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National municipal review, September, 1917

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National municipal review, September, 1917
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National municipal review
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National Municipal League
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Volume 1, Issue 1

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Full Text
NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
1917
Editor
Clinton Rogers Woodruff
Associate Editors
Alice M. Holden Howard L. McBain
Herman G. James C. C. Williamson
VOLUME VI
January, pp. 1-200 March, pp. 201-323 May, pp. 324-448
July, pp. 449-555
September, pp. 556-658 November, pp. 659-762
PUBLISHED FOB THE
national municipal league
BT
THE RUMFORD PRESS
concord, n. h.
1917


NATIONAL
MUNICIPAL REVIEW
Vol. VI, No. 5 September, 1917 Total No. 25
ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES
BY HARLEAN JAMES1 New York City
RELIEF
THE questions of relief administered for civilians because of distress occasioned by war conditions, of relief administered for the dependents of soldiers and sailors, and the administration of war pensions and separation allowances are so closely connected that it seems wise to treat all these subjects under the head of relief. There are many who believe that the families of soldiers and sailors should be cared for by war pensions and separation allowances administered solely by the government from government funds. Those who, in this country, have advocated a similar administration of widow mothers’ pensions will probably agree with this group. From motives of national economy and to prevent the disbursement of funds except where they are actually needed, however, there has been in England a group who believed voluntary associations could supplement government funds and conduct the necessary investigations more efficiently than local government officials whose training is generally for business and not for social service. Both groups have recognized the need for local committees for the administration of relief. The burning question has been whether payments should be determined and made by the local officials duly elected by the ratepayers or by the local committees of the soldiers’ and sailors’ families .association in cooperation with local committees appointed by councils designated by the statutory committee to coincide with the administrative districts of the association. These were often county districts and Hie municipalities and urban boroughs within such county units fought bitterly for the right to administer the funds through their elected officials. ^Formerly secretary, Baltimore women’s civic league.
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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
LOCAL ADMINISTRATION OF RELIEF AND THE GOVERNMENT
There are two vital points of view to be considered in the local administration of pensions, separation allowances and relief. The most important, of course, is the family itself, its human need, its human sorrow, its human self respect. Unfortunately, we have only the most indirect-means of judging how far the local committees have met these needs for food, clothing, shelter, sympathy and respect. Administration, whether in voluntary or official hands, is subject to the human limitations of each person in the field. The controversy which has centered around this question of the machinery of local administration is of secondary importance to the family social unit. But the family need, in the last analysis, must be met by some kind of machinery. The readers may judge for themselves whether the records of the councils and the claims of the local officials are justified in whole or in part on their own showing. From the-soldiers’ and sailors’ families association we have little data; from the families themselves, we have none.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN ENGLAND
Before proceeding to the story of the local administration of relief inwar time, it may be recalled that in England, local administration is coordinated under a central local government board. The local communities are subject, in many respects, to the control of this board, but they also profit by the advice of the specialists in town planning, housing, accounting and engineering which the board has at its command. It may also be recalled that England and Wales, for purposes of local government, are divided into sixty-two administrative counties, including the county of London. In these counties there are popularly elected councils, who co-opt a prescribed number of aldermen, either from their own body or from outside of it. The counties are divided into urban and rural districts, and, though the schools are generally under the control of the counties, any urban district with a population of 20,000 or over may be a. local educational authority. Rural district councils may exercise any urban powers conferred by the local government board. By the local government act of 1888 London county was given considerable powers, in regard to public health, housing, bridges, ferries, asylums, street improvements, education, etc., though the city corporation has powers, respecting sanitation, police, bridges and justice in the city of London. By the local government act of 1899 London was divided into twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs, each with a mayor, aldermen and councillors. In all the great towns, including county boroughs, local business is administered by a municipal corporation which derives its authority from a charter granted by the crown. In England and Wales there are some seventy-five county boroughs, many of which are also incorporated cities,.


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which are outside the jurisdiction of the county councils, though in other municipal boroughs, these councils have certain powers and duties.2
These facts are recalled at the risk of tediousness, because the administration of war relief has involved a confused four-square struggle between the counties, the boroughs, the central authority and voluntary bodies.
At the outbreak of the war, most of the councils, county and borough, met to pass resolutions of loyalty. Indeed, the community of local government interests and the consciousness of local personality were exhibited in courtesy telegrams exchanged between London county and Paris in the early days of August, 1914. In some instances the local authorities proposed plans for relief before the central plans were promulgated, and-many of the local councils petitioned the government to make adequate provision for the families of soldiers and sailors.3
ORGANIZATION FOR UNEMPLOYMENT
The story of the distress organization during the early days of the war discloses that the government sought to provide an elaborate local machinery to meet a situation that never developed and failed utterly to meet the serious crisis that confronted the country from the very first. Distress committees were appointed by nearly all of the local councils, usually as local representative committees to administer the Prince of Wales National Relief Fund.
It may be recalled that the war broke out during a period of great unemployment and business depression, so that the government may be commended for its good intentions and may even be pardoned for failing to predict just how soon the colossal struggle would absorb civil labor and wipe out unemployment.4
At the request of the local government board most of the local councils and mayor’s committees considered plans for providing for the unemployed, though few of the councils embarked on new enterprises. The report to the county council of Surrey on this matter may, perhaps, be taken as typical. On September 9, 1914, the committee on finance of the county council of Surrey reported:
The committee have given consideration to a scheme published by the county committee for the prevention and relief of war distress which has been-established under the authority of the cabinet committee and the local government board. . . . The committee hav6 further taken
note of the statement made by the chancellor of the exchequer to the municipal corporations association that, while ordinary and necessary public expenditure productive of labour employment should not be stopped
2 This outline of English local government is taken from the Statesmens’ Year Book for 1916.
3 Manchester petitioned for a specified minimum scale of allowances, also Lanark.
4 A census of homeless persons made by ths London county council in 1915 showed a marked decrease in London.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
or diminished, the time is not opportune for embarking on new and substantial expenditure, especially where the cost will have to be defrayed out of loan, and that the contingencies for which special provision may be more likely to be required will arise during the winter and when those who are now serving in the field will return and be disbanded after the close of the war. In these circumstances, the committee think it neither necessary or prudent to propose or to make provision for any undue or abnormal increase of expenditure on public works at the present time.5
In order, however, to demonstrate a spirit of co-operation, the council did, on November 10, make an appropriation of £1,000 to the highways and bridge committee for road widening and other highway improvements, “if found to be necessary to relieve unemployment and distress.” In January it was reported that it had not been necessary to use any of the money, but that it was thought desirable to continue the authority in case the need should arise.
There were, of course, some readjustments. The education committee reported to the London county council on February 23, 1915:
We are informed that as a result of a consultation between the board of education and the local labour exchanges and the local distress committees, it has been established that there are a number of unemployed girls in Shoreditch, Bethnal-green, and Whitechapel who are suitable for training in leather machining, an industry in which there is not only a scarcity of labour, but a safe prospect of future employment.
It has accordingly been suggested that provision for the necessary training should be made at the Cordwainers’ Technical College (Bethnal-green S. W.). The proposed curriculum which provides for forty hours’ instruction a week for a period of twelve weeks, makes provision for training in all processes of leather machining used in upper making, including machining, and fitting and the application of these methods to various forms of leather accoutrement making.6
A grant of £141 was, therefore, made to reimburse the school for actual out-of-pocket expenditure and the committee on queen’s work for women fund provided for the maintenance of the girls. On June 22, it was reported that the course had been entirely successful and voted that the instruction should be continued for another twelve' weeks. The appropriation was £151 this time, to include £10 for a caretaker to prevent risks from fire.7
It was also reported to the London county council on the 30th of March, 1915, that there was some unemployment in the “dress-making bespoke” trade, and an adjustment to prepare these workers for the “wholesale ready-made” trade was suggested. To meet this contingency instruction was proposed to be offered at the Barrett-street school for two classes, each consisting of twenty, for a full-time course of six months. In course 1, it was proposed to offer classes in mantle work (coats, skirts and
s Reports to county council, Surrey, 1914, p. 1330-e, ff.
* Minutes London county council, 1915, p. 283.
7 Ibid., p. 921.


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mantles), heavy work and tailoring methods, 35 hours per week, and in course 2 instruction in blouse, robe and dressmaking, light work for 35 hours per week.8
A writer in the Charity Organization Review for September, 1915, summarized the unemployment situation thus:
They [the government] expected an early industrial crisis.
As a matter of fact it did not come, and this was the first surprise of the war. . . . For a time short hours were worked in many industries,
and numbers of women workers were discharged. While it lasted the distress of these women was acute, and the National Committee took no steps to meet it. Eventually a new unofficial committee was formed to deal with it, and Queen Mary issued an appeal on its behalf. The women’s committee, thus . . . secured a free hand. They . . .
at once got into touch with the local authorities. They opened workshops and training schools in many places, and large numbers of women and girls passed through these.9
CONGESTION IN THE WAR OFFICE
But the government, evidently, formed no conception of the problems’ which would arise for the families of the “new army,” to say nothing of the families of the Reserves and Territorial forces called to the “colors.”'
A writer in the Edinburgh Review for January, 1917, explained that in peace allowances to soldiers’ families are paid through the paymaster’s: department, but, Ke wrote:
That was quite unsuited to the new problems which the outbreak of the war created. Thus we had a centralised under-staffed office attempting to make financial arrangements by correspondence with women who probably never had written a business letter in their lives. . . .
Meanwhile many soldiers’ families were in a condition of the utmost distress. The question of relief was urgent, and the organisers of the National Relief Fund turned to the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association as the only body in existence with experience in ministering to the needs of the families of our soldiers and sailors. But this association was only on a peace basis. As the arrears of payment accumulated, the muddle in the paymaster’s department grew steadily worse. In this emergency, the War Office, which had usually looked upon all civilian efforts with jealousy or contempt, now adopted a very friendly attitude towards the soldiers’ and sailors’ families relief association. That organization, acting on behalf of the National Relief Fund, made advances to the women to enable them to carry on until the separation allowances came through. But the delays in the paymaster’s department were so great that the burden of these advances began seriously to deplete the National Relief Fund. To meet this difficulty the War Office towards the end of 1914, agreed that the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association was also to act as the official agent of the War Office in making weekly loans to the soldiers’ wives until their allowances were ready to be paid. Where-ever such loans were made, the War Office undertook to recover the money
8 Minutes London county council, 1915, p. 489-90.
9 Article on War Relief Agencies in Charity Organization Review, vol. 38, p. 281.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
from the arrears of payment due to the women. In this way the same money was used again and again, and the great drain upon the National Relief Fund was checked. At the same time the women were protected from any inconvenience by the delays of paymasters.10
And so it appears that the only acute distress was actually brought on by the inadequacy of the government itself! It appears also that many of the divisions of the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association also undertook the distribution of other funds, “such as the royal patriotic fund, grants to widows and orphans whose husbands and fathers have been killed in the war, employers’ grants to dependents of their employes, thrift funds, dental funds, coal and clothing funds and also the distribution of miscellaneous gifts. Some divisions have also kept an employment register.”
CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE STATUTORY COMMITTEE
The story of the administration of pensions and separation allowances has been told at some length in order that the protests registered by the local government authorities might be followed in all their bearings. Beginning in May of 1916, nearly six months after the authorization of the statutory committee, but before it had succeeded in forming many of Its local committees, the Municipal Journal launched a campaign against the methods of the statutory committee and against the voluntary associations. For weeks the leading editorial comment was devoted to the pensions bill and to the pensions administration. The first protest came in an inoffensive little item headed, “War Pensions Administration”:
At Monday’s meeting of the Shrewsbury town council resentment was expressed that the borough is not given a separate committee under the naval and military pensions act. By the scheme Shrewsbury is merged in the county, which treatment the mayor )(Alderman Deakin) said was, for a town like Shrewsbury, with its own member, recorder and police, and with its old traditions monstrously unfair. ... It was resolved . . . at once to take the matter up, to get for Shrewsbury its undoubted right to a
separate committee under the act.
On June 2, 1916, the Journal quoted from the circular issued by the statutory committee urging that the existing local committees be appointed the sub-committees under the new order, explaining that thus ■“all their previous experience and existing knowledge of the individuals, as well as their papers, would be available.” The Municipal Journal. made the following comment on this action:
The circular clearly contemplates the appointment of soldiers’ and sailors’ families committees for the purposes of the supplementary allowances during the time such allowances are given. We hope the local committees will not fall into the trap. The nation would resent the introduction of charity organization methods into the work of distributing
10 The Work of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Families Association, Edinburgh Review, January, 1917.


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soldiers’ and sailors’ allowances. Supplementary grants should be made through public agencies, and not by private organizations and busy-bodies. This statutory committee will have to be carefully watched, and one of the best ways to curb its enthusiasm for unpopular methods of administration will be for Parliament to insist that copies of its circulars shall be sent to the newspapers.
More to the same effect on June 23 and a direct question to the Right Hon. G. N. Barnes, M.P., who had defended the statutory committee as to “whether he thinks that local bodies with a direct responsibility to the public are not likely to prove more satisfactory administrators of such funds than outside voluntary organizations with methods of their own?” On June 23 there was published a record of objections from local councils that had not been allowed separate committees. On the 30th there was given an account of the conference of mayors convened by the lord mayor of Liverpool. The lord mayors and mayors, it seemed, were not disposed to make public appeals for voluntary subscriptions for war pensions. The Journal was convinced that soldiers’ pensions should not be administered by “society ladies and sometimes good-natured busy-bodies.”
The statutory committee, like its predecessor, the War Office, most unwillingly forced into the hands of the only organization with experience in dealing with soldiers’ and sailors’ families, was evidently worried by the criticism of the local government officials. At any rate the comittee sent for a representative of the Municipal Journal, and according to the Journal, “the notes that follow are notes of the interview, without any comment of ours:”
With regard to the delay in the formation of committees, our representative was informed that the delay was not of the committee’s own making. Delay had been caused by some county councils postponing from one quarterly meeting to another quarterly meeting their decision with regard to the constitution of committees. Delay has been caused also in like manner by labour organizations. As to local administrative expenses, the committee felt that Swansea corporation had set a very good example in voting £1,000 for this purpose, and it hoped that other local authorities would follow suit. The committee regarded it as not unreasonable that if the government found the money for the pensions and grants to beneficiaries, the expense of local administration should be locally provided.
On July 14 the Journal voiced a protest from two cities against being merged in the counties. Said the Journalr
Both places have reputations for sound and efficient local government administration; both have sent thousands of men to the forces; both have contributed largely to the war funds; both are self-contained communities, with their own distinguishing characteristics.
Manchester, it seems, had made an estimate of administration expenses for nine months at £5,000, an amount, it may be assumed, never dreamed


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
of by the original committees, and the Journal was strong in its condemnation of the government for trying to 'fasten these large sums upon the local communities.
On July 21 the Journal was still on the trail of the harassed statutory committee.
The committee is now saying that the present, or proposed committees arrangements are only temporary. In six months’ time, we are told, they can be overhauled. Separate committees may be appointed for London and elsewhere as soon as the period of transition is passed. We say advisedly that if the county and society interests represented by the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association and other bodies get hold of these funds for six months they will never relinquish that hold. The evil will have been wrought. War pensions will have assumed the guise of charitable doles, distributed by “county people”—squires, parsons and ladies who have done this kind of thing before and who know what it means for their class. This is the really insidious design that has got to be parried.
By July 28 the Journal was able to announce that
The chancellor has been forced from the position he defended when the pensions bill was before Parliament—that the supplementary allowances must be found by the charitable public. The government then insisted that payments to soldiers and sailors “broke in our wars” must be calculated, like separation allowances, upon a flat rate. It was admitted that the amount paid would be too high in some cases, and too low in others, in relation to previous earnings, and that it would often be necessary to supplement the standardised War Office allowances. But the government insisted that the whole of the money disbursed upon these supplementary allowances should be voluntarily provided by the community, and the local committees were made responsible for collecting it. Controversy raged in both Houses of Parliament in regard to this question, and from first to last the Treasury stuck to its point—supplementary allowances must be provided out of voluntary contributions, not out of funds provided by the state. Thanks to municipal pressure, the government has now substantially receded from that position and it is clear . . . that it will not be necessary to appeal for voluntary contribu-
tions towards this national object.
On August 4 the Journal came out with the caption:
War Pensions Victory
Thanks to the energy and persistence which have been put into the movement by the lord mayor of Liverpool and his colleagues, the war pensions fight has been won so far as the main issues are concerned.
By the next week the Journal was not so sure that the fight had been won after all. The local committees might use funds raised or contributed for the purpose. Undaunted, however, the Journal asserted that the municipalities would continue hammering at this and other questions involved until they obtained a definite policy that reflected public opinion and removed war pensions from the “double taint of charity and society patronage.”


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By September 22 the Journal thought that
The statutory committee should be abolished, lock, stock and barrel, and its place should be taken by a new pensions department, responsible for all war pensions and allowances, with a minister in Parliament.
On Tuesday the local government board, the lord mayor of Liverpool’s conference, and the Parliamentary pensions committee are going to meet in order to try and find a means of evading the statutory committee’s regulations! Was there ever such an administrative farce? The statutory committee promulgates a certain regulation respecting the use of voluntary funds for pensions purposes, and that regulation is vigorously opposed in the House of Commons. The minister in charge refuses to withdraw the regulation, and even defends it, and a dead-lock is created. The chancellor of the exchequer thereupon suggests a conference “to find means of meeting both points of view.”
The conference duly took place and on September 29 the Journal reported that the following resolution was passed:
Resolved, That any borough or urban district with a population exceeding 20,000 be granted a local committee if the local authority so desires.
On October 6, the borough of Walsall voiced a demand, apparent for some time, “that there be a thorough co-ordination and centralization of the numerous authorities now dealing with war pensions, grants and allowances and a simplification of procedure.”
But the Journal evidently did not trust too confidently that the fight was won, for on October 13 there were more arguments for local administration.
The statutory committee’s policy of working through the county areas and excluding the smaller boroughs and districts from effective participation in war pensions administration is a deadly blow against local government. . . . We hear on good authority that in certain of the
northern counties the statutory committee has actually sent out lecturers as special pleaders for its anti-local government, pro-society system of administering war pensions.
THE MINISTRY OP PENSIONS
On November 3, according to the Journal, the Prime Minister’s secretary announced in a letter to a local town clerk that
It has been decided to appoint a pensions board with a cabinet minister at its head.
On November 8 it was announced in the House of Commons that Mr. Arthur Henderson, leader of the Labor party in the House of Commons, had been appointed minister of pensions. Mr. Henderson had on August 8 resigned his portfolio as president of the board of education in the British Cabinet, because, it was said, he had been strongly criticized in Parliament and by the newspapers.
But the campaign of the Municipal Journal to assert the claims of local government officials was seemingly swamped in the great national


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
reorganization which culminated in the announcement on December 7 that Lloyd George with the co-operation of Bonar Law would form a â– coalition cabinet.
On December 8 the Municipal Journal, in discouragement, cried out:
It is a piece of sheer bad luck that this reshuffling of political positions •should take place at this moment—just as we had secured our pensions bill and our pensions minister. We cannot forget, too, that the government’s handling of the pensions problem was one of the causes that contributed to the final disaster.
On December 10 it was announced that Mr. Arthur Henderson would he minister without portfolio and that Mr. George N. Barnes, a former spokesman for the statutory committee, would be minister of pensions.
THE NEW WAR PENSIONS BILL
For the first time in months the subject of pensions failed'to appear on the first page of the Municipal Journal, but on February 10, 1917, the Journal began its discussions of the new war pensions bill, “to make provision with respect to the administrative expenses of the statutory committee and all local and district committees under the naval and military war pensions, etc., act of 1915; and for certain other purposes connected with pensions and allowances.”
After long debate over the appropriation of expenses to be shared with the local committees, the Journal, on April 6, announced that the “war pensions bill was recommitted in order to enable Mr. Barnes to move an amendment increasing the contribution of the Treasury towards administrative expenses from one-half to two-thirds.”
On May 4, 1917, the Journal recorded receipt of the first number of the War Pensions Gazette, issued from the office of the statutory committee and self-described as “a municipal journal for war pensions local ■committees, and for all interested in their work.”
On May 11 the Journal quoted from the War Pension Gazette a paragraph showing the method of procedure which is significant as it evidently voices the policy of the present pension authorities.
The first home visit is always made by an experienced worker. A careful, leisurely home visit is the soundest method of obtaining a solid and reliable basis for the case. The right sort of visitor gets an accurate impression of the home and the family, and even if it is not found possible do grant what is applied for a favorable impression is created, and the person is led to look upon the office of the local committee as a refuge in time of trouble.
It frequently occurs that although the particular grant asked for cannot be made, yet the home visit discovers needs that may be met under some other regulation. The person visited is urged to call at the office if she should find herself in any kind of difficulty.


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But the Journal made comment as follows:
Procedure of this kind provides abundant opportunities for the exercise of social and political pressure, and those who are acquainted with county and rural conditions will realize at once the kind of influence that can be brought to bear by irresponsible and sometimes unscrupulous persons of the charity organization type.
The war pensions act received the royal assent late in May. By it any urban district with a population of 20,000 or over may have a separate committee on due application.
It was announced in June that the statutory committee would be dissolved. The ministry of pensions now has the field, but according to the Municipal Journal of July 6 the pensions minister “retains a sentimental feeling towards charitable organizations,” as he proposes “to endow the Royal Patriotic Fund Corporation with a quarter of a million sterling for the purpose of dealing with special cases.”
In the face of opposition, however, Mr. Barnes substituted a proposal for a special grants committee of ten members, to be allocated half a million pounds.
THE CHABITY OBGANIZATION VIEW-POINT
In the Charity Organization Review for October, 1916, “a man who has been taking the heaviest burden of the work in one of the metropolitan boroughs” was quoted to the effect that,
It would have made little difference if we had had borough council committees instead of sub-committees nominated by the county committee: the borough councils discovered in dispensing the National Relief Fund that people existed who could do this sort of work, and the best plan was to get them to do it; it is the same with this act [the war pensions act of 1915].
Editorially the Review commented on the attitude of the Municipal Journal to the following effect:
The Municipal Journal and the Local Government Gazette continue to denounce the arrangement. To those who feel strongly upon the constitutional question of local government the arrangement appears as a defeat of the borough councils, and therefore either as a triumph or a disaster according to their sympathies. The constitutional question may well be a serious one. . . . It is not difficult to surmise what the
motives of the statutory committee were in choosing the sub-committee arrangement and not the district committee one. They were surely two,
(1) economy: the comparative working expenses of the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association of the National Relief Fund proved to demonstration which was the cheaper method, and, provided the work is done, every additional penny spent on administration is taken from the soldier or his widow, for it all comes from the same very limited source;
(2) efficiency: it is no doubt true that had the metropolitan boroughs had the appointment of the committees they would in most cases have en-


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
deavored to get the benefit of the knowledge and experience acquired by the volunteers who had been doing the work, but at least there was the risk that they might not do so. . . . The sub-committees were to
consist of representatives (1) of political interests, the borough and “labour”; (2) of persons versed in the work—members of societies already doing the work. It still remained for these sub-committees to delegate the actual work to persons familiar with it and competent to do it.
This plan has been successfully carried out all over London. A whip went round to the borough councils on the constitutional issue. A number of them refused at first to appoint their three representatives on the local sub-committee, but most of them have now done it, though a few are suspected of having selected them with a view of maldng the subcommittees sorry when they saw them. “Labour” has accepted the arrangement from the start, and some of its representatives have taken a leading part in trying to make it a success. The proviso for the representation of women, which might well have been necessary had the borough councils appointed the committees, has proved otiose since almost the whole of the work of the voluntary associations was being done by them. The statutory committee has already produced voluminous regulations, and more are promised. The local (county) committee is busy interpreting and the sub-committees in applying them.
A long story, this, but one that might be marked “continued in our next,” and one which does not promise a happy ending. It is also a tale with a moral which does not need to be pointed out to the discriminating readers of the National Municipal Review.
It will be seen, however, that local government authorities have rendered yeoman’s service to the government and the common cause of the war in actual action. The organized opposition to the government plan of civil relief and pension administration was undoubtedly carried on in a. sincere belief in the high function of local government. In the fight of the increased financial burden which the struggle has put upon the government, one could wish that the local government authorities had saved the energies which went into this Parliamentary fight for the really fine cooperation which they displayed in business matters. The point of view,, it must be remembered, was an inheritance from times of peace and was. primarily due to a failure to discriminate between administration based on friendly visiting and a business disbursement of funds. In short, social welfare administration has not yet become a recognized part of municipal government, either in England or America, nor can it become so until appointing officials and community electorates value social welfare training as they have come to value engineering and medical training for posts in engineering and public health departments. There is the more excuse for this, because social service is only in process of becoming standardized and may always depend to some extent on organized volunteer efforts rendered chiefly by women of education and ability who have been released from many of their domestic duties by the development of modern industry and the public education of their children.


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THE PART OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN RAISING FUNDS
If the local governments may be accused of jealousy in the maintenance of their rights to disburse relief funds they have met the government call for aid in fine spirit. When the appeal was made for contributions to the Prince of Wales National Relief Fund, the civil officers and employes of most of the local government authorities met and unanimously decided to contribute some portion of their salaries, in amount varying from 1 to 10 per cent, with an average of 3 per cent. The employes of the Belfast Gas Works made it from 3 to 15 per cent a week on a graduated scale. Up to May, 1915, the officers and employes of Manchester had contributed some £21,000, though at that time, they expressed themselves as being somewhat grieved that they were “denied any share of representation on the distributing body, or any liberty to earmark any portion of their contributions for specific purposes.” During the first six months of the war £44,000 was contributed by the officers of only 93 authorities. “In the case of a large northern city, when the total contributions of the city amounted to £80,000, £20,000 of that had been given by municipal officers and employes.” In another town 43 per cent of the total contributions from the town were given from the municipal employes..
The reports and accounts of the far-away city of St. John in Canada disclosed a municipal contribution of 824,000 to the patriotic fund. Richmond and Sydney, Australia, collected funds, and in Africa, besides furnishing troops, it was recorded that “the people of Durban send congratulations and £13,000 collected in Natal for the dependents of men in the navy killed in action,” that the council of Johannesburg voted £500 to the governor-general’s fund and that Capetown was busy collecting relief funds. These are probably indicative of the activities in every city under the British flag. Undoubtedly, too, the cities did their share in helping to make the enormous gifts in kind that came from Canada which amounted to over a million bags of flour, four million pounds of cheese from the province of Quebec, 100,000 bushels of potatoes from New Brunswick, 25,000 cases of canned salmon from British Columbia. These came in the early days of the war and, at the suggestion of the Pall Mall Gazette, the flour bags, marked “Canada's gift,” were many of them sold for 5s. for Christmas gifts and a substantial sum was thus raised for the Belgian Relief and the National Relief funds.
From-the beginning of the war the local authorities in nearly all of the cities were glad to suspend regulations or “cut red tape” in order to promote the raising of funds. In many of the municipal trams, boxes were placed for the collection of relief funds. Of more doubtful wisdom is the establishment of tramway lotteries in Glasgow, which is described in the Municipal Journal for April 27, 1917. By this scheme conductors are supplied with special tickets, resembling ordinary tram tickets, and these


570
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
are sold at a penny each. The prizes amount to over £200 a week. Prizes are given to the conductors who sell the winning tickets. At that time it was reported that during the past month £5,752 had been realized, of which £4,399 had been given to war charities. It is not clear whether the above amount is net or gross, but even if it is gross it means that nearly a million and a half pennies (2 cents) were spent in Glasgow in one month, many, doubtless, by persons who could ill-afford even that expenditure, but who were lured on by the hope of drawing a prize.
In June when information of the scheme came to the House of Commons, great surprise was expressed. The lord-advocate expressed the opinion that the lottery was illegal and up to June 8 had refused to reconsider his decision or to receive a deputation which desired to urge an extension of the art union act of 1846 which allows certain associations to distribute works of art by lot or to offer money prizes for the purchase of works of art.11
WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR CIVIC ACTIVITIES DURING WAR TIMES
BY BESSIE LEACH PRIDDY Ypsilanti, Michigan
THE evolution of social institutions is always a fascinating study. The change in the viewpoint of women’s organizations within a. generation has been remarkable. Women’s clubs started as efforts for individual culture, but they soon received the baptism of the twentieth century spirit of service.
It is a very natural thing that woman’s interest in public affairs tends-to center in local problems. From domestic house-keeping and housecleaning to Municipal house-keeping and house-cleaning is not a far cry.. The welfare of a woman’s household and municipal problems have a most, intimate connection.
Women’s efforts for the betterment of municipal conditions were at first somewhat timorous, fragmentary and tentative. Sanitation,, beauty and morality appealed to woman, but she felt her restrictions in finance and influence. She discreetly began by attempting small, things. Clean-up campaigns, shrubbery planting on public grounds,, removal of some specific nuisances and simple health ordinances were at first attempted. With experience women began working for large things, for parks, bridges, public comfort stations, hospitals, fire-prevention, sewer and water systems, play grounds, clean amusements and elimination of licensed vice. As soon as the larger projects were undertaken, they began to have opinions on systems of city government, they learned of community surveys and city planning and they found that even. 11 Municipal Journal, June 1 and 8, 1917, pp. 518 and 542.


1917]
EFFECT OF THE WAR ON SCHOOLS
571
state legislation and state administration were involved in the problems; of civic conditions.
The woman’s club movement was waking wonderfully to the opportunity for civic service when the war crisis came. The message that our nation had plunged into the maelstrom of the world war came while the council of the general federation of women’s clubs was in session at New Orleans. For a moment all was consternation. Duty was tho watchward of every heart, patriotic service the desire on every tongue. Back of each eager offer was the aching heart of the Woman whose son or brother or husband was of military age. At first there was an impulse to put all else but preparation for war away, to treat former interests; as undone by the emergency of the present. Gradually, however, vision cleared. It was soon perceived that the present emergency had not. destroyed, but had intensified all civic and social problems. The realization came that patriotic service can only be rendered by efficient, co-operating, healthful communities, that war duties add to, instead of obliterating civic responsibility. Before the council adjourned, it was voted that each department of the club organization should devote itself first to the-special war service to which its machinery was best suited and that it should answer to the fullest possible extent all requests of the nation for patriotic effort, but that it should also continue in its accustomed lines of work in the field of civic and social betterment. Consequently each individual club woman will be found signing the conservation pledge,, working with the Red Cross or aiding in patriotic league work and each club as an organization will co-operate in all possible community war service, its committees assisting in the sale of Liberty bonds, in garden movements, in Americanization campaigns, in the care of soldiers’ dependents, or in the guarding of the moral conditions surrounding the soldiers’ camps. These special services will take precedence of all other-interests, but as before, many projects for civic and social betterment will receive earnest attention, perhaps increased attention because the women fully realize that the responsibilities of good citizenship have increased in. war and that after war will come peace and reconstruction.
THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON SCHOOLS
BY DR. P. P. CLAXTON1 Washington, D. C.
IT IS quite impossible to say just what effect our entrance into the war will have on schools either in city or country next year. It is more easy to say what the effect should be.
There should be no lowering of the efficiency of any of our schools of whatever grade, and everything possible should be done to increase their 1 Federal commissioner of education.


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efficiency and to extend their service. The work of education in the schools is chiefly for the future. When the war is over there will for many reasons be need in this country for a much higher standard of universal intelligence and civic and social virtue than we have ever yet had. Our industrial, social, civic and political life will demand it; and for men and women equipped with the scientific knowledge and technical skill of the colleges, universities and technical schools there will be demands in excess of the ability of all these schools to supply even if they should run at their full capacity. Therefore, appropriations for schools should be increased. Competent teachers should be employed for all the legitimate work of the schools. Salary schedules should be maintained. There should be a closer and more intelligent co-operation between the school and the home. Attendance in high schools and industrial and extension schools should be largely increased. In most cities the high school year should be made to consist of four terms of twelve weeks each, a total of forty-eight weeks, and an understanding should be worked out between the schools on the one side and industries and society on the other, by which all boys and girls for whom it may be necessary—the more the better— may attend school half the time and work the other half at some suitable productive wage-earning occupation. The way for this has already been shown, on a small scale at least, in several cities and towns. With this should come a reorganization of the schools on the basis of six years of elementary school and six years of high school, and a readjustment and enrichment of courses of study to meet the new conditions of modern life. This should include more of vocational education and better preparation for the duties of citizenship.
THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON PUBLIC IMPROVEMENT
BY CHARLES CARROLL BROWN1 Indianapolis
MUNICIPAL improvements, with which I am most familiar, are interfered with, at least temporarily, by two things.
First: The higher cost of improvements. There is a feeling that this is a temporary condition, at least as far as the excess in cost of materials is concerned, and therefore there is a tendency to actually begin the construction of as little work as possible. Some projects are brought to the point of letting, even to the point of receiving bids, and are then held up until more favorable prices come, when bids can again be called for. Some specially necessary improvements are carried through and in a few cases the people who pay the bills are progressive 1 Secretary, American Society of Municipal Improvementa.


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'enough and recognize clearly enough the necessity for high prices for a good while in the future to go ahead with the work. This is of course more evident in the case of boards who control lettings and are not •directly governed by the ideas of the taxpayers or property owners who pay the bills. Except for the temporary conditions of prices referred to, I believe that it is not good policy to hold up improvements for lower prices. They are not coming soon and the work will all come at once a little later and be much harder to carry.
Second: The higher cost of money. As long as Liberty bonds can be bought at 3J per cent with a chance of exchanging them for similar bonds at a higher rate, the bonds of improvement districts will not sell readily •even at 4 or 4J per cent, though in states where they are non-taxable and there is plenty of local money to absorb them there is some sale at these rates. The fact remains, however, that cities and municipalities generally must make up their minds to pay higher rates of interest for borrowed money, whether raised on the municipality’s bonds or on bonds or •certificates having the property assessed as security. A common rate :for improvement bonds on the property benefited is 6 per cent and these bonds will probably not be interfered with immediately except that the market for them will be limited somewhat by the other demands for money.
There is plenty of money, and if the governmental financing is carried •on in such way as not to concentrate it in places or times there will be enough for reasonable calls for money for public improvements.
The conclusion is that public improvements will go on at a reduced rate as rapidly as officials and the public awake to the necessities of paying higher prices for them and for the money to pay for them.
WAR AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS
BY A. PRESCOTT EOLWELL Editor of the Municipal Journal
THE effect of the war upon public improvements is difficult to estimate as yet, but indications are that it will not be so great as many at first thought would be the case. The price of materials used and of labor has advanced considerably, but it does not seem probable that, for the present at least, there will be any further advance. The cost of cast iron pipe is now several times what it was before the war and it can hardly be expected that cities will lay any more water mains of this material than are required for the health and immediate well-being of the city. In spite of this, however, a number of cities have found that war industries have occasioned an increase in their population and in area covered which requires extension of the water mains, and the purchase of cast iron pipe has by no means been entirely discontinued.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
The largest sums spent of recent years on any class of public works are those devoted to the extending and improving of streets and roads. The state highway commissioner of Pennsylvania has estimated that the cost of road construction in that state will be about 20 per cent higher this year than it was last, and this estimate seems to be confirmed by an examination of the costs of the several materials entering into the construction and of labor employed thereon. Concrete in general has advanced about 20 per cent in cost. Bituminous materials used in road work have not generally increased by as great a percentage; and, generally speaking, I believe it may be said that the cost of paving work this year will be less than 25 per cent greater than' in 1916.
While this increase in cost is by no means insignificant, it is no greater than the advance along practically every other line, including those of the wages and incomes of the taxpayers. There undoubtedly have been a number of cases of postponement or abandonment of public work which had been proposed for this year; but on the other hand it appears that some has been done which had not been intended but which has been made necessary by war activities. The Municipal Journal collects daily, through its clipping bureau, notices of public work in all sections of the country, and it is significant that the number of such notices that it has found in the daily papers has been greater during the first six months of 1917 than during the corresponding period of 1916.
One feature that should not be overlooked is the considerable increase-in the use of mechanical appliances as a substitute for labor. There have apparently been three principal inducements to this substitution: (1) The fact that labor has been scarce and that, if the work is to be done at all, some appliances must be employed which will permit it to be done with a less amount of hand labor. (2) The fact that the higher price of labor renders economical the use of machinery which might not have been so when wages were lower. (3) The fact that there is less opposition by politicians to the use by cities of machinery which displaces voters on the public works, for the reason that most of the voters who would be employed on such work have no difficulty in finding other work at very satisfactory wages. The result will undoubtedly be that by the end of this season the advantages of the use of labor-saving machinery will have been made known to many contractors who have not heretofore considered adopting these more modern appliances, and that in the future their plans for public work and their bids for the same will be modified by the knowledge so gained. It is therefore quite possible that bids next year will be lower than they were this, provided prices, for materials do not advance materially.
In addition to the above influences, there has undoubtedly been an appreciable result from the campaign directed to keeping going as intensively as possible all business enterprises of all kinds which do not inter-


1917] PITTSBURGH CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES -575
fere with the preparations for war, on the basis that a continuance of prosperity in all lines is necessary for the financing of the war and its successful prosecution. The hysteria and uncertainty which were natural at first have, I believe, been largely dissipated, and I anticipate that from now on we will find public work of all kinds continuing very much as usual so far as amount is concerned, but carried on by methods calculated to secure greater economy and efficiency and to prevent any material increase in cost over that obtaining at the present time.
THE PITTSBURGH CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTION
BY KARL DE SCHWEINIT*
New York City
The decrease in expenditure for educational work, the withdrawal of doctors and nurses from ordinary public health service, and of social workers from their ordinary tasks, the abnormal demands for food and munitions, the temptations of training camps, the exposures and irregularities of life at the front, supply all the material that is needed to prove that the very measures which we have advocated are indeed indispensable.
THIS sentence, taken from a report upon the social problems of the war delivered by Edward T. Devine at the National Conference of Charities and Correction (now the National Conference of Social Work), might be said to summarize the conclusions reached by the 4,300 social workers who met in Pittsburgh, June 6 to 13..
The burden of all the discussions was that the war was a large scale illustration of the importance of social work. It was agreed that such industrial standards as the eight-hour day, the six-day week, no night Work for women must be maintained and extended and that national prohibition must be adopted, certainly for the period of the war, and permanently if possible.
THE NEGRO MIGRATION
Reports made about the migration of negroes from the south showed that this was perhaps the greatest of all the social problems which have developed in this country as byproducts of the war.
“The movement and settlement of negroes in Northern cities is not. a temporary migration, but a movement likely to continue for an indefinite period,” was the opinion of Dr. George E. Haynes, executive secretary of the National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes. He, with other speakers, regarded the migration, despite all the problems it is bringing with it, as a step toward a better place for the negro in the life of the nation. Professor George W. Cook, of Howard University, compared the present movement with the one in 1862. The former


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
migration he described as one of poverty, but he declared that now of the hundreds of southern negroes whom he had interviewed at Washington on their way north, he had not found one who needed financial assistance.
No one underestimated the difficulties which this movement of negroes is causing. On the other hand the work which is being done in many cities' by negroes and interested white people to meet the newcomers and to find homes and jobs for them is most encouraging.
In Detroit in six months 1,000 negroes were placed in skilled occupations by the local branch of the National Urban League, and 1,500 in unskilled employment. “Only by the development of industrial efficiency, individually and collectively,” said Forrester B. Washington, secretary of the league, “can we convince the captains of industry that the negro will be just as much a necessity to production after the war as now.”
In pursuance of ,this idea the league has been holding meetings in the various factories of the city during the noon hour, at which the importance of punctuality, efficiency, ambition, and steady hard work has been emphasized. Effort is also being made to place the negroes in as wide a variety of occupations as possible so that after the war there will be greater opportunity for employment and less chance that the negro will be restricted to any one field of industry. The league has also been active in providing houses for the migrants and in developing recreational opportunities for them. Reports from .other cities showed that while the work in Detroit was perhaps more extensive than that done in many cities it was typical of the way in which the problem of negro migration is being met in many parts of the country.
INCREASE IN ILLEGITIMACY RATE
Another byproduct of the war feared by many of the social workers is an increase in the illegitimacy rate. J. Prentice Murphy, general secretary of the children’s aid society of Boston warned the members of the conference against being stampeded into an hysterical movement for the establishment of large congregate maternity homes.
“I hope,” he said, “that the progressive institutions giving maternity care to unmarried mothers will provide for many of these women by placing them in well selected families. Is it not wrong for us to group too many mothers together just because they happen to be the mothers of illegitimate children? In only too many instances maternity homes will mean the pooling and over-emphasis of the experiences which have brought the girls there.”
It is significant that during the great war that is being fought for democracy the conference should have changed its name from National Conference of Charities and Correction to National Conference of Social Work. For forty-four years the conference had been growing away


1917] PITTSBURGH CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES
577
from the old idea that charity was something given to people and into the newer idea that social work is designed to train people to take their part in democratic life and government. Indeed one of the most interesting things about the conference was the variety of ways shown in which the effort to develop leaders and to organize democracy is being made.
COMMUNITY CENTEES
It was from this point of view that John Collier, of the people’s institute, New York, described the manner in which community centers are being established in school buildings, libraries, and park buildings. The community centers, Mr. Collier said, are giving the people of city neighborhoods an interest in government and an ability to share therein. “In the community center,” he explained, “the organized common people pay the bills and make the policies. The community center is a tenant of the city and depends for its success on the expertness which can be had only through co-operating with government and with organized social service.”
Similarly James Ford, assistant professor of social ethics at Harvard, argued in favor of co-operative union's because they would teach labor big business. At present labor loses many potential leaders because as they develop executive and business ability they are graduated into the capitalist classes. He declared that it was most significant that the American Federation of Labor and the Socialist party should be considering the question of co-operative unions.
“The co-operative union,” said Professor Ford, “discovers what Professor Marshall calls ‘our greatest waste product,’ namely, the latent abilities of workingmen and utilizes those latent abilities not only in the fields of business and citizenship but throughout the whole range of social conduct. It not only increases the income of individual members but creates a collective capital which can be used on occasion to free the working classes from any form of exploitation.”
CO-OPEKATIVE GROCERIES
Professor Ford added that no form of co-operation is so little needed as the co-operative grocery stores. The grocery business is highly competitive and prices are kept low. He suggested co-operation in the plowing and planting of vacant suburban lands, in buying fertilizer and tools, in the canning and evaporating of food products and in recreational enterprises.
THE SCHOOL MANSE
In the meetings devoted to rural work the discussion turned largely to ways of developing rural community leadership and of enabling the farmer to take part in government. Professor Arthur J. Todd, of the


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
University of Minnesota, emphasized the importance of extending the school center idea to the country. He cited the school “manse” as a means of holding the teacher to a longer term of residence and thereby making it possible for him to become a social factor.
“Most rural teachers,” he said, “are paid simply for the school term and never return a second year to the same community. Their average residence is less than two years of 140 days each. Why by contrast are 83 per cent of Swiss teachers permanent? Largely, it seems, because they are employed the year round, and are provided with homes and other inducements to strike root. The teacher’s home or school manse idea is spreading rapidly not only abroad but also in the United States. North Dakota, for example, has over a score; Washington had 108 last year. In Hawaii one third of the schools have such cottages built at public expense.
“House the teacher at least as decently as a good Holstein cow, engage him by the year, allow him vacations on pay, give him land for his own use and as a demonstration garden, utilize him during the summer for social center meetings, institutes, surveys, pay him a living wage and he will cease to be a casual migrant. Where these things have been done the teachers’ cottages become not only homes for new solid members of the community, but also genuine community centers in the fullest sense of the word.”
ONE SOCIAL UNIT ORGANIZATION
One of the most interesting experiments described at the conference was that of the National Social Unit Organization. This organization has selected a district of Cincinnati as a laboratory for achieving real democracy by enabling the rank and file of the people to obtain a clear idea of their needs and of how to meet them. The wellbeing of the children of the district has been taken as the starting point. In order to safeguard their health a citizens’ council has been established in each block with a woman as organizer. She visits not merely the mothers of the poor but all mothers with small children. Wilbur C. Phillips, executive secretary of the Social Unit Organization, showed how as the citizens’ council followed the ramifications involved in securing health for 100 per cent of the children of the block it would find itself touching government from a score of different angles. Thus the local citizenship would be organized for democracy.
Many other illustrations might be cited of the different ways in which this theme of training people for democracy showed itself. Aside from the fact of the change of name the Pittsburgh meeting of the National Conference marks a notable advance toward the democratization of social work.


1917]
NEW JERSEY FINANCIAL LEGISLATION
579
RECENT FINANCIAL LEGISLATION IN NEW JERSEY1
BY RALPH E. GEORGE Whitman College
IN the last two years, the legislature of New Jersey has passed a series of laws regulating the management of municipal finances which make possible a marked advance in the financial administration of the cities of that state. This legislation was initiated and supported by the commission for the survey of municipal financing, appointed by the speaker of the house of assembly. Perhaps the commission is more commonly known as the Pierson commission, in honor of its energetic chairman, the Hon. Arthur N. Pierson. Under his leadership, the 1916 legislature passed a law regulating the management of debts; while the 1917 legislature added to this several statutes regulating floating debt, the payment of permanent debt, the form and procedure of budget legislation, and also established the state department of municipal accounts.
This legislation falls roughly into four parts: That concerned with the management of city debt, that establishing a budget system; that determining the procedure for the attainment of uniform accounts and reports, and provision for the enforcement of the other regulations imposed. Under these heads the laws passed by the 1916 and 1917 legislature will be briefly described.
MUNICIPAL INDEBTEDNESS
Legislation with regard to municipal indebtedness is of interest in all states at the present time, since there is probably no branch of municipal finance so mishandled. New Jersey cities have erred in common with other cities. As a result of its investigations, the commission in 1916 made the following report:
The survey has revealed that many of the municipalities and counties have not been meeting the cost of the conduct of their affairs out of the revenues applicable to current year. There have been employed a multitude of schemes and expedients to conceal such unbusinesslike practices, too numerous and too complicated to recite in this report. This has brought to many communities floating debts which have been periodically funded into long term bonds, and the process repeated in some instances by refunding floating debt bonds. It is evident that these practices have been employed for the most part to avoid an increase in tax rate. Such a policy is too dangerous to be further sanctioned by the statutes.
1 This summary of the recent New Jersey legislation is based upon Laws of New Jersey, 1916, 1917, particularly chapter 252 of the Laws of 1916, and chapters 110, 192, 155, 212, 154, and 155 of the Laws of 1917. Additional information of interest is contained in the reports of the commission for the survey of municipal financing for 1916 and 1917.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
Your commission earnestly contends that all expenditures for the maintenance, upkeep and repair of all departments of municipal activities should be met by current revenues. This is the pay as you go policy.
The floating indebtedness now present in any municipality, which is not supported by corresponding live and dependable assets, should be immediately refunded, that this overshadowing burden may not complicate nor hinder the proper financing of future municipal needs.
The adoption of a more businesslike system is now required by the legislation of 1916 which limits the term of bonds to the life of the improvement, prohibits refunding of bonds, specifies the purposes for which the debt may be incurred, requires the use of installment bonds, sets-a limit beyond which debts may not go, governs the method of selling bonds, and prescribes the method of raising money in anticipation of tax revenues and in cases of emergency.
In the first place, bonds can not be issued for a period longer than the life of the improvement and this requirement is made specific by the insertion in the law of limits beyond which bonds issued for different, purposes may not run, as follows:
Acquisition, construction, and reconstruction of sewer systems.....
“ “ “ “ “ gas “
“ “ “ “ “ water supply systems
“ “ “ “ “ electric light “
“ “ “ “ “ crematory plants....
Acquiring public parks.............................................
“ playgrounds..............................................
“ other lands................................................
“ buildings
frame.................................................
nonfireproof..........................................
fireproof.............................................
Construction or reconstruction of bridges, stone, iron or cement...
“ “ “ “ streets
Land and gravel...............................................
Water bound macadam...........................................
Bituminous concrete...........................................
Asphalt.......................................................
Concrete six inches thick.....................................
Construction of curbs, sidewalks, gutters..........................
Installation municipal telephones, police and fire alarms, etc.....
Purchase of vehicles...............................................
Land for cemeteries................................................
Construction of sewer, water, and gas connection to property line..
Elimination of grade crossings.....................................
Equipment, etc., not included above................................
40 years
40 it
30 U
20 it
10 it
50 it
30 u
40 it
20 li
30 li
40 ti
30 u
. 5 it
.10 u
15 it
.20 it
.30 li
.10 it
.30 **
.10 it
.30 (C
.55 it
.50 it
.10 it
That the debts incurred for the above purpose may not overrun the allotted time, is secured by the provisions that such bonds can not be refunded and that all these bonds must be in serial form. The serial form of a bond is required by the following provision:
All bonds hereafter issued by any such municipality shall mature in annual installments commencing not more than two years from their date, and no installment shall be more than fifty per centum in excess of the amount of the smallest prior installment.


1917]
NEW JERSEY FINANCIAL LEGISLATION
581
Yet another limitation imposed upon municipal debts is the provision that the net debts may not exceed seven per cent of the assessed value-average for the three preceding years with certain special exceptions which might raise the limit to nine per cent. The net debt is defined in the law in detailed form, but roughly the method for computing the legally permissible debt is as follows: In the first place the gross debt is-secured by adding the bonded debt, special assessment issues, utility,, schools, parks,2 and the other obligations; from the sum of these classes of debt to find the net debt the following are dedicated: special assessments levied and uncollected, special assessments to be collected and applied to present debt, debt not over three per cent of the assessed valuation where this debt has been incurred for utilities which are paying the interest and redeeming the principal from current revenues, debts incurred for water supply systems, funds and sinking funds, taxes levied for the retirement of the debt, unpaid taxes for the last three years, debts incurred for protection from the seas, and amounts otherwise due the-city. This definition would seem to be more elastic and at the same time more easily understood and applied than the regulations now used in many states.
CHANGE IN THE METHODS OF SELLING BONDS
In the new laws an interesting change is made in the method of selling bonds. At present most cities sell their bonds at a considerable premium and thus often more money is received than is actually needed. This premium is generally used to pay current bills instead of being retained for the ultimate liquidation of the loan. In order to prevent the cities from securing money in this fashion for current expenses, the New Jersey legislation provides that the municipality shall determine what money it. needs and what kinds of bonds it will issue and that it shall then call for bids, awarding the bonds to the bidder who will offer to take the least, number of bonds in return for the money advanced. In this way practically no premium exists and the city gets exactly what money it needs.
SHORT TERM LOANS
The regulations so far given apply only to long time loans, but nearly every city borrows money occasionally for short time periods only. Of this class of loans the anticipation of taxes is probably the most common example, since taxes are not usually paid until well on in the local fiscal year and since the city must raise funds at the beginning of the year to-meet the current expenses. The New Jersey statutes provide that the cities may borrow up to 95 per cent of the taxes voted in the budget. In case these taxes are not paid promptly, tax revenue notes can be issued
2 If these debts are incurred by other political bodies, such for example, as the county, they are counted only for that governmental unit, not for the city.—R. E. G.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
to the amount of delinquent taxes. But here again, provision is made that these shall not be permanent charges, for all tax revenue notes unpaid at the end of three years must be raised in the tax levy of the fourth year.
Yet another short-period debt is provided for in the case of emergency notes, which can be issued only upon vote of two-thirds of the local legislative body. Such notes, however, must be included in the next tax unless inclusion would raise the tax rate by more than one-third of one mill, when the sum needed to retire them can be raised in annual installments of not less than one-third mill.
The provisions for future debt management thus cover two classes of debt: long time and temporary. The first class is restricted as to purpose and as to time, it must be paid in annual installments, and it must be sold in such a way that no substantial premium can be secured for current use. The tax revenue notes issued in anticipation of delinquent taxes can under no circumstances run longer than three years, while the emergency notes must be paid off at the rate of at least one-third mill tax per year. In these regulations little opportunity apparently exists for the development of large debts representing vanished values.
TEANSITION FROM OLD TO NEW SYSTEM
The provisions so far considered deal only with the future debt management of the cities and leave untouched the very difficult problem of making the transition from the old method, or lack of method, to the new system. In connection with the latter problem, some of the greatest obstacles to reform are to be found, but the New Jersey legislature has provided a fairly easy method of making the change, in the case both of the bonded debt and of the floating debt. In the first place, the present bonded debt must be retired gradually by means of the sinking fund, which must be maintained on an interest basis of three and one-half, per cent, that is, the money annually turned over to the sinking fund must be sufficient when invested at three and one-half per cent to meet the bonds in full at maturity. If, however, the sinking funds earns more in any one year than the rate of interest specified, the excess earnings may be deducted from the amount paid the sinking fund from the tax rate during the following year. Moreover, where there is at present a deficit in the sinking fund, a somewhat common condition, this shortage must be made up by a levy of at least one-fifth of a mill tax per year.
In addition to these requirements for repaying the funded debt, careful provisions have been adopted for the retirement of the floating debt. Two classes of floating debt have been considered by the legislature: obligations representing money advanced to the cities on account of delinquent taxes, and general floating debt. The cities are required to refund all delinquent taxes by means of the following classes of debt: tax revenue notes of 1916, representing that year’s delinquent taxes,


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which notes must be redeemed in 1919, tax revenue notes of 1915, to be paid by 1918, and tax revenue notes of 1914, to be paid in.1917. In case it is discovered by the time these notes are due that the taxes represented have been remitted or for other reasons are uncollectible, the deficiency must be paid in five equal installments from the tax levy.
So far as other floating debt is concerned bonds or notes must be issued to redeem the same, such bonds to be payable in equal annual installments, each of which can not be less than one-fifth of one mill tax, to run not longer than 20 years. In these ways, the transition from the old to the new method is rendered relatively easy both for permanent and short time debts, spread out as it is over a considerable period of time, and should not cause the cities any great hardships.
THE BUDGET
The second general feature of the municipal finances covered by this series of laws is the budget. Here the commission recommended and the legislature permitted a choice by the city between the department and the segregated budget, on the ground that the former where feasible allowed greater administrative efficiency. In the words of the commission:
The object sought in the budget law is to have the definite program of administration clearly set forth, both as to sources of revenue and purposes of expenditure, giving the taxpayers opportunity for analyzing and discussing the budget provisions prior to its adoption and operation.
To secure these ends, a uniform plan is adopted, requiring the approval of the budget by the 25th day of the fiscal year and its final adoption by the 40th day, providing for public hearings on the budget prior to its approval and adoption, prohibiting changes from this budget of more than 10 per cent on any item unless a new public hearing is first held, and specifying what shall be included in the budget proposals. With regard to the latter specifications, the budget must include statements of total anticipated revenues, of total expenditures according to purposes, compared with the same items for previous years, of the surplus in the surplus revenue account, and of the amount which must be raised by taxation. Changes in the appropriations after adoption may not vary more than 10 per cent on any item, or more than five per cent of the total appropriation, nor may the amount set aside for contingent expenses exceed â– three per cent of the total. These requirements are slightly modified by the permission to make transfers in the last two weeks of the year upon vote of the governing body.
An interesting part of this law is the provision of a surplus revenue account, which can be used for financing purposes, thus avoiding the periodical loans needed by so many cities before the taxes are paid. To this surplus revenue account must be carried all unexpended balances. If there develops any shortage in the municipal receipts, the city can


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borrow from this account but no appropriation can be made from it after the budget has been adopted. (It may serve as a basis for appropriations, however, prior to passage of the budget.)
DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ACCOUNTS
The third and fourth objects of this legislation, namely, the attainment of uniform municipal accounts and provision for enforcement of the acts already outlined are largely secured through the establishment of a new state administrative body, the department of municipal accounts. A commissioner of municipal accounts is to be appointed by the state treasurer, to receive a salary of $3,600 per annum. While he is given power to require the adoption of uniform accounting and reporting and to enforce all state laws dealing with local finances his main duties are apparently concerned with the enforcement of debt legislation. He is given power to determine the adequacy of the municipal sinking funds and to require the levy of additional taxes to make good any deficiency in these funds. To make this power effective he must through his staff audit the accounts of the various sinking funds and he receives annual reports from cities of all debt transactions in accordance with forms he prescribes. Not only does he have control over all sinking funds, but he is charged with the supervision of the procedure for any incurrence of debt, determining whether the debts can or can not be legally incurred.
In summary, this series of laws may be said to embody many of the most successful features of sound municipal financing. For the solution of the troublesome debt problem, the legislature has practically adopted the view that the most important need is the assurance that the debts will be paid within the lifetime of the improvements to pay for which they were issued. More emphasis is placed upon repayment than upon the amount of the debt. Then, New Jersey has worked out a fairly easy method of making the change to the new system, since while the old debts must be paid off, ample time is allowed the cities to do this without seriously disarranging their financial plans.
The budget legislation is fortunate in that it insures the fundamental essentials of a definite yearly program, of ample publicity and of fairly good means for insuring that the plan will be carried out in practice, at the same time that it leaves the cities free to adopt the type of budget best suited to their various conditions and management. By this series of laws, furthermore, New Jersey has joined the group of states which believe in uniform accounting, at least uniform reporting, methods and has organized a state department to assure the success of this feature of the legislation. The power of the commissioner of municipal accounts,, while adequate, so far as the law is concerned, can not prove very offensive to city officials since the latter are not limited greatly in the determination of policy so long as the sound financial methods prescribed are followed.


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Finally, the provisions that bonds shall be sold on what is practically an interest basis and the establishment of surplus revenue account for financing purposes are distinct advances. The execution of these laws deserves the closest attention by students of municipal finance and by city officials throughout the country. Not so rigid and far-reaching as some state legislation, the New Jersey laws are designed to attain the end of good municipal financing without impairing the essential powers of the cities.
EFFICIENCY IN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS
BY WILFORD E. TALBERT1 San Francisco
THE world war, the high cost of living, the general improvements in methods of conducting private business—these and many other factors have led to a recent widespread interest in the matter of efficiency and economy in the administration of public affairs, and particularly in the management of the public schools which are responsible for approximately one-third of all governmental costs.
THE MEANING OF EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY
In the sense in which we shall use it in this article, efficiency simply means “the one best way of doing things.” It implies the application of scientific methods to the solution of administrative problems, the substitution of facts for mere popular opinions or prevailing traditions, the discarding of “main strength and awkwardness” for intelligent and well-directed activity, and the elimination of whatever of time, or effort, or expense, or misery may be found to be unnecessary.
Economy, too, is subject to so many different interpretations that it may be well to state our own definition at the outset. By economy we do not mean subtraction, but we do mean the elimination of unnecessary waste. True economy makes for efficiency; false or “poor” economy does not. Efficiency always promotes true economy.
THE SCHOOL PROBLEM STATED
The public schools now call for approximately one-third of all governmental revenues, and statistics show that, despite the enlargement of other governmental functions, the cost of education still continues to advance more rapidly than that of other departments. In California, the cost of the lower schools has doubled every seven years since 1900. This means that by 1981 the schools will cost four times what they do now!
1 Assistant in charge, bureau of educational investigation, taxpayers’ association of California; consulting director of the departjnent of reference and research in the Oakland schools for three years in active charge.


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With the wholesale destruction of life and property which has been going on in the world for the past three years, and which promises to continue for as much longer, it is hard to see how the material wealth of the country will warrant the continued setting aside of larger and larger proportions of the revenues of' any state for the promotion of a more or less nonproductive enterprise such as the public schools of to-day are thought by some to be.
On the other hand, when we study the causes of increasing school costs, we are compelled to admit that all of the chief causes, at least, are justified, and if we honestly face the present needs of the schools we are forced to the conclusion that it is not desirable to try to avoid the difficulty by merely limiting the expenditures.
Hence, the school problem, briefly stated, is, “How shall we maintain the schools at their present, or better than present, efficiency without unduly increasing present expenditures?
In facing this problem fairly and squarely, there are two main premises upon which to work.
In the first place, we must know all of the conditions involved. This implies the making of a survey.
In the second place, we must attack the things about the school system which are fundamentally wrong. This implies emphasis upon the cause of existing evils rather than upon the evils themselves.
HISTORY OF SCHOOL SURVEYS
The school survey as a guide to the intelligent solution of school problems is a comparatively recent development in the administration of public affairs. Perhaps the earliest notable fore-runners of the present movement were the investigations ordered in Chicago in 1897 and in Cleveland in 1906. In each case a special commission of experts was appointed to study the needs of the schools and their reports were given the widest publicity.
Following these two isolated cases, a long list of cities have ordered investigations of one sort,or another, the number increasing so rapidly that it is no longer possible to keep track of all of them. The most notable of these surveys were conducted in the following cities: Boise, Idaho (1910), the first of the more recent surveys; Baltimore (1911), the first of a long list of surveys by the United States Bureau of Education; New York City (begun 1911), the most expensive survey; Portland, Oregon
(1913) , whose report has since become a popular university text-book on school administration; Richmond (1914), the first of the comprehensive surveys of the society for the promotion of industrial education; Chicago
(1914) , an extensive auto-survey; Salt Lake City (1915), noted for its scientific study of educational products; and Cleveland (1915) whose unique form and methods of publication have attracted wide attention.2
2 See National Municipal Review, Vol, vi, page 407.


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The school survey movement has not been confined to cities. In 1905, the legislature of Massachusetts appointed a commission of nine members; to study for the entire state the need for vocational training, how far this need was met by-the existing school system, and what new steps ought to be taken. Since that time a large number of states each year have resorted to similar methods of solving important school problems.
EARLY STATE SCHOOL SURVEYS
Among the earliest state school surveys were those made of typical counties in various states by the board of home missions of the Presbyterian church. In general, they resulted in recommendations for the adoption of the county unit of school administration; better supervision of rural schools; more attention to agriculture, manual arts, home economics, music, and drawing; and the consolidation of small schools.
Most of the other early state surveys and many of the more recent surveys dealt only with limited portions of the state school problem. For example, we might cite the study of secondary schools in Vermont (1912) where it was recommended that the whole secondary school system be completely reorganized along the lines of the better high schools of other states; a study of rural schools in Wisconsin (1912), in which it was recommended that expenditures be better controlled, that better supervision be provided by both state and county, that the course of study be enriched and made more practical, and that wider publicity be given school facts; Upper Peninsula, Michigan (1913) in which were suggested higher standards for teachers, elimination of non-essentials from the curriculum, and wider use of the school plant; Orange County, Virginia (1913); four counties, Georgia (1914); three counties, Alabama (1914); five counties, Texas (1914); and San Mateo County, California (1914) in all of which similar recommendations were made.
Still more recently, and largely through the influence of the federal Bureau of Education, another type of partial state survey has come into prominence, namely, the survey of higher educational institutions. In 1915 the University of Oregon was surveyed; in 1916, the State University, the State College, and the State Teachers’ College of Iowa; and, in the same year, the university, college, and normal schools of the state of Washington, and the higher educational institutions of North Dakota. In all of these surveys, which have been largely made under the immediate direction of Dr. Samuel P. Capen, specialist in higher education for the United States bureau of education, the recommendations have favored the better adaptation of the institutions to the needs of the state, the adoption of a unified and consistent educational program, and ample provision for carrying on the functions of these institutions in an efficient, manner.


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COMPLETE STATE SCHOOL SURVEYS
In 1913, the legislature of Ohio inaugurated a new type of survey when it authorized the governor to appoint a commission which should study all of the schools in the state and their administration. On account of the size of the undertaking, and the small appropriation (only $10,000) much of the work was voluntary and consisted largely of the filling out of extensive blanks, the replies to which were later tabulated. The report, covering 352 pages, contains a generous number of “constructive ■suggestions” concerning administration, supervision, the teaching body, instruction, the school plant, pupils, and co-operation of educational agencies.
During the same year an equally thorough survey was made of the Vermont school system by the Carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching and a large staff of experts from outside the state. The survey closed with recommendations for the reorganization of both elementary and secondary education so as to provide for vocational training, the centralization of the state administrative force under a competent commissioner and staff of experts who should be selected by a small unpaid board of education having only legislative functions, the revision of courses of study on the basis of scientific experiment, and the better training of teachers.
In 1914 also were published the results of a survey of rural and village •schools in Colorado covering statistics gathered for the eight years from 1906 to 1913 inclusive. Assuming the reliability of the official reports, it was shown that there was poor attendance and inefficiency everywhere and that the only remedy would be the consolidation of schools and the abolishment of the district system. In 1916, the federal bureau corroborated these findings, and in addition recommended professional superintendents of schools for both the state and the various counties.
One of the most successful state surveys was that conducted in Maryland in 1915 by the general education board. The findings of the survey were embodied in bills, nearly all of which became laws on June 1, 1916 so that, as one reviewer says, “By one bound the state leaped into a truly professional status in matters relating to public education.” State and county officers are given greater power and provided with staffs of expert assistants, the system of apportioning funds is greatly improved, and a good compulsory attendance law goes into immediate effect.
In the latter part of 1916 the federal bureau was asked to survey the entire school system of Wyoming. The final recommendations include a strong central board of control with non-political executive officers, the county unit of administration and supervision of rural schools, a better method of distributing school moneys, better trained teachers,


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and provision for vocational education. Many -of these proposals have already become laws.
Among the latest state educational surveys to be completed was that made in Nevada during the past two years. In February of the present year, the survey commission of that state recommended to the legislature the adoption of constitutional amendments providing for an appointive state board of education and an appointive state superintendent of public instruction, the adoption of the county unit of organization, and the improvement of rural school conditions.
BUREAUS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Such, in brief, has been the history of the noteworthy attempts to improve school systems by means of the survey. During the same time, however, there has sprung up another movement of equal or even greater promise, namely, the establishment of departments of educational research whose chief function is to carry on within the system itself a “perpetual survey.”
Like most other educational improvements, this idea first took root in the cities of the country. In 1914 there were such bureaus in Rochester, Baltimore, New Orleans, Boston, New York City, and Oakland. At the present time, one hears of a new city department of research almost every few days.
Like the survey, the research bureau is not confined to cities. The following states are among those having some agency which is constantly Rt work on state-wide investigations of the survey type: Wisconsin, New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and perhaps many others.
PLAN OF THE TAXPAYERS’ ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA
The writer has no disparaging criticism to offer with respect to any of the foregoing methods of solving the problem of efficiency in the public schools. He offers the details of his own plans largely because he is more familiar with them and because he wishes the suggestions or criticisms •of his readers, as to the feasibility of the proposed undertaking.
At the outset of this discussion it was stated that we believed the solution of the problem before us lay not in curtailing expenses on the one hand or in expanding educational activities on the other hand, but in first securing adequate information and secondly attacking those things which are the prime causes of existing evils. Furthermore, public education in America is a state function and the most important problems of school administration are mostly state problems.
Believing in these principles as fundamental, the taxpayers’ association of California proposes to begin on the first of July a perpetual survey .of conditions in the state, lasting as many years as may be necessary to
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bring about the desired.results. A central bureau of educational investigation for the state has already been created, and it is proposed to establish from time to time as many branch offices, either temporary or permanent, as may be necessary to secure all of the desired information. Wherever cooperation can be secured, existing educational offices will be drafted into the service. The writer has been asked to direct the bureau, and Professor Ellwood P. Cubberley of Stanford University has kindly consented to act as consulting expert. The president of the association is Vanderlynn Stow, financial manager of Leland Stanford Jr. University, and the director is Herbert W. Clark, formerly of the New Mexico state tax commission.
The association has no preconceived notions of what ought to be (except as already proven by other surveys), and intends to arrive at conclusions in a purely scientific and unbiased manner. However, it has a very definite program of possible solutions to the problem of efficiency, and it proposes to study these possible solutions with extreme care to see whether or not they are the right ones. Briefly stated, our assumption as to what may be the best means of bringing about educational efficiency follows:
1. A state controlled efficiency bureau.
2. A state organization for efficiency, based on functions rather than the ordinary “lines of authority.”
3. The application of scientific management to the conduct of the state’s school business.
4. The adoption of separate units of administration for separate functions. Thus the state may be a single unit for the certification of teachers; it may be divided into five sections for the purchasing and distribution of standard supplies and equipment; and it may utilize city and county subdivisions for the supervision of instruction or strictly local affairs.
These and other possible solutions are now being discussed in the association’s official organ, the California Taxpayers’ Journal, whose editorial offices are in the American Bank Bldg., Los Angeles, California.
The paramount task of the new bureau will be to convince citizens and lawmakers of the validity of its findings; hence it is conducting a. constant campaign of education not only through its official journal,, but through the public press, through educational periodicals, and through conferences with educators, statesmen, and taxpayers so that by the time the investigations are all completed, the public will be ready to act upon the findings submitted.
The writer will gladly welcome any suggestions or criticisms, and will be especially interested in getting in touch with any who may be working along similar lines.
Address: Wilford E. Talbert, care Taxpayers’ association of California, Insurance Exchange Bldg., San Francisco, Cal.


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PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION
BY C. H. BENJAMIN1 Purdue University
SO FAR as I have means of knowing, this is the most comprehensive report on the various aspects of the smoke problem that has appeared in this country. The study made by the Chicago commission under the auspices of the various railroad companies is more voluminous, but not so comprehensive since it is concerned principally with the problem as it affects the railroad terminals and the possibilities of electrification.2
CLASSIFICATION
It is interesting to note that of these bulletins3 dnly one, no. 8, is concerned with the prevention of smoke by mechanical means and that the other six are devoted to the various ills inherent on atmospheric smoke pollution. In other words, six are devoted to a discussion of the disease and but one to the problem of its cure or abatement. Perhaps this is well since it has usually been found more difficult to convince people in general of the evils of smoke than to effect its abatement when once convinced of danger.
It is comparatively easy by various mechanical appliances to prevent most of the smoke coming from factory chimneys, but it is very difficult to interest the community in this problem and to get a healthy public sentiment.
A review of the staff which has conducted these investigations also shows an interesting grouping. There are eight physicians, five architects, four engineers, two chemists and one, each, botanist, meteorologist, bacteriologist, physicist, psychologist, economist, lawyer, and librarian; that is, about one-third are physicians, another third, natural scientists, and the remaining third made up mainly of architects and engineers. Naturally all except the engineers are more concerned with the question as to what smoke is and what it does, leaving only the engineers and possibly to some extent the architects, to answer the question of how effective means may be devised for its abatement.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PBOBLEM
Very properly, the first bulletin is concerned with the broader aspects
1 Dean of the schools of engineering, Purdue University.
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. v, p. 331.
3 3. Psychological Aspects of the Problem of Atmospheric Smoke Pollution; 4. The Economic Cost of the Smoke Nuisance to Pittsburgh; 5. The Meteorological Aspect of the Smoke Problem; 6. Papers on the Effect of Smoke on Building Materials; 7. The Effect of the Soot in Smoke on Vegetation; 8. Some Engineering Phases of Pittsburgh’s Smoke Problem; 9. Influence of Smoke on Health.


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as affecting the general energy and happiness of the community. Although this is a factor which cannot be expressed in any material system of measures, it is undoubtedly the most important of all. If it can be proved that smoky atmosphere has a depressing and deleterious influence upon the bulk of the people in the community, a serious indictment has been established at once. It is difficult to establish such facts by statistics, but the bulletin shows clearly that people coming from a clear to a smoky atmosphere are affected unfavorably and lose a certain vital efficiency. That smoke has a tendency not only to diminish the life-giving effect of the sun’s rays but also to promote cloudiness, fog and rain, the smoky dust forming nuclei for the rain drops, is another count in the indictment. Most of us are aware of the exhilaration and tonic effect due to a high barometer and bright sunshine and the corresponding depression due to a low barometer accompanied by rain or fog. That this is perhaps psychological rather than physiological makes no difference; the effect being the same. A depressing mental condition is just as inimical to efficiency as a physical one.
On the other hand, it is a peculiar fact that offences against order and decency are more apt to occur on clear, dry days, there being more energy and vitality at such times.
Indirectly smoke has an injurious effect on the mental fitness of the people in a community, first, by its tendency to aggravate diseases of the various membranes especially those connected with the respiratory functions; and second, because of its destructive influence on aesthetic and artistic objects such as pictures, draperies and mural decorations. One who will go from the business district of a city like Pittsburgh, Chicago or Cleveland to a similar location in a city which is comparatively free from smoke, like Portland, Oregon, or Los Angeles, could hardly fail to notice an entire change in his mental attitude and his feeling towards life in general and his environment in particular.
ECONOMIC COST
The fourth bulletin deals with the economic cost of smoke in the Pittsburgh district. It quotes various data obtained in other cities and states that the report of the Cleveland chamber of commerce is perhaps the most accurate estimate. This report fixes the per capita loss in Cleveland at from $10 to $12 per annum and suggests that the total amount including indirect losses is nearly double this. The reports from other cities are based largely on the Cleveland figures, assuming a greater or less density of smoke for the particular locality studied.
The bulletin then discusses the probable losses in Pittsburgh, classifying these as direct fuel loss, cost of personal laundry and dry cleaning, expense of repairs and renewals in the household, injury to stocks and fixtures in stores, office buildings and hotels and, finally, the rather


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indefinite loss due to the general disagreeableness of environment. An average loss of about 20 per cent of fuel due to smoky conditions is estimated. This is in agreement with experimental data which have been obtained in various plants. It is not at all unusual to realize a saving of from 15 to 25 per cent by the introduction of approved methods of firing. The loss is not due to the escape of carbon in the smoke, since this is very small, but rather to the dirty condition of the flues and other heating surfaces which reduces their conducting power.
In making a study of the extra cost of cleaning clothes, draperies, wall papers, paints, etc., the general method has been to obtain from census statistics or other sources, figures as to the total cost of such work and then to assume that a certain per cent of this was due to the smoke nuisance. The ratio assumed in the bulletin is one-third plus. Any such assumption is more or less gratuitous and cannot be supported by argument but it seems to be the only way of getting at the probable cost.
In my own experience, I have found that my personal laundry bill was nearly if not quite doubled by a sojourn in Cleveland during its worst days. Assuming 30 cents per week for the smokeless locality and 60' cents for Cleveland, would mean $1.20 cents a month or $14.40 a year as an increase on one item. This would dispose of my share of the $12 per capita and a little over. A rough calculation like this leads me to believe that the figures of $12 per capita per year are conservative. Furthermore, it may be said that the Pittsburgher or the Clevelander never really knows what clean linen is. During a summer vacation in the east after living for some years in Cleveland, my family were shocked at the grimy appearance of the family linen as it appeared on the line in close proximity to the spotless habiliments of the eastern people. Add to this direct expense, the inevitable deterioration and wear caused by repeated launderings and cleanings and we have a further loss in the value of the clothing itself.
Too much importance should not be accorded to statistics like those in Table I which show the value of the laundry business in various cities. The table shows large expense for laundry work in Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis. On the other hand, Cleveland, which has been quoted as a rival to Pittsburgh in its smokiness, has with the exception of Philadelphia, the smallest laundry expense of any of the eleven cities quoted. Now either Cleveland has been maligned as a smoky city or its inhabitants are not so careful of their personal appearance. Statistics of this kind are influenced by so many local conditions that it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions from them.
In the matter of renewing wall paper, paint, etc., the comparison is more easily made. Nearly every householder knows about how often it is necessary to perform these operations and their cost is easily ascertained. The bulletin shows that repairs and renewals of this sort are


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
required about twice as often as in cleaner cities and that approximately the same is true of sheet metal work.
The total cost to the householders of Pittsburgh for direct expense due to its smoky conditions are shown approximately to be $2,400,000 per year or about $4 per capita. The relative cost in wholesale and retail stores is greater than in the household since the goods suffer a depreciation in selling value greater than the actual damage done. The stores which suffer most conspicuously from smoke and soot are those where delicate fabrics (silks and muslins) are sold and the bookstores and picture shops whose wares are dependent largely on their appearance for their market value. The hotels suffer in the same way since their business depends to a large extent upon the attractive conditions of the surroundings.
What after all impresses the reader most in studying this subject is that large, but inestimable loss due to the general disagreeableness of the situation. The fact that everything is dirty and grimy and in perpetual need of cleaning or renewing has a depressing effect upon business and upon the spirits of the people which is economically as serious as any of the direct losses enumerated. This bulletin constitutes the second serious attempt to determine the economical waste due to the smoke nuisance and goes to confirm previous statistics.
A summary of losses for Pittsburgh approximates $10,000,000 a year and assuming the population of the city at that time to have been 600,000, would give an annual cost per capita of between $16 and $17 which corresponds with the Cleveland estimate, assuming that Pittsburgh is smokier than the other city.
METEOROLOGICAL ASPECT
A study of the effect of smoke on the weather is given in bulletin no. 5 and its conclusions are deduced more or less directly from the recorded statistics of the U. S. weather bureau. It is shown with a fair degree of certainty that the effect of smoke is to increase the density of fogs and to diminish the amount of sunshine received. It is also shown that smoke has a particularly destructive effect on the blue rays of the spectrum. There is no doubt but what this might have an unfavorable effect upon the health of the community, especially of those individuals who are not in a normal healthy condition. The effect on temperature is slight, but the general tendency of smoke is to diminish the range, increasing the minimum and decreasing the maximum temperatures.
Careful experiments have shown that the limit of visibility in Pittsburgh ranges from 1 mile to 1.6 miles, according to the time of day. In the country 10 miles is quite a usual limit and under good conditions, 30 or 40 miles is not unusual. To me it would seem that the meteorological effect of smoke is to produce a climatic condition which, while it might


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not be in a marked degree injurious to physical health, would have the depressing mental effect to which I have alluded.
The data in this bulletin are a distinct contribution to the literature on the subject.
EFFECT ON BUILDING MATERIALS
The sixth bulletin deals with the effect of smoke on the various materials used in building and with definite materials and costs.
There are two quite distinct effects due to the deposition of soot. One is the discoloration due to the carbon and tar; the other, the corrosion produced by the sulphuric acid present. If it were not for the presence of coal tar, little damage would result as the carbon dust and the acid would neither of them be brought in such close contact with the material. The tar acts as a cement to fasten the dust to the surface and to hold the sulphuric acid in contact with the material.
Most of the data given in this bulletin are the results of actual tests made by public authorities and by manufacturers. The principal damage done to exterior and interior painted surfaces is due to discoloration and the need of frequent cleaning and repainting. In a clear atmosphere, exterior paint will last five or six years before repainting is necessary and interior paint perhaps twice as long. In a smoky city like Pittsburgh, repainting is necessary at intervals of from one to three years. The same ratio probably obtains for interior work so that it is safe to estimate the cost of painting as from two to three times that in a clean atmosphere. Furthermore, the certainty of discoloration by smoke leads to the practice of using darker colors and this in itself makes the buildings gloomy.
The effect of soft coal smoke on stone is shown to be quite serious on account of the combination of the sulphuric acid in the soot with the lime in the building stone, making the surface more porous and liable to disintegration. The discoloration due to the soot is also serious since it penetrates the surface to a certain extent and is difficult to remove. The author quotes some data from English experiments which show the corrosion of unprotected iron work to be six times as great in a smoky district as in the open country. Zinc, tin and copper are less affected, especially the two latter, but their cost is in some cases prohibitive. Under conditions in Pittsburgh, it is assumed that galvanized sheet iron and steel will last only half as long as they would in a pure atmosphere.
The damage done to interior decorations receives a more detailed treatment in this bulletin. In general it may be said that from two to three times the expense of papering, painting, renewing draperies, etc. is entailed by the smoke-laden atmosphere.
In conclusion the bulletin speaks of the limitations on architectural expression due to smoky conditions, the impracticability of using light and bright colors in decoration and the tendency to use dull colors and materials easily cleaned.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
EFFECT ON VEGETATION
Bulletin no. 7 is specific in character and is substantiated by direct experiments. Direct observation has shown the difference in vegetation in the neighborhood of manufacturing plants. The injuries caused by soot seem to be due partly to a mechanical clogging of pores and consequent reduction of vitality combined with the bad effects of sulphur and other acids when present. A superficial examination of the foliage shows the leaves dying from the tip in and the plants from the top down, while cross sections of the limbs show a narrowing of the rings of growth as compared with those in country districts. The data given in this bulletin are not sufficient to justify any very definite conclusion. It seems to me that the field experiments under existing conditions are those which are most likely to furnish useful data. A continuation of this work in various localities and covering a period of years would be desirable. Perhaps more attention should be paid to the effects of sulphuric acid as investigations made under my direction in the neighborhood of Philadelphia showed a comparatively large quantity of this present on the surfaces of the leaves.
ENGINEERING PHASES OF THE PROBLEM
Bulletin no. 8 deals primarily with the causes of the production of black smoke and, secondarily, with means for its abatement. It is very fully illustrated, the pictures showing the contrast between clear and smoky days in different parts of Pittsburgh.
The first half is concerned mainly with the smoke conditions in and around Pittsburgh. Credit is given the various buildings and other structures in the business section for a large amount of smoke due to poor draft and careless methods of firing. Central heating plants supplying groups of buildings and provided with proper stacks and mechanical stokers are recommended as the most obvious solution. The bulk of the smoke is shown to come, however, from the manufacturing furnaces, boiler and heating plants being the greatest offenders. The metallurgical furnaces are not particularly smoky except those used in connection with reheating and in so-called soaking pits. The replacing of hand fired furnaces by mechanical stokers and the old-fashioned coke ovens by the more modern by-product coke ovens will undoubtedly reduce the smoke from these sources. Naturally the locomotives and steamboats are great offenders. The case is not so hopeless with the locomotives as the firemen are intelligent and the railroad organization is in a position to enforce reasonable rules for firing. The more general use of brick arches and combustion tubes and the introduction of the so-called one shovel system of firing will reduce the smoke materially. The steamboat, however, is a different proposition. The furnaces are designed merely for burning the greatest amount of coal without regard to its efficiency


1917]
PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION
597
and the firemen as a rule are not of the better class. As far as I know,, no solution of the difficulty in regard to steamboats has been arrived at in Pittsburgh or elsewhere.
The smoke from domestic furnaces, while comparatively slight, causes-considerable local annoyance and is becoming a more serious problem with the more general use of soft coal in them. It would seem as if inventors might profitably concern themselves with developing a type of domestic furnace or heater which would burn soft coal successfully with medium draft.
The great bulk of the smoke causing disagreeable atmospheric conditions comes from manufacturing rather than domestic furnaces.
It is not saying too much to state that the engineer has solved the problem as far as smoke abatement in large furnaces is concerned since most of the stokers illustrated will either entirely eliminate the smoke or will reduce it to the point where it is not especially objectionable. This is especially true of the chain grate and underfeed stokers.
This bulletin is a very creditable presentation of the subject of smoke production and smoke abatement.
EFFECTS OF SMOKE ON HEALTH
The last bulletin deals more particularly with the physiological effects rather than the psychological. It is difficult for a layman to review understanding^ bulletins written by medical men in language which is more or less unfamiliar to the average man. A rather cursory reading of this bulletin gives me the impression that the case of smoke versus health is summed up in the Scotch verdict “Not proven.” It is at least an open question whether the smoke from soft coal has a good or bad effect on those subject to tuberculosis. There is no doubt that the dust from smoke is absorbed more or less into the tissues, but it is difficult to show that this has any particular effect on the health of the individual other than to cause some irritation. To compare this with the effect of smoke upon the health of firemen is hardly fair. The smoke from a burning building is frequently so dense as to cause partial suffocation and to induce severe inflammation of the respiratory organ and even nausea. It is doubtful whether breathing the atmosphere of a city like Pittsburgh would cause any such troubles. It seems to me that the indirect effect upon the health of the community due to the dark and gloomy condition of the atmosphere and buildings is perhaps more serious than any direct effect. The writers of this bulletin seem to indicate that inhaled smoke is more apt to cause pneumonia or other acute lung diseases than tuberculosis. The comparisons made of different cities showing some relation between the soot deposit and the prevalence of lung diseases are not very convincing. The difficulty of isolating the smoke condition which it is desired to study from the other varying conditions which affect the life


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
and health of the city renders comparisons of this sort rather misleading. Possibly a comparison of different districts in the same city where climatic conditions are essentially the same except as effected by smoke, would be more conclusive, but when we attempt to compare the death rate of Boston, Chicago, St. Louis and Philadelphia, we have too many diverse Influences to consider.
It is not too much to say that this bulletin represents a careful and conscientious review of an exceedingly difficult subject, and forms a fitting close to the series. I suppose no one ever doubts that a smokeladen atmosphere is unhealthy in many ways and that it is a physical and mental burden.
I wish to emphasize the difficulty of making a review of this interesting series of bulletins in the space available for that purpose. This investigation and its results are eminently praiseworthy. The work deals largely with facts and experiments, many of them original, and has brought together, arranged, classified and indexed a valuable amount of information on the problem of smoke, its effects and its possible abatement. I wish that these facts and conclusions could be brought to the attention of every householder in our larger cities. I believe that the work of the Mellon institute has been a distinct contribution to this and hope that its facts and conclusions may be read and appreciated by many people.
GOOD many people, no doubt, have been surprised that war,
instead of proving a check to the planning and improvement of
cities, has provided an impetus. But this is only as it should be. War reveals the realities of life. It sifts the luxuries, leaving necessities; it puts a premium on the prevention of waste; it exalts efficiency; “preparedness” is its fetich. So city planning, which does all of these things, emerges from the test of war with better popular appreciation and higher esteem than ever before, and the output of American city planning studies, which this annual review attempts each year to appraise, maintains its volume and content.
To the reviewer’s table there have come in published form, during the last twelve months, six comprehensive and elaborate city plan reports, and a dozen or more partial reports devoted to special subjects, besides ten annual reports of city plan commissions. The six first named are
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. v, pp. 388 and 638; vol. iv, p. 383: vol. iii, p, 539: vol ii, p. 160.
CONCLUSION
RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS
BY CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON Rochester, N. Y.


1917]
RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS
599
for the cities of East Boston, Bridgeport, Conn., Evanston and Elgin, 111., Milwaukee and Sacramento.
SOME GENERAL PLAN REPORTS
The East Boston report2 was prepared by George Gibbs, Jr. With that modesty of exterior characteristic of officially published reports, the report is divided into two parts. The first gives the results of the survey, recording those peculiarities of location, history and evident requirements which the plan must meet and attempt to satisfy. The second contains the recommendations, at once for specific improvements and for the comprehensive plan. In part one there are thirteen subheads, these including existing plans for improvements, main thoroughfares, freight transportation, passenger lines and terminals, housing conditions, financial, legal, etc. Part two, which opens with a large colored map, contains a brief reference to zoning, and an outline of more than fifty specific improvements. These include such matters as parks, playgrounds, street widenings, extensions, etc. The plan, taken as a whole, contemplates “first, the development of the entire waterfront; second, the improvement of approaches on all sides; third, a complete system of thoroughfares; fourth, the public ownership of all spaces that may be needed by the public; and fifth, the public control, so far as required for the general and individual welfare of the people, of all property not publicly owned.” Could there be better argument than presented by this list for the value of city planning studies?
The Bridgeport Study,3 by John Nolen, is a large, sumptuous looking volume, in which a great deal of space is taken up by photographs, maps and plans; and in which, one may add, the comparatively scanty text of the main report, excellent in its matter, has been marred by poor proof reading.
The report is one of three which has been prepared for Bridgeport by Dr. Nolen. The first, which was preliminary, was reviewed in an ear her article;4 the third, which is devoted to the housing question, has mention further on. The situation which has necessitated such intensiveness of atudy for a single city is graphically put by Dr. Nolen in these words: “It has been said that a new man is employed in Bridgeport every ten minutes, and one is tempted to inquire what is being done every ten minutes to provide this new citizen with the essentials of city life.”
2 East Boston: A Survey and a Comprehensive Plan. Report of the city planning board, Boston, Mass. Prepared by George Gibbs, Jr., February, 1915. City of Boston Printing Department, 1916.
3 Better City Planning for Bridgeport. Some Fundamental Proposals to the City Plan Commission. By John Nolen, With a Report on Legal Methods of Carrying •out the Changes Proposed in the City Plan for Bridgeport. By Frank Backus Williams •of the New York bar. See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 540.
4 See National Municipal Review, vol. iv, p. 386.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
The text opens with an admirable preface by the city plan commission, which asks citizens who may think the proposals radical to remember “that we are not planning for the past, but for Bridgeport as it will develop for the ensuing fifty years,” and it describes the consultant’s work as “most thorough, patient and able.” Noting that Dr. Nolen has “recommended the general lines of new street development,” the preface points out that “the exact route to be followed, the cost, the order in which the various features should be taken up, are all local questions which he cannot and ought not to settle, and which are properly the concern of a city planning commission.” It adds that the commission should be a continuous, permanent body established as a constituent part of the city government. Dr. Nolen’s report is divided into chapters which consider briefly, though with many plans, main lines of communication, the down town district, the subdivision of land into blocks and lots, different districts for different uses, parks and playgrounds. At the end, with a separate introduction and its own chapter headings, there is published a long, carefully written, and very valuable report on “legal methods for carrying out the changes proposed in the city plan for Bridgeport,” by Frank B. Williams.
The Evanston Plan,5 with its attractive board covers, its several colored plates, its maps and photographs, worthily maintains the tradition of American city planning publications. It is brought out by the small parks and playgrounds association, whose president in 1916 was authorized to appoint a city plan committee. The editor of the report, is Henry Kitchell Webster, and the architects of the committee are D. H. Burnham, Jr., who acted as chairman, Dwight H. Perkins, Thomas E. Tallmadge and Hubert Burnham. Most of the drawings were made, under direction of the plan committee, by Warren Hamilton. The scope of the report, which is a concrete study of the problems of Evanston without much general discussion, is well indicated by the chapter headings: Streets and highways, the city center, parks, recreation system, districting and zoning regulations, the trees, miscellaneous, suggestions for realizing the plan.
ELGIN AND MILWAUKEE
Elgin’s plan report8 was presented to citizens and officials, as so many have been in other cities, through the enterprise of the commercial club. Its frontispiece is a photograph of Charles H. Hulburd, who paid the bills. “No attempt is made,” declares the text of the report, “to paint a future of extraordinary development, but to present a picture of normal conditions of growth, governed by considerations of fineness and real worth
6 Plan of Evanston. Printed by Bowman Publishing Company, Evanston, 111. 1917.
6 Plan of Elgin. Prepared for the Elgin commercial club by E. H. Bennett, consulting: architect. January, 1917.


1917]
RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS
601
Tather than mere size.” The reorganization and amplification of the railroad fines and the treatment of the riverbanks are the dominant features of the plan; and when it is said that E. H. Bennett was consulting architect, it will be realized that the latter feature especially was handled in a strong, bold and interesting manner. The following description of the aim of the Elgin plan might be applied to any city plan study: “‘To create conditions of living such that the maximum of health, happiness and efficiency may be attained by the citizens; to create in the minds of the people that sense of the entity of the city, and of the interdependent relationship of its various elements as will promote a true spirit of co-operation.” One of the best things in the report is the following unusual analysis of statistics of population density:
Average over gross area, 6.3 people per acre.
Average over the housing area, 8.6 people per acre.
Average for that part of the housing area which is well built up (this probably housing 4.5 of the people), 15 people per acre.
Dr. Hegemann’s discussion of city planning for Milwaukee7 is strictly preliminary. It is educational, even in a measure propagandist, rather than such a thoroughgoing study as that, for example, which was recently made by him for Berkeley and Oakland, Calif.8 But so eminent a student of city planning as is Dr. Hegemann could not prepare even such a report as his Milwaukee study without drawing upon stores of knowledge and depths of theory that make it interesting and valuable. The report also takes up concretely several of Milwaukee’s most pressing problems, such as the riverfront, housing, and civic center, and the illustrations— both photographs and diagrams—are well chosen and pertinent.
Sacramento has been a much studied town from a city planning standpoint. All that the modest little report of the state capitol planning commission9—cheaply printed and without illustrations—attempts to do, is to chronicle the history of the several studies made respectively by Messrs. Robinson, Hegemann and Nolen, giving in appendices brief extracts from their reports. But to the student of city planning the comparison of these reports is very interesting.
SPECIAL PLAN REPORTS
Although this completes the fist of general city plan reports, published during the last twelve months, some of the partial reports, dealing with special subjects, are as extensive, and in presentation as elaborate, as those of more pretentious scope.
7 City Planning for Milwaukee: What it Means and Why it Must be Secured. Report submitted to the Wisconsin chapter A. I. A., the city club, the Milwaukee real estate association, Westminster league, south side civic association. February, 1916.
8 See National Municipal Review, vol. v, p. 388-389.
9 Report of the State Capitol Planning Commission upon its Investigation of the Planning of the Capitol of California. State Printing Office, Sacramento, 1916.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
The one which undoubtedly will loom largest in the history of American city planning is the “final report” of the commission on building districts and restrictions of the city of New York.10 This makes a closely printed pamphlet of a hundred pages, illustrated with numerous diagrams. Many of its chapters offer the most thorough discussion of their subject that has yet been printed. Such chapters include those entitled use districts, appropriate intensity of the use of land, height districts and area districts. In referring, however, to this discussion, a word of caution is necessary. Residents of cities less congested than New York should remember that physical conditions are there unusual and extreme, so that the standard permissible for New York would be inappropriate in most other cities.
Prom Boston there is an interesting report on public markets.11 Comprising with its several appendices a pamphlet of nearly 200 pages, this offers an unusually thorough discussion of a subject now exceedingly pertinent and on which not much has been printed from the city planning point of view. A great deal of interesting data is presented, together with a report by a market advisory committee made up of members of the faculties of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, of the women’s municipal league, united improvement association, and chamber of commerce.
On the housing phase of city planning there are several reports. Of these the most elaborate is entitled “More Houses for Bridgeport.”12 The housing committee of the chamber of commerce says in presenting this study, which is by John Nolen, “Your committee believes that the continued success and efficiency of the present manufacturing establishments of the city, as well as the future development of Bridgeport as an industrial city, are seriously menaced by the comparatively higher rental values of real estate and general inadequacy of housing conditions as compared with other and competing manufacturing cities.” Dr. Nolen’s proposals for Bridgeport, as he declares, “ are not essentially new, and not in any sense radical.” They are “cheap land, broad planning of the neighborhood, low density of houses per acre, wholesale modern building operations, a moderate but adequate dividend on capital, and the participation of the residents in the ownership and management of the property.” Because these are universal essentials of better housing, and because the discussion of the Bridgeport problem is reinforced by data and illustrations from many other housing enterprises, this report is of
10 Commission on Building Districts and Restrictions: Final Report, June 2, 1916. City of New York, board of estimate and apportionment.
11A Summary of the Market Situation in Boston. The city planning board, Boston, Mass., 1916.
12 More Houses for Bridgeport. Report to the chamber of commerce, Bridgeport, Conn., by John Nolen. 1916.


1917]
RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS
60S
much general interest and value. The report of similar nature which Dr. Nolen has prepared for Waterbury, Conn.13 is as yet available in-only newspaper form.
A “model” industrial village, created at Marcus Hook, Pa., for the-Viscose company, by Ballinger and Perrot of New York and Philadelphia, forms the subject of an attractive brochure.14 From California,, in the illustrated annual report of the state commission of immigration and housing,16 there comes much interesting and valuable material. A report of housing investigations in the leading cities of the state, “an A-B-C of housing” (in which the “B” stands for city planning), a plan for a housing survey, and constructive housing are headings which well indicate the scope of the report.
Street traffic conditions are among the other subjects of special, or more properly partial, city plan reports. “The Thoroughfare System of Fitchburgh, Mass.,”13 is the title of one of these, made by Arthur C. Comey. Its half dozen pages of text are supplemented by a series of folded-in maps, explained by the text. As Mr. Comey says, in his foreword, “ No exhaustive treatise has been attempted. The eight maps and diagrams submitted constitute the most important portion of the report, the written portion being designed simply to point out the significance of the facts shown on them.” A rather informal looking report by a citizens’ committee to the mayor and aldermen of New Haven, dealing not only with traffic conditions but with street lighting,17 contains a good many valuable suggestions. It is interesting as representing,—to quote the words of the committee—“in the unselfish desire to be of service to our home town, the results of a painstaking investigation, made by us voluntarily, into the traffic problem which has been developed here.” From the St. Louis city plan commission comes a pamphlet on the “Kingshighway”13—a very important crosstown thoroughfare which it is proposed to extend, and where necessary to widen, that it may be a valuable connecting boulevard. Also from the St. Louis commission,— very active under the leadership of its efficient engineer, Harland Bar-
13 Housing Needs of Working Men and Proposed Methods of Providing for Them. Report and recommendations made to the Waterbury, Conn., housing committee by John Nolen. 1916.
14 An Industrial Village. Ballinger and Perrot.
16 Second Annual Report of the Commission of Immigration and Housing of California. 1916. State Printing Office.
18 Fitchburg: A Preliminary Study of the Thoroughfare System and the Conditions Underlying its Development. Report to the municipal development commission, by Arthur Coleman Comey. November, 1915.
17 Report on Traffic Conditions and Street Lighting in New Haven. By a citizens” committee, through the civic federation. July 24, 1916.
18 The Kingshighway: A Report by the City Plan Commission. January, 1917.


-604
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
tholomew,—there comes the “River Des Peres Plan,”19 which is a scheme -to substitute for a river and the large area it annually overflows and pollutes, a channel and sewer, a railroad to develop and serve new industrial sites, a driveway, and an industrial section of approximately 950 acres, with a complete major street plan for it. The report is adequately illustrated with maps and plans, and if not comprehensive city planning, is .at least very real and complete as far as it goes.
MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS
Several publications from the Chicago plan commission are of a wholly •different type. They include a revised edition of Wacker’s well known “Manual of the Plan of Chicago,”20 a remarkable book prepared for study in the Chicago schools; a compilation of indorsements, under the title, “Chicago’s World-Wide Influence in City Planning”; and a skillfully presented argument for the use of the city’s waste to reclaim land under water for the south shore lakefront parks.21 There is data in the latter report of considerable general interest and suggestion.
A number of reports (e.g., one from the citizens’ union) take up, from more or less of a city planning standpoint, the problems created by the proposed relocation of the tracks of the New York Central Railroad on the west side of New York city. From Bion J. Arnold there comes a characteristically detailed and careful study of street railroad routing and operation in Rochester.22
Finally, the year’s output includes a list, too long for detailed mention, of annual reports from city planning commissions and like bodies—that of the Massachusetts homestead commission23 and that of the Massachusetts federation of planning boards being state-wide in scope. The annual report of the bureau of surveys of Philadelphia is also of its usual especial interest. In fact, a feature commending all these annual reports, which year by year are growing in number, is that they deal not with dreams and hopes, but with the slow and practical local working out of the vision. In each case, of course, the vision had to come first. Without it, annual reports would be without interest and barren.
13 River Des Peres Plan. Concerning largely the industrial and residential expansion and economic welfare of St. Louis. Prepared by the city plan commission in conjunction with the department of public utilities, 1916.
20 Wacker’s Manual of the Plan of Chicago. Municipal Economy. Especially prepared for study in the schools of Chicago. Auspices of the Chicago plan commission. By Walter D. Moody, managing director, Chicago plan commission. Second edition. 1916.
21 Chicago Can Get Fifty Million Dollars for Nothing. How it can be done by building the south shore lakefront park lands. Chicago plan commission. December, 1916.
22 Report on Car Operation and Routing, New York State Railways, Rochester Lines, to the Rochester chamber of commerce. By Bion J. Arnold. October, 1916.
23 See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 142-145.


1917]
SELECTING A CITY MANAGER
605
SELECTING A CITY MANAGER FOR GOLDSBORO, N. C.
REPORT OF A COMMITTEE1
BEFORE beginning our labors it was necessary to form some conception of the qualifications desired. First it was the desire of the committee to obtain a man trained by study and experience in municipal administration; in addition to this our local problem necessitated the services of an experienced engineer and if we could secure this combination supplemented by a pleasing personality, good judgment and broad vision, we felt reasonably sure of our position.
The board had fixed no salary, but the committee tried a tentative plan by stating that salary would probably range from $200 to $250 per month. This did not mean, however, that the maximum would not be slightly exceeded in case we found the proper person. A few hundred dollars more or less should not be a deterrent in selecting the proper administrator for a city which disburses annually nearly $100,000. The advantage of this tentative salary over a fixed one was that it attracted desirable applications from persons who would otherwise have been debarred, besides offering to the committee a more correct gauge of the applicant’s ability and his viewpoint, a noteworthy and encouraging fact being that the position was largely sought on account of the opportunity it offered rather than for the compensation.
Our method of developing applications was employed in three ways: (1) Periodicals and newspaper advertising.
(2) Personal letters to present city managers.
(3) Letters written to secretaries, organizations, and institutions working in municipal administration.
ADVERTISING
The advertisement on page 606 was inserted in the following periodicals and newspapers: Engineering News-Record (New York); Municipal Journal (New York); American City (New York); Municipal Engineering (Chicago, 111.); News & Observer (Raleigh, N. C.), and the Goldsboro Argus.
LETTERS TO CITY MANAGERS
The committee, thoroughly impressed with their problem, showed some temerity in writing over eighty personal letters to present city managers in cities and towns ranging in size from 3,000 to 140,000 population. The letter set forth our local condition, our requirements, including information and data, and finally asked the manager to whom it was
1 To the board of aldermen, of Goldsboro.


606
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
City Manager I Wanted
| Goldsboro, North Carolina, in- |
| vites applications for the position j
| of City Manager. Goldsboro is a |
| progressive city of over 11,000 J
| inhabitants with healthful climate | | and good trade conditions—lo- |
| cated on three railroads in the |
| heart of the most fertile section of |
| eastern North Carolina. j
I Applicant must have pleasing j
| personality, good business judg- |
| ment and broad vision. One |
| possessing qualifications of Sani- §
| tary Engineer preferred, though |
| this is not absolutely essential. |
| Excellent opportunity for ener- |
| getic man of ability to produce |
| results. |
| Salary will probably range from |
| $200 to $250 per month. Appli- |
| cations will be received up to |
| July 1, 1917. Information and |
| data furnished upon request. |
| CITY MANAGER COMMITTEE, |
| P. O. Box 461, Goldsboro, N. C. |
"iiiiiiiiimiiiiiwiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiuiuiiiiiiiHiiuiiwmmmimiiiimiiiiitimiiiiiiiiumiwHHiiiiiiii-
addressed if interested to make application or otherwise kindly to recommend someone suitable. The committee received 41 answers; 23 made application; 18 respectfully declined, but in a good many instances those declining recommended suitable candidates. One of the best applications was secured through this source.
A manager of recognized ability, wrote as follows:
I congratulate your city in the step it has taken. I believe most heartily in the manager plan. It will show results directly in proportion to the support and honest efforts expended under the plan, not only by your hired manager but by yourselves and the representative citizens.
If I may be pardoned a suggestion, don’t be reluctant in the matter of a salary. You will have a difficult time getting the man big enough to handle the affairs of a city such as yours for a salary you suggest. Even our little town paid me $350 per month at the cost of considerable criticism of the counsel and my successor when he is found will probably receive as much as $250. Our population is under 6,000. On the other hand during the eight months of my service we made direct savings of more than three times the total salary paid me and other savings almost as important will continue to accrue for some years to come.


1917]
SELECTING A CITY MANAGER
607
OTHER ASSISTANCE
Directors of bureaus of municipal research in New York, Dayton, Detroit, Secretary of National Short Ballot Association, and schools of administration all contributed their quota of information.
' The thanks of the committee are especially due to Hon. Clinton Rogers Woodruff, secretary of the National Municipal League, for his valuable assistance.
As a result of the above methods, the committee received 522 applications from 41 states and territories, Cuba, Canada, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Honduras and Cristobel. These applications may be classified as follows:
Three hundred and ninety-eight from civil, sanitary and mechanical engineers, including over 40 from city and county engineers of many of our larger cities and towns; 28 from commissioners of public works, superintendents of lights and superintendents of waterworks of cities and towns; 24 from city managers; 4 from municipal administrators; 5 from professors of engineering colleges, including 2 deans; 32 from business men; 29 from contractors, and 2 from lawyers.
The large number of applications not only points to the ever broadening field of opportunity for the city manager profession, but it makes its strongest appeal to the trained mind of an engineer.
In addition to the above applications the committee received nearly 400 letters asking for data and information and these together with various letters, telegrams following up applicant’s references and making engagements for personal interviews, consumed considerable time, but the task has been willingly and cheerfully performed.
CANDIDATES INTERVIEWED
Twelve candidates for the position were interviewed, 8 of whom came of their own initiative and 5 came at the invitation of the committee. These five represent the committee’s choice after eliminating all the other applicants and in a sense each candidate embodies to a large degree the qualifications sought by the committee. It might be of some interest to know that the applications of two of the candidates came to the board through method No. 2, 2 through method No. 3 and the remaining successful one mentioned through method No. 1 in answer to our advertisement. The committee enjoyed their presence and profited by their point of view and in justice to all concerned we submit a short sketch of their training and experience.
H. G. Otis. Mr. Otis is city manager of Beaufort, S. C. Has given Beaufort a very successful administration under trying local conditions at the beginning. A graduate of the University of Michigan school of municipal administration, also of the New York bureau of municipal research.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
W. M. Cotton. Mr. Cotton is a municipal trained engineer. A graduate of the University of Michigan school of municipal administration. Served with credit in Dayton bureau of municipal research.
C. 0. Dustin. Mr. Dustin is a graduate engineer of Yale; thoroughly trained in municipal administration. He was assistant director of Dayto-n bureau of municipal research; for three years director of Springfield bureau of municipal research, Mass.; assistant secretary of National Municipal League and at present engaged as chief of the statistical bureau of the Red Cross War Council, Washington, D. C., therefore not available.
J. H. Moore. Mr. Moore is a graduate civil engineer. For 16 years was commissioner of public works of Evanston, 111., a city of approximately 30,000, adjacent to Chicago; served with much ability through a period of great progress in local improvement and civic betterment.
Edward A. Beck. Mr. Beck, manager of the boroughs of Sewickly and Edgeworth, towns of about 8,000 population, assessed valuation of property about $12,000,000. These are suburban towns to Pittsburgh. Edgeworth was the first borough in Pennsylvania to operate under a city manager. Mr. Beck is a graduate engineer of Purdue University and was employed by the Wabash Railroad while at college, so he secured his theoretical and practical training at almost the same time. Later he studied municipal administration and his 3| years’ tenure as city manager of Edgeworth has proven an excellent record of actual achievement. The work that he began and planned over three years ago is now practically complete, he is, therefore, willing to accept our position owing to its greater opportunities at the same salary, $275 per month, which he now obtains. The committee has investigated his character and ability and they are of a high order. We have reached the conclusion that Mr. Beck more nearly represents all of those qualifications desired than any of the other candidates available.
Your committee therefore unanimously recommend Mr. E. A. Beck as their choice, at the same time asking both for your timely endorsement and your full and hearty co-operation to insure a successful administration.
Respectfully submitted,
Lionel Weil,
A. H. Edgerton,
W. D. Creech,
City Manager Committee.


1917]
RIGHT OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
609
THE RIGHT OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT
BY RAYMOND GARFIELD GETTELL Amherst College
AT THE present time when the principle of municipal home rule is receiving considerable attention, it is of interest to note the two theories concerning the relation of city to state that have been held by writers on municipal government and by American courts. One theory holds that, even in the absence of constitutional restrictions, municipal corporations may be protected against legislative interference because of an inherent right of local self-government. This point of view was elaborated some years ago by the late Amasa M. Eaton,1 has been stated more recently in the work of Judge Eugene McQuil-lin,2 and has been followed in court decisions in several American commonwealths.3 The arguments upon which the inherent right of local self-government is based are drawn largely from historical sources. Eaton showed that many English cities and their rights antedated charters, that charters often acknowledged or guaranteed liberties already established by custom, that many cities were chartered by feudal lords, and that the later charters issued to them by the central government merely confirmed their existence and privileges. He therefore argued that the later theory, enunciated by Coke in 1613, that only the king can incorporate and that municipalities are subordinate governments, was both bad law and contrary to the facts of English history, and held the influence of Latin literature and Roman law responsible for fostering the fallacious idea that local powers are derived from the state rather than the Teutonic principle that central power is derived from the union of local powers. He implied, further, that American municipal corporations, being a continuous development from English institutions, and in some cases existing previous to the formation of commonwealth governments, were acknowledged, rather than created, by commonwealth legislatures, and urged that the principle of an inherent Anglo-Saxon right of local self-government should be applied by the courts in protecting cities against legislative interference.
The more recent study by Professor McBain4 of both the theoretical
1 “The Origin of Municipal Incorporation in England and in the United States,” in Proceedings of the Amer. Bar Association, August, 1902.
2 Municipal Corporations, vol. i, pp. 156, 254, 384, 388.
• Notably in Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Texas.
4 “The Doctrine of an Inherent Right of Local Self-Government,” in Columbia Law Review, March and April, 1916. The same ground is covered in condensed form in the same author’s “The Law and the Practice of Municipal Home Rule,” pp. 12-17.


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and legal aspects of this question reaches a different conclusion. He makes first an elaborate analysis of the American cases in which traces of the doctrine of inherent right of local self-government are said to be found. Such cases, as cited by McQuillin, include one supreme court and eleven commonwealth decisions. Careful reading of these cases, however, shows that some have been set aside by superior courts; most have been mere dicta, the decision proper resting on express or implied constitutional provisions. In only three commonwealths,5 are unquestionable cases found whose decision rests upon the principle in question. So few, therefore, are the cases in which clearcut judicial expression of the right of local self-government is found, that the doctrine is distinctly exceptional in American law and contrary to the legal nature of the American constitutional system, however popular it may be as a political ideal.
McBain examines further the arguments upon which the theory rests. He shows that the statement that American cities, having developed from English institutions, whose charters were of common law origin, are therefore of similar origin and not the creatures of legislative bodies, is legally unsound. Only a few municipal corporations in the United States existed previous to the establishment of state constitutions, and even in these the common law, unless rendered static by constitutional provisions, is subject to legislative modification. Law-making power within the state is distributed by the state Constitution, and the legislature possesses all powers not specifically or impliedly prohibited. The author further points out the great diversity in local institutions in the American colonies, and the frequent lack of local self-government in refutation of the argument that the right of self-government should be read into state constitutions by implication, as an intention of their framers. Finally, in answer to the argument that the right of self-government is one of the rights retained by the people under the various “bills of rights” provisions, McBain points out that these clauses were not included in the earlier state constitutions, that such clauses unquestionably referred to personal and property rights, not to political rights, and that such clauses have received practically no judicial application. He therefore agrees with Judge Dillon6 that “the great weight of authority denies in toto the existence, in the absence of special constitutional provisions, of any inherent right of local self-government which is beyond legislative control.”
To one who examines impartially the evidence and the reasoning in this controversy, several conclusions seem fairly clear. Historical data establish the fact that, to a considerable extent in England and to a very limited extent in America, self-constituted cities arose, whose polit-
6 Indiana, Iowa and Kentucky.
6 Municipal Corporations (5th ed.), vol. i, p. 154.


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ical existence was not originally derived from a superior authority, Such a condition, however, was bound to disappear with the growth of modern centralized states, and political theory properly changes to accord with the new facts of state supremacy. While from the point of view of political expediency and of general democratic policy it is desirable that municipal corporations should have a considerable degree of self-government, the theory of an inherent right of local self-government is a survival of the discarded theory of natural rights and social contract, and has no proper place in American law. A municipal corporation is but a department'of the state, exercising delegated powers; and constitutional provisions alone, either specific or implied, can place legal bounds to the authority of legislatures in municipal affairs.
THE MOVEMENT FOR INCREASED STREET RAILWAY FARES
BY STILES P. JONES1 Minneapolis
THE traditional five-cent fare on urban street railway systems of the United States is in danger of going the way of many other established institutions in these times of rapid changes of front.
The campaign inaugurated some months ago by prominent street railway companies for a higher rate of fare is gathering momentum steadily. The facts seem to point to a comprehensive movement by the street railway interests of the country to secure a substantial increase of their revenues through some measure of fare increase. In the case of the New York city companies the movement takes the form of a demand for a two-cent charge for transfers. In other cases a straight increase in fare to six cents is asked for. In one instance, Albany, New York, the company asks for both. In some of the cities, notably St. Louis, Tacoma and Seattle, the effort is being directed to secure relief through release from present burdens of taxation or of other kinds imposed by present contract obligations.
The movement starting in New York and Massachusetts is spreading rapidly through the country, stimulated by all the arts of the publicity agent and reinforced by upstanding statements from the utility officials showing the urgent needs of their situation. Twenty-eight street railway companies in New York state, outside of the metropolitan district, on June 25 joined in a petition to the public service commission of the second district asking for an increase in fare to six cents. Frequent conferences with the commission have been held during the subsequent weeks. The companies insist that prompt action is imperative to protect their in vestments, to save their credit and assure their communities of adequate 1 Secretary, Public franchise league.


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service. In Massachusetts the Holyoke and Springfield companies and the Middlesex & Boston company have formally petitioned the public service commission for authority to raise the fare to six cents. The big Bay state company, operating in and between a large number of cities radiating from Boston, bas already been granted a six-cent fare for a trial period of six months. The Boston elevated railway company has appealed to the legislature for relief from some of its present burdens and has obtained it in some measure, but without recourse for the present to an advance in rates. The affairs of the Providence street railway company are being investigated by a special commission under legislative authority to find a remedy for its impoverished financial condition and its inability to furnish proper service. The United railways company of St. Louis is ready to yield some of its present contract privileges in return for concessions from the city as a means to help the company out of a bad financial hole. City and company are seriously discussing a proposal that includes the granting of a new franchise based on the cost of service principle, with a capital valuation representing a notable reduction below the company’s present capitalization.
The movement for higher fares is also under way in California. The San Francisco-Oakland terminal railways, operating in Oakland and adjoining cities, has appealed to the railway commission for authority to increase rates, while the San Diego company has asked the commission to allow it to both increase rates and to reduce service. The United railways company of San Francisco is seeking through a financial reorganization which will cut its present capitalization in half to get on a basis where it can give service and pay dividends. Companies in other states serving metropolitan communities are flying the distress signal and looking to an increase in fare as the logical way out of their difficulties.
The present condition is not due alone to conditions made by the war, the companies allege, but is the result of a steady late year tendency in the direction of increased cost in every department of conducting transportation. The appeals coming from the companies recite practically the same story, the increased expense of operation through the abnormal advance in the price of everything entering into the transportation business—construction and maintenance (average about 100 per cent according to the official facts compiled bythe companies), striking wage advances, steadily increasing tax burdens, persistent demands from the public for higher standards of service, longer hauls, extension of the transfer privilege, in some cases, increased cost of capital, also the diminished efficiency of labor in the construction field—making in combination a situation that the companies insist they cannot meet from the revenues accruing from the present five-cent fare. And on top of all this, the quite general large loss of revenue through the expanding use of the private automobile, and, with many companies, the still greater loss from the keen competition of


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the irrepressible jitneys. The company officials declare that unless relief is granted in some shape their properties face inevitable bankruptcy and the public serious curtailment of service, with the final result that many communities will be compelled to take over the transportation utility as a municipal enterprise. Deterioration in physical condition of the properties through the necessity of scrimping maintenance and depreciation is another of the dangers of the situation shown by the companies.
The popular recourse of the public utilities to reduce wages in situations; like this cannot be resorted to in these times of labor scarcity; and again,, communities do not so obediently accept restricted service to meet dividend demands as in times past. The only course the companies can see-open to them is the one they are now pursuing—to put the burden directly upon the public in a higher charge for service.
It is significant that those companies which are operating under modern franchise settlements—Chicago, Cleveland, Kansas City and Des Moines —are not enlisted in the movement for the six-cent fare. In these cities street railway capital is secure in its investment and a fair rate of return thereon, while the public is receiving reasonably adequate service within the limitations of a surface system to give it. Apparently the remedy so effective in the above cities of making common cause with the public through enlightened franchise settlements has not appealed to the companies enlisted in this present campaign. At least it has been ignored' up to this time. This course would involve the surrender of their present long term, and, in some cases, perpetual privilege to occupy the public streets, with only meagre local control of their affairs, in return for a contract limiting profits and providing for quite comprehensive public regulation. Naturally this plan does not appeal to the public utility mind and we may expect will not be invoked except as a last resort.
It is also significant that with one notable exception, the United railways of San Francisco, street railway companies have not turned to a reorganization of their finances as a means of relief. Under a scheme of reorganization that makes capitalization represent closely capital investment the results might show no such urgent necessity for rate increases as the companies are now claiming.
It will be interesting to note the revenue results where the desired rate increases are granted,—whether the facts actually bear out the companies’1 present estimate of the increased receipts that will follow the increase in fare. There are those who prophesy that the companies are due to keen disappointment in this respect, that the reduction in the riding habit of the public and the increased patronage of the public automobile following an advance in rates, will offset any increase that might accrue from a. higher rate of fare, leaving the companies’ present revenue conditions practically unchanged. Especially may this be true at this time when due to war conditions the public is not riding as freely as usual.


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YOUR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND YOUR CITY GOVERNMENT
BY HARRY A. TOULMIN, JR.1 Dayton, Ohio
WHY should business men be concerned with city government?.
The answer is that the purpose of enlightened municipal government is to make a city a safe place in which to do business. No farsighted executive cares or dares risk his concern or mercantile •establishment to the attention of an indifferent and mismanaged city administration. The failure or success of a city in the discharge of its duties has so intimate a relationship to the prosperity of the community and its business interests that the modern executive has been compelled, from self interest at least, to take a vigorous stand on urban problems.
The logical place for business men to express themselves on the subject of city government is through their local chamber of commerce. Commercial and industrial interests largely pay the bills, directly or indirectly, for the municipal government, and they have the right to look for commensurate results.
Four hundred thousand business men of the leading commercial â– organizations of the western world have evidenced to the chamber of â– commerce of the United States an urgent, present interest in municipal affairs during the last year. And why? Because the new business-like forms of city government do these things:
The new city government puts the municipality on a sound financial “basis. Proper methods of accounting, auditing and purchasing are practised. It provides honest payrolls and full-time work of the least number of useful employes. It provides a sound budget and a sane financial program of bonding and borrowing. Reduced taxes result.
The new city government provides enough water at a low cost to protect factories, stores, and buildings as well as to care for the industrial and commercial needs of a vigorous community. It motorizes its fire â– department and thereby reduces its insurance rates to the lowest point. This reduction is helped by the establishment of an improved building code, A modern municipality provides adequate police for strikes, disasters, .and fires. Transportation in the city is controlled in order to give workmen an opportunity to travel readily in reasonable comfort and safety to and from work. This type of transportation takes adequate care of the suburban shopping population.
Health of labor is insured by proper housing regulations, sanitation, sewerage, health rules against epidemics, etc.
1 Author, "The City Manager,” in the National Municipal League Series.


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Welfare departments of the new city governments insure the proper kind of amusements, provide for the education of the population on matters of health and crime, and take care of the delinquents with the least burden to the public.
Consequently, low taxes, low insurance rates, a healthy environment, efficient transportation, police and fire protection, community welfare, and best of all a splendid community spirit of co-operation flow from this type of advanced municipal administration.
Publicity for public acts, concentrated responsibility, and economy of •operation have met the approval of the nation’s business men, and municipal affairs as a result are the chiefest activities of commercial organizations.
Yet the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the leading commercial organization of the world, has provided no way for co-ordinating in one great central committee this desire and need for business practice in city government.


NOTES AND EVENTS
I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Sacramento County Charter.—The
grand jury of Sacramento County, in its final report submitted July 23, again recommends that steps be taken to secure a charter for Sacramento County. Earlier in the year a committee of fifteen citizens appointed by the grand jury investigated the subject and reported in favor of the plan. The report was transmitted to the board of supervisors with the recommendation that an election be called to select freeholders to make the draft. No official action was taken by that body, the report, states the grand jury, being referred to a committee which seldom reports. The chairman of the board of supervisors in a newspaper interview declared that the experience of other counties did not warrant the move and that an election would be a needless expense.
In its July report, the grand jury states its belief that many needed reforms in the government of the county would be effected by a charter and again urges that fifteen leading citizens be entrusted with the preparation of the document.
♦
Street Railway Notes.—Duluth, Minnesota, has again proved its ability to deal vigorously and effectively with its public utility problems without any assistance from outside sources. On previous occasions the city brought to a successful conclusion serious controversies between the city and the gas and water and the electric light companies—by municipal ownership of the gas and light utility in 1898, and by a compromise agreement with the electric concern a few years ago which gave the consumers in lieu of municipal ownership one of the lowest maximum rates in the country. This time it was the street railway company which was involved. The city demanded from the company a more liberal policy of extension
616
construction, and a universal five-cent fare over all lines and extensions.
The company stood pat. The city commission thereupon on May 28 passed a resolution directing the condemnation of the street railway system for municipal ownership and appointed special counsel to carry out this purpose. Three weeks later the company, apparently impressed by the commission’s belligerent attitude, asked for a conference with the city looking to an amicable settlement of the controversy. At this conference the company and the city came together on a program which concedes practically all the city’s demands, and the condemnation proceedings were accordingly dismissed.
Oakland and Berkeley, Cal. Distinct progress has been made lately in the movement for resettlement of the franchises of the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways Company, which serves the Alameda county communities, including Oakland and Berkeley. The legislature has approved the amendments to the charters of the cities concerned. These charter changes enable the common councils of the respective cities served by the company to negotiate for new franchises. The mayors of Oakland and Berkeley have appointed committees to prepare the franchise contracts and they have organized and are at work. Any agreement between the company and the city authorities must be submitted to a public referendum for ratification.
The gist of the proposed resettlement is contained in the charter amendments adopted by the voters of Oakland in November, 1916. In brief, it is proposed to grant a new franchise embodying the essential principles of the so-called cost of service franchise. The basic terms of the proposed franchise for Oakland are as follows: A 6 per cent return upon the value of the property as found by the:


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California railway commission, with a division of the profits on the basis of 55 per cent to the city and 45 per cent to the company; an indeterminate term grant subject to the right of the city to purchase at any time, or to designate a purchaser; control of operation, service, etc., vested in a double headed board of control representing the city and company. The â–  plan of resettlement is patterned closely after the Kansas City franchise of 1914.
Stiles P. Jones.
*
Los Angeles County Faces Serious Deficit.—Bringing to a head rumors of a deficit in the finances of Los Angeles county which had been current since the taking of office by two new members of the board of supervisors, the grand jury upon May 19 filed formal charges against three members of the county board and the auditor and treasurer. These charges indicate that there is a deficit of about $1,183,000.
This condition arose from operations on the part of the board which, while probably not criminal in intent, were so careless and illegal as to be highly reprehensible. The general procedure was to transfer money from one fund to another, or to make payments from the wrong funds, and in this way serious inroads were made upon certain trust funds, particularly those of the schools and of certain road districts.
That this condition must have been known to the supervisors was pointed out by the Los Angeles municipal league which in a statement issued March 9 showed that the treasurer’s monthly reports had at all times in the past year indicated that several of the funds were overdrawn.
The accusations of the grand jury may be summarized as follows:
1. That claims were allowed and paid to the Daily Journal Company in July, 1916, when the supervisors knew that the county treasurer had not money in the general fund with which to meet the bill. That the general fund for the fiscal year of 1916 was $6,273,395, and the super-
visors spent and issued warrants for $6,618,826.
2. That the supervisors spent more than 70 per cent of the total revenues of 1916 before the end of the first six months, the law holding that not over 70 per cent shall be expended during the first half of the year.
3. This count covers the mileage charges collected by Supervisor Norton, and asserts that the money was paid without submitting the bills to the district attorney’s office for approval as the law requires.
4. That the supervisors illegally purchased Los Angeles high school district bonds to the amount of $120,000 and city school district bonds to the amount of $480,000, a total of $600,000, and paid for them out of the “surplus fund.” The law does not provide for a “surplus fund,” and it is asserted the supervisors provided such a fund by taking the general fund balance.
5. That from July to December, 1916, the supervisors drew warrants from the general fund totaling $994,670 more than there was in the fund, again using the general fund as a surplus fund.
6. That an attempt was made in 1916 to levy a tax of three cents to pay for the deficit of the previous year amounting to $239,000.
7. That claims for services and materials purchased previous to June 1, 1916, were ordered paid by the supervisors when the supervisors “knew the treasurer did not have money in the general fund and without providing revenue with which he was to pay them.”
8. That additional claims were ordered paid in August, 1916, with the same knowledge that the general fund was depleted, the supervisors doing so with “the understanding that the treasurer would pay the warrants with money he had” in other funds.
9. That the supervisors failed to supervise the conduct of transactions of the auditor and treasurer, and that the treasurer and auditor failed to file statistical reports for the fiscal year 1916; that they


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
did not require the auditor to file statements of the receipts and disbursements.
10. That the supervisors did not cause the treasurer to register warrants allowed by him, and that they never took steps to stop him from paying warrants when they knew there was not money in the general fund for such purposes. That by allowing the acts of the treasurer and auditor, the treasurer was short $1,183,583.
District Attorney Thomas Lee Wool-wine is quoted with reference to the matter as saying, ‘‘Although the statutes pronounce the misconduct a felony, it did not appear to the district attorney or to the grand jury that the conduct of these officers merited so severe a penalty, inasmuch as it appears that though the funds were juggled and diverted from their proper uses, none of the supervisors profited directly from any such misconduct. It may be said, however, that by reason of the negligence and mismanagement of the county finances a condition has arisen that is deplorable and unprecedented in the history of the county. Many of the departments are now being handicapped by reason of lack of funds. Money intended to be used for charitable purposes and for the relief of the sick and needy has been squandered, employes of the county who are actually in need of their salaries for their daily necessities can neither obtain money from the county, nor from banks nor loan sharks.”
The supervisors under attack are John J. Hamilton, chairman, Richard H. Norton and F. E. Woodley. The county treasurer is John H. Hunt, and the county auditor Walter A. Lewis.
A much improved form of budget and of accounting method is being installed by the state board of control, and it is thought that in the future the provision that before a contract is entered into the auditor must certify that money is available in the proper fund to pay the costs arising out of the contract will form a safeguard against such a recurrence in the future.
Seward C. Simons.1
1 Secretary, Los Angeles municipal league.
The Health Department as a Neighbor.
—In the old days public health work was regarded very much as a matter of public safety; the exercise of the police power to quarantine was its most conspicuous expression. For this somewhat negative aim one central organization did fairly well. Compulsory vaccination, for instance, needed only one central office and the schools. The abatement of such nuisances as were reported by citizens could be carried on from a central office in a fairly satisfactory way. The place to eliminate typhoid was at the water works and the dairy farms; the process was impersonal and detached.
Gradually it was seen that coercion would accomplish only certain results, that more emphasis would have to be placed upon education in personal hygiene and persuasion toward temperate living, and that a genuine appreciation and a widespread enthusiasm for health would have to be created, if resistance to all disease and a high degree of physical vigor were to be attained generally throughout the population. To accomplish these ends we have had school medical inspectors calling the attention of parents to the physical defects and the unhygienic habits of their children, field nurses teaching infant hygiene, baby saving shows, milk stations, milk shows, housing exhibits, anti-alcohol campaigns, fresh air campaigns, clean-up weeks, publicity bureaus and other educational propaganda measures as strong rivals in health departments of the control of contagious diseases, food inspection, nuisance abatement, housing regulation and the other conventional activities now found in almost every city. It may be noted parenthetically that there is, among American municipalities, no standardized group of activities accepted as proper and necessary to every health department.
With the new activities has come a new slant in viewing the old functions. In performing them coercion which descended upon individuals from some re mote and little understood authority wa not wholly effective. There was need of


1917]
NOTES AND EVENTS •
619'
“close-up” friendly contact with families and with neighborhoods.
The addition of new activities had also brought complexity. It was formerly the practice to add to the organization a new corps for highly specialized service each time a new activity was taken up. In some cities there were, and still are, separate groups of school nurses, infant welfare nurses, tuberculosis nurses, physicians for outdoor medical relief, for schools, for contagious diseases, inspectors for various aspects of sanitation and housing and officers checking up birth registration. Where a single family came in contact with several of these at the same time, and this frequently occurred, there was overlapping of duties and considerable friction resulted. It used to be said that “the poor would be compelled to have office hours” if they were to reserve any time for themselves.
The first official experiment with a form of organization which substituted for the long range attack of the highly specialized functional units, the close, concentrated attack upon general neighborhood conditions, was made in New York city in the latter part of 1914 and in 1915. Health District No. 1 was organized in a Russian-Austrian neighborhood on the lower East Side. It comprised twenty-one blocks, an area of some 63 acres on which are living about 35,000 people. Three nurses and one nurses’ assistant gave full time to the district work, a health officer gave part time to direct the force, a medical inspector, a food inspector and a sanitary inspector gave part time to this district. The nurses have performed “all-around, public health, nursing service” under the immediate control of the health officer. During the first three months after the new organization had been well started, the records show that on the visits to one third of the houses, the nurse performed m'ore than one specialized health function. The New York plans provide for the retention of a highly functionalized central organization and for the various bureau heads to constitute a “staff” of specialists to direct and supervise the “line” work of the districts.
The success of the experiment both from the standpoint of efficient management and from that of disseminating health education, and of fostering general neighborhood enthusiasm for public health and a co-operative spirit toward the authorities has led to the rapid spread of this form of organization. By January, 1917, New York had organized four more health centers and was planning to add several others.
In Philadelphia the educational value of the health center idea was tested by a private welfare agency, the child federation, in the summer of 1914. Since that time the department of health and charities has taken over this unit and created five additional units. Now that the experimental stage is over, it seems likely that all large American cities will soon adopt this type of organization or some modification of it.
Neva R. Dearborff.1 *
St. Louis Garbage Problem.—The local' administration is pledged to a municipal garbage plant, and the question which is now subject to discussion is whether the old private plant of the present contractor at Dupo, Illinois, should be purchased or an entirely new plant built. The board of public service, in whose hands rests the authority to initiate proceedings in the matter, has employed I. S. Osborn of Cleveland to go over the local situation and give his view from an expert standpoint. The board of aldermen is divided at the present, Chairman Luke E. Hart, of the special committee which investigated the problem for over a year, being in favor of a new plant, and another committee recently appointed favoring the purchase of the old plant. The civic league has taken the attitude that all necessary preliminary steps should be taken by the board of public service so that valuable time will not be lost and the city find itself at the mercy of the private contractor when the present contract expires. It will take fully eighteen months to get through the legislation, prepare plans and
1 Assistant director, Philadelphia bureau of municipal research.


NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
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build the "new plant, if such a course is â– decided upon.
The city at the present time has a contract with the Indiana reduction company which expires September 1, 1918. The contract is one of the most undesirable entered into by any city in the country. Under its terms St. Louis pays to the private contractor 87 cents a ton for the reduction of garbage, the city in addition doing its own collection and delivery to the representatives of the company.
This makes a total of from $40,000 to $50,000 a year, which the city pays to the contractor for reduction alone. This is in striking contrast with the profits reported from the municipally owned and operated reduction plants at Cleveland and Columbus, and with the contracts under which New York city and Los Angeles, to name cities at two geographical extremes, receive money for garbage deliv-• ered to private contractors for reduction.
Lotus F. Budenz.1
*
Administrative Improvements of Borough President Marks.—In a pamphlet entitled “The Borough of Manhattan,” the National Institute of Social Sciences has prepared a summary of the administrative improvements introduced by Marcus M. Marks, president of the borough of Manhattan of the city of New York, during the last three years. In the relation of his department to the public the most important improvement has been the formation of borough advisory commissions, consisting of men and women from each of sixteen neighborhoods whose function it is to inform the borough president of the needs and the desires of the residents of the neighborhood. Other improvements include a particularly efficient new type of street signs, the prevention of cutting of newly paved streets for subsurface work and the establishment of additional markets to reduce the cost of living.
In the relation of the executives of his department to his employes the most important improvement has been the
establishment of a joint trial board consisting of two representatives of the administration and two fellow employes selected by lot for the trial of delinquent employes. The joint trial board has been very successful in increasing the efficiency and the esprit de corps of the department. Suggestion boxes, bulletin boards, weekly departmental luncheons, welfare work, outings, entertainments, lectures and courses of instruction for the employes have also been introduced.
Leonhard Felix Fuld.
*
Kansas State Manager.—Acting under the legislation of 1917 already described in the National Municipal Review,2 Governor Capper has appointed a board of administration with the following members: Former Governor E. W. Hoch who was the minority (Republican) member of the old board of administration adopted by the Democratic legislature of 1913 and who was subsequently appointed by Governor Hodges for the short term and reappointed by Governor Capper in 1915; Dr. Wilbur M. Mason, president of Baker University, a Methodist Episcopal institution at Baldwin; and former Mayor E. W. Green of Kansas City, Kansas, for two terms the head of the city commission there where he made a fine record.3 Mr. Green is the Democratic member of the board. Governor Capper is ex-officio chairman of this board which has appointed James Kimball, business man and reformer of Salina, to the position of manager. The secretary is Hugh Lardner, secretary of the old board of administration.
*
Michigan Housing Law.—Michigan has just secured a state housing code which proves again that good example may be of as much influence as bad. Several years ago Grand Rapids, the second city in the state, adopted a housing code that has since been well enforced. The results have been so good that even Detroit’s reluctance has been so largely overcome
* See vol. vi, p. 505.
* See vol. iv, p. 492.
1 Acting secretary, St. Louis civic league.


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NOTES AND EVENTS
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that its board of health has been enabled to adopt a code of rules that is virtually a housing code, and now, with the assistance of other cities, Grand Rapids has succeeded in converting its local ordinance into a state law.
The new law follows the same plan as the ordinance which paved the way for it, but follows more closely Veiller’s Model Law, departing from its guide in only a few instances. In some of these it improves upon its guide, for each year adds something to our experience. In others it falls below the standard set. The controverted question of percentage of lot that may be occupied is ignored by the ■omission of any provision dealing with it. Unfortunately, rear yards on corner lots may be occupied by structures one story in height. On the other hand, no dwelling not of fireproof construction may exceed three stories in height. The troublesome lodger problem is dodged by empowering certain public officials to forbid the taking in of lodgers by tenants of multiple dwellings only and then tacking on a provision that if found necessary this power may be extended to private and two-family dwellings.
But despite such minor criticisms the new Michigan housing law is the best code of state-wide application now in effect, even as the Grand Rapids’ ordinance was the best applicable to any city. The Michigan law applies to every city and organized village in the state containing 10,000 or more population and to every such city or village as its population shall reach 10,000. According to the census of 1910, there were then twenty-three cities of more than 10,000 population in the state.
John Ihldek.
*
Minneapolis Housing Law.—Minneapolis, after once being disappointed, has secured a housing code that assures it of reasonable protection. To the civic and commerce association under the leadership of Otto W. Davis, who several years ago put through for Columbus, Ohio, the first
real housing code in America, belongs the credit for this achievement. The association made a study of housing conditions and published a report in 1914. This report came as a shock to most Minneapolitans, but the shock was salutary. With the facts to back them the association then drafted a housing code. The legislature to whom it was first introduced declined to pass it. The association then began a campaign of education, secured the co-operation of the real estate interests and this year succeeded in its purpose. The code in its plan and in the standards set follows other recent housing legislature.
J. I.
*
Pennsylvania Municipal Legislation.—
Notwithstanding the elaborate program for progressive municipal legislation prepared by the cities of the first, second and third classes1 in Pennsylvania, nothing of any importance was passed except two bills providing for the establishment of adequate civil service regulations for firemen and policemen in third class cities. At one time it looked as if the good work already done in the second and third class cities would be undone, but fortunately the efforts directed to this end were defeated. In other words, the record of the legislature was one accidental negative virtue.
*
Sault Ste. Marie by a vote of three to one, or to be exact by a decisive majority of 527 out of a total of 1,285 votes cast, adopted a new charter embodying a commission-manager form of government at the special election of June 26. This charter was framed by a commission of the most successful professional and mercantile men in the city, who have endeavored to eliminate those features of previous charters of this form which have not proved successful, and to retain what experience has shown to be the valuable provisions for the effective operation of municipal government.
iSee National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 276.
5


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
II. POLITICS*
The East St. Louis Riots.—Responsibility for the East St. Louis (Illinois) riot of July 2—unparalleled in ferocity in the history of the country—must be laid directly at the door of municipal inefficiency. This was particularly evidenced in the utter failure of the police to do their duty in the crisis. Other causes contributed to the outburst in which thirty-seven negroes were hanged, clubbed and burned to death, hundreds were severely injured and six blocks of dwellings and business structures destroyed—the racial friction occasioned by the influx of thousands of black people from the south, the labor difficulty resulting from the fact that many of these men were imported to take the places of striking white men, the murder of Detective Coppedge on the preceding night. But the reason why the savage slaughter at all was allowed to be staged was the bad political conditions which have existed in the town for years, leading to civic disturbances at other periods of its history.
The police board of the city was the creature of these evil political conditions and was absolutely unfit to handle the situation. For weeks before the outbreak there had been rumblings of the coming storm. Early in the year, when the labor leaders had gone in a body to the city hall to request the mayor to stop the incoming negroes, there had been an attack on black people in the streets of the city and several had been beaten. During the week of May 27 there had been a number of mob risings in which a dozen negroes had been badly treated and several houses had been sacked and burned. On the early morning of July 2 a negro mob had shot and killed a policeman and wounded four others, and it was certain— with the people in the restive humor that they were—that reprisals would start before twenty-four hours had passed. Despite all this, the local authorities made no preparation whatsoever to prevent
i Unless otherwise indicated, the items in this department are prepared by Clinton Rogers Woodruff.
the formation of the mob which began its work at 6 o’clock that evening. To make matters worse, the police officers did nothing at all during the three hours of butchery to stop the things that were going on. No efforts were made to arrest members of the mob. Even the thousand national guardsmen on the ground showed but little disposition to protect the blacks. The gangs of men and women were allowed to range as they chose, burning and shooting and hanging any negro man, woman or child that came to view. Only the arrival of additional militiamen with the adjutant-general and the governor brought about final order.
The chamber of commerce has appointed a committee of one hundred to re-establish lasting order and a desirable status in East St. Louis. The first act of this committee was to recommend the removal of the police board, which was done. The new board has begun in the fight spirit. At the same time, there is an agitation on foot for commission government in the place. Coupled with a city manager and non-partisan elections this would help much to improve the bad record and bad conditions of the Illinois city. One hundred and five persons have been indicted for participation in the riot.
Louis F. Budenz.
*
Portsmouth City Manager Situation.— In the face of two largely attended mass meetings and numerous petitions of protest, the council of Portsmouth dismissed Tirrell B. Shertzer as city manager and named W. B. Bates as his successor. Bates does not seem to have had any experience as a city manager or in any similar position, but has the advantage of being related to one of the members of the council and being known as a politician.
The complexion of the council has been changed completely since the original election. It has lost three members, one by death, one on account of ill health, and the third from disgust, so that now the council contains five men who are appar-


1917]
NOTES AND EVENTS
623
ently more interested in polities and political organizations than they are in the city, and two men who place the interests of the city foremost.
Concerning the situation there Lieut. C. P. Shaw of Norfolk writes:
Portsmouth voted in favor of the city manager plan, and then partly through faulty election machinery, and partly through the skill of certain politicians, elected a council—the majority of whose members were opposed to the new form.
Instead of immediately appointing a city manager, the members of the council proceeded to divide the city into departments, and placed themselves in positions as the heads of these various departments, and incidentally enjoyed the patronage of those departments for five or six months before appointing the manager. In other words, they made the new form of government for that length of time the commission, and not the city manager plan. When they finally did appoint a manager, the council appeared to be reluctant to give up these positions as heads of departments, and seem to have exercised powers that did not belong to them, and thus interfered so seriously that the manager was so heavily handicapped as to be unable to operate the city as the law intended he should.
Under the Virginia law in city manager cities, the council has only legislative powers, and the appointment of a limited number of officials, including the city manager. In the latter is vested all the executive and administrative powers of the city, with the duty of appointing his subordinates and of preparing the tentative budget. In view of these facts, I believe that the action of the council in attempting to perform executive and administrative functions is entirely illegal.
This is certainly so after they had anointed a city manager, unless he should ave named them as heads of departments, in which case they would have been obliged to cease to act as members of the council, because the duties of the council are purely legislative.
*
Dayton’s Political Crisis.—Dayton’s non-partisan city manager form of government is undergoing a critical trial for existence this autumn. The primary election held on August 14 resulted in the choice of the three Socialist candidates, with the Citizens’ candidates (the sitting members of the commission whose terms are expiring) running fourth, fifth and Bixth. A well informed correspondent in
writing of the Socialist vote and the situation says:
I attribute their heavy vote to social unrest, anti-Democratic spirit because we are now at war (which influenced a large German vote), the manager’s salary, and hiring of $50 a day experts by the commission.
I have heard no comment as to the campaign which needs be conducted before the election, November 6.
The manifest lack of appreciation by the Socialists of what has been done, together with the inability or the lack of desire of these Socialists to think for themselves, is a discouraging situation locally. I for one believe it cannot successfully be combatted before November, and I think they will have at least one representative on the city commission after January 1. The talks of their local leaders are unbelievably bad,—filled with lies, misrepresentations, destructive criticisms, and lack of patriotism. It is unfortunate that all matters, national, industrial and economic, have such a telling influence upon a purely local government.
*
The Los Angeles Elections.—On May 1 the city primary resulted in the re-election of Mayor Woodman, City Attorney Stephens, and City Auditor Meyers, each having received a majority of all the votes cast for their respective offices, the majority for Mayor Woodman being about 1,000. Eighteen candidates for the council and fourteen for the board of education were nominated, the final election being held on June 5.
Concerning this latter the California Outlook for July makes the following comments:
The city election was determined in a manner entirely satisfactory to the newspapers. Every member of the city council who refused to take his orders from the newspapers in the matter of billboard regulation was defeated.
In their campaign against their advertising competitors, the billboards, the newspapers gave an exhibition of unanimity in misrepresentation and deception which was startling to the thoughtful and informed.
When the U. S. supreme court decision in the Chicago billboard case showed that Los Angeles could improve her existing billboard ordinance, the city council took the question up with the purpose of improving the old ordinance in the light of the new decision. The leading civic


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
organizations, such as the chamber of commerce, the merchants’ and manufacturers’ association, and others, were invited to assist in the determination of the question. A joint committee of the various civic organizations was appointed, and it undertook the study of the billboard situation. Immediately the newspapers sneered at this committee as the “stalling committee,” “the delay committee,” etc.
Quite promptly this committee reported that billboards should be permitted in the central business district, that they should be regulated in the semi-business districts, and that they should be prohibited in the residence districts. The regulation in the semi-business districts was not as stringent as the newspapers wished it to be. The city council undertook to give consideration as to what the regulation should be in the semi-business districts, but the newspapers would brook no consideration. The newspapers represented the “solid five” of the city council as favoring the billboards in residence districts, a statement that was at all times untrue. By their unanimous misrepresentation of the attitude of the city councilmen, the newspapers succeeded in defeating them.
The serious question involved in all this situation is not the billboards—they have but few friends—nor the fate of defeated councilmen, who were not particularly popular. The serious question is that the newspapers were willing to unite in an effort to determine a city election on the one question of driving out a competitor in the advertising business. To this end they were wining to ignore every other public question and to indulge in unanimous misrepresentation.
Democracy and Its Newspapers—here is a problem worth studying.
*
Portland, Oregon.—The recent election in Portland, Oregon (June 4), rejected by a decisive vote two initiative bills proposing to return to a councilmanic government, but in some other respects evidenced a tendency to revert to type. Two experienced and successful politicians of only moderate administrative ability were elected as commissioners against two men neither of whom was a good politician and both of whom had already rendered efficient service in that office. The successful candidate for mayor was also of the politician type, but an able man, a hard worker, a successful commissioner before his election as mayor, and apt to heed the majority opinion, which fortu-
nately in Portland is mainly on the right side of important issues.
The ballot carried also several state measures, one of which was again a reversion to type, namely, the bill requiring that city, town, and state elections be held on the same day. This bill was passed by a decisive vote. It was proposed and passed in good faith as an economy measure, but most readers of this review will agree that separation of state and city politics is worth all it costs.
*
A Charter Election in Norfolk, Va.—In
accordance with an amendment to section 117 of the constitution of Virginia, authorizing its legislature to grant to cities of over 50,000 inhabitants such form of charter as the legislature might deem best, a statute was passed in 1914 prescribing the manner in which such cities should request a charter change, and providing that the question of a new charter should be determined by the affirmative vote of the majority of those voting, but making the election of the charter commissioners invalid unless a majority of the qualified voters should take part in the elections.
Under this act an election was held in August, 1915, with 2,001 votes for and 67 against a change of charter, which was invalid because the majority of the qualified voters did not take part. If 1,500 more votes had been cast against a new charter, the new charter would have succeeded! This absurd paradox was eliminated from the law in 1916, by an amendment which provided that the question should be determined in accordance with the will of the majority voting on the question.
At an election held on June 19, 1,895 votes were cast in favor of a new charter, and 149 against. A commission consisting of five prominent business men and four lawyers has organized for the work of preparing a new charter.
Since the commission is practically pledged to the commission-manager plan, it is fair to assume that it will be adopted, and further that it will probably follow the lines of the Model Charter prepared by


1917]
NOTES AND EVENTS
625
the Committee of the National Municipal League.1 C. P. Shaw.
*
Postponement of Indiana’s Constitutional Convention.—The constitutional convention bill passed by the 1917 session of the Indiana legislature8 was a clean bill without jokers, and assured the people a popular convention. The interests in Indiana, liquor and public utilities, brought suit declaring this act unconstitutional. The lower court upheld the act, declaring the legislature had the power to call the convention. The case was brought to the higher courts, where the decision of the lower court was reversed on the ground that the legislature had no power to call the convention but must refer it to a referendum vote of the people. A minority opinion was filed by one of the court.
This is clearly another case of courts assuming the power of the state. Of the four judges ruling against the people, three came from our larger cities and as our judges are elected for a term of six years and are therefore political officers in the full sense of what political officers stand for in politics-ridden Indiana, it can readily be seen that our people will now more than ever favor a new constitution and take their highly important office out of politics and make our judges as fearless and independent as now are our federal judges. While this decision struck a bad body blow to democracy in Indiana, yet we hope to recover and our citizens’ league will continue its good work.
Theodore F. Thieme.
Fort Wayne, Ind.
♦
Houston, Texas, has a civil service commission, one of the rules of which is
III. JUDICIAL
In view of the small number of important decisions which would seem to require notice in this department at
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. iv, p. 305.
2See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 512.
that if a man takes an active part in -city politics he can be dismissed from the services of the city at the option of the commission. Very few employes of the city at the recent election took any active part in it. Mayor Pastoriza has been associated with most of them for six years as a city commissioner. He did not ask any of them to work for him; two employes, however, took off their coats and went out and worked expecting to be discharged for doing so. They said they would rather lose their position than see him defeated. Mayor Pastoriza believes it is a wise thing not to permit city employes to take an active part in municipal elections. Along this line he has suggested that the city charter be changed so that no employe of the city will be allowed to vote at a city election. If he does he forfeits his position automatically. In support of this view the mayor urges that men who are receiving their living at the hands of a mayor usually vote solidly for him; whereas the great mass of people on the outside who pay the expenses of the government exercise their right to vote for or against him. Often it happens that the city employes hold the balance of the power, and as in one case in Texas succeeded in keeping a man in the office of mayor for a great many years.
The mayor believes that the people who are not drawing a salary from the city should be the ones to decide who should fill elective positions.3
*
Columbus Women to Vote.—By a vote of 8637 to 7702 the women of Columbus have been given the vote in city affairs, and they will exercise their franchise for the first time at the November election.
DECISIONS
this time, the editor of the department was of the opinion that it should be omitted from this issue. It will appear again, however, in the November issue.
a See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 425. Mayor Pastoriza died July 9, 1917.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
IV. MISCELLANEOUS
Training for Public Service.—The first legislative declaration in favor of practical training for public service was made by the 1917 Wisconsin legislature, which passed a bill, introduced by Senator Barwig, authorizing the establishment and maintenance of a training school for public service at the Unviersity of Wisconsin. It declared that such a school shall be a professional school and shall be devoted to practical training for the administrative service of the state or of any county or municipality therein or of civic organizations. The bill had a rather stormy history in the senate extending over several months. It was passed in the assembly by an overwhelming vote within two weeks.
The important part of the law is the second section which contains the requirement regarding diplomas and the requirement for field training. The law provides that every graduate of this school shall receive in addition to the regular university degree a diploma stating the specific character of the training which he has undergone. This was done presumably to get away from the idea of the general municipal expert and to emphasize the fact that the expert in municipal government is an expert of specific things. However, when the university comes to decide the fields it will organize, it may establish a specific diploma for the administrative expert in addition to the technical expert.
The law further provides that no person shall receive the diploma of this school “unless at least one third of his total credits in such school shall be for actual work in municipal, county, or state departments or in quasi-public work and unless he shall have submitted a thesis dealing with an actual problem of city government.”
The provision of the law that the school must work with city officials and must develop its work in co-operation with them is a wise safeguard. The university cannot, as is usually done, bring together a few of its existing courses and then announce to the world that it is training
men for the public service. Under this provision the University of Wisconsin must interest the city officials, must secure their active co-operation and keep their continued interest.
Since the university receives its money in lump sum appropriations and since the number of students will probably be considerably diminished during the coming year, provision will be made for the establishment of this school in the next academic year.
Many universities can undertake this work without legislative declaration, but the Wisconsin law provides that no new school shall be established at the university unless it is authorized by the legislature.
E. A. Fitzpatrick.
*
Alberta Municipal Hospitals Act.—
Under the municipal hospitals act of Alberta, the different municipal organizations in the province, except cities having a population of over five thousand, may be grouped together into hospital districts for the purpose of maintaining hospitals. By the provisions of the act, the province is required to be divided by the minister of municipal affairs into areas known as hospital districts. The municipal organizations within such hospital districts, if they wish to have a hospital, must by petition to the minister obtain authority to appoint a hospital board. This board will then prepare a hospital scheme. This scheme shall provide for the securing or erection of a suitable building, the raising of the necessary money, the employment of staff, and so on. The minister shall place at the disposal of the board all necessary information in regard to plans, money required and other details. When the board has completed their scheme it has to be submitted to the minister for his approval, and such approval will only be given subject to the scheme being found satisfactory by the provincial board of health under the hospitals ordinance and the public health act, and by the board of public utility commissioners


1917]
NOTES AND EVENTS
627
under the public utilities act. On the approval of the scheme being reported to the board, such' report will be transferred by the board to the different municipal organizations interested, and these organizations will then submit a by-law to the electors for the purpose of incorporating the scheme. Such by-law will be voted on in the same way as a money by-law, and will include a provision for the raising of money by debenture if necessary. As soon as this by-law has been passed by the municipal organizations interested, the hospital board will put the scheme into effect by carrying out the arrangements provided for therein.
All business of a municipal hospital district is required to be conducted by the hospital board, but this board is subject to the control of the provincial government.
*
Kansas City’s Presidential Conference.
—For a long time the officers of civic organizations in Kansas City have felt the need of closer co-operation; therefore when A. E. Hutchings, president of the rotary club sent out letters to their presidents some six months ago, inviting them to sit together for conference, twenty-six responded. Committees were appointed, and an organization thereafter known as the presidents’ round table was formed. Membership is limited to the presidents of organizations, whose work is of a civic nature. The constitution provides that a chairman and vice-chairman be elected to serve three months, and a secretary to serve a year. The dues of the organization are nine dollars quarterly, to cover the cost of luncheon of the members attending. These dues are paid by the organizations.
*
A Mayor’s Advisory Committee in Minneapolis.—Mayor Van Lear created some weeks ago, or rather there was created for him, an advisory committee consisting of approximately 35 members. The suggestion, of course, came from the Milwaukee experiment.1 This committee,
1 See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p. 428,
with the exception of two appointed by the mayor, consists of men and women representing the various civic and labor agencies of the city, selected directly by those agencies. It was organized about two months ago and has had three meetings. It is significant that of the 35 members, not more than five or six are Socialists.
*
Course in Citizenship at Cornell.—
The# course in citizenship at Cornell suffered as did most other college courses after the United States entered the war. It began with an enrollment of 187 students. At the end of the semester, in June, scarcely thirty were left. At that time about 2,000 -students had left the university to enter various services in connection with the war.
The course in 1917 differed from those in preceding years as Dr. Samuel P. Orth, who took the place of Dr. Walter F. WiUcox during the latter’s sabbatical leave, wished to make it fit in more closely with his courses in government. To this wish the committee agreed. The subjects and speakers in 1917 were:
Government and the Control of Public Utilities, Delos F. Wilcox.
Government and Industrial Unrest, Samuel McCune Lindsay.
Recreation in its Relation to Citizenship and Industrial Efficiency, Johann Grolle.
The Citizen in Society’s Effort to Control Tuberculosis, George J. Nelbach.
Social Insurance—The Modern Method of Prevention of Destitution, I. M. Rubinow.
The Citizen and Public Service, Prof. W. B. Munro.
Governmental Budget Systems and their Relation to Effective Citizenship, Frederick A. Cleveland.
Social Efficiency and the Short Ballot, Lawrence F. Abbott.
The County Government Jungle, Richard S. Childs.
The Commission Form of City Government, Clinton Rogers Woodruff.
City Planning as a Municipal Function, Nelson P. Lewis.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW . [September
The Municipality and the Farmer’s Marketing Problems, Clyde L. King.
Governmental Bureaus of Social Welfare; a Sign of the Times, L. A. Halbert.
Owing to the inroads which the war has made upon the upper classes, from which the membership of the course is drawn, the committee is considering the' advisability of postponing future courses until the return of peace. John Ihlder.
*
A City Management Course at the University of Kansas.—A clipping from a San Josd, California, paper states that the University of Kansas has a four-year course for training of municipal managers.
This statement has gone around in various forms during the last two years. Concerning it Prof. F. W. Blackmar of the University writes in response to an inquiry: “If you have the proceedings of the congress called by Mayor Mitchel for the consideration of municipal problems, you will find an address of mine there on this subject. I am not quite certain who is responsible for this article as it appears.
“We have no four-year course leading to municipal manager, and have never made any such claim. We have, however, sufficient number of courses in political science, sociology, economics, chemistry, bacteriology, and sanitary and other forms of engineering to give a man a good preparation, but we have never brought this material together in a distinct course.
“The departments of economics, sociology and engineering advertise courses that prepare for public service of this kind, but in no such formal way as indicated in the article which you enclose. However, since we have already received credit for it, I shall try to develop a systematic four-year course leading to city management.”
*
Ryan Dactyloplane.—One of the factors which has led to the rapid introduction of finger prints for purposes of criminal identification has been the ease with which such prints may be taken. Henry in his book on the subject states that all that is required for this purpose are white
paper, printer’s ink and a roller for spreading it. Although it is possible to take finger prints with such a crude piece of apparatus, just as it is possible to build a log cabin with the use of no tools other than a hand saw and a broad ax, better work can in every case be done if better tools are provided. The Ryan dactyloplane, which has been invented by Patrick Ryan, finger-print expert of the New York municipal civil service commission, is a highly perfected piece of apparatus which enables a finger-print expert properly to ink the fingers of the prisoner and from the fingers so inked to take impressions for permanent record. The great value of this invention in finger-print work is shown by the fact that with its use Mr. Ryan was on January 25, 1917, able to take the finger-prints of eight hundred and fifty-four candidates for patrolman in 64 minutes, an average of about four seconds for each candidate.
L. F. F.
*
The Indiana Bureau of Legislative Information.—The legislature of Indiana has withheld the appropriation for the continuance of this bureau which has been in existence for six years under the direction of John A. Lapp, one time associate editor of the National Municipal Review and editor of "Special Libraries.”
*
New Volumes in the National Municipal League Series.—Robert E. Cushman’s volume on “Excess Condemnation” will be on the market early in September. It is the first book on the subject to appear in print. The preparing of a volume— “A New Municipal Program,” has been delayed by the illness of one of the contributors. The manuscript is now in the hands'of the publisher and it will appear in the early autumn, as will E. A. Fitzpatrick’s volume on “Expert City Government.”
*
An International Association of Police Matrons, on a strictly non-political and non-sectarian basis, to consider “the best


1917]
NOTES AND EVENTS
629
procedure along the lines of most advanced and progressive methods of moral and humane treatment and customs countenanced by the different localities” has been formed. The organization which will meet as one of the allied groups of the National Conference of Social Work will have nothing to do with questions of salary, description of duties or adjustments of grievances of its members in relation to the municipalities which employ them. The president of the organization is Miss Margaret Corbitt, the police matron at Rochester, who is largely responsible for the association.
*
The American Society of Municipal Improvements, which was to have met at New Orleans, November 1—16, has been postponed for a year. That is the first national organization dealing with municipal questions which has to postpone its annual meeting on account of the war. Dealing, as its members do, with construction work, the reason for this action is fairly obvious.
*
“The Dallas Survey” is the title of the publication recently established by the civic federation of Dallas (Elmer Scott, secretary). It represents an intelligent effort to supply information about the social work being done by the city and to be done. The editor is Mr. Scott, who for two years under Mayor Lindsley was the chief of the department of social welfare for the city.
*
Pennsylvania cities of the third class
have been authorized to appropriate money annually for music in parks and other public places.
*
A colored police woman has been appointed in Los Angeles. In this connection Los Angeles established a precedent, as it did in the appointment of a police woman originally.
*
Libraries and Recreation.—One of the
branches of the free library of Philadelphia
will be located on the Kingsessing recreation grounds in the southwestern part of the city, thus bringing the library and recreation facilities into close co-operation.
*
City Manager Changes.—R. F. Blinn, who has been city manager of Westerville, Ohio, for a year and a half, has resigned, his resignation taking effect August 31.
W. E. Dozier has resigned as city manager of Taylor, Texas.
*
Kenneth B. Ward, who had such a stormy experience as city manager of Sandusky, Ohio, has been elected head of the department of street engineering of Durham. He will draw a yearly salary of $4,500. He takes hold of the immediate job of constructing more than $1,000,-000 worth of improved streets. Ward was graduated from the Ohio State University, where he served as instructor in the department of civil engineering for six years. The storm in Sandusky has not abated, although it has been redirected. *
C. O. Dustin, who became assistant secretary of the National Municipal League on April 1, has gone into Red Cross work, and is now serving as chief of the statistical branch of the movement.
*
George O. Nagle, president of the Morris Plan Bank and formerly manager of the Wheeling traction company and president of the West Virginia manufacturers’ association, has been unanimously elected city manager of Wheeling, W. Va., at a salary of $8,000 a year.
*
George A. Bellamy, head resident of the Hiram House, Cleveland, is devoting half his time to the work of the Commission on Training Camp Activities.
*
Charles Carroll Brown, the secretary of the American Society for Municipal Improvements, has sold his interest in Mu-


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
nicipal Engineering and is confining himself to his engineering practice in Indianapolis. *
Leo Tiefenthaler has been elected secretary of the Milwaukee city club, to succeed Hornell Hart.1
*
H. A. Toulmin, Jr., of Dayton, author of the volume on “The City Manager” in the National Municipal League series has had the degree of L.H.D. conferred upon him by Wittenberg College.
*
Hon. William Dudley Foulke, president •of the National Municipal League from 1911 to 1915, is writing a book of personal reminiscences to be known as “Fighting the Spoilsmen.”
*
Robert A. Woods, director of the South End House, Boston, has been elected president of the National Conference of Social Work.
*
Miss Marjorie L. Franklin, a graduate •of Barnard College and a Columbia doctor, has been appointed as successor to Miss Alice M. Holden as instructor in municipal government at Vassar.
1See National Municipal Review, vol. vi, p, <523.
Francis B. Sayre, a member of the council of the National Municipal League, is now in France engaged in Y. M. C. A. work.
*
Dr. Don C. Sowers of the Dayton bureau of municipal research has been called to the directorship of the Akron bureau, to succeed F. L. Olson, who has been called to the bureau maintained by the Minneapolis civic and commerce association. F. S. Staley, formerly director of this bureau, is now in New York in connection with the food administration.
*
Professor F. W, Coker of the Ohio State University will be the lecturer in American constitutional history and politics at Yale University for the year 1917-18. He will be succeeded as secretary-treasurer of the Ohio municipal league by Gardiner Lattimer of the Toledo commerce club.
*
Professor A. R. Hatton is recovering from his recent illness and on October 1 will take up work with the National Short Ballot Organization, of which he will be a field representative.


DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS
I. BOOK REVIEWS
Municipal Functions. By Herman G.
James. New York: D. Appleton &
Company. National Municipal League
Series. $2.
The public has been rather liberally supplied with books and articles, descriptive and critical, relating to the framework of municipal government, the organization and methods of its administrative departments, and the methods of popular control over its composition and activities. But however well devised a city government may be, from the standpoint both of representativeness and efficiency, it can be neither truly representative nor really effective if it issues from and acts upon a community which is without “clear notions of what a city should and can be expected to do.” The fundamental purpose of the book in hand, as stated in the preface, is to give the municipal citizen an intelligent opinion on the needs of his city, so that he may be in a position to discriminate among the many desirable objects of city activity and among the various possible means of accomplishing these objects. The author attempts to do this by giving “a simple but comprehensive survey of the whole field of municipal endeavor ... a survey which •every intelligent member of the community can readily comprehend.” The book is also “intended for use as a text-book in college classes.”
The book well follows out its expressed purpose. It supplies comprehensive, accurate, practical information and criticism concerning the needs and opportunities of â– organized city life and concerning the requirements that must be fulfilled in order adequately to meet these needs and opportunities. It is unique in its scope and emphasis. Not only is its interest in action rather than in organization, but within the field of municipal activity it
631
gives secondary attention to administrative methods and policies and mechanical means. Its primary objects are to show the nature and scope of city activities (including not only the activities which cities do undertake but also those which they should undertake if they are to fulfill thq opportunities and obligations of modem city government), the difficulties—political, legal, financial, and popular—likely to be encountered in carrying out such undertakings, the various considerations that should govern choice of policies and methods, and the various interests that must be regarded in all that the city does. For the more technical and mechanical sides of municipal administration the book contains simple statements which supply all that the general reader and student need undertake to know in first instance. This is well illustrated in the description of the different methods of water purification and of sewage disposal.
In this treatment all the varied activities of cities are covered, and the interconnections of different branches adequately indicated. The problems of small as well as large cities are considered; the general practical usefulness of the book is probably enhanced by the fact that the conditions of the smaller cities are foremost in the mind of the author. At all proper points of the discussion the occasions for local adaptations are recognized. Despite the compendiousness and conciseness of the work, it escapes dryness, because of its well-proportioned treatment and because of its close application to actual needs and conditions, combined with its freedom from statistics and needless technical details.
The work is not merely descriptive; it is also critical; and in its criticisms it not only shows the weaknesses in present


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
practices, but also points out better ways. Though in its estimations and strictures it is discriminating and unprejudiced, it is pronouncedly social in spirit, the welfare of the general mass of the citizens being its criterion for judgment and recommendation. Finally, though frankly progressive in its attitude, it is not blindly so; this is well exemplified in the discussion of the regulation of public utilities, where exceptional definiteness is given to the familiar caution that although the public benefit must be the controlling consideration in the city’s policy toward private corporations operating public utilities, yet the voters must never lose sight of the fact that the imposition of terms too burdensome will defeat the very purpose of the regulation.
Throughout the work a special utility of the volume lies in its indication of common delusions concerning the considerations that should determine the policies of a city; in this way, for example, at many points the costliness of false economy is shown by pointing out the consequences—■ affecting the health, comfort, efficiency or happiness of the community, and, in many instances, increasing the financial burden upon the community—that follow the neglect of some function or the choice of a cheaper way of fulfilling it, in pursuing a policy of superficial saving. On the other hand, at no point is there any disregard of the due importance of the financial aspects of a city’s problem in choice of policies and means.
In the short concluding chapter, two questions of fundamental importance for a city’s work are briefly broached. The first is the familiar question as to the proper relation of the American city to the state government as concerns scope of functions and choice of means. Here the author would have the cities given, as in Germany, large and general powers of municipal enterprise, freed from 1 ‘the doctrine of limited powers, strict construction and legislative interference,” but con-
trolled in the carrying out of their powers by an efficient central administrative department for local government, manned by a body of experts a “model for which might be found in the English local government board.” The other question relates to the order of importance of the various municipal activities, a question of practical significance, because no city can do everything at once in the way of extending or improving existing activities. In the order suggested, functions meeting the elemental needs of the community (in connection with public safety and public works) and provision of public education, are followed by social welfare activities. Not until all these needs are adequately provided for should the city turn to its luxuries, such as elaborate and expensive buildings and boulevards, ornamental street fighting, and elegant civic centers. The concluding sentences of the book well express what, as already intimated, seems to be a controlling motive of the book. “The chief warning that seems to be needed by American cities in guiding them on their march upward is that until more attention is devoted to the more obscure phases of social welfare work, less money should be spent on the more showy aspects of city improvement. The keynote of the new American city should not be grandeur but democracy, a real democracy of social conditions.”
What makes Professor James’ book of such distinct value for the practical reformer and the public-minded citizen is that in following out the motive just suggested, the work nowhere loses itself in undiscriminating propaganda and exhortation; it is accurate and impartial. Moreover, it is not too technical for the general reader and is thorough and complete enough to serve as a general guide for a. college class. The volume clearly adds prestige to the series of which it forms a, part.
F. W. Coker.
Ohio State University.


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Pr£liminaires d’Art Civique, mis en
RELATION AVEC LE “CAS CLINIQUE” DE
la Belgique. By Louis Van der
Swaelmen, architect-paysagiste Soci6t6
D’Editions. A. W. Sijthoff, Leyden.
A time when we are hearing so much about the ravaging of beautiful cities, and the destruction of architectural monuments would not seem the most favorable for a work on municipal art by a Belgian. But perhaps, with Belgium as a cas clinigue —as M. Van der Swaelmen puts it—this is the best possible time. At all events, civic art is the one phase of art that has become a subject of international intercourse since the war began. England, as well as the "Low Countries,” has had its energetic committee for the replanning of the Belgian towns which must some day be rebuilt; and lately from the Union Internationale des Viiles, established with headquarters in Brussels before the war, there has sprung an International Civic Art Committee for Belgium, which has its representatives in America as well as in England, in France, in Holland and in Belgium itself. In all of these enterprises, M. Van der Swaelmen is a leader. When, to these facts, we add the spirit illustrated by the "Resurgam” structure which rises against flame and smoke in his volume’s frontispiece, it is easy to see that ‘ ‘Pr61iminaires d’Art Civique mis en relation avec le cas clinique de la Belgique” is not an incongruous, but a natural— even a thrilling—response to the recent destruction of priceless civic art by German Kultur. Happily, the aspiration for cities beautiful and orderly is as hard to kill in the hearts of the Belgians as is their love for their country—with which, indeed, it is closely bound.
"This book,” the author modestly declares in the first line of it, ‘ ‘does not pretend to be a summary of civic art. ” The volume’s considerable bulk doubtless explains this prompt disclaimer. In the fact, it is a very extensive and inclusive outline, in which considerable interesting discussion of sound theories has been injected. The illustrations are limited to
the frontispiece and to five diagrams, besides a few small cuts borrowed from Lan-chester’s, "Civic Development Survey.” The text is in French, and the discussion is closely tied up to the case of Belgium and to the activities, proposed and actual, of the international committee. Each chapter concludes with a summary which, with the frequent marginal headings on almost every page, is helpful to those who have to read slowly when they are reading French.
Part one takes up the urban problem, the several chapters developing its special unfolding in the modem city. Part two has to do with the rural and national problem. More than half of the volume, however, is made up of appendices. The first is an adaptation, with full credit, of the well known Civic Development Survey worked out by H. V. Lanchester, of England. The second, and much longer, appendix is a ‘ ‘Program, ” analytical guide, or city planning classification, for an Encyclopedia of Cities and Civic Art. This, the separate title page says, was elaborated by the International Committee on Civic Art pour la Belgique, in connection with the International Union of Cities, having been instituted on the initiative of the latter body, of the International Garden Cities and Town Planning Association and of the Comity N6erlando-Belge d’Art Civique, "in order to aid the Union of Cities and Towns of Belgium to study the problem of reconstruction in Belgium.” It subdivides civic studies in much more complete and detailed fashion than has yet been attempted in America, or in England; at the same time it extends them over a wider range than even American city planners have ventured to embrace. The result is a bewildering array of heads and subheads, a bibliographic looking catalogue worthy of a public library. There are chapters showing how the analyses should be used, but one is tempted to wonder whether the aim of the classification may not be defeated by its very thoroughness—whether, for the great emergency presented by the Belgian case, brevity and clarity would not be among


NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
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the most valuable qualities an analysis could possess. But the American student, far from the field of active need, may find interest and stimulus in the “Program’s” exhibition of intellectual finesse, as he must surely find them in M. Van der Swael-men’s discussions of civic art.
Charles Mulford Robinson.1
Rochester, N. Y.
*
Social Diagnosis. By Mary E. Richmond, Director, Charity Organization
Department, Russell Sage Foundation.
New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Pp. 511. *2.
Social service is a newcomer among the important professions. In the forefront of this new profession is Miss Mary E, Richmond, director of the Russell Sage foundation, and author of “Social Diagnosis” published by the foundation. The book is dedicated to Miss Zilpha D. Smith of Boston, a pioneer in social case work.
This rather formidable volume (511 pages long including the bibliography) measures well the difference between the best professional standards of to-day and the elementary almsgiving of earlier generations. Even to-day many good people who realize the need of diagnosis on the part of the physician are prone to describe diagnosis in social service as “red-tape” and either think of it as a needless encumbrance or pride themselves on recognizing the seemingly more “scientific” conception that trained charity workers believe in “investigation” for the simple purpose of preventing fraud.
Miss Richmond’s analytical work is probably beyond the reach of all such elementary and self-satisfied critics. The very substitution of “social diagnosis” for “investigation” and of “client” for “case” may serve to show how, like both a doctor and a lawyer, she undertakes to know how to serve and thus how one may successfully serve persons in distress.
The growth in social service from the
lMr. Robinson is a member of the International Committee referred to by Professor Van der Swael-men, his American colleagues being Professor James Sturgis Pray of Harvard and Frederic Law Olmsted.
days of “lady bountifuls” has been gradual. Economic questions as to the need of additional income underlying the immediate symptoms in a family—the appeal for rent or coal or groceries—were early considered in the charity organization movement which began nearly half a century ago! Miss Richmond goes far beyond this excellent beginning. Dividing her book into three parts she devotes part 1 to defining social evidence, comparing it with evidence furnished in court and pointing out how final and important deductions may be inaccurate due to predispositions, assumptions and habits of thought. She then proceeds to that great test of the professional visitor, the first interview, in which a friendly relationship must be established while, at the same time, information, often of a delicate nature, must be secured promptly and accurately. A social service worker connected with a hospital has in a first interview a comparatively easy time, for when a doctor has taken notes of a patient, the latter is not disconcerted by a social service worker thereupon doing likewise. But the visitor for a charitable society must usually avoid taking notes or even seeming to be inquisitive and yet in a single interview should learn enough to form the basis for sound judgment.
Not only must an individual, who needs help, be really known but it is essential that his family also should be known, to determine whether or not relatives are in a position to help him materially and to understand the underlying causes for distress. A blunt question, such as “Have you any relatives able to support you?” will almost inevitably elicit “No” from a person who hopes that his interviewer will feed or clothe him. But inquiries as to the “client’s” childhood, his brothers and sisters and other relatives and what they are doing now may either give you the required information immediately or may furnish clues which will lead to such information.
Great as the skill of a trained worker must be in getting helpful information about relatives, equal skill is needed in getting adequate information from medi-


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cal sources, schools, and employers. Interviewing successfully an employer about one of his employes who is an applicant for relief may require consummate skill.
Imperfect diagnosis may both lead to mistakes in treatment and to grave injustice. If only husband or wife is interviewed, notably in cases of desertion or of blame heaped by one upon the other, the situation, as first described, may be seriously incorrect. Likewise it may be cruel to subject to strict discipline an apparently stubborn child who in reality owes her offishness to a heritage of insanity.
Much that Miss Richmond says is known consciously or unconsciously to many professional social workers. But there has never before been a text-book setting forth so thoroughly the rules for successful diagnosis as a basis for wise help. Miss Richmond is careful to point out that diagnosis is not merely for information but for such pertinent information as will best lead to a solution both of the immediate problems of the “client” and of the ultimate problems. Superficially “Social Diagnosis” is a vast compilation of heterogeneous experiences and deductions from such experience. In reality it lifts to a new plane the whole profession of social service. Whether as a text-book for a beginner or as corroboration or the reverse for the experienced practitioner it must prove invaluable for all professional social workers.
John F. Moors.
Boston, Mass.
*
The New Civics. By Roscoe Lewis
Ashley. New York: The Macmillan
Company. Pp. 420. $1.20.
Although this volume contains more than four hundred pages, its interpretation of the word “civics” is so justly broad and its survey so comprehensive, that the point which impresses one is the book's compactness. But Professor Ashley, being the author of several books on history, and writing with exceptional fullness of knowledge, makes, himself, no large claims for the volume. He speaks of it as an “introduction to the study,” says
that one could “not think of presenting to high school students a completely analyzed treatment,” and adds that the book’s most important purpose is to make of the pupil “a more intelligent, a more efficient, and therefore a better citizen.” In this work more depends on the teacher than on the textbook; but in so far as a textbook can contribute to the result—by clearness of arrangement, marshalling of data, and breadth of discussion—“The New Civics” certainly does its part.
The text is divided into three parts: I, The Citizen and Society, in which citizenship, the citizen’s education, and civic organization are among the chapter headings; II, Government and the Citizen, containing chapters on, for example,, suffrage and elections, civil liberty and public welfare, city, state, county, and national government; and III, Some Public Activities. The latter has chapters on public health and welfare, labor and industry, commerce, territories and public lands, and foreign relations—large subjects for single chapters.
There are several valuable appendices and a good index. Moreover, each chapter is provided with topical headings and marginal titles, and at its end has a bibliography, a list of “Topics” and “Studies,” and a series of questions. Professor Ashley believes that “the new civics is and should be the heart of the new high school course in the social sciences.” For this purpose his book appears to be exceedingly well fitted, since it may be assumed that the text-books severally prepared for those sciences can provide that completer discussion which its more important topics-clearly need.
Charles Mulford Robinson. Rochester, N. Y.
+
The Building of Cities. By Harlean James, A.B. Illustrations by Charles K. Stevens. Everychild’s Series. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1917. Pp. xiii, 201.
This book was written to instruct children in the How and Why of the building, of cities and the mistakes and the way to-


«36
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
■correct the mistakes made in building them. Everygirl and Everyboy are taught in the Socratic method by the Past, Present, and Future. For children of the age for which the book is meant the method ■of Aesop would have been better. In Dickens’s tale of Scrooge the ghosts of the Past, Present, and Future do not appeal to a child. The children’s interest might be held by the impersonation of these periods of time, but characters with common names who would be very real would be more to the liking of children.
Certainly Miss James knows her theme well; her points are clear and her ideas for the bettering of cities very good. The language all through the book is simple ■enough for the children to understand, but Miss James fails in one essential quality. She does not hold the young child’s interest, but the author proves by the contents of this book that there should be a text of this kind,—to tell the children about their own cities and other cities, to help the children when they are older to serve their cities and the people in them.
Anne Zueblin.
Boston, Mass.
*
The State and Government. By Jeremiah S. Young. Chicago: A. C. Mc-Clurg and Company. Pp. 180. 50 cents, net.
This neat little book is intended for the â– general reader, not for the specialist. Its purpose is to make clear the underlying principles of the state and of government.
The author devotes between a third and a quarter of his space to the theory of the -state. In discussing the theoretical basis of the state, he makes no reference to the juristic theory of the state. In the discussion of sovereignty there is no specific reference to Rousseau’s theory of the sovereignty of the general will. Professor Young frankly inquires, with the manifest expectation of a negative answer, whether the notion of popular sovereignty is anything more than a myth. He plainly prefers the Austinian concept of sovereignty. His method of dealing with these ques-
tions, however, is not dogmatic, and is well calculated to stimulate the inquisitive reader to further study.
The bulk of the volume is devoted to the theory of government. Within the limits of the available space Professor Young covers a good deal of ground. It is not surprising if, at some points, the treatment becomes exceedingly thin. Indeed the specialist who may chance to examine this volume will not fail to be impressed with the difficulty of treating such a broad subject both briefly and clearly. In the treatment of certain topics, such as the relation of government to the state and the doctrine of the division of powers, clearness has been sacrificed to brevity, but in general the space is judiciously apportioned and the discussion lucid as well as compact. The result is a book which ought to be very helpful to the class of readers for whom it is intended.
A. N. Holcombe. Harvard University.
*
Form and Functions of American Government. By Thomas H. Reed, University of California. Yonkers: World Book Company, 1916. Pp. 549. $1.50.
This work is intended for use as a high school text in training for citizenship and must be judged from that point of view. One of the most difficult problems connected with a high school course in the •field of government is to make it vital and interesting to the students. The present work is well calculated to accomplish that result by reason of the emphasis placed on governmental activities, as well as by the use of numerous illustrations, maps, and charts throughout the text. The book is divided into six parts entitled respectively: The Background of American Government; Parties and Elections; State Government; Local Government; Government of the United States; The Functions of Government.
Somewhat too much space seems to be devoted to historical considerations, since high school students get the historical


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background in regular history courses. The question also remains as to the best place to begin in teaching American government, whether with the state, the locality, or the nation. But the book is full of interest for the student, and the suggestions for further study appended to each chapter are certain to be of great value to the high school teacher, who is, generally speaking, poorly prepared for the teaching of government.
Herman G. James. University of Texas.
*
El Regimen Municipal de la Ciudad Moderna t Bosquejo del Regimen Local en Espana, Francia, Ingla-
TERRA, EsTADOS AlEMANES Y ESTADOS Unidos.1 By Adolfo Posada, Professor of Law, University of Madrid.
Professor Posada has done pioneer work in arousing interest in the study of municipal institutions in Spain, and has been no less active in promoting far-reaching reforms in the municipal system of Spain. He is one of the few men in Spain who has brought to the attention of the Spanish people the important reforms in municipal government that have been accomplished in France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States.
At his formal reception as a member of the Spanish Academy of Political and Moral Sciences, Professor Posada made “The Modem City” the subject of his address. The material which he collected in the preparation of his address has now been published in this volume, and presents in succinct and most readable form the existing systems of municipal government in all the countries of Europe as well as in the United States. He also traces with great care the different movements for municipal improvement.
It is to be hoped that this work will be translated into English, as it would make
xThe organization of the modern city, with a sketch of the municipal systems of Spain, France, England, the states of the German Empire and the -United States.
an excellent text-book for high schools and colleges. Professor Posada is to be congratulated on the service that he has rendered to students of municipal government.
L. S. Rowe.
University of Pennsylvania.
*
City Milk Supply. By Horatio Newton
Parker. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, Inc. Pp. 493.
This book undertakes to give a somewhat comprehensive and detailed account of the problems connected with securing a satisfactory supply of milk in cities. The author was formerly health officer in Montclair, N. J., and later instructor in municipal and sanitary dairying at the University of Illinois; and has thus both scientific training and practical experience in the public control of milk supply.
After an introductory chapter on some general aspects of the milk supply, there follow chapters on diseases communicable in milk, dairy cattle and the dairy farm, sanitary milk production, the transportation of milk, the milk contractor, and control of the public milk supply. The last of these deals with federal, state and municipal control; presents several types of milk ordinances; and discusses bacteriological and chemical standards, and the enforcement of the milk code.
Results of the work of experts in specialized fields are quoted and discussed at some length; and a large body of data are presented in the form of statistical tables. Lists of bibliographical sources are given at the end of each chapter. There are also a number of illustrations.
Public officials charged with the administration of milk laws and ordinances and those engaged in the milk business will find this book of much value. The general reader will probably find it somewhat technical; and there are no pretensions to literary style, to make easy reading.
John A. Fairlie.
University of Illinois.
6


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
The Teaching of Government. New York: The Macmillan Company. $1.10.
A committee of the American Political Science Association, of which Charles G. Haines of the University of Texas is chairman, for several years gave extended attention to the question of the teaching of government in the various educational institutions, public and private, high and low, in the United States. It has embodied the results of its study in a volume which commands the thoughtful attention of all who are interested in this subject. One of the interesting features of the book is the introductory chapter devoted to recent progress in which reference is made to the work that has been done in this field by various organizations, including the National Municipal League.
*
Human Welfare Work in Chicago. Edited by H. C. Carbaugh. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. $1.50.
A series of chapters dealing with Chicago’s schools, libraries, parks and boulevards, public recreation, with summaries
II. BOOKS
Actual Government in Illinois. By Mary Louise Childs, New York: The Century Company. Pp. 236.
American Government. By Frank Abbott Magruder, Ph.D., Instructor in Politics, Princeton University. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Pp. 455.
The Botget. By Ren5 Stourm. A Translation from the Seventh Edition of Le Budget (Cours de Finances), Paris, 1913. Thaddeus Plazinski, Translator. Walter Flavius McCaleb, Ph.D., Editor. Introduction by Charles A. Beard, Ph.D. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 619. $3.75.
Canadian Municipal Manual. By John Redmond Meredith, K. C., and William Bruce Wilkinson, K. C. Edited by Sir William Ralph Meredith, Kt., Chief Justice of Ontario. Toronto: Canada LawBook Company,Ltd. Pp.1040. $20.
The English-Speaking Peoples : Their Future Relations and Joint International Obligations. By George Louis Beer. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 322. $1.50.
Excess Condemnation. By Robert E. Cushman,Instructor in Political Science, University of Illinois. New York: D.
of general and religious philanthropic works, and chapters on “Art in Chicago” and “ Chicago as a Music Center. ” While in most instances the work has been done by those who know most about the particular subjects treated, there is no attempt at analysis or co-ordination, and no distinction is drawn between voluntary and official activities. The volume is abundantly, if not always pertinently, illustrated. The publication has been made possible by the generosity of the Hon. John Barton Payne, the president of the South Park commissioners, and a man genuinely interested in promoting the social welfare of his community.
*
A Schoolmaster of the Great City. By Angelo Patri. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 221. $1.25.
Angelo Patri has been a teacher for many years in New York city and has embodied in this little volume not only his experiences but the impressions which the great city has made upon him while serving in that capacity. It is an interesting human document.
RECEIVED
Appleton and Company. National Municipal League Series. Pp. 333. $2. Health Survey of New Haven, Conn-A Report Presented to the Section on Sanitation of the Civic Federation of New Haven by C.-E. A. Winslow, James C. Greenway, and D. Greenberg. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Pp. 114. 75 cents. Hints on Landscape Gardening. By Prince von Piickler-Muskau. Edited' by Samuel Parsons. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pp. 196. Illustrated. $3.50.
An Introduction to Political Parties and Practical Politics. By P. Orman Ray, Professor of Political Science, Northwestern University. New and Revised Edition. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Leadership of the New America :. Racial and Religious. By Archibald McClure. New York: George H. Doran Company. Pp. 314. Illustrated. $1.25. Sanitation Practically Applied. By Harold Bacon Wood, M.D., Dr. P.H. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Pp. 473. $3.
Workmen’s Compensation. By J. E-Rhodes, 2d. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 300. $1.50.


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III. REVIEWS OF REPORTS
Illinois Pension Laws Commission.—
The report of the Illinois pension laws commission puts in convenient form much valuable information concerning pensions for civil servants. It consists of two “Parts,” summarized as follows in the introductory chapter:
Part I gives briefly the history of pensions for public employes in other countries, reviews in detail the pension laws of Illinois, recites the terms of the leading pension laws of other states in this country, sets forth the results of a comprehensive actuarial investigation of the five chief public pension funds in Illinois, and gives important statistics concerning the other funds and the extent of possible pension legislation for public service employes in this state.
Part II outlines briefly the scope and main features of the pension problem, states the essential principles and provisions which, in the opinion of the commission, should constitute a normal or standard pension plan, and makes specific recommendations regarding changes that should be made in some of the existing pension acts, pending further investigation and study of the pension problem.
With reference to the existing police pension fund of Chicago, it is pointed out (p. 13) that if the body of employes remains stationary at 4,830 men, pension requirements, when the system is carrying its ultimate normal load, will be $912,375 to men and $1,296,858 to women and children, or 34.3 per cent of the payroll.
Practically the same percentage of pay-roll will be required in the case of “the firemen’s fund of Chicago.” Assuming that the body of employes remains stationary at 1,973 men, pension payments, when the system is carrying its ultimate load, will be $512,960 to men, $531,862 to widows and $27,052 to children, or 36.6 per cent.
Summarizing its discussion of pension
systems in various foreign countries this report says:
In a general way ... we find precedents for a great variety of systems— varying from those operating loosely without much regard for the probable future cost, to those kept actuarially sound on the theory that a class of persons of given age and service should be accumulating a sufficient fund to pay their own pensions.
City officials have had very little knowledge of what a serious expense they were incurring in starting pension systems. The experience of this and other countries indicates that one third of the pay-roll must be added to the city budget to pay pensions to those who retire and to care for widows and orphans. When a city has once embarked upon this policy there is no chance to draw back. It is a policy involving an enormously increased expense which grows proportionately as the pay-roll grows. There is no escape, no possibility of relief. It seems incredible that any city should knowingly undertake such an unnecessary burden when a better result can be obtained at an expense never greater and which will steadily decline after a few years.
When no pensions exist they may be begun modestly. The sole vital condition is that no part of the principal of the pension fund shall ever be spent. If a sum shall be set aside each year for every employe and the survivors share the income it is surprising how soon the income available for each mounts up. The same principle can be applied for the care of dependents. As time goes on the principal of the fund will yield not only enough for pensions but enough in addition to make the proper increase in the principal, to keep pace with the increasing pay-roll. In time there would be a constantly increasing surplus in excess of all pension requirements which could be devoted to civic betterment.
Lawson Purdy.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
Proceedings of City Managers Association Convention.1—The proceedings of the first city managers convention in 1914 marked the small beginnings of an epoch even if the document was hardly to be described as intrinsically worth printing. It was enough in those days to have proof that there were enough city managers to hold a convention and to have an exhibit of their fine zeal for public service and their apprciation of the great promise of their new profession, even if the pamphlet contained but round-table chat.
The second year the proceedings were more formal but in spots a bit sophomoric, in that the managers undertook to read to each other prepared essays on special topics in which they were not specialists.
Now comes the third, in which the essays are wisely dropped and the discussion is centered about a series of prearranged questions with answers by roll call—questions such as “Legal Difficulties in the Establishment of New Charters,” “Budgets,” “Can a City Manager Succeed where the Commission is dominated by Politics?” “Cost Records,” “Constructive Publicity,” “Training Understudies for the City Manager in Cities under 25,000,” “Getting Politics out of Police and Fire Departments.” This system produced a mass of small concrete experiences constituting the rare raw material of the political scientist although on the whole the material, despite good editing, is not very rich or very interesting. The managers have still to try the correct method of running their meetings, i. e., to get the best specialists and experts they can to come and present their most advanced theories subject to the criticism of the practical minded managers. Both sides would relish the clash of opinion and both sides would emerge with modified ideas while the proceedings would furnish real contributions to municipal literature unobtainable in any other fashion since here we have the first congregation of municipal executives who are free from politics, keen to learn and worth educating, since they are slated to stay in the business
1 Published by W. L. Miller, secretary, St. Augustine, Fla. 25 cents.
for perhaps many years. They will try this plan, in part at least, at Detroit in November.
On the whole, these proceedings indicate again that the city manager movement is in good hands and that the commission-manager plan itself works very smoothly according to design. Indeed one weakness of the discussions is the unanimity with which managers from all parts of the map emphasize the same ideas as to the place of the manager in the government, for instance, or his relation to the public or to his subordinates. A machine that was not correctly designed would not work out so uniformly in so many different hands and localities. One of the keenest points was injected by Professor Hatton who said:
You are accomplishing good results because for the first time you are permitted to work under a system which has made good results possible, and when any man tells me the scheme of government makes no difference, but that the man makes all the difference, I say he does not know what he is talking about. This plan of government under which you are permitted to work, separating politics from administration, is what is going to tell the tale in this plan. If any of you have begun to feel that you are getting good results because you are just about the best man that exists, I think you are wrong. You are getting a chance that no other administrator of municipal government has ever had and I think I could take men out of the old governments and give them your chances and they would do just as good work as any of you are doing.
R. S. C.
*
Recent Reports on City Planning.2—
“Constitutional Limitations on City Planning Powers” by Edward M. Bassett is a pamphlet that should be in the hands of every student of city planning. In this paper, which was read at the National Conference on City Planning at Kansas
*Edward M. Bassett, Constitutional Limitations on City Planning Powers, published by the committee on the city plan, New York city, 1917, 10 pp.
Charles E. Merriam, Building Districts and Restrictions, published by the city council, Chicago, February, 1917, 56 pp.
Encouraging Proper City Growth Through Building Districts, published by the city plan com-


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City and which is now published by the New York committee on city plan, Mr. Bassett discusses the distinction the courts usually make between the police power and the power of eminent domain, and how they apply this distinction in such matters as excess condemnation, the control of buildings within the lines of mapped streets, the establishment of set-backs, the prohibition of billboards, and the regulation of the height, arrangement and use of buildings. The discussion of each subject is accompanied with a copious citation of cases. Activity in city planning has to a greater or less degree been paralyzed in all our communities, not for the reason we do not know what to do, nor that we do not wish to do it, but for the sole reason that we have not known how to do it within existing constitutional limitations. In telling us how to make city planning constitutional, Mr. Bassett’s paper fills a long-felt want.
Next to the final report of the New York commission on building districts and restrictions, the contents of which have already been described in the National Municipal Review, the most valuable report on the subject of zoning is that on the desirability of giving the city of Chicago power to create building districts by Professor Charles E. Merriam, entitled “Building Districts and Restrictions.” This pamphlet does for Chicago what the report of the commission on building districts and restrictions does for New York in analyzing the need for public restrictions, its 56 pages being crammed with expert testimony showing the relation of zoning to the police power of the state. It is most unfortunate for Chicago that the bill which accompanied Professor Mer-riam’s report failed to pass at the recent session of the Illinois legislature.
mission of Newark, New Jersey, 1917, illustration and photographs.
Districting Ordinance of the City of Berkeley, California, 1916.
Berkeley Civic Bulletin, published by the city club of Berkeley, California, August 22,1916,24 pp.
Establishment of Setbacks or Court Yards in the City of New York, published by the committee on the city plan, New York city, 1917, with illustrations and photographs, 15pp.
“Encouraging Proper City Growth Through Building Districts” is a pamphlet reprint of a series of newspaper articles published in a local newspaper by the Newark city plan commission in urging the passage of zoning legislation in New Jersey. The measure advocated by these articles was enacted by the state legislature at its last session. The law is unfortunately limited in its application to cities of the first class.
These two booklets demonstrate that both Chicago and Newark have grasped the true significance of zoning,—that to be effective it must be city wide and that it must be done in accordance with a well-considered city plan after preliminary investigation and expert study. Chicago and Newark profited by New York’s example—but not Berkeley.
The Berkeley zoning ordinance, as described in the bulletins published by the Berkeley city club, should serve as a warning to other cities in that it leaves the imposition of restrictions in the hands of the property owners. The inevitable result of such a policy is, of course, piecemeal zoning. Most of the city will never be zoned at all, and that part zoned will not be zoned with reference to the best interest of the city at large. A zoning ordinance like Berkeley’s is subject to most of the objections usually urged against private restrictions.
The report on “Establishment of Setbacks or Court Yards” by the New York committee on city plan is the best that has yet appeared on the need for uniform building lines. The report is subdivided into two parts: the first, by Robert H. Whitten, treats of the economic and social advantages resulting from the establishment of such lines; and the second, by Nelsoii P. Lewis, analyzes the economy effected in street paving through maintaining part of the street as courtyards. The charter amendment proposed by Mr. Whitten and which has now been enacted by the legislature follows in general the method used in street opening proceedings. Hebert S. Swan.1
Secretary, zoning committee, New York city.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
Public Markets Reports.—Public Markets in the United States.1 This bulletin gives a very complete survey of the municipal markets in sixty-seven American cities. The type of market ranges all the way from the open or curbstone variety to that accommodated in buildings costing big sums of money. Many cities have markets of different kinds, both in the open and within doors. New York city has put over four million dollars into buildings, Boston and Pittsburgh nearly three million each, and New Orleans one million. These expenditures are of consequence from the standpoint of city finance involving an outlay of one to seven dollars per capita. Many of the smaller cities have invested sums equally large from the per capita standpoint, though in some instances where little more than street room is furnished the investments are trifling.
In annual receipts and expenditures the results vary greatly. The majority of the cities show favorable balances, the greatest being Pittsburgh with $77,690. On the other hand a considerable number of cities show losses ranging from small sums upward to $40,000 for St. Louis and over a million dollars for New York city. The expenditures are mainly for salaries, fuel, light, and water and maintenance.
Of much more concern than a few dollars in cost is the question of how the market serves the people as a place to buy and sell.
Who sells in the municipal market? Who goes there to buy? In about half of the markets farmers constitute from half to all of the sellers. In about one-third retailers constitute from hah to the whole number. Wholesalers and jobbers constitute the balance. Motor trucks and hard roads are making it possible for farmers to bring their produce in to the markets from distances far out of reach of such markets when horses were the sole dependence. They now haul as far as thirty miles.
In many cities the attendance of buyers
1 The second report of a committee of the National Municipal League, C. L. King, chairman, 32 pp., Philadelphia, 1917,
is very large. Smaller cities report a few hundred per day while in the big cities it runs as high as 100,000 to 500,000 a week. On the whole it seems that more are buying at the market than was formerly the case.
With the exception of six cities out of the sixty-seven all report that produce is cheaper at the market than at the stores. In many instances the reductions are 20, 30 and even 50 per cent (though hardly 100 per cent, as is stated on p. 26 of the bulletin). Added to the advantage of lower price is the fresher quality of the goods.
After all is said and done it must be admitted that the public markets supply but a small part of the produce used in the cities. Why so little? The consumers give the answer: It is stated that markets are not in convenient places; not protected from the weather; that they do not have delivery systems, or inadequate ones.
While not so specifically stated in the buEetin the inference is plain that farmers do not have the facilities for catering to the retaE trade. They do not have a constant or uniform supply of produce. It is not so easy to order from them by 'phone, or to buy on credit. It must be admitted that while the farmers are obhged to ask much more for goods sold on the market at retail than they might get at wholesale, so also the consumer must be able to get produce at appreciably lower prices on the market than at the stores or it wiH not pay to go there. When the markets are so organized that they can receive telephone orders, fill them promptly and make satisfactory and prompt delivery of the goods they will be able to compete successfuEy against the corner groceries. Until that time they may act as a check on exorbitant prices; they may furnish a superior class of goods to those who have time to go and get them. They wiE not, however, until they meet these requirements, replace in great measure the regular retail stores.
Shortage of Food Relieved and High Food Prices Reduced. The twentieth annual report of the PhEadelphia vacant lots cultivation association.


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This report shows that the enterprise is at base philanthropic although it is conducted with the self-help idea uppermost. The association spent some $9,000 during 1916 and the gardeners raised around $30,000 worth of vegetables. The association finds idle land, or in some cases other land, which may be had without rental charges, plows and harrows it and divides it into gardens of about one-sixth acre each. Seed, plants, and fertilizers are furnished at a nominal charge the first year, $12 the second, and so on to the fifth at which time $5 is paid, a sum just about covering the cost.
The association provided 600 families with gardens last year, a number far below the number of applications. Larger subscriptions, and particularly more donations of the use of idle land are needed to meet the demands of the many families near the poverty line. This method of help is especially commendable since it tends to foster self respect, encourage thrift, and supply wholesome food.
Keeping Down Food Costs, by Harry C. Douglas in The Independent, May 12,1917. This is a brief terse article setting forth the facts of recent prices in Australia and their control by public authority. Following the outbreak of the war, food prices rose very abruptly, due, as Mr. Douglas thinks, to the action of speculators. Very promptly the Parliament of New South Wales passed a law providing for the citation of a “Necessary Commodities Control Commission.” For evasions of the law penalties were provided, a $500 fine for each offense with a possible jail sentence in addition.
The plan seems to work. The price of wheat had gone from less than a dollar a bushel to a dollar and a quarter. It came back to a dollar—the legally fixed price— at once. Flour had reached $56 a ton in price. It fell to $46. Bread was slated for a 28 per cent increase in price, but it was not made.
The government of New South Wales has a fleet of trawlers and puts fish on the market at cost.
The question of the rent of farm land has been made a matter of public interest
and a “Fair Rents Court” undertakes to see that landlords do not get above 6 per cent returns.
In Queensland the state was about to go into the hotel and brewing business.
Preliminary Report on Study of Increase of Cost of Food, Minneapolis civic and commerce association. In November, 1916, a committee of this association submitted a report on the subject of prices and wages. Index numbers are quoted showing changes in the cost of fifteen articles. During eight years following 1907 there was an increase of 24 per cent. The increase since 1915 is not included in the index numbers but is known to be at a greater rate than for preceding years. Figures on certain selected articles are, however, shown for 1916 in comparison with corresponding figures for 1907. Meats show an increase in price of 31 per cent for bacon up to 84 per cent for ham. Eggs increased in price 57 per cent, flour 52 per cent, sugar 32 per cent, potatoes 169 per cent. In dairy products the increases were much smaller—14 per cent for milk and 20 per cent for butter.
An attempt was made to determine the relation of increases in retail as compared to those in wholesale prices, but the necessary data seem to have been scarce. The figures are given for butter, eggs and potatoes only. Of these the retailer’s margin in percentage was found to be a little greater on butter but less on eggs and potatoes than in 1907. In absolute amounts the margins were higher on butter and potatoes and a little lower on eggs in 1916 than in 1907. Thus the retailers are not especially to blame for present high prices.
The figures furnished by the Department of Agriculture on cold storage are quoted showing that 24 per cent fewer eggs, and 14.5 per cent less butter were stored in 1916 as compared to the previous year.
The index number on union wages shows an increase since 1907 of 12 per cent, in contrast to the 24 per cent increase in food prices.
B. H. Hibbard.
Madison, Wis.


644
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
A Proposed Marine Terminal and Industrial City on New York Bay at Bay-onna, N. J.—Cities situated on navigable waters throughout the country may well view with interest if not with envy the proposed marine and industrial terminal for Bayonne, New Jersey. The New Jersey board of commerce and navigation has prepared for the commissioners of the city of Bayonne plans for the project and a report of 114 pages, dated November, 1916, drawn under the consulting supervision of Benj. F. Cresson, Jr., with the co-operation of F. Van Z, Lane, which contains material adequate and pertinent to the local conditions. Detailed in its presentation, enriched by maps and a cartoon, and unique in the legislation which conditions it, the report is a welcome contribution to the annals of port and terminal development. Its value lies in its completeness and the reliability of the talent which produced it.
Of five “Primary Installations,” the fifth is recommended for adoption at an estimate of $7,234,546, of which $2,121,673 is for dredging, bulkheading, and reclamation and $5,112,873 for the other facilities. Among these many facilities providing dockage for 30 modem freight ships on upper New York bay is a type of storage shed peculiar to foreign practice and introduced here for the first time in American design. These three-story units are placed along the bulkhead platform at distances equal about to a ship’s length. On the water side the second and third stories are each, in turn, set back five feet from the one below, leaving an operating shelf on the second and third stories in addition to that of the bulkhead deck. Goods in through transit take the first floor. The second and third stories are given over to short-time warehousing, to goods in delayed transit and those held for reshipment. The rear of these units is plane-faced and the goods in the upper stories lower to a ground platform serving both rail and highway carriers.
Under a law recently enacted by a referendum, the city of Bayonne is authorized to issue bonds without regard to the debt limits heretofore established;
the bonds so issued shall bear interest at a rate not exceeding 5 per cent; shall be a first lien upon the property created; and shall not run for a period of more than fifty years—a period allowed for the contract with an operating company. This contract—arranged for before the bonds may be issued—will include a guaranty by the operating company that it will pay to the city sufficient moneys to meet the interest on the bonds; to set aside a sinking fund for their retirement; and to further insure its obligation to the city by the deposit of at least one million dollars in cash or securities authorized for investment by savings banks in the state of New Jersey, the same to be used by the city in case the company shall default in any of its obligations.
The adequacy and ease of control and the focusing of responsibility made possible by this centralization of power in her division of commerce and navigation affords to New Jersey an initiative, development, and dispatch of water front policies that few of her sister states enjoy. The greater port of New York is better equipped with such an organization as the New Jersey board of commerce and navigation in existence and the Bayonne development is a formidable and worthy offspring of the union of state and municipal effort.1 Robert A. Lesher.
Columbia University.
*
The Los Angeles School Survey.2—A brief survey of the organization and administration of the school system of Los Angeles was made in April and May, 1916, for the board of education by Dean Walter A. Jessup, College of Education, Iowa State University, and Dr. Albert Shiels, formerly director of the bureau of reference and research, board of education, New York city. The most important and interesting recommenda-
1A proposal to issue $10,000,000 bonds to carry out the scheme was defeated on July 31, by a vote of 3,408 to 1,075.—Editor.
2 Report of the advisory committee to the board of education of the city of Los Angeles on certain aspects of the organization and administration of the public school system. 177 pp.


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tion, and the one supported by most of the facts cited, is that a division of educational research and statistical information should be established in the office of the city superintendent of schools to formulate standards based on fact rather than opinion and to determine wherein Los Angeles falls short of such standards.
Some of the general problems as formulated by the investigators, which would confront such a research bureau in Los Angeles, are the following:
1. To ascertain the effect on the individual children of classes of various sizes in elementary, intermediate, high and evening schools. (“There is no standard of that number of class enrollment which, without extravagance, will conserve the best interests of pupils. Such investigations as have been made, based on the somewhat dubious criterion of number of promotions, permits an enrollment in excess of 35 and less than 40 " (p. 44).
2. To collect the facts necessary to formulate a definite policy respecting the subjects which should be taught by special teachers in the various grades.
3. To formulate a complete programme for dealing with the problem of physically and mentally defective children.
4. To make a study to determine the relation between the number of school nurses and physicians and the health and development of pupils.
5. To measure by existing standards the proficiency of pupils in the Los Angeles schools and to establish standards where none exist.
6. To determine the relative effectiveness of instruction of pupils in grammar and intermediate schools. (Meanwhile it is recommended that intermediate schools (grades 7 to 9) be continued.)
7. To study the problem of junior colleges. (It is recommended that no more junior colleges be established but that their consolidation into one city college be “ considered. ”)
In view of the fact that all boards of education and all city superintendents of schools systems are attempting solutions of similar problems, and of the impossibility of establishing standards in so many fields in any one city because of the difficulty of securing sufficient funds for experimentation and capable investigators in all branches, it might properly be considered the function of some national body, e.g., the United States Bureau of Education, the Russell Sage foundation, or the General Education Board, to co-operate with the research bureaus in the various cities, so that each problem could be intensively studied in one place and the results made available to all, instead of
attempting to investigate all of the problems in Los Angeles and in every other city. Mere opinion rather than established fact has resulted from the latter method.
The Los Angeles survey is helpful insetting forth the problems needing solution. It has evidently been approved by the board of education of Los Angeles for Dr. Shiels has recently been elected superintendent of schools.
Bessie C. Stern.1
♦
Public Safety Notes.—Hopper Efficiency Record System. Civil service literature contains many valuable books and pamphlets directed to the technique of examination and to the legal limitations upon the power of removal, but contains-almost no contributions of value which relate to the development of efficiency record systems. This condition of civil service literature reflects accurately the condition of civil service administration. The front door of the public service is well' looked after by highly trained and well seasoned employment specialists who have placed the civil service examining machinery on the highest plane of efficiency. The rear door of the public service is-zealously guarded by the ablest lawyers in the country, who gladly volunteer their services as an exhibition of civic devotion. The interior workings of the public service are left to the impractical theorist who seeks to evolve plans of administration from the atmosphere of the university library, the college professor’s sanctum or the elective official’s fancies.
John J. Hopper, register of the county of New York, a successful man in private-life who has administered a comparatively unimportant public office with signal ability, has in a fifteen-page pamphlet described the efficiency record system which he has devised for his own department. This system is thoroughly practical,, surprisingly simple, well-balanced, entirely equitable and apparently satisfactory from every point of view.
1 Committee on education, board of estimate and apportionment, New Y ork city.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
Employes are rated at monthly intervals by their immediate division chiefs on their proficiency (weight 5) which includes how well they do their work, their adaptability (weight 3) which includes their fitness for higher work, and their interest (weight 2) which includes their fidelity and influence upon co-workers. Special merit marks are awarded for overtime service which is clearly outside of office hours and for initiative which is displayed in suggesting improvements that are adopted. Demerits for tardiness and absence are given on a carefully graduated and equitably devised scale. Care is exercised to secure equalization of ratings among divisions, to secure publicity of ratings in each division and to stimulate interest in the ratings by relieving rating officers of burdensome details and by convincing employes of its fairness.
Finger Prints. The twenty-two page pamphlet on “Finger Prints” which has been prepared by City Magistrate Joseph M. Deuel of New York, summarizes the present-day knowledge of the scientific, sociological and legal aspects of this modern aid to efficient administration of the criminal law in a most convenient and interesting form for both the professional and the general reader.
Leonhard Felix Fuld.
*
Districting Baltimore for the Work of Charitable Organizations.—The report of the bureau of state and municipal research in Baltimore, suggesting uniform districting of the city of Baltimore for the work of charitable organizations, seems carefully and suggestively done. The difficulties in the way of such a uniform districting plan, based on differences in size of staff, kind of work carried on, in transportation, in racial and other population distribution, are fully recognized. A further possible difficulty not considered by the report might be mentioned. Some organizations find it desirable, for instance, to work in connection with districts fixed not by charitable organizations but by the city government itself. For instance, a society to protect children from
cruelty finds it helpful to have its boundaries coincide with the boundaries of the police districts; an organization dealing with the health of poor people finds it advantageous to have its district agent work always with the same poor law physician, and so on. The answer, of course, is that these city divisions ought to conform to the same rational principles which suggest the districts for charitable organizations. After recognizing all these difficulties, and having carefully kept in mind racial and religious considerations, density of population, density of need, natural community districts, and transportation facilities, the report indicates seventeen natural divisions into which the city of Baltimore can easily be divided. It makes a good case in suggesting these to the charitable organizations as uniform districts. To follow them would prevent overlapping and duplication and promote acquaintance among workers carrying on activities within the same territory, would reduce cost both in time and money spent in going from case to case, and would make possible also a study of conditions of many kinds and needs to many agencies as they exist in the different districts. This is now impossible because the districts from which agencies take their statistics of different kinds and needs are not uniform and therefore not comparable.
The further coincidence of the boundaries of the districts suggested with the boundaries of enumeration districts used in the taking of the national census would also greatly promote the possibility of accurate statistical study. These enumeration districts, which are much smaller than the ordinary political subdivisions of the city, such as wards and voting districts, are selected as constituting natural population groupings, by race, housing, density, and so on. The combination of the utilization of the enumeration districts and the uniform charitable districts would, if possible, make for economy and efficiency in the work of social agencies, and promote study of social problems in general, as revealed by charitable work.
Roy Smith Wallace.


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Massachusetts Constitutional Convention Publications.—The commission which was named by Governor McCall to compile information for the use of the Massachusetts constitutional convention has published a series of thirty-five bulletins dealing with various questions of public policy. The titles of these bulletins are as follows: Procedure of Constitutional Conventions, State Budget Systems, The Pardoning Power; The Governor’s Council; Old Age Pension Systems; Initiative and Referendum; The Massachusetts Public Opinion Law; The Short Ballot; Biennial Elections and Biennial Sessions; Municipal Home Rule; County Government; The Constitutionality of Social Welfare Legislation; Sectarian Appropriations; Municipal Debt Limits; City ■Government by Commission; The City-Manager Plan; State Debt Limits; The Abolition of Capital Punishment; Absentee Voting; Compulsory Voting; Methods of Borrowing, Sinking Fund v. Serial Bonds; The Selection of Judges; Jury Trial in Contempt Cases; Preferential Voting; Proportional Representation; Advisory Judicial Opinions; State Constabularies; Billboard Regulation; Method of Apportioning Representatives; Municipal Ownership; The English System of “Provisional Orders"; State Censuses; The Provisions of State Constitutions Relative to the Militia, and the Report of the Commission.
These bulletins have proved of high value to the delegates and will undoubtedly be of interest to students of American government because the data which they eontain have been compiled with strict impartiality and are presented, as the law establishing the commission requires, “without comment or expression of opinion.” The convention has authorized the printing of a sufficient number for distribution to public libraries and similar institutions. Application should be made to the offices of the commission, Room 426, State House, Boston. The members of the commission are: Prof. William Bennet Munro of Harvard, chairman, Lawrence B. Evans of the Boston bar,
and former Senator Roger Sherman Hoar of Concord.
♦
Dayton’s Report for 1916.—The third year’s results under the city-manager form are forcefully set forth in Dayton’s annual report by the city commission.
There are reports for the author, reports for the favorite printer, reports for the chief executive, and occasionally reports for the people who pay the taxes and receive the services.
Dayton’s report is for the average citizen, Mr. Taxpayer. Its keynote is service and every page recites in attractive, readable form, a paragraph at a time, not what might have been, but what was accomplished.
City government is divided—like all Gaul—into three parts,—a plan, a performance, and a report back upon the work done.
The citizen is glad to get the information, provided it is in a pleasing pellet form, and sugar-coated with a few well-chosen illustrations. The Dayton report is all this, culled from scores of pages of the monthly and annual reports of the department heads. The report follows every principle of publicity,—it is truthful, informing, concise, paragraphed, illustrated.
It was distributed to every household in the city. Thirty-five thousand copies cost $491.70 under competitive bidding; and to deliver them, $3 per thousand. Its only shortcoming was the delay of five months after the close of the year in getting it to the press.
Copies of the annual report may be secured free of charge by addressing City Manager H. M. Waite, or the Dayton bureau of research, 613 Schwind Bldg.
C. E. Rightor.
*
The Annual Report of the City Auditor, Springfield, Mass.,1 can well serve as a model for all cities that have any pride in proper accounting and reporting
1 General Financial Statement for the.Fiscal Year ending November 30, 1916, Springfield, Mass., March, 1917. Pp. 93.


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
methods. It is perhaps as complete a financial report as is issued by a city of its size and strikingly illustrates the forward movement for the improvement of municipal accounting methods. There is hardly a question that the citizen or city official would have occasion to ask concerning the city’s finances that it does not answer, both in summary and detailed manner. Its completeness lies in the form of its balance sheet, its fund statement, its operating statement and the standard classified schedules supporting the items therein. Its distinction between expense and expenditures and between revenue and receipts illustrates the modern tendency in municipal accounting. The index typifies the entire report—simplicity and completeness.
The report, which has been reprinted by the Springfield bureau of municipal research, may be obtained from the city auditor or from the bureau upon request.
*
Japanese Administration and Finance.1
—The March number of Municipal Research contains three essays. The first is by Professor R. Uchiike and Y. Sakamoto on the Budget System of Japan; the second is by Hyoye Ouchi on the Japanese Financial Department; the third is by Baron Y. Sakatani on the City of Tokio and is reprinted from a volume bearing that title.
Of these three essays, the first is the longest and of most interest to American students. In it the authors give an excellent account of the preparation, voting and execution of the budget. Details need not be presented here. Suffice it to say that the Japanese system is quite modern and, with few exceptions, meets
1 In Municipal Research, No. 83. March, 1917. Pp. iii, 72.
the tests of present-day models. Though the organization of the government of Japan is peculiar and there is limited con' trol over the expenditures of the Imperial Household, the details of the system will prove suggestive to those interested in improving our own budgetary procedure. The training school for public service has placed us under obligation by making available this concise account of the Japanese system.
H. A. Millis.
University of Chicago.
*
Municipal Ordinances, Rules, and Regulations Pertaining to Public Health.2—
A series of classified extracts from municipal legislation on health and related subjects enacted in 1915 in cities of the United States with an estimated population of 10,000 or more in 1910. Among the subjects covered are communicable diseases, milk and other foods, house sanitation, garbage and refuse and the organization of local health departments. Earlier yearly volumes of like character cover the five years beginning January 1, 1910.
*
Property Exempt from Taxation in the Forty-Eight States.—William E. Hannan, the legislative reference librarian of the state of New York, has compiled an admirable summary in twenty-three pages of the various classes of property that are exempt in the several states. He gives the constitutional and statutory provisions and has prepared a number of interesting and suggestive tables. Naturally, being a New York state publication, it devotes more attention to that state than to any other.
* Reprint No. 364 from Public Health Reports, 1915-1916, Washington, D. C.: United States Public Health Service.


1917] BIBLIOGRAPHY 649
IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY1
Accounting
Anderson, De Lany & Company. The accounting treatment of overhead construction costs in public utilities. 1917. 20 pp. tables.
Anon. Cost accounting for municipal work [in Victoria, B. C.]. (Municip. Engrng., Mch., 1917: 125-126. table.)
Clader (W. A.). Electric utilities accounting. (Joum. of Accountancy, May, 1917 : 326-337.)
Pride (E. L.). Water-works accounting [with discussion]. (Joum., New England Water Works Assoc., Mch., 1917: 63-77. forms.)
Sack (Isidor). New York’s new uniform system of accounts for third class cities. (Joum. of Accountancy, Apr., 1917 : 264-282.)
Sampson (E. T.). Municipal accounting. (Canadian Municip. Joum., Meh-Jy., 1917 : 96-97, 129, 162-163, 290-291, 322, 327.)
In five installments, to be followed, in the August issue, by examples of balance sheets, rulings, etc.
Warner (A. R.). Hospital accounting and finances [with discussion]. (Transactions, Amer. Hospital Assoc., 1916: 448-462. tables.)
Wilson (Gordon). The fourth factor in cost accounting. (Joum. of Accountancy, May, 1917: 321-325.)
A consideration of spoilage as a fourth factor to “the three traditional fundamentals, labor, material, and overhead.”
Billboards
Los Angeles. Ordinance no. 37,050 (new series).
An ordinance regulating billboards, advertising sign boards and other similar structures used for advertising purposes. June 19, 1917.
Charters
Joplin, Missouri. Charter and code of Joplin with franchises, 1917. Revised and codified by Hugh Mclndoe, mayor, assisted by E. F. Cameron, city attorney. Printed and published by authority of the Council of Joplin, Mo., in book form, Jan., 1917. 737 pp.
Child Labor
National Child Labor Committee. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference on Child Labor. 1917. 79 pp. (The Child Labor Bulletin, May, 1917.)
Contains many interesting papers on various phases of the child-labor Question.
City Manager
See also Municipal Government.
Bingham (C. A.). City manager results: the story of two years at Norwood, Massachusetts. 1916. 6 pp.
Committee op Fifteen to Inquire into the Feasibility of a City Manager Plan for Cleveland. Proceedings
of the meetings held Jan. 5 to Mch. 28, 1917. 125 pp. typewritten.
Grinnell, Iowa. Report of S. H. Crosby, city manager. Mch. 31, 1917. 15 pp.
City Planning
See also Housing, Streets, Zoning.
Adams (Thomas). Influence of town planning on the social life of the community. (Canadian Municip. Joum., Jy., 1917: 324-325.)
Ford (George B.). City planning in war time. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 569-572. illus. plan.)
-------. What city planning means during war time. Some of the existing conditions as seen by the American Industrial Commission sent to France. (Record and Guide, Je. 2, 1917: 755-756.)
----, ed., assisted by Ralph F. Warner.
City planning progress in the United States, 1917. 1917. viii, 207 pp. illus. plans, maps.
Compiled by the Committee on Town Planning of the American Institute of Architects.
Hoover (A. Pearson). The industrial terminal and its relation to the city plan. (City Plan, Apr., 1917. 8 pp.)
James, Harlean. The building of cities. 1917. 201 pp. illus.
A volume designed to explain to school children the fundamentals of city planning.
Kimball (Theodora). Brief list of references [in the English language] on city planning. 1917. 9 pp. typewritten.
A list prepared for “City Harming Progress, 1917,” with prices added.
Moore (Charles). Problem in the development of Washington. 1917. 20 pp. (Journ. of the Amer. Institute of Architects, May, 1917.)
Civil Service
See also Libraries.
Anon. Practical and specific training of men for public service. Why"' The case for public service training, (Public Servant, Mch., 1917: 175-192.)
Fuld (Leonhard F.). Opportunities in the civil service. [1917] 44 pp.
forms.
-------. A program for employes’ associations. System of service instruction would promote efficiency and assist members toward self-advancement. (Good Government, Jy., 1917: 46-47.)
New York State. Committf.e on Civil Service (Senate). Second report of the Committee . . . appointed to
investigate the civil service of the state . . . [in relation to the standardisa-
tion of the public employments of the state]. Transmitted to the Legislature Jan. 3, 1917. 1917. 115 pp. tables.
i Edited by Mias Alice M. Holden, "Wellesley, College.


650 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
County Government
County Government Association. Proceedings of the Second Conference for Better County Government in New York State, Syracuse, N. Y., Dec. 14-15, 1916. 1917. Ill pp.
Contains articles on: "County government—a problem in low visibility,” by Richard S. Childs; "A plea for the county plan of tax administration,” by Martin Saxe; "Highway administration, by Benjamin Rice; "County administration of highways under state control,” by Edwin Duffey; "What is the trouble with county government?” by L. Grant Sheldon; "Shall New York State have a state constabulary?” by Helen Hoy Greeley; "The purchase of municipal supplies," by Frank X. Wood; "Concentration of responsibility in county government,” by Otho G. Cartwright; "Simplification of county and local finances,” by Mark Graves; "The county as a unit of school administration. Are there better units?” by Thomas E. Finegan; "Legislative program of the County Government Association,” by H. S. Gilbertson; "County jails and local penology,” by Hastings H. Hart.
Williams (Edward W.). Centralized government for counties and cities. May, 1917. 6 pp. chart. (Bulletin no. 28 of the Tax Association of Alameda County.)
Community Service
See also recreation.
Co-opehative Association of Virginia. Community league bulletin. 1916. 48 pp.
Issued jointly by the State Departments of Health, Education, Highways, Agriculture, Dairy and Food, Charities and Corrections, and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
------. High and elementary school cooperative league bulletin. For Virginia public schools. 1917. 19 pp.
Galpin (C. J.) and Sawtelle (D. W.). Rural clubs in Wisconsin. 1916. 68 pp. (Bull. 271, Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin.)
Indiana University . Extension Division. Community institutes. Notes on the purpose and the method of the institutes held in twenty-three cities in 1915 and 1916. 1917. 27 pp. (Bull, ii, no. 5.)
International Harvester Company. Agricultural Extension Department. The Hammond plan. Hammond cares for all her people. 1917. 26 pp.
Rubinow (S. G.). The community fair —a factor in rural education. (School and Society, Jy. 28, 1917 : 96-101.)
Toronto Bureau of Municipal Research. Can a community plan its giving for community purposes or must individuals continue to give without a knowledge of the community’s needs and what resources exist to meet these needs? A discussion of haphazard versus planned philanthropy based on a study of the facts. Je., 1917. 47 pp. charts.
Crime and Correction
Lewis (B. G.). The offender and his relations to law and society. 1917. 382 pp. plates, tables.
Ohio. Board of Administration. Crime prevention: the study of causes, by Thomas H. Haines. 1917. 19 pp.
(Publication no. 11.)
Bulletin no. 5 of the Bureau of Juvenile Research.
Williams (J. H.). Delinquency and density of population. 1917. 18 pp.
diagr., tables. (California. Whittier State School. Research bull. no. 4.)
Reprinted from Journal of Delinquency, Mcb., 1917: 74-91.
Education
See also Schools.
Denver Civic and Commercial Association. Civic and Legislative Bureau. A proposed educational code for Colorado. 1917. 90 pp.
The code failed of passage by the 1917 legislature but it is expected to be submitted again in 1919.
Smith (Harlan L.). The development of museums and their relation to education. (Scientific Monthly, Aug., 1917: 99-119. illus.)
Snedden (David S.). Problems of secondary education. 1917. xiv, 333 pp.
Electrolysis
Paine (R. A., Jr.). Protection of lead-covered cables from electrolysis caused by stray electric currents. (Municip. Engnrs. Joum., May, 1917: 143-154. diagrs., illus.)
Fire Prevention
Chase (W. F.). The garage as a fire risk. 1917. Insurance Library Association of Boston Bulletin, Apr., 1917: 33-39.
Hammitt (J. O.). The prevention of school fires. (Proceedings, Amer. School Hygiene Assoc., 1916 : 52-56.)
Mallalieu (W. F.). Causes of the fire loss in the United States. The results of a great national survey of fire causes indicate that a large part of our enormous loss is preventable. (Amer. City, Mch., 1917: 295, 297, 299.)
Taylor (E. L.). Fire prevention in public institutions. (Ohio Bull, of Charities and Correction, Feb., 1917: 95-100.)
Wentworth (F. H.). American fire waste and its prevention. (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Mch., 1917: 163-171.)
Fire Protection
Adamson (Robert) . Emergency measures adopted by the New York Fire Department, (Amer. City, May, 1917: 485-488.)
An account of the measures adopted to meet possible emergencies due to the war.
Anon. Fire equipment statistics: figures showing the fire apparatus—both motor-driven and horse-drawn—in service and reserve in the cities of the United States and Canada of 5,000 population and over. (Fireman’s Herald, Mch. 3, 1917: 163-166, 180, 182, 184, 188, 190, 192.)


1917]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
651
Anon. Effect of platoons at Chicago. Investigator finds fire protection seriously affected through failure to add sufficient men to keep manual strength up to former level. (Fireman’s Herald, May 19, 1917: 417, 427-428. diagr.)
----. The fire record of the cities. One
hundred and three places of 20,000 population or over had less than $1 per capita loss in 1916—twenty-three exceeded $5— Shenandoah, Pa., the lowest—Jersey City, N. J., the highest. (Fireman’s Herald, May 26, 1917: 435-436, 437.)
Boston Chamber of Commerce. Statement at a hearing on bills to establish a two-platoon system for firemen before the Committee on Cities, Feb. 8, 1917. 1917. 19 pp. typewritten.
A vigorous opposition to the establishment of the system. The two-platoon system has since been adopted by the City Council of Boston.
Dominion Association of Fire Chiefs Proceedings of the eighth annual convention, held at Windsor, Ont., Aug., 1916. 168 pp. illus.
Some of the papers included are the following: Wentworth, F. H., Significance of the fire waste, pp. 20-27; Porter, H, F. J., The fire wall an essential in crowded buildings, pp. 47-58; Adams, Thomas, Some observations on town planning and fire prevention, pp. 58-62; Graham, j. W., Fires caused by accident, carelessness or design, pp. 63-76; Heaton, E. P., The duties, responsibilities, and work of the fire marshal’s office, pp. 99-108; Smith, J. G., Standardization, pp. 121 126.
Eastman Kodak Company. Suggestions on fire protection: experiments on the storage of motion picture film. 1917. 93 pp. charts, illus.
Eley (A. J.). The motor fire boat. (Civil Service Age, Mch., 1917: 5-6.)
The author is chief engineer of the Los Angeles Fire Department.
Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph Company (New York). Emergency signalling; an interesting non-technical account of the origin and development of electric fire alarm and police telegraph systems, 1855-1916. Pts. 3-6. (Fireman’s Herald, Feb. 17, 24, Mch. 10, 1917: 126, 146, 154, 218. illus.)
Hawley (W. C.). Basis on which municipalities may assess the cost of fire protection. (Public Service, May, 1917: 151-152.)
National Board of Fire Underwriters. Special report on high pressure fire service system, Boston, Mass., [by the] Committee on Fire Prevention. 1916. 11 pp. 1 map. (Supplement to report no. 158.)
-------. Dwelling houses: a code of suggestions for construction and fire protection. To safeguard homes and lives against the ravages of fire. 1916. 115
pp. plan, illus.
Pennsylvania. Statutes. An act to amend section one of . . . “An act
to promote the health and efficiency of
firemen in cities of the second class by providing for a two-platoon system for firemen in the Department of Public Safety of such cities” by extending the-same to cities of the first class. 1917. 4 pp. (House Bill no. 493.)
Rochester Bureau of Municipal Research. Proposed specifications for fire hose in the City of Rochester, and report thereon; submitted to the Mayor, to the Commissioner of Public Safety and to the Board of Contract and Supply.. 1916. 22 pp. table.
Stoddard (R. G.). How the cities can solve the food problem. (Amer. City, Jy.,. 1917: 6-9.)
Franchises
See also Charters.
Lindsley (H. D.). Elements of a good franchise. (Texas Municipalities, May, 1917: 100-106.)
Garbage and Refuse Disposal
Anon. Alcohol from garbage. Possibility of conserving food products by producing ninety-six thousand gallons of alcohol a year—experiments at Columbus, Ohio, indicate a profit in utilizing, garbage this way. (Municip. Joum., May 24, 1917 : 707-709. diagr.)
Peterson (C. G.). Refuse collection and incinerator design. (Municip. Joum.,. Je. 7, 1917: 755-756.)
Housing
Boston Dwelling House Company. Woodboume. A description of single and semi-detached houses offered at this site by the Boston Dwelling House Company. [1917.] 32 pp.
Nolen (John). A good home for every wage-earner. 1917. 23 pp. (Amer. Civic-Assoc., ser. II, no. 9, Apr., 1917.)
Contains a list (pp. 14-23) of low-cost housing; developments to be found in cities and towns ail over the country.
Tenement House Department of the City of New York and Tenement House Committee of the Charity Organization Society. For you. It is hard to get money. It is harder to spend it right. Health is wealth. [1917.] 32-
pp.
A popular plea for better public health baaed on proper housing conditions.
Illiteracy
Alabama. Illiteracy Commission.. First annual report of the Alabama Illiteracy Commission, Apr. 2, 1915-Oct. 1, 1916. 125 pp.
Insurance, Health and Social
See also Pensions.
Alexander (Magnus A.). Some vital facts and considerations in respect to: compulsory health insurance. Men., 1917. 15 pp.


â– 652 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
American Academy op Political and Social Science. Modem insurance problems. Editor in charge of this volume, S. S. Huebner. Editor in charge of part III of the volume, Ralph H. Blanchard. 1917. vi, 347 pp. (Annals, lxx, whole no. 159.)
The volume is divided into: pt. I, Life insurance; t. II, Fire insurance; and pt. Ill, Accident and ealth, and workmen’s compensation insurance.
American Association for Labor Legislation. Health insurance. (Amer. Labor Legislation Review, Mch., 1917: -9-181.)
The Proceedings of the tenth annual meeting of •the Association. Contains papers on the need, medical organization, organization of funds, principles, and official endorsements of health insurance.
Anthony (F. W.). The proposed health insurance legislation. (Boston Medical and Surgical Joum., Mch. 22, 1917: 431-435.)
Boston Chamber of Commerce. Noncontributory old age pensions and health insurance. 1917. 15 pp. (Report of the Special Committee on Social Insurance.)
California. Social Insurance Commission. Report. Jan. 25, 1917. 340 pp.
Carey (Francis King). Compulsory health insurance for Maryland. A letter to the members of the City Club of Baltimore, 1917. 11 pp. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., v, no. 4.)
The author is chairman of the Committee on Health Insurance of the Federated Charities of Baltimore.
Dawson (M. M.). Public health insurance and the public health. (Public Health Nurse, Apr., 1917: 113-116.)
Hoffman (F. L.). Facts and fallacies of compulsory health insurance. 1917. 101 pp. chart.
An address before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dec. 28, 1916, and the National Civic Federation, Jan. 22, 1917.
Massachusetts. Special Commission -on Social Insurance. Report. 1917. 311 pp. (House doc. 1917, no. 1850.)
National Civic Federation. Compulsory health insurance. Annual meeting addresses. 1917. 74 pp.
Contains several papers and discussion.
Rubinow (I. M.). Social insurance; (also] health insurance. [1917.] 27 pp.
(Amer. Medical Assoc., Social Insurance series, pamphlet no. 5.)
Smith (Mark A.). The state life fund of Wisconsin. (Joum. of Polit. Economy, May, 1917 : 442-463.)
Stone (J. T.). Problems concerning the accident and health insurance business. 1917. 14 pp.
Libraries
Indiana University. Extension Division. Package libraries. 1917. 11 pp. (Bull, ii, no. 7.)
Johnston (W. Dawson). City libraries and the civil service. (Bull, of the
Amer. Library Assoc., May, 1917: 84-85.)
Quire (Joseph H.). How California library service meets city needs. (Pacific Municipalities, Je., 1917: 229-233.)
Wheeler (Joseph L.). The county library. 1917. 7 pp.
Reprinted from The Library Journal, Feb., 1917.
Lighting
See also Parks and Playgrounds.
Hibben (Samuel G.). Protective flood lighting. (Electric Joum., Aug., 1917: 305-306. illus. diagrs.)
Neibich (William N.). The disappearance of the evening peak. Growth of high-tension industrial load in Baltimore results in heavy increase in morning and afternoon loads on system and in a larger load factor. (Electrical World, Jy. 28, 1917: 148-151. charts.)
Markets
California. State Market Director. First annual report for the year ending Dec. 1, 1916. 1916. 110 pp.
One important conclusion of Director Harris Weinstock is that the establishment of free munici-
f>al markets plays a very small part as a remedy or marketing evils.
Municipal Government and Administration
See alao City Manager, State Government.
BnuitRE (Henry). A plan for organization for New York City. Suggestion for charter changes. May, 1917. 44 pp.
Recommends “a mayor as chief public representative and framer of policies; relieved of detailed administrative responsibility; a board of directors; and, as a corollary of these changes, a city manager.”
Dayton Bureau of Research. Research progress facts. A year of governmental research with certain facts about our city, county and schools, and their progress during 1916—19 L7. Jy. 1, 1917. 39 pp.
Dyer (J. Milton). The city hall, Cleveland, Ohio. (Amer. Architect, Jy. 25, 1917: 61-63 + 19 full-page plates.)
A beautifully illustrated description of this new building by its architect.
Hall (C. R.). Preferential voting for Bridgeport. An important feature of the proposed commission manager charter. [1917.] 8 pp.
Illinois. University. Municipal documents and other publications on municipal government in the University of Illinois Library, Mabel L. Conat and Marian Leatherman. 1917. 49 pp.
(University of Illinois Bull., May 14, 1917.)
McBain (H. L.). The delegation of legislative power to cities. (Pol. Sci. Quart., Je., 1917: 276-295.)
This article is to be concluded in a later issue.
North Carolina. Municipal government, Public Laws, 1917: An act to provide for the organization and government of cities, towns, and incorporated


1917]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
653
villages. Municipal finance, Public Laws, 1917: An act relating to general municipal finance. Session 1917. 67 pp.
North Carolina is thus the fifth state to adopt an optional charter law.
Municipal Ownership
See also Railroads and Terminals.
Bowden (J. Horace). Individual interest in municipal enterprise. (Municip. Journ. (London), Je. 22, 1917: 593-594.)
Los Angeles. Boabd of Public Serv-ice Commissioners. Report of Special Committee of Engineers on Municipal Power and Light Project of the City of Los Angeles. Feb. 16, 1917. 12 pp.
illus.
Thompson (Carl D.). Municipal ownership; a brief survey of the rapid growth and the success of municipal ownership throughout the world, presenting the arguments against private ownership, the failure of regulation and the advantages of municipal ownership. 1917. xi, 114pp.
Ordinances
See also Billboards, Charters, Education, Municipal Government, Public Health, Taxation and Finance.
Nebraska. Ordinance Revision Commission. Revised ordinances of the village of . . . Nebraska; published
by authority of the chairman and Board of Trustees. A.D. 1917.
Thus far revised ordinances have been published for the villages of Hay Springs, Lawrence, Newport, Smithfield, and Wood Lake, rfebr.
New York City. Ordinances. The Code of Ordinances of the City of New York, as amended to Feb. 14, 1917, with index, notations of sources and table of disposition of general ordinances repealed. Compiled by Committee on Codification of Ordinances, Board of Aldermen. 1917. 208 pp. (Eagle Library no. 194.)
Parks and Playgrounds
See also City Planning, Recreation.
Kessler (G. E.). The Kansas City park system and its effect on the city plan. (Good Roads, Je. 2,1917 : 321-324. illus.)
Kessner (Myron A.)._ How the small town can supply public playgrounds. (Civic Progress and the Home Beautiful, Je., 1917: 6-9.)
Metzdorf (A. E.). Laying out playgrounds. (Playground, Aug., 1917: 277-
282.)
A practical article. The writer is officially connected with the Division of Public Recreation, Springfield, Mass.
Tinson (H. A.) and Powell (A. L.). The lighting of parks and playgrounds. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 68-69, 71, 73, 75. illus.)
Pavements
Anon. Street and road pavements. Their design, construction and maintenance. (Municip. Engrng., Jy., 1917: 2-5. illus. diagrs.
Connell (W. H.) and Finck (G. E.). Methods and materials for paving between street railway tracks. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 17-19. illus.)
In Philadelphia, by W. H. Connell; in Baltimore, by G. E. Finck. Further discussions of this sub-ject are to appear in subsequent issues of The American City.
Pensions
See also Insurance.
New York State. Committee on Civil Service (Senate). Report of the Committee ... on pension and retirement funds. Transmitted to the Legislature Jan. 3, 1917. 1917. 113 pp. tables. (Bound with its: Second report in relation to the standardization of the public employments of the state.)
Stttdensky (Paul). The pension problem and the philosophy of contributions. 1917. 19 pp. tables.
Periodical Publications
Civic Progress and the Home Beautiful. vol. 1, no. 1, Jan., 1917. Monthly.
Published by the Civic Progress Co., 1207 Houston St., Fort Worth, Tex.
The Engineering News-Record of Apr. 5, 1917, is the first issue following the consolidation of the two periodicals, Engineering News and Engineering Record.
Journal of the American Judicature Society. To promote the efficient administration of justice, vol. i, no. 1, Je., 1917. Bi-monthly.
Published from 31 West Lake St., Chicago.
Contents of the first issue: Introduction, pp. 3-4; The unified state court—a definition, 5-7; Wanted —a chief judicial superintendent, by John H. Wig-more, 7—9; Courts in large cities—a field of experiment, 10-14; A unified court for Mississippi, 15-17; Procedure through rules of court, 17-20; News from the field, 23-30.
The Modem City; official magazine of the League of American Municipalities, vol. 1, no. 1, Feb., 1917.
Plumbing
Gerhard (W. P.). A plea for strict plumbing codes and for the control of plumbing work by water works departments. 1916. 8 pp.
Reprinted from the Sanitary Engineer, Toronto, Canada.
Police
Train (Arthur). New York City on guard. (Saturday Evening Post, May 26, 1917: 16, 37-38, 41-42. illus.)
Ports and Port Development
Evening Post (New York). Greater port of New York supplement. Je. 20, 1917. Unpaged, illus. tables.
Consists oi many longer and short articles dealing with harbor developments of Greater New York.
Los Angeles. Board of Harbor Commissioners. The Port of Los Angeles: its opportunities and possibilities for building up a great foreign trade; industrial resources of its tributary territory—annual report for the year ending Je. 30, 1916;
7


654 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September
Sort statistics. 1917. 272 pp. maps. American Waterworks Association, Mch.,
us. . 1917: 65-69.)
Massachusetts. Commission on Waterways and Public Lands. First annual report. For the year 1916. 1917. 167 pp. (Pub. doc. no. 118.)
This commission is the result of the consolidation of the former Harbor and Land Commission and of the Directors of the Port of Boston.
Public Health
See also Insurance, Recreation, Water Purification.
Armstrong (Donald B.) and Berko-witz (J. H.). An urban communty plan for health and medical service. 1917. 3 pp.
Reprinted from The Modern Hospital, May, 1917.
Burkart (John L.). Report of the tuberculosis survey of the Michigan State Board of Health. 1917. 89 pp.
Coleman (L. V.). Syllabus guide to public health exhibits in the American Museum of Natural History dealing with water supply, disposal of municipal wastes and insect-borne diseases. An outline for teachers and students. 1917. 15 pp.
(Guide Leaflet Series no. 45, May, 1917.)
Gardner (Mary Sewall). Public health nursing. (With an introduction by M. Adelaide Nutting.) 1917. x, 372 pp.
The author ia superintendent of the Providence District Nursing Association.
Nebraska. Department, op Public Instruction. Courses of study and outlines in sanitation and hygiene for the schools of the state, prepared by F. M. Gregg. 1916. 44 pp. illus. (Nebraska Educational Bull., Dec., 1916.)
Rucker (W. C.). A program of public health for cities [with discussion]. (Amer. Journ. of Pub. Health, Mch., 1917: 225-234.)
Schaefer (A. C.). Health center field work. (New York State Journ. of Medicine, Apr., 1917: 176-177.)
Shipley (A. E.). Health administration on the district plan. (Amer. Journ. of Pub. Health, Mch., 1917: 248-259.)
TJ nited States . Public Health Service. Laundries and the public health. A sanitary study including bacterio-logic tests, by M. C. Schroeder and S. G. Southerland. 1917. 24 pp. tables. (Reprint no. 385.)
Vincent (G. E.). Public health training in universities. (Journ. Amer. Medical Assoc., Apr., 1917: 1013-1016.)
Whipple (G. C.). State sanitation. A review of the work of the Massachusetts State Board of Health. [In 3 v.] v. i. 1917. 367 pp. plates, diagrs.
Wood (Harold Bacon). Sanitation, practically applied. 1917. vi, 473 pp. illus. diagrs. tables.
Drinking Fountains
Dunlap (J. H.). The sanitary drinking fountain. 1917. (Journal of the
Whittaker (W. A.). Drinking fountains. Investigation of fountains at the University of Minnesota. (United States. Public Health Service. Public health reports, May 11, 1917: 691-699. plate, tables.)
These results of this investigation indicate that drinking fountains may be a factor in the transmission of communicable diseases, a condition which should be remedied.
Milk Supply
Parker (H. N.). City milk supply. 1917. xii+493 pp. charts, tables, illus.
United States. Public Health Service. Commission on Milk Standards. Third report of the Commission . . .
appointed by the New York Milk Committee. 1917. 28 pp. (Reprint no. 386.)
Presents the conclusions of the Commission on a variety of milk problems.
Welch (William H.). The proposed milk ordinance. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., Apr., 1917: 49-52.)
Poliomyelitis
Institute for Public Service, New York. State work against infantile paralysis; steps taken by forty-three departments of health in 1916. 1917.
64 pp. illus.
New York City. Department of Health. Some practical considerations in the administrative control of epidemic poliomyelitis, by Haven Emerson. 1917. 19 pp. (Reprint series no. 53.)
Sanitary Codes
Buffalo. Health Department. Proposed sanitary code for Buffalo, New York. 1917. 74 pp.
New York State. Department of Health. The public health law; containing also the sanitary code,—the provisions in other general laws relating to public health, and rules and regulations of the New York State Department of Health. 1916. 593 pp.
United States. Public Health Service. Municipal ordinances, rules, and regulations pertaining to public health [adopted during 1915 by cities of the United States having a population of over 10,000 in 1910]. 1917. 642 pp. (Reprint of 364.)
Typhoid Fever
Freeman (A. W.). Typhoid fever and municipal administration. (United States. Public Health Service. Public Health Reports, May 4, 1917: 642-655. diagr. tables.)
"The means of spread of typhoid are so well understood and the measures of prevention so accurately determined that any city can with the expenditure of a reasonable amount of money and effort, reduce its typhoid fever to the vanishing point.”
Geiger (J. C.), and others. A waterborne epidemic of typhoid fever; isola-


1917]
BIBLIOGRAPHY
655
tion of the typhoid bacillus from the contaminated supply. (Amer. Medical Assoc. Joum., Je. 9, 1917: 1681-1685. charts.)
Public Utilities
See also Accounting, Railroads and Terminals.
Anon. Public utilities professional reference list. 1917 issue. 1917. 46 pp.
A list of all the public service commissions in the United States, and the names of commissioners, lawyers, accountants and engineers connected with the commissions.
Barker (Harry). Public utility rates: a discussion of the principles and practice underlying charges for water, gas, electricity, communication and transportation services. 1917. xiv, 387 pp.
Bradlee (Henry G). The war’s effect on public utilities. (General Electric Review, Aug., 1917 : 632-635.)
Grunsky (C. E.). Notes on public utility rates. (Joum. of Electricity, Jy. 15, 1917: 53-57.)
Public Welfare Work
Omaha, Boabd of Public Welfare. First annual report, Feb. 12 to Dec. 31, 1916. [1917.] 97 pp.
Purchasing
Milwaukee Citizens’ Bureau of Municipal Efficiency. Why the administrative boards and departments of the City of Milwaukee should combine their purchasing power. Prepared for the Central Purchasing Committee. 4 sheets, typewritten. 4 charts.
Travis (E. M.). The feasibility of central purchasing for New York State. (Purchasing Agent, Mch., 1917: 91-92.)
Tucker (P. W.). Baltimore’s system of centralized purchasing, and what it is accomplishing. (Baltimore Municip. Joum., Apr. 27, 1917: 7.)
Twyford (H. B.). Standardizing purchasing and its effect. (Gas Age, Feb. 1, 1917: 123-126. diagrs.)
-------. Problems in purchasing for construction and operation. (Electrical Age, Mch., 1917: 31-32, 50.)
Railroads and Terminals
Cresson (B. F., Jr.). Report on the development of a municipal terminal near Sewalls Point in the Port of Norfolk. Prepared for the Board of Dock Commissioners of Norfolk. Mch., 1917. 47 pp.
Lowrie (S. Gale). A municipally-owned passenger station. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 581-583.)
Maltbie (William H.). Baltimore’s railroad problem. 1917. 27 pp. maps. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., v, no. 1.)
Sinnickson (George R.). What the Pennsylvania Railroad has done and hopes to do for Baltimore. 1917. 42 pp. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., v, no. 2.)
Rapid Transit
Chicago. Traction and Subway Commission. Report on a unified system of surface, elevated and subway lines [for Chicago], 1916. 446+113 pp. maps, plates.
A comprehensive report of unusual Importance* The commissioners were Messrs. Wm. Barclay Parsons, Bion J. Arnold, and Robert Ridgway.
New York State. Public Service Commission. First District. History of rapid transit development in the City of New York, [by] Louis Roth. 1917. 61 pp. typewritten.
Recreation
Brown (Edward F.). Public health and recreation encampments in the Palisades Interstate Park. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 51-55. illus.)
Cunliff (Nelson) . The annual municipal play day in St. Louis. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 66-68. illus.)
Gates (Herbert W.). Recreation and the church. 1917. xiv, 185 pp.
Mackaye (Percy W.). Community drama; its motive and method of neighborliness; an interpretation. 1917. xiii, 64 pp.
The author believes that community drama offers: a constructive suggestion for co-operative recreation in our training camps and in all American communities,
Ritchie (Frank H. T.). Building a community through its resident forces. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 42-50. illus.)
Schools
. See also Education, Fire Prevention, Public Health, Ventilation, Vocational Guidance.
Athearn (W. S.). The correlation of church schools and public schools. [1917.] 59 pp. (Malden leaflets no. 2.)
Balliet (T. M.). The modem school proposed by the General Education Board. (Amer. Education, Apr., 1917: 466-470.)
Boynton (F. D.). Co-operation in a school system. (Educ. Review, Apr., 1917: 329-340.)
Bureau of Municipal Research, Dayton. Building new schools for Dayton’s children. 1917. 19 pp. (Reports
on Dayton’s school administration no. 1.)
Gives a table of comparative building costs in several large cities.
Bureau of Safety. Methods for instruction in accident prevention for use in schools. 1917. 31 pp.
Catlin (Hoyt). Doing it electrically in the schools. (Journ. of Electricity, Jy. 15, 1917: 60-61. illus.)
Fenwick (Arthur McM.). The modem high school. (Educational Review, Je., 1917: 38^8.)
Johnson (Franklin W.). Administrative apects of the high school of tomorrow. (Education, Je., 1917: 605—613.)>
Kilpatrick (Van Evhie). The school1, gardens of New York City. (New Yort


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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1917 Editor CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF Associde Editors ALICE M. HOLDEN HERMAN G. JAMES HOWARD L. MCBAIN C. C. WILLIAMSON VOLUME VI JANUARY, PP. 1-200 JULY, PP. 449-555 MARCH, PP. 201-343 SEPTEMBER, PP. 586-658 WY, PP. 324-448 NOVEMBER, PP. 659-763 PUBLISEED FOB THE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE THE RUMFORD PRESS CONCORD, N. H. I917 BY

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW VOL. VI, No. 5 SEPTEMBER, 1917 TOTAL No. 25 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES BY HARLEAN JAMES~ New York City RELIEF HE questions of relief administered for civilians because of distress occasioned by war conditions, of relief administered for the dependents of soldiers and sailors, and the administration of war pensions and separation allowances are so closely connected that it seems wise to treat all these subjects under the head of relief. There are many who believe that the families of soldiers and sailors should be cared for by war pensions and separation allowances administered solely by the government from government funds. Those who, in this country, have advocated a similar administration of widow mothers’ pensions will probably agree with this group. From motives of national economy and to prevent the disbursement of funds except where they are actually needed, however, there has been in England a group who believed voluntary associations could supplement government funds and conduct the necessary investigations more efficiently than local government officials whose training is generally for business and not for social service. Both groups have recognized the need for local committees for the administration of relief. The burning question has been whether payments should be determined and made by the local officials duly elected by the ratepayers or by the local committees of the soldiers’ and sailors’ families .association in cooperation with local committees appointed by councils designated by the statutory committee to coincide with the administrative districts of the association. These were often county districts and the municipalities and urban boroughs within such county units fought bitterly for the right to administer the funds through their elected officials. ‘Formerly secretary, Baltimore women’s civic league. 557

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558 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September LOCAL ADMINISTRATION OF RELIEF AND THE GOVERNMENT There are two vital points of view to be considered in the local administration of pensions, separation allowances and relief. The most important, of course, is the family itself, its human need, its human sorrow, its human self respect. Unfortunately, we have only the most indirect means of judging how far the local committees have met these needs for food, clothing, shelter, sympathy and respect. Administration, whether in voluntary or official hands, is subject to the human limitations of each person in the field. The controversy which has centered around this question of the machinery of local administration is of secondary importance to the family social unit. But the family need, in the last analysis, must be met by some kind of machinery. The readers may judge for themselves whether the records of the councils and the claims of the local officials are justified in whole or in part on their own showing. From the. soldiers’ and sailors’ families association we have little data; from the families themselves, we have none. LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN ENGLAND Before proceeding to the story of the local administration of relief in. war time, it may be recalled that in England, local administration is co-ordinated under a central local government board. The local communities are subject, in many respects, to the control of this board, but they also profit by the advice of the specialists in town planning, housing, accounting and engineering which the board has at its command. Itmay also be recalled that England and Wales, for purposes of local government, are divided into sixty-two administrative counties, including the county of London. In these counties there are popularly elected councils. who co-opt a prescribed number of aldermen, either from their own body or from outside of it. The counties are divided into urban and rural districts, and, though the schools are generally under the control of the counties, any urban district with a population of 20,000 or over may be a. local educational authority. Rural district councils may exercise any urban powers conferred by the local government board. By the local government act of 1888 London county was given considerable powers in regard to public health, housing, bridges, ferries, asylums, street improvements, education, etc., though the city corporation has powers. respecting sanitation, police, bridges and justice in the city of London. By the local government act of 1899 London was divided into twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs, each with a mayor, aldermen and councillors. In all the great towns, including county boroughs, local business is administered by a municipal corporation which derives its authority from a charter granted by the crown. In England and Wales there are some seventy-five county boroughs, many of which are also incorporated cities,.

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19171 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES 559 which are outside the jurisdiction of the county councils, though in other municipal boroughs, these councils have certain powers and duties.2 These facts are recalled at the risk of tediousness, because the administration of war relief has involved a confused four-square struggle between the counties, the boroughs, the central authority and voluntary bodies. At the outbreak of the war, most of the councils, county and borough, met to pass resolutions of loyalty. Indeed, the community of localgovernment interests and the consciousness of local personality were exhibited in courtesy telegrams exchanged between London county and Paris in the early days of August, 1914. In some instances the local authorities proposed plans for relief before the central plans were promulgated, and many of the local councils petitioned the government to make adequate provision for the families of soldiers and sailors? ORGANIZATION FOR UNEMPLOYMENT The story of the distress organization during the early days of the war discloses that the government sought to provide an elaborate local machinery to meet a situation that never developed and failed utterly to meet the serious crisis that confronted the country from the very first. Distress cornhittees were appointed by nearly all of the local councils, usually as local representative committees to administer the Prince of Wales National Relief Fund. It may be recalled that the war broke out during a period of great unemployment and business depression, so that the government may be commended for its good intentions and may even be pardoned for failing to predict just how soon the colossal struggle would absorb civil labor and wipe out unemployment! At the request of the local government board most of the local councils and mayor’s committees considered plans for providing for the unemployed, though few of the councils embarked on new enterprises. The report to the county council of Surrey on this matter may, perhaps, be taken as typical. On September 9, 1914, the committee on finance of the county council of Surrey reported: The committee have given consideration to a scheme published by the county committee for the prevention and relief of war distress which has been’ established under the authority of the cabinet committee and the local government board. . . . The committee have further taken note of the statement made by the chancellor of the exchequer to the municipal corporations association that,, while ordinary and necessary public expenditure productive of labour employment should not be stopped 1 This outline of En&h local government is taken from the Statesmens’ Year Book for 1916. a Manchester petitioned for a specified minimum scale of allowances, also Lanark. 4 A census of homeless persons made by the London county council in 1915 showed a marked decrease in London.

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560 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September or diminished, the time is not opportune for embarking on new and substantial expenditure, especially where the cost will have to be defrayed out of loan, and that the contingencies for which special provision may be more likely to be required will arise during the winter and when those who &re now serving in the field will return and be disbanded after the close of the war. In these circumstances, the committee think it neither necessary or prudent to propose or to make provision for any undue or abnormal increase of expenditure on public works at the present time.5 In order, however, to demonstrate a spirit of co-operation, the council did, on November 10, make an appropriation of 21,000 to the highways and bridge committee for road widening and other highway improvements, “if found to be necessary to relieve unemployment and distress.” In January it was reported that it had not been necessary to use any of the money, but that it was thought desirable to continue the authority in case the need should ariee. There were, of course, some readjustments. The education committee reported to the London county council on February 23, 1915: We are informed that as a result of a consultation between the board of education and the local labour exchanges and the local distress committees, it has been established that there are a number of unemployed girls in Shoreditch, Bethnal-green, and Whitechapel who are suitable for training in leather machining, an industry in which there is not only a scarcity of labour, but a safe prospect of future employment. It has accordingly been suggested that provision for the necessary training should be made at the Cordwainers’ Technical College (Bethnalgreen S. W.). The proposed curriculum which provides for forty hours’ instruction a week for a period of twelve weeks, makes provision for training in all processes of leather machining used in upper making, including machining, and fitting and the application of these methods to various forms of leather accoutrement making.6 A grant of 2141 was, therefore, made to reimburse the school for actual out-of-pocket expenditure and the committee on queen’s work for women fund provided for the maintenance of the girls. On June 22, it was reported that the course had been entirely successful and voted that the instruction should be continued for another twelve’ weeks. The appropriation was 2151 this time, to include 510 for a caretaker to prevent risks from fire.’ It was also reported to the London county council on the 30th of March, 1915, that there was some unemployment in the ‘I dress-making bespoke” trade, and an adjustment to prepare these workers for the “wholesale ready-made” trade was suggested. To meet this contingency instruction was proposed to be offered at the Barrett-street school for two classes, each consisting of twenty, for a full-time course of six months. In course 1, it was proposed to offer classes in mantle work (coats, skirts and Reports to county council, Surrey, 1914, p. 1330-e, ff. Minutes London county council, 1915, p. 283. Ibid., p. 921.

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19171 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES 56 1 mantles), heavy work and tailoring methods, 35 hours per week, and in course 2 instruction in blouse, robe and dressmaking, light work for 35 hours per week.* A writer in the Charity Organization Review for September, 1915, summarized the unemployment situation thus : They [the government] expected an early industrial crisis. As a matter of fact it did not come, and this was the first surprise of‘ the war. . . . For a time short hours were worked in many industries, and numbers of women workers were discharged. While it lasted the distress of these women was acute, and the National Committee took no steps to meet it. Eventually a new unofficial committee was formed to deal with it, and Queen Mary issued an appeal on its behalf. The women’s committee, thus . . . secured a free hand. They . , . at once got into touch with the local authorities. They opened workshops and training schools in many places, and large numbers of women and girls passed through these.9 . CONGESTION IN THE WAR OFFICE But the government, evidently, formed no conception of the problems. which would arise for the families of the “new army,’’ to say nothing of the families of the Reserves and Territorial forces called to the “colors.”’ A writer in the Edinburgh Review for January, 1917, explained that in peace allowances to soldiers’ families are paid through the paymaster’s department, but, lie wrote: That was quite unsuited to the new problems which the outbreak of the war created. Thus we had a centralised under-staffed office attempting to make financial arrangements by correspondence with women who probably never had written a business letter in their lives. . . . Meanwhile many soldiers’ families were in a condition of the utmost distress. The question of relief was urgent, and the organisers of the National Relief Fund turned to the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association as the only.body in existence with experience in ministering to the needs of the families of our soldiers and sailors. But this association was only on a peace basis. As the arrears of payment accumulated, the muddle in the paymaster’s department grew steadily worse. In this emergency, the War Office, which had usually looked upon all civilian efforts with jealousy or contempt, now adopted a very friendly attitude towards the soldiers’ and sailors’ families relief association. That organization, acting on behalf of the National Relief Fund, made advances to the women to enable them to carry on until the separation allowances came through. But the delays in the paymaster’s department were so great that the burden of these advances began seriously to deplete the National Relief Fund. To meet this difficulty the War Office towards the end of 1914, agreed that the soldiers’ and sailors’ families associqtion was also to act as the official agent of the War Office in making weekly loans to the soldiers’ wives until their allowances were ready to be paid. Whereever such loans were made, the War Office undertook to recover the money * Minutes London county council, 1915, p. 489-90. 9 Article on War Relief Agencies in Charity Organization Review, vol. 38, p. 281.

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562 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September from the arrears of payment due to the women. In this way the same money was used again and again, and the great drain upon the National Relief Fund was checked. At the same time the women were protected from any inconvenience by the delays of paymasters.’O And so it appears that the only acute distress was actually brought on by the inadequacy of the government itself! It appears also that many of the divisions of the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association also undertook the distribution of other funds, “such as the royal patriotic fund, grants to widows and orphans whose husbands and fathers have been killed in the war, employers’ grants to dependents of their employes, thrift funds, dental funds, coal and clothing funds and also the distribution of miscellaneous gifts. Some divisions have also kept an employment register.” CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE STATUTORY COMMITTEE The story of the administration of pensions and separation allowances has been told at some length in order that the protests registered by the ’local government authorities might be followed in all their bearings. Beginning in May of 1916, nearly six months after the authorization of the statutory committee, but before it had succeeded in forming many of its local cornmitteea, the Municipal Journal launched a campaign against the methods of the statutory committee and against $he voluntary associations. For weeks the leading editorial comment was devoted to the pensions bill and to the pensions administration. The first protest came in an inoffensive little item headed, “War Pensions Administration”: At Monday’s meeting of the Shrewsbury town council resentment waa expressed that the borough is not given a separate committee under the naval and military pensions act. By the scheme Shrewsbury is merged in the county, which treatment the mayor (Alderman Deakin) said wm, for a town like Shrewsbury, with its own member, recorder and police, and with its old traditions monstrously unfair. . . . It waa resolved , . at once to take the matter up, to get for Shrewsbury its undoubted right to a separate committee under the act. On June 2, 1916, the Journal quoted from the circular issued by the statutory committee urging that the existing local committees be appointed the sub-committees under the new order, explaining that thus ‘‘ all their previous experience and existing knowledge of the individuals, as well as their papers, would be available.” made the following comment on this action: The circular clearly contemplates the appointment of soldiers’ and sailors’ families committees for the purposes of the supplementary allowances during the time such allowances are given. We hope the local committees will not fall into the trap. The nation would resent the introduction of charity organization methods into the work of distributing lo The Work of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Families Association, Edinburgh Review, January, 1917. The Municipal Journal.

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19171 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES 563 soldiers’ and sailors’ allowances. Supplementary grants should be made through public agencies, and not by private organizations and busybodies. This statutory committee will have to be carefully watched, and one of the best ways to curb its enthusiasm for unpopular methods of administration will be for Parliament to insist that copies of its circulars shall be sent to the newspapers. More to the same effect on June 23 and a direct question to the Right Hon. G. N. Barnes, M.P., who had defended the statutory committee as to ‘(whether he thinks that local bodies with a direct responsibility to the pubIic are not likely to prove more satisfactory administrators of such funds than outside voluntary organizations with methods of their own?” On June 23 there was published a record of objections from local councils that had not been allowed separate committees. On the 30th there was given an account of the conference of mayors convened by the lord mayor of Liverpool. The lord mayors and mayors, it seemed, were not disposed to make public appeals for voluntary subscriptions for war pensions. The Journal was convinced that soldiers’ pensions should not be administered by “society ladies and sometimes good-natured busybodies.” The statutory committee, like its predecessor, the War Office, most unwillingly forced into the hands of the only organization with experience in dealing with soldiers’ and sailors’ families, was evidently worried by the criticism of the local government officials. At any rate the comittee sent for a representative of the Municipal Journal, and according to the Journal, ‘(the notes that follow are notes of the interview, without any comment of ours :” With regard to the delay in the formation of committees, our representative was informed that the delay was not of the committee’s own making. Delay had been caused by some county councils postponing from one quarterly meeting to another quarterly meeting their decision with regard to the constitution of committees. Delay has been caused also in like manner by labour Organizations. As to local administrative expenses, the committee felt that Swansea corporation had set a very good example in voting 21,000 for this purpose, and it hoped that other local authorities would follow suit. The committee regarded it as not unreasonable that if the government found the money for the pensions and grants to beneficiaries, the expense of local admimstration should be Ioartlly provided. On July 14 the Journal voiced a protest from two cities against being merged in the counties. Both places have reputations for sound and efficient local government administration; both have sent thousands of men to the forces; both have contributed largely to the war funds; both are self-contained communities, with their own distinguishing characteristics. Manchester, it seems, had made an estimate of administration expenses for nine months at 25,000, an amount, it may be assumed, never dreamed Said the Journal:

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564 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September of by the original committees, and the Journal was strong in its condemnation of the government for trying to ‘fasten these large sums upon the local communities. On July 21 the Journal was still on the trail of the harassed statutory committee. The committee is now saying that the present, or proposed committees arrangements are only temporary. In six months’ time, we are told, they can be overhauled. Separate committees may. be appointed for London and elsewhere as soon as the period of transition is passed. We say advisedly that if the county and society interests represented by the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association and other bodies get hold of these funds for six months they will never relinquish that hold. The evil will have been wrought. War pensions will have assumed the guise of charitable doles, distributed by ‘‘ county people”-squires, parsons and ladies who have done this kind of thing before and who know what it means for their class. This is the really insidious design that has got to be parried. By July 28 the Journal was able to announce that The chancellor has been forced from the position he defended when the pensions bill was before Parliament-that, the supplementary allowances must be found by the charitable public. The government then insisted that payments to soldiers and sailors “broke in our wars” must be calculated, like separation allowances, upon a flat rate. It was admitted that the amount paid would be too high in some cases, and too low in others, in relation to previous earnings, and that it would often be necessary to supplement the standardised War Office allowances. But the government insisted that the whole of the money disbursed upon these supplementary allowances should be voluntarily provided by the community, and the local committees were made responsible for collecting it. Controversy raged in both Houses of Parliament in regard to this question, and from first to last the Treasury stuck to its point-supplementary allowances must be provided out of voluntary contributions, not -out of funds provided by the state. Thanks to municipal pressure, the government has now substantially receded from that position and it is clear . . . that it will not be necessary to appeal for voluntary contributions towards this national object. On August 4 the Journal came out with the caption: War Pensions Victory Thanks to the energy and persistence which have been put into the movement by the lord mayor of Liverpool and his colleagues, the war pensions fight has been won so far as the main issues are concerned. By the next week the Journal was not so sure that the fight had been won after all. The local committees might use funds raised or contributed for the purpose. Undaunted, however, the Journal asserted that the municipalities would continue hammering at this and other questions involved until tbey obtained a definite policy that reflected public opinion and removed war pensions from the double taint of charity and society patronage.”

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19171 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES 565 By September 22 the Journal thought that The statutory committee should be abolished, lock, stock and barrel, and its place should be taken by a new pensions department, responsible for all war pensions and allowances, with a minister in Parliament. On Tuesday the local government board, the lord mayor of Liverpool’s conference, and the Parliamentary pensions committee are going to meet in order to try and find a means of evading the statutory committee’s regulations! Was there ever such an administrative farce? The statutory committee promulgates a certain regulation respecting the use of voluntary funds for pensions purposes, and that regulation is vigorously opposed in the House of Commons. The minister in charge refuses to withdraw the regulation, and even defends it, and a dead-lock is created. The chancellor of the exchequer thereupon suggests a conference “to find means of meeting both points of view.” The conference duly took place and on September 29 the Journal reported that the following resolution was passed : Resolved, That any borough or urban district with a population exceeding 20,000 be granted a local committee if the local authority so desires. On October 6, the borough of Walsall voiced a demand, apparent for some time, “that there be a thorough co-ordination and centralization of the numerous authorities now dealing with war pensions, grants and allowances and a simplification of procedure.” But the Journal evidently did not trust too confidently that %he fight was won, for on October 13 there were more arguments for local administration. The statutory committee’s policy of working through the county areas and excluding the smaller boroughs and districts from effective participation in war pensions administration is a deadly blow against local government. . . . We hear on good authority that in certain of the northern counties the statutory committee has actually sent out lecturers as special pleaders for its anti-local government, pro-society system of administering war pensions. THE MINISTRY OF PENSIONS On November 3, according to the Journal, the Prime Minister’s secreIt has been decided to appoint a pensions board with a cabinet minister tary announced in a letter to a local town clerk that at its liead. On November 8 it was announced in the House of Commons that Mr. Arthur Henderson, leader of the Labor party in the .House of Commons, had been appointed minister of pensions. Mr. Henderson had on August 8 resigned his portfolio as president of the board of education in the British Cabinet, because, it was said, he had been strongly criticized in Parliament and by the newspapers. But the campaign of the Municipal Journal to assert the claims of local government officials was seemingly swamped in the great national

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566 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September reorganization which culminated in the announcement on December 7 that Lloyd George with the co-operation of Bonar Law would form a coalition cabinet. On December 8 the Municipal Journal, in discouragement, cried out: It is a piece of sheer bad luck that this reshumng of political positions should take place at this moment-just as we had secured our pensions bill and our pensions minister. We cannot forget, too, that the government’s handling of the pensions problem was one of the causes that contributed to the final disaster. On December 10 it was announced that Mr. Arthur Henderson would be minister without portfolio and that Mr. George N. Barnes, a former spokesman for the statutory committee, would be minister of pensions. THE NEW WAR PENSIONS BILL For the first time in months the subject of pensions failed’to appear on the first page of the Municipal Journal, but on February 10, 1917, the Journal began its discussions of the new war pensions bill, “to make provision with respect to the administrative expenses of the statutory committee and all local and district committees under the naval and military war pensions, etc., act of 1915; and for certain other purposes connected with pensions and allowances.” After long debate over the appropriation of expenses to be shared with the local committees, the Journal, on April 6, announced that the “war pensions bill was recommitted in order to enable Mr. Barnes to move an amendment increasing the contribution of the Treasury towards administrative expenses from one-half to two-thirds.” On May 4, 1917, the Journal recorded receipt of the fist number of the War Pensions Gazette, issued from the office of the statutory committee and self-described as “a municipal journal for war pensions local .committees, and for all interested in their work.” On May 11 the Journal quoted from the War Pension Gazette a para.graph showing the method of procedure which is significant as it evidently voices the policy of the present pension authorities. The first home visit is always made by an experienced worker. A careful, leisurely home visit is the soundest method of obtaining a solid and reliable basis for the case. The right sort of visitor gets an accurate impression of the home and the family, and even if it is not found possible to grant what is applied for a favorable impression is created, and the person is led to look upon the office of the local committee as a refuge in time of trouble. It frequently occurs that although the particular grant asked for cannot be made, yet the home visit discovers needs that may be met under some other regulation. The person visited is urged to call at the office if she should find herself in any kind of difficulty.

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19171 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES 567 But the Journal made comment as follows: Procedure of this kind provides abundant opportunities for the exercise of social and political pressure, and those who are acquainted with county and rural conditions will realize at once the kind of influence that can be brought, to bear by irresponsible and sometimes unscrupulous persons of the charity organization type. The war pensions act received the royal assent late in May. By it any urban district with a population of 20,000 or over may have a separate committee on due application. It was announced in June that the statutory committee would be dis.solved. The ministry of pensions now has the field. but according to the Municipal Journal of July 6 the pensions minister “retains a sentimental feeling towards charitable organizations,” as he proposes “to endow the Royal Patriotic Fund Corporation with a quarter of a million sterling for the purpose of dealing with special cases.” In the face of opposition, however, Mr. Barnes substituted a proposal for a special grants committee of ten members, to be allocated half a million pounds. THE CHARITY ORGANIZATION VIEW-POINT In the Charity Organization Review for October, 1916, “a man who has been taking the heaviest burden of the work in one of the metropolitan boroughs” was quoted to the effect that, It would have made little difference if we had had borough council committees instead of sub-committees nominated by the county committee: the borough councils discovered in dispensing the National Relief Fund that people existed who could do this sort of work, and the best plan was to get them to do it; it is the same with this act [the war pensions act of 19151. Editorially the Review commented on the attitude of the Municipal Journal to the following effect: The Municipal Journal and the Local Government Gazette continue to denounce the arrangement. To those who feel strongly upon the constitutional question of local government the arrangement appears as a defeat of the borough counciIs, and therefore either as a triumph or a disaster according to their sympathies. The constitutional question may well be a serious one. . . . It is not difficult to surmise what the motives of the statutory committee were in choosing the sub-committee arrangement and not the district committee one. They were surely two, (1) economy: the comparative working expenses of the soldiers’ and sailors’ families association of the National Relief Fund proved to demonstration which was the cheaper method, and, provided the work is done, every additional penny spent on administration is taken from the soldier or his widow, for it all comes from the same very limited source; (2) efficiency: it is no doubt true that had the metropolitan boroughs had the appointment of the committees they would in most cases have en,

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568 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW \September deavored to get the benefit of the knowledge and experience acquired by the volunteers who had been doing the work, but at least there was the risk that they might not do so. . . . The sub-committees were to consist of representatives (1) of political interests, the borough and LilabourlJ; (2) of persons versed in the work-members of societies already doing the work. It still remained for these sub-committees to delegate the actual work to persons familiar with it and competent to do it. This plan has been successfully carried out all over London. A whip went round to the borough councils on the constitutional issue. A number of them refused at first to appoint their three representatives on the local sub-committee, but most of them have now done it, though a few are suspected of having selected them with a view of maldng the subcommittees sorry when they saw them. “Labour” has accepted the arrangement from the start, and some of its representatives have taken a leading part in trying to make it a success. The proviso for the representation of women, which might well have been necessary had the borough councils appointed the committees, has proved otiose since almost the whole of the work of the voluntary associations was being done by them. The statutory committee has already produced voluminous regulations, and more are promised. The local (county) committee is busy interpreting and the sub-committees in applying them. A long story, this, but one that might be marked ‘(continued in our next,” and one which does not promise a happy ending. It is also a tale with a moral which does not need to be pointed out to the discriminating readers of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW. It will be seen, however, that local government authorities have rendered yeoman’s service to the government and the common cause of the war in actual action. The organized opposition to the government plan of civil relief and pension administration was undoubtedly carried on in a sincere belief in the high function of local government. In the light of the increased financial burden which the struggle has put upon the government, one could wish that the local government authorities had saved the energies which went into this Parliamentary fight for the really fine cooperation which they displayed in business matters. The point of view, it must be remembered, was an inheritance from times of peace and was. primarily due to a failure to discriminate between administration based on friendly visiting and a business disbursement of funds. In short, social welfare administration has not yet become a recognized part of municipal government, either in England or America, nor can it become so until appointing officials and community electorates value social welfare training as they have come to value engineering and medical training for posts in engineering and public health departments. There is the more excuse for this, because social service is only in process of becoming standardized and may always depend to some extent on organized volunteer efforts rendered chiefly by women of education and ability who have been released from many of their domestic duties by the development of modern industry and the public education of their children.

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19171 ENGLISH CITIES IN WAR TIMES 569 THE PART OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN RAISING FUNDS If the local governments may be accused of jealousy in the maintenance of their rights to disburse relief funds they have met the government call for aid in fine spirit. When the appeal was made for contributions to the Prince of Wales National Relief Fund, the civil officers and employes of most of the local government authorities met and unanimously decided to contribute some portion of their salaries, in amount varying from 1 to 10 per cent, with an average of 3 per cent. The employes of the Belfast Gas Works made it from 3 to 15 per cent a week on a graduated scale. Up to May, 1915, the officers and employes of Manchester had contributed some .S21,000, though at that time, they expressed themselves as being somewhat grieved that they were “denied any share of representation on the distributing body, or any liberty to earmark any portion of their contributions for specific purposes.” During the first six months of the war L44,OOO was contributed by the officers of only 93 authorities. “In the case of a large northern city, when the total contributions of the city amounted to E80,000, S20,OOO of that had been given by municipal officers and employes.” In another town 43 per cent of the total contributions from the town were given from the municipal employes.. The reports and accounts of the far-away city of St. John in Canada disclosed a municipal contribution of $24,000 to the patriotic fund. Rich-. mond and Sydney, Australia, collected funds, and in Africa, besides furnishing troops, it was recorded that ‘(the people of Durban send congratulations and E13,OOO collected in Natal for the dependents of men in the navy killed in action,” that the council of Johannesburg voted 2500 to the governor-general’s fund and that Capetown was busy collecting relief funds. These are probably indicative of the activities in every city under the British flag. Undoubtedly, too, the cities did their share in helping to make the enormous gifts in kind that came from Canada which amounted to over a million bags of flour, four million pounds of cheese from the province of Quebec, 100,000 bushels of potatoes from New Brunswick, 25,000 cases of canned salmon from British Columbia. These came in the early days of the war and, at the suggestion of the Pall Mall Gazette, the flour bags, marked “Canada’s gift,” were many of them sold for 5s. for Christmas gifts and a substantial sum was thus raised for the Belgian Relief and the National Relief funds. From4he beginning of the war the local authorities in nearly all of the cities were glad to suspend regulations or [(cut red tape” in order to promote the raising of funds. In many of the municipal trams, boxes were placed for the collection of relief funds. Of more doubtful wisdom is the establishment of tramway lotteries in Glasgow, which is described in the Municipal Journal for April 27, 1917. By this scheme conductors are supplied with special tickets, resembling ordinary tram tickets, and these

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570 . NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September are sold at a penny each. The prizes amount to over g200 a week. Prizes are given to the conductors who sell the winning tickets. At that time it was reported that during the past month $5,752 hadbeenrealized, of which &4,399 had been given to war charities. It is not clear whether the above amount is net or gross, but even if it is gross it means that nearly a million and a half pennies (2 cents) were spent in Glasgow in one month, many, doubtless, by persons who could ill-afford even that expenditure, but who were lured on by the hope of drawing a prize. In June when information of the scheme came to the House of Commons, great surprise was expressed. The lord-advocate expressed the opinion that the lottery was illegal and up to June 8 had refused to reconsider his decision or to receive a deputation which desired to urge an extension of the art union act of 1846 which allows certain associations to distribute works of art by lot or to offer money prizes for the purchase of works of art.“ WOMEN’S ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR CIVIC ACTIVITIES DURING WAR TIMES BY BESSIE LEACH PRIDDY Ypsilanti, Michigan HE evolution of social institutions is always a fascinating study. The change in the viewpoint of women’s organizations within a generation has been remarkable. Women’s clubs started as efforts for individual culture, but they soon received the baptism of the twentieth century spirit of service. It is a very natural thing that woman’s interest in public affairs tends to center in local problems. From domestic house-keeping and housecleaning to Municipal house-keeping and house-cleaning is not a far cry.. The welfare of a woman’s household and municipal problems have a most, intimate connection. Women’s efforts for the betterment of municipal conditions were at first somewhat timorous, fragmentary and tentative. Sanitation,. beauty and morality appealed to woman, but she felt her restrictions in finance and influence. She discreetly began by attempting small things. Clean-up campaigns, shrubbery planting on public grounds, removal of some specific nuisances and simple health ordinances were at first attempted. With experience women began working for large things, for parks, bridges, public comfort stations, hospitals, fire-prevention, sewer and water systems, play grounds, clean amusements and elimination of licensed vice. As soon as the larger projects were undertaken, they began to have opinions on systems of city government, they learned of community surveys and city planning and they found that even T UMunicipal Journal, June 1 and 8, 1917, pp. 518 and 542.

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19171 EFFECT OF THE WAR ON SCHOOLS 57 1 state legislation and state administration were involved in the problems. of civic conditions. The woman’s club movement was waking wonderfuIly to the opportunity for civic service when the war crisis came. The message that our nation had plunged into the maelstrom of the world war came while the council of the general federation of women’s clubs was in session at. New Orleans. For a moment all was consternation. Duty was the watchward of every heart, patriotic service the desire on every tongue. Back of each eager offer was the aching heart of the woman whose son or brother or husband was of military age. At first there was an impulse to put all else but preparation for war away, to treat former interests as undone by the emergency of the present. Gradually, however, vision cleared. It was soon perceived that the present emergency had not. destroyed, but had intensified all civic and social problems. The realization came that patriotic service can only be rendered by efficient, co-operating, healthful communities, that war duties add to, instead of obliterating civic responsibility. Before the council adjourned, it was voted that each department of the club organization should devote itself first to the special war service to which its machinery was best suited and that it should answer to the fullest possible extent all requests of the nation for patriotic effort, but that it should also continue in its accustomed lines of work in the field of civic and social betterment. Consequently each individual club woman will be found signing the conservation pledge, working with the Red Cross or aiding in patriotic league work and each club as an organization will co-operate in all possible community war service, its committees assisting in the sale of Liberty bonds, in garden movements, in Americanization campaigns, in the care of soldiers’ dependents, or in the guarding of the moral conditions surrounding the soldiers’ camps. These special services will take precedence of all otherinterests, but as before, many projects for civic and social betterment will receive earnest attention, perhaps increased attention because the women fully realize that the responsibilities of good citizenship have increased in war and that after war will come peace and reconstruction. THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON SCHOOLS BY DR. P. P. CLAXTON~ Washington, D. C. war will have on schooIs either in city or country next year. more easy to say what the effect should be. T IS quite impossible to say just what effect our entrance into the. It is There should be no lowering of the efficiency of any of our schools of whatever grade, and everything possible should be done to increase their 1 Federal commissioner of education. I

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372 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September efficiency and to extend their service. The work of education in the schools is chiefly for the future. When the war is over there will for many reasons be need in this country for a much higher standard of universal intelligence and civic and social virtue than we have ever yet had. Our industrial, social, civic and political life will demand it; and for men and women equipped with the scientific knowledge and technical skill of the colleges, universities and technical schools there will be demands in excess of the ability of all these schools to supply even if they should run at their full capacity. Therefore, appropriations for schools should be increased. Competent teachers should be employed for all the legitimate work of t,he schools. Salary schedules should be maintained. There should be a closer and more intelligent co-operation between the school and the home. Attendance in high schools and industrial and extension schools should be largely increased. In most cities the high school year should be made to consist of four terms of twelve weeks each, a total of fortyeight weeks, and an understanding should be worked out between the schools on the one side and industries and society on the other, by which all boys and girls for whom it may be necessary-the more the bettermay attend school half the time and work the other half at some suitable productive wage-earning occupation. The way for this has already been shown, on a small scale at least, in several cities and towns. With this should come a reorganization of the schools on the basis of six years of elementary school and six years of high school, and a readjustment and enrichment of courses of study to meet the new conditions of modern life. This should include more of vocational education and better preparation for the duties of citizenship. 'THE EFFECT OF THE WAR ON PUBLIC IMPROVEMENT BY CHARLES CARROLL BROWN' Indianapolis UNICIPAL improvements, with which I am most familiar, are interfered with, at least temporarily, by two things. M First: The higher cost of improvements. There is a feeling that this is a temporary condition, at least as far as the excess in cost of materials is concerned, and therefore there is a tendency to actually begin the construction of as little work as possible. Some projects are brought to the point of letting, even to the point of receiving bids, and are then held up until more favorable prices come, when bids can again be called for. Some specially necessary improvements are carried through and in a few cases the people who pay the bills are progressive l Secretary, American Society of Municipal Improvementa.

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19171 WAR AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS 573 ,enough and recognize clearly enough the necessity for high prices for a .good while in the future to go ahead with the work. This is of course more evident in the case of boards who control lettings and are not directly governed by the ideas of the taxpayers or property owners who pay the bills. Except for the temporary conditions of prices referred to, I’ believe that it is not good policy to hold up improvements for lower prices. They are not coming soon and the work will all come at once a little later and be much harder to carry. Second: The higher cost of money. As long as Liberty bonds can be bought at 33 per cent with a chance of exchanging them for similar bonds at R higher rate, the bonds of improvement districts will not sell readily “even at 4 or 43 per cent, though in states where they are non-taxable and there is plenty of local money to absorb them there is some sale at these rates. The fact remains, however, that cities and municipalities generally must make up their minds to pay higher rates of interest for borrowed money, whether raised on the municipality’s bonds or on bonds or ,certificates having the property assessed as security. A common rate for improvement bonds on the property benefited is 6 per cent and these bonds will probably not be interfered with immediately except that the market for them will be limited somewhat by the other demands for money. There is plenty of money, and if the governmental financing is carried .on in such way as not to concentrate it in places or times there will be enough for reasonable calls for money for public improvements. The conclusion is that public improvements will go on at a reduced rate as rapidly as officials and the public awake to the necessities of paying higher prices for them and for the money to pay for them. , WAR AND PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS BY A. PRESCOTT FOLWELL Editor of the Municipal Journal HE effect of the war upon public improvements is difficult to estimate as yet, but indications are that it will not be so great as many at first thought would be the case. The price of materials used and of labor has advanced considerably, but it does not seem probable that, for the present at least, there will be any further advance. The cost of cast iron pipe is now several times what it was before the war and it can hardly be expected that cities will lay any more water mains of this material than are required for the health and immediate well-being of the city. In spite of this, however, a number of cities have found that war industries have occasioned an increase in their population and in area covered which requires extension of the water mains, and the .purchase of cast iron pipe has by no means been entirely discontinued. T 2

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574 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September The largest sums spent of recent years on any class of public works are those devoted to the extending and improving of streets and roads. The state highway commissioner of Pennsylvania has estimated that the cost of road construction in that state will be about 20 per cent higher this year than it was last, and this estimate seems to be confirmed by an examination of the costs of the several materials entering into the construction and of labor employed thereon. Concrete in general has advanced about 20 per cent in cost. Bituminous materials used in road work have not generally increased by as great a percentage; and, generally speaking, I believe it may be said that the cost of paving work this year will be less than 25 per cent greater than in 1916. While this increase in cost is by no means insignificant, it is no greater than the advance along practically every other line, including those of the wages and incomes of the taxpayers. There undoubtedly have been a number of cases of postponement or abandonment of public work which had been proposed for this year; but on the other hand it appears that some has been done which had not been intended but which has been made necessary by war activities. The Municipal Journal collects daily, through its clipping bureau, notices of public work in all sections of the country, and it is significant that the number of such notices that it has found in the daily papers has been greater during the first six months of 1917 than during the corresponding period of 1916. One feature that should not be overlooked is the considerable increase in the use of mechanical appliances as a substitute for labor. There have apparently been three principal inducements to this substitution : (1) The fact that labor has been scarce and that, if the work is to be done at all, some appliances must be employed which will permit it to be done with a less amount of hand labor. (2) The fact that the higher price of Iabor renders economical the use of machinery which might not have been so when wages were lower. (3) The fact that there is less opposition by politicians to the use by cities of machinery which displaces voters on the public works, for the reason that most of the voters who would be employed on such work have no difficulty in finding other work at very satisfactory wages. The result will undoubtedly be that by the end of this season the advantages of the use of labor-saving machinery will have been made known to many contractors who have not heretofore considered adopting these more modern appliances, and that in the future their plans for public work and their bids for the same will be modified by the knowledge so gained. It is therefore quite possible that bids next year will be lower than they were this, provided prices for materials do not advance materially. In addition to the above influences, there has undoubtedly been an appreciable result from the campaign directed to keeping going as intensively as possible all business enterprises of all kinds which do not inter

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19171 PITTSBURGH CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES .575 fere with the preparations for war, on the basis that a continuance of prosperity in all lines is necessary for the financing of the war and its successful prosecution. The hysteria and uncertainty which were natural at first have, I believe, been largely dissipated, and I anticipate that from now on we will find public work of all kinds continuing very much as usual so far as amount is concerned, but carried on by methods calculated to secure greater economy and efficiency and to prevent any material increase in cost over that obtaining at the present time. THE PITTSBURGH CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTION BY KARL DE SCHWEINITZ New York City The decrease in expenditure for educational work, the withdrawal of doctors and nurses from ordinary public health service, and of social workers from their ordinary tasks, the abnormal demands for food and munitions, the temptations of training camps, the exposures and irregularities of life at the front, supply all the material that is needed to prove that the very measures which we have advocated are indeed indispensable. HIS sentence, taken from a report upon the social problems of the war delivered by Edward T. Devine at the National ConT ference of Charities and Correction (now the National Conference of Social Work) , might be said to summarize the conclusions reached by the 4,300 social workers who met in Pittsburgh, June 6 to 13. The burden of all the discussions was that the war was a large scale illustration of the importance of social work. It was agreed that such industrial standards as the eight-hour day, the six-day week, no night work for women must be maintained and extended and that nationaI prohibition must be adopted, certainly for the period of the war, and permanently if possible. THE NEGRO MIGRATION Reports made about the migration of negroes from the south showed: that this was perhaps the greatest of all the social problems which have developed in this country as byproducts of the war. “The movement and settlement of negroes in Northern cities is not. a temporary migration, but a movement likely to continue for an indefinite period,” was the opinion of Dr. George E. Haynes, executive secretary of the National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes. He, with other speakers, regarded the migration, despite all the problems it is bringing with it, as a step toward a better place for the negro in the life of the nation. Professor George W. Cook, of Howard University, compared the present movement with the one in 1862. The former

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576 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September migration he described as one of poverty, but he declared that now of the hundreds of southern negroes whom he had interviewed at Washington on their way north, he had not found one who needed financial assistance. No one underestimated the difficulties which this movement of negroes is causing. On the other hand the work which is being done in many citieB by negroes and interested white people to meet the newcomers and to find homes and jobs for them is most encouraging. In Detroit in six months 1,000 negroes were placed in skilled occupations by the local branch of the National Urban League, and 1,500 in unskilled employment. “Only by the development of industrial efficiency, individually and collectively,” said Forrester B. Washington, secretary of the league, ‘(can we convince the captains of industry that the negro will be just as much a necessity to production after the war as now.” In pursuance of,this idea the league has been holding meetings in the various factories of the city during the noon hour, at which the importance of punctuality, efficiency, ambition, and steady hard work has been emphasized. Effort is also being made to place the negroes in as wide a variety of occupations as possible so that after the war there will be greater opportunity for employment and less chance that the negro will be restricted to any one field of industry. The league has also been active in providing houses for the migrants and in developing recreational opportunities for them. Reports from .other cities showed that while the work in Detroit was perhaps more extensive than that done in many cities it was typical of the way in which the problem of negro migratioh is being met in many parts of the country. INCREASE IN ILLEGITIMACY RATE Another byproduct of the war feared by many of the social workers is an increase in tJhe illegitimacy rate. J. Prentice Murphy, general secretary of the children’s aid society of Boston warned the members of the conference against being stampeded into an hysterical movement for the establishment of large congregate maternity homes. “ I hope,” he said, “that the progressive institutions giving maternity care to unmarried mothers will provide for many of these women by placing them in well selected families. Is it not wrong for us to group too many mothers together just because they happen to be the mothers of illegitimate children? In only too many instances maternity homes will mean the pooling and over-emphasis of the experiences which have brought the girls there.” It is significant that during the great war that is being fought for democracy the conference should have changed its name from National Conference of Charities and Correction to National Conference of Social Work. For forty-four years the conference had been growing away

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19171 PITTSBURGH CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES 577 from the old idea that charity was something given to people and into the newer idea that social work is designed to train people to take their part in democratic life and government. Indeed one of the most interesting things about the conference was the variety of ways shown in which the effort to develop leaders and to organize democracy is being made. COMMUNITY CENTERS It was from this point of view that John Collier, of the people’s institute, New York, described the manner in which community centers are being established in school buildings, libraries, and park buildings. The community centers, Mr. Collier said, are giving the people of city neighborhoods an interest in government and an ability to share therein. “In the community center,” he explained, “the organized common people pay the bills and make the policies. The community center is a tenant of the city and depends for its success on the expertness which can be had only through co-operating with government and with organized social service.’’ Similarly James Ford, assistant professor of social ethics at Harvard, argued in favor of co-operative unions because they would teach labor big business. At present labor loses many potential leaders because as they develop executive and business ability they are graduated into the capitalist classes. He declared that it was most significant that the American Federation of Labor and the Socialist party should be considering the question of co-operative unions. “The co-operative union,” said Professor Ford, “ discovers what Professor Marshall calls ‘our greatest waste product,’ namely, the latent abilities of workingmen and utilizes those latent abilities not only in the fields of business and citizenship but throughout the whole range of social conduct. It not only increases the income of individual members but creates a collective capital which can be used on occasion to free the working classes from any form of exploitation.” CO-OPERATIVE GROCERIES Professor Ford added that no form of co-operation is so little needed as the co-operative grocery stores. The grocery business is highly competitive and prices are kept low. He suggested co-operation in the plowing and planting of vacant suburban lands, in buying fertilizer and tools, in the canning and evaporating of food products and in recreational enterprises. THE SCHOOL MANSE In the meetings devoted to rural work the discussion turned largely to ways of developing rural community leadership and of enabling the farmer to take part in government. Professor Arthur J. Todd, of the

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57 8 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September University of Minnesota, emphasized the importance of extending the school center idea to the country. He cited the school “manse” as a means of holding the teacher to a longer term of residence and thereby making it possible for him to become a social factor. “Most rural teachers,” he said, “are paid simply for the school term and never return a second year to the same community. Their average residence is less than two years of 140 days each. Why by contrast are 83 per cent of Swiss teachers permanent? Largely, it seems, because they are employed the year round, and are provided with homes and other inducements to strike root. The teacher’s home or school manse idea is spreading rapidly not only abroad but also in the United States. North Dakota, for example, has over a score; Washington had 108 last year. In Hawaii one third of the schools have such cottages built at public expense. “House the teacher at least as decently as a good Holstein cow, engage him by the year, allow him vacations on pay, give him land for his own use and as a demonstration garden, utilize him during the summer for social center meetings, institutes, surveys, pay him a living wage and he will cease to be a casual migrant. Where these things have been done the teachers’ cottages become not only homes for new solid members of the community, but also genuine community centers in the fullest sense of the word.” ONE SOCIAL UNIT ORGANIZATION One of the most interesting experiments described at the con:erence was that of the National Social Unit Organization. This organization has selected a district of Cincinnati as a laboratory for achieving real democracy by enabling the rank and file of the people to obtain a clear idea of their needs and of how to meet them. The wellbeing of the children of the district has been taken as the starting point. In order to safeguard their health a citizens’ council has been established in each block with a woman as organizer. She visits not merely the mothers of the poor but all mothers with small children. Wilbur C. Phillips, executive secretary of the Social Unit Organization, showed how as the citizens’ council followed the ramifications involved in securing health for 100 per cent of the children of the block it would find itself touching government from a score of different angles. Thus the local citizenship would be organized for democracy. Many other illustrations might be cited of the different ways in which this theme of training people for democracy showed itself. Aside from the fact of the change of name the Pittsburgh meeting of the National Conference marks a notable advance toward the democratization of social work.

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19171 NEW JERSEY FINANCIAL LEGISLATION 579 RECENT FINANCIAL LEGISLATION IN NEW JERSEY' BY RALPH E. GEORGE Whitman Collene N the last two years, the legislature of New Jersey has passed a series of laws regulating the management of municipal finances which make possible a marked advance in the financial administration of the cities of that state. This legislation was initiated and supported by the commission for the survey of municipal financing, appointed by the speaker of the house of assembly. Perhaps the commission is more commonly known as the Pierson commission, in honor of its energetic chairman, the Eon. Arthur N. Pierson. Under his leadership, the 1916 legislature passed a law regulating the management of debts; while the 1917 legislature added to this several statutes regulating floating debt, the payment of permanent debt, the form and procedure of budget legislation, and also established the state department of municipal accounts. This legislation falls roughly into four parts: That concerned with the management of city debt, that establishing a budget system; that determining the procedure for the attainment of uniform accounts and reports, and provision for the enforcement of the other regulations imposed. Under these heads the laws passed by the 1916 and 1917 legislature will be briefly described. I MUNICIPAL INDEBTEDNESS Legislation with regard to municipal indebtedness is of interest in all states at the present time, since there is probably no branch of municipal finance so mishandled. New Jersey cities have erred in common with other cities. As a result of its investigations, the commission in 1916 made the following report: The survey has revealed that many of the municipalities and counties have not been meeting the cost of the conduct of their affairs out of the revenues applicable to current year. There have been employed a multitude of schemes and expedients to conceal such unbusinesslike practices, too numerous and too complicated to recite in this report. This has brought to many communities floating debts which have been periodically funded into long term bonds, and the process repeated in some instances by refunding floating debt bonds. It is evident that these practices have been employed for the most part to avoid an increase in tax rate. Such a policy is too dangerous to be further sanctioned by the statutes. 1 This summary of the recent New Jersey legislation is based upon Laws of New Jersey, 1916, 1917, particularly chapter 252 of the Laws of 1916, and chapters 110, 192, 155, 212, 154, and 155 of the Laws of 1917. Additional information of interest is contained in the reports of the commission for the survey of municipal financing for 1916 and 1917.

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580 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Your commission earnestly contends that all expenditures for the maintenance, upkeep and repair of all departments of municipal activities should be met by current revenues. The floating indebtedness now present in any municipality, which is not supported by corresponding live and dependable assets, should be immediately refunded, that this overshadowing burden may not complicate nor hinder the proper financing of future municipal needs. The adoption of a more businesslike system is now required by the legislation of 1916 which limits the term of bonds to the life of the improvement, prohibits refunding of bonds, specifies the purposes for which the debt may be incurred, requires the use of installment bonds, sets a limit beyond which debts may not go, governs the method of selling bonds, and prescribes the method of raising money in anticipation of tax revenues and in cases of emergency. In the first place, bonds can not be issued for a period longer than the life of the improvement and this requirement is made specific by the insertion in the law of limits beyond which bonds issued for different purposes may not run, as follows: This is the pay as you go policy. Acquisition, construction, and reconstruction ofisewer systf?rns. .............. .40 years ii Ii (I Li 11 'I '< '1 ii li iL I, gas .. (' water supply systems. " electriclight " ........ .2Q s ............ Asphalt ........................ Concrete six inches thick. ........ .............. .30 'I ......... .I0 I' ......... .30 .......... 10 I' .............. .30 That the debts incurred for the above purpose may not overrun the allotted time, is secured by the provisions that such bonds can not be refunded and that all these bonds must be in serial form. The serial form of a bond is required by the following provision: All bonds hereaftex issued by any such municipality shall mature in annual installments commencing not more than two years from their date, and no installment shall be more than fifty per centum in excess of the amount of the smallest prior installment.

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19171 NEW JERSEY FINANCIAL LEGISLATION 581: Yet another limitation imposed upon municipal debts is the provision that the net debts may not exceed seven per cent of the assessed value average for the three preceding years with certain special exceptions which might raise the limit to nine per cent. The net debt is defined in the law in detailed form, but roughly the method for computing the legally permissible debt is as follows: In the first place the gross debt is secured by adding the bonded debt, special assessment issues, utility, schools, parks,2 and the other obligations; from the sum of these classes of debt to find the net debt the following are dedicated: special assessments levied and uncollected, special assessments to be collected and applied to present debt, debt not over three per cent of the assessed valuation where this debt has been incurred for utilities which are paying the interest and redeeming the principal from current revenues, debts incurred for water supply systems, funds and sinking funds, taxes levied for the retirement of the debt, unpaid taxes for the last three years, debts incurred for protection from the seas, and amounts otherwise due the city. This definition would seem to be more elastic and at the same time more easily understood and applied than the regulations now used in many states. CHANGE IN THE METHODS OF SELLING BONDS In the new laws an interesting change is made in the method of selling bonds. At present most cities sell their bonds at a considerable premium and thus often more money is received than is actually needed. This premium is generally used to pay current bills instead of being retained for the ultimate liquidation of the loan. In order to prevent the cities. from securing money in this fashion for current expenses, the New Jersey legislation provides that the municipality shall determine what money it. needs and what kinds of bonds it will issue and that it shall then call for bids, awarding the bonds to the bidder who will offer to take the least. number of bonds in return for the money advanced. In this way practically no premium exists and the city gets exactly what money it needs. SHORT TERM LOANS The regulations so far given apply only to long time loans, but nearly every city borrows money occasionally for short time periods only. Of this class of loans the anticipation of taxes is probably the most common example, since taxes are not usually paid until well on in the local fiscal year and since the city must raise funds at the beginning of the year to. meet the current expenses. The New Jersey statutes provide that the cities may borrow up to 95 per cent of the taxes voted in the budget. In case these taxes are not paid promptly, tax revenue notes can be issued * If these debts are incurred by other political bodies, such for example, as the county* they are counted only for that governmental unit, not for the city.-R. E. G.

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-582 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September to the amount of delinquent taxes. But here again, provision is made that these shall not be permanent charges, for all tax revenue notes unpaid at the end of three years must be raised in the tax levy of the fourth year. Yet another short-period debt is provided for in the case of emergency notes, which can be issued only upon vote of two-thirds of the local legislative body. Such notes, however, must be included in the next tax unless inclusion would raise the tax rate by more than one-third of one mill, when the sum needed to retire them can be raised in annual installments of not less than one-third mill. The provisions for future debt management thus cover two classes of debt: long time and temporary. The first class is restricted as to purpose and as to time, it must be paid in annual installments, and it must be sold in such a way that no substantial premium can be secured for current use. The tax revenue notes issued in anticipation of delinquent taxes can under no circumstances run longer than three years, while the emergency notes must be paid off at the rate of at least one-third mill tax per year. In these regulations little opportunity apparently exists for the development of large debts representing vanished values. TRANSITION FROM OLD TO NEW SYSTEM The provisions so far considered deal only with the future debt management of the cities and leave untouched the very difficult problem of making the transition from the old method, or lack of method, to the new system. In connection with the latter problem, some of the greatest obstacles to reform are to be found, but the New Jersey legislature has provided a fairly easy method of making the change, in the case both of the bonded debt and of the floating debt. In the first place, the present bonded debt must be retired gradually by means of the sinking fund, which must be maintained on an interest basis of three and one-half, per cent, that is, the money annually turned over to the sinking fund must be sufficient when invested at three and one-half per cent to meet the bonds in full at maturity. If, however, the sinking funds earns more in any one year than the rate of interest specified, the excess earnings may be deducted from the amount paid the sinking fund from the tax rate during the following year. Moreover, where there is at present a deficit in the sinking fund, a somewhat common condition, this shortage must be made up by a levy of at least one-fifth of a mill tax per year. In addition to these requirements for repaying the funded debt, careful provisions have been adopted for the retirement of the floating debt. Two classes of floating debt have been considered by the legislature: obligations representing money advanced to the cities on account of delinquent taxes, and general floating debt. The cities are required to refund all delinquent taxes by means of the following classes of debt: tax revenue notes of 1916, representing that year’s delinquent taxes,

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19171 NEW JERSEY FINANCIAL LEGISLATION 583 which notes must be redeemed in 1919, tax revenue notes of 1915, to be paid by 1918, and tax revenue notes of 1914, to be paid in.1917. In case it is discovered by the time these notes are due that the taxes represented have been remitted or for other reasons are uncollectible, the deficiency must be paid in five equal installments from the tax levy. So far as other floating debt is concerned bonds or notes must be issued to redeem the same, such bonds to be payable in equal annual installments, each of which can not be less than one-fifth of one mill tax, to run not longer than 20 years. In these ways, the transition from the old to the new method is rendered relatively easy both for permanent and short time debts, spread out as it is over a considerable period of time, and should not cause the cities any great hardships. THE BUDGET The second general feature of the municipal finances covered by this series of laws is the budget. Here the commission recommended and the legislature permitted a choice by the city between the department and the segregated budget, on the ground that the former where feasible allowed greater administrative efficiency. The object sought in the budget law is to have the definite program of administration clearly set forth, both as to sources of revenue and purposes of expenditure, giving the taxpayers opportunity for analyzing and discussing the budget provisions prior to its adoption and operation. To secure these ends, a uniform plan is adopted, requiring the approval of the budget by the 25th day of the fiscal year and its final adoption by the 40th day, providing for public hearings on the budget prior to its approval and adoption, prohibiting changes from this budget of more than 10 per cent on any item unless a new public hearing is first held, and specifying what shall be included in the budget proposals. With regard to the latter specifications, the budget must include statements of total anticipated revenues, of total expenditures according to purposes, compared with the same items for previous years, of the surplus in the surplus revenue account, and of the amount which must be raised by taxation. Changes in the appropriations after adoption may not vary more than 10 per cent on any item, or more than five per cent of the total appropriation, nor may the amount set aside for contingent expenses exceed three per cent of the total. These requirements are slightly modified by the permission to make transfers in the last two weeks of the year upon vote of the governing body. An interesting part of this law is the provision of a surplus revenue account, which can be used for financing purposes, thus avoiding the periodical loans needed by so many cities before the taxes are paid. To this surplus revenue account must be carried all unexpended balances. If there develops any shortage in the municipal receipts, the city can In the words of the commission:

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584 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September borrow from this account but no appropriation can be made from it after the budget has been adopted. (It may serve as a basis for appropriations, however, prior to passage of the budget.) DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ACCOUNTS The third and fourth objects of this legislation, namely, the attainment of uniform municipal accounts and provision for enforcement of the acts already outlined are largely secured through the establishment of a new state administrative body, the department of municipal accounts. A commissioner of municipal accounts is to be appointed by the state treasurer, to receive a salary of $3,600 per annum. While he is given power to require the adoption of uniform accounting and reporting and to enforce all state laws dealing with local finances his main duties are apparently concerned with the enforcement of debt legislation. He is given power to determine the adequacy of the municipal sinking funds and to require the levy of additional taxes to make good any deficiency in these funds. To make this power effective he must through his staff audit the accounts of the various sinking funds and he receives annual reports from cities of all debt transactions in accordance with forms he prescribes. Not only does he have control over all sinking funds, but he is charged with the supervision of the procedure for any incurrence of debt, determining whether the debts can or can not be legally incurred. In summary, this series of laws may be said to embody many of the most successful features of sound municipal financing. For the solution of the troublesome debt problem, the legislature has practically adopted the view that the most important need is the assurance that the debts will be paid within the lifetime of the improvements to pay for which they were issued. More emphasis is placed upon repayment than upon the amount of the debt. Then, New Jersey has worked out a fairly easy method of making the change to the new system, since while the old debts must be paid off, ample time is allowed the cities to do this without seriously disarranging their financial plans. The budget legislation is fortunate in that it insures the fundamental essentials of a definite yearly program, of ample publicity and of fairly good means for insuring that the plan will be carried out in practice, at the same time that it leaves the cities free to adopt the type of budget best suited to their various conditions and management. By this series of laws, furthermore, New Jersey has joined the group of states which believe in uniform accounting, at least uniform reporting, methods and has organized a state department to assure the success of this feature of the legislation. The power of the commissioner of municipal accounts, while adequate, so far as the law is concerned, can not prove very offensive to city officials since the latter are not limited greatly in the determination of policy so long as the sound financial methods prescribed are followed.

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,19171 STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS 585 Finally, the provisions that bonds shall be sold on what is practically an interest basis and the establishment of surplus revenue account for financing purposes are distinct advances. The execution of these laws deserves the closest attention by students of municipal finance and by city officials throughout the country. Not so rigid and far-reaching as some state legislation, the New Jersey laws are designed to attain the end of good municipal financing without impairing the essential powers of the cities. EFFICIENCY IN STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS BY WILFORD E. TALBERT‘ San Francisco HE world war, the high cost of living, the general improvements in methods of conducting private business-these and many T other factors have led to a recent widespread interest in the matter of efficiency and economy in the administration of public affairs, and particularly in the management of the public schools which are responsible for approximately one-third of all governmental costs. THE MEANING OF EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMY In the sense in which we shall use it in this article, efficiency simply means “the one best way of doing things.” It implies the application of scientific methods to the solution of administrative problems, the substitution of facts for mere popular opinions or prevailing traditions, the discarding of “main strength and awkwardness” for intelligent and well-directed activity, and the elimination of whatever of time, or effort, or expense, or misery may be found to be unnecessary. Economy, too, is subject to so many different interpretations that it may be well to state our own definition at the outset. By economy we do not mean subtraction, but we do mean the elimination of unnecessary waste. True economy makes for efficiency; false or (‘poor” economy does not. Efficiency always promotes true economy. THE SCHOOL PROBLEM STATED The public schools now call for approximstely one-third of all governmental revenues, and statistics show that, despite the enlargement of other governmental functions, the cost of education still continues to advance more rapidly than that of other departments. In California, the cost of the lower schools has doubled every seven years since 1900. This means that by 1931 the schools will cost four times what they do now! 1 Assistant in charge, bureau of educational in yestigation, taxpayers’ associakon of California; consulting director of the department of reference and research in the Oakland schools for three years in active charge.

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586 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September With the wholesale destruction of life and property which has been going on in the world for the past three years, and which promises to continue for as much longer, it is hard to see how the material wealth of the country will warrant the continued setting aside of larger and larger proportions of the revenues of any state for the promotion of a more or less nonproductive enterprise such as the public schools of to-day are thought by some to be. On the other hand, when we study the causes of increasing school costs, we are compelled to admit that all of the chief causes, at least, are justified, and if we honestly face the present needs of the schools we are forced to the conclusion that it is not desirable to try to avoid the difficulty by merely limiting the expenditures. Hence, the school problem, briefly stated, is, ((HOW shall we maintain the schools at their present, or better than present, eficiency without unduly increasing present expenditures? In facing this problem fairly and squarely, there are two main premises upon which to work. In the first place, we must know all of the conditions involved. This implies the making of a survey. In the second place, we must attack the things about the school system which are fundamentally wrong. This implies emphasis upon the cause of existing evils rather than upon the evils themselves. HISTORY OF SCHOOL SURVEYS The school survey as a guide to the intelligent solution of school problems is a comparatively recent develop,ment in the administration of public affairs. Perhaps the earliest notable fore-runners of the present movement were the investigations ordered in Chicago in 1897 and in Cleveland in 1906. In each case a special commission of experts was appointed to study the needs of the schools and their reports were given the widest publicity. Following these two isolated cases, a long list of cities have ordered investigations of one sort ,or another, the number increasing so rapidly that it is no longer possible to keep track of all of them. The most notable of these surveys were conducted in the following cities: Boise, Idaho (1910), the first of the more recent surveys; Baltimore (1911), the first of a long list of surveys by the United States Bureau of Education; New York City (begun 1911), the most expensive survey; Portland, Oregon (1913), whose report has since become a popular university text-book on school administration; Richmond (1914), the first of the comprehensive surveys of the society for the promotion of industrial education; Chicago (1914), an extensive auto-survey; Salt Lake City (1915), noted for its scientific study of educational products; and Cleveland (1915) whose unique form and methods of publication have attracted wide attention.2 ZSee NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, Vol. vi, page 407.

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19171 STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS 587The school survey movement has not been confined to cities. In 1905, the legislature of Massachusetts appointed a commission of nine members to study for the entire state the need for vocational training, how far this need was met by-the existing school system, and what new steps ought to be taken. Since that time a large number of states each year have resorted to similar methods of solving important school problems. EARLY STATE SCHOOL SURVEYS Among the earliest state school surveys were those made of typical counties in various states by the board of home missions of the Presbyterian church. In general, they resulted in recommendations for the adoption of the county unit of school administration; better supervision of rural schools; more attention to agriculture, manual arts, home economics, music, and drawing;’ and the consolidation of small schools. Most of the other early state surveys and many of the more recent surveys dealt only with limited portions of the state school problem. For example, we might cite the study of secondary schools in Vermont (1912) where it was recommended that the whole secondary school system be completely reorganized along the lines of the better high schools of other states; a study of rural schools in Wisconsin (1912), in which it was recommended that expenditures be better controlled, that better supervision be provided by both state and county, that the course of study be enriched and made more practical, and that wider publicity be given school facts; Upper Peninsula, Michigan (1913) in which were suggested higher standards for teachers, elimination of non-essentials from the curriculum, and wider use of the school plant; Orange County, Virginia (1913) ; four counties, Georgia (1914) ; three counties, Alabama (1914); five counties, Texas (1914); and San Mateo County, California (1914) in all of which similar recommendations were made. Still more recently, and largely through the influence of the federal Bureau of Education, another type of partial state survey has come into prominence, namely, the survey of higher educational institutions. In 1915 the University of Oregon was surveyed; in 1916, the State University, the State College, and the State Teachers’ College of Iowa; and, in the same year, the university, college, and normal schools of the state of Washington, and the higher educational institutions of North Dakota. In all of these surveys, which have been largely made under the immediate direction of Dr. Samuel P. Capen, specialist in higher education for the United States bureau of education, the recommendations have favored the better adaptation of the institutions to the needs of the state, the adoption of a unified and consistent educational program, and ample provision for carrying on the functions of these institutions in an efficient manner.

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388 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September COMPLETE STATE SCHOOL SURVEYS In 1913, the legislature of Ohio inaugurated a new type of survey when it authorized the governor to appoint a commission which should study all of the schools in the state and their administration. On account of the size of the undertaking, and the small appropriation (only $10,000) much of the work was voluntary and consisted largely of the filling out of extensive blanks, the replies to which were later tabulated. The report, covering 352 pages, contains a generous number of ‘(constructive suggestions ” concerning administration, supervision, the teaching body, instruction, the school plant, pupils, and co-operation of educational agencies. During the same year an equally thorough survey was made of the Vermont school system by the Carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching and a large staff of experts from outside the state. The survey closed with recommendations for the reorganization of both elementary and secondary education so as to provide for vocational training, the centralization of the state administrative force under a competent commissioner and staff of experts who should be selected by a small unpaid board of education having only legislative functions, the revision of courses of study on the basis of scientific experiment, and the better training of teachers. In 1914 also were published the results of a survey of rural and village schools in Colorado covering statistics gathered for the eight years from 1906 to 1913 inclusive. Assuming the reliability of the official reports, it was shown that there was poor attendance and inefficiency everywhere and that the only remedy would be the consolidation of schools and the abolishment of the district system. In 1916, the federal bureau corroborated these findings, and in addition recommended professional superintendents of schools for both the state and the various counties. One of the most successful state surveys was that conducted in Maryland in 1915 by the general education board. The findings of the survey were embodied in bills, nearly all of which became laws on June 1, 1916 so that, as one reviewer says, “By one bound the state leaped into a truly professional status in matters relating to public education.” State and county officers are given greater power and provided with staffs of expert assistants, the system of apportioning funds is greatly improved, and a good compulsory attendance law goes into immediate effect. In the latter part of 1916 the federal bureau was asked to survey the entire school system of Wyoming. The final recommendations include a strong central board of control with non-political executive officers, the county unit of administration and supervision of rural schools, a better method of distributing school moneys, better trained teachers,

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39171 STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS 589 and provision for vocational education. Many sf these proposals have already become laws. Among the latest state educational surveys to be completed was that made in Nevada during the past two years. In February of the present year, the survey commission of that state recommended to the legislature the adoption of constitutional amendments providing for an appointive state board of education and an appointive state superintendent of public instruction, the adoption of the county unit of organization, and the improvement of rural school conditions. BUREAUS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Such, in brief, has been the history of the noteworthy attempts to improve school systems by means of the survey. During the same time, however, there has sprung up another movement of equal or even greater promise, namely, the establishment of departments of educational research whose chief function is to carry on within the system itself a “perpetual survey.” Like most other educational improvements, this idea first took root in the cities of the country. In 1914 there were such bureaus in Rochester, Baltimore, New Orleans, Boston, New York City, and Oakland. At the present time, one hears of a new city department of research almost every few days. The following states are among those having some agency which is constantly at work on state-wide investigations of the survey type: Wisconsin, New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and perhaps many others. PLAN OF THE TAXPAYERS’ ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA The writer has no disparaging criticism to offer with respect to any of the foregoing methods of solving the problem of efficiency in the public schools. He offers the details of his own plans largely because he is more familiar with them and because he wishes the suggestions or criticisms .of his readers, as to the feasibility of the proposed undertaking. At the outset of this discussion it was stated that we believed the solution of the problem before us lay not in curtailing expenses on the one hand or in expanding educational activities on the other hand, but in first securing adequate information and secondly attacking those things which are the prime causes of existing evils. Furthermore, public education in America is a state function and the most important problems of school administration are mostly state problems. Believing in these principles as fundamental, the taxpayers’ association of California proposes to begin on the first of July a perpetual survey .of conditions in the state, lasting as many years as may be necessary to Like the survey, the research bureau is not confined to cities. 3

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590 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [Feptember bring about the desired.results. A central bureau of educational investigation for the state has already been created, and it is proposed to establish from time to time as many branch offices, either temporary or permanent, as may be necessary to secure all of the desired information. Wherever cooperation can be secured, existing educatibnal offices will be drafted into the service. The writer has been asked to direct the bureau, and Professor Ellwood P. Cubberley of Stanford University has kindly consented to act as consulting expert. The president of the association is Vanderlynn Stow, financial manager of Leland Stanford Jr. University, and the director is Herbert W. Clark, formerly of the New Mexico state tax commission. The association has no preconceived notions of what ought to be (except as already proven by other surveys), and intends to arrive at conclusions in a purely scientific and unbiased manner. However, it has a very definite program of possible solutions to the problem of efficiency, and it proposes to study these possible solutions with extreme care to see whether or not they are the right ones. Briefly stated, our assumption as to what may be the best means of bringing about educational eficiency follows: 1. A state controlled esciency bureau. 2. A state organization for efficiency, based on functions rather than the ordinary “lines of authority.” 3. The application of scientific management to the conduct of the state’s school business. 4. The adoption of separate units of administration for separate functions. Thus the state may be a single unit for the certification of teachers; it may be divided into five sections for the purchasing and distribution of standard supplies and equipment; and it may utilize city and county subdivisions for the supervision of instruction or strictly local affairs. These and other possible solutions are now being discussed in the association’s official organ, the California Taxpayers’ Journal, whose editorial offices are in the American Bank Bldg., Los Angeles, California. The paramount task of the new bureau will be to convince citizens and lawmakers of the validity of its findings; hence it is conducting a. constant campaign of education not only through its official journal, but through the public press, through educational periodicals, and through conferences with educators, statesmen, and taxpayers so that by the time the investigations are all completed, the public will be ready to act upon the findings submitted. The writer will gladly welcome any suggestions or criticisms, and will be especially interested in getting in touch with any who may be working along similar lines. -4ddress : Wilford E. Talbert, care Taxpayers’ association of Cali-. fornia, Insurance Exchange Bldg. , San Francisco, Cal.

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19171 PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION 59 1 PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION BY c. H. BENJAMIN' Purdue University 0 FAR as I have means of knowing, this is the most comprehensive report on the various aspects of the smoke probIem that has S appeared in this country. The study made by the Chicago commission under the auspices of the various railroad companies is more voluminous, but not so comprehensive since it is concerned principally with the problem as it affects the railroad terminals and the possibilities of electrification.2 CLASSIFICATION It is interesting to note that of these bulletinsS only one, no. 8, is concerned with the prevention of smoke by mechanical means and that the other six are devoted to the various ills inherent on atmospheric smoke pollution. In other words, six are devoted to a discussion of the disease and but one to the problem of its cure or abatement. Perhaps this is well since it has usually been found more difficult to convince people in general of the evils of smoke than to effect its abatement when once convinced of danger. It is comparatively easy by various mechanical appliances to prevent most of the smoke coming from factory chimneys, but it is very difficult to interest the community in this problem and to get a healthy public sentiment. A review of the staff which has conducted these investigations also shows an interesting grouping. . There are eight physicians, five architects, four engineers, two chemists and one, each, botanist, meteorologist, bacteriologist, physicist, psychologist, economist, lawyer, and librarian; that is, about one-third are physicians, another third, natural scientists, and the remaining third made up mainly of architects and engineers. Naturally all except the engineers are more concerned with the question as to what smoke is and what it does, leaving only the engineers and possibly to some extent the architects, to answer the question of how effective means may be devised for its abatement. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM Very properly, the first bulletin is concerned with the broader aspects 1 Dean of the schools of engineering, Purdue University. 2 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, p. 331. 3 3. Psychological Aspeck of the Problem of Atmospheric Smoke Pollution; 4. The Economic Cost of the Smoke Nuisance to Pittsburgh; 5. The Meteorological Aspect of the Smoke Problem; 6. Papers on the Effect of Smoke on Building Materials; 7. The Effect of the Soot in Smoke on Vegetation; 8. Some Engineering Phases of Pittsburgh's Smoke Problem; 9. Influence of Smoke on Health.

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592 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September as affecting the general energy and happiness of the community. Although this is a factor which cannot be expressed in any material system of measures, it is undoubtedly the most important of all. If it can be proved that smoky atmosphere has a depressing and deleterious influence upon the bulk of the people in the community, a serious indictment has been established at once. It is difficult to establish such facts by statistics, but the bulletin shows clearly that people coming from a clear to a smoky atmosphere are affected unfavorably and lose a certain vital efficiency. That smoke has a tendency not only to diminish the lifegiving effect of the sun's rays but also to promote cloudiness, fog and rain, the smoky dust forming nuclei for the rain drops, is another count in the indictment. Most of us are aware of the exhilaration and tonic effect due to a high barometer and bright sunshine and the corresponding depression due to a low barometer accompanied by rain or fog. That this is perhaps psychological rather than physiological makes no difference; the effect being the same. A depressing mental condition is just as inimical to efficiency as a physical one. On the other hand, it is a peculiar'fact that offences against order and decency are more apt to occur on clear, dry days, there being more energy and vitality at such times. Indirectly smoke has an injurious effect on the mental fitness of the people in a community, first, by its tendency to aggravate diseases of the various membranes especially those connected with the respiratory functions ; and second, because of its destructive influence on Esthetic and artistic objects such as pictures, draperies and mural decorations. One who will go from the business district of a city like Pittsburgh, Chicago or Cleveland to a similar location in II city which is comparatively free from smoke, like Portland, Oregon, or Los Angeles, could hardly fail to notice an entire change in his mental attitude and his feeling towards life in general and his environment in particular. ECONOMIC COST The fourth bulletin deals with the economic cost of smoke in the Pittsburgh district. It quotes various data obtained in other cities and states that the report of the Cleveland chamber of commerce is perhaps the most accurate estimate. This report fixes the per capita loss in Cleveland at from $10 to $12 per annum and suggests that the total amount including indirect losses is nearly double this. The reports from other cities are based largely on the Cleveland figures, assuming a greater or less density of smoke for the particular locality studied. The bulletin then discusses the probable losses in Pittsburgh, classifying these as direct fuel loss, cost of personal laundry and dry cleaning, expense of repairs and renewals in the household, injury to stocks and fixtures in stores, office buildings and hotels, and, finally, the rather

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19171 PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION 593 indefinite loss due to the general disagreeableness of environment. An average loss of about 20 per cent of fuel due to smoky conditions is estimated. This is in agreement with experimental data which have been obtained in various plants. It is not at all unusual to realize a saving of from 15 to 25 per cent by the introduction of approved methods of firing. The loss is not due to the escape of carbon in the smoke, since this is very small, but rather to the dirty condition of the flues and other heating surfaces which reduces their conducting power. In making a study of the extra cost of cleaning clothes, draperies] wall papers, paints, etc., the general method has been to obtain from census statistics or other sources, figures as to the total cost of such work and then to assume that a certain per cent of this was due to the smoke nuisance. Any such assumption is more or less gratuitous and cannot be supported by argumwt but it seems to be the only way of getting at the probable cost. In my own experience, I have found that my personal laundry bill was nearly if not quite doubled by a sojourn in Cleveland during its worst days. Assuming 30 cents per week for the smokeless locality and 601 cents for Cleveland, would mean $1.20 cents a month or $14.40 a year as an increase on one item. This would dispose of my share of the $12 per capita and a little over. A rough calculation like this leads me to believe that the figures of $12 per capita per year are conservative. Furthermore, it may be said that the Pittsburgher or the Clevelander never really knows what clean linen is. During a summer vacation in the east after living for some years in Cleveland, my family were shocked at the grimy appearance of the family linen as it appeared on the line in close proximity to the spotless habiliments of the eastern people. Add to this direct expense, the inevitable deterioration and wear caused by repeated launderings and cleanings and we have a further loss in the value of the clothing itself. Too much importance should not be accorded to statistics like those in Table I which show the value of the laundry business in various cities. The table shows large expense for laundry work in Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis. On the other hand, Cleveland, which has been quoted as a rival to Pittsburgh in its smokiness, has with the exception of Philadelphia, the smallest laundry expense of any of the eleven cities quoted. Now either Cleveland has been maligned as a smoky city or its inhabitants are not so careful of their personal appearance. Statistics of this kind are influenced by so many local conditions that it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions from them. In the matter of renewing wall paper, paint, etc., the comparison is more easily made. Nearly every householder knows about how often it is necessary to perform these operations and their cost is easily ascertained. The bulletin shows that repairs and renewals of this sort are The ratio assumed in the bulletin is one-third plus.

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394 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW 1September required about twice as often as in cleaner cities and that approximately the same is true of sheet metal work. The total cost to the householders of Pittsburgh for direct expense due to its smoky conditions are shown approximately to be $2,400,000 per year or about $4 per capita. The relative cost in wholesale and retail stores is greater than in the household since the goods suffer a depreciation in selling value greater than the actual damage done. The stores which suffer most conspicuously from smoke and soot are those where delicate fabrics (silks and muslins) are sold and the bookstores and picture shops whose wares are dependent largely on their appearance for their market value. The hotels suffer in the same way since their business depends to a large extent upon the attractive conditions of the surroundings. What after all impresses the reader most in studying this subject is that large, but inestimable loss due to the general disagreeableness of the situation. The fact that everything is dirty and grimy and in perpetual need of cleaning or renewing has a depressing effect upon business and upon the spirits of the people which is economically as serious as any of the direct losses enumerated. This bulletin constitutes the second serious attempt to determine the economical waste due to the smoke nuisance and goes to confirm previous statistics. A summary of losses for Pittsburgh approximates $10,000,000 ti year and assuming the population of the city at that time to have been 600,000, would give an annual cost per capita of between $16 and $17 which corresponds with the Cleveland estimate, assuming that Pittsburgh is smokier than the other city. METEOROLOGICAL ASPECT A study of the effect of smoke on the weather is given in bulletin no. 5 and its conclusions are deduced more or less directly from the recorded statistics of the U. S. weather bureau. It is shown with a fair degree of certainty that the effect of smoke is to increase the density of fogs and to diminish the amount of sunshine received. It is also shown that smoke has a particularly destructive effect on the blue rays of the spectrum. There is no doubt but what this might have an unfavorable effect upon the health of the community, especially of those individuals who are not in a normal healthy condition. The effect on temperature is slight, but the general tendency of smoke is to diminish the range, increasing the minimum and decreasing the maximum temperatures. Careful experiments have shown that the limit of visibility in Pittsburgh ranges from 1 mile to 1.6 miles, according to the time of day. In the country 10 miles is quite a usual limit and under good conditions, 30 or 40 miles is not unusual. To me it would seem that the meteorological effect of smoke is to produce a climatic condition which, while it might

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19171 PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION 595 not be in a marked degree injurious to physical health, would have the depressing mental effect to which I have alluded. The data in this bulletin are a distinct contribution to the literature on the subject. EFFECT ON BUILDING MATERIALS The sixth bulletin deals with the effect of smoke on the various materials used in building and with definite materials and costs. There are two quite distinct effects due to the deposition of soot. One is the discoloration due to the carbon and tar; the other, the corrosion produced by the sulphuric acid present. If it were not for the presence of coal tar, little damage would result as the carbon dust and the acid would neither of them be brought in such close contact with the material. The tar acts as a cement to fasten the dust to the surface and to hold the sulphuric acid in contact with the material. Most of the data given in this bulletin are the results of actual tests made by public authorities and by manufacturers. The principal damage done to exterior and interior painted surfaces is due to discoloration and the need of frequent cleaning and repainting. In a clear atmosphere, exterior paint will last five or six years before repainting is necessary and interior paint perhaps twice as long. In a smoky city like Pittsburgh, repainting is necessary at intervals of from one to three years. The same ratio probably obtains for interior work so that it is safe to estimate the cost of painting as from two to three times that in a clean atmosphere. Furthermore, the certainty of discoloration by smoke leads to the practice of using darker colors and this in itself makes the buildings gloomy. The effect of soft coal smoke on stone is shown to be quite serious on account of the combination of the sulphuric acid in the soot with the lime in the building stone, making the surface more porous and liable to disintegration, The discoloration due to the soot is also serious since it penetrates the surface to a certain extent and is difficult to remove. The author quotes some data from English experiments which show the corrosion of unprotected iron work to be six times as great in a smoky district as in the open country. Zinc, tin and copper are less affected, especially the two latter, but their cost is in some cases prohibitive. Under conditions in Pittsburgh, it is assumed that galvanized sheet iron and steel will last only half as long as they would in a pure atmosphere. The damage done to interior decorations receives a more detailed treatment in this bulletin. In general it may be said that from two to three times the expense of papering, painting, renewing draperies, etc. is entailed by the smoke-laden atmosphere. In conclusion the bulletin speaks of the limitations on architectural expression due to smoky conditions, the impracticability of using light and bright colors in decoration and the tendency to use dull colors and materials easily cleaned.

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596 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September EFFECT ON VEGETATION Bulletin no. 7 is specific in character and is substantiated by direct experiments. Direct observation has shown the difference in vegetation in the neighborhood of manufacturing plants. The injuries caused by soot seem to be due partly to a mechanical clogging of pores and consequent reduction of vitality combined with the bad effects of sulphur and other acids when present. A superficial examination of the foliage shows the leaves dying from the tip in and the plants from the top down, while cross sections of the limbs show a narrowing of the rings of growth as compared with those in country districts. The data given in this bulletin are not sufficient to justify any very definite conclusion. It seems to me that the field experiments under existing conditions are those which are most likely to furnish useful data. A continuation of this work in various localities and covering a period of years would be desirable. Perhaps more attention should be paid to the effects of sulphuric acid as investigations made under my direction in the neighborhood of Philadelphia showed a comparatively large quantity of this present on the surfaces of the leaves. ENGINEERING PHASES OF THE PROBLEM Bulletin no. 8 deals primarily with the causes of the production of black smoke and, secondarily, with means for its abatement. It is very fully illustrated, the pictures showing the contrast between clear and smoky days in different parts of Pittsburgh. The first half is concerned mainly with the smoke conditions in and around Pittsburgh. Credit is given the various buildings and other structures in the business section for a large amount of smoke due to poor draft and careless methods of firing. Central heating plants supplying groups of buildings and provided with proper stacks and mechanical stokers are recommended as the most obvious solution. The bulk of the smoke is shown to come, however, from the manufacturing furnaces, boiler and heating plants being the greatest offenders. The metallurgical furnaces are not particularly smoky except those used in connection with reheating and in so-called soaking pits. The replacing of hand fired furnaces by mechanical stokers and the old-fashioned coke ovens by the more modern by-product coke ovens will undoubtedly reduce the smoke from these sources. Naturally the locomotives and steamboats are great offenders. The case is not so hopeless with the locomotives as the firemen are intelligent and the railroad organization is in a position to enforce reasonable rules for firing. The more general use of brick arches and combustion tubes and the introduction of the so-called one shovel system of firing will reduce the smoke materially. The steamboat, however, is a different proposition. The furnaces are designed merely for burning the greatest amount of coal without regard to its efficiency

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19171 PITTSBURGH SMOKE INVESTIGATION 597 and the firemen as a rule are not of the better class. As far as I know,. no solution of the difficulty in regard to steamboats has been arrived at in Pittsburgh or elsewhere. The smoke from domestic furnaces, while comparatively slight, causes considerable local annoyance and is becoming a more serious problem with the more general use of soft coal in them. It would seem as if inventors might profitably concern themselves with developing a type of domestic furnace or heater which would burn soft coal successfully with medium draft. The great bulk of the smoke causing disagreeable atmospheric conditions comes from manufacturing rather than domestic furnaces. It is not saying too much to state that the engineer has solved the problem as far as smoke abatement in large furnaces is concerned since most of the stokers illustrated will either entirely eliminate the smoke or will reduce it to the point where it is not especially objectionable. This is especially true of the chain grate and underfeed stokers. This bulletin is a very creditable presentation of the subject of smoke production and smoke abatement. EFFECTS OF SMOKE ON HEALTH The last bulletin deals more particularly with the physiological effects rather than the psychological. It is difficult for a layman to review understandingly bulletins written by medical men in language which is more or less unfamiliar to the average man. A rather cursory reading of this bulletin gives me the impression that the case of smoke uemus health is summed up in the Scotch verdict “Not proven.” It is at least an open question whether the smoke from soft coal has a good or bad effect on those subject to tuberculosis. There is no doubt that the dust from smoke is absorbed more or less into the tissues, but it is d%cult to show that this has any particular effect on the health of the individual other than to cause some irritation. To compare this with the effect of smoke upon the health of firemen is hardly fair. The smoke from a burning building is frequently so dense as to cause partial suffocation and to induce severe inflammation of the respiratory organ and even nausea. It is doubtful whether breathing the atmosphere of a city like Pittsburgh would cause any such troubles. It seems to me that the indirect effect upon the health of the community due to the dark and gloomy condition of the atmosphere and buildings is perhaps more seriow than any direct effect. The writers of this bulletin seem to indicate that inhaled smoke is more apt to cause pneumonia or other acute lung diseases than tuberculosis. The comparisons made of different cities showing some relation between the soot deposit and the prevalence of lung diseases are not very convincing. The difficulty of isolating the smoke condition which it is desired to study from the other varying conditions which affect the life

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.598 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September and health of the city renders comparisons of this sort rather misleading. Possibly a comparison of different districts in the same city where climatic conditions are essentially the same except as effected by smoke, would be more conclusive, but when we attempt to compare the death rate of Boston, Chicago, St. Louis and Philadelphia, we have too many diverse influences to consider. It is not too much to say that this bulletin represents a careful and conscientious review of an exceedingly difficult subject, and forms a fitting close to the series. I suppose no one ever doubts that a smokeladen atmosphere is unhealthy in many ways and that it is a physical and mental burden. CONCLUSION I wish to emphasize the difficulty of making a review of this interesting series of bulletins in the space available for that purpose. This investigation and its results are eminently praiseworthy. The work deals largely with facts and experiments, many of them original, and has brought together, arranged, classified and indexed a valuable amount of information on the problem of smoke, its effects and its possible abatement. I wish that these facts and conclusions could be brought to the attention of every householder in our larger cities. I believe that the work of the Mellon institute has been a distinct contribution to this and hope that its facts and conclusions may be read and appreciated by many people. RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS BY CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON Rochester, N. Y. GOOD many people, no doubt, have been surprised that war, instead of proving a check to the planning and improvement of A cities, has provided an impetus. But this is only as it should be. War reveals the realities of life. It sifts the luxuries, leaving necessities; it puts a premium on the prevention of waste; it exalts efficiency; (‘preparedness” is its fetich. So city planning, which does all of these things, emerges from the test of war with better popular appreciation and higher esteem than ever before, and the output of American city planning studies, which this annual review attempts each year to appraise, maintains its volume and content. To the reviewer’s table there have come in published form, during the last twelve months, six comprehensive and elaborate city plan reports, and a dozen or more partial reports devoted to special subjects, besides ten annual reports of city plan commissions. The six first named are * See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, pp. 388 and 638; vol. iv, p. 383: vol. iii, p, 539: vol 5, p. 160.

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19171 RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS 599 for the cities of East Boston, Bridgeport, Conn., Evanston and Elgin, Ill., Milwaukee and Sacramento. SOME GENERAL PLAN REPORTS The East Boston report2 was prepared by George Gibbs, Jr. With that modesty of exterior characteristic of officially published reports, the report is divided into two parts. The first gives the results of the survey, recording those peculiarities of location, history and evident requirements which the plan must meet and attempt to satisfy. The aecond contains the recommendations, at once for specific improvements and for the comprehensive plan, In part one there are thirteen subheads, these including existing plans for improvements, main thoroughfares, freight transportation, passenger lines and terminals, housing conditions, financial, legal, etc. Part two, which opens with a large colored map, contains a brief reference to zoning, and an outline of more than fifty specific improvements. These include such matters as parks, playgrounds, street widenings, extensions, etc. The plan, taken as a whole, contemplates “first, the development of the entire waterfront; second, the improvement of approaches on all sides; third, a complete system of thoroughfares; fourth, the public ownership of all spaces that may be needed by the public; and fifth, the public control, so far as required for the general and individual welfare of the people, of all property not publicly owned.” Could there be better argument than presented by this list for the value of city planning studies? The Bridgeport Study,3 by John Nolen, is a large, sumptuous looking volume, in which a great deal of space is taken up by photographs, maps and plans; and in which, one may add, the comparatively scanty text of the main report, excellent in its matter, has been marred by poor proof reading. The report is one of three which has been prepared for Bridgeport by Dr. Nolen. The first, which was preliminary, was reviewed in an earlier article;* the third, which is devoted to the housing question, has mention further on. The situation which has necessitated such intensiveness of study for a single city is graphically put by Dr. Nolen in these words: “It has been said that a new man is employed in Bridgeport every ten minutes, and one is tempted to inquire what is being done every ten minutes to provide this new citizen with the essentials of city life.” Report of the city planning board, Boston, Mass. City of Boston Printing Department, 1916. Some Fundamental Proposals to the City Plan Commission. By John Nolen. With a Report on Legal Methods of Carrying .out the Changes Proposed in the City Plan for Bridgeport. By Frank Backus Williams of the New York bar. See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. iv, p. 386. East Boston: A Survey and a Comprehensive Plan. Prepared by George Gibbs, Jr., February, 1915. 3 Better City Planning for Bridgeport. See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. vi, p. 540.

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600 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September The text opens with an admirable preface by the city plan commission, which asks citizens who may think the proposals radical to remember “that we are not planning for the past, but for Bridgeport as it will develop for the ensuing fifty years,” and it describes the consultant’s work as “most thorough, patient and able.” Noting that Dr. Nolen has ‘‘ recommended the general lines of new street development,” the preface points out that “the exact route to be followed, the cost, the order in which the various features should be taken up, are all local questions which he cannot and ought not to settle, and which are properly the concern of a city planning commission.” It adds that the commission should be a continuous, permanent body established as a constituent part of the city government. Dr. Nolen’s report is divided into chapters which consider briefly, though with many plans, main lines of communication, the down town district, the subdivision of land into blocks and lots, different districts for different uses, parks and playgrounds. At the end, with a separate introduction and its own chapter headings, there is published a long, carefully written, and very valuable report on “legal methods for carrying out the changes proposed in the city plan for Bridgeport,” by Frank B. Williams. The Evanston Plan,5 with its attractive board covers, its several colored plates, its maps and photographs, worthily maintains the tradition of American city planning publications. It is brought out by the small parks and playgrounds association, whose president in 1916 was authorized to appoint a city plan committee. The editor of the report is Henry Kitchell Webster, and the architects of the committee are D. H. Burnham, Jr., who acted as chairman, Dwight H. Perkins, Thomas E. Tallmadge and Hubert Burnham. Most of the drawings were made, under direction of the plan committee, by Warren Hamilton. The scope of the report, which is a concrete study of the problems of Evanston without much general discussion, is well indicated by the chapter headings : Streets and highways, the city center, parks, recreation system, districting and zoning regulations, the trees, miscellaneous, suggestions for realizing the plan. ELGIN AND MILWAUKEE Elgin’s plan report6 was presented to citizens and officials, as SO many have been in other cities, through the enterprise of the commercial club. Its frontispiece is a photograph of Charles H. Hulburd, who paid the bills. “No attempt is made,” declares the text of the report, “to paint a future of extraordinary development, but to present a picture of normal conditions of growth, governed by considerations of fineness and real worth 1917. Prepared for the Elgin commercial club by E. H. Bennett, consulting. Plan of Evanston. Printed by Bowman Publishing Company, Evanston, Ill. Plan of Elgin. architect. January, 1917.

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19171 RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS 601 rather than mere size.” The reorganization and amplification of the railroad lines and the treatment of the riverbanks are the dominant features of the plan; and when it is said that E. H. Bennett was consulting architect, it will be realized that the latter feature especially was handled in a strong, bold and interesting manner. The following description of the aim of the Elgin plan might be applied to any city plan study: ‘“To create conditions of living such that the maximum of health, happiness and efficiency may be attained by the citizens; to create in the minds of the people that sense of the entity of the city, and of the interdependent relationship of its various elements as will promote a true spirit of co-operation.” One of the best things in the report is the following unusual analysis of statistics of population density: Average over gross area, 6.3 people per acre. Average over the housing area, 8.6 people per acre. Average for that part of the housing area which is well built up (this probably housing 4.5 of the people), 15 people per acre. Dr. Hegemann’s discussion of city planning for Milwaukee’ is strictly preliminary. It is educational, even in a measure propagandist, rather than such a thoroughgoing study as that, for example, which was recently made by him for Berkeley and Oakland, Calif.* But so eminent a student of city planning as is Dr. Hegemann could not prepare even such a report as his Milwaukee study without drawing upon stores of knowledge and depths of theory that make it interesting and valuable. The report also takes up concretely several of Milwaukee’s most pressing problems, such as the riverfront, housing, and civic center, and the illustrationsboth photographs and diagrams-are well chosen and pertinent. Sacramento has been a much studied town from a city planning standpoint. All that the modest little report of the state capitol planning commissiong-cheaply printed and without illustrations-attempts to do, is to chronicle the history of the several studies made respectively by Messrs. Robinson, Hegemann and Nolen, giving in appendices brief extracts from their reports. But to the student of city planning the comparison of these reports is very interesting. SPECIAL PLAN REPORTS Although this completes the list of general city plan reports, published during the last twelve months, some of the partial reports, dealing with special subjects, are as extensive, and in presentation as elaborate, as those of more pretentious scope. 7 City Planning for Milwaukee: What it Means and Why it Must be Secured. Report submitted to the Wisconsin chapter A. I. A., the city club, the Milwaukee reaI estate association, Westminster league, south side civic association. February, 1916. 8 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. v, p. 388-389. 9Report of the State Capitol Planning Commission upon its Investigation of the Planning of the Capitol of California. State Printing O5ce, Sacramento, 1916.

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602 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September The one which undoubtedly will loom largest in the history of American city planning is the “final report” of the commission on building districts and restrictions of the city of New York.lo This makes a closely printed pamphlet of a hundred pages, illustrated with numerous diagrams. Many of its chapters offer the most thorough discussion of their subject that has yet been printed. Such chapters include those entitled use districts, appropriate intensity of the use of land, height districts and area districts. In referring, however, to this discussion, a word of caution is necessary. Residents of cities less congested than New York should remember that physical conditions are there unusual and extreme, so that the standard permissible for New York would be inappropriate in most other cities. Comprising with its several appendices a pamphlet of nearly 200 pages, this offers an unusually thorough discussion of a subject now exceedingly pertinent and on which not much has been printed from the city planning point of view. A great deal of interesting data is presented, together with a report by a market advisory committee made up of members of the faculties of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, of the women’s municipal league, united improvement association, and chamber of commerce. Of these the most elaborate is entitled More Houses for Bridgeport. The housing committee of the chamber of commerce says in presenting this study, which is by John Nolen, ‘LYour committee believes that the continued success and efficiency of the present manufacturing establishments of the city, as well as the future development of Bridgeport as an industrial city, are seriously menaced by the comparatively higher rental values of real estate and general inadequacy of housing conditions as compared with other and competing manufacturing cities.” Dr. Nolen’s proposals for Bridgeport, as he declares, ‘( are not essentially new, and not in any sense radical.” They are “cheap land, broad planning of the neighborhood, low density of houses per acre, wholesale modern building operations, a moderate but adequate dividend on capital, and the participation of the residents in the ownership and management of the property.” Because these are universal essentials of better housing, and because the discussion of the Bridgeport problem is reinforced by data and illustrations from many other housing enterprises, this report is of lo Commission on Building Districts and Restrictions: Final Report, June 2, 1916. City of New York, board of estimate and apportionment. l1 A Summary of the Market Situation in Boston. The city planning board, Boston, Mass., 1916. I* More Houses for Bridgeport. Report to the chamber of commerce, Bridgeport, COM., by John Nolen. 1916. From Boston there is an interesting report on public markets.11 On the housing phase of city planning there are several reports.

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19171 RECENT CITY PLAN REPORTS 603 much general interest and value. The report of similar nature which Dr. Nolen has prepared for Waterbury, Conn.ls is as yet available in only newspaper form. A “model” industrial village, created at Marcus Hook, Pa., for the Viscose company, by Ballinger and Perrot of New York andphiladelphia, form the subject of an attractive brochure.14 From California, in the illustrated annual report of the state commission of immigration and housing,16 there comes much interesting and valuable material. A report of housing investigations in the leading cities of the state, “an A-B-C of housing” (in which the ‘iB” stands for city planning), a plan for a housing survey, and constructive housing are headings which well indicate the scope of the report. Street traffic conditions are among the other subjects of special, or more properly partial, city plan reports. “The Thoroughfare System of Fitchburgh, Mass.,”la is the title of one of these, made by Arthur C. Comey. Its half dozen pages of text are supplemented by a series of folded-in maps, explained by the text. As Mr. Comey says, in his foreword, “No exhaustive treatise has been attempted. The eight maps and diagrams submitted constitute the most important portion of the report, the written portion being designed simply to point out the significance of the facts shown on them.’’ A rather informal looking report by a citizens’ committee to the mayor and aldermen of New Haven, dealing not only with traffic conditions but with street lighting,“ contains a good many valuable suggestions. It is interesting as representing,-to quote the words of the committee-“in the unselfish desire to be of service to our home town, the results of a painstaking investigation, made by us voluntarily, into the traffic problem which has been developed here.” From the St. Louis city plan commission comes a pamphlet on the “Kingshighway”ls-a very important crosstown thoroughfare which it is proposed to extend, and where necessary to widen, that it may be a valuable connecting boulevard. Also from the St. Louis commission,very active under the leadership of its efficient engineer, Harland Bar18 Housing Needs of Working Men and Proposed Methods of Providing for Them. Report and recommendations made to the Waterbury, Conn., housing committee by John Nolen. 1916. 14 An Industrial Village. 16Second Annual Report of the Commission of Immigration and Housing of Cali16 Fitchburg: A Preliminary Study of the Thoroughfare System and the Conditions Report to the municipal development commission, by By a citizens’ Ballinger and Perrot. fornia. 1916. State Printing Oftice. Underlying its Development. Arthur Coleman Comey. November, 1915. committee, through the civic federation. 17 Report on Trdc Conditions and Street Lighting in New Haven. 1s The Kingshighway: A Report by the City Plan Commission. July 24, 1916. January, 1917.

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604 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September tholomew,-there comes the River Des Peres Plan,”lg which is a scheme to substitute for a river and the large area it annually overflows and pollutes, a Ghannel and sewer, a railroad to develop and serve new industrial -sites, a driveway, and an industrial section of approximately 950 acres, with a complete major street plan for it. The report is adequately illustrated with maps and plans, and if not comprehensive city planning, is .at least very real and complete as far as it goes. MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS Several publications from the Chicago plan commission are of a wholly different type. They include a revised edition of Wacker’s well known “Manual of the Plan of Chicago,”z0 a remarkable book prepared for study in the Chicago schools; a compilation of indorsements, under the title, “ Chicago’s World-Wide Influence in City Planning”; and a skillfully presented argument for the use of the city’s waste to reclaim land under water for the south shore lakefront parks.z1 There is data in the latter report of considerable general interest and suggestion. A number of reports (e.g., one from the citizens’ union) take up, from more or less of a city planning standpoint, the problems created by the proposed relocation of the tracks of the New York Central Railroad on the west side of New York city. From Bion‘ J. Arnold there comes a characteristically detailed and careful study of street railroad routing and operation in Rochester.Z2 Finally, the year’s output includes a list, too long for detailed mention, of annual reports from city planning commissions and like bodies-that of the Massachusetts homestead commissionz3 and that of the Massachusetts federation of planning boards being state-wide in scope. The annual report of the bureau of surveys of Philadelphia is also of its usual especial interest. In fact, a feature commending all these annual reports, which year by year are growing in number, is that they deal not with dreams and hopes, but with the slow and practical local working out of the vision. In each case, of course, the vision had to come first. Without it, annual reports would be without interest and barren. 13 River Des Peres Plan. Concerning largely the industrial and residential expansion and economic welfare of St. Louis. Prepared by the city plan commission in conjunction with the department of public utilities, 1916. 20 Wacker’s Manual of the Plan of Chicago. Municipal Economy. Especially prepared for study in the schools of Chicago. Auspices of the Chicago plan commission. By Walter D. Moody, managing director, Chicago plan commission. Second edition. 1916. 21 Chicago Can Get Fifty Million Dollars for Nothing. How it can be done by building the south shore lakefront park lands. Chicago plan commission. December, 1916. ** Report on Car Operation and Routing, New York State Railways, Rochester Lines, to the Rocheater chamber of commerce. By Bion J. Arnold. 23 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. vi, p. 142-145. October, 1916.

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19171 SELECTING A CITY MANAGER 605 SELECTING A CITY MANAGER FOR GOLDSBORO, N. C. REPORT OF A COMMITTEE' EFORE beginning our labors it was necessary to form some conception of the qualifications desired. First it was the desire of the committee to obtain a man trained by study and experience in municipal administration; in addition to this our local problem necessitated the services of an experienced engineer and if we could secure this combination supplemented by a pleasing personality, good judgment and broad vision, we felt reasonably sure of our position. The board had fixed no salary, but the committee tried a tentative plan by stating that salary would probably range from $200 to $250 per month. This did not mean, however, that the maximum would not be slightly exceeded in case we found the proper person. A few hundred dollars more or less should not be a deterrent in selecting the proper administrator for a citywhich disburses annually nearly $100,000. The advantage of this tentative salary over a fixed one was that it attracted desirable applications from persons who would otherwise have been debarred, besides offering to the committee a more correct gauge of the applicant's ability and his viewpoint, a noteworthy and encouraging fact being that the position was largely sought on account of the opportunity it offered rather than for the compensation. Our method of developing applications was employed in three ways: (1) Periodicals and newspaper advertising. (2) Personal letters to present city managers. (3) Letters written to secretaries, organizations, and institutions working in municipal administration. ADVERTISING The advertisement on page 606 was inserted in the following periodicals and newspapers : Engineering News-Record (New York) ; Municipal Journal (New York) ; American City (New York) ; Municipal Engineering (Chicago, Ill.); News & Observer (Raleigh, N. C.), and the Goldsboro Argus. LETTERS TO CITY MANAGERS The committee, thoroughly impressed with their problem, showed some temerity in writing over eighty personal letters to present city managers in cities and towns ranging in size from 3,000 to 140,000 population. The letter set forth our local condition, our requirements, including information and data, and finally asked the manager to whom it was 1 To the board of aldermen of Goldsboro. 4

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606 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September City Manager Wanted Goldsboro, North Carolina, invites applications for the position of City Manager. Goldsboro i a progressive city of over 11,000 inhabitants with healthful climate and good trade conditions-located on three railroads in the heart of the most fertile section of eastern North Carolina. Applicant must have pleasing personality, good business judgment and broad vision. One possessing qualifications of Sanitary Engineer preferred, though this is not absolutely essential. Excellent opportunity for energetic man of ability to produce results. Salary will probably range from $200 to $2.50 per month. Applications will be received up to July 1, 1917. Information and data furnished upon request. CITY MANAGER COMMITTEE, P. 0. Box 461, Goldsboro, N. C. nddressed if interested to make application or otherwise kindly to recommend someone suitable. The committee received 41 answers; 23 made application; 18 respectfully declined, but in a good many instances those declining recommended suitable candidates. One of the best applications was secured through this source. A manager of recognized ability, wrote as follows: I congratulate your city in the step it has taken. I believe most heartily in the manager plan. It will show results directly in proportion to the support and honest efforts expended under the plan, not only by your hired manager but by yourselves and the representative citizens. If I may be pardoned a suggestion, don’t be reluctant in the matter of a salary. You will have a difficult time getting the man big enough to handle the affairs of a city such as yours for a salary you suggest. Even our little town paid me $350 per month at the cost of considerable criticism of the counsel and my successor when he is found will probably receive as much as $250. Our population is under 6,000. On the other hand during the eight months of my service we made direct savings of more than three times the total salary paid me and other savings. almost as important will continue to accrue for some years to come.

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19171 SELECTING A CITY MANAGER 607 OTHER ASSISTANCE Directors of bureaus of municipal research in New York, Dayton, Detroit, Secretary of National Short Ballot Association, and schools of administration all contributed their quota of information. . The thanks of the committee are especially due to Hon. Clinton Rogers Woodruff, secretary of the National Municipal League, for his valuable assistance. As a result of the above methods, the committee received 522 applications from 41 states and territories, Cuba, Canada, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Honduras and Cristobel. These applications may be classified as follows: Three hundred and ninety-eight from civil, sanitary and mechanical engineers, including over 40 from city and county engineers of many of. our larger cities and towns; 28 from commissioners of public works, superintendents of lights and superintendents of waterworks of cities and towns; 24 from city managers; 4 from municipal administrators; 5 from professors of engineering colleges, including 2 deans; 32 from business men; 29 from contractors, and 2 from lawyers. The large number of applications not only points to the ever broadening field of opportunity for the city manager profession, but it makes its strongest appeal to the trained mind of an engineer. In addition to the above applications the committee received nearly 400 letters asking for data and information and these together with various letters, telegrams following up applicant’s references and making engagements for personal interviews, consumed considerable time, but the task has been willingly and cheerfully performed. CANDIDATES INTERVIEWED Twelve candidates for the position were intetviewed, 8 of whom came of their own initiative and 5 came at the invitation of the committee. These five represent the committee’s choice after eliminating all the other applicants and in a sense each candidate embodies to a large degree the qualifications sought by the committee. It might be of some interest to know that the applications of two of the candidates came to the board through method No. 2, 2 through method No. 3 and the remaining successful one mentioned through method No. 1 in answer to our advertisement. The committee enjoyed their presence and profited by their point of view and in justice to all concerned we submit a short sketch of their training and experience. H. G. OTIS. Mr. Otis is city manager of Beaufort, S. C. Has given Beaufort a very successful administration under trying local conditions at the beginning. A graduate of the University of Michigan school of municipal administration, also of the New York bureau of municipal research.

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608 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Mr. Cotton is a municipal trained engineer. A graduate of the University of Michigan school of municipal administration. Served with credit in Dayton bureau of municipal research. Mr. Dustin is a graduate engineer of Yale; thoroughly trained in municipal administration. He was assistant director of Daytm bureau of municipal research; for three years director of Springfield bureau of municipal research, Mass.; assistant secretary of National Municipal League and at present engaged as chief of the statistical bureau of the Red Cross War Council, Washington, D. C., therefore not available. J. H. MOORE. Mr. Moore is a graduate civil engineer. For 16 years was commissioner of public works of Evanston, Ill., a city of approximately 30,000, adjacent to Chicago; served with much ability through a period of great progress in local improvement and civic betterment. Mr. Beck, manager of the boroughs of Sewickly and Edgeworth, towns of about 8,000 population, assessed valuation of property about $12,000,000. These are suburban towns to Pittsburgh. Edgeworth was the first borough in Pennsylvania to operate under a city manager. Mr. Beck is a graduate engineer of Purdue University and was employed by the Wabash Railroad while at college, so he secured his theoretical and practical training at almost the same time. Later he studied municipal administration and his 34 years’ tenure as city manager of Edgeworth has proven an excellent record of actual achievement. The work that he began and planned over three years ago is now practically complete, he is, therefore, willing to accept our position owing to its greater opportcnities at the same salary, $275 per month, which he now obtains. The committee has investigated his character and ability and they are of a high order. We have reached the conclusion that Mr. Beck more nearly represents all of those qualifications desired than any of the other candidates available. Your committee therefore unanimously recommend Mr. E. A. Beck as their choice, at the same time asking both for your timely endorsement and your full and hearty co-operation to insure a successful administration. W. M. COTTON. C. 0. DUSTIN. EDWARD A. BECK. Respectfully submitted, LIONEL WEE, A. H. EDGERTON, W. D. CREECH, City Manager Committee.

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19171 RIGHT OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT 609 THE RIGHT OF LOCAL SELFGOVERNMENT BY RAYMOND GARFIELD GETTELL Amherst College T THE present time yhen the principle of municipal home rule is receiving considerable attention, it is of interest to note the A two theories coneerning the relation of city to state that have been held by writers on municipal government and by American courts. One theory holds that, even in the absence of constitutional restrictions, municipal corporations may be protected against legislative interference because of an inherent right of local self-government. This point of view was elaborated some years ago by the late Amasa M. Eaton,l has been stated more recently in the work of Judge Eugene McQuillin,2 and has been followed in court decisions in several American commonwealth^.^ The arguments upon which the inherent right of local self-government is based are drawn largely from historical sources. Eaton showed that many English cities and their rights antedated charters, that charters often acknowledged or guaranteed liberties already established by custom, that many cities were chartered by feudal lords, and that the later charters issued to them by the central government merely confirmed their existence and privileges. He therefore argued that the later theory, enunciated by Coke in 1613, that only the king can incorporate and that municipalities are subordinate governments, was both bad law and contrary to the facts of English history, and held the influence of Latin literature and Roman law responsible for fostering the fallacious idea that local powers are derived from the state rather than the Teutonic principle that central power is derived from the union of local powers. He implied, further, that American municipal corporations, being a continuous development from English institutions, and in some cases existing previous to the formation of commonwealth governments, were acknowledged, rather than created, by commonwealth legislatures, and urged that the principle of an inherent Anglo-Saxon right of local self-government should be applied by the courts in protecting cities against legislative interference. The more recent study by Professor McBain4 of both the theoretical 1 “The Origin of Municipal Incorporation in England and in the United States,” in Proceedings of the Amer. Bar Association, August, 1902. * Municipal Corporations, vol. i, pp. 156, 254, 384, 388. a Notably in Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Texas. “The Doctrine of an Inherent Right of Local Self-Government,” in Columbia Law The same ground is covered in condensed form in the Review, March and April, 1916. same author’s “The Law and the Practice of Municipal Home Rule,” pp. 12-17.

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610 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September and legal aspects of this question reaches a different conclusion. He makes first an elaborate analysis of the American cases in which traces of the doctrine of inherent right of local self-government are said to be found. Such cases, as cited by McQuillin, include one supreme court and eleven commonwealth decisions. Careful reading of these cases, however, shows that some have been set aside by superior courts; most have been mere dicta, the decision proper resting on express or implied constitutional provisions. In only three commonwealths: are unquestionable cases found whose decision rests upon the principle in question. So few, therefore, are the cases in which clearcut judicial expression of the right of local self-government is found, that the doctrine is distinctly exceptional in American law and contrary to the legal nature of the American constitutional system, however popular it may be as a political ideal. McBain examines further the arguments upon which the theory rests. He shows that the statement that American cities, having developed from English institutions, whose charters were of common law origin, are therefore of similar origin and not the creatures of legislative bodies, is legally unsound. Only a few municipal corporations in the United States existed previous to the establishment of state constitutions, and even in these the common law, unless rendered static by constitutional provisions, is subject to legislative modification. Law-making power within the state is distributed by the state Constitution, and the legislature possesses all powers not specifically or impliedly prohibited. The author further points out the great diversity in local institutions in the American colonies, and the frequent lack of local self-government in refutation of the argument that the right of self-government should be read into state constitutions by implication, as an intention of their framers. Finally, in answer to the argument that the right of self-government is one of the rights retained by the people under the various “bills of rights” provisions, McBain points out that these clauses were not included in the earlier state constitutions, that such clauses unquestionably referred to personal and property rights, not to political rights, and that such clauses have received practically no judicial application. He therefore agrees with Judge Dillon6 that “the great weight of authority denies in toto the existence, in the absence of special constitutional provisions, of any inherent right of local self-government which is beyond legislative control. l1 To one who examines impartially the evidence and the reasoning in this controversy, several conclusions seem fairly clear. Historical data establish the fact that, to a considerable extent in England and to a very limited extent in America, self-constituted cities arose, whose politIndiana, Iowa and Kentucky. (I Municipal Corporations (5th ed.), vol. i, p. 154.

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19171 INCREASED STREET RAILWAY FARES 611 ical existence was not originally derived from a superior authority, Such a condition, however, was bound to disappear with the growth of modern centralbed states, and political theory properly changes to accord with the new facts of state supremacy. While from the point of view of political expediency and of general democratic policy it is desirable that municipal corporations should have a considerable degree of self-government, the theory of an inherent right of local self-government is a survival of the discarded theory of natural rights and social contract, and has no proper place in American law. A municipal corporation is but a department of the state, exercising delegated powers; and constitutional provisions alone, either specific or implied, can place legal bounds to the authority of legislatures in municipal affairs. THE MOVEMENT FOR INCREASED STREET RAILWAY FARES BY STILES P. JONES' 11.1 inneapolis HE traditional five-cent fare on urban street railway systems of the United States is in danger of going the way of many other estabT lished institutions in these times of rapid changes of front. The campaign inaugurated some months ago by prominent street railway companies for a higher rate of fare is gathering momentum steadily. The facts seem to point to a comprehensive movement by the street railway interests of the country to secure a substantial increase of their revenues through some measure of fare increase. In the case of the New York city companies the movement takes the form of a demand for a two-cent charge for transfers. In other cases a straight increase in fare to six cents is asked for. In one instance, Albany, New York, the company asks for both. In some of the cities, notably St. Louis, Tacoma and Seattle, the effort is being directed to secure relief through release from present burdens of taxation or of other kinds imposed by present contract obligations. The movement starting in New York and Massachusett.s is spreading rapidly through thecountry,stimulated byall the arts of the publicityagent and reinforced by upstanding statements from the utility officials showing the urgent needs of their situation. Twenty-eight street railway companies in New York state, outside of the metropolitan district, on June 25 joined in a petition to the public service commission of the second district asking for an increase in fare to six cents. Frequent conferences with the commission have been held during the subsequent weeks. The companies insist that prompt action is imperative to protect their in vestments, to save their credit and assure their communities of adequate 1 Secretary, Public frabchise league.

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612 N AT1 ON AL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September service. In Massachusetts the Holyoke and Springfield companies and the Middlesex & Boston company have formally petitioned the public service commission for authority to raise the fare to six cents. The big Bay state company, operating in and between a large number of cities radiating from Boston, bas already been granted a six-cent fare for a trial period of six months. The Boston elevated railway company has appealed to the legislature for relief from some of its present burdens and has obtained it in some measure, but without recourse for the present to an advance in rates. The affairs of the Providence street railway company are being investigated by a special commission under legislative authority to find a remedy for its impoverished financial condition and its inability to furnish proper service. The United railways company of Bt. Louis is ready to yield some of its present contract privileges in return for concessions from the city as a means to help the company out of a bad financial hole. City and company are seriously discussing a proposal that includes the granting of a new franchise based on the cost of service principle, with a capital valuation representing a notable reduction below the company’s present capitalization. The San Francisco-Oakland terminal railways, operating in Oakland and adjoining cities, has appealed to the railway commission for authority to increase rates, while the San Diego company has asked the commission to allow it to both increase rates and to reduce service. The United railways company of San Francisco is seeking through a financial reorganization which will cut its present capitalization in half to get on a basis where it can give service and pay dividends. Companies in other states serving metropolitan communities are flying the distress signal and looking to an increase in fare as the logical way out of their difficulties. The present condition is not due alone to conditions made by the war, the companies allege, but is the result of a steady late year tendency in the direction of increased cost in every department of conducting transportation. The appeals coming from the companies recite practically the same story, the increased expense of operation through the abnormal advance in the price of everything entering into the transportation business-construction and maintenance (average about 100 per cent according to the official facts compiled by the companies) , strikingwage advances, steadily increasing tax burdens, persistent demands from the public for higher standards of service, longer hauls, extension of the transfer privilege, in some cases, increased cost of capital, also the diminished efficiency of labor in the construction field-making in combination a situation that the companies insist they cannot meet from the revenues accruing from the present five-cent fare. And on top of all this, the quite general large loss of revenue through the expanding use of the private automobile, and, with many companies, the still greater loss from the .keen competition of The movement for higher fares is also under way in California.

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19171 INCREASED STREET RAILWAY FARES 613 the irrepressible jitneys. The company officials declare that unless relief is granted in some shape their properties face inevitable bankruptcy and the public serious curtailment of service, with the final result that many communities will be compelled to take over the transportation utility as a municipal enterprise. Deterioration in physical condition of the properties through the necessity of scrimping maintenance and depreciation is another of the dangers of the situation shown by the companies. The popular recourse of the public utilities to reduce wages in situations like this cannot be resorted to in these times of labor scarcity; and again, communities do not so obediently accept restricted service to meet dividend demands as in times past. The only course the companies can see open to them is the one they are now pursuing-to put the burden directly upon the public in a higher charge for service. It is significant that those companies which are operating under modern franchise settlements-Chicago, Cleveland, Kansas City and Des Moines -are not enlisted in the movement for the six-cent fare. In these cities street railway capital is secure in its investment and a fair rate of return thereon, while the public is receiving reasonably adequate service within the limitations of a surface system to give it. Apparently the remedy so effective in the above cities of making common cause with the public through enlightened franchise settlements has not appealed to the companies enlisted in this present campaign. At least it has been ignored up to this time. This course would involve the surrender of their present long term, and, in some cases, perpetual privilege to occupy the public streets, with only meagre local control of their affairs, in return for a contract limiting profits and providing for quite comprehensive public regulation. Naturally this plan does not appeal to the public utility mind and we may expect will not be invoked except as a last resort. It is also significant that with one notable exception, the United railways of San Francisco, street railway companies have not turned to a reorganization of their finances as a means of relief. Under a scheme of reorganization that makes capitalization represent closely capital investment the results might show no such urgent necessity for Kate increases as the companies are now claiming. It will be interesting to note the revenue results where the desired rate increases are granted,-whether the facts actually bear out the companies” present estimate of the increased receipts that will follow the increase in fare. There are those who prophesy that the companies are due to keen disappointment in this respect, that the reduction in the riding habit of the public and the increased patronage of the public automobile following an advance in rates, will offset any increase that might accrue from a higher rate of fare, leaving the companies’ present revenue conditions practically unchanged. Especially may this be true at this time when due to war conditions the public is not riding as freely as usual.

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614 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September YOUR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND YOUR CITY GOVERNMENT BY HARRY A. TOULMIN, JR.‘ Dayton, Ohio HY should business men be concerned with city government? The answer is that the purpose of enlightened municipalgovernW ment is to make a city a safe place in which to do business. No farsighted executive cares or dares risk his concern or mercantile .establishment to the attention of an indifferent and mismanaged city administration. The failure or success of a city in the discharge of its duties has so intimate a relationship to the prosperity of the community and its business interests that the modern executive has been compelled, from self interest at least, to take a vigorous stand on urban problems. The logical place for business men to express themselves on the subject of city government is through their local chamber of commerce. Commercial and industrial interests largely pay the bills, directly or indirectly, for the municipal government, and they have the right to look for commensurate results. Four hundred thousand business men of the leading commercial -organizations of the western world have evidenced to the chamber of commerce of the United States an urgent, present interest in municipal affairs during the last year. Because the new business-like forms of city government do these things: The new city government puts the municipality on a sound financial basis. Proper methods of accounting, auditing and purchasing are practised. It provides honest payrolls and full-time work of the least number of useful employes. It provides a sound budget and a sane financial program of bonding and borrowing. The new city government provides enough water at a low cost to protect factories, stores, and buildings as well as to care for the industrial and commercial needs of a vigorous community. It motorizes its fire department and thereby reduces its insurance rates to the lowest point. This reductionis helped by the establishment of an improvedbuilding code. A modern municipality provides adequate police for strikes, disasters, and fires. Transportation in the city is controlled in order to give workmen an opportunity to travel readily in reasonable comfols and safety to and from work. This type of transportation takes adequate care of the suburban shopping population. Health of labor is insured by proper housing regulations, sanitation, sewerage, health rules against epidemics, etc. And why? Reduced taxes result. 1 Author, “The City Manager,” in the National Municipal League Series.

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19171 YOUR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 615 Welfare departments of the new city governments insure the proper kind of amusements, provide for the education of the population on matters of health and crime, and take care of the delinquents with the least burden to the public. Consequently, low taxes, low insurance rates, a healthy environment, efficient transportation, police and fire protection, community welfare, and best of all a splendid community spirit of co-operation flow from this type of advanced municipal administration. Publicity for public acts, concentrated responsibility, and economy of .operation have met the approval of the nation’s business men, and municipal affairs as a result are the chiefest activities of commercial organizations. Yet the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the leading commercial organization of the world, has provided no way for co-ordinating in one great central committee this desire and need for business practice in city government.

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NOTES AND EVENTS I. GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION Sacramento County Charter.-The grand jury of Sacramento County, in its final report submitted July 23, again recommends that steps be taken to secure a charter for Sacramento County. Earlier in the year a committee of fifteen citizens appointed by the grand jury investigated the subject and reported in favor of the plan. The report was transmitted to the board of supervisors with the recommendation that an election be called to select freeholders to make the draft. No official action was taken by that body, the report, states the grand jury, being referred to a committee which seldom reports. The chairman of the board of supervisors in a newspaper interview declared that the experience of other counties did not warrant the move and that an election would be a needless expense. In its July report, the grand jury states its belief that many needed reforms in the government of the county would be effected by a charter and again urges that fifteen leading citizens be entrusted with the preparation of the document. 5 Street Railway Notes.-Duluth, Minnesota, has again proved its ability to deal vigorously and effectively with its public utility problems without any assistance from outside sources. On previous occasions the city brought to a successful conclusion serious controversies between the city and the gas and water and the electric light companies-by municipal ownership of the gas and light utility in 1898, and by a compromise agreement with the electric concern a few years ago which gave the consumers in lieu of municipal ownership one of the IoweRt maximum rates in the country. This time it was the street railway company which was involved. The city demanded from the company a more liberal policy of extension construction, and a universal five-cent fare over all lines and extensions. The company stood pat. The city commission thereupon on May 28 passed a resolution directing the condemnation of the street railway system for municipal ownership and appointed special counsel to carry out this purpose. Three weeks later the company, apparently impressed by the commission’s belligerent attitude, asked for a conference with the city looking to an amicable settlement of the controversy. At this conference the company and the city came together on a program which concedes practically all the city’s demands, and the condemnation proceedings were accordingly dismissed. Oakland and Berkeley, Cal. Distinct progress has been made lately in the move ment for resettlement of the franchises of the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways Company, which serves the Alameda county communities, including Oakland and Berkeley. The legislature has approved the amendments to the charters of the cities concerned. These charter changes enable the common councils of the respective cities served by the company to negotiate for new franchises. The mayors of Oakland and Berkeley have appointeii committees to prepare the franchise contracts and they have organized and are at work. Any agreement between the company and the city authorities must be submitted to a public referendum for ratification. The gist of the proposed resettlement is contained in the charter amendments adopted by the voters of Oakland in November, 1916. In brief, it is proposed to grant a new franchise embodying the essential principles of the so-called cost of service franchise. The basic terms of the proposed franchise for Oakland are as follows: A 6 per cent return upon the value of the property as found by the 616

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 6 17 California railway commission, with a division of the profits on the basis of 55 per cent to the city and 45 per cent to the company; an indeterminate term grant subject to the right of the city to purchase at any time, or to designate a purchaser; control of operation, service, etc., vested in a double headed board of control representing the city and company. The ’ plan of resettlement is patterned closely after the Kansas City franchise of 1914. (1! Los Angeles County Faces Serious Deficit.-Bringing to a head rumors of a deficit in the finances of Los Angeles county which had been current since the tahg of office by two new members of the board of supe~sors, the grand jury upon May 19 fled formal charges against three members of the county board and the auditor and treasurer. These charges indicate that there is a deficit of about $1,183,000. This condition arose from operations on the part of the board which, while probably not criminal in intent, were so careless and illegal as to be highly reprehensible. The general procedure was to transfer money from one fund to another, or to make payments from the wrong funds, and in this way serious inroads were made upon certain trust funds, particularly those of the schools and of certain road districts. That this condition must have been known to the supervisors was pointed out by the Los Angeles municipal league which in a statement issued March 9 showed that the treasurer’s monthly reports had at all times in the past year indicated that several of the funds were overdrawn. The accusations of the grand jury may be summarized as follows: 1. That claims were allowed and paid to the Daily Jounzal Company in July, 1916, when the supervisors knew that the county treasurer had not money in the general fund with which to meet the bill. That the general fund for the fiscal year of 1916 was $6,273,395, and the superSTILES P. JONES. visors spent and issued warrants for $6,618,826. 2. That the supervisors spent more than 70 per cent of the total revenues of 1916 before the end of the first six months, the law holding that not over 70 per cent shall be expended during the first half of the year. 3. This count covers the mileage charges collected by Supervisor Norton, and asserts that the money was paid without submitting the bills to the district attorney’s office for approval as the law requires. 4. That the supervisors illegally purchased Los Angeles high school district bonds to the amount of $120,000 and city school district bonds to the amount of $480,000, a total of $600,000, and paid for them out of the “surplus fund.” The law does not provide for a “surplus fund,” and it ia asserted the supervisors provided such a fund by taking the general fund balance. 5. That from July to December, 1916, the supervisors drew warrants from the general fund totaling $994,670 more than there was in the fund, again using the general fund as a surplus fund. 6. That an attempt was made in 1916 to levy a tax of three cents to pay for the deficit of the previous year amounting to $239,000. 7. That claims for services and mate rials purchased previous to June 1, 1916, were ordered paid by the supervisors when the supervisors “knew the treasurer did not have money in the general fund and without providing revenue with which he was to pay them.” 8. That additional claims were ordered paid in August, 1916, with the same knowledge that the general fund was depleted, the supervisors doing so with “the understanding that the treasurer would pay the warrants with money he had” in other funds. 9. That the supervisors failed to supervise the conduct of transactions of the auditor and treasurer, and that the treasurer and auditor failed to file statisticaI reports for the fiscal year 1916; that they

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618 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September did not require the auditor to file state ments of the receipts and disbursements. 10. That the supervisors did not cause the treasurer to register warrants allowed by him, and that they never took steps to stop him from paying warrants when they knew there was not money in the general fund for such purposes. That by allowing the acts of the treasurer and auditor, the treasurer was short $1,183,583. District Attorney Thomas Lee Woolwine is quoted with reference to the matter as saying, “Although the statutes pronounce the misconduct a felony, it did not appear to the district attorney or to the grand jury that the conduct of these officers merited so severe a penalty, inasmuch as it appears that though the funds were juggled and diverted from their proper uses, none of the supervisors profited directly from any such misconduct. It may be mid, however, that by reason of the negligence and mismanagement of the county finances a condition has arisen that is deplorable and unprecedented in the history of the county. Many of the departments are now being handicapped by reason of lack of funds. Money intended to be used for charitable purposes and for the relief of the sick and needy has been squandered, employes of the county who are actually in need of their salaries for their daily necessities can neither obtain money from the county, nor from banks nor loan sharks.” The supervisors under attack are John J. Hamilton, chairman, Richard H. Norton and F. E. Woodley. The county treasurer is John H. Hunt, and the county auditor Walter A. Lewis. A much improved form of budget and of accounting method is being installed by the state board of control, and it is thought that in the future the provision that before a contract is entered into the auditor must certify that money is available in the proper fund to pay the costs arising out of the contract will form a safeguard against such a recurrence in the future. SEWC. SIMONS.~ 1 Secretary, Los Angeles municipal league. The Health Department as a Neighbor. -In the old days public health work was regarded very much as a matter of public safety; the exercise of the police power to quarantine was its most conspicuous expression. For this somewhat negative aim one central organization did fairly well. Compulsory vaccination, for instance, needed only one central office and the schools. The abatement of such nuisances as were reported by citizens could be carried on from a central office in a fairly satisfactory way. The place to eliminate typhoid was at the water works and the dairy farms; the processwas impersonal and detached. Gradually it was seen that coercion would accomplish only certain results, that more emphasis would have to be placed upon education in personal hygiene and persuasion toward temperate living, and that a genuine appreciation and a widespread enthusiasm for health would have to be created, if resistance to all disease and a high degree of physical vigor were to be attained generally throughout the population. To accomplish these ends we have had schooI medical inspectors calling the attention of parents to the physical defects and the unhygienic habits of their children, field nurses teaching infant hygiene, baby saving shows, milk stations, milk shows, housing exhibits, anti-alcohol campaigns, fresh air campaigns, clean-up weeks, publicity bureaus and other educational propaganda measures as strong rivals in hea1t.h departments of the control of contagious diseases, food inspection, nuisance abatement, housing regulation and the other conventional activities now found in almost every city. It may be noted parenthetically that there is, among American municipalities, no standardized group of activities accepted as proper and necessary to every health department. With the new activities has come a new slant in viewing the old functions. In performing them coercion which descended upon individuals from some re mote and little understood authority wa not wholly effective. There was need of

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 619 “close-up” friendly contact with families and with neighborhoods. The addition of new activities had also brought complexity. It was formerly the practice to add to the organization a new corps for highly specialized service each time a new activity was taken up. In some cities there were, and still are, separate groups of school nurses, infant welfare nurses, tuberculosis nurses, physicians for outdoor medical relief, for schools, for contagious diseases, inspectors for various aspects of sanitation and housing and officers checking up birth registration. Where a single dily came in contact with several of these at the same time, and this frequently occurred, there was overlapping of duties and considerable friction resulted. It used to be said that “the poor would be compelled to have office hours” if they were to reserve any time for themselves. The first official experiment with a form of organization which substituted for the long range attack of the highly specialized functional units, the close, concentrated attack upon general neighborhood conditiom, was made in New York city in the latter part of 1914 and in 1915. Health District No. 1 was organized in a RussianAustrian neighborhood on the lower East Side. It comprised twenty-one bIocks, an area of some 63 acres on which are living about 35,000 people. Three nurses and one nurses’ assistant gave full time to the district work, a health officer gave part time to direct the force, a medical inspector, a food inspector and a sanitary inspector gave part time to this district. The nurses have performed “all-around, public health, nursing service” under the immediate control of the health officer. During the frst three months after the new organization had been well started, the records show that on the visits to one third of the houses, the nurse performed mbre than one specialized health function, The New York plans provide for the retention of a highly functionalized central organization and for the various bureau heads to constitute a “staff’ of specialists to direct and supervise the “line” work of the districts. The succeea of the experiment both from the standpoint of efficient management and from that of disseminating health education, and of fostering general neighborhood enthusiasm for public health an& a co-operative spirit toward the authorities has led to the rapid spread of this form of organization. By January, 1917, New York had organized four more health centers and was planning to add several o them In Philadelphia the educational value of the health center idea was tested by a private welfare agency, the child federation, in the summer of 1914. Since that time the department of health and charities. has taken over this unit and created five additional units. NOW that the experimental stage is over, it seems likely that all large American cities will soon adopt this type of organization or some modification of it. NEVA R. DZARDOBFF.~ IP St. Louis Garbage Problem.-The local administration is pledged to a municipal garbage plant, and the question which is now subject to discussion is whether the old private plant of the present contractor at Dupo, Illinois, should be purchased or an entirely new plant built. The board of public service, in whose hands rests the authority to initiate proceedings in the matter, has employed 1. S. Osborn of Cleveland to go over the local situation and give his view from an expert standpoint. The board of aldermen is divided at the present, Chairman Luke E. Hart, of the specialcommittee whichinvestigated the problem for over a year, being in favor of a new plant, and another committee recently appointed favoring the purchase of the old plant. The civic league has taken the attitude that all necessary preliminary steps should be taken by the board of public service so that valuable time will not be lost and the city find itself at the mercy of the private contractor when the present contract expires. It will take fully eighteen months to get through the legislation, prepare plans and 1 Assistant director, Philadelphia bureau of mu-. nicipal research.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September build the’new plant, if such a course is .decided upon. The city at the present time has a contract with the Indiana reduction company -which expires September 1, 1918. The contract is one of the most undesirable entered into by any city in the country. Under its terms St. Louis pays to the private contractor 87 cents a ton for the reduction of garbage, the city in addition doing its own collection and delivery to the representatives of the company. This makes a total of from $40,000 to $50,000 a year, which the city pays to the contractor for reduction alone. This is in strildng contrast with the profits reported from the municipally owned and operated reductionplants at Cleveland and Columbus, and with the contracts under which New York city and Los Angeles, to name cities at two geographical extremes, receive money for garbage delivered to private contractors for reduction. LOUIS F. BTJDENZ.’ * Administrative Improvements of Eorough President Marks.-In a pamphlet entitled “The Borough of Manhattan,” the National Institute of Social Sciences has prepared a summary of the administrative improvements introduced by Marcus M. Marks, president of the borough of Manhattan of the city of New York, during the last three years. In the relation of his department to the public the most important improvement has been the formation of borough advisory commissions, consisting of men and women from each of sixteen neighborhoods whose function it is to inform the borough president of the needs and the desires of the residents of the neighborhood. Other improvements include a particularly efficient new type of street signs, the prevention of cutting of newly paved streets for subsurface work and the establishment of additional markets to reduce the cost of living. In the relation of the executives of his department to his employes the most important improvement has been the ‘Acting secretary, St. Louis civic league. establishment of a joint trial board consisting of two representatives of the administration and two fellow employes selected by lot for the trial of delinquent employes. The joint trial board hrts been very successful in increasing the efficiency and the esprit de cmps of the department. Suggestion boxes, bulletin boards, weekly departmental luncheons, welfare work, outings, entertainments, lectures and courses of instruction for the employes have also been introduced. LEONHARD FELIX Fnm. * Kansas State Manager.-Acting under the legislation of 1917 already described in the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW,’ Governor Capper has appointed a board of administration with the following members: Former Governor E. W. Hoch who wat~ the minority (Republican) member of the old board of administration adopted by the Democratic Iegislature of 1913 and who wm subsequently appointed by Governor Hodges for the short term and reappointed by Governor Capper in 1915; Dr. Wilbur M. Mason, president of Baker University, a Methodist Episcopal institution at Baldwin; and former Mayor E. W. Green of Kansas City, Kansas, for two terms the head of the city commission there where he made a he record.3 Mr. Green is the Democratic member of the board. Governor Capper is ex-05cio chairman of this board which has appointed James Kimball, business man and reformer of Salina, to the position of manager. The secretary is Hugh Lardner, secretary of the old board of administration. * Michigan Housing Law.-Michigan has just secured a state housing code which proves agdn that good example may be of as Guch influence as bad. Several years ago Grand Rapids, the second city in the state, adopted a housing code that has since been well enforced. The results have been so good that even Detroit’s reluctance has been so largely overcome ZSee vol. vi, p 506. 3 See vol. iv, p. 492.

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 621 that its board of health has been enabled to adopt a code of rules that is virtually a housing code, and now, with the assistance of other cities, Grand Rapids has mcceeded in converting its local ordinance into a state law. The new law follows the same plan as the ordinance which paved the way for it, but follows more closely Veiller’s Model Law, departing from its guide in only a few instances. In some of these it improves upon its guide, for each year adds something to our experience. In others it fa& below the standard set. The controverted question of percentage of lot that may be occupied is ignored by the omission of any provision dealing with it. Unfortunately, rear yards on corner lots may be occupied by structures one story in height. On the other hand, no dwelling not of fireproof construction may exceed three stories in height. The troublesome lodger problem is dodged by empowering certain public officials to forbid the taking in of lodgers by tenants of multiple dwellings only and then tacking on a provision that if found necessary this power may be extended to private and two-family dwellBut despite such minor criticisms the new Michigan housing law is the best code of state-wide application now in effect, even as the Grand Rapids’ ordinance was the best applicable to any city. The Michigan law applies to every city and organized village in the state containing 10,000 or more population and to every such city or village as its population shall reach 10,000. According to the census of 1910, there were then twenty-three cities of more than 10,000 population in the state. ings. JOHN IHLDER. * Minneapolis Housing Law.-Minneapolis, after once being disappointed, has secured a housing code that assures it of reasonable protection. To the civic and commerce association under the leadership of Otto W. Davis, who several years ago put through for Columbus, Ohio, the first -5 real housing code in America, belongs the credit for this achievement. The association made a study of housing conditions and published a report in 1914. This report came as a shock to most Minneapolitans, but the shock was salutary. With the facts to back them the association then drafted a housing code. The legislature to whom it was first introduced declined to pass it. The association then began a campaign of education, secured the co-operation of the real estate interests and this year succeeded in its purpose. The code in its plan and in the standards set follows other recent housing legislature. 9 Pennsylvania Municipal Legislation.Notwithstanding the elaborate program for progressive municipal legislation prepared by the cities of the firat, second and third classes’ in Pennsylvania, nothing of any importance was passed except two bills providing for the establishment of adequate civil service regulations for firemen and policemen in third class cities. At one time it looked as if the good work already done in the second and third class cities would be undone, but fortunately the efforts directed to this end were defeated. In other words, the record of the legislature was one accidental negative virtue. 9 Sault Ste. Marie by a vote of three to one, or to be exact by a decisive majority of 527 out of a total of 1,285 votes cast, adopted a new charter embodying a commission-manager form of government at the special election of June 26. This charter was framed by a commission of the most successful professional and mercantile men in the city, who have endeavored to eliminate those features of previous charters of this form which have not proved successful, and to retain what experience has shown to be the valuable provisions for the effective operation of municipal government. J. I. 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. vi, p. 276.

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622 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Ir. POLITICS 1 The East St. Louis Riots.-Responsibility for the East St. Louis (Illinois) riot of July 2-unparalleled in ferocity in the history of the country-must be laid directly at the door of municipal inefficiency. This was particularly evidenced in the utter failure of the police to do their duty in the crisis. Other causes contributed to the outburst in which thirty-seven negroes were hanged, clubbed and burned to death, hundreds were severely injured and six blocks of dwellings and business structures destroyed-the racial friction occasioned by the influx of thousands of black people from the south, the labor difficulty resulting from the fact that many of these men were imported to take the places of striking white men, the murder of Detective Coppedge on the preceding night. But the reason why the savage slaughter at all was allowed to be staged was the bad political conditions which have existed in the town for years, leading to civic disturbances at other periods of its The police board of the city was the creature of these evil political conditions and was absolutely unfit to handle the situation. For weeks before the outbreak there had been rumblings of the coming storm. Early in the year, when the labor leaders had gone in a body to the city hall to request the mayor to stop the incoming negroes, there had been an attack on black people in the streets of the city and several had been beaten. During the week of May 27 there had been a number of mob risings in which a dozen negroes had be'en badly treated and several houses had been Packed and burned. On the early morning of July 2 a negro mob had shot and killed a policeman and wounded four others, and it was certainwith the people in the restive humor that they were-that reprisals would start before twenty-four hours had passed. Despite a11 this, the local aut.horities made no preparation whatsoever to prevent history. lUnless otherwise indicated. the items in this department are prepared by Clinton Rogers Woodr&. the formation of the mob which began its work at 6 o'clock that evening. To make matters worse, the police officers did nothing at all during the three hours of butchery to stop the things that were going on. No efforts were made to arrest members of the mob. Even the thousand national guardsmen on the ground showed but little disposition to protect the blacks. The gangs of men and women were allowed to range a8 they chose, burning and shooting and hanging any negro man, woman or child that came to view. Only the arrival of additional militiamen with the adjutant-general and the governor brought about final order. The chamber of commerce has appointed a committee of one hundred to. reestablish lasting order and a desirable status in East St. Loilk. The first act of this committee was to recommend the removal of the police board, which was done. The new board has begun in the fight spirit. At the same time, there is an agitation on foot for commission government in the place. Coupled with a city manager and non-partisan elections this would help much to improve the bad record and bad conditions of the Illinoia city. One hundred and five persons have been indicted for participation in the riot. LOUIS F. BUDENZ. * Portsmouth City Manager Situation.In the face of two largely attended mass meetings and numerous petitions of protest, the council of Portsmouth dismissed Tirrell B. Shertzer as city manager and named W. B. Bates as his successor. Bates does not seem to have had any experience as a city manager or in any similar position, but has the advantage of being related to one of the members of the council and being known as a politician. The complexion of the council has been changed completely since the original election. It has lost three members, one by death, one on account of ill health, and the third from disgust, so that now the council contains five men who are appar

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 623 ently more interested in politics and political organizations than they are in the city, and two men who place the interests of the city foremost. Concerning the situation there Lieut. C. P. Shaw of Norfolk writes: Portsmouth voted in favor of the cit manager plan, and then partly througg faulty election machinery, and partly through the skill of certain politicians, elected a council-the majonty of whose members were opposed to the new form. Instead of immediately appointing a city manager, the members of the council proceeded to divide the city into departments, and placed themselves in positions as the heads of these various departments, and incidentally enjoyed the patronage of those departments for five or six months before appointing the manager. In other words, they made the new form of government for that length of time the commission, and not the city manager plan. When they finally did appoint a manager, the council appeared to be reluctant to give up these positions as heads of departments, and seem to have exercised powers that did not belong to them, and thus interfered so seriously that the manager was so heavily handicapped as to be unable to operate the city as the law intended he should. Under the Virginia law in city manager cities. the council has only legislative pow&s, and the appointmeni of ilimited number of officials, including the city manager. In the latter is vested all the executive and administrative powers of the city, with the duty of appointing his subordinates and of preparing the tentative budget. In view of these facts, I believe that the action of the council in attempting to perform executive and administrative functions is entirely illegal. This is certainly so after they had a pd a city manager, unless he shoufd ave named them as heads of departments, in which case they would have been obliged to cease to act as members of the council, because the duties of the council are purely legislative. cb Dayton’s Political Crisis.-Dayton’s non-partisan city manager form of government is undergoing a critical trial for existence this autumn. The primary election held on August 14 resulted in the choice of the three Socialist candidates, with the Citizens’ candidates (the sitting members of the commission whose terms are expiring) running fourth, fifth and sixth. A well informed correspondent in writing of the Socialist vote and the aituation says: I attribute their heavy vote to social unrest, anti-Democratic spirit because we are now at war (which influenced a large German vote), the manager’s salary, and h+g of $50 a day experts by the comssion. I have heard no comment as to the campaign which needs be conducted before the election, November 6. The manifest lack of appreciation by the Socialists of what has been done, together with the inability or the lack of desire of these Socialists to think for themselves, is a discouraging situation locally. I for one believe it cannot successfull be combatted before November, and I dink they will have at least one representative on the city commission after January 1. The talks of their local leaders are unbelievably bad,-filled with lies, misrepresentations, destructive criticisms, and lack of patriotIsm. It is unfortunate that all matters, national, industrial and economic, have such a telling influence upon a purely local government. cb The Los Angeles Elections.4n May 1 the city primary resulted in the re-election of Mayor Woodman, City Attorney Stephens, and City Auditor Meyers, each having received a majority of all the votes cast for their respective offices, the majority for Mayor Woodman being about 1,000. Eighteen candidates for the council and fourteen for the board of education were nominated, the bnal election being held on June 5. Concerning this latter the Californiu Outlook for July makes the following comments: The city election was determined in a manner entirely satisfactory to the newspapers. Every member of the city council who refused to take his orders from the newspapers in the matter of billboard regulation was defeated. In their campaign against their advertising competitors, the billboards, the newspapers gave an exhibition of unanimity in misrepresentation and deception which was startling to the thoughtful and informed. When the U. S. supreme court decision in the Chicago billboard case showed that Los Angeies could improve her existing billboard ordinance, the city council took the question up with the purpose of improving the old ordinance in the light of the new decision. The leading civic

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624 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September organizations, such as the chamber of commerce, the merchants’ and manufacturers’ association, and others, were invited to assist in the determination of the question. A joint committee of the various civic organizations was a pointed, and It undertook the study of the billboard situation. Immediately the newspapers sneered at this committee as the “stalling committee,” “the delay committee,” etc. Quite prompt1 this committee reported that billboards sgould be permitted in the central business district, that they should be re ulated in the semi-business districts, and &at they should be prohibited in the residence districts. The regulation in the semi-business districts was not as stringent as the newspapers wished it to be. The city council undertook to give consideration as to what the regulation should be in the semi-business districts, but the newspapers would brook no consideration. The newspapers represented the “solid five” of the city council as favoring the billboards in residence districts, a statement that was at all times untrue. By their unanimous misrepresentation of the attitude of the city councilmen, the newspapers succeeded in defeating them. The serious question involved in all this situation is not the billboards-they have but few friends-nor the fate of defeated councilmen, who were not particularly popular. The serious question is that the newspapers were willing to unite in an effort to determine a city election on the one uestion of driving out a competitor in tie advertisin business. To this end they were &ng to ignore every other public question and to indulge in unanimous rmsrepresentation. Democracy and Its Newspapers-here is a problem worth studying. * Portland, Oregon.-The recent election in Portland, Oregon (June 4), rejected by a decisive vote two initiative bills proposing to return to a councilmanic government, but in some other respects evidenced a tendency to revert to type. Two experienced and successful politicians of only moderate administrative ability were elected as commiseioners against two men neither of whom was a good politician and both of whom had already rendered efficient service in that office. The successful candidate for mayor was also of the politician type, but an able man, a hard worker, a successful commissioner before his election as mayor, and apt to heed the majority opinion, which fortunately in Portland is mainly on the right side of important issues. The ballot carried also several state measures, one of which was again a reversion to type, namely, the bill requiring that city, town, and state elections be held on the same day. This bill was psgsed by a decisive vote. It was proposed and passed in good faith as an economy measure, but most readers of this review will agree that separation of state and city politics is worth all it costs. * A Charter Election in Norfolk, Va.-In accordance with an amendment to section 117 of the constitution of Virginia, authorizing its legislature to grant to cities of over 50,000 inhabitants such form of charter as the legislature might deem best, a statute was passed in 1914 prescribing the manner in which such cities should request a charter change, and providing that the question of a new charter should be determined by the affirmative vote of the majority of those voting, but making the election of the charter commissioners invalid unlesa a majority of the qualified voters should take part in the elections. Under this act an election was held in August, 1915, with 2,001 votes for and 67 against a change of charter, which was invalid because the majority of the qualified voters did not take part. If 1,500 more votes had been cast against a new charter, the new charter would have succeeded! This absurd paradox was eliminated from the law in 1916, by an amendment which provided that the question should be determined in accordance with the will of the majority voting on the question. At an election held on June 19, 1,895 votes were cast in favor of a new charter, and 149 against. A commission consisting of five prominent business men and four lawyers has organized for the work of preparing a new charter. Since the commission is practically pledged to the commission-manager plan, it is fair to assume that it will be adopted, and further that it will probably follow the lines of the Model Charter prepared by

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 625 the Committee of the National Municipal League.’ C. P. SHAW. rp Postponement of Indiana’s Constitutional Convention.-The constitutional convention bill passed by the 1917 session of the Indiana legislature8 was a clean bill without jokers, and assured the people a popular convention. The interests in Indiana, liquor and publicutilities, brought suit declaring this act unconstitutional. The lower court upheld the act, declaring the legislature had the power to call the convention. The case was brought to the higher courts, where the decision of the lower court was reversed on the ground that the legislature had no power to call the convention but must refer it to a referendum vote of the people. A minority opinion was filed by one of the court. This is clearly another case of courts assuming the power of the state. Of the four judges ruling against the people, three came from our larger cities and as our judges are elected for a term of six years and are therefore political officers in the full sense of what political officers stand for in politics-ridden Indiana, it can readily be seen that our people will now more than ever favor a new constitution and take their highly important office out of politics and make our judges as fearless and independent as now are our federal judges. While this decision struck a bad body blow to democracy in Indiana, yet we hope to recover and our citizens’ league will continue its good work. THEODORE F. THIIME. Fort Wayne, Ind. rp Houston, Texas, has a civil service commission, one of the rules of which is 111. JUDICIAl In view of the small number of important decisions which would seem to require notice in this department at 1 See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. iv, p. pSee NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. vi, p. 305. 512. that if a man takes an active part in city politics he can be dismissed from the services of the city at the option of the commission. Very few employes of the city at the recent election took any active part in it. Mayor Pastoriza has been associated With most of them for six years as a city commissioner. He did not ask any of them to work for him; two employes, however, took off their coats and went out and worked expecting to be discharged for doing so. They said they would rather lose their position than see him defeated. Mayor Pastoriza believes it is a wise thing not to permit city employes to take an active part in municipal elections. Along this line he has suggested that the city charter be changed so that no employe of the city will be allowed to vote at a city election. If he does he forfeits his position automatically. In support of this view the mayor urges that men who are receiving their living at the hands of a mayor usually vote solidly for him; whereas the great mass of people on the outaide who pay the expenses of the government exercise their right to vote for or against him. Often it happens that the city employes hold the balance of the power, and as in one case in Texas succeeded in keeping a man in the office of mayor for a great many years. The mayor believes that the people who are not drawing a salary from the city should be the ones to decide who should fill elective positions.3 * Columbus Women to Vote.-By a vote of 8637 to 7702 the women of Columbus have been given the vote in city affairs, and they will exercise their franchise for the first time at the November election. L DECISIONS this time, the editor of the department was of the opinion that it should be omitted from this issue. It will appear again, however, in the November issue. a See NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, vol. Vj, p. 425. Mayor Pastoriza died July 9. 1917.

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626 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September IV. MISCELLANEOUS Training for Public Service.-The first legislative declaration in favor of practical training for public service was made by the 1917 Wisconsin legislature, which passed a bill, introduced by Senator Barwig, authorizing the establishment and maintenance of a training school for public service at the Unviersity of Wisconsin. It declared that such a school shall be a professional school and shall be devoted to practical training for the administrative service of the state or of any county or municipality therein or of civic organizations. The bill had a rather stormy history in the senate extending over several months. It was passed in the assembly by an overwhelming vote within two weeks. The important part of the law is the second section which contains the requirement regarding diplomas and the requirement for field training. The law provides that every graduate of this school shall receive in addition to the regular University degree a diploma stating the specific character of the training which he has undergone. This was done presumably to get away from the idea of the general municipal expert and to emphasize the fact that the expert in municipal government is an expert of specific things. However, when the university comes to decide the fields it will organize, it may establish a specific diploma for the administrative expert in addition to the technical expert. The law further provides that no person shall receive the diploma of this school “unless at least one third of his total credits in such school shall be for actual work in municipal, county, or state departments or in quasi-public work and unless he shall have submitted a thesis dealing with an actual problem of city government.” The provision of the law that the school must work with city officials and must develop its work in co-operation with them is a wise safeguard. The university cannot, as is usually done, bring together a few of its existing courses and then announce to the world that it is training men for the public service. Under this provision the University of Wisconsin must interest the city officials, must secure their active co-operation and keep their continued interest. Since the university receives its money in lump sum appropriations and since the number of students will probably be .considerably diminished during the coming year, provision will be made for the establishment of this school in the next academic year. Many universities can undertake this work without legislative declaration, but the Wisconsin law provides that no new school shall be established at the university unless it is authorized by the legishture. E. A. FITZPATRICR. Ir Alberta Municipal Hospitals Act.Under the municipal hospitals act of Alberta, the different municipal organizations in the province, except cities having a population of over five thousand, may be grouped bogether into hospital districts for the purpose of maintaining hospitals. BY the provisions of the act, the province-is required to be divided by the minister of municipal affairs into areas known as hospital districts. The municipal organizations within such hospital districts, if they wish to have a hospital, must by petition to the minister obtain authority to appoint a hospital board. This board will then prepare a hospital scheme. This scheme shall provide for the securing or erection of a suitable building, the raising of the necessary money, the employment of staff, and so on. The minister shall place at the disposal of the board all necessary information in regard to plans, money required and other details. When the board has completed their scheme it has to be submitted to the minister for his approval, and such approval will only be given subject to the scheme being found satisfactory by the provincial board of health under the hospitals ordinance and the public health act, and by the board of public utility commissioners

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 627 under the public utilities act. On the approval of the scheme being reported to the board, such‘ report will be transferred by the board to the different municipal organizations interested, and these organizations will then submit a by-law to the electors for the purpose of incorporating the scheme. Such by-law will be voted on in the same way as a money by-law, and will include a provision for the raising of money by debenture if necessary. As soon as this by-law has been passed by the municipal organizations interested, the hospital board will put the scheme into effect by carrying out the arrangements provided for therein. All business of a municipal hospital district is required to be conducted by the hospital board, but this board is subject to the control of the provincial government. * Kansas City’s Presidential Conference. -For a long time the officers of civic organizations in Kansas City have felt the need of closer co-operation; therefore when A. E. Hutchings, president of the rotary club sent out letters to their presidents some six months ago, inviting them to sit together for conference, twenty-six responded. Committees were appointed, and an organization thereafter known as the presidents’ round table was formed. Membership is limited to the presidents of organizations, whose work is of a civic nature. The constitution provides that a chairman and vice-chairman be elected to serve three months, and a secretary to serve a year. The dues of the organization are nine dollars quarterly, to cover the cost of luncheon of the members attending. These dues are paid by the organizations. * A Mayor’s Advisory Committee in Minneapolis.-Mayor Van Lear created some weeks ago, or rather there was created for him, an advisory committee consisting of approximately 35 members. The suggestion, of course, came from the Milwaukee experiment.‘ This committee, See NATIONAL MIJNICIPU REVIEW, vol. vi, p. 428. with the exception of two appointed by the mayor, consists of men and women representing the various civic and labor agencies of the city, selected directly by those agencies. It was organized about two months ago and has had three meetings. It is signscant that of the 35 members, not more than five or six are Socialists. * Course in Citizenship at Cornell.The‘course in citizenship at Cornell suffered as did most other coUege courses after the United States entered the war. It began with an enrollment of 187 students. At the end of the semester, in June, scarcely thirty were left. At that time about 2,000 .students had left the university to enter various services in connection with the war. The course in 1917 differed from those in preceding years as Dr. Samuel P. Orth, who took the place of Dr. Walter F. Willcox during the latter’s sabbatical leave, wished to make it fit in more closely with his courses in government. To this wish the committee agreed. The subjects and speakers in 1917 were: Government and the Control of Public Utilities, Delos F. Wilcox. Government and Industrial Unrest, Samuel McCune Lindsay. Recreation in its Relation to Citizenship and Industrial Efficiency, Johann Grolle. The Citizen in Society’s Effort to Control Tuberculosis, George J. Nelbach. Social Insurance-The Modern Method of Prevention of Destitution, I. M. Rubinow. The Citizen and Public Service, Prof. W. B. Munro. Governmental Budget Systems and their Relation to Effective citizenship, Frederick A. Cleveland. Social Efficiency and the Short Ballot, Lawrence F. Abbott. The County Government Jungle, Richard S. Childs. The Commission Form of City Government, Clinton Rogers Woodruff. City Planning as a Municipal Function, Nelson P. Lewis.

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628 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW . [September The Municipality and the Farmer’s Marketing Problems, Clyde L. King. Governmental Bureaus of Social Welfare: a Sign of the Times, L. A. Halbert. Owing to the inroads which the war has made upon the upper classes, from which the membership of the course is drawn, the committee is considering the’ advisability of postponing future courses until the return of peace. $ A City Management Course at the University of Kansas.-A clipping from a San JosB, California, paper states that the University of Kansas has a four-year course for training of municipal managers. This statement has gone around in various forms during the last two years. Concerning it Prof. F. W. Blackmar of the University writes in response to an inquiry: “If you have the proceedings of the congress called by Mayor Mitchel for the consideration of municipal problems, you will find an address of mine there on this subject. I am not quite certain who is responsible for this article as it appears. “We have no four-year course leading to municipal manager, and have never made any such claim. We hrwe, however, sufficient number of courses in political science, sociology, economics, chemistry, bacteriology, and sanitary and other forms of engineering to give a man a good preparation, but we have never brought this material together in a distinct course. “The departments of economics, sociology and engineering advertise courses that prepare for public service of this kind, but in no such formal way as indicated in the article which you enclose. However, since we have already received credit for it, I shall try to develop a systematic four-year course leading to city management.” $ Ryan Dacty1opIane.-One of the factors which has led to the rapid introduction of finger prints for purposes of criminal identification has been the ease with which such prints may be taken. Henry in his book on the subject states that all that is required for this purpose are white JOHN IHLDER. paper, printer’s ink and a roller for spreading it. Although it is possible to take finger prints with such a crude piece of apparatus, just as it. is possible to build a log cabin with the use of no tools other than a hand saw and a broad ax, better work can in every case be done if better tools are provided. The Ryan dactyloplane, which has been invented by Patrick Ryan, finger-print expert of the New York municipal civil service commission, is a highly perfected piece of apparatus which enables a finger-print expert properly to ink the fingers of the prisoner and from the fingers so inked to take impressions for permanent record. The great value of this invention in kger-print work is shown by the fact that with its use Mr. Ryan was on January 25, 1917, able to take the finger-prints of eight hundred and fiftyfour candidates for patrolman in 64 minutes, an average of about four seconds for each candidate. L. F. F. * The Indiana Bureau of Legislative Information.-The legislature of Indiana has withheld the appropriation for the continuance of this bureau which has been in existence for six years under the direction of John A. Lapp, one time associate editor of the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW and editor of “Special Libraries.” * New Volumes in the National Municipal League Series.-Robert E. Cushman’s volume on “Excess Condemnation” will be on the market early in September. It is the first book on the subject to appear in print. The preparing of a volume- “A New Municipal Program,” has been delayed by the ihess of one of the contributors. The manuscript is now in the hands’of the publisher and it will appear in the early autumn, as will E. A. Fitzpatrick’s volume on “Expert City Government.” * An International Association of Police Matrons, on a strictly non-political and non-sectarian basis, to consider “the best

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19171 NOTES AND EVENTS 629 procedure along the lines of most advanced ihd progressive methods of moral and humane treatment and customs countenanced by the different localities” has been formed. The organization which will meet as one of the allied groups of the National Conference of Social Work will have nothing to do with questions of salary, description of duties or adjustments of grievances of its members in relation to the municipalities which employ them. The president of the organization is Miss Margaret Corbitt, the police matron at Rochester, who is largely responsible for the association. s The American Society of Municipal Improvements, which was to have met at New Orleans, November 1-16, has been postponed for a year. That is the first national organization dealing with municipal questions which has to postpone its annual meeting on account of the war. Dealing, as its members do, with construction work, the reason for this action is fairly obvious. s “The Dallas Survey” is the title of the publication recently established by the civic federation of Dallas (Elmer Scott, secretary). It represents an intelligent effort to supply information about the social work being done by the city and to be done. The editor is Mr. Scott, who for two years under Mayor Lindsley was the chief of the department of social welfare for the city. s Pennsylvania cities of the third class have been authorized to appropriate money annually for music in parks and other public places. s A colored police woman has been appointed in Los Angeles. In this connection Los Angeles established a precedent, as it did in the appointment of a police woman originally. * Libraries and Recreation.4ne of the branches of the free library of Philadelphia will be located on the Kingsessing recreation grounds in the southwestern part of the city, thus bringing the library and recreation facilities into close co-operation. s City Manager Changes.-R. F. Bli~, who has been city manager of WestervilIe, Ohio, for a year and a half, has resigned, his resignation taking effect August 31. W. E. Dozier has reeigned as city manager of Taylor, Texas. 5 Kenneth B. Ward, who had such a stormy experience as city manager of Sandusky, Ohio, has been elected head of the department of street engineering of Durham. He will draw a yearly salary of $4,500. He takes hold of the immediate job of constructing more than $1,000,000 worth of improved streets. Ward was graduated from the Ohio State University, where he served as instructor in the department of civil engineering for six years. The storm in Sandusky has not abated, although it has beenredirected. s C. 0. Dustin, who became assistant secretary of the National Municipal League on April 1, has gone into Red Cross work, and is now serving as chief of the statistical branch of the movement. s George 0. Nagle, president of the Morris Plan Bank and formerly manager of the Wheeling traction company and president of the West VkgS manufacturers’ association, has been unanimously elected city manager of Wheeling, W. Va., at a salary of $8,000 a year. s George A. Bellamy, head resident of the Hiram House, Cleveland, is devoting half his time to the work of the Commission on Training Camp Activities. s Charles Carroll Brown, the secretary of the American Society for Municipal Improvements, has sold his interest in Mu

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8630 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September nicipal Enqineeringand is confining himself to his engineering practice in Indianapolis. * Leo Tiefenthaler has been elected secretary of the Milwaukee city club, to succeed Hornell Hart.‘ * H. A. Toulmin, Jr., of Dayton, author of the volume on “The City Manager” in the National Municipal League series has had the degree of L.H.D. conferred upon him by Wittenberg College. * Hon. William Dudley Foulke, president -of the National Municipal League from 1911 to 1915, is writing a book of personal reminiscences to be known as “Fighting the Spoilsmen.” * Robert A. Woods, director of the South End House, Boston, has been elected president of the National Conference of Social Work. * Miss Marjorie L. Franklin, a graduate .of Barnard College and a Cplumbia doctor, has been appointed as successor to Miss Alice M. Holden as instructor in municipal government at Vassar. see N.4TTIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, VOI . vi, p , 523. Francis B. Sayre, a member of the council of the National Municipal L’eague, is now in France engaged in Y. M. C. A. work. * Dr, Don C. Sowers of the Dayton bureau of municipal research hm been called to the directorship of the Akron bureau, to succeed F. L. Olson, who hrts been called to the bureau maintained by the Minneapolis civic and commerce association. F. S. Staley, formerly director of this bureau, is now in New York in connection with the food administration. . f Professor F. W. Coker of the Ohio State University will be the lecturer in American constitutional history and politics at Yale University for the year 191718. He will be succeeded as secretarytreasurer of the Ohio municipal league by Gardiner Lattimer of the Toledo commerce club. f Professor A. R. Hatton is recovering from his recent illness and on October 1 will take up work with the National Short Ballot Organization, of which he will be a field representative.

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DEPARTMENT OF PUBLICATIONS I. BOOK MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS. By Herman G. James. New York: D. Appleton & Company. National Municipal League Series. $2. The public has been rather liberally supplied with books and articles, descriptive and critical, relating to the framework of municipal government, the organization and methods of its administrative departments, and the methods of popular control over its composition and activities. But however well devised a city government may be, from the standpoint both of representativeness and efficiency! it can be neither truly representative nor really effective if it issues from and acts upon a community which is without “clear notions of what a city should and can be expected to do.” The fundamental purpose of the book in hand, as stated in the preface, is to give the municipal citizen an intelligent opinion on the needs of his city, so that he may be in a position to discriminate among the many desirable objects of city activity and among the various possible means of accomplishing these objects. The author attempts to do this by giving “a simple but comprehensive survey of the whole field of municipal endeavor . . . a survey which every intelligent member of the community can readily comprehend.” The book is also “intended for use as a text-book in college classes.’’ The book well follows out its expressed purpose. It supplies comprehensive, accurate, practical information and criticism concerning the needs and opportunities of .organized city life and concerning the requirements that must be fulfilled in order adequately to meet these needs and opportunities. It is unique in its scope and emphasis. Not only is its interest in action rather than in organization, but within the field of municipal activity it REVIEWS gives secondary attention to administrative methods and policies and mechanical -means. Its primary objects are to show the nature and scope of city activities (including not only the activities which cities do undertake but also those which they should undertake if they are to fulfill thq opportunities and obligations of modern city government), the difficulties-political, legal, financial, and popular-likely to be encountered in carrying out such undertakings, the various considerations that should govern choice of policies and methods, and the various interests that must be regarded in all that the city does. For the more technical and mechanical sides of municipal administration the book contains simple statements which supply all that the general reader and student need undertake to know in first instance. T&s is well illustrated in the description of the different methods of water purification and of sewage disposal. In this treatment all the varied activitie8 of cities are covered, and the interconnections of different branches adequately indicated. The problems of small as well aa large cities are considered; the general practical usefulness of the book is probably enhanced by the fact that the conditions of the smaller cities are foremost in the mind of the author. At all proper points of the dimmion the occasions for local adaptations are recognized. Despite the compendiousness and conciseness of the work, it escapes dryness, because of its well-proportioned treatment and because of its close application to actual needs and conditions, combined with its freedom from statistics and needless technical details. The work is not merely descriptive; it is also critical; and in its criticisms it not only shows the weaknesses in present 63 1

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632 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September practices, but also points out better ways. Though in its estimations and strictures it is discriminating and unprejudiced, it is pronouncedly social in spirit, the welfare of the general mass of the citizens being its criterion for judgment and recommendation. Finally, though frankly progressive in its attitude, it is not blindly so; this is well exemplified in the discussion of the regulation of public utilities, where exceptional definiteness is given to the familiar caution that although the public benefit must be the controlling consideration in the city’s policy toward private corporations operating public utilities, yet the voters must never lose sight of the fact that the imposition of terms too burden8ome will defeat the very purpose of the regulation. Throughout the work a special utility of the volume lies in its indication of common delusions concerning the considerations that should determine the policies of a city; in this way, for example, at many points the costliness of false economy is shown by pointing out the consequencesaffecting the health, comfort, efficiency or happiness of the community, and, in many instances, increasing the financial burden upon the community-that follow the neglect of some function or the choice of a cheaper way of fulfilling it, in pursuing a policy of superficial saving. On the other hand, at no point is there any disregard of the due importance of the financial aspects of a city’s problem in choice of policies and means. In the short concluding chapter, two questions of fundamental importance for a city’s work are briefly broached. The first is the familiar question as to the proper relation of the American city to the state government as concerns scope of functions and choice of means. Here the author would have the cities given, as in Germany, large and general powers of municipal enterprise, freed from “the doctrine of limited powers, strict construction and legislative interference,” but controlled in the carrying out of their powers by an efficient central administrative department for local government, manned by a body of experts a “model for which might be found in the English local government board.” The other question relates to the order of importance of the various municipal activities, a question of practical significance, because no city can do everything at once in the way of extending or improving existing activities. In the order suggested, functions meeting the elemental needs of the community (in connection with public safety and public works) and provision of public education, are followed by social welfare activities. Not until all these needs are adequately provided for should the city turn to its luxuries, such as elaborate and expensive buildings and boulevards, ornamental street lighting, and elegant civic centers. The concluding sentences of the book well express what, as already intimated, seems to be a controlling motive of the book. “The chief warning that seems to be needed by American cities in guiding them on their march upward is that until more attention is devoted to the more obscure phases of social welfare work, less money should be spent on the more showy aspects of city improvement. The keynote of the new American city should not be grandeur but democracy, a real democracy of social conditions.” What makes Professor James’ book of such distinct value for the practical reformer and the public-minded citizen is that in following out the motive just suggested, the work nowhere loses itself in undiscriminating propaganda and exhortation; it is accurate and impartial. Moreover, it is not too technical for the general reader and is thorough and complete enough to serve as a general guide for a college class. The volume clearly adds: prestige to the series of which it forms a. part. F. W. COILER. Ohio State University.

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS PR~LIMINAIRES D’ART CIVIQUE, MIS EN LA BELGIQUE. By Louis Van der Swaelmen, architect-paysagiste SociM D’fiditions. A. W. Sijthoff, Leyden. A time when we are hearing so much about the ravaging of beautiful citiea and the destruction of architectural monuments would not seem the most favorable for a work on municipal art by a Belgian. But perhaps, with Belgium as a cas e1iniqu.e -aa M. Van der Swaehen puts it-this is the best possible time. At all events, civic art is the one phase of art that has become a subject of international intercourse since the war began. England, as well as the “Low Countries,” has had its energetic committee for the replanning of the Belgian towns which must some day be rebuilt; and lately from the Union Internationale des Viiles, established with headquarters in Brussels before the war, there has sprung an International Civic Art Committee for Belgium, which has its representatives in America aa well as in England, in France, in Holland and in Belgium itself. In all of these enterprises, M. Van der Swaelmen is a leader. When, to these facts, we add the spirit illustrated by the “Resurgam” structure which rises against flame and smoke in his volume’s frontispiece, it is easy to see that “Pr6liminaires d’Art Civique mis en relation avec le cas clinique de la BeIgique“ is not an incongruous, but a naturaleven a thrilling-response to the recent destruction of priceless civic art by German Kultur. Happily, the aspiration for cities beautiful and orderly is as hard to kill in the hearts of the Belgians as is their love for their country-with which, indeed, it is closely bound. ‘ ‘This book, ” the author modestly declares in the fkst line of it, “does not pretend to be a summary of civic art.” The volume’s considerable bulk doubtless explaii this prompt disclaimer. In the fact, it is a very extensive and inclusive outline, in which considerable interesting discussion of sound theories has been injected. The illustrations are limited to RELATION AVEC LE “CAS CLINIQUE” DE the frontispiece and to five diagrams, besides a few small cuts borrowed from LanChester’s, “Civic Development Survey.” The text is in French, and the discussion is closely tied up to the case of Belgium and to the activities, proposed and actual, of the international committee. Each chapter concludes with a summary which, with the frequent marginal headings on almost every page, is helpful to those who have to read slowly when they are reading French. Part one takes up the urban problem, the several chapters developing its special unfolding in the modern city, Part two has to do with the rural and national problem. More than half of the volume, however, is made up of appendices. The first is an adaptation, with full credit, of the well known Civic Development Survey worked out by H. V. Lanchester, of England. The second, and much longer, appendix ia a “Program, ” analytical guide, or city planning classification, for an Encyclopedia of Cities and Civic Art. This, the separate title page says, was elaborated by the International Committee on Civic Art pour la Belgique, in connection with the International Union of Cities, having been instituted on the initiative of the latter body, of the International Garden CitieR and Town Planning Association and of the Comit6 N6erlando-Belge d’ Art Civique, “in order to aid the Union of Cities and Towns of Belgium to study the problem of reconstruction in Belgium.” It subdivides civic studies in much more complete and detailed fashion than has yet been attempted in America, or in England; at the same time it extends them over a wider range than even American city planners have ventured to embrace. The result is a bewildering array of heads and subheads, a bibliographic looking catalogue worthy of a public library. There are chapters showing how the analyses should be used, but one is tempted to wonder whether the aim of the classification may not be defeated by its very thoroughness-whether, for the great emergency presented by the BeIgian case, brevity and clarity would not be among

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September the most valuable qualities an analysis could possess. But the American student, far from the field of active need, may find interest and stimulus in the “P”gram’s’’ exhibition of intellectual finesse, as he must surely find them in M. Van der Swaelmen’s discussions of civic art. CHARLEB MULFORD ROBIN SON.^ Rochester, N. Y. SOCIAL DIAQNOSIS. By Mary E. Richmond, Director, Charity Organization Department, Russell Sage Foundation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Pp. 511. $2. Social service is a newcomer among the important professions. In the forefront of this new profession is Miss Mary E. Richmond, director of the Russell Sage foundation, and author of “Social Diagnosis” published by the foundation. The book is dedicated to Miss Zilpha D. Smith of Boston, a pioneer in social case work. This rather formidable volume (511 pages long including the bibliography) measures well the difference between the best professional standards of today and the elementary almsgiving of earlier generations. Even to-day many good people who realize the need of diagnosis on the part of the physician are prone to describe diagnosis in social service as “red-tape” and either think of it as a needless encumbrance or pride themselves on recognizing the seemingly more “scientific” conception that trained charity workers believe in “investigation” for the simple purpose of preventing fraud. Miss Richmond’s analytical work is probably beyond the reach of all such elementary and self-satisfied critics. The very substitution of “social diagnosis” for “investigation” and of “client” for “case” may serve to show how, like both a doctor and a lawyer, she undertakes to know how to serve and thus how one may successfully serve persons in distress. The growth in social service from the 1Mr. Robinson is a member of the International Committee referred to by Profeasor Van der Swaelmen, his American colleagues being Professor James Sturgis Pray of Harvard and Fredenc Law Olmsted. * days of “lady bountifuls” has been gradual. Economic questions as to the need of additional income underlying the immediate symptoms in a family-the appeal for rent or coal or groceries-were early considered in the charity organization movement which began nearly half a century ago: Miss Richmond goes far beyond this excellent beginning. Dividing her book into three parts she devotes part 1 to defining social evidence, comparing it with evidence furnished in court and pointing out how final and important deductions may be inaccurate due to predispositions, assumptions and habits of thought. She then proceeds to that great test of the professional visitor, the 6rst interview, in which a friendly relationship must be established while, at the same time, information, often of a delicate nature, must be secured promptly and accurately. A social service worker connected with a hospital has in a first interview a comparatively easy time, for when a doctor has taken notes of a patient, the latter is not disconcerted by a social service worker thereupon doing likewise. But the visitor for a charitable society must usually avoid taking notes or even seeming to be inquisitive and yet in a single interview should learn enough to form the basis for sound judgment. Not only must an individual, who needs help, be really known but it is essential that his family also should be known, to determine whether or not relatives are in a position to help him materially and to understand the underlying causes for distress. A blunt question, such as “Have you any relatives able to support you?’’ wilI almost inevitably elicit ‘(No’’ from a person who hopes that his interviewer will feed or clothe hi. But inquiries as to the “client’s” childhood, his brothers and sisters and other relatives and what they are doing now may either give you the required information immediately or may furnish clues which will lead to such information. Great as the skill of a trained worker must be in getting helpful information about relatives, equal skill is needed in getting adequate information from medi

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS 635 cal sources, schools, and employers. Interviewing successfully an employer about one of his employes who is an applicant for relief may require consummate skill. Imperfect diagnosis may both lead to mistakes in treatment and to grave injustice. If only husband or wife is interviewed, notably in cases of desertion or of blame heaped by one upon the other, the situation, aa first described, may be seriously incorrect. Likewise it may be cruel to subject to strict discipline an apparently stubborn child who in reality owes her offishness to a heritage of insanity. Much that Miss Richmond says is known consciously or unconsciously to many professional social workers. But there has never before been a text-book setting forth so thoroughly the rules for successful diagnosis as a basis for wise help. Miss Richmond is careful to point out that diagnosis is not merely for information but for such pertinent information as will best lead to a solution both of the immediate problems of the “client” and of the ultimate problems. Superficially “Social Diagnosis” is a vast compilation of heterogeneous experiences and deductions from such experience. In reality it lifts to a new plane the whole profession of social service. Whether as a text-book for a beginner or as corroboration or the reverse for the experienced practitioner it must prove invaluable for all professional social workers. JOHN F. MOORS. Boston, Mass. 5 THE NEW CIVICS. By Roscoe Lewis Ashley. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 420. $1.20. Although this volume contains more than four hundred pages, its interpret* tion of the word “civics” is so justly broad and its survey so comprehensive, that the point which impresses one is the book’s compactness. But Professor Ashley, being the author of several books on history, and writing with exceptional fullness of knowledge, makes, himself, no large claims for the volume. He speaks of it as an “introduction to the study,” says that one could ‘hot think of presenting to high school students a completely analyzed treatment,” and adds that the book’s most important purpose is to make of the pupil “a more intelligent, a more efficient, and therefore a better citizen.” In t&s work more depends on the teacher than on the textbook; but in so far aa a textbook can contribute to the result-by clearness of arrangement, marshalling of data, and breadth of discu~sion--‘~The New Civics” certainly does its part. The text is divided into three parts: I, The Citizen and Society, in which citizenship, the citizen’s education, and civic organization are among the chapter headings; 11, Government and the Citizen, containing chapters on, for example,. suffrage and elections, civil liberty and public welfare, city, state, county, and national government; and 111, Some Public Activities. The latter has chapters on public health and welfare, labor and industry, commerce, territories and public lands, and foreign relations-large subjects for single chapters. There are several valuable appendices and a good index. Moreover, each chapter is provided with topical headings and marginal titles, and at its end has a bibliography, a list of “Topics” and “Studies,” and a series of questions. Professor Ashley believes that “the new civics is and should be the heart of the new high school course in the social sciences.” For this purpose his book appears to be exceedingly well fitted, since it may be assumed that the text-books severally prepared for those sciences can provide that completer discussion which its more important topics clearly need. CHARLES MWLFORD ROBINSON. Rochester, N. Y. * THE BUILDING OF Cms. By Harlean James, A.B. Illustrations by Charles K. Stevens. Everychild’s Series. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1917. This book was written to instruct children in the How and Why of the building of cities and the mistakes and the way ta Pp. xiii, 201.

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836 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September correct the mistakes made in building them. Everygirl and Everyboy are taught in the Socratic method by the Past, Present, and Future. For children of the age for which the book is meant the method sf Aesop would have been better. In Dickens’s tale of Scrooge the ghosts of the Past, Present, and Future do not appeal to a child. The children’s interest might be held by the impersonation of these periods of time, but characters with common names who would be very real would be more to the liking of children. Certainly Miss James knows her theme well; her points are clear and her ideas for the bettering of cities very good. The language all through the book is simple enough for the children to understand, but Miss James fails in one essential quality. She does not hold the young child’s inter.est, but the author proves by the contents of this book that there should be a text of this kind,-to tell the children about their own cities and other cities, to help the children when they are older to serve their cities and the people in them. ANNE ZUEBLIN. Boston, Mass. rp THE STATE AND GOVERNMENT. By Jeremiah S. Young. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. Pp. 180. 50 cents, net. This neat little book is intended for the .general reader, not for the specialist. Its purpose is to make clear the underlying principles of the state and of government. The author devotes between a third and a quarter of his space to the theory of the atate. In discussing the theoretical basis of the state, he makes no reference to the juristic theory of the state. In the discussion of sovereignty there is no specific reference to Roumeau’s theory of the sovereignty of the general will. Professor Young frankly inquires, with the manifest expectation of a negative answer, whether the notion of popular sovereignty is anything more than a myth. He plainly prefers the Austinian concept of sovereignty. His method of dealing with these questions, however, is not dogmatic, and is well calculated to stimulate the inquisitive reader to further study. The bulk of the volume is devoted to the theory of government. Within the limits of the available space Professor Yaung covers a good deal of ground. It is not surprising if, at some points, the treatment becomes exceedingly thin. Indeed the specialist who may chance to examine this volume will not fail to be impressed with the difficulty of treating such a broad subject both briefly and clearly. In the treatment of certain topics, such as the relation of government to the state and the doctrine of the division of powers, clearness has been sacrificed to brevity, but in general the space is judiciously apportioned and the discussion lucid as well as compact. The result is a book which ought to be very helpful to the class of readers for whom it is intended. A. N. HOLCOMBE. Harvard University. II: FORM AND FUNCTIONS OF AMERICAN GOVERN ME^. By Thomas H. Reed, University of California. Yonkers: World Book Company, 1916. Pp. 549. $1.50. This work is intended for use as a high school text in training for citiienship and must be judged from that point of view. One of the most difficult problems connected with a high school course in the tield of government is to make it vital and interesting to the students. The present work is well calculated to accomplish that result by reason of the emphasis placed on governmental activities, as well as by the use of numerous illustrations, maps, and charts throughout the text. The book is divided into six parts entitled respectively: The Background of American Government; Parties and Elections; State Government; Local Government; Government of the United States; The Functions of Government. Somewhat too much space seems to be devoted to historical considerations, since high school students get the historical

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19171 BOOK REVIEWS 637 background in regular history courses. The question also remains aa to the best place to begin in teaching American government, whether with the state, the locality, or the nation. But the book is full of interest for the student, and the suggestions for further study appended to each chapter are certain to be of great value to the high school teacher, who is, generally speaking, poorly prepared for the teaching of government. &=AN G. JAMES. University of Texas. * EL REQIMEN MUNICIPAL DE LA CIUDAD MODERNA Y BOSQUEJO DEL REGIMEN LOCAL EN ESPANA, FRANCIA, INGLATERRA, ESTADOS ALEMANES Y ESTADOS UNIDOS.’ By Adolfo Posada, Professor of Law, University of Madrid. Professor Posada has done pioneer work in arousing interest in the study of municipal institutions in Spain, and has been no less active in promoting far-reaching reforms in the municipal system of Spain. He is one of the few men in Spain who has brought to the attention of the Spanish people the important reforms in municipal government that have been accomplished in France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States. At his formal reception aa a member of the Spanish Academy of Political and Moral Sciences, Professor Posada made “The Modern City” the subject of his address. The material which he collected in the preparation of his address ha4 now been published in this volume, and presents in succinct and most readable form the existing systems of municipal government in all the countries of Europe aa well aa in the United States. He also traces with great care the Merent movements for municipal improvement. It is to be hoped that this work will be translated into English, as it would make ‘The organization of the modern city, with a sketch of the municipal system of Spain, France, England, the states of the German Empire and the .United States. an excellent texbbook for high schools and colleges. Professor Posada is to be congratulated on the service that he has rendered to students of municipal government. L. S. Rom. University of Pennsylvania. * CITP MILK SUPPLY. By Horatio Newton Parker. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Pp. 493. This book undertakes to give a aomewhat comprehensive and detailed account of the problems connected with securing satisfactory supply of milk in cities. The author was formerly health officer in Montclair, N. J., and later instructor in municipal and sanitary dairying at the University of Illinois; and has thus both scientific training and practical experience in the public control of milk supply. After an introductory chapter on some general aspects of the milk supply, there follow chapters on diseases communicable in milk, dairy cattle and the dairy farm, sanitary milk production, the transportation of milk, the milk contractor, and control of the public milk supply. The last of these deals with federal, state and municipal control; presents several types of milk ordinances; and discusses bacteriological and chemical standards, and the enforcement of the milk code. Results of the work of experts in specialized fields are quoted and discussed at some length; and a large body of data are presented in the form of statistical tables. Lists of bibliographical sources are given at the end of each chapter. There are also a number of illustrations. Public officials charged with the administration of milk laws and ordinances and those engaged in the milk business will find this book of much value. The general reader will probably find it somewhat technical; and there are no pretensions to literary style, to make easy reading. JOHN A. FAIRLIE. University of Illinois. 6

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September TEE TEACHINQ OF GOVERNMENT. New York: The MacmiUan Company. $1.10. A committee of the American Political Science Association, of which Charles G. Haines of the University of Texas is chairman, for several years gave extended attention to the question of the teaching of government in the various educational institutions, public and private, high and low, in the United States. It has embodied the results of its study in a volume which commands the thoughtful attention of all who are interested in this subject. One of the interesting features of the book is the introductory chapter devoted to recent progress in which reference is made to the work that has been done in this field by various organizations, including the National Municipal League. * HUMAN WELFARE WORK IN CHICAQO. Edited by H. C. Carbaugh. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. $1.50. A series of chapters dealing with Chicago’s schools, libraries, parka and boulevards, public recreation, with summaries 11. BOOKS ACTUAL GOVERNMENT IN ILLINOIS. By Mary Louise Childs. New York: The Century Company. Pp. 236. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. By Frank Abbott Magruder, Ph.D., Instructor in Politics, Princeton University. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Pp. 455. THE BUDQET. By Red Stourm. A Translation from the Seventh Edition of Le Budget (Cours de Finances), Paris, 1913. Thaddeus Plaainski, Translator. Walter Flavius McCaleb, Ph.D., Editor. Introduction bv Charles A. Beard. Ph.D. New York: DrAppleton and Company. Pp. 619. $3.75. CANADIAN MUNICIPAL MANUAL. By John Redmond Meredith K. C., and William Bruce Wilkinson, d. C. Edited by Sir William Ralph Meredith, Kt., Chef Justice of Ontario. Toronto : Canada LawBook Company,Ltd. Pp.1040. $20. THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLES : THEIR FUTURE RELATIONS AND JOINT INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS. By George Louis Beer. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 322. $1.50. EXCESS CONDEMNATION. By Robert E. Cushman,Instructor in Political Science, University of Illinois. New York: D. of general and religious philanthropic works, and chapters on “Art in Chicago” and ‘I Chicago as a Music Center. ” While in most instances the work has been done by those who know most about the particular subjech treated, there is no attempt at analysis or co-ordination, and no distinction is drawn between voluntary and official activities. The volume is abundantly, if not always pertinently, illustrated. The publication has been made possible by the generosity of the Hon. John Barton Payne, the president of the South Park commissioners, and a man genuinely interested in promoting the social welfare of his community. * A SCHOOLMABTER OF TEE GREAT CITY. By Angelo Patri. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 221. $1.25. Angelo Patri has been a teacher for many years in New York city and has embodied in this little volume not only his experiences but the impressions which the great city has made upon him while serving in that capacity. It is an interesting human document. RECEIVED Appleton and Company. Nationat MunicipalLeague Series. Pp. 333. $2. A Report Presented to the Section on Sanitation of the Civic Federation of New Haven by C.-E. A. Winslow, James C. Greenway, and D. Greenberg. New Haven, Corm.: Yale University Press. Pp. 114. 75 cents. HINTS ON LANDSCAPE GARDENINQ. By Prince von Puckler-Muakau. Edited‘ b Samuel Parsons. Boston: Houghton dfflin Company. Pp. 196. Illustrated. $3.50. AN INTRODUIXION TO POLITICAL PARTIES AND PRACTICAL POLITICS. By P. Orman Ray, Profesaor of Political Science, Northwestern Universit New and Revised Edition. New Gork: Char!es Scribner’s Sons. LEADERSHIP OF THE NEW AMERICA: RACIAL AND RELIGIOUS. By Archibald McClure. New York: George H. Doran Company. Pp. 314. Illustrated. $1.25. Harold Bacon Wood, M.D., Dr. P.2 New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Pp. 473. $3. WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION. By J. E. Rhodes, 2d. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 300. $1.50. HEALTH SURVEY OF NEW HAVEN, CONN. SANITATION PRACTICALLY APPLIED. B

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19171 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 111. REVIEWS OF REPORTS 639 Illinois Pension Laws Commission.The report of the Illinois pension laws commission pub in convenient form much valuable information concerning pensions for civil servants. It consists of two “Parts,” summarized as follows in the introductory chapter: Part I gives briefly the history of pensions for public employes in other countries, reviews in detail the pension laws of Illinois, recites the terms of the leading pension laws of other states in this country, sets forth the results of a comprehensive actuarial investigation of the five chief public pension funds in Illinois, and gives important statistics concerning the other funds and the extent of possible pension legislation for public service employes in this state. Part I1 outlines briefly the scope and main features of the pension problem, states the essential principles and provisions which, in the opinion of the commission, should constitute a normal or standard pension plan, and makes specific recommendations regarding changes that should be made in some of the existing pension acts, pending further investigation and study of the pension problem. With reference to the existing police pension fund of Chicago, it is pointed out (p. 13) that if the body of employes remains stationary at 4,830 men, pension requirements, when the system is carrying its ultimate normal load, will be $912,375 to men and $1,296,858 to women and children, or 34.3 per cent of the payroll. Practically the same percentage of pay-roll will be required in the case of “the firemen’s fund of Chicago.” Assuming that the body of employee remains stationary at 1,973 men, pension payments, when the system is carrying its ultimate load, will be $512,960 to men, $531,862 to widows and $27,052 to children, or 36.6 per cent. Summarizing its discussion of pension systems in various foreign countries this report says : In a general way . , . we find precedents for a great variety of systemsvar ing from those operating loosely witlout much re ard for the probable future cost, to aose kept actuarially sound on the theory that a class of ersons of given age and service shoulf be accumulating a sufficient fund to pay their own pensions. City officials have had very little knowledge of what a serious expense they were incurring in starting pension systems. The experience of this and other countries indicates that one third of the pay-roll must be added to the city budget to pay pensions to those who retire and to care for widows and orphans. When a city has once embarked upon this policy there is no chance to draw back. It is a policy involving an enormously increased expense which grows proportionately &ti the pay-roll grows. There is no escape, no possibility of relief. It seems incredible that any city should knowingly undertake such an unnecessary burden when a better result can be obtained at an expense never greater and which will steadily decline after a few years. When no pensions exist they may be begun modestly. The sole vital condition is that no part of the principal of the pension fund shall ever be spent. If a sum shall be set aside each year for every employe and the survivors share the income it is surprising how soon the incomo available for each mounts up. The same principle can be applied for the care of dependents. Aa time goes on the principal of the fund will yield not only enough for pensions but enough in addition to make the proper increase in the principal. to keep pace with the increasing pay-roll. In time there would be a constantly increasing surplus in excess of all pension requirements which could be devoted to civic betterment. LAWSON Pu~Y.

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640 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Proceedings of City Managers Association Convention.’-The proceedings of the first city managers convention in 1914 marked the small beginnings of an epoch even if the document was hardly to be described as intrinsically worth printing. It was enough in those days to have proof that there were enough city managers to hold a convention and to have an exhibit of their he zeal for public service and their apprciation of the great promise of their new profession, even if the pamphlet contained but round-table chat. The second year the proceedings were more formal but in spots a bit sophomoric, in that the managers undertook to read to each other prepared essays on special topics in which they were not specialists. Now comes the third, in which the e5 says are wisely dropped and the discussion is centered about a series of prearranged questions with answers by roll call-queations such ~LS “Legal DiEculties in the Establishment of New Charters,” “Budgets,” “Can a City Manager Succeed where the Commission is dominated by Politics?” “Cost Records,” “Constructive Publicity,” ‘‘Trainimg Understudies for the City Manager in Cities under 25,000,” “Getting Politics out of Police and Fire Departments.” This system produced a maas of small concrete experiences constituting the rare raw material of the political scientist although on the whole the material, despite good editing, is not very rich or very intereating. The managers have still to try the correct method of dg their meetings, i. e., to get the best specialists and experts they can to come and present their most advanced theories subject to the criticism of the practical minded managers. Both sides would relish the clash of opinion and both sides would emerge with modified ideas while the proceedings would furnish real contributions to municipal literature unobtainable in any other fashion since here we have the first congregation of municipal executives who are free from politics, keen to learn and worth educating, since they are slated to stay in the business hugustine, Fla. 25 cents. 'Published by W. L. Miller, secretary, St. for perhaps many years. They will try this plan, in part at least, at Detroit in November. On the whole, these proceedings indicate again that the city manager movement is in good hands and that the commission-manager plan itself works very smoothly according to design. Indeed one weakness of the discussions is the unanimity with which managers from all parts of the map emphasize the same ideas as to the place of the manager in the government, for instance, or his relation to the public or to his subordinates. A machine that was not correctly designed would not work out so uniformly in so many different hands and localities. One of the keenest points was injected by Professor Hatton who said: You are accomplishing good results because for the first time you are permitted to work under a system which has made good results possible, and when any man tells me the scheme of government makes no difference, but that the man makes all the difference, I say he does not know what he is talking about,. This plan of government under which you are permitted to work, separating politics from administration, is what is going to tell the tale in this plan. If any of you have begun to feel that you are getting good results because you are just about the best man that exists, I think you are wrong. You are getting a chance that no other administrator of municipal government has ever had and I think I could take men out of the old governments and give them your chances and t.hey would do just as good work as any of you are doing. * R. S. C. Recent Reports on City Planning.z“Constitutional Limitations on City Planning Powers” by Edward M. Bassett is a pamphlet that should be in the hands of every student of city planning. In this paper, which was read at the National Conference on City Planning at Kansas Edward M. Baasett, Constitutional Limitations on City Planning Powers, published by the committec on the city plan, New York city, 1917. 10 pp. Charles E. Merriam, Building Districts and Restrictions, published by the city council, Chicago, February, 1917, 56 pp. Encouraging Proper City Growth Through Building Districts, published by the city plan corn

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19171 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 64 1 City and which is now published by the New York committee on city plan, Mr. Bassett discusses the distinction the courts usually make between the police power and the power of eminent domain, and how they apply this distinction in such matters aa excess condemnation, the control of buildings within the lines of mapped streets, the establishment of set-backs, the prohibition of billboards, and the regulation of the height, arrangement and use of buildings. The discueaion of each subject is accompanied with a copious citation of cases. Activity in city planning has to a greater or less degree been paralyzed in all our communities, not for the reason we do not know what to do, nor that we do not wish to do it, but for the sole reason that we have not known how to do it within existing constitutional limitations. In telling us how to make city planning constitutional, Mr. Bassett’s paper fills a long-felt want. Next to the final report of the New York commission on building districts and restrictions, the contents of which have already been described in the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, the most valuable report on the subject of zoning is that on the desirability of giving the city of Chicago power to create building districte by Professor Charles E. Merriam, entitled “Building Districts and Restrictions.” This pamphlet does for Chicago what the report of the commission on building districts and restrictions does for New York in analyzing the need for public restrictions, its 56 pages being crammed with expert testimony showing the relation of zoning to the police power of the state. It is most unfortunate for Chicago that the bill which accompanied Professor Mer riam’s report failed to pass at the recent session of the Illinois legislature. mission of Newark, New Jersey, 1917, illustration and photographs. Districting Ordinance of the City of Berkeley, California, 1916. Berkeley Civic Bulletin, published by the city club of Berkeley. California, August 22,1916.24 pp. Establishment of Setback8 or Court Yards in the City of New York, published by the committee on the city plan, New York city, 1917, with illustrations and photographs, 15pp. “Encouraging Proper City Growth Through Building Districts” is a pamphlet reprint of a series of newspaper articles published in a local newspaper by the Newark city plan commission in urging the passage of zoning legislation in New Jersey. The measure advocated by these articles was enacted by the state legislature at its last session. The law is unfortunately limited in its application to cities of the fist class. These two booklets demonstrate that both Chicago and Newark have grasped the true significance of zoning,--that to be effective it must be city wide and that it must be done in accordance with a wellconsidered city plan after preliminary investigation and expert study. Chicago and Newark profited by New York’s example-but not Berkeley. The Berkeley zoning ordinance, as described in the bulletins published by the Berkeley city club, should serve as a warning to other cities in that it leaves the imposition of restrictions in the hands of the property owners. The inevitable result of such a policy is, of course, piecemeal zoning. Most of the city will never be zoned at all, and that part zoned will not be zoned with reference to the best interest of the City at large. A zoning ordinhice like Berkeley’s is subject to most of t$,e objections usually urged against private restrictions. The report on “Establishment of Setbacks or Court Yards” by the New York committee on city plan is the best that has yet appeared on the need for uniform building lines. The report is subdivided into two parts: the first, by Robert H. Whitten, treats of the economic and 8ocial advantages resulting from the establishment of such lines; and the second, by Nelsoh P. Lewis, analyzes the economy effected in street paving through maintaining part of the street as courtyards. The charter amendment proposed by Mr. Whitten and which has now been enacted by the legislature follows in general the method used in street opening proceedings. HEBERT S. SWAN.’ Isecretary, zoning committee, New York city.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Public Mqrkets Reports.-Public MUTkeb in the United States? This bulletin gives a very complete survey of the municipal markets in sixty-seven American cities. The type of market ranges all the way from the open or curbstone variety to that accommodated in buildings costing big sums of money. Many cities have markets of different kinds, both in the open and within doors. New York city has put over four million dollars into buildings, Boston and Pittsburgh nearly three million each, and New Orleans one million. These expenditures are of consequence from the standpoint of city finance involving an outlay of one to seven dollars per capita. Many of the smaller cities have invested sums equally large from the per capita standpoint, though in some instances where little more than street room is furnished the investments are trifling. In annual receipts and expenditures the results vary greatly. The majority of the cities show favorable balances, the greatest being Pittsburgh with $77,690. On the ot$er hand a considerable number of cities show losses ranging from small sums upward to $40,000 for St. Louis and over a million dollars for New York city. The expenditures are mainly for salaries, fuel, light, and water and maintenance. Of much more concern than a few dollars in cost is the question of how the market serves the people as a place to buy and sell. Who sells in the municipal market? Who goes there to buy? In about half of the markets farmers constitute from half to all of the sellers. In about onethird retailers constitute from half to the whole number. Wholesalers and jobbers constitute the balance. Motor trucks and hard roads are making it possible for farmers to bring their produce in to the markets from distances far out of reach of such markets when horses were the sole dependence. They now haul as far as thirty miles. In many cities the attendance of buyers 1 The second report of a committee of the National Municipal League, C. L. King, chairman, 32 pp , Philadelphia, 1917. is very large. Smaller cities report a few hundred per day while in the big cities it runs as high as 100,000 to 500,000 a week. On the whole it seems that more are buying at the market than was formerly the case. With the exception of six cities out of the sixty-seven all report that produce is cheaper at the market than at the stores. In many instances the reductions are 20, 30 and even 50 per cent (though hardly 100 per cent, as is stated on p. 26 of the bulletin). Added to the advantage of lower price is the fresher quality of the goods. After all is said and done it must be admitted that the public markets supply but a small part of the produce used in the cities. Why so little? The consumers give the answer: It is stated that markets are not in convenient places; not protected from the weather; that they do not have delivery systems, or inadequate ones. While not so specifically stated in the bulletin the inference is plain that farmers do not have the facilities for catering to the retail trade. They do not have a constant or uniform supply of produce. It is not so easy to order from them by 'phone, or to buy on credit. It must be admitted that while the farmers are obliged to ask much more for goods sold on the market at retail than they might get at wholesale, 80 also the consumer must be able to get produce at appreciably lower prices on the market than at the stores or it will not pay to go there. When the markets are so organized that they can receive telephone orders, fill them promptly and make satisfactory and prompt delivery of the goods they will be able to compete successfully against the corner groceries. Until that time they may act as a check on exorbitant prices; they may furnish a superior clam of goods to those who have time to go and get them. They will not, however, until they meet these requirements, replace in great measure the regular retail stores. Shortage of Food Relieved and High Food Prices Reduced. The twentieth annual report of the Philadelphia vacant lots cultivation association.

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19171 REVIEWS OF REPORTS This report shows that the enterprise is at base philanthropic although it is conducted with the self-help idea uppermost. The association spent some $9,000 during 1916 and the gardeners raised around $30,000 worth of vegetables. The association hds idle land, or in some cases other land, which may be had without rental charges, plows and harrows it and divides it into gardens of about one-sixth acre each. Seed, plants, and fertilizers are furnished at a nominal charge the first year, $12 the second, and so on to the fifth at which time $5 is paid, a sum just about covering the cost. The association provided 600 families with gardens last year, a number far below the number of applications. Larger subscriptions, and particularly more donations of the use of idle land are needed to meet the demands of the many families near the poverty line. This method of help is especially commendable since it tends to foster self respect, encourage thrift, and supply wholesome food. Keeping Down Food Costs, by Harry C. Douglas in The Independent, May 12,1917. Tbis is a brief terse article setting forth the facts of recent prices in Australia and their control by public authority. Following the outbreak of the war, food prices rose very abruptly, due, as Mr. Douglas thinks, to the action of speculators. Very promptly the Parliament of New South Wales passed a law providing for the citation of a ‘rNecessary Commodities Control Commission.” For evasions of the law penalties were provided, a $500 fine for each offense with a possible jail sentence in addition. The plan seems to work. The price of whertt had gone from less than a doh a bushel to a dollar and a quarter. It came back to a dollar-the legally fixed priceat once. Flour had reached $56 a ton in price. It fell to $46. Bread was slated for a 28 per cent increase in price, but it was not made. The government of New South Wales has a fleet of trawlers and puts fish on the market at cost. The question of the rent of farm land has been made a matter of public interest and a “Fair Rents Court” undertakes to see that landlords do not get above 6 per cent returns. In Queensland the state was about to go into the hotel and brewing business. Preliminary Report on Study of Increase of Cost of Food, Minneapolis civic and commerce association. In November, 1916, a committee of this association submitted a report on the subject of prices and wages. Index numbers are quoted showing changes in the cost of fifteen articles. During eight years following 1907 there was an increase of 24 per cent. The increase since 1915 is not included in the index numbers but is known to be at a greater rate than for preceding years. Figures on certain selected articles are, however, shown for 1916 in comparison with corresponding figures for 1907. Meats show an increase in price of 31 per cent for bacon up to 84 per cent for ham. Eggs increased in price 57 per cent, flour 52 per cent, sugar 32 per cent, potatoes 169 per cent. In dairy products the increases were much smaller-14 per cent for milk and 20 per cent for butter. An attempt was made to determine the relation of increases in retail as compared to those in wholesale prices, but the necessary data seem to have been scarce. The figures are given for butter, eggs and potatoes only. Of these the retailer’s margin in percentage was found to be a little greater on butter but less on eggs and potatoes than in 1907. In absolute amounts the margins were higher on butter and potatoes and a little lower on eggs in 1916 than in 1907. Thus the retailers are not especially to blame for present high prices. The figures furnished by the Department of Agriculture on cold storage are quoted showing that 24 per cent fewer eggs, and 14.5 per cent less butter were stored in 1916 as compared to the previous year. The index number on union wages showsanincrease since 1907 of 12 per cent, in contrast to the 24 per cent increase in food prices. B. H. HIBBARD. Madison, Wis.

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644 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September A Proposed Marine Terminal and Industrial City on New York Bay at Bayonna, N. J.-Cities situated on navigable waters throughout the country may well view with interest if not with envy the proposed marine and industrial terminal for Bayonne, New Jersey. The New Jersey board of commerce and navigation has prepared for the commissioners of the city of Bayonne plans for the project and a report of 114 pages, dated November, 1916, drawn under the consulting supervision of Benj. F. Cresson, Jr., with the co-operation of F. Van Z. Lane, which contains material adequate and pertinent to the local conditions. Detailed in its presentation, enriched by maps and a cartoon, and unique in the legislation which conditions it, the report is a welcome contribution to the annals of port and terminal development. Its value lies in its completeness and the reliability of the talent whichproducedit. Of five “Primary Installations,” the fifth is recommended for adoption at an estimate of $7,234,546, of which $2,121,673 is for dredging, bulkheading, and reclamation and $5,112,873 for the other facilities. Among these many facilities providing dockage for 30 modern freight ships on upper New York bay is a type of storage shed peculiar to foreign practice and introduced here for the fist time in American design. These three-story units are placed along the bulkhead platform at distances equal about to a ship’s length. On the water side the second and third stories are each, in turn, set back five feet from the one below, leaving an operathg shelf on the second and third stories in addition to that of the bulkhead deck. Goods in through transit take the first floor. The second and third stories are given over to short-time warehousing, to goods in delayed transit and those held for reshipment. The rear of these units is planefaced and the goods in the upper stories lower to a ground platform serving both rail and highway carriers. Under a law recently enacted by a referendum, the city of Bayonne is authorized to issue bonds without regard to the debt limits heretofore established; the bonds so issued shall bear interest at a rate not exceeding 5 per cent; shall be a first lien upon the property created; and shall not run for a period of more than fifty years-a period allowed for the contract with an operating company. This contract-arranged for before the bonds may be issued-will include a guaranty by the operating company that it will pay to the city suficient moneys to meet the interest on the bonds; to set aside a sinking fund for their retirement; and to further insure its obligation to the city by the deposit of at least one million dollars in cash or securities authorized for investment by savings banks in the state of New Jersey, the same to be used by the city in case the company shall default in any of its obligations. The adequacy and ease of control and the focusing of responsibility made possible by this centralization of power in her division of commerce and navigation affords to New Jersey an initiative, development, and dispatch of water front policies that few of her sister states enjoy. The greater port of New York is better equipped with such an organization as the New Jersey board of commerce and navigation in existence and the Bayonne development is a formidable and worthy offspring of the union of state and municipal effort.’ ROBERT A. LESHER. Columbia University. * The Los Angeles School Survey.*-A brief survey of the organization and administration of the school system of Los Angeles was made in April and May, 1916, for the board of education by Dean Walter A. Jessup, College of Education, Iowa State University, and Dr. Albert Shiels, formerly director of the bureau of reference and research, board of education, New York city. The most important and interesting recommenda1 A proposal to issue $10,000,000 bonds to carry out the scheme WBB defeated on July 31, by a vote of 3,408 to 1,076.-EDITOR. 2 Report of the advisory committee to the board of education of the city of Lo8 Angeles on certain aspects of the organisation and administration of the public school system. 177 pp.

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19171 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 645, tion, and the one supported by most of the facts cited, is that a division of educational research and st&istical information should be established in the office of the city superintendent of schools to formulate standards baaed on fact rather than opinion and to determine wherein LOB Angeles falls short of such standards. Some of the general problems as formulated by the investigators, which would confront such a research bureau in Los Angeles, are the following: 1. To ascertain the effect on the individual children of classes of various sizesin elementary, intermediate, high and evening schools. (“There is no standard of that number of clam enrollment which, without extravagance. wiUeonserve thebestintereata of pupils. Such investigations as have been made, based on the somewhat dubious criterion of number of promotions, permits an enrollment in excess of 35 and less than 40” (p. 44). 2. To collect the facts necessary to formulate a definite policy respecting the subjects which should be taught by special teachers in the various grades. 3. To formulate a complete programme for dealing with the problem of physically and mentally defective children. 4. To make a study to determine the relation between the number of school nurses and physicians and the health and development of pupils. 5. To measure by existing standards the proficiency of pupils in the Los Angeles schools and to establish standards where none exist. 6. To determine the relative effectiveness of instruction of pup& in grammar and intermediate schools. (Meanwhile it is recommended that intermediate schools (grades 7 to 9) be continued.) (It is recommended that no more junior colleges be established but that their consolidation into one oity college be “ considered. ”) In view of the fact that all boards of education and all city superintendents of schools systems are attempting solutions of similar problems, and of the impossibility of establishing standards in so many fields in any one city because of the aculty of securing sufficient funds for experimentation and capable investigators in all branches, it might properly be considered the function of some national body, e.g., the United States Bureau of Education, the Russell Sage foundation, or the General Education Board, to co-operate with the research bureaus in the various cities, so that each problem could be intensively studied in one place and the results made available to all, instead of 7. To study the problem of junior colleges. attempting to investigate all of the problems in Los Angeles and in every other city, Mere opinion rather than established fact has resulted from the latter method. The Los Angeles survey is helpful in setting forth the problems needing soh-tion. It has evidently been approved by the board of education of Los Angeles for Dr. Shiels has recently been elected superintendent of schools. BESSIE c. STERN.l 5 Public Safety Notes.-Hopper ESciency Recwd System. Civil service literature contains many valuable books and pamphlets directed to the technique of examination and to the legal limitations. upon the power of removal, but contains almost no contributions of value which relate to the development of efficiency record systems. This condition of civil service literature reflects accurately the condition of civil service administration. The front door of the public service is well looked after by highly trained and well seasoned employment specialists who have placed the civil service examining machinery on the highest plane of efficiency. The rear door of the public service is zealously guarded by the ablest lawyers in the country, who gladly volunteer their services as an exhibition of civic devotion. The interior workings of the public service are left to the impractical theorist who seeks to evolve plans of administration from the atmosphere of the university library, the college professor’s sanctum or the elective official‘s fancies. John J. Hopper, register of the county of New York, a successful man in private life who has administered a comparatively unimportant public office with signal ability, has in a fifteen-page pamphlet described the efficiency record system which he has devised for his own department. This system is thoroughly practical, surprisingly simple, well-balanced, entirely equitable and apparently satisfactory from every point of view. 1 Committee on education, board of estimate and apportionment, New York city.

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NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Employes are rated at monthly intervals by their immediate division chiefs on their proficiency (weight 5) which includes how well they do their work, their adaptability (weight 3) which includes their fitness for higher work, and their interest (weight 2) which includes their fidelity and influence upon co-workers. Special merit marks are awarded for overtime service which is clearly outside of office hours and for initiative which is displayed in suggesting improvements that are adopted. Demerits for tardiness and absence are given on a carefully graduated and equitably devised scale. Care is exercised to secure equalization of ratings among divisions, to secure publicity of ratings in each division and to stimulate interest in the ratings by relieving rating officers of burdensome details and by convincing employes of its fairness. Finger Prints. The twenty-two page pamphlet on “Finger Prints” which has been prepared by City Magistrate Joseph M. Deuel of New York, summarizes the present-day knowledge of the scientific, sociological and legal aspects of this modern aid to efficient administration of the criminal law in a most convenient and interesting form for both the professional and the general reader. LEONHARD FELIX FULD. 9 Districting Baltimore for the Work of Charitable Organizations.-The report of the bureau of state and municipal research in Baltimore, suggesting uniform districting of the city of Baltimore for the work of charitable organizations, seems carefully and suggestively done. The diaculties in the way of such a uniform districting plan, based on differences in size of staff, kind of work carried on, in transportation, in racial and other population distribution, are fully recognized. A further possible difficulty not considered by the report might be mentioned. Some organizations find it desirable, for instance, to work in connection with districts fixed not by charitable organizations but by the city government itself. For instance, a society to protect children from cruelty finds it helpful to have its boundaries coincide with the boundaries of the police districts; an organization dealing with the health of poor people finds it advantageous to have its district agent work always with the same poor law physician, and so on. The answer, of course, is that these city divisions ought to conform to the same rational principles which suggest the districts for charitable organizations. After recognizing all these difficulties, and having carefully kept in mind racial and religious considerations, density of population, density of need, natural community districts, and transportation facilities, the report indicates seventeen natural divisions into which the city of Baltimore can easily be divided. It makes a good case in suggesting these to the charitable organizations as uniform districts. To follow them would prevent overlapping and duplication and promote acquaintance among workers carrying on activities within the same territory, would reduce cost both in time and money spent in going from case to case, and would make possible also a study of conditions of many kinds and needs to many agencies as they exist in the different districts. This is now impossible because the districts from which agencies take their statistics of different kinds and needs are not uniform and therefore not comparable. The further coincidence of the baundaries of the districts suggested with the boundaries of enumeration districts used in the taking of the national census would also greatly promote the possibility of accurate statistical study. These enumeration districts, which are much smaller than the ordinary political subdivisions of the city, such as wards and voting districts, are selected as constituting natural population groupings, by race, housing, density, and so on. The combination of the utilization of the enumeration districts and the uniform charitable districts would, if possible, make for economy and efficiency in the work of social agencies, and promote study of social problems in general, as revealed by charitable work. ROY SMITH WALLACE.

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19171 REVIEWS OF REPORTS 647 Massachusetts Constitutional Convention Publications.-The commisaion which was named by Governor McCall to compile information for the use of the Massachusetts constitutional convention has published a series of thirty-five bulletins dealing with various questions of public policy. The titles of these bulletins are as follows: Procedure of Constitutional Conventions, State Budget Systems, The Pardoning Power; The Governor’s Council; Old Age Pension Systems; Initiative and Referendum; The Massachusetts Public Opinion Law; The Short Ballot; Biennial Elections and Biennial Sessions; Municipal Home Rule; County Gooernment; The Constitutionality of Social Welfare Legislation; Sectarian Appropriations; Municipal Debt Limits; City ,Government by Commission; The CityManager Plan; State Debt Limits; The Abolition of Capital Punishment; Absentee Voting; Compulsory Voting; Methods of Borrowing, Sinlcing Fund v. Serial Bonds; The Selection of Judges; Jury Trial in Contempt Cases; Preferential Voting; Proportional Representation; Ad~~SOTY Judicial Opinions; State Constabularies; Billboard Regulation; Method of Apportioning Representatives; Municipal Ownership; The English System of “Provisional Orders:’; State Censuses; The Provisions of State Constitutions Relative io the Militia, and the Report of tJte Commission. These bulletins have proved of high value to the delegates and will undoubtedly be of interest to students of American government because the data which they contain have been compiled with strict impartiality and are presented, aa the law establishing the commission requires, “without comment or expression of opinion.’’ The convention has authorized the printing of a sufficient number for distribution to public libraries and similar institutions. Application should be made to the offices of the commission, Room 426, State House, Boston. The members of the commission are: Prof. William Bennet Munro of Harvard, chairman, Lawrence B. Evans of the Boston bar, and former Senator Roger Sherman Hoar of Concord. * Dayton’s Report for 1g16.-The third year’s results under the city-manager form are forcefully set forth in Dayton’s annual report by the city commission. There are reports for the author, reports for the favorite printer, reports for the chief executive, and occasionally reports for the people who pay the taxes and receive the services. Dayton’s report is for the average citizen, Mr. Taxpayer. Its keynote is service and every page recites in attractive, readable form, a paragraph at a time, not what might have been, but what was accomplished. City government is divided-like all Gaul-into three parts,+ plan, a performance, and a report back upon the work done. The citizen is glad to get the information, provided it is in a pleasing pellet form, and sugar-coated with a few wellchosen illustrations. The Dayton report is all this, culled from scores of pages of the monthly and annual reports of the department heads. The report follows every principle of publicity,-it is truthful, informing, concise, paragraphed, illustrated. It was distributed to every household in the city. Thirty-five thousand copies cost $491.70 under competitive bidding; and to deliver them, $3 per thousand. Its only shortcoming was the delay of five months after the close of the year in getting it to the press. Copies of the annual report may be secured free of charge by addressing City Manager H. M. Waite, or the Dayton bureau of research, 613 Schwind Bldg. C. E. RIOHTOR. * The Annual Report of the City Auditor, Springfield, Mass.,’ can well serve as a model for all cities that have any pride in proper accounting and reporting 1 General Financial Statement for tha.Fisca1 Year ending November 30, 1916, Springfield, Msss., March, 1917. Pp. 93.

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648 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September methods. It is perhaps as complete a financial report as is issued by a city of its size and strikingly illustrates the forward movement for the improvement of municipal accounting methods. There is hardly a question that the citizen or city official would have occaaion to ask concerning the city's finances that it does not answer, both in summary and detailed manner. Its completeness lies in the form of its balance sheet, its fund statement, its operating statement and the standard classified schedules supporting the items therein. Its distinction between expense and expenditures and between revenue and receipts illustrates the modern tendency in municipal accounting. The index typifies the entire report-simplicity and completeness. The report, which has been reprinted by the Springfield bureau of municipal research, may be obtained from the city auditor or from the bureau upon request. * Japanese Administration and Finance. ' -The March number of Municipal Research contains three essays. The first is by Professor R. Uchiike and Y. Sakamot0 on the Budget System of Japan; the second is by Hyoye Ouchi on the Japanese Financial Department: the third is by Baron Y. Sakatani on the City of Tokio and is reprinted from a volume bearing that title. Of these three essays, the first is the longest and of most interest to American students. In it the authors give an excellent account of the preparation, voting and execution of the budget. Details need not be presented here. Suffice it to say that the Japanese system is quite modern and, with few exceptions, meets 1 In Municipal Research, No. 83. March, 1917. Pp. iii, 72. the tests of present-day models. Though the organbation of the government of Japan is peculiar and there is limited control over the expenditures of the Imperial Household, the details of the system will prove suggestive to those interested in improving our own budgetary procedure. The training school for public service has placed us under obligation by making available this concise account of the Japanese system. H. A. MILLIS. University of Chicago. * Municipal Ordinances, Rules, and Regulations Pertaining to Public Health.2A series of classified extracts from municipal legislation on health and related subjects enacted in 1915 in cities of the United States with an estimated population of 10,000 or more in 1910. Among the subjects covered are communicable diseases, milk and other foods, house sanitation, garbage and refuse and the organization of local health departments. Earlier yearly volumes of like character cover the five years beginning January 1, 1910. * Property Exempt from Taxation in the Forty-Eight States.-William E. Hannan, the legislative reference librarian of the state of New York, has compiled an admirable summary in twenty-three pages of the various classes of property that are exempt in the several states. He gives the constitutional and statutory provisions and hits prepared a number of interesting and suggestive tables. Naturally, being a New York state publication, it devotee more attention to that state than to any other. 2 Reprint No. 364 from Public Health Reports, 1915-1916, Waahington, D. C.: United States Public Health Service.

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY’ 649 Accounting ANDERSON, DE LANY & COMPANY. The accounting treatment of overhead constiuction costs in public utilitiea. 1917. 20 pp. tables. ANON. Cost accountin for municipal work [in Victoria, B. 6.1. (Municip Engrng., Mch., 1917: 12k126. table. j CLADER (W. A.). Electric utilities accounting. (Journ. of Accountancy, May, 1917: 326-337.) PRIDE (E. L.). Water-works accounting [with discussion]. (Journ., New England Water Works Assoc., Mch., 1917: 63-77. forms.) SACK (ISIDOR). New York’s new uniform system of accounts for third class cities. (Journ. of Accountancy, Apr., 1917: 264-282.) __~ .~ SAMPSON (E.’ T.). Municipal accounting. (Canadian Municip. Journ., Mch.JY., 1917: 96-97, 129, 162-163, 290-291, ,, 322, 327.) In five installments. to be foliowed, in the August issue, by examples of balance sheets, rulings, eto. WARNER (A. R.). Hospital accounting and finances [with discussion]. (Transactions, Amer. Hospital AESOC., 1916: 448-462. tables .) WILSON (GORDON). The fourth factor in cost accounting. (Journ. of Accountancy, May, 1917: 321-325.) A considerauon of apodoge a8 a fourth factor to “the three traditional fundamentals, labor, material. and overhead.” Billboards (new series). Los ANGELES. Ordinance no. 37,050 An ordinance regulstipg, billboards, advertising sign boards and other simlar structures used for advertising purposes. June 19, 1917. Charters JOPLIN, MISSOURI. Charter and code of Joplin with franchises, 1917. Revised and codifid by Hugh McIndoe, mayor, assisted by E. F. Cameron, city attorney. Printed and published by authority of the Council of Joplin, Mo., in book form, Jan., 1917. 737 pp. Child Labor NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference on Cud Labor. 1917. 79 pp. (The Child Labor Bulletin, May, 1917.) . Contains many interesting papers on varioui phaaes of the child-labor auestion. City Manager See alao Mumcipal Government. BINQHAM (C. A.). City manager results: the story of two years at Norwood, Massachusetts. 1916. 6 pp. COMMITTEE OF FIFTEEN TO INQUIRE INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF A CITY MANAGER PLAN FOR CLEVELAND. Proceedings of the meetings held Jan. 5 to Mch. 28, 1917. 125 pp. typewritten. GRINNELL, IOWA. Report of S. H. Crosby, city manager. Mch. 31, 1917. 15 PP. city Planning See also Housing, Streets, zoning. ADAMS (THOMAS). Infiuence of town planning on the social life of the community. (Canadian Municip. Journ., Jy., 1917: 324-325.) FORD (GEORQE B.): City planning in war time. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 56957“. illus. plan.) . What city planning.means during war time. Some of the emstmg con&tions as seen by the American Industrial Commission sent to France. (Record and Guide, Je. 2, 1917: 755-756.) -. ed.. Rssisted bv RalDh I!’. Warner. City pladg progrk in the United States, 1917, 1917. v%, 207 pp. illus. plans.. maps. of the American Institute of Architects. Compiled by the Committee on Town Planning HOOVER (A. PEABSON). The industrial ter-&naland its relation to the city plan. (City Plan, Apr., 1917. 8 pp.) JAMES, HARLEAN. The buildiug of cities. 1017. 201 pp. illus. A volume designed to‘ explain to school children the fundamentals of city planning. KIMBALL (THEODORA). Brief list of references [in the English language] on i5ty planning. 1917,; 9 pp. ty WwIitten. A list prepared for City Planning Progress. 1917,” with price8 added. Moom (CHARLES). Problem in the development of Washington. 1917. 20 pp. (Journ. of the Amer. Institute of Architects, MaF, 1917.) Civil Service See also Libraries. ANON. Practical and specific training of men for uhlic service. Why? The case for pub!c service training. (Public &rvant, Mch., 1917: 175-192.) FULD (LEONHARD F.). Opportunities in the civil service. [1917] 44 pp. forms. -. A program for employes’ associations. System of service instruction would promote efficiency and assist members toward se!f-advancement. (Good Government, Jy., 1917: 46-47.) NEW YORK STATE. COMMITTEE ON CML SERVICE (SENATE). Second report of the Committee . appointed to investigate the civil’ seni’ce of the state [in relation to the etandardixakon df the puhlic employments .of the state]. Transmitted to the Legrsl~ture Jan. 3, 1917. 1917. 115 pp. tabkos. . 1Edited by Mias Alice M. Holden, Wellesley, College.

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650 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September County Government COUNTY GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION. Proceedings of the Second Conference for Better County Government in New York State, Syracuse, N. Y., Dec. 14-15, 1916. 1917. 111 pp. Contains artmlea on: “County government-a croblem in low viaibility ” b Richard 9. Childa; A lea for the coyt plin ortax administration.” by hartin Saxei. Aghway administration,“ by Beqamin &ce; County a$ministration of high;qray~ under state control by Edwin Duffey; What is the trouble witd count government?” by L. Grant Sheldon: “Shall New ?;ark State have s state constabulary?” by Helen Hoy Greeley; The purchye of municipal supplies.” by Frank X. Wood; Concentration of responsibility in yunty government,“ by Otho G. CartwriFht; Simplification 2f county and local financee, by Mark Graves; The county 88 a unit of school administration. Are there better units?” by Thomas E. Finegan; “Legislative program of the County Gpvernment Association,” by H. 5. Gilbertson: County jails and local penology,” by Hastings H. Hart. WILLIAMS (EDWARD W.). Centralized government for counties and cities. May, 1917. 6 pp. chart. (Bulletin no. 28 of the Tax Association of Alameda County.) Community Service See also recreation. CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION OF VIRGINIA. Community league bulletin. 1916. “k%d jointly by the State Departments ,of Health, Education,, Highways, Agriculture. Dairy and Food Charities and Corrections, and the Virginia Pblytechnic Institute. . High and elementa schoo1,cooperative league bulletin. For Virgmia public schools. 1917. 19 pp. GALPIN (C. J.) and SAWTELLE (D. W.). Rural clubs in Wisconsin. 1916. 58 pp. (Bull. 271, Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Wlsconsm.) INDIANA UNIVERSITY. EXTENSION DIVISION. Community institutes. Notes on the purpose and the method of the institutes held in twenty-three cities in 1915 and 1916. 1917. 27 pp. (Bull. ii, no. 5.) INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DEPARTMENT. The Hammond plan. Hammond cares for all her peo le. 1917. 26 pp. RUBINOW (Sf G,). The community fair -a factor in rural education. (School and Society, Jy. 28, 1917: 96-101.) TORONTO BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH. Can a community plan its giving for community purposes or must individuals continue to give without a knowledge of the community’s needs and what resources exist to meet these needs? A discussion of haphazard versus planned philanthropy based on a study of the acts. Je., 1917. 47 pp. charts. Crime and Correction LEWIS (B. G.). The offender and his relations to law and society. 1917. 382 pp. plates. tables. OHIO. BOARD OF ADMINISTRATION. Crime prevention: the study of causes, by Thomas H. Haines. 1917. 19 pp. (Publication no. 11.) WILLIAMS (J. H.). Delinquency and density of population. 1917. 18 pp. diagr., tables. (California. Whittier State School. Research bull. no. 4.) Reprinted from Journal of Delinquency, Mch.. 1917: 74-81. Education See 8180 Schools. DENVER CIVIC AND COMWERCIAL AssoCIATION. CIVIC AND LEQISLAT~VE BUREAU. Bulletin no. 5 of the Bureau of Juvenile Research. A proposed educational code for Colorado. 1917. 90 pp. The code failed of passage by the 1917 legialature but it IB expected to be submitted again in 1919. SMITH (HARLAN L.). The develoDment of museums and the& relation to iducation. (Scientific Monthly, Aug., 1917: 99-119. 1llus.) SNEDDEN (DAVID S.). Problems of secondary education. 1917. xiv, 333 pp. Electrolysis PAINE (R. A., Jr.). Protection of leadcovered cables from electrolysis caused by stray electric currents. (Municip. Engnrs. Journ., May, 1917: 143-154. diagrs., illus.) Fire Prevention CHASE (W. F.). The garage as a fire risk. 1917. Insurance Librarv Association of Boston Bulletin, Apr., 1917: 33-39. HAMMITT (J. 0.). The prevention of school fires. (Proceedings, Amer. School Hygiene ASSOC., 1916: 52-56.) MALLALIEU (W. F.). Causes of the fire loss in the United States. The results of a great national survey of fire causes indcate that a large part of our enormous loss is preventable. (her. City, Mch., 1917: 295, 297, 299.) TAYLOR (E. L.). Fire prevention in public institutions. (Ohio Bull. of Charities and Correct.ion, Feb., 1917: 95-100.) WENTWORTH (F. H.). American fire waste and its prevention. (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Mch., 1917: 163-171.) Fire Protection ADAMSON (ROBERT). Emergency measures adopted by the New York Fire Department. (Amer. City, May, 1917: 485-488.) An account of the messures adopted to meet possible emergencies due to the wBr. ANON. Fire equipment statistics: figures showing the fire apparatus-both motor-driven and horse-drawn-in service and reserve in the cities of the United States and Canada of 5,000 o ulation and over. (Fireman’s Herald, %&h. 3, 1917: 163-166, 180, 182, 184, 188, 190, 192.)

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 651 19171 ANON. Effect of platoons at Chicago. Investi ator finds fire protection senously atTectef through failure to add su5cient men to keep manual strength up to former level. (Fireman’s Herald, May 19, 1917: 417, 427-428. diagr.) The fire record of the cities. One hundred and three places of 20,000 population or over had less than $1 per capita loss in 191Gtwenty-three exceeded $5Shenandoah, Pa., the lowest-Jersey City, N. J., the highest. (Fireman’s Herald, May 26, 1917: 43-36, 437.) BOSTON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. Statement at a hearing on bills to establish a two-platoon system for firemen before the Comrmttee on Cities, Feb. 8, 1917. 1917. 19 ,pp. typewritten. A vigorous opposition to the estabhshment of the system. The two-platoon system has since been ado ted by the City Council of Boston. doMImoN ~ssocumoN OF FIRE CHIEFS Proceedings of the eighth annual convention, held at Windsor, Ont., Aug., 1916. 168 pp. illus. apers included are the following: Wentworth F. %., Significance of the fire waste, pp. 20-27; t!’o?er, H. F. J.. The fire wall an eseential in crowded bullclings, pp. 47-68; Adams, Thomas, Some observations on town planning. and lire revention pp. 58-62; Graham, J. W., FIRS causefby accideni, carelessness or design, pp. 63-76; Heaton. E. P., The duties, responsibilitlea, Fnd work of the fire marshal’s office, pp. 99-108; Snuth, J. G., Standardization, pp. 121 126. Some of the EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY. Suggestions on fire protection: experiments on the storage of motion picture film. 1917. 93 pp. charts. illus. The motor fire boat. (Civil Service Age, Mch., 1917: 5-6.) ELEY (A. J.). GAMEWELL FIRE ALARM TELEQRAPH COMPANY (New York). Emergency signalling; an interesting non-technical account of the origin end development of electric fire alarm and police telegraph systems, 1855-1916. Pts. 3-6. (Fireman’s Herald, Feb. 17, 24, Mch. 10, 1917: 126, 146, 154, 218. illus.) HAvy. (W. C.). Basis on which municipahties may wsess the cost of fire protection. (Public Service, May, 1917: NATIONAL BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS. Special report on high pressure fire service system, Boston, Mass., [by the] Committee on Fire Prevention. 1916. 11 pp. 1 map. (Supplement to report no. 158.) . Dwelling houses: a code of suggestions for construction and fire protection. To safeguard homes and lives against the ravages of fire. 1916. 115 pp. plan. illus. PENNSYLVANIA. Statutes. p”I; act to amend section one of . . , An act to promote the health and efficiency of The author is chief engineer of the Los Angeles Fire Department. 151-152.) firemen in citsies of the second class by providing for a two-platoon system for firemen in the Department of Public Safety of such cities” by extending the same to cities of the first clam. 1917. 4 pp. (House Bd no. 493.) ROCHESTER BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH. Proposed specifications for fire hose in the City of Rochester, and report thereon; .submitted to the Mayor to the Comrmssioner of Public Safety and to the Board of Contract and Supply. 1916. 22 pp. table. STODDARD (R. G.). How the cities can solve the food problem. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: H.) Franchises LINDSLEY (H. D.). Elements of a good franchise. (Texas Municipalities, May, 1917: 100-106.) Garbage and Refuse Disposal ANON. Alcohol from garbage. Possibility of conserving food products by producing ninety-six thousand gallons of alcohol a year-experiments at Columbus, Ohio, indicate a profit in utilizing garbage this way. (Municip. Journ., May 24, 1917: 707-709. hagr.) PETERSON (C. G.). Refuse collection and incinerator design. (Municip. Journ., Je. 7, 1917: 755-756.) Housing BOSTON DWELLINQ HOUSE COMPANY. Woodbourne. A description of single and semi-detached houses offered at this site by the Boston Dwelling House Company. [1917.] 32 pp. NOLEN (JOHN). A good home for every wageearner. 1917. 23 pp. (Amer. Civic Assoc., ser. 11, no. 9, Apr., 1917.) Contains a list (pp. 14-23) qf.low-cost houeing developments to be found in citiea and towns all over the country. TENEMENT HOUSE DEPARTMENT OF THE CITP OF NEW YORK AND TENEMENT HOUSE COMMITTEE OF THE C~h~lrp ORGANIZATION SOCIETY. For you. It is hard to get money. It is harder to spend it right. Health is wealth. [1917.] 32 PO ular plea for better public health baaed on See also Charters. proper Eouaing conditions. Illiteracy ALABAMA. Illiteracy Commission. First annual report of the Alabama Illiteracv Commission. Am. 2. 1915-0ct. 1. Insurance, Health and Social ALEXANDER (MAGNUS A.). Some vital facts and considerations in respett to’ compulsory health insurance. Mch., 1917. See also Pensions. 15 PP.

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'652 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September AMERICAN ACDEMY OF POLITICAL AND .SOCIAL SCIENCE. Modern insurance problems. Editor in charge of this volume, S. S. Huebner. Editor in charge of part 111 of the volume, Ralph H. Blanchard. 1917. vi, 347 pp. (Annals, In, whole -no. 159.) The volume is divided into: pt. I, Life insurance: Et. 11, Fire insurance; and pt. 111, Accident and ealth, and workmen's compensation msurance. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEQISLATION. Health insurance. (Amer. Labor Legislation Review, Mch., 1917: 9-181.) The Proceedings of the tenth annual meeting of the Association. Contains papers on the need, medical organization, organization of funds, principles, and Oficial endorsementa of health insurance. ANTHONY (F. W.). The proposed health insurance legislation. (Boston Medxal and Surgical Journ., Mch. 22, 1917: 431435.) BOSTON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. Noncontributory old age pensions and health insurance. 1917. 15 p . (Report of the special Committee on gocia1 Insurance.) CALIFORNIA. SOCIAL INSURANCE COMMISSION. Report. Jan. 25, 1917. 340 pp. CAREY (FRANCIS KING). Compulsory health insurance for Maryland. A letter to the members of the City Club of Baltimore, 1917. 11 pp. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., v, no.. 4.) DAWSON (M. M.). Public health insurance and the public health. (Public Health Nurse, Apr., 1917: 113-116.) HOFFMAN (F. I..). Facts and fallacies of compulsory health insurance. 1917. 101 DD. chart. The author is chairman of the Committee on Health Insurance of the Federated Charities of Baltimore. An' &dress before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Dec. 28, 1916, and the National Civic Federation, Jan. 22. 1917. MASSACHUSETTS. SPECIAL COMMISSION -ON SOCIAL INSURANCE. Report. 1917. 311 pp. (House doc. 1917, no. 1850.) NATIONAL CIVIC FEDERATION. Compulsory health insurance. Annual meetin addresses. 1917. 74 pp. gontains several papers and dmcussion. RUBINOW (I. M.). Social insurance; lalso] health insurance. [1917.] 27 pp. (Amer. Medical hsoc., Social Insurance series, pamphlet no. 5.) SMITH (MARK A.). The state life fund of Wisconsin. (Journ. of Polit. Economy, May, 1917: 442463.) STONE (J. T.). Problems concerning the accident and health insurance business. 1917. 14 pp. Libraries INDIANA UNIVERSITY. EXTENSION DIVISION:. Package libraries. 1917. 11 pp. (Bull. u, no. 7.) JOHNSTON (W. DAWSON). City libraries and the civil service. (Bull. of the her. Library Assoc., May, 1917: 84-85.) QUIRE (JOSEPH H.). How California library service meets city needs. (Pacific MuniciDalities. Je.. 1917: 229-233.) WHEELER (JOSEPH L.). The county Reprinted from TheEibrary Journal, Feb., 1917. library. 1917. 7 p. . Lighting See also Parks and Pla HIBBEN (SAMUEL d:$. Protective flood lighting. (Electric Journ., Aug., 1917: 305-306. illus. diagrs.) NEIBICH (WILLIAM. N.). The disappearance of the evening peak. Growth of high-tension industrial load in Baltimore results in heavy increase in mornin and afternoon loads on system and in a krger load factor. (Electrical World, Jy. 28, 1917: 148-151. charts.) Markets CALIFORNIA. State Market Director. First annual report for the year ending Dec. 1, 1916. 1916. ,110 p One important conclusion oP Direotor Harris Weinstock is that the establishment of free municip.1 markets plays a very small part as a remedy or marketing evils. Municipal Government and AdministraBRULRE (HENRY). A plan for organization for New York City. Suggestion for charter changes. May, 1917. 44 pp. Recommends "a mayor as chief public representative and framer of policies; relieved of detailed administrative responsibility; 6 board of directors. and, 89 a corollary of these changes, a city manager.'' rounds. tion See also City Manager, State Government. DAYTON BIJFLEAU OF RESEARCH. Research progress facts. A year of governmental research with certain facts about our city, county and schools, and their progress during 1916-1917. Jy. 1, 1917. 39 PP. DYER (J. MILTON). The city hall, Cleveland, Ohio. (Amer. Architect, Jy. 25 1917: 61-63 419 fd-page plates.) d, beautifully illustrated description of this new building by its architect. HALL (C. R.). Preferential voting for Bridgeport. An important feature of the proposed commission manager charter. [1917.] 8 pp. ILLINOIS. UNIVERSITY. Municipal documents and other publications on municipd overnment in the University of Illinois fibrary, Mabel L. Conat and Marian Leatherman. 1917. 49 pp. (University of Illinois Bull., May 14, 1917.) MCBAIN (H. L.). The delegation of legislative power to cities. (Pol. Sci. Quart., Je., 1917: 276-295.) NORTE CAROLINA. Municipal government, Public Laws, 1917: An act to provide for the organization and government of cities, towns, and incorporated This article is to be concluded in a later issue.

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 653 villages. Municipal finance, Public Laws, 1917 : An act relating to general municipal finance. Session 1917. 67 pp. North Carolina is thus the fifth state to adopt an optional charter law. Municipal Ownership BOWDEN (J. HORACE). Individual interest in municipal enterprise. (Municip. Journ. (London), Je. 22, 1917: 593-594.) Los ANGELES. BOARD OF PUBLIC SERVSee also Railroads and Terminals. ICE COMMISSIONERS. Report of Special Committee of Engineers on Municipal Power and Light ,Project of the City of Los Angeles. Feb. 16, 1917. 12 pp. illus. THOMPSON (CARL D.). Municipal ownership; a brief survey of the rapid growth and the success of municipal ownership throughout the world, presenting the arguments against private ownership, the failure of regulation and the advantages ofmunicipalownership. 1917. xi, 114pp. Ordinances See also Billboards, Charters, Education, Municipal Government, Public Health, Taxation and Finance. NEBRASKA. ORDINANCE REVISION COMMISSION. Revised ordinances of the village of . Nebraska; published by authority of the chairman and Board of Trustees. A.D. 1917. Thus far revised ordinances have been ublished for the villages of Hay Sprin s Lawrence,%ewport, Smithfield, and Wood Lake,%ebr. NEW YORK CITY. Ordinances. The Code of Ordinances of the City of New York, as amended to Feb. 14, 1917, with index, notations of sources and table of disposition of general ordinances repealed. Compiled by Committee on Codification of Ordinances, Board of Aldermen. 1917. 208 pp. (Eagle Library no. 194.) Parks and Playgrounds KESSLER (G. E.). The Kansas City park system and its effect on the city plan. (Good Roads, Je. 2,1917: 321-324. illus.) KESSNER (MYRON A.). . How the small town can supply pubhc playgrounds. (Civic Progress and the Home Beautiful, See also City Planning, Recreation. Je., 1917: 69.) METZDORF (A. E.). Laying out playgrounds. (Playground, Aug., 1917: 277282.) A practical article. The writer is officially connected with the Division of Public Recreation. Springfield, Mass. TINSON (H. A.) and POWELL (A. L.). The light,ing of parks and playgrounds. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 68-69, 71, 73, 75. illus.) Pavements ANON. Street and road pavements. Their design, construction and maintenance. (Municip. Engng., Jy., 1917: 2-5. illus. diagrs. 7 CONNELL (W. H.) and FINCK (G. E.). Methods and materials for paving between street railway tracks. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 17-19. illus.) In Philsdelpiua, by W. H. Connell; in Baltimore by G. E. Fmck. Further dlacussioqs of this sub! ject are to appem in subsequent lasues of The American City. Pensions NEW YORK STATE. COMMIWE ON CIVIL SERVICE (SENATE). Report of the . on pension and reCommittee tirement fudds: Transmitted to the Legislature Jan. 3, 1917. 1917. 113 pp. tables. (Bound with its: Second report in relation to the standardization of the public employments of the state.) STUDENSKY (PAUL). The pension problem and the philosophy of contributions. 1917. 19 pp. tables. Periodical Publications Civic Progress and the Home Beautijul. vol. 1, no. 1, Jan.,. 1917. Monthly. Published by the Civlc Progress Co., 1207 Houaton St., Fort Worth, Tex. The En 'neering News-Record of Apr. 5, 1917, is tg first issue following the consolidation of the two periodicals, Engineering News and Engineering Record. Journal of the American Judkature Society. To promote the efficient administration of justice. vol. i, no. 1, Je., 1917. See alao Insurance. .. Bi-monthly .Published from 31 West Lake St Chicago. Contents of the first issue: Introd&tion, p 3-4. The unified state court7a definition, 5-7; vaned -a chief judicial supenntendent, by John H. Wigmore 7-9. Courts in large eities-a field of experiment: lC-i4; A unified court for Missieai i, 15-17; Procedure through rules of court, 17-20; %vs from the field, 23-30. The Modern City; official magazine of the League of American Municipalities. vol. 1, no. 1, Feb., 1917. Plumbing GERHARD (W. P.). A plea for strict plumbing codes and for the control of plumbing work by water works departments. 1916. 8 p . Canada. Police TRAIN (ARTHUR). New York City on guard. (Saturday Evening Post, May 26, 1917: 16, 37-38, 41-42. illus.) Ports and Port Development port of New York supplement. 1917. Un aged. illus. tables. Reprinted from the ganitary Engineer, Toronto, EVENING POST (New York). Greater Je. 20, Consista ormany longer and short articles dealing with harbor developments of Greater New York. Los ANGELES. Board of Harbor Commissioners. The Port of Los Angeles: its opportunities and possibilities for building up a great foreign trade; industrial resources of its tributary territory-annual report for the year ending Je. 30, 1916;

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654 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September ort statistics. 1917. 272 pp. maps. MASSACHUSETTS. COMMISSION ON WATERWAYS AND PUBLIC LANLIS. First annual report. For the year 1916. 1917. 167 pp. (Pub. doc. no. 118.) iU% This commission is the result of the consplidation of the former Harbor and Land Commission and of the Directors of the Port of Boston. Public Health See also Insurance, Recreation, Water Purification. ARMSTRONG (DONALD B.) and BERKOWITZ (J. H.). An urban commun ty plan for health and medical service. 1917. igrinted from The Modern Hoepital. May, BURKART (JOHN L.). Report of t.he tuberculosis survey of the Michigan State Board of Health. 1917. 89 pp. COLEMAN (L. V.). Syllabus guide to public health exhibits in the American Museum of Natural History dealing with water supply, disposal of municipal wastes and insect-borne diseases. An outline for teachers and students. 1917. 15 pp. (Guide Leaflet Series no. 45, May, 1917.) GARDNER (MARY SEWALL). Public health nursing. (With an introduction by M. Adelaide Nutting.) 1917. x, 372 pp. NEBRASKA. DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. Courses of study and outlines in sanitation and hygiene for the schools of the state, prepared by F. M. Gregg. 1916. 44 pp. illus. (Nebraska Educational Bull., Dec., 1916.) RUCXER (W. C.). A program of public health for cities [with discussion]. (Amer. Journ. of Pub. Health, Mch., 1917: 225234.) SCHAEFER (A. C.). Health center field work. (New York State Journ. of Medicine. Am.. 1917: 176-177.) 1917. The author is superintendent of the Providence District Nursing Association. SHIPLEY (A. E.). Health administration on the district plan. (Amer. Journ. of Pub. Health, Mch., 1917: 248-259.) UNITED STATES. PUBLIC HXALTH SERVICE. Laundries and the public health. A sanitary study including bacteriologic tests, by M. C. Schroeder and 5. G. Southerland. 1917. 24 pp. tables. (Reprint no. 385.) VINCENT (G. E.). Public health trainin in universities. (Journ. Amer. Medicaf Assoc., Apr., 1917: 1013-1016.) WHIPPLE (G. C.). State sanitation. A review of the work of the Massachusetts State Board of Health. [In 3 v.] v. i. 1917. 367 pp. plates. diagrs. WOOD (HAROLD BACON). Sanitation, practically applied. 1917. vi, 473 pp. Illus. diagrs. tables. DRINHINQ FOUNTNNFI DUNLAP (J. H.). The sanitary drinking fountain. 1917. (Journal of the American Water Works Association, Mch., 1917: 65-69.) WHITTAKER (W. A,). Drinking fountains. Investigation of fountains at the University of Minnesota. (United States. Public Health Service. Public health re orts, May 11, 1917: 691-699. plate. t abes. ) These results of this investi ation indicate that drinking fountains may be a factor in the transmission of communicable diseoaes, a condition which should be remedied. MILK SUPPLY PARKER (H. N.). City milii supply. 1917. xiif493 pp. charts. tables. illus. UNITED STATES. PUBLIC HEALTH SERV~ ICE. Commission -on Milk Standards. Third report of the Commission . . . appointed by the New York Milk Committee. 1917. 2s pp. (Reprint no. 386.) WELCH (WILLIAM H,). The proposed milk ordinance. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., Apr., 1917: 49-52.) Presents the conclusions of the Commission on a variety of milk problems. POLIOMYELITIS INSTITUTE FOR PUBLIC SERVICE, NEW YORR. State work against infantile paralysis; steps taken by forty-three departments of health in 1916. 1917. 64 pp. illus. NEW YORK CITY. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. Some practical considerations in the administrative control of epidemic poliomyelitis, by Haven Emerson. 1917. 19 pp. (Reprint series no. 53.) SANITAFLY CODE^ BUFFALO. HEALTH DEPARTMENT. Proposed sanitary code for Buffalo, New York. 1917. 74 pp. NEW YORE STATE. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. The public health law; containing also the sanitary code,-the provisions in other general laws relating to public health, and rules and regulat.ions of the New York State Department of Healt,h. 1916. 593 pp. UNITED STATES. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. Municipal ordinances, rules, and regulations pertaining to public health [adopted during 1915 by cities of the United States having a population of over 10,000 in 19101. 1917. 642 pp. (Reprint of 364.) TYPHOID FEVER FREEMAN (A. W.). Typhoid fever and municipal administration. (United States. Public Health Service. Public Health Reports, May 4, 1917: 642-655. diagr. tables.) The means of spread of typhoid are so well understood and the measures of prevention so accurately determined that any city can with the expenditure of a reasonable amount of money and effort, reduce its typhoid fever to the vanishing point." GEIGER (J. C.), and others. A waterborne epidemic of typhoid fever; isola

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 655 tion of the typhoid bacillus from the contaminated supply. (Amer. Medical Assoc. Journ., Je. 9, 1917: 1681-1685. charts.) Public Utilities Bee also Accounting, Railroads and Terminals. ANON. Pubhc utilities professional reference list. 1917 issue. 1917, 46 pp. A list of all the public service comwsions in the United States, and the names of commissioners, lawyers, accountants and engineers connected with the commissions. BARKER (HARRY). Public utility rates: a discussion of the principles and practice underlying charges for water, gas, electricity, communication and transportation services. 1917. xiv, 387 pp. BRADLEE (HENRY G). The war’s effect on public utilities. (General Electric Review, Aug., 1917: 632435.) GRUNSKY (C. E.). utilityrates. (Journ. of Electricity, y. 15, Public Welfare Work OMAHA. BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE. First annual report, Feb. 12 to Dec. 31, 1916. [1917.] 97pp. Purchasing MILWAUKEE CITIZENS’ BUREAU OF MuNICIPAL EFFICIENCY. Why the administrative boards and departments of the City of Milwaukee should combine their purchasing power. Prepared for the Central Purchasing Committee. 4 sheets. typewritten. 4 charts. TRAVIS (E. M.), The feasibility of central urchasing for New York State. (Purciasing Agent, Mch., 1917: 91-92.) TUCKER (P. W.). Baltimore’s system of centralized purchasing, and what it is accomplishing. (Baltimore Municip. Journ., Apr. 27, 1917: 7.) TWYFORD (H. B.). Standardizing purchasing and its effect. (Gas Age, Feb. l, 1917: 123-126. diagrs.) . Problems in purchasing for construction and operation. (Electrical Age, Railroads and Terminals CRESSON (B. F., JR.). Report on the development of a municipal terminal near Sewalls Point in the Port of Norfolk. Prepared for the Board of Dock Commissioners of Norfolk. Mch., 1917. 47 pp. LOWRIE (S. GALE). A municipallyowned passenger station. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 581-583.) MALTBIE (WILLIAM H.). Baltimore’s railroad problem. 1917. 27 pp. maps. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., v, no. 1.) SINNICKSON (GEORGE R.). What the Pennsylvania Railroad has done and hopes to do for Baltimore. 1917. 42 pp. (City Club of Baltimore Bull., v, no. 2.) Notes On Qublic 1917: 53-57.) Mch., 1917: 31-32, 50.) Ra id Transit ~EICACIO. TRACTION AND SUBWAY COMMISSION. Report on a unified system of surface, elevated and subway lines [for Chicago]. 1916. 440+113 pp. maps, plates. A oomprehenmve report of unusual importance. The commissioners were Meears. Wm. Barclay Parsons, Bion J. Arnold, and Robert Rid NEW YORK STATE. PUBLIC GRVICE COMMI8SION. FIRST DIamcT. HkkOlY of rapid transit development in the City of New York,. [by] Louis Roth. 1917. 61 pp. typewritten. Recreation BROWN (EDWARD F.). Public health and recreation encampments in the Palisades Interstate Park. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 51-55. illus.) CUNLIFF (NELSON). The annual municipal play day in St. Louis. (Amer. City, Jy. 1917: 66-68. illus.) ~ATES (HERBERT W.). Recreation and the church. 1917. xiv, 185 p . MACKAYE (PERCY W.). Eommunity drama; its motive and method of neighborliness; an interpretation. 1917. xiii, 6%?&thor believes that community drama of7erers a constructive suggestion for co-o errttive recreation in our training camps and in JAmerican comay. munities. RITCHIE (FRANK H. T.). Building a community through its resident forces. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 42-50. illus.) Schools . See also Education Fire Prevention, Public Health, Ventilation, V&ational Guidance. ATHEARN (W. S.). The correlation of church schools and public schools. [1917.] 59 pp. (Malden leaflets no. 2.) BALLIET (T. M.). The modern school proposed by the General Education Board. (Amer. Education, Apr., 1917: 466-470.) BOYNTON (F. D.). Co-operation in a school system. (Educ. Review, Apr., BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, DAYTON. Building new schools for Dayton’s children. 1917. 19. pp.. (Reports on Davton’s school admimstration no. 1.) 1917: 329-340.) Givela table of comparative building costs & several large cities. BUREAU OR SAFETY. Methods for instruction in accident prevention for use in schools. 1917. 31 pp. CATLIN (HoYT). Doing it electrically in the schools. (Journ. of Electricity, Jy. 15, 1917: 60-61. illus.) FENWICK (ARTHUR McM.). The modern high school. (Educational Review, Je., 1917: 3848.) JOHNSON (FRANKLIN W .) . Administrative apects of the high school of tomorrow. (Education, Je., 1917: 605-613.), KILPATRICK (VAN EvRIE). The school gardena of New York City. (New York.

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656 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September Cit Department of Health. Monthly B&, May, 1917: 49-55.) KIRKPATRICK (MARION G.). The rural school from within. 1917. 303 pp. SCHROEDER (H. H.). An analysis of the cost of public education in Peona during the school year 1915-1916. A report to the Board of School Inspectors of Peoria, Illinois. Apr. 6, 1917. 54 p. SMEDLEY (EMMA). The PhiladelpLa school luncheon system. (Proceedmgs, Amer. School Hygiene Assoc., 1916: 246248.) Sewerage and Sewage Disposal ANON. Thirty-five cities report their experience with concrete sewers. The results of an investigation conducted by the City of Chicago. (Concrete, May, 1917: 186-187. table.) ANON. Sewage aeration and activated sludge. (Engrng. (London), Jy. 6, 1917: BLOUNT BERTRAM). The treatment of County Engr., May 18, 1917: 467-469.) PHELPS (GEORGE). The use of brushwood as a medium for sewage filters. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 604-607. illus.) WALKER (C. L.). A photographic study of sewage distribution on a sprinkling filter. (Cornell Civil Engr., Apr., 1917: 323-328. illus.) Short Ballot GILBERTSON (H. S.). Practical democrat . A series of articles on the short ba&t movement. (New Jersey Municipalities, Feb., Mch., Apr., May, Je., 1917.) No. I. How we got the long ballot; no. 11. How the long ballot crippled democracy. no. 111. Ballots and hu'man nature; no. IV, The dty short ballot; no. V. State Government ALEXANDER (MARGARET C.). The development of the power of the state executive with special reference to the state of New York. Apr., 1917. 233 pp. tables. (Smith College Studies in History, vol. ii, no. 3.) CITIZENS' LEAGUE OF INDIANA. New Constitution text-book and manual of re:dy reference. May, 1917. 166 pp. It is the purpose of this text-book or manual to offer a primary guide in direct civic study along all important lines of proposed constitutional change." COLORADO. SURVEY COMMITFEE OF No. 1 Report on a survey of the office of governor of the Slate of Colorado. no. 2 . . Secretary of state and on ubhc dontroi oi corporations. no. 3. . . . Auztor of state and of public ekmmer; no. 4, . . State treasurer. no. 5 . . State auditing board: no. 6, Re on' on a'atudy 0; state finances and budget proce&re; no. 8, Report on a survey of the administration of public service functions relating to regulation and BU ervision of labor, no. 9, . . . Depaftment o? ame and fish; no. 11, . . . State inspeotor of oils: no. 16-17.) sewage. ( L urveyor and Municip. and See also State Government. Improved" short ballot citien. STATE AFFAIRS. Reports. 1916. 13 Report on the revenue system of the state of Cdlorado. criticism and suggestions; no. 16, Report on care of dependents. delinquents and defectives: no. 18, Summary of findings and recommendations relating to the executive branch of the state government of Colorado. DEBEL (NIELS H-). The veto power of the governor of Illinois. Je., 1917. 149 '%sued in two parts as nos. 1 and 2 of vol. vi of the University of Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences. INDIANA. BUREAU OF LEGISLATIVE INFORMATION. Selected bibliography on state constitution-making. (Special Libraries, Je., 1917: 85-87.) Compiled for the use of the constitutional conMASSACHUSETTS. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, 1917. Bulletins. Submitted to the Constitutional Convention by the Commission to Compile Information and Data for the Use of the Constitutional Convention. 1917. vention to be held in Indiana, Jan., 1918. To date the followin bulletins have been issued: No. 1, The procedure of constitutional conventions. no. 2. State budget systems in the United States; no. 3 The abolition of the governor's council; no. 4, The hardening power: no. 5, A summary of existing laws on old age pension systems and a bibliography: no. 6, The initiative and referendum; no. 7. The public opinion law of Massachuaetts; no. 8, County goveFnment in Massachuaetts: no. 9, Biennial elections and sessions of the legislature; no. 10. The short ballot; no. 15, Constitutional restrictions on state debts; no. 16, The selection and retirement of judges; no. 17, Appro nations for sectarian and private purposes: no: f8, The constitutionality of social welfare legislation; no. 19, Excesa condemnation; no. 21, Methoda of borrowing, sinking fun& v. serial bonds (with special reference to Massachusetts practice) ; no. 23. Absent voting: no. 24, ComguLsor,y voting: no; 27, Preferential.votin Other ulletins are to be issued on the subjects ofMuqicia1 home rule, City government by commission, bity-manager plan, Municipal debt .limits,. AboFtion of capital punishment, Advisory J~I~ICI~~ opinions, Proportional representatiqn, Classifica!!on of pro erty for taxation Enghsh system of prov,isionar orders," State mhtia, Report of the comnussion. Each bulletin is provided with a selected bibliography and containa from twenty to one hundred page8 eah. The members of the commission are Prof. W. B. Munro of Harvard University. chairman, Mr. Lawrence B. Evans of the Boston Bar and Hon. Roger Sherman Hoar of Concord, Mad. Streets BOSTWICK (ANDREW L.). Improved street system for St. Louis. (Municip. Journ., Je. 28, 1917: 839-841. maps.) MILLER (H. H.). Diagonal streets: how they could relieve traffic congestion in modern cities. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 611-612. diagr.) SPRAGUE (N. S.). Important features relating to the design and improvement of city streets [with discussion]. (Proceedings, Engrs'. SOC. of Western Pennsylvania, May, 1917: 205-269.) WINDER (A. H.). The right of a chartered municipality to serve as contractor in street improvement. (Pacific Municipalities] Jy., 1917: 285-293.) See also Street Cleaning.

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19171 BIBLIOGRAPHY 657 Street Cleaning ANON. Western cities employ vacuum machines for cleaning streets. Costs for operation of motor unit at akland, Cd.-best results where climate is dry. (Engrng. News-Record, May 24, 1917: 398-399. illus.) . Street cleamng in Detroit. Pt. 3. (Municip. Journ., May 31, 1917: 738740.) Pp. 1 and 2 appeared under a somewhat Werent title in the Municipal Journals of May 10 and 17, 1917. Fox IR. T.). Intensive street cleaning metho&. (Municip. Jom., May 24; 1917: 719-720.) ROUTH (J. W.). Street cleaning-a problem in sanitary engineering. (Cornell Civil Engr., Apr., 1917: 329-334.) Surveys WILLIAMS (J. H.). A scale for grading neighborhood conditions. 1917. 17 pp. charts. tables. (California. Whittier State School. Research bull. no. 5.) Taxation and Finance BARROWS (GEORQE E.). Making industrial valuation for tax purposes. (Engmg. News-Record, Jy. 26, 1917: 164-166.) CLEVELAND (FREDERICK A.). The essentials of a municipal budget. (New Jersey Municipalities, Je., 1917: 5,15-20.) EDWARDS (ARTHUR J.). Some practical aspects of municipal borrowing. (Minnesota MuniciDdities. Je.. 1917: 86-94.) ERMATIN~ER (JOSEPH J.). Municipal borrowing. (Minnesota Municipalities, Je., 1917: 72-86. This and the preceding article were pa era read at the Fourth Annual Convention of the teague of Minnesota Munici alities, Oct. 19, 1916. GRAVES B ARK). Simplification of county and local municipal finances :[with discussion]. (Proceedings, Conference for Better County Government in New York State, 1916: 74-87.) LAWTON (M. G.). Audit and paympnt of claims. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 25-27.) MONTGOMERY (R. H.). Income tax procedure. 1917. 461 pp. NEW JERSEY. DEPARTMENT OF MuNICIPAL ACCOUNTS. Analysis of public laws, 1917, relating to finances of municipalities, counties and school districts together with standard of sinking fund requirements. 1917. [7 pp. . STATUTES. Laws a ecting taxation of the session of 1917. 1917. 23 pp. NEW YORK STATE. SENATE. Statement of financial condition of the cities of the State, prepared by Elon R. Brown, Temporary President of the Senate. Apr. 23, 1917. 3 pp. (Senate doc. 1917, no. 61.) k Thia tabular statement shows that the actual tax rate on propert assessed at full value ia equal to or greater than sew York city’s rate in thirtyone other cities of the state. PAFCCEFE (WALTER A.). Baltimore underwritmg a blanket war insurance policy. (Amer. City, Je., 1917: 573-578.) How the city is raising a fund of $1,500,000 to meet normal relief needs and to. safeguard. itself should the war with Germany bnng acute mdustrial conditionrr-A joint campaign for the alliance of charitable and social agenaes and the Red Cross under the name of the “Baltimore Fund.” Trdc FIFTH AVENUE ASSOCIATION. Report on traffic conditions on Madison Avenue, between 56th and 34th Streets. May, 1917. 13 pp. tables. WAKELAM (H. T.).. Extraordinary traffic and excessive weights on highways. (Municip. Journ. (London), Je. 29, 1917: 623-624. table. ) Trees BANNWART (CARL). Doings of Newark‘s [Shade] Tree Commission. (Modern City, Je., 1917: 5-13. illus.) Ventilation GRIERSON (R.). Some modern methods of ventilation, with special reference to public b+ldings. Standards of ventilation, design of ducts, selection of fans, washers, and heaters, specifications, test forms, and specimen schedules for designers. 1917. 187 pp. charts. tables. illus. THORNDIKE (E. L.) and KRUSE (PAUL J.). The effect of humidification of a school room u on the intellectual progress of pupils. (8chool and Society, Je. 2, 1917: 657-660.) Vital Statistics THOMPSON (WARREN S.). Race suicide in the United States. 11, Causes .of the lower birth-rate in the city. (Scientific Monthly, Aug., 1917: 154-165.) Vocational Guidance BREWER (JOHN M.) and KELLY (ROY W.). A selected critical bibliography of vocational guidance. 1917. 76 pp. (Harvard Bulletins in Education, no. IV, Feb., 1917.) Includes general references, current practices and policies in vocational guidance vocational guidance in commerce and industry. dormation concerning occupations, bibliographies, and a reading courae in vocational guidance. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. Preliminary report of the Committee on Commercial Education. Je. 28, 1917. 7 pp. Water Purification ANON. Multiple inspirators &rate alte-laden lake supply. (Engrng. Newskecord, May 3, 1917: 237-239. illus. See also Pubhc Health. diagrs.) EHLERS (V. M.). Regulation of stream pollution in Texas. (Amer. City, Jy., 1917: 14-16.)

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658 NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW [September ELLMS (JOSEPH W,). Water purification. 1917. x, 485 ' p. HOOVER (C. P.), &)PERRY (W. A.), TRAX (E. C.). Growth of filter sand at three water-softening plants. History and experiments at Columbus, O., Grand Rapids, Mich.. and McKeesDort. Penn.. eiven in three 'articles. (En'pg. News-kecord, May 3, 10, 17, 1917: 250-252, 304-305, 351-352. illus. tables.) Three separate articles on the citiea above mentioned. MCWALTER (J. C.). The purification of water in war time. (Journ. of State Medicine, Feb., 1917: 41-43.) MICHIGAN. STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. Water filtration. By Edward D. Rich, State Sanitary Engineer. Mch., 1917. 16 pp. (Engineering Bull. no. 9.) UREN (F. C,). Recent practice in the punfication and softening of ublic water supplies. (Surveyor and dunicip. and County Engr., Feb. 9, 16, 1917: 169-171, 187-189. diagr.) Water Works KNIGHT (I. W.). Whv the small city should have an adequatewaterworks system. 1917. 8pp. JENSEN (J. A.). The work of the service force of the water works department of Minneapolis. (Engrng. and Contracting, May 9, 1917: 434437.) The author is supervisor of the Minneapolis Water Department. LIPPINCOTT (J. B.). Los Angeles aqueduct. (Monthly Journ., Utah SOC. of Engrs., Apr., 1917: 89-124. illus.) METCALF (LEONARD). Some observations upon public regulation of water works. (Journ., Amer. Water Works NEW YORK CITY. DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY, GAS AND ELECTRICITY. The water supply systems of New York City. [May, 1917.) 6 pp. typewritten. A brief description of New York City's water Supply system as It now is and as it will be in the future. ASSOC., Mch., 1917: 46-57.) STEIN (MILTON F.). Saving coal in the waterworks pumping station. (Municip. Journ., Jy. 19: 49-51. diagr.) STEVENS (HARRY). New reservoir and water mains improve service at Covington, Va. (Engrn . News-Record, May 3, 1917: 240-242. flus. diagr.) WINSOR (FRANK E.). New waterworks at Providence, R. I., to cost $12,000,000. (Engmg. News-Record, May 3, 1917: 233-235. illus.) Woman Suffrage CALIFORNIA FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS. COMMITTEE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE. A survey of the results of woman suffrage in California. May, 1917. 3 pp. zoning DAVIS (EARL H.), compiler. Zoning: the division of cities into residence and industrial districts; a discussion of laws. and ordinances. (St. Louis Public Library Monthly Bull., Jy., 1917: 205-237.) FORD (G. B.). Budding zones. A handbook of restrictions on the hei ht, area and use of buildings, with especiafreference to New York City. 1917. 40 pp. map.. charts. diagrs. Mr. Ford occupies t,he oat of Consultant to the Commission of Building 8istricts and Restrictions. He has been assisted in preparing this pamphlet by Herbert S. Swan and F. P. Schiavone. NEW YORK CITY. BOARD OF ESTIMATE AND APPORTIONMENT. COMMISSION ON BUILDING DISTRICTS AND RESTRICTIONS. Final report. Je. 2, 1916. 1916. 299 pp. maps. plans. Co ies of this final report, which has iuat been issue$, ma be urchaaed from the Committee on the City Aan, hunioipal Bldg.,-New York Cit . SCHIAVONE (F. P.). Flexlbihty of buding height limits. Varying conditions. in older and newer sections of [New York] City presented many probIema in drafting zone law. (Record and Guide, May 26, 1917: 719-720, 740.) See also City Planning.