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National municipal review, July, 1917

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National municipal review, July, 1917
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
1917
Editor
Clinton Rogers Woodruff
Associate Editors
Alice M. Holden Howard L. McBain
Herman G. James C. C. Williamson
VOLUME VI
January, pp. 1-200 March, pp. 201-323 May, pp. 324-448
July, pp. 449-555
September, pp. 556-658 November, pp. 659-762
PUBLISHED FOB THE
national municipal league
BT
THE RUMFORD PRESS
concord, n. h.
1917


NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. VI, No. 4 July, 1917 Total No. 24
THE WAR AND MUNICIPAL ADVANCE
BY J. HOBACE MCFABLAND1 Harrisburg, Pa.
FOR the first time since its great internal struggle in 1861, the United States is involved in a real war. The Spanish American war was a mere skirmish, and the incidents with Mexico have been far less serious. We now face an extraordinary, determined fighting combination, operated as a unit and not as a democracy.
We are populous, we are wealthy, and we are united. We will fight with determination and vigor. The feeling throughout the country is serious. It is appreciated that we have reached a definite crisis in the life of the nation.
Does this mean the abandonment of all work other than that related to the sending of soldiers and vessels, of munitions and food, to the fighting line? Does it mean that education must be checked; that philanthropy must be exerted only toward war relief; that the United States must in patriotic thought definitely set aside endeavors for municipal betterment?
Each man at war is said to require five or six men back of him to keep him supplied and in fighting trim. Each shot from any gun on any vessel represents the work of from ten to one hundred men, for a time between a week and a month. Each shipload of food or munitions supplied to the Allies has to do with the life of a large town in the United States for a whole year.
Thus, with a united nation, intent on fighting with success the battle for liberty and democracy, the larger part of the actual work is done at home, and more than 50 per cent of it in the cities and towns of the country.
If by continuing civic effort the efficient expenditure of a single dollar 1 President, American Civic Association; vice-president, National Municipal League.
449


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can be caused to do as much for the community as two dollars previously did; if by civic thoughtfulness ten men can do equally well the work which has heretofore taken twenty; if by the use of better methods community service and community government can be improved, it is obvious that to abandon or intermit efforts for the sort of advance work for which the National Municipal League stands would tend to embarrass rather than to help the fighters at the front.
The National Municipal League, therefore, calls for greater intensity on the part of its associates and members, so that not only the soldiers at the front but the war workers at home, their families and those who pay the taxes, may live in the best fashion at the least cost with the utmost equality of opportunity. It follows that this action is patriotic, and distinctly and directly in the line of producing quickly in the United States, and in a better fashion, that marvelous community efficiency which has been a conspicuous factor in the fighting ability of the German empire.
AMERICAN CITIES IN WAR TIMES
BY CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF 1 Philadelphia
THE first shock of the entrance of America into the world war has failed to produce an appreciable effect upon American cities, and so far but slight effect upon American progressive organizations like the National Municipal League, and the activities of local bodies working for better municipal conditions, save in the direction of a still greater conservation of energy and resources: for the conduct of American volunteer civic bodies has not heretofore been generally characterized by waste, extravagance or red tape.
Unquestionably the most striking development of these first few months since war was declared has been the determination to stand steadfastly for all that has thus far been gained through long, hard effort. England, in the first months of her war experience, showed hysteria and a bending, a letting down of the bars, especially along industrial lines and in certain lines of public work. America appears to be determined not to make the same mistake.
This is the testimony of the civic director of the woman’s city club of Cincinnati:
Declaration of war brought at first a paralyzed discouragement at the spectacle of halted plans which had been aimed at social progress. But civic and social workers are regaining their footing in the sweep of international events. There is now emerging among them, as if by unspoken consent from one end of the country to the other a high resolve to safe-
1 Secretary, National Municipal League.


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guard from sacrifice, if possible, their hard won gains. National and international calls for service must be heeded, and the larger patriotism to which they have given birth makes it possible to dedicate to one’s country and to the world, with clearer vision, one’s unwavering will to strengthen the links of common welfare by local civic effort. Our own committees, though somewhat shaken by diverting demands, have not lost their grip upon their earlier programs of reform. Twenty committees in the last month have held thirty-one meetings.
NO HYSTERIA
Thus far there has been little or no hysteria on the part of American civic leaders and civic organizations. Naturally there has been a searching of hearts; a thoughtful consideration of the whole situation; but no serious suggestion of giving up the fight for improved conditions. There has been a general recognition that the cities of the country constitute the reserve forces of democracy; the essential support of those at the front. In the pioneer days of the municipal movement, we used to say “As go the cities, so goes the nation.” True then, it is even truer now for the cities bulk so much larger in importance, numbers, strength, influence. If democracy fails to make good in the city, it will inevitably fail in the larger units—but it is not going to fail in the city. *
The present war is one of economic forces. It will also be one of enormous expenditures—the greatest in the history of the world. This means that as never before our governmental machinery must be organized for efficiency and economy.
government: “the biggest fact in our lives”
“ Can governmental methods be improved in the hurry and scurry of war?” the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research asks, and answers its own question in this way:
If ever citizens are conscious of the government over them it is when they are face to face with war. In ordinary times of peace the great mass of citizens take little heed of the fact that it is government that protects us from violence and accidents, that it is government that very largely looks after our health, that it is government that educates our children, that government is the greatest constructive social agency in the community. But suddenly war tears the veil of indifference from our eyes and we see government as it actually is, always a part of our very existence. ... It becomes in war times the biggest fact in our lives. ...
To those living under an autocracy, this close-up contact with government has brought home the importance of the democratic form. To those who have the democratic form,, it brings home the necessity for perfecting that form as much as possible. Exploitation and inexpert blundering bring disastrous consequences which teach hard lessons.
Every instrumentality that makes for social and governmental efficiency becomes of intensely more importance in a national crisis. If sanitation was important during peace, it is immensely more important


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during a war. If education and the advancement of science were worth while last month, how much more so are they now when our very lives depend upon knowing how to control the forces of nature! If it were worth while to save babies in ordinary times, how much more important it is to save them in war time! If scientific methods of employment and purchase of supplies were necessary to meet the normal demands on government, how much more necessary are they now that we are in the conflict! If good methods in the management and control of the governmental finances were desirable in times of peace, they are indispensable in times of war.
So, while at first thought sloppy, haphazard ways might seem justified on account of the unusual pressure suddenly brought to bear upon our machinery of government, reflection shows us that now of all times are precision, expertness, careful planning, improvements in all phases of governmental work most supremely important.
If we are wise we will start on this assumption and not have to learn the bitter lesson in the most expensive way.
Under the caption: “American Cities are Awake,” the editor of The American City in his May issue pointed out that when war was declared an instant and patriotic response on the part of municipal officials and commercial and civic organizations throughout the United States might have been predicted with certainty. But, as he said, there was naturally a feeling on the part of many leaders in municipal activities that the attention of the nation might be concentrated on measures of military preparedness to the exclusion of problems of equal or greater importance relating to economic resources and social welfare.
THE AMERICAN CITY CANVASS
If any doubt still exists on this subject, there is now documentary evidence to refute it. A communication was sent on April 13 by the editor of The American City to the mayor and to the leading commercial or civic organization in some 1200 cities throughout the United States to the following effect:
The war with Germany has brought to everyone of us an opportunity to render patriotic service in promoting economic preparedness and social welfare.
The importance of these activities in the present crisis is generally realized. People throughout the nation are showing their willingness to co-operate, but few of them know just how to proceed. . . .
Will you co-operate by telling just what your city has done, is doing or is planning to do along any of the lines covered by the enclosed Blank? . . .
A questionnaire accompanied the letter with a request for information as to activities already inaugurated, of the several kinds indicated in the following list:
1. Vacant lot cultivation.
2. Care of families of soldiers and sailors.


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3. Co-ordinating and financing of local charities.
4. Plans for Independence Day receptions to encourage naturalization of aliens.
5. Promotion of increased production in agricultural areas adjacent to your city.
6. Improvements in marketing methods.
7. Training school children ip. gardening.
8. Vocational training in night schools.
9. Teaching English to adult foreigners.
10. Physical preparedness through improved housing conditions.
11. Baby week campaigns and other child welfare work.
12. Increased attention to public health and sanitation.
13. Safeguarding moral conditions in camps.
14. Enlistment of emergency forces by fire departments.
15. Increased attention to road building and maintenance.
16. Enlistment of emergency forces by police departments.
The 526 replies received from 454 cities showed a widespread intention to co-operate in definite work along the lines indicated, and to hold fast to ground already occupied.
NEW YORK STATE CITIES
Practically every city in New York state has a vacant lot and back garden campaign according to a bulletin issued by the state conference of mayors. Forty-one cities have already started campaigns and have their work well organized. “There will be few uncultivated vacant lots in the cities of this state” said William P. Capes, secretary of the conference, “if the officials and organizations which are co-operating with them succeed with their plans. Most of the cities have reported that their campaigns are in full swing and being developed to the greatest possible extent. In all the cities committees are listing all vacant lots that will not be tilled by the owners and arranging for their cultivation. Back-yard gardening is also being encouraged. Several cities are arranging to have school children and adults plant municipally owned land such as parks, plots bid in for unpaid taxes and the unused space about city places.”
At a meeting of the Indiana mayors’ association held in April, it was reported that municipal labor bureaus will be established in many Indiana cities for the purpose of encouraging men to go to the country and to work during periods when there is a shortage of labor on the farms to “assist the more-food movement.” Several mayors told of their plans to confiscate vacant lots for gardening purposes in cases where the owners do not give permission for their use. The mayor of Marion said the lots should be plowed and the question of the city’s right to take possession of them could be settled later. The mayor of Fort Wayne told of the comprehensive organization work for gardening in that city. The mayor of Goshen said it was his intention to place all idlers at work in gardens.


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Close co-operation by all mayors of Indiana for encouraging the raising of as much food as possible in home gardens, and the taking of organized steps for the preservation of the surplus food for winter use, were urged.
MOKE EFFECTIVE CO-OPERATION AND UTILIZATION
The same story comes from other parts of the country where municipal officials and workers have gathered. Everywhere, in fact, there has been a recognition of the need of more effective co-operation and utilization of our forces, both in the way of production and of economy. While our civic volunteer organizations have generally, both through necessity and conviction, been careful and economical in the transaction of their affairs, the same cannot be said of individuals and of cities, and both of these must now contribute their share. There are numerous wastes of water, light, heat and power, which if corrected will result in truly enormous savings. These are small matters, but practically within the control of every citizen and should be attended to without further delay.
Our city governments have not heretofore, except in rare instances, been characterized by either efficiency or economy. Now is the time to inaugurate both. “Eventually—why not now?” reads a well known advertisement. And it may be asked with great appropriateness of our municipal governments. Somebody must pay the enormous bills that will be entailed by the conduct of the war and the citizen can no longer shrug his shoulders when reminded of municipal waste and inefficiency, and dismiss the whole matter with the comment “that we can easily afford it.”
Called upon to bear greater burdens, to practice greater economy and inaugurate greater efficiency at the same time new duties are assumed, the cities will demand the closer attention and the greater co-operation of organizations like the National Municipal League and the long list of local civic associations, city clubs, municipal leagues, and similar bodies. This was the moral to be drawn from the Kansas City meeting of the city planning conference, generally conceded to be the most successful in its history.
Moreover, as Walter Lippman recently pointed out,
We are living and shall live all our lives now in a revolutionary world. That means among other things a world of restless experiment. If this activity is to be controlled by mind, our minds will have to be controlled by some great central idea. That idea may be described as the search for the ways and means towards new and more workable varieties 'of federalism. We might almost say, I think, that there is no form of inquiry into human need and organization which could not profitably be directed for the near future by that dominant idea.
Therein lies the need for the unremitting support of the National Consumers League, the Child Labor Committee, the National Municipal League and their allies. We are determining by our conduct in this war


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not only the immediate issues, but the civilization of the coming generations; for it is possible for us to win the war and lose our own souls.
LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
The coming of war found us unprepared for war. The coming of peace, whether this year or next, or years hence, must not find us unprepared for the problems, the difficult problems, which peace will bring. The editor of the Canadian Municipal Journal (and that great dominion has never abated its civic activities during the whole period of the war) in his May issue points out that
Practically throughout the Empire, and the world for that matter’ preparations are being made right now by municipal authorities to meet the after war conditions. In the Mother Country municipal councils, realizing the keen competition that will follow the war, and the ambitions of men who have tasted the sweets from the profits gotten of war’s necessity, have for some time been preparing publicity campaigns to encourage industries to locate in their particular district. . . . Great Britain
in the midst of her vast preparations to win the war has also been preparing for “after the war.” What are war plants to-day will be peace plants to-morrow, for England has a big bill to pay and she must manufacture and sell goods to meet that bill. She has the ships and will have the goods to flood the markets of the world, including this country, at prices that Canada could not begin to compete with—goods that may be indigenous to the Old Country but certainly are not to this Dominion. Canada’s great chance and opportunity is in industries indigenous to her soil—in the utilization to the full of those resources right at her door. With that idea in view we have confined ourselves in Canada’s preparedness propaganda to the natural resources and their development. That is all. . . .
FRENCH EXPERIENCE IN CITY PLANNING ‘
In recounting his French experiences as a member of the American Industrial Commission to France, George B. Ford told the city planning conference at Kansas City that heretofore, France has never known recreation in the sense that we know it. Recreation has usually been “sport,” and even at that, largely borrowed from England. But partly as a result of the outdoor life at the front and partly as a matter of reasoning, the Frenchman has come to realize the necessity of providing recreation places in his cities and towns. The movement is very recent, but the new recreation parks and playgrounds designed for Rheims, Clermon-ten, Argonne, and Bordeaux, give a suggestion of the importance that the new movement is taking in France. As success in war or peace depends so largely on keeping both men and women in the best physical condition, the provision of play space becomes doubly imperative.
Mr. Ford in the same address said:
War shows up very clearly the need and lack of general city planning. All of the various matters that are touched upon here and many others


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must be woven together into a unified comprehensive plan. We found in Paris that the city government had since the beginning of the war organized a city planning bureau wiflh broad powers which was planning comprehensively the whole metropolitan area, not only within the city, but through all the surrounding district. In Lyons, we found similar plans being worked out. In London, the architects, engineers and city officials have come together and are working out most extraordinarily comprehensive plans especially for traffic routes for an area of nearly two thousand square miles around London.
But more striking still, were the plans which they showed us for the replanning of Rheims and some of the other destroyed towns. In France, they have come to realize that they must make a virtue of their necessity and rebuild the destroyed cities along modern, scientific lines, always preserving as far as possible the charm of the past. They have gone further still, and now appreciate the vital need of general scientific planning. They have actually framed a law which has already passed the Senate,—The Loi Cornudet,—according to which every city, town or village in France, regardless of whether it is in the destroyed area or not, will be forced to lay out all its future developments according to modern city planning principles. Every community will have to have its city planning commission, over which there will be a general commission in each of the 86 departments, and over these in turn, there will be a federal commission, so that all may work along similar lines and so that the whole area of France will be laid out according to one great comprehensive plan.
They are doing these things because they find that they have got to do them to meet the economic competition with other countries which is coming after the war. There must be no waste, and they are providing to eliminate every possibility of it. France is doing all these things at enormous cost, despite the superhuman work of carrying on the war. She is doing it because she finds it necessary to make up for the mistakes of unpreparedness. We in America are remarkably fortunate in having the example of their experience before us. It is comparatively easy for us to plan for these emergencies; be they in aviation, in the transportation of men or supplies, in housing or recreation, or in the working out of general all including plans. In peace times, it is sheer common sense to give our best thought to the planning of our cities. It is imperative to do so now to meet the demands of war.
America bids fair to take to heart and profit by England’s example and hold fast to what she has already gained. May she take a further leaf from the experience of her present allies and take thought of the future while discharging her present duty to the uttermost!


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THE PARIS EXHIBITION OF THE RECONSTITUTED CITY (1916.)
(EXPOSITION DE LA CITE RECONSTITUEE)
BY PROF. PATRICK GEDDES Edinburgh, Scotland
“ f | ^HE Cities and Town Planning Exhibition,” now becoming known I under the shorter, more human and more accurate title of “Civic Exhibition,” had been in India during the winters of 1914-15 and 1915-16 at the invitation of three presidency governments. It was held at Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, and later at Nagpur and Lucknow, the capitals of the central and united provinces respectively. Its director was reporting on cities, and advising on town improvements and extensions, when a request came from the Comite Superieur of the Exposition de la Cit6 Reconstitute in Paris to share in this exhibition in the summer of 1916 by exhibiting the whole or part of its collections.
The original collections of the exhibition had been destroyed on their way out to India in October 1914 by the famous Emden, which met the vessel on which these collections were being carried, and sunk it in the Indian Ocean with all its cargo. It was a serious loss, as the collections represented much of the work of twenty years or more, and many of the documents were irreplaceable. Nor did the insurance cover war risks. Moreover, the first exhibition in India was to have been held a month or so from the date of its destruction. Members of the town planning institute in London, Edinburgh and elsewhere 3et to work with admirable promptitude and energy to gather new collections; and generous aid was forthcoming also from colleagues in America like Dr. Nolen and others. An exhibition, smaller of course, but not without value, was held in Madras in less than three months; and since then with each subsequent exhibition further reconstruction has been in progress.
After this experience the transporting of the best of the renewing collection once more across the seas in war time was not without risk; but the documents reached Paris at the end of April 1916, a few days before the date announced for the opening of the Exposition de la Citd Reconstitute. It was not surprising, however, to find that owing to war exigencies the preparations for opening were still far from complete. Even under ordinary circumstances exhibitions are apt to be late; and when we consider those under which the idea of this Paris Exposition of 1916 was conceived, and the difficulties of innumerable kinds in carrying it out, we cannot but regard it as one more amongst the many indications of the energy and vitality of the French, of their power of co-ordination, above all of their farsighted and generous social outlook.


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It was planned and held when the enemy was still only some sixty miles from the gates of Paris, and holding a portion of France more than equal to the whole of Belgium, and while the terrible struggle of Verdun was at its fiercest, the Germans gaining ground there, and threatening to break through the French defences. Every available man of fighting age was either at the front or otherwise employed in war work. Scarcely a family but was mourning their men already fallen on the field. The exposition, too, suffered from the absence at the front of architects and others who would have rendered good service; as also from the inevitable cares and preoccupations of those promoters who remained on the spot. Workmen were scarce; materials, such as wood for temporary constructions, were hard to find. Nevertheless, the exposition was useful, as an education to the general public and to specialists of various kinds; and above all it was a triumphant demonstration, alike to allies and enemies, of the courage and confidence of France.
UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE GOVERNMENT
The draft programme announced that the exposition was organized by the Association Generate des Hygienistes et Techniciens Municipaux de France et des Pays de Langue Frangaise, under the aegis of the republic, with the patronage of the ministries of commerce, of industry, of agriculture, of education and fine art, of labor and of the interior; of the general council of the Seine and municipal council of Paris; and of the committees for housing and social welfare and the like. Its working nucleus was well constituted, of architects and planners, men of affairs, of politics and government; and its composition included at once a strong representation of regionalists, from Brittany to Provence, as well as eminent Parisians. Of their working president, M. Georges Risler, much might be said, and all appreciatively.
The site of the exposition was well chosen on the Terrace of the Tui-leries adjoining the Place de la Concorde, easily reached by underground railways and by tramway from both sides of the Seine. Most of the buildings were temporary constructions except the central one of the old “Jeu de Paume.” In this were exhibited plans for the reconstruction of Rheims and other towns and villages in the war zone, as well as of foreign towns by skilled and scholarly French architects and municipal engineers. There were also photographs and drawings of some of the destroyed Flemish towns, with plans for the reconstruction of their ruined quarters and public buildings.
Around the central building were examples of building materials and constructions in wood, in various kinds of cement, plaster, terra-cotta, etc.; some separate, or in street rows, some grouped as model villages. The exposition showed altogether 40 of these model houses costing from 1500 francs ($300) upwards. There were of course the usual business


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exhibits by firms of cabinet-makers, electricians and other house furnishers, agricultural implement manufacturers, and so on.
THE QUAKES CONTRIBUTION
One of the most interesting and congruent exhibits was that of the English Society of Friends (Quakers), whose war victims’ relief committee has for the past two and a half years been engaged in reconstruction work in the departments of the Marne and Meuse, from which the Germans were driven back in September, 1914. This exhibit took the form of a wooden hut of three rooms, such as the Friends have been building in great numbers for the inhabitants of the villages and small towns wrecked by the Germans. Inside the little dwelling were plans of these villages and towns, indicating the houses totally or partially destroyed (in some cases scarcely a single one was left standing), and those rebuilt by the Friends’ committee. There were also photographs showing other branches of their work, such as medical relief, distribution of agricultural implements, seeds, etc., of clothing and other necessaries; temporary schools and work rooms, with specimens of needlework for sale.
VILLAGE PLANS
An important feature of the exposition was the competition, open to all architects, French and other, for the best village plans, for which prizes were offered. The competitors, of whom there were twenty-five or more, were supplied with plans of three types of ruined agricultural villages, large and small, chosen from different regions and with varying situations and needs. The competitors were of varied points of view, from the most urban outwards. Some were extreme Parisians—must one say even to cockneyism?—of the type which prevails in every great city; projecting the boulevards, places, rond-points of Paris, even the Etoile itself, upon the village, which was thus effaced beyond recognition as a village altogether. Others there were with all degrees of practicality, up to rural commonsense. But in general, for villages as for cottages, with of course creditable exceptions, the idea was not clear enough to most of the competitors, that the peasant requires a homestead, a working farm-center, and not merely that pleasant suburban retreat to which the city dweller, his work over, looks forward to retiring.
THE CATHEDRAL QUARTER OF RHEIMS
The proposals for the cathedral quarter of Rheims were too much influenced by Paris. They tended to repeat the errors of the Second Empire, and those of the earlier German town planners with their excessive opeiung up, in front of Notre Dame and all around Cologne Cathedral. The Germans before the war, awakened to this error, were organizing competitions for building up again around their cathedrals, and so restor-


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ing them to their former scale and majesty. For thus, instead of being; left isolated upon an empty place, like a head on a charger, like brie-A-brac upon a table, or like a model on a museum floor, they will again appear soaring above the homes grouped around them, presiding over, protecting, inspiring their city.
So far these two criticisms, of country plans and city ones. But one of the great uses of our exhibition is to provide an opportunity of making; mistakes like these of village and cathedral in their experimental phases, while there is still time for criticism and improvement, instead of the commoner method—that of half-considered execution first, and useless, criticism after the fact.
An excellent and varied programme of lectures was provided on civic subjects ranging from public sanitation, rural and urban, to the aesthetic and social aspects of town planning. It included also regional, studies-of the French provinces, Alsace-Lorraine, Brittany, Provence, Auvergne and many more. Peripatetic lectures (promenades-conferences), too, were organized; and all this again with fitting leadership, not only antiquarian, artistic and architectural, but embracing at once the best geographers of France, all now regionalists to a man; and the small but growing group of politicians who are working to renew the too much lost lesson of 1870-71; that of slackening the excessive cerebralization of Paris, and renewing the life of the old provinces, recombined as natural, and economic regions, and each around its provincial capital and university city.
Parties of school children were admitted free of charge under the direction of their teachers or other guides. Members of municipalities and other city officials came from afar. A special invitation was sent by the comit6 sup^rieur to the lord mayor and council of Dublin, who at the-time were preoccupied by the question of replanning and rebuilding the areas destroyed during the Sinn Fein rising at Easter of last year. The lord mayor, city architect and several councillors accepted the invitation,, and a cordial meeting took place between them and their Paris colleagues..
So much for the bulk of the exposition; our own section, that of the-civic exhibition, was of more general scope than any other. It consisted! of a type-collection of graphic illustrations bearing on the life of cities,, and on their constructions considered as expressions of this civic life. It was arranged as a basis for the scientific and comparative study of cities^ past and present, and for relating to each the conception of the “city possible.”
PLANS OF ANCIENT CITIES
Plans and drawings of ancient cities, of Egypt, Israel, Greece, Rome, of mediaeval and renaissance times led on to those of the modern industrial age, and supplied that historical perspective needed to correct the view too-limited to our mechanical age of town planning and city improvement.


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which is still so characteristic of both the city engineer and his lay public. Without such preliminary study, our town planners overlook elements of vital importance, material as well as moral, to the life of the community for which they plan, and thus have too often impoverished and degraded their towns instead of enriching and ennobling them.
The influence of wars on the congestion and consequent deterioration of cities was exemplified in a series of old prints and plans of Flemish towns, Ypres, Dixmude, Ghent, etc. Yet with all these tragic records the opportunities of renewal also were not forgotten.
The too narrowly utilitarian character of the town planning of the earlier modern industrial period, with its accompaniments of squalor and degradation of the worker and his family, were only too easy to illustrate; but happily also the garden villages and garden suburbs characteristic of the later industrial developments. It is of the greatest importance to distinguish between these two phases of the industrial age. Just as we recognize in the stone age the two great periods of paleolithic and neolithic, of rough stone and polished stone implements respectively; so in the industrial age we must distinguish on the one hand the earlier, ruder industry characterized by coal and steam, and the making of cheap products and cheaper people crowded into ever spreading,- ever dirtier and smokier towns,—the paleotechnic period as we may call it. On the other hand we are entering upon the second stage, the neotechnic, characterized by electricity, by finer industry, by more skilled and educated workers, by cleaner towns with parks and gardens and playgrounds all of which are important factors for survival in the struggle for existence of a community.
CONGESTION
Examples of the plans of Indian cities showed overcrowding, and consequent disappearance of open spaces,—gardens, parks, squares—as in the west; with the accompanying evils of depression, dirt and disease. The remedies for this congestion by “conservative surgery,” i.e., demolition of the less valuable property and consequent opening up of crowded quarters in more economical fashion and with less hardship to the inhabitants than by wholesale destruction, were also indicated. In many cases the plans revised yielded economies rising from three-fourths to five-sixths or even nine-tenths over the original ones.
Examples of regional survey as applied to cities great and small illustrated the growth of London from Roman times. A more detailed study, geographical, historical and social of Edinburgh as a complex typical city further demonstrated the usefulness and even necessity for such a preliminary study preparatory to replanning, on the principle of diagnosis before treatment.


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REGIONAL SURVEYS
Other regional surveys, on a simpler scale, had been carried out by schools and colleges, primary, secondary and higher; and afforded illustrations of how geography, history and other subjects may be taught in a concrete and living way; while at the same time developing that early acquaintance with and interest of the child in his village or city, which is the best training for citizenship.
This regional survey movement is rapidly growing. Its provisional committee formed two or three years ago has developed into a regional survey association with separate branches for education, for archaeological and scientific research, for the co-ordination of naturalist societies of all kinds, and now for civics and town planning also. A world-wide appeal may shortly be made to educationists and to the wider public; for this conception of survey for service harmonizes and unifies all systems of education—the classical and historical with the modern and scientific, the technical with the ethical. Towards this end the efforts of regional-ists even in France are still but half consciously directed. But with the approaching reorganization,—mainly after the war, yet as movements like this exposition show, already fully begun—the renewal of education on this basis of survey, and with this outlook and purpose of service, will become clear, and this in thought and policy alike.
But as yet the most important outcome, the main result of the Exposition de la Cit6 Reconstitute, has been the grouping which was coming into being as it closed, and which is its real continuator and successor— the formation in Paris of a school of public art and town planning (Ecole d’Art Public). Here the organizing leader is M. Patris, a distinguished Belgian architect; who, though a simple alien and refugee without wealthy or official backing, has collected in the course of the exposition promises of teaching help and part time service, all of course unpaid, from no fewer than some seven and thirty colleagues, like the guidance by the French painter of his pupils, or the services of the hospital physician everywhere.
Such an organization is itself at once the best example of the civic movement, and the evidence that its leaders are forthcoming. And what was done last year in Paris, as queen of art and inspirer of cities, may and will be done in cities everywhere.


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THE PLANNING OF THE MODERN CITY1
BY THOMAS ADAMS2 Ottawa, Canada
IT WAS to be expected that Mr. Nelson P. Lewis with his wide experience as chief engineer of the board of estimate and apportionment of New York city, and his familiarity with the city planning movement in all parts of the world, would write a practical and instructive book on the subject of the planning of a modern city. That expectation has been fully realized, and Mr. Lewis has presented us with a volume which is an admirable introductory text-book to the subject for city planning engineers.
He recognizes the importance of city plans being made adaptable to varied local conditions, and does not attempt to lay down hard and fast rules on matters which can only be considered in detail and on their merits in each locality.
The experience of Mr. Lewis in New York gives special weight to his counsel regarding the defects of large American cities in regard to the absence of reasonable restrictions governing the height and arrangement of buildings. He shows that the correction of these defects in New York and Chicago will involve greater cost than in European cities, and that a fundamental mistake was made in the failure to impose limitations of height and bulk in the first place.
ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE CITY PLAN
The author regards the four essential features of the plan as: (1) The transportation of system; (2) The street system; (3) The park and recreation facilities; (4) The location of public buildings. These he regards as the features which need consideration “to give the town its character and make it convenient or inconvenient, dignified or commonplace.” The inclusion of a fifth feature, namely, the control of building development and sanitation, would have been desirable and might have led Mr. Lewis to develop that feature a little more fully in working out the scheme of his book.
I venture to take issue with Mr. Lewis on his statement that one purpose of a city street is to provide light and air. Of course the street, forms part of the space between buildings and in that respect it contributes towards the light and air of buildings, but we want to get away from the idea that that is a definite purpose of a street. Mr. Lewis shows elsewhere that he agrees that the right principle in determining the
1 The Planning of The Modern City. By Nelson P. Lewis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. $3.50.
2Town planning adviser, Canadian Commission of Conservation.


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amount of light and air which should be provided for buildings is to fix both the distance between buildings and the amount of any lot that can be built upon.
In comparing European and American practice in regard to land development the author points out how slowly it has been realized in the United States and Canada that offensive and unhealthy development of private property must be controlled. There is need for his warning that regulations for this purpose must be reasonable, so that they will not defeat their purpose.
SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT AND GARDEN CITIES
One of the most important problems in connection with city planning is the control of suburban development. There is no constructive planning of such development and some of the “most insanitary and debasing conditions are to be found in the small towns forming the fringe about a great city.” While this is one of the most important city planning problems in America, as in other countries, it is probably the one to which least attention has been given by city planners.
In the chapter on “ Garden*cities, ” Mr. Lewis shows that he shares a common misunderstanding regarding the garden city movement in England. He refers to the garden city “type of development” as something which had taken place long before Mr. Howard wrote his book on “Garden Cities of Tomorrow in 1898.” He also refers to workingmen’s colonies in Germany and in England as being “garden cities.” As a matter of fact, there is no scheme alluded to by Mr. Lewis, or I think in operation, which is a garden city in the sense advocated by Mr. Howard, or as being carried out in Letchworth. None of the colonies to which Mr. Lewis refers has an agricultural belt as a definite part of development. Yet that is an essential part of the garden city. None of the other schemes is definitely limited as to the area upon which the building development may take place, thus placing an artificial limit on the city population, as proposed by Mr. Howard and being carried out at Letchworth. Few, if any, of the other schemes are self-sustaining and independent, in respect of their government and finance, of some existing city or manufacturing interest. Letchworth is controlled by a company acting in the interests of the whole community. The manufacturer and working people have equal citizenship and there is an entire absence of the paternalism of industrial colonies. Mr. Lewis does not underestimate the value of Letchworth as an experiment, although I think he takes too seriously ■some of the facetious criticisms which have appeared with reference to the over-artistic character of garden city architecture.
In regard to city planning legislation, generous recognition is given of the developments in Britain and Canada.
In dealing with finance Mr. Lewis urges that a city’s credit should not


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be used to borrow money for a longer period than the life of the improvement, and that where there is local benefit there should be local assessment.
THE MUNICIPAL ENGINEER AND THE CITY PLAN
In the concluding chapter on the opportunities of the municipal engineers, attention is drawn to a matter which is usually overlooked by writers of books on city planning, namely, that the progress of city planning in America, as in England, will largely depend on the sympathy and training of municipal engineers. They will be primarily responsible for executing most of the city plans, whether they are responsible for preparing them or not. Mr. Lewis acknowledges it as his chief purpose to bring home to municipal engineers their responsibility, and if he succeeds in doing that his achievement will be of enormous value to the cause of city planning and more scientific development of cities. Whether Mr. Lewis will succeed in his purpose or not will depend on how many municipal engineers will confer upon themselves the privilege of accepting the counsel of one of the ablest and most enlightened members of the profession. So far as the author is concerned he has done his share, and has given to America a most valuable contribution to city planning literature.
DAYLIGHT SAVING
THE VALUE OF THE DAYLIGHT SAVING PLAN AS AN EMERGENCY WAR MEASURE
BY MARCUS M. MARKS1
THE “Daylight Saving” plan, namely of turning the clock forward an hour during the five summer months from the last Sunday in April to the last Sunday in September was first put into effect by Germany in the spring of 1916 as an emergency war measure. Immediately all of the other leading warring nations, except Russia, adopted the plan, as well as Norway, Sweden, Holland and Denmark, on account of its great economic and other advantages.
Last year’s trial in all of these countries resulted in such material benefits that not only all of the countries mentioned, but also Portugal, Australia, Iceland and Bermuda have enacted it for 1917.
To ascertain the exact results of the trial, the British Parliament, the German Reichstag and the legislative body of Holland appointed investigating committees—each of which reported favorable results and recommended its permanent adoption.
1 President of the Borough of Manhattan, and president of the National Daylight Saving Association.
2


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INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION
The plan is not only of great value in times of peace, but its economic advantages as a war measure are fourfold. Under the plan, an extra hour of daylight in the late afternoon is afforded to everyone and it was found that a large majority, particularly of the working classes in England and Germany, utilized this hour for home gardening, resulting in an increased production of food.
It is of the highest importance, as everyone now realizes, that every step and measure should be taken to stimulate the cultivation of every possible parcel of ground for food purposes. In New York city alone there are at least one million daily commuters, most of whom live in homes with grounds, a portion of which could be easily planted with vegetables. Under the present-time conditions, most of these commuters arrive at their homes at night just about the time the sun is setting which prevents their spending any time in gardening, unless they are patriotic and ambitious enough to rise before time in the morning. Under the “Daylight Saving” plan practically all of them would have at least an hour of daylight after their home-coming which they, in. this crisis, would undoubtedly use or spend in their gardens. Thousands of plots would be tilled which had never produced food before. This would be true not only of New York city, but also of all our great cities and several millions of people would be enlisted in the government’s service, doing their bit daily in their home gardens.
This is not a speculation. The experience of England and Germany proved that the extra hour of daylight was used for this purpose.
SAVING IN LIGHTING BILLS
The second great advantage of the plan in war time is the great money saving in lighting bills. Under the new time arrangement, every householder would save one hour daily in the consumption of gas or electricity or other means of illumination. It is estimated that in England $12,000,-000 were saved in this connection. Vienna alone saved $142,000, and it has been estimated by Robert L. Brunet, public service engineer of Providence, R. I., after a careful study, that in the United States during the five summer months the sum of $40,000,000 would be saved in lighting bills.
This saving in lighting consumption would not materially affect the income of the lighting companies, for the experience of Detroit and Cleveland shows that, under the plan, these companies are able to reduce the peak of their load and lessen their overhead charges.
DECREASED COAL CONSUMPTION
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amounted to 260,000 tons and a conservative estimate of the saving in the United States during the coming summer season is 1,000,000 tons. At the present moment the Federal Trade Commission is about to investigate the coal shortage. Dealers seem unable to supply the demand, and, in New York city and many other large places, are making contracts for coal with very indefinite dates of deliveries. By the passage of the “Daylight Saving” bill, the demand would be lessened by this one million tons saved, an item worthy of much consideration.
BENEFIT3 TO HEALTH
The committees which investigated the plan in Europe also reported that the general health of all, praticularly the workers, was greatly benefited. Nine out of fourteen trade unions of England reported favorably on the plan and social settlements stated that it was widely appreciated by working class families. The athletic clubs noted great increase in recreational activities. The manager of Messrs. Vickers Co., Ltd., one of the largest manufacturing concerns in England, called the Summer Time Act “One of the greatest boons conferred on the industrial classes of the greater towns by recent legislation.”
ENDORSEMENT OF PLAN IN UNITED STATES
Early in May, 1916, after the adoption of the plan in Germany and other European countries,' I organzied the New York daylight saving committee, consisting of about two hundred leading men and women of New York city, to bring the movement to the attention of people throughout the country. Shortly thereafter, the plan was taken under consideration by many of the leading chambers of commerce throughout the country and its approval spread rapidly. At the suggestion of the New York committee and several chambers, the chamber of commerce of the United States at Washington appointed a special committee on “Daylight Saving” to investigate the merits of the plan. This committee at the annual meeting of the chamber on January 31, 1917, presented a very comprehensive favorable report, recommending that the clocks in the United States should be set one hour ahead of the present “standard” time, stating that
“The considerations supporting this proposal are physiological, economic, and social. It will substitute a cool morning working hour in summer for a warm afternoon hour; in winter it may place breakfast before sunrise but it will bring a greater amount of daylight into the working hours at the end of the day. The accompanying improvements in working conditions will be great. Increased daylight in the hours of greatest fatigue will tend to lessen tuberculosis, will decidedly reduce eye strain, will increase personal efficiency, and"1 will materially lessen industrial accidents. In cities the advantage of having the evening “rush hour” when transportation facilities are taxed, come in daylight is so apparent it scarcely needs statement.


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The use of facilities for recreation, especially by the classes that work longest hours and most need them, would be tremendously increased, with results in health and physical stamina which would redound to the advantage of the whole community. There would be great benefits, too, from the increased opportunities for use of means of education, direct and indirect, which in recent years have been greatly augmented for the period after the workday has closed.
The social life of the nation, too, would benefit. The hours for companionship among members of families would have greater value, and .there would be more opportunity for cultivation of all the useful and desirable activities and interests which engage our attention outside our vocations.
From such benefits as these economic advantages inevitably flow. Improved physical health and social welfare will increase the efficiency of every individual at his daily tasks. Furthermore, there would be large direct savings in expenditures for fuel and artificial light.”
In order that victory over Germany may be assured to us and our Allies, it is highly desirable that we should co-operate with them in every possible way. The “Daylight Saving” plan is in operation in every country of the Allies. Our standards and methods of reckoning time should be uniform and in harmony with theirs.
The plan is no longer an experiment. It has fully demonstrated all and more than its original advocates predicted for it. It has no disadvantages or objections of any weight. It has been endorsed in this country not only by the United States Chamber of Commerce, the American Federation of Labor, but by hundreds of the leading chambers â– of commerce and boards of trade, including the Merchants association In the present emergency, it is now up to congress to hurry its passage, -with the knowledge that President Wilson who has endorsed it will give his executive approval.
THE LABORER’S HIRE
BY NEVA R. DEARDORFF, PH.D.1 Philadelphia


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as will make it possible for each family unit to have at least a little more than a mere physical existence. Stated in another form, this proposition resolves itself into the question of what the unskilled laborer shall be paid and how he shall be compelled to live. This class of wage earners is the key to the situation because it is the lowest paid group and because its numerical strength gives into its keeping the future of our political institutions. The superior claims of “this land of opportunity” mean very little unless the opportunities extend all the way down to the laborer’s family, and the most important element contributing to such equality of opportunity is the standard of living in which the child is raised.
THE ABSOLUTE NECESSARIES OF LIFE
Two recent publications are highly stimulating to the thinking on this subject. “The Minimum Cost of Living: A Study of Families of Limited Income in New York city,” by Winifred Stuart Gibbs2 is the story of an attempt to teach seventy-five actual families how to spend effectively. Every one of the families had suffered some degree of ill health on account of insufficient income. Scientific minimum standards of the necessaries of life were set up for each family and careful plans were made to use the available income to maintain these standards. Much patient, devoted teaching was, of course, necessary. The conservative estimate of results attained is most encouraging. The world very much needs to develop efficiency in consumption.
These minimum standards, particularly of food and clothing, will doubtless be of much assistance to those who are in charge of relief work, especially as they are expressed in commodities, calories, garments, etc., as well as in dollars and cents which are so delusive these days. The encouragement to the teaching of home economics and the advice as to how to go about it, are most valuable. These standards are not, however, to be taken by employers as “consistent with American ideas.” As the author points out, they were devised to bring health and animal comfort out of under-nourishment and ill health and to serve as guides in the teaching of the first principles of home economics.
In referring to these accounts one has to bear in mind that in a sense they are incomplete for in addition to the goods purchased there were gifts of clothing, the value of which is not recorded and in some cases free rent in return for janitorial services. A better picture would perhaps have been presented if the estimated value of these things could have been included. Naturally there was no margin for the pursuit of happiness, nothing, other than the variety of the food, to mark this standard as “consistent with American ideas” which, it may be assumed, are differentiated in some way from the ideas of other occidental countries.
2 New York: The Macmillan Company. $1.


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REMUNERATION FOR LABOR AND THE COST OF LIVING
The second study goes much farther. The “Report on the Increased Cost of Living for an Unskilled Laborer’s Family in New York City,” prepared by the bureau of personal service of the board of estimate and apportionment of New York, not only sets forth facts about living costs but also makes definite recommendations to New York city as to what it should pay its unskilled laborers. The findings in brief are: That in 1917, $980 per year is the minimum amount upon which a workingman’s family of five can maintain “a standard of living consistent with American ideas.” Then; on the basis of this investigation, the maximum rate of pay recommended for street sweepers is fixed at $888! It was originally recommended in 1915 that the minimum cost of living for a family of two adults and three children—then $840—be made the maximum rate of pay for an unskilled laborer who had completed at least seven years of “meritorious service.” He was to begin at $720 when, it was assumed, his expenses would be lighter. The recent condition of the labor market has forced a revision of this scheme. It has become necessary to move the minimum rate up to $792 and it will probably go higher. This may out down somewhat the period of waiting for the maximum rate.
But let us return to the minimum standard of living “consistent with American ideas.” The $980 for a family of five represents a total of items every one of which has been cut to the bone, $14 per month rent, $9.47 per week for food, $127.10 per year for the family’s clothing, $42 for light, heat and fuel for cooking, $20 per year for health, $22.88 for insurance and $73 for sundries. This last item includes $18 for furniture, equipment and moving expenses, $5 for church contributions, $5 for soap, washing and toilet materials, stamps, umbrellas and other miscellaneous items, $5 for reading material, that is, a one-cent daily paper “with a Sunday paper almost every week” or for thirty-seven weeks, to be exact. The remaining $40 is intended to cover recreation—vacations, occasional trips to the beach, refreshments, moving picture shows, miscellaneous amusements, Christmas and birthday presents, and anything else not provided for above. This item for sundries compares very unfavorably with Father Ryan’s estimate made in 1906 of $131.73 for the same group of expenditures. In fact, the more one examines this standard in detail, the more meager it looks; the weekly allowance of sweets, for instance, for the family of five, consists of one and three-quarters pounds of sugar, two cents’ worth of syrup and two pounds of cake. A dozen jars of fruit conserve would wreck the schedule. One pound of butter has to stretch over at least 80 meals for cooking and table purposes, no other fats—other than that in the milk—are allowed. One looks in vain for ice; one feels dubious about ten cents a week for washing, toilet and cleaning supplies for five people, not to mention stamps, umbrellas and miscellaneous items.


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The whole standard shows a strong tendency to overwork the scientific minimum. The housing allowance illustrates this better, perhaps, than any other single item. The strictly scientific calculation of one and one-half persons to a room is adopted. But as five people cannot be easily distributed on this basis, the laborer is given a choice of three or four rooms. He will probably be compelled to rent a flat without a bath. In that case he will have a kitchen and three rooms or a kitchen and two rooms. In the first case he cannot have a living-room without sacrificing a needed bedroom, and in the second case, even without a living-room, the conditions under which the family would have to five are below the requirements for decency. One gets a vivid picture of the laborer’s home from the following description submitted by the Consolidated gas company of New York which furnished data for the fuel budget:
“Families of this class usually occupy what are known as cold water tenements, in which neither heat nor hot water is furnished by the landlord. The kitchen is the general living-room for the family, and in cold weather a wood or coal stove is used, for it not only supplies heat for cooking, but it heats the kitchen as well, and so provides at least one heated room in which the members of the family may be comfortable. The cost of coal, however, when purchased in the small quantities which these people are compelled by circumstances to buy (the bag or bucketful), makes its use desirable only when the weather requires the additional heating of the room, and at other times it is believed that the small gas stove or hot-plate is used altogether for cooking and for such small quantities of hot water as are required.”
The “small quantities of hot water,” the short allowance for soap and cleaning materials, the one heated room, the absence of a bath tub, the two suits of underwear allowed the man, all conspire to give one the impression that frequent bathing will not be practised by the standard family. On this point the Bureau of personal service seems to have run foul of what is and lost sight of what should be. After this description one has difficulty in conjuring up a mental picture of a sweet, clean little home for our laborer. Rather do we see him toiling up four flights of stairs, to his kitchen, reeking with mingled odors of cooking food and wet clothes, to the prison-like confinement of the entire family to one room, to a home without privacy and without repose. And yet who would be willing to say, out loud, that seven years of “meritorious” service is not worthy of more than that.
We do not wish to question that this budget would keep the breath of life in the bodies of the laborer and his dependents, but we do question the appropriateness of describing this allowance as a standard of living “consistent with American ideas” and the corporation, whether public or private, which pays such wages as a “model employer.” The standard of $980 as here established for a workingman’s family is a mere animal standard of existence; for the $50 for the expenditures which differentiate


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human beings from animals is only a reasonable margin for the animal needs.
new York’s investigation helps the laborer, though indirectly
How the laborer is to get along on ninety-two dollars a year less than the ascertained minimum is a problem which the bureau of personal service passes on to the laborer with the optimistic prophecy that the various governmental agencies and committees now at work on the problem of high cost of living “will probably bring about considerable reduction in prices and will relieve the scarcity of certain products.” Just now, four months later, the outlook is by no means bright.
But the importance of this report must not be minimized on account of its seeming lack of humanity towards the unskilled laborer. Nothing could be of more service to workingmen in general than just this kind of detailed study. Nothing could bring home better to those responsible for public policy in this country the glaring fact that we are trying to have a democracy which presupposes intelligence in a group composed of units, some of whom can be intelligent and informed human beings but to most of whom life means little more than it means to savages—a struggle to satisfy the primal physical needs. Are we not child-like to be surprised at not getting entirely satisfactory results from our mixture of the oil of democratic institutions with the water of the existing economic order?
EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY IN PUBLIC UTILITIES
BY DELOS F. WILCOX * New York City
I SHALL write about conscience, patriotism, professional honor, the main chance, and other curious and interesting subjects. Having thrown prudence to the winds, I shall ignore the danger of being called a traitor to my “class.” Poor blind Samson, having taken his fling and lost his illusions, pushed away the props and brought the pagan temple down about his own ears. I cannot lay claim to Samson’s length of hair, his strength or the richness of his experience in this naughty Philistine world. But here goes with my puny pen, such as it is, and let all whom it may concern take heed!
when public officials served private interests
Certain men do certain things for money that make other people remark. Is it not true that every wave of radicalism, local or general, in this country has its origin in a sense of outrage that brains, education and


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personal prestige should be divorced from conscience, and sold to the highest bidder? Railroads, public utilities, corporations, having received special privileges from the state, have developed enormous material interests, both of investment and of income, which depend for their security and growth upon the friendly co-operation of governmental power. It was not many years ago—just before Roosevelt—that government in nation, state and city was generally conceded to be less powerful than the corporations which were technically its creatures. In those days public officials were often, if not generally, selected by or with the consent of these special interests. Government in all its branches, legislative, executive and judicial, was primarily an instrument to help these special interests get on in the world. Under such conditions the political philosophy of America was individualism—the right of the strong to become stronger, and of the rich to become richer. Government had no initiative, and was not expected to have any. It was a dog with a good many masters. It wagged its tail for them, gnawed the bones they threw to it, and herded their sheep—or bit them. In those days conscience in a public official demanded that he be faithful to those who put him in office. Gratitude was a great virtue, and the development of personal independence or flirtation with democratic principles, as we now understand them, was treachery.
Old things have not all passed away, but new things have lifted up their heads to compete with them. We are now in the throes of an irrepressible conflict. Some good men run about crying, Peace, peace! but in truth there is no peace. The awakened democratic conscience first attacked the subserviency of public officials to special interests, until it is now recognized by the general public as frankly dishonorable for a man holding public office consciously to do less than serve the interests of the whole people as he conceives those interests to be. But in public officials conceptions differ, blindness is a common defect, and “the consciousness of kind” is a powerful social force. Therefore, emancipation from the old conscience and subjection to the new is still far from complete in officialdom.
THE INDIVIDUAL CONSCIENCE AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST
Nevertheless, the battle line has moved forward, and the great objective now is the trench line of the individual conscience. It is admitted that public officials and experts employed by the government should represent the public interests. But the questions now being hotly, though vaguely, debated are these: Shall all persons not employed at the moment by the government hold themselves open to employment against it? Has patriotism any claim upon the loyalty of trained men except as it is covered by a retainer? Has the public conscience any choice between the two sides of public utility controversies? Is there any inherent conflict


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of interests and purposes between public service corporations and the municipalities which they serve? Can a man who understands and has taken the “public point of view” on public utility questions, subsequently enlist on the other side without either changing his mind, losing his intellectual integrity, or forfeiting his claim to the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens? May a judge, a public service commissioner, or a city attorney, after acquiring knowledge, experience and prestige in public life, retire from office and accept with impunity the fees of the corporations and take up their battles for them before public tribunals? May an engineer or an accountant become an advocate without losing his professional standing? May an expert conscientiously see different values in a public utility, or in land that is being taken for public uses, according to the side that employs him, or according to the size of his fee? Is it permissible for an engineer or an economist who receives a salary from the state and is charged with the instruction of youth to spend his leisure time in doing expert work for public service corporations in their controversies with the state?
The questions take on many variant forms and are not always clear-cut. I have not wished to be unfair in stating them, but we shall gain nothing by beclouding the issues out of deference to the sensibilities of distinguished men who have been led by need, or by the love of money, or by failure to consider the underlying facts, into courses of action that give point to this discussion. In order to make the issues clear, I shall call a few names and refer to a few incidents in recent or contemporary history which are of more than passing interest. In doing so, I wish to emphasize the fact that these names and incidents are merely illustrative —pegs, so to speak, upon which to hang our discussion.
ILLUSTRATIVE NAMES AND INCIDENTS
In New York, William R. Willcox and Edward M. Bassett were two of the public service commissioners appointed on the first district commission by Governor Hughes. Frank W. Stevens was appointed by Governor Hughes to be chairman of the up-state public service commission. These three men, aside from Dr. Maltbie, probably represented the highest conception of public duty, and the most conspicuous ability, of all the original Hughes appointees to the public service commissions at a time when the commission idea was a new constructive force just being launched upon the sea of American jurisprudence. Mr. Willcox, after serving as chairman of the first district commission for nearly six years, was dropped at a critical time as a result of a shift in state politics. He was bitter at the governor’s failure to reappoint him, and within a very short time he appeared before the commission as counsel for the Hudson and Manhattan railroad company and also as counsel for the New York Edison company (subsidiary of the Consolidated gas company) in important capitaliza-


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tion cases. Mr. Bassett, who was one of the most able and conscientious of public servants, had been dropped two years earlier, and his chair was hardly cold before he reappeared before the commission as counsel for the New York and North Shore traction company in a capitalization case. I understand that Mr. Bassett has since refused a lot of business of this nature, because he was unwilling to lend to the corporations over which he had recently had jurisdiction, his prestige, his experience and his legal training in their efforts to undermine the efficiency of the commission as a regulatory body, an efficiency that had already been dealt a body blow when sinister political influences prevented his own reappointment. Mr. Stevens, when he was dropped from the chairmanship of the up-state commission, forthwith became counsel for the New York Central railroad in valuation matters, and is now, I believe, one of the leading attorneys representing the railroads before the interstate commerce commission. The two men most prominent in the work of the Wisconsin railroad commission, which shared with the New York commissions the honor and the responsibility of leadership in the regulation movement at the very beginning of the new era of regulation, were John H. Roemer and Halford Erickson. Mr. Roemer resigned his public office two or three years ago to go with H. M. Byllesby and company of Chicago, operators of public utilities, and in his new capacity has appeared publicly to argue the case of the corporations against public ownership. Still more recently Mr. Erickson also resigned from the service of the state to associate himself with William J. Hagenah in private practice in Chicago. Mr. Hagenah is a public utility expert and statistician, graduated from the public service in Wisconsin, who since his report to the city of Chicago in the telephone case some years ago, gets most of his employment, as I am informed, from the public service corporations by whom he is regarded as an eminently intelligent and fair-minded expert. In regard to Mr. Erickson’s “fall from grace,” an acquaintance of mine in a recent conversation remarked to me that Samuel Insull, of the Commonwealth-Edison interests in Chicago and the middle west, “ought not to have bought off Erickson, but he thought he had to have him.” This acquaintance was explaining to me how the public service corporations are now “putting it all over” the commissions, and that they are able to do so because throughout the country there are not more than a handful of commissioners who are able and willing to do the desperately hard work that alone can give them the mastery of details essential to the effective analysis of the corporations’ claims. Erickson was one of these few, and his continuance in office tended to keep the regulation movement respectable, to save its prestige, and in this way to benefit the corporations, for which the commission movement will cease to be useful if it is so weakened as entirely to forfeit public confidence.
Edward W. Doty, of Cleveland, single taxer and progressive public


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service commissioner of Ohio, when a political governor dropped him, did not even take the trouble to go back to his home town, but merely transferred his headquarters to the offices of the Columbus railway and light company. Peter Witt, Tom Johnson’s right-hand man, single taxer, radical, who used to say when Johnson carried an election that “ Cleveland has gone religious,” after serving several years as the city’s street railroad commissioner under the famous “ cost-of-service” franchise, had no sooner lost his job when Cleveland went “irreligious” two years ago than he began to practice as a consulting traction expert, and a few months later was retained to help the Cincinnati traction company pull its chestnuts out of the fire. Later, when asked his opinion of the remarkable “grab” franchise which the traction company succeeded in negotiating with the city government of Cincinnati, he remarked, it is said, that considering the incompetence displayed by the city’s negotiators, the company’s moderation was astonishing. James E. Allison, after doing splendid work for several years for the city of St. Louis in the valuation and regulation of public utilities, went into private practice for investment bankers, and a little later turned up in the east as the guest of the Edison companies to persuade the public service commissions that the supreme court of the United States was wrong in the Knoxville water case, in the Minnesota rate cases, and elsewhere in ruling that accrued depreciation should be deducted from original or reproduction cost in the determination of present value for rate purposes. Last year the two great water works associations of the country had for their presidents two eminent consulting engineers, Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., and Leonard Metcalf. Mr. Hill was employed by the Hackensack water company in a rate case before the New Jersey board of public utilities, and also by the Citizens water supply company of Newton in its negotiations with the New York city department of water supply of which Mr. Hill himself was chief engineer a number of years ago. As chief engineer in 1903 he had advised the city not to purchase the company’s property at that time, as the value of the franchise would be greatly reduced later on when the city had secured an abundant water supply of its own. In 1915, as consulting engineer, he appraised the company’s property at twice the value placed upon it by the water department at the same time. He took the company’s own figures for1 land values and incorporated them in his appraisal, with an addition of 15 per cent for overhead expenses. On the structural property his estimate of reproduction cost new, differed from the department’s estimate by less than one half of 1 per cent, but after he had gotten through with his multiplications and the department had finished with its divisions, his valuation, excluding land and intangibles, was 50 per cent higher than the department’s. Mr. Metcalf’s most conspicuous employment during the presidency of the New England Water Works Association, was, I believe, his work for the Spring Valley water company, with.


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which San Francisco has been in almost continuous controversy for thirty or forty years. I mention the Hill and Metcalf cases chiefly because these men were at the head of the technical societies in that utility where municipal ownership and operation is largely preponderant, while they as consulting engineers were representing some of the remaining private water companies in their controversies with the government. Prof. Mortimer E. Cooley, dean of the engineering department of the University of Michigan, was not so many years ago a three-cent fare man and engineering adviser to cities in their street railway controversies. He has since blossomed out into such a satisfactory expert for the corporations that at the present time, so I am informed, cities do not have the courage to employ him. It has even been suggested in Michigan that legislation should be enacted to prohibit employes of state institutions from appearing as experts for the railroads and public service corporations which are fighting the state. Even Prof. Henry C. Adams, after a career of more than thirty years as one of the ablest and most radical teachers of political economy in the country, and after many years of distinguished service as statistician of the interstate commerce commission, has of late accepted employment from the New York Central lines, supplementary to his professorship in the University of Michigan. While this employment does not, I think, bring him into direct controversy with the government, it clearly sequesters his great ability and experience, and renders them unavailable on the public side in connection with the great issues now being fought out. Prof. Dugald C. Jackson, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has of late years become one of the most valued consulting experts for the electrical interests of Boston, New York and Philadelphia, and as such has incurred very severe’criticism in certain quarters because of the testimony he has given as to corporate values.
In 1914, M. L. Holman, a distinguished hydraulic engineer of St. Louis, appeared as an expert for the Denver union water company in a rate case against the city of Denver, although a few years earlier he had served as one of the city’s representatives on the board of appraisal appointed for the valuation of the same company’s plant. When questioned about it, he intimated that an engineer had to make a living, and said that he was then doing.the best he could for his client. Only two years ago Ray Palmer, as commissioner of gas and electricity of the city of Chicago, read an able paper at the mayor’s conference on public utilities in Philadelphia on the cost of public fighting, in which he took the public point of view unexceptionably, and urged the cities to band together in furtherance of the program of the utilities bureau. He is now president of the New York and Queens electric fight and power company. When, as deputy commissioner of water supply, gas and electricity, I opened negotiations on behalf of the city of New York with the Jamaica water


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supply company a year or two ago, I found that the president of the company was one of my predecessors in office, and that the vice-president was an ex-commissioner who, while in office, had executed the last hydrant rental contract with this company. I visited Kansas City twice during the pendency of the negotiations that finally culminated in the street railway settlement of 1914. The first time, I found Clyde Taylor as city attorney, sitting in with the mayor to represent the people. On my second visit, I found that Clyde Taylor had become attorney for the street railway interests and in the later negotiations had been sitting on the side of the table opposite to the people’s representatives. Until a year or two ago, George L. Ingraham was presiding justice of the appellate division of the supreme court in New York county. Now he is head of the firm, Ingraham, Sheehan and Moran, counsel for the Citizens water supply company, and for the lighting companies of New York in their rate cases before the public service commission, the decisions of which formerly came before him for review when they were not accepted by the companies. It is hardly necessary to call attention to such historic characters as Joseph H. Choate and Elihu Root, statesmen, orators, constitution-makers, who have not scrupled to take great fees from traction interests to help in establishing policies generally believed to be inimical to the public interest.
The list could doubtless be extended indefinitely. Every person who has followed public affairs in any part of the country could add to it. In mentioning the names I have, I pay tribute to the high respect in which they are held. But for several years past the issues growing out of the incidents like those I have referred to have been getting to be more and more acute. The tremendous financial interests involved in railroads and public utlities alone, not to mention other corporations, and the vital character of the services they perform, when coupled with the rising tide of governmental regulation and control, make the matter of social standards for the guidance of individual action a thing of the utmost importance. Precedents, innumerable, universal, honorable to a degree, will not satisfy the developing conscience of democracy. The future demands more than the past has been satisfied with. How can democracy best put its house in order for the tasks that are ahead of it?
STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL HONOR
Engineers, economists, accountants, ex-public service commissioners, and even lawyers and ex-judges, will have to revise and clarify their standards of professional honor to square with the highest of all the obligations that brains and experience owe to civilization, namely, loyalty to the state. This assertion brings us to the point where the argument demands a “show-down.” It will be urged by a great many high-minded and intelligent men that the lines of conduct which we are bring-


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ing to judgment are entirely legitimate, if not even praiseworthy. It will be urged that public service corporations “have rights” which should be protected, and that the lawyer is worthy of his hire. It will also be said that the regulation movement has increased enormously the amount of work to be done in the valuation of utility properties, in the examination of utility accounts and in the fixing of utility rates, and it will be alleged that the public service corporations have at last “seen the light,” are conscientiously submitting to public regulation, and have need of the services of publicly trained men to help them co-operate with the regulating bodies and make regulation effective. It will be claimed that the companies now want only “fair treatment” and that their interests are in reality identical with those of the public. Attention will be called to the fact that many public officials are eager to make political capital out of corporation-baiting, and that the demands of the public and of the politicians-are often grossly unjust to the companies and in the long run harmful to the public. Extremists on the corporation side, like Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys, of the Stevens Institute, will even claim for corporation experts higher ethical standards than they will concede to experts on the public side. Indeed, though the recent great expansion of public utility work has caused experts to swarm upon the earth, there are some persons who would indignantly deny the very name of expert to a man who admits-that he does not accept employment from either side indifferently.
THBEE FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS
The prevailing confusion of thought and of ethical standards in relation to public utility work cannot be dispelled without a searching analysis of certain underlying facts or assumptions. All the issues to which we have? called attention seem to simmer down to three:
(1) Do common honesty and professional honor permit experts to-assume the r61e of advocates?
(2) Are public service corporations public enemies?
(3) Is a judge or a public service commissioner primarily a public? servant, or an umpire?
LEGAL AND ENGINEERING STANDARDS COMPARED
The shocking differences in expert testimony as to the value of land, as-to the investment in public utilities and as to the sanity of rich homicides, not only bring into question the value of opinion testimony and the common honesty of individual experts, but also suggest the propriety of technical limitations to be imposed upon engineers, accountants, etc., by the adoption of stricter codes of professional ethics. To some of those who have been scandalized by the testimony which many engineers of the highest standing in their professions do not scruple to give on behalf of their corporation clients, the remedy lies in “sumptuary legislation”'


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within the engineering profession. They give the lawyers up as a bad job, admitting that any honest attorney may be expected to take the part of the devil’s advocate, if paid to do so, since everybody is bound by the injunction to “give the devil his due,” and how can he get what is coming to him without the aid of counsel? The chameleonic nature of the lawyer’s conscience, or, shall we say, of his intelligence, is taken for granted. His mutability is thought to be immutable—a necessary evil which it would be useless to combat at this late day. It is, perhaps, overlooked that every practising attorney is technically an officer of the court, concerned only in the exposition of truth and the pursuit of justice. Deception on the part of a lawyer is professionally a great crime. Yet there are some who would make a distinction between the professional obligations of lawyers and those of engineers and accountants in the presentation of truth. To such, the main difficulty in the public utility field is the failure of technical men-—engineers, accountants and statisticians— whose business is supposed to be the ascertainment and reporting of fads, to confine themselves in their reports and testimony to what is incontestably true, and their tendency to vary their findings and testimony according to the interests of those who pay their fees.
THE ELUSIVENESS OF FACTS
Those who take this view appear to regard facts as things that are simple, definite and easily ascertainable, things that can be put in a bag and carried into court, like so many apples or potatoes. On the other hand, it may be urged that generally the facts in relation to a public utility problem are complex, indefinite and elusive. While certain facts may be picked out of the welter that are simple, definite and easily grasped, if an accountant, an engineer or a statistician were to bring these particular facts into court and lay them on the table before the judges, nobody would be much the wiser, and the accountant, the engineer, or the statistician, as the case might be, would cease to have a profession and become a mere common laborer. “ Figures do not lie, but liars will figure.” This old saying is, no doubt, a libel on the statisticians, but after all, it uncovers the truth that figures are useless except as they are organized and manipulated. Now, is it not true that an engineer, an accountant or a statistician must, to preserve his intellectual self-respect and the importance of his profession, attempt to organize and interpret the bare technical facts with which he has to deal? But as soon as we get to the organization and interpretation of facts, even though this process itself still falls within the technical professional field, the opportunity for the “liar” comes in. That is to say, judgment, opinion and interest, all of which are grossly or subtly affected by fees, are called into play, with the result that the technical conclusions of professional men may be . as wide apart as the contentions of lawyers without any one being able


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successfully to impeach the integrity or the professional honor of the witnesses on either side. Of course, there are extremes which make testimony ridiculous and subject the witnesses to damning criticism, either as to their honesty or as to their intelligence. Every lawyer in dealing with issues affected with a public interest, is bound equally by his professional obligations, his patriotism and his private conscience to be honest. The same, but no more, is true of an engineer or an accountant. If we were to say that engineers should confine themselves in their testimony to “facts,” which are just as true for one side as for the other, and should entirely eschew partisanship or advocacy of their clients’ interests, two important results would follow: first, their testimony would be vastly more elementary than it now is, and second, they could without the slightest qualms of the tenderest conscience accept fees from one side or the other, or from both indifferently. In many ways, it would be delightful if matters could be arranged in this way, but unfortunately they cannot. The “facts,” even some of the elementary ones, are too much the products of assumptions and judgments, and the organization and interpretation of the facts by the witness who has a first-hand knowledge of them are too necessary, to admit of this narrow limitation of the functions of engineer, accountant or statistician.
ACKNOWLEDGED BIAS IS PERMISSIBLE
My answer, therefore, to the first of the three questions, is that common honesty and professional honor do permit of advocacy on the part of public utility experts, but that their bias should be frankly recognized and their testimony given such weight as its reasonableness and their ability to defend it may warrant. A corollary of this conclusion is that public utility experts may not freely pass from one side to the other, even in different cases and in independent jurisdictions, where the same general principles are involved, without subjecting themselves to suspicion as to their intellectual and moral integrity, their patriotism, and their professional loyalty.
THE IRREPRESSIBLE CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The conclusions just expressed assume that there are two “sides,” not merely to each particular controversy affecting a public utility, but to the whole series of controversies affecting all public utilities everywhere. Hence, our. second question: Are public service corporations public enemies? Having put this question in the somewhat sensational way in which the corporation men like to have it put, I answer without hesitation that they are public enemies in so far as they are dominated by private rather than by public motives. I maintain that there is a deep, necessary and irrepressible conflict between the public interest in public utilities and the interest of private corporations operating them. I
3


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maintain that this conflict is something more than the universal conflict of interest between buyer and seller, which gives rise to the higgling of the market. I maintain that there is a deep gulf fixed between the concept of public utilities as a field for speculative investment and exploitation for profit on the one hand, and the concept of them on the other hand as the second nature of cities, the instruments of urban civilization, the opportunities of democracy. I hold that in the fixing of rates, in the approval of securities, in the granting of a franchise, in the working out of a contract of co-operation, or in any other exercise of the regulatory or contractual power in relation to any public utility problem in which the people through their representatives take part, unless the result squares with the ultimate policy, which for want of a better distinction we call public ownership and operation, the proceeding from the public point of view is futile, if not positively bad. Further, I hold that a public utility transaction to which the city or the state is a party cannot be saved from this condemnation on the plea that it is neutral and leaves the determination of ultimate policy to the future. In this conflict, he that is not with us is against us, and every act either tends to clear the way, not only for the technical achievement of public ownership, but for its achievement under conditions that make success possible, or else it consents to the further entrenchment of the policy of private ownership and private exploitation, a policy that is radically wrong and profoundly inimical to the interests of the community.
If we maintain, or admit, that public utilities are public business, ultimate public ownership and operation becomes not merely a vague aspiration or an academic prophecy, but a controlling public policy that lays its commands upon every man’s patriotism and claims his loyal service in whatever capacity he may be working. No “jingling of the guineas” can “help the hurt that honor feels” when a citizen hires out to fight against his country, or to hinder his city in the realization of a public policy fundamentally necessary for the general welfare. For anyone who believes in ultimate municipal ownership and who knows the tremendous obstacles that have been and are now being built up in the way of its realization, to hire out to “the enemy” is a species of civic treason. It is not my thought that all men who take the public side are honest and patriotic, and that all who accept retainers from public service corporations are the opposite. My contention is that, in all work on public utilities where public relations and public policies are involved, the immediate technical action is subordinate to the ultimate purpose. Men who have no convictions as to public ownership are not qualified for employment on either side, except possibly for the ascertainment of bare technical facts. Men who do not believe in public ownership may properly accept employment from the corporations and do their best to put obstacles in the way of its realization, but cities and states ought to refuse


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to employ such men or to put them in any public office where they have to deal with public utilities. On the other hand, men who have a public utility philosophy in which public ownership is a cardinal tenet cannot consistently accept employment on the corporation side at the present stage of the development of corporation purposes and policies. When, if ever, public service corporations themselves embrace the theory that they are the temporary agents of the community and that their purpose should be to perform their function well while it continues to be necessary and then cheerfully withdraw from the field as rapidly as the preparedness of the community to take over this function will permit, then it will be time enough for men who sincerely take the public point of view in regard to public utilities to be employed by these corporations to administer the last rites to them and prepare them for honorable dissolution.
HOW THE SHEEP AND THE GOATS MAY BE SEPARATED
The public side is not a mere question of temporary' official opinion, or even of popular majorities. Cities are often wrong in their demands upon public service corporations, and sometimes insincere. They are often wrong, also, in the concessions they are willing to make. An expert on the public side is not justified in doing whatever his client, the public, wishes him to do. He needs to have a stubborn mind, well grounded in political philosophy. Instead of the type of imagination which now commands the highest fees in valuation work, an expert should see present facts with the naked eye, and use his imagination in conjuring up the future that he may see the ultimate effect of the advice he is giving. Indeed, it is conceivable that in particular controversies, the r61es may be reversed, and the corporations may be fighting for policies that are sound and necessary from the public point of view, while the public officials are in fact working against the ultimate interests of the community.
I have asserted that there is an irrepressible conflict of interest between public service corporations and the public. But this does not mean a divergence of interest from beginning to end. Indeed, identity of interest, under enlightened management, goes far, but ultimately it reaches the parting of the ways where the public ideal of community service and the private ideal of the exploitation of public privileges and common needs for profit reluctantly, and with mutual protestations, part company. One who accepts employment from a public service corporation in a capacity where he is called upon to formulate plans and direct the execution of policies in furtherance of private interests, thereby sells his soul if he is convinced that public utilities are fundamental and inevitable public functions, and that the duty of every man as a citizen is to prepare the community as rapidly and as effectively as possible to take over and perform these functions. I am convinced that the real separation between the sheep and the goats must be made on the basis of our fundamental


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conception of what public utilities are. There is a great deal of cant in the public ownership propaganda, and partly for this reason the philosophy of public utilities is almost universally misconceived. Municipal ownership is treated both by its loudest supporters and by its fiercest opponents as a quack remedy. When I speak of the fundamental difference between public ownership and private ownership, I do not mean to identify those terms with mere legal proprietorship. Public ownership that is not coupled with public understanding and community feeling is barren and only technically different from private ownership. The issue that we have been discussing goes much deeper than mere title to property. A subtle and deadly peril to democracy itself lies in the lack of understanding of what is going on, and indifference to it, on the part of men whose lips give light utterance to their professions of adherence to the cause of municipal ownership at some future time, when we are ready for it, but who close their eyes to the necessity of getting ready for it, and starting now.
A PUBLIC SERVANT OR AN UMPIRE?
We cannot stop long on the third question, namely, as to whether a judge or a public service commissioner is primarily a public servant, or an umpire. If such an official is a mere umpire between litigants of equal standing, then there is nothing in the fact of his having held such an office to prevent him from choosing freely afterwards which side he will serve in his private capacity as a practising lawyer. If, however, in his official position he is primarily a public servant, bound to seek out and pursue within the limits of his discretion that policy which shall best further the ultimate interests of the community as he conceives them, then it may well be held in the court of public opinion that in return for the confidence placed in him, the opportunities given him, and the power conferred upon him, he has pledged his talents and his experience to the public service, and that no mere whim of his own in resigning his office, and no mere political accident or temporary show of public gratitude can release him from his pledge.
LIMITS OF SOCIAL CONDEMNATION
We all realize that there are tremendous temptations and tremendous necessities which keep men from sticking close to the straight path of •duty. Perhaps we should not criticize those who have prostituted their minds through economic necessity any more severely than we do those who have prostituted their bodies from the same motive. We should be •careful about throwing stones at individuals, remembering that when the Master said, “Let him that is without sin cast the first stone,” the Pharisees all slunk away and left the scarlet woman without a bruise. But this is not saying that the men who have sold themselves to the public service corporations, even though they were driven by positive need,


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much less if their only motive has been the desire to get on in the world, powerful as that motive is, should be chosen for places of honor in public life, and made heroes of because of their demonstrated ability to yield to great temptations successfully, any more than the teaching of Christian tolerance requires that Magdalenes should be chosen to officer suffrage clubs and educational societies.
THE BUDGET AMENDMENT OF THE MARYLAND CONSTITUTION1
BY DR. WILLIAM H. ALLEN New York City
WHATEVER congress may do with respect to the proposed espionage bill, it has not yet passed a law declaring it to be 16se majeste for students of budget-making to discuss frankly budget proposals from however eminent a source.
The fact that the Maryland budget law was devised by men who “labored for' months without money compensation” and by other persons “who have had long experience in governmental matters relating to finance, ” is a reason why that law should be seriously studied. It is absolutely no reason why after studying it any citizen should either withhold question and criticism or confuse both by throwing futile bouquets at the distinguished participants.
The fact that the governors’ conference, meeting and working as we know it did. in a hurry under pressure from no budget analysts except those who wanted this particular amendment, unanimously endorsed the Maryland plan, is again reason why the rest of us who are interested in state budget-making should do the studying which the governors’ conference omitted.
Could anything be more absurd than for a group of budget analysts wishing to improve budget-making to spend time writing “expressions of appreciation of the many admirable features of the Maryland amendment and . . . self-sacrificing work done by those responsible for
its initiation and completion,” after once being convinced that this
1 As was stated in the editorial note attached to Mr. Chase’s review of the critical pamphlet issued by the institute for public service entitled ‘ ‘ Serious Defects in Maryland’s Budget Law,” certain questions were formulated by Dr. Cleveland to develop certain aspects of the points at issue. These questions were in turn submitted to Dr. Allen, the director of the institute. In this article he answers fifteen of the twenty-eight questions submitted on the ground that adequate answers to the other questions which are of a technical nature would take more space than is available in theNATiONAL Municipal Review, and further might tend to confuse the issues. The nature of the questions that Dr. Allen answers is intimated in his article, parts of which are also devoted to answering the review of Mr. Chase published in the May issue (page 395).—Editor.


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amendment means a step in the wrong direction by state constitution makers!
Instead of analyzing our comment as we had analyzed the Maryland amendment, Mr. Chase asks readers of the National Municipal Review to believe that our analysis was prompted by a desire to sell services. On the contrary, these last two years we have spent, without cost to states and congress, several thousand dollars in answering questions, analyzing proposed laws, making budget comparisons,—all the time doing our best to interest budget makers and taxpayers in the proposition made October 17, 1916, in our Public Service No. 45: “It is not obtainable information but unescapable information which will improve state government.”
To the institute for public service group budget-making is not a new, commercial or academic question. The institute for public service group, disparagingly contrasted with the Maryland law sponsors by Mr. Chase, consists of men long identified with budget propaganda and installation in the public’s interest. We have been doing our best to keep this question of budget-making down to the ground within the comprehension of officers, editors and taxpayers.
In its pamphlet entitled Serious Defects of Maryland’s Budget Law the institute for public service meant what it said. Instead of sneering at the Maryland production, as Harvey S. Chase wrote in the May number, the pamphlet took up earnestly, from conviction, straight-from-the-shoulder what we consider serious defects of the budget law.
We know from firsthand experience the price any community pays for failing to see that it is budget intelligence and not so-called budget science that determines whether a community gets light or darkness out of budget reform.
To answer categorically the 28 questions sent to me by Dr. Cleveland through the editor would take more space than is available. Four typical issues have been selected to indicate why we use the term serious when speaking of defects of the Maryland budget law.
I. WHAT BUDGET COMPARISON SHOULD BE MADE?
Questions 1 to 3 ask if it is not enough to have budget requests compared with the two fiscal years preceding, since previous budget documents would contain the facts from which comparisons with earlier years might be made. . Our answer is No, because it is only unescapable information which really gets to the legislators.
II. MAY OR MUST GOVERNORS EXPLAIN BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS?
Questions 10 and 11 relate to our comment upon Maryland’s provision that accompanying each budget shall be a statement showing “ (5) any explanation the governor may [sic/] desire [sic/] to make as to the important features of any budget and any suggestions [maybe desired, maybe not] as to the methods for reduction or increase of the state’s revenue. ”


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What we said in addition to the bracketed items we repeat here:
Desires of governors are poor safeguards for taxpayers. What governors know is vastly more important than what they desire.
What governors ought to find out and publish is the proper subject of legislation and constitutional amendment. Suppose the governor does not desire to make explanations; suppose he lacks the facts with which to make the explanations as he will do under the Maryland amendment? Other states should make it mandatory upon the governor to give explanations not only as to features he personally considers important but as to every feature in the entire instrument which shows a departure from the preceding budget.
Ohio’s governor in 1915-16 explained in detail all recommendations, increases and decreases, consolidations, etc., recommended. Wisconsin’s legislature in 1915 provided that all increases and decreases should be separately set up and should be explained.
III. BUDGET INCREASES BY MEANS OF SPECIAL BILLS
Questions 19 to 23 relate to the Maryland provision that the legislature may not increase any budget items except for the general assembly and judiciary. We are asked if it will not suffice to make any increases in the form of special bills. To elaborate our answer would need a whole article. Instead we condense our original criticism:
Certainly any legislature ought to be permitted to increase the provisions made by any state for public schools; nor should it be necessary to amend the state constitution in order to increase the salary of a constitutional office
The Maryland law not only fails to give a hearing to those who know these facts about the insane but prevents even the introduction of a supplementary bill until after the executive budget bill has been voted. This will in most legislatures be the last week if not the last hour of the session
Practically, as well as legally, this Maryland law confuses and muzzles the legislative branch, administrative officers who know of needs not provided for by the governor, and the public
Conceding that it is important not to confuse the governor’s program with anybody else’s program and that it is desirable to fix squarely upon the executive’s shoulders responsibility for his recommendations, it still remains possible to foster discussion and to use legislators for promoting public welfare
So long as the supplementary bill is known to everyone not to originate with the governor is there not every reason for having a supplementary bill with respect to the care of the insane before the legislature and considered by it at the same time that it considers the governor’s proposals for the insane?
IV. ARE TAXPAYERS’ HEARINGS NECESSARY?
Questions 24 to 28 relate to Maryland’s failure to provide for or mention taxpayers’ hearings or compulsory hearings of governor and administrative officers.
We are asked if the provision is not enough that the governor or persons designated by him “shall have the right, and when requested by either


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house of the legislature it shall be their duty to appear and be heard with respect to any budget bill . . . and to answer inquiries relative
thereto.” We are also asked what has been the result of public hearings in New York city.
We and you are told that “the public hearings in New York city have had little or no effect on the determinations of the board of estimate.” Even if that statement were true it would not prove to the institute for public service group that public hearings are a mistake. Perhaps it would only prove that New York had been inadequately or badly led and that eight years of reform had progressively disfranchised the public.
Whether or not taxpayers’ hearings in New York city and New Jersey have been a failure, Maryland’s omission of taxpayers’ hearings emphasize a fundamental difference between those who are backing the Maryland law and others, like ourselves, who declare that it is seriously defective.
It was a disbelief in taxpayers’ hearings (which includes what leads up to and follows them by way of citizen study and newspaper publicity) by the groups back and ahead of the Maryland law to which we referred in the statement quoted by Mr. Chase: “The institute for governmental research financed by the Rockefeller foundation and associates upon a platform that unequivocally disregards, where it does not unequivocally disrespect, public ability and right to understand and discuss budgetary questions. ”
Frankly, I am among those who believe that the right of the taxpayer to be shown legislative proposals and to be heard regarding them is among the bedrocks of democracy’s fundamentals. Taxpayers have a right to stay away from taxpayers’ hearings. They have a right to be foolish and unreasonable at hearings. They also have the right to come before city and state and national appropriators of public money, armed with constitutional and statutory rights to be informed and to be heard before their money is spent.
To argue, as Dr. F. A. Cleveland seems to, that because “almost no one except the few parties interested have attended,” therefore “New Jersey’s public hearings were fruitless, ” seems very much like arguing that because the public conducts itself in an orderly way all around our traffic police it is no longer necessary to have traffic police.
For the same reason that Governor Hughes when removing Borough President Ahearn said that “the majority, no matter how large, has no right to inflict upon the minority, no matter how small” an incompetent government, so believers in taxpayers’ hearings answer those who consider them unnecessary and fruitless: “The majority, no matter how large, has no right to take from a minority of even one, the right to be told what budget alternatives are and to be heard regarding them before it is too late.”
But what little bird told the institute for governmental research, the


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Rockefeller foundation and subsidiaries that taxpayers’ hearings in New Jersey and New York have been a failure? Hon. Arthur N. Pierson, to whose leadership is due much of New Jersey’s constructive legislation of last winter, said this morning by telephone:
On bills requiring budget plans for cities and counties our commission held hearings during 1916 in four or five cities. These were largely attended and spirited discussions were held. Hearings lasted until late in the afternoon. One taxpayers’ hearing in Trenton began at ten o’clock in the morning and we were obliged to adjourn late at night before all the bills could be discussed. Great interest was manifested by crowded roomsful.
New Jersey has never yet tried bona fide public hearings on appropriation. bills. We are just putting in a governor-made budget. A taxpayer is invited to the hearing. It does him good whether he comes or not. The fact that officers know a taxpayer may come does both the taxpayer and officer good no matter how many come. Budget measures will be vastly better analyzed wherever officers’ know that the public will have its day in court.
As for New York city, let us begin by telling what other people think of taxpayers’ hearings before I answer the question as to “what are the concrete results of public hearings . . . that could not have been
accomplished by petition, remonstrance and presentation through representatives.”
The latest official answer is a bill just passed by New York’s legislature proposed by a “Tammany” aldermanic president and unanimously supported by a “Reform Fusion” board of estimate. Does this bill sneer at public hearings or fail to mention them? Instead it not only requires a public hearing but the date for such hearing is set 20 days before the budget is adopted, and it specifically forbids the board of estimate and apportionment to put any matter into the budget bill which has not been submitted to the taxpayers’ hearing.
Were even Mayor Mitchel to run for re-election this coming summer on a platform that promised to discontinue taxpayers’ hearings or even whispered a doubt about their value, no one would know that he was running.
Readers of the National Municipal Review will undoubtedly concede that Henry Bru&re is entitled to an opinion on the subject of budgetmaking. In his New City Government written after visits to ten commission-governed cities and several budget-makings in New York, he says:
After a lapse of a reasonable period opportunity should be given at a formal hearing for taxpayers and others to appear with recommendations regarding proposed allowances. Where the budget is extensive and wide differences are likely to exist between estimates submitted and the tentative conclusion ... it will be found desirable to afford taxpayers an opportunity to be heard on the estimates themselves.


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After five years of taxpayers’ hearings on New York city’s budget the bureau of municipal research mentioned among the city’s advances “taxpayers’ organizations, social workers, ministers, get advance information as to budget estimates and are invited to prepare and attend public taxpayers’ hearings enough in advance of the final budget to permit of analysis and discussion. ” Among signers of this statement was Dr. F. A. Cleveland.
Nor as late as 1913 had Dr. Cleveland acquired a doubting Thomas attitude toward taxpayers’ hearings. His Municipal Administration and Accounting says:
The independent advice thus obtained [from official sources] does not put the board in the position to become intelligent inquisitors. Preliminary estimates and statements of departmental needs should be made public in order that the people, in the press and in citizen organizations, may discuss each of the issues presented. Heads of departments may be cited to appear and answer interrogatories. Citizen bodies may be heard in support of the enlarging or discontinuing different branches of the public service. . . . After full hearings as to relative needs, the
board may with much intelligence fix the gross amounts. . . . Gross
budget allowances being tentatively determined, the public can be taken into the confidence of the board by having these tentative schedules published, with a day appointed for a hearing in order that taxpayers may appear and oppose or support hearings. By some such proceeding the budget-making body may have the benefit of the expression of public opinion at every important step on subjects which would require increase or decrease in expenditures.
One up-to-date illustration of taxpayers’ hearings in New York city will have to take the place of a hundred I should like to write.
A year ago the board of estimate of New York was insisting that its proposed agreement with the New York Central railroad for removing its tracks from Death avenue and its nuisance from Riverside park was clearly in the public’s interest. Back of this position were forces of unlimited wealth and unfathomable social prestige. Yet that agreement is not only lost to-day but has been publicly rebuked by an almost unanimous legislature which passed two laws, one providing for a special investigation, and a second making it impossible for the present city government to execute this contract until it has been approved by the very public service commission that has unanimously condemned the pending contract as inimical to public welfare.
It is true that only a few people went to the hearings. It is also true that “only those who were particularly interested” went, but these few were given—after public protest—respectful hearing and the facts they presented were told to millions of readers and repeated to thousands of auditors in clubs and people’s forums. The few included spokesmen for the citizens union, city club, west end association, woman’s league for the protection of Riverside park, institute for public service, etc. William


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R. Willcox was not a horde but was a host because of his extensive definite knowledge of transit questions.
For failing to prescribe a procedure that would give a state—officials, legislators, public—unescapable information with respect to budget alternatives, and for failing to keep officials conscious every moment of their budget-making that they could not have secrets from their public, we charge the Maryland amendment with having serious defects. Does any member of the National Municipal League wish us to withdraw either the defects or the serious?
MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION:
AN ANALYSIS OF MEASURES SUBMITTED TO POPULAR VOTE AT THE NOVEMBER ELECTION.
BY FREDERICK REX1 Chicago
. Second Installment PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS
The voters of Los Angeles adopted an amendment to the charter enlarging the city’s power to provide for or require the elevation or depression of railroad tracks, there being a legal question as to whether this power rested in the city or in the railroad commission. The voters of the same city also approved an amendment of the charter authorizing the city to perform street work or any other work carried on under special assessment by a system of direct employment instead of by contract. It is further provided in the amendment that the city may adopt its own method for the financing of or payment for the work when accomplished. The voters of San Francisco defeated an amendment to the city charter permitting the people of San Francisco to order the raising of a given sum by means of a special tax for a specific improvement in installments extending over more than ten years in order to avoid the need of voting bond issues for projects which cannot be paid out of the ordinary revenues. It was urged in opposition to the measure that the special tax could be levied by merely a majority vote, while bond issues require a two-thirds vote and that no limitation was placed upon the amount of special taxes to be levied in any one year, thus permitting the levying of taxes amounting to practical confiscation. Two amendments adopted in the same city grant power to provide by ordinance a procedure for changes of street grades and work, the payment of assessments in installments and limiting the amount of installment payments of assessments. The voters of Detroit ratified an amendment to the city charter reducing the rate of interest
1 Municipal reference librarian.


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on street paving assessments from 7 to 4 per cent and extending the time in which the second, third and fourth parts of street paving assessments may be paid without penalty one month.
The electorate in Chicago defeated a proposal for a $2,000,000 bond issue for the purpose of acquiring sites for incinerators, loading stations and a municipal reduction plant for the disposition of garbage, ashes and refuse.
Lansing by a vote of three to one acted favorably on a proposition for the municipal collection of garbage.
In Hamilton, Ohio, ten bond issues aggregating $1,000,000 to be expended for street, sewer, parks and playground, public buildings and other projects were submitted to the voters for approval. All of the ten bond issues, however, failed to carry.
In Kalamazoo a proposed bond issue of $225,000 to be expended for an adequate system of drainage for the city was rejected as was also an amendment to the charter providing for an increase in the limit for street improvement bonds to $400,000.
The voters of Cleveland defeated a proposed bond issue of $1,000,000 for the purpose of erecting a county jail, quarters for the criminal and insolvency courts and an office for the prosecuting attorney. It was urged that no building of the above character should be erected until authority is received from the legislature whereby all of the criminal and police courts, police departments, jail and prosecutor’s offices can be combined under the same roof and wasteful duplication eliminated. Cleveland approved a $3,000,000 bond issue for street paving in order to obtain immediate relief from the bad condition of the streets, the latter being deemed a menace to vehicle and pedestrian traffic and because the limitations of the Smith tax law make it impossible for the city to meet its share for new paving from its general revenue funds.
INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM, AND RECALL PROVISIONS
The cities and towns of the state of Minnesota by a three to one vote ratified an amendment to the constitution providing for direct legislation by the people through the initiative and referendum. It is provided that referendum petitions be signed by 15 per cent of the voters of the state, based on the number of votes cast for governor at the preceding election.
The voters of San Francisco approved an amendment to the city charter designed to prevent fraud and facilitate examination of initiative, referendum and recall petitions and to save expense in such elections. It requires the numbering of names signed to petitions and the extension of the time allowed for the official verification of the names signed to the petitions from ten to fifteen days. The amendment further provides that where an official sought to be recalled, dies or resigns before any recall election is called, the vacancy shall be filled as provided by the charter.


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The voters of Seattle rejected a referendum measure considerably-restricting the operation of the initiative and referendum laws by requiring that all initiative and referendum petitions be signed at the registration office and that all such signatures must be verified by the registration officials at the time of signing.
MATTERS AFFECTING LABOR
The voters of San Francisco approved an ordinance prohibiting loitering, picketing, carrying or displaying banners, badges, signs or transparencies or speaking in public streets and places for the purpose of influencing or attempting to influence any person from performing or seeking work in any factory or place of employment or purchasing any goods or articles of merchandise. Another ordinance was voted down in the same city designed to prohibit speaking without a permit upon the streets, sidewalks or in the public parks. Two amendments to the charter, however, were approved. One provides for an eight-hour day for laborers on municipal work at a minimum wage of three dollars. It also provides that those performing labor on public work must be American citizens or at least have taken out their first papers, establishing the principle that those who earn their living from the public expenditures of a municipality should be local residents. The other amendment provides for the filing of a bond by every contractor to whom a contract has been awarded for municipal work or street work assessable upon private property to insure the payment of claims or liens for materials, labor, supplies, teams or machines, furnished by sub-contractors or other persons to the contractor or his sub-contractor for such work. The amendment gives to sub-contractors and material men the same protection they receive in private work or federal contracts. By a vote of more than two to one the voters of the state of Washington rejected a referendum measure providing that any person should be guilty of a misdemeanor who shall for the purpose of advertising any dispute between organized labor and a business man or his employes stand or continuously move back and forth within 500 feet of the place of business or home of the business man or his employe or carry anywhere any sign or cause any other person to do any of these things. The proposed measure was deemed extremely severe in its provisions and it is alleged would have made illegal the publication of news items regarding labor disputes.
LIQUOR CONTROL
It is not intended herein to analyze the various state-wide prohibitory measures submitted to the voters of cities and towns for adoption or rejection, but an attempt will be made to consider proposals designed to regulate or abolish the liquor traffic in municipalities at the November election. The city of Los Angeles since 1913 by ordinance has prohibited dancing in any public place where liquor is sold. An ordinance was


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proposed by initiative petition permitting such dancing and affecting primarily cafes and restaurants. The existing ordinance does not prohibit dancing, nor does it prohibit the sale of liquor, but simply makes it illegal to do both in the same place. The initiative ordinance, however, was defeated at the election by a two to one vote. In cities in Massachusetts and Rhode Island the annual query was submitted to the voters as to whether or not licenses shall be granted for the sale of intoxicating liquors in the city. St. Louis overwhelmingly rejected the proposed constitutional amendment prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors in Missouri after July 1, 1917, by a vote of 13,529 cast in favor of the same and 141,070 against.
The voters of Colorado by a vote of 163,134 to 77,345 rejected an amendment to the state constitution making the manufacture and sale of beer lawful and requiring that all beer be sold in unbroken packages and delivered directly to the consumer at his residence. The voters of Michigan by a vote of 378,871 to 256,272 defeated a proposed amendment to the constitution granting to every incorporated city, village or township in the state the right to determine by a majority vote of the electors whether or not there shall be prohibited therein the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors.
A measure initiated by the brewery interests and providing that beer containing not more than 4 per cent alcohol could be manufactured and sold in the state was rejected by the voters of Washington. The measure purported to aim at a re-establishment of a home industry but in effect was more far-reaching in that it permitted the establishment in the state of offices by outside breweries from which deliveries could be made direct to the home and eliminated the permit at present required for the importation and use of liquor. The voters of Washington likewise defeated a measure initiated by the hotel and liquor interests allowing the sale and service of alcoholic beverages to guests in a hotel having fifty or more rooms.
The voters of California defeated a proposed amendment to the constitution prohibiting the manufacture, sale or possession of alcoholic liquors in the state after January 1, 1920. A milder amendment to the constitution was likewise rejected by the voters of the same state. It prohibited after January 1, 1918, the possession, gift or sale in a saloon, dramshop, dive, store, hotel, restaurant, club, dance hall or other place of public resort of alcoholic liquors and the sale or soliciting of orders anywhere, except in pharmacies for certain purposes and by manufacturers on the premises where manufactured, under delivery and quantity restrictions.
The voters of Baltimore rejected an act referred by the legislature giving the electorate the right to determine by ballot whether or not the sale or manufacture of intoxicating liquors should be prohibited in Baltimore after May 1, 1918.


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MOTOR AND JITNEY BUSES
The voters of Harrisburg, Pa., approved a proposition amending an ordinance regulating the operation of motor buses in the city. The original ordinance contained a provision for the filing of a surety bond of $2,000 with the city for each bus licensed by the owner or lessee of any bus as an indemnity under which anyone injured or damaged in person or property by the operation of such bus could sue and recover for damages sustained. The amendment provides for an initial bond of $50 for each bus licensed and an additional bond of $1,000 per bus to be paid into the city treasury in monthly installments of five dollars. An initiative amendatory ordinance was defeated in San Francisco giving jitney buses the right to operate on all streets in the city and county. The amendment was proposed by the drivers of jitneys and designed to give them a free hand to operate as they should see fit without restraint or restriction. It was urged that the amendment would nullify the jitney ordinance enacted by the board of supervisors, keeping them off Market street during certain hours and the provision requiring indemnity bonds from owners of buses. The amendatory ordinance it was believed would make impossible the regulation of jitneys in any form and would preclude the city from operating a municipal railway in Market street should it be victorious in its litigation with the United Railways.
MUNICIPAL OFFICERS
A majority of the voters of Holyoke ratified a law passed by the Massachusetts general court extending the term of office of the city treasurer to three years. Lansing voted favorably on amending certain sections of the city charter relating to the duties of the city treasurer. Los Angeles amended section 13 of article III of its charter relative to meetings of the city council. The latter under the amendment is required to meet at least five days of each week, meetings on Saturday being abrogated. In San Francisco a proposed amendment to the city charter provided for the creation of a position of city and county attorney in lieu of the office of city attorney, with a salary of $10,000 per year and appointment of the new officer by the mayor until January 8, 1922. The foregoing amendment was submitted to the voters by a unanimous vote of the board of supervisors and also supported by the mayor. The charter qualifications for the office of city attorney specify that the latter must be a practicing attorney for at least ten years, an actual resident of the city for at least five years and devote his entire time to the office. It was urged in support of the amendment that the entry of the city into the ownership and successful operation of municipal street railways and other utilities, the building of the Hetch Hetchy water and power system, the construction of tunnels and boulevards, aside from ordinary governmental affairs, caused its legal department to constantly face problems of enormous magnitude requiring the best legal talent obtainable to protect the city’s


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rights against powerful opposing forces. It was pointed out that a lawyer possessing the requisite ability, courage and honesty for the office would in ten years of practice have established a private business far more profitable and stable than the office of city attorney. Any attorney accepting the office of city attorney would be compelled to give up his private business and accept the salary of the office, five thousand dollars a year, as his only income from his profession. The amendment provided for a suitable increase in salary in order that some man whose record and standing proved him qualified in all respects might be induced to accept the office. It was also proposed to make the term of office of the person whom the mayor might first appoint until January, 1922, a term a few months in excess of that for which all officers of the city are elected, after which he should be elected by the people. It was urged in support of this proposal that an established lawyer whose qualifications are such as would make him an acceptable city attorney could not be induced to take the office unless a reasonable term could be assured him before he would be compelled to become a candidate for election. No lawyer of standing would care to sacrifice a profitable law business to enter into a political campaign with its uncertainties. The measure failed of adoption, 31,900 votes being cast in favor and 94,567 votes against such proposed amendment of the city charter. The voters of the state of Louisiana approved an amendment of section 148 of the state constitution providing for the election of a district attorney for the parish of Orleans for a term of four years at an annual salary of $10,000, 54 per cent of which shall be paid by the city of New Orleans and the balance by the state of Louisiana.
PUBLIC UTILITIES
The voters of Buffalo approved a franchise granted by the council to the International Railway Company to construct and operate electric railways on certain streets in the city. A resolution of the council granting permission to the Federal Telephone and Telegraph Company to sell its physical properties in the city of Buffalo to the New York Telephone Company was voted down and repealed by the electorate. The voters of Berkeley approved an amendment to article 12 of the city charter relating to franchises by adding to such article a new section dealing with the resettlement of such franchises. The section gives the council the right to provide for a general resettlement of the franchise rights of persons or corporations actually engaged in operating public utilities in the city upon written application therefor and acceptance of sundry terms and conditions. Such terms include the appointment of an advisory board by the mayor, indeterminate franchise period, division of annual net revenue, a joint board of control and the assumption of bonded indebtedness by the city in case of purchase. The voters of the state of Washington defeated a referendum measure providing that no competing public


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utility should be authorized to furnish service except after the issuance by the public service commission of the state of a certificate of public necessity and convenience, such certificate to be issued only in case the existing utility furnished inadequate service.
The voters of the same state rejected a measure—believed instigated by private dock owners—increasing the membership of the Seattle port commission from three to seven, the additional four members to be the mayor, county engineer, county auditor and prosecuting attorney and limiting the further expenditure of funds for port improvements. The measure also authorized the port commissioners to sell any or all property of the port district after an official appraisal of its value and also authorized the leasing of any or all property for a term not exceeding five years. While the act was general in its terms, it in effect only was applicable to the city of Seattle, the port district established in the state being located in that city.
The voters of Los Angeles adopted an amendment to the city charter, suggested by the public service commission, authorizing the latter after approval by the council, to enter into contracts with outside cities for the exchange with them or sale to them of surplus electric power for periods not exceeding fifty years, subject to the city’s right to cancel the contract on three years’ notice. One of the prime objects of this amendment is to permit a contract to be made with the city of Pasadena for the temporary furnishing of power to Los Angeles and also to permit the public service board to have a market for the surplus power which it is expected will be developed through the aqueduct plants.
The voters of Cleveland by a substantial majority approved a $1,750,-000 bond issue for the extension of the municipal electric lighting plant in order that the' latter may properly compete with the private electric lighting company operating in the city.
PUBLIC RECREATION
The voters of Evanston, Illinois, approved a proposition providing for an annual tax levy of three mills on the dollar for the purpose of maintaining a public park and in Hamilton, Ohio, a bond issue of $10,000 was authorized for parks and playgrounds. The voters of Los Angeles approved an amendment to the city charter empowering the council in its discretion to appoint a special commission to administer any donation for any improvement in a public park. The amendment had special reference to a reported offer from Colonel G. J. Griffith to construct a Greek theatre and an observatory in the park bearing his name. The municipal league of Los Angeles opposed the amendment on the ground that it would establish a bad precedent to create special commissions to carry on work logically within the jurisdiction of another commission. It was urged that the park board should be reasonably entrusted with the authority to look after the best interests of the city in all matters directly
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related with parks and that the adoption of the proposed amendment might lead to unlimited abuse. Los Angeles voters further approved an amendment to the charter authorizing the city council or the park board to grant a right of way for the chief transmission line of the municipal power system through Griffith park and to grant an easement for a subway to a railroad already owning a franchise for electric cars to cross under Silver Lake parkway, the contemplated subway shortening the run to the beaches by several minutes.
The voters of Chicago rejected a proposition for the issuance of $2,450,-000 in bonds by the city for the purpose of acquiring sites and improving bathing beaches, swimming pools and parks and playgrounds. An unusually hot summer during the past year caused the citizens of Chicago to realize the great need of additional bathing beaches. It was urged by organizations and citizens seeking the defeat of the proposition that the plans for the proposed bathing beaches were inadequate in that they failed to provide for a sufficient number of small bathing beaches within easy reach of all sections of the city.
In St. Paul an amendment to the city charter was submitted to the voters providing that the cost of acquiring land for parks and playgrounds and of improving the same be defrayed by general taxation. The charter provided that the cost of all such improvements be met by special assessment levied against the property deemed benefited thereby.
SCHOOLS
Cities in Massachusetts voted on an act passed by the general court authorizing municipalities to maintain schools of agriculture and horticulture. As approved by the electorate the act gives cities the power to establish and maintain schools for instructing families and individuals by means of day, part time or evening classes in gardening, fruit growing, floriculture, poultry keeping, animal husbandry and other similar branches, subject to the approval by the board of education. Cities are given the power to acquire suitable plots of ground for instruction in practical agriculture and to erect buildings on the same for housing those attending the school. An amendment to the charter of San Francisco, approved by the voters at the election, gives the board of supervisors power to accept gifts for the establishment, support and endowment of a public aquarium and appropriate yearly not less than $20,000 for its maintenance. The adoption of the amendment thus prepares the way for the acceptance of gifts by the city that will be available from generous citizens when a maintenance fund is assured and thus secure to San Francisco a great public aquarium comparable to the famous aquariums of Naples, New York and Detroit.
A further amendment was proposed in the same city providing that certain school lots reserved under an ordinance adopted in 1855 and no longer available for public school purposes be sold and the proceeds used


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exclusively to purchase new sites or additions to existing sites for school purposes in localities where needed. The amendment provided that no sale of such lands should be made without concurrent action by the board of education, mayor and board of supervisors and by procedure ensuring full publicity and other reasonable safeguards. It was urged that the adoption of the amendment would enable the city to provide school sites in districts where the needs are pressing and acquire lands for school yards to be used as playgrounds by the children. The amendment, however, failed of adoption by a two to one vote.
In Worcester an act passed by the general court was submitted to the voters providing for the reduction of the membership of the school committee from the prevailing membership of thirty, three being elected from each of ten city wards, to eleven members, one to be elected from each of the ten wards and one to be elected at large. The act was approved by the electorate of the city, 11,408 votes being cast in favor of the same and 4,455 against.
The city of Detroit by a more than five to one vote approved an act passed by the legislature providing for the reduction in the membership of the board of education and their election at large by the people.
The voters of the state of Alabama adopted two amendments of the state constitution authorizing the levying of a special tax not exceeding thirty cents on each one hundred dollars of taxable property by the various school districts in the counties of the state.
The voters of Louisiana by a two to one vote approved an amendment of the constitution providing that every municipal corporation, parish or ward when authorized to do so “by a majority in number and amount of property taxpayers” be given the power to assess and levy a tax the proceeds of which should be used for the purchase and improvements of grounds and for premium awards for municipal, parish or ward fairs. Resident women taxpayers are authorized to vote at any election called for the foregoing purpose, in person or by proxy.
Cleveland adopted a measure authorizing a $2,000,000 bond issue for the purchase of school sites and the erection and furnishing of school-houses and an additional one-half mill tax for sinking fund, interest and maintenance charges resulting from the bond issue.
In Milwaukee the voters approved a bond issue of $800,000 for the purchase of school sites, the erection of new buildings and additions to old ones. It was urged in support of the bond issue that Milwaukee is much behind other cities of its size in equipment for school buildings, resulting in overcrowded class-rooms and children studying in barracks, basements and assembly halls.
SUNDAY CLOSING
In Oregon the voters approved by a vote of 125,836 yeas to 93,076 nays a bill initiated by a committee of the independent retailers associa-


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tion of Portland providing for the repeal of section 2125 of the Oregon laws prohibiting the keeping open of any store, shop, grocery, bowling alley, billiard room or tippling house or any place of amusement on Sunday, excepting theatres, drug stores, offices of physicians, undertakers, livery stables, butchers and bakers.
In Wichita the voters defeated an amendment providing for the repeal of the city ordinance prohibiting the maintenance and operation of moving picture shows on Sunday.
TAXATION
The voters of Cincinnati approved a measure providing for an increased tax levy for general and school purposes. The voters in Los Angeles adopted an amendment to the charter under which the Council, by ordinance, can consolidate the office of city tax collector with that of county tax collector and the office of city assessor with that of county assessor. It is estimated that such consolidation will save the sum of $75,000 to the taxpayers of Los Angeles annually, as well as prove of additional value in the greater convenience in paying taxes at one place instead of at two, as under the old arrangement. The amendment also provides that other city offices may be consolidated with the county offices, but only after an ordinance has been passed by the council and submitted for ratification to the voters of the city. The voters of Oregon by a large majority rejected an amendment to the constitution of the state proposed by initiative petition providing for a full rental value tax and a loan fund for homemakers. It was urged that the amendment would abolish land speculation, reduce the price of land—separate from improvements—and lower the rate of interest to farmers and homemakers in town and country. San Francisco defeated an amendment to the charter providing that when a tax levy made prior to the adoption of the proposed amendment had been declared illegal by the supreme court, all of the tax should be refunded to property owners, irrespective of whether protest had been made or not. It was further provided that a special tax to refund the amount illegally collected should be levied. It was urged that the board of supervisors, under the amendment, could legally levy a tax to reimburse taxpayers for one previously levied and found illegal and that this practice would prove extremely vicious inasmuch as all charter restrictions on the tax rate could be evaded. The voters of Rhode Island by a five to one vote approved a proposed amendment of the constitution of the state providing for excess condemnation of land and property by any city or town in establishing or laying out any public streets or parks. It is provided that the excess land and property not required for such street and park improvement and abutting on the same may be sold or leased for its value. The voters of California defeated overwhelmingly a proposed amendment to the constitution providing for the taxation of land values, exclusive of improvements. It pro-


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vided that all taxes and licenses, local and state, be abolished, with the exception of a possible income and inheritance tax, limited to providing for old-age pensions, mothers’ endowments and workingmen’s unemployment and disability insurance. Under the proposed amendment no saloon license or corporation tax could be levied. It was urged that, even if the principle of the modified single tax were acceptable, the amendment proposed too abrupt a change. Its results could only prove seriously unsettling and unjust, if not harmful to many persons and interests, in the same proportion to the inequalities prevailing under the present system of taxation, and that changes in the incidence of taxation should be made, so far as possible, gradually and under an extended and carefully prepared plan. The voters of Illinois approved a proposed amendment of the constitution providing for tax revision. Its purpose is to do away with the unfairness and inequality of the present general property tax, which places so heavy a burden upon certain classes of personal property —particularly credits and corporation stock—that capital is being constantly forced out of the state and the assessment of personal property brought into disrepute. The amendment, itself, does not provide a new basis of taxation, but merely empowers the legislature to deal with the subject unrestricted by the requirement that personal property must be taxed uniformly with other forms of property.
WARDS
Lansing approved an amendment to the city charter relative to dividing the city into eight wards and increasing the number of board members. Los Angeles voters defeated a proposal for the amendment of section 258 of article 25 of the city charter relating to borough government. The provisions of the present city charter regarding boroughs have been held by legal authority to be unconstitutional and according to a statement in the Bulletin of the Los Angeles municipal league, impracticable of operation. The proposed amendment made possible a borough system for sections of the city recently annexed, should they so desire. Under the amendment the boroughs would have been given jurisdiction over substantially the same branches of government administered at present by the board of public works, including, among other things, street improvements and street fighting. The boroughs would also have had the power to regulate liquor, saloons and other interests affecting the moral tone of the borough, providing that such regulation be not less stringent than that fixed for the remainder of the city. The borough was also given the right to levy an additional tax for any local matters affecting it. The amendment was asked for and supported by the municipal annexation commission on the ground that it would facilitate the annexation to Los Angeles of outside territory whose annexation would be desirable as a preliminary step toward the consolidation of the city and county of Los Angeles and its environs. The municipal league of Los Angeles, likewise, urged support of the measure.


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BATON ROUGE’S MUNICIPAL CENTENARY
BY MILLEDGE L. BONHAM, JR.
Louisiana State University
DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT
IT WAS on St. Patrick’s day, 1699, that Pierre LeMoyne, sieur d’Iberville, discovered and named the site of the present capital of Louisiana. The date of the first settlement appears to be un-discoverable, but contemporary literature of 1719-1723 speaks of it as if it had been there some time. Nothing of moment occurred at Baton Rouge, apparently, until 1763, when the Bourbon flag was replaced with the banner of St. George, and the post’s name was changed to Fort Richmond. Sixteen years later, the only engagement of the Revolution—and that a slight one—occurred at Fort Richmond, between the Spanish troops of Governor Galvez, reinforced by American backwoodsmen, some Indians and a few negroes, on the one side, and the British garrison, under Colonel Dickson, on the other. The attackers were victorious, and the castles and lions of Spain floated over Baton Rouge until September 23, 1810. At that time, the Anglo-Americans in West Florida revolted against the rule of Spain, organized the “Republic of West Florida,” and sent an “army” under General Philemon Thomas to take this fort at Baton Rouge. This was done, after a slight engagement as the result of which the “lone star” flag appeared for the first time in American history. The ensign of the West Floridians was a blue woolen field with one silver star in the center. When the Republic of West Florida sought annexation to the United States, President Madison said it was part of the Louisiana purchase, so Governor Claiborne extended his control over the region, replacing the blue woolen flag with “Old Glory.” To this day, that part of Louisiana between the river, the lakes and the gulf is called “the Florida parishes.”
Within less than half a century five flags—Bourbon, British, Spanish, West Floridian, American—had flown over Baton Rouge. Within the next half century, two more were to fly—state and Confederate. A second state flag, adopted after Reconstruction, made the eighth, while the tricolor of the French republic, which floated over New Orleans for three weeks in 1803, makes nine banners that waved over one part or another of Louisiana.
INCORPORATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Under whichever of the first five flags she might be, Baton Rouge was not a municipality, merely a settlement about a military post, the com-


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mandant of which prescribed such regulations as he deemed needful. The city of Baton Rouge came into being when Governor James Yillerd signed, January 16, 1817, the statute authorizing the people of the town to elect five councillors, one of whom should be “magistrate,” or mayor. Hence January 16, 1917, was the centenary of the incorporation of Baton Rouge.
Besides having eight flags float above her, Baton Rouge has witnessed many other historic events. The visit of Lafayette, in 1825, was but one of such visits by notabilities like Clay, Beauregard, Scott, etc. Zachary Taylor departed from Baton Rouge for Mexico, in 1845. The city became the capital in 1850, while two years later a constitutional convention was held here. The secession convention met at Baton Rouge, in January 1861, seized the federal arsenal, and passed the ordinance of se'cession. Farragut captured the city, without a shot, in May 1862. In August, General Breckinridge, of the Confederate army, won a fruitless victory. He drove the Union forces from the outskirts of the city to the shelter of the gunboats, whose guns compelled him to withdraw. Federal headquarters were at New Orleans, Confederate at Shreveport. Not until after the regime of “carpetbagger and scalawag” was Baton Rouge again made the capital. This was done by the convention of 1879.
Ten years before this, the plant of the state university at Alexandria had been destroyed by fire, so its domicile was changed to Baton Rouge, which is also the site of the state schools for the deaf, dumb and blind, for several private and church schools, while on its outskirts is the state industrial college for the colored.
Perhaps the largest of all the Standard Oil refineries was erected at Baton Rouge in 1909. Four years later a constitutional convention met there and refunded the state debt. The year 1914 was signalized by the adoption of commission government, and the formation of the “organized charities,” in which Roman Catholic, Protestant and Jew combine their resources to try to handle the problems of poverty and unemployment.
Meanwhile, in 1913, city and parish (county) had co-operated to establish a free fair, for which space for exhibits, admittance of visitors, and the like, are all gratuitous. By 1916 Baton Rouge felt that she had made so much history that it was time to collect and conserve some of it. For this purpose the “Historical Society of East and West Baton Rouge” was organized, with-General John McGrath, a veteran of Walker’s first Nicaraguan expedition, and of the Civil war, at its head.
As oceangoing vessels can and do come to her docks, Baton Rouge did not rest until she was designated (1916) as a port of entry. Then she celebrated the occasion with a banquet. Seeking some other outlet for her enterprise and energy, she decided a modern Y. M. C. A. building was needed, so announcement was made that in the week beginning January 10, 1917, she would raise $50,000 for that purpose. When the clock struck 8, Tuesday evening, the 16th, $62,450 had been secured.


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A municipal abattoir had been established in the fall of 1915, which was so successful that it reduced within six months its fees, and is still self-sustaining. At present, the plant is being enlarged.
THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION
Early in October, 1916, the historical society and the city commission began to discuss the best way to celebrate the centennial of the city’s incorporation. Soon a committee was organized, representing, beside the two named, nearly every other organization of a religious, patriotic, social, business or fraternal nature. Tuesday, January 17, was the day selected. Because of a driving rain storm two items had to be omitted from the program; the “Jackies” of the U. S. torpedo-destroyers, Ster-rett, Lamson, and Monaghan (then in the harbor) were to have opened the celebration with a parade. In the afternoon, the cadet corps of Louisiana State University was to hold a dress-parade, followed by a band-concert.
The first number of the actual celebration was a joint meeting of the Louisiana historical society, with the local society. A marble marker has been erected on the site of the old Spanish fort. This monument will be dedicated on the anniversary of the capture.
The climax of the centennial was a series of tableaux, given the same evening, representing various epochs in the life of the city. Backgrounds, poses, costumes, music, all combined to lend an air of verisimilitude. First Iberville was shown, discovering the site of the city; the orders of Redmen and Woodmen of the World staged this. Next, the Knights of Columbus showed Galvez’s capture of the British fort, in 1779. The Odd Fellows then displayed the West Florida forces capturing it from the Spanish in 1810. Students of the university posed the first session of the first city council. Be it said in passing, that tradition tells us that one of the first councillors had been a pirate with Lafitte; another, a member of the West Florida Revolutionary junto, while a third was of Tory antecedents.
Lafayette’s arrival in 1825 was shown by the Knights of Pythias. This was followed by a ball in his honor. Lafayette himself opened the minuet, the other dancers being young ladies and gentlemen of “town and gown.” Fraternal orders, civilians and citizens next presented the scene of Zachary Taylor’s notification of his nomination for president, in 1848. The curtain then rose upon the secession convention, engaged in signing the ordinance. This was arranged by the Daughters of the Confederacy, and was posed by Confederate veterans, or their descendants. Students of the university showed the removal of the institution to Baton Rouge, in 1869. The last picture, another “town and gown” combination, showed the return of the capital to Baton Rouge.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
The Reorganization of the Administration of State Institutions in Kansas.—
The legislature which has recently adjourned decided that among other things Kansas would try the experiment of conducting all state institutions under one board. One of the features of the administrative program of Governor Capper was a recommendation that there should be a greater concentration of boards and commissions in the Kansas system so that the general movement for economy and efficiency might be made to apply to those functions of government for which Kansas spends the bulk of its appropriation. Late in the session, after the city manager bill had been passed, Mr. Martin introduced House Bill No. 517 which immediately came to be known as the state manager bill. The legislature was already committed to the idea of a city manager and it quite readily accepted the manager principle for the state institutions as well. The bill was accepted by the senate with a few amendments in which the house concurred without much debate. On July 1 a single board and a manager will take charge of all of the educational, penal and benevolent institutions and be held responsible for their efficient administration.
This law is the latest chapter in a period of experimentation in the field of institution management in Kansas. Up to 1913 there were at least seven separate governing boards for the state institutions. The legislature of that year swept these aside and substituted for them three separate boards, each to have charge of a given class of institutions. The state board of administration took the place of all of the boards of regents of the state schools (five in number), and besides it assumed direction of the schools for the deaf and the blind on the theory that these were educational and not charitable institutions. The board of control continued in au-
thority over all benevolent institutions, except the schools for the deaf and the blind just mentioned. The penal institutions, the administration of which had been in the hands of three separate boards were put under the control of a board of control. Since 1913, therefore, all of the Kansas institutions have been managed by three salaried boards, with the one exception of the homes for soldiers and soldiers’ widows. These continued in the keeping of an honorary board for sentimental reasons.
Under the Martin law of 1917 two new features in American state administration appear, a single board for all institutions, and a responsible paid manager to be chosen by the board. As the bill passed the house the manager was to be the sole salaried officer but the senate amended the bill to provide for a salaried board which is to give its whole time to the state. This feature was not contemplated by the governor nor by Mr. Martin but it seemed wise to those in charge of the bill not to risk its defeat by insisting in the senate upon an unpaid board. This was the sop thrown to the old officeholders and the house was persuaded to concur in the senate amendment.
The Board. The board consists of three members appointed by the governor, who by virtue of his office is chairman and the fourth member of the board. Each appointed member holds office for four years and provision is made for the retirement of two every fourth year beginning in 1921, and the retirement of one appointed member every fourth year beginning in 1917. Since the governor holds office for but two years there will always be a two-year elected member on the board. At every other election the governor will be able to name a majority of the appointive members and between times he and his appointee will make up half the membership of the board. Virtually,


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therefore, the governor becomes the head of all the institutions in the state. His position is made still more impregnable because the law gives him the authority to remove any member when he thinks the public welfare demands it. The members receive a salary of thirty-five hundred dollars a year.
Its powers include the right to control and manage all institutions, to erect buildings and keep them in repair, to employ a manager and a secretary and the heads of the institutions. (The state treasurer is made the treasurer of the board.) It may make its own rules of procedure with the limitation that its regulations must be enacted into law by the legislature and no rule defeated by one legislature shall be considered legal until enacted by some subsequent legislature. It has authority to fix all salaries in the various institutions upon the recommendation of the executive officer thereof. It is also a corporate body with power to bring suits and institute and defend proceedings in the courts. The attorney general is made its legal officer for such proceedings.
The Manager. The law provides in the second place for a general manager, who for want of a better term may be called the fiscal officer of the board. He is the hired man, at a salary to be determined by the board, serving at the pleasure of the board. Under a senate amendment he must be a resident of Kansas of at least a year’s standing at the time of appointment. His function is to “manage and control” the various institutions by and with the advice of the board and “to purchase all supplies required by such institutions.” He does not, however, have any appointing power, for the choice of the heads of institutions is left with the board and the choice of employes throughout the state is left to the executive heads except in so far as the state civil service law operates under the present management. He is not a manager in the sense that many have seemed to infer from a hasty reading of the bill. As a matter of fact the executive heads of the several institutions are vested with more authority
than they have exercised during the last four years under the experimental large-power board system. So far as local policy is concerned there seems to be less chance for outside interference than under the laws of 1913. Perhaps the most interesting function of the manager has to do with the making of the budget. It is his duty to submit estimates for appropriations to the governor before the meeting of the legislature. In making out these estimates the law declares that he must consult with the heads of 'the institutions. He is also made personally liable if expenditures exceed the appropriations.
Section 13 of the act gives the general theory of the board and manager system in the following words; the act contemplates “the employment of an expert general manager, for the business and scientific management of all state institutions covered by this act, and also for the placing of all educational, benevolent and penal institutions of the state of Kansas under one management and under one board of trustees or directors, with a suitable place of business at the state capital, for the orderly and economical administration thereof, publicity and fairness in the awarding of contracts for all supplies, the keeping of such books and records, accounts and reports as shall not only show the cost of maintaining each of said institutions, but also the per capita cost of maintaining the inmates thereof, and this act shall be . liberally construed so as to carry out such purposes.”
Altogether eighteen state institutions are by this act brought under the management of this new board of administration—a board each member of which gives bond in the sum of ten thousand dollars to the state for the faithful performance of duty. C. A. Dyxstra.
*
Home Rule Progress in New York State.—Since the assembly in 1914 passed the proposed amendment to the constitution granting to cities the right to adopt their own charters and regulate their own affairs free from legislative interference save by general laws or in matters of


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state concern, little progress has been made in the direction of constitutional home rule. The constitutional convention of 1915 proposed, by way of compromise, a limited grant of power, which failed with the defeat of the entire proposed constitution.
The advocates of a thorough-going home rule amendment, despairing of its speedy adoption, concluded to present a compromise proposal that would not encounter the strong opposition that hadmanifesteditself . to the grant of any independent power to cities. Such a proposal was the Mills-Welsh amendment, first introduced in the legislature of 1916 at the instance of the conference of mayors and other city officials and endorsed as an acceptable compromise by the municipal government association of New York state, the citizens union, the city club and other home rule advocates. It provides for legislative home rule rather than constitutional home rule, properly so called,—i.e. while commanding the legislature to grant to cities the power of adopting their own local laws on municipal matters, as well as of drafting their own charters, it is not selfexecuting, but leaves the manner of executing the constitutional command entirely in the hands of the legislature and by way of sanction prohibits the legislature from passing any special or local law relating to the property, affairs or government of cities, but leaves the legislature with unrestricted power to regulate municipal affairs by general laws and to regulate matters of state concern by general or special laws.
Even this moderate proposal met with opposition. It made no progress in the 1916 legislature and was reintroduced in the 1917 legislature. At the 1917 session, another amendment was introduced by Senator E. R. Brown, purporting to grant some measure of home rule by declaring the power of the legislature to grant additional powers to cities, but without any grant of or direction for the grant of power to cities and without restriction on the power of the legislature other than that resulting from the requirement that grants of power to cities (but not restrictions on
cities) could be granted only by general laws. A contest developed between the Brown amendment and the Mills-Welsh amendment. The senate, of which Senator Brown was the majority leader, passed the illusory Brown amendment. The assembly, after debate, passed the Mills-Welsh amendment, against the opposition of the leaders of both parties. The Brown amendment, however, remained on the assembly calendar and was slipped through the assembly in the closing days of the session, without debate, by a “quick roll call.”
It cannot fairly be said that the Brown amendment represents the deliberate judgment of the legislature. The advocates of real home rule will renew the fight next year. Any amendment, whether the Brown amendment or an adequate amendment, if passed in 1918, will have to be repassed by the legislature to be chosen at the next election of senators in November, 1918, before it can be submitted to a vote of the people. Laurence A. Tanzer.
*
Consolidation of Governmental Agencies in Illinois.—Concerning the editorial note attached to Professor W. F. Dodd’s interesting account of the work that had been done in Illinois under Governor Lowden’s administration appearing in the May issue under the above title, the Hon. Morton D. Hull writes as follows:
I notice in the May number of the National Municipal Review an editorial note to an article by Professor Dodd with reference to the recent legislation in Illinois consolidating certain departments of the state government, giving me perhaps more credit than I am entitled to. Credit for the initiation of this whole program belongs to the old committee of the 48th general assembly of which Charles F. Hurburgh of Galesburg was chairman.
I am glad to have made some contribution in public discussion to the interest in this program, and believe that I have helped in its accomplishment, but think Mr. Lowden is entitled to much the major credit in the present situation.
*
Idaho’s City Manager Law.—The
fourteenth session of the Idaho legislature was productive of but one significant measure relating to municipal govern-


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ment—an act providing for the city-manager form. It provides that the question of the adoption of such a form shall be submitted to the people whenever a petition is filed signed by electors equal in number to 25 per cent of all votes cast for mayor in the last election. The issue shall be voted on at a special election, and if at this election, the proposition is defeated, the issue cannot be again raised within two years.
A board of commissioners is provided for, varying in number from five to nine, according to population. Their term is four years, with a portion of the board retiring every two years. At the first election, the commissioners are to be chosen by wards, but subsequently they will be chosen either by wards or at large, according to the method subsequently designated by the municipal ordinance. The board must hold meetings at least twice every month. It also has the power to appoint the city manager.
The city manager holds office during the pleasure of the board, and is responsible for the general supervision of the city’s business, for the execution of the ordinances, the making of appointments not otherwise provided for, and for the making of recommendations to the board relative to matters of public concern. No limitations as to salary are mentioned, and no qualifications are provided.
The act provides that the work of the city shall be divided into at least five departments (public affairs, accounts and finance, public safety, streets and public improvements, parks and public property) and as many more as the board may provide.
It is provided further that the city may return to the original form of government any time after the expiration of six years upon a majority vote of the people.
Three cities in the state, viz., Moscow, Pocatello, and Coeur d’Alene, are giving serious consideration to the question of the adoption of the city-manager form.
John T. Lewis.
Charter Revision in Bridgeport, Conn.—
The legislature during its closing sessions passed a bill giving official sanction to the work of the charter revision committee which has been at work in this city for over a year. This is the committee which prepared the commission-government charter which was carried last November by an overwhelming majority, but which never went into effect for the lack of support by 60 per cent of those voting at the election. Immediately after the election, Mayor Clifford B. Wilson, who had opposed the commission plan, indicated that he would favor a city manager. The old commission thereupon started work upon a commission-manager charter. This, during May, was presented to the mayor and approved by him. It will be voted upon by the people on August 11.
The proposed charter is “orthodox” in every respect—five commissioners elected by preferential ballot and a city manager with the power of appointment of all city officers except the city clerk and corporation counsel. Provision is made for the four departments of public safety, finance, public works and public welfare. A civil service commission will have jurisdiction in the selection of appointees in all departments.
H. G. Gilbertson.
♦
Proportional Representation.—On May
19 the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia passed a bill, introduced by the Premier, allowing municipalities to adopt proportional representation in municipal elections. The act provides that the system of proportional representation shall be that known as the “single transferable vote,” which was adopted in 1915 by Ashtabula, Ohio, and in December, 1916, by Calgary, Alberta. The rules and regulations for counting the votes and making the necessary transfers are to be prescribed, according to the act, by the “Lieutenant-Governor in Council,” which in practice means the government of the day.


1917]
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509
Chicago’s Street Railway Situation.—
Unification of the present surface and elevated transportation facilities of Chicago, financial as well as operating, into a composite system and articulating with a future subway system, is the ambitious plan presented by the Chicago traction and subway commission, recently submitted to the city council committee on local transportation, and now engaging the serious attention of Chicago and the legislature. The commission reports upon the value of the present elevated property and presents a comprehensive plan of operation, financing and regulation covering the combined systems.
The report is highly interesting in its detailed handling of a most intricate transportation problem. It has an additional interest in the attempt by its provisions to undo some of the more obvious mistakes of the original franchise ordinance of 1907 covering the surface lines, particularly the failure to provide for amortizing capital investment and to make municipal ownership a practical proposition; also to provide an effective scheme of regulation and control of service.
The traction and subway commission’s first plan calls for a unified franchise covering the elevated and surface systems, running for thirty years from 1917, with a provision limiting the city’s right to purchase the properties until one-half the capital has been retired through an amortization fund provided from gross earnings and incidental sources. It is estimated that this 50-50 condition can be reached by 1947, when the city would be empowered to acquire the property by assuming the remaining indebtedness against it. Later there was suggested, to meet the necessities of financing the proposition, a fifty-year grant with the city empowered to purchase the property at any time. This proposal was indorsed strongly by the companies, who claimed that nothing less than a fifty-year graDt was a practical necessity to enable them successfully to finance construction. The city council, however, refused to accept the fifty-year proposition, insisting upon a straight thirty-year term.
Under the plan proposed by the commission, all the money for subway and other construction, equipment, etc., would be furnished by the company, except that the city’s present share of the accumulated profits from operation of the surface lines, about twenty-one million dollars, and all future accumulations from this source, would be used for construction purposes.
It is provided that the operating company shall receive 6 per cent on its present certified investment in surface and elevated properties, aggregating 1217,876,417. Of this amount $70,400,916 represents the value of the elevated lines as appraised by the commission. The above sum also will be the original agreed purchase price. New capital is to be furnished at actual cost, whether applying to the refunding of existing indebtedness or to new securities. There will be division of profits between the company and the city on the present contract basis of 45 per cent and 55 per cent, respectively. The company is secured in a profit minimum of 1 per cent of the annual gross receipts, but its total right of return upon its investment in excess of 8 per cent shall go into the amortization fund. This fund will be provided:
1. By annual payments from net earnings before the division of profits.
2. By the diversion back into the property for construction purposes of the city’s entire present traction fund and all future additions to the same and interest thereon.
The commission’s present forecast is that under this method the whole of the company’s then investment, aggregating about $490,000,000, would be retired in 1960, leaving to the city the property free of all encumbrance, which it could operate directly or lease for operation.
As a means to assist the company to finance construction and refund its present obligations, the commission recommends that the surface and elevated companies surrender their existing franchises and accept new contracts under the terms outlined above. The franchise of the surface lines expires in 1927, those of the elevated lines at various times in the future, up to 1945.


510 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
To assure the largest possible measure of efficiency of public regulation and control of the unified properties, the commission suggests the creation of a nonpolitical board of regulation and control, organized along the lines of the present board of supervising engineers, empowered to administer the details of the control of finance, organization, construction, service and extensions, subject to the general authority of the city council. The members of this board are required to be experts in traction management. The power of appointment and discharge is vested in the city council. The franchise is subject to a referendum vote of the people.
There is sharp public discussion of the commission’s program, and some criticism. The fifty-year franchise proposal has been the most prominent point of attack, due probably to the traditional hostile attitude of the Chicago public to long-term franchises. Municipal ownership advocates oppose the proposed settlement on the ground that any settlement involving a franchise contract necessarily means the postponement of the day of municipal ownership and operation of the property.
Legislation broadening the city’s present powers to deal with the new transportation situation will be required. Enabling bills to that purpose have been introduced in the legislature and approved by the Chicago city council. These bills provide in substance for the following:
1. Restoring to the city the powers of home rule taken from it by the state public utilities act (recently upheld by the dtate supreme court).
2. Authorizing the city to grant a thirty-year franchise to a new operating company formed by the merger of the elevated and surface lines.
3. Authorizing the city to construct and operate subways.
4. Authorizing the merger of the companies owning the surface and elevated lines.
Further progress in the solution of the traction situation in Chicago now depends on the action of the legislature. With passage of the proposed bills the larger
[July
problem of drafting a working ordinance still remains to be done.
It is of interest that the man who framed the 1907 ordinance, which was the real beginning of the new street railway franchise order in the United States, is now again at the helm, in the capacity of special counsel to the traction commission, Walter L. Fisher. Mr. Fisher’s immediate special task is the preparation of the enabling legislation.
Former Governor Edward F. Dunne, who was mayor of Chicago at the time of the adoption of the 1907 street railway ordinance and led the fight against the same, is now vigorously fulminating against the proposed unification scheme. He declares that the proposition presented by the commission is flagrantly excessive as to cost and unjust in franchise terms and that it will be overwhelmingly condemned at the polls.
Stiles P. Jones.
*
Cleveland’s Three-Cent Fare Policy.—
The question of continuance of the three-cent fare of the Cleveland street railway system is right now receiving more anxious consideration than ever in the life of the present franchise settlement.
Cleveland has been growing very rapidly in population in recent years. Transportation facilities have not kept pace with the increase in population and with genuine traffic needs. There is much complaint of undue crowding of the cars at the rush hours and of the general inadequacy of the system to meet the city’s transportation needs. Mayor Davis publicly puts the responsibility for the inadequate service upon the company. He insists that the management must improve its service or be refused a renewal of its franchise in 1919. He declares, however, that the present fare must be maintained.
President Stanley of the company, on the other hand, charges the situation to the inability of the present rate of fare to supply the money with which to meet the operating costs of a better service. He states that there is at present a deficit of $450,000 in the operating and maintenance funds, and he wants a prompt


1917]
NOTES AND EVENTS
settlement of this situation. The city has the power to relieve conditions through its control of service, he declares. To provide service in accordance with the present needs would, in the opinion of Mr. Stanley, so increase operating expenses as to make it necessary to advance the rate of fare, now three cents with one cent for transfer.
Eight here comes the rub. The low fare is immensely popular with the Cleveland people. Any increase in the rate would unquestionably meet with public disapproval and indirectly might lead to political disaster to the present administration.
Fielder Sanders, street railway commissioner, asserts that no fare increase is called for; that the traffic needs can be met by greater efficiency and economy in operation on the part of the company, and he indicates where and how. There is danger that this situation will eventually make the question of low fare vs. adequate service the leading political issue in Cleveland.
The present situation in Cleveland suggests two thoughts to any city engaged in the preparation of the modern street railway franchise: (1) The doubtful wisdom of putting too strong emphasis upon the factor of low fare under the abnormal transportation conditions of the period— cost of furnishing the service and of construction. (2) The political complications associated with the Cleveland system of control of street railway operation.
S. P. J.
*
Minneapolis Street Railway Settlement.—Negotiations between the city of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis street railway company for a new franchise settlement are finally assuming definite form.
It was almost two years ago that the necessary enabling act was secured from the legislature. Progress in the meantime has been waiting on a valuation of the property. The city engineer completed an appraisal for the city in September last. A short time later the company presented the appraisal report
511
made by its engineers. No further progress was made until February 15, when the street railway committees of the city council decided to have the city engineer’s appraisal reviewed by an outside valuation authority before negotiating for a valuation agreement. The committee at the same time directed the city attorney to secure the necessary expert assistance and proceed to the preparation of a franchise contract.
Subsequently the council selected Charles L. Pillsbury of Minneapolis, consulting engineer, best known for his recent work of appraising for the District of Columbia commission all the public utility properties of the district, to make the valuation review, and Stiles P. Jones, executive secretary of the central franchise committee, to assist the city attorney in the construction of the franchise. The company has submitted a franchise proposal based on the principles of cost of service, with the fare fixed at five cents and a division of the profits between the company and the city.
The question of the valuation of the property to be named in the franchise seems to be the present serious handicap to an early agreement. There was a wide difference in the aggregate of the two valuations presented. The city engineer’s appraisal was $25,914,308, which included $4,270,230 representing going concern value in the form of superseded property. The company’s appraiser found a total valuation of $35,323,375. Both appraisals were made solely on the basis of cost of reproduction. The city engineer deducted for depreciation on most of the depreciable physical property, while the company’s appraisal made no allowance whatever for depreciation, stating that the property was in 100 per cent service condition and therefore not equitably subject to depreciation for value.
The two appraisals differed but slightly on the basis of value of the physical property undepreciated—1J per cent. The difference represents largely the city engineer’s depreciation allowance and the addition by the company’s appraisers of


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discount, working capital, property not now used for transportation purposes and higher overhead expense.
The central franchise committee, the organization representing the public in the negotiations, has questioned some of the city engineer’s conclusions, and it ia at their suggestion that the review of his appraisal was authorized by the council committee.
The franchise must be ratified by a vote of the people.
S. P. J.
*
Unification of Street Railway Systems in San Francisco.—Events in the making of local transportation history in San Francisco are apparently bringing the city and the United railways company constantly nearer together on the only logical solution of the complicated street railway problem of that city—unification of the United railways with the municipal system, under city ownership and operation.
The company’s financial condition and the improbability under the city charter limitations of developing transportation facilities to meet the expanding needs of the city, seem to make municipal ownership inevitable at no distant date.
The recent decision of the circuit court finding for the city in the controversy
over the joint use of Market street further complicates the situation for the company. The jitney competition of the past two years is another serious factor in the company’s situation.
The city engineer is preparing a report for the board of supervisors which will discuss the problems involved in the taking over of the United railways properties by the municipality. The company’s financial reorganization plan, which reduces the capitalization nearly one-half, makes municipal ownership easier by bringing the cost within the city’s purchasing power, under the debt limitations of the charter.
President Lillienthal of the United railways company has been recently quoted to the effect that he is ready to sell the property to the city; that a monopoly is necessary to the successful operation of a street railway system, and that inasmuch as the city will not sell its lines to the company, the company logically must sell out to the city. He states that it is impossible for the company to secure money for extensions under the present conditions of municipal competition and hampering charter provisions.
The California railroad commission is now making a physical valuation of the company’s property.
S. P. J.
II. POLITICS1
Indiana’s Constitutional Convention Work is progressing most encouragingly. The Citizens’ league of Indiana was an important factor in securing a patriotic, broad-minded, intelligent legislature in 1917, which differed from other legislatures in that for the past twenty years a majority of the members, if not in numbers, then in power, had been sent by “liquor” and “public utilities.”
In 1911, in an effort to secuie for Indiana cities an improved system of city government, there was organized the “business system of city government
1 Unless otherwise indicated, the items in this department are prepared by Clinton Rogers Woodruff.
league of Indiana” which carried a very strong, state-wide campaign covering a period of two years. It went before the 1913 legislature with the support of the commercial and other semi-political and social organizations of the state. Its main effort, however, was centered on securing the adoption of a bill for Fort Wayne, and for that purpose was enlisted the support of all the organized bodies in that city, comprising the commercial, social and educational bodies, the clergy and the citizens at large, with the result that 2,500 signatures were secured to a petition prepared for this purpose. It was to be left optional with Fort Wayne or any other city to adopt the plan. The “plan”


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was approved by the governor and leading politicians, but was ingloriously defeated in the legislature through the efforts of the local political “boss” and the assistance of the members of the “secret government” made up of a half dozen of the leading public utility lawyers and brewery bosses. Immediately after the session of this legislature the citizens’ .league of Indiana was organized for the purpose of promoting a new constitution.
As early as 1913, there had been considerable agitation for a new constitution, and the political "machine” in order to side-track it, employed their attorneys to prepare a series of “twenty-two amendments,” called the “Stotsenburg” or the “lost” amendments. At the same time they prepared a bill, submitting the question of a constitutional convention to the vote of the people at the next election. There was also prepared for this same legislature a public utility law, perhaps the worst that was ever put over in any state of the Union. These three bills were put through without any hitch whatever. Under the present constitution, amendments must pass two successive legislatures, and so the “twenty-two amendments,” after passing in 1913, were brought before the 1915 legislature. The league analyzed and exposed both the convention bill and the “twenty-two amendments,” as they were vicious to the last degree. As a result of its work the “amendments” were killed, and when the convention bill came up for the vote of the people in the November election, a strong fight in favor of it for educational purposes was made to make the opposition show their hand. The bill did not receive a majority of all the votes cast as was expected, but this, together with the “twenty-two amendments” and the public utility law furnished the league all the material they needed for bringing before the people of the state the crooked methods of the ■“machine.” It made a splendid campaign for two years, and in every way encouraged the anti-liquor and woman suffrage forces. A strong effort was made to secure good men for the legislature.
Another great factor that acted favor-fi
ably on the 1917 legislature was the disruption in the “machine” brought about by “war” conditions. The saloon vote in Indiana has been controlled by the democratic “machine” and was made up to a large extent of German-Americans. These Germans for once deserted the Democratic standard, to show their resentment toward President Wilson, and voted solidly for Hughes, with the result that Indiana went Republican. This produced a split in the Democratic party, and all those that got hit, together with the Wilson-Bryan and other ‘ ‘ dry’ ’ Democi ats, decided to withdraw from “liquor.” Under these conditions the 1917 legislature met, with each man informed as to “machine” methods and the influence of liquor and public utilities. We had a very strong legislative committee, and fortunately had a governor, Mr. Goodrich, who belonged to our “forward lookers,” and was a powerful factor in the fight.
This legislature passed, by a large majority of the non-partisan vote, the constitutional convention bill prepared by the league’s committee, a womans’ suffrage bill, giving the women theii first vote on delegates to the constitutional convention, and a state-wide prohibition bill, operative April 1, 1918.
The citizens’ league is now engaged in organizing the state, by counties, into constitutional discussion forums. The league has a number of organizers throughout the state, and furnishes speakers for each district. The campaign opened with a constitutional discussion supper at Fort Wayne, which was followed the next week by one at South Bend.
Ross F. Lockridge, 425 Law Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. is secretary of the league.1
Theodore F. Thieme.
*The question has been raised by the interests as to the constitutionality of the provision permitting women to vote for delegates to the constitutional convention. This would be offset, however, by a provision under which the ballots of the women will be taken separately and deposited in a separate receptacle so that if it should be held that they have no right to vote their votes can be easily eliminated. The same method was adopted in Massachusetts.—Editor.


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Chicago’s New City Council,—In April Chicago held an important municipal election. Thirty-six aldermen were elected, or one more than half of the total number serving. There were several issues involved, but only one was “city wide” and fundamental—this issue being “Thompsonism vs, an independent and non-spoils city council.” On this issue the mayor, “Big Bill” Thompson, suffered a decisive defeat. The new council is unmistakably anti-Thompson by a large majority. The city hall machine fought the best men in the council and sought to defeat them at the primaries or at the election.
Thanks to our antiquated election law, we have to use meaningless terms and labels in discussing city elections and their results. The council is now nominally “Democratic,” and the spoils Democrats are pointing with satisfaction to the fact that they have complete and easy control of the council. Because of these foolish boastings of the reactionary elements of the Democratic party, Mayor Thompson has been saying that he expects to get along better with the new council than he did with the old one, and that he lost nothing in the April elections. For these claims there is very little foundation.
Every fit alderman in the council is formally pledged to treat his office as nonpartisan, and the fit constitute a majority. When the matter of organization—of committee assignments and the distribution of important chairmanships—came up, immediately after the election, a serious effort was made by the obtuse mayor and his cheap henchmen to defeat the principle of non-partisan organization and put through a “slate” satisfactory to the spoilsmen of both parties. The effort failed signally. The mayor suffered a humiliating defeat, and the municipal voters’ league won another notable victory for the established principle that the aldermanic office is wholly non-partisan.
It is true, however, that on certain real or sham “ward” issues the mayor’s sordid machine scored two or three victories. The defeat of Prof. Charles E. Merriam in the Republican primaries (a
defeat due to strained technical rulings by the election board), followed by his unsuccessful attempt to run as an independent (the attempt failing because of other and even more tenchnical quibbles), is admittedly a severe blow to the cause of intelligent, honest and courageous public service. The defeat of Alderman Robert Buck, a forceful and well-informed man, whom the crooks had every reason to fear, is also a bad blow. These able and useful men were “knifed” by voters of their own party. The independents and the public-spirited women voters worked hard in their behalf, but the spoils allies proved to be too strong. The latter, it should be added, had the active aid of narrowminded “business men,” who had opposed Merriam and Buck on school questions.
The present council is honest enough and “safe” enough. There is little danger of partisan or of corrupt treatment of the seveial important questions that await consideration and action. The trouble is that the council needs more initiative, constructive ability and knowledge than it now commands. As one good alderman said, “We know how to vote; we are to be depended upon to vote right, but we lack the authority, the grasp and information which we need.” Merriam was an intellectual as well as a moral leader, and his retirement is a loss that will be felt in budget-making, in utility regulation, in protection of the merit service and in maintaining departmental efficiency.
New ordinances dealing with local transportation, gas rates, “home rule,” etc., are befoie the council. The action of the council on these subjects is awaited with concern and anxiety. True, the mayor has lost what little influence he had, and his machine is bankrupt and discredited. Even the power of obstruction has been all but lost by the city hall gang. If, then, the council contains a trustworthy and progressive majority, the legislation of the next two years should fairly reflect the sentiment of the more enlightened and public-spirited voters of the community. And this, assuredly, is all that sober-minded liberals, or even radicals, have the right to ask.


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Chicago, by the way, has lately suffered a severe blow in a decision of the state supreme court holding that the public utility commission, and not the city council, has the power to regulate the utilities operating within the boundaries of the municipality. Thus questions of rates, quality of service, etc., are taken out of the hands of the city’s local government. This creates an anomalous situation. The city can grant franchises, but regulation of service is within the exclusive authority of a state body appointed by the governor. It may be doubted whether the legislature intended to rob Chicago of this amount of home rule when it passed the act creating a state utility commission. Chicago may be able to recover the power thus lost, to secure an amendment of the utilities act restoring home rule to her. The city council is committed to home rule and will work and fight hard to recover it. To obtain sufficient popular and outside support, however, it will have to display more capacity and efficiency with reference to utility affairs than it has displayed in the last few years.
Victor S. Yarbos.
*
“Detroit the dynamic” is awakening to appreciation of the value of efficient and economical municipal administration, along with big values in motor cars. Within the past year a civic revolution, acting on the evolutionary method, has been proceeding; its sponsors hope to carry it to culmination next November with such a final revision of the whole city government as to provide a small common council—-nine to fifteen members,—elected at large on a non-partisan ballot. Demand for the commission-manager plan also is heard on many sides.
Nearly five years ago the Detroit citizens’ league was organized by Henry M. Leland, president of the Cadillac Motor Company, and Attorney Pliny W. Marsh, formerly legislative superintendent of the Michigan Anti-Saloon Lague, and recognized as an expert in legislative matters. This organization now holds the center of the political stage, commanding universal respect and a measure of support as to its
programs never before accorded to any good government group in this city. The Detroit bureau of governmental research, working on parallel lines, also is a strong factor in the situation, though its labors have extended only about a year.
“Something is wrong with the city government—find out what it is and fix it,” said Mr. Leland and his associates to Mr. Marsh. A common council of 42 members, elected by wards, two from each ward, was the hub of the wheel. Various spokes were the 21-man school board, seamed with politics and graft for years, a similarly bulky board of estimates, a street-car system which had become a political football, and numerous jobholders who had been systematically sacrificing public to private interest.
In less than five years the league has created a public sentiment which has grown along with the astonishing growth of the 'city. Every year has added to the prestige of the league and to the confidence which it enjoys. With every election recently some moot question has been submitted by charter amendment and settled by the voters; now the final drive is on.
After three years of investigation the league found the root of all evil in an election system ruled by bosses who managed controlled precincts. The Scott-Flowers law, followed with a charter amendment, wrought radical, permanent reform here through an election commission of five men; the last election was 99 per cent clean.
Other achievements have been abolition of the old board of estimates and of the school board; for each was substituted a small, modern body. The new school board of seven members, one of them a woman, is made up of persons of highest character and ability. Saloons were wiped out at the state election last fall, though they will continue to operate another year. The saloon influence in Detroit politics had become so powerful and corrupt that thousands of liberals voted dry and the city gave only a majority of 9,000 on the wet side.
By legislation recently the city was permitted to revise its own charter, under


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generous home rule provisions, with a small commission chosen at large. City elections were separated from state and national elections by a charter amendment adopted last spring. The citizens’ league now has launched its campaign for a modem plan of government. Politicians predict it will win without question, though there will be a real fight. Clinton Rogers Woodruff of Philadelphia gave the address at the meeting when the enterprise was publicly started. Detroit is preparing to entertain the annual convention of the National Municipal League
next November. _ „ T
William P. Lovett.1
First Election Under the New Charter of Grand Rapids.—A new charter was adopted by Grand Rapids last year which divides the city into three large wards and provides for the election by the people at large of seven commissioners, two from each of these wards and one at large. The commissioners choose a city manager and other department heads except the controller, who is elected by the people, and except the directors of public service, public welfare and the purchasing agent, who are appointed by the manager. The commissioners were nominated at a nonpartisan primary held March 7, and elected at the election on April 2.
Early in January an organization known as the citizens’ league was formed under the leadership of Charles W. Garfield. This enabled the progressive voters to take full charge of the reform movement. They led the field of 40 candidates with a dozen of their own for the ruling positions, and all seven of the commissioners were among the candidates selected and vigorously supported by the league. Both Mayor Tilma and former Mayor Ellis were eliminated from all power or hope of power despite an understood alliance quietly formed between these two former bitter enemies. During the campaign the prevailing cry was “Leave out all the politicians—put the government strictly on a business basis.” This is the new policy.
1 Executive secretary, Detroit civic league.
The city will have a new deal at the hands of seven high grade men. Five of them are business men. Another is a printer, recently president of the trades and labor council of the city and a strict union labor man. Daniel Kelley, the man in question, is one of those who helped draft the charter and is held in high esteem. Another commissioner who helped to prepare the new charter is a moderately successful shoe dealer, highly regarded in his community. Only one of the commissioners has had any political experience. He was an alderman some years ago.
As an evidence of the intention of the commission to conduct the business on a high grade of efficiency its first act was to select Gaylord C. Cummin who had made an excellent reputation as city manager of Jackson, Michigan, as city manager. Mr. Cummin entered on the duties of his office May 10, at a salary of $10,000.
*
Cincinnati’s New Charter Effort.—
Cincinnati, practically the last city of any consequence in Ohio that has not taken the advantage of the home rule provisions of the state constitution, fell into fine on Tuesday, April 17, by voting in favor of drafting a home rule charter electing fifteen commissioners to draw it up. Three years ago the voters of Cincinnati defeated by a large majority a somewhat radical instrument that was presented to them by the charter commissioners. At that time there was a very large and active “no charter” party. Cincinnati, however, has found that she is the only large city affected by amendments to the general city code. The state legislature in passing measures favored by the smaller cities has taken the attitude toward “protecting Cincinnati” that if she objects, she should, following the example of the other large cities, adopt a charter and take care of her own affairs. There was, therefore, at this election no opposition whatever to the charter movement.
There were three tickets for charter commissioners in the field. One of these was the Socialist ticket, but the two main


1917]
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tickets were non-partisan in their nature, the members of both dominant political parties being represented on each of them. However, the non-partisan flavor was lost a few days before the election when the Democratic party endorsed the “citizens’ charter ticket.” The Republican executive committee immediately thereupon “deploring that politics had been dragged into this non-partisan question” endorsed the “greater Cincinnati ticket.” The total vote on the charter proposition was 29,011, a very small percentage of the registered voters. At the same election, 44,326 voters, approximately 40 per cent of the total registered vote, voted on the rapid transit “loop lease” ordinance, 25,383 voted for and 3,628 against the drafting of a new charter.
*
The Defeat of Mayor Lindsley of Dallas.—Virtue may be its own reward, but political usefulness seldom is, if we may judge from the regularity with which men like Henry D. Lindsley are defeated after administrations which reflect credit on themselves, on the community and establish precedents of far-reaching importance. As has been pointed out on more than one occasion in the pages of the National Municipal Review, the administration of Mr. Lindsley as mayor of Dallas, Texas, has been of exceptional value, but evidently the voters of that city felt otherwise, for he was defeated on April 3 by a clear majority. Perhaps it was a case of undertaking to establish too many new records at once with the resultant civic indigestion. This phrase is used apropos of a discussion at the Geneva conference, May 4 and 5. After W. E. Kruesi, who had been superintendent of social welfare at Schenectady during the Socialist administration, had recounted the numerous advantageous measures actually enacted into law and the substantial reforms actually enacted, he was asked why it was the people did not re-elect those who had been responsible for such an unusual record, to which the reply came promptly, “It was a case of giving the people too much to digest at one time.”
The situation in Dallas was peculiar. Coincident with the mayoralty campaign was a campaign inaugurated by the public service companies. Because the mayor could not conscientiously commend these franchises to the voters, although he had through his personal efforts brought them to the condition where they could be presented to the people of the city with many advantages, the public utility people brought out and backed a candidate for mayor whom they believed would be more amenable to them. The franchises were approved by a majority of 3,600 votes, and Mayor Lindsley defeated by 1,100 votes. Unfortunately the mayor was called out of Dallas by the serious illness of his wife shortly after the beginning of the campaign, which of course removed his striking personality from it.
One of the unfortunate results of the defeat of Mayor Lindsley will be the loss of the services of many men of high calibre who have been called into the public service through his leadership.
The new commission consists of three re-elected members of the old commission and two new men. Two of the holdovers were loyal adherents of Mr. Lindsley, clean and reasonably progressive. The other re-elected member was an unfriendly factor all through the Lindsley administration.
*
Galveston, Texas.—Galveston has just passed through another municipal election in which the candidates of the citizens’ league were triumphantly elected, including the election as mayor president of
I. H. Kempner who has been the finance commissioner for fourteen years. The commissioner of fire and police who has held office since the inauguration of the commission plan sixteen years ago had permitted his department to become lax and inefficient. A great deal of dissatisfaction arose and the result was that out of 6,500 votes polled, he received a few more than 1,000, this with both of his departments heartily supporting him. There seems to be general satisfaction with the change and with the outlook for an effective administration.


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Wheeling, West Virginia’s, Municipal Campaign.—Wheeling, West Virginia, will inaugurate its city-manager charter under what bid fair to be favorable auspices. At the election on May 24 a high class, non-partisan ticket was elected over the strenuous opposition of the political organizations, including of course the office holders. The successful men all had the endorsement of a citizens’ committee, made up largely of the men who had framed and carried the charter and
who were determined that the new government should be administered by officials in harmony with the spirit of the charter and committed to the idea of honest and efficient non-partisan government. The efforts of the committee were seconded by the Register (Democratic) and the Telegraph (Republican). The new council is divided politically, three Democrats and six Republicans, and contains several exceptionally strong men.
III. JUDICIAL DECISIONS1
Extra Compensation for City Employes.
—In Seaman v. City of New York? a contract of an employe of the highway department of the city to do extra work as an architect for a municipal building and to receive compensation therefor was held repugnant to the common law as permitting a clash of interests of the city and the individual. The fact that he had leave of absence did not help the situation.
In McQuire v. Prendergast5 the court permitted a visiting physician at the city prison to collect fees for testifying as an expert on insanity before commissioners where defendants pleaded insanity as a defense despite the fact that he received an annual salary and had regular office hours, for the position was not specially provided for by law, and he had taken no oath of office. The court said that such payments violated neither the letter not the spirit of the charter, especially as the comptroller had been paying such claims and these payments were a county not a city charge. These two cases seem rather difficult to reconcile unless the distinction between city and county is regarded as of real importance.
*
Employing Special Counsel.—The California district court of appeals in Rafael v. Boyle4 has decided that the charter of
Unless otherwise indicated, the decisions are those of the court of last resort in the state mentioned.
1 159 New York Sup. 563.
1 159 New York Sup. 60S.
* 161 Pacific 126.
San Francisco which provides a city attorney by implication requires the civil service commission to avail itself of his services, and it cannot, when he is ready and willing to serve, employ an attorney at the expense of the city to defend its members in legal proceedings merely because the charter empowers it to institute and prosecute legal proceedings for violation of an article of the charter. As a matter of fact, the commission got into trouble by acting contrary to the opinion of the city attorney.
*
Appointive Officer Need not be a Citizen.—The charter of Traverse City, Michigan, provides that no person shall be eligible to elective office unless he is 25 years old, a citizen of the United States and a resident and taxpayer for five years. In Coxe v. Carson? the court held that the charter did not require that the police marshal, an appointive officer, should be a citizen of the United States. The court said that the legislature had the power to confer on cities the right to determine the qualification of elective officers.
*
Limitation on Home Rule Powers.—In
McQueen v. City Commission of Port Huron, Mich.? it was held that the city electors cannot dissolve or alter the powers of their board of education by adopting a new charter under the home rule law7 which specifically excepts public school de-
8160 N. W. 534.
•180 N. W. 627.
1 Public Acts 1909, No. 279, section 4.


1917]
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519
partments from alteration thereunder. An injunction was granted against the city commission’s issuing bonds for a new school.
*
Municipal Censorship.—The Texas court of civil appeals in Xydias Amusement Company v. Houston1 decided that where the legislature by statute merely provides the penalty Lfor showing improper moving pictures, the statute being silent as to censorship and making no attempt to cover the whole field, the city may create a board of censors and require their permit to issue before exhibition of pictures. In this case an attempt was made to enjoin the city from prosecuting for showing pictures without a permit.
*
Rental for Poles and Wires.—In Des
Moines v. Iowa Telephone Company2 it was decided that a city ordinance attempting to charge a rental for telephone poles and wires in the street was invalid. The court said that where the fee title to streets and alleys is in the city, it is held in trust for the general public and not for itself and its inhabitants alone, and hence where permission or authority is granted by the legislature itself, the city is not entitled to compensation for the use of its streets.
Tax on Golf Courses.—An Illinois village attempted to impose a license tax on golf courses. The court in Condon v. Forest Park3 decided that the game is a harmless recreation which does not attract crowds nor tend to disorder nor call for police supervision or regulation, and therefore is not a subject for the exercise of police power. ^
Municipal Powers.—In Hahn v. Newport, 3 the Kentucky court of appeals held that a second-class city ordinance prohibiting the retailing of meats from vehicles was not unreasonable although no public market places had been provided; that it was not discriminatory though it did not apply to wholesale sales, and that it was a valid exercise of the police power conferred by the legislature.
*
Municipal Enployment.—The Kentucky court of appeals has decided in Herman v. Larnpe5 that where a commissioner of a second-class city, engaged to perform engineering services for a city of the fourth class, refused to qualify as city engineer but served as an employe rather than as an officer of such city, the office of commissioner in the first city is not vacated since his acceptance of the latter employment was based on contract.
Robert Emmet Tracy.
IV. MISCELLANEOUS
The National Conference on City Planning held this year in Kansas City, May 7, 8, and 9, its ninth annual meeting. With probably 250 registrations from out of town, and liberal attendance by Kansas City people, it was at once the best and most largely attended meeting of the series. So were met the tests of war distraction and of a long journey from the eastern seaboard. The result seems to show that city planning is more vital than ever when war is enforcing the appreciation of the value of conservation and preparedness, and that the city planning movement is not of the East alone, but is truly national. In fact, representatives
‘ 185 S. W. 415.
•162N. W. 323.
of eastern cities found they had some things to learn, as well as to teach, in the great southwestern metropolis; and that California and Texas had city planning enthusiasts who were not less earnest than are those of eastern Massachusetts.
Yet, with all this success, perhaps emboldened by it, the conference, which has never had chart and compass, voted itself out of existence, in order that a new and highly organized body might take its place. This is the American City Planning Institute. It is to be managed by a board of governors, twenty-one in number, and it has four classes of members:
>115 N. E. 825.
> 194 S. W. 114.
> 194 S. W. 122.


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viz., members, who have had special training in engineering, landscape architecture or architecture, or who have special attainments in city planning; law members, who are members of the legal profession especially interested in municipal law; associates, who represent the non-technical propagandist element; and affiliated organizations. The first two classes pay $10 dues, the third $5, and the latter $25. All must be elected by the board of governors, who may also create junior memberships if they think it desirable. The underlying purpose of the action, which has been under discussion among city planners for two years, is to create a technical group which may meet with the hope of furthering the science of city planning—as has not been practicable to any large degree at the general conferences, where discussion has had to be more or less elementary.
Other important action was the adoption of resolutions authorizing the appointment of a committee to offer the services of city planners wherever they can be most effective—either in this country or in Europe—and calling to the government’s attention, especially, the bad housing conditions which threaten to grow up at its new armor plant.
Kansas City’s hospitality was of the proverbially generous western kind. It included a luncheon in Convention hall, at which two thousand were served and several hundred were turned away, and at which the speaker was J. Horace McFarland; a sixty-mile automobile trip over the Kessler boulevards and the Nichols subdivision, and another luncheon at which an Indian chief in full regalia sang American and Irish songs! The papers of the conference were up to the high standards of the past, and one whole day was profitably given to discussions suggested in a question box. The A. I. A. town planning exhibit was on view, and the conference closed with the usual banquet.
Charles Mttlford Robinson.
*
Meeting of the Intercollegiate Division.
—The intercollegiate division of the National Municipal League held its annual convention in New York city on April 27.
Despite disruption of the work in the colleges, decision was made to hold the convention on the ground that there are definite advantages in retaining continuity in the work and that greater effort than ever should be made to maintain civic interest.
Delegates convened at the Faculty club and after luncheon presided over by Prof. Charles A. Beard of Columbia, at which reports were given concerning activities of the various clubs during the year a trip was made to several New York city departments in the administration building. Lawson Purdy, president of the League, conducted the delegates through the taxation department, of which he is the head, and showed how the complicated business of registering property was simplified through efficient methods, and then gave the delegates letters to the heads of other departments which were visited.
The tenement house department showed how through constant inspection under the tenement house law and prosecution for violation it has been able to establish a comparatively low death rate and to control contagious diseases very effectively.
The department in charge of the new zoning system explained how this new field for American cities is being cultivated. The zoning commissions report, to be published soon, should be in the possession of every student of municipal government (price one dollar). Visits were made to the municipal reference library, where a large collection of material bearing upon every phase of municipal life is made available to city officials and citizens, and also to the University Settlement where east side living conditions were viewed at first hand. Plans for a trip to the immigration station were cancelled by government order.
Dinner at the City club presided over by Mr. Purdy and speeches by Mr. R. Bayard Cutting, Mr. F. P. Gruenberg, director of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research, and Prof. Charles A. Beard, supervisor of the training school for public service, concluded the convention. In their speeches Mr. Cutting dwelt upon the necessity of a heart-searching


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analysis of our attitudes and motives in the present crisis; Mr. Gruenberg was concerned regarding the reaction of the war upon our civic and social problems; and Professor Beard spoke of the inevitableness of our entrance upon new and untried fields in our foreign relationships.
Arthur Evans Wood.1 *
Geneva Conference on City Affairs.—
A very interesting and stimulating conference to discuss various phases of the municipal problem,- and especially city management as a profession, was held in Geneva, May 4 and 5, under the auspices of Hobart College. So far as we are advised this is the first small college to endeavor in this way to find a place for training for public service in the college curriculum. The conference was called as an incident to the establishment by Powell Evans of Philadelphia of a course in city affairs to be given by Frederick P. Gruenberg, the director of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research. Among the speakers were Professor Charles A. Beard, R. Fulton Cutting, Professor John M. Williams, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, City Manager Carr of Niagara Falls and Mrs. Carr, and Walter E. Kruesi.
President Powell of Hobart closed the conference by reminding the audience that there were certain questions of college administration involved, and the experiment that Hobart is planning to undertake must of necessity be limited in its range, but not the less important for that reason. He described it as one of the several efforts to hold to the best in the cultural past of such a college as Hobart, while meeting as far as possible certain new demands which are coming to be recognized on all sides.
*
Open Forum National Council.2—The
fourth annual gathering of the open forum council was held in Chicago at the Abraham Lincoln center, with George W. Coleman as chairman. Fifty-five members were present. Meetings were also held in
1 Secretary, intercollegiate division.
* See National Municipal Review, vol. v, p. 498.
the west side people’s forum and the city club. The chief subject for discussion at the opening business session was the relation of the forum to the school-house, Edward J. Ward of the federal bureau of education serving as special pleader for such a use of the school-houses, contending that the school-house is the natural and almost the necessary place in a democracy in which to hold forums. Carl Beck, the managing director of the labor forum in New York city, opposed the idea, maintaining that from bitter experience there could not be a free discussion in school-houses or at any rate not at the “present stage of the game.”
The formal organization of a national council was effected through the adoption of the following platform of principles and the election of officers, with Mr. Coleman as president, and Harold Marshall of Melrose, Mass., as secretary:
1. The complete development of democracy in America.
2. A common meeting ground for all the people in the interest of truth and mutual understanding, and for the cultivation of community spirit.
3. The fullest and freest open public discussion of all vital questions affecting human welfare.
4. For free participation from the forum floor either by questions or discussion.
5. The freedom of forum management from responsibility for utterance by speakers from the platform or the floor.
National slogan: “Let There be Light!’ *
The National Community Center Conference was held in Chicago, April 17-21, with nearly 500 delegates present from various parts of the country. Democracy was the keynote of practically all the meetings, the address of John Collier on “The Crisis of Democracy” on the opening night furnishing the keynote. Mr. Collier was subsequently elected president of the National Community Center Association, by which title the organization will hereafter be known. Edward L. Burehard (2254 Marshall boulevard, Chicago) was made permanent secretary.3
•See National Municipal Review, vol. v, p. 490.


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The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the New York City Club.—On April 4 the club celebrated its twenty-fifth year with an anniversary dinner, at which were present, among many others, all the living ex-presidents, Austen G. Fox, George Mc-Aneny and Charles H. Strong, and very many of the pioneers in its service. President Nelson S. Spencer presided. The occasion abounded with enthusiasm for the past and with promise for the future. The club has over 2,000 members, which it finds itself unable to care for advantageously in its present quarters, and it expects to honor its anniversary with a completed scheme for a new house. It has in mind to make its residence the civic center of the city for all the various organizations which exist to contribute to the city’s welfare. Not only that but as its functions have spread beyond New York it ought increasingly to be a kind of civic center for organizations throughout the country interested in municipal administration. This is not because the city club of New York esteems itself to have any commanding position over similar organizations in other communities, but, on the contrary, because it knows that it has much to learn from the experience of such organizations elsewhere. That it may furnish a common meeting ground of this kind comes principally from the fact of its geographical location in the largest city in the country. It is, in fact, at present, in a large degree a common meeting place, but there is room for a very great extension of its usefulness in this regard, and for much more effective co-operation between organizations of its kind throughout the country.
*
Baldwin Prize Essays, 1917.—“Tendencies in Municipal Budget Making” was the subject assigned for this year’s William H. Baldwin prize contest by the National Municipal League. The prize was awarded to Albert Elmer Marks, of Harvard, with honorable mention of the essays submitted by Joseph Low, A. T. Ginsburgh, Edmund Jolles of Harvard, and Miss Wilhelmina M. Josopait of Wellesley.
The judges were Dr. B. E. Shultz of the New York training school for public service, and Mr. Frederick P. Gruenberg of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research.
*
The Nebraska Municipal Review is the
title of the quarterly organ of the league of Nebraska municipalities. It is edited by C. A. Sorenson, assistant director of the legislative and municipal reference bureau at Lincoln. The first number is dated April, 1917.
*
Professor Edward A. Ross, Russian Mission.—Professor Edward A. Ross of the University of Wisconsin has been sent to Russia by the American Institute of Social Service “to learn the inner significance of the forces and tendencies which have brought on the revolution, and contain the dangerous and hopeful possibilities that are holding the world in suspense.” Immediately on his return he will publish the results of his study and experience, taking up the following specific problems:
Distinctive aspects of life and custom among the Russian people which are little understood among us, especially as affected by recent changes.
Inquiry into the various forms of local assembly and administration, out of which apparently the new order of national government has grown.
Study of special questions, such as the organization of labor; prohibition, national and local; racial cleavages, including the future of the Jewish people; the new attitude of the various religious bodies.
Inquiry into social habits and sentiments which might affect business dealings between the United States and Russia.
Discovery of ways in which American experts in relief and community organization might be of immediate service to Russia, during the war and in the subsequent reconstruction period.
Estimate of the probabilities as to emigration from Russia to the United States after the war; and conversely, what new


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opportunities in Russia will invite the return to Russia of immigrants now in the United States.
Among the organizations whose greetings he will take to the socially minded people of Russia are those of the National Municipal League.
*
Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland resigned his position as director of the New York bureau of municipal research May 22,1917. After assuming sole direction of the bureau in October, 1914, Dr. Cleveland devoted a large portion of his time to securing an adequate staff for each of the several divisions of the bureau: New York city, New York state, field work, and training school for public service. It was then his intention to devote his entire time to the development of a new branch of the work, namely, scientific research in government, in case this could be adequately financed. Largely owing to the war it was found to be impossible to secure funds for carrying on scientific research on an adequate scale, and when a new and novel opportunity was presented Dr. Cleveland, he felt free to take advantage of it. He is now a member of the central staff of the Willett-Sears group of corporations. The organization of this central staff is in many respects similar to that of the bureau of municipal research on the technical side, with the primary difference that the staff agency renders a service to a private corporation rather than to the public. Those who have been associated with Dr. Cleveland either in a general way or intimately are well aware of the loss which the municipal research movement has sustained in his withdrawal, and they will not eease to hope that he will some day return, bringing with him a new and even wider experience in corporate management.
C. A. B.
*
George C. Sikes, a member of the public affairs committee of the Chicago city club, and for a number of years secretary of the bureau of public efficiency, has been engaged by the taxpayers’ association of California to assist in the preparation of
a report on governmental conditions in Los Angeles following the general lines of the recently issued report of the Chicago bureau of public efficiency on the unification of local governments in Chicago, in the preparation of which Mr. Sikes had a large part. He has also been connected with the public life of the city in several other ways. In addition to his work as a newspaper writer in Chicago extending over a period of twenty-five years, he has been secretary of the municipal voters’ league and of the street railway commission of 1900, and served as an expert investigator for the Chicago harbor commission in 1909.
*
Dr. Edward C. Levy, for a number of years the efficient head of the Richmond, Va., health department, has resigned that position to take up work with the North bureau of public health in New York city. Doctor Levy’s resignation is a loss which the city of Richmond will before long appreciate, as he has been a pioneer in a number of directions and has been most helpful in working out a sound policy of public hygiene. A lack of cordial cooperation on the part of the city council is believed to be largely responsible for his resignation.
*
Hornell Hart has resigned the secretaryship of the Milwaukee city club and has gone to Cincinnati to take up work with the National Social Unit Organization there. Before leaving Milwaukee he did an interesting piece of work in an investigation of the fundamental causes of poverty in that city. He covered the subject in a series of talks before the Milwaukee city club, and in conclusion presented his remedies for the conditions of poverty in that city.
*
Prof. Edwin A. Cottrell of Wellesley College has been appointed professor of political science in Ohio State University, and will organize a bureau of municipal research in that institution.
Professor Cottrell’s successor at Wellesley is Miss Alice M. Holden who has been


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during the past year instructor in political science at Vassar College.
*
Alderman Leslie Boyd, K.C., president of the union of Canadian municipalities, has been appointed head of the grain commission in Canada. He is succeeded in the presidency of the union by Mayor Stevenson of London, Ontario, the first vice-president.
*
Professor L. S. Rowe of the University of Pennsylvania, chairman of the advisory editorial board of the N ationalMunicipal Review and a vice-president of the National Municipal League has been appointed by President Wilson assistant secretary of the treasury.
*
Leo Tiefenthaler, formerly the municipal reference librarian at Milwaukee, has been elected secretary of the Milwaukee city club to take the place of Hornell Hart, who has resigned to accept a position on the staff of the civic and vocational league of Cincinnati.1
*
Hon. William L. Ransome has resigned from the city court of New York to be council for the public service commission of the first district of New York.
*
Dr. St. George L. Sioussat, professor of American history at Vanderbilt University and a member of the advisory editorial board of the National Municipal Review, has been appointed to fill the chair of American history at Brown University.
’ See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 126.
Wilbur M. Cotton, a student at the University of Michigan, who is specializing in municipal administration, and who was at one time on the staff of the Dayton bureau of municipal research, is in charge of the city-manager campaign at Hamilton, Ohio.
*
Mayor John MacVicar of Des Moines is now captain in the quartermaster’s department at Fort Douglas, Utah, although he still retains his office as mayor.
*
Louis R. Ash, a former city engineer of Kansas City and later of the engineering firm of Harrington, Howard and Ash, has been chosen city manager of Wichita, Kansas, at a salary of $10,000 a year. Mr. Ash’s firm are the consulting engineers for the $500,000 job of bridge construction now under way in Dayton, and has just been awarded the contract for the construction of the new $1,300,000 viaduct at Akron.
*
Albert D. M. Hall, who has been serving as city engineer of Jackson, Michigan, has been designated acting city manager of that city in succession to Gaylord C. Cummin who was called to Grand Rapids (see page 517).
*
Henry M. Waite, the city manager of Dayton, is now an LL. D., Miami University having conferred that honor upon him.
*
Austin E. Griffiths, formerly a councilman (elected at large) of Seattle and later for a few months chief of police, has been elected president of the Seattle municipal league.


DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS
I. BOOK REVIEWS
The County. By H. S. Gilbertson. The
National Short Ballot Organization,
New York: The Knickerbocker Press.
$2.
The birth, the adventures, and, the decrepitude of the county, together with a few desirable methods of medical and surgical treatment for its ailments, are the subjects which Mr, Gilbertson has sketched in this unique volume, which the Short Ballot Organization has recently presented to the public.
Why it is that the county has escaped the attention of sound and honest political thinkers through all the years of this country’s history, is not easily understood by the small group of students that have recently begun to investigate this field; but Gilbertson’s first chapter solves the puzzle: It is a political by-way. It is off the direct line of political travel. A byway leading through fields so fertile for" exploitation by those whose business is political exploitation, that the initiated appear to have said to themselves, “This is too good a thing to publish. Let us saw wood, and say nothing.” So they have been sawing wood and cording it up in their own backyards for centuries.
Mr. Gilbertson sketches the county’s evolution and development from the formation of the shire, as a unit of representation in the colonial assembly, and as a subdivision of the colony for various administrative purposes, down to the present time, when we find such intricately organized (possibly “disorganized” is a better word) counties as some of the larger ones of New York state, where the interrelations of the various county departments and their connection with and responsibility to state departments can best be charted by a photograph of a snarl of yam with which cats and children have been playing. The frontispiece is just
such a chart. It is so good a picture of the organization of the New York county that the county government association of New York state has adopted it as a sort of banner, and prints it on the back of its stationery.
Following his chapter headings through affords a very good picture of what he is talking about. I quote a few of them in the order of their sequence. It is “a political by-way,” “a creature of tradition,” growing up without being planned by any political foresight as to American progress. This undeveloped organization “falls afoul of ‘democracy,’” and becomes “the jungle,” with no central control. The politician finds it “a base of political supplies.” “It is not strange,” says Mr. Gilbertson, “that machine politicians have come to look upon the county as a source whence blessings flow. The county has both created and sustained them!”
In his chapter on “Nullification,” Mr. Gilbertson sets forth a theory most interesting at this time, but one, nevertheless, that must prove surprising to many. That is, that as population spread westward, the German and southern European immigrants brought with them elements of civilization that upset the moral balance of the cities, “coming into sharp collison with the New England (we might almost say, American) conceptions” of established religious and moral principles. “This complex influence gave us the setting for at least one phase of that never-ending feud that rages between New York city and ‘up-state.’ It pitted Chicago against rural Illinois. It made Cincinnati a more or less alien city in Ohio. It gave us a permanent body of citizens who resent having their conduct dictated . . .
from above.” This, in the face of our conceptions of German imperial efficiency and German political organization, wherein
525


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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not only every act but almost every thought of the citizens of Germany is ruled by imperial dictum and imperial regulations, throws light from an unexpected angle upon the problem of why the oppressed subjects of Germany, who have fled to this country for refuge, have become so intoxicated with their freedom that they seem to have adopted the view that America exists only for them.
The clash of these various elements was, of course, reflected in politics, and shows in the state laws and in the resulting management of the local communities; and the inconsistencies resulting therefrom have, of course, developed farthest in the parts of our political organization that are least subjected to scientific scrutiny. The author says, “It is not an altogether hopeless situation. The very thoroughness of the county’s failure is the chief promise of the county’s ultimate redemption.” From this point on he cites instances of genuine reforms, introduced under state guidance, such as the establishment of standards of various kinds for uniform administration, regulation of accounting and reporting, uniformity of tax administration, civil service regulation, etc. But “state guidance” is, as Mr. Gilbertson aptly terms it, only “a sort of permanent first aid to the injured.” Surgical treatment is the real remedy. He recommends amputation for most of the diseased functions and departments of the county.
If one follows the book up to this point, he draws the conclusion that amputation of the county at the ankles would be the most desirable treatment. The burial of the feet would necessarily follow. Then, with a clear field, a sensible, scientific government might be constructed entire.
After considering the “readjustments” and question of consolidation, Mr. Gilbertson reaches the conclusion that practically such entire reconstruction is necessary. A strongly centralized government is recommended, in place of the present scattering irresponsible, much entangled separate departments and bureaus. The short ballot, the small board of supervisors
(or council), the county manager, held by law to a clear and direct responsibility for efficient and economical administration, is the best method recommended.
The volume is illustrated by several charts, and contains, in the appendices, the text of the California statute regulating the organization of counties on a modern, scientific plan (Mr. Gilbertson is a native of California); the Los Angeles county charter; the legislative proposals of the county government association of New York state, the New York charter amendment abolishing offices of coroners and creating the office of chief medical examiner; and a description, by Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, of the horrors of a Texas almshouse and a Texas jail. The book concludes with a bibliography, which lists practically all extant literature on county government, and a comprehensive index.
Otho G. Cartwright. White Plains, N. Y.
*
The Taxation op Land Value. By Yetta Scheftel. Hart, Schaffner & Marx. First Prize Essay in Economics for 1915. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pp. 489. $2.
The first two thirds of this excellent monograph presents in some detail the development and the present status of land-value taxation in Australasia, Germany, Kiao-chau, England, and western Canada; the latter third is a special consideration of the fiscal and social aspects of the tax and of the feasibility of its adoption in the United States.
Although the forms it takes are diverse, the distinctive feature of “the tax on land value” which Miss Scheftel treats is its discrimination against land. This is seen (1) in Australasia, in the tax on the unimproved value of land and the exemption of improvements; (2) in western Canada, in the municipalities where improvements have been exempted wholly or in part; (3) in Germany, in the shape of a tax on value increment in land; (4) in Kiao-chau, where, besides a value increment tax of 33§ per cent, a 6 per cent tax is levied annually upon the site, plus 3 per cent additional for every


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three years it remains unimproved; and (5) in England, in the form of land-value duties comprising the increment, undeveloped land, mineral-rights and reversion duties, the latter being applicable upon the termination of a lease when the land reverts from the tenant farmer to the owner.
It is important to keep in mind that the tax is levied for two distinct purposes, fiscal and social, and that the results in each case should be judged from the standpoint of the purpose. As in the case of many other taxes, the more successful it is in preventing the social evils which it is designed to check, the less successful it is apt to be fiscally. The more it reduces large holdings of unimproved land, absentee ownership, speculation, poor housing, et cetera, the less fruitful it will be usually as a revenue producer.
It has proved very successful as an important or primary source of local revenue in "the new and rapidly advancing countries of Australasia and western Canada, where the local taxes have, for the most part, been low, proportional annual rates upon the capital value of the land, with improvements largely or wholly exempted. Even in years of depression, these taxes have met the fiscal tests of certainty and elasticity, but experience indicates that increases in rates upon land should be gradual and at times of rising values.
Generally speaking, the state and national, as opposed to local, land-value taxes in Australasia, western Canada, Germany and England, are primarily for social rather than for fiscal purposes. Most of them are progressive rather than proportional, and they include many discriminations and differentiations to achieve their purpose. Practically all such taxes have been relatively unimportant fiscally, especially when their costs of administration are considered.
In most places, up to the*present time, their social effects have been either so small, or so involved with the effects of other conditions, that they are much in
dispute. This seems due largely to the relative smallness of the rates. In New Zealand, however, where the discriminatory rates have been greatly increased in recent years, the land value tax seems to have had unmistakable effects in lessening absentee ownership and in breaking up large estates, but even in New Zealand, the effects upon building and congestion in cities are in dispute, though housing conditions are said to be unusually good and improving. The evidence seems to indicate, but does not show conclusively, that housing conditions are somewhat better in the cities having the discriminatory land tax than in those not having it. The tax in western Canada stimulated building, at least temporarily, but has had no noteworthy effect upon land speculation, because land values have been rising very rapidly on account of other causes.
This rapid rise in such new countries as western Canada and Australasia is largely responsible for the fiscal success of the land value tax as a source of local revenue. Increasing budgetary needs have been met in most cases without increases in rates, but by continuance of the old rates upon increased values. The situation in older and more stable communities would be very different under heavy land value taxes.
Miss Scheftel’s study has evidently been very painstaking and has involved an exceedingly large amount of work. Its preparation has been carried on for a number of years and in the meantime changes in taxation have been very rapid and general so that some of her statements were not entirely correct at the time of publication. For one who reads her work closely there is too much repetition, perhaps. But these are minor criticisms. Her monograph, taken as a whole, is undoubtedly the most unbiased systematic and comprehensive presentation of the facts regarding the land value tax in these various countries that has been published in America.
Rot G. Blakey.
University of Minnesota.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[July
Parks—Their Design, Equipment and Use. By George Bumap, B.S., M.A. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 328. Illustrated. $6.
In the preface to this handsome volume Mr. Burnap writes:
“For the guidance of town and city officials entrusted with the development and maintenance of parks; for the assistance of landscape architects and superintendents in the designing of parks; and for the enlightenment of the public in whose interest all parks are created and whose active support is indispensable to the successful realisation of park projects, this volume is respectfully submitted.”
Then follows the development of this aim in some fifteen chapters, the titles of which it seems worth while to quote: Park design in city planning; Bringing up a park the way it should go; Principles of park design; “Passing-through” parks; Neighbourhood parks; Recreation parks; Playgrounds in parks; Effigies and monuments in parks; Architecture in parks; Decorative use of water; Planting design of parks; Park administration in relation to planting design; Seats in public parks; Disposition of flowers in parks; Park utilities.
The format and the manner of the volume are alike unique. Practically every page of text is faced on the right by a picture, applying to it as nearly as may be. These pictures, excellent half-tone reproductions,- are enclosed in uniform gray borders, and the title or legend is similarly enclosed in a panel occupying about one-third of the page. The result is great typographic elegance in form, which the excellent presswork has continued to elegance in effect.
When the text is examined, it is found to be helpful in its scope, rather didactic in its manner, and rather hampered by its dependence upon the succession of illustrations. Mr. Bumap is by no means a German, yet his treatment of the park relations is constantly upon the basis of “must” and “should.” Most Americans resent being directed to do certain things in the public service; they prefer to be advised. Yet Mr. Burnap’s
directions are in-general sound, and there is probably no work yet presented which provides so much excellent advice and suggestion.
In one respect the book is unfortunate. By parts of the title page, by implications in the introduction and the preface, it is made easy to infer that the author has been the chief designer of the parks and squares of Washington, though no such claim is specifically set forth. It would have been better, probably, if this inference had been avoided, notwithstanding the excellence of Mr. Burnap’s contributions to the development of Washington during the time he was official landscape architect attached to the office of the superintendent of grounds and buildings of the federal city.
The work is heartily commended for its scope, its notable illustrations, and for its excellent suggestions. Those having to do with the development of park areas of any size will find it extremely useful.
J. Horace McFarland.
Harriahurg, Pa.
*
Town Planning for Small Communities. By Walpole Town Planning
Committee, Charles S. Bird, Chairman.
New York: D. Appleton & Company.
National Municipal League Series.
Pp. 492. Illustrated. $2.
The reviewer is scarcely a fair witness concerning a work aimed directly to help small communities, for he has almost hysterically insisted for many years that far too little attention has been paid to the much greater number of persons living in the small communities as compared with the scant score of American cities having over a quarter of a million of population.
The book in question is therefore most welcome and opportune, and it ought to be found thoroughly helpful in literally thousands of American communities in which town planning now is either being thought of in a more or less vague way or in which it ought to be thought of.
The title of the book is slightly misleading, unless one takes into account its committee authorship. The book is, as


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one might first consider it, a report on planning for the town of Walpole, Massachusetts, but examination shows that the first 262 pages apply generally to community planning and are remarkably complete in treating the various elements of that much needed proposition.
It might be thought that the second part, including about 130 pages with the indexes, and referring particularly to Walpole, would not be interesting in a general way. As a fact, however, it is fully as helpful in its particularity as any other part of the work There is always an advantage in being specific, and the Walpole section is just that. The reviewer may be permitted a little regret and a little amusement at the planting lists beginning on page 391, in which either the author, the editor or the printer has introduced some new and lurid methods of horticultural terminology. Six glaring errors in the spelling of botanical names on the first page introduce an inexcusable looseness in this respect throughout the lists. One of the smile-making errors occurs on page 397, where the familiar plant Withe-rod is given the new name of “Withered!”
The survey of town planning included in this important book is broad. It seems worth while particularly to call attention to two chapters, one entitled “Can we afford it?” and the other called “Ways and means. ’ ’ These chapters will be good reading for the citizens of any community which is advancing in its bounds, and which in consequence ought to be thinking about making that advancement worth while.
“Town Planning for Small Communities” is, as the editor has written of it in his introduction, “an admirable complement to John Nolen’s volume on ‘City Planning.’ ” The two books stand, not as monuments (for monuments do not work), but as gospels, up to date in relation to the things which will not only make America better fit to five in now and hereafter, but better fit to fight any enemy we may be faced with.
J. Horace McFarland.
City Planning Progress in the United States, 1917,1 Compiled by the Committee on Town Planning of The American Institute of Architects. Edited by George B. Ford, assisted by Ralph F. Warner. Published by The Journal of The American Institute of Architects, Washington, D. C.
This is the title of a notable production, published in time to be of material encouragement at the recent successful Ninth City Planning Conference, held at Kansas City, Missouri. It is just what its title indicates, but it is that thing in a most admirable, convenient and notable way. The book is in the standard document size (8j x 11) adopted by The American Institute of Architects, and is primarily designed for filing with other similar publications.
There is an adequate introduction which does not waste a word on felicitations or acknowledgments. Its sub-head is “Getting Started on City Planning,” and it tells how to get going simply and definitely.
Then follows the detailed account of city planning progress. It is arranged in community references in alphabetical succession, and takes care of 233 cities and towns in the United States of which there is actual city planning progress recorded. All this information has been obtained in an authoritative way, and may in consequence be depended upon.
The illustrations in the book are a new feature. There are literally hundreds of them, applying to the plans and the progress which the volume sets forth. The notable difference in this volume from any similar volume is that there is not one single illustration of a German city or one single glorification of foreign city planning in the whole book. It might have been properly entitled1 ‘American City Planning Progress, ” which, as the volume shows, is now a very definite and positive thing, going on with vigor and in a most encouraging way the country over.
One thing about this book needs to be
lSee National Municipal Review, vol. vi,p. 346.
6


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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noted. A statement is prominently set forth that the book is not copyrighted and that “The Town Planning Committee of The American Institute of Architects desire to make the material ... of value to the largest possible number of persons engaged in city planning or interested in the extension of the ideals of city planning. To this end, material may be reprinted in whole or in part in local newspapers or in bulletins of commercial or civic bodies, providing only that proper mention be made of ‘City Planning Progress’ as asource of information. If illustrations are desired, photographs will be loaned whenever available, without charge.” Thus the volume serves not only as an up to date 'record of what has been done in American city planning, but as a propaganda document of the utmost importance.
The American Institute of Architects is to be congratulated on the wisdom, breadth and value of this volume, and the city planning fraternity owes much to George B. Ford, well known as the landscape architect in charge of the notable zoning and districting recently put in force in New York city, for his successful effort to promote the welfare of American communities. , „ ,, „
J. Horace McFarland.
*
Principles of American State Administration. By John Mabry Mathews,
Ph.D. New York: D. Appleton and
Company. Pp. 533. 52.50.
The modem trend toward research in public administration is well represented in Dr. Mathews’ excellent work. The Columbia University studies have already given us a number of valuable monographs showing the centralization of administrative authority in particular states. The intensive studies made by the various state commissions on economy and efficiency, which reported two years ago, have also added to our knowledge in this field. The present author presents a broader treatment of the state administration as a whole, and in doing so he has produced what is in many respects a model text-book on the subject. After an
introductory chapter showing the growth of state duties and powers and a tendency toward centralization, the author divides the book into three parts on “The organization,” “The functions” and “The reorganization of state administration”-respectively. Under “Organization” the powers of the governor are traced historically to their present status; the position and authority of other state officials and boards are also presented, and the rules governing the state civil service, including the appointment and removal of officers, are considered. Under1 ‘Functions ” there are two excellent chapters on taxation and finance and an adequate discussion of education, charities, public health and justice. There is also an excellent discussion of the methods and machinery provided to enforce state laws. The author here shows the urgent need for less law making and more law enforcement, and points out the impotence or unwillingness of the state to force local authorities to carry out the law. The only inadequate-part of the book is that dealing with recently developed state powers, such as corporation control, public service commissions, labor legislation, agriculture, and the good roads movement. These should be much more fully presented. Local administration is not discussed except in its relation to the central authorities. Under “Reorganization,” the author points out the needlessly complicated machinery of state government. He-shows from the conclusions of the state-efficiency commissions that there is an almost total lack of systematic organization and method. The state’s work could" be done more effectively without additional cost, by a modern business-like-method of organization like that existing in the federal administration. This chapter also contains a strong plea for closer union between the executive and legislative powers.
The book is a description with some-critical remarks, rather than a propagandist’s argument for any form or system of state administration. Only the concluding chapter presents a series of proposals for reorganization.


1917]
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It is written in a clear, readable style, the material is well organized and each chapter is accompanied by a well chosen list of references and readings. The volume will be found an admirable text for college use.
James T. Young. University of Pennsylvania.
*
Bolton As It Is and As It Might Be. By Thomas H. Mawson, Lecturer on Landscape Design, Liverpool University. Bolton: Tillotson & Son, Meal-house Lane.
With a sumptuousness long characteristic of the published work of Thomas H. Mawson, but which in England must now be mainly associated with the days “before the war, ” there have been issued six lectures on “Bolton As It Is and As It Might Be.” These were lately delivered by Mr. Mawson under the auspices of the Bolton housing and town planning society. At first glance the book, with its many photographs, its plans and diagrams, seems practically to constitute what in this country would be called a city plan report. In reality, it is rather more. The first three lectures, though written with special reference to Bolton, are entitled respectively, ‘ ‘What Do we Mean by Town Planning,” “The Scope and Influence of Town Planning,” and “Does Town Planning Pay?” The remaining lectures have to do especially with Bolton’s traffic, recreational, and housing problems.
Already some of the land for the proposed park system has been given. Moreover, in his preface, Mr. Mawson extends particular thanks to Sir William Lever for effective co-operation. What that gentleman’s interest in Bolton may mean to the town is suggested by the success of Port Sunlight. Of the quality of Mr. Mawson’s own work there is no need to speak. The book is sufficiently recommended in saying that he has taken a particular interest in this study.
Charles Mulford Robinson. Rochester, N. Y.
Studies in the Cost of Urban Transportation Service. By F. W. Doolittle, Director, Bureau of Fare Research. New York: American Electric Railway Association. 1916.
This book is a loose compilation of technical and semi-technical data relating to the problems of street railway operation so far as they pertain to service. Mr. Doolittle’s studies have been made from the pointof view of the operating man and will be of primary interest to such. The general student of public utility regulation may get a number of interesting suggestions from the book, and may find a good many facts recorded that would not be readily accessible to him elsewhere. We may, perhaps, illustrate the author’s style and attitude by quoting a short paragraph from his chapter on “Psychological aspects of street railway service.” “It has long been a matter of common knowledge,” says he, “that there are no absolute physical standards of comfort. One individual may find limited standing room quite as comfortable as another finds a spacious seat. The same passenger may have radically different ideas in the morning and in the evening as to what constitutes a reasonable length of time which he should wait for a car.” The book gives the impression of a great subject treated in a commonplaceway. There certainly is no thrill in the style to lure the reader on, and no imagination in it to interpret the social philosophy of modem transit problems.
Delos F. Wilcox.
New York City.
*
Documents on County Government. Collected by the National Short Ballot Organization, 383 Fourth Avenue, New York. $5.
The National Short Ballot Organization has done an admirable piece of work in bringing together in one volume practically all the more important and some of the less important documents bearing upon the subject of county government. It is


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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no new thing to bring together original documents relating to an event or movement in the long distant past, but it is a new thought to do this in connection with current events. For having made that contribution the S. B. O. is entitled to great credit.
There are 27 documents in this volume and others will be added from time to time as they appear. The volume includes the proceedings of the conferences for better county government in New York state; sundry surveys of typical counties; a description of several important county offices, and the proposed charter for San Diego county, California, which unfortunately was defeated. An expert librarian has cross indexed the pamphlets by subject and author so that all the material is immediately and easily available. On the whole it constitutes a most important contribution to this heretofore but indifferently considered subject of county government, and affords an excellent supplement to Mr. Gilbertson’s book on ‘ ‘The County” noticed elsewhere.1 Only one hundred copies of the documents have been published.
*
Boston and Its Story, 1630-1915. City of Boston Printing Department. 1916. Pp. 200. $1 net. (To be had through W. B. Clarke Company, 28 Tremont Street, Boston.)
This is a worthy piece of work in which the careful and scholarly city statistician, Dr. Edward M. Hartwell, has had a guiding hand, although we trust that he is not responsible for prefacing such a history with the picture of the present mayor, the Hon. James M. Curley. If other mayors had been included there might perhaps be some justification, but as he is the only mayor pictorially represented, one is compelled to conclude that the fact that he appointed the committee responsible for the book (or “relation” as it is called on the title page) must have had some influence. The book concludes, however, with Emerson’s quotation, the final sentence of which is “As with our fathers, so God bewith us. Sicutpatribus, sit deus nobis!”
‘See page 525.
There is an abundance of interesting material alike for the student of local history and for the student of the development of political institutions and it is in the latter connection that Dr. Hartwell’s hand is most clearly discernible.
Unfortunately the book has neither an index nor a table of contents, which very much diminishes its value.
*
State Sanitation: A Review of the Work of the Massachusetts State Board of Health, 1869-1914. By George Chandler Whipple, S. B. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 3 vols. Vol I, 377 pages, with diagrams and plates. $2.50.
Massachusetts has a long and honorable record of state activity in health matters. In many respects it has done pioneer work which has gained it world-wide recognition. This is particularly true as regards water and sewage treatment experiments, the control of water pollution and the reduction of typhoid fever. Dr. Whipple’s history of the work which the Massachusetts state board of health has done along these lines during the period 1869-1914, is of value and interest not only to sanitary engineers, health officers and physicians, but also to that increasing group of public-spirited citizens who are co-operating in health protective work.
Besides the historical review, the volume contains an abridgement, running to more than a hundred pages, of the classic ‘‘Report of the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission,” made in 1850 by Lennel Shattuck and others.
*
Women Workers and Society. By Dr. Annie M. MacLean. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. Pp. 134. 50 cents net.
Practically every social question has a municipal phase, so this little book has a general interest to readers of theNATiONAi Municipal Review. And it has a special interest because of its excellent chapters on health, housing, education, and recreation. It is one of the National Social Science Series.


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II. BOOKS RECEIVED
Actual Government in Illinois. By Mary Louise Childs, Teacher of History and Civics, Evanston Township High School. New York: The Century Company, pp. 236.
The Building of Cities. By Harlean James, A.B., formerly executive secretary of the Women’s Civic League, Baltimore. New York: The Macmillan Company, pp. 201. Illustrated. 40 cents.
The Children’s Library. By Sophy H. Powell, with an introduction by John Cotton Dana. White Plains, N. Y.: The H. W. Wilson Company, pp. 460. $1.75.
The City Workers’s World in America. By Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch. New York: The Macmillan Company. American Social Progress Series, pp. 225. $1.25.
Conditions of Labor in American Industries. By W. Jett Lauck and Edgar Sydenstricker. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, pp. 403. $1.75 net.
El Regimen Municipal de la Ciudad Moderna. u Bosquejo del Regimen Local en Espana, Francia, Inglaterra, Estatos Alemanes y Estados Unidos. Por Adolfo Posada, Vatedratico de Derecho en la Universidad de Madrid. Madrid: Libreria General de Victoriano Suarez, Calle de Preciados, num. 48. 1916.
The Financial Administration of Great Britain. By William F. Willoughby, Westel W. Willoughby and Samuel McCune Lindsay. With an introduction by A. Lawrence Lowell. New York: D. Appleton & Company for The Institute of Government Research. pp. 362. $2.75 net.
Government of the City of Jamestown, N. Y. General Municipal Survey and Constructive Recommendations. Prepared for the Jamestown Board of Commerce by the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, pp. 412.
A History of the United States. By Edward Channing. Vol. IV. Federalists and Republicans, 1789-1815. New York: The Macmillan Company, pp. 575. $2.75..
The Immigrant and the Community. By Grace Abbott, Director of the Immigrants’ Protective League, Chicago,
111. New York: The Century Company. pp. 303. $1.50.
An Introduction to Educational Sociology. By Walter Robinson Smith, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology and Economics, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, pp. 412. $1.75 net.
Journal of the National Institute of Social Sciences. Vol. Ill, 1917. The Boston Book Company, Boston, Mass., selling agents, pp. 262. $1.50.
Municipal Ownership. By Carl D. Thompson. New York: B. W. Huebsch. pp. 114. $1.
The New Civics. By Roscoe Lewis Ashley. New York: The Macmillan Company, pp. 420. $1,20.
The Offender and His Relations to Law and Society. By Burdette G. Lewis, Commissioner of Correction, New York City. New York: Harper & Brothers, pp. 382. $2.
Preliminaires d’Art Civique mis en Relation avec le Cas Clinique de la Belgique. By Louis van der Swaelmen. Leyde: Societe d’Editions.
A. W. Sijthoff.
Prostitution: The Moral Bearings of the Problem. By M. F. With a Chapter on Venereal Diseases by J. F. (Formerly Resident Medical Officer, London Lock Hospital). Published for the Catholic Social Guild by P. S. King & Son, Ltd., London, pp. 240. 2s. net.
Social Diagnosis. By Mary E. Richmond, Director, Charity Organization Department, Russell Sage Foundation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 511. $2 net.
Standards of American Legislation. By Ernst Freund, Professor of Jurisprudence and Public Law in the University of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 327. $1.50 net.
Towards a Sane Feminism. By Wilma Meikle. New York: Robert M. McBride and Company, pp. 168. $1.25.
Water Purification. By Joseph W. Films, member American Society Civil Engineers, American Chemical Society, American Public Health Association and New England Water Works Association. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 485. $5.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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III. REVIEWS OF REPORTS
Progress in Municipal Finance.1—“The continued increase of public expenditures,” writes Professor T. S. Adams in the Economic World (December 16,1916), “is one of the most irritating, fascinating and mysterious of social phenomena.” Whether taxes have increased more rapidly than private wealth and income is a problem not readily solved. Professor Adams is inclined to think they have not, yet he comes to the conclusion that the taxpayer is not getting all he should for his money, that there is a vast amount of waste due to the fact that departments overlap, that officers and the electorate are ignorant and that power and responsibility are diffused.
The problem of taxation from the viewpoint of the city is presented in the same magazine for December 30, by J. D. Cloud. Municipalities are unable to finance their current operations and sinking fund requirements out of current available income. The reasons for this are (1) curtailment of revenues, i.e., from restriction of the liquor traffic and the displacement of horse-drawn vehicles by automobiles, for automobile taxes are collected and retained by the state; (2) new and costly activities such as playgrounds, hospitals and municipal universities; (3) bonded indebtedness, that is, the proportion of current revenues required to meet the annual sinking fund and interest is excessively large. Methods of improvement are suggested in these criticisms: curtailment of expenses by eliminating waste, introduction of an efficient bookkeeping system, planning for expenditure by using the budget system and “paying as you go.”
In view of these discussions it is interesting to note the steps recently taken by cities to solve their problems. Ohio has
1 This ia a review of: “The Continual Increase of Public Expenditures and Taxes,” by Professor T. S. Adams, The Economic World, December 16, 1916; “The Financial Problem of Cities," by J. D. Cloud, The Economic World, December 30, 1916; Report of the Pittsburgh Tax Commission; Report of the Commission for the Survey of Municipal Financing; Various articles and pamphlets published by municipalities.
been the center of various schemes. For instance, Columbus learned from a group of efficiency experts who made a survey of her situation that she could save $20,000 a year: (1) by centralizing charities; (2) by the establishment of a new system of accounting, and (3) by the abolition of unnecessary offices such as second and third superintendents of the fire department, public defender, and superintendent of markets.
The mayor of this same city in a speech last June proposed a plan of his secretary, Mr. Thatcher, by which a cash basis would be substituted for the present bond basis. Starting with a tax levy slightly higher than that allowed under the state law, but by a gradual decrease to a much smaller rate, the city would be able to operate, allow for increased growth, spend $10,000,000 for improvements within the next twenty-four years and at the end of that period be entirely free of bonded debt, except sinking fund charges to lake care of the last bonds which mature in 1952.
A group of mayors of Ohio cities met last December in Cleveland to outline a program of legislation which included a demand for a return of 50 per cent of the automobile license money to the city from which it was paid and a return of 80 per cent of the state liquor license tax to the municipality where paid. They also asked that cities be given more liberty 'to determine their own tax rate which could not be reviewed by the county budget commission and that sinking fund and interest charges should not be included in the ten mill limit provided by the state law. Philadelphia, too, has awakened and announces an effort to develop a budget system. It is holding open meetings in which the public is expected to become informed as to financial conditions. Toronto has adopted the same plan of publicity in framing its budget.
The problem of municipal finance has been exhaustively studied by at least two commissions this year, one by the city of Pittsburgh, the other by the state of New Jersey. The report of the latter is pub-


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lished in an attractive booklet of about twenty pages which gives suggestions for legislative enactment, results of their investigations having been given in a previous report. Part one discusses the law passed in 1916 as a result of the findings of the commission. This included six recommendations: namely (1) limiting the term of bonds to the life of the improvements; (2) making bonds incontestable after issue; (3) providing for par bids; (4) giving sinking fund preferred right in bond sales; (5) issuing serial or installment bonds; (6) limiting the debt. Part two consists of renewed recommendations, seven in number: (1) penalties upon municipalities for non-payment of county and state taxes to county collectors when due; (2) uniform reports, proper tabulation of all receipts, expenditures and indebtedness separate from comptroller’s report; (3) budget system; (4) instruments for borrowing in anticipation of the receipt of taxes not yet due, to be represented by tax anticipation bonds or tax anticipation notes, which shall be retired within the year of their issue; (5) a uniform sinking fund law that shall define the securities for investment and the method of calculating annual requirements; (6) provision that sinking funds below their requirements shall be rehabilitated by an annual tax of not less than one fifth of one mill; (7) a uniform fiscal year. Part three is entitled “New recommendation” which is that certified copies of the proceedings in connection with all future bond issues be filed with some duly constituted state official.
The Report of the Pittsburgh Tax Commission is a careful study of the needs, resources and possibilities of financing the city. Emphasis is laid in the first section on the desirability of retaining the real estate tax, but it is recommended that a more equitable system of assessment be employed, including annual assessments, adoption of section, block and lot system and the absorption of outlying suburbs. New taxes recommended are a direct inheritance tax to accrue wholly to the state; a graduated income tax, on persons at first, later on corporations, to
be divided between state, county and city. It was suggested that the automobile tax be increased by 50 per cent, 30 per cent of the proceeds to be returned to the city, the same amount to the county and 40 per cent to the state; that the liquor license tax be paid to the city; that larger revenues be derived from rental and use of city property, such as wharves and markets, and that the water works be self-supporting. The commission recommended the abolition of certain taxes, namely, the mercantile license tax; the occupation tax, which costs more to collect than the revenues collected; and the personal property tax. It was also recommended that a state tax commission be established.
There is a tendency to adopt a tax which has been successful in another city or state without realizing that its success depends as much on the machinery of collection as on the tax itself.
Rot G. Blakey.
University of Minnesota.
*
The Columbus, Ohio, Survey.1—A general survey of the organization, method and procedures of the various departments of the city government of Columbus, Ohio, was made by the N. Y. bureau of municipal research during the months of November and December, 1916, under the direction of Herbert R. Sands. The more obvious occasion for such a survey was the finanpial emergency confronting the city government. Officials engaged during the summer in preparing the budget for 1917 foresaw, under a continuance of normal conditions, a deficit of about $285,000 in operating expenses. As under existing laws no substantial increase in revenue seemed available, curtailment in activities or economies in operation or both were imperative. To meet this situation the secretary of the Columbus civic league, the city auditor, and a city councilman, proposed that a comprehensive study of the city’s administrative
^Report on a Survey of the City Government of Columbus, Ohio. Prepared by the bureau of municipal research of New York, November and December, 1916.


536 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July
organization and operation should be made to obtain expert guidance in determining what activities could be abandoned with least deprivation to the citizens and at what points savings could most effectively be made. Following this suggestion provision for a survey by the New York bureau was made by unanimous vote of city council, which appropriated $10,000 for the work. Of this sum the bureau was able to return a balance of $1,800 unexpended at the completion of its work. The printing of the report cost about $800. Though the movement was initiated primarily as a measure of pressing economy, its scope as executed, and as intended by the council, was as comprehensive as that of any municipal survey, considering questions of improvement and extension of service as well as of economy and retrenchment.
The report of the survey covers 257 closely-printed quarto pages. The recommendations indicate specific opportunities for direct savings in thirteen branches of the city government, varying in amount from $35,000 in the board of purchase and $30,000 in the division of water supply to $1,500 in the division of parks, and totalling about $125,000 each year on the basis of present expenditures. But the report deals more extensively with methods of more and better service for existing costs. The report covers every branch of the city’s activities, and at all points is full, clear and specific in its description and estimation of existing organization and operation and in its proposals for change. It is liberal in commendation and censure, though necessarily freer with the latter than with the former. In connection with each section of the study ate presented the recommendations for reorganization, improvement in method, economies, elimination and expansion. It is not practicable in a brief note to indicate specifically the criticisms and proposals. In an introduction of 25 pages there is a brief r6sum6 of the important facts disclosed, followed by a summary list of the 765 changes proposed. Over 700 of the changes can be made effective by action of council, the remaining recommenda-
tions requiring charter or statutory amendment.
It is too soon to predict broadly as to the extent to which the recommendations will be put into effect. Some changes are already under way. Officials are now at work codifying ordinances for several departments, preparing standardization of salaries for the departments of public service and public safety, and developing a system of centralized accounting for the former. Ordinances are pending to bring about minor transpositions and eliminations in the police and fire divisions, consolidation in park supervision, and reorganization of the division of engineering and construction. Conditions of commercialized prostitution disclosed by the report have led to the creation and appointment of a vice commission to study the local situation at greater length. The council is expected to submit to the voters at the August primary a charter amendment to substitute a centralized purchasing bureau for the present ex officio board of purchase. Further changes will probably be gradually adopted for a considerable time in the future. There has been the usual opposition on the part of incumbents and friends of incumbents where abolishment of existing positions is attempted.
Independently of changes to be effected, the value of the survey and report is fully established by the information which it places at the disposal of the public and the officials. Preoccupation of the minds of citizens generally with international affairs explains in part the lack of any very explicit interest on the part of the public at present. The report seems to be favorably and intelligently received by many officials. Council has placed a copy in the hands of the head of every department, division, bureau and institution, and it is likely that for a long time the report will serve as a text-book for members of council and administrative officers.
The recommendations and criticisms conform generally to present standard opinions of experts in municipal reform, and are approved for the most part by better informed local sentiment. It is inevitable that among so large a number


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of suggestions there should be honest and intelligent doubt as to the practicability and wisdom of some of them. For example, doubt is expressed as to the validity of certain comments upon important phases of the city’s experiences with its lighting plant and garbage reduction plant, and as to the reasonableness of some of the proposals concerning the city health officer and the public defender.
Some day there may be a survey of municipal research bureaus. One of the findings of such a survey would likely be that an investigator loses, in the respect with which his knowledge is regarded and in the practical effectiveness of his recommendations, where, in his dealings with officials whose work he is examining, he maintains a bearing of superiority or omniscience. Opinions generally of local officials indicate that the dozen representatives of the New York bureau in the Columbus survey were for the most part, though not without exception, free from such unskilfulness in their tactics.
F. W. Coker.
*
Courses of Study in Civics.1—“The purpose of this course of study is to give the child such instruction and training as will help to make him a good citizen.” Almost any course of civics claims this aim. Not many courses, however, have so broad a meaning for “good citizen”; namely, “the one who habitually conducts his own affairs with proper regard for the welfare of the communities of which he is a member, and who is active and intelligent in his co-operation with his fellow members for the common good.” The school should set ideals for the home where training for good citizenship begins before school age. In the home are first received “impressions of co-operation and responsibility.”
In school the child should learn more and more to be “conscious of the interdependence of the individuals in a community.” “Underlying the teaching of
'The Course of Study in Civics, 1916, Grades One to Six for the Public Schools of Philadelphia. Pp. 72.
good citizenship, therefore, is moral instruction so given that it results in the right action of the child.” Beginning with the third grade, service and co-operation are taught by the story of services rendered by those who supply the necessities of life. Then the services of policemen, firemen, street cleaners, are noted. The child, “as a future producer should have some idea of the various occupations which are open to him and of the conditions under which he is entitled to work.” Since the field of civics is comparatively new the teacher unhampered by traditional method has unusual opportunity to help improve the quality of citizenship.
Accordingly in the first year, obedience, cleanliness, courtesy, helpfulness, kindness to animals, are the high points. These are enlarged upon in the second grade where punctuality, truthfulness and care of property, fair play and safety are added. In the third grade, thoroughness, honesty and respect are studied in addition to such topics as “the people who supply us with food, clothing, shelter and fuel.” Courage, self-control and perseverance are emphasized in the fourth grade. To be sure, these things are not taught by precept but by example of the teacher and by actual training of the child in the doing of them. For instance, under thrift, there are enumerated, care in the use of school supplies; the economical use of paper, books, pencils, crayons, pens; care of clothing; the spending of money; The saving of money and the saving of time. In the fourth grade, furthermore, the policeman, fireman, postman, street cleaner, garbage collector, ash collector and the rubbish collector are studied.
The topics for the fifth grade are: water, gas, electricity, telephone, the neighborhood, the city beautiful, safety first. Philadelphia’s industries, occupations and business ethics are given for the sixth grade. Appended are eleven pages of references, by grades, to stories, songs and games illustrative of civic virtues. This course of study certainly is an attractive one.
Compared with the syllabus of Phila-


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delphia this syllabus1 is less definite and much more formal. It provides for two more years.
“The work of the first four years is mainly directed to caution to the family, the school, and the neighborhood. Specific civic instruction begins with the fifth year, bearing directly upon the local affairs of the city in the fifth year, and upon state and national affairs in the sixth year. The close of the sixth year completes the first cycle of simple study, so that a pupil who leaves school at the close of the sixth year may have an understanding however elementary, of the forms and procedure of government, and of his duties.”
The general aim of the New York city syllabus is about the same as that stated by Philadelphia, and in the earlier grades the course is pretty closely directed to that end. “ ... it becomes evident that the ethical organization of a school is of greater importance than ethical teaching.” Example of the teacher is emphasized. The children “should be given some responsibility and some opportunity for self government by allowing them to manage or take an active part in managing the discipline of the school, recitation, their own clubs, games, playgrounds, fire drills, opening exercises, entertainments, excursions, class and school libraries, athletic contests, or class saving banks.”
The time for the work of the first three years is to be “included under English as a part of the child’s necessary instruction for social membership.” Safety in the street and the home are taught, and the children are urged to co-operate in keeping the streets clean. The Four A grade presents the “duties, rights and privileges in the family and in the home”; love, care, and protection of children by the parents, and reciprocal duties of the children in love, obedience and assistance of parents; home beauty and sanitation. The school and the neighborhood are studied in the Four B grade. In the Five A grade, food, water, and housing; and in the Five B grade, fire, street, street-cleaning,
lSyllabus in Civica for the Elementary Schools of the City of New York, 1915.
disease, child labor, and enjoyments are emphasized. Analysis of the machinery of the public institutions of the city in relation to the citizen is offered for Six A; and state and national institutions for Six B. These are enlarged upon in a still more formal way in the seventh and eighth grades.
A striking feature for each grade is the list of reciprocal duties; for example, under food, as studied by grade Five A, one reads: “Reciprocal duties, to demand clean service from the milk dealer, grocer, fish man, butcher, and baker; to report careless handling of food, or the selling of spoiled food.” In this particular, New York city’s plan seems superior to Philadelphia’s. On the other hand, whereas Philadelphia emphasizes thrift in the fourth grade and really begins it in the second, New York refers to thrift only indirectly. In these days of motor trucks and automobiles Philadelphia places undue emphasis upon kindness to animals, which is given as a main topic in the first four grades, while a relatively small place is given to kindness to parents and to other people. Both syllabi contain much that ought to help train good citizens and foster good municipalities.
Garry C. Meyer.1 *
The Citizens Water Supply Company of Newtown3.—The Citizens Water Supply Company of Newtown was organized and received a franchise in 1893 to furnish water to the town of Newtown, Queens county, New York. This town was incorporated within the city of New York at the time of the consolidation in 1898, and now forms the second ward of the borough of Queens. This company has continued to serve the same territory, and has supplemented the city’s supply in the first ward, because its service has really been needed. But its rates have been higher, so that there have been constant complaints, also repeated demands that the property be taken over by the city.
Brooklyn training school for teachers.
* Report of Delos F. Wilcox, deputy commissioner to the commissioner of water supply, gas and electricity, the city of New York. October, 1916.


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Several attempts have been made by the city to purchase the property but up to the present have been given up each time as inopportune. Now that the new Catskill system is completed, the city will have a water supply more than sufficient for its entire area and the company’s service will no longer be needed. What shall be done must therefore be decided. Moreover, complaints against the rates have become insistent. This report was undertaken for the double purpose of determining reasonable rates and fixing a fair valuation for purchase.
As to rates, the report has only ordinary interest, for the points at issue are not different nor more important than have been determined repeatedly in rate cases. The problem of purchase, however, is exceedingly interesting in that it brings up special features that apply not only to other cases in the city but to many similar cases in other municipalities. The most important point seems to be this: here is a company which has served an important economic function, but whose service is rendered obsolete through large municipal developments. What policy toward the company should the city pursue?
Obviously no private investment should be permitted to stand in the way of public development, even in case of perpetual and exclusive franchises. The company, fortunately, does hot possess an exclusive franchise. It owns, however, a complete independent water system, but one scarcely adequate for the present and certainly not for the increasing needs of the next ten years. Moreover, its operating costs are high and will probably increase, so that rates would necessarily con- . tinue high. But the city has made comprehensive provisions for supplying its entire territory. If it does not supply the second ward, the water will go to waste; the additional service would be rendered without additional production expenses. Would not the sensible policy be, there- • fore, to abandon the old private supply and use the new municipal system?
Sooner or later, the city must take over the service, not only on account of costs but for the sake of adequacy, to provide
for fire protection and the growth of population. Negotiations for purchase have been started. Of the present property, the city could use only the distribution system; it would have no use for the lands and pumping stations and equipment. The company, however, has refused to sell unless the city takes the entire plant at full valuation. The city is fortunately in a strong bargaining position: it does not absolutely need any of the property in order to take over the service. It could put in a new distribution system, enter into competition with the company, drive it out of business, and cause a complete loss of the existing investment in mains. This policy, however, would mean duplication of plant and loss of revenue during the period of competition. The sensible procedure would, of course, be for the city to purchase the company’s mains, enlarge them where necessary, and take over the entire service without competition.
The city faces a twofold problem; first financial, of how much it can afford to pay for the present distribution system rather than build a new one, and second the ethical, of whether it would be treating the company justly in taking only the distribution system on a strict financial basis and requiring it to retain the rest of the property. As to the second and broader problem, the report shows that the company has obtained more than an adequate return on its investment during most of its history, and that the amount that the city can pay for the existing mains is equal to the original investment in the entire property. Whatever the company might realize from the sale of lands, stations and equipment, would constitute clear surplus. There would be no injustice, therefore, if the city would take over the distribution system only, and there would be reason even for forcing the company to sell at actual cost, instead of what it would cost to install a new system.
The report takes a reasonable position. It would be bad policy in general for the city to take over property that is not needed for service, still it must have reasonable regard for the investors. It should


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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not exercise ruthlessly its right to invade private investment whose service has been needed in the past, but it should not exercise a super-sense of justice and defeat the reasonable rights of the community to better service in the future.
The report is an exceedingly valuable document, excellently presented, with unusual importance to everybody interested in public utility matters.
John Batjer.
Princeton University.
*
City Planning for Bridgeport.1—Mr.
Nolen has the faculty of presenting in a very clear manner definite and practicable recommendations for improving existing urban conditions. This faculty is well demonstrated in the report above referred to. While it has been issued in attractive form and contains numerous illustrations, few of the views are taken from either European or other American cities, but most of them illustrate actual conditions in Bridgeport, and suggested improvements. The report itself, besides the introductory section and the conclusion, takes up in order the following specific subjects: Main lines communication, including some references to city transit problems; The downtown district; The subdivision of city land into blocks and lots; Differerent districts for different uses; Parks, playgrounds and other open spaces.
In the preface the city planning commission lays emphasis upon the fact that this is not a final report, “foT the planning of a live and rapidly growing city is never final.” Mr. Nolen notes the phenomenal growth of the population of Bridgeport of nearly 50 per cent in twenty months. He calls attention to the serious congestion of the downtown district, the lack of main lines of communication and the irrational lot and block system which has resulted from chance or speculative development. He lays emphasis upon the
1 “Better City Planning for Bridgeport,” by John Nolen; With a “Report on Legal Methods of Carrying Out Proposed Changes,” by Frank Backus Williams. Issued by the city planning commission of Bridgeport (Conn.). 1916.
need of continuity in main thoroughfares, although continuity and directness do not mean that such thoroughfares should be absolutely straight. He points out the need of reasonable regulation of the height of buildings which would now cost the city nothing, but would simplify the transportation problem and make it possible to provide better conditions, avoiding increased fire hazard, inadequate light and air and excessive land values in some spots. As a basis for his study of the main traffic system he has prepared a schematic diagram, admittedly theoretical, but indicating clearly the general plan which can be approximated by taking advantage of existing streets and avoiding the prohibitive expense of cutting through new thoroughfares where this can be avoided.
The section of the report relating to subdivision into blocks and lots is of particular interest and abounds with illustrations of existing conditions and of modifications which could readily be made in a great many parts of the city. The manner in which existing buildings have been respected and a rational plan has been worked out with a minimum disturbance of improvements already made is admirably illustrated by the two plans of the same district designated respectively as “Chaos” and “Order” which appear opposite each other on pages 56 and 57.
Mr. Nolen congratulates Bridgeport on its adoption of a new building code in 1915 as the result of agitation by the city planning commission which action was taken at a very opportune time and has operated to decrease the fire hazard which would have resulted had it been possible to build the new industrial establishments under the former building law. Extensive reference is made to the zoning ordinance recently adopted by the city of New York, but it is pointed out that this ordinance was intended to deal with a peculiar situation and its provisions would be entirely too liberal for the city of Bridgeport, which still has an opportunity to control its future development.
Reports on the planning or replanning of cities are frequently made without due


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consideration of the practicability of carrying out the recommendations under existing statutes and in view of the limitations placed upon the city authorities by their charters. They often fail, likewise, to take into account the financial problems involved. It is refreshing to see that the city planning commission of Bridgeport has taken the precaution to secure a report upon the legal methods which may be adopted to carry out Mr. Nolen’s suggestions and the manner in which their cost may be met. This question is covered very fully in the appended report of Mr. Frank Backus Williams, which discusses in considerable detail the city planning agency, specific planning powers, and city planning financing. The two reports constitute one of the best presentations of a city plan and programme which have thus far been made.
Nelson P. Lewis.
*
Philadelphia Manual of Accounting.1—
The present work is the second edition of The Manual of Accounting, Reporting and Business Procedure originally published December 29, 1913, effective January 1, 1914.
“While the text of the first edition has been completely revised, no changes have been made in the fundamental accounting principles.” This edition contains illustrations of the various forms considered essential to the successful operation of the system, which were formerly contained in a separate volume called the blue book of forms. In addition to the forms mentioned, this edition includes considerable new materials as follows:
Mechanical Tabulation. Bookkeeping has its limitations and the limit was reached some time ago. The new process makes it possible to secure detailed information which is exceedingly costly and difficult to get through bookkeeping.
Definitions of Accounting Terms Used. These have the effect of standardizing
1 Manual of Accounting, Reporting and Business Procedure of the City and County of Philadelphia. John M. "Walton, controller. 218 pp. 1917.
accounting terminology for the city and county of Philadelphia.
Classification of Expenditures—describing the general plan of classification and including parts of the “Object of Expenditure Classification,” a separate publication.
Classification of Income. The definition of income included in this section is new and wholly at variance with the accepted meaning of the word among business men.
“Income is the amount of funds collectible or receivable in a certain period, whether collected or not.”
Included in the classification of income are funds received from the sale of investments, sale of property, bonds, notes, loans, etc.
Budget-making. This interesting and much debated subject includes a definition of a budget and instructions for using the forms and preparing the annual estimates.
Inventories and Transfers of Properly. Inventories of property are to be taken at cost at such times as called for by the city controller. Inventories of stores are to be taken as of September 30 and December 31 of each year.
An interesting feature of the inventory forms provides for showing the amount of depreciation and repairs required for each general class of property inventoried.
Bates of Depreciation. The percentage of depreciation for each class of property owned by the city is set forth in considerable detail.
Philadelphia is the only city in the United States, as far as the writer is aware, that has attempted to work out the matter of depreciation of property. The amount of depreciation that occurs annually is not provided for in the annual budget but appears to be offset by the reduction of capital indebtedness each year from current revenues.
The rates established are stated to be the consensus of opinion of the engineering and technical staffs in the city’s employ, but some of the rates appear to be rather low, as, for instance, twenty years’ life for chairs, stools, desks, cupboards, bookcases, etc.—one hundred years’ fife for


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
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buildings for office purposes, school houses, hospitals, etc.
The manual is an important document and shows what can be done by an executive who is awake to the possibilities of improvement through administrative action and who realizes the value of accounting as an aid to effective action by operating heads.
Thomas R. Lill, C.P.A.
*
Kansas Algebra Measurements.—By
no means all of the educational research of the country is being conducted in the great eastern private laboratories. Many of the most important advances are coming from publicly supported western institutions. Even when tinctured with eastern and academic points of view our western investigators are apt to go off on a tangent.
In explaining the tests under review, the director of the bureau of educational measurements and standards of the Kansas state normal school, Walter L. Monroe, wrote to reviewer:
Certainly averages and medians cover up the details which are most essential to improving instruction. The only basis on which the use of tests and scales is justified is that of making instruction for individual pupils more effective. We have been trying to emphasize this point of view, but of course superintendents are interested in general measures of their systems.
The foregoing paragraph was prompted by a letter which deplored the tendency of superintendents to use the standard measurements as justifiers of the Pharisee’s prayer rather than as ready aids to pupils. Report after report comeB in showing that superintendents are asking not “Where have I gained new light on the weaknesses of teacher or pupil” but rather “How does our town’s average or median compare with forty other towns?”
The tests of silent reading and algebra are of special interest because of their convenient form and their detailed instruction. Whether a particular test is helpful or not is less important to students of government than is the purpose and general method of these tests. The layman will
gain a quick insight into this new experience of public school boys and girls by applying for sample copies. Then by applying each test to himself the reader can think out intelligently the educational value of this method. It will help us all to keep in mind one of the choicest Irish bulls of the hyperscientific standardizing, namely, the conclusion of the Cleveland survey: “In silent reading Cleveland is ahead of other cities in speed but behind any other city in ability to interpret what is read.”
William H. Allen.
*
United States Bureau of Efficiency.1—
This report gives a history of the United States bureau of efficiency established as a division of the civil service commission in 1913 but now an independent bureau. Acts of congress relating thereto are printed in full. The bureau has succeeded in making definite savings in governmental expenses through the introduction of efficiency ratings in the post office department and as a result of accomplishments in this department a system of efficiency ratings for employes has been approved for application to the national bank redemption agency and other divisions of the treasurer’s office to take effect next January. A similar system has been in operation in the state department for about a year. The paymaster general of the navy has also been using the ratings as a basis for promotions and demotions.
The forms used in deriving and maintaining efficiency ratings are given as well as other exhibits describing the character of the bureau’s work. The bureau’s organization and payroll cost is also made the subject of one exhibit.
Since the publication of the report additional acts have been passed by congress materially increasing the budget of the bureau and assigning it certain work to do, including an investigation of the methods of examining and auditing claims against the United States; an investigation of the work performed by
1 Report for the period from March 25, 1913 to October 31, 1916, Washington, 1917,


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REVIEW OF REPORTS
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the subtreasurers to determine what part of the work may be transferred to other offices of the government; an investigation of the civil service commission, and a survey of the rates of pay of employes of the various state and municipal governments and commercial institutions in the United States. The acts require that a report on these studies be submitted to congress at the next regular session and empowers the bureau to obtain -all the information necessary in carrying out its investigation and studies. To those who claim that the United States government is making no attempt to increase departmental •efficiency this report and subsequent acts of congress
will be enlightening. „ _
* C. O. Dustin.
*
Budget Making for New Hampshire Towns.1—Towns have been particularly slack in their fiscal systems, and this report in recommending a procedure for making and presenting budget estimates of revenues and expenditures in conformity with a uniform system of town accounts contributes much to a situation needing serious attention. It points out the shortcomings of present incomplete methods of making up town budgets, explains how a town budget should be made up and provides a standard blank form for presenting estimates in an intelligent way to citizens before and at the town meeting. The committee recognizes the value of the balance sheet, cash statement, detailed estimates, public hearings and a tentative budget as aids to efficient budget making, and recommends the appointment in each town of a committee on finance made up of citizens who should serve for a number of yelars in order to insure the carrying out of a planned program. The report would have been made more complete by providing for the presentation of
1 New Hampshire tax commission, Concord, N. H„ 1917.
an operating statement, by requiring a two year comparison of revenues and expenditures with estimates instead of one and 'by giving in the report the detailed classification of revenues and expenditures, which it is assumed would support the budget bill. C. 0. D.
*
Municipal Accounting.2—This document gives in a simple and understandable way the essentials of proper municipal accounting. It has succeeded in making a description of a technical subject interesting reading, and can be highly recommended to the average citizen and to those who have found other reports upon this subject too technical for thorough understanding. It concretely illustrates some of the finer points of proper municipal accounting such as the balance sheet, the revenue and expense statement in contra-distinction to the receipt and expenditure statement, expense and functional classifications and the budget, and explains in very few words the part these adjuncts play in municipal accounting and gives a general explanation of the purposes of municipal accounting, its present status and the history of the movement to improve municipal accounting methods.
*
Report on Baltimore Police.—Report No. 7 of the Baltimore bureau of state and municipal research is a pamphlet of 31 pages, which contains a summary of improvements in business methods recommended by the bureau to the Baltimore police department. Improvements in central purchasing and storehouse methods have already been adopted by the police department, and the bureau's recommendations with reference to an improved modern cost accounting system are now being carefully considered.
* University of Iowa extension division bulletin* No. 22, Iowa City, Iowa.


544
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW
[July
IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY1
Abattoirs
McCdistion (E. H.). The municipal abattoir. 1916. 14 pp. (Texas Dept, of Agriculture Bull. No. 51.)
Absent Voting
Massachusetts. Secretary oe the Commonwealth and Attorney General. Report relative to the feasibility and desirability of permitting absentee voting in the elections of the Commonwealth [with proposed constitutional amendment]. 1917. 9 pp. (House
doc. . . . no. 1537.)
United States. Library of Congress. Absent voting: summary of statutes and constitutional provisions in force in the various states, Nov., 1916. Prepared in the Legislative Reference Division. 1917. 16 pp. (64. Cong., 2. sess. Senate doc. no. 659.)
Baths
Brown (V. K.). Swimming pools. (Playground, Apr., 1917 : 43-50.)
University of Wisconsin. Municipal swimming pools in Wisconsin cities. A report compiled from information collected in 1916 by the Municipal Reference Bureau, University Extension Division. (Municipality, Apr., 1917: 49-55. illus.)
Bibliography
Municipal Journal. An index of all articles of importance on municipal subjects published between Dec., 1915, and Dec., 1916. (Reprinted from second issue each month of Munieip. Journ.) 1917.
126 pp.
Boilers
New York State. Department of Labor. Industrial code: proposed rules for the construction, installation, inspection and maintenance of steam boilers. 1917. 129 pp. diagr. tables.
Central Heating
Stureman (R. V.). The importance of personal supervision for heating departments of utility companies. (Heating and Ventilating Mag., Apr., 1917: 32-35.)
Walker (J. H.). The transmission of steam in a central heating station. (Heating and Ventilating Mag., Apr., 1917: 35-41. illus. diagrs.)
Charities
See also Welfare Work.
Denver Federation for Charity and Philanthropy. Community achievement in philanthropy, Oct. 1, 1915, to Sept. 30, 1916. 107 pp.
Frazier (Charles H.). This genera-
1 Edited by Miss Alice M. Holden, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
tion and the next in relation to mental defect. 1917. 8 pp.
Published by The Publio Charities Association of Pennsylvania.
Garland (D. F,). The city and its social responsibility. (Ohio Bull, of Charities and Correction, Feb., 1917: 5-10.)
Guild (F. H.). State supervision and administration of charities. 1916. 82 pp. (Indiana University Studies no. 33.) Charters
Bay City, Mich. Manual of Charter Commission. 1917. 38 pp.
Kansas City, Mo. Charter. Proposed charter for the City of Kansas City, Missouri. To be voted on at a special election, Mch. 6, 1917. 1917.
8 pp.
This charter, providing for the city manager form of government, was rejected at the election.
Walpole, Mass. Town Planning Committee. Community organization, with a plan for change in town government, together with a town manager charter. 1917. 36 pp.
City Planning
See also Districting, Housing, Municipal Government.
Adams (Thomas). City engineers should be city planners. (Engrng. News-Record, May 3, 1917 : 247-248.)
Aldridge (H. R.) and Shawcross (Harold). The town planning proposals of the Urban Land Report [with discussion and adjourned discussion], 1916. v. 2, pts. 5 and 8.
American Institute of Architects. City planning progress in the United States, 1917. Compiled by the Committee on Town Planning; edited by George
B. Ford. . . . 1917. 207 pp. illus.
A report based on a special first-hand inquiry to determine just what “has been accomplished or is projected in all cities in the United States of over 25,000 inhabitants, and in a few cities and towns with a smaller population where the work is of special interest.”
Bartholomew (Hahland). The engineer and city planning. (Journ. Engnrs’. Club of St. Louis, Jan.-Feb., 1917: 43-56. plans, table.)
Bird (C. S., Jr.). Town planning for small communities, by Walpole Town Planning Committee. 1917. 492 pp. illus. (Nat. Munic. League series.)
Cushing Smith (F. A.). A town plan for Dublin, Ireland. (Architectural Record, May, 1917: 403-422. illus.)
Ford (G. B.). What has been accomplished in city planning during the year 1916. (Landscape Architecture, Apr., 1917: 116-121.)
-------. First conference on city and village planning in the New York metropolitan district. A program for co-operative


1917]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
545
Elanning—how to get started—what is eing done here and abroad. (Real Estate Bull.. Apr.. 1917: 419-421.)
Hoover (A. P.). The industrial terminal and its relation to the city plan. (City Plan,*Apr., 1917: 4-5.)
Hunter (L. McL.). The laying out of streets and boulevards in relation to modem town planning. (Canadian Engnr., Mch. 22, 1917: 253-254. diagr.)
National Conference on City Planning. Proceedings of the eighth conference [held at] Cleveland, Ohio, June 5-7, 1916. 1916. 275 pp.
Partial Contents: Olmsted, F. L., Cleveland’s city planning needs: radial thoroughfares and county parks, 3-13; Brunner, Arnold, Cleveland’s group plan, 14-24; Purdy, Lawson, Cleveland's achievements in city planning, 25-34; Lewis, N. P., The automobile and the city plan, 35-56; Gillespie, John, The automobile and street traffic, 57-67; Nichols, J. C., Financial effect of good planning in land subdivision, 91-118; Adams, Thomas, State, city and town planning, 119-146; Veiller, Lawrence, Districting by municipal regulation, 147-176; Taylor, A. S., Districting through private effort, 177-183; Nolen, John, Planning problems of smaller cities in the United States, 184-198; Shirley, J. "W., Planning the smaller city: street systems including transit problems, 199-214; Comey, A. C., Building heights, 215-218; Adams, Thomas, The beginnings of town planning in Canada, 222-241; Manning, W. H., Park systems and recreation, grounds, 242-248.
New York City. Board of Estimate and Apportionment. Committee on the City Plan. Constitutional limitations on city planning powers, by Edward M. Bassett. 1917. 10 pp.
Includes sections _ on excess condemnation, building within the lines of mapped streets, setbacks, advertising signs, height, arrangement and use of buildings.
----. Establishment of setbacks or
court yards in the City of New York.
Includes the report of the Committee and of the Chief Engineer of the Board.
St. Louis. City Plan Commission. The Kingshighway: a report. 1917. 8 pp. map.
Swan (H. S.). Hundred years of city planning in New York. The plan of Manhattan, between Houston Street and 155th Street, as laid out in 1807-1811. Pts. 1-4. (Record and Guide, Mch. 24, 31, Apr. 7, 21, 1917: 391, 396; 430, 432; 470, 472; 544, 549. maps, illus.)
Woodhouse (Henry). Provisions to be made in city planning to facilitate aerial transportation. (Flying, Jan., 1917 : 489-493. illus.)
Civil Service
Colorado. Civil Service Commission. Citizenship and residence requirements of civil service commissions of states and principal cities. 1916. 7 sheets, typewritten.
Fuld (L. F.). Employment methods in the public service [of New York City], (Industrial Management, May, 1917: .246-251. illus.)
Hopper (J. J.). Public office from a
civil service and business point of view; with a foreword by William Gorham Rice, Civil Service Commissioner, State of New York. [1917.] 14 pp. chart.
Moon (V. S.). Employees’ service rating. (Munieip. Engnrs’. Joum., Mch., 1917: 87-91. forms.)
New Jersey. Civil Service Investigation Committee. Report, 1916. 1917. 52 pp.
County Government
Anon. The first county manager has arrived. (Engrng. and Contracting, May 2,1917. 400 words.)
A brief note on the interesting experiment being undertaken in Tillman County, Okla.
City Club of Cincinnati. Shall the city and county governments be consolidated? Report of the Committee on Consolidation of City and County Governments. 1917. 16 pp.
Cleveland Civic League. City and county consolidation: an effort to secure greater efficiency and economy in local government. [Communication addressed to the General Assembly by the Executive Board of the league.] (Cleveland Civic Affairs, Jan., 1917.)
Gilbertson (H. S.). The county; the “dark continent” of American politics. 1917. 297 pp. chart.
A ringing indictment of county government in its present condition, particularly in the urban county. Bibliography, pp. 275-284.
Los Angeles. City and County Consolidation Commission. Report, adopted Dec. 19, 1916. 1917. [12 pp.]
Williams (E. W.). Centralized government for counties and cities. (Amer. City, Mch., 1917: 257-262. chart.)
Courts
American Judicature Society. Second draft of a state-wide judicature act. Mch., 1917. 198 pp. (Bull. no. 7a.)
This is Bulletin 7 revised.
----. The first nineteen articles of the
proposed rules of civil procedure; supplementary to the state-wide judicature act (Bulletin 7) of the . . . Society; a tentative draft published in Mch., 1917. 1917. 79 pp. (Bull. no. 13.)
Harley (Herbert). A unified state court system. [1917.] 25 pp.
Hoffman (C. W.). Courts of domestic relations. (Ohio Bull, of Charities and Correction, Feb., 1917 : 74-78.)
Hoyt (F. C.). The juvenile court of New York City. (Journ. National Education Assoc., Apr., 1917 : 837-840.)
Massachusetts. Commission Ap-pointed to Consider the Question of Abolishing the Trial Justice System. Report, Jan., 1917. 27 pp. (Sen. doc. no. 347.)
New York City. Public Library. Probation officer, children’s court: a
7


546 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July
selected list of references for the use of civil service candidates. (Municip. Ref. Library Notes, Apr. 25, 1917: 262-264.)
Olson (Habry). Efficiency in the administration of criminal justice. 1917. 78 pp. diagr.
Mr. Olson is chief justice of the Municipal Court of Chicago.
Pennsylvania. Legislative Reference Bureau. A compilation of the laws relating to juvenile courts and dependent, neglected, incorrigible and delinquent children. 1916. Ill pp.
Pound (Roscoe). A bibliography of procedural reform, including organization of courts. (111. Law Review, Feb., 1917: 451-463.)
This bibliography has also been reprinted.
Dance Halls
Bowen (L. de K.). The public dance halls of Chicago, rev. ed. 1917. 13 pp. (Juvenile Protective Assoc, of Chicago.)
Daylight Saving
United States. Library of Congress. List of references on daylight saving. Apr., 1917. 5 pp. typewritten.
Districting
See also City Planning.
Chicago. City Council. Building districts and restrictions: a bill for an act granting to cities and villages in the State of Illinois power to create residential, business and industrial building districts or zones . . . ; and A statement of
the desirability of giving the City of Chicago power to create building districts, presented to the Committee on Judiciary of the City Council . . by Alderman
C. E. Merriam. Feb., 1917. 56 pp.
Includes a comparison of the work of Illinois with what has been accomplished in other American cities, namely, New York, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Richmond, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Baltimore, and Massachusetts cities.
Ford (G. B.). Building zones: a handbook of restrictions on the height, area, and use of buildings, with especial reference to New York City. [1917.] 36 pp. maps, diagr.
Reyes (C. M.). Benefits of the new zoning resolution: some cases cited bearing on the new law—property owners will be the gainers. (Record and Guide, Mch. 3, 1917 : 283-284.)
Newark. City Plan Commission. Encouraging proper city growth through building districts. 1917. [14 pp.] illus.
A series of articles reprinted from the Newark Sunday Call, setting forth advantages of legislation to enable Newark to control and guide the city's future growth. A zoning bill has since been enacted.
Swan (H. S.). Constitutionality of the zone law. (Record and Guide, May 5, 1917 : 620-621.)
Food Prices and Cost of Living
Dallas, Texas. Dallas Wage Com-
mission. Report of the Survey Committee. 1917. 16 pp.
Massachusetts. Commission on the Cost of Living. [Report summarizing its findings in regard to the causes of the present Mgh cost of living and the possibility of remedial legislation.] Feb. 20, 1917. 14pp. (Senate doc. no.383.)
Minneapolis Civic and Commerce Association. Preliminary report on study of increase of cost of food, submitted to the Council Committee on Commerce and Markets, by the Bureau of Municipal Research. [Nov. 21, 1916.] 11 pp.
typewritten, table.
New York City. Board of Estimate and Apportionment. Bureau of Personal Service. Report on the increased cost of living for an unskilled laborer’s family in New York City. 1917. 32 pp. tables.
----. Department of Health. Food
economies: a series of special bulletins for the housewife. 1917. 22 pp. (Bureau of Public Health Education.)
New York State. Committee on Market Conditions. Foods and markets. New York should safeguard its food supply. Mch. 7, 1917. [4 pp.j (Bull. no. 1.)
Philadelphia Vacant Lots Cultivation Association. Shortage of food relieved and high food prices reduced. [1917.] 16 pp.
Constitutes the twentieth annual report of the-Association.
Stoddard (R. I.). Mobilizing unused land and forces to meet an unprecedented crisis. (Amer. City, May, 1917: 471— 481. illus.)
An outline of some of the methods being used in. applying the vacant lot and home gardening idea towards solving the problem presented by the present food shortage.
United States. Library of Congress. List of references on government regulation of prices (especially of foods). Jan. 11,1917. 5 pp. typewritten. (Division of Bibliography.)
Gary System
McMillen (J. A.), compiler. The-Gary system: a bibliography. 1917. 15 pp. (University of Rochester. The Library, Jan. 31, 1917.)
Revision to Dec., 1916, of a list first compiled: in Apr.. 1916.
Housing
Beer (C>. F.). Housing experience in Toronto. (Conservation of Life, Mch.,. 1917: 25-28. illus.)
Davison (R. L.). A check list of the-principal housing developments in the-United States, alphabetically arranged and prepared . . . from material in
the Social Ethics Library and Social Museum, Harvard University. (Architectural Review, Apr., 1917: 83-91. illus.)


1917]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
547
Kellor (F. A.). The application of Americanization to housing. (Architectural Review, Jan., 1917: 1-2.)
Mat (Charles C.). Industrial housing. (Architecture, Apr., 1917: 61-64. illus.)
Mole (J. H.). Some observations on municipal housing [in Great Britain]. Surveyor and Municipal and County Engnr., Mch. 23,1917: 304r-306.)
Rome Bbass and Copper Co. (Rome, N. Y.). Riverdale, a village for the employees of the Rome Brass & Copper Co. [1917.] 20 pp.
Contains an English, Hungarian, Italian and Polish version.
Smith (H. A.). Economic open stair communal dwellings for industrial towns. (Architecture, May, 1917: 81-84. illus. charts.)
Veilleh (Lawrence). Industrial housing. Pts. 1-4. (American Architect, Jan. 17, 31, Feb. 7, Mch. 7, 1917: 33-35, 75-77, 90-93, 161-163.)
Jitney
McCahill (D. I.). Status of the “jitney.” 1916. 42 pp.
Lighting
See also Power Plants, Publio Utilities.
Anon. Results of 1916 light and power operations; central station income from energy sales more than $415,000,000, output considerably in excess of 23,000,-000,000 kw.-hr. (Electrical World, Mch. 3, 1917: 410-412. tables.)
Dickerman (J. C.). The new indeterminate street lighting contracts adopted in Wisconsin cities. A study of the Racine and Wauwatosa contracts. (Utilities Magazine, Mch.. 1917: 11-17.)
------. Typical street lighting experiences of a small city. (Utilities Magazine, Mch., 1917: 22-31.)
An account of a survey of lighting finance in Malden, Mass., made by the author at the request of the city officials.
Farwell (S. P.). Actual experience of Illinois [Public Utilities] Commission gas inspectors [in the testing of gas, meters, etc.]. (Gas Age, Apr. 16,1917: 392-397. forms.)
Keith (W. G.). Group street lighting system for the City of Chicago. (General Electric Review, Feb., 1917: 126-129. diagrs.)
Loan Shark
Eubank (E. E.). Loan sharks and loan shark legislation in Illinois. (Joum. of Criminal Law and Criminology, May, 1917: 69-81.)
Markets
Armstrong (D. B.). The sanitation of public markets. 1917. 7 pp.
Reprinted from the Journal of the American Medical Association, Jan. 13, 1917.
State Bureau of Municipal Information [of the New York State Con-
ference of Mayors and Other City Officials]. Municipal public markets. 1917. [6 pp.] 6 tables.
This report contains data gathered from various sources, including answers to a questionnaire received from 154 cities.
Motor Vehicles
Pollock (Willets). Milwaukee Division of Motor Vehicles. New municipal department for operating, maintaining and purchasing motor vehicles and furnishing motor vehicle service to all departments— straight livery scheme not practicable— results already obtained. (Municip. Journ., Feb. 22,1917: 265-266. illus.) Municipal Government and Administration
See also County Government.
Anon. City manager plan. [1917.]
Sprinted from the Abilene (Kan.) Chronicle, Feb. 22, 1917.
Fesler (Mayo). The preferential, non-partisan ballot as a suggested partial relief for some of our election ills. (Proceedings, 111. Municip. League. 1916: 25-42. tables.)
Hoag (C. G.). True representation for a city council. (Chicago City Club Bull., Mch. 15, 1917: 85-87.)
Advocates proportional representation.
Hunt (Henry J.). Obstacles to municipal progress. (Am. Pol. Sci. Quart., Feb., 1917: 76-87.)
Illinois. Statutes. A bill for an act to consolidate in the government of the City of Chicago the powers and functions vested in local governments and authorities within the territory of said city and to make provisions concerning the same. 1917. 34 pp. (50. Gen. Assy. Senate bill no. 141.)
James (H. G.). Municipal functions. 1917. 369 pp. (National Municipal League series.)
McBain (H. L.). Progress in the government of cities. 1917. [3 pp.]
Manning (W. Harold). A summary of municipal activities. Various data of cities of over 100,000 population. (Amer. City, Apr., 1917: 333-339. charts, tables.)
Mitchel (J. P.). City problems—and a word for preparedness. (Real Estate Bull., Mch., 1917: 341-345.1
Address at the 21st annual dinner of the Real Estate Board of New York, Feb. 3, 1917.
Riddle (Kenyon) . The city manager and city engineer-manager. Plans of government. [1917.] 32 pp.
United States. Library of Congress. List of references on federal, state and municipal public works departments in the United States and foreign countries. Oct. 13, 1916. 1917. 15
sheets, typewritten. (Division of Bibliography.)


Full Text

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1917 Editor CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Associde Editors ALICE M. HOLDEN HERMAN G. JAMES HOWARD L. MCBAIN C. C. WILLIAMSON VOLUME VI JANUARY, PP. 1-200 JULY, PP. 449-555 MARCH, PP. 201-343 SEPTEMBER, PP. 586-658 WY, PP. 324-448 NOVEMBER, PP. 659-763 PUBLISEED FOB THE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE THE RUMFORD PRESS CONCORD, N. H. I917 BY

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. VI, No. 4 JULY, 191 7 TOTAL No. 24 THE WAR AND MUNICIPAL ADVANCE BY J. HORACE MCFARLAND' Harrisburg, Pa. OR the first time since its great internal struggle in 1861, the United States is involved in a real war. The Spanish American war was a mere skirmish, and the incidents with Mexico have been far less serious. We now face an extraordinary, determined fighting combination, operated as a unit and not as a democracy. We are populous, we are wealthy, and we are united. We will fight with determination and vigor. The feeling throughout the country is serious. It is appreciated that we have reached a definite crisis in the life of the nation. Does this mean the abandonment of all work other than that related to the sending of soldiers and vessels, of munitions and food, to the fighting line? Does it mean that education must be checked; that philanthropy must be exerted only toward war relief; that the United States must in patriotic thought definitely set aside endeavors for municipal betterment? Each man at war is said to require five or six men back of him to keep him supplied and in fighting trim. Each shot from any gun on any vessel represents the work of from ten to one hundred men, for a time between a week and a month. Each shipload of food or munitions supplied to the Allies has to do with the life of a large town in the United States for a whole year. Thus, with a united nation, intent on fighting with success the battle for liberty and democracy, the larger part of the actual work is done at home, and more than 50 per cent of it in the cities and towns of the country. If by continuing civic effort the efficient expenditure of a single dollar 1 President, American Civic Association; vice-president, National Municipal League. F 449

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450 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July can be caused to do as much for the community as two dollars previously did; if by civic thoughtfulness ten men can do equally well the work which has heretofore taken twenty; if by the use of better methods community service and community government can be improved, it is obvious that to abandon or intermit efforts for the sort of advance work for which the National Municipal League stands would tend to embarrass rather than to help the fighters at the front. The National Municipal League, therefore, calls for greater intensity on the part of its associates and members, so that not only the soldiers at the front but the war workers at home, their families and those who pay the taxes, may live in the best fashion at the least cost with the utmost equality of opportunity. It follows that this action is patriotic, and distinctly and directly in the line of producing quickly in the United States, and in a better fashion, that marvelous community efficiency which has been a conspicuous factor in the fighting ability of the German empire. AMERICAN CITIES IN WAR TIMES BY CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Philadelphia HE first shock of the entrance of America into the world war has failed to produce an appreciable effect upon American cities, T and so far but slight effect upon American progressive organizations like the National Municipal League, and the activities of local bodies working for better municipal conditions, save in the direction of a still greater conservation of energy and resources: for the conduct of American volunteer civic bodies has not heretofore been generally characterized by waste, extravagance or red tape. Unquestionably themost striking development of these first few months since war was declared has been the determination to stand steadfastly for all that has thus far been gained through long, hard effort. England, in the first months of her war experience, showed hysteria and a bending, a letting down of the bars, especially along industrial lines and in certain lines of public work. America appears to be determined not to make the same mistake. This is the testimony of the civic director of the woman’s city club of Cincinnati: Declaration of war brought at first a paralyzed discouragement at the spectacle of halted plans which had been aimed at social progress. But civic and social workers are regaining their footing in the sweep of international events. There is now emerging among them, as if by unspoken consent from one end of the country to the other a high resolve to safe1 Secretary, National Municipal League.

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19171 AMERICAN CITIES IN WAR’ TIMES 451 guard from sacrifice, if possible, their hard won gains. ‘ National and international calls for service must be heeded, and the larger patriotism to which they have given birth makes it possible to dedicate to one’s country and to the world, with clearer vision, one’s unwavering will to strengthen the links of common welfare by local civic effort. Our own committees, though somewhat shaken by diverting demands, have not lost their grip upon their earlier programs of reform. Twenty committees in the last month have held thirty-one meetings. NO HYSTERIA Thus far there has been little or no hysteria on the part of American civic leaders and civic organizations. Naturally there has been a searching of hearts; a thoughtful consideration of the whole situation; but no serious suggestion of giving up the fight for improved conditions. There has been a general recognition that the cities of the country constitute the reserve forces of democracy; the essential support of those at the front. In the pioneer days of the municipal movement, we used to say “AS go the cities, so goes the nation.” True then, it is even truer now for the cities bulk so much larger in importance] numbers, strength] influence. If democracy fails to make good in the city, it will inevitably fail in the larger units-but it is not going to fail in the city. It will also be one of enormous expenditures-the greatest in the history of the world. This means that as never before our governmental machinery must be organized for efficiency and economy, GOVERNMENT: “THE BIGGEST FACT IN OUR LIVES” “Can governmental methods be improved in the hurry and scurry of war?” the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research asks, and answers its own question in this way: If ever citizens are conscious of the government over them it is when they are face to face with war. In ordinary times of peace the great mass of citizens take little heed of the fact that it is government that protects us from violence and accidents, that it is government that very largely looks after our health, that it is government that educates our children, that government is the greatest constructive social agency in the corn-. munity. But suddenly war tears the veil of indifference from our eyes and we see government as it actually is, always a part of our very existence. . . . It becomes in war times the biggest fact in our lives. .. To those living under an autocracy, this close-up contact with government has brought home the importance of the democratic form. To those who have the democratic form, it brings home the necessity for perfecting that form as much as possible. Exploitation and inexpert blundering bring disastrous consequences which teach hard lessons. Every instrumentality that makes for social and governmental efficiency becomes of intensely more importance in a national crisis: If sanitation was important during peace, it is immensely more important The present war is one of economic forces.

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452 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July during a war. If education and the advancement of science were worth while last month, how much more so are they now when our very lives depend upon knowing how to control the forces of nature! If it were worth while to save babies in ordinary times, how much more important it is to save them in war time! If scientific methods of employment and purchase of supplies were necessary to meet the normal demands on government, how much more necessary are they now that we are in the conflict! If good methods in the management and control of the governmental finances were desirable in times of peace, they are indispensable in times of war. So, while at first thought sloppy, haphazard ways might seem justified on account of the unusual pressure suddenly brought to bear upon our machinery of government, reflection shows us that now of all times are precision, expertness, careful planning, improvements in all phases of governmental work most supremely important. If we are wise we will start on this assumption and not have to learn the bitter lesson in the most expensive way. Under the caption: “American Cities are Awake,” the editor of The American City in his May issue pointed out that when war was declared an instant and patriotic response on the part of municipal officials and commercial and civic organizations throughout the United States might have been pjedicted with certainty. But, as he said, there was naturally a feeling on the part of many leaders in municipal activities that the attention of the nation might be concentrated on measures of military preparedness to the exclusion of problems of equal or greater importance relating to economic resources and social welfare. THE AMERICAN CITY CANVASS If any doubt still exists on this subject, there is now documentary evidence to refute it. A communication was sent on April 13 by the editor of The American City to the mayor and to the leading commercial or civic organization in some 1200 cities throughout the United States to the following effect: The war with Germany has brought to everyone of us an opportunity to render patriotic service in promoting economic preparedness and social welfare. The importance of these activities in the present crisis is generally realized. People throughout the nation are showing their willingness to co-operate, but few of thein know just how to proceed. . . . Will you co-operate by telling just what your city has done, is doing or is planning to do along any of the lines covered by the enclosed blank? . . . A questionnaire accompanied the letter with a request for information 8s to activities already inaugurated, of the several kinds indicated in the following list: 1. Vacant lot cultivation. 2. Care of families of soldiers and sailors.

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19171 AMERICAN CITIES IN WAR TIMES 453 3. Co-ordinating and financing of local charities. 4. Plans for Independence Day receptions to encourage naturalization 5. Promotion of increased production in agricultural areas adjacent to 6. Improvements in marketing methods. 7. Training school children iq gardening. 8. Vocational training in night schools. 9. Teaching English to adult foreigners. 10. Physical preparedness through improved housing conditions. 11. Baby week campaigns and other child welfare work. 12. Increased attention to public health and sanitation. 13. Safeguarding moral conditions in camps. 14. Enlistment of emergency forces by fire departments. 15. Increased attention to road building and maintenance. 16. Enlistment of emergency forces by police departments. The 526 replies received from 454 cities showed a widespread intention to co-operate in definite work along the lines indicated, and to hold fast to ground already occupied, of aliens. your city. . NEW YORK STATE CITIES Practically every city in New York state has a vacant lot and back garden campaign according to a bulletin issued by the state conference of mayors. Forty-one cities have already started campaigns and have their work well organized. “There will be few uncultivated vacant lots in the cities of this state” said William P. Capesl secretary of the conference, “ if the officials and organizations which are co-operating with them succeed with their plans. Most of the cities have reported that their campaigns are in full swing and being developed to the greatest possible extent. In all the cities committees are listing all vacant lots that will not be tilled by the owners and arranging for their cultivation. Back-yard gardening is also being encouraged. Several cities are arranging to have school children and adults plant municipally owned land such as parks, plots bid in for unpaid taxes and the unused space about city places.” At a meeting of the Indiana mayors’ association held in April, it was reported that municipal labor bureaus will be established in many Indiana cities for the purpose of encouraging men to go to the country and to work during periods when there is a shortage of labor on the farms to assist the more-food movement.” Several mayors told of their plans to confiscate vacant lots for gardening purposes in cases where the owners do not give permission for their use. The mayor of Marion said the lots should be plowed and the question of the city’s right to take possession of them could be settled later. The mayor of Fort Wayne told of the comprehensive organization work for gardening in that city. The mayor of Goshen said it was his intention to place all idlers at work in gardens. it

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454 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ J UIY Close co-operation by all mayors of Indiana for encouraging the raising of as much food as possible in home gardens, and the taking of organized steps for the preservation of the surplus food for winter use, were urged. MORE EFFECTIVE CO-OPERATION AND UTILIZATION The same story comes from other parts of the country where municipal officials and workers have gathered. EGerywhere, in fact, there has been a recognition of the need of more effective co-operation and utilization of our forces, both in the way of production and of economy. While our civic volunteer organizations have generally, both through necessity and conviction, been careful and economical in the transaction of their affairs, the same cannot be said of individuals and of cities, and both of these must now contribute their share. There are numerous wastes of water, light, heat and power, which if corrected will result in truly enormous savings. These are small matters, but practically within the control of every citizen and should be attended to without further delay. Our city governments have not heretofore, except in rare instances, been characterized by either efficiency or economy. Now is the time to inaugurate both. “Eventually-why not now?” reads a well known advertisement. And it may be asked with great appropriateness of our municipal governments. Somebody must pay the enormous bills that will be entailed by the conduct of the war and the citizen can no longer shrug his shoulders when reminded of municipal waste and inefficiency, and dismiss the whole matter with the comment “that we can easily afford it.” Called upon to bear greater burdens, to practice greater economy and inaugurate greater efficiency at the same time new duties are assumed, the cities will demand the closer attention and the greater co-operation of organizations like the National Municipal League and the long list of local civic associations, city clubs, municipal leagues, and similar bodies. This was the moral to be drawn from the Kansas City meeting of the city planning conference, generally conceded to be the most successful in its history. Moreover, as Walter Lippman recently pointed out, We are living and shall live all our lives now in a revolutionary world. That means among other things a world of restless experiment. If this activity is to be controlled by mind, our minds will have to be controlled by some great central idea. That idea may be described as the search for the ways and means towards new and more workable varieties -of federalism. We might almost say, I think, that there is no form of inquiry into human need and organization which could not profitably be directed for the near future by that dominant idea. Therein lies the need for the unremitting support of the National Consumers League, the Child Labor Committee, the National Municipal League and their allies. We are determining by our conduct in this war

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19171 AMERICAN CITIES IN WAR TIMES 455 not only the immediate issues, but the civilization of the coming generations; for it is possible for us to win the war and lose our own souls. LOOKING TO THE FUTURE The coming of war found us unprepared for war. The coming of peace, whether this year or next, or years hence, must not find us unprepared for the problems, the difficult problems, which peace will bring. The editor of the Canadian Municipal Journal (and that great dominion has never abated its civic activities during the whole period of the war) in his May issue points out that Practically throughout the Empire, and the world for that matter, preparations are being made right now by municipal authorities to meet the after war conditions. In the Mother Country municipal councils, realizing the keen competition that will follow the war, and the ambitions of men who have tasted the sweets from the profits gotten of war’s necessity, have for some time been preparing publicity campaigns to encourage industries to locate in their particular district. . . . Great Britain in the midst of her vast preparations to win the war has also been preparing for “after the war.” What are war plants to-day will be peace plants to-morrow, for England has a big bill to pay and she must manufacture and sell goods to meet that bill. She has the ships and will have the goods to flood the markets of the world, including this country, at prices that Canada could not begin to compete with-goods that may be indigenous to the Old Country but certainly are not to this Dominion. Canada’s great chance and opportunity is in industries indigenous .to her soil-in the utilization to the full of those resources right at her door. With that idea in view we have confined ourselves in Canada’s preparedness propaganda to the natural resources and their development. That is all. . . . FRENCH EXPERIENCE IN CITY PLANNING ’ In recounting his French experiences as a member of the American Industrial Commission to France, George B. Ford told the city planning conference at Kansas City that heretofore, France has never known recreation in the sense that we know it. Recreation has usually been I( sport,” and even at that, largely borrowed from England. But partly as a result of the outdoor life at the front and partly as a matter of reasoning, the Frenchman has come to realize the necessity of providing recreation places in his cities and towns. The movement is very recent, but the new recreation parks and playgrounds designed for Rheims, Clermonten, Argonne, and Bordeaux, give a suggestion of the importance that the new movement is taking in France. As success in war or peace depends so largely on keeping both men and women in the best physical condition, the provision of play space becomes doubly imperative. Mr. Ford in the same address said: War shows up very clearly the need and lack of general city planning. A11 of the various matters that are touched upon here and many others

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456 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW must be woven together into a unified comprehensive plan. We found in Paris that the city government had since the beginning of the war organized a city planning bureau wi@h broad powers which was planning comprehensively the whole metropolitan area, not only within the city, but through all the surrounding district. In Lyons, we found similar plans being worked out. In London, the architects, engineers and city officials have come together and are working out most extraordinarily comprehensive plans especially for traffic routes for an area of nearly two thousand square miles around London. But more striking still, were the plans which they showed us for the replanning of Rheims and some of the other destroyed towns. In France, they have come to realize that they must make a virtue of their necessity and rebuild the destroyed cities along modern, scientific lines, always preserving as far as possible the charm of the past. They have gone further still, and now appreciate the vital need of general scientific planning. They have actually framed a law which has already passed the Senate,-The Loi Cornudet,-according to which every city, town or village in France, regardless of whether it is in the destroyed area or not, will be forced to lay out all its future developments according to modern city planning principles. Every community will have to have its city planning commission, over which there will be a general commission in each of the 86 departments, and over these in turn, there will be a federal commission, so that all may work along similar lines and so that the whole area of France will be laid out according to one great comprehensive plan. They are doing these things because they find that they have got to do them to meet the economic competition with other countries which is coming after the war. There must be no waste, and they are providing to eliminate every possibility of it. France is doing all these things at enormous cost, despite the superhuman work of carrying on the war. She is doing it because she finds it necessary to make up for the mistakes of unpreparedness. We in America are remarkably fortunate in having the example of their experience before us. It is comparatively easy for us to plan for 'these emergencies; be they in aviation, in the transportation of men or supplies, in housing or recreation, or in the working out of general all including plans. In peace times, it is sheer common sense to give our best thought to the planning of our cities. It is imperative to do so now to meet the demands of war. America bids fair to take to heart and profit by England's example and hold fast to what she has already gained. May she take a further leaf from the experience of her present allies and take thought of the future while discharging her present duty to the uttermost!

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19171 EXHIBITION, OF RE-CONSTITUTED CITY 457 THE PARIS EXHIBITION OF THE RECONSTITUTED CITY (1 916.) (EXPOSITION DE LA CITE RECONSTITUfiE) BY PROF. PATRICK GEDDES Edinburgh, Scotland HE Cities and Town Planning Exhibition,’’ now becoming known under the shorter, more human and more accurate title of T “Civic Exhibition,” had been in India during the winters of 1914-15 and 1915-16 at the invitation of three presidency governments. It was held at Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, and later at Nagpur and Lucknow, the capitals of the central and united provinces respectively. Its director was reporting on cities, and advising on town improvements and extensions, when a request came from the Comitd Superieur of the Exposition de la Cite Reconstitude in Paris to share in this exhibition in the summer of 1916 by exhibiting the whole or part of its collections. The original collections of the exhibition had been destroyed on their way out to India in October 1914 by the famous Emden, which met the vessel on which these collections were being carried, and sunk it in the Indian Ocean with all its cargo. It was a serious loss, as the collections represented much of the work of twenty years or more, and many of the documents were irreplaceable. Nor did the insurance cover war risks. Moreover, the first exhibition in India was to have been held a month or so from the date of its destruction. Members of the town planning institute in London, Edinburgh and elsewhere set to work with admirable promptitude and energy to gather new collections; and generous aid was forthcoming also from colleagues in America like Dr. Nolen and others. An exhibition, smaller of course, but not without value, was held in Madras in less than three months; and since then with each subsequent exhibition further reconstruction has been in progress. After this experience the transporting of the best of the renewing oolLection once more across the seas in war time was not without risk; but the documents reached Paris at the end of April 1916, a few days before the date announced for the opening of the Exposition de la Cite Reconstituee. It was not surprising, however, to find that owing to war exigencies the preparations for opening were still far from complete. Even under ordinary circumstances exhibitions are apt to be late; and when we consider those under which the idea of this Paris Exposition of 1916 was conceived, and the difficulties of innumerable kinds in carrying it out, we cannot but regard it as one more amongst the many indications of the energy and vitality of the French, of their power of co-ordination, above all of their farsighted and generous social outlook.

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458 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July It was planned and held when the enemy was still only some sixty miles from the gates of Paris, and holding a portion of France more than equal to the whole of Belgium, and while the terrible struggle of Verdun was at its fiercest, the Germans gaining ground there, and threatening to break through the French defences. Every available man of fighting age was either at the front or otherwise employed in war work. Scarcely a family but was mourning their men already fallen on the field. The exposition, too, suffered from the absence at the front of architects and others who would have rendered good service; as also from the inevitable cares and preoccupations of those promoters who remained on the spot. Workmen were scarce; materials, such as wood for temporary constructions, were hard to find. Nevertheless, the exposition was useful, as an education to the general public and to specialists of various kinds; and above all it was a triumphant demonstration, alike to allies and enemies, of the courage and confidence of France. UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE GOVERNMENT The draft programme announced that the exposition was organized by the Associatzon Gdndrale des Hygidnistes et Techniciens Municipaux de France et des Pays de Langue Fran~aise, under the agk of the republic, with the patronage of the ministries of commerce, of industry, of agriculture, of education and fine art, of labor and of the interior; of the general council of the Seine and municipal council of Paris; and of the committees for housing and social welfare and the like. Its working nucleus was well constituted, of architects and planners, men of affairs, of politics and government; and its composition included at once a strong representation of regionalists, from Brittany to Provence, as well as ,eminent Parisians. Of their working president, M. Georges Risler, much might be said, and all appreciatively. The site of the exposition was well chosen on the Terrace of the Tuileries adjoining the Place de la Concorde, easily reached by underground railways and by tramway from both sides of the Seine. Most of the buildings were temporary constructions except the central one of the old “Jeu de Paume.” In this were exhibited plans for the reconstruction of Rheims and other towns and villages in the war zone, as well as of foreign towns by skilled and scholarly French architects and municipal engineers. There were also photographs and drawings of some of the destroyed Flemish towns, with plans for the reconstruction of their ruined quarters and public buildings. Around the central building were examples of building materials and constructions in wood, in various kinds of cement, plaster, terra-cotta, etc.; some separate, or in street rows, some grouped as model villages. The exposition showed altogether 40 of these model houses costing from 1500 francs ($300) upwards. There were of course the usual business

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19171 EXHIBITION OF RE-CONSTITUTED CITY 459 exhibits by firms of cabinet-makers, electricians and other house furnishers, agricultural implement manufacturers, and so on. THE QUAKER CONTRIBUTION One of the most interesting and congruent exhibits was that of the English Society of Friends (Quakers), whose war victims’ relief committee has for the past two and a half years been engaged in reconstruction work in the departments of the Marne and Meuse, from which the Germans were driven back in September, 1914. This exhibit, took the form of a wooden hut of three rooms, such as the Friends have been building in great numbers for the inhabitants of the villages and small towns wrecked by the Germans. Inside the little dwelling were plans of these villages and towns, indicating the houses totally or partially destroyed (in some cases scarcely a single one was left standing), and those rebuilt by the Friends’ committee. There were also photographs. showing other branches of their work, such as medical relief, distribution of agricultural implements, seeds, etc., of clothing and other necessaries; temporary schools and work rooms, with specimens of needlework for sale. VILLAGE PLANS An important feature of the exposition was the competition, open to all architects, French and other, for the best village plans, for which prizes were offered. The competitors, of whom there were twenty-five or more, were supplied with plans of three types of ruined agricultural villages, large and small, chosen from different regions and with varying situations and needs. The competitors were of varied points of view, from the most urban outwards. Some were extreme Parisians-must one say even to cockneyism?--of the type which prevails in every great city; projecting the boulevards, places, rond-points of Paris, even the Etoile itself, upon the village, which was thus effaced beyond recognition as a village altogether. Others there were with all degrees of practicality, up to rural commonsense, But in general, for villages as for cottages, with of course creditable exceptions, the idea was not clear enough to most of the competitors, that the peasant requires a homestead, a working farm-center, and not merely that pleasant suburban retreat to which the city dweller, his work over, looks forward to retiring. THE CATHEDRAL QUARTER OF RHEIMS The proposals for the cathedral quarter of Rheims were too much influenced by Paris. They tended to repeat the errors of the Second Empire, and those of the earlier German town planners with their excessive opening up, in front of Notre Dame and all around Cologne Cathedral. The Germans before the war, awakened to this error, were organizing competitions for building up again around their cathedrals, and so restor

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460 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July ing them to their former scale and majesty. For thus, instead of being left isolated upon an empty place, like a head on a charger, like bric-Abrac upon a table, or like a model on a museum floor, they will again appear soaring above the homes grouped around them, presiding over, protecting, inspiring their city. But one of the great uses of our exhibition is to provide an opportunity of making mistakes like these of village and cathedral in their experimental phases, while there is still time for criticism and improvement, instead of the commoner method-that of half-considered execution first, and useless criticism after the fact. An excellent and varied programme of lectures was provided on civic subjects ranging from public sanitation, rural and urban, to the Esthetic and social aspects of town planning. It included also regional .studies of the French provinces, Alsace-Lorraine, Brittany, Provence, Auvergne and many more. Peripatetic lectures (promenades-con~~renc~~), too, were organized; and all this again with fitting leadership, not only antiquarian, artistic and architectural, but embracing at once the best geographers of France, all now regionalists to a man; and the small but growing group of politicians who are working to renew the too much lost lesson of 1870-71 ; that of slackening the excessive cerebralization of Paris, and renewing the life of the old provinces, recombined as natural and economic regions, and each around its provincial capital and university city. Parties of school children were admitted free of charge under the direction of their teachers or other guides. Members of municipalities and other city officials came from afar. A special invitation was sent by the comit6 supdrieur to the lord mayor and council of Dublin, who at the time were preoccupied by the question of replanning and rebuilding the areas destroyed during the Sinn Fein rising at Easter of last year. The lord mayor, city architect and several councillors accepted the invitation, and a cordial meeting took place between them and their Paris colleagues. So much or the bulk of the exposition; our own section, that of the civic exhibition, was of more general scope than any other. It consisted of a type-collection of graphic illustrations bearing on the life of cities, and on their constructions considered as expressions of this civic life. It was arranged as a basis for the scientific and comparative study of cities past and present, and for relating to each the conception of the “city possible.” So far these two criticisms, of country plans and city ones. PLANS OF ANCIENT CITIES Plans and drawings of ancient cities, of Egypt, Israel, Greece, Rome, of medisval and renaissance times led on to those of the modern industrial age, and supplied that historical perspective needed to correct the view too limited to our mechanical age of town planning and city improvement

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19171 EXHIBITION OF RE-CONSTITUTED CITY 461 which is still so characteristic of both the city engineer and his lay public. Without such preliminary study, our town planners overlook elements of vital importance, material as well as moral, to the life of the community for which they plan, and thus have too often impoverished and degraded their towns instead of enriching and ennobling them. The influence of wars on the congestion and consequent deterioration of cities was exemplified in a series of old prints and plans of Flemish towns, Ypres, Dixmude, Ghent, etc. Yet with all these tragic records the opportunities of renewal also were not forgotten. The too narrowly utilitarian character of the town planning of the earlier modern industrial period, with its accompaniments of squalor and degradation of the worker and his family, were only too easy to illustrate; but happily also the garden villages and garden suburbs characteristic of the later industrial developments. It is of the greatest importance to distinguish between these two phases of the industrial age. Just as we recognize in the stone age the two great periods of Paleolithic and neolithic, of rough stone and polished stone implements respectively; ao in the industrial age we must distinguish on the one hand the earlier, ruder industry characterized by coal and steam, and the making of cheap products and cheaper people crowded into ever spreading, ever dirtier and smokier towns,-the paleotechnic period as we may call it. On the other hand we are entering upon the second stage, the neotechnic, characterized by electricity, by finer industry, by more skilled and educated workers, by cleaner towns with parks and gardens and playgrounds all of which are important factors for survival in the struggle for existence of a community. CONGESTION Examples of the plans of Indian cities showed overcrowding, and consequent disappearance of open spaces,-gardens, parks, squares-as in the west; with the accompanying evils of depression, dirt and disease. The remedies for this congestion by (‘ conservative surgery,” i.e., demolition of the less valuable property and consequent opening up of crowded quarters in more economical fashion and with less hardship to the inhabitants than by wholesale destruction, were also indicated. In many cases the plans revised yielded economies rising from three-fourths to fivesixths or even nine-tenths over the original ones. Examples of regional survey as applied to cities great and small illustrated the growth of London from Roman times. A more detailed study, geographical, historical and social of Edinburgh as a complex typical city further demonstrated the usefulness and even necessity for such a preliminary study preparatory to replanning, on the principle of diagnosis before treatment.

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462 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW (July REGIONAL SURVEYS Other regional surveys, on a simpler scale, had been carried out by schools and colleges, primary, secondary and higher; and afforded illustrations of how geography, history and other subjects may be taught in a concrete and living way; while at the same time developing that early acquaintance with and interest of the child in his village or city, which is the best training for citizenship. Its provisionaI committee formed two or three years ago has developed into a regional survey association with separate branches for education, for archaeological and scientific research, for the co-ordination of naturalist societies of all kinds, and now for civics and town planning also. A world-wide appeal may shortly be made to educationists and to the wider public; for this conception of survey for service harmonizes and unifies all systems of education-the classical and historical with the modern and scientific, the technical with the ethical. Towards this end the efforts of regionalists even in France are still but half consciously directed, But with the approaching reorganization,-mainly after the war, yet as movements like this exposition show, already fully begun-the renewaI of education on this basis of survey, and with this outlook and purpose of service, will become clear, and this in thought and policy alike. But as yet the most important outcome, the main result of the Exposition de la Cite ReconstituBe, has been the grouping which was coming into being as it closed, and which is its real continuator and successorthe formation in Paris of a school of public art and town pIanning (Ecole d’Art Public). Here the organizing leader is M. Patris, a distinguished Belgian architect; who, though a simple alien and refugee without wealthy or official bacEing, has collected in the course of the exposition promises of teaching help and part time service, all of course unpaid, from no fewer than some Seven and thirty colleagues, like the guidance by the French painter of his pupils, or the services of the hospital physician everywhere. Such an organization is itself at once the best example of the civic movement, and the evidence that its leaders are forthcoming. And what was done last year in Paris, as queen of art and inspirer of cities, may and will he done in cities everywhere. This regional survey movement is rapidly growing.

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19171 THE PLANNING OF THE MODERN CITY 463 THE PLANNING OF THE MODERN CITY’ BY THOMAS ADA^ Ottawa, Canada T WAS to be expected that Mr. Nelson P. Lewis with his wide experience as chief engineer of the board of estimate and apportionment of New York city, and his familiarity with the city planning movement in all parts of the world, would write a practical and instructive book on the subject of the planning of a modern city. That expectation has been fully realized, and Mr. Lewis has presented us with a volume which is an admirable introductory text-book to the subject for city planning engineers. He recognizes the importance of city plans being made adaptable to varied local conditions, and does not attempt to lay down hard and fast rules on matters which can only be considered in detail and on their merits in each locality. The experience of Mr. Lewis in New York gives special weight to his counsel regarding the defects of large American cities in regard to the absence of reasonable restrictions governing the height and arrangement of buildings. He shows that the correction of these defects in New York and Chicago will involve greater cost than in European cities, and that a fundamental mistake was made in the failure to impose limitations of height and bulk in the first place. I ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE CITY PLAN The author regards the four essential features of the plan as: (1) The transportation of system; (2) The street system; (3) The park and recreation facilities; (4) The location of public buildings. These he regards as the features which need consideration “to give the town its character and make it convenient or inconvenient, dignified or commonplace.” The inclusion of a fifth feature, namely, the control of building development and sanitation, would have been desirable and might have led Mr. Lewis to develop that feature a little more fully in working out the scheme of his book. I venture to take issue with Mr. Lewis on his statement that one purpose of a city street is to provide light and air. Of course the street forms part of the space between buildings and in that respect it contributes towards the light and air of buildings, but we want to get away from the idea that that is a definite purpose of a street. Mr. Lewis shows elsewhere that he agrees that the right principle in determining the 1 The Planning of The Modern City. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. $3.50. 2Town planning adviser, Canadian Commission of ConBervation. By Nelson P. Lewis.

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464 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July amount of light and air which should be provided for buildings is to fix both the distance bet.ween buildings and the amount of any lot that can be built upon. In comparing European and American practice in regard to land development the author points out how slowly it has been realized in the United States and Canada that offensive and unhealthy development of private property must be controlled. There is need for his warning that regulations for this purpose must be reasonable, so that they will not defeat their purpose. SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT AND GARDEN CITIES One of the most important problems in connection with city planning is the control of suburban development. There is no constructive planning of such development and some of the “most insanitary and debasing conditions are to be found in the small towns forming the fringe about a great city.” While this is one of the most important city planning problems in America, as in other countries, it is probably the one to which least attention has been given by city planners. In the chapter on “Garden-cities,” Mr. Lewis shows that he shares a common misunderstanding regarding the garden city movement in England. He refers to the garden city “type of development” as something which had taken place long before Mr. Howard wrote his book on “Garden Cities of Tomorrow in 1898.” He also refers to workingmen’s colonies in Germany and in England as being “garden cities.” As a matter of fact, there is no scheme alluded to by Mr. Lewis, or I think in operation, which is a garden city in the sense advocated by Mr. Howard, or as being carried out in Letchworth. None of the colonies to which Mr. Lewis refers has an agricultural belt as a definite part of development. Yet that is an essential part of the garden city. None of the other schemes is definitely limited as to the area upon which the building development may take place, thus placing an artificial limit on the city population, as proposed by Mr. Howard and being carried out at Letchworth. Few, if any, of the other schemes are self-sustaining and independent, in respect of their government and finance, of some existing city or manufacturing interest. Letchworth is controlled by a company acting in the interests of the whole community. The manufacturer and working people have equal citizenship and there is an entire absence of the paternalism of industrial colonies. Mr. Lewis does not underestimate the value of Letchworth as an experiment, although I think he takes too seriously ‘some of the facetious criticisms which have appeared with reference to the over-artistic character of garden city architecture. In regard to city planning legislation, generous recognition is given of the developments in Britain and Canada. In dealing with finance Mr. Lewis urges that a city’s credit should not

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19171 DAYLIGHT SAVING 465 be used to borrow money for a longer period than the life of the improvement, and that where there is local benefit there should be local assessment. THE MUNICIPAL ENGINEER AND THE CITY PLAN In the concluding chapter on the opportunities of the municipal engineers, attention is drawn to a matter which is usually overlooked by writers of books on city planning, namely, that the progress of city planning in America, as in England, will largely depend on the sympathy and training of municipal engineers. They will be primarily responsible for executing most of the city plans, whether they are responsible for preparing them or not. Mr. Lewis acknowledges it as his chief purpose to bring home to municipal engineers their responsibility, and if he succeeds in doing that his achievement will be of enormous value to the cause of city planning and more scientific development of cities. Whether Mr. Lewis will succeed in his purpose or not will depend on how many municipal engineers will confer upon themselves the privilege of accepting the counsel of one of the ablest and most enlightened members of the profession. So far as the author is concerned he has done his share, and has given to America a most valuable contribution to city planning literature. DAYLIGHT SAVING THE VALUE OF THE DAYLIGHT SAVING PLAN AS AN EMERGENCY WAR MEASURE BY MARCUS M. MARXS’ HE ‘‘ Daylight Saving” plan, namely of turning the clock forward an hour during the five summer months from the last Sunday in T April to the last Sunday in September was first put into effect by Germany in the spring of 1916 as an emergency war measure. Immediately all of the other leading warring nations, except Russia, adopted the plan, as well as Norway, Sweden, Holland and Denmark, on account of its great economic and other advantages. Last year’s trial in all of these countries remlted in such material benefits that not only all of the countries mentioned, but also Portugal, Australia, Iceland and Bermuda have enacted it for 1917. To ascertain the exact results of the trial, the British Parliament, the German Reichstag and the legislative body of Holland appointed investigating committees-each of which reported favorable results and recommended its permanent adoption. 1 President of the Borough of Manhattan, and president of the National Daylight Saving Association. 2

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46 6 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [ JdY INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION The plan is not only of great value in times of peace, but its economic advantages as a war measure are fourfold. Under the plan, an extra hour of daylight in the late afternoon is afforded to everyone and it was found that a large majority, particularly of the working classes in England and Germany, utilized this hour for home gardening, resulting in an increased production of food. It is of the highest importance, as everyone now realizes, that every step and measure should be taken to stimulate the cultivation of every possible parcel of ground for food purposes. In New York city alone there are at least one miIIion daily commuters, most of whom live in homes with grounds, a portion of which could be easily planted with vegetables. Under the present-time conditions, most of these commuters arrive at their homes at night just about the time the sun is setting which prevents their spending any time in gardening, unless they are patriotic and ambitious enough to rise before time in the morning. Under the “Daylight Saving” plan practically all cf them would have at least an hour of daylight after their home-coming which they, in. this crisis, would undoubtedly use or spend in their gardens. Thousands of plots would be tilled which had never produced food before. This would be true not only of New York city, but also of all our great cities and several millions of people would be enlisted in the government’s service, doing their bit daily in their home gardens. The experience of England and Germany proved that the extra hour of daylight WAS used for this purpose. This is not a speculation. SAVING IN LIGHTING BILLS The second great advantage of the plan in war time is the great money saving in lighting bills. Under the new time arrangement, every householder would save one hour daily in the consumption of gas or electricity or other means of illumination. It is estimated that in England $12,000,000 were saved in this connection. Vienna alone saved $142,000, and it has been estimated by Robert L. Brunet, public service engineer of Providence, R. I., after a careful study, that in the United States during the five summer months the sum of $40,000,000 would be saved in lighting bills. This saving in lighting consumption would not materially affect the income of the lighting companies, for the experience of Detroit and Cleveland shows that, under the plan, these companies are able to reduce the peak of their load and lessen their overhead charges. DECREASED COAL CONSUMPTION Another item of saving is that in the consumption of coal and other fuel In England alone last year this saving by the lighting companies.

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19171 DAYLIGHT SAVING 467 amounted to 260,000 tons and a conservative estimate of the saving in the United States during the coming summer season is 1,000,000 tons. At the present moment the Federal Trade Commission is about to investigate the coal shortage. Dealers seem unable to supply the demand, and, in New York city and many other large places, are making contracts for coal with very indefinite dates of deliveries. By the passage of the “Daylight Saving” bill, the demand would be lessened by this one million tons saved, an item worthy of much consideration. BENEFITS TO HEALTH The committees which investigated the plan in Europe also reported that the general health of all, praticularly the workers, was greatly benefited. Nine out of fourteen trade unions of England reported favorably on the plan and social settlements stated that it was widely appreciated by working class families. The athletic clubs noted great increase in recreational activities. The manager of Messrs. Vickers Co., Ltd., one of the largest manufacturing concerns in England, called the Summer Time Act “One of the greatest boons conferred on the industrial classes of the greater towns by recent legislation.” ENDORSEMENT OF PLAN IN UNITED STATES Early in May, 1916, after the adoption of the plan in Germany and other European countries; I organzied the New York daylight saving committee, consisting of about two hundred lending men and women of New York city, to bring the movement to the attention of people throughout the country. Shortly thereafter, the plan was taken under consideration by many of the leading chambers of commerce throughout the country and its approval spread rapidly. At the suggestion of the New York committee and several chambers, the chamber of commerce of the United States at Washington appointed a special committee on “Daylight Saving” to investigate the merits of the plan. This Committee at the annual meeting of the chamber on January 31,1917, presented a very comprehensive favorable report, recommending that the clocks in the United States should be set one hour ahead of the present “standard” time, stating that “The considerations supporting this proposal are physiological, economic, and social. It will substitute a cool morning working hour in summer for a warm afternoon hour; in winter it may place breakfast before sunrise but it will bring a greater amount of daylight into the working hours at the end of the day. The accompanying improvements in working conditions will be great. Increased daylight in the hours of greatest fatigue will tend to lessen tuberculosis, will decidedly reduce eye strain, will increase personal efficiency, and4 will materially lessen industrial accidents. In cities the advantage of having the evening “rush hour” when transportation facilities are taxed, come in daylight is so apparent it scarcely needs statement.

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468 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [JdY The use of facilities for recreation, especially by the classes that work longest hours and most need them, would be tremendously increased, with results in health and physical stamina which would redound to the advantage of the whole community. There would be great benefits, too, from the increased opportunities for use of means of education, direct and indirect, which in recent years have been greatly augmented for the period after the workday has closed. The hours for comrpanionship among members of families would have greater value, and .there would be more opportunity for cultivation of all the useful and ,desirable activities and interests which engage our attention outside our vocations. From such benefits as these economic advantages inevitably flow. Improved physical health and social welfare will increase the efficiency of every individual at his daily tasks. Furthermore, there would be large direct savings in expenditures for fuel and artificial light.” In order that victory over Germany may be assured to us and our Allies, it is highly desirable that we should co-operate with them in every possible way. The “Daylight Saving” plan is in operation in every country of the Allies. Our standards and methods of reckoning time should be uniform and in harmony with theirs. The plan is no longer an experiment. It has fully demonstrated all and more than its original advocates predicted for it. It has no disadvantages or objections of any weight. It has been endorsed in this country not only by the United States Chamber of Commerce, the American Federation of Labor, but by hundreds of the leading chambers of commerce and boards of trade, including the Merchants association
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19171 THE LABORER’S HIRE 469 as will make it possible for each family unit to have at least a little more than a mere physical existence. Stated in another form, this proposition resolves itself into the question of what the unskilled laborer shall be paid and how he shall be compelled to live. This class of wage earners is the key to the situation because it is the lowest paid group and because its numerical strength gives into its keeping the future of our political institutions. The superior claims of “this land of opportunity” mean very little unless the opportunities extend all the way down to the laborer’s family, and the most important element contributing to such equality of opportunity is the standard of living in which the child is raised. THE -4BSOLUTE NECESSARIES OF LIFE Two recent publications are highly stimulating to the thinking on this subject. “The Minimum Cost of Living: A Study of Families of Limited Income in New York city,” by Winifred Stuart Gibbs2 is the story of an attempt to teach seventy-five actual families how to spend effectively. Every one of the families had suffered some degree of ill health on account of insufficient income. Scientific minimum standards of the necessaries of life were set up for each family and careful plans were made to use the available income to maintain these standards. Much patient, devoted teaching was, of course, necessary. The conservative estimate of results attained is most encouraging. The world very much needs to develop efEiciency in consumption. These minimum standards, particularly of food and clothing, wilI doubtless be of much assistance to those who are in charge of relief work, especially as they are expressed in commodities, calories, garment,s, etc., as well as in dollars and cents which are so delusive these days. The encouragement to the teaching of home economics and the advice as to how to go about it, are most valuable. These standards are not, however, to be taken by employers as “consistent with American ideas.” As the author points out, they were devised to bring health and animal comfort out of under-nourishment and ill health and to serve as guides in the teaching of the first principles of home economics.. In referring to these accounts one has to bear in mind t’hat in a sense they are incomplete for in addition to the goods purchased there were gifts of clothing, the value of which is not recorded and in some cases free rent in return for janitorial services. A better picture would perhaps have been presented if the estimated value of these things could have been included. Naturally there was no margin for the pursuit of happiness, nothing, other than the variety of the food, to mark this standard as “consistent with American ideas” which, it may be assumed, are differentiated in some way from the ideas of other occidental countries. 2 New York: The Macmillan Company. . $1.

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470 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW I July REMUNERATION FOR LABOR AND THE COST OF LIVING The second study goes much farther. The “Report on the Increased Cost of Living for an Unskilled Laborer’s Family in New York City,” prepared by the bureau of personal service of the board of estimate and apportionment of New York, not only sets forth facts about living costs but also makes definite recommendations to New York city as to what it should pay its unskilled laborers. The findings in brief are: That in 1917, $980 per year is the minimum amount upon which a workingman’s family of five can maintain “a standard of living consistent with American ideas.” Then; on the basis of this investigation, the rnax%mum rate of pay recommended for street sweepers is fixed at $888! It was originally recommended in 1915 that the minimum cost of living for a family of two adults and three children-then $840-be made the maximum rate of pay for an unskilled laborer who had completed at least seven years of “meritorious service.” He was to begin at $720 when, it was assumed, his expenses would be lighter. The recent condition of the labor market has forced a revision of this scheme. It has become necessary to move the minimum rate up to $792 and it will probably go higher. This may cut down somewhat the period of waiting for the maximum rate. But let us return to the minimum standard of living “consistent with American ideas.” The $980 for a family of five represents a total of items every one of which has been cut to the bone, $14 per month rent, $9.47 per week for food, $127.10 per year for the family’s clothing, $42 for light, heat and fuel for cooking, $20 per year for health, $22.88 for insurance and $73 for sundries. This last item includes $18 for furniture, equipment and moving expenses, $5 for church contributions, $5 for soap, washing and toilet materials, stamps, umbrellas and other miscellaneous items, $5 for reading material, that is, a one-cent daily paper “with a Sunday paper almost every week” or for thirty-seven weeks, to be exact. The remaining $40 is intended to cover recreation-vacations, occasional trips to the beach, refreshments, moving picture shows, miscellaneous amusements, Christmas and birthday presents, and anything else not provided for above. This item for sundries compares very unfavorably with Father Ryan’s estimate made in 1906 of $131.73 for the same group of expenditures. In fact, the more one examines this standard in detail, the more meager it looks; the weekly allowance of sweets, for instance, for the family of five, consists of one and threequarters pounds of sugar, two cents’ worth of syrup and two pounds of cake. A dozen jars of fruit conserve would wreck the schedule. One pound of butter has to stretch over at least 80 meals for cooking and table purposes, no other fats-other than that in the milk-are allowed. One looks in vain for ice; one feels dubious about ten cents a week for washing, toilet and cleaning supplies for five people, not to mention stamps, umbrellas and miscellaneous items.

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19171 THE LABORER’S HIRE 47 1 The whole standard shows a strong tendency to overwork the scientific minimum. The housing allowance illustrates this better, perhaps, than any other single item. The strictly scientific calculation of one and onehalf persons to a room is adopted. But as five people cannot be easily distributed on this basis, the laborer is given a choice of three or four rooms. He will probably be compelled to rent a flat without a bath. In that case he will have a kitchen and three rooms or a kitchen and two rooms. In the first case he cannot have a living-room without sacrificing a needed bedroom, and in the second case, even without a living-room, the conditions under which the family would have to live are below the requirements for decency. One gets a vivid picture of the laborer’s home from the following description submitted by the Consolidated gas company of New York which furnished data for the fuel budget: “Families of this class usually occupy what are known as cold water tenements, in which neither heat nor hot water is furnished by the landlord. The kitchen is the general living-room for the family, and in cold weather a wood or coal stove is used, for it not only supplies heat for cooking, but it heats the kitchen as well, and so provides at least one heated room in which the members of the family may be comfortable. The cost of coal, however, when purchased in the small quantities which these people are compelled by circumstances to buy (the bag or bucketful), makes its use desirable only when the weather requires the additional heating of the room, and at other times it is believed that the small gas stove or hot-plate is used altogether for cooking and for such small quantities of hot water as are required.” The “small quantities of hot water, ” the short allowance for soap and cleaning materials, the one heated room, the absence of a bath tub, the two suits of underwear allowed the man, all conspire to give one the impression that frequent bathing will not be practised by the standard family. On this point the Bureau of personal service seems to have run foul of what is and lost sight of what should be. After this description one has difficulty in conjuring up a mental picture of a sweet, clean little home for our laborer. Rather do we see him toiling up four flights of stairs, to his kitchen, reeking with mingled odors of cooking food and wet clothes, to the prison-like confinement of the entire family to one room, to a home without privacy and without repose. And yet who would be willing to say, out loud, that seven years of “meritorious” service is not worthy of more than that. We do not wish to question that this budget would keep the breath of life in the bodies of the laborer and his dependents, but we do question the appropriateness of describing this allowance as a standard of living “ consistent with American ideas” and the corporation, whether public or private, which pays such wages as a “model employer.” The standard of $980 as here established for a workingman’s family is a mere animal standard of existence; for the $50 for the expenditures which differentiate

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472 NATIONAL’ MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July human beings from animals is only a reasonable margin for the animal needs. NEW YORK’S INVESTIGATION HELPS THE LABORER, THOUGH INDIRECTLY How the laborer is to get along on ninety-two dollars a year less than the ascertained minimum is a problem which the bureau of personal service passes on to the laborer with the optimistic prophecy that the various governmental agencies and committees now at work on the probIem of high cost of living “will probably bring about considerable reduction in prices and will relieve the scarcity of certain products.” Just now, four months later, the outlook is by no means bright. But the importance of this report must not be minimized on account of its seeming lack of humanity towards the unskilled laborer. Nothing could be of more service to workingmen in general than just this kind of detailed study. Nothing could bring home better to those responsible for public policy in this country the glaring fact that we are trying to have a democracy which presupposes intelligence in a group composed of units, some of whom can be intelligent and informed human beings but to most of whom life means little more than it means to savages-a struggle to satisfy the primal physical needs. Are we not child-like to be surprised at not getting entirely satisfactory results from our mixture of the oil of democratic institutions with the water of the existing economic order ? EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY IN PUBLIC UTILITIES v; BY DELOS F. WILCOX New Yorlc City SHALL write about conscience, patriotism, professional honor, the Having I thrown prudence to the winds, I shall ignore the danger of being called a traitor to my “class.” Poor blind Samson, having taken his fling and lost his illusions, pushed away the props and brought the pagan temple doyn about his own ears. I cannot lay claim to Samson’s length of hair, his strength or the richness of his experience in this naughty Philistine world. But here goes with my puny pen, such as it is, and let all whom it may concern take heed! main chance, and other curious and interesting subjects. WHEN PUBLIC OFFICIALS SERVED PRIVATE INTERESTS Certain men do certain things for money that make other people remark. Is it not true that every wave of radicalism, local or general, in this country has its origin in a sense of outrage that brains, education and

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19171 EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY 473 personal prestige should be divorced from conscience, and sold to the highest bidder? Railroads, public utilities, corporations, having received special privileges from the state, have developed enormous material interests, both of investment and of income, which depend for their security and growth upon the friendly co-operation of governmental power. It was not many years agejust before Roosevelt-that government in nation, state and city was generally conceded to be less powerful than the corporations which were technically its creatures. In those days public officials were often, if not generally, selected by or with the consent of these special interests. Government in all its branches, legislative, executive and judicial, was primarily an instrument to help these speciaI interests get on in the world. Under such conditions the political philosophy of America was individualism-the right of the strong to become stronger, and of the rich to become richer. Government had no initiative, and was not expected to have any. It was a dog with a good many masters. It wagged its tail for them, gnawed the bones they threw to it, and herded their sheep-or bit them. In those days conscience in a public official demanded that he be faithful to those who put him in office. Gratitude was a great virtue, and the development of personal independence or flirtation with democratic principles, as we now understand them, was treachery. Old things have not all passed away, but new things have lifted up their heads to compete with them. We are now in the throes of an irrepressible conflict. Some good men run about crying, Peace, peace! but in truth there is no peace. The awakened democratic conscience first attacked the subserviency of public officials to special interests, until it is now recognized by the general public as frankly dishonorable for a man holding public office consciously to do less than serve the interests of the whole people as he conceives those interests to be. But in public officials conceptions differ, blindness is a common defect, and ((the consciousness of kind” is a powerful social force. Therefore, emancipation from the old conscience and subjection to the new is still far from complete in officialdom. THE INDIVIDUAL CONSCIENCE AND THE PUBLIC INTEREST Nevertheless, the battle line has moved forward, and the great objective now is the trench line of the individual conscience. It is admitted that public officials and experts employed by the government should represent the public interests. But the questions now being hotly, though vaguely, debated are these: Shall all persons not employed at the moment by the government hold themselves open to employment against it? Has patriotism any claim upon the loyalty of trained men except as it is covered by a retainer? Has the public conscience any choice between the two sides of public utility controversies? Is there any inherent conflict

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474 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW I July of interests and purposes between public service corporations and the municipalities which they serve? Can a man who understands and has taken the “public point of view” on public utility questions, subsequently enlist on the other side without either changing his mind, losing his intellectual integrity, or forfeiting his claim to the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens? May a judge, a public service commissioner, or a city attorney, after acquiring knowledge, experience and prestige in public life, retire from office and accept with impunity the fees of the corporations and take up their battles for them before public tribunals? May an engineer or an accountant become an advocate without losing his professional standing? May an expert conscientiously see different values in a public utility, or in land that is being taken for public uses, according to the side that employs him, or according to the size of his fee? Is it permissible for an engineer or an economist who receives a salary from the state and is charged with the instruction of youth to spend his leisure time in doing expert work for public service corporations in their controversies with the state? The questions take on many variant forms and are not always clearcut. I have not wished to be unfair in stating them, but we shall gain nothing by beclouding the issues out of deference to the sensibilities of distinguished men who have been led by need, or by the love of money, or by failure to consider the underlying facts, into courses of action that give point to this discussion. In order to make the issues clear, I shall call a few names and refer to a few incidents in recent or contemporary history which are of more than passing interest. In doing so, I wish to emphasize the fact that these names and incidents are merely illustrative -pegs, so to speak, upon which to hang our discussion. ILLUSTRATIVE NAMES AND INCIDENTS In New York, William R. Willcox and Edward M. Bassett were two of the public service commissioners appointed on the first district commission by Governor Hughes. Frank W. Stevens was appointed by Governor Hughes to be chairman of the up-state public service commission. These three men, aside from Dr. Maltbie, probably represented the highest conception of public duty, and the most conspicuous ability, of all the original Hughes appointees to the public service commissions at a time when the commission ideawas a new constructive force just being launched upon the sea of American jurisprudence. Mr. Willcox, after serving as chairman of the first district commission for nearly six years, was dropped at a critical time as a result of a shift in state politics. He was bitter at the governor’s failure to reappoint him, and within a very short time he appeared before the commission as counsel for the Hudson and Manhattan railroad company and also as counsel for the New York Edison company (subsidiary of the Consolidated gas company) in important capitaliza

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19171 EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY 475 tion cases. Mr. Bassett, who was one of the most able and conscientious of public servants, had been dropped two years earlier, and his chair was hardly cold before he reappeared before the commission as counsel for the New York and North Shore traction company in a capitalization case. I understand that Mr. Bassett has since refused a lot of business of this nature, because he was unwilling to lend to the corporations over which he had recently had jurisdiction, his prestige, his experience and his legal training in their efforts to undermine the e5ciency of the commission as a regulatory body, an efficiency that had already been dealt a body blow when sinister political influences prevented his own reappointment. Mr. Stevens, when he was dropped from the chairmanship of the up-state commission, forthwith became counsel for the New York Central railroad in valuation matters, and is now, I believe, one of the leading attorneys representing the railroads before the interstate commerce commission. The two men most prominent in the work of the Wisconsin railroad commission, which shared with the New York commissions the honor and the responsibility of leadership in the regulation movement at the very beginning of the new era of regulation, were John H. Roemer and Halford Erickson. Mr. Roemer resigned his public oEce two or three years ago to go with H. M. Byllesby and company of Chicago, operators of public utilities, and in his new capacity has appeared publicly to argue the case of the corporations against public ownership. Still more recently Mr. Erickson also resigned from the service of the state to associate himself with William J. Hagenah in private practice in Chicago. Mr. Hagenah is a public utility expert and statistician, graduated from the public service in Wisconsin, who since his report to the city of Chicago in the telephone case some years ago, gets most of his employment, as I am informed, from the public service corporations by whom he is regarded as an eminently intelligent and fair-minded expert. In regard to Mr. Erickson’s “fall from grace,” an acquaintance of mine in a recent conversation remarked to me that Samuel Insull, of the CommonwealthEdison interests in Chicago and the middle west, “ought not to have bought off Erickson, but he thought he had to have him.” This acquaintance was explaining to me how the pubIic service corporations are now “putting it all over’’ the commissions, and that they are able to do so because throughout the country there are not more than a handful of commissioners who are able and willing to do the desperately hard work that alone can give them the mastery of details essential to the effective analysis of the corporations’ claims. Erickson was one of these few, and his continuance in o5ce tended to keep the regulation movement respectable, to save its prestige, and in this way to benefit the corporations, for which the commission movement will cease to be useful if it is so weakened as entirely to forfeit public confidence. Edward W. Doty, of Cleveland, single taxer and progressive public

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476 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July service commissioner of Ohio, when a political governor dropped him, did not even take the trouble to go back to his home town, but merely transferred his headquarters to the offices of the Columbus railway and light company. Peter Witt, Tom Johnson’s right-hand man, single taxer, radical, who used to say when Johnson carried an election that “ Cleveland has gone religious,’’ after serving several years as the city’s street railroad commissioner under the famous “ cost-of-service” franchise, had no sooner lost his job when Cleveland went “irreligious” two years ago than he began to practice as a consulting traction expert, and a few months later was retained to help the Cincinnati traction company pull its chestnuts out of the fire. Later, when asked his opinion of the remarkable “grab” franchise which the traction company succeeded in negotiating with the city government of Cincinnati, he remarked, it is said, that considering the incompetence displayed by the city’s negotiators, the company’s moderation was astonishing. James E. Allison, after doing splendid work for several years for the city of St. Louis in the valuation and regulation of public utilities, went into private practice for investment bankers, and a little later turned up in the east as the guest of the Edison companies to persuade the public service commissions that the supreme court of the United States was wrong in the Knoxville water case, in the Minnesota rate cases, and elsewhere in ruling that accrued depreciation should be deducted from original or reproduction cost in the determination of present value for rate purposes. Last year the two great water works associations of the country had for their presidents two eminent consulting engineers, Nicholas S. Hill, Jr., and Leonard Metcalf. Mr. Hill was employed by the Hackensack water company in a rate case before the New Jersey board of public utilities, and also by the Citizens water supply company of Newton in its negotiations with the New York city department of water supply of which Mr. Hill himself was chief engineer a number of years ago. As chief engineer in 1903 he had advised the city not to purchase the company’s property at that time, as the value of the franchise would be greatly reduced later on when the city had secured an abundant water supply of its own. In 1915, as consulting engineer, he appraised the company’s property at twice the value placed upon it by the water department at the same time. He took the company’s own figures for, land values and incorporated them in his appraisal, with an addition of 15 per cent for overhead expenses. On the structural property his estimate of reproduction cost new, differed from the department’s estimate by less than one half of 1 per cent, but after he had gotten through with his multiplications and the department had finished with its divisions, his valuation, excluding land and intangibles, was 50 per cent higher than the department’s. Mr. Metcalf’s most conspicuous employment during the presidency of the New England Water Works Association, was, I believe, his work for the Spring Valley water company, with

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19171 EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY 477 which San Francisco has been in almost continuous controversy for thirty or forty years. I mention the Hill and Metcalf cases chiefly because these men were at the head of the technical societies in that utility where municipal ownership and operation is largely preponderant, while they as consulting engineers were representing some of the remaining private water companies in their controversies with the government. Prof. Mortimer E. Cooley, dean of the engineering department of the University of Michigan, was not so many years ago a threecent fare man and engineering adviser to cities in their street railway controversies. He has since blossomed out into such a satisfactory expert for the corporations that at the present time, so I am informed, cities do not have the courage to employ him. It has even been suggested in Michigan that legislation should be enacted to prohibit employes of state institutions from appearing as experts for the railroads and public service corporations which are fighting the state. Even Prof. Henry C. Adams, after a career of more than thirty years as one of the ablest and most radical teachers of political economy in the country, and after many years of distinguished service as statistician of the interstate commerce commission, has of late accepted employment from the New York Central lines, supplementary to his professorship in the University of Michigan. While this employment does not, I think, bring him into direct controversy with the government, it clearly sequesters his great ability and experience, and renders them unavailable on the public side in connection with the great issues now being fought out. Prof. Dugald C. Jackson, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has of late years become one of the most valued consulting experts for the electrical interests of Boston, New York and Philadelphia, and as such has incurred very severe’crjticism in certain quarters because of the testimony he has given as to corporate values. In 1914, M. L. Holman, a distinguished hydraulic engineer of St. Louis, appeared as an expert for the Denver union water company in a rate case against the city of Denver, although n few years earlier he had served as one of the city’s representatives on the board of appraisal appointed for the valuation of the same company’s plant. When questioned about it, he intimated that an engineer had to make a living, and said that he was then doingthe best he could for his client. Only two years ago Ray Palmer, as commissioner of gas and electricity of the city of Chicago, read an able paper at the mayor’s conference on public utilities in Philadelphia on the cost of public lighting, in which he took the public point of view unexceptionably, and urged the cities to band together in furtherance of the program of the utilities bureau. He is now president of the New York and Queens electric light and power company. When, as deputy commissioner of water supply, gas and electricity, I opened negotiations on behalf of the city of New York with the Jamaica water

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478 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW supply company a year or two ago, I found that the president of the company was one of my predecessors in office, .and that the vice-president was an en-commissioner who, while in office, had executed the last hydrant rental contract with this company. I visited Kansas City twice during the pendency of the negotiations that finally culminated in the street railway settlement of 1914. The first time, I found Clyde Taylor as city attorney, sitting in with the mayor to represent the people. On my second visit, I found that Clyde Taylor had become attorney for the street railway interests and in the later negotiations had been sitting on the side of the table opposite to the people’s representaCives. Until a year or two ago, George L. Ingraham was presiding justice of the appellate division of the supreme court in New York county. Now he is head of the firm, Ingraham, Sheehan and Moran, counsel for the Citizens water supply company, and for the lighting companies of New York in their rate cases before the public service commission, the decisions of which formerly came before him for re.view when they were not accepted by the companies. It is hardly necessary to call attention to such historic characters as Joseph H. Choate and Elihu Root, statesmen, orators, constitution-makers, who have not scrupled to take great fees from traction interests to help in establishing policies generally believed to be inimical to the public interest. Every person who has followed public affairs in any part of the country could add to it. In ment,ioning the names I have, I pay tribute to the high respect, in which they are held. nut for several years past the issues growing out of the incidents like those I have referred to have been getting to be more and more acute. The tremendous financial interests involved in railroads and public utlities alone, not to mention other corporations, and the vital character of the services they perform, when coupled with the rising tide of governmental regulation and control, make the matter of social standards for the guidance of individual action a thing of the utmost importance. Precedents, innumerable, universal, honorable to a degree, will not satisfy the developing conscience of democracy. The future demands more than the past has been satisfied with. How can democracy best put its house in order for the tasks that are ahead of it? The list could doubtless be extended indefinitely. STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL HONOR Engineers, economists, accountants, ex-public service commissioners, and even lawyers and ex-judges, will have to revise and clarify their standards of professional honor to square with the highest of all the obligations that brains and experience owe to civilization, namely, loyalty to the state. This assertion brings us to the point where the argument demands a “show-down.” It will be urged by a great many highminded and intelligent men that the lines of conduct which we are bring

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19171 EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY 479 ing to judgment are entirely legitimate, if not even praiseworthy. It will be urged that public service corporations “have rights” which should be protected, and that the lawyer is worthy of his hire. It will also be said that the regulation movement has increased enormously the amount of work to be done in the valuation of utility properties, in the examination of utility accounts and in the fixing of utility rates, and it will be alleged that the public service corporations bave at last “seen the light,” are conscientiously submitting to public regulation, and bave need of the services of publicly trained men to help them co-operate with the regulating bodies and make regulation effective. It will be claimed that the companies now want only “fair treatment,” and that their interests are in reality identical with those of the public. Attention will be called to the fact that many public officials are eager to make political capital out of corporation-baiting, and that the demands of the public and of the politicians. are often grossly unjust to the companies and in the long run harmful to the public. Extremists on the corporation side, like Dr. Alexander C. Humphreys, of the Stevens Institute, will even claim for corporation experts higher ethical standards than they will concede to experts on the public side. Indeed, though the recent great expansion of public utility work has caused experts to swarm upon the earth, there are some persons who would indignantly deny the very name of expert to a man who admits. that he does not accept employment from either side indifferently. THREE FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS The prevailing confusion of thought and of ethical standards in relation to public utility work cannot be dispelled without a searching analysis of certain underlying facts or assumptions. All the issues to which we have called attention seem to simmer down to three: (1) Do common honesty and professional honor permit experts to assume the r6le of advocates? (2) Are public service corporations public enemies? (3) Is a judge or a public service commissioner primarily a public servant, or an umpire? LEGAL AND ENGINEERING STANDARDS COMPARED The shocking differences in expert testimony as to the value of land, as. to the investment in public utilities and as to the sanity of rich homicides, not only bring into question the value of opinion testimony and the common honesty of individual experts, but also suggest the propriety of technical limitations to be imposed upon engineers, accountants, etc., by the adoption of stricter codes of professional ethics. To some of those who have been scandalized by the testimony which many engineers of the highest standing in their professions do not scruple to give on behalf of their corporation clients, the remedy lies in ‘‘ sumptuary legislation’”

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480 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July within the engineering profession. They give thelawyers up as a bad job, admitting that any honest attorney may be expected to take the part of the devil’s advocate, if paid to do so, since everybody is bound by the injunction to “give the devil his due,” and how can he get what is coming to him without the aid of counsel? The chameleonic nature of the lawyer’s conscience, or, shall we say, of his intelligence, is taken for granted. His mutability is thought to be immutable-a necessary evil which it would be useless to combat at this late day. It is, perhaps, overlooked that every practising attorney is technically an officer of the aourt, concerned only in the exposition of truth and the pursuit of justice. Deception on the part of a lawyer is professionally a great crime. Yet there are some who would make a distinction between the professional obligations of lawyers and those of engineers and accountants in the presentation of truth. To such, the main difficulty in the public utility field is the failure of technical men-engineers, accountants and statisticianswhose business is supposed to be the ascertainment and reporting of fam, to confine themselves in their reports and testimony to what is incontestably true, and their tendency to vary their findings and testimony according to the interests of those who pay their fees. THE ELUSIVENESS OF FACTS Those who take this view appear to regard facts as things that are simple, definite and easily ascertainable, things that can be put in a bag and carried into court, like so many apples or potatoes. On the other hand, it may be urged that generally the facts in relation to a public utility problem are complex, indefinite and elusive. While certain facts may be picked out of the welter that are simple, definite and easily grasped, if an accountant, an engineer or a statistician were to bring these particular facts into court and lay them on the table before the judges, nobody would be much the wiser, and the accountant, the engineer, or the statistician, as the case might be, would cease to have a profession and become a mere common laborer. “Figures do not lie, but liars will figure.” This old saying is, no doubt, a libel on the statisticians, but after all, it uncovers the truth that figures are useless except as they are organized and manipulated. Now, is it not true that an engineer, an accountant or a statistician must, to preserve his intellectual self-respect and the importance of his profession, attempt to organize and interpret the bare technical facts with which he has to deal? But as soon as we get to the organization and interpretation of facts, even though this process itself still falls within the technical professional field, the opportunity for the “liar” comes in. That is to say, judgment, opinion and interest, all of which are grossly or subtly affected by fees, are called into play, with the result that the technical conclusions of professional men may be .as wide apart as the contentions of lawyers without any one being able

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19171 EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY 48 1 successfully to impeach the integrity or the professional honor of the witnesses on either side. Of course, there are extremes which make testimony ridiculous and subject the witnesses to damning criticism, either as to their honesty or as to their intelligence. Every lawyer in dealing with issues affected with a public interest, is bohnd equally by his professional obligations, his patriotism and his private conscience to be honest. The same, but no more, is true of an engineer or an accountant. If we were to say that engineers should confine themselves in their testimony to “facts,” which are just as true for one side as for the other, and should entirely eschew partisanship or advocacy of their clients’ interests, two important results would follow: first, their testimony would be vastly more elementary than it now is, and second, they could without the slightest qualms of the tenderest conscience accept fees from one side or the other, or from both indifferently. In many ways, it would be delightful if matters could be arranged in this way, but unfortunately they cannot. The “facts,” even some of the elementary ones, are too much the products of assumptions and judgments, and the organization and interpretation of the facts by the witness who has a first-hand knowledge of them are too necessary, to admit of this narrow limitation of the functions of engineer, accountant or statistician. ACKNOWLEDGED BIAS IS PERMISSIBLE My answer, therefore, to the first of the three questions, is that common honesty and professional honor do permit of advocacy on the part of public utility experts, but that their bias should be frankly recognized and their testimony given such weight as its reasonableness and their ability to defend it may warrant. A corollary of this conclusion is that public utility experts may not freely pass from one side to the‘other, even in different cases and in independent jurisdictions, where the same general principles are involved, without subjecting themselves to suspicion as to their intellectual and moral integrity, their patriotism, and their professional loyalty. THE IRREPRESSIBLE CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The conclusions just expressed assume that there are two “sides,” not merely to each particular controversy affecting a public utility, but to the whole series of controversies affecting all public utilities everywhere. Hence, our second question : Are public service corporations public enemies? Having put this question in the somewhat sensational way in which the corporation men like to have it put, I answer without hesitation that they are public enemies in so far as they are dominated by private rather than by public motives. I maintain that there is a deep, necessary and irrepressible conflict between the public interest in public utilities and the interest of private corporations operating them. I 3

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW maintain that this conflict is something more than the universal conflict of interest between buyer and seller, which gives rise to the higgling of the market. I maintain that there is a deep gulf fixed between the concept of public utilities as a field for speculative investment and exploitation for profit on the one hand, and the concept of them on the other hand as the second nature of cities, the instruments of urban civilization, the opportunities of democracy. I hold that in the fixing of rates, in the approval of securities, in the granting of a franchise, in the working out of a contract of co-operation, or in any other ,exercise of the regulatory or contractual power in relation to any public utility problem in which the peopIe through their representatives take part, unless the result squares with the ultimate policy, which for want of a better distinction we call public ownership and operation, the proceeding from the public point of view is futile, if not positively bad. Further, I hold that a public utility transaction to which the city or the state is a party cannot be saved from this condemnation on the plea that it is neutral and leaves the determination of ultimate policy to the future. In -this conflict, he that is not with us is against us, and every act either tends to clear the way, not only for the technical achievement of public ownership, but for its achievement under conditions that make success possible, or else it consents to the further entrenchment of the policy of private ownership and private exploitation, a policy that is radically wrong and profoundly inimical to the interests of the community. If we maintain, or admit, that public utilities are public business, ultimate public ownership and operation becomes not merely a vague aspiration or an academic prophecy, but a controlling public policy that lays its commands upon every man’s patriotism and claims his loyal service in whatever capacity he may be working. No “jingling of the guineas” can “help the hurt that honor feels” when a citizen hires out to fight against his country, or to hinder his city in the realization of a public policy fundamentally necessary for the general welfare. For anyone who believes in ultimate municipal ownership and who knows the tremendous obstacles that have been and are now being built up in the way of its realization, to hire out to “the enemy” is a species of civic treason. It is not my thought that all men who take the public side are honest and patriotic, and that all who accept retainers from public service corporations are the opposite. My contention is that, in all work on public utilities where public relations and public policies are involved, the immediate technical action is subordinate to the ultimate purpose. Men who have no convictions as to public ownership are not qualified for employment on either side, except possibly for the ascertainment of bare technical facts. Men who do not believe in public ownership may properly accept employment from the corporations and do their best to put obstacles in the way of its realization, but cities and states ought to refuse

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19171 EXPERTS, ETHICS AND PUBLIC POLICY 483 to employ such men or to put them in any public office where they have to deal with public utilities. On the other hand, men who have a public utility philosophy in which public ownership is a cardinal tenet cannot consistently accept employment on the corporation side at the present stage of the development of corporation purposes and policies. When, if ever, public service corporations themselves embrace the theory that they are the temporary agents of the community and that their purpose should be to perform their function well while it continues to be necessary and then cheerfully withdraw from the field as rapidly as the preparedness of the community to take over this function will permit, then it will be time enough for men who sincerely take the public point of view in regard to public utilities to be employed by these corporations to administer the last rites to them and prepare them for honorable dissolution. HOW THE SHEEP AND THE GOATS MAY BE SEPARATED The public side is not a mere question of temporary' official opinion, or even of popular majorities. Cities are often wrong in their demands upon public service corporations, and sometimes insincere. They are often wrong, also, in the concessions they are willing to make. An expert on the public side is not justified in doing whatever his client, the public, wishes him to do. He needs to have a stubborn mind, well grounded in political philosophy. Instead of the type of imagination which now commands the highest fees in valuation work, an expert should see present facts with the naked eye, and use his imagination in conjuring up the future that he may see the ultimate effect of the advice he is giving. Indeed, it is conceivable that in particular controversies, the rdles may be reversed, and the corporations may be fighting for policies that are sound and necessary from the public point of view, while the public officials are in fact working against the ultimate interests of the community. I have asserted that there is an irrepressible conflict of interest between public service corporations and the public. But this does not mean a divergence of interest from beginning to end. Indeed, identity of interest, under enlightened management, goes far, but ultimately it reaches the parting of the ways where the public ideal of community service and the private ideal of the exploitation of public privileges and common needs for profit reluctantly, and with mutual protestations, part company. One who accepts employment from a public service corporation in a capacity where he is called upon to formulate plans and direct the execution of policies in furtherance of private interests, thereby sells his soul if he is convinced that public utilities are fundamental and inevitable public functions, and that the duty of every man as a citizen is to prepare the community as rapidly and as effectively as possible to take over and perform these functions. I am convinced that the real separation between the sheep and the goats must be made on the basis of our fundamental

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484 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July conception of what public utilities are. There is a great deal of cant in the public ownership propaganda, and partly for this reason the philosophy of public utilities is almost universally misconceived. Municipal ownership is treated both by its loudest supporters and by its fiercest opponents as a quack remedy. When I speak of the fundamental difference between public ownership and private ownership, I do not mean to identify those terms with mere legal proprietorship. Public ownership that is not coupled with public understanding and community feeling is barren and only technically different from private ownership. The issue that we have been discussing goes much deeper than mere title to property. A subtle and deadly peril to democracy itself lies in the lack of understanding of what is going on, and indifference to it, on the part of men whose lips give light utterance to their professions of adherence to the cause of municipal ownership at some future time, when we are rdady for it, but who close their eyes to the necessity of getting ready for it, and starting now. A PUBLIC SERVANT OR AN UMPIRE? We cannot stop long on the third question, namely, as to whether a judge or a public service commissioner is primarily a public servant, or an umpire. If such an official is a mere umpire between litigants of equal standing, then there is nothing in the fact of his having held such an office to prevent him from choosing freely afterwards which side he will serve in his private capacity as a practising lawyer. If, however, in his official position he is primarily a public servant, bound to seek out and pursue within the limits of his discretion that policy which shall best further the ultimate interests of the community as he conceives them, then it may well be held in the court of public opinion that in return for the confidence placed in him, the opportunities given him, and the power conferred upon him, he has pledged his talents and his experience to the publjc service, and that no mere whim of his own in resigning his ofice, and no mere political accident or temporary show of public gratitude can release him from his pledge. LIMITS OF SOCIAL CONDEMNATION We all realize that there are tremendous temptations and tremendous mecessities which keep men from sticking close to the straight path of .duty. Perhaps we should not criticize those who have prostituted their minds through economic necessity any more severely than we do those who have prostituted their bodies from the same motive. We should be .careful about throwing stones at individuals, remembering that when the Master said, “Let him that is without sin cast the first stone,” the Pharisees all slunk away and left the scarlet woman without a bruise. But this is not saying that the men who have sold themselves to the public service corporations, even though they were driven by positive need,

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19171 AMENDMENT OF MARYLAND CONSTITUTION 485 much less if their only motive has been the desire to get on in the world, powerful as that motive is, should be chosen for places of honor in public life, and made heroes of because of their demonstrated ability to yield to great temptations successfully, any more than the teaching of Christian tolerance requires that Magdalenes should be chosen to officer suffrage clubs and educational societies. THE BUDGET AMENDMENT OF THE MARYLAND CONSTITUTION’ BY DR. WILLIAM H. ALLEN New York City HATEVER congress may do with respect to the proposed espionage bill, it has not yet passed a law declaring it to be l6se majeste for students of budget-making to discuss frankly budget proposals from however eminent a source. The fact that the Maryland budget law was devised by men who ‘(labored for’ months without money compensation’’ and by other persons “who have had long experience in governmental matters relating to finance, ” is a reason why that law should be seriously studied. It is absolutely no reason why after studying it any citizen should either withhold question and criticism or confuse both by throwing futile bouquets at the distinguished participants. The fact that the governors’ conference, meeting and working as we know it did.in a hurry under pressure from no budget analysts except those who wanted this particular amendment, unanimously endorsed the Maryland plan, is again reason why the rest of us who are interested in state budget-making should do the studying which the governors’ conference omitted. Could anything be more absurd than for a group of budget analysts wishing to improve budget-making to spend time writing “expressions of appreciation of the many admirable features of the Maryland amendment and . . . self-sacrificing work done by those responsible for its initiation and completion, ” after once being convinced that this 1 As was stated in the editorial note attached to Mr. Chase’s review of the critical pamphlet issued by the institute for public service entitled Serious Defects in Maryland’s Budget Law,” certain questions were formulated by Dr. Cleveland to develop certain aspects of the points at issue. These questions were in turn submitted to Dr. Allen, the director of the institute. In this article he answers fifteen of the twenty-eight questions submitted on the ground that adequate answers to the other questions which are of a technicalnaturewould takemore space than is available in theNATIoNAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, and further might tend to confuse the issues. The nature of the questions that Dr. Allen answers is intimated in his article, parts of which are also devoted to answering the review of Mr. Chase published in the May issue (page 395) .-EDITOR.

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486 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW E July amendment means a step in the wrong direction by state constitution makers! Instead of analyzing our comment as we had analyzed the Maryland amendment, Mr. Chase asks readers of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW to believe that our analysis was prompted by a desire to sell services. On the contrary, these last two years we have spent, without cost to states and congress, several thousand dollars in answering questions, analyzing proposed laws, making budget comparisons,-all the time doing our best to interest budget makers and taxpayers in the proposition made October 17, 1916, in our Public Service No. 45: “It is not obtainable information but unescapable information which will improve state government. ” To the institute for public service group budget-making is not a new, commercial or academic question. The institute for public service group, disparagingly contrasted with the Maryland law sponsors by Mr. Chase, consists of men long identified with budget propaganda and installation in the public’s interest. We have been doing our best to keep this question of budget-making down to the ground within the comprehension of officers, editors and taxpayers. In its pamphlet entitled Serious Dejects of Maryland’s Budget Law the institute for public service meant what it said. Instead of sneering at the Maryland production, as Harvey S. Chase wrote in the May number, the pamphlet took up earnestly, from conviction, straight-from-theshoulder what we consider serious defects of the budget law. We know from firsthand experience the price any community pays for failing to see that it is budget intelligence and not so-called budget science that determines whether a community gets light or darkness out of budget reform. To answer categorically the 28 questions sent to me by Dr. Cleveland through the editor would take more space than is available. Four typical issues have been selected to indicate why we use the term serious when speaking of defects of the Maryland budget law. I. WHAT BUDGET COMPARISON SHOULD BE MADE? Questions 1 to 3 ask if it is not enough to have budget requests compared with the two fiscal years preceding, since previous budget documents would contain the facts from which comparisons with earlier years might be made. . Our answer is No, because it is only unescapable information which really gets to the legislators. 11. MAY OR MUST GOVERNORS EXPLAIN BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS? Questions 10 and 11 relate to our comment upon Maryland’s provision that accompanying each budget shall be a statement showing (‘ (5) any explanation the governor may [sic!] desire [sic!] to make as to the important features of any budget and any suggestions [maybe desired, maybe not] as to the methods for reduction or increase of the state’s revenue. ”

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19171 AMENDMENT OF MARYLAND CONSTITUTION 487 What we said in addition to the bracketed items we repeat here: Desires of governors are poor safeguards for taxpayers. What governors know is vastly more important than what ’they desire. What governors ought to find out and publish is the proper subject of legislation and constitutional amendment. Suppose the governor does not desire to make explanations; suppose he lacks the facts with which to make the explanations as he will do under the Maryland amendment? Other states should make it mandatory upon the governor to give explanations not only as to features he personally considers important but as to every feature in the entire instrument which shows a departure from the preceding budget. Ohio’s governor in 1915-16 explained in detail all recommendations, increases and decreases, consolidations, etc., recommended. Wisconsin’s legislature in 1915 provided that all increases and decreases should be separately set up and should be explained. 111. BUDGET INCREASES BY MEANS OF SPECIAL BILLS Questions 19 to 23 relate to the Maryland provision that the legislature may not increase any budget items except for the general assembly and judiciary. We are asked if it will not suffice to make any increases in the form of special bills. To elaborate our answer would need a whole article. Certainly any legislature ought to be permitted to increase the provisions made by any state for public schools; nor should it be necessary to amend the state constitution in order to increase the salary of a constitutional oEce The Maryland law not only fails to give a hearing to those who know these facts about the insane but prevents even the introduction of a supblementary bill until after the executive budget bill has been voted. This will in most legislatures be the last week if not the last hour of the session Practically, as well as legally, this Maryland law confuses and muzzles the legislative branch, administrative officers who know of needs not provided for by the governor, and the public Conceding that it is important not to confuse the governor’s program with anybody else’s program and that it is desirable to fix squarely upon the executive’s shoulders responsibility for his recommendations, it still remains possible to foster discussion and to use legislators for promoting public welfare So long as the supplementary bill is known to everyone not to originate with the governor is there not every reason for having a supplementary bill with respect to the care of the insane before the legislature and considered by it at the same time that it considers the governor’s proposals for the insane? IT. ARE TAXPAYERS’ HEARINGS NECESSARY? Questions 24 to 28 relate to Maryland’s failure to provide for or mention taxpayers’ hearings or compulsory hearings of governor and administrative oEcers. We are asked if the provision is not enough that the governor or persons designated by him “shall have the right, and when requested by either Instead we condense our original criticism :

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW house of the legislature it shall be their duty to appear and be heard with respect to any budget bill , . . and to answer inquiries relative thereto.’’ We are also asked what has been the result of public hearings in New York city. We and you are told that “the public hearings in New York city have had little or no effect on the determinations of the board of estimate.” Even if that statement were true it would not prove to the institute for public service group that public hearings are a mistake. Perhaps it would only prove that New York had been inadequately or badly led and that eight years of reform had progressively disfranchised the public. Whether or not taxpayers’ hearings in New York city and New Jersey have been a failure, Maryland’s omission of taxpayers’ hearings emphasize a fundamental difference between those who are backing the Maryland law and others, like ourselves, who declare that it is seriously defective. It was a disbelief in taxpayers’ hearings (which includes what leads up to and follows them by way of citizen study and newspaper publicity) by the groups back and ahead of the Maryland law to which we referred in the statement quoted by Mr. Chase: “The institute for governmental research financed by the Rockefeller foundation and associates upon a platform that unequivocally disregards, where it does not unequivocally disrespect, public ability and right to understand and discuss budgetary questions. ” Frankly, I am among those who believe that the right of the taxpayer to be shown legislative proposals and to be heard regarding them is among the bedrocks of democracy’s fundamentals. Taxpayers have a right to stay away from taxpayers’ hearings. They have a right to be foolish and unreasonable at hearings. They also have the right to come before city and state and national appropriators of public money, armed with constitutional and statutory rights to be informed and to be heard before their money is spent. To argue, as Dr. I?. A. Cleveland seems to, that because “almost no one except the few partier interested haoe attended,” therefore “New Jersey’s public hearings were fruitless, ” seems very much like arguing that because the public conducts itself in an orderly way all around our traffic police it is no longer necessary to have traffic police. For the same reason that Governor Hughes when removing Borough President Ahearn said that “the majority, no matter how large, has no right to inflict upon the minority, no matter how small” an incompetent government, so believers in taxpayers’ hearings answer those who consider them unnecessary and fruitless: “The majority, no matter how large, has no right to take from a minority of even one, the right to be told what budget alternatives are and to be heard regarding them before it is too late.” But what little bird told the institute for governmental research, the

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19171 AMENDMENT OF MARYLAND CONSTITUTION 489 Rockefeller foundation and subsidiaries that taxpayers’ hearings in New Jersey and New York have been a failure? Hon. Arthur N. Pierson, to whose leadership is due much of New Jersey’s constructive legislation of last winter, said this morning by telephone : On bills requiring budget plans for cities and counties our commission held hearings during 1916 in four or five cities. These were largely attended and spirited discussions were held. Hearings lasted until late in the afternoon. One taxpayers’ hearing in Trenton began at ten o’clock in the morning and we were obliged to adjourn late at night before all the bills could be discussed. Great interest was manifested by crowded roomsful. New Jersey has never yet tried bona fide public hearings on appropriation bills. A taxpayer is invited to the hearing. It does him good whether he comes or not. The fact that officers know a taxpayer may come does both the taxpayer and officer good no matter how many come. Budget measures will be vastly better analyzed wherever officers know that the public will have its day in court. As for New York city, let us begin by telling what other people think of taxpayers’ hearings before I answer the question as to “what are the concrete results of public hearings . . . that could not have been accomplished by petition, remonstrance and presentation through representatives. ” The latest official answer is a bill just passed by New Yolk’s legislature proposed by a “ Tammany ” aldermanic president and unanimously supported by a “Reform Fusion” board of estimate. Does this bill sneer at public hearings or fail to mention them? Instead it not only requires a public hearing but the date for such hearing is set 20 days before the budget is adopted, and it specifically forbids the board of estimate and apportionment to put any matter into the budget bill which has not been submitted to the taxpayers’ hearing. Were even Mayor Mitchel to run for re-election this coming summer on a platform that promised to discontinue taxpayers’ hearings or even whispered a doubt about their value, no one would know that he was running. Readers of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW will undoubtedly concede that Henry Bruhre is entitled to an opinion on the subject of budgetmaking. In his New City Government written after visits to ten commission-governed cities and several budget-makings in New York, he says : After a lapse of a reasonable period opportunity should be given at a formal hearing for taxpayers and others to appear with recommendations regarding proposed allowances. Where the budget is extensive and wide differences are likely to exist between estimates submitted and the tentative conclusion . . . it will be found desirable to afford taxpayers an opportunity to be heard on the estimates themselves. We are just putting in a governor-made budget.

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490 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July After five years of taxpayers’ hearings on New York city’s budget the bureau of municipal research mentioned among the city’s advances “taxpayers’ organizations, social workers, ministers, get advance information as to budget estimates and are invited to prepare and attend public taxpayers’ hearings enough in advance of the final budget to permit of analysis and discussion.” Among signers of this statement was Dr. F. A. Cleveland. Nor as late as 1913 had Dr. Cleveland acquired a doubting Thomas attitude toward taxpayers’ hearings. His Municipal Administration and Accounting says : The independent advice thus obtained [from ogicial sources] does not put the board in the position to become intelligent inquisitors. Preliminary estimates and statements of departmental needs should be made public in order that the people, in the press and in citizen organizations, may discuss each of the issues presented. Heads of departments may be cited to appear and answe‘r interrogatories. Citizen bodies may be heard in support of the enlarging or discontinuing different branches of the public service. . . . After full hearings as to relative needs, the board may with much intelligence fix the gross amounts. . . . Gross budget allowances being tentatively determined, the public can be taken into the confidence of the board by having these tentative schedules published, with a day appointed for a hearing in order that taxpayers may appear and oppose or support hearings. By some such proceeding the budget-making body may have the benefit of the expression of public opinion at every important step on subjects which would require increase or decrease in expenditures. One up-to-date illustration of taxpayers’ hearings in New Yorlr city will have to take the place of a hundred I should like to write. A year ago the board of estimate of New York was insisting that its proposed agreement with the New York Central railroad for removing its tracks from Death avenue and its nuisance from Riverside park was clearly in the public’s interest. Back of this position were forces of unlimited wealth and unfathomable social prestige. Yet that agreement is not only lost to-day but has been publicly rebuked by an almost unanimous legislature which passed two laws, one providing for a special investigation, and a second making it impossible for the present city government to execute this contract until it has been approved by the very public service commission that has unanimously condemned the pending contract as inimical to public welfare. It is also true that only those who were particularly interested” went, but these few were given-after public protest-respectful hearing and the facts they presented were told to millions of readers and repeated to thousands of auditors in clubs and people’s forums. The few included spokesmen for the citizens union, city club, west end association, woman’s league for the protection of Riverside park, institute for public service, etc. William It is true that only a few people went to the hearings.

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19171 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 49 1 R. Willcox was not a horde but was a host because of his extensive definite knowledge of transit questions. For failing to prescribe a procedure that would give a state-officials, legislators, public-unescapable information with respect to budget alternatives, and for failing to keep officials conscious every moment of their budget-making that they could not have secrets from their public, we charge the Maryland amendment with having serious defects. Does any member of the National Municipal League wish us to withdraw either the defects or the serious? MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION : AN ANALYSIS OF MEASURES SUBMITTED TO POPULAR VOTE AT THE NOVEMBER ELECTION. BY FREDERICK REX' Chicago Second Installment PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS The voters of Los Angeles adopted an amendment to the charter enlarging the city's power to provide for or require the elevation or depression of railroad tracks, there being a legal question as to whether this power rested in the city or in the railroad commission. The voters of the same city also approved an amendment of the charter authorizing the city to perform street work or any other work carried on under special assessment by a system of direct employment instead of by contract. It is further provided in the amendment that the city may adopt its own method for the financing of or payment for the work when accomplished. The voters of San Francisco defeated an amendment to the city charter permitting the people of San Francisco to order the raising of a given sum by means of a special tax for a specific improvement in installments extending over more than ten years in order to avoid the need of voting bond issues for projects which cannot be paid out of the ordinary revenues. It was urged in opposition to the measure that the special tax could be levied by merely a majority vote, while bond issues require a two-thirds vote and that no limitation was placed upon the amount of special taxes to be levied in any one year, thus permitting the levying of taxes amounting to practical confiscation. Two amendments adopted in the same city grant power to provide by ordinance a procedure for changes of street grades and work, the payment of assessments in installments and limiting the amount of installment payments of assessments. The voters of Detroit ratified an amendment to the city charter reducing the rate of interest 1 Municipal reference librarian.

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492 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July on street paving assessments from 7 to 4 per cent and extending the time in which the second, third and fourth parts of street paving assessments may be paid without penalty one month. The electorate in Chicago defeated .a proposal for a $2,000,000 bond issue for the purpose of acquiring sites for incinerators, loading stations and a municipal reduction plant for the disposition of garbage, ashes and refuse. Lansing by R vote of three to one acted favorably on a proposition for the municipal collection of garbage. In Hamilton, Ohio, ten bond issues aggregating $1,000,000 to be expended for street, sewer, parks and playground, public buildings and other projects were submitted to the voters for approval. All of the ten bond issues, however, failed to carry. In Kalamazoo a proposed bond issue of $225,000 to be expended for an adequate system of drainage for the city was rejected as was also an amendment to the charter providing for an increase in the limit for street improvement bonds to $400,000. The voters of Cleveland defeated a proposed bond issue of $1,000,000 for the purpose of erecting a county jail, quarters for the criminal and insolvency courts and an ofice for the prosecuting attorney. It was urged that no building of the above character should be erected until authority is received from the legislature whereby all of the criminal and police courts, police departments, jail and prosecutor’s offices can be combined under the same roof and wasteful duplication eliminated. Cleveland approved a $3,000,000 bond issue for street paving in order to obtain immediate relief from the bad condition of the streets, the latter being deemed a menace to vehicle and pedestrian traffic and because the limitations of the Smith tax law make it impossible for the city to meet its share for new paving from its general revenue funds. INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM, AND RECALL PROVISIONS The cities and towns of the state of Minnesota by a three to one vote ratified an amendment to the constitution providing for direct legislation by the people through the initiative and referendum. It is provided that referendum petitions be signed by 15 per cent of the voters of the state, based on the number of votes cast for governor at the preceding election. The voters of San Francisco approved an amendment to the city charter designed to prevent fraud and facilitate examination of initiative, referendum and recall petitions and to save expense in such elections. It requires the numbering of names signed to petitions and the extension of the the allowed for the official verification of the names signed to the petitions from ten to fifteen days. The amendment further provides that where an official sought to be recalled, dies or resigns before any recall election is called, the vacancy shall be filled as provided by the charter.

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19171 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 493 The voters of Seattle rejected a referendum measure considerably restricting the operation of the initiative and referendum laws by requiring that all initiative and referendum petitions be signed at the registration office and that all such signatures must be verified by the registration officials at the time of signing. MATTERS AFFECTING LABOR The voters of San Francisco approved an ordinance prohibiting loitering, picketing, carrying or displaying banners, badges, signs or transparencies or speaking in public streets and places for the purpose of influencing or attempting to influence any person from performing or seeking work in any factory or place of employment or purchasing any goods or articles of merchandise. Another ordinance was voted down in the same city designed to prohibit speaking without a permit upon the streets, sidewalks or in the public parks. Two amendments to the charter, however, were approved. One provides for an eight-hour day for laborers on municipal work at a minimum wage of three dollars. It also provides that those performing labor on public work must be American citizens or at least have taken out their first papers, establishing the principle that those who earn their living from the public expenditures of a municipality should be local residents. The other amendment provides for the filing of a bond by every contractor to whom a contract has been awarded for municipal work or street work assessable upon private property to insure the payment of claims or liens for materials, labor, supplies, teams or machines, furnished by sub-contractors or other persons to the contractor or his sub-contractor for such work. The amendment gives to sub-contractors and material men the same protection they receive in private work or federal contracts. By a vote of more than two to one the voters of the state of Washington rejected a referendum measure providing that any person should be guilty of a misdemeanor who shall for the purpose of advertising any dispute between organized labor and a business man or his employes stand or continuously move back and forth within 500 feet of the place of business or home of the business man or his employe or carry anywhere any sign or cause any other person to do any of these things. The proposed measure was deemed extremely severe in its provisions and it is alleged would have made illegal the publication of news items regarding labor disputes. LIQUOR CONTROL It is not intended herein to analyze the various state-wide prohibitory measures submitted to the voters of cities and towns for adoption or rejection, but an attempt will be made to consider proposals designed to regulate or abolish the liquor traffic in municipalities at the November election. The city of Los Angeles since 1913 by ordinance has prohibited dancing in any public place where liquor is sold. An ordinance was

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494 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July proposed by initiative petition permitting such dancing and affecting primarily cafes and restaurants. The existing ordinance does not prohibit dancing, nor does it prohibit the sale of liquor, but simply makes it illegal to do both in the same place. The initiative ordinance, however, was defeated at the election by a two to one vote. In cities in Massachusetts and Rhode Island the annual query was submitted to the voters as to whether or not licenses shall be granted for the sale of intoxicating liquors in the city, St. Louis overwhelmingly rejected the proposed constitutional amendment prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors in Missouri after July 1, 1917, by a vote of 13,529 cast in favor of the same and 141,070 against. Thevoters of Colorado by a vote of 163,134 to 77,345 rejectedan amendment to the state constitution making the manufacture and sale of beer lawful and requiring that all beer be sold in unbroken packages and delivered directly to the consumer at his residence. The voters of Michigan by a vote of 378,871 to 256,272 defeated a proposed amendment to the constitution granting to every incorporated city, village or township in the state the right to determine by a majority vote of the electors whether or not there shall be prohibited therein the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors. A measure initiated by the brewery interests and providing that beer containing not more than 4 per cent alcohol could be manufactured and soId in the state was rejected by the voters of Washington. The measure purported to aim at a re-establishment of a home industry but in effect was more far-reaching in that it permitted the establishment in the state of offices by outside breweries from which deliveries could be made direct to the home and eliminated the permit at present required for the importation and use of liquor. The voters of Washington likewise defeated a measure initiated by the hotel and liquor interests allowing the sale and service of alcoholic beverages to guests in a hotel having fifty or more rooms. The voters of California defeated a proposed amendment to the constitution prohibiting the manufacture, sale or possession of alcoholic liquors in the state after January 1, 1920. A milder amendment to the constitution was likewise rejected by the voters of the same state. It prohibited after January 1, 1918, the possession, gift or sale in a saloon, dramshop, dive, store, hotel, restaurant, club, dance hall or other place of public resort of alcoholic liquors and the sale or soliciting of orders anywhere, except in pharmacies for certain purposes and by manufacturers on the premises where manufactured, under delivery and quantity restrictions. The voters of Baltimore rejected an act referred by the legislature giving the electorate the right to determine by ballot whether or not the sale or manufacture of intoxicating liquors should be prohibited in Baltimore after May 1, 1918.

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19171 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 495 MOTOR AND JITNEY BUSES The voters of Harrisburg, Pa., approved a proposition amending an ordinance regulating the operation of motor buses in the city. The original ordinance contained a provision for the filing of a surety bond of $2,000 with the city for each bus licensed by the owner or lessee of any bus as an indemnity under which anyone injured or damaged in person or property by the operation of such bus could sue and recover for damages sustained. The amendment provides for an initial bond of $50 for each bus licensed and an additional bond of $1,000 per bus to be paid into the city treasury in monthly installments of five dollars. An initiative amendatory ordinance was defeated in San Francisco giving jitney buses the right to operate on all street's in the city and county. The amendment was proposed by the drivers of jitneys and designed to give them a free hand to operate as they should see fit without restraint or restriction. It was urged that the amendment would nullify the jitney ordinance enacted by the board of supervisors, keeping them off Market street during certain hours and the provision requiring indemnity bonds from owners of buses. The amendatory ordinance it was believed would make impossible the regulation of jitneys in any form and would preclude the city from operating a municipal railway in Market street should it be victorious in its litigation with the United Railways. MUNICIPAL OFFICERS A majority of the voters of Holyoke ratified a law passed by the Massachusetts general court extending the term of office of the city treasurer to three years. Lansing voted favorably on amending certain sections of the city charter relating to the duties of the city treasurer. Los Angeles amended section 13 of article I11 of its charter relative to meetings of the city council. The latter under the amendment is required to meet at least five days of each week, meetings on Saturday being abrogated. In San Francisco a proposed amendment to the city charter provided for the creation of a position of city and county attorney in lieu of the office of city attorney, with a salary of $10,000 per year and appointment of the new officer by the mayor until January 8, 1922. The foregoing amendment was submitted to the voters by a unanimous vote of the board of supervisors and also supported by the mayor. The charter qualifications for the office of city attorney specify that the latter must be a practicing attorney for at least ten years, an actual resident of the city for at least five years and devote his entire time to the office. It was urged in support of the amendment that the entry of the city into the ownership and successful operation of municipal street railways and other utilities, the building of the Hetch Hetchy water and power system, the construction of tunnels and boulevards, aside from ordinary governmental affairs, caused its legal department to constantly face problems of enormous magnitude requiring the best legal talent obtainable to protect the city's

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496 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW IJUlY rights against powerful opposing forces. It was pointed out that a lawyer possessing the requisite ability, courage and honesty for the office would in ten years of practice have established a private business far more profitable and stable than the office of city attorney. Any attorney accepting the office of city attorney would be compelled to give up his private business and accept the salary of the office, five thousand dollars a year, as his only income from his profession. The amendment provided for a suitable increase in salary in order that some man whose record and standing proved him qualified in all respects might be induced to accept the office. It was also proposed to make the term of office of the person whom the mayor might first appoint until January, 1922, a term a few months in excess of that for which all officers of the city are elected, after which he should be elected by the people. It was urged in support of this proposal that an established lawyer whose qualifications are such as would make him an acceptable city attorney could not be induced to take the office unless a reasonable term could be assured him before he would be compelled to become a candidate for election. No lawyer of standing would care to sacrifice a profitable law business to enter into a political campaign with its uncertainties. The measure failed of adoption, 31,900 votes being cast in favor and 94,567 votes against such proposed amendment of the city charter. The voters of the state of Louisiana approved an amendment of section 148 of the state constitution providing for the election of a district attorney for the parish of Orleans for a term of four years at an annual salary of $10,000, 54 per cent of which shall be paid by the city of New Orleans and the balance by the state of Louisiana. PUBLIC UTILITIES The voters of Buffalo approved a franchise granted by the council to the International Railway Company to construct and operate electric railways on certain streets in the city. A resolution of the council granting permission to the Federal Telephone and Telegraph Company to sell its physical properties in the city of Buffalo to the New York Telephone Company was voted down and repealed by the electorate. The voters of Berkeley approved an amendment to article 12 of the city charter relating to franchises by adding to such article a new section dealing with the resettlement of such franchises. The section gives the council the right to provide for a general resettlement of the franchise rights of persons or corporations actually engaged in operating public utilities in the city upon written application therefor and acceptance of sundry terms and conditions. Such terms include the appointment of an advisory board by the mayor, indeterminate franchise period, division of annual net revenue, a joint board of control and the assumption of bonded indebtedness by the city in case of purchase. The voters of the state of Washington defeated a referendum measure providing that no competing public

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19171 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 497 utility should be authorized to furnish service except after the issuance by the public service commission of the state of a certificate of public necessity and convenience, such certificate to be issued only in case the existing utility furnished inadequate service. The voters of the same state rejected a measure-believed instigated by private dock owners-increasing the membership of the Seattle port commission from three to seven, the additional four members to be the mayor, county engineer, county auditor and prosecuting attorney and limiting the further expenditure of funds for port improvements. The measure also authorized the port commissioners to sell any or all property of the port district after an official appraisal of its value and also authorized the leasing of any or all property for a term not exceeding five years. While the act was general in its terms, it in effect only was applicable to the city of Seattle, the port district established in the state being located in that city. The voters of Los Angeles adopted an amendment to the city charter, suggested by the public service commission, authorizing the latter after approval by the council, to enter into contracts with outside cities for the exchange with them or sale to them of surplus electric power for periods not exceeding fifty years, subject to the city’s right to cancel the contract on three years’ notice. One of the prime objects of this amendment is to permit a contract to be made with the city of Pasadena for the temporary furnishing of power to Los Angeles and also to permit the public service board to have a market for the surplus power which it is expected will be developed through the aqueduct plants. The voters of Cleveland by a substantial majority approved a $1,750,000 bond issue for the extension of the municipal electric lighting plant in order that the‘ latter may properly compete with the private electric lighting company operating in the city. PUBLIC RECREATION The voters of Evanston, Illinois, approved a proposition providing for an annual tax levy of three mills on the dollar for the purpose of maintaining a public park and in Hamilton, Ohio, a bond issue of $10,000 was authorized for parks and playgrounds. The voters of Los Angeles approved an amendment to the city charter empowering the council in its discretion to appoint a special commission to administer any donation for any improvement in a public park. The amendment had special reference to a reported offer from Colonel G. J. Griffith to construct a Greek theatre and an observatory in the park bearing his name. The municipal league of Los Angeles opposed the amendment on the ground that it would establish a bad precedent to create special commissions to carry on work logically within the jurisdiction of another commission. It was urged that the park board should be reasonably entrusted with the authority to look after the best interests of the city in all matters directly 4

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498 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July related with parks and that the adoption of the proposed amendment might lead to unlimited abuse. Los Angeles voters further approved an amendment to the charter authorizing the city council or the park board ,to grant a right of way for the chief transmissioa line of the municipal power system through Griffith park and to grant an easement for a subway to a railroad already owning a franchise for electric cars to cross under Silver Lake parkway, the contemplated subway shortening the run to the beaches by several minutes. The voters of Chicago rejected a proposition for the issuance of $2,450,000 in bonds by the city for the purpose of acquiring sites and improving bathing beaches, swimming pools and parks and playgrounds. An unusually hot summer during the past year caused the citizens of Chicago to realize the great need of additional bathing beaches. It was urged by organizations and citizens seeking the defeat of the proposition that the plans for the proposed bathing beaches were inadequate in that they failed to provide for a sufficient number of small bathing beaches within easy reach of all sections of the city. In St. Paul an amendment to the city charter was submitted to the voters providing that the cost of acquiring land for parks and playgrounds and of improving the same be defrayed by general taxation. The charter provided that the cost of all such improvements be met by special assessment levied against the property deemed benefited thereby. SCHOOLS Cities in Massachusetts voted on an act passed by the general court authorizing municipalities to maintain schools of agriculture and horticulture. As approved by the electorate the act gives cities the power to establish and maintain schools for instructing families and individuals by means of day, part time or evening classes in gardening, fruit growing, floriculture, poultry keeping, animal husbandry and other similar branches, subject to the approval by the board of education. Cities are given the power to acquire suitable plots of ground for instruction in practical agriculture and to erect buildings on the same for housing those attending the school. An amendment to the charter of San Francisco, approved by the voters at the election, gives the board of supervisors power to accept gifts for the establishment, support and endbwment of a public aquarium and appropriate yearly not less than $20,000 for its maintenance. The adoption of the amendment thus prepares the way for the acceptance of gifts by the city that will be available from generous citizens when a maintenance fund is assured and thus secure to San Francisco a great public aquarium comparable to the famous aquariums of Naples, New York and Detroit. A further amendment was proposed in the same city providing that certain school lots reserved under an ordinance adopted in 1855 and no longer available for public school purposes be sold and the proceeds used ..

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19171 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 499 exclusively to purchase new sites or additions to existing sites for school purposes in localities where needed. The amendment provided that no sale of such lands should be made without concurrent action by the board of education, mayor and board of supervisors and by procedure ensuring full publicity and other reasonable safeguards. It was urged that the adoption of the amendment would enable the city to provide school sites in districts where the needs are pressing and acquire lands for school yards to be used as playgrounds by the children. The amendment, however, failed of adoption by a two to one vote. In Worcester an act passed by the general court was submitted to the voters providing for the reduction of the membership of the school committee from the prevailing membership of thirty, three being elected from each of ten city wards, to eleven members, one to be elected from each of the ten wards and one to be elected at large. The act was approved by the electorate of the city, 11,408 votes being cast in favor of the same and 4,455 against. The city of Detroit by a more than five to one vote approved an act passed by the legislature providing for the reduction in the membership of the board of education and their election at large by the people. The voters of the state of Alabama adopted two amendments of the state constitution authorizing the levying of a special tax not exceeding thirty cents on each one hundred dollars of taxable property by the various school districts in the counties of the state. The voters of Louisiana by a two to one vote approved an amendment of the constitution providing that every municipal corporation, parish or ward when authorized to do so “by a majority in number and amount of property taxpayers” be given the power to assess and levy a tax the proceeds of which should be used for the purch&se and improvements of grounds and for premium awards for municipal, parish or ward fairs. Resident women taxpayers are authorized to vote at any election called for the foregoing purpose, in person or by proxy. Cleveland adopted a measure authorizing a $2,000,000 bond issue for the purchase of school sites and the erection and furnishing of schoolhouses and an additional one-half mill tax for sinking fund, interest and maintenance charges resulting from the bond issue. In Milwaukee the voters approved a bond issue of $800,000 for the purchase of school sites, the erection of new buildings and additions to old ones. It was urged in support of the bond issue that Milwaukee is much behind other cities of its size in equipment for schooI buildings, resulting in overcrowded class-rooms and children studying in barracks, basements and assembly halls. SUNDAY CLOSING In Oregon’ the voters approved by a vote of 125,836 yeas to 93,076 nays a bill initiated by a committee of the independent retailers associa

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500 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW tion of Portland providing for the repeal of section 2125 of the Oregon laws prohibiting the keeping open of any store, shop, grocery, bowling alley, billiard room or tippling house or any place of amusement on Sunday, excepting theatres, drug stores, offices of physicians, undertakers, livery stables, butchers and bakers. In Wichita the voters defeated an amendment providing for the repeal of the city ordinance prohibiting the maintenance and operation of moving picture shows on Sunday. TAXATION The voters of Cincinnati approved a measure providing for an increased tax levy for general and school purposes. The voters in Los Angeles adopted an amendment to the charter under which the Council, by ordinance, can consolidate the office of city tax collector with that of county tax collector and the office of city assessor with that of county assessor. It is estimated that such consolidation wiII save the sum of $75,000 to the taxpayers of Los Angeles annually, as well as prove of additional value in the greater convenience in paying taxes at one place instead of at two, as under the old arrangement. The amendment also provides that other city offices may be consolidated with the county offices, but only after an ordinance has been passed by the council and submitted for ratification to the voters of the city. The voters of Oregon by a large majority rejected an amendment to the constitution of the state proposed by initiative petition providing for a full rental value tax and a loan fund for homemakers. It was urged that the amendment would abolish land speculation, reduce the price of land-separate from improvements-and lower the rate of interest to farmers and homemakers in town and country. San Francisco defeated an amendment to the charter providing that when a tax levy made prior to the adoption of the proposed amendment had been declared illegal by the supreme court, all of the tax should be refunded to property owners, irrespective of whether protest had been made or not. It was further provided that a special tax to refund the amount illegally collected should be levied. It was urged that the board of supervisors, under the amendment, could legally levy a tax to reimburse taxpayers for one previously levied and found illegal and that this practice would prove extremely vicious inasmuch as all charter restrictions on the tax rate could be evaded. The voters of Rhode Island by a five to one vote approved a proposed amendment of the constitution of the state providing for excess condemnation of land and property by any city or town in establishing or laying out any public streets or parks. It is provided that the excess land and property not required for such street and park improvement and abutting on the same may be sold or leased for its value. The voters of California defeated overwhelmingly a proposed amendment to the constitution providing for the taxation of land values, exclusive of improvements. It pro

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19171 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION 501 vided that all taxes and licenses, local and state, be abolished, with the exception of a possible income and inheritance tax, limited to providing for old-age pensions, mothers’ endowments and workingmen’s unemployment and disability insurance. Under the proposed amendment no saloon license or corporation tax could be levied. It was urged that, even if the principle of the modified single tax were acceptable, the amendment proposed too abrupt a change. Its results could only prove seriously unsettling and unjust, if not harmful to many persons and interests, in the same proportion to the inequalities prevailing under the present system of taxation, and that changes in the incidence of taxation should be made, so far as possible, gradually and under an extended and carefully prepared plan. The voters of Illinois approved a proposed amendment of the constitution providing for tax revision. Its purpose is to do away with the unfairness and inequality of the present general property tax, which places so heavy a burden upon certain classes of personal property -particularly credits and corporation stock-that capital is being constantly forced out of the state and the assessment of personal property brought into disrepute. The amendment, itself, does not provide a new basis of taxation, but merely empowers the legislature to deal with the subject unrestricted by the requirement that personal property must be taxed uniformly with other forms of property. WARDS Lansing approved an amendment to the city charter relative to dividing the city into eight wards and increasing the number of board members. Los Angeles voters defeated a proposal for the amendment of section 258 of article 25 of the city charter relating to borough government. The provisions of the present city charter regarding boroughs have been held by legal authority to be unconstitutional and according to a statement in the Bulletin of the Los Angeles municipal league, impracticable of operation. The proposed amendment made possible a borough system for sections of the city recently annexed, should they so desire. Under the amendment the boroughs would have been given jurisdiction over substantially the same branches of government administered at present by the board of public works, including, among other things, street improvements and street lighting. The boroughs would also have had the power to regulate liquor, saloons and other interests affecting the moral tone of the borough, providing that such regulation be not less stringent than that fixed for the remainder of the city. The borough was also given the right to levy an additional tax for any local matters affecting it. The amendment was asked for and supported by the municipal annexation commission on the ground that it would facilitate the annexation to Los Angeles of outside territory whose annexation would be desirable as a preliminary step toward the consolidation of the city and county of Los Angeles and its environs. The municipal league of Los Angeles, likewise, urged support of the measure.

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502 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July BATON ROUGE’S MUNICIPALCENTENARY BY MILLEDGE L. BONHAM, JR. Louisiana State University DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT T WAS on St. Patrick’s day, 1699, that Pierre LeMoyne, sieur d’Iberville, discovered and named the site of the present capital of Louisiana. The date of the first settlement appears to be undiscoverable, but contemporary literature of 1719-1723 speaks of it as if it had been there some time. Nothing of moment occurred at Baton Rouge, apparently, until 1763, when the Bourbon flag was replaced with the banner of St. George, and the post’s name was changed to Fort Richmond. Sixteen years later, the only engagement of the Revolution-and that a slight one-occurred at Fort Richmond, between the Spanish troops of Governor Galvez, reinforced by American backwoodsmen, some Indians and a few negroes, on the one side, and the British garrison, under Colonel Dickson, on the other. The attackers were victorious, and the castles and lions of Spain floated over Baton Rouge until September 23, 1810. At that time, the Anglo-Americans in West Florida revolted against the rule of Spain, organized the “Republic of West Florida,” and sent an “army” under General Philemon Thomas to take this fort at Baton Rouge. This was done, after a slight engagement as the result of which the LLlone star” flag appeared for the first time in American history. The ensign of the West Floridians was a blue woolen field with one silver star in the center. When the Republic of West Florida sought annexation to the United States, President Madison said it was part of the Louisiana purchase, so Governor Claiborne extended his control over the region, replacing the blue woolen flag with “Old Glory.” To this day, that part of Louisiana between the river, the lakes and the gulf is called “the Florida parishes.” Within less than half a century five flags-Bourbon, British, Spanish, West Floridian, American-had flown over Baton Rouge. Within the next half century, two more were to fly-state and Confederate. A second state flag, adopted after Reconstruction, made the eighth, while the tricolor of the French republic, which floated over New Orleans for three weeks in 1803, makes nine banners that waved over one part or another of Louisiana. I INCORPORATION AND DEVELOPMENT Under whichever of the first five flags she might be, Baton Rouge was not a municipality, merely a settlement about a military post, the com

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19171 BATON ROUGE’S MUNICIPAL CENTENARY 503 mandant of which prescribed such regulations as he deemed needful. The city of Baton Rouge came into being when Governor James VGler6 signed, January 16, 1817, the statute authorizing the people of the town to elect five councillors, one of whom should be “magistrate,” or mayor. Hence January 16, 1917, was the centenary of the incorporation of Baton Rouge. Besides having eight flags float above her, Baton Rouge has witnessed many other historic events. The visit of Lafayette, in 1825, was but one of such visits by notabilities like Clay, Beauregard, Scott, etc. Zachary Taylor departed from Baton Rouge for Mexico, in 1845. The city became the capital in 1850, while two years later a constitutional convention was held here. The secession convention met at Baton Rouge, in January 1861, seized the federal arsenal, and passed the ordinance of se’cession. Farragut captured the city, without a shot, in May 1862. In August, General Breckinridge, of the Confederate army, won a fruitless victory. He drove the Union forces from the outskirts of the city to the shelter of the gunboats, whose guns compelled him to withdraw. Federal headquarters were at New Orleans, Conf$derate at Shreveport. Not until after the r6gime of “carpetbagger and scalawag” was Baton Rouge again made the capital. This was done by the convention of 1879. Ten years before this, the plant of the state university at Alexandria had been destroyed by fire, so its domicile was changed to Baton Rouge, which is also the site of the state schools for the deaf, dumb and blind, for several private and church schools, while on its outskirts is the state industrial college for the colored. Perhaps the largest of all the Standard Oil refineries was erected at Baton Rouge in 1909. Four years later a constitutional convention met there and refunded the state debt. The year 1914 was signalized by the adoption of commission government, and the formation of the “organized charities,” in which Roman Catholic, Protestant and Jew combine their resources to try to handle the problems of poverty and unemployment. Meanwhile, in 1913, city and parish [county) had co-operated to establish a free fair, for which space for exhibits, admittance of visitors, and the like, are all gratuitous. By 1916 Baton Rouge felt that she had made so much history that it was time to collect and conserve some of it. For this purpose the “Historical Society of East and West Baton Rouge” was organized, with. General John McGrath, a veteran of Walker’s first Nicaraguan expedition, and of the Civil war, at its head. As oceangoing vessels can and do come to her docks, Baton Rouge did not rest until she was designated (1916) as a port of entry. Then she celebrated the occasion with a banquet. Seeking some other outlet for her enterprise and energy, she decided a modern Y. M. C. A. building was needed, so announcement was made that in the week beginning January 10, 1917, she would raise $50,000 for that purpose. When the clock struck 8, Tuesday evening, the 16th, $62,450 had been secured.

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504 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July A municipal abattoir had been established in the fall of 1915, which was so successful that it reduced within six months its fees, and is still self-sustaining. At present, the plant is being enlarged. THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Early in October, 1916, the historical society and the city commission began to discuss the best way to celebrate the centennial of the city’s incorporation. Soon a committee was organized, representing, beside the two named, nearly every other organization of a religious, patriotic, social, business or fraternal nature. Tuesday, January 17, was the day selected. Because of a driving rain storm two items had to be omitted from the program; the (‘Jackie”’ of the U. S. torpedo-destroyers, Sterrett, Lamson, and Monnghan (then in the harbor) were to have opened the celebration with a parade. In the afternoon, the cadet corps of Louisiana State University was to hold a dress-parade, followed by a band-concert. The first number of the actual celebration was a joint meeting of the Louisiana historical society, with the local society. A marble marker has been erected on tpe site of the old Spanish fort. This monument will be dedicated on the anniversary of the capture. The climax of the centennial was a series of tableaux, given the same evening, representing various epochs in the life of t.he city. Backgrounds, poses, costumes, music, all combined to lend an air of verisimilitude. First Iberville was shown, discovering the site of the city; the orders of Redmen and Woodmen of the World staged this. Next, the Knights of Columbus showed Galvez’s capture of the British fort, in 1779. The Odd Fellows then displayed the West Florida forces capturing it from the Spanish in 1810. Students of the university posed the first session of the first city council. Be it said in passing, that tradition tells us that one of the first councillors had been a pirate with Lafitte; another, a member of the West Florida Revolutionary junto, while a third was of Tory antecedents. Lafayette’s arrival in 1825 was shown by the Knights of Pythias. This was followed by a ball in his honor. Lafayette himself opened the minuet, the other dancers being young ladies and gentlemen of “town and gown.” Fraternal orders, civilians and citizens next presented the scene of Zachary Taylor’s notification of his nomination for president, in 1848. The curtain then rose upon the secession convention, engaged in signing the ordinance. This was arranged by the Daughters of the Confederacy, and was posed by Confederate veterans, or their descendants. Students of the university showed the removaI of the institution to Baton Rouge, in 1869. The last picture, another ‘(town and gown” oombination, showed the return of the capital to Baton Rouge.

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION The Reorganiiation of the Administration of State Institutions in Kansas.The legislature which has recently adjourned decided that among other things Kansas would try the experiment of conducting all state institutions under one board. One of the features of the administrative program of Governor Capper waa a recommendation that there should be a greater concentration of boards and commissions in the Kansas system so that the general movement for economy and efficiency might be made to apply to those functions of government for which Kansas spends the bulk of its appropriation.. Late in the session, after the city manager bill had been passed, Mr. Martin introduced House Bill No. 517 which immediately came to be known as the state manager bill. The legislature was already committed to the idea of a city manager and it quite readily accepted the manager principle for the state institutions as well. The biil was accepted by the senate with a few amendments in which the house concurred without much debate. On July 1 a single board and a manager will take charge of all of the educational, penal and benevolent institutions and be held responsible for their efficient administration. This law is the latest chapter in a period of experimentation in the field of institution management in Kansas. Up to 1913 there were at least seven separate governing boards for the state institutions. The legislature of that year swept these aside and substituted for them three separate boards, each to have charge of a given class of institutions. The state board of administration took the place of all of the boards of regents of the state schools (five in number), and besides it assumed direction of the schools for the deaf and the blind on the theory that these were educational and not charitable institutions. The board of control continued in authority over all benevolent institutions, except the schools for the deaf and the blind just mentioned. The penal institutions, the administration of which had been in the hands of three separate boards were put under the control of a board of control. Since 1913, therefore, all of the Kansas institutions have been managed by three salaried boards, with the one exception of the homes for soldiers and soldiers’ widows. These continued in the keeping of an honorary board for sentimental reasons. Under the Martin law of 1917 two new features in American state administration appear, a single board for all institutions, and a responsible paid manager to be chosen by the board. As the bill passed the house the manager was to be the sole salaried officer but the senate amended the hill to provide for a salaried board which is to give its whole time to the state. This feature was not contemplated by the governor nor by Mr. Martin but it seemed wise to those in charge of the bill not to risk its defeat by insisting in the senate upon an unpaid board. This was the sop thrown to the old officeholders and the house was persuaded to concur in the senate amendment. The Board. The board consists of three members appointed by the governor, who by virtue of his office is chairman and the fourth member of the board. Each appointed member holds office for four years and provision is made for the retirement of two every fourth year beginning in 1921, and the retirement of one appointed member every fourth year beginning in 1917. Since the governor holds office for but two years there will always be a two-year elected member on the board. At every other election the governor will be able to name a majority of the appointive members and between times he and his appointee will make up half the membership of the board. Virtually, 505

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW therefore, the governor becomes the head of all the institutions in the state. His position is made &ill more impregnable because the law gives him the authority to remove any member when he thinks the .public welfare demands it. The members receive a salary of thirty-five hundred dollars a year. Its powers include the right to control and manage all institutions, to erect buildings and keep them in repair, to employ a manager and a secretary and the heads of the institutions. (The state treasurer is made the treasurer of the board.) It may make its own rules of procedure with the limitation that its regulations must be enacted into law by the legislature and no rule defeated by one legislature shall be considered legal until enacted by some subsequent legislature. It has authority to fix all salaries in the various institutions upon the recommendation of the executive officer thereof. It is also a corporate body with power to bring suits and institute and defend proceedings in the courts. The attorney general is made its legal officer for such proceedings. The Manager. The law provides in the second place for a general manager, who for want of a better term may be called the fiscal officer of the board. He is the hired man, at a salary to be determined by the board, serving at the pleasure of the board. Under a senate amendment he must be a resident of Kansas of at least a year’s standing at the time of appointment. His function is to “manage and control” the various institutions by and with the advice of the board and “to purchase all supplies required by such institutions.” He does not, however, have any appointing power, for the choice of the heads of institutions is left with the board and the choice of employes throughout the state is left to the executive heads except in so far as the state civil service law operates under the present management. He is not a manager in the sense that many have seemed to infer from a hasty reading of the bill. As a matter of fact the executive heads of the several institutions are vested with more authority than they have exercised during the last four years under the experimental largepower board system. So far as local policy is concerned there seems to be less chance for outside interference than under the laws of 1913. Perhaps the most interesting function of the manager has to do with the making of the budget. It is his duty to submit estimates for appropriations to the governor before the meeting of the legislature. In making out these estimates the law declares that he must consult with the heads of ‘the institutions. He is also made personally liable if expenditures exceed the appropriations. Section 13 of the act gives the general theory of the board and manager system in the following words; the act contemplates “the employment of an expert general manager, for the business and scientific management of all state institutions covered by this act, and also for the placing of all educational, benevolent and penal institutions of the state of Kansas under one management and under one board of trusteesor directors, withasuitable place of business at the state capitol, for the orderly and economical administration thereof, publicity and fairness in the awarding of contracts for all supplies, the keeping of such books and records, accounts and reports as shall not only show the cost of maintaining each of said institutions, but also the per capita cost of maintaining the inmates thereof, and this act shall be.liberally construed so as to carry out such purposes.” Altogether eighteen state institutions are by this act brought under the management of this new board of administration-a board each member of which gives bond in the sum of ten thousand dollars to the state for the faithful performance of duty. * Home Rule Progress in New York State.-Since the assembly in 1914 passed the proposed amendment to the constitution granting to cities the right to adopt their own charters and regulate their own affairs free from legislative interference save by general laws or in matters of C. A. DYKSTRA.

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1917) NOTES AND EVENTS 507 state concern, little progress has been made in the direction of constitutional home rule. The constitutional convention of 1915 proposed, by way of compromise, a limited grant of power, which failed with the defeat of the entire proposed constitution. The advocates of a thorough-going home rule amendment, despairing of its speedy adoption, concluded to present a compromise proposal that would not encounter the strong opposition that hadmanifesteditself to the grant of any independent power to cities. Such a proposal was the MillsWelsh amendment, first introduced in the legislature of 1916 at the instance of the conference of mayors and other city officials and endorsed as an acceptable compromise by the municipal government association of New York state, the citizens union, the city club and other home rule advocates. It provides for legislative home rule rather than constitutional home rule, properly so called,+.e. while commanding the legislature to grant to cities the power of adopting their own local laws on municipal matters, as well as of drafting their own charters, it is not selfexecuting, but leaves the manner of executing the constitutional command entirely in the hands of the legislature and by way of sanction prohibits the legislature from passing any special or local law relating to the property, affairs or government of cities, but leaves the legislature with unrestricted power to regulate municipal affairs by general laws and to regulate matters of state concern by generd or special laws. Even this moderate proposal met with opposition. It made no progress in the 1916 legislature and was reintroduced in the 1917 legislature. At the 1917 session, another amendment was introduced by Senator E. R. Brown, purporting to grant some measure of home rule by declaring the power of the legislature to grant additional powers to cities, but without any grant of or direction for the grant of powex to cities and without restriction on the power of the legislature other than that resulting from the requirement that grants of power to cities (but not restrictions on cities) could be granted only by general laws. A contest developed between the Brown amendment and the Mills-Welsh amendment. The senate, of which Senator Brown was the majority leader, passed the illusory Brown amendment. The assembly, after debate, passed the MasWelsh amendment, against the opposition of the leaders of both parties. The Brown amendment, however, remained on the assembly calendar and was slipped through the assembly in the closing days of the session, without debate, by a “quick roll call.” It cannot fairly be said that the Brown amendment represents the deliberate judgment of the legislature. The advocates of real home rule will renew the fight next year. Any amendment, whether the Brown amendment or an adequate amendment, if passed in 1918, will have to be repassed by the legislature to be chosen at the next election of senators in November, 1918, before it can be submitted to a vote of thepeople. LAURENCE A. TANZER. s Consolidation of Governmental Agencies in Illinois.-Concerning the editorial note attached to Proiessor W. F. Dodd’s interesting account of the work that had been done in Illinois under Governor Lowden’s administration appearing in the May issue under the above title, the Ron. Morton D. Hull writes as follows: I notice in the May number of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW an editorial note to an article by Professor Dodd with reference to the recent legislation in Illinois consolidating certain departments of the state government, giving me perhaps more credit than I am entitled to. Credit for the initiation of this whole program belongs to the old committee of the 48th general assembly of which Charles F. Hurburgh of Galesburg was chairman. I am glad to have made some contribution in public discussion to the interest in this program, and believe that I have helped in its accomplishment, but think Mr. Lowden is entitled to much the major credit in the present situation. * Idaho’s City Manager Law.-The fourteenth session of the Idaho legislature was productive of but one significant measure relating to municipal govern

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508 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July ment-an act providing for the citymanager form. It provides that the question of the adoption of such a form shall be submitted to the people whenever a petition is fled signed by electors equal in number to 25 per cent of all votes cast for mayor in the last election. The issue shall be voted on at a special election, and if at this election, the proposition is defeated, the issue cannot be again raised within two years. A board of commissioners is provided for, varying in number from five to nine, according to population. Their term is four years, with a portion of the board retiring every two years. At the first election, the commissioners are to be chosen by wards, but subsequently they will be chosen either by wards or at large, according to the method subsequently designated by the municipal ordinance. The board must hold meetings at least twice every month. It also has thepower to appoint the city manager. The city manager holds office during the pleasure of the board, and is responsible for the general supervision of the city’s business, for the execution of the ordinances, the making of appointments not otherwise provided for, and for the making of recommendations to the board relative to matters of public concern. No limitations as to salary are mentioned, and no qualifications are provided. The act provides that the work of the city shall be divided into at least five departments (public affairs, accounts and finance, public safety, streets and public improvements, parks and public property) and as many more as the board may provide. It is provided further that the city may return to the original form of government any time after the expiration of six years upon a majority vote of the people. Three cities in the state, viz., Moscow, Pocatello, and Coeur d’Xlene, are giving serious consideration to the question of the adoption of the city-manager form. JOHN T. LEWIS. Charter Revision in Bridgeport, Corn,The legislature during its closing sessions passed a bill giving official sanction to the work of the charter revision committee which has been at work in this city for over ayear. This is the committee which prepared t7he commission-government charter which was carried last November by an overwhelming majority, but which never went into effect for the lack of support by 60 per cent of those voting at the election. Immediately after the election, Mayor Cliffold B. Wilson, who had opposed the commission plan, indicated that he would favor a city manager. The old commission thereupon started wox k upon a commission-manager charter. This, during May, was presented to the mayor and approved by him. It will be voted upon by the people on August 11. The proposed charter is “orthodox” in every respect-five cornmissioners elected by preferential ballot and a city manager with the power of appointment of all city officers except the city clerk and corporation counsel. Provision is made for the four departments of public safety, finance, publir works and public welfare. A civil service commission will have jurisdiction in the selection of appointees in all departments. H. G. GILBERTSON. 9 Proportional Representation.-On May 19 the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia passed a bill, introduced by the Premier, allowing municipalities to adopt pxoportional representation in municipal elections. The act provides that the system of propoxtional repiesentation shall be that known as the “single transferable vote,” which was adopted in 1915 by Ashtabula, Ohio, and in December, 1916, by Calgary, Alberta. The rules and regulaticns for counting the votes and making the necessary transfers are to be prescxibed, according to the act, by the “ Lieutenant-Governor in Council,” which in practice means the government of the day.

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 509 Chicago’s Street Railway Situation.Uniiication of the present surface and elevated transportation facilities of Chicago, financial as well as operating, into a composite system and articulating with a future subway system, is the ambitious plan presented by the Chicago traction and subway commission, recently submitted to the city council committee on local t,ransportation, and now engaging the serious attention of Chicago and the legislature. The commission reports upon the value of the present elevated property and presents a comprehensive plan of operation, financing and regulation covering the combined systems. The report is highly interesting in its detailed handling of a most intricate transportation problem. It has an additional interest in the attempt by its provisions to undo some of the more obvious mistakes of the original franchise ordinance of 1907 covering the surface lines, particularly the failure to provide for amortizing capital investment and to make municipal ownership a practical proposition; also to provide an effective scheme of regulation and control of service. The traction and subway commission’s first plan calls for a unified franchise covering the elevated and surface systems, running for thirty years from 1917, with a provision limiting the city’s right to purchase the properties until one-half the capital has been retired through an amortization fund provided from gross earnings and incidental sources. It is estimated that this 50-50 condition can be reached by 1947, when the city would be empowered to acquire the property by assuming the remaining indebtedness against it. Later there was suggested, to meet the necessities of financing the proposition, a fifty-year grant with the city empowered to purchase the property at any time. This proposal was indorsed etrongly by the companies, who claimed that nothing less than a fifty-year grant was a practical necessity to enable them successfully to finance construction. The city council, however, refused to accept the fifty-year proposition, insisting upon a straight thirty-year term. Under the plan proposed by the commission, all the money forsubway and other construction, equipment, etc., would be furnished by the company, except that the city’s present share of the accumulated profits from operation of the surface lines, about twenty-one million dollars, and all future accumulations from this source, would be used for construction purposes. It is provided that the operating company shall receive 6 per cent on its present certified investment in surface and elevated properties, aggregating $217,876,417. Of this amount $70,400,916 represents the value of the elevated lines as appraised by the commission. The above sum also will be the original agreed purchase price. New capital is to be furnished at actual cost, whether applying to the refunding of existing indebtedness or to new securities. There will be division of profits between the company and the city on the present contract basis of 45 per cent and 55 per cent, respectively. The company is secured in a profit minimum of 1 per cent of the annual gross receipts, but its total right of return upon its investment in excess of 8 per cent shall go into the amortization fund. This fund will be provided: 1. By annual payments from net earnings before the division of profits. 2. By the diversion back into the property for construction purposes of the city’s entire present traction fund and all future additions to the same and interest thereon. The commission’s present forecast is that under this method the whole of the company’s then investment, aggregating about $490,000,000, would be retired in 1960, leaving to the city the property free of all encumbrance, which it could operate directly or lease for operation. As a means to assist the company to finance construction and refund its present obligations, the commission recommends that the surfaceand elevatedcompaniessurrender their existing franchises and accept new contracts under the terms outlined above. The franchise of the surface lines expires in 1927, those of the elevated lines at various times in the future, up to 1945.

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5 10 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW To assure the largest possible measure of efficiency of public regulation and control of the unified properties, the commission suggests the creation of a nonpolitical board of regulation and control, organized along the lines of the present board of supervising engineers, empowered to administer the details of the control of finance, organization, construction, service and extensions, subject to the general authority of the city council. The members of this board are required to be experts in traction management. The power of appointment and discharge is vested in the city council. The franchise is subject to a referendum vote of the people. There is sharp public discussion of the commission’s program, and some criticism. The fifty-year franchise proposal has been the most prominent point of attack, due probably to the traditional hostile attitude of the Chicago public to long-term franchises. Municipal ownership advocates oppose the proposed settlement on the ground that any settlement involving a franchise contract necessarily means the postponement of the day of municipal ownership and operation of the property. Legislation broadening the city’s present powers to deal with the new transportation situation will be required. Enabling bills to that purpose have been introduced in the legislature and approved by the Chicago city council. These bills provide in substance for the following: 1. Restoring to the city the powers of home rule taken from it by the state public utilities act (recently upheld by the date supreme court). 2. Authorizing the city to grant a thirty-year franchise to a new operating company formed by the merger of the elevated and surface lines. 3. Authorizing the city to construct md operate subways. 4. Authorizing the merger of the companies owning the surface and elevated lines. Further progress in the solution of the traction situation in Chicago now depends on the action of the legielature. With passage of the proposed bills the larger problem of drafting a working ordinance still remains to be done. It is of interest that the man who framed the 1907 ordinance, which was the real beginning of the new street railway franchise order in the United States, is now again at the helm, in the capacity of special counsel to the traction commission, Walter L. Fisher. Mr. Fisher’s immediate special tnsk is the preparation of the enabling legislation. Former Governor Edward F. Dunne, who was mayor of Chicago at the time of the adoption of the 1907 street railway ordinance and led the fight against the same, is now vigorously fulminating against the proposed unification scheme. He declares that the proposition presented by the commission is flagrantly excessive as to cost and unjust in franchise terms and that it will be overwhelmingly condemned at the polls. STILES P. JONES. Q Cleveland’s Three-Cent Fare Policy.The question of continuance of the threecent fare of the Cleveland street railway system is right now receiving more anxious consideration than ever in the life of the present franchise settlement. Cleveland has been growing very rapidly in population in recent years. Transportation facilities have not kept pace with the increase in population and with genuine traffic needs. There is much complaint of undue crowding of the cars at the rush hours and of the general inadequacy of the system to meet the city’s transportation needs. Mayor Davis publicly puts the responsibility for the inadequate service upon the company. He insists that the management must improve its service or be refused a renewal of its franchise in 1919. He declares, however, that the present fare must be maintained. President Stanley of the company, on the other hand, charges the situation to the inability of the present rate of fare to supply the money with which to meet the operating costs of a better service. He states that there is at present a deficit of $450,000 in the operating and maintenance funds, and he wants a prompt

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 511 settlement of this situation. The city has the power to relieve conditions through its control of service, he declares. To provide service in accordance with the present needs would, in the opinion of Mr. Stanley, so increabe operating expenses as to make it necessary to advance the rate of fare, now three cents with one cent for transfer . Right here comes the rub. The low fare is immensely popular with the Cleveland people. Any increase in the rate would unquestionably meet with public disapproval and indirectly might lead to political disaster to the present administration. Fielder Sanders, street railway commissioner, asserts that no fare increase is called for; that the traffic needs can be met by greater e5ciency and economy in operation on the part of the company, and he indicates where and.how. There is danger that this situation will eventually make the question of low fare vs. adequate service the leading political issue in Cleveland. The present situation in Cleveland suggests two thoughts to any city engaged in the preparation of the modern street railway franchise: (1) The doubtful wisdom of putting too strong emphasis upon the factor of low fare under the abnormal transportation conditions of the periodcoRt of furnishing the service and of construction. (2) The political complications associated with the Cleveland system of control of street railway operation. S. P. J. IL‘ Minneapolis Street Railway Settlement.-Negotiations between the city of Minneapolis and the Minneapolis street railway company for a new franchise settlement are finally assuming definite form. It was almost two years ago that the necessary enabling act was secured from the legislature. Progress in the meantime has been waiting on a valuation of the property. The city engineer completed an appraisal for the city in September last. A short time later the company presented the appraisal report made by its engineers. No further progress was made until February 15, when the street railway committees of the city council decided to have the city engineer’s appraisal reviewed by an outside valuation authority before negotiating for a valuation agreement. The committee at the same time directed the city attorney to secure the necessary expert assistance and proceed to the preparation of a franchise contract. Subsequently the council selected Charles L. Pillsbury of Minneapolis, consulting engineer, best known for his recent work of appraising for the District of Columbia commission all the public utility properties of the district, to make the valuation review, and Stiles P. Jones, executive secretary of the central franchise committee, to assist the city attorney in the construction of the franchise. The company has submitted a franchise proposal based on the principles of cost of service, with the fare fixed at five cents and a division of the profits between the company and the city. The question of the valuation of the property to be named in the franchise seems to be the present serious handicap to an early agreement. There was a wide difference in the aggregate of the two valuations presented. The city engineer’s appraisal was $25,914,308, which included $4,270,230 representing going concern value in the form of superseded property. The company’s appraiser found a total valuation of $35,323,375. Both apprai,sals were made solely on the basis of cost of reproduction. The city engineer deducted for depreciation on most of the depreciable physical property, whiIe the company’s appraisal made no allowance whatever for depreciation, stating that the property was in 100 per cent service condition and therefore not equitably subject to depreciation for value. The two appraisals differed but slightly on the basis of value of the physical property undepreciated-1) per cent. The difference represents largely the city engineer’s depreciation allowance and the addition by the company’s appraken of

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discount, working capital, property not now used for transportation purposes and higher overhead expense. The central franchise committee, the organization representing the public in the negotiations, has questioned some of the city engineer’s conclusions, and it is at their suggestion that the review of his appraisal was authorized by the council committee. The franchise must be ratified by a vot8e of the people. S. P. J. * Unification of Street Railway Systems in San Francisco.-Events in the making of local transportation history in San Francisco are apparently bringing the city and the United railways company conetantly nearer together on the only logical solution of the complicated street railway problem of that city-unification of the United railways with the municipal system, under city ownership and operation. The company’s financial condition and the improbability under the city charter limitations of developing transportation facilities to meet the expanding needs of the city, seem to make municipal ownership inevitable at no distant date. The recent decision of the circuit court finding for the city in the controversy over the joint use of Market street further complicates the situation for the company. The jitney competition of the past two years is another serious factor in the company’s situation. The city engineer is preparing a report for the board of supervisors which will discuss the problems involved in the taking over of the United railways properties by the municipality. The company’s financial reorganization plan, which reduces the capitalization newly one-half, makes municipal ownership easier by bringing the cost within the city’s purchasing power, under the debt limitations of the charter. President Lillienthal of the United railways company has been recently quoted to the effect that he is ready to aell the property to the city; that a monopoly is necessary to the successful operation of a street railway system, md that inasmuch as the city will not sell its lines to the company, the company logically must sell out to the city. He states that it is impossible for the company to secure money for extensions under the present conditions of municipal competition and hampering charter provisions. The California railroad commission is now making a physical valuation of the company’s property. S. P. J. 512 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July 11. POLITICS’ Indiana’s Constitutional Convention Work is progressing most encouragingly. The Citizens’ league of Indiana was an important factor in securing a patriotic, broad-minded, intelligent legislature in 1917, which differed from other legislatures in that for the past, twenty years a majority of the members, if not in numbers, then in power, had been sent by “liquor” and “public utilities.” In 1911, in au effort to secme for Indiana cities an improved system of city government, there was organized the “business system OF city government ‘Unlcsa otherwise indicated, the items in this department are prepared by Clinton Rogers WoodruB. league of Indiana” which carried a very strong, statewide campaign covering a period of two years. It went before the 1913 legislature with the support of the commercial and other semi-political and socirtl organizations of the state. Its main effort, however, was centered on securing the adoption of a bill for Fort Wayne, and for that purpose was enlisted the support of all the organized bodies in that city, comprising the commercial, social and educational bodies, the clergy and the citizens at large, with the result that 2,500 signatures were secured to a petition prepared for this purpose. It was to be left optional with Fort Wayne or any other city to adopt the plan. The “plan”

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19171 ’ NOTES AND EVENTS 513 was approved by the governor and leading politicians, but was ingloriously defeated in the legislature though the efforts of the local political “boss” and the assistance of the membeis of the “secret government” made up of a half dozen of the leading public utility lawyers and brewery bosses. Immediately after the session of this legislature the citizens’ .league of Indiana was organized for the purpose of promoting a new constitution. As early as 1913, there had been considerable agitation for a new constitution, and the political “machine” in oider to side-track it, employed their attorneys to prepare a series of “twenty-two amendments,” called the “Stotsenburg” or the “lost” amendments. -kt the same time they prepared a bill, submitting the question of a constitutional convention to the vote of the people at the next election. There was also prepared for this same legislature a public utility law, perhaps the woist that was ever put over in any state of the Union. These three bills weIe put through without any hitch whatever. Undei the present constitution, amendments must pass two successive legislatures, and so the “twenty-two amendments,” after passing in 1913, were brought before the 1915 legislature. The league analyzed and exposed both the convention bill and the “twenty-two amendments,” as they were vicious to the last degree. As a result of its work the “amendments” were killed, and when the convention bill came up for the vote of the people in the November election, a strong fight in favor of it for educationd purposes was made to make the opposition show their hand. The bill did not receive a majority of all the votes cast as was expected, but this, together with the “twenty-two amendments” and the public utility law furnished the league all the material they needed for bringing before the people of the state the crooked methods of the “machine.” It made a splendid campaign for two years, and in every waj encouraged the anti-liquor and woman suffrage forces. A strong effort was made to secure good men fox the legislature. Another great factor that acted favor6 ably on the 1917 legislature was the disruption in the ‘‘machine” brought about by “war” conditions. The saloon vote in Indiana has been controlled by the dmocratic “machine” and was made up to a large extent of German-Americans. Thwe Germans for once deserted the Democratic standard, to show their resentment toward President Wilson, and voted solidly for Hughes, with the result that Indiana went Republican. This produced a split in the Democratic party, and all those that got hit, together with the Wilson-Bryan and other “dry”Democxats, decided to withdraw fromiquor.” Under these conditions the 1917 legislature met, with each man informed as to “machine” methods and the influence of liquor and public utilities. We had a very strong legislative committee, and fortunately had a governor, Mr. Goodrich, who belonged to our “forward lookers,” and was a powerful factor in the fight. This legislature passed, by a large majority of the non-partisan vote, the constitutional convention bill prepared by the league’s committee, a womans’ suffrage bill, giving the women theii first vote on delegates to t.he constitutional convention, and a state-wide prohibition bill, operative April 1, 1918. The citizens’ league is now engaged in organizing the state, by counties, into constitutional discussion fornms. The league has a numb!r of organizers thioughout the state, and furnishes speakers for each district. The campaign opened with a constitutional discussion supper at Fort Wayne, which was followed the next week by oue at South Bend. Ross F. Lockridge, 425 Law Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. is secretary of the league.’ THEODORE F. THIEME. 1The question has been raised by the interests as to the constitutionality of the prorision permitting women to vote for delegates to the constitutional convention. This would be offset, however, by a provision under which the ballots of the n omen IF ill be taken separately and deposited in a separate receptacle so that if it should be held that they have no right to vote their votes can be easily eliminated. The same method was adopted in Massachusetts.-EDITOR.

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514 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW ‘ [July Chicago’s New City Council.-In April Chicago held an important municipal election. Thirty-six aldermen were elected, or one more than half of the total number serving. There were several issues involved, but only one was “city wide” and fundamental-this issue being “Thompsonism vs. an independent and non-spoils city council.” On this issue the mayor, “Big Bill” Thompson, suffered a decisive defeat. The new council is unmistakably anti-Thompson by a large majority. The city hall machine fought the best men in the council and sought to defeat them at the primaries or at the election. Thanks to our antiquated election law, we have to use meaningless terms and labels in discussing rity elections and their results. The council is now nominally “Democratic,” and the spoils Democrats are pointing with satisfaction to the fact that they have complete and easy control of the council. Because of these foolish boastings of the reactionary elements of the Democratic party, Mayor Thompson has been saying that he expects to get along bct8ter with the nrw council than he did with the old one, and that he lost nothing in the April elections. For these claims there is very little foundation. Every fit alderman in the council is formally pledged to treat his office as nonpartisan, and the fit constitute a majority. When the matter of organization-of committee assignments and the distribution of important chairmanships-came up, immediately after the election, a serious effort was made by the obtuse mayor and his cheap henchmen to defeat the principle of non-partisan organization and put through a “slate” satisfactory to the spoilsmen of both parties. The effort failed signally. The mayor suffered a humiliating defeat, and the municipal voters’ league won another notable victory for the established piinciple that the aldermanic officc is wholly non-partisan. It is true, however, that on certain real or sham “ward” issues the mayor’s sordid machine scored two or three victories. The defeat of Prof. Charles E. Merriam in the Republican primaries (a defeat due to strained technical rulings by the election board), followed by his unsuccessful attempt to run aa an independent (the attempt failing because of other and even more tenchnical quibbles), is admittedly a severe blow to the cause of intelligent., honest and courageous public service. The defeat of Alderman Robert Buck, a forceful and well-informed man, whom the crooks had every reason to fear, is aLqo a bad blow. Theae able and useful men were “knifed” by voters of their own party. The independents and the publicspirited women voters worked hard in their behalf, but the spoils allies proved to be too strong. The latter, it should be added, had the active aid of narrowminded “business men,” who had opposed Mexiiam and Buck on school questions. The present council is honest enough and “safe” enough. There is little danger of partisan 01 of corrupt treatment of the seveial important questions that await consideration and action. The trouble is that the council needs more initiative, constructive ability and knowledge than it now commands. As one good alderman said, “We know how to vote; we ale to be depended upon to vote right, but we lack the authority, the grasp and information which we need.” Merriam was an intellectual as well as a moral leader, and his retirement is a loss that will be felt in budget-making, in utility regulation, in protection of the merit service and in maintaining departmental e5ciency. New ordinances dealing with local transportation, gm rates, “home ride,’’ etc., are hefoie the council. The action of the council on these subjects is awaited with concern and anxiety. True, the mayor has lost what little influence he had, and his machine is bankrupt and discredited. Even the power of obstruction has been all but lost by the city hall gang. If, then, the council contains a trustworthy and progressive majority, the legislation of the next two years should fairly reflect the sentiment of the more enlightened and public-spirited voters of the community. And this, assuredly, is all that sober-minded liberals, or even Iadicals, have the right to ask.

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 515 Chicago, by the way, has lately suffered a severe blow in a decision of the state supreme court holding that the public utility commission, and not the city council, has the power to regulate the utilities operating within the boundaries of the municipality. Thus questions of rates, quality of service, etc., are taken out of the hands of the city’s local government. This creates an anomalous situation. The city can grant franchises, but regulation of service is within the exclusive authority of a state body appointed by the governor. It may be doubted whether the legislature intended to rob Chicago of this amount of home rule when it passed the act creating a state utility commission. Chicago may be able to recover the power thus lost, to secure an amendment of the utilities act restoring home rule to her. The city council is committed to home rule and will work and fight hard to recover it. To obtain sufficient popular and outside support, however, it will have to display more capacity and efficiency with reference to utility affairs than it has displayed in the last few years. VICTOR S. YARROS. * “Detroit the dynamic” is awakening to appreciation of the value of efficient and economical municipal administration, along with big values in motor cars. Within the past year a civic revolution, acting on the evolutionary method, has been proceeding; its sponsors hope to carry it to culmination next November with such a final revision of the whole city government as to provide a small common council-nine to fifteen members,-elected at large on a non-partisan ballot. Demand for the commission-manager plan also is heard on many sides. Nearly five years ago the Detroit citizens’ league was organized by Henry M. Leland, president of the Cadillac Motor Company, and Attorney Pliny W. Marsh, formerly legiislative superintendent of the Plichigan Anti-Saloon Lague, and recognized as an expert in legislative matters. This organization now holds the center of the political stage, commanding universal respect and a measure of support as to its programs never before accorded to any good government group in this city. The Detroit bureau of governmental research, working on parallel lines, also is a strong factor in the situation, though its labors have extended only about a year. “Something is wrong with the city government-find out what it is and fix it,” said Mr. Leland and his associates to Mr. Marsh. A common council of 42 members, elected by wards, two from each ward, was the hub of the wheel. Various spokes were the 21-man school board, seamed with politics and graft for years, a similarly bulky board of estimates, a street-car system which had become a political football, and numerous jobholders who had been systematically sacrificing puhlic to private interest. In less than five years the league has created a public sentiment which has grown along with the astonishing growth of t,he :city. Every year has added to the prestige of the league and to the confidence which it enjoys. With every election recently some moot question has been submitted by charter amendment and settled by the voters; now the final drive is on. After three years of investigation the league found the root of all evil in an election system ruled by bosses who managed controlled precincts. The Scott-Flowers law, followed with a charter amendment, wrought radical, permanent reform here through an election commission of five men; the last election was 99 per cent clean. Other achievements have been abolition of the old board of estimates and of the school board; for each was substituted a small, modern body. The new school board of seven members, one of them a woman, is made up of persons of highest character and ability. Saloons were wiped out at the state election last fall, though they will continue to operate another year. The saloon influence in Detroit politics had become so powerful and corrupt that thousands of liberals voted dry and the city gave only a mejority of 9,000 on the wet side. By legislation recently the city was permitted to revisc its own charter, under

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516 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July geaerous home rule provisions, with B mail commission chosen at large. City elections were separated from state and national elections by a charter amendment adopted last spring. The citizens’ league now has launched its campaign for a modem plan of government. Politicians predict it will win without question, though there will be a red fight. Clinton Rogers Woodruff of Philadelphia gave the address at the meeting when the enterprise was publicly started. Detroit is preparing to entertain the annual convention of the National Municipd League next November. WILLIAM P. LOVETT.~ * First Election Under the New Charter of Grand Rapids.--1 new charter was adopted by Grand Rapids last year which divides the city into three large wards and provides for the election by the people at large of seven commissioners, two from each of these wards and one at large. The commissioners choose a city manager and other department heads except the controller, who is elected by the people, and except the directors of public service, public welfare and the purchasing agent, who are appointed by the manager. The commissioners were nominated at a nonpartisan primary held March 7, and elected at the election on April 2. Early in January an organization known aa the citizens’ league was formed under the leadership of Charles W. Garfield. This enabled the progressive voters to take full charge of the reform movement. They led the field of 40 candidates with a dozen of their own for the ruling positions, and all seven of the cornmissioners weie among the candidates selected and vigorously supported by the league. Both Mayor Tilma and former Mayor Ellis were eliminated from all power or hope of power despite an understood alliance quietly formed between these two former bitter enemies. During the campaign the prevailing cry was “Leave out a11 the politicians-put the government strictly on a business basis.” This is the new policy. 1 Executive secretary, Detroit civic league. The city will have a new deal at the hands of seven high grade men. Five of them are business men. Another is a printer, recently president of the trades and labor council of the city and a strict union labor man. Daniel Kelley, the man in question, is one of those who helped draft the charter and is held in high esteem. Another commissioner who helped to prepare the new charter is A moderately successful shoe dealer, highly regarded in his community. Only one of the commissioners has had any political experience. He was an alderman some years ago. Aa an evidence of the intention of the commission to conduct the business ona high made of efficiency its first act was to select Gaylord C. Cilmmin who had made an excellent reputation as city manager of Jackson, Michigan, aa city manager. Mr. Cummin entered on the duties of his office May 10, at a salary of 910,000. * Cincinnati’s New Charter Effort.Cincinnati, practically the last city of any consequence in Ohio that has not taken the advantage of the home rule provisions of the state constitution, fell into line on Tuesday, April 17, by voting in favor of drafting a home rule charter electing fifteen commissioners to draw it up. Three years ago the voters of Cincinnati defeated by a large majority a somewhat radical instrument that was presented to them by the charter commissioners. At that time there was a very large and active “no charter” party. Cincinnati, however, has found that she is the only large city affected by amendments to the general city code. The state legislature in passing measures favored by the smaller cities has taken the attitude toward “protecting Cincinnati” that if she objects, she should, following the example of the other large cities, adopt a charter and take care of her own affairs. There was, therefore, at this election no oppo.sition whatever to the charter movement. There were three tickets for charter commissioners in the field. One of these was the Socialist ticket, but the two main

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 517 tickets were non-partisan in their nature, the members of both dominant political parties being represented on each of them. However, the non-partisan flavor was lost a few days before the election when the Democratic party endorsed the “citizens’ charter ticket.” The Republican executive committee immediately thereupon “deploring that politics had been dragged into this non-partisan question” endorsed the “greater Cincinnati ticket.” The total vote on the charter proposition was 29,011, a very small percentage of the registered voters. At the same election, 44,326 voters, approximately 40 per cent of the total registered vote, voted on the rapid transit “loop lease” ordinance, 25,383 voted for and 3,688 against the drafting of a new charter. * The Defeat of Mayor Lindsley of Dallas.-Virtue may be its own reward, but political usefulness seldom is, if we may judge from the regularity with which men like Henry D. Lindsley are defeated after administrations which reflect credit on themselves, on the community and establish precedents of far-reaching importance. Aa has been pointed out on more than one occasion in the pages of the NATIONAL MUNTCPAL REVIEW, the administration of Mr. Lindsley as mayor of Dallas, Texas, has been of exceptional value, but evidently the voters of that city felt otherwise, for he was defeated on April 3 by a clear majority. Perhaps it w&s a case of undertaking to establish too many new records at once with the resultant civic indigestion. This phrase is used apropos of a discussion at the Geneva conference, May 4 and 5. After W. E. Kruesi, who had been superintendent of social welfare at Schenectady during the Socialist administration, had recounted the numerous advantageous measures actually enacted into law and the substantial reforms actually enacted, he was asked why it was the people did not reelect those who had been responsible for such an unusual record, to which the reply came promptly, “It was a case of giving the people too much to digest at one time.” The situation in Dallas was peculiar. Coincident with the mayoralty campaign was a campaign inaugurated by the public service companies. Because the mayor could not conscientiously commend these franchises to the voters, although he had through his personal efforts brought them to the condition where they could be presented to the people of the city with many advantages, the public utility people brought out and backed a candidate for mayor whom they believed would be more amenable to them. The franchises were approved by a majority of 3,600 votes, and Mayor Lindsley defeated by 1,100 votes. Unfortunately the mayor was called out of Dallas by the serious illness of his wife shortly after the beginning of the campaign, which of course removed his striking personality from it. One of the unfortunate results of the defeat of Mayor Lindsley will be the loss of the services of many men of high calibre who have been called into the public service through his leadership. The new commission consists of three reelected members of the old commission and two new men. Two of the holdovers were loyal adherents of Mr. Lindsley, dean and reasonably progresaive. The other reelected member waa an unfriendly factor all through the Lindsley administration. * Galveston, Texas.-Galveston has just passed through another municipal election in which the candidates of the citizens’ league were triumphantly elected, including the election as mayor president of I. H. Kempner who has been the finance commissioner for fourteen years. The commissioner of fie and police who has held office since the inauguration of the commission plan sixteen years ago had permitted his department to become lax and ineffirient. A great deal of dissatisfaction arose and the result was that out of 6,500 votes polled, he received a few more than 1,000, this with both of his departments heartily supporting him. There seems to be general satisfaction with the change and with the outlook for an effective administration.

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5 18 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Wheeling, West Viginia's, Municipal Campaign.-Wheeling, West Virginia, will inaugurate its city-manager charter under what bid fair to be favorable auspices. At the election on May 24 a high class, non-partisan ticket was elected over the strenuous opposition of the political organizations, including of course the office holders. The successful men all had the endorsement of a citizens' committee, made up largely of the men who had framed and carried the charter and who mere determined that the new government should be administered by officids in harmony with the spirit'of the charter and committed to the idea of honest and efficient non-partisan government. The efforts of the committee were seconded by the Rcp*ster (Democratic) and the TeZegTaph (Republican). The new council is divided politically, three Democrats and six Republicans, and contains several exceptionally strong men. 111. JUDICIAL DECISIONS1 Extra Compensation for City Employes. -In Seaman v. City of New York,l a contract of an employe of the highway department of the city to do extra work as an architect for a municipal building and to receive compensation therefor was held repugnant to the common law as permitting R clash of interests of the city and the individual. The fact that he had leave of absence did not help the situation. In Mdhire v. Prendergasts the court permitted a visiting physician at the city prison to collect fees for testifying as an expert on insanity before commi,ssioners where defendants pleaded insanity as a defense despite the fact that he received an annual salary and had regular office hours, for the position was not specially provided for by law, and he had taken no oath of office. The court said that such payments violated neither the letter not the spirit of the charter, especially as the comptroller had been paying such claims and these payments were a county not a city charge. These two cases seem rather difficult to reconcile unless the distinction between city and county is regarded as of real importance. * Employing Special Counsel.-The California district court of appeals in Rajael v. BoyZe4 has decided that the charter of San Francisco which provides a city attorney by implication requires the civil service commission to avail itself of his services, and it cannot, when he is ready and willing to serve, employ an attorney at the expense of the city to defend its members in legal proceedings merely because the charter empowers it to institute and prosecute legal proceedings for violation of an article of the charter. As a matter of fact, the commission got into trouble by acting contrary to the opinion of the city attorney. * Appointive Officer Need not be a Citizen.-The charter of Traverse City, Michigan, provides that no person shall be eligible to elective office unless he is 25 years old, a citizen of the United States and a resident and taxpayer for five years. In Coze v. Carson,6 the court held that the charter did not require that the police marshal, an appointive officer, should be a citizen of the United States. The court said that the legislature had the power to confer on cities the right to determine the qualification of elective officers. * Limitation on Home Rule Powers.-In McQueen v. City Commission oj Port Hurm, Mich.,o it was held that the city electors cannot dissolve or alter the powers of their board of education by adopting a 'Unless otherwise indicated, the decisions are those of the court of last resort in the state mentimed. new charter under the home rule law' which specifically excepts public school de9 159 New York Sup. 583. 8 I59 New York Sup. G5S. 4 161 Pacific 126. 160 N. W. 534. 8 160 N. W. 627. 7 Public Acts 1909, No. 279. section 4.

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 519 partments from alteration thereunder. An injunction was granted against the city commission's issuing bonds for a new school. * Municipal Censorship.-The Texas court of civil appeals in Xydias Amusement Company v. Hozlston1 decided that where the legislature by statute merely provides the penalty ,for showing improper moving pictures, the statute being silent as to censorship and making no attempt to cover the whole field, the city may create a board of censors and require their permit to issue before exhibition of pictures. In this case an attempt was made to enjoin the city from prosecuting for showing pictures without a permit. * Rental for Poles &d Wires.-In Des Moines v. Iowa Telephone CompanyZ it has decided that a city ordinance attempting to charge a rental for telephone poles and wires in the street was invalid. The court said that where the fee title to streets and alleys is in the city, it is held in trust for the general public and not for itself and its inhabitants alone, and hence where permission or authority is granted by the legislature itself, the city is not entitled to compensation for the use of its streets. Tax on Golf Courses.-An Illinois village attempted to impose a license tax on golf courses. The court in Condon v. Forest Parka decided that the game is a harmless recreation which does not attract crowds nor tend to disorder nor call for police supervision or regulation, and therefore is not a subject for the exercise of police power. * Municipal Powers.-In Hahn v. Newport,' t.he Kentucky court of appeals held that a second-class city ordinance prohibiting the retailing of meats from vehicles was not unreasonable although no public market places had been provided; that it was not discriminatory though it did not apply to wholesale sales, and that it was a valid exercise of the police power conferred by the legislature. IP Municipal Enp1oyment.-The Kentucky court of appeals has decided in Herman v. Lamp@ that where a commissioner of a second-class city, engaged to perform engineering services for a city of the fourth class, refused to qualify as city engineer but served as an employe rather than as an officer of such city, the office of commissioner in the first city is not vacated since his acceptance of the latter employment was based on contract. ROBERT EMMET TRACY. IV. MISCELLANEOUS The National Conference on City Planning held this year in Kansas City, May 7,8, and 9, its ninth annual meeting. With probably 250 registrations from out of town, and liberal attendance by Kansas City people, it was at once the best and most largely attended meeting of the series. So were met the tests of war distraction and of a long journey from the eastern seaboard. The result seems to show that city planning is more vital than ever when war is enforcing the appreciation of the value of conservation and preparedness, and that the city planning movement is not of the East alone, but is truly national. In fact, representatives '185 S. W. 415. 9 162 N. W. 323. of eastern cities found they had some things to learn, as well as to teach, in the great southwestern metropolis; and that California and Texas had city planning enthusiasts who were not less earnest than are those of eastern Massachusetts. Yet, with all this success, perhaps emboldened by it, the conference, which has never had chart and compass, voted itself out of existence, in order that a new and highly organized body might take its place. This is the American City Planning Institute. It is to be managed by a board of governors, twenty-one in number, and it has four classes of members: a 115 N. E. 825. 4 194 S. W. 114. 194 S. W. 122.

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520 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July ‘ viz., menihers, who have had special training in engineering, landscape architecture or architecture, or who have special attainments in city planning; hw mcmbers, who are members of the legal profession especiallj interested in municipal law; associates, who represent the non-technical propagandist element; and affiliated organizations. The first two classes pay $10 dues, the third $5, and the latter $25. All must be elected by the board of governors, who may also create junior memberships if they think it desirable. The underlying purpose of the action, which has been under discussion among city planners for two years, is to create a technical group which may meet with the hope of furthering the science of city planning-as has not been pmcticable to any large degree at the generd conferences, where discussion has had to be more or less elementary. Other important action was the adoption of resolutions authorizing the appointment of a committee to offer the services of city planners wherever they can be most effectiveeither in this country or in Europe-and calling to the government’s attention, especially, the bad housing Conditions which threaten to grow up at its new armor plant. Kansas City’s hospitality was of the proverbially generous western kind. It included a luncheon in Convention hall, at which two thousand were served and several hundred were turned away, and at which the speaker was J. Horace McFarland; a sixty-mile automobile trip over the Iiessler boulevards and the Nichols subdivision, and another luncheon at which an Indian chief in full regalia sang Anieriran and Irish songs! The papers of the conference were up to the high standards of the past, and one whole day was profitably given to discussions suggested in a question box. The A. I. A. town planning exhibit was on view, and the conference closed with the usual banquet. * Meeting of the Intercollegiate Division, -The intercollegiate division of the Nntional Municipal League held its annual convention in New York city on April 27. CHARLES MWLFORD ROBINSON. Despite disruption of the work in the colleges, decision was made to hold the convention on the ground that there are definite advantages in retaining continuity in the work and that greater effort than ever should be made to maintain civic interest. Dclegates convened at the Faculty club and after luncheon presided over by Prof. Charles A. Beard of Columbia, at which reports were given concerning activities of the various clubs during the year a trip was made to several New York city departments in the administration building. Lawson Purdy, president of the League, conducted the delegates through the taxation department, of which he is the head, and showed how the complicated business of registering property was simplified through efficient methods, and then gave the delegates letters to the heads of other departments which were visited. The tenement house department showed how through constant inspection under the tenement house law and prosecution for violation it has been able to establish a comparatively low death rate and to control contagious diseases very effectively. The department in charge of the new zoning system explained how this new field for American cities is being cultivated. The zoning commissions report, to be published soon, should be in the possession of every student of municipal government (price one dollar). Visits were made to the municipal reference library, where a large collection of material bearing upon every phase of municipal life is made available to city officials and citizens, and also to the University Settlement where east side living conditions were viewed at first hand. Plans for a trip to the immigration station were cancelled by government order. Dinner at the City club presided over by Mr. Purdy and speeches by Mr. R. Bayard Cutting, Mr. .F. P. Gruenberg, director of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research, and Prof. Charles A. Beard, supervisor of the training school for public service, concluded the convention. In their speeches Mr. Cutting dwelt upon the necessity of a heart-searching

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS analysis of our attitudes and motives in the present crisis; Mr. Gruenberg was concerned regarding the reaction of the war upon our civic and social problems; and Professor Beard spoke of the inevitableness of our entrance upon new and untried fields in our foreign relationships. ARTHUR EVANS FVOOD.~ 42 Geneva Conference on City Affairs.A very interesting and stimulating conference to discuss various phases of the municipal problem; and especially city management as a profession, was held in Geneva, May 4 and 5, under the auspices of Hobart College. So far as we are advised this is the first small college to endeavor in this way to find a place for training for public service in the college curriculum. The conference was called as an incident to the establishment by Powell Evans of Philadelphia of a course in city affairs to be given by Frederick P. Gruenberg, the director of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research. Among the speakers were Professor Charles A. Beard, R. Fulton Cutting, Professor John M. Williams, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, City Manager Carr of Niagara Falls and Mrs. Cam, and Walter E. Kruesi. President Powell of Hobart closed the conference by reminding the audience that there were certain questions of college administration involved, and the experiment that Hobart is planning to undertake must of necessity be limited in its range, but not the less important for that reason. He described it as one of the several efforts to hold to the best in the cultural past of such a college as Hobart, while meeting as far as possible certain new demands which are coming to be recognized on all sides. * Open Forum National Council.2-The fourth annual gathering of the open forum council was held in Chicago at the dbraham Lincoln center, with George W. Coleman aa chairman. Fifty-five members were present. Meetings were also held in 1 Secretary, intercollegiate division. SSee NATIONAL MUNICIPAL. REVIEW, vol. v. p. 498. the west side people’s forum and the city club. The chief subject for discussion at the opening business session was the relation of the forum to tlie school-house, Edward J. Ward of the federal bureau of education serving as special pleader for such a use of the school-houses, contending that the school-house is the natural and almost the necessary place in a democracy in which to hold forums. Carl Beck, the managing director of the labor forum in New York city, opposed the idea, maintaining that from bitter experience there could not be a free discussion in school-houses or at any rate not at the “present stage of the game.” The formal organization of a national council was effected through the adoption of the following plfitform of principles and the election of officers, with Mr. Coleman as president, and Harold Marshall of Mclrose, Mass., as secretary: 1. The complete development of democracy in America. 2. A common meeting ground for all the people in the interest of truth and mutual understanding, and for the cultivation of community spirit. 3. The fullest and freest open public discussion of all vital questions affecting human welfare. 4. For free participation from the forum floor either by questions or discussion. 5. The freedom of forum management from responsibility for utterance by speakers from the platform or the floor. National slogan: “Let There be Light!’ 42 The National Community Center Conference was held in Chicago, April 17-21, with nearly 500 delegates present from various parts of the country. Democracy was the keynote of practically all the meetings, the address of John Collier on “The Crisis of Democracy” on the opening night furnishing the keynote. Mr. Collier was subsequently elected president of the National Community Center Association, by which title the organization will hereafter be known. Edward I,. Burchard (2254 Marshall boulevard, Chicago) was made permanent secretary.3 496. 8 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL. &VIEW, vol. V, p.

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522 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July The Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the New York City Club.-On April 4 the club celebrated its twenty-fifth year with an anniversary dinner, at which were prksent, among many others, all the living ex-presidents, Austen G. Fox, George McAneny and Charles H. Strong, and very many of the pioneers in its service. President Nelson S. Spencer presided. The occasion abounded with enthusiasm for the past and with promise for the future. The club has over 2,000 members, which it finds itself unable to care for advantageously in its present quarters, and it expects to honor its anniversary with a completed scheme for a new house. It has in mind to make its residence the civic center of the city for all the various organizations which exist to contribute to the city’s welfare. Not only that but as its functions have spread beyond New York it ought increasingly to be a kind of civic center for organizations throughout the country interested municipal administration. This is not because the city club of New York esteems itself to have any commanding position over similar organizations in other communities, but, on the contrary, because it knows that it has much to learn from the experience of such organizations elsewhere. That it may furnish a common meeting ground of this kind comes principally from the fact of its geographical location in the largest city in the country. It is, in fact, at present, in a large degree a common meeting place, but there is room for a very great extension of its usefulness in this regard, and for much more effective co-operation between organizations of its kind throughout the country. * Baldwin Prize Essays, 1~17.-“Tendencies in Municipai Budget Making” was the subject assigned for this year’s William H. Baldwin prize contest by the National Municipal League. The prize was awarded to Albert Elmer Marks, of Harvard, with honorable mention of the essays submitted by Joseph Low, A. T. Ginsburgh, Edmund Jolles of Harvard, and Miss Wilhelmina M. Josopait of Wellesley . The judges were Dr. B. E. Shultz of the New York training school for public service, and Mr. Frederick P. Gruenberg of the Philadelphia bureau of municipal research. 1: The Nebraska Municipal Review is the title of the quarterly organ of the league of Nebraska municipalities. It is edited by C. A. Sorenson, assistant director of the legislative and municipal reference bureau at Lincoln. The first number is dated April, 1917. * Professor Edward A. Ross, Russian Mission.-Professor Edward A. Ross of the University of Wisconsin has been sent to Russia by the American Institute of Social Service “to learn the inner significance of the forces and tendencies which have brought on the revolution, and contain the dangerous and hopeful possibilities that are holding the world in suspense.” Immediately on his return he will publish the results of his study and experience, taking up the following specific problems: Distinctive aspects of life and custom among the Russian people which are little understood among us, especially as affected by recent changes. Inquiry into the various forms of local assembly and administration, out of which apparently the new order of national government has grown. Study of special questions, such as the organization of labor; prohibition, national and local; racial cleavages, including the future of the Jewish people; the new at,titude of the various religious bodies. Inquiry into social habits and sentiments which might affect business dealings between the United States and Russia. Discovery of ways in which American experts in relief and community orgsnization might be of immediate service to Russia, during the war and in the subsequent reconstruction period. Estimate of the probabilities as to emigration from Russia to the United States after the war; and conversely, what new

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 523 opportunities in Russia will invite the return to Russia of immigrants now in the United States. Among the organiaatiom whose greetings he will take to the socially minded people of Russia are those of the National Municipal League. * Dr. Frederick A. Cleveland resigned his position as director of the New York bureau of municipal research May 22,1917. After assuming sole direction of the bureau in October, 1914, Dr. Cleveland devoted a large portion of his time to securing an adequate staff for each of the several divisions of the bureau: New York city, New York state, field work, and training school for public service. It was then his intention to devote his entire time to the development of a new branch of the work, namely, scientific research in government, in case this could be adequately financed. Largely owing to the war it was found to be impossible to secure funds for carrying on scientific research on an adequate scale, and when a new and novel opportunity was presented Dr. Cleveland, he felt free to take advantage of it. He is now a member of the central staff of the WillettSears group of corporations. The organization of this central staff is in many respects similar to that of the bureau of municipal research on the technical side, with the primary difference that the staff agency renders a service to a private corporation rather than to the public. Those who have been associated with Dr. Cleveland either in a general way or intimately are well aware of the loss which the municipal research movement bas sustained in his withdrawal, and they will not cease to hope that he will some day return, bringing with him a new and even wider e.xperience in corporate management. C. A, B. * George C. Sikes, a member of the public affairs committee of the Chicago city club, and for a number of years secretaiy of the bureau of public efficiency, has been engaged by the taxpayers’ association of California to assist in the preparation of a report on governmental conditions in Los Angeles following the general lines of the recently issued report of the Chicago bureau of public efficiency on the unification of local governments in Chicago, in the preparation of which Mr. Sikes had a large part. He has also been connected with the public life of the city in several other ways. In addition to his work as a newspaper writer in Chicago extending over a period of twenty-five years, he has been secretary of the municipal voters’ league and of the stieet railway commission of 1900, and served as an expert investigator for the Chicago harbor commission in 1909. d7 Dr. Edward C. Levy, for a number of years the efficient head of the Richmond, Va., health department, has resigned that position to take up work with the North bureau of public health in New York city. Doctor Levy’s resignation is a loss which the city of Richmond will before long appieciate, m he has been a pioneei in a number of directions and has been most helpful in working out a sound policy of public hygiene. A lack of cordial cooperation on the pait of the city council is believed to be largely responsible for his resignation. * Hornell Hart has resigned the secretaryship of the Milwaukee city club and has gone to Cincinnati to take up work with the National Social Unit Organization there. Before leaving Milwaukee he did an interesting piece of work in an investigation of the fundamental cawes of poverty in that city. He covered the subject in a series of talks before the Milwaukee city club, and in conclusion presented his remedies for the conditions of poverty in that city. * Prof. Edwin A. Cottrell of Wellesley College has been appointed professor of political science in Ohio State University, and will organize a bureau of municipal research in that institution. Professor Cottrell’s successor at Wellesley is Miss Alice M. Holden who has been

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524 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW during the past year instructor in political science at Vassar College. 9 Alderman Leslie Boyd, K.C., president of the union of Canadian municipalities, has been appointed head of the grain commission in Canada. He is succeeded in the presidency of the union by Mayor Stevenson of London, Ontario, the first vice-president. * Professor L. S. Rowe of the University of Pennsylvania, chairman of the advisory editorial board of the NATIONALMUNICIPAL REVIEW and a vice-president of the National Municipal League has been appointed by President Wilson assistant secretary of the treasury. 9 Leo Tiefenthaler, formerly the municipal reference librarian at Milwaukee, has been elected secretary of the Milwaukee city club to take the place of Hornell Hart, who has resigned to accept a position on the staff of the civic and vocational league of Cincinnati? 9 Hon. William L. Ransome has resigned from the city court of New York to be council for the public service commission of the first district of New York. 9 Dr. St. George L. Sioussat, professor of American history at Vanderbilt University and a member of the advisory editorial board of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, has been appointed to fill the chair of American history at Brown University. See NATION& MUNICIPAL &VIEW, vol vi, p. 126. Wilbur M. Cotton, a student at the University of Michigan, who is specializing in municipal adminiatration, and who was at one time on the staff of the Dayton bureau of municipal research, is in charge of the city-manager campaign at Hamilton, Ohio. 9 Mayor John MacVicar of Des Moines is now captain in the quartermaster’s department at Fort Douglaa, Utah, although he still retains his office as mayor. * Louis R. Ash, a former city engineer of Kansas City and later of the engineering firm of Hmington, Howard and Ash, has been chosen city manager of Wichita, Kansas, at a salary of $10,000 a year. Mr. Ash’s firm are the consulting engineers for the $500,000 job of bridge construction now under way in Dayton, and has just been awarded the contract for the construction of the new $1,300,000 viaduct at Akron. * Albert D. M. Hall, who has been serving as city engineer of Jackson, Michigan, has been designated acting city manager of that city in succession to Gaylord C. Cummin who was called to Grand Rapids (see page 517). * Henry M. Waite, the city manager of Dayton, is now an LL. D., Miami University having conferred that honor upon him. * Austin E. Gri5ths, formerly a councilman (elected at large) of Seattle and later for a few months chief of police, has been elected president of the Seattle municipal league.

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DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS I. BOOK THE COUNTY. By H. 8. Gilbertson. The National Short Ballot Organization, New York: The Knickerbocker Press. $2. The birth, the adventures, and, the decrepitude of the county, together with a few desirable methods of medical and surgical treatment for its ailments, are the subjects which Mr. Gilbertson has sketched in this unique volume, which the Short Ballot Organization has recently presented to the public. Why it is that the county has escaped the attention of sound and honest political thinkers through all the years of this country’s history, is not easily understood by the small group of students that have recently begun to investigate this field; but Gilbertson’s first chapter solves the puzzle: It is a political by-way. It is off the direct line of political travel. A byway leading through fields so fertile for’ exploitation by those whose business is political exploitation, that the initiated appear to have said to themselves, “This is too good a thing to publish. Let us saw wood, and say nothing.” So they have been sawing wood and cording it up in their own backyards for centuries. Mr. Gilbertson sketches the county’s evolution and development from the formation of the shire, as a unit of representation in the colonial assembly, and as a subdivision of the colony for various administrative purposes, down to the present time, when we find such intricately organized (possibly “disorganized” is a better word) counties as some of the larger ones of New York state, where the interrelations of the various county departments and their connection with and responsibility to state departments can best be charted by a photograph of a snarl of yarn with which cats and children have been playing. The frontispiece is just REVIEWS such a chart. It is so good a picture of the organization of the New York county that the county government association of New York state has adopted it as a sort of banner, and prints it on the back of its stationery. Following his chapter headings through affords a very good picture of what he is talking about. I quote a fewof them in the order of their sequence. It is “a political by-way,” “a creature of tradition,” growing up without being planned by any political foresight as to American progress. This undeveloped organization “falls afoul of ‘democracy,’ ” and becomes “the jungle,” with no central control. The politician finds it “a base of political supplies.” “It is not strange,” says Mr. Gilbertson, “that machine politicians have come to Iook upon the county as a source whence blessings flow. The county has both created and sustained them!” In his chapter on “Nullifieation, ” Mr. Gilbertson sets forth a theory. most interesting at this time, but one, nevertheless, that must prove surprising to many. That is, that as population spread westward, the German and southern European immigrants brought with them elements of civilization that upset the moral balance of the cities, “coming into sharp collison with the New England (we might almost say, American) conceptions” of established religious and moral principles. “This complex influence gave us the setting for at least one phase of that never-ending feud that rages between New York city and ‘up-state.’ It pitted Chicago against rural Illinois. It made Cincinnati B more or less alien city in Ohio. It gave us a permanent body of citizens who resent having their conduct dictated . . . from above.” Thii, in the face of our conceptions of German imperial e5ciency and German political organization, wherein 533

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526 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW not only every act but almost every thought of the citizens of Gennany is ruled by imperial dictum and imperial regulations, throws light from an unexpected angle upon the problem of why the oppressed subjects of Germany, who have fled to this country for refuge, have become so intoxicated with their freedom that they seem to have adopted the view that America exists only for them. The clash of these various elements was, of course, reflected in politics, and shows in the state laws and in the resulting management of the local communities; and the inconsistencies resulting therefrom have, of course, developed farthest in the parts of our political organization that are least subjected to scientific scrutiny. The author says, “It is not an altogether hopeless situation. The very thoroughness of the county’s failure is the chief promise of the county’s ultimate redemption.” From this point on he cites instances of genuine reforms, introduced under state guidance, such as the establishment of standards of various kinds for uniform administration, regulation of accounting and reporting, uniformity of tax administration, civil service regulation, etc. But “state guidance” is, as Mr. Gilbertson aptly terms it, only “a sort of permanent first aid to the injured.” Surgical treatment is the real remedy. He recommends amputation for most of the diseased functions and departments of the county. If one follows the book up to this point, he draws the conclusion that amputation of the county at the ankles would be the most desirable treatment. The burial of the feet would necessarily follow. Then, with a clear field, a sensible, scientific government might be constructed entire. After considering the “readjustments” and question of consolidation, Mr. Gilbertson reaches the conclusion that practically such entire reconstruction is necessary. A strongly centralized government is recommended, in place of the present scattering irresponsible, much entangled separate departments and bureaus. The short ballot, the small board of supervisors (or council), the county manager, held by law to a clear and direct responsibility for efficient and economical administration. is the best method recommended. The volume is illustrated by several charts, and contains, in the appendices, the text of the California statute regulating the organization of counties on a modern, scientific plan (Mr. Gilbertson is a native of California); the Los Angeles county charter; the legislative proposals of the county government association of New York state, the New York charter amendment abolishing offices of coroners and creating the office of chief medical examiner; and a description, by Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, of the horrors of a Texas almshouse and a Texas jail. The book concludes with a bibliography, which lists practically all extant literature on county government, and a comprehensive index. OTHO G. CARTWRIGHT. TVhite Plains, AT. Y. * THE TAXATION OF LAND VALUE. By Yetta Scheftel. Hart, Schdner & 1LIarx. First Prize Essay in Economics for 1915. Boston: Houghton Mifain Company. Pp. 489. $2. The first two thirds of this excellent monograph presents in some detail the development and the present status of land-value taxation in Australasia, Germany, Kiao-chau, England, and western Canada; the latter third is a special consideration of the fiscal and social aspects of the tax and of the feasibility of its adoption in the United States. Although the forms it takes are diverse, the distinctive feature of “the tax on land value” which Miss Scheftel treats is its discrimination against land. This is seen (1) in Australasia, in the tax on the unimproved value of land and the exemption of improvements; (2) inwestern Canada, in the municipalities where improvements hive been exempted wholly or in part; (3) in Germany, in the shape of a tax on value increment in land; (4) in Kiao-chau, where, besides a value increment tax of 33+ per cent, a 6 per cent tax is levied annually upon the site, plus 3 per cent additional for every

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS 527 three years it remains unimproved; and (8) in England, in the form of land-value duties comprising the increment, undeveloped land, mineral-rights and reversion duties, the latter being applicable upon the termination of a lease when the land reverts from the tenant farmer to the owner. It is important to keep in mind that the tax is levied for two distinct purposes, fiscal and social, and that the results in each case should he judged from the standpoint of the purpose. As in the case of many other taxes, the more successful it is in preventing the social evils which it is designed to check, the less successful it is apt to be fiscally. The more it reduces large holdings of unimproved land, absentee ownership, speculation, poor housing, et cetera, the less fruitful it will be usually as a revenue producer. It has proved very successful as an important or primary source of local revenue in’the new and rapidly advancing countries of Australasia and western Canada, where the local taxes have, for the most part, been low, proportional annual rates upon the capital value of the land, with improvements largely or wholly exempted. Even in years of depression, these taxes have met the fiscal tests of certainty and elasticity, but experience indicat.es that increases in rates upon land should he gradual and at times of rising values. Generally speaking, the state and national, as opposed to local, land-value taxes in Australasia, western Canada, Germany and England, are primaray for social rather than for fiscal purposes. Most of them are progressive rather than proportional, and they include many discriminations and differentiations to achieve their purpose. Practically all mch taxes have been relatively unimportant fiscally, especially when their costs Df administration are considered. In most places, up to thezpresent time, their social effects have been either so small, or so involved with the effects of 2ther conditions, that they are much in dispute. This seems due largely to the relative smallness of the rates. In New Zealand, however, where the discriminatory rates have been greatly increased in recent years, the land value tax seems to have had unmistakable effects in lessening absentee ownership and in breaking up large estates, but even in New Zealand, the effects upon building and congestion in cities are in dispute, though housing conditions are said to be unusually good and improving. The evidence seems to indicate, but does not show conclusively, that housing conditions are somewhat better in the cities having the discriminatory land tax than in those not having it. The tax in western Canada stimulated building, at least temporarily, but has had no noteworthy effect upon land speculation, because land values have been rising very rapidly on account of other causes. This rapid rise in such new countries as western Canada and Australasia is largely responsible for the fiscal success of the land value tax as a source of local revenue. Increasing budgetary needs have been met in most cases without increases in rates, but by continuance of the old rates upon increased values. The situation in older and more stable communities would be very different under heavy land value taxes. Miss Scheftel’s study has evidently been very painstaking and has involved an exceedingly large amount of work. Its preparation has been carried on for a number of years and in the meantime changes in taxation have been very rapid and general so that some of her statements were not entirely correct at the time. of publication. For one who reads her work closely there is too much repetition, perhaps. But these are minor criticisms. Her monograph, taken as a whole, is undoubtedly the most unbiased systematic and comprehensive presentation of the facts regarding the land value tax in these variouq countries that. has been published in america. ROY G. BLAKEY. University of Minnesota.

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528 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW PARKS-THEIR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT AND USE. By George Burnap, B.S., M.A. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 328. Illustrated. $6. In the preface to this handsome volume Mr. Burnap writes: “For the guidance of town and city officials entrusted with the development and maintenance of parks; for the assistance of landscape architects and superintendents in the designing of parks; and for the enlightenment of Ohe public in whose interest all parks are created and whose active support is indispensable to the successful realisation of park projects, this volume is respectfully submitted.” Then follows the development of this aim in some fifteen chapters, the titles of which it seems worth while to quote: Park design in city planning; Bringing up a park the way it should go; Principles of park design; “Passing-through ” parks; Neighbourhood parks; Recreation parks; Playgrounds in parks; Effigies and monuments in parks; Architecture in parks; Decorative use of water; Planting design of parks; Park administration in relation to planting design; Seats in public parks; Disposition of flowers in parks; Park utilities. The format and the manner of the volume are alike unique. Practically every page of text is faced on the right by a picture, applying to it as nearly as may be. These pictures, excellent half-tone reproductions,. are enclosed in uniform gray borders, and the title or legend is similarly enclosed in a panel occupying about one-third of the page. The result is great typographic elegance in form, which the excellent presswork has continued to elegance in effect. When the text is examined, it is found to be helpful in its scope, rather didactic in its manner, and rather hampered by its dependence upon the succession of illustrations. Mr. Burnap is by no means a German, yet his treatment of the park relations is constantly upon the basis of “must” and “should.” Most Americans resent being directed to do certain things in the public service; they prefer to be advised. Yet Mr. Burnap’s directions are imgeneral sound, and there is probably no work yet presented which provides so much excellent advice and suggestion. In one respect the book is unfortunate. By parts of the title page, by implications in the introduction and the preface, it is made easy to infer that the author has been the chief designer of the parks and squares of Washington, though no such claim is specifically set forth. It would have been better, probably, if this inference had been avoided, notwithstanding the excellence of Mr. Burnap’s contributions to the development of Washington during the time he wm official landscape architect attached to the office of the superintendent of grounds and buildings of the federal city. The work is heartily commended for its scope, its notable illustrations, and for its excellent suggestions. Those having to do with the development of park areas of any size will find it extremely useful. J. HORAC~ MCFARLAND. Harrisburg, Pa. * TOWN PLANNINQ FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES. By Walpole Town Planning Committee, Charles S. Bird, Chairman. New York: D. Appleton & Company. National Municipal League Series. Pp. 492. Illustrated. $2. The reviewer is scarcely a fair witness concerning a work aimed directly to help small communities, for he has almost hysterically insisted for many years that far too little attention haa been paid to the much greater number of persons living in the small communities as compared with the scant score of American cities having over a quarter of a million of population. The book in question is therefore most welcome and opportune, and it ought to be found thoroughly helpful in literally thousands of American communities in which town planning now is either being thought of in a more or less vague way or in which it ought to be thought of, The title of the book is slightly misleading, unless one takes into account its committee authorship. The book is, as

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS 529 one might first consider it, a report on planning for the town of Walpole, Massachusetts, but examination shows that the first 262 pages apply generally to community planning and are remarkably complete in treating the various elements of that much needed proposition. It might be thought that the second part, including about 130 pages with the indexes, and referring particularly to Walpole, would not be interesting in a general way. As a fact, however, it is fully as helpful in its particularity as any other part of the work There is always an advantage in being specific, and the Walpole section is just that. The reviewer may be permitted a little regret and a little amusement at the planting lists beginning on page 391, in which either the author, the editor or the printer has introduced some new and lurid methods of horticultural terminology. Six glaring errors in the spelling of botanical names on the first page introduce an inexcusable looseness in this respect throughout the lists. One of the smile-making errors occurs on page 397, where the familiar plant Withe-rod is given the new name of “Withered!” The survey of town planning included in this important book is broad. It seems worth while particularly to call attention to two chapters, one entitled “Can we afford it?” and the other called “Ways and means.” These chapters will he good reading for the citizens of any community which is advancing in its bounds, and which in consequence ought to be thinking about making that advancement worth while. “Town Planning for Small Communities” is, as the editor has written of it in his introduction, ‘an admirable complement to John Nolen’s volume on ‘City Planning.”’ The two books stand, not as monuments (for monuments do not work), but as gospels, up to date in relation to the things which will not only make America better fit to live in now and hereafter, but better fit to fight any enemy we may be faced with. J. HORACE MCFARLANLL CITY PLANNINQ PROGRESS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1917.1 Compiled by the Committee on Town Planning of The American Institute of Architects. Edited by George B. Ford, assisted by Ralph F. Warner. Published by The Journal of The American Institute of Architects, Washington, D. C. This is the title of a notable production, published in time to be of material encouragement at the recent successful Ninth City Planning Conference, held at Kansas City, Missouri. It is just what its title indicates, but it is that thing in a most admirable, convenient and notable way. The book is in the standard document size (81 x 11) adopted by The American Institute of Architects, and is primarily designed for filing with other similar publications. There is an adequate introduction which does not waste a word on felicitations or acknowledgments. Its sub-head is “Getting Started on City Planning,” and it tells how to get going simply and definitely, Then follows the detailed account of city planning progress. It is arranged in community references in alphabetical succession, and takes care of 233 cities and towns in the United States of which there is actual city planning progress recorded. All this information has been obtained in an authoritative way, and may in consequence be depended upon. The illustrations in the book are a new feature. There are literally hundreds of them, applying to the plans and the progress which the volume sets forth. The notable difference in t
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530 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW noted. A statement is prominently set forth that the book is not copyrighted and that “The Town Planning Committee of The American Institute of Architects desire to make the material . , . of value to the largest possible number of persons engaged in city planning or interested in the extension of the ideals of city planning. To this end, material may be reprinted in whole or in part in local newspapers or in bulletins of commercial or civic bodies, providing only that proper mention be made of ‘City Planning Progress’ as asource of information. If illustrations are desired, photographs will be loaned whenever available, without charge.” Thus the volume serves not only as an up to daterecord of what has been done in American city planning, but as a propaganda document of the utmost importance. The American Institute of Architects is to be congratulated on the wisdom, breadth and value of this volume, and the city planning fraternity owes much to George B. Ford, well known as the landscape architect in charge of the notable zoning and dietricting recently put in force in New York city, for his successful effort to promote the welfare of American communities. J. HORACE MCFARLAND. * PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN STATE ADMINISTRATION. By John Mabry Mathews, Ph.D. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 533. $2.50. The modern trend toward research in public administration is well represented in Dr. Mathews’ excellent work, The Columbia University studies have already given us a number of valuable monographs showing the centralization of administrative authority in particular states. The intensive studies made by the various state commissions on economy and efficiency, which reported two years ago, have also added to our knowledge in this field. The present author presents a broader treatment of the state administration w a whole, and in doing so he has produced what is in many respects a model text-book on the subject. After an introductory chapter showing the growth of state duties and powers and a tendency toward centralization, the author divides the book into three parts on “The organization, ” “The functions” and “The reorganization of state administration” respectively. Under “Organization ” the powers of the governor are traced historically to their present status; the position and authority of other state officials and boards are ah presented, and the rules governing the state civil service, including the appointment and removal of officers, are considered. Under “Functions” there are two excellent chapters on taxation and finance and an adequate discussion of education, charities, public health and justice. There is also an excellent discussion of the methods and machinery provided to enforce state laws. The author here shows the urgent need for less law making and more law enforcement, and points out the impotence or unwillingness of the state to force local authorities to carry out the law. The only inadequate part of the book is that dealing with recently developed state powers, such aa corporation control, public service commissions, labor le&htion, agriculture, and the good roads movement. These should be much more fully presented. LocaL administration is not discussed except in its relation to the central authorities. Under “Reorganization,” the author points out the needlessly complicated machinery of state government. He shows from the conclusions of the state efficiency commissions that there is an almost total lack of systematic organization and method. The state’s work could be done more effectively without additional cost, by a modern business-like method of organization like that existing in the federal administration. This chapter also contains a strong plea for closer union between the executive and legislative powera. The book is a description with some. critical remarks, rather than a propagandist’s argument for any form or system of state administration. Only the con-. cluding chapter presents a series of proposals for reorganization.

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS 53 1 It is written in a clear, readable style, the material is well organized and each chapter is accompanied by a well chosen list of references and readings. The volume will be found an admirable text for college use. JAMES T. YOUNQ. University oj Pennsylvania. * By Thomas H. Mawson, Lecturer on Landscape Design, Liverpool University. Bolton: Tillotson & Son, MealWith a sumptuousness long characteristic of the published work of Thomas H. Mawson, but which in England must now be mainly associated with the days “before the war,” there have been issued six lectures on “Bolton As It Is and As It Might Be.” These were lately delivered by Mr. Mawson under the auspices of the Bolton housing and town planning society. At first glance the book, with its many photographs, its plans and diagrams, seems practically to constitute what in this country would be called a city plan report. In reality, it is rather more. The first three lectures, though mitten with special reference to Bolton, are entitled respectively, “What Do we Mean by Town Planning, ” “The Scope and Influence of Town Planning,” and “Does Town Planning Pay?” The remaining lectures have to do especially with Bolton’s traffic, recreational, and housing problems. Already some of the land for the proposed park system has been given. Moreover, in his preface, Mr. Mawson extends particular thanks to Sir William Lever for effective co-operation. What that gentleman’s interest in Bolton may mean to the town is suggested by the success of Port Sunlight. Of the quality of Mr. Mawson’s own work there is no need to speak. The book is mfliciently recommended in saying that he has taken a particular interest in this study. BOI,TON AS IT IS AND AS IT MIQHT BE. . house Lane. CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON. Rochester, N. Y. STUDIES IN THE COST OF URBAN TRANSPORTATION SERVICE. By F. W. Doolittle, Director, Bureau of Fare Research. New York: American Electric Railway Association. 1916. This book is a loose compilation of technical and semi-technical data relating to the problems of street railway operation so far aa they pertain to service, Mr. Doolittle’s studies have been made from the pointofview of the operating man and will be of primary interest to such. The general student of public utility regulation may get a number of interesting suggestions from the book, and may find a good many facts recorded that would not be readily accessible to him elsewhere. We may, perhaps, illustrate the author’s style and attitude by quoting a short paragraph from his chapter on “Psychological aspects of street railway service.J’ ‘‘It has long been a matter of common knowledge,” says he, “that there are no absolute physical standards of comfort. One individual may find limited standing room quite as comfortable as another finds a spacious seat. The same passenger may have radically different ideas in the morning and in the evening as to what constitutes a reasonable length of time which he should wait for a car.” The book gives the impression of a great subject treated in a commonplaceway. There certainly is no thrill in the style to lure the reader on, and no imagination in it to interpret the social philosophy of modern transit problems. New York City. DELOS F. WILCOX. * DOCUMENTS ON COUNTY GOVERNMENT. Collected by the National Short Ballot Organization, 383 Fourth Avenue, New York. $5. The National Short Ballot Organization has done an admirable piece of work in bringing together in one volume practically all the more important and some of the less important documents bearing upon the subject of county ggvernment. It is

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532 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July no new thing to bring together original documents relating to an event or movement in the long distant past, but it is a new thought to do this in connection with current events. For having made that contribution the S. B. 0. is entitled to great credit. There are 27 documents in this volume and others will be added from time to time as they appear. The volume includes the proceedings of the conferences for better county government in New York state; sundry surveys of typical counties; a description of several important county offices, and the proposed charter for San Diego county, California, which unfortunately wa.9 defeated. An expert librarian has cross indexed the pamphlets by subject and author so that all the material is immediately and easily available. On the whole it constitutes a most important contribution to this heretofore but indifferently considered subject of county government, and affords an excellent supplement to Mr. Gilbertson’s book on “The County” noticed elsewhere.’ Only one hundred copies of the documents have been published. * BOSTON AND ITS STORY, 1630-1915. City of Boston Printing Department. 1916. Pp. 200. $1 net. (To be had through W. B. Clarke Company, 25 Tremont Street, Boston.) This is a worthy piece of work in which the careful and scholarly city statistician, Dr. Edward M. Hartwell, has had a guiding hand, although we trust that he is not responsible for prefacing such a history with the picture of the present mayor, the Hon. James M. Curley. If other mayors had been included there might perhaps be some justification, but as he is the only mayor pictorinllq represented, one is compelled to conclude that the fact that he appointed the committee respodsible for the book (or “relation” as it is called on the title page) must have had some influence. The book concludes, however, with Emerson’s quotation, the final sentence of which is “As wit.h our fathers, so God bewith us. Sicutpatribus, sit deus nobis!” ‘See pa 525. There is an abundance of interesting material alike for the student of local history and for the student of the development of political institutions and it is in the latter connection that Dr. Hartwell’s hand is most clearly discernible. Unfortunately the book has neither an index nor a table of contents, which very much diminishes its value. * STATE SANITATION: A REVIEW OF THI WORK OF THXI MASSACHUSETTS STATE George Chandler Whipple, S. B. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 3 vols. Vol I, 377 pages, with diagrams and plates. $2.50. Massachusetts has a long and honorable record of state activity in health matters. In many respects it has done pioneer work which has gained it world-wide recognition. This is particularly true as regards water and sewage treatment experiments, the control of water pollution and the reduction of typhoid fever. Dr. Whipple’s history of the work which the Massachusetts state board of health has done along these lines during the period 1869-1914, is of value and interest not only to sanitary engineers, health officers and physicians, but also to that increasing group of publicspirited citizens who are co-operating in health protective work. Besides the historical review, the volume contains an abridgement, running to more than a hundred pages, of the classic “Report of the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission,” made in 1850 by Lennel Shattuck and others. * WOMEN WORKERS AND SOCIETY. BOARD OF HEALTH, 1869-1914. By By Dr. Annie M. MacLean. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. Pp. 134. 50 cents net. Practically every social question has a municipal phase, so this little boolc has a general interest to readers of theNATiONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. And it has a special interest because of its excellent chapters on health, housing, education, and recreation. It is one of the National Social Science Series.

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS 11. BOOKS RECErVED 533 ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS. By Mary Louise Childs, Teacher of Histo and Civics Evanston Townshi Hi8 School. hew York: The 8entury Company. pp. 236. THE BUILDING OF CITIES. By Harlean James, A.B., formerly executive secretary of the Women’s Civic Leape, Baltimore. New York: The Macrmllan Company. pp. 201. Illustrated. 40 cents. THE CHILDREN’S LIBRARY. By Sophy H. Powell, with an introduction b John Cotton Dana. White Plains, &. Y.: The H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 460. $1.75. THE CITY WORKERS’S WORLD IN AMERICA. By Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch. NewYork: The Macmillan Com any. American Social Progress &nes. pp. 225. $1.25. CONDITIONS OF LABOR IN AMERICAN INDUSTRIES. By W. Jett Lauck and Edgar Sydenstricker. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. pp. 403. $1.75 net. EL REGIMEN MUNICIPAL DE LA CIUDAD MODERNA. u Boa uejo del Regimen Local en Espana, $rancia, Inglaterra, Estatos Alemanes y Estados Unidos. Por Adolfo Posada, Vatedratico de Derecho en la Universidad de Madrid. Madrid: Libreria General de Victoriano Suarez, Calle de Preciados, num. 48. 1916. THE FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION OF GREAT BRITAIN. By William F. Willoughby, Westel W.. Willou hby and Samuel McCune Lindsay. %ith an introduction by A. Lawrence Lowell. New York: D. Appleton & Company for The Institute of Government Research. pp. 362. $2.75 net. GOVERNMENT OF THE CITY OF JAWESTOT~~N N. Y. General Municipal Survey and Constructive Recommendations. Prepared for the Jamestown Board of Commerce by the New York Bureau of Municipal Research. pp. 412. A HISTORY OF TEE UNITED STATES. By Edward Channing. Vol. IV. Federalists and Republicans, 1789-1815. New York: The Maemillan Company. pp. 575. $2.75.. THE IMMIGRAWT AND THE COMMUNITY. By Grace Abbott, Director of the Immigrants’ Protective League, Chicago, Ill. New York: The Century Company. pp. 303. $1.50. AN INTRODUCTION TO EDVCATIONAL SOCIOLO~Y. By Walter Robinson Smith, Ph.D Professor of Sociology and Economi’ds, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. Boston: Houghton Man Company. pp. 412. $1.75 net. JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES. Vol. 111, 1917. The Boston Book Company, Boston, Mass., selhg agents. pp. 262. $1.50. MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP. By Carl D. Thompson. New York: B. W. Huebsch. pp. 114. $1. TEE NEW CIVICS. By Roscoe Lewis Ashley. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 420. $1.20. THE OFFENDER AND HIS RELATIONS TO LAW AND SOCIETY. By Burdette G. Lewis, Commissioner of Correction, New York City. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 382. $2. PRELIMINAIRES D’ART CIVIQUE MIS EN RELATION AVEC LE CAS CL~IQUE DE LA BELGIQUE. By Louis van der Swaelmen. Leyde: Societe d’Editions. A. W. Sijthoff. PROSTITUTION: THE MORAL BEARINGS OR THE PROBLEM. By M. F. With a Chapter on Venereal Diseases by J. F. (Formerly Resident Medical Offier London Lock Hospital). Published for the Catholic Social GuiId by P. 5. King & Son, Ltd., London. pp. 240. 2s. net. By Mary E. Richmond, Director, Charity Organiza!ion Department, Russell Sage Foundation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. pp. 611. $2 net. STANDARDS OF AMERIC~LN LEGIISLATION. By Ernst Freud, Professor of Jurisrudence and Public Law in the kversity of Chicago. mcago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 327. $1.50 net. TOWARDS A Sm FEMINISM. ByWilma Meikle. New York: Robert M. McBride and Company. pp. 168. $1.25. WATER PURIFICATION. By Joseph p9. Ellms, member American Society Clvd Engineers, American Chemical SoFiety, American Public Health Association and New England Water Works Association. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. pp. 485. $5. SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS.

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534 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW I JdY 111. REVIEWS OF REPORTS Progress in Municipal Finance.l--“The continued increase of public expenditures,” writes Professor T. S. Adams in the Economic World (December 16, 1916) , “is one of the most irritating, fascinating and mysterious of social phenomena.” Whether taxes have increased more rapidly than private wealth and income is a problem not readily solved. Professor Adams is inclined to think they have not, yet he comes to the conclusion that the taxpayer is not getting all he should for his money, that there is a vast amount of waste due to the fact that departments overlap, that officers and the electorate are ignorant and that power and responsibility are diffused. The problem of taxation from the viewpoint of the city is presented in the same magazine for December 30, by J. D. Cloud. Municipalities are unable to finance their current operations and sinking fund re quirements out of current availableincome. The reasons for this are (1) curtailment of revenues, ie., from restriction of the liquor traffic and the displacement of horse-drawn vehicles by automobiles, for automobile taxes are collected and retained by the state; (2) new and costly activities such as playgrounds, hospitals and municipal universities; (3) bonded indebtedness, that is, the proportion of current revenues required to meet the annual sinking fund and interest is excessively large. Methods of improvement are suggested in these criticisms: curtailment of expenses by eliminating waste, introduction of an efficient bookkeeping system, planning for expenditure by using the budget system and “paying as you go.” In view of these discussions it is interesting to note the steps recently taken by cities to solve their problems. Ohiohas 1 Thia is a review of: “The Continual Increase of Public Expenditures and Taxes.” by Professor T. 5. Adams, The Economic Wdd, December 16, 1916; “The Financial Problem of Cities,” by 3. D. Cloud, The Economic World, December 30, 1916; Report of the Pittsburgh Tax Commission; Report of the Commission for the Survey of Municipal Financing: Various articles and pamphlets published by municipalities. been the center of various schemes. For instance, Columbus learned from a group of efficiency experts who made a survey of her situation that she could save $20,000 a year: (1) by centralizing charities; (2) by the establishment of a new system of accounting, and (3) by the abolition of unnecessary offices such as second and third superintendents of the fire department, public defender, and superintendent of markets. . The mayor of this same city in a speech last June proposed a plan of his secretary, Mr. Thatcher, by which a cash basis would be substituted for the present bond basis. Starting with a tax lee slightly higher than that allowed under the state law, but by a gradual decrease to a much smaller rate, the city would be able to operate, allow for increased growth, spend $10,000,000 for improvements within the next twenty-four years and at the end of that period be entirely free of bonded debt, except sinking fund charges to iake care of the last bonds which mature in 1952. A group of mayors of Ohio cities met last December in Cleveland to qutline a program of legislation which ihcluded a demand for a return of 50 per cent of the automobile license money to the city from which it was paid and a return of 80 per cent of the state liquor license tax to the municipality where paid. They also asked that cities be given more liberty ‘to determine their own tax rate which could not be reviewed by the county budget commission and that sinking fund and interest charges should not be included in the ten mill limit provided by the state law, Philadelphia, too, has awakened and announces an effort to develop a budget system. It is holding open meetings in which the public is expected to become informed as to financial conditions. Toronto has adopted the same plan of publicity in framing its budget. The problem of municipal finance has been exhaustively studied by at least two commissions this year, one by the city of Pittsburgh, the other by the state of New Jersey. The report of the latter is pub

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19171 REVIEW OF REPORTS 535 lished in an attractive booklet of about twenty pages which gives suggestions for legislative enactment, results of their investigations having been given in a previous report. Part one discusses the law passed in 1916 as a result of the findings of the commission. This included six recommendations: namely (1) limiting the term of bonds to the life of the improvements; (2) making bonds incontestable after issue; (3) providing for par bids; (4) giving sinking fund preferred right in bond sales; (5) issuing serial or installment bonds; (6) limiting the debt. Part two consists of renewed gecommendations, seven in number: (1) penalties upon municipalities for non-payment of county and state taxes to county collectors when due; (2) uniform reports, proper tabulation of all receipts, expenditures and indebtedness separate from comptroller’s report; (3) budget system; (4) instruments for borrowing in anticipation of the receipt of taxes not yet due, to be represented by tax anticipation bonds or tax anticipation notes, which shall be retired within the year of their issue; (5) a uniform sinking fund law that shall dehe the securities for investment and the method of calculating annual requirements; (6) provision that sinking funds below their requirements shall be rehabilitated by an annual tax of not less than one fifth of one mill; (7) a uniform fiscal year. Part three is entitled “New recommendation” which is that certified copies of the proceedings in connection with all future bond issues be filed with some duly constituted state official. The Report of the Pittsburgh Tax Commission is a careful study of the needs, resources and possibilities of financing the city. Emphasis is laid in the fist section on the desirability of retaining the real estate tax, but it is recommended that a more equitable system of assessment be employed, including annual assessments, adoption of section, block and lot system and the absorption of outlying suburbs. New taxes recommended are a direct inheritancetaxtoaccruewholly to the state; a graduated income tax, on persons at first, later on corporations, to be divided between state, county and city. It was suggested that the automobile tax be increased by 50 per cent, 30 per cent of the proceeds to be returned to the city, the same amount to the county and 40 per cent to the state; that the liquor license tax be paid to the city; that larger revenues be derived from rental and use of city property, such‘as wharves and markets, and that the water works be self-supporting. The commission recommended the abolition of certain taxes, namely, the mercantile license tax; the occupation tax, which costs more to collect than the revenues collected; and the personal property tax. It was also recommended that a state tax commission be established. There is a tendency to adopt a tax which has been successful in another city or state without realizing that its success depends as much on the machinery of collection as on the tax itself. University of Minnesoto. * The Columbus, Ohio, Survey.l-A general survey of the organization, method and procedures of the various departments of the city government of Columbus, Ohio, was made by the N. Y. bureau of municipal research during the months of November and December, 1916, under the direction of Herbert R. Sands. The more obvious occasion for such a survey was the financial emergency confronting the city government. Officials engaged during the summer in preparing the budget for 1917 foresaw, under a continuance of normal conditions, a deficit of about $285,000 in operating expenses. As under existing laws no substantial increase in revenue seemed available, curtailment in activities or economies in operation or both were imperative. To meet this situation the secretary of the Columbus civic league, the city auditor, and a city councilman, proposed that a comprehensive study of the city’s administrative IReport on a Survey of the City Government of Columbus, Ohio. Prepared by the bureau of municipal research of New York, November and December, 1916. ROY G. BLAKEY.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW organization and operation should be made to obtain expert guidance in determining what activities could he abandoned with least deprivation to the citizens and at what points savings could most effectively be made. Following this suggestion provision for a survey by the New York bureau was made by unanimous vote of city council, which appropriated $10,000 for the work. Of this sum the bureau was able to return a balance of $1,800 unexpended at the completion of its work. The printing of the report cost about $800. Though the movement was initiated primarily as a measure of pressing economy, its scope as executed, and as intended by the council, was as comprehensive as that of any municipal survey, considering questions of improvement and extension of service as well as of economy and retrenchment. The report of the survey covers 257 closely-printed quarto pages. The recommendations indicate specific opportunities for direct savings in thirteen branches of the city government, varying in amount from $35,000 in the board of purchase and $30,000 in the division of water supply to $1,500 in the division of parks, and totalling about $125,000 each year on the basis of present expenditures. But the report deals more extensively with methods of more and better service for existing costs. The report covers every branch of the city’s activities, and at all points is full, clear and specific in its description and estimation of existing organization and operation and in its proposals for change. It is liberal in commendation and censure, though necessarily freer with the latter than with the former. In connection witheach section of the study ale presented the recommendations for reorganization, improvement in method, economies, elimination and expansion. It is not practicable in a brief note to indicate specifically the criticisms and proposals. In an introduction of 25 pages there is a brief r6sum4 of the important facts disclosed, fillowed by a summary list of the 765 changes proposed. Over 700 of the changes can be made effective by action of council, the remaining recommendations requiring charter or statutory amendment. It is too soon to predict broadly as to the extent to which the recommendations will be put into effect. Some changes are already under way. Officials are now at work codifying ordinances for several departments, preparing standardization of salaries for the departments of public service and public safety, and developing a system of centralized accounting for the former. Ordinances are pending to bring about minor trampositions and eliminations in the police and fire divisions, consolidation in park supervision, and reorganization of the division of engineering and construction. Conditions of commercialized prostitution disclosed by the report have led to the creation and appointment of a vice commission to study the local situation at greater length. The council is expected to submit to the voters at the August primary a charter amendment to substitute a centralized purchasing bureau for the present ex oficio board of purchase. Further changes will probably be gradually adopted for a considerable time in the future. There has been the usual opposition on the part of incumbents and friends of incumbents where abolishment of existing positions is attempted. Independently of changes to be effected, the value of the swey and report is fully established by the information which it places at the disposal of the public and the officials. Preoccupation of the minds of citizens generally with international &airs explains in part the lack of any very explicit interest on the part of the public at present. The report seems to be favorably and intelligently received by many officials. Council has placed a copy in the hands of the head of every department, division, bureau and institution, and it is likely that for a long time the report will serve as a text-book for members of council and administrative officers. The recommendations and criticisms conform generally to present standard opinions of experts in municipal reform, and are approved for the most part by better informed local sentiment. It is inevitable that among so large a number

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19171 REVIEW OF REPORTS 537 of suggestions there should be honest and intelligent doubt M to the practicability and wisdom of some of them. For example, doubt is expressed as to the validity of certain comments upon important phases of the city’s experiences with its lighting plant and garbage reduction plant, and as to the reasonableness of Rome of the proposals concerning the city health officer and the public defender. Some day there may be a survey of municipal research bureaus. One of the findings of such a survey would likely be that an investigator loses, in the respect with which his knowledge is regarded and in the practical effectiveness of his recommendations, where, in his dealings with officials whose work he is examining, he maintains a bearing of superiority or omniscience. Opinions generally of local officials indicate that the dozen representatives of the New York bureau in the Columbus survey were for the most part, though not without exception, free from such unskilfulness in their tactics. F. W. COKER. 5 Courses of Study in Civics.-“The purpose of this course of study is to give the child such instruction and training as will help to make him a good citizen.” Almost any course of civics claims this aim. Not many courses, however, have so broad a meaning for “good citizen”; namely, “the one who habitually conducts his own affairs with proper regard for the welfare of the communities of which he is a member, and who is active and intelligent in his co-operation with his fellow members for the common good.” The school should set ideals for the home where training for good citizenship begins before school age. In the home are first received “impressions of co-operation and responsibility.” In school the child should learn more and more to be “conscious of the interdependence of the individuals in a community.” “Underlying the teaching of 1The Course of Study in Civics, 1916, Grades One to Six for the Public Schools of Philadelphia. Pp. 72. good citizenship, therefore, is moral instruction so given that it results in the right action of the child.” Beginning with the third grade, service and co-operation are taught by the story of services rendered by those who supply the necessities of life. Then the services of policemen, firemen, street cleaners, are noted. The child, “as a future producer should have some idea of the various occupations which are open to him and of the conditions under which he is entitled to work.” Since the field of civics is comparatively new the teacher unhampered by traditional method has unusual opportunity to help improve the qurtlity of citizenship. Accordingly in the first year, obedience, cleanliness, courtesy, helpfulness, kindness to animals, are the high points. These are eharged upon in the second grade where punctuality, truthfulness and care of property, fair play and safety are added. In the third grade, thoroughness, honesty and respect are studied in addition to such topics as “the people who supply us with food, clothing, shelter and fuel.” Courage, self-control and perseverance are emphasized in the fourth grade. To be sure, these things are not taught by precept but by example of the teacher and by actual training of the child in the doing of them. For instance, under thrifl, there are enumerated, care in the use of school supplies; the economical use of paper, books, pencils, crayons, pens; care of clothing; the spending of money; The saving of money and the saving of time. In the fourth grade, furthermore, the policeman, fireman, postman, street cleaner, garbage collector, ash collector and the rubbish collector are studied. The topics for the fifth grade are: water, gas, electricity, telephone, the neighborhood, the city beautiful, safety first. Philadelphia’s industries, occupations and business ethics are given for the sixth grade. Appended are eleven pages of references, by grades, to stories, songs and games illustrative of civic virtues. This course of study certainly is an attractive one. Compared with the syllabus of Phila

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538 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW delphia this syllabus’ is less definite and much more formal. It provides for two more years. “The work of the first four years is mainly direct& to caution to the family, the school, and the neighborhood. Specific civic instruction begins with the fifth year, bearing directly upon the local affairs of the city in the fifth year, and upon state and national affairs in the sixth year. The close of the sixth year completes the first cycle of simple study, so that a pupil who leaves school at the close of the sixth year may have an understanding however elementary, of the forms and procedure of government, and of his duties.” The general aim of the New York city syllabus is about the same as that stated by Philadelphia, and in the earlier grades the course is pretty closely directed to that end. “ , . , it becomesevident that the ethical organization of a school is of greater importance than ethical teaching.” Example of the teacher is emphasized. The children “should be given some responsibility and some opportunity for self government by allowing them to manage or take an active part in managing the discipline of the school, recitation, their own clubs, games, playgrounds, he drills, opening exercises, entertainments, excursions, class and school libraries, athletic contests, or class saving banks.” The time for the work of the first three years is to be “included under English as a part of the child‘s necessary instruction for social membership.” Safety in the street and the home are taught, and the children are urged to co-operate in keeping the streets clean. The Four A grade presents the “duties, rights and privileges in the family and in the home”; love, care, and protection of children by the parents, and reciprocal duties of the children in love, obedience and assistance of parents; home beauty and sanitation. The school and the neighborhood are studied in the Four B grade. In the Five A grade, food, water, and housing; and in the Five B grade, fire, street, street-cleaning, *Syllabus in Civics for the Elementary Schools of the City of New York, 1915. disease, child labor, and enjoyments are emphasized. Analysis of the machinery of the public institutions of the city in relation to the citizen is offered for Six A; and state and national institutions for Six B. These are enlarged upon in a still more formal way in the seventh and eighth grades. A striking feature for each grade is the list of reciprocal duties; for example, under food, as studied by grade Five A, one reads: “Reciprocal duties, to demand clean service from the milk dealer, grocer, fish man, butcher, and baker: to report careless handling of food, or the selling of spoiled food.” In this particular, New York city’s plan seems superior to Philadelphia’s. On the other hand, whereas Philadelphia emphasizes thrift in the fourth grade and really begins it in the second, New York refers to thrift only indirectly. In these days of motor trucks and automobiles Philadelphia places undue emphasis upon kindness to animals, which is given as a main topic in the first four grades, while a relatively small place is given to kindness to parents and to other people. Both syllabi contain much that ought to help train good citizens and foster good municipalities. GARRY C. MEYER.’ $ The Citizens Water Supply Company of Newtown3.-The Citizens Water Supply Company of Newtown waa organized and received a franchise in 1893 to furnish water to the town of Newtown, Queens county, New York. This town waa incorporated within the city of New York at the time of the consolidation in 1898, and now forms the second ward of the borough of Queens. This company has continued to serve the same territory, and has supplemented the city’s supply in the fist ward, because its service has really been needed. But its rates have been higher, so that there have been constant complaints, also repeated demands that the property be taken over by the city. ZBrooklyn training school for teachers. 8 Report of Delos F. Wdcox, deputy commissioner to the commissioner of water supply, gas and electncity, the city of New York. October, 1916.

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Several attempts have been made by the city to purchase the property but up to the present have been given up each time as inopportune. Now that the new Catskill system is completed, the city will have a water supply more than suEcient for its entire area and the company’s service will no longer be needed. What shall be done must therefore be decided, Moreover, complaints against the rates have become insistent. This report was undertaken for the double purpose of determining reasonable rates and fixing a fair valuation for purchase. As to rates, the report has only ordinary interest, for the points at issue are not Werent nor more important than have been determined repeatedly in rate cases. The problem of purchase, however, is exceedingly interesting in that it brings up special features that apply not only to other cases in the city but to many similar cases in other municipalities. The most important point seems to be this: here is a company which has served an important economic function, but whose service is rendered obsolete through large municipal developments. What policy toward the company should the city pursue? Obviously no private investment should be permitted to stand in the way of public development, even in cme of perpetual and exclusive franchises. The company, fortunately, does not posse= an exclusive Franchise. It owns, however, a complete independent water system, but one scarcely adequate for the present and certainly not for the increasing needs of the next ten years. Moreover, its operating costs are high and will probably increase, so that rates would necessarily con. tinue high. But the city has made comprehensive provisions for supplying its entire territory. If it does not supply the second ward, the water will go to waste; the additional service would be rendered without additional production expenses. Would not the sensible policy be, there-. fore, to abandon the old private supply and use the new municipal system? Sooner or later, the city must take over the service, not only on account of costs for fire protection and the growth of population. Negotiations for purchase have been started. Of the present property, the city could use only the distribution system; it would have no use for the lands and pumping stations and equipment. The company, however, has refused to sell unless the city takes the entire plant at full valuation. The city is fortunately in a strong bargaining position: it does not absolutely need any of the property in order to take over the service. It could put in a new distribution system, enter into competition with the company, drive it out of business, and cause a complete loss of the existing investment in mains. This policy, however, would mean duplication of plant and loss of revenue during the period of competition. The sensible procedure would, of course, be for the city to purchase the company’s mains, enlarge them where necessary, and take over the entire service without competition. The city faces a twofold problem; ht financial, of how much it can afford to pay for the present distribution system rather than buiid a new one, and second the ethical, of whether it would be treating the company justly in taking only the distribution system on a strict financial basis and requiring it to retain the rest of the property. As to the second and broader problem, the report shows that the company has obtained more than an adequate return on its investment during most of its history, and that the amount that the city can pay for the existing mains is equal to the original investment in the entire property. Whatever the company might realize from the sale of lands, stations and equipment, would constitute clear surplus. There would be no injustice, therefore, if the city would take over the distribution system only, and there would be reason even for forcing the company to sell at actual cost, instead of what it would cost to install a new system. The report takes a reasonable position. It would be bad policy in general for the city to take over property that is not needed for service. still it must have reason19171 REVIEW OF REPORTS 539 but for the sake of adequacy, to provide able regard for the investors. It should

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not exercise ruthlessly its right to invade private investment whose service has been needed in the pmt, but it should not exercise R super-sense of justice and defeat the reasonable rights of the community to better service in the future. The report is an exceedingly valuable document, excellently presented, with unusual importance to everybody interested in public utility matters. JOHN BAUER. Princeton Universitg. * City Planning for Bridgeport.*-Mr. Nolen has the faculty of presenting in a very clear manner definite and practicable recommendations for improving existing urban conditions. This faculty is well demonstrated in the report above referred to. While it has been issued in attractive form and contains numerous illustrations, few of the views are taken from either European or other American cities, but most of them illustrate actual conditions in Bridgeport, and suggested improvements. The report itself, besides the introductory section and the conclusion, takes up in order the following specific subjects: Main lines communication, including some references to city transit problems; The downtown district; The subdivision of city land into blocks and lots; Differerent districts for different uses; Parks, playgrounds and other open spaces. In’the preface the city planning commission lays emphasis upon the fact that this is not a final report, “for the planning of a live and rapidly growing city is never final.” Mr. Nolen notes the phenomenal growth of the population of Bridgeport of nearly 50 per cent in twenty months. He calls attention to the serious congestion of the downtown district, the lack of main lines of communication and the irrational lot and block system which has resulted from chance or speculative development. He lays emphasis upon the 1 “Better City Planning for Bridgeport,” by John Nolen: With a “Report on Legal Methods of Carrying Out Proposed Changes,” by Frank Bsckus Williams. Issued bv the city ulanning need of continuity in main thoroughfares, although continuity and directness do not mean that such thoroughfares should be absolutely straight. He points out the need of reasonable regulation of the height of buildings which would now cost the city nothing, but would simplify the transportation problem and make it possible to provide better conditions, avoiding increased fire hazard, inadequate light and air and excessive land values in some spots. As a basis for his study of the main traffic system he has prepared a schematic diagram, admittedly theoretical, but indicating clearly .the general plan which can be approximated by taking advantage of existing streets and avoiding the prohibitive expense of cutting through new thoroughfares where this can be avoided. The section of the report relating to subdivision into blocks and lots is of particular interest and abounds with illustrations of existing conditions and of modifications which could readily be made in a great many parts of the city. The manner in which existing buildings have been respected and a rational plan has been worked out with a minimum disturbance of improvements already made is admirably illustrated by the two plans of the same district designated respectively as “Chaos” and “Order” which appear opposite each other on pages 56 and 57. Mr. Nolen congratulates Bridgeport on its adoption of a new building code in 1915 as the result of agitation by the city planning commission which action was taken at a very opportune time and has operated to decrease the fire hazard which , would have resulted had it been possible to build the new industrial establishments under the former building law. Extensive reference is made to the zoning ordinance recently adopted by the city of New York, but it is pointed out that this ordinance was intended to deal with a peculiar situation and its provisions would be entirely too liberal for the city of Bridgeport, which still has an opportunity to control its future development. Reports on the planning or replanning of 540 NATIONAL MUNICIP-AL REVIEW [JdY .commhion of Bridgeport (Cmn.). 1916. citiesare frequently made without due

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19171 REVIEW OF REPORTS 54 1 consideration of the practicability of carrying out the recommendations under existing statutes and in view of the limitations placed upon the city authorities by their charters. They often fail, likewise, to take into account the financial problems involved. It is refreshing to see that the city planning commission of Bridgeport has taken the precaution to secure a report upon the legal methods which may be adopted to carry out Mr. Nolen’s suggestions and the manner in which their cost may be met. This question is covered very fully in the appended report of Mr. Frank Backus Williams, which discusses in considerable detail the city planning agency, specific planning powers, and city planning financing. The two reports constitute one of the best presentations of a city pIan and programme which have thus far been made. NELSON P. LEWIS. * Philadelphia Manual of Acc0unting.L The present work is the second edition of The Manual of Accounting, Reporting and Business Procedure originally published December 29, 1913, effective January 1, 1914. “While the text of the first edition has been completely revised, no changes have been made in the fundamental accounting principles.” This edition contains illustrations of the various forms considered essential to the successful operation of the system, which were formerly contained in a separate volume called the blue book of forms. In addition to the forms mentioned, this edition includes considerable new materials as follows: Mechanical Tabulation. Bookkeeping has its limitations and the limit was reached some time ago. The new process makes it possible to secure detailed information which is exceedingly costly and dScult to get through bookkeeping. DeJinitions of Accounting Terms Used. These have the effect of standardizing 1 Manual of Accounting, Reporting and Business Procedure of the City and County of Philadelphia. John M. Walton, controller. 218 pp. 1917. accounting terminology for the city and county of PhiladeIphia. Classification of Ezpenditures-describing the general plan of classification and including parts of the “Object of Expenditure Classification,” a separate publication. Clossijcation of Income. The definition of income included in this section is new and wholly at variance with the accepted meaning of the word among business men. “Income is the amount of funds collectible or receivable in a certain period, whether collected or not.” Included in the classification of income are funds received from the sale of investments, sale of property, bonds, notes, loans, etc. Budget-making. This interesting and much debated subject includes a definition of a budget and instructions for using the forms and preparing the annual estimates. Inventoees and Transfms of Property. Inventories of property are to be taken at cost at such times as called for by the city controller. Inventories of stores are to be taken as of September 30 and December 31 of each year. An interesting feature of the inventory forms provides for showing the amount of depreciation and repairs required for each general class of property inventoried. Rates of Depreciation. The percentage of depreciation for each class of property owned by the city is set forth in considerable detail. Philadelphia is the only city in the United States, as far as the writer is aware, that has attempted to work out the matter of depreciation of property. The amount of depreciation that occurs annually is not provided for in the annual budget but appears to be offset by the reduction of capital indebtedness each year from current revenues. The rates established are stated to be the consensus of opinion of the engineering and technical staffs in the city’s employ, but some of the rates appear to be rather low, as, for instance, twenty years’ life for chairs, stools, desks, cupboards, bookcases, etc.-one hundred years’ life for

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542 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW buildings for office purposes, school houses, hospitals, etc. The manual is an important document and shows what can be done by an executive who is awake to the possibilities of improvement through administrative action and who realizes the value of accounting as an aid to effective action by operating heads. THOMAS R. LILL, C.P.A. * Kansas Algebra Measurements.-By no means all of the educational research of the country is being conducted in the great eastern private laboratories. Many of the most important advances are coming from publicly supported western institutions. Even when tinctured with eastern and academic points of view our western investigators are apt to go off on a tangent. In explaining the tests Ader review, the director of the bureau of educational measurements and standards of the Kansas state normal school, Walter L. Monroe, wrote to reviewer: Certainly averages and medians cover up the details which are most essential to improving instruction. The only basis on which the use of tests and scales is justified is that of making instruction for individual pupils more effective. We have been trying to emphasize this point of view, but of course superintendents are interested in general measures of their systems. The foregoing paragraph was prompted by a letter which deplored the tendency of superintendents to use the standard measurements as justifiers of the Pharisee’s prayer rather than as ready aids to pupils. Report after report comes in showing that superintendents are asking not “Where have I gained new light on the weaknesses of teacher or pupil” but rather “How does our town’s average or median compare with forty other towns?” The tests of silent reading and algebra are of special interest because of their convenient form and their detailed instruction. Whether a particular test is helpful or not is less important to students of government than is the purpose and general method of these tests. The layman will gain a quick insight into this new experience of public school boys and girls by applying for sample copies. Then by applying each test to himself the reader can think out intelligently the educational value of this method. It will help us all to keep in mind one of the choicest Irish bulls of the hyperscientific standardizing, namely, the conclusion of the Cleveland survey: “In silent reading Cleveland is ahead of other cities in speed but behind any other city in ability to interpret what is read.” WILLIAM H. ALLEN. * United States Bureau of Efficiency.“ This report gives a history of the United States bureau of efficiency established as a division of the civil service commission in 1913 but now an independent bureau. Acts of congress relating thereto are printed in full. The bureau has succeeded in making definite savings in governmental expenses through the introduction of efficiency ratings in the post office department and as a result of accomplishments in this department a system of efficiency ratings for employes has been approved for application to the national bank redemption agency a.nd other divisions of the treasurer’s office to take effect next January. A similar system has been in operation in the state department for about a year. The paymaster general of the navy has also been using the ratings as a basis for promotions and demotions. The forms used in deriving and maintaining efficiency ratings are given as well as other exhibits describing the character of the bureau’s work. The bureau’s organization and payroll cost is also made the subject of one exhibit. Since the publication of the report additional acts have been passed by congress materially increasing the budget of the bureau and assigning it certain work to do, including an investigation of the methods of examining and auditing claims against the UniCed States; an investigation of the work performed by * Report for the period from Maroh 25, 1913 to October 31, 1916. Washington, 1917.

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19171 REVIEW OF REPORTS 543 the subtreasurers to determine what part of the work may be transferred to other offices of the government: an investigation of the civil service commission, and a survey of the rates of pay of employes of the various state and municipal governments and commercial institutions in the United States. The acts require that a report on these studies be submitted to congress at the next regular session and empowers the bureau to obtain -all the information necessary in carrying out its investigation and studies. To those who claim that the United States government is making no attempt to increase departmental efficiency this report and subsequent acts of congress will be enlightening. * Budget Making for New Hampshire Towns.'-Towns have been particularly slack in their fiscal systems, and this report in recommending a prpcedure for making and presenting budget estimates of revenues and expenditures in conformity with a uniform system of town accounts contributes much to a situation needing serious attention. It points out the shortcomings of present incomplete methods of making up town budgets, explains how a town budget should be made up and provides a standard blank form for presenting estimates in an intelligent way to citizens before and at the town meeting. The committee recognizes the value of the balance sheet, cash statement, detailed estimates, public hearings and a tentative budget as aids to efficient budget making, and recommends the appointment in each town of a committee on finance made up of citizens who should serve for a number of yehrs in order to insure the carrying out of a planned program. The report would have been made more complete by providing for the presentation of 1New Hampshire tar commission, Concord, N. H.. 1917. * C. 0. DUSTIN. an operating statement, by requiring a two year comparison of revenues and expenditures with estimates instead of one and 'by giving in the report the detailed classification of revenues and expenditures, which it is ammed would support the budget bill. * Municipal Accounting.2-This document gives in a simple and understandable way the essentials of proper municipal accounting. It has succeeded in making a description of a technical subject interesting reading, and can be highly recommended to the average citizen and to those who have found ohher reports upon this subject too technical for thorough understanding. It concretely illustrates some of the her points of proper municipal accounting such as the balance sheet, the revenue and expense statement in contra-distinction to the receipt and expenditure statement, expense and functional classifications and the budget, and explains in very few words the part these adjuncts play in municipal accounting and gives a general explanation of the purposes of municipal accounting, its present status and the history of the movement to improve municipal accounting methods. * C. 0. D. Report on Baltimore Police.-Report No. 7 of the Baltimore bureau of state and municipal research is a pamphlet of 31 pages, which contains a summary of improvements in business methods recommended by the bureau to the Baltimore police department. Improvements in central purchasing and storehouse methods have already been adopted by the police department, and the bureau's recommendations with reference to an improved modern cost accounting system are now being carefully considered. No. 22, Iowa City, Iowa. 1 University of Iowa extension division bulletin.

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544 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY' Abattoirs MCCUISTION (E. H.). The municipal abattoir. 1916. 14 p . (Texas Dept. of Agriculture Bull. &. 51.) Absent Voting MASSACHUSETTS. SECRETARY OF THE COMMONWEALTH AND ATTORNEY GENERAL. Report relative to the feasibility and desirability of permitting absentee votin in the elections of the Commonweak% [with proposed constitutional amendment]. 1917. 9 pp. (House doc. . . no. 1537.) UNITED &PATES. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Absent voting: summary of statutes and constitutional provisions in force in the various states, Nov., 1916. Prepared in the Legislative Reference Division. 1917. 16 pp. (64. Cong., 2. sess. Senate doc. no. 659.) Baths BROWN (V. K.). Swimming pools. (Playground, Apr., 1917: 43-50.) UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. Municipal swimming pools in Wisconsin cities. A report compiled from information collected in 1916 by the Municipal Reference Bureau, University Extension Division. (Municipality, Apr., 1917: 49-55. illus.) Bibliography MUNICIPAL JOURNAL. An index of all articles of importance on municipal subjects published between Dec., 1915,. and Dec., 1916. (Reprinted from second issue each month of Municip. Journ.) 1917. 126 pp. Boilers NEW YORK STATE. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. Industrial code: roposed rules for the construction, instJation, inspection and maintenance of steam boilers. 1917. 129 pp. diagr. tables. Central Heating The importance of personal supervision for heating departments of utility companies. (Heating and Ventilating Mag., Apr., 1917: 32-35.) WALKER (J. H.). The transmission of steam in a central heating station. (Heating and Ventilating Mag., Apr., 1917: 35-41. illus. diagrs.) Charities See also Welfare Work. STUREMAN (R. V.). DENVER FEDERATION FOR CHARITY AND PHILANTHROPY. Community achievement in philanthropy, Oct. 1, 1915, to Sept. 30, 1916. 107 pp. FRAZIER (CHARLES H.). This genera1 Editedby Miss Alice M. Holden, Vassar College, Poughkeepae, N. Y. tion and the next in relation to mental defect. 1917. 8 p. Published by The gublic Charities Association of Pennsylvama. GARLAND (D. F.). The city and its social responsibility. (Ohio Bull. of Charities and Correction, Feb., 1917: 5-10.) GUILD (F. H,). State supervision and administration of charities. 1916. 82 pp. (Indiana University Studies no. 33.) ~~ Charters BAY CITY, MICH. Manual of Charter Commission. 1917. 38 p K~SM CITY, MO. 8iarter Proposed charter for the City of 'Kansas City, Missouri. To be voted on at a special election, Mch. 6, 1917. 1917. % charter, providing for the city managerform WALPOLE, MASS. TOWN PLANNING COMMITTEE. Community organization, with a plan for change in town government, together with a town manager charter. 1917. 36 pp. City Planning See also Diatricting, Housing, Municipal Government. ADANIS (THOMAS). engineers should be city planners. 'gngmg. NewsRecord, May 3, 1917: 247-248.) ALDRIDGE (H. R.) and SHAWCROSS (HAROLD). The town planning pro osals of the Urban Land Report [with &cussion and adjourned discussion]. 1916. v. 2, pts. 5 and 8. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS. City planning progress in the United States, 1917. Compiled by the Committee on Town Planning; edited by George B. Ford. . . . 1917. 207 pj: +us. A report based on a special first-han mqmry to determine just what "haa been accomplished or is projected in all cities in the United States of over 25,000 inhabitants, and in a few cities and towns with a smaller population where the work is of special interest.'' BARTHOLOMEW (HARLAND). The engineer and city planning. (Journ. Engnrs'. Club of St. Louis, Jan.-Feb., 1917: 43-56. plan,,. table.) BIRD (C. S., JR.). Town planning for small communities, by Walpole Town Planning Committee. 1917. 492 pp. illus. (Nat. Munic. League series.) CTJSHING SMITE (F. A,). A town lan for Dublin, Ireland. (Architectural gecord, May, 1917: 403422. illus.) FORD (G. B.). What has been accomplished in city planning during the year 1916. (Landscape Architecture, Apr., First conference on city and village lanning in the New York metropolitan &strict. A program for co-operative of government, was rejected at the election. 1917: 116-121.) .

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 545 lanhg-how to get started-what is E eing done here and abroad. (Real Estate Bull. Apr. 1917: 419-421.) HOOVER (A. P.1, The industrial terminal and its relation to the city plan. (City Plan:Apr., 1917: 4-5.) HUNTER (L. McL.). The laying out of streets and boulevards in relation to modem town planning. (Canadian Engnr., Mch. 22, 1917: 253-254. diagr.) NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CITY PLANNINQ. Proceedings of the eighth conference [held at] Cleveland, Ohio, June 5-7, 1916. 1916. 275 p. Partial Contents: Olmatedj F. L., Cleveland's city planning needs: radial thoroughfares and county parks, 3-13; Brunner, Arnold Cleveland's group plan 14-24; Purdy Lawson ' Cleveland's achievemenks.in cit plan&, 25-34;'LeA, N. P., The automobile an8 the city plan 35-56. GilIespie, John The automobile and etrebt traffic 67-67; Nichbls J. C. Financial effect of good plf&ng in land subdivision, 91-118: Adams, Thomas, State, city and town planning, 119-146: Veiller, Lawrence, Districting by municipal regulation, 147-176; Taylor A. 8. Districting through private effort, 177IS& Nolhn, Jqhn Planning problems of smaller cities in the Uruteci States, 184-198; Shirley, J. W., Planning the smaller city: street systems includ?ng transit problems, 199-214; Comey, A. C., B,ul+ng heights. 215-218; Adams, Thomas. The bewningu. of tom planning in Canada, 222-241: Mannmg, W. H., Park systems and recreation grounds, 242248. NEW YORK CITY. BOARD OF ESTIMATE AND APPORTIONMENT. COMMITTEE ON THE CITY PLIW. Constitutional limitations on city planning powers, by Edward M. Bassett. 1917. 10 DD. Includes sectiona on excess Eondemnation, building within the lines of mapped streeta, setbacks, advertising signs. height, arrangement and use of buildings. court varcis in the City of New York. . Establishment of setbacks or Inclcdes the re ort of tlie Committee and of the ST. Loms. CITY PLAN COMMISSION. The Kingshighway: a report. 1917. 8 Chief Engineer orthe Board. --. PP. map. SWAN (H. S.). Hundred years of city lanning in New York. The plan of banhattan, between Houston Street and 155th Street, as laid out in 1807-1811. Pts. 14. (Record and Guide, Mch. 24, 31, Apr. 7, 21, 1917: 391, 396; 430, 432; 470,472; 544, 549. maps. illus.) WOODHOUSE (HENRY). Provisions to be made in city plan&ng to facilitate aerial transportation. (Flying, Jan., 1917: 489493. illus.) Civil Service COLORADO. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION. Citizenship and residence requirements of civil service commissions of states and principal cities. 1916. 7 sheets, typewritten. FULD (L. F.). Employment methods in the public service [of New York City]. (Industrial Management, May, 1917: 246-251. illus.) Public office from a HOPPER (J. J.). 7 civil service and business point of view; with a foreword by William Gorham Rice, Civil Service Commissioner, State of New York. [1917.] 14 p. chart. MOON (V. S.). E!mployees' service rating. (Municip. Engnrs'. Journ., Mch., 1917: 87-91. forms.) NEW JERSEY. CIVIL SERVICE INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE. Report, 1916. 1917. 52 pp. County Government The fist county manager has arrived. (Engmg. and Contracting, May 2, 1917. 400 words.) A brief note on the interesting experiment being undertaken in Tillmen County, Okla. CITY CLW OF CINCINNATI. Shall the city and county governments be consolidated? Report of the Committee on Consolidation of City and County Governments. 1917. 16pp. CLEVELAND CIVIC LEAGUE. City and county consolidation: an effort to eecure greater efficienc and economy in local government. &' ommunication addressed to the General Assembly b the Executive Board of the league.] (&eveland Civic Affairs, Jan., 1917.) GILBERTSON (H. S.). The county; the "dark continent" of American politics. 1917. 297 pp. chart. A ringing indictment of county government in its present cpndition. particularly in the urban county. Bibhography, pp. 275-284. ANON. Los ANGELES. CITY AND COUNTY CONSOLIDATION COMMISSION. Report, adopted Dec. 19, 1916. 1917. 112 pp.] WILLIAMS (E. W.). Centralized government for counties and cities. (her. City, Mch., 1917: 257-262. chart.) courts AMERICAN JUDICATURE SOC.~TY. Second draft of a state-wide judicature act. Mch.,.1917. , 198 pp. The first nineteen articles of the proposed rules of civil procedure; supplementary to the state-wide judicature act (Bulletm 7) of the . Society; a tentative draft ublished in Mch., 1917. 1917. 79 pp. bull. no. 13.) HARLEY (HERBERT). A unified state court system. [1917.] 25 pp. HOFFMAN (C. W.). Courts of domestic relations. (Ohio Bull. of Charities and Correction Feb., 1917: 74-78.) HOYT (fi. C.), The juvenile court of New York City. (Journ. National Education hsoc., Apr., 1917: 837-840.) MASSACHUSETTS. C o M M I s s I o N APPOINTED TO CONSIDER THE QUESTION OF ABOLISHINQ THE TRIAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. Report, Jan., 1917. 27 pp. (Sen. doc. no. 347.) NEW YORK CITY. PUBLIC LIBRARY. Probation officer, children's court: a (Bull. no. 7a.) T~E 19 Bulleh 7 rewed.

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546 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW selected list of references for the use of civil Eervice candidates. (Municip. Ref. Library Notes, Apr. 25, 1917: 262-264.) OLSON (HARRY). Efficiency in the administration of criminal iustice. 1917. 78 p. diagr. &. Olson is chief justice of the Municipal Court of Chicago. PENNSYLVANIA. LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE BUREAU. A compilation of the laws relating to juvenile courts and deendent, neglected, incorrigible and deFimquent children. 1916. ll! pp. POUND (ROSCOE). A bibhography of procedural reform, including orgamzation of courts. (Ill. Law Review, Feb., 1917: 451-463.) Dance Hds BOWEN (L. DE K.). The public dance halls of Chicago. rev. ed. 1917. 13 pp. (Juvenile Protective Assoc. of Chicago.) Daylight Saving UNITED STATES. LIBRARY OF CONQRESS. List of references on daylight savmg. Apr., 1917. 5 pp. typewritten. Districting See also City Planning. CHICAGO. CITP COUNCIL. Building districts and restrictions: a bill for an act granting to cities and villages in the State of Illinois ower to create residential, business ani industrial building districts or zones , ; and A statement of the desirability of giving the City of Chicago ower to create building districts, presentei to the Committee on Judiciary of the City Council by Alderman C. E. Merriam. Feb.. i9i7. 56 pp. Include8 a comparison pf the work of Ilhnois with what has been accomplished in other Amencan cities namely New York, LOB Angeles. Minneapoii;, Mgwhsee, Richmond Phdadelphia, 9t. Louis, Bsltmore, and Massach&etts cities. Building zones: a handbook of restrictions on the height, area, and use of buildings with especial reference to New York C‘ity. [1917.] 36 pp. ma s. dia . ??EYES (g M.). Benefits of the new zoning resolution: some cases cited bearing on the new law-property owners will be the gainers. (Record and Guide, NEWARK. CITP PLAN COMMISSION. Encouraging proper city growth through building districts. 1917. [14 pp.] illus. A series of articles reprinted from the Newark Sunday Call, setting forth advantages.of legislation to enable Newark to control and gude the city’B future growth. -4 zoning bill has since been enacted. SWAN (H. S.). Constitutionality of the zone law. (Record and Guide, May 5, Food Prices and Cost of Living DALLAS, TEXAS. DALLAS WAGE COMThis bibliography has also been reprinted. FORD (G. B.). h4Ch. 3, 1917: 283-284.) 1917: 620-621.) MISSION. Report of the Survey Committee. 1917. 16pp. MASSACHUSETTS. COMMISSION ON TEE COST OF LIVIN~. Report summarizing present high cost of living and the possibility of remedial legislation.] Feb. 20, 1917. 14pp. (Senate doc. no.383.) MINNEAPOLIS CIWC AND COMMERCE ASSOCIATION. Preliminary report on study of increase of cost of food, submitted to the Council Committee on Commerce and Markets, by the Bureau of Municipal Research. [Nov. 21, 1916.1 11 pp. typewritten. table. NEW YORK CITP. BOARD OF ESTIMATE AND APPORTIONMENT. BUREAU OF PERSONAL SERVICE. Report on the increased cost of living for an unskilled laborer’s family in New York City. 1917. 32 pp. tables. . DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. Food economies: a series of special bulletins for the housewife. 1917. 22 pp. (Bureau of Public Health Education.) NEW YORK STATE. COMMITTEE ON MARKET CONDITIONS. Foods and markets. New York should safeguard ita its findings in regar 6 to the causes of the food supply. Mch. 7, 1917.[4 pp.] (Bull. no. 1.) PHILADELPHIA VACANT LOTS CULTIVATION ASSOCIATION. Shortage of food relieved and high food prices reduced. I1917.1, 16 pp. Constitutes the twentieth annual report of the Association. STODDARD (R. I.). Mobilizing unused land and forces to meet an unprecedented crisis. (Amer. City, May, 1917: 471481. illus.) An outline ’of some of the methods being used in, applying the vacant lot and home gardening idea towards solving the problem presented by the present food shortage. ~ UNITED STATES. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. List of references on government regulation of prices (especially of foods). Jan. 11,1917. 5 pp. typewritten. (Division of Bibliography.) Gary System MCMILLEN (J. A.), compiler. The Gary system: a bibliography. 1917. 15 pp. (University of Rochester. The Library, Jan. 31, 1917.) Revision to Dec., 1916, of a list first compiled. Housing BEER (G. F.). Housing experience in Toronto. (Conservation of Life, Mch., 1917: 25-28. illus.) DAVISON (R. L.). A check list of the principal housing developments in the United States, alphabetically arranged and prepared . . from material in the Social Ethics Library and Social Museum, Harvard University. (Architectural Review, Apr., 1917: 83-91. in Apr.. 1916. illus.),

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-19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 547 KELLOR (F. A.). The application of Americanization to housing. (Architectural Review, Jan., 1917: 1-2.) MAY (CHARLES C.). Industrial housing. (Architecture, Apr., 1917: 61-64. illus.) MOLE (J. H.). Some observations on municipal housing [in Great Britain]. Surveyor and Municipal and County Engnr., Mch. 23,1917: 306306.) ROME BRASS AND COPPER Co. (Rome, N. Y.). Riverdale, a village for the emplo ees of the Rome Brass & Copper Co. 6917.1 20p Contaurs an En&; Hungarian, Italian and Polish version. SMITH (H. A.). Economic open stair communal dwelling for industrial towns. (Architecture, May, 1917: 81-84. illus. charts.) VEILLER (LAWRENCE). Industrial housing. Pts. -4. (American Architect, Jan. 17, 31, Feb. 7, Mch. 7, 1917: 33-35, 75-77,90-93, 161-163.) Jitney MCCAHILL (D. I.). Status of the “iitmy.” 1916. pp. Lighting See also Power Plants, Public Utilities. ANON. Results of 1916 light and power operations; central station income from energy sales more than $415,000,000, output considerably in excess of 23,000,000,000 kw.-hr. (Electrical World, Mch. 3, 1917: 410-412. tables.) DICKERMAN (J. C.), The new indeterminate street lighting contracts adopted in Wisconsin cities. Astudy of the Racine and Wauwatosa contracts. (Utilities Magazine Mch. 1917: 11-17.) Spicai street lighting experiences of a small city. (Utilities Magazine, Mch., 1917: 22-31.) An account of a surve of lighting finance in Malden Mass made by de author at the request of the dty 05&a. FARWELL (S. P.). Actual experience of Illinois [Public Utilities] Commission gas inspectors [in the testing of gaa, meters, etc.]. (Gas Age, Apr. 16, 1917: 392-397. forms.) KEITH (W. G.). Grou street lighting system for the City of ehicago (General Electric Review, Feb., 1917: 126-129. diagrs.) Loan Shark EUBANK (E. E.). Loan sharks and loan shark le ’slation in Illinois. (Journ. of Criminal &w and Criminology, May, 1917: 69-81.) Markets ARMSTRONG (D. B.). The sanitation of pubIic markets: 1917. 7 p . Medical Aasocistion, Jan. 13, 1917. Reprinted from the Journal o?the American STATE BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL INFORMATION [OF THE NEW YORK STATE CONBERENCE OF MAYORS MI) OTHER CITY OFFICIALS]. Municipal public markets. 1917. [6 pp.] 6 tables. Thia report contains data gathered from.varioua ~ourcea, including answera to a questionnaire received from 154 cities. Motor Vehicles POL LO^ (WILLETS), Milwaukee Division of Motor Vehicles. New mmcipal department for operating, maintaining and purchasing motor vehicles and furnishing motor vehicle service to all departmentsstraight livery scheme not racticableresults already obtainel (Municip. Journ., Feb. 22,1917: 265-266. illus.) Municipal Government and AdministraANON. City manager plan. [1917.] tion See also County Government. Efirinted from the Abilene (Kan.) Chronicle, FESLER (MAYO). The preferential. Feb. 22,1917. nonartisan’ballot.as a suggested partid relieffor some of our election ills. (Proceedings, Ill. Municip. League. 1916: 2542. tables.) HOAG (C. G.). True representation for a city council. (Chicago City Club Bull., Mch. 15, 1917: 85-87.) Advocates proportional repreeentation. HUNT (HENRY J.). Obstacles to mu(Am. Pol. Sci. Quart., nicipal progress. Feb.. 1917: 76-87.) ILLINOIS. Statutes. A bill for an act to consolidate in the government of the City of Chicago the powers and functions vested in local governments and authorities within the territory of said city and to make provisions concerug the same. 1917. 34 DD. (50. Gen. Assv. Senate ~. ~ bill no. 141:j ’ JAMES (H. G.). Municipal functiods. 1917. 369 pp. (National Municipal Lea e series.) ~BAIN (H. L.). Progress in the government of cities. 1917. [3 pp.] MANNING (W. HAROLD). A summary of municipal activities. Various data of cities of over 100,000 population. (Amer. City Apr., 1917: 333-339. charts. tables.) MITCHEL (J. P.). City problems-and a word for preparedness. (Real Estate Bull., Mch., 1917: 341-345.) Address at the 21st annual hner of the Real Estate Board of New York, Feb. 3, 1917. RIDDLE (KENYON). The city manager and city engineer-manager. Plans of government. 11917.1 32 pp. UNITED STATES. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. List of references on federal, state and municipal ublic works departments in the UnitefStates and foreign countries. Oct, 13, 1916. 1917. 15 sheets. typewritten. (Division of Bibliography.)

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548 , NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Municipal Ownership ANON. Palo Alto’s public service plants. Current for municipal lighting and water works furnished by municipal power plant-finances and economies. IMuniciu. Journ.. Mch. 15. 1917: 374375. i&s.) ’ . Municipal electric light lant at Columbus, O., a loser. (Public iervice. Mch., 1917: 70-71.) , MuniciDal Earaae at Grand Rapids, Mich. (Munhp.-Engrng., May, 1917: 234-235. illus.) ~ . A municipal savings bank [Birmingham, England]. (Canadian Municip. Engr., May, 1917: 164-165.) CLEVELAND. COUNCIL. Audit of municipal electric li ht plant for 1915. Re ort of Council 8ommittee on Lighting an$ Heating. (City Record, Mch. 7, GORDON (F. G. R.), The case against municipal ownership. 1916. 56 pp. MAVOR (JAMES). Public ownership and the Hydro-Electric Commission of Ontario. 1917. 72 pp. XASH (L. R.). The truth about the Clevehnd municipal electric plant,. (Stone and Webster Journ., Feb., 1917: NAUMBURG (CARL J.). Investment side of municipal ownership. (Public Service, Apr., 1917: 1000 words.) PORTLAND, ORE. COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC UTILITIES. [Report embracing information and estimates gathered as to costs of construction and revenues from a municipal hydro-electric plant.] Feb. 16, 1917. 12 sheets. t ewritten. THOMPSON (C. D.). Gumcipal ownership. A brief survey of the extent, rapid growth and the success of municipal ownership throughout the world, presenting the arguments against private ownership, the failure of regulation and the advantagesof municipalownership. 1917.114~~. WILSON (THOMAS). Fort Wayne municipal plant. (Power, Apr. 24, 1917: 546-549. illus.) Municipal Research BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH NEW YORX. Report of Division of Field Work for the year ended Dec. 31, 1916. (Record and Guide, Feb. 17, 1917: 218.) . “B. M. R. Service.” An informational and advisory service for American cities at a fixed annual fee per cit based on population. Preliminary buk 1-4. 1917. SAN FRLVCISCO BUREAU OF GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH. The City. no. 1. Feb. 21, 1917. The first publication of this recently-established In form it is a postc.ard.folder, 1917: 3-28.) 103-1 25.) bureau of research. resembling those issued by aimilar organizations. WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY. SCHOOL OF APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES. Muqicipal administration and public service. [1917.] 14 pp. The announcemeut of courses of study, etc., for 1917-1918. WRIGHT (JOSEPH). The classification scheme of the Library. for. Municipal Research at Harvard University. [1917.] 26 PP. Parks PERINTENDENTS. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual convention, New Orleans, Louisiana, Oct. 10-12,1916. [1917.] ONNECTICUT. STATE PARK COMMISSION. Connecticut state parks. A reprint of the report of the . . Commission to the Governor. 19i7. 32 pp. OLMSTVD (F. L.). Playgrounds in parks from the designer’s standpoint. (Landscape Architecture, Apr., 1917: 122127.) Pavements ANDREWS (HORACE). Report of the Committee on Street Paving, on present practice regarding replacement of cuts in pavements [in the principal American cities]. (Proceedings, American Societ of Municipal Improvements, 1916: 9-253 ANON. Pavement statistics. Supplementary data concerning paving in American cities, received since the publication of the tables in the February 1 issue. (Municip. Journ., Mch. 29, 1917: 443446.) . Brick pavements laid in 1916 and proposed for 1917. Descriptions of pavements as laid, cost per square yard and total cost. Design, $oet and quantity are shown. (Mmcip. Engrng., Statistics of pavement construction in 1916 in the United States. Amounts, unit prices and details of ashalt, bithulithic, bituminous concrete grick, concrete, stone block and wood block paving laid last year in various cities, also prices of labor and materials. (Engrng. and Contracting, Apr. 4, 1917: 329-340. tables.) BROWN (C. (2,). The construction of asphalt pavements. (Municip. Engrng., Apr., 1917: 164-170.) CONNELL (W. H.). Recent practice in granite block pavements. (Good Roads, Feb. 24, 1917: 133-137.) DUNHAM (W. R., JR.). Highway paving by street railways; the paving burden laid upon electric railways by municipalities is both unreasonable and inequitable. (Electric Ry. Journ., Feb. 24, 1917: 342343.) DUTTON (E. R.). Recent practice in AMERICAN &SOCIATION OF PARK SU916P. Mch., 1917; 128-131.) .

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 549 wood block pavements. (Good Roads, Feb. 24, 1917: 129-131.) MANDIGO (C. R.). A text-book on brick pavements. 1917. 126 pp. Illus. ._ diagrs; MULLEN (C. A,). Paving economy; road and street. 1917. 98 pp. illus. table. . .~. Written especially for the we of city 05ciala and others who come into direct contact with pavement questions. OWENS (JAMES M.). New pavement ordinance helps San Francisco’s development. (Engmg. News-Record, May 3, 1917: 263-264. chart. table.) Small yearly Daments make Doseible the use of more permanenttypes; cheikerboard streete eliminated. TEESDALE (C. H.). The treatment of wood paving blocks.‘ (Municip. Engrng., Apr., 1917: 171-173. illus.) WARREN (G. C.). History of guarantees of pavement. (Amer. MuGicipalities, Mch., 1917: 142-145.) Pensions See also Health Insurance. Report. 1917. 310 pp. Pt. I is historical and descri tive of pension eystems for public employes in $reign oountriea and in the various states of the United States: Pt. I1 is conceimed with the solution of the problem in Illinois and makes 8 ecih recommendattons. MORTIMER (J. 6.) and others. Pensions and minimum wage laws; survey presented to American Railway Association to show present pension practice with analysis of cost factors-terms and conditions of industrial pensions-corporation support of pensions-types of minimum wage laws with results and future tendencies. (hlectric Ry. Journ., Feb. 17, 1917: 282-288. tables.) STUDENSKY (PAUL). The pension problem and the philosophy of contributions. 1917. 20 pp. table. Playgrounds ILLINOIS. PENSION LAWS COMMISSION. HAYNES (ROWLAND). How much playound space does a city need? (Amer. ity, Mch., 1917: 241-247. illus,) PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION AssoCIATION OF AMERICA. Year book, 1916. (Playground, Mch., 1917: 492-529.) t? Contains tabGated sta+tice of playground and recreation work rn 371 cities. ROGERS (J. E.). Report of the recreation conditions and problems of Galesburg [Ill.], with recommendations and suggested system. 1916. 28 pp. Police BUREAU OF STATE AND MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, BALTIMORE. Business methods of the Baltimore Police Department. Pt. 1. Mch. 15, 1917. (Report no. 7, Pt. I revised.) This report discusses improvements which resulted or failed to reeult from its unpublished report’on the same subject’in 1913. KATES (A. R.). New York’s auxiliary police force. (Policeman’s Monthly, Apr., 1917: 13, 41.) LEFIVRE (EDWIN). Police preparedness [in New York City]. (Saturday Evening Post, Apr. 21, 1917: 11, 106109-110.) NEW YORK CITY. BOARD OF CITY MAQISTRATES. Finger-prints, by Ron. Joseph M. Deuel, City Magistrate. 1917. 22 p. &ENEIDER (ALBERT) Police microanalysis. (Policeman’s Monthly, May, TAYLOR (GRAHAM). The community’s police. (Policeman’s Monthly, Apr., 1917: 19-20.) VOLLMER (AUGUST) and SCHNEIDER (ALBERT). The school for police as planned at Berkeley. (Journ. of Criminal Law and Criminology, Mch., 1917: 877898.) Power Plants ANON. Los Angeles’ hydroelectric powef plant; first installation of municipal plants for utilizing fall in aqueduct-total of two hundred thousand horse power available, of which 37,500 horse power can be developed by the plant just completed. (Municip. Journ., Mch. I, 1917: 301-303. illus.) ANON. Results of 1916 light and power operations; central station income from energy sales more than $415,000,000, output considerably in excess of 23,000,000,000 kw.-hr. (Electrical World, Mch. 3, 1917: 410-412. tables.) Prison Labor MISSOURI. LIBRARY COMMISSION. Digest of the laws of other states on prison labor bearin on House Bill 543, fortyninth Generaf Assembly of Missouri, 1917. Compiled by the Legislative Reference Departmentofthe . . . Commission. Jan., 1917. 17 pp. Public Comfort Stations PUBLIC COMFORT STATION BUREAU. The American plan for public comfort stations, approved b the , . National Committee of Zonfederated Supply Associations. 1917. [6 pp.] . Standards for public .comfort stations approved b the . National Committee of eonfederated Supply Associations. 1917. 17 pp.1 Public Service GRUENBBRG (B. C.). What are the opportunities before the high schools of the country in training men for public service and for efficient citizenship? (School and Society, May 19, 1917: 577582.) Efficiency and democ1917: 15-17,37-39.) HOLLIS (I. N.).

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550 NATIONAL MUNICIPgL REVIEW racy. [Stone and Webster Journ., Apr., (Pr cceedjrge Okla. Municip. League. 1917: 280-290.) 1916: 2136.1 INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC SERVICE, NEW YORK. First year's work, Nov., 1915, through Dec., 1916. 1917. 64 p.p. KELLOR (FRANCES A.). Engmeering methods must replace paternalism in the handling of labor. (Engmg. News-Record, Apr. 12, 1917: 82-84,) Urges the application of scientific planning to industrial-relations management and to !he whole field of employment, promotion and housing. MINNESOTA. COMMISSION ON REORGANIZATION OF CIVIL ADMINISTRATION. Report. Inaugural address, Governor, Minnesota. 1917: 21-27.) Public Utilities See also Accounting, Lighting, Power Plants, etc. AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS. Proceedin s of the twent third annual convention, %eld at Newart, N. J., Oct. 10, 11, 12, 13, 1916. 739 pp. tables. Partial contents: Report of Committee on street and sidewalk design, 157-161; Sheridan. L. V., American park systema 162-180. Richards H. S Care of bEda in pub& parks '181-184; 'Millar' 9. S., Recent development in thk theory and pracl tice of street lighting 185-200. A proposed standard for making tra5id counts ieport of the Traffic Committee) 213-218. Stern & W Necessity for limiting the'loads sp;ed and aise d! vehicles, 2!9243: Tuska, G. k., The new garbage reduction $ant of New York, 265-277; Richards, H. S., roblems and methods of snow removal and disposal. 289-296. Hammond, J. T Sewage treatment by aerati'on and activation with discussion], 327-403 439-463. Requardt G. 5 A few figures on the 'building Lnd operation of "the Baltimore sewage disposal plant, and notes on the activated sludge ex enmenta with discussion] 417-428, 439-463. Puller G 4 The nuisance' aspect of municiph plants' foithe'h osal of solid and. liquid wastes, 474-481; Potter dexander The scientific cleaning o! settling baain's. 498-511; 'Mercier, P. E., My expenence with cost data in municipal works, BARKER (HARRY). Public utility rates. A discussion of the principles and practice underlying charges for water, gas, electricity, communication and trans ortation services. 1917. 387 pp: tabfes. Contents: Develo ment of uthty regulation. utility rivileges an3 obligations;, rights of the' public; Sroduct and semce compames; some definitions of rates and servicea; Various bases for rates; Details of the cost-of-earvice study of rates: test for fixed and o erating charges; Fair value of utility property; Qaluation as an engineering task; appr-al of land and water rights; Reasonable return: Interest; compensation for risk and attention; extra rofitw Depreciation aa it, affects utility rates; kisqelianeous problems indmectly related to ratemahng; Problems of railway rates: Problems of express transportation rates: Rate problem of street and interurban railway transportation; Problem8 of water rates; Rate problems of as utilities: Rate problems of electricity supply worts; Problems of telephone rate-making. CARHART (A. H.), The tree versus the public utility wire. (Amer. City town and county ed. , May, 1917 : 464-470.' illus.) The story of the invasion of a small town by an electric developing company. GREEN (C. W.). State us. municipal regulation of municipal public utilities. 556-561. ILLINOIS. ' SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC UTILITIES. and minority report . . .M~?~~~~er with a draft of a bill to provide local control of public utilities in the City of Chicago. Jan. 20, 1917. 68 pp. 2 charts. The majority report (5 pp.) recommends le * lation granting to Chicago home rule in pU$ficutility matters. the minority report (29 pp.) represents the disaehtin opinion of one,member of the committee. Includfed also ,is 8 Statement in favor of home rule for pubho utilities," by Alderman Charlea E. Memam. SPILLER (H. C.). Value of state public utility commissions to the investor in public utilities securities. (Public Service, Apr., 1917. 1100 words.) Wr~cox (DELOS F.). Shall the interstate commerce commission and the state public utility commissions fix wages on the railroads and on local public utilities? [1917.] 10 pp. Reprinted from Ann& of the her. Acad. of Political and Social Science, Jan., 1917. Refuse and Garbage Disposal What a city planning a garbage piggery should know. (Engrng. NewsRecord, Apr. 27, 1917: 210-211.) Based on data secured by the city of Rockford, Ill. CLEVELAND CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. Collection and disposal of Cleveland's waste. Report of the Committee on Housing and Sanitation. Jan. 5, 1917. 14 PP. MILLER (B. F., JR.). Horse vs. motor for garbage collection. (Proceedings, Arner. Roc. of Municip. Improvements, SCHROEDER (P. J.). The fertilizer value of city wastes. Pt. 2: Garbage tankage; its composition, the availability of its nitrogen, and its use as a fertilizer. (Journ. of Indust. and Engrn . Chemistry Ma 1917: 513-518. tabfes.) Pkrt 1, i4 W. J. O'Brien and J. R. Lindemuth. TUSKA (G. R.). A new method of garbage reduction. (Amer. City, Mch., 1917: 237-240. illus.) Roads andHi ways NEERS. Progress report of the Special Committee on Materials for Road Construction and on Standards for Their Test and Use; discussion. (Proceedings, Apr., 1917: 715-798. tables.) ANON. Roads and road-making; a synopsis of the most recent road construction methods and materials. (Empire Municipal Directory and Year Book, 1917: sec. 2, 141-159.) BYRNE (AUSTIN T.). Modern road construction. A practical treatise on the engineering problems of road building, with carefully compiled specifications for modern highways, and city streets and boulevards. 1917. 187 pp. diagrs. illus. ANON. 1916: 261-264.) AMERICAN i!? OCIETY OF CIVIL ENOI

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 551 Contents: Reaistance. to movement of vehic!es; Location of roads; Prehnary road construction methods; Maintenance and improvement of roads; Foundations; Stoneblock pavements; Brick Davements; Woodblock pavementa; Asphalt pavements; Miscellaneous Davementa: Miacellaneous street work: Curbstones and gutters; Street cleaning; Belecting the pavement. BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, NEW YORK. Highway laws of the United States. A topical discussion by A. N. Johnson. 1917. 163 pp. tailes. (Munich Research. no. 82. Feb.. 1917.) . Contenk Author’s ’introduction [with references to literature on roads]. Highway law revision: some conditions that make it necessary; Recommended procedure and suggested outline for hi hway law; General proviaions of a highway law; f rowion8 ’. relating to the establishment of roads; Control over highways by the public: proviaions relating to organization and adminietrahon; proviaions relating to road work: proviaions relating to bridge work; general labor and eontract provisions; Control of highways by toll companies’ Use of highway8 by the general ublic; Use of high: wa 8 by corporations.and pubfk utilities; Saving an8 repeal provlsions in road laws. COX (J. J.). A duty of highway commissioners and highway engineers as public officials. (Good Roads, Mch. 24, LAY (C. D.). Highways and country planning. (Landscape Architecture, Apr., LUCAS (FRANK). The operation of the Wisconsin] state hi hway law with respect to cities. (dunicipality, Jan.Feb., 1917: 11-21.) MASSACHUSETTS. SPECIAL COMMISSION FOR THE REVISION AND CODIFICATION OF THE LAWS RELATING TO HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES. Report, Jan., 1917. 115 pp. (House doc., 1917, no. 1653.) Method of maintaining state aid roads in Illinois. (Engrng. and Contracting, Mch. 7, 1917: 224-226. illus.) Salaries SEARCH, INC. Comparisons of the salaries of city employees in Yonkers and other cities. 1917. (Report no. 3.) Schools 1917: 159-192.) 1917: 133-137.) PIEPMEIER (B. H.). YONKERS BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESee also Public Health, Public Service, Vocational Guidance. BUREAU OF SAFETY, CHICAGO. Methods for instruction in accident prevention for use in schools. [1917.] 31 pp. illus. CLARK (EARLE). The indebtedness of city school systems and current school expenditures. (Amer. School Board Journ., Mch., 1917: 17-19. diagrs.) The work of the Bureau of Attendance New York City schools. (National dduc. Assoc. Journ., Apr., 1917: 853-855.) MASSACHUSETTS. SPECIAL BOARD ON PHYSICAL TRAINING. Report, Feb., 1917. 1917. .16 p DAVIS (J. W.). (House dcc.no. 1663.) Submits a kll providmg for a comprehensive system of physical education, under a director of phymcal education, duo for a com lete nurvey of hysical education in the state, to Ee oompleted bePore 1922. MINNEAPOLIS CIVIC AND COMMERCE ASSOCIATION. Report on analysis of fiveyear building program of Board of Education. Proposed two and three year school building programs. [Submitted by the] Committee on Municipal Research. I1917.1 24pp. table. NEW JERSEY. COMMISSION ON MILITARY TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION IN HIGH SCHOOLS. Report to the Legislature session of 1917. 1917. 24 pp. TI& report opposes thia sort of military instruction, and recommends, instead, a complete ayatem of hysical training for all schools in the state. ~EW YORK CITY. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. Eighteenth annual report, of the City Superintendent of Schools, 1915-16. 1917. Contains sections on community and recreation schools, vacation playgrounds (47 pp. illua. tables), and continuation and part time co-operative classes (I68 pp. illua. tables). SHIELS (ALBERT). Relations and lines of demarcation between schools and public school education. (Amer. Education, Apr., 1917: 460-465.) SHULL (C. A.). Another experiment in educational administration in Kansas. (School and Society, May 19, 1917: 594597.) STOUTEMYER (J. HOWARD). The educational qualifications and tenure of the teaching population, I and 11. (School Review, Apr. and May, 1917: 257-273, 336-345. charts. tables. bibliography.) THURSTONE (L. L.). A statistical method for the treatment of school-survey data. (S-hool Review, May, 1917: 322330.) UNITED STATES. BUREAU OF EDUCATION. Kinder arten legislation, by Louise Schofielf. 1917. 30 pp. tables. (Bull. 1916, no. 45.) Sewerage and Sewage Disposal TION. Report of Committee on Sewerage and Sewage Disposal to the sanitary engineering section, at the annual meeting held in Cincinnati, Oct. 26, 1916. 9 pp. typewritten. ANON. Catch basin construction and maintenance. General forms, materials, traps and inlet openings employed in several New England cities-methods of cleaning by hand and by machine-conCrete, stone and iron tops. (Municip. Journ., Mch. 15, 1917: 369-371. diagr.) BLEICH (S. D.). Reconstruction and diversion of sewers on account of New York subways. (Municip. Engrs. Journ., Mch., 1917. Paperno. 110. maps. plans. BUTCHER (W. L.). Worrester’s 35-vear AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIAgrapple with‘the sewage-disposal problem. (Engrng. News, Mch. 8, 1917: 384-385.) DETROIT BUREAU OF GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH. Report on sewer construc

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552 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [July tion Department of Public Works, City of detroit. 1916. 38 pp. typewritten. EDDY (H. P.). Sewage disposal. Activated sludge v. tanks and filters. (Surveyor and Municip. and County Engr., Apr. 13, 1917: 370-373. plans.) FULLER (GEORQE W.). Relations between sewage dis osal and water suppl are changing. En News-Recor Apr. 5, 1917: 11-l2.y. GAYTON (R. F.). The sewage disposal works of Mason City, Ia. (Engrng. and Contracting, Mch. 14, 1917: 258-259. diagrs. illus.) HAMMOND (G. T.). Sewage treatment bv aeration and activation iwith discuss;on]. 1916. 101 pp. illus.plans. Contains a brief survey of lanta in the United States now or recently con5luctmg erpenmenta along thia line. HUMPHREYS (G. W.). The main drainage system of London. (Surveyor and Municiu. and Countv Enar.. Feb. 9.1917: -. 158-156.) NORDELL (CARL H.), Design of Milwaukee's new sewera e system based on conditions thirty-!ve years hence. (Engmg. News-Record, Apr. 12, 1917: 65-69. charts.) NORTH SHORE SANITARY DISTRICT, ILLINOIS. BOARD OF TRUSTEES. Report upon the disposal of the sewage of the district [by] J. W. Alvord, H. P. Eddy, G. W. Fuller, Board of Engineers. May, 1916. 64,24 [6] pp. map. charts. table. The North Shore Sanitary District includes munici alitiea in Lake CountB;m1u, which is north of Cook county, and gets its g water from Lake Michigan. The report suggests 16 ossible projects, recommending 5 aa being the cgeapest and most practicable. TAYLOR (HENRY W.). Special features of sewerage development at Wellsboro, Pa. (Engrng. and Contracting, May 9, 1917: 438441. diagrs.) Describes the features made necessary by the exiatence of a combined sewer system and a small plant. UNITED STATES. PWLIC HEALTH SERVICE. Control of pollution of streams; the International Joint Commission and the pollution of boundary waters, by Earle B. Phelps. 1917. 8 pp. (Re. print no. 384.) ZIYMELE (C. B.). San Marcos' [Texas1 activated sludge ulant: first plant -to operate regdariy treating all of a city's sewage-sewage settled before aerating-details of construction and changes made to meet operation difficulties. (Municip. Journ., Mch. 8, 1917: 333-335. diagr.) Smoke Abatement HENDERSON (J. W.). Up-to-date smoke regulations. (Modern City, Feb., 1917: 27-30. Illus.) Haa particular reference to Pittsburgh. MASSACWSETTS. BOARD OF GAS AND ELEC~RIC LIOH? COMMISSIONERS. Abatement of smoke [in Boston, Brookhne, Cambridge, Chelsea, Everett and Somerville, under the provisions of chapter 651 of the Acts of 19101. Nov. 30, 1916. 4 P%bstract from the 32d mnnual report of the Board. MONNETT (OSBORN). Engineering phases of smoke abatement. (Proceedings, Engrs. SOC. of Western Penn., Dec., 1916: 772-795. diagr. illus.) State Government and Administration COLORADO. SURVEY COMMITTEE OF STATE AFFAIRS. Summary of findings and recommendations relating to the executive branch of the state government of Colorado. Dec., 1916. 48 pp: ILLINOIS. The civil administrative code. [1917.] 37 pp. MASSACHUSETTS. SUPERVISOR OF ADMINISTRATION. Annual report [first, covering the period from Aug. 7, 1916 to Dec. 311, 1916. 1917. 22 pp. (Public doc. no. 119.) MINNESOTA. TAX COMMISSION. Comparative cost of state overnment; being chapter ten of the fif& biennial report. 1916. 78 pp. diagr. tables. Street Cleaning and Snow Removal ANON. Street cleaning and refuse collection methods. A study of present methods of the department in Detroit, Mich., with recommendations for the improvement both of administration and practical methods of street cleaning and refuse collections. (Municip. Journ., May 10, 1917: 655-4358, chart.) To be contuiued. DETROIT BUREAU OF GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH. Report on street cleaning and refuse collection, Department of Public Works, City of Detroit. Prepared by the Detroit Bureau of Governmental Research and based upon a report by the New York Bureau of Municipal Research. 1917. 78 pp. typewritten. FETHERSTON (J. T.). Co-operation in snow removal [in New York City]: (Better Roads and Streets, Mch., 1917. PARLIN (RAYMOND W.). Flushingits place in the street cleaning field. 1917. "A;%per read at the 23d annual convention of the American Society of Municipal Improvements, Oct., 1918. Surveys See also Schools, Vocational Guidance. HODQES (LEROY). Petersburg, Virginia: economic and municipal, 1917. 166 pp. maps. tables. HOROWITZ (MURRAY P.). A sanitary survey of the Borough of Glen Ridge, New Jersey. 1917. 43 pp. tables. charts. 112-113 .)

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY MCCLENMAN (B. A.). The social survey. 1916. [22 p.] (Iowa University, Extension Bulf no. 26.) Taxation and Finance ANON. The effects of exemption of railroads from special assessments. (Minn. Municipalities, Apr., 1917: 49. tables.) BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, NEW YORK. Some results and limitation8 ,of central financial control as shown by nine years’ experience in New York City. 1917. 63 pp. charts. tables. (Munici a1 Research no. 81. Jan., 1917.) this number o/.Munici d Research u made up mainly of four articles b ?J. A. Cleveland appear.ing in the Record and &ide of Nov. 11: 18, 25, Dec. 2, 1916. CALIFORNIA. STATE TAX COMMISSION. Re ort. 1917. 280 p . map. tables. &UPMAN (R. M.). &rial bonds versus .sinking fund bonds. (Amer. City, Mch., 1917: 276-278.) CEASE (H. S:). The executive budget. (Boston City Club. Bull., Mch. 1, 1917: 230-236.) HAIG (R. M.). The unearned increment in Garv. (Pol. Sci. Quart.. Mch.. .* 1917: 80-94.j . HANNAN (WILLIAM E.). Property ex,empt from taxation in the forty-eight .states. May 1, 1917. 239 pp. .tables. (New York State Library. Legislation Bull. 42.) LINDSAY (S. McC.). The city budget .as a basis for administration. (Amer. City Apr., 1917.: 381-384.) Crihnses the nunute segregation of items an depriving administrative he& of discretion and incentive towards businem e5ciency. LYONS (T. E.). Income taxes. 1917. 48 PP. . Semi-annual ayment of taxes. L{Municipality, Jan.-Fe!. MERCHANTS AND ~~%Z:~ERS ASSOCIATION, BALTIMORE. Report of Committee on Taxation in re [schedule of charges for] minor privileges. [1917.] 7 p. table. gomparea such charges in Baltimore with thoae in 17 other cities. MICHIGAN STATE TAX ASSOCIATION. Proceedings of the sixth state conference on taxation . . . Feb. 1 and 2, 1917. 1917. 118pp. 1u1 amoni others. the followinn Danem: Contai Fuller, 0. B., TGation of. mortgages agd’bo;ld., 16-27. Tilma G. P Taxation and the pubhc welfare. i7-35; Rune$ J. A. , The budget system, 35Pa. MILLS (0. L.). Presidential address, New York State Conference on Taxation IJan. 11, 19171. (Bull. National Tax Assoc., Feb., 1917: 132-137.) A review of the tax Bitustion in the State of New York at the resent tune. NEW ?OR*. STATE COMPTROLLER. ‘State Finances. vol. i, no. 1, Apr., 1917. A summary of the atate’a dnancial condition is printed in the issues for April and May. A new periodical. PRENDERGAST (W. A.). The extension of municipal activities and its effect on municipal expenditures, includin a review of the budgets of New York 8ity since consolidation, 1898-1917. 1917. 65. pp. A lecture dehvered at the College of the CAty of New York on Feb. 14, 1917. REQUA (M. L.). The wmtefulness and inefficiency of governmental expenditures. 9 p. charts. (Bull. Tax Association [of dmeda County], Feb., 1917.) SAWISTOWSKY (R. E.), How Davenport [Iowa] pro ortions paving-assessment benefits. dethod devised to eliminate unfairness of the front-foot rule as a basis for computing taxes. (Engmg. Record, Mch. 10, 1917: 378-379. chart. diagr.) STOCKTON (F. T.). Taxation in Indiana and the work of the Special Commission on Taxation. (Bull. National Tax Assoc., Feb., 1917: 125-132.) WILLIAMSON (C. C.). State budget reform. (Case and Comment, Mch., 1917: YONXERS BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCE INC. What will the 1917 budget be? Facts and suggestions for the Board of Estimate and Apportionment and the citizensof Yonkers. 1917. [16pp.] tables. Traffio AVERY (F H.). Chicago has problem to protect street traffic at drawbridges. New devices, installed t,o prevent pedestrians and automobiles from plunging into river, include flashing signals on gates and cushon barriers. (Engmy. Record, Mch. 17,1917: 42-28, Illus. BERNSTEIN (J.). A suggested outline for the activities of a eneral tra5c commission for the City ofgNew York. 1917. 813-81 7 .) 7 sheets. typewritten. Paper read before the Citirena’ Street Tra5a Committee of Greater New York on March 1. 1917. ENO (W. P.). Rotary traffic replation at street intersections. (Mwcip. Engrng., Mch., 1917: 111-114. plates. illus.) FABER (D. C.). The Use of traffic signs. 1916. 12 pp. illus. (Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Technical Service Bull. no. 17.) LEWIS (N. P.). Street widening to meet traffic demands; problem one of the most diilicult and important now confronting cities and towns-traffic regulation the first step. (Record and Guide, May 19, 1917: 687.) WOODS (ARTHUR). You who walk; the reckless and foolish pedestrian-the toll of the streets-safety first-helping the walker. (Red Cross Mag., Apr., 1917: 111-116. illus.)

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554 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW Transit ANON. Cincinnati’s rapid-transit ordinance. Approval of general electorate last step needed to accomplish surface franchise revision, rapid transit development and interurban entrance-liberal concessions made by Cincinnati Traction Company in interest of civic development. (Electric Ry. Journ., Apr. 7, 1917: 623627.) PHXLADE~~HIA. DEPARTMENT OF CITY TRANSIT. A report upon the proposal of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company for the e uipment and operation of citybuild hig1-s eed lines as embodied in a form of or&ance revised to cover the Company’s offer of Dec. 20, 1916. Submitted to the Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia, Mch. 29, 1917. 1917. 148 pp. charts. Vocational Guidance DEWEY (JOHN). Learning to earn: the place of vocational education in a comprehensive scheme of public education. (School and Society, Mch. 24, 1917: 331335.) HALSEY (G. D.). The “averaged-opinion” plan of vocational guidance. 1917. 12 pp. forms. (Vocational Bureau, Atlanta, special bull. no. 2.) INDIANA. STATE BOARD OFEDUCATION. Report of the Evansville survey for vocational education. 1917. 510 pp. chart. (Survey series no. 4.) __ . Report of the Jefferson County survey for vocational education. 1917. 86 pp. diagr. (Survey series no. 5.) . Report of the Indianapolis survey for vocational education. 1917. 2 v. 400 pp,, charb; 527 pp. (Survey series no. 6.) . Report of the Richmond, Indiana, survey for vocational education. Conducted co-operatively by the Indiana State Board of Education, the Board of Education of Richmond, and Indiana University. 1916. 599pp. illus. (sur._ v:y series no. 3.) The aim of the Indiana sweya, aa conceived by the Vocational IDivisionl and State Board of Education, was to ‘aacertain’from a atudy of the industries of a particular community the facta that would be needed to outline an e5cient and economic program of vocational training for the community, and to ascertain . . . how far the vocational needs of that community were already bein met by existing agencies. . . It M hoped t%at by selecting a number of i communities th;ou hout the State some d32:: help might abo be o%tained for solvhg the problem of providing an e5cient acheme of vocational training for the state aa a whole.”-Foreword. MCSHERRY (FRANCIS). Vocational education in Holyoke, Mass. (Amer. City, Ma , 1917: 490-496. illus.) ~EW YORE STATE. STATE LIBRARY. A bibliography concerning vocations; compiled by James Sullivan. 1917. 17 pp. (Bibliography bull. no. 60.) UNITED STATES. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. Made by the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. 1917. 592pp. (Bull.,whole no. 199; vocational education series no. 1 .) Voting Machines CITY CLW OF NEW YORK. Preliminary report on voting machines, by the Committee on Elections and Election Laws. 1917. llpp. machines conducted in New York and elsewhere. Water Distribution ALVORD (J. W.). The ownership of water service pipes. 1916., ,l1 p . ANON. Water costs in cities o!at least 60,000 population. The result of a questionnaire sent out by the city of Portland, Ore. (Amer. City, May, 1917: 458-462. Thin report reviews various tests of voting .. tables.) meters. BEARDSLEY (J. C.). The use of water (Water and Gas Review. Feb.. 1917: 7-9; 31.) The use of water meters. (Journ. Amer. Water Works Assoc., Mch., 1917: 114-120.) BRUSH (W. W.). Freezing of water .mains and services. (Surveyor and Municip. and County Engr., Feb. 16, 1917: 19s194.) GANZ (A. F.). Electrolysis-troubles caused thereby and remedies which may beapplied. [l] (FireandWaterEngrng., Apr. 4,1917: 186-187. diagrs.) LEFFMANN (HENRY). Water-meters in their sanitary relations. (Journ. of Industl. and Engmg. Chemistry, Apr. 1, MERRILL (F. E.). Metering in Somerville; consumption reduced more than 1917: 395-397.) twenty per cent. by metering-reduction in demands on sewerage system and on sewage pumpin an im ortant saving also -consumption%gures for the last thirteen years. (Municip. Journ., May 17, 1917: SEARCH, INC. The cost of laying water mains by the City of Yonkers. 1916. 8 pp. tables. (Report no. 2.) Water Supply AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION. Standard methods for the examination of water and sewage. 3 ed. 1917. 683-684.) YONHERB BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RE115 pp. ANON. Water consumption data. Elements of inaccuracy in the figures of many cities domestic consumption -madcounted for water-money losses. (Water and Gas Review, Jan., 1917: 28-31.) COFFIN (T. D. L.). Sanitation of the Croton watershed [with discussion]. (Journ. Amer. Water Works Assoc., Mch., 1917: 6-13,30-37.)

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 855 CUSTER (ELLIS H.). The Worcester water watch. (Amer.' City, May,1917: 454-457. illus.) HORTON (THEODORE) and CEASE (E. S.1. A studv of the aDDlication of the score systemto the sa&ary quality of public water supplies in New York State. (Amer. Journ. of Pub. Health, Apr., 1917: 380-390. charts. tables.) LETTON (H. P.). A report on the uality of the water sup ly of the City ofbilwaukee, Wis., an8 its relation to the typhoid death rate. (Journ. of Proceedings, Milwaukee Common Council, Feb. 26, 1917: 1256-1264. charts.) NEW YORK CITY. DEPARTIUXNT OF WATER SUPPLY GAS AND ELE~ICITY. Rules and reguhions for the protection of the water supply from contamination. 1917. 12pp. ORCHARD (WILLIAM J,). Water-sup ly standards and their improvement. (&grng. News-Record, May 17, 1917: 348349.) SACKETT (W. G.). A comparative bacteriological study of the water su ply of the City and County of Denver, CoTorado. 1917. 14 pp. plates. chart. (Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station, Bull. no. 225, Feb. 1917.) WIQLEY (d. S..) and DANIELS (P. N.). Carbon dioxide and iron in water supplies. (Engmg. and Contracting, May 9, 1917: 430-431. diagrs.) Welfare Work CARBAUQH (H. C.), editor. Human welfare work in Chicago. 1917. 262 pp. m~~ut$ZYiOmDAmoN. Social welfare work in Houston; a directory of members of the Houston Council of Social Agencies. Au 1916. 38pp. See slso Charities. Tfi Houston Foundation, is a municipal board of public welfare whom duties oonsiSt of spanfunds appropriated by the cit for charities. nceiving benevolent be ueats, anfproviding or aniaed work for various %n& of ohantable ant social welfare sotivities. . HOUSTON FOUNDATION BOARD. Ordinances and by-laws. LANE-CLAYPON (J. E.,'6?he principlm of or anization and administration in child wetare work. (Journ. of State Medicine, Feb., 1917: 33-40.) ST. JOSEPH, Mo. SOCIAL WELFARM BOARD. Extracts from the Third Official Annual Report, covenng the period from Apr. 1,1915, to A r. 1, 1916. 19 pp. , Welfaregoardcatechism. Facts and figures about the Social Welfare Board of the City of St. .Joseph, Mo. [1917. Spp.]