without water, and 118 where water was piped in; 166 per 1,000 among babies fed exclusively with artificial foods up to three months of age, compared with 47 among babies who were .breast-fed for three months. It should be interjected, however, that other conditions than those specifically named may account for some of the differences in infant mortality rates. The Johnstown report was written by Miss Emma Duke, under the direction of Miss Julia Lathrop, chief of the children’s bureau. Other cities now being studied are Manchester, N. H., Brockton, Mass., and Saginaw, Mich.‘ 9 English Cities During War Times.The effect of the war on English municipal activities is very marked. The employes of local authorities, however, are setting an admirable example. The men who are still at their posts are not only giving of their time and their work, but they are reserving a definite percentage of their salaries and wages for the relief of those upon whom the burdens of war press most heavily. The local authorities have encouraged the officers and men by making arrangements to insure that dependents will not suffer; the principle being adopted is “full salaries or wages less government pay, and appointment available on return.” The local authorities have not adopted a nervous attitude toward the situation, but they are inclined to take advantage of the opportunity that now presents itself to carry out useful schemes that are likely to be of permanent value to the community. These schemes provide employment for a large number of workmen, who, with their dependents, would otherwise have to be supported by the rates. In general, these proposed works are of permanent value to the community. They conform to a definite public need and are of such a character that local work-people can be employed in their usual occupations. Lastly, normal wages &re being generallv paid for the work completed, and inefficient labor is rarely employed merely because of its ‘From M. N. Baker, Montclsir, N. J. cheapness. Here are aome concrete examples of municipal activity in the British cities: Belfast. The employes of the corporation gas works have decided unanimously to contribute a proportion of their earnings towards the alleviation of distress consequent upon the war. The city council is constructing a new road six and one-half miles long. Glasgow. All the members of the police force have agreed to contribute one day’y’e pay to the Glasgow branch of the Prince of Wales’ national relief fund. The city council has instructed the several committees to enter upon the construction of certain authorized works. These include works to the value of ,406 to be carried but by the baths department; ,200 by the city improvement department; ,530 by the electrical department; the erection of city libraries at a cost of about 220,000, the laying out of two eighteen-hole golf courses and three bowling greens by the park department; the construction of filter beds by the sewage department; the erection of a hospital at a cost of ,000; and other works involving in all an expenditure well over half a million pounds sterling. There are over 5,000 employes in the tramways department and they have arranged to give a total of 23,000 during the next six months, payable by weekly installments, to the war relief fund. The City Corporation has decided .to contribute ,000 towards the national distress fund, The central unemployed body is submitting to the Local Government Board various schemes of relief work estimated to cost S195,500 and to provide employment for 7,665 men for twenty weeks. New central offices will be erected for the metropolitan water board at a cost of 2110,012. The Northeastern hospitd will be reconstructed at a cost of upwards of ,000. The sanction of the Local Government Board is being asked for three sanitaria for consumptives, the building contracts for which are estimated to run into considerable more than London. ,000.

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 303 South Port: The relief work proposals include the development of a lagoon site, the extension of the golf links and the improvement of the north marine park. The municipal officen guild has suggested to its membership that they should make regular contributions to a fund to meet local needs during the war. The scale of contribution being from 3d per week by those receiving less than 252 a year to 5s. by those receiving 2600 a year and upwards. Lancashire. The authorities are considering a proposal to construct a new road from Blackpool to Poulton. The road board has offered a contribution of E20,000. The education committee is arranging classes for evening instruction, and military camps and other places in which subjects will be taught specially designed to meet the wants of men serving with the colors and to provide occupation for the men in the evening. It is proposed to borrow 240,000 in this city for electrical mains. The widening of a portion of one of the roadways is being considered at a cost of 215,710, of which the road board will contribute 25,000. The city council has placed the city hospital of seven hundred beds at the disposal of the war office and if additional accommodation is to be required the public baths are to be offered. Nottingham. The Carter Gate housing scheme is to be commenced very soon. Plyrzouth. The road board has offered a grant of $1,000 towards the cost estimated at E3,OOO of improving one of the roads in Plymouth. Swansea. The town clerk has applied to the road board for grants in respedt of the cost of proposed improvements to various highways in the borough; the estimated cost to amount to 253,984. Chesterfield The widening of certain streets is being promoted with vigor in this city. Liverpool. York. A scheme has been submitted to the council for the erection of twenty-eight cottages for the accommodation of corporation tramway employees. . Mansjield. The town council is erecting forty houses at an estimated cost, including street works, of S7,OOO. The cost of the land is put at 2965. Devon. The district council has received sanction to obtain a loan of 65,500 for a water supply at Topsham. The work is to be proceeded with at once so as to provide employment during the winter. Halifuz. The water works committee has decided to provide shelters for the special constables required to guard the reservoirs during the winter months and to arm them. Southend on-sea. Wounded soldiers staying at Queen Mary’s Royal Hospital are being granted free admission to the pier and free use of the corporation tramways. Heywood. The town council has decided that all premises in the borough occupied by Belgian refugees shall be supplied with gas free and that they shall be exempt from the borough and general district rates.’ 6, A New Morals Commission in Chicago. -The members of the permanent morals commission recently authorized by city ordinance appointed by Mayor Harrison are: The commissioner of health, Dr. George B. Young, ez oficio; Rev. W. J. McNamee, rector of St. Bridget’s Roman Catholic Church; John Kelling, formerly president of the United Societies; Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch, of Sinai Temple;. Dr. Anna Dwyer, of the Morals Court. Rabbi Hirsch is the only member of the former morals commission. Eight thousand dollam have been appropriated for the executive work of the commission. 1 Robert M. Jameson, University of Texaa.

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304 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April 11. POLITICS 1 Boston’s Councilmanic Election.-At Boston’s municipal election on December 15, 1914, three members of the city council of nine were to be elected and two members of the school committee of five. The three candidates endorsed by the Good Government Association for city council were elected, leading the polls, and one of the Public School Association’s candidates for the school committee was elected. Only two out of the three members of the council were old members. The new member is a business man, active in the Chamber of Commerce and familiar with municipal problems. “For the most part,” the Boston Transcript points out, “the council’s membership has been composed of lawyers, young mexi just getting a start in their activities. It has been the cause of much disappointment on the part of the Municipal League that more men of broad experience and business training have not been attracted to the work of the city government. Two years ago the association, while speaking in high terms of the men elected to the council with its endorsement, announced that from that time every effort would be made to induce business men to run for these offices. This year the aasociation expected a substantial answer to its appeal, but only one man of the type, Mr. Hagan, responded, and he did so at considerable personal sacrifice. It is interesting to note that of the nine members of the city council, all but two, William H. Woods and James A. Watson, have been candidates of the association.” * The Recall in Salem, Mass.-After having been elected five times mayor of Salem, four times for a term of one year and one time for a term of three years, Mayor John F. Hurley was recalled on December 29 and Mathiaa J. O’Keefe elected in his place. This is the first time that the modern recall has been used in a New England city and it represents a rather interesting experience. The Bos- ‘Contributed by Clinton Rogers Woodruff. ton Transcript in commenting on the situation pointed out that the civic standards of Salem are evidently being improved, as Mayor Hurley served quite as well during his latest term as during his previous one. It also said, “There may be a limit to the magic of the old silk tile which failed to show staying power in one instance in the state election w well as now in Salem.’, This has reference to the fact that Mayor Hurley always wore an old-fashioned silk hat and was a “picturesque poseur.” Further quoting from the Transcript, “A city cannot be run forever on the basis of personal eccentricity. When there are laws for its government there are always some peculiar people who insist upon having them carried out.” The action of Salem must be regarded as a step forward. * The New York Constitutional Convention that will meet in Albany in April will contain 116 Republicans and 52 Democrats. Of the 153 district delegates, 101 are Republicans and 52 Democrats. All the delegates elected at large are Republicans. According to the figures prepared by the New York City Club the Democrats carried only 17 of the 51 senatorial districts, and of these only one, the forty-ninth, waa wholly above the Bronx. The forty-ninth is a part of the city of BuEalo. In the opinion of the City Club the more important proposals to be considered by the convention are measures providing for: 1% Home rule for cities and villages; 2. Short ballot reform; 3. Appointive nonpartisan judiciary; 4. Reform tending to. lessen the law’s delays; 5. Adequate state budget system; 6. The retention by the state, county or the city of the fee of a public franchise; 7. Non-partisan election officials; 8. Women’s suffrage; 9. Broader legislative power with regard to social questions, compensation, child labor, factory laws, etc.; 10. Extension of the municipal debt limit.

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 305 Norfolk’s Growing Independence.-Norfok, Virginia, having been for many years in the grasp of a skillfully organized machine, is now enjoying, according to Lieut. C. P. Shaw, the satisfaction of having dethroned her boss and broken the political shackles in which she has so long been bound. In the municipal election of 1912, the total vote cast was a little less than 5,000; the machine candidate for mayor being elected over the good government candidate by a majority of 212. Thah to the active efforts of the non-partisan Citizens’ Party and of the Welfare League, the total vote cast at the election of 1913 was 40 per cent greater than that of the election of 1912, and the Citizens’ Party elected five out of its eight candidates, including both members of the legislature. In the spring election of 1914, while the vote was only about 20 per cent greater than that of November, 1913, the Citizens’ Party elected its candidate for the board of control, and in three wards of the city, where there was a real contest, elected all of its candidates for the council; in one ward the machine elected all four of its candidates, while in the remaining ward, the vote was so evenly divided that the citizens’ Party and the machine each elected one member of the board of aldermen and one member of the common council. In other words, the Citizens’ Party won 14 out of 20 seats, or 70 per cent. In the next election, Lieut. Shaw writes, it is extremely probable that this same ratio of 70 per cent for the Citizens’ Party as against 30 per cent for the machine will continue, and the redemption of the city from machine rule will be complete. 5 Political Opposition to the Dayton Charter.-Petitions are in circulation for a change in the city manager charter. Those who are moving in this direction are politicians representing the Democratic and Republican organizations, although neither of these is officially behind the effort. The Socialists are personally and officially backing the movement. One of the active supporters of the present form of government writes: “I think there iS no question about our success in defeating their plan, but it will mean a campaign of defense. This will be a good thing from an educational standpoint. ” Ilr Civic Activities of the Oberlin College Civic Club.-This club undertook an unique investigation, the new primary law in Ohio affording them the opportunity. Those familiar with the workings of the primary system realize at once the need of getting the numerous candidates and their views before tbe people, especially when as high aa thirteen candidates run for the one office of sheriff, rn was the case this past summer in Lorain County, Ohio. The club, under the guidance of Professor K. F. Geiser of the political science department, attempted to meet this need and it is generally felt that they succeeded in no mean way. In fact this biennial investigation has given a new turn to Lorain County politics and candidates with questionable records have been taught to think twice before placing their names before the voter. The Oberlin club, a member of the Intercollegiate Civic Division of the National Municipal League is the only college organization in the country attempting such a work. Other colleges have considered it but have always come in codict with the politicians and as a result the work ha8 been abandoned. The investigations covered eight to ten weeks, the candidates being interviewed and hundreds of references secured. The results obtained were not the opinions of the men making the investigation, but the prevailing opinion of all the people talked to. Every statement made in the reports were backed up by evidence in black and white. So the plan, though novel, seems to be a step in the right direction for cleaner and more efficient local government. Ilr Chicago’s Mayoralty Primary Campaign.-The Chicago mayoralty primary

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306 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April campaign developed many interesting features, not the least of which was the utilization of moving pictures by Mayor Harrison, who was a candidate for renomination. His managers had a film made entitled “A Day with Carter H. Harrison, Our Present and Next Mayor, ” which was shown at the local theatres. This film took the mayor through the day from the time he left his home in the morning to his return at night for retirement. It showed him making tours of inspection of the work accomplished during his administration and at his desk in the city hall receiving visitors and transacting business. In commenting on this phase of his campaign the mayor said: “The new campaign methods have arrived. I am getting to be an expert in leading grand marches. Tomorrow night I am to lead three of them at three different balls. The new method brings the candidate right in touch with everybody instead of being confined to platform utterances in rooms thick with tobacco smoke as in the old times. The candidate’s campaign is interwoven with social affairs that enable him to meet people who never mixed in politics a few years ago. It is one result of the ballot for women, and I must say that I much prefer the new methods to the old.” A fusion effort was made by the Republicans aud Progressives to nominate and elect Hon. Harry Olson, president judge of the municipal court, to the mayoralty. The movement was interesting not only because of the high character of the candidate, but because it represented an effort on the part of the Republicans and Progressives to get together in local politics. Judge Olson received large support at the hands of the women, but not in sufficient numbers to ensure his choice, William B. Thompson, the choice of the old Lorimer organization, was nominated over him. R. E. Sweitzer, the present city clerk, defeated Mayor Harrison for the Democratic nomination. The vote of women was interesting. Harrison made a direct bid for it. Sweitzer.. . . . 124,565 57,666 182,534 Harrison . , . . 68,776 36,207 104,983 Men Women Total Two Democratic candidates for aldermen owe their nomination to the votes of the women, which tends to prove, according to the Chicago correspondent of the Ledger (Philadelphia), that the majority of the women vote as do the majority of the men. That is in the support of candidates who have been classed by reform organizations as undesirable. The same authority is responsible for the statement that, Alderman (“Hinky Dink”) Kenna received the support of 1,204 women, while his only rival had 98. “Charley” Martin received 1,816, while 1,338 were cast for the candidate who was supported by the reformers. Forty per cent of the vote cast for ‘‘Smooth Ed” Cullerton in the 11th was by women, while only 25 per cent was given his opponent. Barney’ Grogan, saloonkeeper, whose license was revoked by the mayor on the day before the primary, because of charges that the saloon was a disorderly place, polled 1,453 women’s votes, and his closest competitor, a team owner, backed by the city administration, polled 827. “In the 27th ward an ex-saloonkeeper offered an exception to the rule. The women’s vote for him was 794, against 1,017 cast for the second man on the list. “Until this campaign, ‘Hinky Dink’ and ‘Bathhouse John,’ overlords of the levee district, always have fought in the front of the Harrison column. Yesterday they were ‘neutral.’ The result was that Harrison got 1,098 votes, while Sweitzer rolled up 6,107. “Signs of ‘opening up’ of the town were noted Tuesday. “The women polled 77 per cent of their registration, compared with 70 per cent for the men.” A sidelight on the situation is afforded by the following letter from a member of the National Municipal League: “I am disappointed in the results. I have no grief for Carter Harrison. He has played fast and loose both with civic virtue and with civic vice until no one had any confidence in his sincerity. As to Mr. Sweitzer, he will undoubtedly be elected He is, so far as general public opinion is concerned, rather an unknown quantity. (‘ i

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 307 He has been county clerk and seems to be a very popular man. His affiliations are with the Sullivan democracy. On the Republican side, Mr. Thompson, the nominee, I have known from boyhood. He has been affiliated with the Lorimer element in the past and while he is personally popular, is no better fitted for public office than any other good sport. In brief, I may say about the elections that times are hard, that unemployment is general and that consequently the purchasable vote k large, also that both nominees spent a barrel of money in their campaign. Perhaps this tells the whole story. ’’ The above is from a Republican in national politics. The following is from a leading Progressive who supported Olson: “You can readily see that the good citizens are in a dilemma. There has not been a mayoralty campaign within a generation which has been so uninspiring so far as the decent citizen is concerned. There was talk until recently of Charles E. Merriam running as an independent, but his closest friends advised him not to get in the race because it would be a distinct sacriiice and would remove‘ him from his seat in the council after the new mayor goes in. It is conceded that in these reactionary times Merriam could not possibly be elected mayor next month, although in all probability he would run second to Sweitzer, with Thompson trailing him a bad third. ” * The Minneapolis Council and Administrative Efficiency.-Two more Socialists have been elected to the Minneapolis board of aldermen, making four in a total of 26. One of them is said to be a high class man. The new council will, in the words of a correspondent, “be a liquor council, the same the present one, and will contain not more than two or three men of good capacity. Probably it will be safe on franchises, but I should not want to guarantee anything at this time.” This same correspondent thinks that constructive work in the way of efficiency and economy in administration will continue. “We are now pretty well committed,” he says, “to this combination in Minneapolis, and I do not think we will lose any ground. There really haa been a quite remarkable advance along these lines in the last few years. The Civic and Commerce Association through its research bureau and its practical aid in securing legisl&ion has been of great benefit to us. Mr. Staley is doing some very effective work in this line.” * The Color Line in Kansas City, Kansas. -In the great migration from Mississippi about 1877, a large number of negroes landed in steamboats in old Wyandotte, now a part of Kansas City, Kansas, and from here a good many went to nearby towns of Kansas. The result has been that we have a large negro population, and while they are making very rapid progress in the way of education and in a lesser degree in thrift and morality, as a whole they are not regarded as desirable. Practically all of them are Republicans in politics. Until recent years the Republican party was the dominant party in Kansas City and Wyandotte County. In the early days there were enough negro votes to hold the balance of power in the primaries. Through this method they forced Republican officeholders to appoint negro deputies in nearly all offices, and county and municipal appointive jobs, such as policemen, firemen and others, had a large percentage of negroes. For instance, the deputy county or prosecuting attorney in the old days was generally a negro. There was generally a negro deputy in the register of deeds’ and district clerk’s office, and always at least one deputy sheriff. On the police force probably 10 to 15 per cent were negroes. While in the grade schools whites and blacks were segregated, in the high school they occupied the same rooms, and at the time of the separation there were about ninety negroes in the high school. Our populat,ion has quite rapidly increased in the past fifteen or twenty years. Practically all of the additions to the population were whites. Now the great

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308 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW preponderance of votes in the Republican party is made up of white voters so the negroes have lost their power. On account of the number of negroes in political positions a good deal of bitterness grew up on the part of the whites, and there was always a good deal of friction on account of the mixing of negro children with the white children in the high school, especially where boys and girls occupied the same study hall as they did in our high school. About the year 1905 a negro high school student killed a white high school student. This resulted in obtaining authority from the legislature to maintain separate high schools. An agitation also arose for excluding the negroes from the police force and other county offices. When the commission form of government was adopted here and Mayor Porter, a Democrat, elected, all negroes were dropped from the police force. Mayor Green has continued the same policy. We have made no change in the number of negro firemen employed, they having one company. No negroes are now employed as deputies in the court house. With the rigid enforcement of the prohibition law, a great many of the shiftless negroes, who were always in evidence about election time, drifted to Missouri where, with saloons, quarters were a little more congenial. A well known local correspondent writes: - “The prevailing sentiment endorses the attitude that is taken both by the city and county administration. The negroes naturally feel that they are being unjustly deprived of their rights. I do not see how any one can meet the force of their ar-pnent. They have in the past, however, been favored probably out of proportion to not exactly numbers, but to their economic value in the community. “At the present time they have organized a movement and Nat Singletary is running for mayor. He is a man of some ability as a money lender and politician. His candidacy is regarded generally more as a joke than anything else, it being The population is largely white. claimed on the part of some that he is induced to keep in the race to assist one of the other candidates. My judgment is that he will receive B fair percentage of negro votes, but not a majority.” 1: The San Francisco Mayoralty.-Eugene Schmits, removed from office in 1907 while the graft prosecutions were in progress, has announced that he would be a candidate for the fourth term as mayor. Commenting on this situation the San Diego Union has this to say editorially under the heading, “Why Not Beelzebub?” Whatever else may be said about Eugene Schmitz, ignominiously removed from lus position as mayor of San Francisco during the graft prosecutions, it must be conceded that for pure effrontery he has not a peer in all America. Returned to San Francisco from the east last Monday and greeted by a crowd with the very approriate adjunct of a brass band, Mr. i chmits announced his purpose to run for mayor next year, and added: “For three times while I was mayor, San Francisco had prosperity. The people want the good old times, and I am coming back to you to be your mayor again and be the same kind of mayor that I was in the good old days. I will ask for election in the interests of justice.” The nature of those “good oldtimes,” which led to Mr. Schmitz being numerously indicted, was very fully disclosed during the graft prosecutio? of 1907. Possibly San Franciscans deslre a return of that kind of municipal bhss. In that event they will have an opportunity to obtain thelr wish. Mr. Schmitz willnominate himself as a candidate for mayor. Beelzebub has the same privilege under the direct primary lam-. 9 PrussianThree-Class System.40 much criticism has been directed in recent times against the Prussian three-class system of voting that reformers were beginning to hope that an abandonment of the obnoxious principle might be looked for within a reasonable time. The fear of social democratic majorities on city councils has, however, so far always operated to defeat proposed changes, and now we read that the three-class system is to be substituted for the equal votes system in the province

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS of Schleswig-Holstein. This province at present enjoys a separate municipal code in which the three-class system is not contained, but owing to the increasingly industrial character of the urban population the government hds itself confronted with the possibility of social democratic councils. The only remedy for this in the opinion of German writers seems to lie in t,he introduction of the much criticised three-class system. * Votes for Women in Germany.-The legislature of the Grand Duchy SachsenWeimar-Eisenach has enacted that in municipal elections independent women shall be entitled to participate directly in the elections on the basis of their income. 111. JUDICIAL DECISIONS Burial Lots and Special Assessments.In People ex re1 Stubblefield us. Bloomington Cemetery Association1 the supreme court of Illinois held that land within a cemetery being a burial lot of a family is not subject to special assessment for the construction of a city sewer levied against the cemetery. itself. This ruling ought certainly to make for repose, and will, at any rate, eliminate a great deal of bookkeeping. * Control of Streets and Highways.The supreme court of Illinois, in Martins us. Brodyla in considering the respective spheres of authority of the state and municipality in a public street running through the city, found that while the authority of the state' had been delegated to the municipality, such delegation of control was for the benefit of the citizens of the whole state, and that any discrimination as to use of the street operating against the people of the state in general and in favor of those of the municipality itself waa invalid. * Formalities in Ordering Improvements. -In City of Monett IS. Fowl& the Missouri court of appeals had before it the question IS to what extent a city is entitled to proceed informally in the construction of improvements. In this case the improvements had been made by city officials without the authority of an ordinance authorizing them. The court held that an ordinance or other proceeding having 1107 N. W. R. 143. 2 160 N. E. R. 266. 8 170 S. W. R. 684. 8 the effect of an ordinance is essential, and that a tax bill for improvements made without the formality of such procedure is void. * Discounts by Gas Companies.-The system frequently adopted by gas and light companies of offering a rebate for prompt payment of charges was disapproved by the supreme court of California in Economy Gas Company us. City of Los Angeks.1 The city of Los Angeles has an ordinance fixing the rates to be charged by the gas company and prohibiting the collection of any other or different rate by means of any rebate, discount or other device. The court held this ordinance valid and conclusive in the matter and that no rebate for prompt payment could, therefore, be granted. * Lien for Improvements: Collateral Attack.-The time within which and the persons by whom liens imposed for street improvements may be attacked is an important one, particularly in those cities issuing bonds to pay for such improvements. The court of appeals of Kentucky has recently held in Town of Riissell vs. White* that where the proper municipal authorities have accepted the work done under a contract and no proof is adduced that they were guilty of fraud or mistake in so doing the lien for such improvements cannot be questioned on the ground that the improvements do not comply with the contract. This is undoubtedly a I143 P. R. 717. '170 S. W. R. 609.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April sound conclusion and one which is necessary to proper financing of such improvements. * Meeting of Town Board Outside the Town.-The New York town laws make a requirement that at least two annual meetings of the town board be held at the office of the town clerk, and provide for special meetings to be called on two days' notice, giving the time and place of such meeting. The New York supreme court in People ex rel Shields us. Watkinsl held that while other meetings than the annual meetings need not be held at the office of the town clerk, yet in the absence of special authorization by Atatute, such meetings must he held within the town, and that accordingly a meeting of the board held outside the town was illegal and business transacted thereat of no effect. * Employment of Help by Town Officials. -The New York supreme court, in Daly V8. Haight,a limited rather strictly the extent to which town officers may go in employing help to do the work usually performed by elective officials. In this case plaintiff had been employed to act as janitor and aa assistant in the office of the town clerk, it developing that his duties consisted chicfly in keeping the town clerk's ofEce clean. The court held that payment for such services by the supervisor was unlawful, and that the supervisor and the person employed were liable for the amount of the payments, since no town officer has a right to employ help to do the work of his office, nor has the town board the right to employ such person at the expeme of the town in the absence of regular legislative authority. * Franchise Rights and Taxation.-Any doubt there may have been in New Jersey as to the right to tax public utility franchises should be dissipated by the decision of the court of errors and appeals in Public Service Gas Company vs. Board of 1149 N. Y. 9. 1006. 1 149 N. Y. S. 940. Public Utility Commissioners, et al.1 The court found that in making a valuation of the property of the plaintiff for the purpose of establishing a basis for the regulation of rates to be paid to it by the public, it was error to assign no value or a nominal value only to a franchise held by it, when such franchise hm in fact a substantial value w shown by the total market value of its securities. The court accordingly makes it necessary to take into consideration a franchise in fixing rates. There should accordingly be no question that such a franchise for ordinary taxation purposes should likewise be taken into consideration. * City Liability for Work Done by Contract.-The supreme court of Oregon, in Carruthem us. Asturia found that to render a city liable for aneglect of duty by a contractor in carrying out his contract, it must be shown that it waa impossible for the contractor to do the work otherwise than in the manner followed. The court in this case practically holds the city liable for its specifications and the necessary results of doing work according to them, but relieves the city of liability in any case where the work under the specifications might have been safely done. In City of Jonesborough us. HaingwayS the supreme court of Arkansas had before it a somewhat similar question. In that case the plaint8 had done certain grading at a stipulated price per cubic yard. The city allowed citizens to have dirt removed from their property on paying the contract price. Under the direction of the city engineer the plaintiff, without any arrangement with a certain property owner, placed dirt on his property, thinking, of course, that the property owner would pay for it. There being no privity of contract between plaintiff and the property owner, and the contractor being unable to recover from him, the court held that he was entitled to recover compensation from the city. '92 A. R. 606. 1143 P. R. 1106. '170 S. W. R. 82.

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 311 Cutting Shade Trees: Municipal Responsibility.-A conflict of authority between city officials and owners of private property as to the right of the officials to cut and trim trees projecting over the sidewalks or growing in front of property, is often a warm one. The South Carolina law provides that the town commissioners shall keep the streets, including the sidewalks, in proper repair and gives them discretion as to what shall be deemed proper repair. In Munday us. Tom of Newtun' the supreme court of that state held that in case the board of aldermen proceeded in good faith in trimming trees along streets and sidewall= and in cutting down shade trees along the sidewalks in front of plaintiff's property, they could not be interfered with or corrected by the courts, nor could damages be awarded against them; that the courts were only entitled to interfere in cases of fraud or oppression on the part of the authorities. * Basis for Rate-Making.-The Massachusetts public service commission, in a long and carefully considered decision recently handed down, treated comprehensively the very difficult question of the proper basis on which a public utility is entitled to ask a fair return. The commission found that the reproduction cost so often and so strenuously urged as a basis for rate-making, while illuminating in many ways and while often the best method of checking up unsatisfactory accounting, particularly in connection with depreciation, cannot be depended on as a fundamental controlling principle. It uses as an illustration cases where companies by means of excessive rates have accumulated large amounts for capital expenditures, and holds that to base the rate on the reproduction cost theory would require the ratepayer to pay a rate that would provide a return, not only on the capital furnished by the investor, but also to furnish additional capital and a return thereon. The commission makes the point also that the rule works both ways; that is, that basing the rate on the '83 S. E. R. 695. reproduction cost would be equally unfair to the investor in that if the first years of a company were unprofitable and the plant depreciated the rate allowed would not permit the loss to be made up. The commission lays down as the real principle to be followed in making rates that regulation should take as its guiding rule the protection of investments honestly and prudently made and wisely managed, and holds that any other theory than this principle of investment would be found to be utterly inconsistent with the law of the State of Massachusetts. * Municipal Water Rights.-The question to what extent, if at all, the rights of a municipality in water used by it for municipal purposes differs from the rights of an individual is sometimes before the courts. In Stevens us. City of Worcester' the supreme judicial court of Massachuset.ts found the plaintiff entitled to recover for damages sustained, by resson of the city, which owned land along a stream, diverting the water, in which the plaintiff had riparian rights, to his injury. The court held that in the absence of specific authorization by law for the diversion, or in the absence of a showing that the plaintiff had parted with his rights to defendant, the plaintiff was entitled to the full protection claimed. The supreme court of appeals of Virginia, in Davis us. Ham'sonburg2 found, however, that under the laws of Virginia where a town owns and operates an electric light pIant and uses water power in doing so, the fact of damages being caused thereby to a lower riparian mill owner by the lessening of his available water flow on account of the city's impounding the water during the dry season, does not entitle such riparian owner to damages, provided, of course, the use made by the city of the stream flow was reasonably adapted to the normal capacity of the stream. 1106 N. E. R. 587. 2 83 S. E. R. 401.

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312 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April An Important Billboard Decision of the Supreme Court of Illinois.-BiZZboards in Chicago.-With an unwillingness which seems fatuous, to submit to any restriction upon their activities in the light of what resistance is coming to imply, the billboard interests have for the third time within two years brought upon themselves the heavy blow of an adverse supreme court decision. The famous Missouri case was hardly made known before a similar case and a similaf decision occurred in Wisconsin. Now comes the sweeping advance in the possibility of reasonable billboard restraint involved in the opinion of the supreme court of Illinois, delivered by Chief Justice Vickers in the case of the Thomas Cusack Company us. the City of Chicago. In the opinion of Everett L. Millard, the able lawyer who as chairman of the municipal art committee of the City Club of Chicago conducted the campaign and argued the case, this opinion “clearly enables the city to absolutely prohibit billboards in residence districts, as a frontage consent is merely a waiver of the right to prohibit.” The case came before the supreme court on an appeal by the city of Chicago from the decision of Judge Foell in the court below, in which the ordinance in question wm declared unconstitutional and its enforcement perpetually enjoined. The supreme court revwsed Judge Foell, remanded the case, and directed the dismissal of the injunction granted the Cusack company “for want of equity.” While a rehearing will be asked, it is unlikely that it will be granted. The crux of the case was in the validity of Section 707 of Chicago’s municipal code, which under the heading “frontage consents required,” provided that billboards should not be erected “in any block on any public street in which onehalf of the buildings on both sides of the street are used for residence purposes without first obtaining the consent, in writing” of those controlling a majority of the frontage of the property in the block. After having disregarded this law for some time, the billboard men, with the fine delicacy that generally distinguishes them, erected a great board at a point on Sheridan Road cutting off the view of several miles of lake frontage. This brought action, forced upon the city’s building department, and then the injunction followed, against which the city appealed to the supreme court. The fight in support of Section 707 was that it was neither discriminatory or unconstitutional, as alleged, and that “billboards are dangerous to the public health, safety, morals and comfort”; that they afford protection to disorderly persons, create nuisances and increase the danger of fires. No aesthetic considerations were urged; but in support of the above contentions evidence was offered to prove that in residence districts less fire and less police protection were provided, while the rubbish accumulations back of the billboards increased the danger both from fire and of criminal assaults. Testimony was brought forward to show that the lights on the front of some of the billboards made the space in the rear “even darker than it would have been if there were no lights at. all. . . . Physicians testified that deposits found behind billboards breed disease germs, which may be carried and scattered in the dust by the wind and by flies and other insects.” To the answer that other structures might create similar conditions, the court replied by quoting from the decision in the Missouri case (Gunning vs. St. Louis, 239 Mo. 99) thus: “While that is possible yet it is not probable. . . . Buildings and fences are erected for the purpose of enclosing grounds . . . and common experience teaches us that they are effectual for that purpose, which is inconsistent with the idea that they promote and harbor nuisances, as billboards do.” The principle that the section was reasonable and proper in its protection of residence districts is strongly affirmed, and it is interesting to note that one authority cited is that of a previous Chicago‘ case in which the decision was

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 313 loudly heralded as favoring the billboard men. A clear distinction is noted as comparing with a general restriction of billboards, or a restriction upon esthetic grounds, as in the case of Huller vs. Training School, 249 Ill. 436. The reasonableness of the foot-frontage requirement, within certain limits, is further affirmed by reference to a livery stable case (Chicago us. Slrulton, 162 Ill. 494), a dram-shop case (Swift vs. Peopk, 162 Ill. 534), and to a garage case (People us. ETicsson, 263 Ill. 368). The right of the city to add to its municipal code such a section as that in question is confirmed, in the opinion of Justice Vickers, by specific and general statutes of Illinois. Thus, for another time, the refuge of the constitution is denied to those who seek its protection that they may harm, annoy and endanger many for the benefit of a few. The decision is especially encouraging as pointing the way in other states for the enactment of state laws permitting regulation and of local ordinances giving an option at least to residence districts, against the insolence of billboard extensions.1 IV. MISCELLANEOUS State Municipal Leagues.-The fourth annual meeting of the Ohio Municipal League,’ held in Columbus, February 11 and 12, wm transformed into a general state tax conference as the financial situation is the most pressing problem confronting the municipalities of Ohio.2 The executive board feeling that the financial problem was a general one and that the interests of municipalities in the question are similar to and not conflicting with, the interests of other groups of the population, invited not only the usual delegates from municipalities but also representatives from all organizations interested in the question of, taxation and in the financial needs of the state, the schools, the counties, townships, cities and villages. The paper on “The Financial Condition of Cities,” by Stewart L. Tatum, consulting solicitor of Springfield, was a review of the findings of the special committee for the investigation of finances of municipalities, appointed last summer by Governor Cox, upon the authorization of the legislature and following the recommendation of the Ohio Municipal League. Mr. Tatum was chairman of the committee. The recommendations of the committee are summarized as follows: 1See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. vol. iii, SSee 9. Gale Lowrie’s article, supra p. 254. p. 405. (1) that the state abandon its policy of resorting to the general property tax for a portion of its revenue; (2) that the state retain as its proper revenue the so-called corporation taxes now levied by it notwithstanding the demand from certain quarters that part of these taxes be apportioned to municipalities; (3) that existing provisions of law relating to apportionment of Liquor revenues be not changed; (4) that the state surretlder to municipalities such portion of its automobile fees as may be deemed equitable; (5) that all sinking fund levies be placed outside the ten mill limitation of the “Smith one per cent law” thus separating them from general purpose levies; (6) that the preceding recommendation be extended to effect the entire exclusion of sinking fund levies from the operation of the Smith one per cent law and that debt restrictions be confined solely to the power to incur debts and not at all to the power to levy taxes for their payment; (7) that a constitutional amendment be again proposed for the exemption from taxation of bonds of the state and its political subdivisions; (8) that municipalities be authorized to borrow from their special funds upon certificates of indebtedness issued in anticipation of the collection of taxes. The conference approved these recom1 From J. Horace McFarland, president, Amerioan Civic Association.

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3 14 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April mendations. It also proposed a general constitutional amendment to revise the system of taxation in the state. The most important feature in the proposed amendment is the provision which would in effect abolish the present uniform rule and permit the classification of property for the purpose of ta-xation. Committees of the league have been appointed to promote the adoption of the proposed amendment by the people and to secure the adoption by the legislature of the changes proposed by the committee on municipal finances. Mayor E. G. Martin of Norwalk was elected president of the league for the ensuing year, and F. W. Coker of Ohio State University was re-elected secretarytreasurer. The field of operation of the League of Pacific Nmthwest Municipalities‘ is the states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho. The object of its existence is to supply to the new and rapidly growing cities of the Pacific Northwest the means of an enlightened co-operation for municipal progress. This league, though a tri-state organization, is not a federation of state leagues within its territory nor a rival of any of them. So far from regarding state leayes s its rivals, it considers them in the words of its secretary “s much-needed complements of its own work and as indispensable co-laborers in a broad field of opportunity. It ws at a session of the second annual conference of the league held at Portland in 1913 that the Oregon League of Municipalities was launched and given its first impetus.” This league differs from the state leagues of Oregon and Wshington, to quote Professor Russell again, “first, in t,hat the former ignores artificial, state lines and aims at effecting concerted effort among the municipalities wit,hin a natural boundary line and within a territory the needs of whose cities, from an economic and industrial standpoint, are related and similar. Second, membership in the league is not, as in the state leagues, COIL 1 See NATIONAL MumcIpaL REVIEW, vol. ii. p. 111: vol. ii, p 164. fined to municipalities alone. The membership consists (a) of towns and cities, (b) of civic and commercial organizations, and (0) .of individuals. Third, though striving in the same territory for municipal betterment, the tri-state and the state leagues put emphasis upon different means and agencies in achieving their common object. The state organizations have been emphasizing the opportunities of the cities of a single state to co-operate for procuring good legislation in all matters affecting municipal corporations. They formulate and support legislative programs which are deemed by the leagues to be in harmony with the interests of the municipalities within a commonwealth. The northwest league, on the other hand, devotes but little attention to the matter of general legislation, believing that the state leagues are in a better position for this work. The two principal agencies through which it seeks to achieve its object and upon which it places great emphasis are: The (a) annual conference, and (h) its bureau of municipal reference and research. The league held its third annual conference in Seattle, November 10, 11, 14, 1914. The dominant features of the meeting may be summarized as follows: Reports upon the work of the state leagues were made by their respective secretaries. Borrowing from the California league the “roll-call of municipalities,,, the conference listened to reports of municipal progress in the various cities represented. Five sessions were devoted to the presentation of affirmative and negative arguments on the question of municipal ownership of public utilities. The League’s municipal budget exhibit and pictorial display, occupying a favorable location in the most active part of the city, presented a comparison of the municipal finances of the four principal cities of the northwestSeattle, Portland, Spokane and Tacoma. The exhibit ws something entirely new in the northwest and, in its comparative feature comprehending the budgets of four large cities, new perhaps in the entire country. It

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 315 consisted of 70 colored charts and pictures varying in size from 6 to 36 square feet and occupying about 1,500 square feet of the wall space. This feature, credit for which is due to Associate Professor Ralph E. George, head of the department of Economics and Business in Whitman College, ww most successful. At the business session of the league, C. M. Fassett, a commissioner of Spokane, w119 elected president, and John H. Russell, Ph. D., head of the department of political science at Whitman College, secretary. The fifth annual convention of the League of Washingta Municipalities,‘ met in Olympia January 25-27. Mayor Mottman of Olympia, who welcomed the delegates, disparaged the policy of “Let posterity pay the bills,” and advocated strongly a policy of ‘‘pay as you go.” Comparing municipal affairs with his own private business, he declared that if the financial methods existing in the government of some of our cities were applied to his private business he would find himself bankrupt within a few years. “Why should not a city be just as free as any private or corporate business to apply surplus revenues in one department to the payment ol temporary deficits in another department, just as any wellmanaged private business would do? Separate departmental funds in municipal finance should exist only for bookkeeping purposes. Is it not absurd for a city to have surplus money comparatively idle in one of its funds, while some other department which may happen to be temporarily short must pay interest on borrowed money at a rate much higher than the interest earned by its surplus deposits in banks?” The league is fortunate in having for its headquarters the Bureau of Municipal Research at the state university of Washington. In this way it secures without expense to itself all the advantages of a permanent, non-partisan headquarters, in charge of trained workers, and with extensive collections of municipal infor1% NATIONAL MUNICIPAL Rmvmw, vol. iii, p. 164. mation already existing on the shelves of the bureau and the various university libraries. The chief of the bureau, Dr. Herman A. Brauer is secretary and treaaurer of the league, and municipal editor of its official paper, the Pacific Builder and Engineer. The university benefits by the inspiration and practical outlook which comes from close touch and personal co-operation with‘ city officials all over the state. ’ Howard A. Hansen, assistant corporation counsel of Seattle was re-elected president and Dr. Brauer, secretary. Alabama Municipal League.-The plan of uniting cities and towns into a league to secure better and more efficient government is now recognized as a necessity in order to meet the complex problems of modern communities. With the growth of our cities and towns new and difficult problems arise, some of them of an experimental nature calling for technical or professional skill in a variety of fields. There are questions of health and sanitation, of traffic and transportation, of street pavement, street cleaning, water supply, garbage and sewerage disposal, milk and food inspection, public works, public markets, public utilities, and public service rates; city planning, civic centers, parks, playgrounds, schools, art commissions, charities and corrections; questions of municipal organization and administration, taxation and assessment, finance, accounting methods, commission government, home rule, and many other subjects of municipal interest which sooner or later appear in the course of community growth. Believing that these reasons are sound and compelling, the Alabama Municipal League has been organized with Commissioner James Wheatley, of Birmingham as president and Dean George Jacob Davis, Jr., of the faculty of the University of Alabama a9 secretary. The League of New Jersey Municipalities has effected a temporary organization with Mayor Frederick W. Donnelly of Trenton as temporary chairman.

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316 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April A meeting of. the League OJ Missouri Municipalities was held at Sedalia in December for the purpose of considering the proposed legislation to be submitted to the present General Assembly. The matters of chief importance which were decided upon were: 1. The promotion of a bill for the submission to the people of the question of holding a constitutional convention for the revision of the state constitution; 2. The drafting of a bill enabling cities of the third class to adopt the city manager plan of government. The League of Kansas Municipalities’ has prepared a legislative ‘program consisting of 26 bills which have beensubmitted to the present session of the legislature. The Montana Municipal League which held its fourth conference at Great Fa&, December 17-18, has published a synopsis of its proceedings, N. E. Entrikin of Livingston is secretary. The proceedings of the first annual Convention of the Illinois Municipal League, which was held at the University of Illinois, October 14, 15 and 16, has been published as a University Bulletin. Prof. John A. Fairlie is secretary. Q The Austin Pageant.-Austin, Texas, will celebrate the opening of its new municipally-built dam across the Colorado river, in the week of April 26, with a pageant that an enthusiastic promoter haa forecasted as “the most municipal pageant ever held.” Pageants are sometimes mere series of tableaux; sometimes they are simply historical portrayals; sometimes they interpret the history of the country or of a section of the country; sometimes they are so “municipal” that they might apply with equal ease to any city; but the Austin pageant, as the master of the pageant h? planned it, is to be symbolic of Austin, and, with the history of that particular city as a background, will interpret that particular city as a prudent administrator of community needs. Austin was rising into statewide prom- ‘See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL Rmrm, vol. iii, p. 184. inence as an inland pleasure resort when a flood of true Texas porportions swept away the old granite dam that formerly constrained the Colorado, and formed Lake Austin. For several years Lake Austin has been nothing more than B name. The completion of the,new dam, after several years of municipal effort, marks the achievement of the city in creating again for itself its water reservoir, its source of electric light and power, and its pleasure spot and playground. It is this achievement that the pageant celebrates. The site, a natural amphitheater facing the spillway and overlooking the lake and dam, was selected in preference to a rival site overlooking the state capitol because of a desire to emphasize the city as a constructive municipality rather than as an objective state capital. In the historic treatment, the chief figure will be Stephen F. Austin, who conceived and founded the city, and who, beside being a sturdy pioneer and conqueror of the wilderness, possessed an unusual conception of the problem of future city growth and exercised sagacious foresight over the development of his newly opened land. In the preparation of the pageant the city hss received the hearty co-operation of the University of Texaq. The preliminary historical research and the publicity campaign have been undertaken in large part by and through the university, and Professor Frank LeFevre Reed her, composed the pageant music, William Chaunay Langdon is master of the pageant.’ d, Workmen’s Compensation for Firemen and P9licemen.-The Industrial Accident Board of Massachusetts has ruled that the firemen and policemen are entitled under the provisions of the workmen’s compensation act to compensation for injuries sustained during the performance of their duties. It affects every fireman and policeman in every city of the state that has accepted the provisions of the act. The decision is based on a New Bedford case. 1 From Edward T. Paxton, Bureau of Municipal Research and Reference, University of Texas.

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 317 Public Defender.-The subject of the appointment of a public defender is up for consideration in Kansas City, Missouri, and in Portland, Oregon. In this connection it is interesting to note that the committee of the New York County Lawyers’ Association on courts of criminal procedure has prepared majority and minority reports on the subject. Information concerning these reports can be had of Dr. C. C. Williamson, Municipal Reference Librarian, Municipal Building, New York. * The Relation of the City to Its Food Supply. The National M u n i c i p a 1 League’s Committee on this subject, consisting of Clyde Lyndon King, chairman, University of Pennsylvania; Arthur J. Anderson, editor, Pennsylvania Farmer, H. B. Fullerton, agriculturist, Long Island Railroad Company; Cyrus C. Miller, formerly president, Borough of the Bronx, New York; Paul Work, Cornell University, presented an elaborate report to the Baltimore meeting of the League. This report is now being published and information concerning it can be had on application to the National Municipal League, 703, North American Building, Philadelphia. rb Commercialized Vice in Wisconsin.The Wisconsin legislative committee that has been investigating the question of commercialized vice has filed a report which is one of the most drastic in its recommendations thus far made. The committee recommends: That a morals court be established in cities of the first class with exclusive jurisdiction over all cases involving moral offenses. That a law similar to the Mann act, applicable between cities, villages and towns of the state, be enacted. Thai, police departments be required to record all written complaints, with a report of their findings thereon, with a view to centering responsibility. That a permanent state police department be established with power to investigate immoral practices, the reason for unenforcement of law in all communities and power to enforce the law where local officers fail to do it. That local communities organize private associations to assist officers in the enforcement of such laws. That in the trial of misdemeanors when a jury is called the verdict of five-sixths of the jurors shall be sufficient to convict or acquit. That the sale of liquor be prohibited within or in connection with dance halls. That a liquor license may be autometically revoked upon a plea of guilty or conviction or upon nolo contender for violation of any of the moral laws. That family entrances and private wine rooms be prohibited in saloons, and that no connection be had between them and any other rooms above or contiguous to the saloons. That a government liquor tax holder must also take out a local license. That the license be issued to the Boor, lot and block of the premises where liquor is to be sold. That public dance halls procure license, such dances to be supervised by a policewoman or other competent officer. That the pass system used in many dance ha& be forbidden by law. That all hotels, rooming and lodging houses be required to obtain licenses; that they keep permanent registers of the names of all guests, to be signed in their own handwriting, the registers to show the hour of assignment of rooms and their surrender, with penalty for using fictitious names. That the publicity of ownership be established by requiring the names of owners on the front of all hotels and rooming houses . That women be on the board of managers of all institutions in which women or children are committed. That police women be appointed in every city of the first, second or third class. That the age of consent be raised from 14 and 18 years to 18 and 21 years.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April That the indwtrial home for women be established, to be equipped with hospital facilities for treatment of diseases, women convicted of immorality to be committed thereto for treatment and training. That in cities of the first three classes special classes for subnormal children be established in the public schools, and that, where necessary, the state furnish free text-books, meals and clothing to needy children to make compulsory education effective. That social neighborhood centers be developed in connection with the school system. That municipalities provide supervised amusements, particularly concerts, moving picture shows, etc. That employers of domestic servants be required to furnish them with suitable rooms in which to receive company. That the number of hours of labor for domestic servants be fixed by law. That the rights of the laboring class be protected. Adequate insurance against poverty. * Plan to Replan Belgium.-The International Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, founded in England last year with Ebenezer Howard as president, proposes to begin now to formulate plans for the rebuilding of the Belgian towns and villages which have been destroyed during the war. It will begin by seeking to interest Belgians now in England in the English garden villages and suburbs. For this purpose it proposes to hold lectures, organize and exhibit and open an atelier for architects. Later it hopes to study actual conditions in Belgium, prepare a proper civic survey and secure adequate legislation for carrying out the ideas set forth. Those who wish to obtain further information or to contribute may do so through Ewart G. Culpin, Secretary, 3 Gray's Inn Place, London, W. C., England. * The Intercollegiate Civic Division.The Intercollegiate Civic League, after ten years' activity, has been reorganized as a division of the National Municipal League with William C. Chadbourne, Harvard, 1900, as chairman, and Wayne D. Heydecker, Columbia, 1911, as secretary. This move is, in the language of the official statement sent out by the secretary of the division, "an attempt to increase the efficiency of the clubs concerned by co-operation with a larger organization, at the same time retaining the advantages of undergraduate initiative." The annual meeting of the division will be held in New York City and Washington, April 8 and 9. Arrangements have been made for the entertainment of the delegates at Columbia University for an afternoon session, for a dinner and for a day in Wmhington. As heretofore the discussion of municipal problems will be a leading feature of the meeting and of the various clubs. The discussion of international relations will also be taken up in co-operation with the International Association for the Promotion of International Conciliation. The members of the Executive Committee are m follows: Charles A. Beard, DePauw, '98; Richard S. Childs, Yale, '04; R. Bayard Cutt.ing, Harvard, '97; R. Doncaster, Penn State, '15; Lewis Greenberg, C. C. N. Y., '15; James Ireland, N. Y. Law, '15; Edward M. Sait, Toronto, '02; R. J. Swenson, U. of Minn. '15; Clinton Rogers WoodrutT, Pennsylvania, '89. 9 High School Prize Competition.-The National Municipal League has offered two pries of $30 and $20 for the best two essays on "Fire Prevention," by high school pupils. The subject of the essay waa chosen to direct the attention of the contestants to the actual administration of a municipal function and to elicit an expression of opinion as to the way that function is discharged or should be discharged. W. E. Longley, state fire marshal, of Indiana, has announced that he will give to the student of an Indiana high school who wins either one of the prizes, a prize of $25. If Indiana pupils should win both the first and second prizes offered by the National Municipal League,

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 319 the student winning the first prize will get $15 additional, and the student winning the second prize $10 additional. This means that an Indiana student winning the first prize will receive at least $45 and if the second prize did not come to Indiana, $55. The winner of the second prize will receive at least $30, and if the first prize did not come to Indiana, $45. The state fire marshal invites students who are interested in the contest to write to his office for a bibliography of the material in the state library. The department will welcome the opportunity to aid any pupil who enters this contest. .* Street Cleaning and Sanitation Division of the Cleveland Junior Order Civic League.-Believing that every boy should receive instruction in the organization and practical workings of his own city government, G. H. Hanna, the Cleveland superintendent of street cleaning has adopted a very practical and effective method of providing such instruction. In coaperation with the principals of public schools in congested districts he is organizing the pupils of the seventh and eighth grades into junior order civic leagues, each school having its own league. Ten of these leagues have been organized; about twenty more will be organized in the near future. Each league is entirely independent of any other, there being no central organization or union but each league co-operates directly with the street cleaning department. To organize a league Mr. Hanna arranges with the principal of the school for a meeting with the boys. He explains the organization and functions of the department, and emphasizes the value of clean streets and yards and the ill effects suffered by the people of the city when the streets and yards are not cleaned. He enthusiastically reminds the boys that they are to become responsible for the conditions of their city and urges them to begin helping now by co-operating with the department to make Cleveland clean and beautiful. He then suggests that t.hey organize for this purpose and elect officers similar to the regular city officers and outlines the method of organization. The school district is divided into ten districts by the principal of the school. At a later meeting the boys form a league by electing from their number a director of public service, a commissioner of street cleaning, a deputy commissioner of street cleaning and for each of the ten districts one district superintendent and one district inspector. The city department provides a badge for each officer and gives him a copy of the ordinances and regulations of the city governing the functions and powers of that department. Each district superintendent is responsible for the condition of the streets in his district, and each district inspector for the yards. When either notes a condition contrary to the ordinances or regulations of the city he requests the property owner, or person concerned to alter the condition. If he refuses, the district officer reports such condition and refusal to the commissioner of street cleaning and the latter officer interviews the offending person. If he fails, the director of public service endeavors to take care of the matter. In case of his failure a written report is made on blanks furnished by the city department and dropped in a locked box placed in the lobby of the school for that purpose. The city inspector of that district collects these reports each day and proper complaints are immediately fo!lowed up by the department with the aid of theboys making the report. The offender is given just four hours to clean up. The work of the boys is thus given official backing. Volunteer aid certificates are provided by the department for the officers of the organization. These are held by the principal of the school until the end of the school year and are given to boys who have served faithfully as such officers. Should any boy elected to office fail to perform his duties he may be removed and his office filled at a called election. At the close of the school year a premium will be given to the most efficient officer of the city. A premium will also be given to the school whose district has

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ApriI been kept in the best condition. It is also planned to have the leagues participate in a big annual parade. By the organization of these leagues the superintendent of street cleaning hopes to accomplish three things: First: Secure cleaner streets and yards through the co-operation of the school children. Second: Teach the boys the organization and functions of the street cleaning department. Third: Awaken and foster a civic interest and pride among school children.’ * The Ohio Equity Association.-For many years the publication known as Equity has given attention to the initiative, referendum, recall, proportional representation, and sundry similar movements. As a result the word “equity” has come to have a certain meaning with the public and this has led to its abuse. Sometime ago we saw references to an “Ohio Equity Association,” and inquiries were at once instituted to ascertain its status. We found that the association in question had fathered the opposition to the Green labor compensation law passed by the Ohio legislature in 1913. We are now informed that this association never had any tangible status, that little WELS known of the personnel of its leadership and that there was no open membership. The name appears to have been adopted as a sort of dummy by the interests opposed to labor legislation and taxation reform. 3: Municipal Publications: New and Old. -For some years the Bureau of Municipal Research has been sending out occasional pamphlets, leaflets and posters which have given interesting information concerning current accounting and budgetary events and the results of investigations. From now on these items, reports and articles will be published in monthly form on a regular subscription basis under the title, Municipal Research, the purpose of which, according to the announcement, is to serve as an intelligent fact medium in a plan of co-operation between citizens and 1 Prepared by The Municipal Reference Library of Cleveland. officers for the improvement of the public service. The January number contains a brief statement of the various policies and methods and a formal report entitled “Next Steps in the Development of Budget Procedure for the City of Greater New York.” The February number contains a study of the city budget. Among the topics to be treated in future numbers are, “The City aa an Employer,” and “The City as a Purchaser.” Social Hygiene is the quarterly to be published by the American Social Hygiene Association. The 6rst issue contains important definitive papers on the scope and problems of the movement, considering them from educational, racial and legal standpoints. The sections headed library and law notes have decided reference value. Under the first mentioned head are published short articles on the literature of the movement and reviews, in fact such information on the subject of social hygiene as appears in the department of PUBLICATIONS of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, dealing with municipal questions. Under law notes appears a resume of the legislation considered and enacted in 1914 by the several states. Kansas Municipalities is the title of a monthly review of municipal progress and problems just issued. It is the official organ of the League of Kansas Municipalities. The editor is Charles Homer Talbot of the University of Kansas, who is secretary of the League and in charge of the municipal reference bureau of the university. The account for the quarter very nearly balances because The City oJ Denver, which has been published for a number of years by the municipality of Denver waa discontinued at the close of 1914 because of the failure of the commissioners to appropriate the expenses involved. This action was taken because of the necessity for economy. The bi-monthly publication, Public Aflair.9, published by the Civic League of St. Louis hss been temporarily discontinued on account of difficulties in financing it this year. In its place brief reports will be issued from time to time.

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19151 NOTES AND EVENTS 321Mrs. R. H. Ashbaugh, president of the Michigan Federation of Women’s Clubs, has been appointed a member of the Detroit Recreation Commission by Mayor Max of that city. f Farnham Yardley, a long-time member of the National Municipal League, has been elected mayor of West Orange, N. J. * Charles D. MahaiTie has been serving as secretary of the Oregon Conservation Commission, of which Joseph N. Teal, for many years a member of the League, is chairman. The 1914 report of the commission has just been presented to the governor of the state. * Professor Charles A. Beard, of Columbia University, has been appointed the director of the training school carried on in conjunction with the New York Bureau of Municipal Research. * Arthur M. Swanson, chief examiner of the Civil Service Commission of the city of Philadelphia, won the position of chief examiner of the Chicago Commission in an open contest. He has declined the appointment, however, preferring to stay in Philadelphia. * Nelson S. Spencer has been elected president of the New York City Club. For many years Mr. Spencer has been actively identified with municipal affairs in New York, has been a director and counsel of the Municipal Arts Society, a director of the National Civil Service Reform League and a member of the National Municipal League. He succeeds Charles H. Strong who was president for five years. * Frederick L. Siddons, former commissioner of the District of Columbia and twice a member of the Council of the National Municipal League, has been made associate justice of the district supreme court of the District of Columbia. A longtime resident of Washington, D. C., has been appointed district commissioner to succeed him. * Samuel I. Ordway, for many years a prominent member of the Council of the National Civil Service Reform League, has been appointed f~ member of the State Civil Service Commission of New York by Governor Whitman. His colleagues will be Col. William G. Rice of Albany, and W. D. McKinstry of Watertown. The latter was a civil service commissioner under Governor Flower. Mr. Ordway will be chairman of the commission. f Miss Adelaide R. Hasse. Dr. Charles C. Williamson having been appointed librarian of the municipal reference library of the New York public library, the executive committee of the board of trustees has voted to consolidate the documents and economics divisions under Miss Adelaide R. Hasse as chief. * Rev. Walter S. Pond who has been the priest-in-charge of Holy Trinity and St. Philips Mission Churches in Chicago htLs been appointed by the Bishop of Chicago as dean of the Episcopal Cathedral in that city to succeed Bishop Sumner. Dean Pond has the same deep interest in civic and social work as his predecessor, which is most gratifying. * Howard F. Morse has been elected director of the Cincinnati Bureau of Municipal Research to succeed Rufus E. Miles. Mi-. Morse made a survey of the sewage system of Cincinnati during the Hunt administration.

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DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS I. BOOK REVIEWS PRACTICAL TOWN PLANNINQ. By J. 5. Nettlefold. London: Pt. Catherine Press. 3 shillings net. In this book there & much theory, for it deals with the future; but the theory is constantly supported by evidence drawn from experience; the personal experience of the author who for many years has been one of the most influential leaders in housing reform in Birmingham, of all English cities perhaps the one that has actually accomplished the most. The most heartfelt criticism of the book will come from practical men, men whose methods it discusses. The greatest volume of criticism will possibly come from those students of housing-for to Mr. Nettlefold as to most Englishmen the purpose of town planning is to improve housing-who look for royal roads, who wish to be told that if some broad and general policy is adopted housing problems will solve themselves. It is a storehouse of fact and opinion from which other and more popular writers are sure to draw freely. Statements of policy or principle are commented upon from every point of view and supported or declared wanting on the basis of evidence from many sources. It is easy to base an argument upon one statistic, or even upon many statistics from one city. For no matter how large or old or cosmopplitan the city its evidence is necessarily onesided. It is much more difficult to baseor to follow-an argument on statistics furnished by many cities, as Mr. Nettlefold does. To iilustrate, he sets himself the task of reaching a conclusion on the vexed question of tax reform. English experience with the rating system-taxing real estate not on its capital value, but on the income it produces-has been so unhappy in some respects that English housThe book is not easy reading. ing reformers have been known to jump to the conclusion that taxing on capital value -the American system-would go a long way, if not the whole way toward salving their problem of land overcrowding. Their argument is similar to that of our single taxers who wish us to put the whole burden on the land. They point to large undeveloped areas held out of use, because producing no income they bear no tax burden, until pressure of pppulation forces their selling value up to exorbitant figures. With only English experience, i. e., negative experience, as a guide, their belief in a capital tax seems justified. Mr. Nettlefold, while sharing this belief, examines its promises in the light of experience in cities that have tried taxation on capital value. He finds that in Paris the builder, in order to make a profit, must erect many-storied tenements instead of the English single family houses. So too in Berlin. So he goes a step further and advocates that the building be separated from the land and each taxed separatelyaa is done in New York, our most tenemented city. Apparently then levying a capital tax and a heavier tax on land will, by itself, make land overcrowding worse. So he goes on and proposes that having Ievied the tax on the capital value of the land the government shall at the same time limit the permissible building density on that land. So we are caught between the two horns of a dilemma: Is it worse to have undeveloped areas, open spaces, in and around a city, due to the fact that the land bears a low tax or none at all and the owner consequently has little beside interest charges and perhaps special assessments to meet, or is it better to have the city built up to the hit, with pressbe constantly exerted to increase the limit, 322

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19151 BOOK REVIEWS 323 because the tax burden forces the owner to utilize his land as quickly and as thoroughly as possible? In both cases, practical experience shows, it is necessary for the government to set a limit to building density, once building has begun. Again he takes up the question of the effect of type of dwelling upon rent. There is the constant argument of a certain kind of real estate developer that if he is permitted to overcrowd his land, pack hk houses so close together that light and ttir can reach their windows only with difficulty, if he is permitted to stack family above family in tall tenements so that one lot will support the dwellings of an army, economy will be achieved and rents will be lowered. Testimony is produced from Brussels, Paris and Berlin. From it all he reaches two conclusions: ‘. Vital points like the restriction of building density and the consequent regulation of land vdues should be settled by general legislation and not left to be settled by administration. . Fewer houses per acre means lower land values and lower house rents.” Though the chapter headings give an inadequate idea of the contents, they will perhaps give as clear an impression of the author’s argument as could be framed. They are: Adequate access to cheap land, site values, the preparation of town planning schemes, savings, examples, delay and its causes, the need for further legislation and better administration, town planning and city extension, slum reform-incentives to landlords. All these are, of course, written with English conditions in mind; but the statement of principles, the argument, the examples quoted, are of general application. The book is written by a man who believes in the use of new methods designed to secure higher standards of housing than are now to be found in the cities of either the new world or the old, but a man who has had long practical experience, who has subjected many of his proposals to the test of actual use, who believes in evolution rather than revolution, who accepts no plan that does not seem to him economically sound. To give even a superficial view of all his proposals would mean to write another book. The best that can be done is to quote his own summazy: The policy and methods enunciated in the foregoing chapters may be very briefly summarized as follows: 1. Open up cheap land for building and other purposes by means of new roads and improved waterways. 2. Protect it from excessive rises in value by forbidding land sweating. 3. Protect the ratepayers against exorbitant prices for land required for public purposes by making price, not purpose, the governing factor in state or municipal land purchase. 4. Lease land (not sell it) to the workers for housing, allotments and small holdings at a price to cover cost plus a small margin of safety. 5. Reform the rat,ing system so as to relieve industry and put a reasonable charge on those who allow land to lie idle. 6. Repeal antiquated legislation such as mortmain and entail. 7. Put town planning administration in good hands, and not in the charge of men who have axes of their own to grind, or too many friends in land-jobbing circles. 8. Appoint a strong central authority, not steeped in the old methods, but fully conversant with town planning on modern lines, armed with sufficient powers, and endowed with the necessary courage to reject bad schemes. 9. Give this central authority an adequate staff to cope with the work and compel local authorities to attend to their business instead of neglecting it. JOHN IHLDER. Neu, York. * CARRYING OUT THE CITY PLAN. By Flavel Shurtleff, in collaboration with Frederick Law Olmstead. New York: Survey Associates. $2.00. “The practical application of American law in the execution of city pbns” is the sub-title of this timely and invaluable volume. Its introduction begins thus: “The reason for preparing this book is the astonishing variation in the practical

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April efficiency of methods actually employed and prescribed by law or legal custom in different parts of the United Statea in acquiring land for public purposes, in distributing the cost of public improvements, and in other proceedings essential to the proper shaping of our growing cities to the needs of their inhabitants. . . . There has been evident in most cities very limited acquaintance with conditions and methods to be found elsewhere.” Then follow chapters on the public ownership and acquisition of land, on the cost distribution of land gcquisitions; on that much-needed facility of communal equity, excess condemnation; on the use of the police power and the work of administrative agencies in executing a city plan. Each chapter summarizes existing legal relations, and presents “ conclusions” which may be accepted as of most definite value for quick consultation. The appendices give the text of the American laws and decisions discussed, and a summary of English and continental systems of taking land for public purposes. A well-made index adds further to the value of this timely book. This is not the place to discuss any of the conclusions arrived at in “Carrying out the City Plan.” It is the place to express appreciation for the comprehensive and broad-minded survey which Mr. Shurtleff has carried out, and to say that. the volume is indispensable alike to the city official and to the constructive citizen interested in better city making. It does for cities, far m it goes, what the department of agriculture has long done for the rural population in this land on which city-dwellers are either neglected or penalized by the government. It seems altogether unfair and almost shameful that it should have been necessary for private agencies thus to do an indispensable service to the forty-six per cent of our population living in cities, while a vast federal department, with millions of money, is telling the farmer and the fruit-grower how to cook vegetables and how to pack apples! The census department counts a man’s neckties and the income-tax reaches after a percentage on his shoe polish; but nowhere as yet has the government arranged to obtain, file, compile, summarize and publish in a way accessible to those needing such information in administrative work the laws, decisions and practices which relate to city economics. Trainloads of innocent paper are governmentally printed upon with congressional “guf,” for free transportation through the maila on the way to the junk-dealer, while selfsacrificing men must do such work as has here been done by Mr. Shurtleff for the public welfare! But this is a most admirable book. J. HORACE MCFARLAND. * THE HISTORY OF MONTREAL FROM 1535 TO 1914: By William H. Atherton, Ph.D. In three volumes, Montreal: S. J. Clark Publishing Co. $25. Dr. William H. Atherton for many years has been one of the leaders in civic improvement in Montreal and as such has become deeply interested in all that relates to the history as well as the welfare of his adopted city. We are indebted to Frederick Wright of the Canadian Municipal Journal for the following interesting account of this truly monumental work of Dr. Atherton: Although much has been written of Canada, it was not until Dr. Atherton wrote this history of Montreal that any attempt has been made to write on the “grand scale” the history of a city. At fist sight it hardly seems possible that ahy one city could be found in Canada from which sufficient data is to be had to fill three big volumes, and yet Dr. Atherton in his work has packed every page with events, the mere record of which would make interesting reading, but to those who know something of the intricacies and pulsations underlying a cosmopolitan city life, with all its ramifications of human endeavor this big result of some years’ labor will be their encyclopedia, as well as their constant reference book because each epoch, each decade and each movement is not only put into chronological order, but so treated that one sees life depicted instead of dead matter chronicled in the pages.

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19151 BOOK REVIEWS 325 To the municipal mind the great value of the work lies in the fact that the author is essentially a municipal man, as well as a man of literary talent, and it was for this reason that the publishers chose Dr. Atherton “to prepare a history of Montreal from a new point of view and one that-is particularly interesting in the present city planning era.” His sociological studies and his experience in city improvement as secretary of the local organization, has specially fitted him to write a city history from the municipal student’s point of view, though the human interest which permeates the work will appeal to a larger group of readers. But the point we would make is, that Dr. Atherton, in these volumes, while interesting and even gripping the average reader is at the same time educating him to a better appreciation of things municipalthat is at their best. The first volume, which deals with Montreal under the French regime, while carefully classifying the great events which led up to the conquest, the annals of any one of which will bring the mind of the reader to the stirring times of pioneer Canada, brings out all the characteristics of those who came over with Cartier, Champlain and Maisonneuve, and the other great French colonizers who saw in the new colony the aggrandisement of their beloved France. The second volume, which deals with the development of Montreal since the conquest, though not so romantic in its setting, is probably more interesting than the first to those who would know more of its later growth, because it gives the inception, the foundation, and the history of every movement and every institution that has helped in the building up of its communal lifereligion, education, finance, transportation, art and literature; each in their turn are treated minutely and intelligently. The treatment given to the municipal government is in itself worth reproducing in every publication in Canada as giving a complete study of a city which in its four hundred years’ existence has gone through every known form of government. The author not only 9 records the many systems under which Montreal has been governed, but gives, in language to be understood, his criticisms of the influence of each on successive generations. This chapter is made particularly interesting at the present moment of unrest in the city council of Montreal, for the conclusion gives five theories of civic government, given by so many different factions. A very interesting point that the author has brought out is the record of the capitulation of the city in 1775 to the Americans who were in possession for seven months, during which time it waa rated as a congressional district. Throughout his history, Dr. Atherton has had a difficult and somewhat delicate task, as he had to deal with a dual city, in race, language and religion, each race proud of its own history, and each race at times unseemingly distrustful of the other; the same with language and religion. Montreal’s dualism is as sharply divided as its main street divides the east from the west. Q MARKETS FOR THE PEOPLE. By J. W. Sullivan. New York: Macmillan Company, 1913. This volume is primarily devoted to an illuminating discussion of the advantages to be gained (1) from ambulant street vending, free to all comers, limited only in range by necessary health laws and regulations necessary for through traffic, (2) from some semi-weekly or tri-weekly openair markets free to all venders either of foodstuffs or manufactured articles, whether for household or personal use, and (3) from the fullest development of existing public markets through the use of all modern methods, such as auctioneers, licensing of the market commission men, sale by sample order from producers, thus encouraging the attendance of local producers. The data have been gleaned from a study of markets while on the continent for more than a year as labor investigator for the commission on public utilities of the National Civic Federation; and again, in 1909, while Mr. Sullivan toured many

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326 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April countries in Europe with Mr. Gompers of the American Federation of Labor. During the following years, when the author was assistant editor with Mr. Gompers, the stream of printed matter flowing through editorial offices was studied and, finally, the author went again to Europe in 1912 for the special purpose of visiting markets in leading European cities not theretofore visited. The author is convinced that “s twenty per cent saving to the‘consumer of moderate means, and in cases much more, on stock of equal quality, in particular on fruits and vegetables, through pushcart ‘dealers is possible aa against store retailers.” He cites convincing evidence as to the practicability and value of open-air markets, as shown in metropolitan cities of Europe, and alleges that selling in the open by pushcart “regulates all forms of indoor retailing (and) establishes a solid basis for the conditions of the foodstds trade, with consequently stable and unmanipulated retail prices.” The book seems to have been called forth particularly in order to point out the limitations of the wholesale terminal plan as advocated by the Mayor’s Market Commission of New York City, aa the leading essential factor needed to lower food costs. Some of the author’s objections to a modern, wholesale terminal market are that the subway and tunnel will bring the greatest changes in history in local passenger transit, and accompanying this may be an epochal change in the distribution of produce by freight. He believes, too, that it would be impossible to attract New York’s scattered wholesale business, or force it by legislation, into a centralized wholesale market. The volume is particularly valuable as an antidote to those who believe that there is no proper place for the open-air market and the vender. The solution of this problem requires exact data as to the real danger to health through contamination of meats and vegetables and other foodstuffs through dust and flies, and whether, after all, this danger is any greater in an openair market or in a pushcart than in a closed market. On this point the author submits no data. The real trouble with the marketing policies of American cities is that there has been no policy. If cities are to gain the greatest good to their citizens from curbstone markets, it is clear that limitations aa to what can be sold by curbstone markets cannot be determined by the whim or personal choice of some retailer who chances to be in the vicinity of the market. Thus, as a rule, it is fairly easy to get retail merchants with general merchandise for sale to request a curbstone market in front of their stores with the proviso that those markets shall be limited to foodstuffs, and shall in no sense sell general merchandise. Markets allowing the sale of goods other than foodstuffs can easily find a place with councilmanic sanction if they will help out the sales of these retailers. It is clear, however, that the curbstone market, to be amccess, must be as open to all lines of foodstuffs, wares and merchandise as are European markets. A vigilant municipal policy, moreover, could assure the city’s residents that the qualitv of foodstuffs sold by venders was reasonably up to standard, and due vigilance on the part of housewives and bureaus of weights and measures could give like assurance that there is no greater danger from the vender tgan from the petty retailer. Our municipal policies have been “pussy-foot ” policies and have failed primarily because there has been slight opposition from existing interests. CLYDE LYNDON KING. University of Pennsylvania. PUBLIC POLICIES AS TO MUNICIPAL UTILITTIES. Philadelphia Ann& of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. January, 1915. The January number of the Annuls is devoted entirely to the proceedings of the conference of American mayors, held in Philadelphia, November 12-14, 1914.’ This conference focused its thought on 1 See N. M. R., vol. iv., p. 91.

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19151 BOOK REVIEWS 327 the public utilities question with the result that all phases of this perplexing problem were seen more clearly than ever before. In addition to the addresses of the mayors themselves, the members heard some of the leading specialists of the country in their master rbles. The volume azi a whole is in consequence a comprehensive symposium on public service regulation and management. The change in public sentiment, with respect to state public service commissions is impressed on the reader. In the Annals volume dealing with the regulation of public utilities issued in 1908, the writers were hopeful that the newly organized state public service commissions would give municipalities effectual relief from upjust and mismanaged public service corporations. At that time the corporations were not inclined to favor state regulation. In the volume before us a positive lack of populm faith in state public service commissions is clearly in evidence. The public service corporations, on the other hand, are now strongly in favor of state regulation as opposed to municipal regulation. Some of the experts me friendly to municipal regulation, and most of the mayors who expressed themselves on the topics considered municipal regulation preferable to state regulation, but the prevailing trend of thought of the confernce was toward municipal ownership and operation. Some regard regulation as only a preliminary step toward complete control. Among the many notable papers in the volume the following may be mentioned as of special significance: 1. “Fundamental Planks in a Public Utility Platform” by Delos F. Wilcox. Dr. Wilcox discusses in his usual clear and forceful manner three questions, namely: a. Should public utility investments be speculative oi non-speculative? b. Should public utilities be exploited for the benefit of the taxpayers or should they be operated on the theory of rendering service at cost? c. Should the cities, now, take all possible steps to prepare the way for ultimate municipal. ownership? He makes a strong plea for ultimate municipal ownership. . 2. “Interlocking Directorates” by Louis D. Brandeis. This paper, which has already received wide publicity through the press, sets forth the baneful effects of interrelated corporate management as found in some of our municipalities. 3. “What Certain Cities Have Accomplished without State Regulation” by Stiles P. Jones. Mr. Jones has made an exhaustive study of the work of state public service commissions and has come to the conclusion that municipalities are better off without than with state regulation. He cites several instances of cities handling successfully their own public service problems. 4. “What Regulation Must Accomplish if It Is to be Permanent,” by John M. Eshleman. This masterly paper deals with the fundamentals of regulation. The permanence of regulation may well be doubted if the standards set by the paper must be reached. 5. “Municipal OwnershipThe Testimony of Foreign Experience,” by Frederic C. Howe. Dr. Howe is an enthusiaatic advocate of municipal ownership, and is abundantly supplied with facts to support his theories. American cities may well profit by the European examples cited in this paper. As both sides of debatable questions were presented to the conference the volume becomes a veritable storehouse of theory and fact relating to public utilities problems. The conference took noteworthy action in endorsing the establishment of the Utilities Bureau, 1 a nation-wide inter-city agency for the collection and dissemination of information relative to public utilities throughout the country. HORATIO M. POLLOCK. Albany, N. Y. 1 See NATIONAL MWNICIP~L R~VIEW, vol. iii, p751.

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328 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April TEE COLLECTIVIST STATE IN THE MAKING. By Emil Davies. London: G. Bell & sons. Mr. Davies, who is chairman of the Railway Nationalization Society and has written extensively on the subject of radway nationalization, has given in this volume a very interesting and comprehensive statement of the growth of what he calls collectivism. He defines a “collectivist state” as a country in which “the land and the principal industries are owned by and operated on behalf of the whole community, any excess of revenue over expenditures being applied to the purposes of the community.” From this point of view it will be seen that it is immaterial except as a matter of detail whether the community is a state or a municipality. Mr. Davies says that his conclusions may be wrong, but “if collectivism is the failure that many people would have us believe,’it is time some explanation was forthcoming to account for its extraordinary spread through the world,” as pictured in the pages of our author’s book, which is a revelation of the extent to which production for use and not profit has gone in Europe, in America and indeed all over the world. One does not realize until he examines a book like this how rapid has been the movement by which “every conceivable business from banking to beekeeping” has been made a governmental function somewhere. Mr. Davies treats of the state or city as a producer of light and power, as the owner of workshops, as a manufacturer, as a contractor of public works, the owner of warehouses, cold storage depots, grain elevators, markets and abattoirs, as a retailer, as a tourist agency, as an owner of baths, spas, hotels and boarding houses, as the owner of theatres, picture galleries, libraries, museums, sport caterer, bookmaker and lottery owner, as banker, pawn broker, as ,educator, research student, doctor, as speculator, commercial traveller, advertising agent, publisher, undertaker and trustee, in fact touching the lives of the people at every point “from birth to death.” THE BOYS AND GIRLS OF GARDEN CITY. By Jean Dawson. New York: Ginn & Co. 75 cents. It is not the famous Letchworth garden city that Miss Dawson treats of, nor yet the Long Island community of the same name, but an ideal community of children. Miss Dawson writes in her introduction: “The boys and girls of garden city are the children of a neighborhood who have banded themselves together through their mutual interest in the things about them that are worth while, . . . These children are playing a social game while developing themselves and helping one another to learn the rules of the game of life.” The book illustrates the old theory that “play” may just as well have a point 88 not, and that it may engage the active minds of children for their benefit. A certain somewhat wonderful Dr. Dunsmore is the inspiration and the general source of knowledge for the young folks who start a city, build a town hall, and do many and various things, from planting a garden to ridding a town of mosquitoes by contract, from correcting stoop shoulders to studying animal nutrition. It is excellently illustrated, and while perhaps lapsing into pure science somewhat too readily in the statements put into the mouths of children, it seems to have enough real “youngness” about it to be of service. Certainly any community would be distinctly bettered if the children of a half-dozen schools read these pages and tried these “games” of sanitsr tion and proper living. * MUNICIPAL ACCOUNTING. By DeWitt Carl Eggleston. Ronald Accounting Series. New York: The Ronald Press co. $4. City financial officers who ?re unfamiliar with the intricacies of municipal accounting should welcome any help upon the new and difficult problems attending their installation and operation. The few books and pamphlets available on the subject have been generally criticised as being too abstract for ready appreciation by other J. HORACE MCFARLAND.

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19151 BOOK REVIEWS than accountants, and as insufficient in description of operating methods. Mr. Eggleston has well endeavored to modify this comment. The presentation of material is concise and attractive-in tabular form wherever possible-permitting brief discussion of a wide range of subjects. Effort is made to give the intimate detail, even to the color of paper and possibilities of mechanical assistance connected with accrual accounting, budget making, debt procedure, purchase records, payrolls, judgments and mandamuses, stores control, expense analysis, unit costs, operation of the journal and general ledger, etc. There is a very commendable chapter on accounting for small cities, by use of which, with references to the preceding text, the city accountant will find valuable assistance in the perplexities which he encounters. Much of the procedure is illustrated by forms, which are apparently meant to be suggestive only, as they carry little of the detail essential for ultimate use. Such practice is perhaps preferable to burdening the text with forms actually in operation, as the detail of forms from New York or Cincinnati is not applicable to all municipalities. It is problematical how far a work of this character may be adversely criticised if it states the requirements of an adequate installation, but neglects certain of the actual problems of operation and closing of accounts. It is invaluable for the city accountant to know what step should be taken to secure an adequate control over city funds, and to enable him to render an account of his stewardship, based upon sound accounting principles. But from such records reports must be extracted, accounts closed, and reopened for the ensuing fiscal period. The administrator is frequently confronted with the question: “What am I going to do next?” and it is unreasonable to expect an inevitable answer from a brief handbook. For example, the author outlines concisely the procedure for centralised purchasing. However, the tangible problems which will arise in a complete operation of this system will present obstacles to the public officer-the step by step procedure from the making of the requisition to the drawing of the warrant in payment for the goods; the methods of adjusting the stores account at the close of the fiscal year; purchases before the regular appropriation is passed; the proper treatment of emergency orders; the handling of interdepartmental transfers of stores; etc. For a treatise of this character, a just measure of worth may be found not so much in such questions as in more general proposals: Is the discussion based upon principles which are universally true to procedure? Are statements of essential points clear and concise? Are unusual points brought out and treated? Are these really difficult situations handled masterfully, adhering to required rules of accounting? Can a person grasp the principles it8 stated, and appIy the same? In a broader way the work complies with these tests, and the municipal accountant supplementing this text with material already available will find an appreciable help through some perplexing problems. The need now is for an authoritative detailed discussion of some of the peculiar accounting clifliculties arising in smaller cities, in which the accounting officers are usually untrained. Dayton, Ohio. LENT D. UPSON. * POLICE PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE. By Cornelius F. Cahalane. New York Police Department. 1914. $1.50. “Police Practice and Procedure” is a text-book on police work which has been placed in the hands of each member of the New York police force by the police commissioner. It has been prepared by Inspector Cornelius F. Cahalane, director of the training school of the New York police department, The introductory chapters of the book are devoted to the discipline, deportment and physical condition of police officers, pointing out the necessity for prompt obedience of orders, a proper attitude toward civilians and the maintenance of the body in a condition of maximum efficiency.

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330 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April The chapter on “patrol” covers fully the definitions of patrol posts of various kinds and htructs the police oflicer in the care and we of firearms, the action to be taken at fires and the principles of first aid to the injured. The chapters on “arrests” and on “evidence” contain not only an unusually clear exposition of the elements of the law on these subjects, but in addition contain many illustrations of the application of these principles to cases arising daily in the performance of police duty. The chapter on “criminal identification” describes clearly in non-technical language the portrait parle and the finger-print systems of identihation. The chapters which deal with crime classifkation, the methods of thieves and public morals are the most valuable in the book. In these chapters is contained not only the definition of eacL crime with which a police officer has to deal but also a vaat fund of practical information regarding the manner in which each of these crimes is generally committed and words of advice to the police officer regarding the best method of procedure in each we. The concluding chapters of the book are devoted to the enforcement of the liquor tax law, the preparation of reports and co-operation with other municipal authorities. The last chapter contains a particularly clear exposition of the distinction between ordinances having a penal sanction and ordinances carrying a civil penalty, which has been for so many years a bafaing puzzle to police officers. . “Police Practice and Procedure” is the most valuable book that has yet appeared in this country for the education of police officers. Every citizen who is interested in municipal government or who desires to co-operate intelligently with the municipal authorities in the maintenance of order and decency and the protection of property should read this book. Every mayor who is seriously interested in increasing the &ciency of his police force, upon which the success of his administration depends to such a large extent, should see to it that each policeman in his city is supplied with a copy of this book. Every policeman or peace officer who seeks information, regarding the law and the ways of criminala with a view to increasing his efficiency aa a policeman and with a view to securing advancement in rank should read and study this book carefully until he has mastered it. Its language is 80 simple that a child can understand it and its statements will be found unusually accurate. * MUNICIPAL CHARTERS: A DISCUSSION OF TRE ESSENTIALS OF A CITY CHARTER WITH FORMS OR MODELS FOR ADOPTION. By Nathan Matthews, LL.D. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. $2. In this work the author has formulated the results of long study and practical experience in municipal affairs. The book deals with three important phases of municipal organization and function: First, the political machinery of the municipality; second, its administrative organization, and, third, the relation of the city to quasipublic works. In the sections dealing with administrative organization, Mr. Matthews has done a real service ih relegating to a secondary position mere questions of political organization, and in emphasizing aa strongly as possible the importance of efficiency in administrative methods and machinery. In this respect, his discussion of the subject is in entire harmony with the recent trend of thought in municipal &airs. In the discussion of political organiaation, the author divides the variously suggested plans of municipal organization into three classes: The council committee type, the responsible executive plan and the commission system. The first of these, which we inherited from Great Britain, he unhesitatingly condemns, and to this condemnation every student of municipal affairs will agree. Although he recognizes some of the distinct advantages of the commission type, there is evident throughout the book a tendency to place it in a position distinctly inferior to the form of organization which he deems LEONHARD FELIX FULD.

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19151 BOOK REVIEWS 331 best adapted to American conditions, namely the responsible executive type. As regards the city-manager plan, which seems destined to work a profound change in our ideas of municipal organization, the author has little to say, beyond designating it as an experiment for which he shows comparatively little sympathy. He ignores some of the great advantages which this plan of organization offers, eapecially in favoring the development of a highly trained, professional, expert management of municipal affairs. Whatever may be one’s views of the direct primary, the initiative, referendum and recall, and other devices intended to secure greater democratic control over municipal &airs, one cannot help but read with considerable disappointment the author’s discussion of these subjects. He has not only failed to grasp their true significance, but assigns to them a place in municipal affairs which they were never intended to occupy. In reading this portion of the work one has the feeling that he baa constructed a flimsy edifice for the express purpose of demolishing it. In a valuable appendix, Mr. Matthews presents draft charters of the responsible executive and commission types. * WHERE THE PEOPLE RULE, OR THE INITXATIVE AND REFERENDUM, DIRECT PRIMARY LAW AND THE RECALL IN USE IN THE STATE OF OREGON. By Gilbert L. Hedges. San Francisco: BenderMoss Company. This is practically a law book giving the text of the various laws with interesting and suggestive comments. For instance, under the head of the recall there is the text of the bill and then a series of paragraphs setting forth the use of it in the various cities of Oregon where it has been invoked, to wit, in the cities of Portland, Salem and Medford, and in the counties of Klamath, Clackamas and Hood River. There is also a brief reference to the interpretation of the law by the courts. At the beginning of each chapter is a brief history of the law treated. The appendix contains sample ballots used at recall elections, sections of the Oregon code made applicable to the direct primary law, examples of newspaper recommendations on proposed measures and the constitution of Oregon. CD PROBLEMS OF COMMUNITY LIFE. By Seba Eldridge. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. $1 net. Postage 10 cents. With New York City as the background and pervading influence, Mr. Eldridge has taken up sixty community problems and systematically analyzed them as studies in applied sociology. As our analyst points out much that finds a place in the outlinee has little or no value as suggestion or criticism “being no more than enumeration of aspects of the subjects dealt with that merit some attention at the hands of students.” What Mr. Eldridge has to offer under the head “Organization of the Municipal Government,” which is a subtitle under the general subject of “Politics and Government in New York” is intended together with the other topics mentioned in the same general connection as a program for the better organization of reform activities in the city. While the treatment is intended for one city, it has a significance and value for the many. * THE INDIVIDWAL DELINQUENT. By William Healy, A.B., M.D. Boston: Little, Brown & Company. $5. “The Individual Delinquent,” by Dr. William Healy of the psychopathic institute in the Chicago juvenile court, is an intimate and detailed study (of some 600 pages) of those young individuals whose misconduct is due not to social conditions but to abnormal mental, physical or emotional characters. It is a contribution to a body .of knowledge comparatively small and little understood. It will be helpful to those interested in city problems chiefly as it shows the residuum of cases in our courts which are not susceptible to treatment through improved social conditions and the reconstruction of city life. Dr. Healy speaks with the authority of five years’ research in the Chicago juvenile

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19151 BOOKS RECEIVED 11. BOOKS RECEIVED. 333 AMERICAN SEWERAGE PRACTICE. VOlUe I. Design of Sewers. By Leonard Metcalf and Harrison P. Eddy. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. $5. Vol. 11. Construction of Sewers. $4. THE ANTHRACITE COAL COMBINATIONS IN m UNITED STATES. By Eliot Jones, Ph.D. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press. Harvard Economic Studies. $1.50. BATTLING FOR SOCIAL BETTERMENT. Proceedings of the Southern Sociological Congress, Memphis, Tenn., May 6-10, 1914. Edited by James E. McCulloch. Nashville, Tenn. : Southern Sociological Congress. $2. BOYEOOD rn LAWLESSNESS. THE NEGLECTED GIRL. By Ruth S. True. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. $2. THE CANADIAN WOMAN’S ANNUAL AND SOCIAL SERVICE DIRECTORY. Edited by Emily P. Weaver, A. E. Weaver, E. C. Weaver. Toronto: McClebnd, Goodchild & Stewart. $1. CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF IDAHO. By C. E. Rowe. Boise, Idaho: Syms-York Co. CONFERENCE ON THE QUESTION “SHALL A CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION BE CALLED IN INDIANA.” Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University. 25 cents. THE COST OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN MASSACHUSETTS. Seventh Annual Report on the Statistics of Municipal Finances, for City and Town Fiscal Years ending between November 30, 1912 and April 1, 1913. Boston: Bureau of Statistics. 1914. DAYS AND WAYS IN OLD BOSTON. Edited by William S. Rossiter. Boston: R. H. Stearns & Co. 50 cents. DEMOCRACY’S HIGH SCHOOL. By William D. Lewis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 60 cents. EUROPEAN POLICE SYSTEMS. By Raymond B. Fosdick. New York: The Century Company. $1.30. THE FAILURE OF REGULATION. By Daniel W. Hoan. Chicago: Socialist Party of the United States. 25 cents. THE FINANCES OF THE CITP OF NEWYORK. By Yin Ch’u Ma, Ph.D. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law. $2.50. THE FUTURE OF WORLD PEACE. By Roger W. Babson. Boston: Babson’s Statistical Organization, Inc. $1. THE GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD, 19021914. New York: General Education Board, 61 Broadway. 1915. GOVERNMENT AID TO HOME OWNING AND HOUSING OF WORKING PEOPLE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. Washington, D. C.: Bureau of Labor Statistics. October 15, 1914. JOURNAL OF THE hmcm WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. Proceedings Thirtyfourth Year. Baltimore: American Water Works Association. December, 1914. Clyde Lyndon King. Appleton & Company. $1.50. LOWER LIVING COSTS IN CITIES. By New York: D. MAKERS OF AMERICA-FRANKLIN, WASHINGTON, JEFFERSON, LINCOLN. By Emma Lilian Dana. New York: Immigrant Publication Society. 50 cents. THE MIDDLE WEST. By Otto G. Cartwright. MOTHERS WHO MUST EARN. By Katharine Anthony. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. $2. A MODEL HOUSINQ LAW. By Lawrence Veiller. New York: Survey Associates, Inc., Publishers for the Russell Sage Foundation. $2. THE MODERN CITY AND ITS PROBLEMS. By Frederic C. Howe. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. $1.50. NATIONAL AND STATE INDEBTEDNESS AND FUNDS AND INVESTMENTS. 1870-1913. Prepared under the Supervision of John

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334 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April Lee Coulter, Expert Special Agent in Charge of Wealth, Debt and Taxation. Washington: Bureau of the Census. NATIONAL AND STATE REVENUES AND PUBLIC PROPERTIES OF STATES 1913. Washington: Bureau of the Census. 1914. THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF A STATE’S INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. By Arthur LeFeae. Publiahed by the Organization for the Enlargement by the State of Texas of its Institutions of Higher Education, Austin, Texas. By Frances A. Kellor. New York: G. P.Pntnam’s Sons. $1.50. By J. S. Illick, Harrisburg, Pa. : Pennsylvania Department of Forestry Bulletin No. 11. June, 1914. PLAY AND RECREATION FOR THE OPEN COUNTRY. By Henry S. Curtis. Boston: Ginn & Company. $1.16. PROBLEMS OF COMMUNITY LIFE. By Seba Eldridge. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. $1. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTION. At the forty-second Annual Session held in Memphis, Tenn., May 8-15, 1914. Published by Conference, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CITY PLANNING, Toronto, May 25-27, 1914. Cambridge, Mass.: The University Press. PUBLIC UTILITIES REPORTS ANNOTATED. Containing Decisions of the Public Service Commissions and of State and Federal Courts. No. 1. Pages 1 to 128. Rochester, N. Y.: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing Co. $1, READJUSTMENTS IN TAXATION. Edited by E. M. Patterson, Ph.D. Philadelphia: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. March, 1915. EXPENDITURES 1913 AND 1903 AND OUT OF WORK. PENNSYLVANIA TREES. REPORT OF THE FIRST MERCEKANDISINQ INVESTIGATION CONDUCTED BY THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH COMMITFEE OF THE ASSOCIATED ADVERTISINQ CLWS OF TE~E WORLD. Minneapolis: Associated Advertising Clubs of the World. 1915. STREET TRAFFIC IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. A Study Made Under the Direction of the Governing Board of the Under Forty Division of the Boston Chamber of Commerce. 1914. STUDIES IN SOUTEERN HISTORY AND POLITICS. Inscribed by William Archibald Dunning, Ph.D., LL.D., by his former pupils, the Authors. New York: Columbia University Press. 1914. SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS RELATINQ TO THE DEPENDENT CLASSES. 1913. Washington: Bureau of the Census. 1914. TAXATION AND REVENUE SYSTEMS OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS. A Digest of Constitutional and Statutory Provisions Relating to Taxation in the Different States in 1913. Washington: Bureau of the Census. 1914. Tm TEACHING OF CIVICS. By Mabel Hill. Boston: Houghton, Mi& Company. 60 cents. THIRD NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CATHOLIC CHARITIES. Sept. 20-23, 1914. Washington, D. C.: Catholic University of America. 1914. TOWN PLANNING-WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE BIRMINGHM SCHEMES. By George Cadbury, Jr. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. $2.25. UNIVERSITIES AND PUBLIC SERVICE. Proceedings of the National Conference on Universities and Public Servic;. Edited by Edward A. Fitzpatrick. Published by the Conference, Madison, wis . THE VALIDITY OF RATE REGULATIONS, STATE AND FEDERAL, By Robert P. Reeder. Philadelphia: T. &. J. W. Johnson Co. $5. VOCATIONAL AND MORAL GUIDANCE. By Jesse Buttrick Davis. Boston: Ginn & co.

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 335 111. REVIEWS Taxation Problems.’ The Somers System of Realty Valuation.2 The recent revival of interest in the subject of tax reform, and the consequent attention devoted to systems and methods of attaining more equitable assessment and equalization, have resulted in especial prominence being given to those devices and so-called “systems” which have been developed either as aids to, or as substitutes for, trained judgment on the part of the assessing officials. For instance, as early as 1901 the Wisconsin tax commission had developed a “sales method” of equalization, the operation of which was comparatively unknown outside of the state for a number of years; but in the last five years the Wisconsin idea has been quite extensively copied. For a generation or more the assessors of New York City have been making some use of unit values and a scale of values for lots of varying depth, but the essential features of this system were not generally known or discussed until a few years ago. The particular adaptation of the unit method known as the Somers system was worked out by its inventor about 20 years ago, and was first used in St. Paul in 1896. But aside from his participation in Tom Johnson’s “tax school” in 1901, Mr. Somers had little opportunity to test his system thoroughly until it was installed in Cleveland in 1910. He had then been in the service of the department of taxes and assessments of New York City for some time, although the distinctive features of his system were not there applied. His connection with former Mayor Johnson led the Cleveland board of assesors to investigate and adopt his system in that city. The essentially distinctive feature of the Somers system is the method for the calculation of corner influence upon lot values, which is done by the use of a very complicated system of tables in which values are 1 From H. L. Lutr, Oberlin College. 2 The writer is indebted to the Manufacturers’ appraisal company of Cleveland, Ohio, for the privilege of access to their tile of clippings, and for copies of the material published by them. OF REPORTS assigned to each 10-foot square in an area 100 feet square.‘ These tables and the formula by which they were obtained are carefully guarded as a trade secret, although it is claimed that they have been calculated upon a mathematical or scientific principle, and represent, therefore, a “scientific” method of ascertaining the value of corner lots. For the calculation of the value of inside lots a scale of values is used which differs but little from two other scales in use, vie., the Hoffman-Neil and the Lindsay-Bernard rules. All of these scales make use of the familiar frontage unit of value, although Mr. Somers has perhaps most clearly defined the frontage unit as being a strip of land one foot wide and one hundred feet deep. One of the first accounts of his system written by Mr. Somers was an article on the assessment of city real estate, published in Municipal Affairs, June, 1901.2 This article was reprinted, with some additional material on rural assessments, in St. Paul, 1901.3 In these papers attention was given chiefly to the importance of obtaining the community’s estimate of the relative frontage values. After these unit values have been agreed upon, the actual assessment process becomes a matter of mere arithmetic. In these earlier expositions of his method Mr. Somers is seen to decidedly better advantage than in his recent attempt to discuss the subject of value in the pages of this REVIEW.^ This slippery subject should never be treated casually, and there is hardly any other portion of the field of economic theory in which greater care must be exercised in the use and meaning of words. Mr. Somers was both casual and careless in his discussion of the theory of value, and con1 The Somers system was described by the present writer in the Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. MY, p. 172. November, 1910. The Valuation of City Real Estate, Municipal Mairs, vol. v, p. 401. June, 1901. 3 The Valuation of Real Estate for the Purpose of Taxation, by W. A. Somers, St. Pad. 1901. 4The Valuation of Real Estate for Taxation, NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. ii, p. 230. April, 1913.

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336 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April tributed in consequence only a confusion of contradictory concepts and ill-founded assertions as an introduction to his system of realty appraisal. The principal agency in giving publicity to the Somers system has been the Manufacturers’ appraisal company of Cleveland, which has acquired the rights of furnishing the service to assessors and others. This company has published a considerable quantity of descriptive and advertising matter and has begun the issue of a quarterly bulletin, theSomers System News. Of the descriptive literature, four pamphlets may be mentioned as indicating the scope of the service: 1. The Somers Unit System of Realty Valuation, 24 pp., no date. This pamphlet is purely descriptive of the system in general. 2. Analysis of the Chicago Assessors’ Plan of Computing Site Values and Comparison thereof with the Somers Unit System of Realty Valuation, 29 pp., 1911. The Chicago method, which also employed a curve of value and a rough plan for figuring corner influence, was held to be too rigid and arbitrary, while it lacked in mathematical certainty and in devices for measuring overlap. 3. Report on the Proposed Carnegie Avenue Extension, Cleveland, Ohio, 35 pp., 1913. This report was made to the mayor at his request, upon the valuation of the lands and buildings required for the contemplated street improvement. The proposed extension was to be the first exercise, by the city of Cleveland, of its new power of excess condemnation. 4. Prospectus of the New York Somers System Service, 31 pp., 1914. This booklet was issued as a prospectus for the purpose of selling the service to real estate investors, brokers, bankers and others interested in land values. As an introduction to this new field, unit values on a certain block of streets were established with the advice of a committee of realty experts, and the valuation of the lots computed. Subscribers to the service were to receive these computations, and were to have the privilege of asking for a certain number of other computations in any part of the city. Four numbers of the Somers System News have appeared. These bulletins are published ostensibly for the promotion of “equity in tax assessments of real property,” but their actual purpose is to push the Somers method of attaining that end. Letters from officials and others incities in which the service has been installed, addresses by officials of the Manufacturers’ appraisal company, and detailed reports on sample appraisals which have been conducted in various places occupy the bulk of the space. From the last number, which was devoted to a review of the past year’s work, we note that the service had then been installed in about thirty cities. The list includes seven cities in Texas, five in Ohio, seven in Arizona, with single cities in Louisiana, California, Oregon, Iowa and other states. The attitude of the taxing officials who have made use of the service has been exceedingly favorable, and their testimonials are very enthusiastic. This reaction is not necessarily attributable to any unusual appreciation on their part of whatever scientific method or principle may be embodied in the Somers system. The improvement in assessments which any sort of system would afford, over the chaotic conditions which have so generally prevailed in local assessments, would be an equal source of rejoicing to local authorities. The enthusiasm of the southern press has been especially marked, and extensive campaigna for the adoption of the system have been conducted by the papers in several southern citiea. This interest is explicable in the light of assessment conditions in the South. The Louisiana tax commission of 1908 asserted that startling injustice and inequality existed in the assessments of that state.’ The tax commissioner of Texas stated in his latest report that the assessment of lands ranged from 35 per cent to 90 per cent of full value, and that under the present constitution it would be impossible to secure anything approaching a uniform assessment of property.2 The average local taxp. 3. 1Report of Louisiana Tax Commission, 1908, 9 Report of Texas Tax Commissioner, 1913, P. 38.

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 337 ing official is by nature uncritical, and would be little inclined to dissect the device which had relieved him of the onerous duty of assessment. The critical discusaion of the Somers system has been participated in by a comparatively small number of individuals, and has centered chiefly around the question of the scientific character of the tables of comer influence. The term “scientifk’’ has been used loosely by both sides. Mr. Somers and the officials of the Manufacturers’ appraisal company insist that a mathematical rule has been developed for the construction of these tables, and they must, therefore, possess a scientific character. “There is a mathematical relation between the values of any two sites affected by the same street influences of accessibility.”’ But the vagueness of the term “mathematical” is troublesome. Is it merely a matter of simple arithmetic, or of the principle of proportion? Or does it run beyond these forms of mathematical science to the calculus and end in some terrifying formula of the higher mathematics? Granted that the relation of intersecting street values and the value of the comer lot be capable of mathematical expression in a given case, will this same mathematical relation hold with another set of values? Will it hold with all possible combinations of street and comer values, so that if the former are given the latter can always be found? If this relation changes as the street unit values change, is the degree of change reducible to law? For instance, does corner value increase as the square of the mean of the two intersecting unit values, or as their product, or in any definite relation to these two values? In the absence of any precise answer on these points the critics have been inclined to scoff at the scientific character of the tables. Mr. Pleydell declares that the mathematical rule is nothing more than the multiplication table.* Judge Sulzberger of Philadelphia was likewise inclined to discount the scientific 1 Somers System News, July, 1913. 9 E. Q., in the debate with Mr. E. W. Doty at Yonkers, New York. Cf. The Yonkers Herald, March 2, 1913. character of the tables. In the course of the litigation which grew out of the attempt to introduce the Somers system in Philadelphia, he said:’ “I have heard nothing to show that science ha;j anything to do with this system, and as for expert opinion, it does not appear that the report furnished by the company, or to be furnished, is based on the opinion of any one possessing expert knowledge of the valuation of property in Philadelphia.” The judge is here stating the most important issue that can be raised between the advocates and the opponents of the Somers system of appraisal. Is it possible to construct a set of tables that will be universally applicable? Since these tables were prepared by a person whose experience was obtained in other places, could they be trusted to give satisfactory results in Philadelphia. And if there, then in other cities? Mr. Somers contends, of course, that he has considered and allowed for all disturbing factors to such an extent that his tables are perfectly general-given certain unit values on two intersecting streets and the corner will always be in the same mathematical relation to these unit values. This position will not be granted by some, who hold that such factors as the lot lines and the facts of ownership and use are entirely overlooked in such an assumption.* Even if Mr. Somers’ thesis be granted, however, there has been no opportunity aa yet for criticism of the particular corner tables which he has constructed because of the secrecy which has enveloped his method of calculation, and to a lesser extent, the tables themselves. The differences between the scales of value for inside lots that have been prepared by Mi-. Somers and others suggest the possibility of similar discrepan1 Quoted in the Philadelphia Times, October 31, 1910. f Cf. Remarks by Lawson Purdy. Buffalo Tax Conference, 1913. Proceedings National Tax Conference, 1913, pp. 281-283. Also, remarks of Messn. Lindsay and Bernard, quoted in Kennan’s Report on the Somers System, p. 26. See also, Real Estate and Its Taxation in Philadelphia, a series of questions and answers relating to a proposed system of assessment, published by the Mayor, 1913, p. 25.

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338 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April cies in their estimates of corner influence. We admit freely that Mr. Somers is quite within his rights in refusing to disclose his method, but we must also admit that others are quite as free to indulge in criticism of the system or of the results. A point of lesser importance was that raised by Mr. Pleydell at the Buffalo tax conference in 1913, as to the consistency of the corner influence tables. Specimens of these tables were shown in which certain 10-feet squares toward the inner part of the 100-feet zone of corner influence were given a higher value than other 10-feet squares closer to the street lines. It is hardly reasonable to suppose that these discrepancies were other than errors of computation or transcription, as the deliberate assignment of a higher value to a square farther from corner influence than to one closer to that influence is contrary to the central principle of the whole system. The percentage of error in the valuation of any lot which would be due to these differences would be negligible. If the whole principle of the universally applicable table for the calculation of corner value be valid, the minor discrepancies can be smoothed out. Upon this central point and not upon minor variations should the criticism be directed. The most careful investigation of the actual operation of the Somers system that haa been made by any qualified student of taxation is that by K. K. Kennan, the results of which are embodied in his report to the Merchants' and Manufacturers' association of Milwaukee, in 1911.' Mr. Kennan reported against the use of this system as an aid to the assessors, on the following grounds: 1. It had not worked satisfactorily in the cities in which it had been used. 2. The methods of the New York City department of taxes and assessments were available free of charge. 3. The results of the appraisal would be in no sense binding upon the assessors, who could not legally be forced to accept 1 Report to the Merchants' and Manufacturers' association of Milwaukee on the Somers United Sygtem. by K. K. Kennan. 1911,28 pp. them. Should the assessors refuse, the city would have spent its money in vain. There has been less tendency to criticise the result8 of the Somers appraisal in the more recent instances of its use than in Columbua and the other cities in which it was used three or four years ago. The Manufacturers' appraisal company has no doubt developed greater proficiency in its use with wider experience, and, as has been suggested, the relief of taxing officials at obtaining assessments so much better than anything that had ever been achieved before has closed their eyes to any possible defects in principle or practice. A final point to be noted is the criticism that has been directed against the exploitation of the Somers system by a private company. The moral, and even the legal right of the assessor to employ so-called experts for assistance in making valuations has been questioned.' To this it replied that no assessment is made. The assessor is and must be left free to use his own judgment, though it is admitted that he would be considered very foolish indeed did he not accept the results of the SGmers appraisal. There would be, of course, no other point in the employment of expert assistance in making the valuation. This objection seems far-fetched. It would be quite as sensible for the assessor to employ expert assistance as for the mayor to employ expert legal counsel or the waterworks department to employ a trained engineer. The mayor must ultimately decide his course of action, the legal responsibility for which rests upon him; but his decision may rest largely upon the advice of his counsel. The assessor must decide upon the assessed valuation, and there can be no objection to his relying upon expert advice as to the.range of valuations. The more serious objection to the employment of outside agencies lies in the continued dependence of the assessor upon these agencies. It is better economy, 1 E. n., Mr. Kennan's Report. See also, Remarks of Messrs. Purdy and Pleydell, Proceedings National Tax Conference, 1913, pp. 267-283. Payment was refused in Columbus on account of the unsatisfactory character of the service rendered, and not because of the principle involved.

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 339 Mr. Purdy argues, to develop within the assessing department a body of experts who by reason of long tenure and serious attention to the problems of assessment have become efficient assessors, than to keep the actual assessors largely in the dark and dependent upon the professional appraiser. This, it must be admitted, is the administrative ideal, toward which the department of taxes and assessments of New York City has made some progress. In the meantime, and a~ a means for the attainment of this higher goal, there can be no objection to the employment of such assistance in making valuations as the Somers or any other good system affords, always provided that the assessing department is advancing, through its use, to a level of efficiency that will render it independent of the outside expert. * Public Service Commission Reports. -Recent reports of various public service commissions indicate that rapid progress is being made by the state commissions in the proper regulation of utilities, and in securing that to which both the public and the investors are entitled, good service upon fair terms. The reports also indicate that in spite of the indehiteness of the courts there are being developed at the present time by the commissions well defined precedents and principles in the regulation of utilities. The decisions found in the report of the public service commission of Nevada are unusually clearly written. The commission’s attention has been largely absorbed with water and electric rate cases. The decisions are worthy of note because they point out the principles upon which the rates are based, which is not true of some of the commissions in more important states. The commission rejects the readiness to serve theory of electric rates, as applied by the Wisconsin and other commissions, and maintains that the proper basis of rate making is the amount of consumption. 1 Sith Annual Report of the Railroad Commission and Third Annual Report of the Public Service Commission of Nevada. 1914. The second report of the Connecticut public utilities commission’ is largely a volume of statistics, showing the hancial Rtatus and operating accounts of the companies under the commission’s jurisdiction. The orders and decisions as included are only summaries, and therefore their value is lessened. The question of capitalization is not discussed since the commission has not been given the power to regulate the issuance of securities. The Massachusetts legislature in 1913 abolished the railroad commission and established the public service commission, giving it jurisdiction over railroads, street railways, telegraph and telephone companies. The first report of the new public service commission * contains a thorough and outspoken discussion of the public utility policy of the state. The commission maintains that stockholders have no claim to a fair return upon their investments unless they provide a competent and efficient management, and that the trolley lines should not be owned by the railways. The report of the Massachusetts gas and electric commission J contains operating statistics and prices charged for all the private gas and electric corporations, and also for the thirty-three municipal plants. These statistics are valuable for the purposes of comparison. The commission recommends some important new legislation on account of the recent decision of the Massachusetts supreme court in the Fall River gas case. It has always been the policy of the commission to refuse to permit utilities to issue securities against surplus. The Fall River decision seems to question the right of the commission to assume this position; therefore the commission recommends that it be authorized to refuse its approval to the issuance of securities if in the opinion of the commis1 Second Annual Report of the Public Utilities Commission. State of Connecticut, 1914. 2 First Annual Report of the Public Service Commission, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1914. 8 Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Board of Gas and Electric Light Commissions of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1914.

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340 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April sion “such issue would be inconsistent with the public interest.” The Illinois public utilities commission waa established January 1, 1914. It has issued a number of publications, including rules and decisions and its &st annual report for the year ending November 30, 1914.1 The latter discusses the work of organizing the commission; and shows a large amount of business brought before it -1,337 formal cases and 487 informal. Most of these have not been of much importance; and it is impossible as yet to judge of the probable efficiency of the commission from its decisions in rate and service cases. An important case under consideration deals with gas rates in Springfield; and an investigation of street railway service in Chicago has been undertaken. The decisions made indicate that the commission proposes to regard municipal utilities aa monopolies, and to refuse its approval to competitive franchises. The latest report of the Georgia railroad commission* is significant because of the position taken upon important questions of public utility valuation. This commission now haa supervision over all the utilities in the state. The most important rate decision is in the case of the Macon railway and light company. In this decision the commission establishes the principle that franchises donated to utilities by the public, and “established business,” are not to be included in the valuation of the property to be used for rate making purposes. The statistics included in this report show a steady growth in the amount of business done by the public service corporations in Georgia. The Arizona corporation commission is probably called upon to exercise mcre diverse functions than any public service commission in the United States, since it has jurisdiction not only over the public utilities but also over insurance, investment and surety companies. The first 1 First Annual Report of the State Public Utilities Commission of the State of Illinois, for the year ending November 30, 1914. ZForty-first Report of the Railroad Commission of Georgia. 1914. report of the commission 1 indicates that it has not yet developed any principles of rate making or valuation, although it has apparently made careful investigations before permitting the issuance of securities. The current report of the Maryland public service commission * emphasizes the necessity of adequate appropriations in order to secure the enforcement of proper laws. The commission maintains that it cannot enforce the law or supervise the service of the utilities as it should on account of the meagerness of its funds. The statistical portion of the report is among the most complete published by any of the commissions, showing for each utility in the state complete financial, operating, and property statistics. The most important rate case during the year was the one involving the gas and electric rates charged in the city of Baltimore. An act abolishing the Ohio public service commission and establishing the Ohio public utilities commission became effective August 9, 1913. The principal changes effected by the act relate to the valuation of utilities and to court procedure or appeal from decisions of the commission. The act gives the commission power to conduct valuations of all privately or municipally owned utilities. The first report of the new commission 3 indicates that it has begun to conduct such appraisals. The attention of the commission has apparently been largely taken up by considering applications for authority to issue securities, but it cannot be said that the decisions give much definite information as to the principles followed by the commission in the control of capitalization. This value of this large volume is materiaUy lessened because of the lack of a workable index. The Nebraska railroad commission which now has jurisdiction over the various utilities of the state has been conducting a physical valuation of the vari1 First Annual Report of the Arizona Corpora1 Report of the Public Service Commission of aReport of the Public Utilities Commission of tion Commission. Maryland, for the year, 1913. Ohio, for 1913.

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 34 1 ous properties. The sixth report 1 of the commission indicates that a large amount of this work is completed. This valuation is used by the various taxing authorities throughout the state, as well as by the commission in fixing rates. The most important decision given by the commission is concerned with the telephone rates charged in Lincoln. In this decision the commission explains its theories of valuation, fair returns, and rate making. The first report of the Idaho public utilities commission * indicates a deplorable condition as to appropriations. The financial provisions made are so scant that the only expert assistant the commission has been able to employ is one accountant, not being able to afford either rate experts or engineers. The commission also affirms that its powers are too limited to result in effective supervision and urges that it should be given control over the issuance of securities. The commission haa done little in the regulation of rates, but has emphasized the improvement of service, and the provision of adequate facilities. It has taken a stand in favor of monopoly in the local utility field, and refuses a certificate of necessity to would-be competing utilities. A considerable number of the commissions publish their annual reports and their decisions in separate volumes, the former being accounts of the transactions and business of the year and the statistical data and reports of the utilities, and the latter being the opinions and orders of the commission. This plan is followed by the commissions in Missouri, California, New Hampshire, New York, and Wisconsin. The first annual report of the Missouri public service commission 3 explains the organization of the various departments and the rules for the conduct of its business. Its decisions thus far are published in five separate volumes, called “advance 1Sixth Annual Report of the Nebraska State f Report of the Public Utilities Commission of :First Annual Report of the Public Service Railway Commission, 1914. the State of Idaho, 1914. Commission of Missouri, 1914. 10 sheets” 1 which are later to be published as “reports of cases.” These volumes are exceedingly well. arranged for reference purposes, as each one contains an indexed digest, arranged by subjects. These decisions are well considered, exhaustive, and ably written. There hrts been no tendency to base the decisions upon general considerations, the fundamental principles of rate making, valuation, service and capitalization applied by the commission being clearly indicated and explained in each decision. The third report of the public service commission of New Hampshire* is devoted to the annual reports of the utilities under the commission’s jurisdiction, for 1913. The third volume of orders and decisions of this commission has also been published. 3 Perhaps the decision of most importance in this volume so far as principles established are concerned, is that involving the rates of the Berlin electric company. In this case the commission maintains that in valuations to be used for rate making purposes that “established business” is not to be included, except at the actual cost of building up such business. Advance sheets of the fourth volume of decisions, including those made up to June, 1914, have also been published.‘ The latest report of the public service commission for the New York second districts contains a detailed description of the methods followed by the commission in its investigation and control of service, the methods used to enforce its service requirements, and the methods used in the supervision and control of service, and of accounting practice. It recommends that the commission be given the power to suspend the taking effect of advanced rates, pending investigation, and that the . * Missouri Public Service Commission Reports, Vol. 1, Advance Sheets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. ZReport of the Public Service Commission of New Hampshire, Vol. 111. a New Hampshire Public Service Commission Reports, Vol. 111. 4 Reports and Orders of the Public Service Commission of New Hampshire, Vol. IV, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 5 Seventh Annual Report of the Public Service Commission, Second District, New York, 1914.

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342 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April telephone businesses not conducted for profit, the so-called “mutuaLS,JJ be brought under the commission’s jurisdiction. The California railroad commission has published its second volume of orders and decisions.’ Much of the attention of this commission is demanded by a problem which does not exist for the eastern commissions-the regulation of the service and rates of irrigation companies. The volume is noteworthy because in it the-commission apparently accepts certain principles which have been widely rejected by other commissions, e. g., original cost as the most important factor in valuation, a liberal reward to the promoter, and approval of competition as a means of securing proper service and rates. Attention may also be called to the compilation of Minnesota public utility rates, prepared by the municipal reference bureau of the University of Minnesota; and to the report on regulation of public service companies in Great Britain, by Robert H. Whitten, librarian-statistican of the New York public service commission for the Erst district.” s Hospital Efficiency.-Philadelphia Investigation of the Philadelphia County Medical Society’s committee. The report on hospital efficiency 3 was made October 21, 1914. It recounts the measures taken during two years to determine the hospital situation in Philadelphia. No attempt is made to compare its hospitals, in respect to organization and management, with those of other cities. Probably the situation is much the same in Philadelphia as in other great cities of the country. The committee has sought fist-hand information by visiting the principal hospitals and dispensaries of the city. It has also held conferences with their reprelOpinions and Orders of the Railroad Com* Ralph E. Heilman, University of Illinois. 8 Report of the Committee on Hospital Efficiency of the Philadelphia county medical society, Vol. x, No. 9, of the Weekly Roster of the Wfedical Organizations of Philadelphia, pp. 14-21. mission of California, Vol. 2. sentatives and with representatives of other organizations, e. g., the state board of charities, at which, plans for: (1) the establishment of a central purchasing bureau; (2) the employment of an efficiency engineer to prepare a report on the situation; and (3) to devise a uniform system of hospital accounting and statistics, were considered. None of the plans seems to have passed beyond the stage of discussion. Broadly speaking, the committee finds that full elucidation of the situation demands greater expenditures of money and personal service than the resources of the committee or of the county medical society admit of. So the committee asks to be discharged. At the same time, the committee recommends various measures, whose adoption by jhe hospitals and dispensaries could hardly fail to enhance their efficiency. Indeed, fully one third of the report consists of recommendations to be urged by the county medical society upon the several hospitals and dispensaries. But, in view of the present situation as sketched by the committee, many of the recommendations take on the aspect of mere counsels of perfection. The report contains very little statistical information. The committee frankly says “Owing to the absence of any attempt at standardization in the numerous institutions visited, it has been impossible for us to make our medical and financial statistics either complete or accurate. . . . . In 31 per cent of the hospitals visited, the records . . . are absolutely useless for scientific purposes.’’ This plaint of the committee has a familiar sound. Wherever attempts to secure “uniform statistics,” whether from private or municipal institutions and departments, have been made in response to the demands of dilettante statisticians or of passionate advocates of efficiency and uplift, such attempts have usually been rendered nugatory by the unsatisfactory nature of fundamental data at their source. The committee appears to be deeply impressed by the lack of definite “standards by which to measure the efficiency

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 343 of a hospital.” Accordingly it declares thatIt would be of great assistance in paving the way for the proposed local study, if some OIgSdzation with adequate resources at its command, would first make s preliry study of the entire hospital situation in the United Statea and define standards by which to measwe the efficienay of a hospital. We, therefore, recommend that the county medical society endow the request which the American medica! asaochtion, the American conmas of clinical surgeons, and the American hospital association have forwarded to the Carnegie foundation, asking tht the foundation prepare a report on the clssmfication and standardization of hoapitale. All in all, this recommendation of the committee strikes the reviewer as the most illuminating and significant of the many recommendations set forth in the report. The scope of the report is indicated by the following list of the principal topics considered therein, viz.: 1. Medical records and follow-on systems; 2, Medical staff; 3, Social service; 4, Dispensary organization and dispensary abuse; 5, Dispensary fees; 6, Hospital bureau of standards and supplies. The committee thinks well of social service departments] follow-on systems and other modern features, but does not blink the fact that they are still in the experimental stage in Philadelphia, and cannot achieve a full measure of effectiveness so long as. the present untoward, fundamental conditions continue, and the present vague and indefinite standards of efficiency obtain. The committee’s strictures on the imperfect and heterogeneous methods of hospital records would have more point and edge if it had reported the total number of hospitals and dispensaries in Philadelphia. In addition to the findings of the committee already noted, the following are noteworthy: (1) Only 3 of the 16 largest hospitals maintain a separate file in which all of the operations performed are recorded, and operations of like character are grouped together. . . . Only 7 of the 16 have any method of making sure that the diagnosis is entered in the record. . . . The 8 hospitals whose medical histories are scientifically filed, use four different systems of classification. . . . In no hospital is the same system of classification used in both house and dispensary. (2) 2,291 appointments to the medical staff in 59 hospitals and dispensaries are held by 1,316 doctors, of whom 225 hold at least 3 appointments. As a rule the service is not continuous for more than from three to six months. (3) Social service departments, comprising 77 social workers, are maintained by 26 hospitals. Most of those visited do not form an integral part of the hospital. (4) The dispensaries are rather looseIy organized and administered, and dispensary fees, which vary widely, appear not to be charged in most of the dispensaries visited. Among the committee’s most significant recommendations, the following may be mentioned: (1) that the county medical society prepare a uniform system of morbidity records and statistics, based on the international classification of diseases and conditions, and urge every institution to adopt the system with appropriate variations in the case of certain hospitals; (2) urge each hospital to perfect its system of medical records regarding patients before and after discharge; (3) develop the medical organization of every hospital toward the point where every member of the medical staff will give continuous service; (4) establish a social service department under the superintendent in every hospital; and provide for its support from hospital funds; (5) place dispensaries under a competent paid executive officer (subject to control by the superintendent of the hospital) with clearly defined duties md powers; (6) fix a small fee for registration and treatment in a dispensary, to be collected at the admitting desk. Tm away no applicant unless he can afford to employ a private doctor; (7) urge each hospital to join the hospital bureau of standards and supplies in New York for the purpose of securing goods of guaranteed quality at the most favorable rates. This report may be concisely characterized as only a preliminary survey of

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344 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April the hospital situation in Philadelphia. But Philadelphia is 80 important a center of medical education and of medical charities, that the committee’s hdings and recommendations should excite more than local interest and are worthy of more than passing attention. The report is welcome and informing by reason of what is implied, ria well as by reason of what is explicitly set forth. The committee frankly admits its inability, after two years’ study, to make a conclusive report. The existence of certain fundamental obstaclea and difficulties is convincingly set forth. Moreover, the report seems to indicate the committee’s belief that there is such a lack of competent investigators and of approved standards of efficiency as to make it unlikely that anyone could have made a complete and conclusive report. Those who indulge in apocalyptic visions of a new earth, in which every institution, after its kind, shall yield uniform results, reports and statistics, will do well to mark and inwardly digest the explicit and implicit teachings of this report. Questionnaires are relatively cheap, but definite, and conclusive answers come high, because they cost much money, and very much labor and time. 1 New York Investigation. In wealth of detail, exhaustive statistics and painstaking accuracy, the report of the Committee on Inquiry into the Departments of Health, Charities, and Bellevue and Allied Hospitals* could hardy be surpassed. It is a most thorough intensive survey of practically all the economic and administrative conditions in the departments named. The report, prepared by the board of estimate and apportionment, deals with a field in which standards and experts are both yet lacking. Therefore the investigation and report were placed in charge of Henry C. Wright of the Russell Sage Foundation, who has made extended examinations of the fiscal con1Edward M. Hartw9-11, Boston, Mass. I Report of the Committee on Inquiry into the Departments of Health, Chanties, Bellevue and AlIied Hospitals of the Board of Estimate and Apportionment of the City of New York, 1014. trol of various state institutions, with the effect in some cases of securing radical reformatory cooperation. In reaching his conclusions and making his recommendations, Mr. Wright was largely guided by the council of many leading physicians and educators. The most hearty co-operation waa rendered by the officials of the department of health, and the hospitals, but assistance waa not so free on the part of the department of public charities. However, most of the information needed was secured. The report is primarily constructive, not merely analytically destructive, as is the case with many less thorough investigations. Although many serious defects are shown to exist, in no case is the reader left to flounder helplessly in a morass of criticism, which leads nowhere except to irritation, and the “ what-are-you-goingto-do-about-it?” attitude; but the most helpful and efficient suggestions for reform are everywhere evidenced, resulting in the effects of the study being far from restricted and tentative. As the object of all such investigations is the securing of reform either administrative, executive or legislative, it is gratifying to note that many of the recommendations advanced in the report have already been carried out by the authorities concerned. Examples of these effected reforms are: The more careful distribution of food in Metropolitan hospital; the painstaking experiment in the distribution of food in Bellevue hospital, resulting in the marked reduction in the amount of meat used; changes in the method of caring for children in several of the hospitals; the removal of cripples and the blind from the farm colony; the appropriation for instructors of industrial work for the department of public charities. ere the ideal in effective administration be attained. The most important recommendations of the committee which have not been carried out are five in number, as follows: 1. The re-organization of the medical service of Bellevue hospital. 2. The proposed health centers, in which the However, much still remains to be done.

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 345 health department and Bellevue hospital shall co-operate, as a form of hospital field-work. 3. A new children’s hospital for long term cases. 4. Physical examination and employment of inmates of city almshouses, where over 1,500 inmates, capable of doing light work, are doing nothing. 5. The reorganization of hospital helpers, with the object of getting rid of “floaters.” If the economirs recommended by the committee be enforced with regard to the handling of supplies and food, and with regard to collecting for the care of non-residents and deportable aliens, the saving to the city hall will much more than offset any expenditures required for the purpose of putting the constructive recommendations of the committee into operation. The greatest importance of the report to departments of health is in the proposed health center, which, properly operated, should accomplish the result of bringing the hospitals and health departments into active co-operation and leave no uncovered territory between the functions performed by each. An individual instance’ of the resulting efficiency is that cases of contagion discovered by the hospitals would come to the health department at once and thus obviate the delay due to notification by mail. Again, centralizing information and records of a district at one place would render it possible to treat a large proportion of sickness at its inception. All the functions aa performed by the different divisions of the health department for the district should be centralized in the health center; BelIevue hospital would assign to it one graduate interne, two trained social service nurses, and four nurse attendants. As all of the functions of the proposed health center to be assigned to the health department are at present performed by it, there would be no material increase in individual or aggregate expense while there would be a much greater service rendered. In my judgment, all preventive work should be done by the department of health. All follow-up work should, therefore, be done by them through their public health nurses, and the social service division of the department of health. All social conditions found by the public health nurses in these centers could be referred to proper social agency. Prevention is not the function of a hospital; prevention is the function of a department of health. In its entirety I consider the report a most creditable one. 1 * The Chicago Municipal Markets Comrnission.-On October 27, 1913, Alderman James H. Lawley, a member of the Chicago city council presented an order which was duly passed that “the mayor be requested to appoint a commission to make a thorough study of the high cost of living and report its recommendations to the council on the subject of municipal markets, warehouses and other agencies of municipal service, such commission to be composed of three members of the council; three representatives of social settlements, one in each division of the city; one representative of the association of commerce; one representative of the city club; one representative of the woman’s city club and one transportation engineer.” 2 Mayor Harrison shortly thereafter, in compliance with the terms of this order, appointed a “commission to make a study into the subject of municipal markets and other agencies to bring the producer and consumer into closer contact.” The commission has held a large number of public hearings since its first meeting, November 21, 1913, at which representatives of the producers, transportation interest, commission men, wholesalers, * Charles J. Hastings, Director, Toronto Department of Health. * The commission at present consists of the following members: Alderman James H. Lawley, chairman; Alderman August Krumholz; Alderman John Toman; Miss Gertrude V. Soule, of the University of Chicago settlement; Mrs. C. Franklin Leavitt, EH Bate. house: Professor Graham T8yIor. president, Chicago commons; Mr. Fred A. Curtis, representing the city club of Chicago; Mrs. John C. Bley, representing the woman’s city club. Frederick Rex, the municipal reference librarian wed chosen secretary.

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346 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April jobbers, retailers and consumers, especially capable of furnishing information on the subjects under investigation, have been examined. On April 27, 1914, the commission submitted a preliminary report which found that Chicago’s present market facilities are merely private trading centers where middlemen and speculators gather. These markets as now constituted are entirely inadequate, unsanitary and extremely wasteful. It was urged by the commission that the city proceed to formulate plans and proposals for a comprehensive system of wholesale terminal markets under the control of the city, designed to render efficient and satisfactory service to the consuming public. The commission urged that retail markets be established by the city whenever private retailers by excessive and unreasonable prices or an unwholesome food supply failed to render satisfactory service to the economically weaker part of the city’s population; that farmers’ markets should be established in open or covered public places adjacent to the centers of population and in such other sectiom where bodies of consumers may apply for them, these markets to be made accessible to the producers for the sale of articles of fresh garden truck and other staple products to the consumer direct. Peddlers, hucksters and pushcart men were found to be an economic necessity and tending greatly to reduce the high cost of living to the people living in certain sections of the city. Vending of food supplies by these classes, it was urged, should be considered an established and legitimate business and inasmuch as they are liable to sell food products to the consumer at greatly reduced prices over the prices prevailing at the retail store, due to the low operating cost of the former, such business as they conducted be encouraged by the municipal authorities. It waa predicated, however, that all such be subjected to certain necessary sanitary and police regulations and such rules as may be required to prevent undue congestion of vehicle traffic in the streets. The commission recommended that an ordinance be passed requiring all persons, firms or corporations in the city receiving farm produce of any kind for sale on commission to keep a complete record of the amount and kind of produce received and of the sales made and the prices received, together with the dates of the receipts and sales and the names and addresses of the shipper and purchaser, such records to be open to the inspection of the shipper or the consignor of commodities and to official inspection by the city. Commission merchants under the terms of the proposed ordinance should be required to take out a license from the proper city department and give adequate bonds of surety for the faithful performance of their work and sanitary operation of their places of business. Should it be shown that any person doing a commission business in the city is guilty of fraud, deceit, unlawful practices or conducts his business of handling food supplies in an unsanitary manner, provision is made for the revocation of the license so that such person can no longer carry on a commission business in Chicago. It waa urged that a city tribunal be created in the department of public welfare before which any person may lay a complaint of injustice or unfair treatment incurred in the distribution of food’ suppliea. This tribunal would be empowered to investigate all charges made against producers, wholesalers and retailers and investigate any charges that might be made relative to corners in food supplies, combinations in restraint of trade, storage of surplus products by jobbers and other agencies and into extortionate prices. In order to give the producer direct access to the markets of the city and to furnish the consumer with a fresh and more varied allotment of farm products, the commission recommended that freight service be placed in operation over the present eldsting street and elevated railway lines and the interurban street railways be given direct access to the city markets and to such other points in the city convenient to the consuming public for the delivery of fruits, vegetables and dairy products. It is believed that the

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 347 rapid and easy access to the new markets achieved by the establishment of street railway frieght service to and from the city will encourage production and that the large amount of land adjacent to the city at present lying undeveloped will be divided into small truck, poultry, dairy and fruit farms. Such trolley freight service over the street and elevated railway lines in the city, however, should not be permitted to interfere with the proper handling of the passenger traffic and should only be operated during the hours at night or day when the passenger service is at a minimum and practically at a standstill. In August of last year the commission had an ordinance passed to prevent and punish forestalling and regrating in foodstuffs. At the beginning of the present European war, there was a sudden rise in the prices of foodstuffs in Chicago as in other cities and the commission, through continued agitation and publicity, was largely instrumental in keeping retail prices within bounds and in restraining the then prevailing tendency of boosting prices by dealers to a considerable extent. Acting under a resolution introduced in August, 1914, by Alderman Charles E. Merriam, the commission hrts carried on an investigation of unemployment, and on December 28, 1914, submitted a report on a plan for relieving destitution and unemployment in Chicago. In its conclusions the commission finds that the prevailing unemployment in that city is not entirely due to the European War, but is rather a chronic result of the maladjustment of industry and trade. The commission recommends the organization of a municipal employment bureau, the adoption of a comprehensive plan of public works and improvements in relation to periods of industrial depression, and a policy of part or short time work for the unemployed by private and public employers. rk Census Statistics.-Among the recent publications of the United States bureau of the census is Bulletin No. 126, with the title, “Financial Statistics of Cities Having a Population of Over 30,000, 1913.” This publication presents statistics for 199 cities. A comparison of this publication with Bulletin No. 118 with the title, “Financial Statistics of Cities Having a Population of Over 30,000: 1912,” brings into prominence a number of factsvery interesting to students of statistics. Bulletin No. 126 presents statistics for all of the 195 cities for which Bulletin No. 118 gave statistical data and for four other cities whose estimated population reached 30,000 between July 1, 1912, and July 1, 1913. Further the reported receipts, payments and tax levies for 126 of these cities, or 64 per cent of them, are exactly the same in the two publications, while the reported population and area of these 126 cities as of the other 69 are given in the one bulletin as of July 1, 1912, and in the other as of July 1, 1913. Bulletin No. 126 does not present any explanation of this duplication, nor even make mention of the same. Unless some sufficient reason exists to justify this procedure, it must be considered a waste of public money made under circumstances which are sure to mislead the average reader as may be seen by a consideration of the facts which follow. The average, or per capita receipts, payments and tax levies of Bulletin No. 118 are computed on the basis of the estimated population of July 1, 1912. Those of the other bulletin on the basis of the population one year later. As a result all per capita figures for the 126 cities referred to are less in Bulletin No. 126 than in that of No. 118, and to the extent of the difference are,in error, since they are computed, not on the basis of the population at the middle point of the period to which they relate, as called for by correct statistics, but on the basis of a population at a time after the close of that period, and as for a date which varies from 11 months in the case of Boston, to two years in the case of the school per capitas of such cities as Seattle, Portland, Oregon, and Tacoma. Some of these errors are worthy of special mention. The population of the five large cities of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleve

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April land and Baltimore, aa estimated for the middle of their fiscal year, which ended December 31, 1912, was 10,131,580, while one year later it was 10,372,136, or nearly 2.4 per cent greater. By using the later figures the per capita figures for these cities in Bulletin No. 126 are improperly all reduced and given as an error which is equal to 2.4 per cent of the amounts stated in Bulletin No. 126. The corresponding average error in the caae of the three progressive and rapidly growing cities of Seattle, Portland, Oregon, and Denver is 5.2 per cent. The figures for Chattanooga, Tennessee, are, however, the most striking. That city in the period between July 1, 1912, and July 1, 1913, increased its land area by annexation from 3,031 acres to 4,196 acres and its estimated population, including that of the added territory, increased from 47,339 to 55,646, a gain of 17.5 per cent. Of the increased population, about three-fourths resided in the annexed territory and never contributed one cent to the receipts reported in the two bulletins, and for them not one dollar of the reported payments were expended. Hence the average error of 17.5 per cent in all of the per capitaa for this city in Bulletin 126 hardly justifies the only changes which that bulletin makes in the figures for Chattanooga as given in Bulletin No. 118. Such errors aa those given in Bulletin No. 126 for the cities mentioned by name and those for all of the 126 cities referred to, if repeated in future census statistics of cities or allowed to be used in other census publications, will seriously lessen their usefulness. Furthermore, Bulletin No. 126 is misleading, in that on the face of it, it seems to give data for the year 1913, while as a matter of fact data for practically two-thirds of the cities are for the year 1912 and for the other cities for years ending anywhere from January 31 to June 30, 1913, there being only 23 out of the 199 cities whose financial year ended June 30, 1913. There hardly seems any excuse for giving a title to a publication which is true as to less than one-eighth of the cities and not true in the fullest sense as to these, since data are not given for any city for the full year 1913. We are not in a position to say just where the fault lies but certainly some department of the government deserves criticism for the delay in issuing a number of the census bulletins and this is particularly applicable to Census Bulletin No. 126. Since the data for nearly two-thirds of the cities were in hand and used in Bulletin No. 118, there seems little excuse for the long delay in preparing this bulletin for publication. Bulletin No. 118 was issued December 15, 1913, eleven and one-half months after the close of the period covered, the data for all of the 195 cities being collected during that time, Bulletin No. 126 waa issued July 30, 1914, thirteen months after the close of the period covered, notwithstanding the fact that data were collected for only 73 cities out of the 199 cities.' .c Civil Service Reports A MODEL CIVIL SERVICE LAW EMBODYING THE ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF A PRACTICAL MERIT SYSTEM OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT. Proposed by the committee of the National Assembly of Civil Service Commissions. PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETINQ OF THE NATIONAL CIVIL SERVICE REFORM LEAQUE. Held at Boston, Massachusetts, December 11 and 12, 1913. The first of the above titles introduces a pamphlet that is of considerable importance to all interested in the establishment of a well considered merit system in the public service. It was originally intended that the proposals should represent the views of the committees of both the National assembly of civil service commissions and the National civil service reform league. In fact the committees representing these respective organizations did cooperate during a portion of their labors. It is indeed unfortunate therefore that in a matter of such importance a joint report could not have been submitted. It would have given. the model law for a merit Horace E. Flack, Baltimore, Md.

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS system a degree of weight and prestige which no single committee report is able to carry with it. Inasmuch as the two committees had held a three days’ joint session forty days before the presentation of the report made by the committee of the National assembly of civil service commissions it is probable that the two committees found it impossible to agree on some of the important features of a model civil service law, and that conaequently the committee of the National assembly of civil service commissions has gone forward with their proposals and that the report of the National civil service reform league committee may be expected later. * The report of the model law is prefaced by a statement of what the committee regards as the four great principles of the merit system: (1) Government should be controlled by the people; (2) Public offices and places which are not directly charged with the conduct of general political policies belong of right to all of the people; (3) Civil service shall be e5cient; (4) The government in its capacity as an employer should be just and fair to its own employes. The principal features of the model law proposed are as follows: (1) It includes state, county and municipal service. There are certain exceptions such as popularly elected officers, those whose appointment is provided for in the constitution, persons employed by contract to perform work which regular employes cannot do, special examiners, military officers, etc. An exception which may appear too broad to some is that which gives to the governor, mayor, or other chief executive freedom of appointment to the number of ten assistants for the formulation of general executive policies, (2) The proposed law conforms to the Illinois practice of not giving the state civil service commission authority to make further exceptions to the operation of the act. This feature is at variance with the practice of most of the states. (3) The civil service commission shall, under the proposed law, always certify the person standing highest on the list of eligibles for the respective offices and such person shall forthwith be appointed by the appointing authority. (4) The civil service commissions are to be selected by a merit system which involves the preparation of a list of eligibles for appointment to such commissions by a temporary board of special examiners. This board of special examiners is to be appointed by the governor who is to be guided by further detailed provisions of the law in making his appointments. (5) The commissions are given large jurisdiction over the public service, powers of investigation, standardization and classification, the making of rules and regulations, the holding of examinations, the requiring of reports, and the holding of hearings on charges involving possible removals. (6) There are suitable provisions with respect to reports by the commission, the prohibitions of frauds and abuses, political activity, penalties, prosecutions, civil suits, and repealing enactments. Altogether the proposals are valuable. Like all such model laws the purpose is to guide those engaged in the enactment of laws affecting the public service in such a manner as to enable them best to reahe the ideals of the merit system. All students of the subject will await with eagerness the report of the committee of the National civil service reform league. We may assume that the two reports will place before us the best judgment of these organizations with respect to the merit system, will enable comparison of views, and that together they will exert a powerful influence over civil service legislation in the future. In connection with the model civil service law the proceedings announced in the second pamphlet should be noted. The 137 pages of thia booklet contain the annual report of the council of the league, the reports from the women’s auxiliaries in Massachusetts and New York, pd Maryland, the reports from the local associations, nine states and four municipalities being heard from. In addition also to the account of the regular business sessions and the resolutions the reports of two special committees are presented, via., the

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350 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April committee on reform in the consular and diplomatic service and the committee on removals in the civil service. The latter offered the draft of a plan for the regulation of discipline in the competitive service. The features of this draft are that it provides for an administrative disciplinary board to receive and act upon complaints against those in the competitive service. The decisions of this board are not to be subject to review in the courts except upon a writ of mandamus and then only for the purpose of mcertaining whether the procedure prescribed for the board has been complied with. This plan would make it possible to remove for incompetency where such action is now manifestly difficult. The papers which were presented at the sessions of the league are published as a part of the proceedings. Of special interest to students of municipal government will be those on “The City Manager Plan -Its Contribution to the Growth of a Non-Political and Efficient Personnel in Municipd Administration,” by Mr. H. S. Gilbertson; “The Choice of Municipal Experts through Competitive Examinations in Philadelphia,” by Hon. Lewis H. Van Dusen; and “How the Selection and Retention of Experts Have Taken Contracts out of Politics in Philadelphia,” by Lieut. James Reed. RUSSELL M. STORY. University of Illinois. * Public Works Reports.’-The annual reports of the departments of public works of Philadelphia and Chicago have been singled out, not because they are the only reports of departments of public works which are at hand, but rather because they fairly represent the contrasts which obtain in the large number of such reports which are being issued to-day. The report of Director Morris L. Coolre of the Philadelphia department of public works deserves to rank as a class$ in 1 Annual Report of the Director of the Department of Public Work3 of the City of Philadelphia, for the year ending December 31, 1913. Thirty-eighth Annual Report of the Commieaoner of Public Works of the City of Chicago, for the year ending December 31, 1913. municipal literature. We hope it waa widely circulated among the citizens of the City of Brotherly Love. If it was, it was probably widely read for it waa intensely interesting, and if read, the citizens of the municipality should have some adequate conception of what has been going on in the department. A more entertaining and instructive pamphIet has not come to the hand of the writer in many weeks. A summary view of “What has been accomplished” is presented in less than two pages and under 14 separate paragraphs. The report then presents a broad-minded, but searching analysis of the work of the department and the problems that must be faced. The achievements are modestly but happily indicated, the obstacles to success unhesitatingly pointed out. The writer is a public servant with a vision and his report evidences his enthusiasm, both the vision and the enthusiasm imparting themselves to the reader. A similar report issued last year bears the same marks of exceptional value, readability, and quality of expression. The report of the commissioner of the department of public works in Chicago is a volume of some 532 pages, exclusive of the index. This is supplemented by a number of charts and maps. The written report of the commissioner himself takes up but 28 pages, while the rest of the volume is devoted to the reports of the various heads of bureaus. The presentation is detailed, matter-of-fact, thoroughly official. It lacks the flesh and blood which would make the report readable. One would have to read all the 37 reports which preceded it, if they are like it, in order to get any comprehensive conception of what the situation in the department to-day is. The number of citizens outside of the mayor and council who read it would not make up a corporal’s guard. It is a contribution to the files, but performs no service of a living, constructive nature to the municipality itself. The reader yawns before fairly started on his perusal and vows that government is dull business. Yet it is but one of thousands of similar reports being issued in depart

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19151 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 351 ments, national, state and municipal. Unlike many other reports of similar nature which repose on the shelves content with bibliographical mention, it has merely bad the misfortune to be called into the limelight by way of contrast. It should be noted, however, that the distribution of this and other city of Chicago reports is now in the hands of the municipal reference bureau of the Chicago public library. 1 * The Payment of Fines in Installments by Off enders.-Prepared by the municipal reference library, a branch of the Chicago public library, at the request of Alderman Thomas D. Nash, a member of the Chicago city council, and chairman of the sub-committee of the committee on judiciary. This sub-committee was appointed to consider the subject of establishing a system for the payment on the installment plan of minor fines imposed in the municipal court for violation of city ordinances. The introduction briefly reviews the history of the movement for the payment of fines by installments, indicates the situation now existing in Chicago, and points out the salient benefits to be derived from the installment payment system. The practice in Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Indianapolis, Kansas City, and the states of Illinois, Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania is then presented in the remaining pages. The pamphlet will be of service to students of the subject outside of Chicago. * Proceedings of City Councils in Illinois. -A considerable number of city councils in Illinois are now publishing their proceedings, though the practice is for the most part limited to cities under the commission form of government. Chicago, of course, does considerable publishing both of council proceedings and departmental reports. Agencies such as the city club and the bureau of public efficiency contribute much to the value of the publications issued with regard to Chicago municipal government. Among 1 Rwll M, Story, University of Illinois. the other cities of the state worthy of mention are Rockford, Springfield, Moline, Rock Island, Joliet, Decatur, Kewanee and Pekin. Rockford publishes reports and descriptive pamphlets from time to time. The proceedings are generally published without index and thus are rather difficult to use with great satisfaction; but the fact that they are published will hasten the day when an adequate study of municipal government in Illinois may be made. 5 The Municipal Manual, City of Winnipeg, ~grq.--Cmpiled by M. Peterson, city clerk, upon which Mr. Peterson and the city of Winnipeg are to be congratulated. Assuming the accuracy of the booklet, its usefulness, attractiveness, compactness and arrangement of a very considerable body of interesting material is deserving of commendation. Moreover, there is an ample index to the more than 160 topics covered in the manual. The work is a good example of the printers’ and bookmakers’ art, good paper, about 150 well-printed pages, vest pocket size and bound in flexible green leather. Examples of the usefulness of the material presented are the following: Tables of the cost of local improvements such as sidewallcs, pavements, etc., financial summary of the city’s properties, assets, liabilities, etc., review of the situation respecting municipal ownership, presentation of the problems relative to the future water supply, historical material, statistical tables, etc. * Forty-Thiid Annual Report of The Local Government Board (England and Wales) rg~~-~q.---Supplernent containing a Third Report on Infant Mortality. This work comprises the results of an investigation in Lancashire with special reports on the towns of Burnley, Colne, and Nelson, Wigan, Stretford, Widnes and Farnworth. Eight appendices cover some 20 additional pages, making a total of over 200. The report calls attention to the improvement of the situation in respect to infant mortality, presents the infant welfare work which is being carried on

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and points out the connection between the lowering of the infant mortality rate and the expenditure in improved housing, reformed scavenging, more satisfactory disposal of refuse, paving of streets and yards, and educational efforts. It is pointed out, however, that the exact measure of the extent to which these improvements we responsible for the declining mortality rate among infants cannot be accurately determined, though some effort is made to approximate their vaIue. Ip The State Highway Department of Pennsylvania.-The strong national impulse toward the building of better roads has an evidence in the issue of the first two copies of a quarterly entitled Pennsylvania Highway News, which is the official bulletin of the state highway department. In addition to the necessary official information, this well-arranged publication shows life and interest in a fashion not common to departmental or governmental reports. It is freely illustrated from photographs, and is plainly intended not only to show what the state department has done and is doing, but as well the advisability of further and more thorough work. The Pennsylvania department has come in for fierce criticism as to its methods and accomplishments, with which this review can of course have nothing to do. The publication above mentioned is most commendable, and it is significant that there is shown a distinct disposition in the work of the department to foster civic improvement in cwnmunities touched upon by the highways. E. M. Bigelow, the head of the department, has had the laws of Pennsylvania with respect to the removal of intrusive, confusing and ugly signs along the roads, enforced, quietly and without blare of trumpets. He has preserved trees wherever possible, and has fostered the planting and growth of other trees. He has cast the influence of the department toward the improvement of communities, and especially of their approaches. The Pennsylvania Highways News fost)ers that solidarity in an organization which can be brought about by an interR. M. S. change of views and of accounts of work, and in this action much is done toward greater efficiency. It is one of the most unpleasing things to note in many governmental administrative functions the utter lack of interrelation or consultation or co-operation. It would be of great value if in some way all the ‘administrative departments in any state government could be compelled to consult together constantly and freely.1 d? Miscellaneous Publications.-A number of recent state and municipal documents that are worthy of the attention of those interested in municipal government follow: In February, 1914, there appeared in the Washington Herald a series of seven articles by Henry B. F. MacFarland on “The Nation’s Relations with Its Capital City.” Mr. MacFarIand was president of the board of district commissioners for ten years, 1900 to 1910. The articles were written primarily to urge a more liberal policy in the development of the city of Washington on the basis of half the expenses of the administration of the District of Columbia being borne by the nation at large and half by the residents of the district. Incidental to the main purpose, however, much other interesting material is incorporated. They have been published in pamphlet form with a foreword of explanation from the Washington Herald. First Draft of Town Planning Act Prepared by a Committee on Town Planning and Housing Legislation, appointed by the Commission of Conservation, Ottawa, Canada, 1914. A pamphlet which will interest students, officials and citizens concerned with the problems of town planning. The draft proposes a provincial town planning board or “central board,” and a local housing and town planning board, and it is through these two agencies that the vast powers which have to be called into operation in the carrying out of town planning schemes are to be exercised. R. M. S. I f J. Horace McFarland. 352 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April

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19151 REFERENCES TO MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS 353 IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 REFERENCES TO MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS IN GOVERNORS’ MESSAGES OF 1915 The m-6 of the governors of the following &%tea contained no reference to matters affecting cities : Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, New Mexi-o, New York. North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon. South Carolina, Utah. Vermont (inaugural), Weat Virginia, Wyoming. Messages of the governors of Arkansas, South Dakota, Tennessee and Texaa had not been received up to the time of going to press. The legislatures of the states of Florida and Georgia and of the territories of Alaska and Hawaii meet too late to make it possjble to include meaaages of the governor3 in thii list. AccorrmNa.-North Dakota. Recommendation for an appropriation for examination of accounting systems of counties and municipalities with view of adoption of uniform accounting systems. (Hanna. Message, p. 7.) New Hampshire. Recommendation that system of municipal accounting in state be investigated either by a special committee or by the tax commission. (Spaulding. Message, p. 6.) CHARTERS.-DelUWUW. General incorporation law for towns recommended. (Miller. Message, p. 23.) Idaho. Adoption recommended for all cities, as charters, of the Black law of. March 13, 1911. ‘I It places cities on the basis of a business corporation.” (Alexander. Message, p. 26-27.) Oklahoma. Special charters for municipalities recommended. (Williams. Inaugural, p. 21.) CONSOLIDATION OF BoARDs.-Illinois. Consolidation of Board of South Park Commissioners, Board of West Park Commissioners and Board of Lincoln Park Commissioners recommended. (Dunne. Biennial, p. 19.) ELECTIONS. IZlinois. Elections for city, village, township, school districts, counties and state are unnecessarily frequent and too costly. Cost of a single primary election in Chicago alone is $275,000, and of a single final election $320,000. Recommendation for passage of bills requiring all city, village, township and school elections to be held on same day and only once in two years. (Dunne. Biennial, p. 7.) FINANcE.-Massachusetts. Criticism of inconsistency in prescribing one theory of financing for cities and towns, while following an entirely different one for the Commonwealth; instance. (Walsh. Address, p. 10.) 1 Prepared by Miss Hasse. HOME RmE.-connecticut, Too much time of General Assembly taken up with matters relating to administration of local affairs. Larger degree of local selfgovernment under a general law recommended for municipalities. (Holcomb. Inaugural, p. 10.) Delaware. “Constitution wisely provides that all our cities and municipalities shall come to the General Assembly for their legislation.” (Miller. Message, p. 23.) Maine. Recommendation that mandatory laws enacted through influence of party politicians shall not be allowed to become effective until accepted by the municipal officers at least. (Curtis. Inaugural address, p. 5.) Massachusetts. Among questions suggested as most persistently pressing for constitutional authority is the “right of cities Bnd towns to deal in necessaries of life in times of public distress.” (Walsh. Address, p. 24.) Opposed to state control of municipal functions; recommendation that the regulation of liquor licenses and control of police force be restored to city of Fall River. (Walsh. Address, p. 32-33.) Recommends that power to approve or reject appointees of the mayor of Boston be withdrawn from the state Civil Service Commission. (Walsh. Address, p. 33.) New Jersey. Opposed to legislation which compels municipal expenditure for higher salaries or for any other purpose without requiring consent of municipal governing bodies. (Fielder. First annual, p. 5.) “ The state should give municipalities wider freedom of opportunities to develop as they would.” (Brumbaugh. Inaugural, p. 10.) Vermont. Dangers of centralization pointed out; advantages of active responsibility of citizenship illustrated. (Gates. Inaugural message, pp. 4-5.) Pennsylvania.

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354 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April HOTEL INsPEmIoN.-Washington. Reduction and revision of fees recommended. (Lister. Second message, p. 47.) HousING.-Calijornia. Commendation of report and work of state Commission on Immigration and Housing. “In various cities of the state it has presented the evils resulting from improper housing, and within the limits of the law has endeavored to correct these evils.” (Johnson. Second biennial message, p. 18.) Michigan. Recommended that present legislature enact a housing law of statewide application. (Ferris. Second inaugural, p. 13.) JUVENILE CouRTs.-Rhode Island. Proposed Juvenile Court Act favorably commended. (Beekman. First annual, p. 17.) NoN-PARTrslLNsHIP.-Calijornia. Effective operation of non-partisan city electoral system; recent adoption of same system by counties; recommendation that state officials be elected without pmty designation of any sort. (Johnson. Second biennial message, p. 28-29.) Nebraska. Reference to general approval of non-partisan judiciary law enacted two years ago. Similar law recommended for nomination of school superintendents, county and state. (Morehead. assage, p. 13.) Oklahoma. Constitutional amendment providing for non-partisan nominations recommended. (Williams. Inaugural, p. 22.) Washington. Passage by present legislature of a non-partisan election law covering all oounty and city offices recommended. (Lister. Second message, p. 9.) PUBLIC UmLrTIEs.-Calijomia. Under Public Utilities Act of March 23, 1913, many municipalities have voluntarily waived authority over public utilities and have thus come under jurisdiction of the public service commission. (Johnson. Second biennial message, p. 8.) Recommendation that provision be made requiring municipalities to meet expenses necessary to determination of rates of their municipalities, under the constitutional amendment recently adopted giving fixing of rates in municipalities to public service commission. Illinois. Creation of local ancillary public utilities commission to take charge (Zb. p. 8.) of and control intraurban municipal utilities of Chicago, recommended. (Dunne. Biennial, p. 9.) Washington. Favors tendency to increase rather than to decrease power of state public service commission over public utilities within the boundaries ol municipalities. (Lister. Second message, p. 18.) of schools social centers for use of all the people in any direction that makes for social and civic betterment. (O’Neal. Quadrennial message, p. 77.) Arizona. Conversion of school buildings into neighborhood houses is highly commendable. (Hunt. Message, p. 41.) Michigan. Recommendation of extension of use of school equipment during vacations, evenings and Saturdays for (Ferris. Second inaugural, p. 14.) TAXATION. Massachusetts. Recommended that tax commissioner be given power to (a) order revaluation of any city or town; (b) to cause state department Itaxation itself to make such revaluation; (c) to value as a whole the property and franchises of widely extended businesses and industries, scch as railroad and telephone companies, and to assign to each city and town the proportion of the whole value to be taxed by such city or town, and the actual value at which it is to be assessed; (d) to equalize local assessments of property for purpose of establishing an equitable basis for assigning to each municipality its share of direct state tax. (Walsh. Address, p. 15.) New Jersey. Average tax rate of New Jersey municipalities is 27 points higher in 1915 than in 1914. Objection on part of citizens to excessive expenses and inequality in assessment, chiefly due to improper method of selecting assessors. Suggests civil service appointment of assessors. (Fielder. First annual, p. 4.) Review of San Francisco harbor development. (Johnson. Second biennial, p. 23.) Pennsylvania. Physical improvements at water terminals in Philadelphia and San Francisco not a local matter. Vast improvements needed matters of state, city and federal co-operation. (Tener. Message, p. 21-22.) SOCIAL CENTERS.-AlUbU?na. Making . benefit of those not of school age. TERMINAL IMPROVEMENTS.-califOrnia.

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 355 General ACADEMY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE IN THE CITY OF NEW YORE. The Revision of the State Constitution. Part 11. A-B. City and county government. [C.] Regulat.ion of economic and social conditions. January, 1915. 215 pp. 8". Its Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 2. COXTENTS A. Home Rule for Cities. Pp. 1-38. Home rule for cities. By Howard L. Pp. 39-56. A proposal for a revision of the Pp. 57-60. Local government and the state Pp. 61-67. The city and the state constitution. Pp. 68-79. Discussion on preceding by Delos F. B. County Government. Pp. 80-86. The organization of county government. By George S. Buck. Pp. 87-92. Discussion on preceding by H. 8. Gilbertson and V. Everitt Macy. McBain. municipal article. constitution. By Martin H. Glynn. By John Purroy Mitchel. Wilcox, Robert S. Binkerd and Walter T. Arndt. By Laurence A. Tamer. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. Annals. v. 57. Whole no. 146. January, 1915. Public Policies as to Municipal Utilities. vi, 357 pp. CONTENTS Pp. 8-19. Fundamental planks in a puhlic utility program. By Delos F. Wilcox.1 Pp. 20-32. Regulation of municipal utilities. By Nathaniel T. Guernsey.1 Pp. 33-44. Municipal lighting rates. By Ray Palmer.1 Pp. 45-49. Interlocking directorates. By Louis D. Brandeis.1 Pp. 54-61. Regulation of public utilities. By Carter H. Hamson.1 Pp. 62-71. Some present-day issues of public utility regulation. .By Edward W. Bemis.1 Pp. 72-82. What certain cities have accomplished without state regulation. By Stiles P. Jones.' Pp. 83-93. A constructive policy for public service corporations. By Charles Day.' Pp. 94-110. What regulation must accomplish if it is to be permanent. Pp. 118-122. Local and state regulation of municipal utilities. By John Purroy Mitchel.1 Pp. 123-162. Advantages of state regulation. By Halford Erickson.' Pp. 163-169. Distribution of functions between local and state regulation. By Milo R. Maltbie.1 Pp. 170-174. The case for home rule. [The killing of the home rule article in the Illinois puhlic utility bill of 1913.1 Pp. 175-185. State and local regulation in Pennsylvania. By Ira W. Stratton.1 By John M. Eshleman.1 Ry Charles E. Merriam.1 Pp. 188-193. Municipal ownership. By Newton D. Baker.1 Pp. 194-208. Municipal ownership-the testimony of foreign experience. By Frederic C. Howe.1 Pp. 209-227. Pasadena's municipal light and power plant. By C. Wellington Koiner.1 Pp. 228-245. South Norwalk's municipal electric works. By Albert E. Winchester.1 Pp. 246-253. The hydro-electric system in Toronto. By H. C. Hocked Pp. 254-273. Some limitations and objections to municipal ownership. By Clarke M. Rosecrantz.1 Pp. 279-281. Municipal ownership and operation of water works. Pp. 282-292. Why I believe in municipal ownership. By Robert Croaser.1 Pp. 305-312. Holding companies and the public welfare. By Charles F. Mathewson.1 Pp. 313-322. Public advantages of holding companies. By Francis T. Homer.' Pp. 323-334. Public welfare and the holding company. By J. P. Goodrich.' By M. N. Baker.1 BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, NEW YORK CITY. Municipal Research Monthly. no. 57, January, 1915. No. 57, pp. 1-42. Next steps in the development of a budget procedure for the city of Greater New York. A report. Pp. 5-142. This is the first issue of this publication in this form. Price $5.00 per annum. 1 Who the authors are: M. N. Baker is editor of Engineering News, New York City; N. D. Baker is mayor of Cleveland; E. W. Bemis is on Advisory board United States Valuation board, on Board supervising engineers, Chicago Traction, etc.; L. Brandeis well-known lawyer: R. Crosser is Member of Congress from Ohio; C. Day is of Day & Zimmermann, Philadelphia; H. Erickson is on Wisconsin Railroad Commission; J. M. Eshleman is president California Railroad Commiasion; J. P. Goodrich is Director National City Bank, Indianapolis; N. T. Guernsey is General Counsel A. 'P. & T. Co.; C. H. Harrison is mayor of Chicago; H. C. Hocken is Mayor of Toronto; F. T. Homer is of Bertron, Griscom & Co., New York City; F. C. Howe is Commissioner of Immigration, New York City; S. P. Jones is secretary Voters' League, Minneapolis; M. R. Malthie is Member Public Service Commission, 1st District, New York State; C. F. Mathewson is of Counsel, Consolidated Gas Co., New York City; C. E. Memam is Professor Political Science, University of Chicago; J. P. Mitchel is Mayor of New York City; R. Palmer is Commissioner of Gas and Electricity, Chicago; C. M. Rosecranta is of General Counsel, New York City Milwaukee Electric Railway and Light Co.; I. W. Stratton is Mayor of Reading; D. F. Wilcox is Franchise Expert, New York City: A. E. Winchester is of South Norwalk, Conn.

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356 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, ROCHESTER, N. Y. Some activities of the Rochester Chamber of Commerce during 1914. 49 CITP CLUB OF BERKELEY, CALIF. Berkeley Civic Bulletin.. [Monthly.] vol. 3, no. 5-7. December, 191&February, 1915. pp. 69-122. pp. 8". V. 3, no. 5. December, 1814. Pp. 69-92. V. 3, no. 6. January, 1915. pp. 93-105. Civil V. 3,110.7. February, 1915. pp. 106-122. The Yearbook of the Club. service. jitney bus. I~NOIS MUNICIPAL LEAGUE. Proceedings of the first annual convention, October 14-15, 1914. 76 pp. University of Illinois Bulletin, vol. 12, no. 20. Contents: Municipal home rule, by Russell McCulloch Story, University of Illinois, pp. 15-27. The city manager plan, by I,. D. Upon, Director Dayton, O., Bureau of Municipal Researrh, pp. 28-33. Municipal reference libraries, by Prof. John A. Fairlie, University of Illinois, pp. 34-39. Importance of the municipal engineer in an efficient city administration, by Ira 0. Baker, University of Illinois, pp. 40-49. The department of public service, by Montague Ferry, Commissioner of Public Service. Chicago, pp. 50-62. Disposal of municipal sewage, by Paul Hansen, Engineer Illinois State Water Survey, pp. 63-67. Public parks for the small city, by Frederick N. Evans. Instructor in Landscape Design, University of Illinois, pp. 68-76. Madison "The Four Lake City." 63 pp., Uus. 8". MADISON (WISC.). Board of Commerce. 1914. A handsome, beautifully illuatrated booklet, NIEL (EDWARD A.). Commerce of the port of Rochester (Charlotte) N. Y. 1914. '13 pp. 8". Bold at 50 cents the copy. Address delivered at the Great Lakes Waterways Conference, Chicago, November, 1814. Mr. Niel ia a member of the Lower River and Harbor Committee of the Rochester Chamber of Commerce, Accounting POWERS (L. G.). Classifications of municipal expenditures in budgets and accounts and the purposes which they subserve. (Journal of Accountancy, February, 1915, pp. 118-136.) Mr. Powers is well-known aa former chief statiatician of the United States Census Bureau, as well as in connection with the annual volume "Statistics of Cities," published by the Census Bureau. Auditoriums CHICAGO (ILL.), MAYOR. Communication of Mayor Harrison to City Council recommending provision for submission to the people in the spring election of a proposition for a bond issue to construct a municipal convention hall. (Chicago Commerce January 22, 1915, p. 35.) CHICAGO ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE. Announcement of project for a city auditorium near the municipal harbor with a capacity of 31,000. illus. (Chicago Daily Tribune, January 13, 1915. About 1,200 words.) Town hall of the nation; why Chicago must have a municipal auditorium; an appeal to the mayor, city council and voters of Chicago. With maps and drawings. 20 pp. 8". SMULSKI (JOHN F.). "Town Hall of the Nation"; Association's well-matured project to provide Chicago with a convenient meeting house for its own people, and adequate facilities as the country's true convention center. (Chicago Commerce, January 15, 1915, pp. 16-23, illus.) CINCINNATI'S MUNICIPAL CONVENTION HALL. (Chicago Commerce, February 19, 1915, p. 9, illus.) Budgets BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, NEW YORK CITY. Next steps in the development of a budget procedure for the City of Greater New York. (Municipal Research, January, 1915, pp. 5-142.) A report of the Bureau to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment of New York City, pursuant to a recommendation of the Tax-Budget Committee of the Board. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF PITTSBURGH. Pittsburgh's taxation, city, county, education. Addressea to the Chamber by Hon. Robert Garland, Hon. R. J. Cunningham and N. R. Criss, Esq. 40 pp. 8". These addresses were delivered before members of the Chamber at the regular weekly luncheons held December 1, 8 and 15, 1914, via. "The city

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 357 budget," by Hon. Robert Garland, chairman of the Finance Committee of the Pittsburgh City Council. delivered December 1, pp. 1-18, "The Preparation of a budget for Allegheny County," by Hon. R. J. Cunningham. Controller of Allegheny County. delivered December 8, pp. 19-28. "Taxation and the public schools of Pittsburgh," by N. R. Criss, Esq., chairman of the Finance and Administration Committee. Board of Public Education of Pittsburgh, delivered December 15, pp. 31-46. GARLAND (ROBERT). The city budget. 1914. 18pp. 8". An address by the Hon. Robert Garland, chairman of the Finance Committee of the Pittsburgh Council, to the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce OP December 1, 1914. Building Constquction See Elevators; Fire Prevention. MCANENY .(GEORGE). Striking the death knell of unchecked skyscraper construction. (Real Estate Bulletin, February, 1915, pp. 11-14, 18.) Publication O5ce Real Estate Bulletin is 115 Price per copy, 35 Mr. McAneny is President of the Board of Broadway, New York City. cents. Aldermen of New York City. Building Inspection CONFERENCE COMMITTEE OF REAL ESTATE AND ALLIED ORGANIZATIONS IN NEW YORE CITY. Plan for simplifying building inspection preaented to the State Factory Commission. (Real Estate Bulletin (N. Y.), January, 1915, pp. 22-24.) Charters In November, 1914, California adopted a constitutional amendment by a vote of 285,338 for and 226.679 against, concernine the adoption and amendment of municipal chartera. The amendment on the incorporation of municipalities was adopted by a vote of 284,757 for and214,312against. The state of Miesouri, in November, 1914, rejected a constitutional amendment by a vote of 140,475 for and 280,561 against "to simplify charter changes for cities." North Carolina, in November, 1914. rejected the constitutional amendment to prevent granting of special charters to towns, cities and incorporated villages, by a vote of 53,887 for and 63,027 against. DETROIT (MIcH.). Amendments to the city charter to be submitted to the electors of Detroit November 3, 1914. 24 pp. go. LOS ANGELES (CAL). Proposed amendments to the charter of the city to be submitted December 31,1914. 6 leaves. 12". Amendments were defeated. MASSACHUSETTS. Charters, Joint Spe cia1 Committee on. Report. January, 1915. 71 pp. 8". (Senate doc. 254.) SALEM (OREGON). Proposed charter amendments submitted to the legal voters of Salem, at the general election to be held December 7, 1914. 32 pp. 8". TORRINGTON (CONN.). Proposed charter for the city of Torrington. November, 1914. 40pp. 8". city Planning ADAMS (TEOMAS). Town planning and housing in Canada. (Canadian Municipal Journal, February, 1915, pp. 60-63.) BEER (G. FRANK). A plea for city planning organization. 1914. (Canada. Conservation Commission. 5th annuai report, 1914, pp. 108-116, illus.) Mr. Beer is President of the Toronto Houeing BURLAND (JEFFREY H.). Preliminary report of the Committee on Tom Planning Legislation, 1914. (Canada. Conservation Commission. 5th annual report, CANADIAN TOWN PLANKING AND HousING LAWS. pext of such laws in the prow inces of Quebec, Ontario and Alberta.] (Canada. Conservation Commission. 6th annual report. 1914, pp. 239-258.) CAPES (WILLIAM P.). Understanding city planning movement. 4 pp. 8". Reprinted from New York Evening Post, DecemCompany. 1914, pp. 121-125.) ber 31, 1914. GARDEN CITIES AND TOWN PLANNINQ. n. s. v. 4. no. 12. December, 1914. pp. A Greater London Plan. Town Planning in Relation to the Community. By W. R. Davidge. The Madrid Lineal City. Housing the Dispossessed. By G. Kyffin-Taylor. 263-282. H~RSCH (P. A.). What city planning means to realty interests. (National Real Estate Journal, February, 1915, pp. 73-75.

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358 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April KIM~ALL (THEODORA). A brief survey of recent city-planning reports in the United States. Harrisburg, 1915. 32 pp. 4". Reprinted from Landscape Architecture, JanKISSAN (B. W,). Report on townplanning enactments in Germany. [Calcutta, 1913.1 31 pp., l map. FO. SHURTLEFF (FLAVEL). Letter embodying references to legislation authorizing the appointment of official city planning boards or commissions. (American City, February, 1915, p. 94.) SOMERVILLE (MASS.). Planning board. First annual report, 1914. WATROUS (R. B.). The relation of real estate men to city planning. (National Real Estate Journal, January 15, 1915, uary, 1915. pp. 7-13.) Civics COLONIAL DAMES OF ILLINOIS. A primer of civics. Designed for the guidance of the immigrant. [Polish Edition.] Written by J. J. Zmrhal. 1914. 63 pp. 8". Part 1. The rights and duties of a citizen a8 provided for in national and state constitutions and the city charter. Part 2. Salient points in American history. KIERNAN (FRANK). The great adventure of democracy. Preparing for it by aelf-government in the public schools. (Craftsman. vol. 26, pp. 626-630. September, 1914.) Good results from student self-government. SWAIN (JOSEPH). The relation of the teacher to American citizenship. (American Primary Teacher. vol. 33, pp. 86-87. November, 1914.) WOOD (MARY I.). Civic activities of women's clubs. (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. vol. 56, pp. 78-87. November, 1914.) Civil Service A bill ia before the Legislature of Minnesota repealing chapter 105, General Laws of 1913, creating civil service commissions in cities of the first class. JAMES (HERMAN G.). A model civil service code for Texas cities. December 20, 1914. 16 pp. 8". University of Texas. Bulletin 378. Municipal Research Series no. 5. Log ANQELES Co. (CAI,.), CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION AND BUREAU OF EFFICIENCY. First annual report for the year ended June 30, 1914. Including organization charts. 6 pp., 19 charts. 4'. Civic Leagues A~ABAMA MUNICIPAL LEAQUE. Constitution. 1914. 2 leaves. The league was organized on December 4. 1914. The secretary is George Jacob Davia, Jr., University, Ala. Congestion of Population MASSACHUSETTS. HOMESTEAD COMMISSION. Teaching agriculture to families as a relief for unemployment and congestion of population. January, 1915. 8 pp. 8". Its Bulletin no. 3. Coroners NEW YORK CITY. Commissioner of Accounts. Report on special examination of the accounts and methods of the office of coroner in the city of New York. 1915. 82 pp. 4". courts BOSTON (MASS.) MUNICIPAL COURT. Rules of the court. 1914. 35 pp. Address: Clerk of the Municipal Court, Boston, PHILADELPHIA (PENN.). MUNICIPAL COURT. First annual report for the year ended December 31, 1914. 51 pp. 4'. Maw. Dead Animals ST. LOUIS (Mo.). PUBLIC LIBRARY. moval of dead animals in cities. Ordinances and practices in nine large cities. (Municipal Journal, January 21, 1915, pp. 64-65.) MUNICIPAL REFERENCE BRANCH. ReCompiled by Andrew Linn Bostwick, Librarian.

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 359 Debt NORTH DAKOTA STATE TAX ASSOCIATION. Bulletin 9. January, 1915. Municipal debt in North Dakota. The debt history of the city of Grand Forks. 2 leaves. 8”. Elections MISSOURI. Commission appointed to consider the revision of election laws applicable to cities having registration in the state of Missouri. Report, January 6, 1915. 48 pp. 4’. No copies available for distribution. Supply exhausted. ORBAN (0.). La legislation des elections communales en Belgique. (Revue du Droit Publique et de la Science Politique en France et a Patranger. v. 31, no. 3-4. Juillet-Dec. 1914, p. 681-698.) M. Orban is professor of public and administrative law in the University of Li&ge, and wa9 a leading member of the Commission of Thirty-one charged with the study of reforms in the provincial and municipal electoral system of Belgium. Elevators KIRKUS (ALFRED R.). Safety movement extended to include vertical travel [elevators]. (Real Estate Bulletin, February, 1915, pp. 33-36.) Real Estate Bulletin, 115 Broadway, New York City. Price 35 cents per copy. Excess Condemnation ROLLAND (LOUIS). Les tendances nouvelles en matihre d’expropriation pour cause d’utilit6 publique. (Revue du Droit Publique et de la Science Politique en France et a l’fitranger. v 31 no. 34. Juillet-DBc., 1914, p. 659664.) For a second time (see Revue etc. 1912, p. 330) the author reviews the tendencies in the modern practice of excess condemnation in France. The present review is made following the passage of the law of April 21, 1914, which radically modSes the iundamental law of May 3, 1841. DE SELDINQ (HERMA“.). How the “Law’s Delay” adds to the cost of condemning real property. (Real Estate Bulletin, February, 1915, pp. 15-17.) City. Price 35 cents per copy. Real Estate Bulletin, 115 Broadway, New York Explosives DETROIT (MIcH.). ORDINANCES. Text of new gasoline ordinance affecting garages which becomes effective January 1, 1915. (Horseless Age, vol. 34, pp. 711-712. November 11, 1914.) Finance BIRMINQHAM (ALA.). Report of the sub-committee -to investigate expenditures of the city of Birmingham. January, 1915. 74 pp. 8“. . Report of sub-committee on permanent plan of relief for the city of Birmingham. 15pp. 8”. BURKE (THOMAS). How the minority spends the money. (Stone and Webster Public Service Journal, February, 1915, pp. 87-92.) Extract from an address at a meeting of the League of Pacific Municipalities at Seattle. A review of the vote upon important municipal undertakings during the past five years to illustrate the contention of indifference to civic welfare and neglect of plain civio duties. CIVIC LEAQUE OF CLEVELAND, 0. The Municipal Bulletin, December, 1914. City finance number. Cleveland’s financial condition. A plain statement of facts. 16 pp. 8”. A comparison of the total and per capita expenditures and per cent of total payments for police and fire protection respectively, sanitation, conservation of health, charities and corrections, recreation, education, libraries and highways in Cleveland, St. Louis, Boston, Baltimore, Pittsburgh and Detroit. HOPKINS (SCOTT.) New opportunities for trust companies as fiscal agents for municipalities. (Trust Companies. January, 1915. pp. 4245.) How the “Topeka Plan” originated. Mr. Hopb is President of the Prudential Trust Company of Topeka, Kan. Los ANGELES‘ (CALIF.). Auditor’s office. Miscellaneous information as to Los Angeles city and county 19161915. Comparative tables of receipts and disbursements. Data relating to bonds, water, valuations, taxes, etc. (pp. 177-232 of auditor’s annual report, 1913-14.) The majority of the tables are cumulative from 1909. This very useful compilation has been

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360 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April a feature of the Los Angeles auditor's report for several years, and might very well be emulated by 05ciaIs of other cities. OHIO. Finances of Municipalities, Committee for Investigation of. Report. February, 1915. 41 pp. ST. Loms (Mo.). COMPTROLLER. City finances.. Special report of the comptroller. December 17, 1914. 38 pp. 8". Increased cost of conducting the business of the municipality during the past few years. Accompanied by exhibits 1-17, an exceedingly valuable series of cumulative tables of classified receipts and disbursements, rates of taxation, bond issues, assessed valuation, eto. Fire Departments ANONYMOUS. Yonkers tire department. 3000 words. (Fire and Water Engineering, January 20, 1915.) Boom (GEORGE W.). Public fire departments. 6000 words. (Fireman's Herald, January 2, 1915.) Organization here and abroad; salaries; equip Mr. Booth is chief engineer, National ment, etc. Board of Fire Underwriters. NATIONAL BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS. Report on the Dayton Fire department. 1500 words. (Fire and Water Engineering. December 23, 1914.) YOUNGSTOWN (0.). Fire Department. Youngstown fire department past and present. Published by members of the Youngstown fire department. 1914. 174 pp., illus. 8". Fire Prevention ANONYMOUS. Factory construction in large cities. 1500 words. (Safety Engineering. (January, 1915.) Modern improvements in respect to fire prevention which have been adopted in factory construction. BATES (PUTNAM A.). The fire alarm system of the City of New York. (The American Underwriter, December, 1914, pp. 175-183.) Mr. Putnam is chief of the Bureau of Fire Alarm Telegraph, New York Fire Department. . The fire alarm system of New (Real York City as fire fighters see it. Estate Bulletin (N. Y.). January, 1915, FIRE PREVENTION RULES. (American School Board Journal, vol. 49, pp. 17-18, 60-61. November, 1914.) pp. 15-21, illus.). The example of New York City. Housing See also above, City Planning. BACHI (RICCARDO). La questione economica deb abitazioni. Milan, 1914. 83 p. Price, L. 0. QO. Prof. Bachi is editor of the annual publication *'L'Italis Economics." The little volume here listed is divided into two parts, vir. a general discussion of housing and illustrations of modern housing principles. In addition there are two appendices, viz., a summary of Italian legislation on workingmen's dwellings and the progress made in various Italian cities in providing sanitary dwellings. BEER (G. FRANK). Work of the Toronto Housing Co. 1914. (Canada, Conservation Comqission. 5th annual report, 1914, pp. 116-121, illus.) BORLAND (WILLIAM P.). The alley slums of Washington. (Congressional Record, September 17,1914, pp. 16725-16734.) Speech in the House of Repreaentatives on September 14. 1914, in favor of the so-called alley bill (H. R. 13219, 63 congress). Mr. Borland is democratio representative from Missouri. BUCH~WAN (FRANK). Housing of working people in foreign countries. (Congressional Record, September 22, 1914, pp. 16962-16966.) Speech in House of Representatives in favor of House resolution 604 calling upon the Secretary of Labor for information concerning public aid for home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries. Mr. Buchanan is democratx representative from Illinois. CALIFORNIA. COMMISSION OF IMMIGRATION AND HOUSINQ. Report on unemployment. December 9, 1914. 73 pp. 8". GREAT BRITAIN. ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RURAL COTTAGES. Report of the committee appointed to consider and advise the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries on plans, models, specifications, and methods of construction for rural cottages and outbuildings. London, 1914. iii, 96 pp. 8". illus. Price 1 s. 6 d.

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 361 HOLLAND (BERNARD). The housing question in towns. (Charity Organization Review (London), December, 1914, X. P. Die Zahlung der Wohnungen in Wien am 20 Mai, 1914. (Mitheilungen der Zentralstelle fiir Wohnungsreform in Oesterreich. Dezember, 1914, pp. 16-20.) MINNEAPOLIS CIVIC AND COMMERCE ASSOCIATION. The housing problem in Minneapolis. A preliminary investigation made for the Committee on Housing. 1914. 111 pp., illus. 8“. MULLER (JOHANNES). Die Unmijglichkeit eines aUgemeinen normalen Leerwohnungssatzes. (Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie u. Statistik. January, 1915, A study of the normal proportion of unoccupied REGNAULT (PIERRE). Les defectuositks de l’habitation bourgeoise a Paris. (La RCforme Sociale, 1914, no. 93-94, November 1, 16. pp. 443460.) A report made by M. Regnault, architect, at the annual meeting of the SociBtB d‘gconomie Sociale on June 8, 1914. pp. 381-393.) p. 90-100.) houses in various German cities. ROUNTREE (BENJAMIN S.) and A. C. PIGOU. Lectures on housing. Manchester: University Press, 1914. 70 pp. 8”. The Warburton lectures for 1914, Manchester SHANNON (W. LANE). Housing in New University lectures, no. 18. Jersey. 8 pp. 8“. Reprinted from “New Jersey,” Jersey City, 1914, pp. 105-111. STERNBERG (GEORGE M.). Small houses within the city limits for unskilled wage-eamere. December, 1914. 16 pp. 8”. National Housing Assoc. Publication no. 27. Price 5 cents. “Jitney Bus” Control of the jitney bus business in Minneapolis, or elsewhere in the state of Minnesota by the city council is provided for in a bill offered in the Senate on February 25, 1915, by Senators Wallace and Westlake, of Minneapolis. The bill provides that no bus service may be established without license by the council and that all persons engaging in the business must file a bond of $25,000. The bill also authorizes the city to collect a wheel tax. CITY CLUB OF BERKELEY. Berkeley Civic Bulletin. v. 3, no. 7. February, 1915. The jitney bus. pp. 106-122. HICHBORN’S LEGISLATIVE BULLETIN. Synopsis of hearings before California Senate and Assembly Committees on Revenue and Taxation relative to the “jitney bus.” January 30, 1915, pp. 2-3. JITNEY (THE) IN MANY CITIES. (Municipal Jou‘rnal, February 18, 1915. pp. 229-230.) Review of operations in Denver, Austin, Toledo, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Okla., Indianapolis, Louisville, OakIand and Fort Worth. JITNEY (THE). From linancial standpoint .-repr. Railway Review. (Chicago Commerce, February 5, 1915, p. 23.) RAPID RISE OF THE “JITNEY.” Problems of regulation of the autobus as public vehicle of increasing vogue-repr. New York Times. (Chicago Commerce, February 5, 1915, p. 23.) Land Registration Practically ignored since its enactment, 1908, the New York State Torrens law is now engaging considerable attention by reason of amendments introduced at the instance of the Real Estate Board of New York. Comment of a valuable nature on the New York law and the activities now surrounding it by Alfred G. Reeves was printed in the New York Evening Post of February 27, 1915. STUTZBACH (MARTIN HJ. The modern land registration system and why it should be adopted in Pennsylvania. December 17, 1914. 41 pp. 8”. A paper read by Mr. Stutzbach, of the Philadelphia Bar, senior counsel of the Building Association League of Pennsylvania and member of the Philadelphia Real Estate Board, at a meeting of the latter board. Municipal Bonds The state of California in November 1914, by a vote of 306,915 for and 206,479 against, adopted a constitutional amendment authorizing any county, municipality. irrigation district or other public corporation, issuing bonds under the laws of the state, to make same and interest thereon payable at any place or places within or outside of United States, and in domestic or foreign money, designated therein. In November, 1914, the state of Colorado

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362 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ApriI rejected a constitutional amendment by a vote of 38,589 for and 65,206 against, authorizing cities and towns to he 80 year bonds. The Journal of Commerce of New York of March 1, 1915, in commenting on municipal bond iasues of the first two months of 1915, quotea a table compiled by the Financial and Commercial Chronicle showing the output of permanent municipal bond issues in February 1892-1914, and for the first two months combined for the same period. ANONYMOUS. Review of the Canadian municipal bond situation for 1914. 1200 words. (Mdcipal world, January, 1915.) REED (ROBERT R.). Case of municipal bonds. Their legality defined in answer to statements in recent “Analysis of Securities” article. (New York Evening Post, January 9, 1915.) . Handicaps to legal bond issues. (American City, January, 1915, pp. 1I14.) STANBERRY (H.). Iowa municipal bonds. (American Municipalities, February, 1915. v. 28, pp. 173-176.) UNITED STATES MORTGAGE AND TRUST COMPANY. A compilation of the laws of various states on registration and transfer of municipal bonds. 1914. 41 pp. Municipal Consolidation In November, 1914, Oregon adopted a constitutional amendment submitted by the legislature permitting an enactment of a general law authorizing adjoining citiea to consolidate, on vote of their electors; vote 96,116 for and 77,671 against. California acted upon two consolidation measures in the form of initiated constitutional amendments in November, 1914. One, relating to city and county consolidation and annexation with consent of annexed territory was rejected by a vote of 248,112 for and 318,224 against. The other, consolidation of city and county and limited annexation of contiguous territory, was adopted by a vote of 293,901 for and 287,185 against. Oregon, in November, 1914, rejected a constitutional amendment referred by the legislature permitting city and county governments to be consolidated upon vote of the people interested; vote 77,392 for and 103,194 against. Municipal Forestry In 1913 (chapter 211, Laws of 1913) the legislature of Minnesota passed an act to authorize and encourage the creation of municipal forests and to provide for the levy of a tax therefor. Without repealing this measure the present legislature, early in 1915, was asked to consider another forestry bill drawn by State Senator Durn of St. Paul. This new billia designed to apply to the citiea of St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth. The only distinction between the two bills, aside from the classification of citiea, is that the proposed bill puts the power to levy a tax for forest purposes in the governing body of the municipality instead of submitting it to a vote of the citizens. The reason for the proposed change was to prevent the cumbersome method of aubmitting the matter to a vote before action could be taken. Municipal Government W~LBLINQ (P.), Die Organisation der Grossgemeinden in Deutschland. (Archiv fur Rechts-u. Wirtschafts Philosophie. October, 1914, p. 107-120.) Article ia to be continued. The author is counselor to the mayor of Berlin. The Germans specify as Grossgemeinden (great citiea) all those cities having over 300,000 inhabitants. City Manager Plan JAMES (HERMAN G.). What is the city manager plan? [With a bibliography] 1915. 25pp. 8“. Bulletin of the University of Texas, 1915, No. 11. February 20, 1915. Municipal research series No. 11. UPSON (L. D.) The city manager plan. (Proceedings Illinois Municipal League. October, 1914, pp. 28-33.) Commission Manager Plan DYKSTFLA (C. A.). Commission manager plan of city government. (Kansas Municipalities, Januarjl, 1915, vol. 1, pp. MCLEOD (DONALD F.). A year of commission-manager government at Lakeland, Fla. 900 words. (Engineering News, December 3, 1914.) WAITE (HENRY M.). The commissionmanager form of government and its relation to the engineering profession. 7500 words. (Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, January, 1915.) 89 is well known. is city mansger of Dayton, 0. 13-14.) Mr. Municipal Home Rule The state of Wisconsin, in November, 1914, rejected a constitutional amendmen* giving two the people of cities and villages the right of home rule; vote 82,247 for and 138,307 against. In November, 1914, Missouri rejected two home rule measures, both referred laws, via.. a general

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 363 home rule bill lost by a vote of 134,449 for and 303,757 against; and a police home rule bill lost by a vote of 131,382 for and 306,942 against. MCBAIN (HOWARD L.). Home rule for cities. (Proceedings Academy Political Science in City of New York, January, MERRIAM (CHARLES EL). The case for home rule. [The killing of the home rule article in the Illinois public utility bill of 1913.1 (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 170-174.) STORY (RUSSELL M.). Municipal home rule. (Proceedings Illinois Municipal League, October, 1914, pp. 15-27.) WITI (P.), Municipal home rule. (Kansas Municipalities, January, 1915, Municipal Ownership 1915, pp. 1-38.) VO~. 1, pp. 1-7.) See also Public Utilities. BAKER (NEWTON D.). Municipal ownership. (Annals American Academy Political Social Science, January, 1915, pp. Why I believe in municipal ownership. (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 282-292.) Horn (FREDERICK C.). Municipal ownership-the testimony of foreign experience, (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 194-208.) ROSECRANTZ (CLARE M). Some limitations and objections to municipal ownership. (Annals American Academy Po1it.ical and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 254-273.) 188-193.) CROSSER (Robert). Asphalt Plants ANONYMOUS. Camden’s municipal asphalt plant. 2,000 wurds, illus. (Municipal Journal, February 4, 1915, pp. 127129.) Cost, etc. See that title. Auditoriums Garage. CARDWELL (KENNETH C.). Municipal garage at Cincinnati. illus. (Municipal Journal, January 7, 1915, pp. 1-3.) Lighting Plants ANONYMOUS. Fort Wayne’s street lighting plant. 2500 words. (Public service, February, 1915.) , Power installation at Yorktown, Saslr. 2600 words, illus. (Canadian Engineer, January 14, 1915.) First municipal light and power plant in Canada to be sxved by oil engine unit. . Detroit’s municipal lighting plant. 4000 words, illus. (Power, December 15, 1914.) History of the plant, operation and detailed cost data. BALLARD (FREDERICK W.). Design and operation of the Cleveland municipal electric light plant. 4000 words, illus. (Power, January 19, 1915.) JONES (A. (2.). Opelousas’ municipal lighting plant. 1000 words, illus. (Power, January 12, 1915.) KOINER (C. WELLINGTON) Pasadena’s municipal light and power plant. (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 209227.) SAGINAW (MIcH.). Reports to council upon municipal electric plant and proposal of Saginaw Power Company. October 17, 1914. 15 pp. PALMER (RAY). Municipal lighting rates. (Annals American Academy of Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 33-44.) WINCHESTER (ALBERT E.). South Norwalk’s municipal electric works. (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 228-245.) Lodging Houses ST. Lours (Mo.). ORDINANCES. Ordinance 27754 to establish a muncipal lodging house. December 19, 1914. 3 pp. Marketa All cities and towns in Massachusetts having 10,000 or more inhabitants will have public markets, providing the Legislature upholds the act that the Committee on Agriculture submitted to the House on February 24, 1915. Section 1 of the proposed act authorizes any city to purchase and maintain public markets under rules and regulations to be prepared by the State Board of Agri

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364 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [April culture. The second section stipulates that any municipality that does not maintain a public market shall be required to set apart within one year one or more streets or squares which may be used by farmers desiring to sell farm and garden products directly to the consumers. homous. Chattanooga's municipal markets, illus. (Municipal Journal, January 7, 1915, pp. 12-13.) CIVIC LEAGUE OF ST. LOUIS. MUNICIPAL MARKETS COMMITTEE. Public markets as a means of reducing the cost of living: a new movement in American cities and new in St. Louis. folder. Address 911 Locust Street, St. Louis. This folder is only a brief outline of the St. Louis market situation, the complete typewritten report of which will be sent on receipt of 25 cents. SIMS (R. PERCY). The Maissonneuve public market: its construction and equipment. 1800 words, illus. (Contract Record, January 6, 1915.) Rcal Estate PAL INTESTIQATION AND STATISTICS. Record of real estate owned by the City of New York contained in a report by the comptroller to the commissioners of the sinking fund. December 31, 1914. 181 NEW YORK CITY. BUREAU OF MUNICIpp. 8". Sanatoria How TEE CITY OF CHICAGO IS SOLVING THE TUBERCULOSIS PROBLEM. (Chicago Daily Tribune, February 16, 1915.) Full page illustrated story of the dedication of the 42 buildings constituting the cottage system for handling the tuberculosis problem at the newChicago municipal hospital. SACHS (THEODORE B.). Chicago's plan for municipal control of tuberculosis. (Survey, January 30, 1915, pp. 461-462.) Water Works BAKER (M. N.). Municipal ownership and operation of water works. 1200 words. (Engineering News, December 3, 1914; Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, January, 1915, pp. 279-281.) Municipal Universities An instructive article on this subject appeared as an editorial in the New York Evening Post of January 11. 1914. DABNEY (CHARLES W.). The movement for the modern city university in Germany. (School and Society, January 30, 1915 (vol. 1, no. 5), pp. 150-154.) KOLBE (P. R.). The history of the municipal university movement in Akron. (Transaction Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting Ohio College Association, pp. 3438.) Organization Charts See also above under Civil Service. SOUTHERN COMMERCIAL CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C. BUREAU OF EcoNOMICS AND PUBLIC EFFICIENCY. Organization charts prepared by Le Roy Hodges of present and suggested form of county government for Virginia counties, and present and suggested plan of city government for Petersburg, Va. (The Survey, February 13, 1915, p. 540.) Pageants [CONANT, MRS. ISABELLA.] Pageant of the Charles River, September 19, 1914. Wellesley, Mass.: Maugus Printing Co., 1914. 8pp. 8". Price 10 cents. RUTLAND (MASS.). The pageant of Rutland. In celebration of its two hundredth anniversary. Presented at Rut.land, August 10 and 11, 1914. 4 leaves. 8". Pensions NEW YORK CITY. BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL INVESTIGATION AXD STATISTICS. Report relative to proposed legislation providing pensions to widows with children [as applied to New York City]. Submitted to William A. Prendergast, comptroller, January 25, 1915. 26 pp. 4". Playgrounds DANNER (VERNICE E.). The school SYRtem of Guymon, Oklahoma. A splendid example of practical education. (Progress, vol. 4, pp. 43-52, October, 1914.) The playground movement at Guymon. WEBB (WARFIELD). Playground for a smaU city. 1400 words, illus. (Municipal Engineering, December, 1914.)

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY Police ANONYMOUS. Building and equipment of Calgary's new police headquarters. 1000 words, illus. (Contract Record, December 23, 1914.) ST~BELARY AND DUBLIN METROPOLITAN POLICE COMMITTEE. Appendix to the report of the committee of inquiry, 1914. London, 1914. v, 386 pp. F". GREAT BRITAIN. ROYAL IRISH CONPrice 3 8. 2t d. Statistical data on constabulary pensions 1904-1913; rates of pay 1838-1913; wastage (i. e. resignations and retirements) in the force, 1838-1913; statement of total beginning and total maximum pay for constabulary services in England and Wales and Scotland city and county forces respectively (p. 378); and (pp. 380-381) comparative table showing total force, population, acreage, rateable valuation, nature of establishment superior to sergeant, and average acreage to each superintendent for Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, London Metropolitan District, Dublin Metropolitan District and Belfast. NICEFORO (ALFREDO). L'Enseignement de la Police Judiciaire Scientifique dam les Universites Italiennes. (Bulletin de I' Union Internationale de Droit PBnal. ST. LOUIS PUBLIC LIBRARY. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE BRANCH. Municipal Police Departments-their relative size. (Municipal Engineering, February, 1915, pp. 140-141; American City, February, 1915, p. 154.) Compiled by Andrew Linn Bostwick, librarian. 1914. V. 21, pp. 559-574.) Also issued as mimeographed separate. Population See also Congestion of Population. BACHI (RICCARDO). Influenze demografiche della grande cittA sul territorio circostante. (Giornale degli Economisti, Dicembre, 1914, pp. 389-392.) A study of the influence of metropolitan communities on the dynamics of the population of the aurrounding territory. This study, made in the year 1911, relates specifically to Turin, Italy. MERCKLIN. Die Psychosen unserer Kleinstadtischen Bevollcerung. (Zeibchrift fiir die gesammte Neurologie u. Psychiatrie. Bd. 25, Heft 1-2. 1914.) MEURIOT (PAUL). Du critBrium adopt6 pour la definition de la population urbaine. (Journal de la Soci6tB de Statistique de Paris, October, 1914, pp. 418-430.) An examination into the interpretation of the term" urban population" as obtsiningin the various European countries. Port Development STEVENSON (FREDERICK B.). Brooklyn League's vigorous campaign for world's greatest harbor in Jamaica Bay. illus. (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, November 8, 1914.) Public Defender Early in the year Portland, Ore., passed an ordinance creating the office of public defender. NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY. MUNICIPAL REFERENCE BRANCH. [Selected references on the office of public defender.] (Municipal Reference Library Noteq, January 27, 1915. WOOD (WALTON J.). The place of the public defender in the administration of justice. 1914. 32 pp. 8". v. 1, no. 14, pp. 62-63.) Address before the California Bar Association at Mr. Walton is public defender of Los Angeles its fifth annual convention, November, 1914. I County, Caliornia. Public Health CIW CLEB OF CHICAGO. Public Health exhibition, November 30, 1914, to January 16, 1915. Handbook and program. 31 pp. 8". Public Service COOKE (MORRIS L.). The engineer's function in municipal development. 1900 words. (Canadian Engineer, January 28, 1915.) delphia. REED (THOMAS H.). The value of experts to a city government. 3000 words. (Municipal World, January, 1915.) Mr. Cooke is Director of Public Service in PhilaPublic Utilities See also below Street Railways. BAEM (FRANK G.). The best control of public utilities. (Proceedings American Institute of Electrical Engineers, January, 1915, pp. 1-23.)

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW . [April The author states as an axiom that “the best control of a public utility is that which develops an eagerness and ability on the part of the company to furnish the service, and an equal eagerness and ability on the part of the consumer to purchase the service.” Five elementa requiaite for the develop ment of this eagerneas and ability on the part of the company and the consumers are stated and analyzed. SULLIVAN (J. W.). Municipalization or a just regulation. A plea for the facts. Address delivered at fifteenth annual meeting of the National Civi’c Federation, December 4, 1914. Seen only in press service form. Purchasing Systems A bill is before the present session of the Minnesota Legislature repealing chapter 211, General Laws of 1911, authorizing cities of the first class to establish and maintain a purchasing department. NEW YORK CITY. BUREAU OF STANDARDS. Monthly bulletin of tests made in laboratories conducted by the City of New York upon samples taken from deliveries of materials and supplies to city departments. 4“. [No. I.] October. 1914. 78 pp. SPOKANE (WAEH.). ORDINANCES. Ordinance no. C1841 relating to purchase and distribution of supplies. December 23, 1914. (Spokane Official Gazette, v. 4, pp. 3157-3158.) Reports SANDS (HERBERT R.). Departmental reporting for cities and counties. (American City, February, 1915, pp. 126-131.) How annual reports for public use should be prepared and what they should contain. Mr. Sands is of the Bureau of Municipal Research, New York city. Refuse Disposal ANONYMOUS. Recent refuse disposal practice. 4500 words. (Municipal Journal, December 10, 1914.) Progress in reduction and destructor plants during paat eight years. . Dust-proof refuse collection. 8 Commercial booklet issued by H. Kastor, 125 E leaves. obl. 24‘. illus. 23d Street, New York City. Gratis. GREELEY (SAMUEL A.). Cost of collecting, hauling, transferring and transporting refuse materials. 2100 words. (Contract Record, December 2, 1914.) Comparative cost of hauling by motor truck, SPIEQELBERQ (MRS. FLORA). European methods of garbage collection and incineration. illus. (Real Estate Bulletin, February, 1915, pp. 19-23.) trolley, barge and steam railway. Article relates especially to Fuerth, Bavaria. Real Estate Bulletin, 115 Broadway, New York City. Price 35 cents per copy. YOUNQ (GEORQE DJ. Emergency garbage disposal in Chicago. 2500 words, illus. (Engineering Record, December 19, 1914.) of Chicago. Mr. Young is commissioner of health of the City Riots ROLLAND (LOUIS). La loi du 16 avril 1914 Bur h responsabilite des communes en caa dmeutes. (Revue du Droit Publique et de la Science Politique en France et a 1’Etranger. v. 31, no. 34. Juillet, DBcembre, 1914, pp. 638-655.) A careful study of the French law of April 16, 1914, on municipal responsibility in case of riots. The question involved has been under consideration ever since the incidents which occurred in Lyons in June, 1894, following the assassination of President Carnot. The article is accompanied by copious citations. School Census CHICAQO (ILL.), BOARD OF EDUCATION. Report of the Chicago School Census of 1914, and annual report of the superintendent of compulsory education. 37 pp. 8”. School Gardens JOYCE (ALICE V.). School gardening in Portland, Oregon. (NRture-study Review, vo!. 10, pp. 275-281, October, 1914.) Schools NEW YORK CITY. Memorandum submitted in behalf of the teachers in the employ of the Board of Education of the City of New York, against the proposal to require said teachers to render compulsory

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 367 service in the summer schools and other summer activities conducted by said board. October 23, 1914. 43 pp. 8". Snow Removal STEELE (GEORGE D.). Snow removal in our leading cities. 7000 words. (Better Roads and Streets, February, 1915.) west. Practices in use in some of the larger cities of the Social Surveys HAMILTON (WILLIAM B.). A student survey of Austin, Texas. A digest of University of Texas bulletin no. 273, entitled A sochl survey of Austin. Summarized by the Director of the Bureau of Municipal Research and Reference. February 25, 1915. 14 (1) pp. Bulletin of the University of Texas. 1915, no. 12. Municipal Research Series no. 7. Copies may be had on application to the Bureau of Municipal Research and Reference of the University. TRINITY CHURCH MEN'S COMMITTEE. A social survey of the Washington street district of New York City. October, 1914. 70 pp., illus. 8". Special Assessments "A bill for an Act authorizing certain cities of the first class to determine what proportion of the cost of street paving shall be raised by special assessment upon abutting property and to levy a tax for the remainder" is before the Legislature of Minnesota of this session. Street Cleaning ANONYMOUS. Milwaukee bureau of street sanitation. 3000 words. (Municipal Journal, December 17, 1914.) Street cleaning and refuse collection and disposal; force employed and cost. ANomons.-Cincinnati street cleaning. (Municipal Journal, January 14, 1915, pp. 38-39.) Description and result of an elaborate accounting system installed in 1912. . Street cleaning data. (Municipal Journal, January 14, 1915, pp. 37-39.) Reports from 31 cities giving average amount of sweepings per unit area, cost per unit area snd per unit volume of sweepings. RINKLIFF (GEORQE L.). Street cleaning by motor apparatus [in Springfield, Ohio]. (Municipal JournaI, January 14, 1915, pp. 33-34.) Street Lighting See also above under Municipal Ownership. ANONYMOUS. Street lighting fixtures. 500 words, illus. (Municipal Engineering, January, 1915.) PALMER (RAY). Street lighting rates and cost factors. 3000 words. (American City, December, 1914; Water and Gas Review, December, 1914.) Mr. Palmer is commissioner of gas and electricity of the city of Chicago. Street Railways GREAT BRITAIN. RAILWAYS DEPARTMENT. Tramways and light railways (street and road) and trackless trolley undertakings. London, 1915. 61 pp. Fa. (House of Commons paper 463.) Return of street and road tramways and light railways authorized, amount of capital authorized, paid up and expended, length of line authorized, etc., etc.; same particulars relative to trackless trolley undertakings. MAHON (W. D.) and L. D. BLAND. Street railway workers of Europe. Report upon wages, hours of labor and conditions under municipal ownership and control. (American Federationist, December, 1914, pp. 1061-1076; Report of Executive Council American Federation of Labor to the 34th annual convention, 1914, pp. 186204.) Report submitted to the 1914 Philadelphia Convention of the American Federation of Labor by a special committee composed of Messrs. Mahon and Bland. Mr. Mahon has been president of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employes of America for nearly 20 years. Mr. Bland has for many years been editor of the Street Railwaymen's o5cial journal of Chicago. Conclusions are in favor of the American system. WILLIAMS (T. S,). Elevated railroad removal. Address before the Brooklyn Committee of One Hundred, December 7, 1914. 12 pp. 12". Price 6 d. Mr. Williams is president of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company.

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368 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW . [April Streets TILLSON (GEORQE W.). European wood block pavements. 7000 words. (Better Roads and Streets, February, 1915.) Describes methods of laying such pavementa in all the larger cities of Europe. ANONYMOUS. Paving statistics of American cities. (Municipal Journal, February 4, 1915, pp. 133-159.) Subways CARR (0. E.), Underground survey of Cincinnati. 3000 words, illus. (Engineering Record, JaIiuary 9, 1915.) DUMOND (LEWIS A,). Pipe subways for the public utilities of Chicago. 1400words. (Engineering Record, December 26, 1914.) Abstract of a report. Taxation See also above under Budgets ANONYMOUS. Municipal taxation for public purposes. (Columbia Law Review, February, 1915, pp. 179-181.) Brief review, with liberal citations, of judicial divergence on constitutionality of taxation of municipal undertakings. The basis of the note is the recent case of Laughlin v. City of Portland (1914) 111 Me. 846, in which the right of a municipality to construct and operate a municipal fuel yard was held constitutional. CIVIC LEAQUE OF CLEVELAND. Taxation in Ohio, Report of the League. 1915. 17 (1) pp. 1 leaf. 8". "In the investigation of the financial condition of the municipalities, the schools and other governmental agencies in Cuyahoga County, we have become clearly convinced that permanent relief from the present impoverished condition of our local government8 will not be secured until Ohio's antiquated and unjust tax system is abolished, and a more modern, equitable and just system is established. For that reason we have prepared the following report on taxation. , . ." (Prefatory statement of the Executive Board of the League.) GREAT BRITAIN. Local Taxation Committee. Appendix to final report (England and Wales) of the departmental committee on local taxation. London, 1914. iv, 381 pp. F". Price 3s. Id. Part 3 "Memoranda other than those submitted by witnesses," is especially useful. It comprises pages 198-381 of the appendix and contains the following: Notes of statutes, 19011913 (other than statutes relating to education), affecting the relations between imperial and local taxation in England and Wales; Statistics of expenditure and receipts of local authorities in respect of semi-national services; Growth of imperial tasation by G. L. Barstow; Exchequer contributions in aid of the cost of police, prepared by the Home Office; Report prepared in 1010 by W. J. Braithwaite and 9. L. hfinnis on the Prussian income tax and local taxation, Hamburg taxes, Strasburg taxes, Berne and Zurich taxes. HARRISON (SHELBY M.). The disproportion of taxation in Pittsburgh. (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, March, 1915, pp. 168-182.) NEW YORK CITY. FINANCE DEPAFZTMENT. Report upon deficiencies in taxes. Presented by William A. Prendergast, comptroller, to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, October 29, 1914. 18 pp. 4". PASTORIZA (J. J.). The Houston plan of taxation. (Annals American Academy Political and Social Science, March, 1915, PURDY (LAWSON). Data for the economist [relative to the increase in the assessed values of real estate in New York City]. (New York Evening Post, December 31, 1914.) pp. 194-197.) Terminals ANONYMOUS. New Illinois central station and track elevation at Memphis. (Railway Age Gazette, January 29, 1915, Passenger terminal for four railways and elimSCHREIBER (MARTIN). The new public service terminal at Newark, N. J. 19 pp. plans and illus. 8'. pp. 179-181, illus.) iuation of six grade crossings. A paper read by Mr. Schreiber, engineer maintenance of way, Public Service Railway Company, before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 14. 1914. Traffic MESSENQER (W. H.). Traffic congestion problem in Brooklyn,. N. Y. (Municipal Engineering, January, 1915, pp. 19-25 illus.) Complaints of congestion of traffic in Brooklyn caused a survey to be made of conditions existing. Mr. Messenger was in charge of this survey. A method of relief by re-routing street cars, which

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19151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 369 were found to be the main cause of delays in passage of traffic, was proposed. The paper from which the above article was taken was read before the Brooklyn Engineers' Club, and contains the details of the re-routing plan. City traffic investigation at Bridgeport. Method of conducting the count. 1100 words, illus. (Engineering News, January 21, 1915.) MILLER (ALFRED F.). Transportation See also above under "Jitney Bus." GREAT BRITAIN. LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD. Arterial roads in Greater London. Report of sectional conferences held at the Local Government Board in March, 1914. London, 1914. 58 pp. F". Price Bd. KEEGAN (GEORGE) and F. T. WOOD. Transportation facilities of London and Paris, M of October, 1913. 1915. 126 pp. Published by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. PHILADELPHIA (PENN.). City Transit Department. First annual report for the year, 1913. 56 pp., illus. 8". , City Transit Department. Specia1 report on rapid transit development for Philadelphia. Submitted February 11, 1915. 42 pp. 4". Unemployment See also above under Congestion of Population. CHICAGO (ILL.). hfUNICIPA4L MARKETS COMMISSION. Report to the mayor and aldermen on a practical plan for relieving destitution and unemployment, in the city of Chicago. December 28, 1914. 69 pp. 8". COMMONWEALTH CLUB OF CALIFORNIA. Transactions, v. 9, no. 13. December, 1914. Unemployment. pp. 671-714. 8". RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION LIBRARY. Emergency relief: a selected bibliography. December, 1914. 2 leaves. 8". It8 Bulletin no. 8. Vocational Education CHIJFXHILL (THOMAS W.). Vocational schools in New York City to help boys. (National Association of corporation schools. Bulletin, December, 1914, pp. 5-10.) . Mr. Churchill is president of the board of education of New York City. COMMONWEALTH CLUB OF CALIFORNIA. Transactions, Y. 9, no. 12. November, 1914. Vocational education, pp. 617670. 8". NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. Synopsis of the findings of the vocational education survey of the City of Richmond, Va. 1914. 62 pp. 8". Published by the Society, 140 West 42d Street, WILLIAMSPORT (PENN.). Board of Trade. Report of an investigation of the Independent Industrial School at Beverly, Mass., and a recommendation for the establishment of a similar school in Williamsport; by Charles C. Krouse, president of the Board of Trade. 1914. 24 pp. New Pork City. Vocational Guidance LEWIS (ERWIN E.). Work, wages, and schooling of eight hundred Iowa boys in relation to the problems of vocational guidance. [32 pp.] 8". (Bulletin of the State University of Iowa n. s. 90. February 6, 1915. University Extension Bulletin 9.) Investigation confined to Des Moines and Sioux City. Water Supply ANONYMOUS. Discussion of the elements of water works accounting. 3000 words. (Engineering and Contracting, December 30, 1914.) . Observations on water works valuation. 5800 words. (Engineering and Contracting, December 16, 1914.) DUNLAP (JOHN H.). Water works statist,ics of thirty-eight cities of Iowa with the meter rates of seventy cities. November. 1914, 52 pp. 8O. 87. STEVENSON (R. A,). Water works accounting. 3800 words. (Fire and Water Engineering, December 16, 1914.) Bulletin of the University of Iowa. n. s No.